Sample records for cber import product

  1. CBERS-02 Application Assessment

    GUO Jianning; YU Jin; MIN Xiangjun; LI Xingchao; HOU Minghui


    As the successor of CBERS-01, CBERS-02 was launched successfully on 21October 2003 and transmitted its first downlink data the next day. According to the OBT (On Board Test) outline, CRESDA cooperated with CAST and many remote sensing organizations in China in implementing the test of the satellite payloads, ground processing system and data application. In this paper, the test is briefly illustrated in three parts: Ⅰ. Satellite Parameters Test (especially the test for payloads), Ⅱ. Payload Image Quality Assessment, and Ⅲ. Data Application Assessment. The results of the test show that the image quality of CBERS-02 is much improved over CBERS-01 and will continue to play a more important role in the society and economic development of China.

  2. Assessing the Relative Ecological Importance and Deforestation Risks of Unprotected Areas in Western Brazil Using Landsat, CBERS and Quantum GIS

    Smith, A.; Sevilla, C.; Lanclos, A.; Carson, C.; Larson, J.; Sankaran, M.; Saad, M.


    In addition to understanding Brazilian policies and currently utilized methodologies, the measurement of the impacts of deforestation is essential for enhancing techniques to reduce deforestation in the future. Adverse impacts of deforestation include biodiversity loss, increased carbon dioxide emissions, and a reduced rate of evapotranspiration, all of which contribute directly or indirectly to global warming. With the continual growth in population in developing countries such as Brazil, increased demands are placed on infrastructural development and food production. As a result, forested areas are cleared for agricultural production. Recently, exploration for hydrocarbons in Western Brazil has also intensified as a means to stimulate the economy, as abundant oil and gas is believed to be found in these regions. Unfortunately, hydrocarbon-rich regions of Western Brazil are also home to thousands of species. Many of these regions are as of yet untapped but are at risk of ecological disruption as a result of impending human activity. This project utilized Landsat 5 TM to monitor deforestation in a subsection of the Brazilian states of Rondônia and Amazonas. A risk map identifying areas susceptible to future deforestation, based on factors such as proximity to roads, bodies of water, cities, and proposed hydrocarbon activities such as pipeline construction, was created. Areas at higher risk of clearance were recommended to be a target for enhanced monitoring and law enforcement. In addition, an importance map was created based on biodiversity and location of endangered species. This map was used to identify potential areas for future protection. A Chinese-Brazilian satellite, CBERS 2B CCD was also utilized for comparison. The NDVI model was additionally replicated in Quantum GIS, an open source software, so that local communities and policymakers could benefit without having to pay for expensive ArcGIS software. The capabilities of VIIRS were also investigated to

  3. The Application Achievements And Perspective Of CBERS Series Satellite Imagery

    Li Xingchao; Qi Xueyong; Lu Yilin


    @@ Since the first China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS-1),launched in 1999,the CBERS data has been applied in many fields extensively.Remarkable social and economic benefits have been achieved.This article presents the application achievements during the past nine years,and gives a perspective for the future.All these applications demonstrate that the CBERS data has been an important data source for resources investigation and monitoring.

  4. The Prototype Development for The Second Generation CBERS Initiates



    It's reported that the concept for the second generation CBERS-CBERS-03 & 04 to be jointly developed by China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) and INPE went through the assessment by China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) at the beginning of the year. It means that the prototype development of CBERS-03 & 04 has been initiated.



    CRESDA Application System of CBERS-1 was established in 1999. During the operation of the system for more than two years, about 240 000 scenes of CBERS-1 Level 0 data have been archived and more than 13 000 scenes of Level 2 products have been ordered by end users from different application fields.In this paper, the typical examples of applications in crop yield estimation,calamity alleviation, resources survey and protection, environment monitoring and continuable development, and urban planning are mainly described.

  6. Applications Of CBERS Data In Oceanic Research

    Li Xiaomin; Zhang Jie; Ma Yi; Song Pingjian


    @@ The CBERS series satellite data has been widely used by the First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration (SOA) for the studies related to the monitoring of coral islands, land use changes of islands and coastal zone, green tide,implementation of ocean functional zoning, suspended particulate matter,sea ice, rafts cultivation and so on.The data covers the range of islands,coastal zone and inshore sea areas.

  7. Atmospheric correction of CBERS CCD images with MODIS data

    LI Junsheng; ZHANG Bing; CHEN Zhengchao; SHEN Qian


    China Brazil Earth Resource Satellite (CBERS) CCD images have much potential for inland water environmental monitoring. However, their atmospheric accuracy correction can affect their quantitative applications. This paper contains an atmospheric correction algorithm for CBERS CCD images with MODIS data from the same day, the use of which improves the atmospheric correction algorithm of ocean color remote sensing developed by Gordon (1993, 1994) and makes it applicable to inland waters. The improved algorithm retrieves atmospheric parameters from MODIS data and uses them to perform the atmospheric correction of CBERS CCD images. Experimental results show that the atmospheric correction algorithm of CBERS CCD images assisted by MODIS data is reliable. Furthermore, MODIS data can be freely obtained on a daily basis, making the algorithm developed in this paper useful for environmental monitoring of inland waters.

  8. Imported Inputs and Productivity

    László Halpern; Miklós Koren; Adam Szeidl


    We estimate a model of importers in Hungarian micro data and conduct counterfactual policy analysis to investigate the effect of imports on productivity. We find that importing all foreign varieties would increase firm productivity by 12 percent, almost two-fifths of which is due to imperfect substitution between foreign and domestic goods. The effectiveness of import use is higher for foreign firms and increases when a firm becomes foreign-owned. Our estimates imply that during 1993-2002 one...

  9. A tasseled cap transformation for CBERS-02B CCD data

    Li SHENG; Jing-feng HUANG; Xiao-lu TANG


    The tasseled cap transformation of remote sensing data has been widely used in agriculture,forest,ecology,and landscape.In this paper,tasseled cap transformation coefficients appropriate for data from a new sensor (China & Brazil Earth Resource Satellite (CBERS-02B)) are presented.The first three components after transformation captured 98% of the four-band variance,and represent the physical characteristics of brightness (coefficients:0.509,0.431,0.330,and 0.668),greenness (coefficients:-0.494,-0.318,-0.324,and 0.741),and blueness (coefficients:0.581,-0.070,-0.811,and 0.003),respectively.We hope these results will enhance the application of CBERS-02B charge-coupled device (CCD) data in the areas of agriculture,forest,ecology,and landscape.

  10. Topographic correction realization based on the CBERS-02B image

    Qin, Hui-ping; Yi, Wei-ning; Fang, Yong-hua


    The special topography of mountain terrain will induce the retrieval distortion in same species and surface spectral lines. In order to improve the research accuracy of topographic surface characteristic, many researchers have focused on topographic correction. Topographic correction methods can be statistical-empirical model or physical model, in which the methods based on the digital elevation model data are most popular. Restricted by spatial resolution, previous model mostly corrected topographic effect based on Landsat TM image, whose spatial resolution is 30 meter that can be easily achieved from internet or calculated from digital map. Some researchers have also done topographic correction based on high spatial resolution images, such as Quickbird and Ikonos, but there is little correlative research on the topographic correction of CBERS-02B image. In this study, liao-ning mountain terrain was taken as the objective. The digital elevation model data was interpolated to 2.36 meter by 15 meter original digital elevation model one meter by one meter. The C correction, SCS+C correction, Minnaert correction and Ekstrand-r were executed to correct the topographic effect. Then the corrected results were achieved and compared. The images corrected with C correction, SCS+C correction, Minnaert correction and Ekstrand-r were compared, and the scatter diagrams between image digital number and cosine of solar incidence angel with respect to surface normal were shown. The mean value, standard variance, slope of scatter diagram, and separation factor were statistically calculated. The analysed result shows that the shadow is weakened in corrected images than the original images, and the three-dimensional affect is removed. The absolute slope of fitting lines in scatter diagram is minished. Minnaert correction method has the most effective result. These demonstrate that the former correction methods can be successfully adapted to CBERS-02B images. The DEM data can be

  11. Discriminação de variedades de citros em imagens CCD/CBERS-2 Discrimination of citrus varieties using CCD/CBERS-2 satellite imagery

    Ieda Del'Arco Sanches


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar as imagens CCD/CBERS-2 quanto à possibilidade de discriminarem variedades de citros. A área de estudo localiza-se em Itirapina (SP e, para este estudo, foram utilizadas imagens CCD de três datas (30/05/2004, 16/08/2004 e 11/09/2004. Um modelo que integra os elementos componentes da cena citrícola sensoriada é proposto com o objetivo de explicar a variabilidade das respostas das parcelas de citros em imagens orbitais do tipo CCD/CBERS-2. Foram feitas classificações pelos algoritmos Isoseg e Maxver e, de acordo com o índice kappa, concluiu-se que é possível obterem-se exatidões qualificadas como muito boas, sendo que as melhores classificações foram conseguidas com imagens da estação seca.This paper was aimed at evaluating the possibility of discriminating citrus varieties in CCD imageries from CBERS-2 satellite ("China-Brazil Earth Resouces Satellite". The study area is located in Itirapina, São Paulo State. For this study, three CCD images from 2004 were acquired (May 30, August 16, and September 11. In order to acquire a better understanding and for explaining the variability of the spectral behavior of the citrus areas in orbital images (like as the CCD/CBERS-2 images a model that integrates the elements of the citrus scene is proposed and discussed. The images were classified by Isoseg and MaxVer classifiers. According to kappa index, it was possible to obtain classifications qualified as 'very good'. The best results were obtained with the images from the dry season.

  12. Land use mapping from CBERS-2 images with open source tools by applying different classification algorithms

    Sanhouse-García, Antonio J.; Rangel-Peraza, Jesús Gabriel; Bustos-Terrones, Yaneth; García-Ferrer, Alfonso; Mesas-Carrascosa, Francisco J.


    Land cover classification is often based on different characteristics between their classes, but with great homogeneity within each one of them. This cover is obtained through field work or by mean of processing satellite images. Field work involves high costs; therefore, digital image processing techniques have become an important alternative to perform this task. However, in some developing countries and particularly in Casacoima municipality in Venezuela, there is a lack of geographic information systems due to the lack of updated information and high costs in software license acquisition. This research proposes a low cost methodology to develop thematic mapping of local land use and types of coverage in areas with scarce resources. Thematic mapping was developed from CBERS-2 images and spatial information available on the network using open source tools. The supervised classification method per pixel and per region was applied using different classification algorithms and comparing them among themselves. Classification method per pixel was based on Maxver algorithms (maximum likelihood) and Euclidean distance (minimum distance), while per region classification was based on the Bhattacharya algorithm. Satisfactory results were obtained from per region classification, where overall reliability of 83.93% and kappa index of 0.81% were observed. Maxver algorithm showed a reliability value of 73.36% and kappa index 0.69%, while Euclidean distance obtained values of 67.17% and 0.61% for reliability and kappa index, respectively. It was demonstrated that the proposed methodology was very useful in cartographic processing and updating, which in turn serve as a support to develop management plans and land management. Hence, open source tools showed to be an economically viable alternative not only for forestry organizations, but for the general public, allowing them to develop projects in economically depressed and/or environmentally threatened areas.

  13. Canadian Orange Juice Imports and Production Level Import Demand

    Liu, Yan; Kilmer, Richard L.; Lee, Jonq-Ying


    Import demand equations are estimated in order to identify the own-, cross-price, and volume elasticities that can be used to determine the best marketing strategy to increase U.S. orange juice gallons in the Canadian import market. This study uses the firm’s version of production differential, AIDS, CBS, and NBR models. An expansion of total Canadian orange juice import gallons using advertising favors the U.S. much more than it does the other three origins investigated— Brazil, Mexico, ...

  14. Concentration of chlorhophyll-a and the limit of the photic zone in the Third River reservoir (Córdoba-Argentina, using images from CBERS-2B satellite

    Claudia Maria Rodriguez


    Full Text Available The satellite images provided by remote sensors represent an important tool for monitoring, controlling and administering water resources. The aim of this work was to model the spatial distribution of the concentration of chlorhophyll-a and the limit of the photic zone in the Rio Tercero reservoir (Córdoba-Argentina, using images from CBERS-2B satellite and a geographical information system (SIG. We selected 15 samples places wherefrom we measured physical, chemical and biological parameters during the fall of 2008. By using a georeferenced image from sensor CBERS-2B and performing an analysis of the principal components (ACP, we were able to identify associations between variables and reflectance values of the satellite bands. Based on these associations and with simple regression models, we were able to know the spatial distribution of the variables: concentration of chlorophyll-a (R2 = 0, 73 and the limit of the photic zone (R2 = 0, 78 in the reservoir as a whole. We may conclude thata there exists a negative correlation between the concentration of chlorophyll-a and the water transparency in reservoir Rio Tercero, as well as that the sensor used allows us to evaluate the quality of the water in a relative short time.

  15. Radiological control of food importation products

    Nowadays exists the possibility of marketing products possibly polluted with radioactive isotopes, by that some countries like Mexico, they have been given to the task of creating legal bases and the necessary infrastructure with the end of carrying out the radiological surveillance of nutritious import products. In this work the legal bases that our country has established for the radiological control are presented besides the results of this radiological control carried out through the gamma spectroscopy analysis of nutritious import products sent to our country through diverse companies that import foods produced mainly in European countries. (Author)

  16. Important motivators for buying green products

    Kamyar Kianpour


    Full Text Available Purpose: To addresses the main motivators that influence customers to buy green products as well as well as profiling the decisions that shape their behavior. Design/methodology/approach: The authors have conducted a review of the major research related to consumers to identify motivational factors, to draw conclusions about their impact on buying green products.   Factor analysis is conducted on the collected data to find the underlying factors that motivate consumers to buy green products and most importantly motivational factors were identified by T test. Findings: Results show that 1 Environmental Concern, Perceived Consumer Effectiveness, Consumer Knowledge 2 Laws and regulation and 3 Promotional Tools’ were the most important of motivators. Practical implications: The results could help companies, authorities, governments, producers, sellers to know what motivate customers to buy green products and persuade the customers for buying them. Social implications: Furthermore this research will indirectly contribute to increase the customers and public intention for buying green products which in turn will help to solve some of environmental issues and make less environmental side effect caused by products. It is notable that motivated consumers for buying green product will finally expect to have healthy life and clean environment which leads to a healthy and clean society. Originality/value: This article contributes to the literature on the customers’ intention for buying green products by filling the gap in the concrete issues of the customers’ motivation.

  17. Computers and Productivity: Are Aggregation Effects Important?

    Robert H. McGuckin; Kevin Stiroh


    This paper examines the empirical implications of aggregation bias when measuring the productive impact of computers. To isolate two specific aggregation problems relating to "aggregation in variables" and "aggregation in relations," we compare various production function estimates across a range of specifications, econometric estimators, and data levels. The results show that both sources of bias are important, especially as one moves from the sector to the economy level, and when the elasti...

  18. Buying Imported Products Online : A quantitative study about Chinese Online consumer behavior towards imported products

    Chen, Qianqian; Wang, Yuren


    With the fast growing Chinese online marketplace and the increasing popularity of shopping imported products online in China, more and more practitioners and researchers are interested in understanding the cues that Chinese consumers use to evaluate imported products consumption online. Our quantitative study aims to identify what factors affect the behavior of Chinese online consumers towards imported products and the relationships between the identified factors and purchase intention, and t...

  19. Important motivators for buying green products

    Kamyar Kianpour; Roya Anvari; Ahmad Jusoh; Muhammed Fauzi Othman


    Purpose: To addresses the main motivators that influence customers to buy green products as well as well as profiling the decisions that shape their behavior. Design/methodology/approach: The authors have conducted a review of the major research related to consumers to identify motivational factors, to draw conclusions about their impact on buying green products.   Factor analysis is conducted on the collected data to find the underlying factors that motivate consumers to buy green products a...

  20. Important motivators for buying green products

    Kamyar Kianpour; Roya Anvari; Ahmad Jusoh; Muhammed Fauzi Othman


    Purpose: To addresses the main motivators that influence customers to buy green products as well as well as profiling the decisions that shape their behavior. Design/methodology/approach: The authors have conducted a review of the major research related to consumers to identify motivational factors, to draw conclusions about their impact on buying green products. Factor analysis is conducted on the collected data to find the underlying factors that motivate consumers to buy green products and...

  1. Energetic particle radiations measured by particle detector on board CBERS-1 satellite

    HAO YongQiang; XIAO Zuo; ZOU Hong; ZHANG DongHe


    Using the data measured by energetic particle detector on board CBERS-01 and -02 for the past five years, statistics was made to show the general features of MeV electrons and protons along a solar synchronous orbit at an altitude of 780 km. This height is in the bottom region of the Earth's radiation belts. Detectors are inside the satellite cabinet and such continuous monitoring of particle radiation environment inside a satellite has seldom conducted so far. After a proper and careful treatment, it is indicated that the data inside satellite are well correlated with the radiation environment outside. Besides the agreement of the general distribution characteristics of energetic electrons and protons with similar observations from other satellites, attention is particularly paid to the disturbed conditions. Variations of particle fluxes are closely related with solar proton events, in general, electron fluxes of outer belt are well correlated with Dst index after three days' delay while the electron injection occurred almost at the same day during great magnetic storms. It is confirmed that both energetic electrons and protons appear in the Polar Cap region only after the solar proton events.


    E. Amraei


    Full Text Available CCD Camera is a multi-spectral sensor that is carried by CBERS 2 satellite. Imaging technique in this sensor is push broom. In images acquired by the CCD Camera, some vertical striping noise can be seen. This is due to the detectors mismatch, inter detector variability, improper calibration of detectors and low signal-to-noise ratio. These noises are more profound in images acquired from the homogeneous surfaces, which are processed at level 2. However, the existence of these noises render the interpretation of the data and extracting information from these images difficult. In this work, spatial moment matching method is proposed to modify these images. In this method, the statistical moments such as mean and standard deviation of columns in each band are used to balance the statistical specifications of the detector array to those of reference values. After the removal of the noise, some periodic diagonal stripes remain in the image where their removal by using the aforementioned method seems impossible. Therefore, to omit them, frequency domain Butterworth notch filter was applied. Finally to evaluate the results, the image statistical moments such as the mean and standard deviation were deployed. The study proves the effectiveness of the method in noise removal.

  3. Investigating product cycles using Indian import data

    Chandrasekhar, S.; Abhiroop Mukhopadhyay; Rajendra R. Vaidya


    We derive country ranks using disaggregated Indian import data over 1991-2005 using the intuition that developed countries would export more advanced goods to India earlier than other countries. We find that, consistent with theory, the degree of innovation is a significant determinant of our ranks.

  4. Cholesterol oxidation products and their biological importance.

    Kulig, Waldemar; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Rog, Tomasz; Vattulainen, Ilpo


    The main biological cause of oxysterols is the oxidation of cholesterol. They differ from cholesterol by the presence of additional polar groups that are typically hydroxyl, keto, hydroperoxy, epoxy, or carboxyl moieties. Under typical conditions, oxysterol concentration is maintained at a very low and precisely regulated level, with an excess of cholesterol. Like cholesterol, many oxysterols are hydrophobic and hence confined to cell membranes. However, small chemical differences between the sterols can significantly affect how they interact with other membrane components, and this in turn can have a substantial effect on membrane properties. In this spirit, this review describes the biological importance and the roles of oxysterols in the human body. We focus primarily on the effect of oxysterols on lipid membranes, but we also consider other issues such as enzymatic and nonenzymatic synthesis processes of oxysterols as well as pathological conditions induced by oxysterols. PMID:26956952

  5. Derived Demand for Fresh Cheese Products Imported into Japan

    Christou, Andreas P.; Kilmer, Richard L.; Stearns, James A.; Feleke, Shiferaw T.; Ge, Jiaoju


    The objective of this article is to estimate the derived demand for imported fresh cheese products into Japan when fresh cheese import data are disaggregated by source country of production. We provide empirical measures of the sensitivity of demand to changes in total imports, own-price, and cross-prices among exporting countries for fresh cheese. Japan's derived demand for U.S. fresh cheese products is perfectly inelastic. Thus, the import demand competition among importing countries should...

  6. The importance of milk and milk products in human nutrition

    Plisková, Gabriela


    Milk and dairy products are a pivotal part of human nutrition for all life. In this work all the important components of milk and then influence the consumption of milk and milk products on human health are evaluated. Milk is an important source of energy in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, also substances for enhancing metabolism i.e. vitamins and minerals. This work also describes in details specific dairy products. Milk is very important immediately after birth, breast mil...

  7. 77 FR 70714 - Electronic Import Inspection Application and Certification of Imported Products and Foreign...


    ... about the ] product and assists in accurately assigning product reinspections and laboratory testing...'' Database, May 2010. Animal Production Managers, all other $51.54 @ 47.6% time; General and Operations... Import Component, launched on May 29, 2012, provides an electronic alternative to the paper-based...

  8. Import Demand for Dairy Products in Cote d'Ivoire

    Balagtas, Joseph Valdes; Jeanne Y. Coulibaly; Diarra, Ibrahim


    We estimate an LA/AIDS model of demand for imported dairy products for Cote d'Ivoire. We employ a unique set of Ivorian customs data, spanning seven dairy products observed monthly from January 1996 to December 2005. Demand for milk powder is found to be inelastic, as substitutes for milk powder in the domestic processing industry are scarce. Demand for fluid milk, yogurt, and cream are found to be elastic, as these domestic products produced from imported powder may substitute for the import...

  9. Identifying Spatial Units of Human Occupation in the Brazilian Amazon Using Landsat and CBERS Multi-Resolution Imagery

    Maria Isabel Sobral Escada


    Full Text Available Every spatial unit of human occupation is part of a network structuring an extensive process of urbanization in the Amazon territory. Multi-resolution remote sensing data were used to identify and map human presence and activities in the Sustainable Forest District of Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163, west of Pará, Brazil. The limits of spatial units of human occupation were mapped based on digital classification of Landsat-TM5 (Thematic Mapper 5 image (30m spatial resolution. High-spatial-resolution CBERS-HRC (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite-High-Resolution Camera images (5 m merged with CBERS-CCD (Charge Coupled Device images (20 m were used to map spatial arrangements inside each populated unit, describing intra-urban characteristics. Fieldwork data validated and refined the classification maps that supported the categorization of the units. A total of 133 spatial units were individualized, comprising population centers as municipal seats, villages and communities, and units of human activities, such as sawmills, farmhouses, landing strips, etc. From the high-resolution analysis, 32 population centers were grouped in four categories, described according to their level of urbanization and spatial organization as: structured, recent, established and dependent on connectivity. This multi-resolution approach provided spatial information about the urbanization process and organization of the territory. It may be extended into other areas or be further used to devise a monitoring system, contributing to the discussion of public policy priorities for sustainable development in the Amazon.

  10. Brucellosis in Milk and Milk Products and Its Importance

    Keskin, Dilek; TOROĞLU, Sevil


    Brucellosis, caused by Brucella spp, is a zoonotic disease which is patogenic to human. Brucella spp especially can be host cattle, sheep, goats, water bufalo pigs, dogs, camel, deer, certain poultry and human even tick and some artropod. Brucella spp are very important for public health because, along causing important economical losses, they infect man via milk and milk products of infected animals.

  11. Are imported consumer products an important diffuse source of PFASs to the Norwegian environment?

    The aim of this study was to measure perfluoroalkyl substances in a selection of imported consumer products (n = 45) and estimate population normalized emission rates during the use phase. 6:2 and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) were found in the highest concentrations ranging from imported consumer products were estimated to be 6.6, 2130 and 197 μg year−1 capita−1 respectively for the “intermediate” emission scenario. The results from this study suggest that emissions from imported products would have a small impact on the environmental concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids on a regional scale. - Highlights: • Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in 45 imported consumer products. • Population normalized emission rates were estimated for the most abundant PFASs. • Diffuse emissions from imported consumer products constitute a minor ongoing source of PFASs. - We find no support for the hypothesis that emissions from imported consumer products would be an important ongoing source of PFASs to the environment in non-producing countries


    R. Cavallina


    Full Text Available Considering the growing public concern over marine environmental quality, a program of monitoring radionuclids in imported fishery products has been established. The analyses have been performed by gamma spectrometry allowing the rapid detection of many artificial radionuclides such as 137Cs, 134Cs and 40K. The data obtained show Cs radionuclides levels within expected limits. The detection of natural radionuclide K showed different levels in the same fishery product as they came from different sea areas.


    M.C. Campagna; A. Nardoni; R. Cavallina


    Considering the growing public concern over marine environmental quality, a program of monitoring radionuclids in imported fishery products has been established. The analyses have been performed by gamma spectrometry allowing the rapid detection of many artificial radionuclides such as 137Cs, 134Cs and 40K. The data obtained show Cs radionuclides levels within expected limits. The detection of natural radionuclide K showed different levels in the same fishery product as they came from differe...




    Full Text Available There is an increasing consumer demand for food products which are free of chemical additives, reduced in salt and processed as little as possible. These minimally processed foods require special application to assure their microbiological safety. The use of microorganisms and enzymes for food preservatives is called biopreservation. The most important group of microorganisms with antimicrobial effect used in the production of foods is the lactic acid bacteria. In meats although lactic acid bacteria constitue apart of the initial microflora, they become dominant during the processing of meats. In this research bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria and their usage in meat and meat products for biopreservation are discussed.

  15. 7 CFR 1230.11 - Imported pork and pork products.


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported pork and pork products. 1230.11 Section 1230... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information...

  16. Engineered Biosynthesis of Medicinally Important Plant Natural Products in Microorganisms.

    Zhang, Shuwei; Wang, Siyuan; Zhan, Jixun


    Plants produce structurally and functionally diverse natural products. Some of these compounds possess promising health-benefiting properties, such as resveratrol (antioxidant) curcumin (anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and anticancer), paclitaxel (anticancer) and artemisinin (antimalarial). These compounds are produced through particular biosynthetic pathways in the plants. While supply of these medicinally important molecules relies on extraction from the producing species, recent years have seen significant advances in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of plant natural products. Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the two most widely used heterologous hosts for expression of enzymes and reconstitution of plant natural product biosynthetic pathways. Total biosynthesis of many plant polyketide natural products such as curcumin and piceatannol in microorganisms has been achieved. While the late biosynthetic steps of more complex molecules such as paclitaxel and artemisinin remain to be understood, reconstitution of their partial biosynthetic pathways and microbial production of key intermediates have been successful. This review covers recent advances in understanding and engineering the biosynthesis of plant polyketides and terpenoids in microbial hosts. PMID:26456465

  17. Evaluation of Production Reactions for Medically Important Positron Emitters

    Research activities of direct relevance to the CRP are based on the proposed evaluation of a range of medically important positron emitters. The production and assessment of excitation functions for various novel positron emitters has been recommended for investigation and quantification. Hence, the research group at Lahore has developed an evaluation methodology for charged-particle induced reactions. The main steps of the adopted procedure are listed

  18. Importance of aerosols for annual lightning production at global scale

    S. Venevsky


    Full Text Available Lightning production is described using thermodynamic hypotheses mainly according to convective activity in the atmosphere. However, existing formal thermodynamic descriptions are unable to fully explain the profound difference in the flash rate between tropical Africa and South America and between land and ocean. Aerosols are shown to be regulators of lightning in regional studies, but their influence on lightning production at the global scale is not described. I analyzed spatial patterns of the satellite annual global flash rate and simulated, annually averaged cloud condensation nuclei (CCN distribution and found consistent positive correlation between them for land, ocean and continents. I developed a simple model of lightning production that is based solely on an aerosol hypothesis. The central premise of this model is that concentration of graupel pellets and concentration of ice crystals, which both determine flash rate, are monotonically increasing by CCN concentration up to a critical value (around 2000 cm−3. However, ice crystal concentration falls rapidly after the threshold due to lowering in the number of large cloud droplets effective for rime-splintering ice multiplication. Comparison of the model with a model of the flash rate based on thermodynamic hypotheses demonstrates that the aerosol hypothesis explains the global annual spatial distribution of lightning production consistently better over land and over oceans. My results emphasize importance of aerosols for lightning production and point to the existence of a global aerosol-lightning feedback, which affects both the climate system and the land surface.

  19. Brand importance across product categories in the Czech Republic

    Formánek Tomáš


    Full Text Available This paper deals with customer loyalty to brands and provides an analysis of brand-related attitudes among Czech consumers. Brand loyalty is a very important aspect of competitive marketing and we contribute an empirically supported point of view on the topic. Based on primary data from a complex consumer survey carried out for the purpose of this study, we investigate the extent of brand loyalty across different product categories, mostly fast moving consumer goods (FMCG. For convenience, the analysis of our survey-data may be divided in two main areas. First, product categories are ranked according to their potential power to attract customers’ interest and loyalty towards brands. When loyalty programs are prepared, it is important to discern product categories where loyalty potential is weak from those categories that attract consumer loyalty. Second, sociodemographic features and lifestyle factors from the survey are evaluated with respect to different product categories, by means of logistic regression and subsequent average partial effect (APE analysis. A detailed and practically oriented interpretation of the empirical results is provided by the authors. However, both corporate marketers and academic readers can use the tables with empirical estimation outputs that are provided in this article to draw their own conclusions, which may be focused on the product category of interest and/or focused on any specific consumer group that is of particular interest. Among other topics, this paper emphasizes the fact that brand loyalty is a highly complex phenomenon and that it can and should be analysed from different perspectives.


    N. I. Berezovsky


    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigations on rational usage of mineral resources. In particular, it has shown the possibility to increase a period of raw material serviceability and its application for production of building products depending on chemical and mineralogical composition of the waste. Analysis of the executed investigations shows that import substitution of anthracite, lignite and black coal for local fuels (milled peat and its sub-standard product is possible in the production technology of porous building materials.A mathematical model for drying process has been developed in the paper. Technology for thermal performance of a sintering machine with calculation of its length at the given pallet speed has been proposed on the basis of the developed model. Once-through circulation of flue gases and heated materials is the main specific feature of belt sintering machines being used in production. In such a case the whole drying process can be divided into two periods: a period of constant drying rate and a period of falling drying rate. Calculations have shown that the drying rate depends on moisture content but it does not depend on heat exchange Bio-criteria, however, heating rate is a function of temperature and Biq. A mechanism of moisture transfer using various drying methods is the same as in an environment with constant temperature and so in an environment with variable temperature. Application of the mathematical model provides the possibility to save significantly power resources expended for drying process.The paper gives description of methodology for calculation of technologically important optimum parameters for sintering processes of agglomeration while using milled peat.

  1. Remote Sensing of the EnviSat and Cbers-2B satellites rotation around the centre of mass by photometry

    Koshkin, N.; Korobeynikova, E.; Shakun, L.; Strakhova, S.; Tang, Z. H.


    During 2013-2015 the photometric observations of the EnviSat satellite, which became space debris after the failure in April 2012 in low Earth orbit, were performed. The rotation pole position and slow change in sidereal rotation period were updated on the basis of analysis of specular glints observed in 222 light curves using reduction of synodic periods. Apparently, there are minor oscillations of the rotation pole near the normal to the orbital plane. The sense of the EnviSat's spinning is opposite to the sense of its orbital rotation. The sidereal period is best approximated by the second-order polynomial: Psid (sec) = 0.000021534 ·T2 + 0.04936003 · T + 121.18195 where T is measured in days from the beginning of 2013. This method being applied to another representative of space debris, namely the Cbers-2B satellite, has shown a similar result: there is not precise solution for the rotation pole either as it undergoes oscillations with various time scale from several hours to several months. In 2014, the spin axis made the 10 ° angle with the normal to the orbital plane while the sense of spinning is direct in this case, i.e. coincides with the sense of orbital rotation. The sidereal period is best approximated by the following expression: Psid (sec) = 0.000029543 ·T2 + 0.08094931 · T + 81.31775 where T is measured in days starting from March 10, 2014. This method allows of controlling slow changes in the spatial orientation of the rotation axis of the satellites in which specular reflection of light from flat faces of the surface is inherent.

  2. Utility and importance of animal data in drug product labels.

    Baldrick, Paul


    Information on the use and safety of medicines to assist prescription by healthcare professionals occurs in drug labels (Summary of Product Characteristics in Europe and Package Insert in the USA). Animal data (notably genotoxicity, reproduction toxicity and carcinogenicity and/or repeat dose toxicity testing) comprise an important component of the information (having a vital role in giving assurance that an extensive safety assessment for the medicinal product has occurred) and regulatory guidance is available to help inform on its input into drug labels. However, an evaluation of animal data for the 27 new drugs approved in the USA in 2013 (and the same drugs if available in Europe) shows great variability in detail and level of information presented within and across regions and/or the possibility of confusion on interpretation of some of the presented animal study findings. It is concluded that it may be time to revisit what animal data are presented in drug product labels (although bearing in mind current regional regulatory guidance requirements), not only to allow within and across region consistency on information given but to present it in a way that fully assists healthcare professions when prescribing a medicine. PMID:24928564

  3. Análise de mapas de represas publicados na web usando imagens orbitais CCD/CBERS no estado de Minas Gerais Analysis of dams maps published on the web by using orbital CCD/CBERS images in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Elizabeth Ferreira


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, bancos de dados públicos e gratuitos disponíveis na World Wide Web (WEB foram utilizados para avaliar as áreas das superfícies dos espelhos d'água das represas de Furnas e do Funil, no Estado de Minas Gerais. O objetivo foi comparar as informações obtidas nos bancos da WEB com os valores das áreas calculadas a partir de imagens do sensor CCD a bordo dos satélites CBERS2 e CBERS2B. A área da represa de Furnas obtida a partir das imagens CCD/CBERS2B, ano 2008, foi de 1.138 km², mas nos bancos de dados consultados esta área estava entre 1.182 e 1.503 km². A represa do Funil, construída em 2003, com superfície de espelho d'água de 29,37 km² e uma ilha com área de 1,93 km² não aparecem nos bancos Atlas, Geominas, IGAM e IBGE. Os resultados mostraram algumas discrepâncias nos bancos de dados publicados na WEB, tais como diferenças em áreas e supressão ou extrapolação de limites do espelho d'água. Concluiu-se que, até o momento, os responsáveis por algumas publicações de bancos de dados no Estado de Minas Gerais não tiveram rigor suficiente com as atualizações. As imagens CCD/CBERS, que também são dados públicos disponíveis na WEB, mostraram ser produtos adequados para verificar, atualizar e melhorar as informações publicadas.In this work some public databases from the World Wide Web (WEB were used to find the area of the Furnas and Funil Dams in Minas Gerais State. The purpose of this work was to compare the WEB public databases values and the real values obtained from the CCD camera images on board CBERS2 and CBERS2B satellites. The Furnas Dam area obtained from CCD/ CBERS2B images, in 2008, was 1.138 km², but in the consulted databases this area ranged from 1.182 to 1.503 km². The dam of the Funil, built in 2003, with a water surface of 29.37 km² and an island with 1.93 km² area, did not appear in Atlas, Geominas, IGAM and IBGE databases. The results revealed some problems in the WEB public

  4. Production and refining. Increase of Chinese petroleum imports

    China produced 156.5 Mt of petroleum in 1996, from which 56 Mt were extracted from the Daqing oil field, exploited since 1960. About 10% of the crude oil comes from offshore fields. Over the 100 Mt refined in 1996, 20 Mt were imported. The Chinese petroleum products demand should increase to 200 Mt/y by the end of the century with respect to 150 Mt/y in 1997. The Dalian refinery, the first Chinese-foreign joint venture, started to work in November 1996 and should reached its full capacity of 100000 b/day in the first quarter of 1997. The Chinese refining activity has now an excess capacity of 206 Mt/y. Several other joint venture projects in petrochemistry are planned in China. Short paper. (J.S.)

  5. The importance of local products in economic development

    GİRAY, Handan; ÖZKAN, F. Zehra; ORAN, Hülya


    Providing continuity and homogeneity in quality of traditional and local products enables producers to increase their income and consumers to protect themselves besides protection of these products as a cultural heritage. The procedure which is called “geographic indication” during registration of local products differentiates a product from the others through a reference to a given geographical area and proving its originality. Supplying a product to consumers with a registration, indicating...

  6. Highlighting the importance of testing in the product development process

    Tahera, Khadija; Eckert, Claudia; Earl, Chris


    A product development is not a linear process of “design-build-test”; rather, the design process and the testing process are closely integrated throughout the product development process. The main objective of this paper is to understand how testing is integrated into the product development process and how that effects the product development processes in companies. This paper reports case studies in UK based manufacturing companies where physical testing are essential activities but key con...

  7. Importance of systems biology in engineering microbes for biofuel production

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Redding, Alyssa M.; Rutherford, Becky J.; Keasling, Jay D.


    Microorganisms have been rich sources for natural products, some of which have found use as fuels, commodity chemicals, specialty chemicals, polymers, and drugs, to name a few. The recent interest in production of transportation fuels from renewable resources has catalyzed numerous research endeavors that focus on developing microbial systems for production of such natural products. Eliminating bottlenecks in microbial metabolic pathways and alleviating the stresses due to production of these chemicals are crucial in the generation of robust and efficient production hosts. The use of systems-level studies makes it possible to comprehensively understand the impact of pathway engineering within the context of the entire host metabolism, to diagnose stresses due to product synthesis, and provides the rationale to cost-effectively engineer optimal industrial microorganisms.

  8. Import Substitution in Regional Industrial Production: Theoretical and Practical Aspects

    Yevgeniy Georgievich Animitsa


    Full Text Available The article proves the important role of import substitution in the economic security protection of state and its regions, especially in times of crisis, geopolitical and economical instability. The authors argue that the problem of import substitution is not modern, trendy scientific stream. The issue of displacement of import goods by domestic ones was brought up in famous classic theories of mercantilists. The particular emphasis is placed on the analysis and systematization of different scientific approaches, which are utilized by native and foreign scientists to bring out the matter of “import substitution,” to determine its essential characteristics. The authors suggest their own interpretation of the import substitution notion. In the article, the most significant pro and contra arguments in import substitution policy are defined. The regional aspects in the import substitution are approved: case study — organization of industrial import substitution in the Sverdlovsk region. In the article, the authors analyze the subject matter of the Program “Development of Intraregional Industrial Cooperation and Implementation of an Import Substitution in Branches of Industry in the Sverdlovsk Region.” It is resumed, that active policy of import substitution in the industry may become the driver of regional economic development.

  9. 9 CFR 327.4 - Imported products; foreign certificates required.


    ... foreign meat-inspection certificate shall be in both the English language and the language of the foreign country of origin. (e) Except for product subject to procedures in § 327.5(d)(l), the foreign...

  10. The importance of price for the sale of ecological products

    Hansen, Jesper Kirkeby; Sørensen, Hans Christian


    level for ecological products is indeed a decisive obstacle to the sale of ecological prducts. 2. The survey indicated that the market share for ecological products cannot be increased at the present price level. Hence, there is good reason to focus on the price parameter. 3. An experiment with price...... reductions produced considerable changes in customer choices and hence in the estimated market share. The change for tomatoes entails a doubling of the market share at a price reduction of DKK 2.00. For potatoes one could observe a 10% increase per DKK 1.30 price reduction. The ecological market share...... increase for milk can be estimated at about 6% at a DKK 1.00 price reduction. 4. In general, if prices are lowered, it seems that the market shares will increase noticably, with between 3 and 8% increased market shares per 1.00 DKK reduction depending on the present price level and product type. 5. However...

  11. Product Lifecycle Management: CERN to host an important international conference

    CERN Bulletin


    CERN designs, builds and operates machines that contain millions of items of many types, such as software, electronics, and electrical, mechanical and chemical components. It is a challenge to maintain a coherent configuration of everything that has been developed and installed. To do this, CERN developed the EDMS system – an integrated Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) platform that enables management of all the information related to the entire lifecycle of each single component. On 5 and 6 September CERN will host an international PLM conference at which participants will exchange experience and address how best to apply PLM in their organisations.   Pictogram representation of a typical product lifecycle. Picture by the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s Manufacturing Engineering via Wikimedia Commons [Public domain]. PLM is the activity of managing, in the most effective way, an organisation’s products all the way through their lifecycles: from th...

  12. Detemining the importability of educational practices, programs and products.

    Ghandour, Mahmoud; Havlicek, Larry L.


    One of the ways that educators have found to meet their educational needs and problems is to utilize programs, practices, or products, here after referred to as practices in this paper, that other educators have developed. There is a saving in both time and costs of needlessly reinventing solutions to common educational problems if practices that other educators have found to be effective can be adopted or adapted to your educational needs. In theory this is an excellent idea and one which sh...

  13. Differential Calculus, Tensor Products and the Importance of Notation

    Manton, Jonathan H.


    An efficient coordinate-free notation is elucidated for differentiating matrix expressions and other functions between higher-dimensional vector spaces. This method of differentiation is known, but not explained well, in the literature. Teaching it early in the curriculum would avoid the tedium of element-wise differentiation and provide a better footing for understanding more advanced applications of calculus. Additionally, it is shown to lead naturally to tensor products, a topic previously...


    İsmail TİYEK; BOZDOĞAN, Faruk


    In the production of acrylic fibers using wet-spinning method, fiber formation takes places in the coagulation bath. Therefore, physical properties of the fibers, produced by the wet-spinning method, is affected by coagulation bath conditions. For this reason, coagulation bath parameters have to be checked very well. In this paper, both the physical events such as diffusion and phase transition, occured in the coagulation bath, and some coagulation bath parameters that affect these physical e...

  15. 26 CFR 52.4682-3 - Imported taxable products.


    ... or air conditioning, creating an aerosol or foam, or manufacturing electronic components. (ii) De... paragraph (e)(2) of this section for determining the ODC weight of telephone sets supplied by one... supplied by other manufacturers that have not provided sufficient information to allow the importer to...

  16. Role and importance of poultry products for human consumption

    Vrancean Calin


    Full Text Available This paper addresses to a topical issue about the enormous importance of nutrition to health. Research conducted shows that people today want the food they consume to have all appropriate nutrients and in order to be able to operate and how to have a better life.

  17. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of shipping containers of... PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation. (a) Shipping containers of foreign product which are shipped to the United...

  18. 78 FR 27279 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Indonesia-Importation of Horticultural Products...


    ... complete multiple steps prior to importing those products into Indonesia. The legal instruments through... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Indonesia-- Importation of... establishment of a panel to consider Indonesia's import restricting measures on the importation of...

  19. Knowledge Production, Urban Locations and the Importance of Local Networks

    Skytt-Larsen, Christine Benna; Winther, Lars


    This paper analyses the relationship between knowledge production and urban locations in industrial design, a knowledge-intensive business service (KIBS). KIBS concentrate in urban locations. This is often explained by the co-location of client firms and market access in large cities. Recent....... Industrial design is concentrated in urban locations, but most of its clients are located elsewhere. Hence, it seems that industrial design firms concentrate in urban locations mainly because their knowledge networks include specific types of formal and informal local social networks....

  20. Biodiversity of Aspergillus species in some important agricultural products

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Susca, A.,; Cozzi, G.;


    species in relation to their different adaptation to environmental and geographical conditions, and to their potential toxigenicity. Here we analyzed the biodiversity of ochratoxin producing species occurring on two important crops: grapes and coffee, and the genetic diversity of A. flavus populations...... occurring in agricultural fields. Altogether nine different black Aspergillus species can be found on grapes which are often difficult to identify with classical methods. The polyphasic approach used in our studies led to the identification of three new species occurring on grapes: A. brasiliensis, A...

  1. Production Response to Increased Imports: The Case of U.S. Sugar

    Kennedy, P. Lynn; Schmitz, Andrew


    This paper considers how the welfare of U.S. sugar producers can be affected by the use of production controls in the presence of rising sugar imports and falling sugar prices, taking into account the negative externalities associated with U.S. sugar production. Even if production controls are used, producer welfare can be affected negatively under rising imports.

  2. 7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products... AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.608 Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. The term Imported porcine...

  3. Regional production adjustment to import competition: evidence from the French agro-industry

    Corinne Bagoulla; Emmanuelle Chevassus-Lozza; Karine Daniel; Carl Gaigné


    This paper aims at evaluating the impact of increasing imports on the reallocation of agrifood production across regions within countries. From French data for the period 1995-2002, we show that regional agri-food production adjusts differently to increasing imports according to the region where the agri-food firms are located. More precisely, even though proximity to consumers significantly shapes the spatial distribution of agri-food production, an increase in agri-food imports does not mak...

  4. Importance of supply chain and fulfillment operations in businesses that offer perishable food products online

    Ramirez Bathen, Ana Beatriz


    This study highlights the importance of logistics when businesses work with an online channel and perishable food products. An online channel not online provides physical products to its consumers but also related services with products quality. Having a defined competitive strategy and knowing what customers want are extremely important elements to success in the market and with products sell online. However, when business decide to work with this channel these are not the only aspect that ...

  5. The Case For and Against Import Embargoes on Products of Biotechnology

    James D. Gaisford; Chui-Ha, Carol Lau


    This article examines alternative trade policy responses available to an importing country with concerns over innovations in biotechnology. Regardless of the policy response, the importing country may be worse off after a new genetically modified food (GMF) is introduced. While an import embargo may be preferable to allowing free access to unlabelled GMF imports, permitting labelled imports is typically superior to an embargo. Thus, import embargoes on products of biotechnology should not be ...

  6. Seed quality and its importance in agricultural production and safety of agricultural products

    Ilieva, Verica; Mitrev, Sasa; Karov, Ilija; Markova Ruzdik, Natalija; Todorovska, Elena


    Agricultural production depends of a lot of variable factors. Basic catalyst of efficiency of all other factors is the seed. The seed has always been a key factor in agricultural production. Modern crop production and the science of agricultural also confirms that without seed quality we won't have a successful agricultural production. Seed quality is that one which has a genetic purity, physical purity, is healthy and has good physiological condition in accordance with the prescribed standar...

  7. 7 CFR 1230.110 - Assessments on imported pork and pork products.


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessments on imported pork and pork products. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1230.110 Assessments on imported pork and pork products. (a) The following Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS)...

  8. 77 FR 31026 - Requirements for Importing Food and Drug Administration Regulated Products Into the United States


    ... to be discussed are FDA regulations with respect to importing pharmaceutical products, medical devices, food products, as well as technology which applies to brokers and forwarders. Date and Time: The... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Requirements for Importing Food and Drug...

  9. 9 CFR 94.13 - Restrictions on importation of pork or pork products from specified regions.


    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 94.13, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on importation of pork or pork products from specified regions. 94.13 Section 94.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  10. Few crop traits accurately predict variables important to productivity of processing sweet corn

    Recovery, case production, and gross profit margin, hereafter called ‘processor variables’, are as important metrics to processing sweet corn as grain yield is to field corn production. However, crop traits such as ear number or ear mass alone are reported in sweet corn production research rather t...

  11. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  12. A Note on Rice Production, Consumption and Import Data in Indonesia

    Rosner, L. Peter; McCulloch, Neil


    Debate about Indonesian rice policy has focused on estimates of production and consumption levels, and the level of imports they imply. However, Indonesian rice production and consumption data are controversial. Rice consumption as estimated from household survey data is much lower than officially reported rice production. This suggests that Indonesia is a net rice exporter, but in fact it has generally been a net importer. Some researchers argue that rice consumption data are underestimated;...

  13. The significance of food safety in trade and banning the importation of GMO products into Iran

    Rezazadeh, Tahereh; Aghaiypour, Kh.; Heidari, Zohreh


    According to legislation in Iran, the importation of transgenic products should be banned due to the lack of strong evidence for the safety of genetically modified foods. Therefore, the detection of genetically modified on importing products should perform by food control laboratories. In this study, specific primers were designed for 35S promoter (500 bp), NOS terminator (253 bp), NPT (470 bp) and GUS (443 bp) for the detection of GMO in 134 imported samples by Polymerase chain reaction. T...

  14. Fruit and products of its processing and its importance for nutrition

    JIRCOVÁ, Petra


    The thesis is focused on fruits and products of its processing and its importance in nutrition. The theoretical part deals with the chemical composition of fruits in general are described and fruit products and their importance for human health, the important matter we deal mainly vitamins, fiber and antioxidants. The practical part consists of questionnaires on the subject and their evaluation. The aim was to find out what kind of relationship and knowledge of students and pupils of the frui...


    Washington, Andrew A.; Kilmer, Richard L.


    The goal of this paper is to provide the U.S. dairy industry with elasticities of Japan's derived demand for imported cheese differentiated by source country of production. These estimates are then used to assess the relative competitiveness of cheese imported from the U.S. to cheese imported from other source countries.

  16. Prospects of petroleum product trades by ROK/Taiwan/Singapore: tougher environmental standards and changes in product imports/exports

    From April, Japan repealed the Provisional Law on Importation of Specified Petroleum Products (PLISPP) and thus freed imports further. Since the dawn of the 1990s, Asia has suffered soaring oil demand and lack of refining capacity. Besides intra-region trade, product imports from outside the region, like the US West Coast and the Mediterranean Sea, have expanded. Given such conditions in Asia, as well as Japan's stringent product specifications for environmental reasons, potential exporters of the three specified products (gasoline, kerosene and diesel) in Asia should virtually be limited to the three of the Republic of Korea (the ROK), Taiwan and Singapore. This study is designed to make an in-depth examination of the present and the future of oil supply/demand and product trade of the three countries. (author)

  17. Radiological control of food importation products; Control radiologico de productos alimenticios de importacion

    Aguirre G, J. [CNSNS, Dr. Barragan 779, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail:


    Nowadays exists the possibility of marketing products possibly polluted with radioactive isotopes, by that some countries like Mexico, they have been given to the task of creating legal bases and the necessary infrastructure with the end of carrying out the radiological surveillance of nutritious import products. In this work the legal bases that our country has established for the radiological control are presented besides the results of this radiological control carried out through the gamma spectroscopy analysis of nutritious import products sent to our country through diverse companies that import foods produced mainly in European countries. (Author)

  18. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  19. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products


    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...


    Aliyu Aishat Ammani


    Full Text Available Rice is an economically important food security crop, cultivated in almost all of Nigeria’s 36 States. Nigeria spends more than 356 billion naira (2.24 billion US dollars annually on rice import. This paper set out to analyze the trend in rice production, productivity, import, value of import and consumption that follows the adoption of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP in Nigeria, with emphasis on the effects of exchange rate (ER deregulation on domestic rice production and rice imports over the period 1986-2010. Relevant time series data were collected and used. A semi-log growth rate model and 2simple linear regression models were developed and estimated. Highlights of the findings include (i accelerated rate of growth in rice production (Instantaneous Growth Rate (IGR 2.2%; Cumulative Growth Rate (CGR 2.2%; rice hectarage (IGR 3.7%; CGR 3.8%; rice importation (IGR 8.5%; CGR8.9%; expenditure on rice importation (IGR 10.6%; CGR 11.2% and rice consumption (IGR 3.4%; CGR 3.5% alongside a significant deceleration in rice yield (IGR -1.4%; CGR -201.4% (ii The observed significant increase in domestic rice production cannot be confidently attributed to ER deregulation alone because it does not lead to a decrease in rice importation into Nigeria. (iii The significant increase in domestic rice importation as observed contradicts a priori expectation that ER deregulation will lead to significant decrease in rice importation. The study concluded that free market approach alone cannot stimulate local agricultural production in countries where farmers producing under low-technology-agriculture are put in direct competition with farmers from advancedtechnology-agriculture; hence governments need to restrict importation to protect local producers.

  1. The Relative Importance of Search versus Credence Product Attributes: Organic and Locally Grown

    Wirth, Ferdinand F.; Stanton, John L.; Wiley, James B.


    Organic foods and local foods have come to the forefront of consumer issues, due to concerns about nutrition, health, sustainability, and food safety. A conjoint analysis experiment quantified the relative importance of, and trade-offs between, apple search and experience attributes (quality/blemishes, size, flavor), credence attributes (conventional vs. organic production method, local origin vs. product of USA vs. imported), and purchase price when buying apples. Quality is the most importa...

  2. Demand characteristics for imported cod products in Portugal frozen, salted & dried and salted

    Asche, Frank; Gordon, Daniel V.


    The demand function represents the fundamental building block in economics and provides important information for investment and policy purposes. The aim of this paper is to characterize and measure the demand structure for imported cod products to Portugal. A PCAIDS model is used to identify own- and cross-price elasticities of demand for frozen, salted & dried and salted cod products. The estimated elasticities of demand are then used in combination with a demand growth index to measure shi...

  3. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products


    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On March 16, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 15848-15913, Docket...

  4. 9 CFR 95.25 - Transportation of restricted import products; placarding cars and marking billing; unloading...


    ... products; placarding cars and marking billing; unloading enroute. 95.25 Section 95.25 Animals and Animal... import products; placarding cars and marking billing; unloading enroute. (a) Transportation companies or... billing has not been marked by the initial or the connecting carrier, or the placards have been...


    Kilmer, Richard L.; Morrill, John; Thomas H. Spreen; DeLorenzo, Michael A.


    Seasonal swings in milk production in Florida result in a need to import milk on a seasonal basis. A linear programming analysis is used to analyze alternate freshening-date distributions and project the cost savings to Florida dairy farmers from reduced milk imports.

  6. Importance and competitive advantage of the European Union countries in trade in agri-food products

    Pawlak, Karolina


    The aim of the paper was to show the importance and competitive advantage of the EU countries in trade in agri-food products. It was proved that old member states of the EU, especially Holland, Germany and France, play a dominant role in the agri-food trade. Although agri-food products occupy an important position in the total trade structure of the Central and East European countries, their significance in the exchange of agri-food products in the Community is incomparably smaller.

  7. Importance And Role Of Competence In Professional Career Of Product Develop Engineers

    Miltenović, Aleksandar; Banić, Milan; Miltenović, Vojislav


    Product development is a creative task where is systematically created a new product, which makes possible to firms to offer attractive, innovative and market oriented products. In conditions of fierce competition and saturated markets, companies that do not innovate are stagnating and disappear from the market. Innovation is therefore every intervention which can reduce production costs, enables optimum utilization of available human, energy and material resources, improve product quality, improve the placement, which leads to an increase in competitiveness. A prerequisite for fulfillment of the above-mentioned tasks is that the companies have engineers with the appropriate competencies, which are able to, through creativity, innovation and fascinating technique of creating new or improving existing products and lunch it on the market. The paper discusses the role and importance of the competences that are necessary for a successful professional career of product development engineers.


    Hanifi AYBOĞA


    Full Text Available Abstract With the development of technology and increasing competition, producing goods or services of the business is not enough today. Production forms of business and their pers- pectives on the environment during the production of goods and services are also monitored by the clients. Today, in the matter of ensuring the sustainability of products and hence the company, recycling has come into prominence. With these grounds, in the product life cycle costing in this study, the importance of recycling have been studied in a theoretical framework. For this purpose, basic concepts are primarily explained and product life cycle is compared with traditional costing. Then, employing the importance of recycling and its advantages are described. The presence of shortages of raw materials, the risk of extinction of natural resources and in today’s world where the cost rises, using recycled products decreases operating costs and so customers turn to recycled products with the environmental awareness. Hereat, competitiveness of enterprises, their product sales and market share have increased. In terms of environment, air and water pollution decrease and logging is prevented. During recent years, the creation of renewable resources by recycling will ensure sustainable production and bring a new dimension to the production systems.

  9. Analysis of Fuel Supplies on the Market of Oil Products of Ukraine: Import Aspect

    Dronova, A.


    It is specified that last years of Ukrainian oil market are characterized by a fierce competition between domestic enterprises of oil industry and foreign enterprises, which import energy resources to the country. Ukrainian oil market is very dependant not only on import of raw oil, which is used for processing at domestic refineries, but also on import of final oil products, which are intended for final consumers.In connection with the fact that the lavish part of total volume of oil consump...

  10. Incorporating Regional Rice Production Models in Rice Importation Simulation Model: a Stochastic Programming Approach

    Rosalina G. de Guzman; Mina, Christian D.; Crean, Jason; Parton, Kevin; Reyes, Celia M.


    In the Philippines, importation has remained as one of the most feasible options for the government to meet the growing demand for rice. It is thus imperative for the government to develop a strategy that would ensure adequate supply and minimum importation costs. One of the critical factors in import decisionmaking is rice production. The Inter-Agency Committee on Rice and Corn (IACRC), where the National Food Authority (NFA) and Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS) are members, decides o...

  11. 基于CBERS-02B高分辨率遥感影像分割的最优尺度选取%Optimal scale selection base on CBERS-02B high-resolution remote sensing images

    况润元; 袁秀华; 罗卫; 张萌; 王聪颖


    高分辨遥感影像的信息提取对矿山的监测有着重要意义,影像分割是高分辨率遥感影像信息提取关键的一步.文中以赣州稀土矿山的高分辨率遥感影像为源数据,采用分形网络演化多尺度分割算法对高分辨率遥感影像进行分割,通过Robert算子的边缘提取结果计算分割参数获取分割尺度,并在此基础上设置不同分割尺度对影像进行分割,对比分析分割结果表明,沉淀池的最优分割尺度为35.最后利用分割质量值对分割结果进行评价分析,验证了试验结果的正确性.%It has important significance for high resolution remote sensing image information extraction to monitor rare earth mine. Image segmentation is a key step in the high resolution remote sensing image information extraction. In order to obtain the optimal segmentation results, this paper chooses high-resolution remote sensing image of Ganzhou rare earth mines, uses Fractal Net Evolution Approach algorithm to segment high resolution remote sensing image, and computes segmentation parameter to obtain segmentation scale by edge extraction results of Robert operator, and sets different segmentation scale to segment image base on it, after comparing and analyzing segmentation results, it shows that optimal segmentation scale of sedimentation tank was 35. At last Segmentation results were evaluated by segmentation quality value, it verifies the accuracy of experimental result.

  12. Radionuclide contents in food products from domestic and imported sources in Nigeria

    Samples of some domestic and imported food products of nutritive importance to both the child population and the adult population in Nigeria were collected and analysed in order to determine their radionuclide contents. The samples were collected from open markets in major commercial cities in the country. Gamma-ray spectrometry was employed in the determination of the radionuclide contents in the products. The gamma-ray peaks observed with reliable regularity in all the samples analysed belong to naturally occurring radionuclides, namely 226Ra, 228Th and 40K. The activity concentrations of these radionuclides in both the domestic and imported products were observed to be not significantly different. Essentially radioactive elements such as 137Cs were not detected in any of the samples. The non-detection of 137Cs in the imported products may be attributed to the suitably modified agricultural practices and countermeasures being employed to reduce caesium uptake by plants after the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. It seems unlikely that the elemental concentrations in the food products analysed will contribute significantly to public health risks in the country, as the cumulative ingestion effective dose values from 226Ra and 228Th were found to be low. Although 40K has the highest activity concentrations in all the samples analysed, it is usually under homeostatic control in the body, and hence the concentrations are irrelevant to possible contamination in the food products analysed. (note)

  13. Role of the tunisian central pharmacy in the import of radio-pharmaceutical products

    In Tunisia the centralized organization of the medicine sector has a strategic and economic importance. It presents particular characteristics concerning the importation and the control of drugs. Tcp has a monopoly on the importation of drugs for the country, which enters in the state policy for the control of drug purchasing costs, their availability in different region of the country and their guarantee and quality. The Tcp has a crucial role in the availability of drugs and in the holding safety stock and strategic reserve of the imported pharmaceutical products, either for the public or private sector. The Tcp has to stock up medicaments, chemical and pharmaceutical products, objects of bandages, instruments, accessory tools and other supplies necessary for the human and veterinary medicine. The Tcp packages any specialized or not medicament and all other products or supplies. The Tcp provides medicaments and products entering within the framework of its task to different health groups and hospitals. The Tcp provides distributors, laboratories and pharmacies over the country. In Tunisia the import of radioisotopes used in the medical domain is attributed to the Tcp. The objective is to centralize purchases and to guarantee: the security, the availability as well as the traceability. The Tcp supply radiopharmaceutical products for diagnostic and therapy purposes according to an authorization delivered annually by the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). An authorization of removal used at the customs allows the clearance of products at the level of the air freights by the transit service of the Tcp. Regarding the evolution of purchases of radio-pharmaceutical products, their importation remained stable during the last three years. Indeed, it is approximately around 1MDT annually (954 121 DT in 2010, 939 956 in 2011 and 1047 967 in 2012). Sources of supply are divided between 4 suppliers: International IBA-CISBIO (49.9 pour cent), COVIDIEN EX (TYCO

  14. Forecasting natural gas supply in China: Production peak and import trends

    China's natural gas consumption has increased rapidly in recent years making China a net gas importer. As a nonrenewable energy, the gas resource is exhaustible. Based on the forecast of this article, China's gas production peak is likely to approach in 2022. However, China is currently in the industrialization and urbanization stage, and its natural gas consumption will persistently increase. With China's gas production peak, China will have to face a massive expansion in gas imports. As the largest developing country, China's massive imports of gas will have an effect on the international gas market. In addition, as China's natural gas price is still controlled by the government and has remained at a low level, the massive imports of higher priced gas will exert great pressure on China's gas price reform. - Highlights: ► We figured out the natural gas production peak of China. ► We predict the import trends of natural gas of China. ► We study the international and national impacts of China's increasing import of gas. ► It is important for China to accelerate price reformation of natural gas.

  15. The United States (U.S.) Steel import crisis and the global production overcapacity till 2016

    Popescu, Gh. H.; E. Nica; R.-O. Ștefănescu-Mihăilă; G. Lăzăroiu


    The aim of the present research is to examine and evaluate the swift growth in surplus steel production capacity and international supply chain integration, the effects of steel manufacturing on U.S. employment, raising imports of unfairly traded steel and steel goods, and the global steel sector’s structural overcapacity. This paper contributes to the literature by providing evidence on the mechanisms forming the foundation of the first-rate productivity growth in the U.S. steel industry, mo...

  16. Environmental assessment of imported organic products - focusing on orange juice from Brazil and soybeans from China

    Knudsen, Marie Trydeman


    The import of organic products to Denmark has seen a four to five fold increase during the last seven years, due to a growing demand for organic products. Globally, the market for organic food and drinks has also more than doubled during the same period. The global organic agricultural land has concurrently expanded from 26 to 35 million hectares, mostly due to major conversions in Argentina, China, India, Australia, USA and Brazil. While Europe and North America still makes up th...

  17. Monitoring important soil-borne plant pathogens in Swedish crop production using real-time PCR

    Almquist, Charlotta


    The global demand for food will increase considerably in the nearest future and among the major constraints to agricultural productivity are biotic stresses caused by microorganisms. In this thesis, the causal agents of four of the most important soil-borne diseases threatening the Swedish production of oilseed rape, sugar beets and red clover were selected as targets for developing diagnostic assays using real-time PCR. The disease risk assessment of clubroot in oilseed rape was improved...


    J.N. Nmadu; M.A. Ojo; F.D. Ibrahim


    The trend of sugar cane production and refined sugar imports for the period 1960-2010 were analysed and forecasted to year 2020. Results show that sugar cane output will rise to 2.8m tonnes from about 88 thousand hectares of land by year 2020. The total refined sugar that will be available from production and import is about 720 thousand tonnes but with Nigerian population growing at the rate of 2.27%, potential demand for refined sugar will rise to 1.6B tonnes by the year 2020 creating a def...

  19. Measures for Administration of the Import of Mechanical and Electronic Products


    @@ The Measures for the Administration of the Import of Mechanical and Electronic Products co-formulated by the Ministry of Commerce,the General Administration of Customs and the General Administration of Quality Supervision,Inspection and Quarantine,was hereby promul-gated,which entered into force as of May 1,2008.

  20. Evaluating the effect of exchange rate and labor productivity on import penetration of Brazilian manufacturing sectors

    João Paulo Martin Faleiros


    Full Text Available In recent years, several economists have argued that the sharp loss of competitiveness of the Brazilian industry was caused by a strong exchange rate appreciation. However, other economists have attributed this loss of competitiveness to the dismal growth of labor productivity in the Brazilian industrial sector. The present paper proposes to estimate the differential impacts of variations in exchange rate and labor productivity on the Brazilian market share of imports measured by the coefficient of import penetration of total demand for manufacturing goods. We start by developing a simple theoretical model to investigate under what conditions the impacts of an exchange rate depreciation and an increase in labor productivity would differ. We test the theoretical implications of the model by means of a GMM panel data analysis focusing on 17 manufacturing sectors in the period between 1996 and 2011. Our results suggest that both variables matter to explain the coefficient of import penetration. Nevertheless, labor productivity has the strongest negative impact on the market share of imported goods, even after controlling for sector fixed-effects.

  1. Prevalence and characterization of Vibrio cholerae isolated from shrimp products imported into Denmark

    Dalsgaard, A.; Bjergskov, T.; Jeppesen, V.F.;


    A total of 3,555 metric tonnes of warm water shrimp were imported into Denmark from December 1994 to July 1995. V. cholerae O1 was not detected in any of the 748 samples analyzed. Non-Ol V. cholerae was found in a single (0.1%) cooked frozen shrimp product and in five (0.7%) raw frozen products...... contained plasmids or genes encoding cholera toxin (CT) or heat-stable enterotoxin (NAG-ST), The absence of V. cholerae O1 and the low number of samples containing CT and NAG-ST negative non-Ol strains in imported shrimp suggest that I! cholerae in such products may not constitute a public health problem....

  2. Importance of core/concrete aerosol production and some containment heat sources to the source term

    Production of aerosols by core/concrete interaction in a large break PWR severe accident is discussed, and both vaporization and mechanical production processes are examined. In the case of the former, equilibrium chemical thermodynamic studies are used to decide which chemical species should be considered, recognizing the uncertainty in the likely configuration of the core/concrete melt. Lanthanide release is found to be particularly sensitive to this configuration. It is found that kinetic effects are not important in preventing the attainment of chemical equilibrium in the gas bubbling through the melt. At early times aerosol production by bubble bursting at the melt surface is found to be less important than that due to vaporization, except for those materials released in small quantities, e.g. Mo. The bubble bursting mechanism becomes relatively more important at later times. Calculations for a large modern PWR show that environmental release from the core/concrete aerosol is likely to be of comparable or greater importance (in terms of released decay heat) than that from the in-vessel core-melt aerosol for all but very early containment failure or failure to isolate, neglecting attenuation of the core/concrete aerosol during its flow from the cavity to the main containment volume. The importance of performing linked thermal-hydraulic and aerosol physics calculations is highlighted by the blowdown aerosol in a large break accident. Treatment of the decay heat arising from the aerosol material released to the containment is discussed. It is shown that it is very important to consider this heat source in containment pressure calculations, but it was not found to be important to treat its spatial dependence accurately in the large break accident considered here. Some scoping calculations for material resuspension on containment overpressure failure, due to a hydrogen burn, are presented

  3. Relative importance of nitrate and sulfate aerosol production mechanisms in urban atmospheres

    The relative importance of the various sulfate and nitrate aerosol production mechanisms is calculated for different atmospheric conditions. The calculation scheme used to determine the rates of nitrate and sulfate production, based on the concept that vapor transfer to the aerosols and nitrate and sulfate formation within the aerosols are coupled kinetic processes, considers sulfate formation by ozone and hydrogen peroxide oxidation and catalytic oxidation in the presence of soot, iron and manganese of sulfite solutions and sulfuric acid condensation and nitrate formation by the liquid-phase oxidation of dissolved nitrogen oxides for different initial gas concentrations and particle compositions and sizes. It is found that sulfate production is higher under daytime conditions, primarily proceeding by mechanisms involving sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide, while at night oxidation processes on the surface of the aerosol film are more important. Nitrate tends to decrease nighttime sulfate production due to an increase in aerosol acidity and nitrate production is found to be higher under nighttime conditions and in the winter

  4. The United States (U.S. Steel import crisis and the global production overcapacity till 2016

    Gh. H. Popescu


    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to examine and evaluate the swift growth in surplus steel production capacity and international supply chain integration, the effects of steel manufacturing on U.S. employment, raising imports of unfairly traded steel and steel goods, and the global steel sector’s structural overcapacity. This paper contributes to the literature by providing evidence on the mechanisms forming the foundation of the first-rate productivity growth in the U.S. steel industry, models of growth in the international steel supply chains, and the advantages of adequate trade remedy implementation for the U.S. steel sector.

  5. Trade differentiation and the characteristics of new imported and exported products - international panel data analysis

    Aleksandra Parteka


    This paper documents changes in both quantity and quality of goods added to countries’ trade baskets as countries develop. Drawing on product level (HS0, 6 digit) data on both imports and exports for a vast panel of international economies (163 countries, 1988–2010) we calculate the number of active and new product lines, as well as compute measures of their human capital and natural resource content. We find that strong activity at the extensive margin typical for low stages of development i...

  6. Metabolic engineering of lactic acid bacteria for the production of industrially important compounds

    Maria Papagianni


    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are receiving increased attention for use as cell factories for the production of metabolites with wide use by the food and pharmaceutical industries. The availability of efficient tools for genetic modification of LAB during the past decade permitted the application of metabolic engineering strategies at the levels of both the primary and the more complex secondary metabolism. The recent developments in the area with a focus on the production of industrially important metabolites will be discussed in this review.


    Mostefa BELMOKADDEM; Mohammed MEKIDICHE; Abdelkader SAHED


    This study presents an application of a fuzzy goal programming approach with different importance and priorities (FGPIP) developed by Chen and Tsai (2001) to aggregate production planning (APP), for the state-run enterprise of iron manufactures non-metallic and useful substances (Société des bentonites d’Algérie-BENTAL-). The proposed model attempts to minimize total production and work force costs, carrying inventory costs and rates of changes in work force. The proposed model is solved by u...

  8. Gas Strategy of China: Developing competition between national production and imports

    The Chinese gas market is facing four key challenges and the government is elaborating responses which will have implications for the Chinese and world energy markets: - Enabling the development of gas demand in order to fight against the issue of air pollution which is particularly strong in the big coast cities of the East and South-East of the country. This means replacing coal and oil by cleaner energy sources, including natural gas for which demand is booming. In such a young market, everything needs to be put in place: from the construction of LNG terminals to the sale and installation of gas stoves. The price of gas needs to be competitive for the market to develop. - Securing supplies: As national production is struggling to follow the rise in demand and as shale gas - of which China owns the second largest reserves in the world - is still a distant dream, this country is more and more reliant on imports. For evident energy security reasons, China diversifies its supplies at the maximum level and develops new energy partnerships. Four importing routes are favoured: LNG transported by ships, the West axis with Central Asia, the South axis with Burma and the new North-East axis with Russia. These imports, which amounted to 53 bcm in 2013, may triple by 2020. Even though China managed to negotiate a favourable price with Russia and its LNG importing price is lower than the one of Japan - thanks to its first LNG importing contracts signed in the early 2000 - imports are expensive, in particular for a country used to producing or importing coal at a very low cost. Up to now, the price at which gas is sold could not cover the import price and this system is not sustainable. - Developing national production: Despite important gas reserves - in particular for unconventional gas (shale gas, tight gas, CBM) - production in China is still not much developed in comparison with its potential and the growth opportunities are significant. Making the best of this potential

  9. Critical points on egg production: causes, importance and incidence of eggshell breakage and defects

    Helenice Mazzuco; Antonio Gilberto Bertechini


    The occurrence of broken eggs directly depends on the quality of the shell. It is important to consider that the problem of broken eggs is not due to a single factor but a combination of factors. Shell defects, irregularities in shell shape, texture and surface are commonly observed during a regular egg laying cycle and the causes are varied. The incidence of downgraded eggs still represents an important source of economic loss for the egg industry due to products damage and need for further ...

  10. Effect of crude oil and refined petroleum product imports on the national security. Critical technologies

    The report contains the results of an investigation requested under Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act to study the effect of oil imports on the domestic petroleum industry and on United States energy security. It reviews previous energy security assessments and resulting initiatives, assesses current US energy security, and studies emergency petroleum requirements. The report finds that there have been substantial improvements in US energy security since the last Section 232 Petroleum finding in 1979. However, declining domestic oil production, rising oil imports, and growing dependence on potentially insecure sources of supply raise concerns of vulnerability to a major supply disruption

  11. Thai Consumer Decision-making Styles on Imported Cosmetic Brand Products

    Chaisitthiroj, Nussara


    Consumer decision-making has long been an interesting issue for both academics and practitioners. It is believed that each consumer interacts with a market with particular decision-making styles and these styles are stable overtime. This dissertation aimed to investigate Thai female consumer decision-making styles on imported cosmetic products and to segment them based on those styles. To achieve the objectives, Sproles and Kendall's (1986) Consumer Style Inventory (CSI) was employed. From a ...

  12. Compressed ethylene phase states and their importance for the production of low density polyethylene

    Stoiljković Dragoslav; Damjanović Budimir; Đorđević Jovica; Špehar Danko; Jovanović Slobodan


    In the last three decades the authors have published papers on the concept of the supra-molecular organization and the phase state of compressed ethylene gas and their effects on the mechanism and kinetics of free-radical ethylene polymerization. The effects on the macromolecular structure of low density polyethylene (LDPE) were also explained. The importance of the phase state of compressed ethylene on the industrial process of LDPE production are presented in this paper: The start-up of pol...

  13. Agricultural waste from the tequila industry as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes.

    Huitron, C; Perez, R; Sanchez, A E; Lappe, P; Rocha Zavaleta, L


    Approximately 1 million tons of Agave tequilana plants are processed annually by the Mexican Tequila industry generating vast amounts of agricultural waste. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of Agave tequilana waste as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes. Two strains of Aspergillus niger (CH-A-2010 and CH-A-2016), isolated from agave fields, were found to grow and propagate in submerged cultures using Agave tequilana waste as substrate. Isolates showed simultaneous extracellular inulinase, xylanase, pectinase, and cellulase activities. Aspergillus CH-A-2010 showed the highest production of inulinase activity (1.48 U/ml), whereas Aspergillus niger CH-A-2016 produced the highest xylanase (1.52 U/ml) and endo-pectinase (2.7U/ml) activities. In both cases production of enzyme activities was significantly higher on Agave tequilana waste than that observed on lemon peel and specific polymeric carbohydrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis of raw A. tequilana stems and leaves, by enzymes secreted by the isolates yielded maximum concentrations of reducing sugars of 28.2 g/l, and 9.9 g/l respectively. In conclusion, Agave tequilana waste can be utilized as substrate for the production of important biotechnological enzymes. PMID:18833660

  14. Important fission product nuclides identification method for simplified burnup chain construction

    A method of identifying important fission product (FP) nuclides which are included in a simplified burnup chain is proposed. This method utilizes adjoint nuclide number densities and contribution functions which quantify the importance of nuclide number densities to the target nuclear characteristics: number densities of specific nuclides after burnup. Numerical tests with light water reactor (LWR) fuel pin-cell problems reveal that this method successfully identifies important FP nuclides included in a simplified burnup chain, with which number densities of target nuclides after burnup are well reproduced. A simplified burnup chain consisting of 138 FP nuclides is constructed using this method, and its good performance for predictions of number densities of target nuclides and reactivity is demonstrated against LWR pin-cell problems and multi-cell problem including gadolinium-bearing fuel rod. (author)

  15. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products alter the holobiome and development of a medically important mosquito

    The increasing demand for fresh water has forced many countries to use reclaimed wastewater for agricultural purposes. This water contains pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) that remain biologically active following passage through wastewater treatment plants. Run-off from farms and contaminated water from treatment facilities exposes aquatic ecosystems to PPCPs. This study examined the effects of PPCPs on a lower trophic organism. Culex quinquefasciatus larvae were reared in water contaminated with environmentally relevant concentrations of common PPCPs. Acetaminophen alone and a mixture of contaminants were found to increase developmental time of larvae. Susceptibility to Bti increased in larvae exposed to antibiotics, acetaminophen, or a mixture of PPCPs. Antibiotics, hormones, and the mixture altered the mosquito bacterial microbiome. Overall, the results indicate that at environmentally relevant concentrations, PPCPs in reclaimed water can have biologically important effects on an ecologically and medically important lower trophic level insect. - Highlights: • Effects of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products on mosquitoes were examined. • Three PPCP treatments increase susceptibility to a common larvicide (Bti). • Acetaminophen and the mixture of PPCPs caused an increase in developmental time. • The holobiome of mosquitoes treated with PPCPs were sequenced. • Three PPCP regimes changed the holobiome of the mosquitoes. - Pharmaceuticals and personal care products, common to reclaimed wastewater, alter the development of mosquitoes. They also alter the whole-body bacterial microbiome

  16. Importance of nuclear technology in the conservation and production of nutritional fungi

    The shortfall in food and field crops due to bad weather and the incidence of insects and microbes during harvesting, handling and storage under non-suitable conditions, called the attention of researchers to try to minimize the damage happening and by various means, whether to develop sources of new food, such as producing nutritional fungi, or by following non-traditional methods of anti-microbes and insects such as the use of radiation as a safe and successful way to save the food without any toxic effects. Permits have been issued for food irradiation by many international organizations including IAEA, World Health Organization and FAO. Nutritional fungi is one of the food sources used as food fit for human consumption in various countries around the world due to their importance which includes many aspects: the nutritional and health value; medical significance; environmental importance and industrial importance. Nuclear technology has contributed in many of the developments in the production and conservation of nutritional fungi, notably, biological studies of nutritional fungi, production technology of fungus, the role of radiation in the preparation and improvement of the nutritional media, improvement of the fungus strains, the use of radiation in the conservation of nutritional fungi and the detection of irradiated nutritional fungus.


    Olga Sergeevna Muftahova


    Full Text Available In the article the financing form in case of import revolving leverage leasing is described to modernize of fixed assets.In the research process the methods of mathematical modeling are applied.The mathematical model of the generalized method of calculation leasing payments proposed by the authors is represented according to the results of the research.The presented method includes several forms of leasing utilized both in the domestic and in the foreign practice.The novelty of this method consists in the fact that on the basis of the proposed forms of leasing is calculated the sum of leasing payment, which considers with the calculation insu-rance, financial and currency component to minimize losses from downtime due to the limited using of basic production assets of the enterprise in the organization of the production process.The method presented by authors is intended to minimize the risk of downtime of production equipment. This fact will enable us to provide high qualitative and quantitative indicators of the enterprise, stability and continuity of the production process.

  18. Importance of agribusiness in national economies of Poland and Germany. Production and income results

    Aldona Mrówczyńska-Kamińska


    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to compare the importance of agribusiness in Polish and German economies. The paper analyses the internal structure of agribusiness and its share in national economies in terms of production and income results. The analysis is based on input-output matrix. The results show that the changes in the agribusiness structure in Poland go in the desired direction. The agriculture loses its significance, while food industry and industries manufacturing the production means and service become more significant. Agribusiness’ share in the national economy in Poland has been systematically falling in the analysed period. It must be emphasised here that the Polish agribusiness is still run in an old fashioned way, while in Germany it is modern. The main condition to change the situation in Poland is to generate economic growth and be able to benefit from the CAP instruments.

  19. Effect of important operating parameters on product properties and operation of HDPE slurry reactor

    In this article, a complete model for the mixed flow slurry reactor for polymerization of ethylene to high density polyethylene in the presence of Ziegler-Natta catalyst is presented. In addition to the effects of the multiple active sites, the effect of other important parameters such as the catalyst concentration, co-catalyst, hydrogen, monomer, impurities and pressure on the mass-average and number-average polymer product chain length, the average product distribution index and the required residence time for the reactor were investigated. The simulation results show that as the catalyst, hydrogen and solvent concentrations increase, the mass and number-average polymer chain length decrease, whereas with increasing monomer concentration and pressure, the average molecular weight increases. The effects of these parameters on the polydispersity index and residence time do not follow the same trend and their relationship changes in some of these variables

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Antimicrobial-Resistant Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica Serovars from Imported Food Products.

    Bae, Dongryeoul; Kweon, Ohgew; Khan, Ashraf A


    The objective of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance and elucidate the resistance mechanism in nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from food products imported into the United States from 2011 to 2013. Food products contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant nontyphoidal S. enterica were mainly imported from Taiwan, Indonesia, Vietnam, and China. PCR, DNA sequencing, and plasmid analyses were used to characterize antimicrobial resistance determinants. Twentythree of 110 S. enterica isolates were resistant to various antimicrobial classes, including β-lactam, aminoglycoside, phenicol, glycopeptide, sulfonamide, trimethoprim, and/or fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents. Twelve of the isolates were multidrug resistant strains. Antimicrobial resistance determinants blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-9, blaOXA-1, tetA, tetB, tetD, dfrA1, dfrV, dhfrI, dhfrXII, drf17, aadA1, aadA2, aadA5, orfC, qnrS, and mutations of gyrA and parC were detected in one or more antimicrobial-resistant nontyphoidal S. enterica strains. Plasmid profiles revealed that 12 of the 23 antimicrobial-resistant strains harbored plasmids with incompatibility groups IncFIB, IncHI1, IncI1, IncN, IncW, and IncX. Epidemiologic and antimicrobial resistance monitoring data combined with molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance determinants in Salmonella strains isolated from imported food products may provide information that can be used to establish or implement food safety programs to improve public health. PMID:27497122

  1. Serovar 4b complex predominates among Listeria monocytogenes isolates from imported aquatic products in China.

    Chen, Jianshun; Chen, Qiaomiao; Jiang, Jianjun; Hu, Hongxia; Ye, Jiangbo; Fang, Weihuan


    Listeria monocytogenes, the causative organism of listeriosis, is primarily transmitted to humans through contaminated food. In this study, we examined 1275 batches of aquatic products imported from 29 countries and found that 36 batches from 8 countries were contaminated by Listeria (2.8%), with L. monocytogenes accounting for 2.6% (33/1275) and L. innocua for 0.2% (3/1275). Of the 23 selected L. monocytogenes isolates (from the 33 identified), 15 (65.2%) were of serovar 4b complex (4b, 4d, or 4e), three (13.0%) of 1/2a or 3a, four (17.4%) of 1/2b or 3b, and one (4.4%) of 1/2c or 3c. Notably, four of the 23 isolates belonged to epidemic clone I (ECI) and another four were associated with epidemic clone II (ECII), two highly clonal 4b clusters responsible for most of the documented listeriosis outbreaks. In the multilocus sequence typing scheme based on the concatenated genes gyrB-dapE-hisJ-sigB-ribC-purM-betL-gap-tuf, serovar 4b complex isolates from imported aquatic products exhibited significant genetic diversity. While the four ECI isolates were genetically related to those from Chinese diseased animals, both lacking one proline-rich repeat of ActA, the four ECII isolates were located between 1/2b or 3b strains. As the L. monocytogenes isolates from imported aquatic products possessed a nearly complete set of major infection-related genes, they demonstrated virulence potential in mouse model. PMID:19735205

  2. The Importance of Ammonia for Winter Haze Formation in Two Oil and Gas Production Regions

    Collett, J. L., Jr.; Li, Y.; Evanoski-Cole, A. R.; Sullivan, A.; Day, D.; Archuleta, C.; Tigges, M.; Sewell, H. J.; Prenni, A. J.; Schichtel, B. A.


    Fine particle ammonium nitrate formation results from the atmospheric reaction of gaseous ammonia and nitric acid. This reaction is most important in winter when low temperatures thermodynamically enhance particle formation. Nitrogen oxides emissions from oil and gas operations partially react in the atmosphere to form nitric acid. The availability of atmospheric ammonia plays an important role in determining whether the nitric acid formed results in wintertime ammonium nitrate formation. Here we contrast situations in two important U.S. oil and gas production regions. Measurements of ammonia, nitric acid, ammonium nitrate and other species were made from 2007 to present near Boulder, Wyoming and in winters 2013 and 2014 in western North Dakota. The Boulder, Wyoming site is close to the large Jonah and Pinedale Anticline gas fields. Field sites at the north unit of Theodore Roosevelt National Park and Fort Union are situated in the large Bakken Formation oil and gas production region. Wintertime formation of nitric acid and ammonium nitrate, together comprising nitrogen in the +5 oxidation state (N(V)), was observed in both locations. Concentrations of N(V), however, are generally much lower at Boulder, WY than in the Bakken. An even bigger difference is seen in fine particle ammonium nitrate concentrations; limited regional ammonia is available in western Wyoming to react with nitric acid, leaving a portion of the nitric acid trapped in the gas phase. Higher concentrations of ammonia are observed in the Bakken where they support formation of much higher concentrations of ammonium nitrate. Comparison of these two regions clearly indicates the importance of understanding both local NOx emissions and regional concentrations of ammonia in predicting source impacts on formation of fine particles and haze.

  3. Contamination with heavy metals and bacteria in some local and imported fish and fish products

    Some local and imported fish and fish products sold in retail markets of three cities at Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, were examined against heavy metals contamination (i.e. Pb, Cd and Hg) and the presence of some specific groups of bacteria. The results showed that concentrations of Pb in fresh and frozen fish, salted and smoked fish and canned fish samples were lower than the permissible limits recommended by the Egyptian Organization 1993 (1.0 mg/kg). On the other hand, all the tested fish and fish products of collected samples showed levels of Cd (0.29-0.41 mg/kg) higher than the permissible limit (0.10 mg/kg) recommended by the Egyptian Organization. Such limits should be re-considered because the limit determined by WHO (1992) was 0.5 mg/kg. Mercury level in fresh mullet was equal or lower (0.46-0.50 mg/kg) than the limit of Egyptian Organization (0.50 mg/kg) while other fresh and frozen fish, salted and smoked fish samples had higher Hg than the allowance. In most cases, imported canned products of sardine, mackerel and tuna had higher Pb, Cd and Hg concentrations than that found in the local ones. Among fresh fish samples, such as mackarona, contained the highest total bacterial count, while mullet was the lowest. Considering salted and smoked fish, heavy salted mullet had the highest total bacterial count, while the lowest number was recorded in salted sardine. Smoked herring showed lowest total bacterial count than salted samples. Generally, no correlation was observed between fish species or consumption place and the contamination with heavy metals and bacteria

  4. Factors affecting Import Shares of Powdered Milk and other Milk Products and their Implications in Sri Lanka

    Bogahawatte, C.; Herath, Janaranjana


    Import shares of liquid milk, powdered milk, condensed milk and other milk products were estimated to determine their relative competitiveness. The change of import shares with changes of exchange rate and world price of milk. The analysis based on yearly data between 1975-2006 showed that relative CIF prices and incomes were important factors influencing the market shares of milk and milk products. The results also showed that imported milk powder is price inelastic and a weak substitute for...

  5. An analysis of the importance of information for the planning and running the production in wood industry companies

    Novak, Bošjan; Oblak, Leon


    In wood industry, three types of production are known: piecework, serial and mass production. The presented research attempted to determine which information was crucial for successful planning and running of an individual type of production. We confirmed the supposition that each of the mentioned types of production has its own specifics and that the sets of information necessary for decision-making in an individual type of production are therefore of different importance. The results of the...

  6. Organic food consumers’ trade-offs between local or imported, conventional or organic products: a qualitative study in Shanghai

    Sirieix, Lucie; Kledal, Paul Rye; Sulitang, Tuerxunbieke


    This paper presents a qualitative study of the trade-offs made by organic food product consumers in the Chinese Metropolis of Shanghai. More precisely, this article deals with trade-offs that consumers make between three types of products: (1) locally produced organic food products, (2) products that are locally and conventionally produced and (3)imported organic food products. We used a qualitative methodology using open questions and projective techniques and based on 23 individual inter...

  7. Wheat forecast economics effect study. [value of improved information on crop inventories, production, imports and exports

    Mehra, R. K.; Rouhani, R.; Jones, S.; Schick, I.


    A model to assess the value of improved information regarding the inventories, productions, exports, and imports of crop on a worldwide basis is discussed. A previously proposed model is interpreted in a stochastic control setting and the underlying assumptions of the model are revealed. In solving the stochastic optimization problem, the Markov programming approach is much more powerful and exact as compared to the dynamic programming-simulation approach of the original model. The convergence of a dual variable Markov programming algorithm is shown to be fast and efficient. A computer program for the general model of multicountry-multiperiod is developed. As an example, the case of one country-two periods is treated and the results are presented in detail. A comparison with the original model results reveals certain interesting aspects of the algorithms and the dependence of the value of information on the incremental cost function.

  8. Pesticide risk assessment in flower greenhouses in Argentina: The importance of manipulating concentrated products

    An evaluation of the Potential Dermal Exposure of workers to endosulfan and procymidone at the mix/load and application stages was done in small floricultural production units in Argentina. Seven experiments were performed with different operators under typical greenhouse conditions, based on the whole body dosimetry methodology. These results indicate that the mean Potential Dermal Exposure of the application step was 45.0 ± 55.0 mL h-1 with the highest proportion on torso, head, arms and hands. When the mix/load and application stages were compared, the first was found to contribute the most to the total exposure. Also, the Margin of Safety for the different operations was calculated, and a pesticide surrogate was developed and used to make comparative evaluations of hand exposure for different groups of operators. These results emphasize the importance of the mix/load stage in the exposure process.

  9. Pesticide risk assessment in flower greenhouses in Argentina: The importance of manipulating concentrated products

    Flores, Andrea P.; Berenstein, Giselle A.; Hughes, Enrique A.; Zalts, Anita [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS), J.M. Gutierrez 1150, (B1613GSX) Los Polvorines, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Montserrat, Javier M., E-mail: [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS), J.M. Gutierrez 1150, (B1613GSX) Los Polvorines, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingenieria Genetica y Biologia Molecular (CONICET), Vuelta de Obligado 2490, 2o piso, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    An evaluation of the Potential Dermal Exposure of workers to endosulfan and procymidone at the mix/load and application stages was done in small floricultural production units in Argentina. Seven experiments were performed with different operators under typical greenhouse conditions, based on the whole body dosimetry methodology. These results indicate that the mean Potential Dermal Exposure of the application step was 45.0 {+-} 55.0 mL h{sup -1} with the highest proportion on torso, head, arms and hands. When the mix/load and application stages were compared, the first was found to contribute the most to the total exposure. Also, the Margin of Safety for the different operations was calculated, and a pesticide surrogate was developed and used to make comparative evaluations of hand exposure for different groups of operators. These results emphasize the importance of the mix/load stage in the exposure process.

  10. Remediation options and the importance of water treatment at former uranium production sites in eastern Germany

    The WISMUT remediation project in the States of Saxony and Thuringia, Germany, comprises several mine and mill sites including large volumes of production residues. Due to the climate, the intensive land use and the regulatory conditions, the water path is most important in evaluating remediation options. Water treatment is an integral part of mine flooding, mine dump and tailings remediation and treatment costs represent a major portion of the overall costs of the project. Uncertainties in the estimations of quantities of mine and seepage waters, variations in quality from site to site and changing conditions in time demand a strategic approach to the selection and optimisation of water treatment methods. The paper describes options taken and experience gained including efforts to limit long-term treatment costs by developing and applying passive treatment systems and negotiating reasonable discharge limits. (author)

  11. Compressed ethylene phase states and their importance for the production of low density polyethylene

    Stoiljković Dragoslav


    Full Text Available In the last three decades the authors have published papers on the concept of the supra-molecular organization and the phase state of compressed ethylene gas and their effects on the mechanism and kinetics of free-radical ethylene polymerization. The effects on the macromolecular structure of low density polyethylene (LDPE were also explained. The importance of the phase state of compressed ethylene on the industrial process of LDPE production are presented in this paper: The start-up of polymerization, the peak in the polymerization rate curve, the stability of the reaction, the structure and properties of LDPE, the separation of unreacted ethylene and polyethylene and ethylene compression are discussed.

  12. Optimization of parameters which play an important role in gelation time to production of Yttrium microspheres

    Full text: The given article talks about how cancer can impact on human organs and how find an optimal and safe methods of treatment of this desease. There were advised radiotherapy that shows a sufficient potential, but unfortunately it is not enough, through its severe damage to health. A new type of in-situ radiation method has been tried using 17Y2O3-19AL2O3-64SIO2 glass microspheres that are preared by a conventional melt quench method. But there was reported a novel method to production of yttrium microspheres by paraffin oil gelation column. In this study three parameters play an important role in gelation time : concentration of Teos, concentration of water and reaction temperature. In the present study a systematic study was carried out by a sol-gel process using a sequential addition method and the results are discussed. The main parameters and their effects on gelation time are discussed. The production of brachytherapy microspheres was studied. Further all this process management described.

  13. Global consumptive water use for crop production: The importance of green water and virtual water

    Liu, Junguo; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.; Yang, Hong


    Over the last 4 decades the use of blue water has received increasing attention in water resources research, but little attention has been paid to the quantification of green water in food production and food trade. In this paper, we estimate both the blue and green water components of consumptive water use (CWU) for a wide range of agricultural crops, including seven cereal crops, cassava, cotton, groundnuts, potatoes, pulses, rapeseed, soybeans, sugar beets, sugarcane, and sunflower, with a spatial resolution of 30 arc min on the land surface. The results show that the global CWU of these crops amounted to 3823 km3 a-1 for the period 1998-2002. More than 80% of this amount was from green water. Around 94% of the world crop-related virtual water trade has its origin in green water, which generally constitutes a low-opportunity cost of green water as opposed to blue water. High levels of net virtual water import (NVWI) generally occur in countries with low CWU on a per capita basis, where a virtual water strategy is an attractive water management option to compensate for domestic water shortage for food production. NVWI is constrained by income; low-income countries generally have a low level of NVWI. Strengthening low-income countries economically will allow them to develop a virtual water strategy to mitigate malnutrition of their people.

  14. Quarantine treatment of agricultural products for export and import by gamma irradiation

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Roh, M.J.; Chung, H.W.; Lee, J.E.; Park, N.Y.; Kwon, Y.J.; Seo, S.J. [Kyungbuk National University, Taegu (Korea)


    To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export and import, some selected agricultural products, such as chestnut, acorn, red bean and mung bean, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach. Current quarantine activities were examined and the related limitations were investigated. Quarantine-related pests were investigated on their radiosensitivity and disinfestation effects by both treatments. The pests in chestnut and acorn, Curculio skkimensis Heller, Curculio dentipes Roelofs, and Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee showed an increased mortality when exposed to above 0.5 kGy irradiation, resulting in 100% of mortality three weeks later. Callosobruchus chinensis Linne from both red and mung beans revealed a apparent mortality at around 10 days after irradiation of 1 to 3 kGy. Current fumigation was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused the detrimental effects on physical quality of agricultural produce. Whereas, irradiation doses suitable for controlling the pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the samples. (author). 53 refs., 74 figs., 138 tabs.

  15. The importance of radon and its daughter products in environmental hygiene

    Radon and its daughter products have recently been paid great attention as components of natural ionizing radiation. Their presence in houses and flats are focus of interest. The radon isotopes and their short-lived daughter products are represented briefly, followed by a condensed survey of the historical development of this topic. There are various reasons why this became topical only 80 years after radon had been proved in the atmospheric air. After the listing of the different sources of radon, a rough risk estimation is given regarding the role of radon in lung cancer incidence in the GDR. For environmental hygiene the houses with particularly high radon content of the air, the causes of which are given, are of special importance. Among these causes the ventilation of rooms is the factor having the greatest influence on the radon concentration. From the evidence of occasional, extremely high radon values efforts are derived to elaborate limits of radon concentrations in flats. Finally, the priority of the radon problem for environmental hygiene is pointed out by indicating the current interest of this problem in literature and at congresses. (author)

  16. Micro-bubbles in cold production of heavy oil : are they present, are they important?

    Sheikha, H.; Pooladi-Darvish, M. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)


    Various models and studies of non-equilibrium behaviour of gas in the cold production of heavy oil have led researchers to believe that some of the geo-mechanical effects manifested in sand production are responsible for the generation of wormholes that act as high permeability conduits. This abstract examined the existence and flow of micro-bubbles and their importance in heavy oil recovery. An inline densitometer was installed on a flow-line to measure the bulk density of the fluids as they exited the porous medium. Micro-bubble flow was investigated by measuring the density of the flowing fluids. Results indicated that when micro-bubbles were present, they flowed with the oil after the bubbles were nucleated, thereby affecting the bulk density of the flowing fluid. The density of the produced fluid then decreased as a result of the existence of the micro-bubbles in the oil. In the absence of micro-bubbles, the bubbles grew in-situ and were trapped in the porous media by capillary forces. In this scenario, the flowing fluid was oil and the density measurements were not affected until the bulk gas flow started after critical gas saturation. Results of depletion experiments performed at varying depletion rates were presented, and the implications of the study for the modelling of foamy oil flow were also discussed.

  17. A preliminary investigation of radiation level and some radionuclides in imported food and food products

    A preliminary study of gross beta activity and content of some long-lived radionuclides associated with fission products in various types of imported food and food-products was carried out. Food samples were purchased monthly during 1976-1977 from general well-known supermarkets and local grocery stores up to a total of 89 samples. The gamma spectrum of long-lived radionuclides was searched using a 128 channel analyzer coupled with 3'' x 3'' NaI (T1) crystal detector. Two radionuclides were frequently found to be present in these food samples, viz. potassium-40 and cesium-137 and their concentrations were subsequently determined. The limits of detection under the conditions used for potassium-40 and cesium-137 were 0.04 and 0.03 pCi/g-wet weight, respectively. Samples were dry-ashed and counted for gross beta activity utilizing a low background anti-coincidence G.M. counter. The content of strontium-90 was also investigated concurrently by solvent extraction technique employing tri-n-butyl phosphate as an extractant. Results of the study are tabulated. (author)

  18. The socio-economic importance of family poultry production in the Republic of Mauritius

    Almost every household keeps semi-scavenging family poultry in the backyard as a tradition, both for food and for the generation of additional income in Rodrigues, the second biggest island of the Republic of Mauritius. Recent studies have shown that improving husbandry and management practices on the farm can increase the return of the family poultry farmer significantly. A survey was carried out on households with family poultry on the social and economic importance of family poultry production on the island in 2002. Results showed that on an average, the family poultry farmer was 50 years of age, 42% were illiterate, 32% of the farmers were women, and the family consisted of five members. Besides their main occupation, animal farming was the main side-activity of 56% of the households. 50% of the respondents reared chickens firstly for income, 43% for home consumption, 4% for cultural reasons, and 3% simply for leisure. The profit obtained from the sale of chickens and eggs, and the monetary value of sale and home consumption of these commodities represented 9% and 18% of the total income of the family, respectively. 65% of the households wished to expand family poultry production as they found this system of production more profitable than the rearing improved commercial broilers and layers. The birds of 5% of the farmers constituted a nuisance to their neighbours. All the poultry merchants who marketed the family poultry found their business profitable, and wished to expand it. They priced the birds by their appearance, offered US dollar 2 / kg live weight, and sold them at US dollar 3.4 / kg live-weight to consumers in Mauritius. Family poultry had a guaranteed market, especially for being free scavenging birds, and for their rustic taste. (author)

  19. 9 CFR 94.18 - Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform...


    ... and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 94.18 Section 94.18..., AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.18 Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (a)(1)...


    Milan Chňapek


    Full Text Available Wheat is the second most cultivated crop on the world and is very important plant for feed not only mankind but also animals. Because of this is necessary to develop new varieties with better properties. Bread making quality of wheat grain is one of the most important paramaters for quality evaluation. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE of wheat storage proteins and allelic specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR are analysis suitable for identification, differentiation and characterization of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. There were analysed 16 genotypes of new varieties of bread wheat in our work by SDS-PAGE and obtained results were verified by AS-PCR. Analysed genotypes of bread wheat genotypes were homogenous and single line with very good bread making quality. Our results confirmed hypothesis, that cultivated bread wheat genotypes are uniformed with high production and quality but there is a risk of sensitivity to environmental conditions. SDS-PAGE analyses of wheat grain proteins are fast and not very expensive technique, which provide us information of bread making quality of grains. However, there is possibility of environmental influence on protein synthesis and because of this is necessary to couple these analysis with analysis of DNA.

  1. From seed production to seedling establishment: Important steps in an invasive process

    Ferreras, Ana Elisa; Galetto, Leonardo


    It is widely accepted that exotic invasive species are one of the most important ecological and economic problems. Reproductive and establishment traits are considered key features of a population expansion process, but few works have studied many of these simultaneously. This work examines how large the differences are in reproductive and establishment traits between two Fabaceae, the exotic invasive, Gleditsia triacanthos and the native, Acacia aroma. Gleditsia is a serious leguminous woody invader in various parts of the world and Acacia is a common native tree of Argentina. Both species have similar dispersal mechanisms and their reproductive phenology overlaps. We chose 17 plants of each species in a continuous forest of the Chaco Serrano Forest of Córdoba, Argentina. In each plant we measured fruit production, fruit removal (exclusion experiments), seed predation (pre- and post-dispersal), seed germination, seed bank (on each focal tree, three sampling periods during the year), and density of seedlings (around focal individuals and randomly in the study site). Gleditsia presented some traits that could favour the invasion process, such as a higher number of seeds per plant, percentage of scarified seed germination and density of seedlings around the focal individuals, than Acacia. On the other hand, Gleditsia presented a higher percentage of seed predation. The seed bank was persistent in both species and no differences were observed in fruit removal. This work highlights the importance of simultaneously studying reproductive and establishment variables involved in the spreading of an exotic invasive species. It also gives important insight into the variables to be considered when planning management strategies. The results are discussed from the perspective of some remarkable hypotheses on invasive species and may contribute to rethinking some aspects of the theory on invasive species.

  2. Uranium mining and production: A legal perspective on regulating an important resource

    The importance of uranium can be examined from several perspectives. First, natural uranium is a strategic energy resource because it is a key ingredient for the generation of nuclear power and, therefore, it can affect the energy security of a state. Second, natural uranium is also a raw material in relative abundance throughout the world, which can, through certain steps, be transformed into nuclear explosive devices. Thus, there is both an interest in the trade of uranium resources and a need for their regulatory control. The importance of uranium to the worldwide civilian nuclear industry means that its extraction and processing - the so-called 'front end' of the nuclear fuel cycle - is of regulatory interest. Like 'ordinary' metal mining, which is generally regulated within a country, uranium mining must also be considered from the more particular perspective of regulation and control, as part of the international nuclear law regime that is applied to the entire nuclear fuel cycle. The present overview of the regulatory role in overseeing and controlling uranium mining and production will outline the regulation of this resource from an international level, both from early days to the present day. Uranium mining is not regulated internationally; rather, it is a state responsibility. However, developments at the international level have, over time, led to better national regulation. One can note several changes in the approach to the uranium industry since the time that uranium was first mined on a significant scale, so that today the mining and trade of uranium is a well-established and regulated industry much less marked by secrecy and Cold War sentiment. At the same time, it is informed by international standards and conventions, proliferation concerns and a modern regard for environmental protection and the health and safety of workers and the public. (author)

  3. Minireview: importance of herbicide-tolerant sunflower hybrids in suppressing common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen production

    Peter Reisinger


    Full Text Available Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia is the number one weed in Hungary: it covers ca. 5% of the arable land, causing huge losses in row crops, especially in sunflowers. In addition, because of the high allergenicity of its pollen, common ragweed is a heavy burden on the health care system. This minireview discusses the importance of use of herbicide-tolerant sunflower hybrids in eliminating common ragweed from sunflower fields, with special emphasis on the efficacy of common ragweed control of two acetolactate-synthase inhibitor postemergence herbicides (imazamox and tribenuron methyl in several sunflower hybrids that carry the resistance gene against such herbicides. Common ragweed control by these herbicides was excellent: they suppressed the growth of the weed plant until the canopy closure of the crop (8-leaf stage. Common ragweed plants germinating after this date were unable to compete with the crop: although they survived, they remained small (ca. 70% reduction in height, produced ca. 90% less male inflorescences (source of the allergenic pollen, and caused no significant reduction in the crop yield. In order to stop the seed production by the few late-germinating weed plants we recommend a mechanical common measure (row-cultivator in late August.

  4. Importance of the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) and Dose Length Product (DLP)

    This work is under the auspice of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) projects (RAF/9/053) untitled Strengthening of the technical capacity for the protection patients and worker. The goal of this work is to highlight the importance of the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) and the Dose Length product (DLP). Measures were done at Polyclinic of Ilafy and CRDT Anosivavaka, Antananarivo, Madagascar. Doses were evaluated by use of pencil ionization chamber model 6000-10 connected with an electrometer RAD-CHECK model 06-256. Knowledge of dose indicator and Diagnostic Reference Level (DRL) allow the monitoring of scanner within the appropriate average dosimeter. It also insures the progressive determination for the most adapted dose requirements by choice of parameters available on scanner device. Measurements confirmed that doses from scanner devices of the two centers were under DRL requirements proposed by the IAEA, the European Commission (EC) and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). The present results confirm that the patient delivered doses for the two centers are optimized.

  5. Modeling the importance of biomass qualities in biomass supply chains for bioenergy production

    T.P. Upadhyay, J. H. Greibrokk


    Full Text Available A tactical-operational level quantitative model can be an important decision support tool for bioenergy producers. Goal programming approach can help analyze the costs and volume implications of various competing goals in terms of biomass characteristics on part of the bioenergy producers. One cost and six quality characteristics goals, namely moisture and ash contents, and thermal values of two types of biomass (forest harvest residue and un/under-utilized species are selected for the four bioenergy producers in northwestern, Ontario, Canada. We run four models cenarios: i benchmark total cost and ceilings of mean values of six biomass qualities (Initial Goals, iirelaxing the quality goals by 10% from the Initial Goals scenario, iii increasing the conversion efficiency by 10%, and iv all goals as in Initial Goals except the Atikokan Generating Station (AGSbeing supplied with only un/under-utilized biomass. The smaller power plants have relatively less per unit biomass procurement cost. While per unit procurement costs increased, the total costs and biomass volume required to produce the same amount of bioenergy for each power plant decreased in all scenarios compared to the benchmark costs. The goal programming approach, and the results thereof are found to be useful in making effective decisions in the biomass supply chains for bioenergy production.

  6. The Importance Of Product Attributes In High Context Cultures: Implications For Managing Business Relations In Asia

    Liu, A. H.; Leach, M P


    Should business marketers promote the same product attributes in both high context and low context cultures or should they differentiate according to cultural context. This question is pertinent to marketing research service providers and product manufacturers operating within Asia To help marketers belter communicate the desirable product attributes to their target markets, the current study examines various product attributes and how they are utilized in purchase decisions in high vs low cu...

  7. Importance of winter pea cv. Maksimirski rani in milk production on family farms

    Darko Uher


    Full Text Available Forage pea (Pisum sativum L. is gaining importance as a forage legume in the Republic of Croatia. Pea seed contains 20-30 percent of protein, it is utilized without thermal treatment in feeding different types and categories of livestock, and with stable yield it provides an appreciable income per hectare. Two-year field trials (2005-2006 were carried out to determine the effect of winter pea seed inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on the number and mass (g/plant-1 of root nodules and also on the yield and quality of winter pea cv. Maksimirski rani in a mixture with wheat cv. Sana. Just before sowing, pea seeds were inoculated with the strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 1001 from the microbial collection of the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb. The highest number of root nodules (43 nodules/plant, as well as the highest nodule mass (0.219 g/plant-1 were determined in the inoculated variant. The highest number of pods (19.0 and seeds per plant (60 were determined in the inoculated variant as well. The highest 1000-seed mass (132 g and seed mass per plant (7.93 g were also determined in the inoculated variant. Average pea seed yield ranged from 2949 kg ha-1 (control up to 3353 kg ha-1 (inoculation. The conclusion of this research is that the highest seed (3353 kg ha-1 and crude protein yields (833 kg ha-1 were obtained with inoculated forage winter pea cv. Maksimirski rani. Seed inoculation of the studied pea cultivar Maksimirski rani with the strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 1001 influenced also higher milk production per hectare compared to the control and the nitrogen top-dressed variant.

  8. 76 FR 28910 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products From Liechtenstein and Switzerland


    ... Liechtenstein import substantial quantities of pork and pork products from Germany and France, without... This proposed rule has been reviewed under Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. If this..., Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the...

  9. Considerations for the development of regulations for the control of the importation of irradiated agri-food products

    Imported products can host vectors of exotic diseases, insects and weeds which may threaten Canadian livestock or plant stock industry. Feed and food irradiation are viewed as valid options to facilitate trade of agricultural products. The requirements for labelling and process control are currently being reviewed from a regulatory standpoint. (author). 8 refs

  10. 9 CFR 94.25 - Restrictions on the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free...


    ... live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine fever. 94.25 Section 94... the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine... fever (CSF) in §§ 94.9(a) and 94.10(a) but either supplement their pork supplies with fresh (chilled...

  11. Aspergillus nidulans protein kinase A plays an important role in cellulase production

    de Assis, Leandro José; Ries, Laure Nicolas Annick; Savoldi, Marcela; dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Brown, Neil Andrew; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique


    Background The production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks is dependent on lignocellulosic biomass degradation by hydrolytic enzymes. The main component of lignocellulose is cellulose and different types of organisms are able to secrete cellulases. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans serves as a model organism to study cellulase production and the available tools allow exploring more in depth the mechanisms governing cellulase production and carbon catabolite repression. ...

  12. The Importance of Geographical Proximity for New Product Development Activities within Inter-firm Linkages

    Dahlgren, Johan Henrich

    This paper takes an economic approach to investigate the role of geographical proximity for organizing new product development (NPD) activities within inter-firm linkages. Product development theory and the resource-based view is discussed from an inter-firm perspective and contrasted to arguments......: capabilities, economics of localization, innovation, inter-firm linkages, knowledge, product development, proximity, resources JEL-codes: L23, L60, O32...

  13. 21 CFR 120.14 - Application of requirements to imported products.


    .... 120.14 Section 120.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... specific requirements for imported juice. (a) Importer requirements. Every importer of juice shall either: (1) Obtain the juice from a country that has an active memorandum of understanding (MOU) or...

  14. The Wind Energy in Power Production and Its Importance in Geography Teaching

    Munkacsy, Bela


    Wind energy is an increasingly important factor of the power system in Europe. But it is still just a small part of the significant changes of the new millennium, namely the spreading of micro power and decentralisation of the whole energy system which are very important elements of sustainability. This paper shows the importance of wind power…

  15. Evaluation and update of Norwegian and Danish oil production forecasts and implications for Swedish oil import

    Sällh, David; Höök, Mikael; Grandell, Leena; Davidsson, Simon


    This paper presents an updated historic oil production analysis as well as an updated future oil production forecast for Norway and Denmark. Previous forecasts conducted by academic and official agencies using a variety of methodologies are contrasted and their accuracy examined. The bottom-up field-by-field methodology is found to be precise in the short-term, as it deviates by less than 1% from actual production. The impact of declining oil production in the North Sea on Sweden is explored ...

  16. 9 CFR 327.3 - No product to be imported without compliance with applicable regulations.


    ... larger forms, shall be permitted entry except under the following conditions: (1) A complete procedure... microbiological testing of the finished product shall be installed by the processor, the product is subjected to such testing, and the results thereof are furnished to the Administrator and are acceptable to him...

  17. An investigation on important factors influencing consumer purchase: A case study of food products

    Mohammad Haghighi


    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effect of five factors on purchasing food product including brand and reputation, being green product producer, quality of packaging, taste of food products and materials used in products. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 20 questions, distributes 440 questionnaires among some consumers who were regular customers of food chains in west part of city of Tehran, Iran and managed to collect 225 properly filled ones. The study uses binomial test to verify five hypothesis of the survey and it has confirmed the effects of four variables including brand and reputation, quality of packaging, taste of food products and materials used in products. In our survey, there are some positive and meaningful correlations among different pairs of five variables of the survey where the highest correlation is between materials used in products and quality of packaging (r=0.606, Sig. = 0.000 and between Quality of packaging and being green product producer (r=0.545, Sig. =0.000.

  18. The National Biofuels Strategy - Importance of sustainable feedstock production systems in regional-based supply chains

    Region-based production systems are needed to produce the feedstocks that will be turned into the biofuels required to meet Federal mandated targets. Executive and Legislative actions have put into motion significant government responses designed to advance the development and production of domestic...


    László Csató


    Full Text Available The slaughter data of the National pig database was analysed by the authors. The authors investigated the results of the (SEUROP grade scheme, which showed the connection between the pig proportions fell into the various grade classes and their prices. The analyses started when the introduction of the (SEUROP grade scheme took place in 1997 and was based on the official database published each week. For the sake of better overview the results were summed up to monthly intervals. The authors found that in the first period (shortly after the introduction of the grade scheme the prices of the slaughtered pigs fell into the various grade classes differed from each other by 6-7 %. As a result of the (SEUROP grade scheme’s introduction the proportion of the slaughtered pigs fell in the grade classes E and U increased from 18% to 27% and from 37% to 44% respectively. The proportions in the R, O, and P classes consequently decreased. Following the first period no changing pattern was found concerning these proportions which means that the improvement of the graded slaughter pigs stopped. Investigating the possible explanations the authors realised that the price differences between the grade classes decreased from 6-7% to 4-5%. Thus the meat processing industry in fact was paying more for one unit lean content of slaughtered pigs when fell into the worst categories than for those which can be found in the best categories. This however does not provide any motivation for the producers for improving carcass quality, which can only be obtained through higher costs. It can be concluded that carcass quality improvement is an important requirement for Hungary. Concerning the EU members the graded slaughter pigs can be found in the E and U categories almost exclusively. The same ratio is only 65% in Hungary. Therefore the modification of slaughtered pig prices of the E and U grade classes is vital in order to motivate the production of slaughtered pigs

  20. Host cell-induced signaling causes Clostridium perfringens to upregulate production of toxins important for intestinal infections

    Chen, Jianming; Ma, Menglin; Uzal, Francisco A.; McClane, Bruce A.


    Clostridium perfringens causes enteritis and enterotoxemia in humans and livestock due to prolific toxin production. In broth culture, C. perfringens uses the Agr-like quorum sensing (QS) system to regulate production of toxins important for enteritis/enterotoxemia, including beta toxin (CPB), enterotoxin, and epsilon toxin (ETX). The VirS/VirR two-component regulatory system (TCRS) also controls CPB production in broth cultures. Both the Agr-like QS and VirS/VirR systems are important when C...

  1. Factors Influencing Consumer’s Choices in FMCG Products: A Case Study of Imported Fruit Juices in Malaysia

    Zekrgoo, Seyed Masiha


    Companies specializing in imported Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCGs) in Malaysia do not have sufficient knowledge on the factors/variables influencing consumers’ choices of different products in Malaysia. Furthermore, there is lack of literature focusing on Malaysian consumers and especially on influential factors on imported fruit juices in Malaysia. These factors have motivated this researcher to conduct an exploratory research on the variables that influence consumers’ choice of imported ...

  2. Incorporating Regional Rice Production Models in a Simulation Model of Rice Importation: a Discrete Stochastic Programming Approach

    Rosalina G. de Guzman; Mina, Christian D.; Crean, Jason; Parton, Kevin; Reyes, Celia M.


    In the Philippines, importation has remained as one of the most feasible options for the government to meet the growing demand for rice. It is thus imperative for the government to develop a strategy that would ensure adequate supply and minimum importation costs. One of the critical factors in import decisionmaking is rice production. The Inter-Agency Committee on Rice and Corn (IACRC), of which the National Food Authority (NFA) and the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS) are members, de...

  3. Cost-effective production of biotechnologically important hydrolytic enzymes by Sporotrichum thermophile.

    Bala, Anju; Singh, Bijender


    Economical production of xylanase and three cellulases, endo-β-1,4-glucanase (CMCase), exo-β-1,4-glucanase (FPase), β-glucosidase (BGL) was studied in submerged fermentation using cane molasses medium. A statistical optimization approach involving Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology (RSM) resulted in the production of 72,410, 36,420, 32,420 and 5180 U/l of xylanase, CMCase, FPase and β-glucosidase, respectively. Optimization resulted in more than fourfold improvements in production of xylanolytic and cellulolytic enzymes. Scale up of enzymes production in shake flasks of varied volumes was sustainable, suggesting a good scope for large scale enzyme production. Addition of microparticles engineered fungal morphology and enhanced enzymes production. Xylanase of S. thermophile is a neutral xylanase displaying its optimal activity at 60 °C while all the cellulases are optimally active at pH 5.0 and 60 °C. The efficacy of enzyme cocktail in waste tea cup paper and rice straw hydrolysis showed that maximum sugar yield of 578.12 and 421.79 mg/g substrate for waste tea cup and rice straw, respectively, were achieved after 24 h. Therefore, concomitant production of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes will be beneficial for the saccharification of lignocellulosics in generating both monomeric and oligomeric sugars for biofuels and other biotechnological applications. PMID:26581490

  4. Bumble bee colony dynamics: quantifying the importance of land use and floral resources for colony growth and queen production.

    Crone, Elizabeth E; Williams, Neal M


    Bumble bee (Bombus) species are ecologically and economically important pollinators, and many species are in decline. In this article, we develop a mechanistic model to analyse growth trajectories of Bombus vosnesenskii colonies in relation to floral resources and land use. Queen production increased with floral resources and was higher in semi-natural areas than on conventional farms. However, the most important parameter for queen production was the colony growth rate per flower, as opposed to the average number of available flowers. This result indicates the importance of understanding mechanisms of colony growth, in order to predict queen production and enhance bumble bee population viability. Our work highlights the importance of interpreting bumble bee conservation efforts in the context of overall population dynamics and provides a framework for doing so. PMID:26913696

  5. How Important is Presenteeism for the Value of Lost Production in Rheumatoid Arthritis?

    Søgaard, Rikke; Sørensen, Jan; Linde, Louise; Hetland, Merete Lund


    Lost production can be due to individuals’ time lost to work (absenteeism), as well as their time at work with reduced productivity because of ill health (presenteeism). A sound methodological framework for the assessment of presenteeism remains to be established but given its significance......, ignoring it would lead to severe underestimations, eg, in cost-of-illness studies. The objective of this study was to assess the empirical significance of absenteeism and presenteeism in terms of production loss using the case of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Selected modules from the Health and Labor...... Questionnaire were applied in a cross-sectional study of 3,704 patients with RA. The costs of absenteeism and presenteeism were estimated using the Human Capital approach, and the impact of including multipliers adjusting for the productivity effect of a workers’ absence or impaired presenteeism on societal...


    The relationships between phytoplankton productivity, nutrient distributions, and freshwater flow were examined in a seasonal study conducted in Escambia Bay, Florida, USA, located in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Five sites oriented along the salinity gradient were sampled 24...

  7. Understanding the productivity slowdown. The importance of entry and exit of workers

    Thomas von Brasch; Ådne Cappelen; Diana-Cristina Iancu


    Many OECD countries have experienced a slowdown in measured labour productivity from 2005 and onwards. Norway is no exception in this respect. Most countries use a simple aggregate of hours worked when measuring labour productivity. One way to improve measurement of labour services is to control for worker characteristics. A theoretical rationale for doing so is given by Diewert and Lippe (2010). We generalise previous analyses by allowing for exit and entry of workers when measuring labour s...

  8. 78 FR 11725 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Indonesia Importation of Horticultural Products...


    .... The legal instruments through which Indonesia imposes and administers these measures include but are... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Indonesia Importation of Horticultural... the Republic of Indonesia (``Indonesia'') under the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World...

  9. Uranium production from imported raw material at Sillamaee in 1949-1989

    Ores, ore concentrates and chemical concentrates imported mainly from Czechoslovakia and German Democratic Republic were processed at Sillamaee plant in the years 1949-1989. The paper describes the development of uranium extraction and the equipment used. (author)

  10. Important Regulatory Aspects in the Receipt of Animal Products by Food Services.

    de Mesquita, Marizete Oliveira; de Freitas Saccol, Ana Lúcia; Mesquita, Marilise Oliveira; Fries, Leadir Lucy Martins; Cesar Tondo, Eduardo


    The aim of this study was to review the current legislation and rules in Brazil that involve quality assurance of animal products during food service reception. Published federal legislation and technical regulations were verified to present a broad general approach to raw material reception. Food service determinations included specifications of the criteria for evaluating and selecting suppliers, verifying the transport system, reception area requirements, and inspecting raw material. For product approval, the packaging, labeling, and temperature should be evaluated. However, periodic microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory support assessment analyses are not required for receiving animal products. For the safety of the raw material, it was concluded that the largest impacts came from the regulation and supervision of the food sector provider because of the challenges of food service and a lack of requirements to use more complex evaluation methods during the reception of raw materials. PMID:25875352

  11. The Importance of Consumer Trust for the Emergence of a Market for Green products

    Nuttavuthisit, Krittinee; Thøgersen, John


    Consumer trust is a key prerequisite for establishing a market for credence goods, such as “green” products, especially when they are premium priced. This article reports research on exactly how, and how much, trust influences consumer decisions to buy new green products. It identifies consumer...... trust as a distinct volition factor influencing the likelihood that consumers will act on green intentions and strongly emphasizes the needs to manage consumer trust as a prerequisite for the development of a market for green products. Specifically, based on a mixture of qualitative and quantitative...... methods, it is found that lack of consumer trust is a barrier for the development of a market for organic food in Thailand. Two focus groups and ten in-depth interviews revealed low knowledge about and low trust in organic food, certification, control and labeling. Further, a mall-intercept survey (N=177...

  12. Analysis of Export and Import Processes of Seclected Products in Thailand

    Somnuk Keretho; Saisamorn Naklada


    Administrative and procedural barriers to import and export processes may unnecessarily impede further participation in international trade. Business Process Analysis (BPA) is a powerful tool which can help to identify these barriers and suggest ways to streamline trade processes. As part of the ARTNeT Regional Study on Improving Regional Trade Procedures and Processes, a BPA was conducted on Thai exports of sugar to Bangladesh and auto-parts to India as well as imports of raw materials used ...

  13. Importance of Touch in the Design of Pleasurable Products and Experiences

    Nicolas Bouché; Sébastien Crochemore


    Today, the act of purchase is more and more irrational. Customers' choices are based on emotional and multisensorial features, particularly on touch, which is the most emotional sense. Then it is essential in the design process to work on shapes, materials, textures to make users living pleasant experiences in all contact areas of the product. It's also essential to consider the dynamic aspect of touch to follow the body and generate pleasant tactile effects. Finally, how can we introduce touch in the design process considering companies' know-how, culture and subjectivity of each actor of new product creation?

  14. The importance of buffalo in milk production and buffalo population in Serbia

    Perišić P.; Bogdanović V.; Mekić C.; Ružić-Muslić D.; Stanojević D.; Popovac M.; Stepić S.


    This research paper gives an analysis on the size of world’s domestic buffalo populations, their milk production and the size of buffalo population in Serbia. Population of domestic buffalo in the world is constantly increasing so that in 2013 there were 199 783 549 individuals, out of which in India in the same year they raised 57.77% of buffalo world population, in Pakistan 18.87%, and in China 11.64%. The share of total world production of buffalo milk i...

  15. The importance of country related connections in pictures and slogans for COO products in print advertisements

    Roozen, Irene; Raedts, Mariet


    This paper investigates the effectiveness of the use of country-of-origin (COO) connections in slogans and/or pictures for different COO product print advertisements. We evaluate if marketeers can benefit from focusing on COO-connections in the slogans/texts used and/or in the ‘visualization’ of the ad by adding pictures of the country concerned. Based on a 4x2x2 between subject design, we have analysed the impact on the attitude towards the advertisement, towards the product, towards the qua...

  16. The importance of hydrothermal venting to water-column secondary production in the northeast Pacific

    Burd, Brenda J.; Thomson, Richard E.


    The purpose of this study is to show that seafloor hydrothermal venting in the open northeast Pacific Ocean has a marked impact on secondary biomass and production within the overlying water column. Specifically, we use net tows and concurrently measured acoustic backscatter data collected over six summers to examine the effects of hydrothermal venting from the Endeavour Segment of Juan de Fuca Ridge on macro-zooplankton biomass and production throughout the entire 2000 m depth range. Previous research shows that ontogenetic diapausing migrators and their predators from the upper ocean aggregate above the neutrally buoyant plumes in summer and resume feeding on plume and bottom upwelled particles, resulting in increased zooplankton reproductive output to the upper ocean. Within the limitations of our sampling methodology, net tows reveal a statistically significant exponential decline in total water-column biomass with increasing lateral distance from the vent fields. The acoustic backscatter data show a similar decline, but only below 800 m depth. Near-surface biomass was highly variable throughout the region, but values near vents consistently ranged higher than summer values found elsewhere in the offshore northeast Pacific. Water-column biomass was similar in magnitude above and below 800 m depth throughout the region. Because epiplume biomass can be advected a considerable distance from vent fields, biomass enhancement of the water column from hydrothermal venting may extend considerable distances to the west and northwest of the vent sites, in the prevailing directions of the subsurface flow. Based on the extensive acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data collected, and the strong correlation between zooplankton production derived from net sample biomass and acoustic backscatter intensity, we estimate that daily macro-zooplankton production in the upper 400 m of the water column within 10 km of the vent fields averages approximately 16% of photosynthetic

  17. Silage inoculant effects on milk production and why that may be important to you

    Silage inoculants are the most common additives used in making corn and hay crop silages. The main active ingredients in these products are lactic acid bacteria that help ensure the fermentation in the silo goes in a direction that helps preserve the crop. While inoculants have been available for ma...

  18. Considering human exposure to pesticides in food products: Importance of dissipation dynamics

    Fantke, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Jolliet, Olivier


    The general public is continuously concerned about effects from pesticide exposure via residues in food crops. However, impacts from pesticide exposure are mostly neglected in food product-related LCAs. Time-to-harvest and dissipation from crops mainly drive residue dynamics with dissipation as m...

  19. Agricultural By-Products Turned into Important Materials with Adsorptive Properties

    This presentation will summarize the use of agricultural by-products (e.g., animal manure and plant waste) as starting materials to adsorb environmental contaminants such as mercury from air, ammonia from air, metal ions from water, and chlorinated organics from water. The results show that the mat...

  20. The Importance of Method Selection in Determining Product Integrity for Nutrition Research.

    Mudge, Elizabeth M; Betz, Joseph M; Brown, Paula N


    The American Herbal Products Association estimates that there as many as 3000 plant species in commerce. The FDA estimates that there are about 85,000 dietary supplement products in the marketplace. The pace of product innovation far exceeds that of analytical methods development and validation, with new ingredients, matrixes, and combinations resulting in an analytical community that has been unable to keep up. This has led to a lack of validated analytical methods for dietary supplements and to inappropriate method selection where methods do exist. Only after rigorous validation procedures to ensure that methods are fit for purpose should they be used in a routine setting to verify product authenticity and quality. By following systematic procedures and establishing performance requirements for analytical methods before method development and validation, methods can be developed that are both valid and fit for purpose. This review summarizes advances in method selection, development, and validation regarding herbal supplement analysis and provides several documented examples of inappropriate method selection and application. PMID:26980823

  1. 78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products


    ... risks of other livestock diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea, foot-and-mouth disease, infectious... Products Derived from Bovines,'' published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2007 (72 FR 53314-53379..., 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 15848-15913, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0010) a...

  2. The Relationship between Major Oil Products Consumption and Efficiency of Industry Sector in Selected Oil Exporting and Importing Countries

    Ali Akbar Naji MEIDANI; Falahi, Mohammad Ali; Seyyed Mohsen Seyyed Agha HOSSEINI


    The aim of this study is to investigate the realization of the law of diminishing returns in usage of major oil products in the industry sector of some oil exporting and importing countries during 2002- 2008. To achieve this aim, in a first stage the efficiency of industry sector of countries has been calculated using DEA window analysis and then in the second stag the existence of an inverted U' shape relationship between major oil product consumption and efficiency has been t...


    Domie, Shapiro Philip


    It is believed that the consumers’ behaviour from a particular country regarding to goods and services produced in that country is considered as a key determinant of the economic growth and development of a nation. Due to an increased in imported goods and sudden high competitive consumer markets in Ghana, consumers have been exposed to foreign alternatives for domestic made products and foreign products. However, many of the local industry are working hard to survive in today’s turbulent Gha...

  4. Seeking the Important Nodes of Complex Networks in Product R&D Team Based on Fuzzy AHP and TOPSIS

    Wei Zhang


    Full Text Available How to seek the important nodes of complex networks in product research and development (R&D team is particularly important for companies engaged in creativity and innovation. The previous literature mainly uses several single indicators to assess the node importance; this paper proposes a multiple attribute decision making model to tentatively solve these problems. Firstly, choose eight indicators as the evaluation criteria, four from centralization of complex networks: degree centrality, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, and eigenvector centrality and four from structural holes of complex networks: effective size, efficiency, constraint, and hierarchy. Then, use fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP to obtain the weights of these indicators and use technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS to assess the importance degree of each node of complex networks. Finally, taking a product R&D team of a game software company as a research example, test the effectiveness, operability, and efficiency of the method we established.

  5. On the importance of sequencing decisions in production planning and scheduling

    Dauzère-Pérès, Stéphane; Lasserre, Jean-Bernard


    We discuss the traditional hierarchical approach to production planning and scheduling, emphasizing the fact that scheduling constraints are often either ignored or considered in a very crude way. In particular, we point out that how scheduling is carried out is part of the capacity constraints on the lotsizes. Usual methods to handle capacity in theory or in practice are reviewed. Finally, we present an approach that tries to overcome these drawbacks by capturing the shop-floor capacity thro...

  6. To explore the importance of brand to Chinese product under the international environment

    HOU, Shuhao


    Brand is the sum of all tangible and intangible attributes of a product and branding is the core part of marketing which segment the market and determine the target customers of the company. Branding today is more about corporate branding which link the internal stakeholders and external stakeholders. That would allow firms to create a strong brand through integrated operation in the corporate level. Chinese manufacturing industry was criticized as “good manufacturing but no brand” and “adver...

  7. Evaluation of Fungal Flora and Mycotoxin in Some Important Nut Products in Erbil Local Markets

    Nareen Q. Faqi Abdulla


    In this study a wide range of moulds representing several genera and species was recorded. Ten samples of each pure and salted (almond, cashewnut, hazelnut, Peanut and pistachio) were collected from different markets (Shekhalla, Tayrawa and Qaysari) in Erbil city, Iraq. High infection of fungal genera was found in pure samples, while low infection was found in salted nut products samples, application of nuts with salts was found to increase the resistance of nuts to invasion and colonization ...

  8. The importance of urea-molasses multinutrient blocks for ruminant production in Indonesia

    Early work demonstrated that the growth of rumen microbes in ruminants fed cut and carry grass was low and inefficient but that with supplementation of a mixture of nutrients this improved threefold. Feeding urea-molasses multinutrient blocks (UMMBs) to buffaloes fed cut and carry grass improved rumen ammonia levels and microbial growth yield. Supplementation with UMMBs markedly stimulated milk yield and growth rate of cattle under village management conditions where other nitrogenous supplements were not used but had no effect when a large amount of concentrate or soybean curd waste was included in the diets. When supplemented with UMMBs, cattle or sheep fed cut and carry grass showed a wide variation in growth rate improvement. The best response in sheep was a 126% increase in the live weight gain of Garut fighting sheep, for which the weight gain improved from 140 g/d in the controls to 316 g/d in the supplemented lambs. Reproductive rate, specifically birth weight and survival of goats, was increased by feeding UMMBs in the traditional system of raising goats. In 12 out of 14 trials highly significant and economic increases in production resulting from feeding UMMBs were observed. The potential of UMMBs to increase both the level and efficiency of livestock production and so profitability in Indonesia is substantial and represents a major technology breakthrough for all meat/milk production systems. (author). 26 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  9. Photon Production through Multi-step Processes Important in Nuclear Fluorescence Experiments

    Hagmann, C; Pruet, J


    The authors present calculations describing the production of photons through multi-step processes occurring when a beam of gamma rays interacts with a macroscopic material. These processes involve the creation of energetic electrons through Compton scattering, photo-absorption and pair production, the subsequent scattering of these electrons, and the creation of energetic photons occurring as these electrons are slowed through Bremsstrahlung emission. Unlike single Compton collisions, during which an energetic photon that is scattered through a large angle loses most of its energy, these multi-step processes result in a sizable flux of energetic photons traveling at large angles relative to an incident photon beam. These multi-step processes are also a key background in experiments that measure nuclear resonance fluorescence by shining photons on a thin foil and observing the spectrum of back-scattered photons. Effective cross sections describing the production of backscattered photons are presented in a tabular form that allows simple estimates of backgrounds expected in a variety of experiments. Incident photons with energies between 0.5 MeV and 8 MeV are considered. These calculations of effective cross sections may be useful for those designing NRF experiments or systems that detect specific isotopes in well-shielded environments through observation of resonance fluorescence.

  10. A DFT analysis of thermal decomposition reactions important to natural products.

    Setzer, William N


    The thermal decomposition reactions of several important natural flavor and fragrance chemicals have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT, B3LYP/6-31G*). Retro-aldol reactions of glucose, fructose, hernandulcin, epihernandulcin, [3]-gingerol, and [4]-isogingerol; retro-carbonyl-ene reactions of isopulegol, lavandulol, isolyratol, and indicumenone; and pyrolytic syn elimination reactions of linalyl acetate, alpha-terpinyl acetate, and bornyl acetate, have been carried out. The calculations indicate activation enthalpies of around 30 kcal/mol for the retro-aldol reactions and for retro-carbonyl-ene reactions, comparable to pericyclic reactions such as the Cope rearrangement and electrocyclic reactions, and therefore important reactions at elevated temperatures (e.g., boiling aqueous solutions, gas-chromatograph injection ports). Activation enthalpies for pyrolytic eliminations are around 40 kcal/mol and are unlikely to occur during extraction or GC analysis. PMID:20734926

  11. Laboratory evaluation of FCC commercial catalysts. Analysis of products of industrial importance

    Passamonti, Francisco J.; De la Puente, Gabriela; Sedran, Ulises [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica (INCAPE, FIQ, UNL-CONICET), Santiago del Estero 2654, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)


    The results of the conversion of a VGO over six equilibrium commercial FCC catalysts with different formulations in a batch CREC Riser Simulator laboratory reactor at 500 and 550 C, catalyst to oil ratio 6.1 and reaction times from 3 to 30 s, were analyzed. It was possible to define the main catalyst characteristics in terms of various evaluation items, such as activity, gasoline yield and quality, LPG yield and coke yield, or the yields of particular compounds like, e.g., isobutane. Important differences in activity between catalysts were not observed, but catalyst properties reflected clearly as significant differences in gasoline, LPG or coke selectivities. Particularly, catalyst's hydrogen transfer properties impacted on gasoline composition and isobutane yield. The results showed that the CREC Riser Simulator reactor is an important tool for the evaluation of both commercial catalysts and feedstocks and process conditions. (author)

  12. Minireview: importance of herbicide-tolerant sunflower hybrids in suppressing common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen production

    Peter Reisinger; Gabor Kukorelli; Andras Bittsanszky; Tamas Komives


    Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is the number one weed in Hungary: it covers ca. 5% of the arable land, causing huge losses in row crops, especially in sunflowers. In addition, because of the high allergenicity of its pollen, common ragweed is a heavy burden on the health care system. This minireview discusses the importance of use of herbicide-tolerant sunflower hybrids in eliminating common ragweed from sunflower fields, with special emphasis on the efficacy of common ragweed contr...

  13. Importance of the producer on retail broiler meat product contamination with Campylobacter spp

    Kudirkiene, Egle; Buneviciene, Jurgita; Serniene, Loreta;


    Background Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, with poultry meat being considered the most important source of the infection. To obtain data on broiler meat contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania, the occurrence, counts and genotypes of......-dependent, so this should be kept in mind when risk-based control measures at national level are applied. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry...

  14. Growth of African Economies: Productivity, Policy Syndromes and the Importance of Institutions

    Fosu, Augustin Kwasi


    Recent evidence from an exhaustive political-economy study of growth of African economise - the Growth Project of the African Economic Research Consortium (AERC) - suggests that 'policy syndromes' have substantially contributed to the generally poor growth in sub-Saharan Africa during post-independence. The current article employs the unique data and insights generated by the Growth Project to further explore that importance of a 'syndrome-free' (SF) regime for growth in the region by examini...

  15. Variability and Heritability of Several Important Traits for Grape Production and Breeding

    Radu E. SESTRAS; Sergiu Dan MOLDOVAN; Popescu, Carmen Florentina


    Yield capacity, quality of grapes and resistance to downy mildew attack remain the important breeding objectives for grape. For these traits were analyzed more than 2200 F1 hybrids, belonging to eight combinations of wine grape. In each combination cv. Gewurztraminer was used, both as maternal and as paternal genitor, the other genitor being represented by an interspecific selection, rated as highly resistant to diseases (derived from Saint Emilion x Rayon d'or and Seyve-Villard 12-375 x Quee...

  16. The importance of water transit time and mineral dissolution kinetics for the flux of weathering products

    Erlandsson, Martin; Bishop, Kevin; Köhler, Stephan; Amvrosiadi, Nino


    Soil mineral weathering is one of the major sources of base cations (BC), which play a dual role for a forest ecosystem; they function both as plant nutrients, and for buffering against acidification of catchment runoff. On a long-term basis, the soil weathering rates will determine the highest sustainable forest productivity without causing acidification. It is believed that the hydrologic residence time play a key role in determining weathering rates on a landscape scale. In this study, we investigate the significance of the water transit residence time (WTT) distribution for the transport of base cations to catchment runoff. By modelling hillslope flowpaths with different transit times, using the geochemical computing code PHREEQC, we demonstrate how in-stream dynamics as exemplified by elemental ratios can be explained by mineral dissolution kinetics and equilibria. Specifically, we hypothesize that equilibrium of plagioclase regulates the delivery of base cations and silica to catchment runoff. These patters can be seen in field data from 10 years of sampling from a nested-catchment, where the Na+/BC and the Si/BC-ratios vary systematically with WTT on both a temporal and a spatial scale. This behavior has implications for the total transport of products from mineral dissolution to catchment runoff. As the water entering the stream is a mixture of water with different transit times, the composition of stream water will not only be dependent on the average WTT, but also on the shape of the WTT distribution. For the base cations associated with minerals that becomes supersaturated or with precipitating secondary phases within the range of WTT, i.e. Na+ and K+, the tails of "old water" of the WRT-distribution will not contribute to any extra transport of these elements. Finally, we use the derived relationships to estimate the transport of weathering products from a forested hillslope, given the modelled WRT distribution.

  17. Evaluating the Potential Importance of Monoterpene Degradation for Global Acetone Production

    Kelp, M. M.; Brewer, J.; Keller, C. A.; Fischer, E. V.


    Acetone is one of the most abundant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere, but estimates of the global source of acetone vary widely. A better understanding of acetone sources is essential because acetone serves as a source of HOx in the upper troposphere and as a precursor to the NOx reservoir species peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). Although there are primary anthropogenic and pyrogenic sources of acetone, the dominant acetone sources are thought to be from direct biogenic emissions and photochemical production, particularly from the oxidation of iso-alkanes. Recent work suggests that the photochemical degradation of monoterpenes may also represent a significant contribution to global acetone production. We investigate that hypothesis using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. In this work, we calculate the emissions of eight terpene species (α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, Δ3-carene, myrcene, sabinene, trans-β-ocimene, and an 'other monoterpenes' category which contains 34 other trace species) and couple these with upper and lower bound literature yields from species-specific chamber studies. We compare the simulated acetone distributions against in situ acetone measurements from a global suite of NASA aircraft campaigns. When simulating an upper bound on yields, the model-to-measurement comparison improves for North America at both the surface and in the upper troposphere. The inclusion of acetone production from monoterpene degradation also improves the ability of the model to reproduce observations of acetone in East Asian outflow. However, in general the addition of monoterpenes degrades the model comparison for the Southern Hemisphere.

  18. Perceptions of the importance of different welfare issues in livestock production.

    Phillips, C J C; Wojciechowska, J; Meng, J; Cross, N


    The opinions of seven respondent groups about the relative importance of different practices pertaining to the welfare of Australian beef cattle, sheep and goats were surveyed. Respondent groups comprised farmers, livestock transportation representatives, veterinarians, meat processors, animal welfare advocates, animal welfare scientists and government officers. The survey consisted of a web-based adaptive conjoint analysis questionnaire, which was administered to a sample population that was selected randomly for large respondent groups and comprehensively for small groups. The hierarchy of opinion concerning the importance of the different beef cattle practices was: stockmanship > ground (road and rail) transport > spaying > food supply > dehorning > stunning > shelter > identification > pretransport food and water deprivation > castration > sea transport > mustering > confinement. For sheep/goat practices the hierarchy was: parasite control > mulesing > shelter > stockmanship > tail docking > ground transport > feeding > predation > stunning > castration > pretransport food and water deprivation > sea transport > mustering. The method of performing invasive procedures was perceived as less important than the provision of pain relief. Differences in opinion were evident between respondent groups, with animal welfare advocates tending to focus on painful procedures more than those with direct involvement in the industry. PMID:22444845

  19. Human health impact of Salmonella contamination in imported soybean products: A semiquantitative risk assessment

    Hald, Tine; Wingstrand, Anne; Brondsted, T.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo


    all serotypes isolated from animal feed and/or food-producing animals based on their detection in humans; a semiquantitative ranking of serotypes by the apparent differences in their public health impact; and an estimate of the number of reported cases of human salmonellosis that can be attributed to...... acquired through the consumption of Danish pork and beef. We concluded that more than 90% of serotypes have the potential, if they occur in feedstuffs, for infecting humans via production animals or foods of animal origin....

  20. Importance of silvopastoral systems on caloric stress reduction in tropical livestock productions

    Alexander Navas Panadero


    Full Text Available Livestock systems in Colombia have been developed taking concepts and technologies from the green revolution, where gramineous monocrop is privileged over arboreal cover in grazing lands. This model has not taken into account the climatic conditions of the different tropical ecosystems, in which variables as temperature, relative humidity and evaporation can limit the animal´s productive and reproductive efficiency, besides being a risk factor for illness occurrence in the herd. Bos Taurus and Bos Indicus breeds show termoneutral ranges where its genetic potential can be express. However, out of this comfort area animals can enter in caloric stress which in consequence reduces its performance and sometimes can end up causing death. Silvopastoral systems comprise several functions; it contributes to lessen caloric stress since temperature under the tree canopy can reach between 2 and 9°C lower in comparison to open pastures. Differences in temperature reduction have been found among silvopastoral systems and species, being the tree group arrangements and the species with high density canopy, those with superior effect. Interactions among components should be analyzed in order to design systems that incorporate enough arboreal cover to achieve caloric stress reductions, but without affecting forage production in pastures. Silvopastoral systems contribute to improve animal welfare.

  1. The importance of phytoplankton production for carbon budgets in a semiarid floodplain wetland

    Álvarez-Cobelas, Miguel


    Full Text Available Phytoplankton production (PP in wetlands is not measured as often as that of macrophytes. A three year-study during a period of sustained high flooding was undertaken in a central Spanish floodplain wetland (Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park to determine net PP, its spatial heterogeneity and controlling factors, and compare it with primary production in macrophyte communities. This enabled us to estimate carbon budgets for each community. All PP variables showed high spatial and temporal variability among sites, resulting in low coherence even when flooding connected all sites. Net PP corresponded to 25- 36% of submerged plant production and 3-10% of helophyte production. Net PP was controlled by different size fractions of phytoplankton biomass at different wetland sites. Neither nutrients nor zooplankton affected net PP or productivity. A high spatiotemporal variability of PP in wetlands occurs arising from complex processes that affect the underwater light field. Carbon budgets of phytoplankton often exceeded those of submerged macrophytes and attained between 4 and 37% of helophyte budgets. Although usually considered to be marginal, our study shows that PP in the open water of wetlands should be taken into account for determining accurate wetland carbon budgets, mostly in periods of high flooding, which often result in changing the carbon budget of primary producers.

    La producción de fitoplancton (PF en los humedales no se mide tan a menudo como la de los macrófitos. En este estudio se lleva a cabo un trabajo de tres años durante un periodo de gran inun dación en un humedal de llanura de inundación (Parque Nacional de Las Tablas de Daimiel a fin de determinar la producción neta del fitoplancton, su heterogeneidad espacial y los factores que la controlan. También comparamos la PF con la producción primaria de las comunidades de macrófitos, lo cual nos permite estimar las cantidades de carbono que fija cada comunidad vegetal

  2. 9 CFR 590.930 - Imported egg products; retention in customs custody; delivery under bond; movement prior to...


    ... assistance. 590.930 Section 590.930 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... type of a conspicuous size: (Name of Truck Line or Carrier) Notice This package of _____ must be... emergency, the special import seal of the U.S. Department of Agriculture on a car, truck, or other means...

  3. The Importance of the Leather and Leather Product Industries in Turkey's Economy

    UYSAL, Gül


    The leather sector in Turkey is important as it is a sector which exports final goods with high added value. The development of the leather sector and the continuation of its contribution to the economy are related to the development level of the country's livestock sector. For this reason, the leather and livestock sectors are examined together. In this research, 165 enterprises which deal with raw hide, leather tanning, leather goods and ready made clothes in Istanbul and which have a...

  4. The most important structures utilizing primary and secondary hydroenergetic potential for electric energy production

    In this paper the construction, technological parameters and operation of Gabcikovo (primary hydro energy power) and Cierny Vah (secondary hydro energy power) are described. Construction of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP) Gabcikovo started in 1978 as a part of a system of hydro power projects Gabcikovo-Nagymaros. Basic technical data are: installed capacity 8 x 90 MW, production in an average aqueous year 2.650 GWh, number of hydroelectric generating sets (HGS) 8, turbine flow 8 x 413-636 m3/s, head 12.9-24 m.The Gabcikovo plant produced 9.163 GWh of electricity from the beginning of its operation till the end of 1966. The construction of the pumped storage plant (PSP) Cierny Vah started in 1976 and it was put into operation at the end of 1980. The main goal of the PSP Cierny Vah is to meet the control functions of an electrification system of the Slovak Republic, a substitute function in the cases of unexpected power outages and a planned electricity production from re-pumping. Technological parts are: six re-pumping vertical HGS in a three machine arrangement - a motor-generator, a turbine, a pump - are located in three double-blocks. Basic technical data: installed capacity 6 x 122.4 MW + 0.768 MW, yearly production 1,281 GWh, number of HGS 6, number of domestic hydroelectric generating sets 1, turbine flow 3 x 30 m/s, pump flow 6 x 22 m3/s, upper reservoir volume 3.7 mil. m3, max. head 434 m, peak time 5.71 hour, pumping time 7.78 hour, re-pumping cycle efficiency 74.36%. From putting the PSP into operation till the end of 1996, the HGS in operation 145,269 hours in total, including 53,332 hours in a turbine mode of operation, 70,293 hours in a pumping mode operation and 21,644 hours in a compensation mode operation. Whereas they supplied 5,346 GWh in the mains and the consumed 6,933 GWh of electricity for pumping. Hydroenergetic potential is a primary source of energy which is recyclable, i.e. unexhaustible and also ecologically the most tolerable. No

  5. The importance of Soret transport in the production of high purity silicon for solar cells

    Srivastava, R.


    Temperature-gradient-driven diffusion, or Soret transport, of silicon vapor and liquid droplets is analyzed under conditions typical of current production reactors for obtaining high purity silicon for solar cells. Contrary to the common belief that Soret transport is negligible, it is concluded that some 15-20 percent of the silicon vapor mass flux to the reactor walls is caused by the high temperature gradients that prevail inside such reactors. Moreover, since collection of silicon is also achieved via deposition of silicon droplets onto the walls, the Soret transport mechanism becomes even more crucial due to size differences between diffusing species. It is shown that for droplets in the 0.01 to 1 micron diameter range, collection by Soret transport dominates both Brownian and turbulent mechanisms.

  6. Minimum Viable Product and the Importance of Experimentation in Technology Startups

    Dobrila Rancic Moogk


    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs are often faced with limited resources in their quest to commercialize new technology. This article presents the model of a lean startup, which can be applied to an organization regardless of its size or environment. It also emphasizes the conditions of extreme uncertainty under which the commercialization of new technology is carried out. The lean startup philosophy advocates efficient use of resources by introducing a minimum viable product to the market as soon as possible in order to test its value and the entrepreneur’s growth projections. This testing is done by running experiments that examine the metrics relevant to three distinct types of the growth. These experiments bring about accelerated learning to help reduce the uncertainty that accompanies commercialization projects, thereby bringing the resulting new technology to market faster.

  7. Importance of new winter pea genotyp in production of the milk on family farms

    Gordana Županac


    Full Text Available Forage pea (Pisum sativum L. is becoming more represented gorage leguminoza on the fields Republic of Croatia. Three year field trials (2003-2005 were carried out to determine the effect of seed winter pea inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on productivity of new winter pea genotype G3 in production of milk on family farms. Just before sowing the inoculation of pea seed was performed by the variety of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 1001 which is part of the microbiological collection of the Department of Microbiology at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. The results of the research showed that the highest total nodule number on pea root (39.7 nodule/plant as well as nodule dry matter weight (0.203 g/plant was determined on the inoculated variant. Average highest yield of winter pea dry matter was, once more, determined on the inoculated variant (4.33 t ha-1. Total dry matter yield of winter pea and wheat mixture were ranging from 8.92 t ha-1 (control up to 10.64 t ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Average highest yield of winter pea crude protein was, once more, determined on the inoculated variant (266 kg ha-1 in 2003, (672 kg ha-1 in 2004 and (853 kg ha-1 in 2005. The conclusion of this research is that the highest dry matter yield (4.33 t ha-1 and crude protein yield was obtained with the inoculation of new genotype winter pea G3.

  8. The importance of nuclear energy in stabilizing or reducing electricity production costs

    Nuclear power plants are characterized by their high investment cost per installed kilowatt and the financial charges associated with that investment generally represent two thirds of the cost of producing a kilowatt-hour of nuclear origin. The cost of the fuel cycle is approximately one-fourth of this cost, the balance consisting of expenditure on personnel. Although natural uranium is the raw material of this cycle, it represents only a fraction of the cost of the cycle, the bulk of which arises out of expenditures associated with a whole range of operations - enrichment, fabrication, fuel reprocessing as well as treatment and storage of waste. This high value of the ratio of investment cost to natural uranium cost is a determining factor in the stabilization of the cost of electricity generation, inasmuch as this situation actually shelters the nuclear kilowatt-hour from price fluctuations as sudden and serious as those affecting fossil fuels. Furthermore, the easy and relatively inexpensive storage of uranium provides power generation of nuclear origin with energy reserves which protect it against unforeseen supply complications due to crises and conflicts of all kinds. Of course, the kilowatt-hour production cost of a nuclear unit depends on a number of parameters whose influence has to be evaluated - in particular, the availability of the facility, itself a function of the quality of its design, construction and operation. In all countries having the technical know-how to ensure this availability, long experience has shown the definite economic advantage of the nuclear kilowatt-hour over the traditional kilowatt-hour. Countries which have staked heavily on nuclear energy have seen that this advantage has very favourable repercussions on the production cost of electric energy. (author). 6 figs, 3 tabs

  9. Crystal structures of RidA, an important enzyme for the prevention of toxic side products

    Liu, Xiwen; Zeng, Jianhua; Chen, Xiaolei; Xie, Wei


    The YjgF/YER057c/UK114 family proteins are highly conserved across all three domains of life, and most of them currently have no clearly defined biological roles. In vitro, these proteins were found to hydrolyze the enamine/imine intermediates generated from serine or threonine, and were renamed Reactive Intermediate Deaminase A (RidA). RidA was recently discovered in Arabidopsis thaliana, and by deaminating the toxic enamine/imine intermediates, it prevents the inactivation of many functionally important pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-containing enzymes in plants such as branched-chain aminotransferase BCAT (IlvE). In this study, we determined the crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana RidA in the apo form, as well as RidA complexed with the ligand pyruvate. RidA forms the trimeric, barrel-like quaternary structure and inter-subunit cavities, and resembles most RidA family members. Each pyruvate molecule binds to the interface between two subunits, and the recognition of pyruvate is achieved by the interactions with R165 and T167. From sequence alignment and structural superposition, we identified a series of key residues responsible for the trimer assembly, whose importance was confirmed by enzymatic assays. This study provides structural insight into RidA functions in plants. PMID:27458092

  10. The importance of grasslands for animal production and other functions: a review on management and methodological progress in the tropics.

    Boval, M; Dixon, R M


    The global importance of grasslands is indicated by their extent; they comprise some 26% of total land area and 80% of agriculturally productive land. The majority of grasslands are located in tropical developing countries where they are particularly important to the livelihoods of some one billion poor peoples. Grasslands clearly provide the feed base for grazing livestock and thus numerous high-quality foods, but such livestock also provide products such as fertilizer, transport, traction, fibre and leather. In addition, grasslands provide important services and roles including as water catchments, biodiversity reserves, for cultural and recreational needs, and potentially a carbon sink to alleviate greenhouse gas emissions. Inevitably, such functions may conflict with management for production of livestock products. Much of the increasing global demand for meat and milk, particularly from developing countries, will have to be supplied from grassland ecosystems, and this will provide difficult challenges. Increased production of meat and milk generally requires increased intake of metabolizable energy, and thus increased voluntary intake and/or digestibility of diets selected by grazing animals. These will require more widespread and effective application of improved management. Strategies to improve productivity include fertilizer application, grazing management, greater use of crop by-products, legumes and supplements and manipulation of stocking rate and herbage allowance. However, it is often difficult to predict the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of such strategies, particularly in tropical developing country production systems. Evaluation and on-going adjustment of grazing systems require appropriate and reliable assessment criteria, but these are often lacking. A number of emerging technologies may contribute to timely low-cost acquisition of quantitative information to better understand the soil-pasture-animal interactions and animal management in

  11. The importance of asphaltene origin on its behaviour in production systems

    Grutters, M.; Stankiewicz, A.; Cornelisse, P.; Utech, N. [Shell Global Solutions, The Hague (Netherlands)


    Despite much progress in characterizing asphaltenes, little is known about the relation between the size and shape of asphaltenes and their impact on flow assurance. This lack of understanding is related primarily to the fact that the asphaltenes structure found in crudes depends on many geochemical processes that are generally not included as input for flow assurance studies. The geochemical processes that are important to asphaltenes are type of source rock and deposited organic matter, maturity, migration history, and processes in the reservoir as hybridization and biodegradation. A careful examination of geochemical processes can reveal the relationship between asphaltene behaviour in fields that are seemingly very different or distant. This paper provided some examples of these relationships. Understanding the structure of asphaltenes is critical and warrants the further development of methods for more accurate characterization.

  12. Human health impact of Salmonella contamination in imported soybean products: A semiquantitative risk assessment

    Hald, Tine; Wingstrand, Anne; Brondsted, T.;


    The objectives of our study were to estimate the number of reported cases of human salmonellosis in Denmark that can be attributed to the occurrence of Salmonella in soy-based animal feed and to assess whether certain serotypes can be considered of less importance to human health. The assessment...... was based on a comparison of Salmonella serotypes isolated from feedstuffs, swine, cattle, and humans, primarily collected through the Danish Salmonella surveillance programs, supplemented with international data sources. The results are presented in three different forms: a qualitative assessment of...... all serotypes isolated from animal feed and/or food-producing animals based on their detection in humans; a semiquantitative ranking of serotypes by the apparent differences in their public health impact; and an estimate of the number of reported cases of human salmonellosis that can be attributed to...

  13. A study to detect important factors influencing purchasing product: A case study of home appliances

    Amir Ghafurian Shagerdi


    Full Text Available Home appliances are among basic requirements of anyone in the world and it is always important to find out about factors influencing this industry. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive model to detect major factors influencing on consumer purchasing intention. For this purpose, the proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 400 customers who have some experiences on purchasing home appliances in city of Tehran, Iran, recently. Cronbach alpha was calculated for all components of the survey and they were all well above the minimum acceptable level. We analyzed the data using structural equation modeling via LISREL and the results of this survey show that brand familiarity, brand trust, and perceived value have significant positive effects on consumers purchase intention.

  14. Variability and Heritability of Several Important Traits for Grape Production and Breeding

    Radu E. SESTRAS


    Full Text Available Yield capacity, quality of grapes and resistance to downy mildew attack remain the important breeding objectives for grape. For these traits were analyzed more than 2200 F1 hybrids, belonging to eight combinations of wine grape. In each combination cv. Gewurztraminer was used, both as maternal and as paternal genitor, the other genitor being represented by an interspecific selection, rated as highly resistant to diseases (derived from Saint Emilion x Rayon d'or and Seyve-Villard 12-375 x Queen of Vine combinations. The rating of susceptibility to downy mildew in the tested hybrid individuals was performed in natural conditions of infection by visual observation and scored from "0"(no infection on leaves to "5" (very severe infection, and the scale 1-5 was used for bunch number per hybrid and sugar content in grape must. Obvious differences for analysed traits were noted both among the studied combinations and within the same combination, depending on whether 'Gewurztraminer' has been used as maternal or as paternal genitor. These results suggest possible maternal effects on the phenotypic expression of these traits in grape vine. Variability indices (s% were high and very high in all combinations (22.1-39.4% for response to Plasmopara viticola attack; 24.7-29.7% for bunch number per vine; 32.4-44.0% for sugar content in must, offering a good background for an efficient selection. The characters seem to be polygenically inherited, with high and very high heritability indices in the broad sense. The low values computed for heritability in the narrow sense suggest that except additive effects, epistasis and dominance effects have an important role in the phenotypic expression of vine yield capacity, sugar content of the must and resistance to downy mildew attack.

  15. Study on the potential imports by member states of agricultural products containing radiocesium concentrations in excess of EC limits

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, the European Commission maintains Council Regulation (EEC) number 737/90 which sets out the conditions governing the import of agricultural products originating in third countries and includes maximum permitted level (MPL) that shall be applied in respect of contamination with radiocesium. The main objective of the study was to identify agricultural products which might exceed the MPL of radiocesium. The results show that mushroom and berries from Norway or Russia or Belarus or Ukraine may exceed the MPL. Reindeer meat from Norway will stay suspicious for at least 30 years as well as meat from wild animals originating from Russia, Belarus and Ukraine and some other countries. Some agricultural products like living cows or horses, poultry,... can be excluded from the list except for products issued from areas with strong contamination

  16. Hunger in red imported fire ants and their behavioral response to two liquid bait products.

    O'Brien, Kathryn S; Hooper-Bùi, Linda M


    To help manage red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, invasion, several types of pest management systems have been developed, including baits. To accurately test liquid bait effectiveness in the laboratory, we determined that starvation time of 96 h is required for laboratory fire ants to simulate foraging ants in the field. We measured density and viscosity of two commercial baits and 20% sugar water at 25 degrees C and then compared amount of material consumed per ant at these physical properties. Mean densities of 20% sugar water, Dr. Moss, and Terro were 1.051, 1.287, and 1.354 g/ml, respectively, and viscosity of each bait treatment varied in the same order but more drastically (1.7, 32, and 400 centipoises, respectively). Field and laboratory studies demonstrated that bait acceptability may be affected by toxicant and physical properties. Baits that are more dense have more mass per volume and may cause the ant to cease feeding with a lower crop load than when they feed on sugar water. Ants that feed on formulated baits exhibit feeding behaviors different from those that occur when feeding on sugar water. At first glance, one might conclude that the difference is because of the toxicant, but our findings suggest that physical properties of baits may be a factor in this change in feeding behavior. PMID:16539145

  17. Importance of polarization transfer in reaction products for interpreting and analyzing CIDNP at low magnetic fields

    Pravdivtsev, Andrey N.; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V.; Ivanov, Konstantin L.; Vieth, Hans-Martin


    The magnetic field dependence of Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (CIDNP) was studied for the amino acids N-acetyl histidine, N-acetyl tryptophan and N-acetyl tyrosine. It is demonstrated that at low field CIDNP is strongly affected by polarization redistribution in the diamagnetic molecules. Such a polarization transfer is of coherent nature and is due to spin coherences formed together with non-equilibrium population of the spin states. These coherences clearly manifest themselves in an oscillatory time dependence of polarization. Polarization transfer effects are most pronounced at nuclear spin Level Anti-Crossings (LACs), which also result in sharp features in the CIDNP field dependence. Thus, polarization transfer is an important factor, which has to be taken into account in order to interpret low-field CIDNP data on both qualitative and quantitative level. Possible applications of polarization transfer phenomena are also discussed in the paper. In particular, the role of LACs in spin order transfer is highlighted: LACs provide a new tool for precise manipulation of spin hyperpolarization and NMR enhancement of selected target spins.

  18. Worldwide dissemination of Radopholus similis and its importance in crop production.

    O'Bannon, J H


    The burrowing nematode, Radopholus similis, attacks agronomic and horticultural crops and many weeds, and is reported to reproduce on more than 250 plant species. Two races of R. similis are recognized. Although one race attacks citrus and the other race does not, they are morphologically similar. At present, the citrus race is found attacking citrus only in Florida, U.S.A., but it is known to infect more than 250 species and varieties of noncitrus plants. Although it has many hosts, R. similis is probably most widely distributed on banana and is found worldwide. Although best known as a pest of Piper nigrum, Musa spp., and Citrus spp., it also attacks many crops that are important in world commerce and in subsistence-type agriculture, a factor which makes it a significant agricultural pest. Worldwide dissemination occurs primarily when parasitized plants are moved into areas where the pest could adapt. Yield losses of 12.5 tons/ha in bananas have been reported from R. similis infection. Infections suppress orange and grapefruit yields as much as 70-80%. Because of the severity of R. similis damage (particularly to banana and citrus), extensive control programs have been developed. Prevention, cultural practices, resistant varieties, and chemical pesticides interact to reduce losses. PMID:19305565

  19. The Relationship between Major Oil Products Consumption and Efficiency of Industry Sector in Selected Oil Exporting and Importing Countries

    Ali Akbar Naji MEIDANI


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the realization of the law of diminishing returns in usage of major oil products in the industry sector of some oil exporting and importing countries during 2002- 2008. To achieve this aim, in a first stage the efficiency of industry sector of countries has been calculated using DEA window analysis and then in the second stag the existence of an inverted U' shape relationship between major oil product consumption and efficiency has been tested in the context of dynamic panel data (GMM approach. The results confirm this relationship in each group of countries except that the turning point in the case of oil importing countries is much higher than oil exporting countries. This firstly suggests that oil dependence in oil importing countries is more than oil exporting countries and secondly indicates that the industry sector of oil importing countries have advanced technology and high scale and capacity so that they can take benefits of oil products consumption without decrease in efficiency.

  20. Host cell-induced signaling causes Clostridium perfringens to upregulate production of toxins important for intestinal infections.

    Chen, Jianming; Ma, Menglin; Uzal, Francisco A; McClane, Bruce A


    Clostridium perfringens causes enteritis and enterotoxemia in humans and livestock due to prolific toxin production. In broth culture, C. perfringens uses the Agr-like quorum sensing (QS) system to regulate production of toxins important for enteritis/enterotoxemia, including beta toxin (CPB), enterotoxin, and epsilon toxin (ETX). The VirS/VirR two-component regulatory system (TCRS) also controls CPB production in broth cultures. Both the Agr-like QS and VirS/VirR systems are important when C. perfringens senses enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells and responds by upregulating CPB production; however, only the Agr-like QS system is needed for host cell-induced ETX production. These in vitro observations have pathophysiologic relevance since both the VirS/VirR and Agr-like QS signaling systems are required for C. perfringens strain CN3685 to produce CPB in vivo and to cause enteritis or enterotoxemia. Thus, apparently upon sensing its presence in the intestines, C. perfringens utilizes QS and TCRS signaling to produce toxins necessary for intestinal virulence. PMID:24061146

  1. Is importing second-hand products a good thing? The cases of computers and tires in Cambodia

    Is importing second-hand products (SHPs) good for Cambodia? To answer this question, one must seriously consider environmental and social effects. The main objective of this study is to identify and assess the economic, social, and environmental impacts of imported SHPs to determine whether or not Cambodia benefits. Imported second-hand computers (SHPCs) and second-hand tires (SHTs) were selected as cases for the study. The study used a scaling checklist to identify significant impacts of these two imported items. Significant impacts were ranked and rated into a single value (score) for integration. Integrated impact assessment showed that imported SHPCs create a very small positive impact (+ 0.1 of + 5) and imported SHTs generate a large negative impact (- 2.83 of - 5). These scores are mainly the result of environmental impact, predominantly waste issues. Thus, current imports of SHPCs and SHTs do not really benefit Cambodia, but instead cause serious environmental problems from their waste issues. The import serves as a channel to transfer waste into developing countries.

  2. International Production Networks and Export/Import Responsiveness to Exchange Rates: The case of Japanese manufacturing firms

    Ando, Mitsuyo; Akie IRIYAMA


    This paper examines how international production/distribution networks provide individual firms with exporting/importing responsiveness to exchange rate movements. With the micro-data of Japanese manufacturing firms from 1994 to 2004, we find that firms' exports tend to respond to exchange rate movements, in particular (1) when firms are large in size, (2) when majority-owned affiliates are dominant among their foreign affiliates, and (3) when their intra-firm trade ratio is moderately high. ...

  3. Characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) from imported food products.

    Bae, Dongryeoul; Cheng, Chorng-Ming; Khan, Ashraf A


    Food contaminated with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella enterica has emerged as an important global issue due to the international food-product trade. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether imported food products can serve as a reservoir for non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) that can transmit β-lactam-resistance to humans through ingestion of the contaminated food. NTS isolates (n=110) were collected from various imported food products (n=3480) from 2011 to 2013. The NTS isolates were analyzed by serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility tests, and plasmid profiling. Salmonella ser. Weltevreden, Salmonella ser. Newport, Salmonella ser. Senftenberg, Salmonella ser. Virchow, Salmonella ser. Enteritidis, Salmonella ser. Typhimurium, and Salmonella ser. Bareilly were the most prevalent serovars. Nine NTS strains were resistant to ampicillin and/or one or more cephalosporins (MIC>32 μg/mL). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection revealed that all nine isolates carried the bla(TEM-1) β-lactamase gene, with or without the bla(CTX-M-9) or bla(OXA-1) genes. Two isolates, PSS_913 and PSS_988, exhibited decreased susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and ampicillin. Plasmids ranging in size from less than 8 to over 165 kbp, from all of the 9 resistant isolates, belonged to the IncHI1, IncI1, IncN, or IncX groups. Conjugation experiments and Southern hybridization, using bla(TEM-1), confirmed the plasmid-mediated transfer of ESBL genes, which resulted in increased MICs of β-lactams for Escherichia coli transconjugants. The contamination of imported food products by NTS with conjugative plasmid-borne ESBL genes may contribute to the spread of ESBL-producing NTS and compromise the therapeutic activity of extended-spectrum β-lactam antibiotics. PMID:26210532

  4. Forest cockchafer larvae as methane production hotspots in soils and their importance for net soil methane fluxes

    Görres, Carolyn-Monika; Kammann, Claudia; Murphy, Paul; Müller, Christoph


    Certain groups of soil invertebrates, namely scarab beetles and millipedes, are capable of emitting considerable amounts of methane due to methanogens inhabiting their gut system. It was already pointed out in the early 1990's, that these groups of invertebrates may represent a globally important source of methane. However, apart from termites, the importance of invertebrates for the soil methane budget is still unknown. Here, we present preliminary results of a laboratory soil incubation experiment elucidating the influence of forest cockchafer larvae (Melolontha hippocastani FABRICIUS) on soil methane cycling. In January/February 2016, two soils from two different management systems - one from a pine forest (extensive use) and one from a vegetable field (intensive use) - were incubated for 56 days either with or without beetle larvae. Net soil methane fluxes and larvae methane emissions together with their stable carbon isotope signatures were quantified at regular intervals to estimate gross methane production and gross methane oxidation in the soils. The results of this experiment will contribute to testing the hypothesis of whether methane production hotspots can significantly enhance the methane oxidation capacity of soils. Forest cockchafer larvae are only found in well-aerated sandy soils where one would usually not suspect relevant gross methane production. Thus, besides quantifying their contribution to net soil methane fluxes, they are also ideal organisms to study the effect of methane production hotspots on overall soil methane cycling. Funding support: Reintegration grant of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) (#57185798).

  5. Availability of biomass for energy production. GRAIN: Global Restrictions on biomass Availability for Import to the Netherlands

    great opportunities for a sustainable supply of energy and materials, but on the other hand it bears large ecological and economical risks, such as deforestation and competition with food production. It is therefore of the utmost importance to formulate minimum requirements for large-scale bio-energy projects and international trade in biomass energy. For international trade in biomass energy it is important to identify regions with a future biomass energy surplus, related to their own energy consumption. Exporting this surplus would have to be done as efficiently as possible, with regard to CO2 emission reduction. Transatlantic shipments of wood have to be balanced against local conversion and shipping the fuel. An important recommendation to the Netherlands government about the possible future import of biomass is therefore: increase the knowledge and insights in the possible consequences of large scale import of biomass energy. This can be done by setting up a limited number of pilot projects for the trade in bio-energy, and by monitoring these projects very carefully, supported by research activities. Such pilot projects can also provide a better understanding in how broad the support for these activities is, both in the Netherlands as well in exporting countries. In the long run much more knowledge and information is required about which regions would be most suited for a sustainable production and trade in biomass energy. It will be necessary to develop and introduce a 'FSC' type mark for biomass-based energy carriers. There are still a number of crucial research questions in areas such as: economic drivers of land use, competition of biomass with other land uses, and competition with other sources of energy and materials. These interactions need to be studied at local/regional level, taking into account the effect of technological and economical changes in time. In addition there are complex questions in the field of optimising the allocation of biomass resources

  6. Engineering propionibacteria as versatile cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals: advances, challenges, and prospects.

    Guan, Ningzi; Zhuge, Xin; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Wu, Jing; Shi, Zhongping; Liu, Long


    Propionibacteria are actinobacteria consisting of two principal groups: cutaneous and dairy. Cutaneous propionibacteria are considered primary pathogens to humans, whereas dairy propionibacteria are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Increasing attention has been focused on improving the performance of dairy propionibacteria for the production of industrially important chemicals, and significant advances have been made through strain engineering and process optimization in the production of flavor compounds, nutraceuticals, and antimicrobial compounds. In addition, genome sequencing of several propionibacteria species has been completed, deepening understanding of the metabolic and physiological features of these organisms. However, the metabolic engineering of propionibacteria still faces several challenges owing to the lack of efficient genome manipulation tools and the existence of various types of strong restriction-modification systems. The emergence of systems and synthetic biology provides new opportunities to overcome these bottlenecks. In this review, we first introduce the major species of propionibacteria and their properties and provide an overview of their functions and applications. We then discuss advances in the genome sequencing and metabolic engineering of these bacteria. Finally, we discuss systems and synthetic biology approaches for engineering propionibacteria as efficient and robust cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals. PMID:25431012

  7. The calculation of specific heats for some important solid components in hydrogen production process based on CuCl cycle

    Avsec Jurij


    Full Text Available Hydrogen is one of the most promising energy sources of the future enabling direct production of power and heat in fuel cells, hydrogen engines or furnaces with hydrogen burners. One of the last remainder problems in hydrogen technology is how to produce a sufficient amount of cheap hydrogen. One of the best options is large scale thermochemical production of hydrogen in combination with nuclear power plant. copper-chlorine (CuCl cycle is the most promissible thermochemical cycle to produce cheap hydrogen.This paper focuses on a CuCl cycle, and the describes the models how to calculate thermodynamic properties. Unfortunately, for many components in CuCl cycle the thermochemical functions of state have never been measured. This is the reason that we have tried to calculate some very important thermophysical properties. This paper discusses the mathematical model for computing the thermodynamic properties for pure substances and their mixtures such as CuCl, HCl, Cu2OCl2 important in CuCl hydrogen production in their fluid and solid phase with an aid of statistical thermodynamics. For the solid phase, we have developed the mathematical model for the calculation of thermodynamic properties for polyatomic crystals. In this way, we have used Debye functions and Einstein function for acoustical modes and optical modes of vibrations to take into account vibration of atoms. The influence of intermolecular energy we have solved on the basis of Murnaghan equation of state and statistical thermodynamics.

  8. The buying motives related to important supplier and product attributes: An analysis of retail buying behaviour in Denmark and Germany

    Bove, Karsten; Kristensen, Gitte Hvoldal; Skytte, Hans


    The recent decade has seen a concentration in the food retail sector in Europe (Eurostat, 1997), and this has increased the importance of understanding value creation in the retail industry, as retailers are becoming the gatekeepers to the consumer mar-ket (Skytte & Blunch 1998; Sternquist 1994......). The creation of value in a product or service is also widely recognised as the pri-mary source of competitive advantage (Woodruff & Gardial, 1996). However, so far, consequences and values have not been analysed in relation to retail buyer behaviour, as previous research has focused on specific buyer...... attributes (Dzever 1993; Johnston 1996; Möller 1985; Skytte 1998;Woodruff 1997). Skytte and Blunch (1998) identified a number of attributes that make a difference when retail buyers in the European retail industry select a new supplier. In this study we interviewed retail buyers of fish products in Denmark...

  9. Ecosystem CO2 production during winter in a Swedish subarctic region: the relative importance of climate and vegetation type

    Grogan, Paul; Jonasson, Sven Evert


    predictions, we know relatively little about the plot and landscape-level controls on tundra biogeochemical cycling in wintertime as compared to summertime. We investigated the relative influence of vegetation type and climate on CO2 production rates and total wintertime CO2 release in the Scandinavian...... northern Sweden. Both climate and vegetation type were strong interactive controls on ecosystem CO2 production rates during winter. Of all variables tested, soil temperature explained by far the largest amount of variation in respiration rates (41-75%). Our results indicate that vegetation type only...... respiration, suggesting that spatial variations in maximum snowdepth may be a primary determinant of regional patterns of wintertime CO2 release. Together, our results have important implications for predictions of how the distribution of tundra vegetation types and the carbon balances of arctic ecosystems...

  10. Commercial production and distribution of fresh fruits and vegetables: A scoping study on the importance of produce pathways to dose

    Marsh, T.L.; Anderson, D.M.; Farris, W.T.; Ikenberry, T.A.; Napier, B.A.; Wilfert, G.L.


    This letter report summarizes a scoping study that examined the potential importance of fresh fruit and vegetable pathways to dose. A simple production index was constructed with data collected from the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA), the United States Bureau of the Census, and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff from Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, in cooperation with members of the Technical Steering Panel (TSP), selected lettuce and spinach as the produce pathways most likely to impact dose. County agricultural reports published in 1956 provided historical descriptions of the predominant distribution patterns of fresh lettuce and spinach from production regions to local population centers. Pathway rankings and screening dose estimates were calculated for specific populations living in selected locations within the HEDR study area.

  11. Mycoflora and Natural Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Some Meat Products and Livers of Poultry and Imported Bulls

    A.-L.E. Mahmoud


    Full Text Available Mycological analysis of local meat products (luncheon and minced meat and livers of poultry and imported bulls resulted in isolation of 29 fungal species related to 10 genera. The average total counts of fungi per gram fresh weight ranged from 2680 in luncheon to 7460 in livers of poultry. Aspergillus was the most prevalent genus followed by Penicillium where they were isolated from all the examined substrates. Many of the isolated fungi might have mycotoxin-producing potential. Results of mycotoxins analysis revealed that, 45% of the examined samples were positive. Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2, ochratoxin A, citrinin and sterigmatocystin were detected. Samples of livers from imported bulls contained the highest levels of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (54 and 145 μg/kg, respectively. The majority of the remaining mycotoxin contaminated samples contained a high level which was far above the acceptable ones. The hazardous effects of these natural pollutants were discussed.


    Veres Vincentiu


    Full Text Available Decisions are a result of choices made between several alternatives and will affect all participants in the decision-making process. In this paper we analyze the Monte Carlo simulation as an important management tool in evaluating decisions under risk. The method is particularly useful in simulating decision problems. For example, the profit that could be achieved if a company launches a new product may depend on a number of factors (market share, advertising, production costs, launch costs, the lifetime of the product, etc. The company manager should identify all factors that could affect profit and then to consider the large number of ways in which these factors may interrelate. In such situations it is recommended company manager to divide the problem into smaller parts, asking him to estimate the probability distribution for market share, for advertising, for the cost of launch. Once they were obtained it can be determined their combined effect in order to obtain the probability distribution of profit. Through computer can generate a large number of possible combinations of situations where you choose a particular course of action. Upon completion of the simulation possible combination will be generated mostly while the least possible combination will be generated less frequently. For exemplification we selected a company producing shoes in Cluj market who wants to launch a new model for autumn-winter 2013-2014. In the current period the company has limited production capacity, has a number of additional contracts honored and general economic crisis situation makes money availability to be extremely limited. Accordingly, the company will have to choose a single product to be launched next season. The company will have to decide which of the two new products to be launched on the market: a model of boots for men in business class or a new model of women\\'s boots of the same class business. The company is not sure either production costs or

  13. Improving the productivity of imported dairy cattle on small-holder farms in Morocco through supplementation with fish silage blocks

    The present study was designed to identify problems that lower the productivity of imported dairy cattle in Morocco. For this purpose, a comprehensive survey was carried out on 8 small-holder farms over a period of two years. Analysis of the data collected indicated that in most of the herds reproductive performance was adequate (calving intervals ranging from 338 ± 11 to 420 ± 31 and services to conception ranging from 1.14 ± 0.13 to 1.91 ± 0.3), but the animals had difficulty in meeting the nutrient requirements for milk production. Although some farmers provided supplements to their animals they were either expensive or not available at the required time. One possible way of alleviating the problem was the introduction of a fish by-product into the dairy cattle ration. Two experiments were conducted, one at the Institute experimental farm and the other at a private farm selected for the survey. In both experiments, fish silage blocks were incorporated into the ration of dairy cattle in replacement of an equal amount of the most commonly used supplements. The introduction of fish silage blocks in the ration did not affect their intake or body condition. In addition, the yield and quality of the milk were maintained. This substitution allowed the farmer to utilize by-products from the fish industry which are readily available and less costly than most conventional supplementary feeds. It is concluded, that the proposed utilization of fish silage blocks will reduce the production costs and improve the economic efficiency of the small-holder farms. (author)

  14. The Importance of the Ionic Product for Water to Understand the Physiology of the Acid-Base Balance in Humans

    María M. Adeva-Andany


    Full Text Available Human plasma is an aqueous solution that has to abide by chemical rules such as the principle of electrical neutrality and the constancy of the ionic product for water. These rules define the acid-base balance in the human body. According to the electroneutrality principle, plasma has to be electrically neutral and the sum of its cations equals the sum of its anions. In addition, the ionic product for water has to be constant. Therefore, the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions depends on the plasma ionic composition. Variations in the concentration of plasma ions that alter the relative proportion of anions and cations predictably lead to a change in the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions by driving adaptive adjustments in water ionization that allow plasma electroneutrality while maintaining constant the ionic product for water. The accumulation of plasma anions out of proportion of cations induces an electrical imbalance compensated by a fall of hydroxide ions that brings about a rise in hydrogen ions (acidosis. By contrast, the deficiency of chloride relative to sodium generates plasma alkalosis by increasing hydroxide ions. The adjustment of plasma bicarbonate concentration to these changes is an important compensatory mechanism that protects plasma pH from severe deviations.

  15. TGF{beta}2-mediated production of hyaluronan is important for the induction of epicardial cell differentiation and invasion

    Craig, Evisabel A. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Austin, Anita F. [Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Vaillancourt, Richard R. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Barnett, Joey V. [Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Camenisch, Todd D., E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Steele Children' s Research Center and Bio5 Institute, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)


    In the developing heart, the epicardium is a major source of progenitor cells that contribute to the formation of the coronary vessel system. These epicardial progenitors give rise to the different cellular components of the coronary vasculature by undergoing a number of morphological and physiological changes collectively known as epithelial to mesenchymal transformation (EMT). However, the specific signaling mechanisms that regulate epicardial EMT are yet to be delineated. In this study we investigated the role of TGF{beta}2 and hyaluronan (HA) during epicardial EMT and how signals from these two molecules are integrated during this important process. Here we show that TGF{beta}2 induces MEKK3 activation, which in turn promotes ERK1/2 and ERK5 phosphorylation. TGF{beta}2 also increases Has2 expression and subsequent HA production. Nevertheless, inhibition of MEKK3 kinase activity, silencing of ERK5 or pharmacological disruption of ERK1/2 activation significantly abrogates this response. Thus, TGF{beta}2 promotes Has2 expression and HA production through a MEKK3/ERK1/2/5-dependent cascade. Furthermore, TGF{beta}2 is able to induce epicardial cell invasion and differentiation but not proliferation. However, inhibition of MEKK3-dependent pathways, degradation of HA by hyaluronidases or blockade of CD44, significantly impairs the biological response to TGF{beta}2. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that TGF{beta}2 activation of MEKK3/ERK1/2/5 signaling modulates Has2 expression and HA production leading to the induction of EMT events. This is an important and novel mechanism showing how TGF{beta}2 and HA signals are integrated to regulate changes in epicardial cell behavior.

  16. The Importance of Considering Product Loss Rates in Life Cycle Assessment: The Example of Closure Systems for Bottled Wine

    Olivier Jolliet


    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this study is to discuss the implications of product loss rates in terms of the environmental performance of bottled wine. Wine loss refers to loss occurring when the consumer does not consume the wine contained in the bottle and disposes of it because of taste alteration, which is caused by inadequate product protection rendering the wine unpalatable to a knowledgeable consumer. The decision of whether or not to drink the wine in such cases is guided by subjective consumer taste perception and wine quality expectation (drinking the bottle or disposing of the wine down the drain and replacing it with a new bottle. This study aims to illustrate the importance of accurately defining system boundaries related to wine packaging systems. Methods: The environmental impacts resulting from wine loss rates as related to two types of wine bottle closures—natural cork stoppers and screw caps—have been estimated based on literature review data and compared to the impact of the respective closure system. The system studied relates to the functional unit “a 750 mL bottle of drinkable wine” and includes bottled wine, bottle and closure production, wine production, wine loss and wine poured down the drain. Results: The range of wine alteration rates due to corked wine is estimated to be 2–5% based on interviews with wine experts. Consumer behavior was assessed through a sensitivity study on replacement rates. When the increase in loss rate with the cork stopper is higher than 1.2% (corresponding to 3.5% corked wine multiplied by a consumer replacement rate of 35%, the influence of losses on the impact results is higher than that of the closure material itself. The different closures and associated wine losses represent less than 5% of the total life cycle impact of bottled wine.

  17. Customer Perceived Brand Equity in Measuring Consumption Preference towards Local and Imported Products: A serial Studies on Urban and Suburban Level of Indonesia Society in Greater Jakarta

    Sri Rahayu


    This study generally aims to analyze how the preferences of Indonesian as a customer in consuming local and imported products. The specific purpose of this study is to confirm measurement tools of the customer perceived brand equity, which are product country image, culture, marketing mix, and product quality. The result of this study indicates that Indonesian consider much about the marketing mix and product quality, while not so much considering culture.The product country image on the othe...

  18. Customer Perceived Brand Equity in Measuring Consumption Preference towards Local and Imported Products: A serial Studies on Urban and Suburban Level of Indonesia Society in Greater Jakarta

    Sri Rahayu


    Full Text Available This study generally aims to analyze how the preferences of Indonesian as a customer in consuming local and imported products. The specific purpose of this study is to confirm measurement tools of the customer perceived brand equity, which are product country image, culture, marketing mix, and product quality. The result of this study indicates that Indonesian consider much about the marketing mix and product quality, while not so much considering culture.The product country image on the other hand gives the opposite effect. It is significantly related but has negative impact to the customer preference. This study is expected to provide insight on factors that contribute to form customer preference, consumption, and behavior in consuming local and imported product. It is expected that this study can bring impact in increasing local product competitiveness so that local and imported product could compete equally.


    Liliane Souza Santos


    Full Text Available The problem of personal debt is becoming more present in people's lives. What was once considered a personal problem only became a problem in part of the organizations, as when the employee is indebted, he ends up bringing their problems into the company. With that financial education has become increasingly important for companies. Today, 5% of large companies in Brazil have already inserted financial education for their employees. This research shows that recurring problems with debts lead employees to lose focus in their activities, to commit more errors in the process, missing more work and, in extreme cases, to resign in order to receive the guarantee fund for the working time. With financial education, employees learn to manage their finances, repay their debts and not acquiring debts that can not repay. Employees with no financial problems, increase productivity and quality of the process also. The advantage is for the company and the employee.

  20. Controls on the production, incorporation and decomposition of glomalin - a novel fungal soil protein important to soil carbon

    Matthias C. Rillig


    OAK B263 Glomalin is an operationally defined soil protein, produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), with importance in soil carbon sequestration through its relationship with soil aggregation. The goal of the project was to further explore the natural history of glomalin and to address several questions regarding basic behavior of this compound in soil (production, incorporation, decomposition). We have obtained a significant amount of novel information on the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal soil protein, concerning factors controlling its production to mechanisms of incorporation and decomposition. These findings have resulted in 10 publications in peer-reviewed journals, with several more submitted or in preparation, and 16 contributed presentations at meetings. I have sought collaborative opportunities whenever they fit within the research proposed to enhance our productivity. Additionally, although not part of the original proposed work, we have made a significant effort to elucidate the molecular biology of glomalin (in response to Program Officer suggestions). In addition to peer-reviewed publications there have also been a number of invited presentations, including a keynote address delivered by the PI at the International Conference on Mycorrhizae (ICOM4) in Montreal, summer 2003. Two Master's students have been trained (and graduated), and a postdoctoral associate has been mentored, as well as numerous undergraduate researchers at UM. In this report I summarize the major findings of the project in the areas of glomalin production control (host factors, elevated CO2), incorporation, and decomposition. Section D is newly added and describes recent progress in molecular biology. Briefly, we found that glomalin production is influenced by the host, as shown by host species effects and responses to elevated CO2. We have recently made a significant breakthrough in understanding how glomalin may become deposited into soil; apparently the dominant

  1. Sonochemical degradation of ethyl paraben in environmental samples: Statistically important parameters determining kinetics, by-products and pathways.

    Papadopoulos, Costas; Frontistis, Zacharias; Antonopoulou, Maria; Venieri, Danae; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Mantzavinos, Dionissios


    The sonochemical degradation of ethyl paraben (EP), a representative of the parabens family, was investigated. Experiments were conducted at constant ultrasound frequency of 20kHz and liquid bulk temperature of 30°C in the following range of experimental conditions: EP concentration 250-1250μg/L, ultrasound (US) density 20-60W/L, reaction time up to 120min, initial pH 3-8 and sodium persulfate 0-100mg/L, either in ultrapure water or secondary treated wastewater. A factorial design methodology was adopted to elucidate the statistically important effects and their interactions and a full empirical model comprising seventeen terms was originally developed. Omitting several terms of lower significance, a reduced model that can reliably simulate the process was finally proposed; this includes EP concentration, reaction time, power density and initial pH, as well as the interactions (EP concentration)×(US density), (EP concentration)×(pHo) and (EP concentration)×(time). Experiments at an increased EP concentration of 3.5mg/L were also performed to identify degradation by-products. LC-TOF-MS analysis revealed that EP sonochemical degradation occurs through dealkylation of the ethyl chain to form methyl paraben, while successive hydroxylation of the aromatic ring yields 4-hydroxybenzoic, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acids. By-products are less toxic to bacterium V. fischeri than the parent compound. PMID:26964924

  2. Importance of Radiology among the Spanish medical journal dealing with radiodiagnostics: analysis of their production between 1984 and 1993

    We present a bibliometric analysis of the publications of the journal Radiologia between 1984 and 1993 to contribute to the study of radiodiagnostics reporting in Spain and to determine the importance of Radiologia as a source of information on this subject. We have used the database of the Spanish Medical Index (Indice Medico Espanol, IME) and the journal itself, analyzing the volume, course and distribution of publications on radiodiagnostic procedures. The journal Radiologia publishes 20.1% of the articles dealing with radiology and radiation therapy in Spain. The total number of works was 1,344, that of authors was 2,580 and that of signatures was 6.173, presenting an exponential growth with doubling times of 83.3, 8.5 and 7.4 years, respectively. The analysis shows that the journal's production not only increases over time, but also increments the proportion it contributes to the Spanish medical press as a whole. Radiologia is the most representative journal, in terms of volume of the scientific activity reported in the field of radiodiagnostics in Spain, and its production tends to adapt to the model established for other firmly consolidated scientific and medical disciplines. It alone constitutes the core of the medical journals devoted to radiology and its mean index of circulation according to the IME is 85.79/%. (Author) 34 refs

  3. 19 CFR 10.471 - Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products.


    .... imports of textile and apparel products. 10.471 Section 10.471 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Determinations § 10.471 Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products... that a claim of origin for a textile or apparel good is accurate, CBP may request that the...

  4. Association mapping in Scandinavian winter wheat for yield, plant height and traits important for second-generation bioethanol production

    Andrea eBellucci


    Full Text Available A collection of 100 wheat varieties representing more than 100 years of wheat-breeding history in Scandinavia was established in order to identify marker-trait associations for plant height, grain yield and biomass potential for bioethanol production. The field-grown material showed variations in plant height from 54 to 122 cm and in grain yield from 2 to 6.61 t ha-1. The release of monomeric sugars was determined by high-throughput enzymatic treatment of ligno-cellulosic material and varied between 0.169 and 0.312 g/g dm for glucose and 0.146 and 0.283 g/g dm for xylose. As expected, plant height and grain yield showed to be highly influenced by genetic factors with repeatability (R equal to 0.75 and 0.53 respectively, while this was reduced for glucose and xylose (R=0.09 for both . The study of trait correlations showed how old, low-yielding, tall varieties released higher amounts of monomeric sugars after straw enzymatic hydrolysis, showing reduced recalcitrance to bioconversion compared to modern varieties. 93 lines from the collection were genotyped with the DArTseq® genotypic platform and 5525 markers were used for genome-wide association mapping. Six QTLs for grain yield, plant height and glucose released from straw were mapped. One QTL for plant height was previously reported, while the remaining QTLs constituted new genomic regions linked to trait variation. This paper is one of the first studies in wheat to identify QTLs that are important for bioethanol production based on a genome-wide association approach.

  5. Cooperative dialogues during the shift change-over. Importance for the safety and reliability of production systems

    During shift changeover, verbal communications between operators constitute a means of cooperating in order to continue actions and to carry out the process. The present study was aimed at analyzing verbal exchanges and consequently the role of this work phase. The paper proposes a method of analyzing verbal exchanges This method allows to follow the development of dialogues step by step and enables the operators' representation to be described as the dialogues unfolds. Dialogues observed in two industrial settings (paper manufacturing and nuclear power plant) are analyzed in two complementary ways. The analysis of the content of verbal exchanges (categorization) shows that these exchanges can be very different depending on the work situation (process state, work organization, last shift of the incoming operator...). More precise dialogues analyses show, in some cases, the construction by the operators of a shared functional representation. They consequently emphasize the importance of these exchanges for collective work. The results point out that these exchanges during shift changeover are not only an information transfer allowing actions related to the production process to be continued. They also allow cooperative problem solving and improvement of operators' expertise. On this basis, propositions related to the improvement of this work phase are made. (authors)


    Eleni Vangjeli


    Full Text Available “The national economic development is based on the sustainable development of the regions of the country”. Thisconfirmation is visible in the paper presented. The paper is focused on development of the agricultural sector region ofKorca mainly in the traditional farming plants of the region, and the enforcing the food-processing industry. In thepaper, it is presented the present situation of food-processing industry in the region of Korca, and the further, it isgiven the situation in conservation of vegetables, as part of the a food-processing industry. This, because of the factthat Korca has had a good tradition in cultivating traditional vegetables. The papers brings new values some of whichare :• The focus on an important sector of the economic development of the district of Korce such as the agro-elaboratinindustry.• The full treatment of the present situation of this industry in the region of Korce.• The focus on the consumer demands of the region for canned vegetable products.• The picked up conclusions will serve as a firm basement for further research work in this field.

  7. Cutting Edge: Novel Tmem173 Allele Reveals Importance of STING N Terminus in Trafficking and Type I IFN Production.

    Surpris, Guy; Chan, Jennie; Thompson, Mikayla; Ilyukha, Vladimir; Liu, Beiyun C; Atianand, Maninjay; Sharma, Shruti; Volkova, Tatyana; Smirnova, Irina; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Poltorak, Alexander


    With the stimulator of IFN genes (STING) C terminus being extensively studied, the role of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of STING remains an important subject of investigation. In this article, we identify novel mutations in NTD of Sting of the MOLF strain in response to HSV and Listeria monocytogenes both in vitro and in vivo. These mutations are responsible for low levels of IFN-β caused by failure of MOLF STING to translocate from the endoplasmic reticulum. These data provide evidence that the NTD of STING affects DNA responses via control of trafficking. They also show that the genetic diversity of wild-derived mice resembles the diversity observed in humans. Several human alleles of STING confer attenuated IFN-I production similar to what we observe with the MOLF Sting allele, a crucial functional difference not apparent in classical inbred mice. Thus, understanding the functional significance of polymorphisms in MOLF STING can provide basic mechanistic insights relevant to humans. PMID:26685207

  8. Irradiation of Oil / Water Biphasic Systems: the Importance of Interfacial Surface Area on the Production of Hydrogen and Other Deleterious Products

    -water interfacial surface area, control of headspace gas composition, and removal of sample aliquots. Results highlight the importance of interfacial surface area in affecting the radiolytic degradation of the studied hydrocarbons. In particular, experiments having higher oil-water interfacial surface areas generate greater quantities of oil degradation products as compared with lower surface area samples. As expected, one notable result from these irradiations was the formation of significant quantities of hydrogen, which was found to be dependent on the interfacial surface area. Presented here is a review of the radiolytic degradation of insoluble organic material in aqueous systems, a summary of experimental results focusing on biphasic systems and a description of a strategy to mitigate the effects of insoluble organic material ingress and to aid in developing station-appropriate responses. (authors)

  9. Some observations on the growth and cyst production characteristics of the brine shrimp Artemia sp. (Gujarat strain) in pond culture and its potential for import substitution

    Gopalakrishnan, P.; Krishna Raju, V.; Thaker, S R


    Experimental culture of the brine shrimp Artemia sp. (Gujarat strain) and production of cyst is discussed. The qualitative and quantitative aspects of the cyst and its economic potential for import substitution are highlighted.

  10. On the removal of energy products subsidies in an importing oil country: impacts on prices in Morocco.

    Bentour, El Mostafa


    Using input-output models, we analyze the effect of removing subsidized oil products in Morocco. We set three scenarios of increasing oil products by 25%, 50% and 75%, and symmetric decreases by the same amounts. We show that the effects are high in intensive oil products sectors such as transports and electricity and water sectors. Using the weights of the sectors, we deduce the overall inflation generated by direct and indirect requirements for the total economy. For example, an increase in...