Sample records for cave hunan province

  1. Seismic Zonation of Central-Southern Hunan Province, China

    Li Ying; Xu Guangyin; Chen Kun; Gao Mengtan


    Based on basic data used in compiling the Zonation Map of Earthquake Ground Motion Parameters in China, recent research on seismic safety assessment for engineering sites in central-southern Hunan Province, the new attenuation relationships of moderate earthquakes and the background seismicity data obtained by modern instrumental earthquake records since 1970, a new result of seismic zonation of central-southern Hunan Province is provided. The result shows that the area with PGA = 0.05g has obviously increased in the new map compared with the previous one and is relatively consistent with the seismic disaster characteristics of moderate earthquakes that took place in the central-southern part of Hunan in recent years.This result will benefit the research and compilation of a new-generation seismic zonation map of earthquake ground motion parameters and the seismic hazard assessment in the moderate earthquake active regions in the central and eastern part of China.

  2. Problems in Food Safety of Hunan Province and Countermeasures

    OUYANG, Fanfan; Deng, Fangming


    In recent years, serious food safety accidents are of frequent occurrence. Although government has taken many practical and feasible measures to contain food safety accidents, new food safety accidents still emerge in large numbers. In this situation, food safety control is a long-term and arduous task to be performed jointly by many government departments. Finally, it presents corresponding countermeasures and recommendations on the basis of current situations of food safety in Hunan Provinc...

  3. HIV/AIDS knowledge in detention in Hunan province, China

    Chen Xi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection drug use (IDU is one of the major modes of HIV transmission in China. Drug use is illegal in China, all identified drug users are registered by Public Security Bureau, and most were sent to detention; most detainees engaged in high risk behaviours. In order to well understand the HIV/AIDS knowledge among detainees, a survey was conducted in different detention settings in Hunan province in 2008 to assess knowledge and attitudes about HIV among detainees and to provide useful information for HIV prevention and intervention strategies in detention centers. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 detentions in Hunan province, China, and demographic information along with knowledge and attitude of HIV/AIDS was collected through standardized interviews. Descriptive statistics were used to describe HIV knowledge, attitudes, and education services among detainees. Results There were 956 detainees interviewed from 10 detention centers. The male to female ratio was 2.24:1. The majority detainees received nine years of compulsory education, accounting for 51.5%. There were nine questions to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge of detainees, and 35.7% of those surveyed answered all nine questions correctly. There were 92.3% (882/956 who consented to be informed about the HIV antibody test results when tested, and 81% (774/956 elected that their family members were also informed. All detention centers had an organized HIV/AIDS education program. Conclusion This study gives us an overview about HIV/AIDS knowledge in detention in Hunan province, and all detention sites in the study provided HIV/AIDS intervention services among detainees that focused on HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude, and health behaviors.

  4. Problems in Food Safety of Hunan Province and Countermeasures

    Fanfan; OUYANG; Fangming; DENG


    In recent years,serious food safety accidents are of frequent occurrence. Although government has taken many practical and feasible measures to contain food safety accidents,new food safety accidents still emerge in large numbers. In this situation,food safety control is a long-term and arduous task to be performed jointly by many government departments. Finally,it presents corresponding countermeasures and recommendations on the basis of current situations of food safety in Hunan Province,problem causes,in combination with control measures related to food safety both at home and abroad.

  5. Characteristics of tailings from metal mines in Hunan Province, China

    LIU Yun-guo; ZHANG Hui-zhi; ZENG Guang-ming; HUANG Bao-rong; LI Xin; XU Wei-hua


    The tailing soils were from 10 mining areas in Hunan Province. To predict the potential impact of tailings on nearby environments, the characteristics such as the pH value, loss on ignition, cation exchange capacity, and the concentration and speciation of heavy metals in the tailings were investigated. Based on these characteristics, the pollution index and danger index were calculated so as to evaluate the priorities of remediation. The results show that the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn exceed the tolerable levels of the phytotoxicity in the most tailings. The large proportion of heavy metals exists in the form of residual fraction in most tailings, followed by sulfides/organic and Fe/Mn oxide fractions, and a little in the exchangeable and carbonate fraction. The calculated pollution indices for the tailing samples range from 1.41 to 83.42, which indicates that all the tailings contain heavy metals at a level that causes toxicity to the ecosystem. The danger indices for the tailing samples range from 0.06 to 387.00. The highest value of the danger indices is that of Yongzhou sample, reaching 387.00; the lowest one is that of Xikuangshan sample, only 0.06. Considering the results of pollution index and danger index in combination, the priority of remediation is determined to be Yongzhou, Baoshan, Xiangtan and Lengshuijiang.

  6. Performance Evaluation of Rural Cooperative Economic Organizations in Hunan Province Based on Structural Equation

    Naman; YANG


    Using the method of structural equation and balanced scorecard,this paper establishes the evaluation indicators and evaluation model for the performance of 21 rural cooperative economic organizations in X City of Hunan Province,and analyzes the relationship between indicators and dimensions of performance evaluation indicators,in order to find the influencing factors,obstacles and successful experience concerning the development of rural cooperative economic organizations. According to model analysis and conclusions,this paper sets forth the recommendations for promoting the development of rural cooperative economic organizations in Hunan Province,in order to provide a scientific basis for the institutional design and mechanism innovation of rural cooperative economic organizations in Hunan Province.

  7. Research on the Consumption Function of Rural Residents in Hunan Province


    Based on literature review,according to relevant consumption data in Hunan Statistical Yearbook and China Statistical Yearbook during1978-2009,the thesis selects three indexes involving the average income per rural resident,per capita living expenses of rural residents and percapita savings to conduct the unit root and co-integration test on the consumption and net income per rural residents in Hunan Province by adoptingthe generalized difference method and EVIEWS6.0,then according to the Modigliani Hypothesis of Consumption,Duesenberry Hypothesis of Con-sumption and Keynes Absolute Income Hypothesis,the thesis makes a fitting of Hunan consumption function model,aiming to find out the consump-tion function model suitable to Hunan Province.The results show that,Keynesian consumption function based on Absolute Income Hypothesis pas-ses the statistical test and econometric test,while the consumption function model based on Relative Income Hypothesis and that based on Life Cy-cle Hypothesis do not,which proves that the consumption function model based on Absolute Income Hypothesis is better suited for describing the re-lations between rural consumption and income in Hunan Province.Taking into account the low marginal propensity of consumption of the rural resi-dents in Hunan Province,the thesis proposes to expand consumption demand of rural residents:firstly,developing characteristic economy and im-proving the income level of rural residents;secondly,perfecting the social security system in rural areas and maintaining the consumption confi-dence of rural residents;thirdly,ameliorating the circulation system.

  8. Decommissioning management of pit water at an uranium mine in Hunan Province

    The author introduces the influence of mining on groundwater at an uranium mine in Hunan Province, emphatically discusses the managing principles, methods and research works of pit water in decommissioning, and summaries sealing technique, construction management and the effect achieved in management of pit water

  9. Evaluation on the Development of Agricultural Circular Economy in Hunan Province


    By using conceptual model of BPEIR(Behavior-Pressure-Effect-Impact-Response) and Delphi method,we establish the evaluation index system of agricultural circular economy including four indices,namely index of socio-economic development,index of reducing input of resources,index of recycling of resources and index of safety of environment and resources.We conduct comprehensive evaluation on developmental level of agricultural circular economy from 1998 to 2007 in Hunan Province.The analysis results show that the agricultural circular economy of Hunan Province from 1998 to 2007,on the whole,has the tendency of development with annual growth rate of 1.89%.The annual decrease rate of recycling of resources and reducing input of resources from 1999 to 2003 is 25% and 11% respectively,which has become the main factor impeding development of agricultural circular economy.After the year 2003,it is mainly reducing input of resources.


    KONG Hua; XI Xiao-shuang; JIN Zhen-min; HUANG De-zhi


    @@ Deep xenolith are important samples for us to know composition and nature of the deep crust.There are many new volcanos which can all kinds of xenoliths such as a lower crustal graulite,and upper mantle-derived peridolite and lherzolite.In eastern China,there occured many deep xenoliths in Mesozoic-Cenzoic alkaline basalt.Besides these,some small volcanos eruptions were founded in southern Hunan province,which age is about 132-151 Ma.

  11. Database Management System Construction for the Evaluation Results of Intensive Land Use in the Development Areas of Hunan Province

    Mingliang; LIU


    Using spatial data integration and database technology,analyzing and integrating the assessment results in all the development zones at different time in Hunan Province,the paper is intended to construct the database and managerial system for the assessment results of land use intensity in development zones,thus formulating"one map"of Hunan Development zones and realizing the integrated management and application of the assessment results in all the development zones at any time of Hunan above the provincial level.It has been proved that the system has good application effect and promising development in land management for land management departments and development zones.

  12. Database Management System Construction for the Evaluation Results of Intensive Land Use in the Development Areas of Hunan Province

    Liu, Mingliang


    Using spatial data integration and database technology, analyzing and integrating the assessment results in all the development zones at different time in Hunan Province, the paper is intended to construct the database and managerial system for the assessment results of land use intensity in development zones, thus formulating “one map†of Hunan Development zones and realizing the integrated management and application of the assessment results in all the development zones at any time of Hu...

  13. Effects of sea surface temperature anomaly on flooding events in Hunan province

    Hu, Xinjia; Wang, Ming


    This study investigated the effect of sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) on flood-season precipitation in Hunan Province (the main grain-producing area in China) and change trend of the related flooding events. Based on the observation data of flood seasons in 44 stations of Hunan province from 1970-2013 and the sea surface temperature (SST) dataset from the Met Office Hadley Center, the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, power spectrum analysis and correlation analytical method have been conducted to identify the key time and marine regions which influence flood-season rainfall distribution. According to these analyses, two main spatial patterns of precipitation have been observed. The first and remarkable pattern is generally distributed uniformly throughout the region and is characterized by a 2-3-year and 20-23-year periods. The decadal variability has a negative correlation with the summer SSTA in the Indian Ocean near the equator, while the interannual variability is associated with the previous autumn and winter SSTA in the eastern Pacific. The second pattern illustrates dry-wet difference, indicating a north-to-south opposite, in a 3-year periods. The key area for influencing this mode is distributed in the Equator Pacific especially in the previous autumn and winter (known as ENSO). Furthermore, based on the EOF results of precipitation, we introduced the historical flooding event records of Hunan province and developed the spatial distribution maps and probability density curves for the direct economic losses in the years of anomaly and normal rainfall. The results reveal that the anomaly years suffer more serious losses and there is a corresponding relationship between north-to-south opposite precipitation mode and regional economic loss differences. With the function of illustrating the variation trend of hazards and the critical influence factor, these results are the data foundation for flood risk assessment. It can be used as a

  14. Research on Morphological Characteristics of Big-eared Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus macrotis) in Hunan Province%湖南省翼手目新纪录大耳菊头蝠形态特征研究

    唐勇清; 张佑祥; 胡德夫


    From November to December, 2009,a survey on cave-dewelling bats in Majiaotong Cave of Fenghuang County and Tangle Cave of Jishou City was made ,both sites locate in the western part of Hunan Province,totally six horseshoe bat were collected. Measuring the morphological characteristics and the skull datas,meanwhile,eomparing with two documented subspecies of Rhinolophus macrotis ,they were identified as the subspecies R. macrotis episcopus ,which was first recorded in Hunan Province. A brief account on the current situation and distribution of R. macrotis was presented in this paper. All of the specimens were kept in the animal collections of Jishou University.%2009年11—12月,在湘西凤凰县水打乡马脚通洞和吉首市堂乐洞进行翼手类调查时,采集到6号菊头蝠标本。对其外形和头骨进行测量,并与文献记载的大耳菊头蝠2个亚种的特征进行比较,鉴定为大耳菊头蝠四川亚种(Rhinolophusmacrotizepiscopus),属湖南省翼手目新记录。标本保存于吉首大学动物标本室。


    KONG; Hua; XI; Xiao-shuang; JIN; Zhen-min; HUANG; De-zhi


    Deep xenolith are important samples for us to know composition and nature of the deep crust.There are many new volcanos which can all kinds of xenoliths such as a lower crustal graulite,and upper mantle-derived peridolite and lherzolite.In eastern China,there occured many deep xenoliths in Mesozoic-Cenzoic alkaline basalt.Besides these,some small volcanos eruptions were founded in southern Hunan province,which age is about 132-151 Ma.……

  16. Preliminary discussion on possible genesis of crustal rotation, its impact on geotectonic evolution and its relation to large-scale metallogeny in Hunan province and adjacent regions

    Hunan province and adjacent regions show ring-form distribution features both on surface geologic structure and geophysical field. Such features might result from the rotation movement of the earth crust and exert serious impact on the geotectonic evolution and large-scale metallogeny in Hunan province and adjacent regions. This paper makes a preliminary discussion on the possible genesis of such rotation movement, as well as the associated series of geologic processes and its relation to large-scale metallogeny in Hunan province and adjacent regions. (authors)

  17. The ecological function regionalization of Hunan province%湖南省生态功能区划的研究



    以湖南省为研究区域,利用模糊数学综合评判方法,通过分析自然、区域经济的区位条件、资源与生态环境状况、生态功能和经济社会发展基础,利用地理信息系统的空间叠置法、相关分析法和专家集成法综合评判,将湖南省划分为5个生态功能区和17个生态功能亚区,并且绘制了湖南省生态功能区划图.为湖南省的生态建设和政策决策提供科学依据,也为湖南省的市州开展生态功能区划工作提供参考.%Taking Hunan province as the studying area, and through analyzing the location conditions of natural and regional economic, resources and ecological conditions, ecological functions and the basis of economic and social development and overlay, and using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, correlation analysis and expert integration method of GIS, Hunan province was divided into 5 ecological function areas, 17 ecological function sub-areas. In addition, the figure of ecological function regionalization of Hunan province was drawa These works will provide the scientific basis for ecological construction and policy decision of Hunan province, also provide reference for developing ecological function regionalization in Hunan's city and state.

  18. Arsenic speciation in locally grown rice grains from Hunan Province, China: Spatial distribution and potential health risk.

    Ma, Li; Wang, Lin; Jia, Yuyu; Yang, Zhaoguang


    Arsenic contaminations have been evaluated in rice grains from Hunan Province, China. Forty-three locally grown rice samples were collected from 40 counties. Arsenic species including As(III), As(V), MMA and DMA were separated and determined by HPLC-ICP-MS method. The mean concentration of total arsenic in rice samples was 129.4±49.2μg/kg, lower than the Chinese maximum contaminant levels of inorganic arsenic in rice (200μg/kg). The dominant species detected in rice samples was As(III), following DMA, As(V) and MMA. The Pearson's correlation analysis indicated significant positive relationships between As(III) and total arsenic (r=0.939, pmap of total arsenic concentration in rice samples from Hunan Province was obtained using kriging interpolation. High levels of total arsenic in rice grains were observed in south and east regions associated with mining activities and urbanization process. The cancer risk and hazard quotient were employed to estimate the potential human health risk. The results suggested great carcinogenic risk and high potential non-carcinogenic risk to people consuming local rice in Hunan Province. PMID:27016689

  19. The Genetic Types of Baiyun Cave in Lincheng County of Hebei Province

    Yanping; SUN; Jian; WANG; Xiaoman; ZHANG; Qianhua; ZHENG; Huafang; HUANG


    Baiyun Karst Caverns in Lincheng County,Hebei Province,is a rare karst caverns in subhumid climate region of the north.It was developed in carbonatite strata,particularly in Zhangxia formation of the Middle Cambrain series.Erosion-corrosion landscape and chemical deposition landscape are abundant,They are various shapes,curtain drapery,cave flag,cave shield,stalactite,stalagmite,cave flowers,botryoid,soda straw are developed,especially heligmite,soda straw,cave flowers are the most characteristic.

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of a Field Isolate of Classical Swine Fever Virus Belonging to Subgenotype 2.1b from Hunan Province, China

    Shao, Weixing; Liu, Shuang; Wu, Faxing; Zhang, Zhi; Dong, Yaqin; Li, Xiaocheng


    We report the complete genome sequence of a field isolate of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Hunan 23/2013, belonging to the predominant subgenotype 2.1b. This strain was originally isolated from diseased pigs in Hunan Province, China. This report will help in understanding the molecular diversity of CSFV stains circulating in China and in selecting and developing a suitable vaccine candidate for CSF control.

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of a Field Isolate of Classical Swine Fever Virus Belonging to Subgenotype 2.1b from Hunan Province, China.

    Shao, Weixing; Liu, Shuang; Wu, Faxing; Zhang, Zhi; Dong, Yaqin; Li, Xiaocheng


    We report the complete genome sequence of a field isolate of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Hunan 23/2013, belonging to the predominant subgenotype 2.1b. This strain was originally isolated from diseased pigs in Hunan Province, China. This report will help in understanding the molecular diversity of CSFV stains circulating in China and in selecting and developing a suitable vaccine candidate for CSF control. PMID:26205876

  2. Comparative Analysis of Two Rainstorms in the Southwest of Hunan Province

    LV; Xiao-hua; DAI; Jin; YANG; Ke; ZHU; He-xiang


    Using NCEP 1°× 1° reanalysis data within 6 h, conventional observational data, data from regional automatic rainfall stations, satellite cloud pictures and Doppler radar data, we compared the physical conditions, dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of two rainstorms in the southwest of Hunan Province on May 12 and June 15 in 2011. The results showed that the first process was triggered by strong cold air under unstable potential, while the second process was caused by shear line appearing from the east; during the first process, cold air divided into many parts and moved towards south, rainfall was uniform and lasted for a long time, while rainfall was relatively concentrated and strong, and lasted for a short time during the second process; the peak of K index appeared only during the second process; no sign of heavy rainfall was found from satellite cloud pictures and radar echo pictures during the first process, while obvious cloud cluster and echo ribbons could be found from satellite cloud pictures and radar echo pictures during the second process, which were the sign of heavy rainfall; slow movement of echo or little movement resulted in the second rainstorm, and constant echo intensity was the main reason for the occurrence of the second rainstorm. In addition, there was low-level southwest jet during the two processes, which provided favorable conditions for the transportation of water vapor and energy during the two processes. However, there was a great difference between the two rainstorms in the intensity and thickness of low-level jet, that is, the intensity and thickness of low-level jet during the first process were obviously weaker than these during the second process.

  3. Survey on Farming Culture of Ancient Villages and Tourism Development: A Case Study of Hongjiang City in Hunan Province

    Lei; FANG


    The origin of human civilization is based on agriculture and settlement,and the ancient villages preserved up to now can be rated as " museum and historical library of rural lifestyle and rural culture",which are of important historical and cultural value. Through the field survey of farming culture resources of ancient villages in Hongjiang City of Hunan Province,this article classifies and evaluates the farming culture and ancient village resources,and sets forth the following recommendations for the development of ancient village tourism: strengthening the product differentiation development; focusing on the cultivation and integration of resources; enhancing the village environmental remediation.

  4. Fixed Ammonium in Major Types of Paddy Soils in Hunan Province,China



    The contents, affecting factors, seasonal changes and availability of fixed ammonium in major types ofpaddy soils derived from different parent materials in Hunan Province, China, were studied using the Silva-Bremner method by laboratory and pot experiments. Results showed that the content of fixed ammoniumin the plough horizons ranged from 88.3 mg kg-1 to 388.1 mg kg-1, with 273.2 ± 77.7 mg kg-1 on average,accounting for 11.2% of total soil N on average. Content of fixed ammonium decreased in the order of newlylacustrine clayey paddy soil > alluvial sandy paddy soil > purple clayey paddy soil > newly alluvial sandypaddy soil > yellow clayey paddy soil > reddish-yellow clayey paddy soil > granitic sandy paddy soil. Therewere four distribution patterns of fixed ammonium in the profiles to 1-m depth, i.e., increase with the depth,decrease with increasing depth, no distinct change with the depth, and abrupt increase or decrease in somehorizon. Percentage of fixed ammonium in total N increased with the depth in most of the soils. Fixationof NH4+ by soil was higher at 30 ℃ than at 20 ℃ and 40 ℃, and continuous submergence benefited thefixation of NH4+ in newly alluvial sandy paddy soil, purple clayey paddy soil and alluvial sandy paddy soil,while alternating wetting and drying contributed to the fixation of NH4+ in yellow clayey paddy soil mostly.Fixed ammonium content in the test paddy soils was significantly correlated with < 0.01 mm clay content(P < 0.05), but not with < 0.001 mm clay content, total N, organic N and organic matter. Fixed ammoniumcontent varied with rice growth stages. Application of N fertilizer promoted fixation of NH4+ by soil, and Nuptake by rice plant promoted release of fixed ammonium from the soil. Recently fixed ammonium in paddysoil after N fertilizer application was nearly 100% available to rice plant, while native fixed ammonium wasonly partly available, varying with the soil type and rice type.

  5. Evidence of fire use of late Pleistocene humans from the Huanglong Cave, Hubei Province, China

    LIU Wu; WU XianZhu; LI YiYin; DENG ChengLong; WU XiuJie; PEI ShuWen


    Since 2004, three excavations have been carried out at a late Pleistocene human fossil site of Huan-glong Cave in Yunxi County, Hubei Province of China, which unearthed seven human teeth, dozens of stone tools, mammal fossils and other evidence indicating human activities. During the third excava-tion in 2006, in the same layer as the human teeth, we found some patches of black materials embed-ded in the deposit. We doubted that this black deposit layer is the remains of burning or even human use of fire at the cave. To further explore the possibility of human fire use at the Huanglong Cave, we examined samples directly taken from the black deposit layer and compared them with samples taken from several places in the cave using three methods: micromorphology, element content determination and deposit temperature analysis. Our results indicate that the contents of carbon element in the black deposit reach 64.59%-73.29%. In contrast, contents of carbon element of the comparative samples from other parts in the cave are only 5.82%-9.49%. The micromorphology analysis of the black de-posit samples reveals a plant structure like axial parenchyma, fibrocyte, uniseriate ray and vessel.High-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements suggest that the stratum possibly underwent a high temperature in the nature. Based on these lab analyses, we are sure that the black layer in the Huanglong Cave is the remains of fire and combustion did occur in the cave 100000 years ago. Taking other evidence of human activities found in the Huanglong Cave into consideration, we believe that the evidence of fire from the Huanglong Cave was caused by the human activities of controlled use of fire.

  6. U-Pb dating of early Mesozoic granodioritic intrusions in southeastern Hunan Province, South China and its petrogenetic implications

    王岳军; 范蔚茗; 郭锋; 李惠民; 梁新权


    The NE-trended Mesozoic granodioritic intrusions are spatially and temporally associated with the copper multi-metal mineralization in southeastern Hunan Province, South China. U-Pb dating result of single-grained zircons of four samples respectively from Shuikoushan, Baoshan, western Tongshanling and eastern Tongshanling intrusions reveals that their crystallization age spans a range from 172 Ma to 181 Ma, which also represents the oldest age of the regional copper multi-metal mineralization. Some of the zircon grains give an upper intercept age of about 1753 Ma and 207Pb/206Pb apparent age of (1752 ± 4) Ma, implying the involvement of the pre-Cambrian metamorphic (possible Middle Proterozoic) basement in their genesis. The presence of such a kind of zircon grains in these granodiorites indicates either that the parental magmas were assimilated by basement rocks during magma ascent or that lower/middle crustal rocks were one of the important components during the melting process.

  7. Study on Development of Cassava Industry in Hunan Province%湖南省木薯产业发展研究

    戴声佩; 刘恩平


    分析湖南省木薯产业的发展现状.发展木薯的可行性及湖南省木薯发展存在的问题,提出湖南省木薯产业的发展策略,为湖南省木薯产业发展提供决策参考。%The current situation of cassava industry, the feasibility of developing cassava industry and the existent problems in the development of cassava industry in Hunan Province are analyzed. The developmental strategy for cassava industry in Human Province is put forward to provide reference for the development of cassava industry in Hunan Province.

  8. [Virological surveillance of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus and its genetic characteristics in Hunan Province, 2009-2011].

    Zhang, Hong; Huang, Yi-Wei; Liu, Yun-Zhi; Li, Fang-Cai; Chen, Zhang; Li, Wen-Chao; Deng, Zhi-Hong; Hu, Shi-Xiong; Gao, Li-Dong


    To understand and master the dynamic variation of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Hunan province from 2009 to 2011, and to know the genetic characteristics and drug resistance of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses. Throat swab specimens of influenza-like illness patients were collected from sentinel hospitals and tested for influenza by fluorescent PCR or virus isolation methods. Partial isolates were selected for sequencing. The sequences were used for phylogenetic analysis by MEGA 5. 05 software. From the 20th week of 2009 to the 52nd week of 2011, 17 773 specimens were tested. 3 831 specimens were influenza-positive with a positive rate of 21. 6%, of which 1 794 were positive specimens of pandemic (H1N1) 2009, accounting for 46. 8%00 of the influenza-positives. There were 2 epidemic peaks of pandemic (H1N1) 2009, which were in the 41st-53rd week of 2009 and the 1st-12nd week of 2011, respectively. The HA genes of 23 strains that were selected for sequencing had close relationship; the distribution of strains in the phylogenetic tree was basically in chronological order. The complete genome sequence analysis showed that all of 8 gene segments of 7 strains were homologous to the vaccine strain, and there was no gene reassortment. The HA amino acid sites of the 23 strains were highly similar to the vaccine strain (98. 2% - 100. 0% in homology), but all 23 strains had P83S, S203T and 1321V mutations. The 222 site mutation that may lead to enhanced virulence was found in the A/Hunan/YQ30/2009 strain. The mutation was D222E. There was no oseltamivir resistance mutation found in all strains. The pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Hunan province from 2009 to 2011 had a bimodal distribution. There was no large-scale variation of virus genes. The clinical use of oseltamivir was still effective. Key words: Pandemic (H1N1) 2009; Surveillance; Genetic characteristics PMID:23757845

  9. Highlights on the World Bank Loan Schistosomiasis Control Program in China (1991-1998): a special focus on Hunan Province.

    Dongbao, Y; Ross, A G; Musheng, X; Yuesheng, L; Yan, C


    A region-wide sampling survey was conducted in 1995 in order to evaluate the current epidemiological status of schistosomiasis japonica in Hunan Province, China. A total of 45,590 humans and 3,726 domestic animals, from 52 villages, were examined parasitologically and/or serologically for current Schistosoma japonicum infections. In uncontrolled endemic areas (43 villages) the overall human prevalence of S. japonicum was 7.81% across the different geographical subtypes. The geometric mean intensity of infection was 17.71 eggs per gram (epg) among infected individuals and only 1.25 epg in the general population. The bovine prevalence, as determined by the hatching test, was 9.63% in the uncontrolled endemic villages. Only one sero-positive (by indirect hemagglutination assay) child was found among 1,072 children tested aged 10-14 years in the 9 endemic villages under effective control. No infection was confirmed by the Kato-Katz thick smear stool examination. When the results of this survey were compared to those seen at baseline (1989) an overall reduction of 45.65% was seen in the human prevalence but no significant change was apparent in the lake-beach ecotype. Additionally, there was more than a 60% reduction in the prevalence among bovines over the same sampling period. The results demonstrate that the World Bank Loan Schistosomiasis Program was successful in achieving its most basic objectives for this province - to reduce human and bovine infections by 40%. PMID:10928356

  10. Long-term variations of estimated global solar radiation and the influencing factors in Hunan province, China during 1980-2013

    Zou, Ling; Lin, Aiwen; Wang, Lunche; Xia, Xiangao; Gong, Wei; Zhu, Hongji; Zhao, Zhenzhen


    Long-term variation of estimated global solar radiation (E g↓) and its relationship with total cloud cover (TCC), low cloud cover (LCC), water vapor content (WVC) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) were investigated based on the observations at 21 meteorological stations in Hunan province, China. Long-term variations of all variables were calculated for each station; the Mann-Kendall trend test was used to detect the significant level of temporal development trend for each variable; the Pearson correlation analysis was used to measure their linear relationships. Annual E g↓ generally decreased at the rate of -2.11 × 10-3 MJ m-2 decade-1 in Hunan province during 1980-2013. Seasonal mean E g↓ decreased at the rate of -11.99 × 10-3, -4.71 × 10-3 and -4.51 × 10-3 MJ m-2 decade-1 in summer, autumn and winter, respectively, while the increasing trend was observed in spring (15.74 × 10-3 MJ m-2 decade-1). The annual variation of E g↓ in Hunan province was dominantly determined by the variations of AOD (0.33 × 10-3 decade-1) and LCC (0.24 % p decade-1). But the spatial variation of E g↓ in Hunan province was complex. All 21 stations were divided into four groups according to the long-term trends of E g↓, TCC, LCC, AOD and WVC. An increasing E g↓ was observed at stations in group 1, which was determined by the variability of TCC. The variability of AOD and TCC might contribute to the increasing E g↓ in group 2. There were decreasing trends of E g↓ for the stations in group 3 and group 4, which were largely determined by the increases of AOD and LCC.

  11. Assessment of the Interactions between Economic Growth and Industrial Wastewater Discharges Using Co-integration Analysis: A Case Study for China’s Hunan Province

    Dan Hu; Hong Tan; Yang Gao; Tianxiang Wang; Qiang Xiao


    We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in China’s Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate the interaction mechanism. We found a long-term equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the discharge of industrial pollutants in wastewater between 1978 and 200...

  12. Productivity analysis in nature reserve: A case study in Hunan Province

    Wang Lan-hui; Tian Shu-rong


    Although there are abundant natural resources in nature reserves, poverty is a common feature of the social economy in the communities surrounding nature reserves. Income from forestry is still the main source for residents living around nature reserves.The structure of inputs and outputs, i.e. productivity, in the forestry sector in nature reserves is quite different from one reserve to another. Productivity can be measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methods owing to the characteristics of DEA. The promotion of productivity in nature reserve is an effective way to improve the living condition in areas neighboring nature reserves.Thus, one typical national nature reserve in Hunan is selected in this study with the intent to measure productivity in the area and then to analyze the factors affecting its productivity.

  13. Investigation on the Seasonal Trend of Fruit Markets in Changsha, Hunan Province


    This investigation on the seasonal trend of fruit markets in Changsha indicated that the fruit varieties on the market in Changsha were abundant, up to 49 varieties; seasonal fresh fruits were continuously provided around the year; most fruits were domestic produce from all over the country, and about 39% of the varieties were imported mainly from southeast Asia, America, New Zealand and Brazil; the imported fruits and a few kinds of domestic fruits were higher in the quality grades than most domestic fruits, which accounted for approximately half of the total fruit volume; and fruit prices varied markedly with fruit varieties, quality grades and time of marketing. In a word, the Hunan fruit industry must increase fruit quality and diversity in order to achieve a favourable position in the strong international competition.

  14. Huanglong Cave, a new late Pleistocene hominid site in Hubei Province, China

    WU Xianzhu; LIU Wu; GAO Xing; YIN Gongming


    For the past 20 years the modern human origins debate has received a significant amount of attention in paleoanthropological research. Primarily supported by the evidence of earlier dates of anatomically modern human fossils and genetic studies, the "Out of Africa" hypothesis is based on the belief that the ancestor of all modern humans, including modern Chinese, came from Africa. The opposite hypothesis "Mutiregional evolution" proposes that continuous evolution occurred on a regional scale, for which human paleontology offers strong support. However, due to the paucity of hominid fossils in China between 100 and 50 ka, support to the latter hypothesis is currently weak. This is a report here of five human fossil teeth, and associated stone tools and mammal fossils from a newly discovered cave site, Huanglong Cave, located in Yunxi County,Hubei Province, China. Preliminary studies indicate:(1) the morphological features of the human fossils resemble those of late Pleistocene human fossils from China; (2) the stone tools display patterns of both the southern and northern Paleolithic cultures of China; (3) the mammal fossils represent the "Ailuropoda-Stegodon" faunal unit which lived in southern China throughout the Pleistocene. ESR and U-series dating on animal teeth and a stalagmite derived from the same layer as the human teeth indicate two possible ages: 103±1.6 ka and 44±12.5 ka. In addition to other evidence presented here, it is believed that hominid occupation of the cave was likely around 100 ka. If this age is further substantiated, Huanglong Cave will be the first late Pleistocene hominid fossil site in China where anatomically modern humans lived about 100 ka. The human fossils and other related materials from Huanglong Cave will provide important information for research on the origin of modern Chinese.

  15. Purification and characterization of an arginine ester hydrolase from the venom of Trimeresurus mucrosqumatus in Hunan province of China

    YU Xiao-dong; LI Bo; YU Zheng-ping


    Objective: To study the physical and chemical properties of an arginine ester hydrolase from the venom of Trimeresurus mucrosqumatus in Hunan province of China. Methods :The arginine ester hydrolase (AEH) was isolated from the venom of Chinese Trimeresurus mucrosqumatus by a combination of ionexchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50, CM-Sepharose Cl-6B and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. Results: The purified protein named TM-AEH,a glycoprotein with carbohydrate content of 0.5 % neutral hexose and 0. 75 % sialic acid,a relative molecular mass of 29.0 kDa,and an isoelectric point (pI) of 5. 2. It shares with an extinction coefficient (E0.1%/cm) of 1.332 at 280 nm,consisted of 225 amino acid residues ,and migrated as a band under reduced or non-reduced condition in basic PAGE. TM-AEH was a highly thermostable protein and was stable to pH changes between 5 and 9. The optimum temperature and optimum pH were 55℃ and 8. 4 for its catalytic activity respectively,which was inhibited by Fe3+ and Cu2+. Conclusion:This protein can exhibit higher BAEE-hydrolysing activity and fibrinogenolytic activity as compared to that of whole venom.

  16. [Characteristics and Inputs of Cd Contamination in Paddy Soils in Typical Mining and Industrial Areas in Youxian County, Hunan Province].

    Zhang, Min; Wang Mei-e; Chen, Wei-ping; Niu, Jun-jie


    In order to explore input pathways and pollution characteristics of Cd contamination in paddy soil in Youxian, Hunan Province, Cd contents in paddy soils, sediments of irrigation canals, typical mineral and industrial products such as coal, gangue and cement were analyzed. It was suggested that the average contents of Cd both in surface paddy soil and the corresponding natural soil were higher than the soil quality standard 0.3 mg x kg(-1). Cd contents in gangue and cement were similar as those in the corresponding natural soils. The atmosphere deposition of Cd was the highest in factory area. The profiles of Cd in 0-100 cm paddy soil and 0-40 cm in natural soils varied significantly from the upper to the lower layer. Cd contents in 0-40 cm layer in paddy soil were much higher than those in corresponding natural soils in mineral and mineral-factory areas. The potentiality for downward movement of Cd in soils in mineral area was the highest among the three studied areas. It suggested Cd contents in surface paddy soil were higher in upwind areas than those in downwind areas in mineral-factory and factory areas. It could be concluded that the main input pathways of Cd in mineral and mineral-factory. areas were from irrigation water, while contribution of atmosphere deposition in mineral-factory and factory areas was also very significant. PMID:26164922

  17. Genetic Polymorphism of Nine Non-CODIS STR Loci in Hu-nan Province-based Chinese Han Population

    GUO Juan-juan; LIU Ying; GUO Ya-dong; YAN Jie; CHANG Yun-feng; CAI Ji-feng; LU Ting; ZHA Lagabaiyila


    Objective To determine the allelic frequency distribution and genetic parameters of nine non-CODIS DNA index systems of the short tandemrepeat (STR ) loci (D2S1772, D6S1043, D7S3048, D8S1132, D11S2368, D12S391, D13S325, D18S1364, and GATA198B05). Methods A total of 353 blood samples were collected, extracted, amplified, and analyzed fromunrelated healthy individuals of Han na-tionality in Hunan Province, China. Results O ne hundred and fourteen alleles were observed in the pop-ulation with corresponding allelic frequencies ranged from0.001 0 to 0.323 0. For all the nine non-CODIS STR loci, the observed genotypic data showed no significant deviations fromthe Hardy-W einberg equi-librium. The Ho, He, PIC, D P, and PE of the studied non-CODIS STR loci ranged from0.108 0 to 0.195 0, 0.805 0 to 0.892 0, 0.770 0 to 0.860 0, 0.925 0 to 0.966 0 and 0.607 0 to 0.780 0, respectively. Conclusion N ine non-CODIS STR loci have high degrees of polymorphisms, which may be useful in in-dividual forensic identification and parentage testing in forensic practice.

  18. 湖南省水利行业投融资方式探讨%Discussion on Investment and Financing Mode of Water Conservancy Industry in Hunan Province



    首先通过研究湖南省水利行业2000-2008年投融资情况,发现湖南省水利行业资金来源较为单一、投资主体较少;然后通过研究湖南省“十二五”水利行业发展的战略,运用指数平滑分析法测算出湖南水利行业未来五年的资金供求,计算出资金缺口.为有效解决湖南省“十二五”水利建设资金缺口,在借鉴水利行业投融资模式的基础上,结合湖南水利行业的特点,提出了湖南省水利行业投融资模式的设计思路和促进投融资顺利开展的保障措施.%With the rapid development of water industry in China,fund demand of water conservancy construction has grown substantially so that financial issues of project construction become critical.Firstly,with the research of the investment and financing of water conservancy industry in Hunan province from 2000 to 2008,it's expounded that source of funds for water conservancy industry in Hunan province is relatively single and investor of it is less.With the study of development strategy of water conservancy industry in "12th Five-Year Plan" in Hunan,the capital supply and demand of water conservancy industry in the next five years in Hunan is estimated with exponential smoothing method and the funding gap is calculated.In order to effectively solve the funding gap,basing on the investment and financing mode of the water industry,the paper presents design ideas of that in Hunan with the characteristics of water conservancy industry in Hunan,and puts forward safeguard measures to ensure the smooth progress of the investment and financing.water conservancy investment and financing safeguard measures

  19. Follow-up study on management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Hunan Province, the People's Republic of China

    Zeng YQ


    Full Text Available Yuqin Zeng,1,* Jianxian Xu,1,* Shan Cai,1 Fen Jiang,1 Anmei Hu,2 Huayun Liu,3 Chengli Bei,4 Ping Chen11Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shenzhen City Baoan District Central Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Yueyang First People’s Hospital, Yueyang, Hunan, 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, Changsha Central Hospital, Changsha, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: In 2009, our study showed an extreme imbalance and disparity in COPD-related health resources allocation at three levels of public hospitals (PHs in Hunan Province of the People’s Republic of China, especially in second-level PHs. Moreover, most Chinese citizens accept their health care services in first- and second-level PHs for economic and geographical reasons, as well as because of the incomplete transfer system in the health care services. To improve diagnosis and treatment ability of pulmonologists in second-level PHs, an intervention that provided training combined with spirometry equipment was carried out in three PHs from six second-level PHs. The aim of this follow-up study was to evaluate the changes associated with COPD-related health resources allocation and the effect of the intervention 4 years later.Methods: The data regarding the availability of spirometers, inhalation agents for COPD, and COPD-related health care education for local residents were collected from 57 PHs in 2009 and 48 PHs in 2013. Pulmonologists working in these PHs were asked to complete a questionnaire individually. Six second-level PHs (three in the intervention group and the other three in the control group [without training and spirometry equipment] that further took part in the survey in 2009 were reevaluated to determine the doubtful diagnostic ratio and the confirmation ratio of COPD. The

  20. Fixed Ammonium Content and Maximum Capacity of Ammonium Fixation in Major Types of Tillage Soils in Hunan Province, China

    ZHANG Yang-zhu; HUANG Shun-hong; WAN Da-juan; HUANG Yun-xiang; ZHOU Wei-jun; ZOU Ying-bin


    In order to understand the status of fixed ammonium, fixed ammonium content, maximum capacity of ammonium fixation, and their influencing factors in major types of tillage soils of Hunan Province, China, were studied with sampling on fields, and laboratory incubation and determination. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) Content of fixed ammonium in the tested soils varies greatly with soil use pattern and the nature of parent material. For the paddy soils, it ranges from 135.4 ± 57.4 to 412.8±32.4 mg kg-1, with 304.7±96.7 mg kg-1 in average; while it ranges from 59.4 to 435.7 mg kg-1, with 230.1 ± 89.2 mg kg1 in average for the upland soils. The soils developed from limnic material and slate had higher fixed ammonium content than the soils developed from granite. The percentage of fixed ammonium to total N in the upland soils is always higher than that in the paddy soils. It ranges from 6.1 ± 3.6% to 16.6 ±4.6%, with 14.0% ± 5.1% in average for the paddy soils and it amounted to 5.8 ±2.0% to 40.1 ± 17.8%, with 23.5 ± 14.2% in average for upland soils. (2) The maximum capacity of ammonium fixation has the same trend with the fixed ammonium content in the tested soils. For all the tested soils, the percentage of recently fixed ammonium to maximum capacity of ammonium fixation is always bellow 20% and it may be due to the fact that the soils have high fertility and high saturation of ammonium-fixing site. (3) The clay content and clay composition in the tested soils are the two important factors influe ncing their fixed ammonium content and maximum capacity of ammonium fixation. The results showed that hydrous mica is the main 2:1 type clay mineral in <0.02 mm clay of the paddy soils, and its content in 0.02-0.002 mm clay is much higher than that in < 0.002 mm clay of the soils. The statistical analysis showed that both the fixed ammonium content and the maximum capacity of ammonium fixation of the paddy soils were positively correlated with

  1. Relationships between soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in mining areas of northern Hunan province, Central South China

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Jiang, Ying; Shu, Ying


    Hunan province, Central South China, is a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mine exploiting and processing there, however, often lead to heavy metal pollution of farmland. To study the effects of mining activities on the soil environmental quality, four representative paddy fields, the HSG, SNJ, NT and THJ, in Y county, northern Hunan province, were investigated. It was found that the streams running through the HSG, SNJ and NT are severely contaminated due to the long-term discharge of untreated mineral wastewater from local indigenous mining factories. The stream at the HSG, for example, is brownish red in color, with high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cd in all the stream water of the HSG, SNJ and NT exceed the maximum allowable levels of the Agricultural Irrigation Water Criteria of China. Correspondingly, the HSG, SNJ and NT are heavily polluted by Cu, Zn and Cd due to the long-term irrigation with the contaminated stream water. In comparison, both stream water and paddy fields of the THJ, far away from mining areas, are not contaminated by any heavy metals and hence regarded as a control in this study. The rice grain produced at the HSG, SNJ and NT has a high risk of Cd contamination. The rate of rice grain produced in the four paddy fields in Y county with Cd exceeding the safe level (Cd, 0.2 μg g-1) specified by the National Standards for Rice Quality and Safety of China reaches 90%. Cd content in the rice grain is positively significantly correlated with that in the paddy fields, especially with the content of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) - extracted Cd, suggesting that the heavy metal pollution of paddy fields has already posed a high risk to rice safety and human health. Soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass are significantly inhibited by the heavy metal pollution of the paddy fields. Microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN) at a severely contaminated site of the HSG are only 31

  2. Follow-up study on management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Hunan Province, the People's Republic of China

    Zeng YQ; Xu JX; Cai S; Jiang F; Hu AM; Liu HY; Bei CL; Chen P


    Yuqin Zeng,1,* Jianxian Xu,1,* Shan Cai,1 Fen Jiang,1 Anmei Hu,2 Huayun Liu,3 Chengli Bei,4 Ping Chen11Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shenzhen City Baoan District Central Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Yueyang First People’s Hospital, Yueyang, Hunan, 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, Changsha Central Hospital, Changsha, People&rsqu...

  3. Full Genome Sequence of an Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Isolated from the Environment in Hunan Province, China

    Wang, Ba; Zhang, Hongbo; Chen, Quanjiao; Chen, Ze


    We isolated an avian influenza virus A/environment/Hunan/3/2011(H5N1) from a body of water in Hunan, China. The nucleotide sequence of the virus shares 95% homology with H5N1 from the east Asia region. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that its HA gene belongs to clade and that other internal genes present different recombination features.

  4. Geochemistry of early mesozoic potassium-rich diorites-granodiorites in southeastern Hunan Province, South China. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    The diorites-granodiorites emplaced at ca. 175 Ma in southeastern Hunan tectonic-magmatic belt (SHB), South China Block (SCB), are high-K calc-alkaline. They are characterized by LREE-LILE enrichment and HFSE depletion with slight or no Eu anomalies. Age-corrected initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio spans a narrow range of 0.707962-0.710396 and εNd(t) of -6.98--2.30. These features are significantly different from those of the neighboring other Mesozoic granitic plutons (Eu/Eu* = 0.30-0.70; 87Sr/86Sr > 0.710; εNd = -12 to -16) in South China, which have been interpreted as the remelting products of Precambrian basement. The crust anatexis cannot account for the geochemical characteristics of these diorites-granodiorites in the SHB. The partial melting of an enriched lithosphere mantle directly produced mafic-intermediate rather than acid magma, and can also not explain the geochemical and isotopic variations exhibited by these diorites-granodiorites. These diorites-granodiorites likely represent partial melting products of mantle-derived basaltic rocks, which were underplated and hybridized with old crust material at lower/middle crust level. Theoretical modeling further suggests that this hybridized source consisted of 15-30% of the lower/middle crust and 70-85% of depleted mantle-drived basaltic rocks. The occurrence of these diorite-granodiorites in southeastern Human province therefore marked a major intra-lithospheric extension episode during early Mesozoic. (author)

  5. On Attitude Survey to Miao Language in Western Hunan Province%湘西地区苗族语言态度探析



    As a complex social and psychological phenomenon, language attitude profoundly affects people's language behavior and language identity. This paper, based on the survey of Miao people' s attitude towards Miao language in Western Hunan Province, analyzes the cognitive evaluation, the emotional attitude, and the language learning and protection of Miao people towards their native language. It also explains the different social variables that influence the attitude of Miao language, and accordingly proposes some suggestions of how to protect minority language and culture in western region of Hunan Province.%语言态度作为一种复杂的社会心理现象,深刻影响着人们的语言行为与语言认同。本文通过对湘西地区苗族语言态度的调查,分析了苗族对于母语的认知评价,情感态度及学习、保护母语的行为倾向,解释了不同社会变项对苗族语言态度的影响,并据此对在湘西地区开展民族语言文化保护工作提出了建议。

  6. Current Development of Sports Tourism in Hunan Province and Countermeasures%湖南省体育旅游产业的发展现状与对策



    On the basis of investigating the current development of sports tourism in Hunan province,the paper proposes that it has the developing advantages of region,source,transportation,source of tourists and publication while restricted by the low competition level,monotonous competition content,lack of talents and advanced management and regulations which need improvement.The paper also proposes the development countermeasures of the sports tourism industry in Hunan province.%对湖南省体育旅游产业的发展现状进行了调查和分析,湖南省体育旅游产业具有区位、资源、交通、客源、媒介宣传等发展优势;但尚存在体育赛事级别不高且没有形成常态化,项目形式单一并缺乏地方特色,专业人才匮乏,旅游管理水平落后,政策法规有待完善等问题,据此提出了湖南省体育旅游产业的发展对策。

  7. Correlation analysis of EV71 detection and case severity in hand, foot, and mouth disease in the Hunan Province of China.

    Li-Dong Gao

    Full Text Available An increase in the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD cases has been observed in the Hunan province of mainland China since 2009 with a particularly higher level of severe cases in 2010-2012. Intestinal viruses of the picornaviridae family are responsible for the human syndrome associated with HFMD with enterovirus 71 (EV71 and Coxsackievirus A16 (Cox A16 being the most common causative strains. HFMD cases associated with EV71 are generally more severe with an increased association of morbidity and mortality. In this study, the etiology surveillance data of HFMD cases in Hunan province from March 2010 to October 2012 were analyzed to determine if there is a statistically relevant linear correlation exists between the detection rate of EV71 in mild cases and the proportion of severe cases among all HFMD patients. As the cases progressed from mild to severe to fatal, the likelihood of EV71 detection increased (25.78%, 52.20% and 84.18%, respectively. For all cases in the timeframe evaluated in this study, the presence of virus was detected in 63.21% of cases; among cases showing positivity for virus, EV71 infection accounted for 50.14%. These results provide evidence to support the observed higher morbidity and mortality associated with this outbreak and emphasizes the importance of early detection in order to implement necessary prevention measures to mitigate disease progression.

  8. The Dynamic Coordinated Development of a Regional Environment-Tourism-Economy System: A Case Study from Western Hunan Province, China

    Yaoqing Yuan; Maozhu Jin; Jinfei Ren; Mingming Hu; Peiyu Ren


    Based on regional coordination theory and system theory, the authors constructed an evaluation index system for the coordinated development of a regional environment-tourism-economy system with a pressure-state-response (PSR) model. With a coordinated development model, it further empirically analyzed the coordinated development state of an environment-tourism-economy system in western Hunan from 2001 to 2012. The results showed that, although this environment-tourism-economy system failed to...

  9. The Dynamic Coordinated Development of a Regional Environment-Tourism-Economy System: A Case Study from Western Hunan Province, China

    Yaoqing Yuan


    Full Text Available Based on regional coordination theory and system theory, the authors constructed an evaluation index system for the coordinated development of a regional environment-tourism-economy system with a pressure-state-response (PSR model. With a coordinated development model, it further empirically analyzed the coordinated development state of an environment-tourism-economy system in western Hunan from 2001 to 2012. The results showed that, although this environment-tourism-economy system failed to achieve a high benefit index, inter-subsystem coupling extent, and coordinated development index, the three indices presented an increasing overall trend. This outcome suggested that the sub-systems in this system were developing towards their optimal proportions: the development of these sub-systems (environmental, tourism, and economic was unbalanced in western Hunan. The environment therein sees only slow development although provided with a favorable ecological foundation. Economic development, which has long been lagging, acted as the main factor restricting the coordinated development of a regional environment-tourism-economy system. To promote its coordinated development in western Hunan, the following recommendations were proposed: strengthen the prediction and warnings on the evolution of the whole system; optimize the industry’s structure; reinforce environmental management.

  10. 湖南省促农增收的实证分析%Empirical Analysis on Promoting Farmers' Income in Hunan Province

    马智利; 邹仁功


    To increase peasant income is the primary issue to balance urban and rural development and to narrow the gap between urban and rural areas.Moreover,it is the core of issue of agriculture,rural and farmer.According to the application of gray mathematical model,the data of the rapid development of agriculture in Hunan province in recent years were analyzed to guide the'12th-Five-Year-Plan' agricultural development and farmers income increasing in Hunan province,and put forward the important approaches to improve agriculture and increase income were adjusting invest direction of rural fixed assets and increasing benefit area of rural fixed assets.%促进农民增收是统筹城乡发展、缩小城乡差距的首要问题,是"三农"问题的核心与根本所在。通过总结湖南省最近几年来农业高速发展的经验数据,应用灰色关联度的数学模型,对"十二五"期间湖南省的农业发展以及增加农民收入的问题进行指导,提出调整农村固定资产投资方向、增大农村固定资产的受益面积是促农增收的重要途径。

  11. Effect of soil-rock system on speleothems weathering in Bailong Cave, Yunnan Province, China

    WANG Jing; SONG Lin-hua


    Bailong Cave with its well-developed Middle Triassic calcareous dolomite's system was opened as a show cave for visitors in 1988. The speleothem scenery has been strongly weathered as white powder on the outer layers. Study of the cave winds, permeability of soil-rock system and the chemical compositions of the dripping water indicated: (1) The cave dimension structure distinctively affects the cave winds, which were stronger at narrow places. (2) Based on the different soil grain size distribution, clay was the highest in composition in the soil. The response sense of dripping water to the rainwater percolation was slow. The density of joints and other openings in dolomite make the dolomite as mesh seepage body forming piles of thin and high columns and stalactites. (3) Study of 9 dripping water samples by HYDROWIN computer program showed that the major mineral in the water was dolomite.

  12. Emergence and spread of O16-ST131 and O25b-ST131 clones among faecal CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in healthy individuals in Hunan Province, China

    Zhong, Yi-Ming; Liu, Wen-En; Liang, Xiang-Hui; Li, Yan-Ming; Jian, Zi-Juan; Hawkey, Peter M.


    Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli ST131 strain prevalence in stool specimens from healthy subjects in central China and to molecularly characterize clonal groups. Methods From November 2013 to January 2014, stool specimens from healthy individuals in Hunan Province were screened for ESBL-producing E. coli using chromogenic medium and CTX-M genotypes and phylogenetic groups were determined. ST131 clonal groups were detected by PCR and ch...

  13. SWOT Analysis of Intellectual Property Rights Strategies for Medicine Enterprise in Hunan Province%湖南省医药企业知识产权战略的SWOT分析

    陈锋; 杨俊; 张静; 闫福林; 王大新; 卢光洲; 王静成


    本文运用SWOT分析方法,分析湖南省医药企业知识产权战略的优势、劣势、机会和威胁,根据湖南省医药企业知识产权保护现状,提出了湖南省医药企业四大知识产权战略(SO、WO、ST、WT战略).湖南省医药企业必须加强知识产权战略的调整,才能在医药行业激烈的国际竞争中处于有利位置.%This article analyzed the advantage, weakness, opportunity and threat of intellectual property rights (IPR) strategy of pharmaceutical enterprises in Hunan province.In accordance with the current IPR protection of pharmaceutical enterprises in Hunan province, four IPR strategies in pharmaceutical enterprises, which are SO, WO, ST and WT strategy, were brought forward.Pharmaceutical enterprises in Hunan province should strengthen the IPR adjustment, so as to maintain a dominant position in the fierce international competition in the pharmaceutical industry.

  14. Affects of wastewater discharge from mining on soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in northern Hunan province, Central South China

    Jiang, Ying; Hu, Xue-Feng; Shu, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan; Luo, Fan


    Hunan province, Central South China, is rich in mineral resources and also a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mining and ore processing there, however, are mostly conducted in indigenous methods, and thus causing heavy metal pollution of abundant farmland. Situated in northern Hunan province, Y county has antimony, manganese, vanadium, and pyrite mines, but still belongs to a region of rice cultivation, of which, paddy fields make up 84.5% of the total farmland. Our investigations found that irrigation water is threatened by the release of mining wastewater in the county. For example, a stream used for irrigation turns dark-red after long-term receiving wastewater discharged from a pyrite company at HS Town of the county. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn in the stream water reach 0.03 mg kg-1, 2.14 mg kg-1, 0.02 mg kg-1, 96.0 mg kg-1 and 11.5 mg kg-1, respectively; these in the paddy soils nearby are 67.3 mg kg-1, 297 mg kg-1, 4.0 mg kg-1, 33.1 mg g-1 and 463 mg kg-1 on average, respectively, with a maximum of Cd reaching 16.8 mg kg-1. Microbial biomass and activities are significantly reduced by metal toxicity in the soils. The counts of fungal, actinomycin and bacterial colonies in the polluted soils are 8.8×103 /g (Fresh soil), 4.9×105 /g (Fresh soil) and 6.4×105 /g (Fresh soil), respectively, which are only 4.68%, 10.3% and 20.9% of these in non-polluted soils in Y county, respectively. Likewise, the microbial biomass (MB) - C and MB - N of the polluted soils are only 36.8% and 50.3% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. The activities of dehydrogenase, urease, catalase, acid and neutral phosphatase and sucrase in the polluted soils are only 41.2%, 49.8%, 56.8%, 69.9%, 80.7% and 81.0% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. There are significant negative correlations between Cu, Zn and Cd contents and the activities of dehydrogenase and catalase, suggesting that the two enzymes are the most sensitive to heavy metal toxicity in the

  15. Analysis of Components of Rice Cost in Hunan Province%湖南省稻谷成本构成要素分析

    范丹蓉; 夏卫生; 胡贤辉; 刘业辉; 谢炳庚


    为了充分调动农民的种粮积极性,达到同工同酬的目的,通过大量现场调研并对湖南省典型地区生产成本、销售成本和政府补贴的综合计算和分析提出具有可操作性的直接补贴参考标准。结果表明,早、中、晚稻的生产成本存在明显的类型差异性和地区差异性,特别是地区差异非常显著;最高地区的日工资为71元,还未达到市场工资标准,但已是最低地区的2.6倍;为了达到同工同酬的目标,有必要实施地区差异性补贴。拟将湖南省各地区分为4个梯度,进行差异性补贴,使日工资基本接近,从而缩小农村内部的贫富差距,提高农民生产的积极性。%To stimulate farmers’initiatives effectively and to make sure that people get the same amount of wage for doing the same kind of work,a criterion of direct subsidies was provided on the basis of lots of field work.Calculation and analysis of the typical areas of Hunan Province based on the production cost,cost of sales and government subsidies indicated that in terms of production cost of early,middle and late rice,significant differences in types and areas were found.Differences among areas were especially noticeable.The highest daily wage of some areas,though failed to reach the standard wage set by the market,was 2.6 times that of other areas,which was at the bottom.Therefore,to make sure that people in different areas get the same amount of wage for doing the same kind of work,it is quite necessary to implement the differentiated subsidy policy.And at this stage,in order to narrow the financial gap among farmers and to stimulate farmers' initiatives,this program plans to divide Hunan Province into four districts of various production-cost gradients,so as to implement the differentiated subsidy policy well.

  16. 中部崛起的力量在于扩大开放%The Driver for the Rise of Central China Lies in Enlarging Opening up——Special Interview of He Tongxin, Vice Governor of the People's Government of Hunan Province, by Special Edition of China's Foreign Trade



    @@ Hunan Province refined four advantages in practice, got to know that the driver for the rise of Central China lies in enlarging opening up, and summarized the following points: to open to both domestic and overseas investors, attract both domestic and foreign capital, seek cooperation with both domestic and foreign partners,open up both domestic and international market, face reality, promote and absorb outside investment and encourage private capital is an important motive force, strategic measure and realistic choice for Hunan in quickening the development. This article clearly points out the five important fields that Hunan seeks for domestic and foreign cooperation in.

  17. Traffic-related heavy metals uptake by wild plants grow along two main highways in Hunan Province, China: effects of soil factors, accumulation ability, and biological indication potential.

    Zhai, Yunbo; Dai, Qingyun; Jiang, Kang; Zhu, Yun; Xu, Bibo; Peng, Chuan; Wang, Tengfei; Zeng, Guangming


    This study was performed to investigate pollution of traffic-related heavy metals (HMs-Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Cd) in roadside soils and their uptake by wild plants growing along highways in Hunan Province, China. For this, we analyzed the concentration and chemical fractionation of HMs in soils and plants. Soil samples were collected with different depths in the profile and different distances from highway edge. And leaves and barks of six high-frequency plants were collected. Results of the modified European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) showed that the mobile fraction of these HMs was in the order of Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu > Cr. A high percentage of the mobile fraction indicates Cd, Pb, and Zn were labile and available for uptake by wild plants. The total concentration and values of risk assessment code (RAC) showed that Cd was the main risk factor, which were in the range high to very high risk. The accumulation ability of HMs in plants was evaluated by the biological accumulation factor (BAF) and the metal accumulation index (MAI), and the results showed that all those plant species have good phyto-extraction ability, while accumulation capacity for most HMs plants tissues was bark > leaf. The highest MAI value (5.99) in Cinnamomum camphora (L) Presl indicates the potential for bio-monitoring and a good choice for planting along highways where there is contamination with HMs. PMID:27026539

  18. Impact of Small-scale Production Mode on Citrus Industry of Hunan Province,China——Based on the Investigation on Citrus Industry in Shimen County


    Small-scale farmer is defined by the domestic and foreign experts and scholars.They point out that since the fragmentation of production and the diseconomy of scale in small-scale farmer is inconsistent with the characteristics of scale and technology of modern agricultural production,it is necessary to eliminate the adverse effects of existing mode in order to provide theoretical references for the relevant researches.Citrus industry in Shimen County,Hunan Province,China is introduced from the aspects of natural geographical condition and socio-economic benefit.Impact of small-scale production mode on citrus production in Shimen County is discussed.Firstly,blindness of small-scale production is the main reason leading to overproduction of citrus.Secondly,small-scale production mode has limitation on the acceptance of new technologies,restricts the operation of geographical trademark,and constraints the enthusiasm of enterprises in entering the agricultural field.Finally,suggestions are put forward,such as encouraging the circulation of rural land,improving the organization degree of farmers,changing the work function of grass-roots government and perfecting the agricultural financial credit system.

  19. Characterizing spatial distribution and sources of heavy metals in the soils from mining-smelting activities in Shuikoushan, Hunan Province, China.

    Wei, Chaoyang; Wang, Cheng; Yang, Linsheng


    The spatial variation of heavy metals in the soils in Shuikoushan mining-smelting area, Hunan Province, China, was investigated using multivariate and geo-statistic analysis. A total of 106 composite soil samples were collected in an area of about 100 km2. Concentrations of total As, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic and Pb were found to have a common source, indicating the same sources and spreading processes, such as aerosols and airborne particulates from smelting chimneys. Airborne sources from smelting chimneys contributed greatly to Cd in the area, which demonstrated the same dispersion pattern as As and Pb. However, two hot spots of Cd around smelters were possibly enlarged by wastewaters, demonstrating another important source of Cd in Shuikouhsan. Geo-statistic interpolated mapping demonstrated that hot-spots of Zn were only found proximal to the large smelters, suggesting that Zn primarily came from the chimneys of larger smelters. The major Cu hot-spots appeared closely to the tailing dam, indicating that weathering and leaching of tailings were the major sources of Cu contamination in Shuikoushan. Our findings indicated that airborne volatile particles and aerosols contributed the most to As, Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu contamination, while Cd and Cu may also derive from the discharge of wastewater from smelters and the leaching of tailings, respectively. PMID:19999971

  20. Tectonic property and deformation history of Sangzhi-Shimen synclinorium corridor profile in western margin region of Hunan-hubei Province

    郭建华; 王明艳; 朱美衡; 刘学锋; 张或丹; 刘辰生


    The Sangzhi-Shimen synclinorium, which is in the western margin region of the Hunan-Hubei Province and as the southeast part of the middle Yangtze platform, is a second-level tectonics unit in the south of this region.Along the profile, it can be divided into 5 third-level structure belts. By the comprehensive interpretation of seismic data and magnetotelluric (MT) sounding data, it is found that the surface structure is not in accordance with that of the underground, and this un-coordination can be conducted by many decollement surfaces between the layers.There are three periods of deformation in its geo-history in this region: before the early Yanshan stage, during the early Yanshan stage and after the early Yanshan stage, while the main deformation period is during the early Yanshan stage. And the mechanism of deformation is the thrust faults in basement, which are controlled by many decollements, in addition to the decollement of the cap-rock.

  1. Contribution to the speleology of Sterkfontein cave, Gauteng province, South Africa.

    Martini Jacques E. J.


    Full Text Available The authors present more data about the speleological aspect of the Sterkfontein Cave, famous for its bone breccia which yielded abundant hominid remains. They also briefly review the previous voluminous studies by numerous authors, which are mainly dealing with the paleontology, stratigraphy and sedimentology of the breccia. The present investigations were oriented to hitherto poorly investigated aspects such as detail mapping of the cave, its country rock stratigraphy and recording the underground extension of the basal part of the breccia body. The cave consists of a complex network of phreatic channels, developed along joints in Neoarchaean cherty dolostone over a restricted surface of 250x250m. The combined length of all passages within this area amounts to 5,23km. The system extends over a height of about 50m and the dry part of it is limited downwards by the water-table appearing as numerous static pools. The fossiliferous breccia (= Sterkfontein Formation forms an irregular lenticular mass 75x25m horizontally by 40m vertically, which is included within the passage network. It crops out at surface and in the cave, and resulted from the filling of a collapse chamber, which was de-roofed by erosion. The present investigation confirmed that the cave and the Sterkfontein Formation are part of a single speleogenetic event. The breccia resulted from cavity filling by sediments introduced from a pit entrance, whereas many of the phreatic passages around it, which are developed at the same elevation, were only partly filled or remained entirely open up to present. This filling took place mainly in a vadose environment. Taking into account the age of the Sterkfontein Formation (>3,3-1,5 My, from base to top, the geomorphic evolution of the landscape and the context of other caves in the region, it seems that the cave might have started to form 5 My ago. It has been continuously developing up to present as a result of a slow drop of the water-table.

  2. Hunan Gold Corporation Visiting South America to Develop Gold Resources


    <正>On November 2nd,Hunan Gold Corporation signed a cooperation agreement to collaboratively exploit gold resources in South America.Gold Corporation has made its first"Step Out",initiating its overseas landscape layout of resources.Gold Corporation is a leading enterprise of nonferrous metals in Hunan Province,the

  3. Survey on Medical Students Abuse during Clinical Clerkships in Hunan Province%湖南省实习期医学生受虐状况调查

    滕艳霞; 邓云龙; 姜红娟; 丁大为; 聂华林


    Objective To assess the prevalence of medical students abuse during clinical clerkships. Methods Clerkship abuse checklist developed by Shizuko Nagata -Kobayashi was used anonymously in 329 medical students in 8 teaching hospitals in Hunan province. Results In all five types of medical student abuse we investigated, verbal abuse (n = 210,67. 3%,P=0. 734)was the most common .The sources of abuse were:nurses(n=97.26. l%)vs verbal abuse,attending physician(n= 19,20. 9%)vs physical abuse,resident physician(n= 19,18. 2%)vs academic abuse,attending physician(n= 32,19. 9%)vs sexual harassment,attending physician and resident physictan(n = 36,20. 8%)vs gender discrimination. Surgical department was reported as the most common abusive site of verbal abuse(n=109,31. 6%),physical abuse (n = 32,36. 0%),sexual harassment(n = 42,38. 5%)and gender discrimination (n = 56,37. 1%). Internal medicine (n = 42,38. 5%)was reported as the most common abusive site of academic abuse. Conclusion The phenomenon of medical student abuse is common in Hunan province. All kinds of the abuse have bad effect on students. The main sources of abuse are physicians and nurses. The abuse happens most in surgery and gynecology.%目的 了解医学院校学生在临床实习期期间虐待的发生情况.方法 按照分层随机抽样的方法选取湖南省6所医学院校的8家直属、附属医院共312名实习医学生为调查对象,采用Shizuko Nagata- Kobayashi的医学实习生虐待调查表进行回顾性调查.结果 在医学生虐待的5种类型中,言语虐待事件发生的频率最高(n=210,67.3%,P=0.734).从施虐者来看,言语虐待的施虐者中护士占第一位(n=97,26.1%),躯体虐待中为主治医师(n=19,2o.9%),学业虐待中为住院医师(n=19,18.2%),性骚扰中也是主治医师(n=32,19.9%),性别歧视中住院医师和主治医师并列第一(n=36,20.8%).从虐待事件的发生科室来看,言语虐待和躯体虐待均以外科(n=109,31.6%、n=32

  4. Follow-up study on management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Hunan Province, the People's Republic of China

    Zeng, Yuqin


    Yuqin Zeng,1,* Jianxian Xu,1,* Shan Cai,1 Fen Jiang,1 Anmei Hu,2 Huayun Liu,3 Chengli Bei,4 Ping Chen11Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shenzhen City Baoan District Central Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Yueyang First People’s Hospital, Yueyang, Hunan, 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, Changsha Central Hospital, Changsha, People&...

  5. Heavy metal pollution of soils and vegetables in the midstream and downstream of the Xiangjiang River, Hunan Province%湘江中下游农田土壤和蔬菜的重金属污染

    王莉霞; 郭朝晖; 肖细元; 陈同斌; 廖晓勇; 宋杰; 武斌


    A total of 219 agricultural soil and 48 vegetable samples were collected from the midstream and downstream of the Xiangjiang River (the Hengyang-Changsha section) in Hunan Province. The accumulation characteristics, spatial distribution and potential risk of heavy metals in the agricultural soils and vegetables were depicted. There are higher accu- mulations of heavy metals such as As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in agricultural soils, and the contents of Cd (2.44 mg kg-1), Pb (65.00 mg kg-1) and Zn (144.13 mg kg-1) are 7.97, 3.69 and 1.63 times the corresponding background contents in soils of Hunan Province, respectively. 13.2% of As, 68.5% of Cd, 2.7% of Cu, 2.7% of Ni, 8.7% of Pb and 15.1% of Zn in soil sam- ples from the investigated sites exceeded the maximum allowable heavy metal contents inthe China Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (GB15618-1995, Grade II). The pollution characteristics of multi-metals in soils are mainly due to Cd. The contents of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in vegetable soils are significantly higher than the contents in paddy soils. 95.8%, 68.8%, 10.4% and 95.8% of vegetable samples exceeded the Maximum Levels of Contami- nants in Foods (GB2762-2005) for As, Cd, Ni and Pb concentrations, respectively. There are significantly positive correlations between the concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in vegetables and the concentrations in the corresponding vegetable soils (p<0.01). It is very necessary to focus on the potential risk of heavy metals for food safety and human health in agricultural soils and vegetables in the midstream and downstream of the Xiangjiang River, Hunan Province of China.

  6. Health access livelihood framework reveals potential barriers in the control of schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake area of Hunan Province, China.

    Julie Balen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Access to health care is a major requirement in improving health and fostering socioeconomic development. In the People's Republic of China (P.R. China, considerable changes have occurred in the social, economic, and health systems with a shift from a centrally planned to a socialist market economy. This brought about great benefits and new challenges, particularly for vertical disease control programs, including schistosomiasis. We explored systemic barriers in access to equitable and effective control of schistosomiasis. METHODOLOGY: Between August 2002 and February 2003, 66 interviews with staff from anti-schistosomiasis control stations and six focus group discussions with health personnel were conducted in the Dongting Lake area, Hunan Province. Additionally, 79 patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica were interviewed. The health access livelihood framework was utilized to examine availability, accessibility, affordability, adequacy, and acceptability of schistosomiasis-related health care. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found sufficient availability of infrastructure and human resources at most control stations. Many patients with advanced schistosomiasis resided in non-endemic or moderately endemic areas, however, with poor accessibility to disease-specific knowledge and specialized health services. Moreover, none of the patients interviewed had any form of health insurance, resulting in high out-of-pocket expenditure or unaffordable care. Reports on the adequacy and acceptability of care were mixed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a need to strengthen health awareness and schistosomiasis surveillance in post-transmission control settings, as well as to reduce diagnostic and treatment costs. Further studies are needed to gain a multi-layered, in-depth understanding of remaining barriers, so that the ultimate goal of schistosomiasis elimination in P.R. China can be reached.

  7. 湖南通道染制侗布的民族植物学研究%Ethnobotanical research on the dying Dong cloth in Tongdao, Hunan Province

    刘光华; 佘朝文; 曾汉元; 黄蔚霞; 马志尧; 罗健


    Dong nationality people have had the Dong cloth for hundreds of years. An ethnobotanical survey on the dying Dong cloth in Tongdao f Hunan Province, was carried out. The process of the dying Dong cloth was found to be very complicated and the plants used for the dying Dong cloth were different more or less among makers. The plants involved in the dying Dong cloth in Tongdao included 16 species,belonging to 14 families, 16 genera. All of them had some medicinal properties. Several plants were reported for the first time in the dying Dong cloth. The ethnobotanical knowledge of the dying Dong cloth had lost a lot in the villages. The further research is necessary.%侗族人民千百年来,一直从事侗布的染制.该文对湖南通道的侗布染制进行了详细的民族植物学研究,发现侗布的染制工艺繁杂,不同的人所用的植物有较大差异.侗布染制共涉及野生及栽培植物16种,分属14科16属.这些植物都有一定的药用功效,有些植物在染布中属首次报道.侗布染制的民族植物学知识在各个村寨流失严重,需要加强挖掘和整理.

  8. Primary Sn-rich titianite in the Qitianling granite, Hunan Province, southern China: An important type of tin-bearing mineral and its implications for tin exploration

    XIE Lei; WANG RuCheng; CHEN Jun; ZHU JinChu; ZHANG WenLan; WANG DeZi; YU APeng


    The Oitianling calc-alkaline granite in Hunan Province (South China) has attracted much attention since the discovery of the Furong super-large tin deposit. The present study provides new mineralogical data to address their implications for exploration of tin deposits. In the Taoxiwo granite in the southeastern part of the Qitianling granite body, Sn-rich titanite was identified as an important type of Sn-bearing mineral. The titanite commonly occurs with biotite as euhedral crystals, exhibiting typical envelope-like shape and sector-zoning texture. These indicate that the titanite most likely crystallized in the mag-matic stage. Electron-microprobe analyses show that the titanite is enriched in tin up to 1.12 wt% SnO2,with an average of 0.43 wt%. With the crystallization of the granite, primary minerals undertook hydro-thermal alteration by magma-derived fluids. Subsequently, in the hydrothermal stage, the primary Sn-bearing titanite was altered (at least partially), but still preserved its typical envelope-shaped outline. Micro-scale cassiterite is a representative product of such alteration; other secondary minerals include fluorite, ilmenite, Sn-bearing rutile and quartz. Therefore, the titanite, commonly present in the calc-alkaline granites, can be treated as an important Sn-carrying mineral in the Qitianling granite, reflecting the primary magmatic environment with tin enrichment. The hydrothermal alteration of the primary titanite and subsequent crystallization of cassiterite recorded a process of leaching and accumulation of tin in magmatic-hydrothermal evolution of the Sn-bearing granite. Thus, this titanite has important implications for tin exploration.

  9. Burial Caves at Kaivang in Guizhou Province%贵州开阳平寨岩洞葬


    贵州省文物考古研究所在开阳县高寨乡发掘围坡田洞、观音洞、仓口洞、幺罗寨洞4处岩洞葬,出土海贝、料珠、铜钱、陶片等文物,初步确定其为花仡佬遗存。%The Guizhou Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology excavated four burial caves at Weipotiandong, Guanyindong, Cangkoudong, and Yaoluozhaidong at Gaozhai, Kaiyang County, Guizhou Province. Seashells, glass beads, copper coins, and pottery shards were unearthed here. These objects possibly belonged to the Huagelao people.

  10. A Study on Suicide Cognition of Medical Students in Hunan Province of China%湖南部分医学院学生自杀认知水平的调查研究

    冯珊珊; 肖水源; 白丽琼


    Objective:To study the knowledge about suicide among medical students in Hunan province of China and to provide scientific basis for preventing suicide. Methods:A total of 446 students were selected by random cluster sampling techniques and their knowledge of suicide was assessed by the Suicide Knowledge Questionnaire. Results, The correctness rates of three schools were 58.29%, 59.14% and 57.94% respectively. School teaching was the main channel for medical students to obtain suicide knowledge. Conclusion: Medical students have not received adequate education on suicide, and have some severe misunderstanding about suicide.

  11. 基于Dijkstra和GIS的湖南省应急物流模型研究%Model study of emergency logistics in Hunan Province based on Dijkstra and GIS

    谢金龙; 武献宇


    Characteristics and logistics for the emergency needs of the logistics for the study area in Hunan Province. emergency supplies distribution models and algorithms based on the Dijkstra algorithm and GIS is proposed, and examples of the model is validated.%针对应急物流的特点和需求,以湖南省区域物流为研究对象,提出了一种基于Dijkstra算法和GIS的应急物资配送模型和算法,并用实例对模型进行了验证。

  12. Research on the Innovation Efficiency of High-Tech Industry of Hunan Province Based on DEA%基于DE A的湖南省高技术产业创新效率研究

    曹兴; 黄玲雁


    针对湖南省高技术产业的创新效率,运用DEA方法,构建评价指标体系,以2000-2011年高技术产业的投入产出数据为依据,通过MATLAB建模进行评价分析。结果表明:湖南省高技术产业创新效率整体不高,在研究人员和经费方面存在较大过剩。在此基础上进一步分析了导致创新效率非有效性的原因。%Referring to the innovation efficiency of high -tech industry of Hunan province,this paper uses the method of DEA to establish evaluation index system.Based on the input -output data from 2000 to 2011,it builds a model by MATLAB to evaluate and analyze the data.The results show that the whole innovation efficiency of high-tech industry of Hunan province is not high,and R&D personnel and expenditure have a large surplus. Based on these,it further analyzes the causes of innovation inefficiency.

  13. Research on the Innovation Efficiency of High-Tech Industry of Hunan Province Based on DEA%基于DE A的湖南省高技术产业创新效率研究

    曹兴; 黄玲雁


    针对湖南省高技术产业的创新效率,运用DEA方法,构建评价指标体系,以2000-2011年高技术产业的投入产出数据为依据,通过MATLAB建模进行评价分析。结果表明:湖南省高技术产业创新效率整体不高,在研究人员和经费方面存在较大过剩。在此基础上进一步分析了导致创新效率非有效性的原因。%Referring to the innovation efficiency of high -tech industry of Hunan province,this paper uses the method of DEA to establish evaluation index system.Based on the input -output data from 2000 to 2011,it builds a model by MATLAB to evaluate and analyze the data.The results show that the whole innovation efficiency of high-tech industry of Hunan province is not high,and R&D personnel and expenditure have a large surplus. Based on these,it further analyzes the causes of innovation inefficiency.

  14. 湖南省休闲农业发展的SWOT分析及对策研究%SWOT Analysis for Development of Leisure Agriculture in Hunan Province and Its Strategies

    黄振国; 朱雅玲; 祝琪雅; 刘英; 胡任远


    发展休闲农业对促进农村生产发展、提高农民生活水平等都有着十分重要的作用.利用SWOT的分析方法,分析了湖南省休闲农业发展的优势、劣势、机遇和挑战,针对制约湖南休闲农业发展的相关因素,提出了加强政府引导,科学规划布局,提高经营水平、完善公共基础设施,发掘地方文化资源、加强市场推广等相应对策.%Development of leisure agriculture plays an important role in promoting development of rural production and enhancing the living standards of farmers. The strength, weakness, opportunity and threat of development of leisure agriculture in Hunan Province were analyzed by SWOT method, and according to the factors which restricted the development of leisure agriculture in Hunan Province, some strategies were proposed as follows: strengthening government guidance, scientifically planning layout, enhancing operation level, perfecting communal infrastructure, mining local cultural resources, and reinforcing market popularization.


    Potiwat, Rutcharin; Sungvornyothin, Sungsit; Samung, Yudthana; Payakkapol, Anon; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn


    Bat bugs are blood-feeding insects of bats or warm blooded animals and humans. Since 2011, Leptocimex spp (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) has been reported in Thailand. However, microscopic examination of Leptocimex spp is complicated, especially when the entire body of the specimen is not available. To confirm the phenotypic identification of L. inordinatus from a limestone bat cave in Thailand, partial fragments of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene and 16S mitochondrial ribosomal DNA were PCR amplified and sequenced, which revealed 97% sequence identity with Cimicidae family members, being most similar to Cacodminae gen. sp. and C. vicinus, both bat bugs. Phylogenetic tree construction showed that L. inordinatus has a separate genetic lineage from that of with human bed bugs (Cimex hemipterus or C. lectularius), swallow bugs and other tick species. The presence of L. inordinatus in a bat-dwelling cave frequented by humans presents a potential public health problem requiring attention in particular regarding the possibility of zoonotic transmission of pathogens. PMID:27086421

  16. Evaluation of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for diagnosis of tuberculosis and rifampin resistance in county-level laboratories in Hunan province, China

    Hu Peilei; Bai Liqiong; Liu Fengping; Ou Xichao; Zhang Zhiying; Yi Songlin; Chen Zhongnan


    Background The Xpert MTB/RIF showed high sensitivity and specificity in previous studies carried out in different epidemiological and geographical settings and patient populations in high-burden tuberculosis (TB) countries.However,there were little data obtained by validation or demonstration study of the assay in China.In this study,the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF was investigated in two county-level laboratories in Hunan Province,China.Methods Consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and suspicion for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) were enrolled.For each patient suspected to have PTB,three sputum specimens (one spot sputum,one night sputum,and one morning sputum) were collected and each sputum was tested with smear microscopy,L(o)wenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture,and Xpert MTB/RIF test.For comparison across subgroups and testing methods,95% confidence intervals were calculated.All analyses were done with SPSS 16.0,and P <0.05 was regarded as significant.Results For case detection,the sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF was 100% for smear-and culture-positive TB and 88.6% for smear-negative and culture-positive TB; the overall sensitivity was 94.5% for all culture-positive patients.The specificity was 99.8%.The sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay was 22.0% in clinical TB patients and the specificity reached 100.0% in the group of patients who are infected with nontuberculous mycobacteria.For the detection of rifampin resistance,the sensitivity of MTB/RIF RIF-resistance detection was 92.9%,and the specificity was 98.7%.Of the 26 Xpert MTB/RIF-positive and RIF-resistant patients confirmed by LJ proportion tests,20 (76.9%) patients were infected by MDR-TB.Conclusions The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a highly sensitive and specific method for diagnosis of TB and RIF resistance,which will enable it to have the potential to be used in county-level laboratories and lead to the reduction of the infectious pool and improvements in TB

  17. Use of Structure-from-Motion Photogrammetry Technique to model Danxia red bed landform slope stability by discrete element modeling - case study at Mt. Langshan, Hunan Province, China

    Simonson, Scott; Hua, Peng; Luobin, Yan; Zhi, Chen


    Important to the evolution of Danxia landforms is how the rock cliffs are in large part shaped by rock collapse events, ranging from small break offs to large collapses. Quantitative research of Danxia landform evolution is still relatively young. In 2013-2014, Chinese and Slovak researchers conducted joint research to measure deformation of two large rock walls. In situ measurements of one rock wall found it to be stable, and Ps-InSAR measurements of the other were too few to be validated. Research conducted this year by Chinese researchers modeled the stress states of a stone pillar at Mt. Langshan, in Hunan Province, that toppled over in 2009. The model was able to demonstrate how stress states within the pillar changed as the soft basal layer retreated, but was not able to show the stress states at the point of complete collapse. According to field observations, the back side of the pillar fell away from the entire cliff mass before the complete collapse, and no models have been able to demonstrate the mechanisms behind this behavior. A further understanding of the mechanisms controlling rockfall events in Danxia landforms is extremely important because these stunning sceneries draw millions of tourists each year. Protecting the tourists and the infrastructure constructed to accommodate tourism is of utmost concern. This research will employ a UAV to as universally as possible photograph a stone pillar at Mt. Langshan that stands next to where the stone pillar collapsed in 2009. Using the recently developed structure-from-motion technique, a 3D model of the pillar will be constructed in order to extract geometrical data of the entire slope and its structural fabric. Also in situ measurements will be taken of the slope's toe during the field work exercises. These data are essential to constructing a realistic discrete element model using the 3DEC code and perform a kinematic analysis of the rock mass. Intact rock behavior will be based on the Mohr Coulomb

  18. Follow-up study on management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Hunan Province, the People’s Republic of China

    Zeng, Yuqin; Xu, Jianxian; Cai, Shan; Jiang, Fen; Hu, Anmei; Liu, Huayun; Bei, Chengli; Chen, Ping


    Background In 2009, our study showed an extreme imbalance and disparity in COPD-related health resources allocation at three levels of public hospitals (PHs) in Hunan Province of the People’s Republic of China, especially in second-level PHs. Moreover, most Chinese citizens accept their health care services in first- and second-level PHs for economic and geographical reasons, as well as because of the incomplete transfer system in the health care services. To improve diagnosis and treatment ability of pulmonologists in second-level PHs, an intervention that provided training combined with spirometry equipment was carried out in three PHs from six second-level PHs. The aim of this follow-up study was to evaluate the changes associated with COPD-related health resources allocation and the effect of the intervention 4 years later. Methods The data regarding the availability of spirometers, inhalation agents for COPD, and COPD-related health care education for local residents were collected from 57 PHs in 2009 and 48 PHs in 2013. Pulmonologists working in these PHs were asked to complete a questionnaire individually. Six second-level PHs (three in the intervention group and the other three in the control group [without training and spirometry equipment]) that further took part in the survey in 2009 were reevaluated to determine the doubtful diagnostic ratio and the confirmation ratio of COPD. The differences between 2009 and 2013 data was analyzed. Results A total of 762 questionnaires were completed. Compared with 2009, spirometer-equipped ratio raised from 40% to 69% in 2013 (P=0.03). The overall inhalation agent-equipped ratio increased from 58% in 2009 to 88% in 2013 (P=0.001). The total rate of health education raised from 35% in 2009 to 63% in 2013 (P=0.04). In total, 204 pulmonologists from six PHs (selected for study in 2009) completed the questionnaires in 2013. The median score of COPD knowledge questionnaire in the intervention group was higher than that

  19. The Build Analysis of Logistics Equipment Manufacturing Industry Cluster in Hunan Province%湖南省物流装备制造业集群构建分析

    邓爱民; 小平; 文慧; 田流


    the author analyzes the development opportunity of the logistics equipment manufactur-ing industry and its cluster with the logistics industry rapid development in our country under, Hunan province, as a powerful province of equipment manufacturing industry, has advantages and strength to development of logistics equipment manufacturing industry. Based on Porter-Dangning model in this pa-per, firstly introducing the role of a leading (core) enterprise in equipment manufacturing industry, con-structs a competitive model of equipment manufacturing industry cluster, on this basis, from the factors of production, demand conditions, leading (core) enterprises, the performance of the relevant industry and support industry, enterprise strategy, structure and competition, international cooperation and multina-tional companies, government behavior and the opportunity, such as eight aspects to analyze a competi-tive building of logistics equipment manufacturing industry cluster of in Hunan province,in order to provide a basis for decision-making in logistics equipment manufacturing industry cluster development of Hunan province.%分析了我国物流业快速发展下的物流装备制造业及其产业集群带来的发展机遇,湖南省作为装备制造业大省有优势和实力发展物流装备制造业。本文在波特-珰宁模型的基础上,首次引入装备制造业中的龙头(核心)企业作用,构建基于核心企业的装备制造业集群竞争力模型,由此从生产要素、需求条件、龙头(核心)企业、相关产业和支持产业的表现、企业战略、结构和竞争对手、国际合作与跨国公司、政府行为和机遇等八个方面,进行具有竞争力的湖南物流装备制造业集群构建分析,以期为湖南物流装备制造业集群发展提供决策依据。

  20. 湖南省老年人牙齿缺失及修复情况抽样调查%A sampling investigation of tooth loss and prosthetic condition of the elderly people in Hunan province

    刘哲; 冯云枝


    Objective To investigate the condition of tooth loss and denture restoration of the elderly people in Hunan Province. Methods The survey of tooth loss and denture restoration of the elderly people in Hunan was conducted using randomly sampling stratified cluster method. Results The prevalence of tooth loss of the elderly was 64.8% , and the percentage of edentulous people was 2.44%. There were only 35.6% of the elderly had prosthesis, and 41.8% of the missing teeth were repaired. For the repair rate of missing teeth, there was statistical significance between urban and rural, as well as between male and female ( P 0.05 ). Furthermore, inappropriate dental prosthesis appeared most frequently among the elderly people. Conclusion More work should be done to improve the repair rate of missing teeth among the elderly in Hunan. Moreover, it is necessary to prevent inappropriate or offensive dental prosthesis.%目的 了解湖南省老年人牙齿缺失及义齿修复情况.方法 采用分层随机整群抽样的方法,对湖南省老年人牙齿缺失及义齿修复情况进行抽样调查.结果 老年人牙齿缺失率为64.8%,无牙颌率为2.44%,义齿修复率为35.6%,牙齿修复率为41.8%.不同性别、城乡间牙齿修复率有差异(P0.05);义齿修复种类以"不良修复体"所占比例最高.结论 湖南省老年人牙齿修复率有待进一步提高,且要避免不良修复体.

  1. The Top-down Design of Hunan Province High-tech Park Innovation System Base on Efficiency Evaluation%基于效率评价的湖南省高新区创新体系顶层设计

    吴平; 唐承丽; 周龙


    构建高新区创新体系是高新区可持续发展的必然选择。湖南省高新区创新体系的顶层设计应以构建各创新主体为中心的网络化、开放化、协同化发展的多元联动创新网络体系为建设目标,通过DEA模型对湖南省12家高新区创新效率进行评价,结果表明全省多数高新区都存在纯技术效率和规模效率都偏低的问题,仅5家园区为DEA有效单元,进一步对非DEA有效单元进行投影分析指出其效率提升方向,最后就全省高新区创新体系建设提出了完善措施。%It is the necessary choice to construct the innovation system of new and high‐tech zones for the sustainable development of new and high‐tech zones. The top‐level design of innovation system of new and high‐tech zones in Hunan Province should take multi‐linkage innovation net‐work system of networking ,opening and cooperative development with the center of various innovation subjects as the construction objectives.Through the model of DEA ,it evaluates the innovation efficiency of 12 new and high‐tech zones in Hunan Province and the result shows that most of the new and high‐tech zones have the problems of low pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency. And there are only five parks have the DEA effective unit. Besides ,it further has projection analysis on the non‐DEA effective unit and points out their direction for efficiency improvement.Finally ,it puts forward the perfect measures on the construction of innovation system of new and high‐tech zones in Hunan Province .

  2. Occurring Characters and Trend of Diseases and Insect Pests of Rice in Hunan Province%湖南省水稻病虫害发生特点及趋势分析

    朱秀秀; 张政兵; 尹丽; 谭小平


    With favorable geography and climate conditions, Hunan Province is very suitable for rice growth, also beneficial to the occurrence of rice pests and diseases. In recent years, rice stem borers, hopper, leaf roller and sheath blight occurred widespread and severe and new pests are continuously emerging, which became a serious threat to agricultural production. With the effect of climate warming and changes in cultivation ways, rice pests and diseases will continue to be severe in next several years in Hunan.%湖南省地理、气候条件优越,适宜水稻生长,也利于各种水稻有害生物的发生危害.对2001~2011年水稻螟虫、稻飞虱、稻纵卷叶螟、纹枯病等主要病虫害及次要病虫害的发生特点进行了分析.预计受气候变暖、水稻耕种方式改变等因素的影响,今后一段时期湖南省水稻病虫害发生将呈现增加趋势.

  3. 基于钻石模型的湖南省农业产业集群分析%Analysis of Agricultural Industry Cluster in Hunan Province by Diamond Model

    郭菁; 胡麦秀


    基于波特的钻石模型,从生产要素,需求状况,相关与辅助产业,企业战略、结构和同业竞争等4个关键因素,及机会和政府行为2个辅助因素,对湖南省农业产业集群的现状进行了简述和相关分析,提出在当前大力推进现代化农业建设的背景下,湖南应大力发展农业产业集群,促进现代农业建设.%Based on Michael Porter's Diamond Model, the status quo of agricultural industry cluster in Hunan Province was reviewed and analyzed from four key factors (production factors, demand status, related and assistant industry,strategy and structure of enterprise and horizontal competition) and two assistant factors (opportunity and government behavior).It proposed that under the background of vigorously promoting modem agricultural construction at present,Hunan should greatly develop agricultural industry cluster and promote modem agricultural construction.


    莫宏伟; 李少青; 陶建军; 刘晗; 肖志坤


    Risk zoning of flood disaster is the base of flood risk management.The advance in resolution of data can guide flood control,and flood insurance in a macroscopic view is available.Taking the catchment area along Xiangjiang River in Hunan Province as an example,and on the basis of elementary principles of natural disasters risk assessment,calculative model was established to obtain comprehensive flood disaster risk value which was computed by the integrated dangerous degree and comprehensive socio-economic vulnerability.Based on 30 m ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model(GDEM) data,climate data from 37 meteorological stations during 1971 to 2006,and 2008 socioeconomic statistic data,with the support of ArcGIS and quantitative geo-science methods,the regionalization map of comprehensive risk of flood disaster in study area was drawn by calculating proportion of risk areas.The regionalization map divided general risk assessed results mainly into four grades,that is,the lower risk region,moderate risk region,higher risk region and the highest risk regions.The results show that the highest integrated dangerous degree of flood disaster areas are mainly distributed in Xiangyin and Chang-Zhu-Tan region which along the lower reaches of Xiangjiang River.The highest comprehensive socioeconomic vulnerability areas is distributed in urban that in high population density.Xiangyin,Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan and Hengyang belong to the highest comprehensive flood disaster risk areas.The results can provide quantitatively theoretic basis for environmental management and ecological risk decision-making.%以湘江湖南段河流沿线地区为例,基于自然灾害风险评价的基本原理构建了洪水灾害综合风险值计算模型,即综合危险度和综合社会经济易损度的叠加。利用研究区全球数字高程模型(GDEM)数据、1971~2007年地面气象站观测数据和2008年社会经济统计数据等,借助地理信息系统(GIS)技术和地学

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of a Mixed-Subtype (H5N1 and H6N6) Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from a Duck in Hunan Province, China

    Liu, Zhihua; Xu, Bing; Chen, Quanjiao; Chen, Ze


    We isolated an avian influenza virus, A/duck/Hunan/747/2011(mixed), which included the H5N1 and H6N6 subtypes, from a duck in China. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the H5 hemagglutinin (HA) gene belongs to clade, the H6 HA gene belongs to the group II lineage, and the other internal genes show different recombination events.

  6. 湖南省长沙市博林金谷小区建筑设计与规划%On design and planning for architectural design of Bolinjingu complex in Changsha city of Hunan province



    以湖南省长沙市柏林金谷小区的建筑设计和规划为研究内容,提出了“人文与自然和谐相处”的设计理念,对小区中的规划布局、道路系统、绿化景观系统、建筑设计进行了详细的说明,以供参考和借鉴。%Based on the architectural design and planning for Bolinjingu complex in Changsha city of Hunan province,the paper points out the design idea of the harmonious relationship between humankind and nature,and indicates the planning layout,road system,reforestation land-scape system,and architectural design,so as to provide some reference.

  7. Relationship between Sports Injury and Sports Scene of Gymnasts in Hunan Province%湖南省体操运动员运动损伤与运动场景的关系



    本文运用问卷调查法为主要研究方法,以湖南省体操运动员运动损伤者为研究对象,探讨我省体操运动员运动损伤成因与运动场景的关系,旨在最大限度地预防运动损伤的发生。结果显示:运动场景是导致运动员运动损伤的重要原因之一;在运动损伤的运动员中,由于运动场景的原因,城与乡、一线队与二线队、男与女的受伤人数比例成显著差异。而一线队与二线队运动员因“情景回顾”受伤人数比例无明显差异。%Through using the method of questionnaire, taking the sports injury of gymnasts in Hunan province as research subject, this paper discusses the relationship between sports injury and sports scene of gymnasts in Hunan province, the main purpose is to maximize the prevention of sports injuries. The result shows that sports scene is one of the main factors caused the sports injury. In the sports injury of athletes, because of sports scene, city and countryside, the first team and second team, male and female number wounded proportion have significant diffe - rence. While the first team and second team players for "episodic recall" the number of injured ratio was not sig- nificantly different.

  8. 湖南芷江石雕工艺行业从业人员现况调查%A Survey of Current Employees of Stone -carving in Zhijiang County of Hunan Province



    Stone-carving plays a vital role in transmitting the cultural elements in the age -old architectures and buildings , for the sake of the cultural information in great varieties and in different periods , which is to be positively inherited and spread one generation after another . The stone-carving in Zhijiang County of Hunan Province enjoys an insurmountable cultural and artistic value for its thriving themes and forms , exquisite crafts and techniques , profound implication and connotation , gorgeous designs and artistry , hence a prosperous development up to now . In light of the prospect of the stone -carving , a survey of current employees in Zhijiang County of Hunan Province is comprehensively conducted as a result .%  石雕是古建筑中的主要文化元素之一,石雕的内容、形式传递着不同时代的文化信息,同时对文化思想的传播产生着积极的影响。芷江民间石雕内容形式丰富、工艺精美、内涵深厚丰满、艺术特色强,具有很高的文化、艺术价值,当下芷江石雕工艺行业发展到了一个关键时期,基于对这个传统工艺行业发展前景的探索与研究,就芷江石雕行业从业人员的现状进行了较为全面的调查。

  9. On Chinese Taekwondo Hall Management Trend from South Korea Taekwondo Hall Management Mode——Taking Hunan Province as an Example%从韩国跆拳道馆管理模式看中国跆拳道馆管理趋势——以湖南省为例

    张继生; 喻业


    Based on the situations of Taekwondo in China energy development reality,through using the methods of literature,field survey,interview and logical analysis and other research methods,in cultural studies and sociology perspective,the paper does the investigation of Taekwondo Gymnasiums in Hunan province about their current situations of management modes,and summarizes the lessons from Korea Taekwondo Center Management mode merit,of Hunan province Taekwondo tendency,with purpose of providing some practical data and theoretical support for Hunan province and China's Taekwondo Development.%文章基于跆拳道运动在我国劲势发展的现实情况,采用文献资料法,实地考察法,访谈法和逻辑分析法等研究方法,在文化学和社会学的视角下,调查湖南省跆拳道馆管理模式现状,并总结借鉴韩国跆拳道馆管理模式的可取之处,展望湖南省跆拳道馆趋势,以期为湖南省及我国跆拳道馆的发展提供一些现实数据和理论支持。

  10. 湖南省开展自然资源资产负债核算的可行性探讨%Discussions on the Feasibility of Carrying out the Assets and Liabilities Accounting of Natural Resources in Hunan Province

    伍格致; 杨亦民; 周慧滨


    自然资源资产负债核算是加强我国生态文明建设的一项制度创新。十八届三中全会提出了探索编制自然资源资产负债表,对领导干部实行自然资源资产离任审计。编制自然资源资产负债表是一个崭新的课题。通过文献综述研究认为,自然资源价值理论和计量方法的研究成果,为湖南省开展自然资源资产负债核算提供了理论指导和技术支持。湖南省编制自然资源资产负债表的基础条件已具备、政策要求已明确,形成了基本的自然资源管理体系和基础资料,开展自然资源资产负债核算完全可行。%Natural resource assets and liabilities accounting is a system innovation to strengthen the construction of ecological civilization in china. The third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee proposed to explore the preparation of the balance sheet of natural resources, the implementation of the audit of natural resources assets of leading cadres. The preparation of the balance sheet of natural resources is a new topic. Through literature review, the research results of natural resources value theory and measurement methods provide theoretical guidance and technical support for the development of natural resources assets and liabilities accounting in Hunan province. Hunan Province in the preparation of natural resources balance sheet conditions have been met, the policy requirements has been clear, formed the basic natural resource management system and the basic data, natural resource assets and liabilities accounts entirely feasible.

  11. On Improving College Graduates' Employment of Hunan Province Based on Entrepreneurship Education%以创业教育带动我省大学生就业工作的探讨

    张应军; 王幼凡


    In light of the serious employment situation for undergraduates of the whole nation,prompting undergraduates' employment through entrepreneurship education has become the important strategy for dealing the undergraduates' nationwide serious employment situation.Recently the undergraduates in Hunan province facing many difficulties in enterprise,and strengthen the entrepreneurship education is very crucial for them to improve their abilities in enterprise.In author's view,positive results can be attained only by building enterprise stage,expanding job-obtaining channels,improving employment environment,enhancing graduates' job opportunities and guiding undergraduates' entrepreneurship.%全国大学生就业形势严峻,以创业带动就业成为从中央到地方应对大学生就业难题的重大战略。当前我省大学生创业面临着许多困难,迫切需要通过加强创业教育提高大学生的创业能力。只有通过搭建创业平台,拓展创业途径,改善创业环境,增加大学生的创业机会,积极引导大学生创业,才能取得实效。

  12. Investigation and Analysis of the Parent-child Relationship of College Students in Hunan Province%湖南省大学生亲子关系调查与分析



    从湖南省内21所高校大学生的抽样调查来看,大学生亲子关系与其家庭背景和条件、父母收入和学历水平有着显著的相关性;大学生对家庭教育普遍持认可态度。学校应通过多种途径、多种形式来建立和完善与学生家庭的合作机制,共同促进学生发展;政府应该通过教育均衡发展来推动家庭教育步入良性循环。%A sample survey of 21 colleges and universities in Hunan province shows that there is a significant posi-tive correlation between college students’parent-child relationship and family background and conditions, parental income and education level. College students generally approve of family education. Colleges and universities should establish and improve cooperation system with families of students in a variety of ways and forms, which can jointly promote the development of students. The government should promote family education into a virtuous circle by bal-anced development of education.

  13. Co-circulation of H5N6, H3N2, H3N8, and Emergence of Novel Reassortant H3N6 in a Local Community in Hunan Province in China

    Li, Xuyong; Yang, Jiayun; Liu, Bin; Jia, Yane; Guo, Jing; Gao, Xue; Weng, Shaoting; Yang, Maijuan; Wang, Liang; Wang, Lin-Fa; Cui, Jie; Chen, Hualan; Zhu, Qiyun


    Multiple infections of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in poultry or wild birds contribute to the continued evolution of H5 subtype viruses in nature and provide potential recombination of AIVs of different origins. In this study, we carried out surveillance of AIVs in ducks, geese and the environment of a community in Hunan province, China, from 2014–2015. We isolated multiple co-circulated AIVs including H3N2, H3N8, and H5N6, and, most importantly, a novel reassortant: H3N6. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that H3N6 is highly likely derived from H5N6, which has recently been shown to have zoonotic potential with human infections. Studies with mammalian cell lines and a mouse model indicate that four selected AIVs of duck or goose origin can infect MDCK and A549 cells but have low pathogenicity in mice. We propose that a potential co-circulation of multiple subtypes including H5N6 in local area may result in the production of novel subtypes such as H3N6 by gene reassortment. PMID:27151540

  14. Co-circulation of H5N6, H3N2, H3N8, and Emergence of Novel Reassortant H3N6 in a Local Community in Hunan Province in China.

    Li, Xuyong; Yang, Jiayun; Liu, Bin; Jia, Yane; Guo, Jing; Gao, Xue; Weng, Shaoting; Yang, Maijuan; Wang, Liang; Wang, Lin-Fa; Cui, Jie; Chen, Hualan; Zhu, Qiyun


    Multiple infections of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in poultry or wild birds contribute to the continued evolution of H5 subtype viruses in nature and provide potential recombination of AIVs of different origins. In this study, we carried out surveillance of AIVs in ducks, geese and the environment of a community in Hunan province, China, from 2014-2015. We isolated multiple co-circulated AIVs including H3N2, H3N8, and H5N6, and, most importantly, a novel reassortant: H3N6. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that H3N6 is highly likely derived from H5N6, which has recently been shown to have zoonotic potential with human infections. Studies with mammalian cell lines and a mouse model indicate that four selected AIVs of duck or goose origin can infect MDCK and A549 cells but have low pathogenicity in mice. We propose that a potential co-circulation of multiple subtypes including H5N6 in local area may result in the production of novel subtypes such as H3N6 by gene reassortment. PMID:27151540

  15. Re-Os isotope dating of molybdenites in the Huangshaping Pb-Zn-W-Mo polymetallic deposit,Hunan Province,South China and its geological significance

    YAO JunMing; HUA RenMin; QU WenJun; QI HuaWen; LIN JinFu; DU AnDao


    The large-scale Huangshaping Pb-Zn-W-Mo polymetallic deposit is located in the central Nanling mineralization zone, South China. Six molybdenite samples from the Huangshaping deposit were selected for Re-Os isotope measurement in order to define the mineralization age of the deposit. It yields a Re-Os isochron age of 154.8±1.9 Ma(2σ),which is in accordance with the Re-Os model ages of 150.9-156.9 Ma. This age is about 7 Ma younger than their host granite porphyry, which was dated as 161.6±1.1 Ma by zircon U-Pb method using LA-ICPMS. All these ages demonstrate that the Huangshaping granite and related Pb-Zn-W-Mo deposit occurred in the middle Yanshanian period, when many other granitoid and related ore deposits emplaced and formed, e. G. The Qitianling granite and Furong tin deposit, the Qianlishan granite and giant Shizhuyuan W-Sn-Mo-Bi deposit and Jinchuantang Sn-Bideposit in the nearby area. They constitute the main part of the magmatic-metallogenic belt of southern Hunan, and represent the large-scale metallogeny in middle Yanshanian in the area. The lower rhenium content in molybdenite of Huangshaping deposit suggests that the ore-forming material was mainly of crust origin.

  16. Subjectivity Inherent In By-Eye Symmetry Judgements and the Large Cutting Tools at the Cave of Hearths, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Dave Underhill


    Full Text Available The Stone Age of South Africa is an area of study due for a renaissance, and there is a real need for unification of the extant evidence. As a beginning to this, new methodologies have been proposed. This paper tackles the issue of symmetry, specifically the subjectivity involved in by-eye judgements. Assumptions of subjectivity, however, are not proof: presented here is a critical analysis of the inherent bias of by-eye symmetry judgements. Ultimately it is clear that the method contains a level of subjectivity which strips it of any analytical value. The by-eye judgement of symmetry is replaced by the more robust Flip Test computer program, and a brief study is made of the Large Cutting Tools (LCT at a vitally important, yet often overlooked, site dating from the Pleistocene in South Africa, the Cave of Hearths, Limpopo province. The corollary is that the symmetry present in the Cave of Hearths Large Cutting Tools can be studied with some measure of confidence: suggestions are made regarding the nature of tool typologies and the knappers’ ultimate focus on tip shape and utility.

  17. 湖南省公益林保护建设分析与对策%Analysis and counter measures of protection and construction for public welfare forest in Hunan province



    公益林是指为维护和改善生态环境,保持生态平衡,保护生物多样性等满足人类社会的生态、社会需求和可持续发展为主体功能,提供公益性、社会性产品或服务的森林.为加强生态公益林的建设、保护和管理,各个省都制定了相应的规范.在介绍湖南省公益林资源和管理现状的基础上,分析了湖南省公益性建设成效和存在问题,提出了湖南省公益林保护建设对策.结果将为地方公益性保护建设和管理制度的完善提高决策依据.%Public welfare forests have the main body functions of maintaining and improving the ecological environment, keeping the ecological balance and protecting biodiversity for human society ecological, social demand and sustainable development. Public welfare forests also provide public welfare, social products or services. In order to enhance the protection and management of public welfare forest, every provinces have formulated corresponding specifications. The present situation of resources and management of public welfare forest in Hunan province were introduced, the results and existing problems of public welfare forests were analyzed, then protection solution of public welfare forests were put forward. The results would be help for decision-making basis to improve the management system of the public welfare forests.

  18. A new leech species (Hirudinida: Erpobdellidae: Erpobdella) from a cave in the West Azerbaijan province of Iran.

    Cichocka, Joanna M; Bielecki, Aleksander; Kur, Jarosław; Pikuła, Dorota; Kilikowska, Adrianna; Biernacka, Beata


    Erpobdella borisi n. sp. is a predatory leech inhabiting cave waters in Iran. Probably, it is either a troglobiont or troglophile. The leech has no eyes, and the complete mid-body somite is divided unequally into five annuli. Results of phylogenetic analysis based on morphological characters and COI gene sequence indicate the species to be closely related to Erpobdella japonica, E. octoculata and E. testacea. PMID:26623905

  19. Determine of Haydite Shale's Firing System of Yiyang City, Hunan Province%湖南益阳陶粒页岩烧成制度的确定

    王志云; 李玉平; 庄鹏; 曾卫; 黎军


    Taking the shale in a certain mine of Hunan Yiyang as the object of study, the basic characteristics of the Shale is determined through the means of XRD analysis and TG-DSC curve analysis. The range of haydite shale expansion temperature is identified by high-temperature wetting angle detector and energy-saving box-type furnace. The impact of the holding time,heating rate on the expansion of haydite shale is analyzed. And the ideal firing system is gotten. All targets of the ceramsite getting from twice pilot experiment were achieved the standard of GBT17431. 2-2010.%以湖南益阳某矿山的页岩为研究对象,在地质调查基础上,通过XRD分析、TG-DSC分析确定了页岩陶粒的基本特征;用高温润湿角测定仪、箱式电炉确定了陶粒页岩的发生膨胀的温度范围;分析了保温时间、升温速率等因素对陶粒页岩膨胀的影响;获得了该页岩理想的烧成制度.在实验室研究的基础上组织了两次工业级中试试验,获得了各项指标均达到GBT17431.2-2010标准要求的页岩陶粒产品.

  20. Sugarcane Pernicious Organisms Hunan


    @@ There are more than 2000 species of sugarcane pernicious organisms in the world, and over 400species axe in China. In order to make sure the sugarcane pernicious organisms in Hunan, we had a detailed investiga tion in several main sugarcane - producing regions during 1996- 1998.

  1. 湘西地区农村留守儿童体格发育状况调查分析%Investigation of Physical Development among Left-behind Children in Rural Areas in Western Hunan Province

    李春梅; 杨娜; 张惠娟; 胡蕖; 唐莹


    Objective To investigate the physical development among left - behind children ( whose parents are working in other areas or provinces ) in rural areas in western hunan province, China, with an attempt to provide evidence for policy - making. Methods The physical development and its influencing factors of 1 527 left - behind children and 738 non - left -behind children in western hunan province were mvestigated from July to Auguts, 2009. These children, aged 3 - 6 years, belonged to Han Nationality and two minority ethnic groups ( Tujia and Miao ). Results The Z scores of age - specific weight and age - specific height showed significantly difference between the left - behind children and non - left - behind children ( both P <0. 01 ). The incidence of low hody weight and growth retardation was 11. 7% among left - behind children and 4. 7% among non - left - behind children ( P <0. 01 ). It was notable that the incidence of low body weight and growth retardation was significantly higher among Miao children than among Han children ( P <0. 01 ) . while so such difference was found between Tujia children and Han children ( P > 0. 05 ). The incidence of low body weight was significantly lower in Tujia children than in Miao children ( P <0. 05 ). The hemoglobin level and prevalence of anemia showed significant differences among children of different ethnic groups ( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion The left - hehind children in western Hunan Province have poorer nutritional status than non - left - behind children. Local health authorities should pay more attention to this population and provide essential guidance and supports.%目的 了解湘西土家族、苗族、汉族3~6岁留守儿童体格发育状况,为促进留守儿童生长发育提供依据.方法 2009年7-8月对湘西地区土家族、苗族、汉族1 527名3~6岁留守儿童(留守组)及738名非留守儿童(非留守组)的体格发育水平及影响因素进行调查,并比

  2. Geochemistry and detrital zircon geochronology of Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks in eastern Hunan Province and their tectonic significance%湘东新元古代沉积岩的地球化学和碎屑锆石年代学特征及其构造意义

    王鹏鸣; 于津海; 孙涛; 凌洪飞; 陈培荣; 赵葵东; 陈卫峰; 刘潜


    This study presents new geochemical and zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isutopic data for Neoproterozoic meta-sedimentary rocks in the Xiangxiang-Liling area, eastern Hunan Province and Guiyang area, southeastern Hunan Province. Geochemical data show that the sedimentary rocks from these two areas have similar and moderate composition maturity. However, large K2O/Na2O variations suggest that these sedimentary rocks experienced different degree of the eluviation. Rare earth element ( REE) patterns of these sedimentary rocks from two areas are similar to those of post-Archean Australian shales (PAAS) with slightly high concentrations, especially for heavy REEs. The sedimentary rocks of the Banxi Group in the eastern Hunan Province have higher compatible elements (e. G. Sc, Cr, Ni) than the Sinian sedimentary rocks in the southeastern Province, implying that provenance of the former has more intermediate to mafic rocks than the later. U-Pb dating results of detrital zircons from two sedimentary rocks indicate that a Neoproterozoic sedimentary rock in eastern Hunan Province has abundant 850 ~800Ma detritus without ~ 1000Ma ones, suggesting its affinity with the Yangtze Block. However, a Neoproterozoic sedimentary rock in southeastern Hunan Province contains many Grenvillian detrital zircons and less ~ 2. 5Ga ones without - 800Ma elastic materials, similar to those in the Cathaysia Block. This difference suggests that the boundary between the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks probably pass between the Xiangxiang-Liling area, eastern Hunan Province and Guiyang area, southeastern Hunan Province. Previous study (Wang et al. , 2010a) has indicated that Early Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in these two areas have detritus similar to the Cathaysia Block, suggesting that their provenances are in the Cathaysia Block. Consequently, the sediments in the eastern Hunan Province change significantly from Late Neoproterozoic (Sinian) to Early Paleozoic time (Middle Cambrian) , suggesting a tectonic

  3. Isotope records from a stalagmite from dos anas cave in Pinar del Rio province, Cuba. Paleoclimatic implications

    Stalagmites show strong potential as high-resolution records for paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Stable isotopes and especially oxygen isotope in stalagmites, has been used to study the climatic changes during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene. The results of a study of a stalagmite of 420 mm from the Dos Anas cave, dated by 14 C to 14, 960 ± 50 yr. B.P., together with some indicators of subterranean palaeo-flow and palaeoclimatic evidence, gives new insights into the palaeohydrological functioning of the cave system since the last glacial maximum. Variations in the content of stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon were determined in homogeneous calcite layers from the stalagmite. These suggested a difference in temperature of 10 oC between the maximum and minimum δ18O values, which records a period of warming between 14, 960 ± 50 yr. B.P. and 4, 540 ± 40 yr. B.P. δ18O values of -1.168 and -2.892 correspond to dates of 11, 500 and 9, 200 yr. B.P. respectively and seem to be associated with the final cold phase, the Younger Dryas, and the start of the abrupt climatic warming that occurred at the start of the Holocene. The results presented are preliminary, and more data will be needed to confirm the paleoclimate interpretations and the chronology of the features. (Full text)


    郭敏; 薛跃规; 朱远锋; 李兆林


    This paper studies the restoration community for 20a of Luotaregion in western Hunan province.The results are shown as follows:the ap pearance of this community is characterized by the middle and low phaneropytes s uch as Acer davidii,Dendrobenthamia capitata,et al.The shrub layer occupies the important position in the structure of the community.There are 96 kinds of t rees,shrubs and vine species in this community.It shows that the community diversity is hig her than that of restoring for 40a.The structure of the community is not steadil y developing toward the climax state.%对湘西洛塔喀斯特地貌植物群落20年恢复林进行样方调查,结果表明:该植物群落的外貌由青榨槭、四照花、枫香、杜英、楠木等中小高位芽植物决定,其结构主要以灌木层为主,整个群落正处于一个向顶极状态发展的阶段.调查的数据还表明,在50 m×4 m样地内有木本植物96种,比自然恢复40年的阿堀村风水林物种多样性高.个体高度与径级结构以灌木层和幼苗占绝对数量,说明该群落的物种丰富,其木本植物的配置还未达到稳定状态,正向着顶极状态发展.

  5. Behavior Analysis of Farmers Engaging in Two-Oriented Agriculture Production Self-Consciously in Hunan Province%湖南省农户自为从事两型农业生产的实证分析

    肖建华; 乌东峰


    With the developmemnt of industrialization and urbanization,China's agriculture is facing the dual constraints of resources and environment.It has been proved that this dual constraints will not be solved unless China commits itself to resource-saving and environment-friendly agriculture.This paper based on questionnaire investigation of 332 farmers in Hunan Province investigate the behavior of farmers engaging in Two-Oriented Agriculture Production self-consciously.At present,the farmers'attitude of developing Two-Oriented Agriculture Production being negative,the subjective norm of developing Two-Oriented Agriculture Production lacking certain pressure,the farmers'Perceived behavioral control ability being low.These lead to the intention of farmers ingaging in Two-Oriented agriculture production self-consciously being low.%随着工业化、城镇化的深入发展,我国农业发展面临资源环境的双重约束.解决我国农业资源环境双重约束的根本出路在于走资源节约型、环境友好型农业(即“两型农业”)之路.以湖南省332个农户为研究对象,通过问卷调查考察农户自为从事两型农业生产的行为.调查显示,当前农户对发展两型农业的行为态度给予负面评价,在主观规范上缺少一定的压力以及感知行为控制能力低下,从而导致农户自为发展两型农业的意向低下.

  6. A relative study on assets structure and firm performance of listed companies in Hunan Province%湖南省上市公司资产结构与公司绩效的相关性研究



    以2003-2012年间湖南省上市公司为样本,采用多元线性回归对其资产结构与公司绩效之间的关系进行了实证研究。结果表明,湖南省上市公司流动资产比率与公司绩效呈微弱的正相关关系,固定资产比率对公司绩效的影响不显著,总资产周转率与公司绩效呈显著正相关关系。研究还发现,公司规模与公司绩效呈显著正相关关系,资产负债率与公司绩效呈显著负相关关系。%In recent years, the capital structure is increasingly concerned by scholars, and becomes a hot issue. But study of the relationship between capital structure and corporate performance is not enough, and the object of current study in China is mainly the whole of listed companies or an industry, instead of in a provincial area. Based on the listing corporations in Hunan Province from 2003 to 2012, this paper uses multiple linear regression to study the relationship between the assets structure and Firm Performance. The results show that there is weak positive correlation between current assets ratio and corporate performance, the effect of fixed assets ratio on corporate performance is not significant, and that there is significantly positive correlation between the total assets turnover and the company performance. The study has also found that there is significantly positive correlation between the scale of the company and company performance, and significantly negative correlation between debt ratio and corporate performance is found as well.

  7. Experimental Study on Mineral Processing of a Jiangkou Type Iron Ore From Hu'nan Province%湖南省某江口式铁矿选矿试验研究

    曹健; 邓圣为; 田宗平


    The TFe content of a Jiangkou type iron ore in Hunan province is 29 .63%, of that mainly in hematite and silicate , as well as small amount of magnetite and limonite .High silicon, poor iron, low sulfur and phosphorus are main features of the ore .For recovery of iron minerals , experimental studies with methods of magnetic separation , high intensity magnetic separation and reverse flotation were carried out .Eventually , low intensity magnetic separation was conducted first to separate magnetite , then high intensity magnetic separation combined with reverse flotation were carried out to recycle hematite , and an iron concentrate containing TFe 58 .07% with a recovery rate of 65 .95%was obtained .%湖南省某江口式铁矿含TFe 29.63%,铁主要是以赤铁矿和硅酸铁为主,还有少量磁铁矿和褐铁矿,具有高硅、贫铁、低硫、低磷的特点。为回收矿石中的铁,进行了弱磁、强磁、反浮选等工艺试验研究。最终确定采用“弱磁选回收磁铁矿—强磁选和反浮选回收赤铁矿”联合工艺流程,可获得TFe 58.07%、铁回收率65.95%的铁精矿。该工艺为类似铁矿的开发提供借鉴。

  8. 湖南省1996-2010年狂犬病流行趋势和防治现状%Epidemic Trend and Control of Rabies in Hunan Province During the Period of 1996~ 2010

    彭琦; 刘运芝; 张斯钰; 高立冬; 蔡亮; 王世清; 张红; 刘富强; 胡世雄; 曾舸


    Objective To analyze the epidemic trend and current status of rabies control in Hunan Province from 1996 to 2010. Methods Rabies case reports were collected to retrospectively analyze the epidemic trend. Direct immunofluores-cence assay (DFA) and nested PCR were employed to detect the monitoring samples, including brain tissues of dogs and saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, serum or urine which were collected from the rabies patients from 2008 to 2010. Genetic characteristics of rabies virus were also analyzed. We investigated the current situation of disposal after exposure to rabies among rural residents by sampling survey. Results The rabies case reports in Hunan Province were increasing continuously from 1996 until reaching to the peak in 2004, and decreasing since 2007. Of the 2,437 tissue samples from the dogs' brain, 72 were positive under DFA and the positive rate was 2.95%. The DFA positive samples were redetected by RT- PCR and the positive rate was 0.94% (23/72). 104 samples of saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, serum and urine were detected by RT- PCR from the rabies patients, with 11 positives and the positive rate was 10.58%. All the isolated rabies viruses belonged to genotype I. More than 90 % rural residents knew about rabies, but only 20.1 % knew the high risk behaviors of rabies and 17.3% knew the prevention measures after exposure to rabies. 89.09% of the patients with level III exposure did not use rabies passive immune agents. Conclusions The epidemic situation of rabies in Hunan Province has been decreasing with the implementation of a series of measures. Lack of correct understanding of rabies and the poor economic condition are the main reasons for nonstandard disposal after exposure to rabies.%目的 分析1996 -2010年湖南省狂犬病的流行趋势及防治现状.方法 利用疫情报告资料回顾分析狂犬病的流行趋势;采用直接免疫荧光法(DFA)和巢式PCR等方法对监测标本进行病原学检测及病毒基因特征分析

  9. 2013年上半年湖南省蔬菜产销形势分析%Analysis of Half-yearly Production and Marketing Situations for Vegetable in Hunan Province in 2013

    汪端华; 易斌; 王培根; 左雄建; 杨建国


    In the first half of 2013, the production situation in Hunan Province had been generally keeping sound. The planting area in whole province had been keeping stable and increasing. Influenced by weather and bird flu, the vegetable supply pressure in"vegetable lacking spring"were larger than previous years, and the vegetable prices kept at a high level once; entered in May and June, with a big scale of spring vegetable and summer vegetable coming into market, the vegetable prices began to drop rapidly and went lower than the same period of last year. For next period, vegetable production and marketing situations will be more severe because of the constant high temperature and drought. Therefore, it suggests that to strengthen the field management for vegetable in garden and alpine, to rush plant fast growing leaf vegetable early, and to raise seedlings of autumn vegetable, in order to ensure vegetable supply in "vegetable lacking summer".%2013年上半年,湖南省蔬菜生产形势整体良好。全省蔬菜播种面积稳中有增。蔬菜价格因天气和禽流感等因素影响,"春淡"蔬菜供需压力同比往年更加紧张,价格一度高位运行;进入5、6月,随着春夏菜的大量上市,蔬菜价格开始大幅回落,且价格低于2012年同期。下一阶段由于受持续高温干旱天气影响,蔬菜产销形势较为严峻。建议加强存园蔬菜及高山蔬菜的田间管理工作,及早抢播速生叶类蔬菜,同时做好秋栽蔬菜的育苗工作,保障"夏淡"期间蔬菜供应。

  10. Analyses of cosmetic sanitary quality in Hunan Province in 2010%2010年湖南省化妆品卫生质量检测结果分析

    刘艳红; 孙振球; 史静琤; 沈敏学; 胡婧璇; 雷世岳; 胡明


    Objective: To establish a scientific foundation for cosmetic supervision and administration based on the analysis of the sanitary quality of cosmetics in Hunan Province during 2010.Methods: According to Cosmetic Sanitary Standards (set by the Ministry of Health, People's Republic of China), 150 random samples of cosmetics in Hunan were assayed both for microbial items (including total plate count, fungus and yeast, fecal coliform, staphylococcus aureus,pseudomonas aeruginosa) and chemical items (including 17 kinds of prohibited substances and 14 kinds of restricted substances).Results: The total rate of cosmetics failing to meet the standards was 22.0% of the 150 samples;specific rates for failing perfumes, skin care products (eye cream) and deodorant products were, relatively, 70.6%, 60.00%, and 44.4%. Four kinds of prohibited substances, including diethylphthalate, acrylamide, asbestos and neodymium, as well as 2 kinds of restricted substances, including triclosan and formaldehyde, were found to exceed standards. None of microbial items exceeded standard levels.Conclusion: The sanitary quality control of cosmetics is lax. Administrative departments should not only reinforce their post-production supervision with respect to cosmetics, but also consolidate their control over the process of cosmetic production in order to solve the problem of toxic residues or illegal and intentional adulterations.%目的:评价2010年湖南省化妆品卫生质量状况,为更好地进行监督管理提供科学依据.方法:依据中华人民共和国卫生部《化妆品卫生规范》,随机抽取150份2010年湖南省市售化妆品并对其进行卫生学检验,包括微生物指标(菌落总数、霉菌和酵母菌、粪大肠菌群、金黄色葡萄球菌、铜绿假单胞菌)和化学指标(17种禁用物质和14种限用物质).结果:抽检化妆品的总体不合格率为22.0%,其中香水类,护肤类(眼部用)及除臭类化妆品不合格率较高,分别为70.6

  11. 河南西峡云华溶洞翼手目动物的调查%Preliminary Research of Chiroptera in Yunhua Karst Cave of Henan Province

    梁子安; 刘冰许; 张曼


    In October 2001 and September 2010, the chiropteni in Yunhua Karat Care of Henan Province was investigated. The results showed that chiroptera in this area belong to 4 families, 4 genera and 7 species. Among them, 4 species (57.1%) were Oriental realm spe cies, and 3 species (42.9% ) were cosmopolitan species. According to the present status of chiroptera resources in Yunhua Karat Cave, de tailed countermeasures for bat protection were put forward.%2001年10月和2010年9月,对河南省西峡县云华洞翼手目动物进行了调查.通过标本采集、鉴定分类,初步查明该溶洞分布翼手目动物共7种,隶属4科4属.其中,东洋界种4种,占总数的57.1%;广布种3种,占总数的42.9%.此外,根据蝙蝠资源的现状,提出了具体的保护建议.

  12. 基于SWOT定量分析的果蔬品电子商务体系构建研究--以湖南大湘西为例%Based on the SWOT Quantitative Analysis of Fruit and Vegetable Product Build e-commerce System Research--- in Western Hunan,Hunan province as an example

    彭仁孚; 黄成菊


    以湖南大湘西地区果蔬品为例,运用SWOT定量分析法,对该地区果蔬品电子商务发展进行内部、外部环境因素分析,明确湖南大湘西电子商务果蔬品的优势、劣势、机遇及挑战,提出构建果蔬品电子商务体系势在必行。文章根据湖南大湘西地区实际情况,提出果蔬品电子商务体系的构建对策,旨在为大湘西地区以及其他不发达地区构建果蔬品电子商务体系提供一定的指导意见。%The fruit and vegetable products in hunan big xiangxi area,for example,using quantitative analysis method of SWOT,fruit and vegetable products e-commerce development in the area are internal and external environmental factors anal-ysis,clear hunan western hunan e-commerce fruit and vegetable product strengths,weaknesses,opportunities and challenges,it is imperative to fruit and vegetable product electronic commerce system is put forward.Article according to the actual circum-stance of hunan west hunan area,put forward countermeasures for construction of fruit and vegetable products e-commerce system,and aims at providing a big xiangxi region and other underdeveloped areas build a fruit and vegetable products e-com-merce system provide certain guidance.

  13. The Development of Tourism and Karst Landscape of Shilong Cave in Liupanshui City,Guizhou Province%六盘水石龙洞的岩溶地貌景观和旅游开发

    谌洪星; 杨洪


    石龙洞属于岩溶洞穴,洞内发育溶痕、锅穴、顶板溶沟、倒石芽等溶蚀地貌;化学沉积类型丰富,主要有钟乳石、石笋、石柱、石帷幕、石珊瑚、月奶石等。这些造型奇特、形态各异的地貌构造是旅游和进行洞穴研究的良好场所。%Shilong Cave Long Cave in Liupanshui City,Guizhou Province is of a karst cave,It has deueloped many corrosion landform inside,including karst marks,kettle,shingles karsten,stone teeth,ect. Moreover, numerous electro-deposition structure such as stalactite,stalagmite, columns, curtain, stony corals and stonemoon stand in the cave. These karst landscape come in modelling unusual and diverse shapes,The con-ditions are advantaged tourism developmen,have prodigious potential to area of speleology research.

  14. 湖南通道侗族端午节中的民族植物学%Ethnobotanical Activities at the Dragon-Boat Festival in Tongdao, Hunan Province

    刘光华; 佘朝文; 蒋向辉; 石诗博; 曾婷婷


    Through long-term ethnobotanical investigation,we have discovered many ancient customs,including sacrificial,medicinal bathing,ornamental,and potherb customs,that take place at the traditional Dragon-Boat Festival in Tongdao County,Hunan Province.At this festival,people make full use of a large number of different plants when carrying out these customs.We recorded that plants hanging beside doors included 4 species,belonging to 4 different plant families and 4 genera; plants for bathing included 31 species,belonging to 20 families and 28 genera; while wild plants for healthcare included 47 species,belonging to 33 different families and 44 genera,most of which were wild medicinal plants having different functions.The uses of some of the plants recorded are reported for the first time.Reasons for the different uses of plants requires scientific investigation.Ethnobotanical knowledge is rich in the Dong communities and needs to be explored and studied comprehensively.%通过长期的民族植物学调查,我们发现通道侗族端午节文化习俗古老,保留有传统的祭祀、药浴、配戴饰品、食用保健野菜等习俗.在端午节中,人们利用的植物种类丰富,用于悬挂门户的植物有4种,涉及4科4属;用于药浴的植物有31种,涉及20科28属;用于保健的野生植物有47种,涉及33科44属.这些植物大多为野生药用植物,它们作用不一,用法也不尽相同,而其中一些能用来悬挂、药浴及保健的植物未见有相关报道,它们所包含的科学知识需要进一步去揭示.通道侗族聚居区的民族植物学知识蕴藏丰富,值得仔细深入地发掘和全面研究.

  15. A Research on Plants Communities of Fall Color Leaf in Xianyuling landscape Landscape resort Resort of Hunan Province%湖南仙庾岭风景名胜区秋色叶植物群落研究

    龙冰; 彭重华


    Xianyuling landscape resort of Hunan province belongs to the hilly area in middle subtropical zone w hose typical plant community is evergreen broad - leaved forest . This article conducts a research on general plant community type ,structure and the species composition in Xianyuling landscape resort ,and the results show that plants community of fall - color leaf can be divided into five categories:Cinnamomum camphora · Liquidambar community ,Liquidambar community ,Sassafras tzumu community ,Quercus fabri community and Sapium discolor community .Through the analysis of community composition ,structural characteristics and landscape characteristics of various typical communities , the article offers references for the selection and rational use of fall -color tree resources and restoration of forest landscape , w hich are helpful to the succession research of deciduous forest vegetation that contains evergreen composition in this area of middle subtropical zone .%指出了湖南仙庾岭风景名胜区属于中亚热带丘陵地区,地带性典型植物群落为常绿阔叶林。对景区总体植物群落类型及其结构、种类组成进行了调查研究,结果表明:秋色叶植物群落可以划分为5类:香樟·枫香群落、枫香群落、檫木群落、白栎群落、山乌桕群落,通过分析各典型群落的种类组成、结构特征及景观特征,为选择和合理运用秋色叶树种资源、山林植物景观修复提供依据,有助于该区系中亚热带含有常绿成分的落叶林植被的演替研究。

  16. Study on flora composition and species diversity of Changiostyrax raxdolichocarpa communities in northwestern Hunan province%湘西北长果安息香群落区系组成与特征

    张程; 彭重华; 刘晖; 曹铁如


    在对湖南桑植龙潭坪、石门壶瓶山长果安息香种群进行野外调查的基础上,分析了其群落的区系,比较了两地长果安息香分布核心样地的生境、群落特征及物种多样性.结果表明:(1)两个样地共出现维管植物82科153属229种.其中蕨类植物7科11属16种,裸子植物1科1属2种,被子植物74科141属211种;(2)长果安息香区系成分复杂,科级与属级地理成分热带性质较强;(3)长果安息香群落垂直结构复杂,以中小高位芽植物为主;(4)样地植物种类丰富,灌木层的各项物种多样性指数均高于乔木层和草本层.%The vegetation data of Changiostyrax raxdolichocarpa population forest in Hupingshan and Sangzhi, Hunan province were used as the information for studying the flora composition and species diversity. The results showed that a total of 82 families( 153 genera,229 species) of vascular plants were found within these two sample plot, including 7 families(ll genera, 16 species) of peridophyte; 1 family ( 1 genera, 2 species) of gymnospperme, 74 families ( 141 genera, 211 species) of angiospermae. The floristic elements are complex, strong tropical geographical elements were found at family-level and genus-level. Vertical structure of the community is also complex, dominated by mesophanerophytes and microphanerophytes. The community is rich in plant species, especially the diversity of shrub layer, which were higher than those of the tree layer and herb layer.

  17. Evaluation of Agricultural Resilience of Households after Drought in Paddyfield in Dingcheng in Hunan Province%湖南鼎城水田农作区农户农业旱灾后恢复力评价研究

    高立龙; 苏筠


    以水田农业典型区——湖南鼎城为研究区域,采用人户问卷调查的形式,运用主成分分析法对农户农业旱灾后的恢复情况进行评价分析.结果发现:被调查的各乡镇农业旱灾后恢复力存在较大差异.农户农业旱灾后恢复力随着人均粮食产量的增加先升高后降低;随着人均家庭收入增加出现了“M”型趋势;不同地貌类型的农户农业旱灾后恢复力排序为东北部地区>西北部地区>南部地区>中部地区;家庭收入水平、地貌类型和作物种植结构对农户农业旱灾后恢复力地提升有较大影响.最后,根据调查分析结果提出了几点具体措施,以帮助鼎城区农户提升农业旱灾后的恢复力.%Taking typical paddyfield region, Oingcheng in Hunan Province, as research area to evaluate agricultural resilience of households after drought by using principal component analysis based on questionnaires. The results showed that large gap existed between each instigated town's and village's agricultural resilience after drought; agricultural resilience after drought of households increased first and then reduced with increasing per capita grain yield; a "M" trends appeared with increase of per capita family income; the sequence of households' agricultural resilience after drought from high to low based on different geomorphologic types ordered as northeast>northwest>southem>central; family income level, geomorphologic types and crop planting structure have huge impact on increase of agricultural resilience after drought. In the end, some specific measures were proposed according to the analysis results to help the households in Dingcheng increase their agricultural resilience after drought.

  18. Investigation on the relation factors and analysis on Hunan province's all people's body-building programme%影响湖南群众体育发展的有关因素调查与分析



    we conducted a sample survey in 64 counties and urban districts of the first-phase(1995-2000)implementation of all people's body-building programme and made a comparative analysis on the same items before and after it was implemented.The findings turn out that the prospects of all people's body-building activities in Hunan province are optimittic.Almost everything,including the special-purpose sports grounds for mass body-building,activities,propaganda,funds input,sports instruction centers,activity centers and physique check systems,has made distinct improvement,but a relatively small number of people take part in the body-building activites and there still exist quite a few problems in how to push all people's body -building movement in a scientific,normal and effective way in its actual implementation.This research topic defines the present situation and the problems needed to be solved in implementing the programme,puts forward relevant countermeasures and provides the reference basis to better implement the programme.%通过对湖南64个县(市区)全民健身计划纲要第1期工程实施情况进行调查,并将《纲要》实施前后的情况进行对比分析,结果表明:湖南群众体育活动法规制度建设及内容、宣传和表彰;国民体质检测系统、科研和电子信息网络等情况较实施前有进步。但对迅猛发展的现阶段社会需求来说,还是一个非常薄弱的环节。研究提出了加强对群众体育活动的法律法规的宣传力度及其薄弱环节的监控等对策。

  19. 湖南农村双亲留守儿童生长发育影响因素分析%Status and influencing factors of growth and development among rural left-behind children in Hunan province

    彭喜春; 罗家有


    目的 探讨湖南省农村<7岁双亲留守儿童生长发育状况及其影响因素.方法 按照分层整群随机抽样原则,对随机选择的湖南省4县市695名<7岁农村留守儿童和592名对照儿童进行调查.结果 双亲留守儿童与对照儿童的生长迟缓率分别为18.7%、16.4%,低体重率为2.0%、2.2%,超重率为1.0%、0.5%,肥胖率为3.7%、2.9%,差异均无统计学意义(x2=1.184,P=0.276;x2=0.015,P=0.821;x2=1.038,P=0.358;x2=0.748,P=0.387);双亲留守儿童贫血检出率(33.4%)高于对照儿童(26.0%)(x2=8.265,P=0.004);多分类logistic回归分析结果显示,出生体重较重、不贫血、不挑食、家庭人口数较多、母亲文化程度较高,则身高别体重Z评分(WHZ)较高;母亲年龄较大及外出务工时间较长,则WHZ较低;父亲外出务工时间较长,年龄别身高Z评分(HAZ)较高;出生体重较重、散居、母亲文化程度较高,则年龄别体重Z评分(WAZ)较高;母亲年龄较大,WAZ评分低.结论 湖南省学龄前双亲留守儿童生长发育存在迟缓现象,母亲年龄较大、母亲外出务工而造成的母亲照顾缺失对儿童的生长发育有延缓作用.%Objective To investigate the status and related influencing factors of growth and development among rural left-behind children under 7 years old in Hunan province. Methods Stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 695 rural left-behind children and 592 controls for a questionnaire survey and physical measurement. Results The incidence rates were 18.7% and 16.4% for growth retardation,2. 0% and 2. 2% for underweight,3. 7% and 2. 9% for overweight,and 3. 7% and 2. 9% for obesity, respectively, among the left-behind and control children, with no significant differences between the two groups (P > 0. 2 for all). The rate of anemia in left-behind children (33. 4% ) was significantly higher than that of the control (26. 0% ,x2 = 8. 265 ; P = 0. 004). The results of multivariate logistic

  20. 湖南省汝城县土源性线虫病感染现状调查%Survey on Current Status of Geohelminthes Disease Infection in Rucheng County, Hunan Province

    邹月娥; 朱金林; 朱晓英; 朱敏燕; 游晓敏


    Objective To know the epidemic status and trends of geohelminthe disease and assess the effectiveness of its prevention in Rucheng County, Hunan Province, and to provide the reference for the development of the future strategies of geohelminthes control.Methods Five administrative villages were randomly selected from five towns in Rucheng County, Hunan Province.More than 200 residents in each administrative village were selected.Kato - Katz thick smear technique was used for quantitative determination of helminth eggs in faeces and the degree of infection (egg per gram, EPG) was calculated.The tube- filter paper culture method was used to separate oncosphere.Results Totally 1,000 residents were checked in five surveyed sites.Four kinds of geohelminthes were found.The total infection rate was 10.2%, of which 5.6% in roundworm, 3.5% in hookworm, 0.7% in trichuris, and 0.4% in enterobius.No statistically significant difference was found in the infection rates of roundworm and hookworm among the 5 towns (x2 = 4.29, P >0.05; and x2 = 4.74, P >0.05).The infection rates of male and female showed no statistically significant difference (x2 = 2.97, P > 0.05).There were statistically significant differences in the infection rate of hookworm between male and female (x2 = 10.19, P<0.01).There were statistically significant differences in the infection rate of hookworm among all age groups (x2 =49.5, P<0.01).Ancylostoma duodenale accounted for 29%.Necator americanus accounted for 71%.Conclusions Compared with the first survey results 20 years ago, the infection rate declines significantly.Universal prevention and treatment knowledge of parasitic diseases, feces harmless treatment and deworming drugs for the focus groups still need to continuously strengthen in the rural areas in order to consolidate the results of prevention and treatment of parasitic diseases.%目的 了解掌握汝城县土源性线虫病流行现状和趋势,评估其防治效果,为

  1. 湖南省中学生交通违规行为现状调查及影响因素分析%Investigation of traffic law violations among middle school students in Hunan province and the influencing factors

    王琦琦; 朱松林; 马苑; 何琼; 谭爱春; 胡国清


    目的:了解湖南省中学生交通违规行为发生情况,探讨不同程度交通违规行为的影响因素.方法:采用分层整群抽样方法随机抽取湖南省16个中学96个班的学生及其家长作为研究对象.由学生回顾最近1年内5种常见违规行为出现情况,影响因素中的家庭支持功能和家长教养方式分别采用家庭功能评定量表和子女教育心理控制源量表进行评价,其他变量通过自编问卷进行调查.采用Kruskal-Wallis H检验和无序多分类logistic回归分析数据.结果:湖南省中学生在过去1年中5种交通违规行为发生率为16.6%~43.3%,"过马路闯红灯或不走人行横道线"回答"经常"或"几乎总是"的学生占8.2%,其他4种交通违规行为的学生所占比例均不到4%.同时出现1~5种交通违规行为学生的比例依次为25.3%,17.8%,10.2%,6.2%和3.4%.Logistic回归发现:出现1种违规行为的影响因素包括地区、初/高中和是否为独生子女;出现2种违规行为的影响因素包括地区、初/高中、性别、是否为独生子女和是否为班干部;出现3种及以上违规行为的影响因素包括学校类别、初/高中、性别、是否为班干部、家庭支持功能和家长教养方式.结论:仅少部分学生经常或几乎每次都出现交通违规行为,或同时出现多种交通违规行为.学校安全教育和干预应将交通违规程度较重学生作为重点.%Objective To determine the incidence of traffic law violations among middle school students of Hunan province and to identify the influencing factors.Methods Stratified sampling and cluster sampling were used to randomly select students from 96 classes of 16 middle schools.Road traffic law violations were measured through recalling the occurrence of 5 common violations in the prior year.Most of influencing factors were collected by self-designed questionnaire except for family support function and parenting that were measured by the family

  2. 辽宁省城市社区体育在实施过程中的权力运行机制的研究%A Aesearch on City Community Sports in Implementation Process Authority Operational Mechanism in Hunan Province



    The research uses the questionnaire survey procedure,the mathematical method of average, research techniques and so on literature material law, has conducted the investigation and study to the Hunan Province partial city community sports authority operational mechanism present situation.The research demonstrated the Hunan Province city community sports organization manages has not brought to the enough attention, the authority operational mechanism quite is also chaotic, the populace sports authority operational mechanism in the management by supervision, the fund raising mechanism, the communication mechanism and aspects and so on location resources development use mechanism insufficiently is also perfect and mature, proposed conforms to the Hunan Province city community sports actual need community sports authority operational mechanism improvement countermeasure,formulates when the development community sports service policy for the government related functional departments refers.%研究采用问卷调查法、数理统计法、文献资料法等研究方法,对辽宁省部分城市社区体育权力运行机制的现状进行了调查研究。研究显示:辽宁省城市社区体育组织管理还没有引起足够的重视,权力运行机制还比较混乱,群众体育权力运行机制在监督管理、筹资机制、沟通机制和场地资源开发利用机制等方面还不够健全和成熟,提出符合辽宁省城市社区体育实际需要的社区体育权力运行机制的改进对策,供政府有关职能部门制定发展社区体育服务政策时参考。

  3. 湖南侗族学生Heath-Carter体型发育特征分析%Characteristics of Heath-Carter somatotype development in Dong students from Hunan province

    皮建辉; 吴亿中; 雷鸣枝


    BACKGROUND: There are many methods for studying the somatotype of adults or children. Among them, Heath-Carter somatotype method is a comprehensive evaluation method. Using this method, 10 items of anthropometric indicators are selected and 3 factors which could be gotten to represent relative content of body fat, growth degree of skeletal muscle and relative height and thinness of body (relative line degree), are calculated, respectively.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the rules and characteristics of somatotype development in Dong students from Hunan province, so as to supplement the essential data for physical anthropology.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A cross-sectional investigation was performed at the Department of Biological Engineering, Huaihua College of Hunan Province in May 2006.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 989 Dong students (boys 492, girls 497), aged 7 to 17 years, were selected from the primary schools or middle schools of Tongdao Dong Nationality Autonomous Country in Hunan province and recruited into the present study. All the selected students were verified healthy by physical examinations at school. The subjects were divided into two groups by gender, and each group was divided into 11 subgroups according to the age.METHODS: By Heath-Carter somatotype method, 10 anthropological indexes were measured. Each indicator was measured twice and the average value was selected. The above-mentioned data were input into the computer to form a database. The following indicators were calculated in turn: 3 factors on somatotype, coordinate values of X and Y on somatotype chart, mean of dimensional distances from the average somatotype to all somatotypes in the sample, difference between the two somatotypes in three-dimensional space and frequency distribution of each somatotype.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Height, body mass, upper arm circumference, calf circumference, intracondylar diameters of humerus and femur, skinfold of brachial triceps, subscapular skinfold, skinfold of

  4. 湖南省城市群生态网络构建与优化%Developing and optimizing ecological networks in urban agglomeration of Hunan Province,China

    尹海伟; 孔繁花; 祈毅; 王红扬; 周艳妮; 秦正茂


    On a regional scale , large habitat patches which are important regional sources of biological diversity can provide important functions in habitat protection for biodiversity conservation. However, due to rapid urbanization, large habitat patches have become increasingly fragmented, and are almost like an island surrounded by the built-up area. The connectivity among these habitat patches is gradually waning. Changes in land use around these large patches have very strong impacts and seriously threaten regional biodiversity conservation. Habitat fragmentation would lead to smaller and more isolated animal populations and the isolated populations are more vulnerable to local extinction and inbreeding depression. An Ecological network is a representation of the biotic interaction in an ecosystem while ecological network planning is a method that combines fragmented habitat patches to form landscapes with spatial integrity and habitat networks. This method can help raise the quality of natural ecosystems and protect biodiversity. Thus, the establishment of ecological networks and the restoration of the links between isolated habitat patches would be quite beneficial to ecosystem services. In this paper, based on the theory and principles of Landscape Ecology and Conservation Biology, taking urban agglomeration in Hunan Province as the example, the potential ecological corridors were quantitatively simulated using the Least-Cost Path and Scenario Analysis Methods with the help of Remote Sensing and GIS technology. The strength of the interaction between green patches was then evaluated quantitatively based on the Gravity model. The impacts of' the result of potential ecological networks by the cost surface were also analyzed. Finally, suggestions on how to optimize the ecological network were accordingly put forward. This paper tried to answer the following three questions: (1) what are the potential ecological corridors of urban agglomeration in Hunan Provence and

  5. 湘西地区城镇居民体育锻炼现状调查与分析%Investigation and Analysis of the Current Situation of Sports Exercises of Urban Residents in the West of Hunan Province



    By using the methods of literature, expert interview and questionnaire,the article has randomly selected 1200 urban residents as the research objects from Jishou, Fenghuang, Huayuan, Baojing of the West of Hunan Province, investigated and analyzed the basic characteristics of participants, physical exercise motivation, time, frequency, intensity. The results show that: in the exercise of the residents, the proportion of women is higher than men, the elderly accounts for the majority, the main motivation to participate in the sports exercises is to fit shape, weight loss, mental and physical pleasure, ease the pressure and entertainment. The frequency of them most is 3-5 times every week, the duration of each exercise is in 30-60 minutes, most of their exercises are with medium intensity, most residents in the square, park, units or residential area sports venues as places for exercises, most choose to do outdoor fitness equipment exercises, fitness walking, climbing, most select the form of doing with friends or colleagues, the main factors affecting the residents to participate in sports exercises include the lack of time, lack of facilities and not interested sports.%采用文献资料法、访谈法、问卷调查法、数理统计法等研究方法,随机抽取湘西地区吉首、凤凰、花垣、保靖4个城镇1200名居民为调查对象,从体育锻炼参与者基本特征、体育锻炼动机、时间、频率、强度等方面进行调查与分析,研究结果表明:在参加体育锻炼的居民中,女性所占的比例高于男性,中老年人占多数,参加体育锻炼的主要动机是健美体形,减肥、愉悦身心,缓解压力和娱乐。每周参加3-5次锻炼,每次锻炼的持续时间在30-60分钟,以中等强度为主的人数比例最高,大多数居民以广场、公园、单位或住宅小区体育场所作为锻炼场所,选择体育锻炼的项目主要为户外健身器械、健身走、登山,选择

  6. The Investigation of the Epidemiology Feature of Children Burns in Chang-Zhu-Tan Region of Hunan Province%湖南省长株潭地区儿童烧伤流行病学调查研究

    张秋香; 丁四清; 牛英


    Objective: To investigate the epidemiologic feature of children burns in Chang-Zhu-Tan region of Hunan Province. Methods; Stratified random cluster sampling method was used in this study. From January 2010 to December 2010,the clinic data of children hum patients from 50 days old to 14 years old in 3 hospitals of Chang-Zhu-Tan region was collected and the patients or their parents were surveyed with a questionnaire designed by us. Results: Different age groups (less than 3 years,4 ~6 years,7 ~ 14 years) were divided respectively. The most common cause of burn is hot liq-uid(56.1% ) ,and hot flame the second(31. 8% ). Indoor burns happened more common than outdoors (83. 3% vs. 16. 7% ). Living room is the most common place where children burns happened (47. 3% ). Most burns happened in daytime (75. 8% ) and in summer or autumn (62. 5% ) . Conclusion; In Chang-Zhu-Tan region, 0-3 years seemed to be the most common age group of children burn. Hot liquid or steam is the most common burn cause. Indoor burns seemhappened more common than outdoors. Children are easier to be burned in daytime and in summer or autumn.%目的:总结分析湖南省长株潭地区儿童烧伤的流行病学特征.方法:采用分层随机抽样法抽取湖南省长株潭地区3所医院,收集其2010年1月至2010年12月间收治的0-14岁烧伤患儿病历资料,并对烧伤患儿或其家长进行问卷调查.结果:各年龄段患儿烧伤构成比依次为0-3岁(62.1%)、4-6岁(24.2%)以及7-14岁(13.6%).致伤原因构成比依次为热液烧伤(56.1%)、火焰烧伤(31.8%)、其他原因烧伤(12.1%).83.3%的烧伤发生在室内,客厅为最主要的烧伤发生场所占47.3%.75.8%的患儿烧伤发生在白天(6:00-18:00).62.5%的患儿烧伤发生在夏、秋两季(6月-11月).结论:在长株潭地区,婴幼儿时期(0-3岁)为儿童烧伤的易发年龄段;热液/热蒸汽造成的烧烫伤是儿童烧伤最常见的类型;室内特别是客厅为儿童

  7. 湖南四水入洞庭湖水沙演变及成因分析%Changes of Runoffand Sediment Discharge into Dongting Lake from the Four Rivers in Hunan Province

    覃红燕; 谢永宏; 邹冬生


    On the basis of hydrological data from 1951 to 2009 of four representative gauging stations (Xiang- tan, Taojiang, Taoyuan, Shimen), the changes of runoff and sediment discharge into Dongting Lake from the Four Rivers (Xiang River, Zi River, Yuan River and Li River) in Hunan Province were investigated using Mann-Kendall trend test, moving average value and double mass analysis. The results showed that annual run- off was highest in Xiang River (657 x 108m3), intermediate in Yuan River (640 x 108m3) and Zi River (229 x 10Sm3), and lowest in Li River (147 ~ 108m3). However, the changes of annual runoff of the Four Rivers were in- significant (P 〉 0.05), with several up-down processes. Annual sediment discharge was highest in Yuan River (1 051 ~ 104t), intermediate in Xiang River.(959~ 104t) and Li River (382~ 1040, and lowest in Zi River (199x 104 t).The annual sediment discharge from the Four Rivers showed a significantly decreasing trend generally (P 〈 0.001). Changes of annual runoff and annual sediment discharge were consistent in Xiang River before 1980s, in Zi River after 1960s, in Yuan River before 1980s and in Li River before 1990s. Moreover, the time of abrupt change in annual sediment discharge was different among the Four Rivers, with Xiang River in 1996, Zi River in 1973-1974, Yuan River in 1997-1998 and Li River in 1998, and the time of abrupt beyond 95% confidence interval was 1999, 1963, 1988, 2001 in Xiang River, Zi River, Yuan River and Li River, respectively. Double mass analysis between annual runoff and annual sediment discharge showed that Xiang River had one turning point in 1991, Zi River three points in 1961, 1981 and 1997, Yuan River two points in 1979 and 1997, Li River one point in 1996. Turning points of annual sediment discharge in Four Rivers were closely related to the con- struction of large-scale reservoirs. The reduction of annual runoff, increase of vegetation cover and construc

  8. 水口山水稻土与菜地土中砷的有效性%Availability of arsenic in paddy and vegetable soils in Shuikoushan mining area of Hunan Province, South-central China

    朱雁鸣; 冯人伟; 韦朝阳


    Soil samples were collected from the surrounding areas of Shuikoushan mining area in Hunan Province of South-central China to determine the soil total and available arsenic contents and the soil physical and chemical properties (pH value, organic matter content, and clay content ) , with the differences of the test parameters in two agricultural soils ( vegetable soil and paddy soil) and the relationships between the soil available arsenic content and the soil physical and chemical properties analyzed. The average content of the arsenic in paddy soil and vegetable soil was 72. 01 and 30.71 mg · kg-1, respectively, being close to or exceeding the National Soil Environmental Quality Standard II. There existed significant differences in the soil physical and chemical properties between the two agricultural soils, with the higher contents of clay and organic matter but lower pH value in paddy soil than those in vegetable soil, and the paddy soil being obviously acidified. The total arsenic content in vegetable soil was far higher than that in paddy soil, but the available arsenic content of the two soils had less difference. Except for total arsenic , the available arsenic content in paddy soil was significantly positively correlated with organic matter content, and that in vegetable soil was significantly positively correlated with pH value. In the Shuikoushan mining area, vegetable soil had a higher risk of arsenic pollution than paddy. soil, and thus, necessary remediation strategies or adjustment of land use pattern should be adopted to reduce the health risk of soil arsenic contamination.%对湖南省水口山矿冶周边土壤进行采样分析,以土壤砷总量与有效态砷含量以及土壤基本理化性质(pH、有机质含量、土壤粘粒含量)为参数,研究各参数在两种土地利用类型(菜地土和水稻土)间的差异以及有效态砷与土壤理化性质之间的关系.结果表明,水口山水稻土与菜地土平均砷含量分别达72

  9. 自尊量表对湖南中学生的适用性研究%The adaptation of self-esteem inventory for middle school students in Hunan province



    Objective For the sake of analyzing the self-esteem inventory(SEI) accordance with the middle school students of China. Methods Through random sampling, the research has made an investigation to the middle school students in Yueyang, Changsha and Hengyang city of Hunan province. Results Through factor analysis,the research proved the Chinese SEI is composed of 6 factors, that is ,family-self, self-satisfaction, ability-self,emotion-self,socialpeer-self and school-self. Through reliability analysis, the reliability of six factors ranges from 0.4255 to 0.7268, the reliability of the whole scale is 0.7567. Through validity analysis, the correlations between six factors are significant( P<0.01 ) except between family-self and school-self,ranging from 0. 007 to 0.313 ,the correlations between factors and total scores are significant, ranging from 0. 454 to 0. 658. Conclusion The research indicates the SEI accormodate the middle school students of China in some way. While their differences indicate it need to be revised in accordance with the middle school students of China.%目的 检验Coopersmith的自尊量表(SEI)对湖南中学生的适应性.方法 本研究采用随机抽样的方法对湖南岳阳、长沙以及衡阳三个地区的中学生进行调查.结果 通过对湖南被试资料的因素分析得到6个因素,家庭自我、自我满意感、能力自我、社会-同伴自我、情感自我以及学校自我,信度分析中6个因素信度在0.4255~0.7268之间,总量表信度为0.7567;内部一致性效度分析中6个因素间相关系数为0.007~0.313,各因素与量表总分的相关系数为0.454~0.658,除了家庭自我与学校自我分量表之间不存在显著相关外,其他因素间以及因素与总分间的相关都非常显著(P<0.01).结论 本研究表明SEI对湖南中学生有一定的适应性,但在以后的工作中应对该量表进行进一步的修订,以便编制更适合我国中学生的自尊量表.

  10. Control Effects of Tianshifu Soil Conditioners on Cd Contamination in Paddy Fields of Hunan Province%“田师傅”土壤调理剂应用于湖南Cd污染稻田的效果研究

    刘兴元; 田发祥; 谢运河; 纪雄辉


    To investigate the effects of Tianshifu soil conditioners on rice growth and their control effects on Cd absorption and accumulation in rice, a test was carried out in the field typical y pol uted by Cd in Hunan Province. The results showed that the Tianshifu soil conditioner, soil bacterial conditioner and the combination of Tian-shifu soil conditioner and soil bacterial conditioner al could promote rice growth, im-prove rice yield and reduce significantly Cd content in rice grains. ln Beishan, the Cd contents in rice grains treated by Tianshifu soil conditioner, soil bacterial condi-tioner and the combination of Tianshifu soil conditioner and soil bacterial conditioner were reduced by 37.63% (P combination of Tianshifu soil condi-tioner and soil bacterial conditioner > Tianshifu soil bacterial conditioner. ln addition to reducing Cd absorption in rice, as described in the lime application treatment, the application of Tianshifu soil conditioners also inhibited the transportation of Cd from rice straws to rice grains. The Tianshifu soil conditioner, soil bacterial conditioner and combination of Tianshifu soil conditioner and soil bacterial conditioner also effec-tively improved the soil acidity, increased the soil pH value and reduced soil avail-able Cd content to some extent.%采取湖南典型 Cd污染的大田试验,研究“田师傅”系列土壤调理剂对水稻生长的影响及降低水稻吸收积累 Cd的效果。结果表明,“田师傅”土壤调理剂、土壤调理菌剂及两者混施皆可促进水稻生长,提高水稻产量,并显著降低稻米 Cd含量。北山点“田师傅”土壤调理剂、土壤调理菌剂及两者混施的稻米 Cd含量分别比常规施肥下降37.63%(P<0.05)、32.59%(P<0.05)、27.95%(P<0.05);湘潭点则分别下降54.36%(P<0.05)、50.19%(P<0.05)、45.22%(P<0.05),皆达到食品安全国家标准,且"田师傅"系列调理剂的降 Cd效果为土壤调理剂>土壤调理

  11. 湖南省永州市鸟类区系特征及群落结构研究%A Study on Avifauna and Community Structure in Yongzhou, Hunan Province

    骆鹰; 李常健; 万亮; 庾太林; 黄乘明


    为了探讨不同生境、不同季节对鸟类群落结构及多样性的影响,笔者于2012年3月至2013年2月采用样线调查法对湖南省永州市的鸟类群落组成进行了调查.结果表明,记录到的鸟类共计9目33科121种,该地的夏候鸟有26种,留鸟59种,冬候鸟20种,旅鸟16种.在85种繁殖鸟中,东洋界鸟类有48种,占繁殖鸟总数的56.47%.从数量上看,留鸟是鸟类的构建主体;从整体上看,鸟类的物种数和总数量在春季和秋季呈现高峰,冬季最低.在不同季节中,春季的鸟类多样性指数和均匀度指数最高,分别为2.9901和0.7245;在不同生境中,全年鸟类多样性指数由高到低依次为灌草丛地>农田>林地>水域>村庄,均匀度指数为灌草丛地>农田>水域>林地>村庄.%The impact of different habitats and seasons on the community structure of birds was investigated by line transect method in Yongzhou,Hunan province from March in 2012 to February in 2013.The results showed that there were 121 species which belong to 9 orders and 33 families.Among of which,there were 26 summer visitors,59 residents,20 winter visitors and 16 passing migrants.Additionally,there were 85 breeding birds including 48 Oriental species (56.47%) in the study area.The resident birds were the dominant bird group in terms of bird abundance.The bird community structure of Yongzhou varied in seasons and two peaks of the species number and population abundance were observed in spring and autumn,and the lowest value was observed in winter.The highest Shannon-Wiener index (2.9901) and evenness index (0.7245) were observed in spring.The highest total Shannon-Wiener index was observed in mountain shrub,followed by farmland,woodland,water area and village,and the highest evenness index was also observed in mountain shrub,followed by farmland,water area,woodland and village.

  12. Research on the Information Architecture of the Government Portal Website---As the Inspection Object of the local city of hunan province%政府门户网站信息构建调查研究--以湖南省地级市政府为例



    本文以湖南省地级市为考察对象,分析研究了地级市政府门户网站的组织系统、导航系统、标识系统和搜索系统的构建,并在此基础上,对地级市政府门户网站的信息构建提出改进策略。%This article takes the loca city of hunan province as the investigation object,analysized and studied the architecture of organizational information system, navigation system, identification system and retrieval system,and put forward the improvement strategies of information architecture of the local city government portal website.

  13. On Regional Economic Opening and Economic Growth——Empirical Analysis of Economic Openness Degree in Hunan Province%区域开放与经济增长——基于湖南经济开放度的实证分析



    Based on the horizontal comparison of regional economic opening of Hunan province in 2009,the degree of economic openness is in great difference.The different resulted in unbalanced regional economic growth and restricted economic development of Hunan province.Some suggestions on how to improve the level of economic opening and to develop the balanced regional economic are listed,such as : understanding the comparative low total economic openness degree to develop potential positively;inducing and making full use of the foreign capital and the developed coastal areas in order to promote rapid economic development;using local resource superiority and following the market regulation to accelerate industrial structure adjustment;implementing strategies of "bringing in" and "going out" and combine them together as well.%2009年湖南省各市州的对外开放情况横向比较表明,省区内部的开放差异较为明显,导致地区经济增长不平衡、发展受限制。为提高湖南对外开放水平,推动经济均衡发展,要认识到其整体开放度偏低的事实,积极发挥潜力;要积极引进和充分利用国外及沿海发达地区的资本,促进经济快速发展;要根据自身的资源禀赋,以市场为主导手段,加快产业结构调整;要实施"引进来"与"走出去"相结合的战略。

  14. A Study on the Financial Gap of Environmental Protection Industry in Hunan Province during the 12th Five-Year Plan%“十二五”时期湖南环保产业发展的融资缺口研究

    贺立; 李远航


    “十二五”期间,湖南省将环保产业列为重点发展的战略性新兴产业之一。笔者基于经济核算的基本原理,对“十二五”期间湖南省环保产业发展的资金需求、资金供给和资金缺口进行了预测、分析,并针对性地提出了解决融资缺口问题的政策措施。笔者的研究对于保障“十二五”时期湖南环保产业发展的资金支持具有指导作用,对于国内其他地区经济发展的资金缺口预测具有借鉴意义。%During thel2th Five-Year Plan, the environmental protection industry has been listed as one of the strategic emerging industries for Hunan Province. This article is to project and analyze the financial needs, and financial supply and financial gap of the environmental protection industry development during the 12th Five-Year Plan based on the basic principles of economic accounting, and then come up with the policy targeted at the problem on addressing the financial gap. The study has its guiding role for guaranteeing the financial support of the development of environmental protection industry in Hunan Province, and could be used as reference on projecting the funding gap for the economic development in other areas of the country.

  15. 2007-2011年湖南省蚊媒传染病与蚊虫密度季节消长相关性分析%Analysis on Correlation Between Mosquito-borne Diseases and Seasonal Fluctuation of Mosquito Density in Hunan Province from 2007 to 2011

    吕炜; 黄谊; 段丽琼; 姚松银


    目的 探索湖南省蚊虫密度季节消长和流行性乙型脑炎、疟疾和登革热等蚊媒传染病发病的关系.方法 收集湖南省2007-2011年疟疾、乙脑和登革热发病资料和蚊虫种群密度季节消长监测资料,用Pearson相关系数法进行分析.结果 2007-2011年蚊虫密度与同期蚊媒疾病发病率相关系数r=0.6881,P=0.0134.结论 湖南省蚊虫密度季节消长数据与蚊媒病发病率中度相关,反映出蚊虫密度与蚊媒病之间存在复杂联系.%Objective To explore the association between seasonal fluctuation of mosquito density and mosquito - borne diseases in Hunan Province. Methods We collected the incidence data of malaria, Japanese encephalitis and dengue and the monitoring data about seasonal fluctuation of mosquito population density in Hunan Province during the period of 2007 — 2011, and then all the data were analyzed by using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results The incidence of mosquito- borne diseases was moderately correlated with mosquito population densities during the period of 2007 - 2011 ( r = 0.6881, P = 0.0134). Conclusions The results suggest that there are complex links between mosquito population densities and mosquito- borne diseases.

  16. Soil heavy metal contamination and acid deposition: experimental approach on two forest soils in Hunan, Southern China

    Bo-han, Liao; Zhaohui, Guo; Probst, Anne; Probst, Jean-Luc


    In 1985, a tailing dam collapsed in Hunan province (southern China) leading to soil contamination by heavy metals from the tailings waste. Moreover, acid deposition becomes more and more serious in this area. In this context, two forest soils (a red soil and a yellow red soil, typically and commonly found in southern China) were collected from Hunan. The objectives are (i) to determine releases and changes in speciation fractions of heavy metals (especially Cd, Cu, and Zn) when the soils are ...


    Levenson, M.


    A cave window is described. It is constructed of thick glass panes arranged so that interior panes have smaller windowpane areas and exterior panes have larger areas. Exterior panes on the radiation exposure side are remotely replaceable when darkened excessively. Metal shutters minimize exposure time to extend window life.

  18. 基于特色旅游的营销策略研究--以湖南省为例%On the Marketing Strategies of the Characteristic Tourism-A Study based on Hunan Province

    张丽华; 罗霞


    In recent years, tourism has gradually become the new hot of modern international tourism, and to develop characteristic tourism has become an important way to improve the competitiveness of regional tourism, revitalize and be conducive to the development of local economy. Through analyzing the present situation of Hunan of the development of special tourism products, tourism products in Hunan and the characteristics of different types according to the buying behavior of travel motivation, this paper puts forward the corresponding marketing strategies.%近年来,特色旅游逐渐成为现代国际旅游的新热点,开发特色旅游成为提高区域旅游竞争力的重要途径,有益于地方经济的振兴和发展。通过对湖南现阶段特色旅游产品开发的现状,对湖南特色旅游产品根据不同类型的旅游动机及购买行为提出相应的营销策略。

  19. Study on community of rare and endangered plant Davidia involucrate in Hupingshan Nature Reserve of Hunan province%壶瓶山自然保护区珍稀濒危植物珙桐群落的研究

    刘海洋; 金晓玲; 薛会雯; 张程; 石求辉; 张日清


    The resources and community structure of Davidia involucrata in Hupingshan Nature Reserve of Hunan province were studied by using the sample plot method. The results show that: (1) There were 65 vascular plant species in the community belonging to 37 families and 59 genera. The composition of Davidia involucrata community mainly consists of the East Asia distribution, the rate reached to 27.1% (16 genera), and the next was North Temperate distribution, about 20. 3% (12 genera). The component of species had the typical characteristics that it is from the subtropics to the temperate zone. (2) The community vertical structure was simple, which composed of tree layer, shrub layer, herb layer and interlayer plant. Herb layer grew better than tree layer and shrub layer. In term of life form, 32. 3% phanerophytes were on the top, the composition of life form was similar to that in subtropical evergreen and deciduous forest. (3) The importance value of Davidia involucrata was 70. 3, The Simpson and Shannon-wiener diversity indices in herb layer were higher than that in tree layer and shrub layer. The Pielou indexs (Jsw and Js) in tree layer were higher than herb layer and shrub layer. (4) According to the age structure.It's indicated that Davidia involucrata community in Hupingshan Nature Reserve had not yet developed into its climax, and the spatial pattern of the whole population was of clumping distribution. Natural regeneration ability of Davidia involucrata was weak and seed germination was low, and seedling rate was less, the forest rehewal was given priorty to shooting.%为了解湖南省壶瓶山自然保护区内野生珙桐资源的分布和植物群落情况,采用样方调查法,对野生珙桐资源的分布、植物群落特点和生境进行了调查研究.结果表明:(1)珙桐群落中共有维管束植物65种,隶属37科59属.植物区系组成以东亚分布最多,达16属,占27.1%.其次是北温带分布,共12属,占20.3%.珙桐群落区系的

  20. Plant resources investigation and hyperaccumulator screening in Xiangtan manganese mine area of Hunan Province, central-south China%湘潭锰矿区植物资源调查及超富集植物筛选

    李有志; 罗佳; 张灿明; 刘庆; 郭丹丹


    A sampling plot investigation was conducted on the plant resources in the Xiangtan manganese mine area of Hunan Province. In the study area, the plant resources were abundant, with 53 species belonging to 28 families. Most of the plant species were wild, and a few were cultivated. The majority of the plants were perennial, and the fewer were annual. Most plants were shrub and grass, and a few were tree. These results indicated that the current local communities were dominated by perennial shrub and grass, which were at the primary stage of succession towards subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest after the original plants were completely damaged by digging exploitation. The analysis on the Mn enrichment by the plant species showed that there was a significant difference in the Mn concentration between roots and stems or leaves. Most plant species had higher Mn concentration in their underground parts than in their aboveground parts, and only a few was in adverse. Moreover, different plant species had significant differences in their capability of enriching Mn. The Mn concentrations in Cyperus rotundus aboveground and underground parts were higher than 10000 mg ? Kg-1 (the critical concentration for hyperaccumulators) , and the biological concentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) were larger than 1 (the assessment criteria of hyperaccumulators) , indicating that C. Ro tundus had a super capability in enriching Mn. It was also found that the biomass of C. Rotundus in medium and high Mn mine areas was 507. 06 g ? M-2, which met the requirement of hyperac-cumulators, I. E. , hyperaccumulator should have high biomass, and suggested that C. Rotundus could be the first selection of hyperaccumulator for the ecological restoration of moderately and highly Mn-polluted areas.%通过设置样地,对湘潭锰矿区的植物资源进行了全面调查.结果表明:锰矿区植物丰富,共有28科,53种,植物以自然定居种为主,少见人工栽培种;生

  1. 社区护士对社区护理学课程需求的调查%A survey of community nursing curriculum requirements in community nurses in Hunan province

    任森; 肖洁华


    目的:调查了解湖南省社区卫生服务机构中社区护士对社区护理学课程的实际需求,为社区护理学教程提供可靠的教学依据。方法:根据社区护理教材的内容采用自行设计的调查问卷,对湖南省5个城市中189名社区卫生护士进行调查,问卷有效回收率为92.6%。结果:社区护理人员认为较常用的内容依次为:社区营养与膳食管理(85.7%)、突发性公共卫生事件的处理(76.7%)、社区环境评估(69.8%)、人际沟通能力(69.8%)、流行病学与统计学应用(66.7%)、社区康复护理(64.0%)、家庭访视与家庭护理(51.9%);较少使用的内容依次是:社区健康档案管理(54.5%)、社区护理概述(36.0%)、常见传染病慢性病的护理(31.7%)、特殊人群保健(30.2%)、职业病(25.4%);社区护士对社区护理学学时的需要所占比例依次是:56~70节(45.0%)、41~55节占(29.6%)、71节以上(14.3%)、40节以下(11.1%)。结论:社区卫生服务机构中护理人员缺乏,应增加高职高专院校护理学专业学生的社区护理学课程;社区护理学课程应以预防保健为主,适当增加课时数,理论与实践紧密结合,建立实用型社区护理课程体系。%Objective To investigate the actual needs that community nurses have on community nursing courses in community health service organization in Hunan province,to provide a reliable teaching basis for the community nursing courses.Methods Investigations on 189 community health nurses in 5 cities,this is conducted on the self-designed questionnaires based on community nursing textbook content,the effective recovery rates of questionnaire is 92.6%.Results Community nursing personnel think the more important content is:community nutrition and dietary management 85.7%,the handling of sudden public health event 76.7%,and community environment assessment 69.8%,and

  2. 四川资中圣灵洞成因演化及保护%Origin, Evolution and Protection of Shengling Cave in Zizhong City, Sichuan Province

    万新南; 杨菊; 袁小铭; 蒋兴奎; 赵发明; 司毅


    Comparing huge cave developing in vast and massive limestone in different geological eras, this paper mainly discusses the origin and evolution of Shengling Cave in thin lake-facies limestone of Jurassic red stratum, and analyzes the deposit process of big stalagmites in the cave. Based on the results of the research, the paper puts forward some suggestions for protecting the cave and its environment.%对比发育各地质时代巨厚成片碳酸盐岩(包括侏罗纪砾岩灰岩)中、大型岩溶洞穴研究,重点讨论资中侏罗纪红层地区薄层湖相淡水灰岩洞的形成与演化机理,进而根据其发育的地层与构造条件,分析洞内大型石钟乳类钙华沉积的形成过程.提出了圣灵洞地质遗迹保护措施,它包括防止人为的洞内、洞外构件破坏及清洁水源与洞体周边环境的保护.

  3. The Research of Correlation between Characteristics of Independent Directors and Corporate Performance---Data from Hunan and Hubei Provinces%独立董事特征与公司业绩相关性研究--基于湖南与湖北两省的数据

    游新彩; 颜申跃


    This paper selected listed companies in Hunan and Hubei province from 2012 to 2014 as the research sample;by using the multivariate linear regression model to study the relationship between the characteristics of the independent di-rector and company performance. The results prove that the proportion of independent directors and the female independent directors have a positive correlation with the company performance. Education degree and the proportion of the independent directors with professional background of accounting have some differences between two provinces. In Hunan province, educa-tion degree of independent directors and the proportion of the independent directors with professional background of account-ing have remarkable effects on the company performance. But in Hubei, there is a positive but non-significant correlation be-tween them, and the salary of independent directors has a negative correlation with the company performance. So the company must be under the premise of having female independent directors, ensuring the scale of independent director to prior appoint the complex independent directors who have rich professional knowledge and professional background.%本文以2012—2014年湖南与湖北两省上市公司为样本,运用多元线性回归模型对独立董事特征与公司业绩之间的相关性进行研究。结果发现:两省上市公司女性独立董事比例与公司业绩存在显著正相关关系,独立董事薪酬、受教育程度以及会计专业背景独立董事比例上两省存在一定的差异。湖南省上市公司独立董事受教育程度以及会计专业背景对公司业绩影响显著,而湖北省上市公司独立董事薪酬与公司业绩呈负相关,受教育程度以及会计专业背景与公司业绩正相关但不显著。因此,必须在拥有女性独立董事的前提下,确保独立董事规模,优先聘任具有丰富专业知识和职业背景的复合型独立董事。

  4. Investigation and Analysis on the Nation Training Junior Middle School PE Teachers'Professional Burnout in Hunan Province%湖南省国培初中体育教师职业倦怠现状调查与分析



    本文通过文献资料调研法、心理测量法、逻辑分析法、数理统计法等研究方法,对湖南省国培初中体育教师职业倦怠现状进行调查分析?结果表明:湖南省国培初中体育教师职业倦怠较为严重,在性别维度差异上,男性体育教师情绪衰竭和非人性化程度高于女性体育教师,而个人成就感低于女性体育教师;在教龄维度差异比较上,教龄11-19年阶段的体育老师情绪衰竭、非人性化维度和低成就感高于其他教龄阶段的教师;在学历维度差异比较中本科学历的体育教师职业倦怠程度高于专科学历的体育教师;在职称维度差异比较上,中教二级职称体育教师职业倦怠程度最为严重,高情绪衰竭、高非人性化和较低的成就感?建议,学校应为体育教师创设一个良好的工作环境,积极主动地关心体育教师的生活,支持?配合体育教师的工作,帮助他们解决一些实际生活困难,协调好教师的工作关系和人际关系,协助体育教师建立一个良好的教学环境。%This essay involves the research and analyze on the laziness of PE teachers in Hunan province junior middle school through literature research,questionnaire survey, logical analytic method,and mathematical statistics techniques. As the result shows: the PE teachers in Hunan province junior middle school,to some extent,are in bad mood for teaching and tired of teaching. In aspect of gender,the masculine gym instructor's non-friendly degree is higher than the feminine gym instructor,but individual sense of achievement is lower than the feminine gym instructor; In the teaching sonority dimension difference comparison,teaching sonority of 11-19 year stage's sports teacher's non-friendly are higher than other teaching sonority stage; The undergraduate course degree's gym instructor's level of tiredness is higher than The college degree's gym instructors. and in the

  5. 湖南省农村居民收入地区差距演变及其结构分解%The Changes and Factor Decomposition of Rural Regional Income Inequality in Hunan Province

    汤进华; 邓楚雄; 林建永; 刘成武; 吴永兴


    农民收入是当前国内研究"三农"问题的热点之一.以湖南省为例,利用Gini系数方法,测度了1993-2008年湖南农村居民收入的地区差距变化,并通过对收入变化对区域差距变化的贡献进行分解,从收入因子的结构效应和集中效应来解释收入变化对区域差距变化的原因:工资性收入是影响农村收入差距格局的最重要因素,表现为1997-2002年间工资性收入的结构变化较快致使收入差距拉大,2002年后区域差距变大则主要是工资性收入的集中性不断增大所致;家庭经营收入在农村居民总收入中的比重下降,但仍是农村居民收入的主要来源,其对收入区域差距影响较小;财产性收入和转移性收入对收入差距格局的贡献虽然不大,但对扩大收入差异的贡献在不断增加,是未来影响农村区域差距变化的重要因素.最后提出了相关建议.%Rural regional income inequality was currently a hot issue studying on rural district. This paper focuses on the changes of rural regional income inequality and measures the income changes of rural residents and decomposes the income structure to concentration effect and structure effect in Hunan from 1993 to 2008 on basis of Gini index, and then explains the causes of its real inequality. In order to explore the factors behind the changes in rural income inequality in Hunan, the overall rural income inequality was decomposed into contributions by different income sources:wages, household operations, properties and transfers. This analysis implies that the wage income will play the most key role on rural regional income inequality in Hunan. The increasing contribution from wages was mainly due to the increase of its share from 1997 to 2002, and was mainly due to evident elevation of its concentration after 2002. In recent years, with the decline of household operations concentration index and its share in total income, it had weak effects in decreasing the

  6. Soil water holding capacity under four typical ecosystems in Wuyunjie Nature Reserve of Hunan Province%湖南乌云界自然保护区典型生态系统的土壤持水性能

    潘春翔; 李裕元; 彭亿; 高茹; 吴金水


    Soil water holding capacity is the key index of water conservation capacity of ecosystems and vital parameter of ecological service function in Nature Reserve. Four typical ecosystems including forest, shrub, bamboo, and grassland were selected in the study area of Wuyunjie Nature Reserve (WNR) of Hunan Province and soil physical properties and water holding capacity were studied through field investigation, soil sampling, and laboratory analysis. The results showed that the four typical vegetation-covered lands had greater soil organic matter content ( >76 g/kg), lower bulk density (5 mm in diameter) contents ranging from 22.7% to 52. 3% ) in the surface soil layer (0-20cm) than the local farmland, suggesting that soil structural development was generallybetter in the reserve area. Soil macroporosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity ( Kt) in forest and bamboo ecosystems were greater than those in shrub and grassland ecosystems, which were beneficial to the rainfall transfer to groundwater. However, soil capillary porosity in shrub and grassland ecosystems were higher, indicating that more soil available water could be reserved. The gravimetric soil water holding capacity ( WHCg) in the 0-40 cm soil layer under four typical ecosystems in WNR changed in the following order; forest (83. 5 mm) > bamboo (79. 2 mm) > shrub (66. 9 mm) > grassland (43. 8 mm). However, soil available water holding capacity ( WHCt) were the following; grassland (128.7 mm) > shrub (111.6 mm)> forest (95.9 mm)> bamboo (83.9 mm). On the basis of verifying the definition of total water capacity (>0 Mpa) , WHCf(0-0.01 Mpa) , WHC,(0.01-1.5 Mpa), and unavailable water capacity (>1.5 Mpa), we recommended that WHC% and WHCt could be used to measure soil water holding capacity of ecosystems. WHCg could be used to assess the capability of recharging groundwater and adjusting river flow, while WHC, could be used to assess the potential of soil water holding capability in the ecosystems. These

  7. The records and implications of Mg,Sr and Ba in cave water and active speleothems in Jiguan Cave,western Henan Province%豫西鸡冠洞洞穴水及现代沉积物Mg,Sr和Ba记录及其意义

    任小凤; 张志钦; 杨琰; 彭涛; 赵景耀; 张银环; 聂旭东; 刘肖; 李建仓; 凌新有


    Speleothems contain a number of suitable proxies reconstructing climate environmental changes, which is a top topic in current research.Due to the variety of sources and complex factors,trace elements are less frequently used than the oxygen isotopes in climate studies.However,they are used to reveal the groundwater runoff in the epikarst overlying the cave with the process and the surface environment.Induc-tively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spec-trometry(ICP-OES)have been used to analyse the trace elements of Ca、Mg、Sr and Ba in cave water and ac-tive formations in Jiguan Cave during December,2009 and August,2013.Jiguan Cave (33°46′N,111°34′E) is located in Luanchuan county,western Henan Province,which is north of the Qinling ranges-Huaihe River and southeast of Loess Plateau,while at the foot of the northern watershed of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River.It main exposed rocks are Sinian chlorite marbles.Located in the typical east Asian monsoonal zone,the Jiguan Cave area is typically has cold/dry winters and warm/wet summers.More than 50 % of the total annual precipitation occurs in summer.The mean annual temperature and precipitation recorded at a nearby meteorological station are 12.1±0.9 ℃ and 846±181 mm (1957-2009)respectively.In the paper, trace elements such as Ca,Mg,Sr and Ba in cave water and active formations collected in Jiguan Cave were analyzed with ICP-MS and ICP-OES.The Mg/Ca,Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca of cave water varied between 0.2-0.8, (1.2-6.0)×10-3 and (0.3-2.0)×10-3 respectively.Mg/Ca can respond to the environment outside the cave faithfully.The wet-dry condition of the karst system is suggested as the dominant controller of Mg/Ca ratios in cave pool water and underground rivers,whereas the Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca may have nothing to do with precipitation and temperature.The Mg/Ca,Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios in active speleothems varied between (9-50)×10-3 ,(0.1-1.2)×10-3 and (0

  8. Relationship between Index of Zooplankton Amount in Lake (Reservoir) and Evaluation Standards for Water Quality ---Taking Five Lakes (Reservoirs) in Hunan Province as Example%湖(库)浮游动物数量指标与水质评价标准关系研究--以湖南省5个湖(库)为例

    钟振宇; 陈灿; 宋伟龙; 成应向


    It surveyed the constitute of zooplankton community, the zooplankton amount and the zooplankton dominant species in different representative water qualities and functions lakes (reservoirs) in Hunan province, then using chemical evaluation index Pb/n, Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Simpson dominance index to evaluate the pollution degree of surveyed water body. The evaluation results showed that the results of water quality pollution degree evaluated by zooplankton diversity index method was accordant with that evaluated by conventional chemical comprehensive pollution index method; using zooplankton amount to evaluate water quality pollution degree had relatively better reliability, and it also can indirectly reflect water quality pollution degree. Then, the zooplankton amount and dominant species and the limit value for water quality pollution degree in lake (reservoir) in Hunan Province were determined.%对湖南省内不同水质功能代表性湖(库)的浮游动物群落组成,浮游动物数量以及优势种进行了调查研究;采用化学评价指数Pb/n、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、Simpson优势度指数分别对目标水体的污染程度进行了评价。评价结果显示:利用浮游动物多样性指数评价湖(库)水质污染程度与常规的化学综合污染指数评价结果基本吻合;利用浮游动物数量评价水质污染程度具有较高的可信度亦能间接反映水质污染程度;在此基础上,界定了湖南省湖库浮游动物数量及优势种与水质污染程度的限值。

  9. The cohort analysis of new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis frome 2011 to 2012 of Taoyuan County in Hunan province%湖南桃源县2011-2012年初治涂阳肺结核治疗队列分析

    宋江林; 庄敏芳


    目的:了解湖南省桃源县初治涂阳肺结核防治情况,为结核病控制的可持续发展提供技术依据。方法:对湖南省常德市桃源县2011-2012年登记初治涂阳肺结核治疗情况进行队列分析。结果:2011年1月1日-2012年12月31日登记初治涂阳肺结核705例,其中治愈624例,治愈率88.51%。患者治疗2个月末痰涂片阴转684例,阴转率97.02%,3个月末痰涂片阴转698例,阴转率99.01%。结论:我国结核病防治规划是切实可行的,能够有效遏制结核病疫情的蔓延。%Objective:To understand the situation of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis prevention and control of Taoyuan county in Hunan province,and provide technical basis for sustainable development of TB control.Methods:Cohort analyze the situation of the new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis treatment of Taoyuan County in Changde City Hunan Province from 2011 to 2012 registered.Results:From January 1,2011 to December 31,2012,a total of registered smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in 705 cases,624 cases were cured,and the cure rate was 88.51%.At the end of the 2 month treatment 684 patients sputum smear negative conversion,negative conversion rate is 97.02%.At the end of the 3 month treatment 698 patients sputum smear negative conversion,negative conversion rate is 99.01%.Conclusion:the tuberculosis control program in China is feasible, and it can effectively curb the spread of tuberculosis.

  10. Carbon storage in 2009 and potential carbon sequestration in future of Cunninghamia lanceolata forests in Hunan province, China%湖南省2009年杉木林碳贮存量及未来固碳潜力分析

    张胜利; 项文化; 邓湘雯; 雷丕锋; 方晰


    Tree biomass data published in literature were derived to generate allometric equations for 5 age classes of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese ifr) and then the equations were used to estimate stand biomass and carbon storage of 5 age classes. Based on stand area of 5 age classes recorded from forest inventory data in 2009, total carbon storage of C. lanceolata forests was determined for Hunan Province and its 14 subordinated prefectural cities. At the same time, we also selected the data in literature as baseline for the stand biomass at different age of C. lanceolata forests under appropriate management. The current status of stand area distribution of 5 age classes was analyzed for C. lanceolata forests in Hunan and normal forest rule was applied to adjust forest area to achieve an ideal stand area distribution. Consequently, potential carbon sequestration in future of C. lanceolata forests in Human was investigated on the condition of appropriate forest management and ideal area structure of forest age classes after adjustment. The results showed that stand carbon storage of C. lanceolata forests in 2009 accounted for 0.50~227.01 t/hm2, with average stand carbon storage ranging from 5.94 t/hm2 for young forests to 147.25 t/hm2 for over mature forests. Total carbon storage of C. lanceolata forests in Hunan reached 52.16 × 106 t, of which the lowest was 0.42×106 t in Xiangtan City and the highest was 11.97 × 106 t in Huaihua City. Total carbon storage in C. lanceolata forests showed an increasing tendency from 1.94 × 106 t for young forests to 13.12 × 106 t for over mature forests. If appropriate forest management was implemented, total carbon storage of C. lanceolata forests in Hunan would increase to 103.83 × 106 t,which was about two times of the value in 2009. After stand area adjustment for age classes, total carbon storage C. lanceolata forests in Hunan would go up tp 81.10 × 106 t (about 1.5 times of the values in 2009), with ranging from 1.91 × 106

  11. Status and Problems of Breeding and Utilization of Insect-resistance and Disease-resistance Rice Varieties in Hunan Province%湖南省主要抗病虫品种选育和利用现状与问题

    侯小华; 李友荣; 周昆; 魏子生; 黄延科; 侯振


    全面分析了湖南省主要病虫灾害的现状、发生趋势,认为随着水稻种植结构和栽培技术的变革以及水稻新品种的应用,病虫害发生种类及其危害性的变化,将使病虫害问题更加突出.在对抗性品种在农业生产中的实际效用进行分析后,提出了抗病虫品种选育和利用中存在的问题及改进意见.%In this paper, the status and occurrence trend of main diseases and insect pests in Hunan province were analyzed. With the reform of planting structure and cultivation techniques and application of new rice cultivars, changes of types of diseases and insect pests and their harmfuiness could deduced to more serious occurrence of diseases and insect pests. After analysis of the actual effect of resistant variety in production, the problems and improvement suggestions about breeding and utilization of insect-resistance and disease-resistance rice varieties were put forward.

  12. 湖南省小规模农户参加农业保险影响因素的实证分析%Empirical Analysis on Influencing Factors of Small-scale Peasant Household Participating Agricultural Insurance in Hunan Province

    陈梅美; 匡远配


    以湖南省的229位农民作为调查样本,通过建立二元Logistic模型,从农民个人特征、农户家庭特征、农民心理认知三个方面对小规模农户参加农业保险意愿的影响因素进行实证分析。实证结果表明:农民的年龄、农民的文化程度、家里是否有大学生、对农业保险的了解程度、参加农业保险是否有补贴都显著正向影响小规模农户参加农业保险。%Based on the investigated sample of 229 farmers in Hunan province,the study sets a binary Logistic model and makes an empirical analysis about factors that influence the small-scale peasant household’ s will to participate in agricultural insurance from the perspective of farmers individual characters, peasant families traits, and farmers psychological cognition. The result shows that small-scale peasant household’ s will to participate in agricultural insurance is positively remarkably affected by the age of farmer, edu-cation degree of farmer, existing college student in the family, realization on agricultural insurance and subsidy provided for participat-ing in the insurance.

  13. Empirical Analysis on Influencing Factors of Small-scale Peasant Household Participating Agricultural Insurance in Hunan Province%湖南省小规模农户参加农业保险影响因素的实证分析

    陈梅美; 匡远配


    Based on the investigated sample of 229 farmers in Hunan province,the study sets a binary Logistic model and makes an empirical analysis about factors that influence the small-scale peasant household’ s will to participate in agricultural insurance from the perspective of farmers individual characters, peasant families traits, and farmers psychological cognition. The result shows that small-scale peasant household’ s will to participate in agricultural insurance is positively remarkably affected by the age of farmer, edu-cation degree of farmer, existing college student in the family, realization on agricultural insurance and subsidy provided for participat-ing in the insurance.%以湖南省的229位农民作为调查样本,通过建立二元Logistic模型,从农民个人特征、农户家庭特征、农民心理认知三个方面对小规模农户参加农业保险意愿的影响因素进行实证分析。实证结果表明:农民的年龄、农民的文化程度、家里是否有大学生、对农业保险的了解程度、参加农业保险是否有补贴都显著正向影响小规模农户参加农业保险。

  14. 基于叙述性偏好法的理财产品选择偏好研究--以湖南地区为例%Study on Customer's Selection of Bank Financial Products Based on Stated Preference---Hunan Province as an Example



    论文针对客户理财产品选择的偏好进行研究。为深入分析客户的理财行为,采用叙述性偏好法(Stated Preference)进行问卷设计,同时运用多项罗吉特(Multinomial logit)及巢式罗吉特(Nested logit)计量模型建立消费者理财偏好选择模式,并以湖南地区为例,分析该地区客户对于理财商品的偏好,并研究客户群体的理财产品选择行为模式,以期为银行的理财产品开发和监管部门的管理提供一定参考。%This paper studies the preferences of customers' choice on personal financial products. In order to analyze the customer's behavior, with the Stated Preference method applied in the process of questionnaire designing and Multinomial Logit as well as Nested Logit both used in the construction of tbe main model, we take Hunan Province as an example and analyze the customers' preference on the financial products in this region, and extend further research on their behavior patterns. We aim at provide a reference for both local banks and regulatory authorities.

  15. 侗寨水资源与当地文化--以湖南通道独坡乡上岩坪寨为例%WATER RESOURCES AND NATIVE CULTURE IN DONG VILLAGES:Taking the Shangyanping Village in Tongdao County, Hunan Province as An Example

    周大鸣; 李陶红


    The rivers, fish ponds, canals for fire extinguishing, wells, springs, paddies, and etc. constitute an active system of water resources in the Shangyanping village where locates in the Dupo town-ship, Tongdao county, Hunan province.Not only does the water resource link the local life and production closely, but it is also pertinent to the local culture manifesting mainly in relations of water to indigenous be-liefs, ecology and institution.The process of the interaction between water and local culture is also a process of production and reproduction of the local knowledge in the Dong villages.%位于湖南省通道县独坡乡的上岩坪寨,河流、鱼塘、消防渠、井、泉眼、稻田等共同构成侗寨水资源的活性系统。水资源不仅与当地生活、生产密切相关,而且与当地文化发生关联,主要体现在水与信仰文化、水与生态文化、水与制度文化。水与当地文化的关联过程,也是侗寨地方性知识的生产与再生产过程。

  16. A Preliminary Study on the Evolutionary Characteristics of Rare Earth Elements (REE)in Granitoid Rocks and Their Formation Mechanisms in Xianghualing Region,Hunan Province,China

    杜绍华; 邱瑞照


    Recognized in the Xianghualing region,South Hunan are three major types of granitoids,i.e.,biotite granite,zinnwaldite-albite granite and xianghuagite,which evolved form the same granitic magma,but were formed at different stages.These granitoid rocks constitute a complete magmatic evolutionary series.With the evolution of magma,REE contents and negative Eu anomalies tend to decrease progressively,and LREE become more and more enriched relative to HREE .The facts mentioned above show that the tendency of REE evolution in granitoid rocks in the region studied is different from that in other regions.Evidence indicates that the granitic magma system became more and more depleted in Si(K+Na),but richer and richer in Al,Li,F and H2O+ during the process of its evolution,re-sulting in relatively weak acidity and strong alkalinity .It may be the most important factor leading to a specific REE evolutionary trend for the granitoid rocks in this region.In addition,the changing oxidation-reduction environments at different evolutionary stages of this magma system may be anoth-er important factor which should be taken into consideration.

  17. 湖南西部新生代农民工体育参与现状研究%The Present Study on Sports Participation of New Generation Migrant Workers in Western of Hunan Province

    覃英; 朱福军


    The study made an investigation into sports participation of new generation migrant workers through literature review, questionnaire and interviews. It reflects the reality and features of the purpose , types, time, venues, and sports consumption flow of new generation migrant workers’ sports participation. It also makes an analysis of factors affecting the workers’ sports participation, and proposal of approaches to improving the undesirable reality, to serve as an academic reference for the sustainable development of new generation migrant works’ sports participation in western Hunan.%通过文献资料、问卷调查与访谈等方法调研湖南省西部地区新生代农民工的体育锻炼情况,从新生代农民工在体育锻炼目的、体育锻炼的内容、时间、场所以及体育消费流向等方面的现状和特征入手,分析影响湖南西部新生代农民工参与体育锻炼的因素,提出改善新生代农民工体育锻炼窘迫现状的途径。

  18. 基于灰色关联分析的城市土地可持续利用综合评价——以湖南省为例%Evaluation of Urban Land Sustainable Use Based on Grey Related Analysis Theory -- A Case Study of Hunan Province



    This paper analyzes the content of sustainable urban land use, builds the evaluation system of sustainable urban land use from four aspects of resource-saving, environment friendly, economic development and social harmony. A grey related analysis model is used to evaluate urban land sustainable use from the two dimensions of time and space. The research shows that the level of sustainable urban land use in Hunan Province has increased annually, but there is still much room for improvement ; Changsha is the highest level of sustainable urban land use, Shaoyang is the lowest level, and the sustainable urban land use is significantly different in 13 cities. To improve the level of sustainable urban land use, Hunan should further accelerate the pace of economic development, tap the potential of urban land use. Urban land use should be guided by the sustainable development theory, and the cities should actively improve the insufficiency of urban land use.%文章从资源节约、环境友好、经济发展和社会和谐四方面构建城市土地可持续利用评价指标体系,采用灰色关联分析方法从时间和空间两个维度对湖南省城市土地可持续利用水平进行综合评价。认为湖南省城市土地可持续利用水平逐年提高,但仍有较大提升空间;各地级市中长沙城市土地可持续利用水平最高,邵阳最低,各城市土地可持续利用水平差异显著。因此,湖南应进一步加快经济发展速度,提高城市内涵,以可持续发展理论为指导,积极改进城市土地利用中的不足。

  19. 湖南省性别工资差异及其影响因素研究基于家务劳动时间的视角∗%A Study on Gender Wage Gap and Its Influence Factors in Hunan Province Based on the Perspective of Housework Time

    钟波; 楚尔鸣


    通过建立理论模型,并用2014年湖南省5县区20个城乡社区的调查数据,从家务劳动时间的视角分析湖南劳动力市场的性别工资差异及其影响因素。结果发现,家务劳动时间是影响湖南劳动力市场性别工资差异的重要因素,同时其他影响因素还有月工资收入、受教育程度、行业等,但职务职称对性别工资差异的影响存在不确定性。因此,政府应大力发展家庭服务业,建立健全覆盖城乡的家庭服务体系,基本满足家庭的服务需求,使女性从家务劳动中解脱出来,同时应通过政策倾斜确保女性培训比例,增强就业竞争实力;规范劳动合同,维护私有及民营企业女性从业者在劳动就业、社会保障等方面的合法权益。%Based on the theoretical model and research data from 20 urban-rural communities of 5 counties in Hunan Province in 2014,the paper analyzes influencing factors of gender wage differentials in Hunan labor market from the angle of housework time.Research results show that housework time is an important factor that affects the gender wage gap of Hunan labor market,and there also exists other influ-encing factors like monthly income,education level,vocation and so on.However,the effect of positional title on gender wage differential shows uncertainty.Therefore,the government should vigorously develop family services,and establish a sound service system covering urban and rural families,basically meeting service requirements and freeing women from housework.At the same time,the government should ensure the proportion of women in vocational training and strengthen their employment competitiveness through policy support.Labor contract should also be strictly regulated,safeguarding the legitimate right of women in employment,social security and so on in private enterprises.

  20. Development Countermeasures of Small Tourism Towns Based on Synergetics:Taking Hunan Province as an Example%基于协同理论的湖南省旅游小城镇发展对策

    钟家雨; 柳思维


    It is necessary for Chinese social and economic development that the collaborative development between the tourism industry and urbanization.Based on synergetic theory,the article discusses adaptabilities and theoretical basis of small tourism towns.The patterns and countermeasures on the collaborative development of small tourism towns should be used.The patterns could be classified as three levels:the collaborative development of enterprises in core industrial chain,that of industrial cluster,and that of enterprises and business environment,etc.To practice the collaborative development,we should begin from the collaborative development of institute,targets,organization,public relations,and innovation,to the collaborative development of information,etc.Finally,the author highlights that some good and efficient countermeasures should be practiced in small tourism towns,Hunan.%随着旅游城镇的蓬勃发展,旅游业与城镇化的协同发展问题正日益受到人们的关注。基于协同理论,研究认为旅游小城镇的协同发展模式分为三个层次:核心产业链的企业协同、产业集群协同、产业集群与环境协同等。要实现协同发展,应从目标协同、制度协同、组织协同、利益协同、创新协同、信息协同等方面入手。以湖南省为例进行实证分析,提出了相应的对策建议。


    于汇历; 董为


    The Jaiojie Paleolithic Site is located in a karstic cave at Acheng, Haerbin Municipality in Heilongjiang Province. It is regarded as the oldest Paleolithic site in the province and also the northernmost one in China up to today. The geographic coordination at the cave entrance measured with the Global Positioning System ( GPS) is 45°21'07. 7"N and 127°05'16. 8"E, with an altitude of 183m. The cave deposits can be divided into 6 layers. Mammalian fossils were unearthed mainly from Layers 5 and 6 in the lower part of the cave deposits. As a Quaternary mammalian fauna,it is chronologically the earliest one in Heilongjiang Province and geographically the northernmost and easternmost in China. Layer 5 is composed of grayish green clay with some yellow clods, and the underlying Layer 6 composed of reddish yellow clay with breccia. Although the site was discovered in 1996 and systematically excavated in 1997,the fossils were never systematically described before 12 taxa were identified as follow; Mar mot a sp., Myospalax cf. Prosilurus, Ochotona sp., Lepus ( Eulagos) mandshuricus ( = Lepus wongi) , Mattes sp., Meles meles, Mustela sibirica, Ursus sp, Crocuta sp., Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis ( = Dicerorhinus mercki) ,Cervus(S. )nippon hortulorum,Capreolus capreolus manehuricus. The fossils from Layer 5 are mostly smaller forms such as Marmota sp.,Myospalax cf.prosilurus,Lepus(Eulagos) mandshuricus( = Lepus wongi) ,etc. ,and those from Layer 6 are mostly larger forms such as Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis, Cervus ( Sika) hortulorum, Crocuta etc. They are mostly northern forms. The fauna lacks typical cold forms such as Coelodonta and Mammuthus, and it was regarded as a fauna exsiting during the transition from temperate period to cold one in North Region. The comparison of fauna compositions shows that the Jiaojie fauna is close to that of the Middle Pleistocene Jinniushan and Miaohoushan faunas in Liaoning Province, the Late Pleistocene Xiaogushan and Gulongshan faunas


    Mazina S. E.


    Full Text Available Novoafonskaya cave is located in Abkhazia. It is equipped for visits in 1975. The cave has permanently installed lighting. In caves with artificial lighting, a vegetation of cyanobacteria and algae, bryophytes and ferns can be found around lamps. The development of lampenflora is a typical problem for cave management. We have identified 69 species of phototrophs in Novoafonskaya cave: Magnoliophyta 2 species, Pteridophyta 6 species, Bryophyta 11 species, Cyanobacteria 34 species, Bacillariophyta 9 species, Ochrophyta 2 species, Chlorophyta 5 species. The article considers main habitat of lampenflora and gives their characteristics. We have also revealed predominance of cyanobacteria in the cave

  3. Baiyun Cave in Naigu Shilin, Yunnan Karst, China


    The Baiyun cave is a 380 m long karst cave in the Naigu Shilin, situated 70 km southeast of Kunming,Yunnan Province, China. The prevailing orientations of the cave passages are N110°-120°E and N0°-10°W and those of the fissures in the cave are N30°-40°W and N20°-30°W. The cave is developed in the thick-bedded Lower Permian Qixia Formation. The cave has an active water flow and is currently at the near water-table stage. There are large amounts of different infills of cave sediments. The cave shows different stages of paragenesis. The palaeomagnetic analysis of cave sediments shows that their ages are younger than 780 ka B.P. (the Brunhes Chron). The upper part of the sampled profile belongs to the reverse Blake event (112.3-117.9 ka B.P.). The formation of the Baiyun cave is directly connected with the development of the Naigu Shilin. The formation of karst underground and surface features depends on the regional tectonic deformation and the Cenozoic extension of the study area.``

  4. The use of ultra deep sequencing technique in the screening program on HIV-1 drug resistance mutation among ART-naïve patients in Hunan province%超深度焦磷酸测序技术用于HIV-1 RT基因区原发性耐药突变的研究

    贺健梅; 邹潇白; 陈曦; 郑军


    目的:利用超深度焦磷酸测序技术(UDS)研究湖南省HIV感染者中原发性耐药流行趋势。方法90份未接受抗病毒治疗的HIV感染者同时采用UDS测序和Sanger测序进行HIV基因型耐药检测,测序结果采用斯坦福大学HIV耐药突变数据库进行分析比对,分析湖南省HIV-1反转录(RT)基因区原发性耐药突变情况。结果 UDS检测成功获取90份测序结果,84.4%为AE亚型(76/90),发现38例(42.2%,38/90)针对RT基因区的耐药突变位点,其中14例样本仅发生核苷类反转录酶(NRTI)耐药突变(15.6%),15例仅发生非核苷类反转录酶(NNRTI)耐药突变(16.7%),9例样本同时发生了NRTI和NNRTI类耐药突变。在16个位置上共发现54次耐药突变。17例(18.9%,17/90)样本有针对RT基因区的中度及以上的耐药突变。传统Sanger法仅检出7例;其中针对NRTI类药物耐药的6例;针对NNRTI类药物耐药的5例。结论 Sanger法测序能够鉴定出显著的耐药性突变(≥20%),但不能及时发现尚未达到显著突变量的突变位点或稀有型抗药型突变(<20%)。而UDS则能更灵敏检测到低频突变毒株,这些耐药突变同样可在药物选择压力下快速的增长引起病毒学治疗失败,导致临床治疗失败。因此选择更高灵敏度和精确度的技术检测低水平耐药突变位点,对于HIV抗病毒临床治疗有着十分重大的意义。%Objective To determine the prevalence rates of nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) TDRs among HIV-1 ART-naïve patients in Hunan province using the ultra deep sequencing(UDS) technique. Methods ART-naïve subjects diagnosed in Hunan between 2010 and 2011 were evaluated by both UDS technique and Sanger sequencing techniques,to the 1%variant level. Mutations were scored using the Stanford HIVdb algorithm to infer the status on drug

  5. 湖南省2009~2011年甲型H1N1流感哨点监测病原学结果及病毒基因特性分析%Virological Surveillance of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus and Its Genetic Characteristics in Hunan Province,2009-2011

    张红; 黄一伟; 刘运芝; 李芳彩; 陈长; 李文超; 邓志红; 胡世雄; 高立冬


    To understand and master the dynamic variation of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Hunan province from 2009 to 2011, and to know the genetic characteristics and drug resistance of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses. Throat swab specimens of influenza-like illness patients were collected from sentinel hospitals and tested for influenza by fluorescent PCR or virus isolation methods. Partial isolates were selected for sequencing. The sequences were used for phylogenetic analysis by MEGA 5. 05 software. From the 20th week of 2009 to the 52nd week of 2011, 17 773 specimens were tested. 3 831 specimens were influenza-positive with a positive rate of 21. 6% , of which 1 794 were positive specimens of pandemic (H1N1) 2009, accounting for 46.8% of the influenza-positives. There were 2 epidemic peaks of pandemic (H1N1) 2009, which were in the 41st-53rd week of 2009 and the lst-12nd week of 2011, respectively. The HA genes of 23 strains that were selected for sequencing had close relationship; the distribution of strains in the phylogenetic tree was basically in chronological order. The complete genome sequence analysis showed that all of 8 gene segments of 7 strains were homologous to the vaccine strain, and there was no gene reassortment. The HA amino acid sites of the 23 strains were highly similar to the vaccine strain (98. 2%~100. 0% in homology) , but all 23 strains had P83S, S203T and I321V mutations. The 222 site mutation that may lead to enhanced virulence was found in the A/Hunan/YQ30/2009 strain. The mutation was D222E. There was no oseltamivir resistance mutation found in all strains. The pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Hunan province from 2009 to 2011 had a bimodal distribution. There was no large-scale variation of virus genes. The clinical use of oseltamivir was still effective.%了解和掌握2009~2011年湖南省甲型H1N1流感流行动态和变化规律,掌握甲型H1N1流感流行株基因特性及耐药性情况.收集哨点医院采集的流感样病


    董进国; 刁伟; 孔兴功


    通过对湖北三宝洞17支石笋160个测年样品的铀同位素数据分析,发现过去18万年以来石笋238U值长尺度变化与其δ18O记录有一定的负相关关系,与西太平洋海表温度变化具有良好的正相关.石笋238 U值在间冰期波动剧烈,而在冰期波动相对平缓,在冰期—间冰期转型时238U值“爆发式”增大.在轨道尺度上,高浓度238U对应于石笋平均生长速率的高值期,而低浓度值对应于生长速率的低值期.上述结果表明与外界气候变化相关的洞穴上覆土壤的成壤过程和岩溶水文变化可能是控制石笋238U含量变化的主要因素,石笋238U可以作为一个新的洞穴气候环境代用指标,但仍须谨慎对待.%A great number of oxygen isotope ratios and U-Th ages data were collected and studied by the authors for the stalagmites from the Sanbao cave, Hubei Province, China. Uranium-series dating of the speleothem suggests that the stalagmites are formed in the period from the penultimate glacial period up to the present. This paper deals with the relationship between uranium concentration in stalagmites and pa-leoclimate data induced from the 160 precise ICP-MS 230Th data collected from 17 stalagmites from the Sanbao Cave. We discovered that the variations in 238 U show a negative relation with the δ18O records of the studied stalagmites, and a positive relation with the temperature changes in West Pacific Warm Pool. The concentration of 238U in the stalagmites fluctuated rapidly during the interglacial periods, slowly during the glacial periods, and increased sharply in the past two terminations. On the orbital scale, the higher the average growth rate, the higher the uranium concentration is, and vice versa. The results also show that the pedogenic processes of the soil profile above the cave and the complex soil-water-rock interaction are well related with the outer-cave climate changes, possibly responsible for the shifts of uranium

  7. Non-linear relationship between chemical compositions and smoking quality in flue-cured tobacco in Hunan province%湖南烤烟主要化学成分与评吸质量的非线性关系解析

    李广才; 余玉梅; 胡建军; 周冀衡


    Relationship between chemical compositions / index and smoking quality were analyzed by applying generalized additive models using 375 samples including B2F, C3F and X2F grades of flue -cured tobacco in Hunan province Results showed that: (1) the majority others presented "(U) " or " U " shaped relationships except that a few chemical components / index showed strongly linear correlation with smoking quality,; (2 ) the appropriate value of the key factors which represented qualities of flue - cured tobacco in Hunan province, such as sugar to nicotine ratio, nicotine, total nitrogen, total sugar, reducing sugar, nitrogen to nicotine ratio, and organic potassium, were about 9% , 3% , 2. 2% , 25% , 22% , 0.8% , 1.2% , respectively; (3 ) among the nine indexes of smoking quality, chemical compositions / index made the significant impact on concentration of aroma and irritancy, while less impact on smoke aftertaste; and (4) compared three potassium indexes, the representational abilities to smoking quality is in the following order; organic potassium > potassium to sulfur ratio > potassium to chlorine ratio.%以湖南烤烟B2F、C3F和X2F等级375个样本为研究对象,运用广义可加模型较为系统地研究了烤烟主要化学成分/指标与评吸质量间的线性与非线性关系.结果表明:除部分主要化学成分/指标与烤烟评吸质量呈现较强的线性关系外,在一定含量范围内,多数主要化学成分/指标与评吸质量呈现“∩”或“∪”形抛物线关系;表征湖南烤烟评吸质量的关键化学成分/指标有糖碱比、烟碱、总氮、总糖、还原糖、氮碱比和有机钾,其适宜值分别为9、3%、2.2%、25%、22%、0.8和1.2%左右;烤烟主要化学成分/指标对香气量和刺激性的影响最大,对余味的影响最小;在钾氯比、有机钾和钾硫比这3项化学指标中,有机钾对烤烟评吸质量的总体表征效果最好,其次是钾硫比,钾氯比的总体表征

  8. Control Study of Behavior Problems and Self-concept Characteristics of Anxiety Disorders of Students in Primary School and Junior High School of Hunan Province%湖南省中小学生焦虑障碍的行为问题与自我意识特征的对照研究

    胡卫群; 罗学荣; 管冰清; 袁秀洪; 叶海森; 宁志军; 杨伟; 韦臻; 丁军


    [Objective]To understand the behavior problems and self-concept characteristics of anxiety disorders of children and adolescences in Hunan province. [Methods]Totally 242 students aged 6 — 17 years old in primary school and junior high school of Hunan province from Sept. 2005 to Dec. 2005 were investigated. Students accordance with the diagnostic standard of the diagnostic and statistical manual of American mental disorder- Ⅳ (DSM-Ⅳ) and students in normal control group completed the children's self-concept scale (CSCL) by themselves. Achenbach children behavior checklist (CBCL) was completed by parents. [Results]Scores of CBCL were compared. Social ability scores such as social scores and school scores in case group were lower than those in control group, and there was significant difference( P <0. 05). The scores of behavior problems such as recession, body chief complaint, anxiety, depression, social activity, thought, attention, disciplinary violation, aggressive behavior, sex, introversion and extraversion in case group were higher than those in control group, and there were significant differences ( P <0. 01, P <0. 05). Control study of scores of CSCS showed that the scores of case group were lower than those in control group, and there was significant difference( P <0. 01). [Conclusion]Anxiety disorder has adverse effect on the learning, behavior and self consciousness of children, so it should be intervened actively.%[目的]了解湖南省儿童青少年焦虑障碍的行为问题与自我意识特征.[方法]2005年9月至2005年12调查湖南省小学1年级至初三的242名中小学生,年龄为6~17岁.凡符合美国精神疾病诊断与统计手册第四版(DSM-Ⅳ)诊断标准的学生和正常对照组学生由学生本人填写儿童自我意识量袁(Children's self-concept Scale,CSCS),由父母填写Achenbach儿童行为量表(Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist,CBCL).[结果]对CBCL各分量表及总分进行比较,在社会能力方面

  9. Investigation on Status of Human Parasitic Infections and the Influencing Factors in Lianyuan,Hunan Province%湖南省涟源市人体肠道寄生虫感染状况调查及影响因素分析

    刘新亮; 肖红军; 周宏大; 周述南


    目的 了解湖南省涟源市人体肠道寄生虫病感染状况及其影响因素,为制订合理的寄生虫病防治措施提供参考依据. 方法 按照《湖南省人体重要寄生虫病现状调查实施细则》的要求和方法,分层整群抽取4个乡镇进行人体重点寄生虫感染情况调查,采用改良加藤法检查虫卵. 结果 共调查1133人,感染者53人,总感染率为4.68%,蛔虫是主要感染虫种;年龄、性别肠道寄生虫感染率差异无统计学意义;农业人口(x2=8.493,P=0.004)、学历较低(x2=9.20,P=0.01)、饮用井水或河水(x2=7.98,P=0.02)、便后不洗手(x2=6.50,P=0.04)及未使用无害化厕所(x2=4.11,P=0.04)是人体肠道寄生虫感染的危险因素. 结论 蛔虫是当地人体肠道寄生虫感染的主要虫种.应加强针对低学历、卫生习惯/卫生设施较差的重点人群、重点地区的寄生虫病的综合防治工作.%Objective To investigate the status of human parasitic infections and the influencing factors in Lianyuan, Hunan Province, and to provide reference for rational developing prevention and treatment measures of parasitic diseases. Methods According to the Implementation Regulations for Survey on Current Status of Human Important Parasitic Diseases, investigations about the status of human important parasitic infections were performed among residents of 4 towns in Lianyuan, Hunan Province. The Kato- Katz method was used to detect parasite eggs. Results Investigations were performed on 1,133 residents, with a total parasitic infection rate of 4. 68% (53/1,133) , and the main parasite species is ascarid. No statistically significant diffidence was found in the parasitic infection rate among different age - groups and between different genders. Single factor analysis indicated that farming population (x2 =8.493, P = 0.004), lower educational level (x2 = 9. 20, P = 0.01), non-purified water drinking (x2 = 7. 98,P = 0. 02) , seldom washing hands after a bowel movement

  10. Virulence Gene PCR and PFGE Genotyping analysis of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from cholera epidemics in Hunan province from 2005 to 2010%湖南省2005年-2010年霍乱疫情分离株的毒力基因PCR及PFGE分型分析

    夏昕; 湛志飞; 覃迪; 刘运芝; 高立冬; 胡世雄; 邓志红; 张红


    Objective; To understand the pathogenic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae 0139 strains isolated from Vibrio cholerae epidemics in Hunan province from 2005 to 2010; to study the colone relations among the strains. Methods: K - B method was employed to test drug sensitivity; ctxAB virulence gene was tested by PCR, and finally molecular typing was carried out by pulsed field gel electrophoresis ( PFGE) for representative strains isolated from Vibrio cholerae epidemics. Results; 33 Vibrio cholerae 0139 stains presented a higher drug resistance rate against doxycycline and sulphame -thoxazole of 39. 39% and 75.76% , while a sensitivity of 100% to ciprofloxacin, nor-floxacin and amikacin; The virulence gene PCR results showed all the Vibrio cholerae 0139 strains were cholera toxin genes ctxAB - positive; 24 Vibrio cholerae 0139 strains isolated from Vibrio cholerae epidemics in 2005 and 2010 showed 3 PFGE banding types,and all the strains were homology of 83% - 100% by cluster analysis. Conclusion; Vibrio cholerae 0139 strains isolated from cholera epidemic in Hunan province from 2005 to 2010 were all ctxAB positive. The strains from different years and regions were found the closely related epidemic clone group strains of cholera; Resistance monitoring and further molecular typing analysis of Cholera strains contribute to the efficient surveillance of cholera and infectious source tracking.%目的:了解2005年-2010年湖南省霍乱疫情分离到的O139群霍乱弧菌菌株的病原学特征,研究疫情分离株之间的克隆相关性.方法:采用K-B法进行药敏试验;聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测ctxAB毒力基因;脉冲场凝胶电泳对疫情分离代表株进行PFGE分型分析.结果:33株霍乱弧菌对强力霉素、复方新诺明的耐药率较高,分别为39.39%和75.76%,对环丙沙星、诺氟沙星以及丁胺卡那100%敏感;毒力基因的PCR结果显示为所有疫情分离的O139霍乱弧菌均为产毒株,即

  11. How the Western Countries Fought for the Right to Missionary Work in China——A Case Study of Parishes in the Provinces of Hunan and Hubei%试析早期西方国家对中国传教权的争夺——以湖广教区为例



    Since the sixteenth century, Portugal and Spain began to rise and increased their global dominance. Supported by their powerful kingship, Catholic then spread to all over the world. The two countries, dependent on the combination of kingship and magisterium, divided the world and controlled the religious affairs in their scope of influence respectively. However, with the rise of emerging colonial countries and Pope's increasing desire to get rid of the interference from Portuguese and Spanish kings, Patronatus Missionum was severely challenged. By examining the complicated process of parish establishment in the provinces of Hunan and Hubei, we can catch a glimpse of how the western imperialist countries then fought for their sphere of influence in China.%自十六世纪,葡西崛起后,其势横扫全球。在其强大王权的支持下,天主教随之传到世界各地。两国凭借王权与教权的勾结将全球划分,控制着各自势力范围内的教务。然而随着新兴殖民国家的兴起和教宗日益想摆脱西葡王权的干涉,“保教权”受到日益严峻的挑战。借由湖广教区建立的曲折过程,我们可以一窥当时西方帝国主义国家对中国势力范围的争夺。

  12. 基于产业经济学和城乡规划的湖南省小城镇产业发展规划研究%Study on Planning of the Industrial Development of Small Towns in Hunan Province Based on Industrial Economics and Urban and Rural Planning

    詹晓峰; 徐峰


    产业是一个国家和社会发展的经济基础,对于一个国家或者区域的经济社会发展有重要意义,产业发展规划对产业发展、社会进步也有着深刻的影响.该文从湖南省小城镇产业发展的实际着手,对产业经济学领域和城乡规划学领域的产业发展规划作了深入的对比研究,提出了基于产业经济学和城乡规划学的产业发展规划的概念,充分结合了政策性规划和技术性规划的优势,以应对小城镇产业发展过程所遇到的问题,从而促进小城镇产业发展和城市化进程.%Industry is the basis of a country's economic and social development, significance for the economic and social development of a country or region. Industrial development planning also has a profound impact on industrial development and social progress. This paper from a small town in Hunan province industry actually started- makes in-depth comparative study on the field of industrial economics and urban and rural planning in the field of industrial development planning, proposes the concept of industrial development planning study based on industry economics and urban and rural planning, fully combines the advantages of policy planning and technical planning to solve the problems encountered by the response to small towns process of industrial development, so as to promote industrial development and urbanization of small towns.

  13. On Influence Factors of New Generation Migrant Workers’ Will of Urban Settlement Under the Perspective of Behavior:On the Base of the Survey Data in Hunan Province%行为视角下新生代农民工定居城市意愿的影响因素分析--基于湖南省的调查数据

    张笑秋; 陆自荣


    文章视人口流动为“行为”,以多维视角的人类行为理论与包含迁移心理学的人口迁移理论为指导,采用“湖南省农民工流动调查”数据,使用二项Logistic回归,分析新生代农民工定居城市意愿的影响因素。结果表明:新生代农民工定居城市意愿强于上一代农民工,影响新生代农民工定居城市意愿的社会因素包括年龄、婚姻状况、受教育程度、家庭收入,同时,还包括心理因素中的经济动机与从众心理。%The population floating is viewed as behavior in the paper. Under the guidance of the multi-dimension human be-havior theory and the population migration theory,which includes the migration psychology,and on the base of the survey data of migrant workers floating in Hunan Province, the paper analyzes influence factors of new generation migrant workers ’ will of urban settlement in terms of the binary Logistic regression. The analysis outcome shows that new generation migrant workers ’ will of urban settlement is stronger than of the previous generation migrant workers,and influence factors include age,mar-riage,education,family income,economic motive and herd mentality.

  14. A Talk on Block Printing in Hunan%湖南刻书概述



    In the Song Dynasty , the Yuan Dynasty , the Ming Dynasty and the Qing Dynasty block printing in Hunan was not as good as in Jiangsu and Zhejiang , and in the Song Dynasty , the Yuan Dynasty , the Ming Dynasty in Hunan was not as good as in Fujian and Jiangxi, Hubei .Since the Qing Dynasty Hunan block printing was behind Fujian, Jiangxi, Hubei, Guangdong and other provinces, but the official , the private , the mil block printing of Hunan had better progress.%湖南刻书宋元明清四代不如江苏、浙江,宋元明三代亦不如福建、江西。清代以后湖南刻书已不让闽、赣、鄂、粤及其他各省,并在官书局刻书、私人刻书、书坊刻书等方面或多或少有所超越。

  15. Investigation and Analysis of Ice and Snow Disaster Suffered by Hunan Power Grid in 2008

    Zhang Wenliang; Zhao Donglai; Zuo Songlin; Fu Zhiyang; Qu Qiang; Yu Yongqing; Su Zhiyi; Fan Jianbin; Li Peng; Yuan Dalu; Wu Shouyuan; Song Gao; Deng Zhanfeng


    @@ In January 2008,a sudden disaster caused by icing and snowing happened in large areas of Central China and South China.The equipments of Hunan power grid were seriously damaged during the icing and snowing disaster.An expert group from China Electric Power Research Institute (CEPRI) was organized and went to Hunan province for field investigation.As a summary of this investigation,this paper introduces power equipment damages,such as flashover caused by icing,collapse of towers,conductor breakage and damage of substation equipments.The countermeasures adopted for this icing and snowing disaster are also summarized.The analysis shows that the rare meteorological condition is the main reason for large-area damage of Hunan power grid.In the icing disaster of Hunan power grid,the ice thickness greatly exceeds the permissible limit of design,thus it is necessary to improve the design parameters reasonably to against icing of transmission lines,and the design of external insulation and the anti-icing technology for substations are also need to be enhanced.

  16. 2009-2010年湖南省哨点医院婴幼儿病毒性腹泻病原学研究%Etiological Study on Viral Diarrhea Among Infants and Young Children in Surveillance Hospitals of Hunan Province from 2009 to 2010

    李俊华; 刘富强; 陈雨; 张红; 周帅锋; 刘运芝; 邓志红; 黄威; 李丹地; 张帆; 姚正才; 袁丹


    Objective To investigate the etiological characteristics of common diarrhea viruses in sentinel hospitals of Hunan Province from 2009 to 2010, and to provide the scientific reference for comprehensive prevention and treatment of viral diarrhea. Methods A total of 759 stool specimens were collected from children less than 5 years old with an acute gastroenteritis admitted to surveillance hospitals of Hunan Province from 2009 to 2010. Dako- IDEIATM kits were used for detection of rota-virus, and the strain characterization of rotavirus was carried out with reverse transcription- polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR). The detection of calicivirus, adenovirus and astrovirus was done by multiple RT- PCR. Part of the PCR products (DNA) which were positive for samples of calicivirus, adenovirus and astrovirus were analyzed by nucleotide sequencing, respectively. Results Rotavirus was detected in 22.79% (173/759) of all cases, calicivirus detected in 9.22% (70/759), adenovirus detected in 4.61% (35/759), and astrovirus detected in 0.79% (6/759), respectively. Mix infections were found in 2.50% (19/759) of all samples. Among 173 rotavirus positive samples, serotypes G1, G3 and P[4] were the most predominant strains. The four types of diarrhea viruses mostly attacked the children less than 2 years old, and moreover, the seasonal variations of viral diarrhea were obvious. Sequence analysis showed that the 12 positive strains were confirmed as the corresponding virus. Conclusions Rotavirus was the main pathogen for viral diarrhea in surveillance hospitals of Hunan Province from 2009 to 2010, followed by calicivirus, adenovirus and astrovirus.%目的 了解湖南省哨点医院2009-2010年常见腹泻病毒的病原学特征,为病毒性腹泻的综合防治提供科学依据. 方法 收集湖南省哨点医院2009-2010年5岁以下住院腹泻患儿的粪便标本,采用Dako公司酶免疫试剂盒检测轮状病毒,采用逆转录-聚合酶联反应(RT-PCR)进行分型鉴定

  17. Population Structure and Distribution Pattern of Secondary Castanopsis eyrei Forest in Yangmingshan,Hunan Province%湖南阳明山甜槠次生林优势种群结构与分布格局研究

    颜玉娟; 谢红梅; 陈星可; 曾乐媛; 王桔红


    By using the methods of typical quadrat,the structure characteristics and distribution pattern of Castanopsis eyrei populations of secondary forest through age stucture,lifetable characteristics,survival curves and 4 aggregation intensity index (distribution coefficient R,negative binomial parameter K,mean crowding index M*and accumulation index PAI)were studied in the National Forest Park of Yangmings-han,Hunan.The results showed that:1 )the age structure of the C.eyrei population of the Yangmingshan followed a spindle shape,which indicated that the population was declining;2)In general,the survival rate of C.eyrei population increased first and then decreased with the increase of age,the survivorship approxi-mated the type of the DeeveyI.3 )In the study plots,the distribution pattern of C.eyrei population showed cluster distribution which coincides with the most common pattern of population.The population structure and distribution pattern were closely related to ecological factors and biological characteristics,natural dis-turbance and human destruction also had certain effect.The research results can provide a theoretical ba-sis for natural regeneration and conservation of dominant population of Yangmingshan secondary C.eyrei forest.%运用典型样方调查法,从龄级结构、静态生命表特征、存活曲线和4种聚集强度指标(分布系数R、负二项指数K、平均拥挤度指数 M*、聚块性指数PAI)等方面研究湖南阳明山国家森林公园甜槠次生林种群结构特征和分布格局。结果表明:1)阳明山甜槠种群结构为纺锤形,属于衰退型种群;2)甜槠种群在总体上存活数随龄级增加先上升后降低,存活曲线接近Deevey I型,即曲线凸型;3)在研究样地内,甜槠种群的分布格局整体呈现为集群分布,符合最普遍的种群样式。种群结构和分布格局与生态因子、生物学特性密切相关,自然干扰和人为破坏也有一定的影响。

  18. Analysis on the Major Causes of Death Among Hospitalized Children in Hunan Province from 2002 to 2010%2002-2010年湖南省住院儿童主要死因分析

    蒋耀辉; 钟燕; 陈双; 丁大为; 康如彤


    目的 分析2002 - 2010年住院儿童主要死因及其变化趋势,为制定有效的干预措施、降低儿童的死亡率提供依据.方法 对湖南省儿童医院2002 - 2010年住院的227 078例中793例死亡病例进行回顾性统计分析.结果 2002 - 2010年住院儿童死亡率呈逐年下降趋势;住院男女死亡之比为2.18∶1;农村与城市之比为3.89∶1;婴儿期死亡率最高,占住院儿童死亡总人数的64.56%,其中29 d~1岁37.83%,新生儿期26.73%;主要死因位于前5位的疾病是:感染性疾病、新生儿疾病、先天异常、肿瘤、意外伤害;不同年龄组儿童死亡的主要原因不同.结论 降低儿童病死率的关键是预防感染性疾病、加强围生期保健、加强孕前指导及孕期体检,重视环境因素对儿童健康的影响、重视意外伤害的防治,尤其应加强婴幼儿期及农村地区的医疗保健工作.%Objective To analyze the leading causes of death and the change trend in hospitalized children during the period of 2002-2010, and to provide a basis for making effective intervention measures and decreasing the mortality of children. Methods A retrospective statistical analysis was performed in 793 death cases from 227,078 hospitalized children in Hunan Children's Hospital during the period of 2002-2010. Results The mortality rates of hospitalized children from 2002 to 2010 were decreased annually, the ratio of boys/girls was 2.18:1, and the ratio of countryside/city was 3.89:1. Among all the age- stages, the mortality rate of infancy was the highest, which accounted for 64.56% of total death cases in hospitalized children, among them, 37.83% were aged between 29 - day and 1 - year and 26.73% were neonates. The top five diseases of death were: infectious diseases, newborn diseases, congenital abnormalities, tumors and unintentional injuries. The leading causes of death were different in each age - stage. Conclusions The key points of decreasing the

  19. Integrative effect evaluations on vegetation restoration patterns based on soil vegetation system in watershed, northwest Hunan province%湘西北小流域植被恢复综合效应评价

    漆良华; 张旭东


    Based upon the case of Nverzhai watershed in northwest Hunan, integrative effects of seven typical vegetation restoration patterns had been studied from the scale of soil vegetation system(SVS) in this paper, which included P. massoniana natural forest ( Ⅰ ) , C. lanceolata plantation ( Ⅱ ) , E. ulmoitks plantation ( Ⅲ ) , V. fordii plantation ( Ⅳ ) , M. pingii secondary forest ( Ⅴ ) , P. edulis-C. lanceolata mixed forest ( Ⅵ) , wasteland-shrub ( Ⅶ ) . Firstly, soil health evaluation system had been found which contained 60 indexes belonging to vegetation subsystem, soil subsystem and topographical factors. Secondly, the gray incidence ordinations of vegetation restoration effects on vegetation sub-system, soil sub-system and soil vegetation system were Ⅴ>Ⅱ>Ⅰ >Ⅳ > Ⅵ >Ⅲ > Ⅶ, Ⅴ>Ⅵ>Ⅱ>Ⅶ>Ⅳ> Ⅲ > Ⅰ and Ⅴ>Ⅱ>Ⅵ>Ⅰ>Ⅳ>Ⅲ>Ⅶ respectively, which proved that pattern V was the best and the pattern Ⅶ was the worst. Finally, through the gray incidence arrangement of evaluation indexes, Shannon-Weiner index, capillary porosity, organic matter, sucrase activity had the closest relationship with soil health respectively in vegetation characteristics , soil physical, chemical and biological properties. The contribution rate regularity of topographical factors affecting vegetation restoration was slope position, elevation slope degree, slope direction.%从土壤-植被系统(SVS)尺度研究评价了湘西北女儿寨小流域马尾松天然林(Ⅰ)、杉木人工林(Ⅱ)、杜仲人工林(Ⅲ)、油桐人工林(Ⅳ)、润楠次生林(Ⅴ)、毛竹杉木混交林(Ⅵ)及荒草灌丛(Ⅶ)等7种典型植被模式的综合恢复效应.研究表明:建立了涵盖植被、土壤及地形地貌3类因子60个指标的植被恢复综合效应评价体系;不同模式植被恢复效应总体以润楠次生林最优,荒草灌丛最差,植被子系统、土壤子系统和土壤-植被系统恢复效应灰色关联排序由大到小依次

  20. 不同林区劳动力非农转移影响因素比较分析--基于河北、湖南、福建3省的实地调查%Comparative Analysis on Factors Affecting Labor Migration in Various Forest Areas:A Case Study in Hebei, Hunan and Fujian Provinces

    鲁莎莎; 朱厚强; 吴成亮


    农村劳动力非农转移是我国城乡发展过程中的普遍现象,也是实现工业化、城镇化和农业现代化协调发展的重要前提。基于河北、湖南、福建3省林区41个村、290户林农的实地调研数据,利用Logistic回归模型对影响林区劳动力外出务工的因素进行了比较分析。结果表明:研究区劳动力外出务工的农户占样本的比重超过60%,林业劳动力非农转移已成为常态。河北保定林农的流动受个人禀赋影响较大,对家庭因素不敏感;湖南邵阳、福建三明林农的流动多受家庭因素影响;农林业经营情况对3个地区林农的流动影响均较大。针对林区劳动力非农转移的现实状况,认为发展地方特色产业、用科技实现规模效应及培育社会支持体系等是实现林区农村剩余劳动力合理流动、提升人力资源使用效率的重要途径。%Rural farming labor being transferred to non-farming one is not only a common phenomenon in the development of urban and rural areas in China, but also an important prerequisite for the coordinated development of industrialization, urbanization, and agricultural modernization. The article uses the sample data of 290 households from 41 villages in Hebei, Hunan and Fujian provinces, and makes comparative analyses on the factors affecting the migration of forestry labor through the Logistic regression model. The result shows that migrant labor households account for 60% of the sample. Personal endowments have greater influence on the migration than family factors in Baoding city of Hebei, while migrations in Shaoyang city of Hunan and Sanming city of Fujian are mainly affected by family factors. Besides, the operation of agroforestry has widespread impacts on the migration of forest labor in these three cities. According to actual situations in forest regions, it is suggested that developing industries with local characteristics, using science and technology

  1. 粮食主产区农民种粮意愿的影响因素分析——基于湖南475家农户的调查数据%Factors affecting farmers' willingness to grow grain in key grain-producing areas: Based on the investigation of 475 rural households of Hunan Province

    陈思羽; 曾福生; 刘辉; 许慧


    以粮食主产区湖南长沙县、岳阳县、邵阳县475个农户样本的调查数据为基础,从农民个人特征、农户家庭特征、粮食市场价格等角度选取15个变量,应用二元Logistic模型对农民种粮意愿的影响因素进行了分析。结果表明:性别、文化程度、种粮年限、种粮收益占家庭总收入比重、粮食价格、种粮目的、农业技术支持、水利设施完善程度对农民种粮意愿有显著的正向影响;农民身体健康水平、劳动力短缺程度、生产资料价格对农民种粮意愿有显著的负向影响;年龄、资金不足程度、粮食补贴占种粮投入比重、卖粮难易程度对农民种粮意愿没有显著影响。%Based on the investigation data of 475 samples of rural households in key grain-producing areas of Changsha county, Yueyang county and Shaoyang county of Hunan province, selecting 15 variable quantities from the pespective of individual characteristics of the farmers, household features of rural households, marketing price of grain and so on, this paper analyzes the factors influencing rural households' willingness to grow grain by using Binary Logistic model.The results shows that: these factors including the proportion of the gender, the level of education, the years of grain growing ,and grain profits of the farmers in total household income; the prices of grain, the purpose of grain growing, the support of agricultural technic, the status of water conservancy facilities, positively impact on farmers' willingness to grow grain; while those factors including farmers' physical health, labor shortages, the price of production, negatively impact on farmers' willingness to grow grain; and those elements ,such as the age of farmers, capital adequacy, the proportion of food subsidies in the input of grain growing, the situation of grain selling do not greatly impact on farmers' willingness to grow grain.

  2. Study on Sports Development Model of Small Towns in Hunan Province in the New Round of Countryside Reform%新一轮农村改革中湖南省小城镇体育发展模式的探讨

    王峰; 王晓成; 王驰; 宋海滨


    Small towns are the hinge and bridge of connecting cities and countryside. The sports development of small towns means to keep a close attention to the physical development of countryside and Chinese people. This paper analyzes the main problems in the sports development of small towns by means of investigation and literature review. The conclusions are as follow: Firstly, the sports development of small towns is more hysteretic when com- paring with the development of small towns themselves. Secondly, the unbalance in different regions and the ma - ladjustment among involved people. Thirdly, the lack of planning and promote the process of utilitarianism. Fourthly, sports organization is weak and professional talent is shortage. At the same time, considering the key factors and the historical background, the author presents the traditional model, characteristic model and enterprise enhanced autonomy of small towns in order to promote the mass sports development in Hunan province.%小城镇是连接城市和农村的枢纽和桥梁,研究小城镇体育发展,体现了对农村体育的一种关注,对中国大众体育发展的一种关注。笔者通过调查、文献资料等方法,剖析了当前湖南省小城镇体育发展存在的几个主要问题:1、小城镇体育发展滞后于小城镇自身的发展。2、不同地域间体育发展的失衡与参与人群的失调。3、规划的缺失与推进过程的功利性。4、体育组织的乏力与专业人才的匮乏。5、资金的短缺与来源渠道的单一。同时,针对新一轮农村改革的契机与小城镇体育的历史背景提出了湖南省小城镇体育发展的传统模式、特色模式与企业自主模式,以期推动湖南省群众体育的发展。

  3. Countermeasures on Solving the Current Financing Difficulties of Micro, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises-Taking Yueyang County of Hunan Province as an Example%破解中小微企业当前融资困境的对策研究--以湖南省岳阳县为例



    企业融资困境包括融资难和融资贵两个问题。融资难问题在各类企业都存在,只是程度不同。大型企业有较多的融资渠道和较高的信用等级,因此,融资难问题更多体现在中小微企业层面。同时,由于中小微企业不具备大型企业的议价能力,贷款的抵押担保限制较多,使得间接成本提升,造成了融资贵的问题。湖南省岳阳县是中部地区欠发达县,县内企业基本上都属于中小微企业,存在的融资困境具有较强的代表性。本文以岳阳县为例,从中小微企业融资困境的现状及原因进行分析,寻求破解中小微企业融资困境的途径。%Enterprise financing is both inaccessible and unaffordable. The problem of inaccessible financing exists in all kinds of enterprises, only to different degrees. Big firms have more financing channels and high credit ratings. Therefore, most of the financing problems are in micro, small, medium-sized enterprises. At the same time, because micro, small and medium-sized enterprises do not have the same power in bargaining as the big enterprises, so there is more limitation in loans collateral secured, which causes the indirect cost increase, resulting in financing unaffordable problem. Yueyang County of Hunan province is a less developed county in the central region of China. Enterprises of this county are basically at the micro, small, medium-level. Its financing dilemma is representative. This paper takes Yueyang County as an example, and analyzes the current situation and reasons of micro, small, medium-sized enterprises' financing difficulties, so as to find ways to solve their financing problems.

  4. Local Transfer of Surplus Laborers and Protection of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Fenghuang County of West Hunan Province%湘西凤凰县农村剩余劳动力就地转移与非物质文化遗产保护

    姚玲玲; 于小体; 王晶


    从非物质文化遗产的定义、非物质文化遗产保护与传承的重要性以及农村剩余劳动力就地转移对非物质文化遗产保护及传承的作用3个方面探讨了民族地区农村剩余劳动力就地转移对非物质文化遗产保护及传承的重要意义,并以湘西凤凰县为例,具体提出了农村剩余劳动力就地转移的构想,建议从推进农业产业化、发展民族乡村旅游业、支持农民工返乡创业、吸引大学生回乡创业方面着手,并具体阐述了相关策略,以期增加农民收入,让非物质文化遗产在民族地区世世代代地延续下去,从而得到有效保护.%The significance of local transfer of surplus rural labor forces in regions of minorities for the protection of intangible cultural heritage was discussed from 3 perspectives: the definition of intangible cultural heritage, the significance of protecting and inheriting intangible cultural heritage, the role of local transfer of surplus rural laborers in protecting and inheriting intangible cultural heritage. By taking Fenghuang County (Phoenix County) in west Hunan Province for an example, local transfer of surplus rural labor forces was proposed, and it was suggested that such a transfer could be realized from the following aspects: promoting industrialization of agriculture, developing tourism industry in rural regions of minorities, supporting rural labors to start their own business, attracting university graduates to return to their hometowns for founding their own undertakings. Moreover, relevant strategies were elaborated to increase income of rural residents, guarantee the efficient inheritance and protection of intangible cultural heritage in regions of minorities.

  5. 湖南省3个主要稻瘟病区菌株的交配型分布及其生理小种测定%Distribution of Mating Type and Identification of Physiological Race in Magnaporthe grisea Collected from Three Main Diseased Areas of Hunan Province, China

    Raoul Bruno NGUEKO; 沈瑛; 徐同


    Fifty-seven mono-conidial blast fungi (Magnaporthe grisea) isolated from three main diseased areas of Hunan Province in September 2001 were co-cultivated on rice flour medium with four standard testers provided by International Center for Collaboration in Agronomic Research and Development (CIRAD) in order to determine their mating types. Results showed that 30% and 12% of the tested isolates were determined as Mat1.1 and Mat1.2, respectively, while the remaining 60% were unknown mating types. A total of 24 fertile strains were obtained, only five of them were female/hermaphroditic isolates, being accounted for 9% of the total tested isolates. The cross between isolates of the opposite mating types did not show any production of perithecia even between hermaphroditic isolates. The Chinese race of each isolate was determined after pathogenicity test to the seven Chinese differential cultivars. ZA and ZB were dominant groups and the race ZB15 was predominant among the 20 races obtained. The perfect stage of M. grisea in the field was also discussed.%2001年9月在湖南省3个稻瘟病的主要发病县采集分离了57个稻瘟病菌株,与法国国际农艺研究和发展中心提供的4个标准菌株于稻谷粉琼脂培养基上对峙培养.结果表明,30% 和12% 的测试菌株分别为交配型1.1和交配型1.2,其余60% 的测试菌株与4个标准菌株中的任何一个均不能产生子囊果,即便是与田间新获得的两性菌株之间的对峙培养也不能产生子囊果.在所获24个能育菌株中只有5个为两性菌株,占9%.各菌株在中国7个鉴别品种上的测定共获5群20个小种,其中ZA 和ZB为优势群,ZB15为优势小种.还就稻瘟病菌有性世代在田间存在与否进行了讨论.

  6. Structural Characteristics and Prospecting Significance of the Xitian Tin-Tungsten Polymetallic Deposit, Hunan Province, China%湖南锡田锡钨多金属矿床成矿构造特征及其找矿意义

    伍式崇; 龙自强; 徐辉煌; 周云; 蒋英; 潘传楚


    The Xitian tin-tungsten deposit,an important deposit discovered recently in the Nanling ore-forming province,occurs in the contact zone of the Late Devonian dolomitic limestone and Jurassic to Cretaceous ( Yans-hanian) granitoids.The main ore types of the deposit are skan-,structural skan-,structural altered rock- and quartz-greisen vein types.There is a SN-trending extensional structure of granite dome,a series of NE-trending multiple folds and NE or NEE-trending strike-slip tectonic system developed in the Xitian deposit.The dome structure is composed of Indosian and Yanshanian granites,Paleozoic strata and Mesozoic discontinuous ring detachment faults,which controls the distribution of skarn orebodies.The complex fold is a NE-trending complicated synclines,which consists of Palaeozoic strata,and is cut by strike-slip faults in the anticlinal core.Some structural fracture zone type ore bodies are controlled by both the coaxial overprinted fold of two periods,which belong to Yantang and Xiaotian complicated syncline,and the ductile brittle shear faults.The strike-slip system consists of the first-order NE-trending right lateral strike-slip faults,secondary P-orientation shear faults,SN-trending left laterial strike-slip faults and NW-trending stretch faults.The strike-slip system controls the distribution of quartz-vein- and greisen vein type tin-tungsten polymetallic orebodies.Zircon SHRIMP and LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating of the Xitian granites and 40A-39Ar ages of muscovites from the greisenization type tungsten-tin orebodies as well as Re-Os isochron age of molybdenites from the quartz-vein type tin-tungsten ore bodies demonstrate that the time of tectonic activity,mag-matism and metallogenesis in Xitian tin- tungsten deposit is basically consistent with those of the large-scale metal-logeny in Nanling ore-forming province ( ISO Ma ~ 160 Ma).There exist many metallogenic areas favorable for future exploration,such as contact zones of granites and limestones,NEE- or NE

  7. Clastic cave deposits in Botovskaya cave (Eastern Siberia, Russian Federation)

    Kadlec, Jaroslav; Chadima, Martin; Lisá, Lenka; Hercman, H.; Osintsev, A.; Oberhänsli, H.


    Roč. 70, č. 3 (2008), s. 142-155. ISSN 1090-6924 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave sediments * mineral magnetism * Botovskaya Cave Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.532, year: 2008

  8. Study on Logistics Demand Forecasting of Hunan Based on ARIMA Model%基于ARIMA模型的湖南省物流需求预测研究

    黄振; 张为; 夏利平


    In this paper we studied the logistics demand forecasting of the Hunan province on the basis of the ARIMA model and proposed corresponding countermeasures and suggestions in view of the practical situation of the development of the logistics industry of Hunan.%基于ARIMA模型对湖南省物流需求预测进行了研究,模型的回归和拟合效果良好,预测相对误差较小,最后针对湖南省物流业的发展提出了相关对策和建议.

  9. Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia

    Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm-3. The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm-3. However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm-3. Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides

  10. [Bioproductivity of Castanopsis hysrix-Cyclobalanopsis glauca-Machilus pauhoi community in Huitong, Hunan].

    Deng, S; Liao, L; Wang, S; Gao, H


    Based on the mean DBH measurements of sample trees, the bioproductivity of subtropical Castanopsis hysrix-Cyclobalanopsis glauca-Machilus pauhoi community in Huitong, Hunan province was studied by regression analysis (y = a(D2.H)b). The results showed that the total biomass of the forest was 451.02, and the component biomass of tree, shrub, liana and litter layer was 426.76, 17.76, 1.80 and 4.70, respectively. The net production and average production of tree layer were 34.46 and 13.32, respectively. PMID:11767514

  11. Improvement of the Performance Evaluation Index System in State-owned Enterprises in China——Based on Empirical Analysis about State-owned Enterprises Statistics Data in 2006-2010 year in Hunan Province%我国国有企业绩效评价指标体系的改进探讨——基于湖南省2006-2010年国企统计数据的实证分析



    自改革开放以来,对国有企业绩效的评价一直是一个重点关注的课题。财政部等国家部委自1992年以来多次出台和更新国有资本金效绩评价体系。针对现行国有企业绩效评价指标体系的缺陷,为突出国有企业所需承担的经营责任和社会责任,运用德菲尔法和层次分析法改进了国有企业绩效评价指标体系,并以湖南省2006-2010年国企统计数据为依据,对国有企业绩效进行了实证分析,结果表明,湖南国有企业绩效总体水平处于良好水平,可挖掘的潜力很大。%Since the reform and opening up,the performance evaluation of state-owned enterprises has been a subject of focus.Ministry of Finance and other ministries have repeatedly introduced and updated the performance evaluation system of the state-owned capital since 1992 years.To solve the defects of the existing performance evaluation system in state-owned enterprise and highlight the business and social responsibility shouldered by state-owned enterprises,this paper designs a set of performance evaluation system for state-owned enterprise by using De Feier method and the analytic hierarchy process,and does an empirical analysis about state-owned enterprise performance based on the state-owned enterprises statistics data in 2006-2010 year in Hunan province.The result shoes that the overall level of state-owned enterprises Performance in Hunan is good and great potential to be tapped.

  12. Speleothem (Cave Deposit) Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, and other aspects of climate derived from mineral deposits found in caves. Parameter keywords describe what was measured...

  13. Survey on awareness and influencing factors of hepatitis B knowledge among corporate employees in Hengyang City, Hunan Province%湖南省衡阳市企业职工乙型肝炎相关知识水平及影响因素调查

    江春旺; 郑星; 黄娟; 谢红卫


    目的 了解湖南省衡阳市企业职工乙肝相关知识的知晓情况及影响因素,为今后有针对性地对企业职工开展乙肝健康教育提供依据.方法 采用整群抽样方法,抽取前往衡阳市疾病预防控制中心进行体检的企业职工200人进行问卷调查.结果 衡阳市企业职工对乙肝是一种传染病及乙肝的病因知晓率较高,均超过80%;乙肝知识得分为27.82±5.26分(总分为50分),及格率44.4%;58.6%的人认为乙肝对自己的工作有影响;13.6%的人对乙肝患者有歧视.单因素分析结果显示,乙肝知识得分在不同年龄组及不同文化程度之间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);多因素分析结果显示文化程度对乙肝知识得分存在影响,文化程度越高得分越高(P<0.05).企业职工获取乙肝知识来源主要有报纸、电视、网络、书籍等传媒,占74.1%;来源于政府相关机构宣传者,占17.2%.结论 衡阳市企业职工对乙肝相关知识认知不足,企业及疾病预防控制中心应加强从业人员乙肝的健康教育,减少企业职工对乙肝认知的误区.%Objective To understand the awareness and influencing factors of knowledge related to hepatitis B among corporate employees in Hengyang City, Hunan Province, and to provide foundation for carrying out targeted health education on hepatitis B.Methods Cluster sampling method was adopted; 200 questionnaires were selected when the corporate employees were in Center for Disease Control and Prevention for a body check Results The awareness rate on that hepatitis B was infectious disease and its pathology were more than 80%; knowledge score on hepatitis B was 27.82 ± 5.26, pass rate was 44.4%; 58.6% thought that hepatitis B affected their work, 13.6% of people showed discrimination against hepatitis B patients.Univariate analysis showed that HBV knowledge scores in different age groups and in different education levels were statistically significant (P <0

  14. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical characteristics of Shihama granite pluton in northeastern Hunan province%湘东北地区石蛤蟆花岗岩体SHRIMP U—Pb年龄及地球化学特征

    姚宇军; 马铁球; 周柯军; 柏道远


    分布于湖南东北部的石蛤蟆岩体侵位于新元古代地层中。由微细粒斑状黑云母花岗闪长岩和细粒斑状黑云母二长花岗岩等两期侵入体组成。通过锆石SHRIM PU--Pb法测得岩体侵位年龄为157土2Ma(2d),MSWD=0.98,成岩时代为晚侏罗世。SiO2=68.26%~68.53%,K2O/Na2O=1.37~1.59,岩石属镁质、准铝质-微过铝质、高钾钙碱性-钾玄岩系列;岩石明显富集大离子亲石元素,亏损高场强元素,Rb/Sr较低(0.40~0.56);乏REE较高(171.48~183.81),Eu为弱负异常(δEu=0.86~0.93),(La/Yb)N=27.11~45.87;具较高的eNd值(-5.11)和高T2DM(1.63Ga)。综合研究表明,石蛤蟆花岗岩为混合源高钾钙碱性花岗岩类(KCG),其花岗岩浆有大量幔源物质加入。讨论认为岩体形成于构造体制转换下的地球动力学背景,是造山晚期张弛作用下的产物。%Distributed in northeastern Hunan province and intruded in Neoproterozoic strata, Shihama granite pluton is mainly composed of micro-fine-grained porphyritic biotite granodiorites of early stage and fine- grained porphyritic biotite monzonitic granites of late stage. SHRIMP zircon dating of the granites gives an age of 157±2 Ma which belongs to Late Jurassic. The granites belong to magnesian, metaluminous-weak- ly peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline-shoshonite series, with SIO2=68.26% -68.53M and K2O/Na2O= 1.37 - 1.59. The rocks show enriched large-ion lithophile elements, depleted high field-strength ele- ments, low values of Rb/Sr(0.40-0.56), high values of ∑REE (171.48-183.81), with δEu=0.86-- 0. 93, (La/Yb)N=27. 11-45.87, εNd=5.11, T2DM=1. 63 Ga. Studies indicate that the Shihama gran- ites belong to high-K calc-alkaline granites (KCG) originated form the crust-mantled mixed source ivolving large amount of mantle source materials. It is believed that the granite pluton is the result of

  15. 湖南省绥宁县黄桑坪自然保护区珍稀濒危植物长苞铁杉自然种群年龄结构及生态对策%The Age Structure and Ecological Strategy of the Rare and Endangered Tsuga longibracteata W. C. cheng Population in Huangsangping Nature Reserve of Hunan Province

    李红; 杨宁


    Based on the analysis of the population structure, time-specific life table (2012), re-production value and the relevance between distribution number and environment factors of Tsuga longi-bracteata W. C. cheng in Huangsangping Nature Reserve of Hunan Province, this paper comes to conclu-sions as follows:(1) The number of population structure has the properties of “big in middle and small at the begging and at the end a large portion in the middle and a small portion at both ends”, which means it is a declining population. Though there are some young individuals, the death rate is high. The age structure model of Tsuga longibracteata during 35 years in a period of 35 years is:Age ( a ) =0. 002765(DBH)3 -0. 128756(DBH)2 +4. 120978(DBH) +13. 439846(R=0. 991 2,F=2 654. 48);(2)The population of Tsuga longibracteata is characterized with both r strategy and K strategy. It stays in the transitory period from r strategy to K strategy;(3) The SRRV and TRV are declining while OREx va-ries with the characteristic of“n”, which shows that Tsuga longibracteata is able to reproduce and recov-er with limited capacity. 1fig. ,3tabs. ,16refs.%通过对湖南省绥宁县黄桑坪自然保护区长苞铁杉的种群结构、特定时间生命表、生殖价分析、分布数量与环境因子的关系进行分析.结果表明:(1)种群结构数量具有“中间大,两头小”的特点,为衰退型种群,虽然种群有一定的幼龄个体,但死亡率高,35 a 内长苞铁杉的年龄结构模型为:Age(a)=0.002765(DBH)3-0.128756(DBH)2+4.120978(DBH)+13.439846(R=0.9912,F=2654.48);(2)长苞铁杉种群既有r对策特征,又有K对策特征,该种群处于r对策→K对策的过渡阶段;(3)长苞铁杉的累积剩余生殖价(SRRV)和整个生活史的总生殖价( TRV)呈现出逐渐递减的趋势,而生殖投资策略( OREx)在整个生长过程中具有“n”型变化特征,说明长苞铁杉种群有实现生殖与恢复的可能,但能力有限.图1,表3,参16.

  16. A survey and intervention study on lab first-aid knowledge of the freshmen in a medical university in Hunan province%湖南某高校医学一年级学生实验室急救知识调查干预研究

    柳强; 蒋倩倩; 张海燕; 王迎燕; 朱勇飞


    Objective To know the medical freshmen’s awareness of laboratory safety and first aid knowledge in a medical university in Hunan province, and explore effective approaches to improve it.Methods By cluster random sampling method, 245 freshmen were collected and divided experimental and matched group. A pocket guide detailing laboratory safety and first-aid knowledge was provided to experimental group and some explanations were given to them at the same time, while no intervention was conducted to the matched group. Both the groups were surveyed through a questionnaire related to laboratory safety and first aid knowledge not only before the intervention but also after it.Results In this survey, only the three questions concerning temporary treatment of fractures or suspected fractures, first-aid measures of scratches and cuts with sharp objects, and awareness of chemical injuries in the first survey were relatively answered better in both groups, covering a correction rate of more than 70%. But after the intervention, the treatment group had a better accuracy in 18 of all the 20 questions except the rest two about fractures and chemical injuries.Conclusions Knowledge of laboratory safety and first aid has to be improved greatly to the medical freshmen, and effective intervention may help the students to improve a lot in relevant knowledge.%[目的]了解湖南某高校医学院一年级学生对实验室急救知识的掌握情况,探索提高大学生实验室急救知识的有效途径。[方法]整群随机抽样法抽取245名医学院一年级学生,随机分为实验组和对照组,向实验组大学生发放实验室安全和急救知识速查手册并进行讲解,对照组则不进行任何干预,每组均于干预前和干预后发放实验室安全和急救知识问卷进行测试。[结果]第一次调查时,20个问题中两组大学生仅有“骨折或可疑骨折时简单处理”、“被玻璃等利器割伤后的急救”和“对

  17. Disease spectrum and causes of death in hospitalized children in an upper ifrst-class hospital in Hunan Province, China, from 2010 to 2014%2010~2014年湖南某三甲医院住院儿童疾病谱及死因分析

    陈金彪; 赵利; 张静; 周维强; 金敏


    ObjectiveTo study the disease spectrum and causes of death in hospitalized children in an upper ifrst-class hospital in Hunan Province, China.MethodsThe medical records of hospitalized children between 2010 and 2014 in this hospital were collected and analyzed retrospectively.ResultsFrom 2010 to 2014, the number of hospitalized children increased from 7303 in 2010 to 10902 in 2014, and the case fatality rate declined from 0.33%to 0.20% (P<0.05). The case fatality rate was highest (0.41%) in infants and lowest (0.11%) in newborns. As for the disease spectrum for these hospitalized children, in 2010, the top three diseases were leukemia, congenital heart disease, and pneumonia; in 2011, the top three diseases were tumor chemotherapy, congenital heart disease, and pneumonia; since 2012, tumor chemotherapy, epilepsy, and pneumonia had remained the top three diseases. The top three causes of death in hospitalized children were congenital malformation (39%, 39/99), tumor (13%, 13/99), and infectious diseases/parasitic diseases (8%, 8/99).ConclusionsThe number of hospitalized children is increasing, while the case fatality rate tends to decrease in this hospital. Tumor, epilepsy, pneumonia, and congenital heart disease are major diseases in hospitalized children, and congenital malformation is the primary cause of death.%目的:了解湖南某三甲医院住院儿童的疾病构成及死因,为儿童疾病的预防、治疗等提供参考依据。方法对湖南某三甲医院2010~2014年住院儿童的病历资料进行回顾性分析。结果2010~2014年5年间,该院住院儿童人数由2010年的7303例增长至2014年的10902例,病死率则由0.33%下降至0.20%(P<0.05)。婴儿病死率最高(0.41%),新生儿病死率最低(0.11%)。住院儿童疾病构成中,2010年前3位病种为白血病、先天性心脏病和肺炎;2011年前3位为肿瘤化疗、先天性心脏病和肺炎;从2012年开始肿瘤化疗、癫癎和肺炎居前3

  18. 湖南省2008-2009年狂犬病病原学监测及病毒基因特征分析%Surveillance on the etiology and genetic characteristics of rabies in Hunan province, from 2008 to 2009

    高立冬; 唐青; 刘运芝; 蔡亮; 刘富强; 张红; 胡世雄; 陶晓燕; 李浩; 刘佳惠; 王世清


    目的 分析2008-2009年湖南省狂犬病病原学监测结果及新分离病毒的N基因分子特征.方法 采用直接免疫荧光法(DFA)、巢式PCR检测狂犬病监测标本,阳性标本应用ABI3730测序仪对N基因进行全序列测序;运用生物信息学方法分析N基因特征及序列同源性,构建系统进化树,分析新分离病毒株遗传特征并与以往分离株比较.结果 1451份监测犬脑组织标本中DFA初筛阳性31份,阳性率为2.14%;31份DFA阳性标本经巢式PCR复核,17份阳性,阳性率为1.17%;巢式PCR检测疑似狂犬病病例唾液、脑脊液、血清及尿液标本56份,3份阳性,阳性率为5.36%;新分离的阳性株与巴斯德株进行N基因序列比较,核苷酸和氨基酸同源性均在87.2%~ 87.9%之间;成功构建系统进化树,新分离的20株病毒全部属于基因Ⅰ型.新分离病毒株与湖南省内、邻省和国际株比较存在不同的亲缘关系.结论 湖南省狂犬病病例及犬携带病毒的情况较为稳定,流行株仍为基因Ⅰ型,未发生变异.%Objective To analyze the etiology of rabies in Hunan province and the genetic characteristics of rabies N gene isolated from 2008 to 2009.Methods Direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA) and nested PCR were employed to detect the monitoring samples including brain tissues of dogs and saliva,serum or urine which were collected in 2008 to 2009,from the rabies patients.Positive samples were sequenced by ABI3730 gene analyzer for the full length of the N gene target.The homology and hpylogeography of the rabies virus were analyzed after the phylogenetic tree was constructed by Blast,Clustal W and Mega 4.0 software.Results Of the 1451 tissue samples from the dogs' brain,31 were positive under DFA and the positive rate was 2.14%.The DFA positive samples were redeteeted by RT-PCR and the positive rate was 1.17%.56 samples of saliva,serum and urine samples were detected by RT-PCR from the rabies patients,with 3 positives

  19. Radon in Caves.

    Cigna Arrigo A.


    The physical characteristics of radon are reported as well as its sources,the transport in rock and its behaviour in caves. Then,the instruments,both active and passive, used for the measurement of radon concentration are discussed by taking into accounttheir respective advantages and disadvantages for the use in the cave environment. Since in many countries radon is the objectof regulations that were adopted for radiation protection purposes, this aspect is examined and the recommendations i...

  20. Speleothems and cave minerals in gypsum caves

    Forti P.


    For many years gypsum karst was considered to contain little of interest from the point of view of chemical deposits. Relatively recently a general study of speleothems has begun within gypsum karst areas in different climatic zones around the world. So far this ongoing research has shown that gypsum karst can be very interesting in terms of its contained chemical deposits. In this chapter, all that is currently known about speleothems in gypsum caves is reported systematically, and the disti...

  1. Bubble-induced cave collapse.

    Lakshika Girihagama

    Full Text Available Conventional wisdom among cave divers is that submerged caves in aquifers, such as in Florida or the Yucatan, are unstable due to their ever-growing size from limestone dissolution in water. Cave divers occasionally noted partial cave collapses occurring while they were in the cave, attributing this to their unintentional (and frowned upon physical contact with the cave walls or the aforementioned "natural" instability of the cave. Here, we suggest that these cave collapses do not necessarily result from cave instability or contacts with walls, but rather from divers bubbles rising to the ceiling and reducing the buoyancy acting on isolated ceiling rocks. Using familiar theories for the strength of flat and arched (un-cracked beams, we first show that the flat ceiling of a submerged limestone cave can have a horizontal expanse of 63 meters. This is much broader than that of most submerged Florida caves (~ 10 m. Similarly, we show that an arched cave roof can have a still larger expanse of 240 meters, again implying that Florida caves are structurally stable. Using familiar bubble dynamics, fluid dynamics of bubble-induced flows, and accustomed diving practices, we show that a group of 1-3 divers submerged below a loosely connected ceiling rock will quickly trigger it to fall causing a "collapse". We then present a set of qualitative laboratory experiments illustrating such a collapse in a circular laboratory cave (i.e., a cave with a circular cross section, with concave and convex ceilings. In these experiments, a metal ball represented the rock (attached to the cave ceiling with a magnet, and the bubbles were produced using a syringe located at the cave floor.

  2. Study on Risk Factors and Comprehensive Control and Prevention Mode of Clonorchis sinensis Infection in High- risk Areas in Hunan Province%湖南省肝吸虫病高发区流行因素及综合防治模式研究

    陈培厚; 段绩辉; 唐阳; 陈文华; 唐小雨; 伍艳君; 黄奇荣; 夏荣发; 王巧智


    当地肝吸虫主要的第一中间宿主;鲫鱼、鲤鱼肝吸虫囊蚴感染率分别为69.2%和5.3%.保虫宿主犬感染率高达85%. 结论 湖南省祁阳县和冷水滩区为肝吸虫病高发区,肝吸虫感染已经成为一个严重的公共卫生问题.应积极开展全民驱虫和健康教育综合性防控措施,降低人群肝吸虫感染率.%Objective To investigate the epidemic status, risk factors, and the residents knowledge, attitude and practice about Clmarchis sinensis infection in southern area of Hunan Province. To explore the effectiveness of praziquantel, health education, and comprehensive interventions in high- risk areas, and to provide the scientific evidence for making control and prevention programs and strategies of clonorchiasis. Methods Cluster random sampling was performed to survey the incidence of clonorchiasis at the boundary of Qiyang County and Lengshuitan District. The Kato- Katz method was used for etiological examination. Crashing- tabletting and manual digestion were used to test the infection status of intermediate host. The results of mammal infection were collected through dissection. The information of local production, lifestyle and custom related to infection was collected through discussion and field investigation. Questionnaire survey was conducted to collect the risk factors of Cumorchis sinensis infection and the surveyed residents' knowledge, attitude and practice of clonorchiasis. The database was established using Epi data 3.0 software, and then descriptive statistics, χ2 test and Logistic analysis were carried out with SPSS 13.0 software. Results Totally 2,169 residents were test - positive for Clmorchis sinensis infection among 4,472 residents selected from 16 villages of 9 towns, and the average infection rate was 48. 5%. The difference of the infection rates between male and female showed no statistical meaning (χ2=2.91, P>0.05). The study showed that the infection rate of each age group was

  3. Hydrodynamic aspect of caves

    Franci Gabrovsek


    Full Text Available From a hydrological point of view, active caves are a series of connected conduits which drain water through an aquifer. Water tends to choose the easiest way through the system but different geological and morphological barriers act as flow restrictions. The number and characteristics of restrictions depends on the particular speleogenetic environment, which is a function of geological, geomorphological, climatological and hydrological settings. Such a variety and heterogeneity of underground systems has presented a challenge for human understanding for many centuries. Access to many underground passages, theoretical knowledge and recent methods (modeling, water pressure-resistant dataloggers, precise sensors etc. give us the opportunity to get better insight into the hydrodynamic aspect of caves. In our work we tried to approach underground hydrodynamics from both theoretical and practical points of view. We present some theoretical background of open surface and pressurized flow in underground rivers and present results of some possible scenarios. Moreover, two case studies from the Ljubljanica river basin are presented in more detail: the cave system between Planinsko polje and Ljubljansko barje, and the cave system between Bloško polje and Cerkniško polje. The approach and methodology in each case is somewhat different, as the aims were different at the beginning of exploration. However, they both deal with temporal and spatial hydrodynamics of underground waters. In the case of Bloško polje-Cerkniško polje system we also explain the feedback loop between hydrodynamics and Holocene speleogenesis.

  4. 湘南王仙岭花岗岩体的锆石U-Pb年代学、地球化学、锆石Hf同位素特征及其地质意义%Geochronology, geochemistry and zircon Hf isotopes of the Wangxianling granitic intrusion in South Hunan Province and its geological significance

    郑佳浩; 郭春丽


    湘南王仙岭岩体由主体电气石黑云母花岗岩和侵入其内部的黑云母二长花岗岩组成,LA-MC-ICP MS锆石U-Pb 定年显示电气石黑云母花岗岩形成于印支期(235.0±1.3Ma),黑云母二长花岗岩形成于燕山期(155.9±1.0Ma),表明该岩体是两期岩浆活动的产物.这两期岩石均为高钾钙碱性系列,A/CNK值为1.07 ~1.66,属过铝-强过铝质花岗岩类.稀土元素显示LREE富集,HREE亏损,Eu负异常明显(0.01 ~0.38)的特征.早期电气石黑云母花岗岩和晚期黑云母二长花岗岩的εHf(t)值分别为-7.92~+4.61和-10.66~ -5.35;两阶段Hf模式年龄(tDM2)分别为1758 ~ 967Ma和1875 ~1538Ma.两期花岗岩均来自于古中元古代地壳物质重熔,其中早期电气石黑云母花岗岩在侵位上升过程中捕获了部分幔源老锆石,成岩过程中有少量地幔物质参与,且其源区具有高εHf(t)值的特点.综合前人研究成果,本文认为华南中生代印支期和燕山期均有钨锡矿化作用,印支期花岗质岩浆形成于碰撞挤压作用间隙伸展环境,而燕山期花岗质岩浆可能形成于大陆边缘弧后伸展环境.%The Wangxianling intrusion in South Hunan Province consists of two granitoids, the main tourmaline biotite granites and the biotite monzonite granites invading into the former. LA-MC-ICP MS zircon U-Pb dating shows that tourmaline biotite granites formed in Indosinian (235.0 ± 1.3Ma) while the biotite monzonite granites formed in Yanshanian (155.9 ± l.Oma), indicating that Wangxianling intrusion is the product of two-time magmatic activities. The compositions of these two period granites fall into the calc-alkaline category, with an A/CNK ratio of 1. 07 ~ 1. 66, which are peraluminous to strongly peraluminous granites. Their whole rock rare earth elements demonstrate total LREE enrichment and HREE deficit with significant negative Eu anomalies (0. 01 - 0. 38 ). The sm(t) values and two-staged Hf model ages of tourmaline

  5. Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Analysis of Heavy Metals in PM10 and PM2 .5 in Typical Cities in Hunan Province%湖南省典型城市 PM10和 PM2.5及其载带重金属的污染特征和健康风险研究

    谢忱; 张文杰; 杨文; 李伟; 王歆华; 赵雪艳; 白志鹏


    To investigate the pollution characteristics and health risks of heavy metals in particulate matter in Changsha, Zhuzhou, Xiangtan (CTZ) area in Hunan Province, PM10 and PM2.5 filter samples were collected in Changsha, Xiangtan and background site of Hengshan Mountain in August 2014.The concentrations of ten heavy metals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.In order to assess the carcinogenic risk of Cr(Ⅵ) on human, Cr(Ⅵ) concentrations were calculated based on the reference ratio of 0.13 for Cr(Ⅵ) to total Cr.The health risk of heavy metals inhaled by respiratory system was assessed by the model recommended by US EPA, coupled by the exposure factors in China.Results showed that the mass concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 were respectively 42-155 and 18-119 μg/m3 in Changsha, and were 17-127 and 5-109 μg/m3 in Xiangtan.The concentration of Cr(Ⅵ) in Changsha and Xiangtan was 0.81 and 0.65 ng/m3 in PM10 samples, while that of As was 9.3 and 6.3 ng/m3 , much higher than the relevant Chinese air quality standards.The total non-carcinogenic risk of the each heavy metal was less than 1, within the acceptable level.The carcinogenic risks for Cr(Ⅵ) and As were in the range of 10-6-10-4 , belonging to the range of potential carcinogenic risks.The carcinogenic risks for Cd, Ni and Co were below 10-6 , indicating that the carcinogenic risks of the three metals are acceptable.%为研究湖南省长株潭区域典型城市颗粒物及其载带重金属元素的污染特征和健康风险,于2014年8月在长沙市、湘潭市和区域背景点衡山采集了PM10和PM2.5样品。应用ICP-MS分析样品载带的10种重金属元素浓度,按Cr(Ⅵ)和总Cr比值为0.13估算Cr(Ⅵ)浓度。应用US EPA风险评价技术结合国内人群暴露参数对人体通过呼吸途径暴露的健康风险进行评价。结果表明:采样期间,长沙市PM10和PM2.5的日均浓度分别为42~155和18~119μg/m3,湘潭市为17~127

  6. 贵州董背洞和水江洞内动物群落结构与部分环境因子的相关性%Correlation Between the Animal Community Structure and Environmental Factors in Dongbei Cave and Shuijiang Cave of Guizhou Province



    Mollusks, arthropods and chordates which were visible to the naked eye were observed and collected in Dongbei and Shuijiang caves of Libo county five times between February and July from 2002 to 2005. Four hundred and forty samples from Dongbei Cave were classified into three phyla, five classes, 10 orders, 20 families and 39 species or groups of species. Four hundred and ninety-eight samples from Shuijiang Cave were classified into three phyla, six classes, 11 orders, 20 families and 25 species or groups of species. Six animal communities were identified in the light belt of the two caves according to their species types and numbers of individuals in the light belt of two cave. The communities which have the highest values of species richness community diversity, maximum diversity, evenness, dominance and community similarity are respectively: B (4.1059), H (2.4716), B (3.3322), E (0.9042), C (0.3442) and A-C (0.5251). The community diversity and correlation of environmental factors were also studied. The temperature, humidity, content of CO2 and N2, content of organic matter and some inorganic salts in soil were analyzed by Pearson correlation. The results showed that the content of organic matter in soil is positively related to species number, species richness and maximum community diversity, with correlations of 0.885, 0.909, 0.868 respectively (two-tailed significance test, P≤0.05), and significantly positively related to diversity, with the coefficient of 0.611, (two-tailed significance test, P≤ 0.1). This suggests that the content of organic matter in soil is one of the important elements influencing the community variation of cave animals. Outside the cave, temperature and humidity are important factors impacting on community diversity. As the temperature in all seasons in the cave is stable and the humidity is always high (above 90%), the temperature and humidity have weak correlation to community diversity in caves.%在2002-2005年的2月和7月共5

  7. Analysis of International Barriers Faced by Hunan Private Enterprises%湖南省民营企业国际化的障碍因素分析

    马巾英; 张玉梅; 颜蓓; 王瑶华


    In recent years, private enterprises in Hunan province have not only achieved great progress both in size and speed of development but also meet with varied harriers in their internationalization. This paper analyses the present situation of the internationalization of Hunan province private enterprise and presents some factors affecting internationalization of private enterprise of Hunan province by using questionaire method and puts forward the corresponding countermeasures .%近年来,湖南省民营企业不管是在规模还是在发展速度上都获得了长足的进步,但是在国际化的道路上依然障碍重重。通过分析湖南省民营企业国际化的现状,然后以调查问卷的方法找出影响湖南民营企业国际化的重要障碍因素,并对此提出相应的对策。

  8. 湖南电网暂态电压稳定性问题%Study on Transient Voltage Stability of Hunan Power Grid

    廖国栋; 谢欣涛; 侯益灵; 廖菁; 禹海峰


    The transient stability of Hunan power grid possesses obvious inter-area feature, for example, the three-phase short-circuit fault occurred in 500kV outgoing line of Heling substation located in the center of Hunan province leads to severe voltage drop occurred in South Hunan power system that is several hundred kilometers away from the fault point, however, there is not voltage stability due to the fault occurred in 500kV transmission line of South Hunan power system. In allusion to above-mentioned voltage stability problem occurred in Hunan power grid, by means of analyzing the voltage drop range within power grid caused by short-circuit fault and recovery ability of grid voltage, the mechanism of transient voltage instability in Hunan power gird is systemically demonstrated in terms of power grid structure, and a thinking of enhancing transient voltage stability of Hunan power grid by decreasing short-circuit current is proposed. Calculation results show that using the proposed thinking transient voltage stability of Hunan power grid can be effectively improved.%湖南电网暂态电压稳定性问题具有明显跨区域特点:位于湖南中心地区的鹤岭变500 kV出口三相短路故障将引起数百公里外的湘南电网电压严重低落,而湘南电网500 kV线路故障反而未有电压失稳问题.针对上述湖南电网电压稳定性问题特点,通过分析短路故障引起电网电压的跌落幅度以及电网电压恢复能力,从电网结构角度系统地论证了湖南电网暂态电压失稳的机制,并提出一种通过减小短路电流提高湖南电网暂态电压稳定性的思路.计算结果表明该思路可以有效地提高湖南电网电压稳定性.分析结果可为其他电网研究暂态电压稳定性问题提供参考.

  9. Caves; 1 : 1 000 000

    Caves form the most extensive underground area in Earth crust. They are characterised by specific natural traits such as genesis, morphology, sinter filling, underground streams and lakes, speleoclimatic pattern, cave fauna, etc. Two types of caves are discerned: primeval-caves, which were generated along with the genesis of rocks and secondary, which were formed after the genesis of rocks under the effect of exogenous processes. The karstic caves are the most spectacular and largest caves. The area of karst territory (formed normally by different classes of limestone and dolomite rocks) in Slovakia is more than 2,700 km2. The map was compiled pursuing the List of Caves in Slovakia as of 31 December 1998 issued by the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic. The central register and documentation is in responsibility of the Slovak Museum of Nature Conservation and Speleology in Liptovsky Mikulas. This List has been prepared in co-operation with the team of employees of the Museum, Slovak Speleological Society, volunteers and other contributors. The List does not comprise the areas of anthropogenic origin and 3,946 caves are ordered by geomorphological units in alphabet order with quoted cadaster and district, sea level altitude of the entrance, length and depth of the cave system, genetic type, class of rocks, etc. More than 120 caves occur in other than karstic rocks. Pursuing the Act of the National Council of the SR No. 287/1944 on nature and landscape protection, caves represent natural monuments under the highest, i.e. fifth level of protection, while the most important ones were designated national nature monuments by the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic. The presented occurrence of caves was processed according to quantitative indicators in geomorphological units. (authors)

  10. Cave breakdown by vadose weathering.

    Osborne R. Armstrong L.


    Vadose weathering is a significant mechanism for initiating breakdown in caves. Vadose weathering of ore bodies, mineral veins, palaeokarst deposits, non-carbonate keystones and impure, altered or fractured bedrock, which is intersected by caves, will frequently result in breakdown. Breakdown is an active, ongoing process. Breakdown occurs throughout the vadose zone, and is not restricted to large diameter passages, or to cave ceilings. The surfaces of disarticulated blocks are commonly coate...

  11. Candoluminescence of cave gypsum

    Sweet John R.; Hess John W.; White William B.


    A selection of gypsum specimens from a variety of caves as well as CaSO4 synthesized in the laboratory emit both a green and yellow candoluminescence when excited by a hydrogen diffusion flame. The green emission is attributed to dehydration of gypsum to bassanite and the yellow emission appears upon further dehydration to anhydrite. The source of the luminescence is ascribed to minor concentrations of Mn2+ in the gypsum.

  12. Determining the effect of polluted mine water on the ecosystem health of a karstic cave environment in the Witwatersrand Basin / Gerhard Cornelis du Preez

    Du Preez, Gerhard Cornelis


    The Wonderfontein Cave is located within the Witwatersrand Basin (Gauteng province, South Africa) and is associated with the river banks of the Wonderfontein Spruit. This cave system has for many years been subjected to the influx of polluted mine water. Since subterranean environments remain poorly studied, it is unknown what the effect of this might be on the associated ecosystem. Furthermore, water that enters the Wonderfontein Cave poses a severe health threat as it drains ...

  13. Agricultural Biotechnology Research and Development in Hunan


    Recent agricultural biotechnology research and advances in the province are reviewed. Targets and practices for biotechnological development in depth are discussed, with stress on the talent's training, new techniques' establishment and its industrialization, starting from the existing level and problems in the field in the province.

  14. Batman’da Yeni Bir Keşif: Deraser (Arık Mağara Resimleri A New Discovery In Batman Province: Prehistoric Cave Paintings Of Deraser (Arik

    Ersoy SOYDAN


    Full Text Available Euphrates and Tigris rivers which are born from high and snowy mountains of Eastern and Anatolia and give life to a rid regions had a vital importance for early agricultural communities. Mesopotamian civilizations advanced between these two rivers in later centuries and lots of settlements had been established near Euphrates and Tigris. One of the historical settlements is Deraser (Arık village which is in the district of today’s Batman city called Gercüş. A lot of historical remains exist there. Deraser which is about 20 kilometers away from Gercüş and constituted on a place near Tigris. There mains of various buildings, rock-cut tomb sand prehistoric pictures drawn on the walls of caves exist in Deraser (Arık village situated at the bank of Tigris river. The prehistoric painting drawn on the rocks exist in many places of Anatolia, but the paintings drawn by the technical of fresco with red and black paints rarely exist. Therefore, in Deraser, the exploration of red and black colored pictures made by soil or root paint called Berha Nivisandi (The Written Cave is a significant event. There are depictions of animals, wild animal struggles and both men and women festival scenes at cave paintings here. These cave paintings are thematically similar to prehistorical cave paintings found in many parts of the world and they have a unique style in terms of drawing technique. In our study, we will deal with the paintings compiled from the caves in the region of Deraser (The High Church which are not noticed by there searchers working there and we will mention to there search results related to these pictures. Doğu Anadolu'nun yüksek ve karlı dağlarından doğup kurakbölgelere can veren Fırat ve Dicle nehirleri tarih boyunca Mezopotamyave çevresinde yaşayan topluluklar için yaşamsal önem taşıyordu.Mezopotamya uygarlıkları Fırat ve Dicle’ye komşu olan topraklardagelişmiş, bu iki nehrin kıyısında çok sayıda yerleşim yeri

  15. Morphological and Molecular Phylogenetic Data Reveal a New Species of Primula (Primulaceae) from Hunan, China.

    Xu, Yuan; Yu, Xun-Lin; Hu, Chi-Ming; Hao, Gang


    A new species of Primulaceae, Primula undulifolia, is described from the hilly area of Hunan province in south-central China. Its morphology and distributional range suggest that it is allied to P. kwangtungensis, both adapted to subtropical climate, having contiguous distribution and similar habitat, growing on shady and moist cliffs. Petioles, scapes and pedicels of them are densely covered with rusty multicellular hairs, but the new species can be easily distinguished by its smaller flowers and narrowly oblong leaves with undulate margins. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on four DNA markers (ITS, matK, trnL-F and rps16) confirmed the new species as an independent lineage and constitutes a main clade together with P. kwangtungensis, P. kweichouensis, P. wangii and P. hunanensis of Primula sect. Carolinella. PMID:27579832

  16. Radon in caves: clinical aspects

    Craven Stephen A.; Smit Berend J.


    Historical, experimental and clinical evidence is presented to suggest that radon constitutes a relatively small carcinogenic risk for casual visitors to caves. The risk is dependent on radon levels and the smoking of tobacco. Show cave guides, chronically exposed to radon, may be at increased risk for lung cancer due to the effects of radon, especially if they are smokers of tobacco.

  17. Mental health and burnout in primary and secondary school teachers in the remote mountain areas of Guangdong Province in the People's Republic of China

    Zhang L; Zhao J; Xiao H; Zheng H; Xiao Y.; Chen M; Chen D


    Lulu Zhang,1 Jingping Zhao,1 Huaqing Xiao,3 Hongbo Zheng,2 Yaonan Xiao,3 Miaoyang Chen,3 Dingling Chen31Mental Health Institute of the Second Xiangya Hospital, Key Laboratory of Psychiatry and Mental Health of Hunan Province, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 2Department of Psychiatry, Guangzhou Brain Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 3Department of Psychiatry, Luoding Dagang Hospital, Luoding, Guangdong, People's Republic of Chi...

  18. Mental health and burnout in primary and secondary school teachers in the remote mountain areas of Guangdong Province in the People's Republic of China

    Zhang, Lulu


    Lulu Zhang,1 Jingping Zhao,1 Huaqing Xiao,3 Hongbo Zheng,2 Yaonan Xiao,3 Miaoyang Chen,3 Dingling Chen31Mental Health Institute of the Second Xiangya Hospital, Key Laboratory of Psychiatry and Mental Health of Hunan Province, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 2Department of Psychiatry, Guangzhou Brain Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 3Department of Psychiatry, Luoding Dagang Hospital, Luoding, Guangdong, People's Republic of...

  19. Microscopic fungi isolated from cave air and sediments in the Nerja Cave - preliminary results

    Nováková, Alena; Hubka, V.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    Leiden: CRC Press/Balkema, 2014, s. 239-245. ISBN 978-1-138-02694-0 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : microscopic fungi * cave air * cave sediments * Nerja Cave Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  20. [Variation Characteristics of Cave Water Hydrogeochemistry in Naduo Cave of Guizhou and Its Implications for Environment Research].

    Shen, Wei; Wang, Jian-li; Wang, Jia-lu; Jiang, Xian-shu; Mao, Qing-ya; Chen, Zhi-qiu; Liu, Xiao


    During the period from December 2012 to December 2014, three dripping water sites (S1, S2, S3) and one pool water site (SC) have been selected for a long-term monitoring of geochemical indexes in Naduo Cave, Guanling county of Guizhou Province, China. Based on the local meteorological data, this paper analyzed the seasonal change of hydro-geochemical indicators and their feedbacks to climate events. The results indicated that the hydro-geochemical type of cave water was HCO₃⁻-Ca²⁺. Dripping water and pool water were in deposition all the year, except in the month with the maximum precipitation. There were some discrepancies of main ions' concentration among three dripping water sites due to the difference of the migration pathways and migration time. Affected by mixed water and high CO₂ concentration of cave air, the ion concentration of pool water was higher than dripping water, and there was considerable fluctuation. The geochemistry indexes of water in Naduo Cave showed extraordinary seasonal variation rules and could perfectly respond to the external climate environment. The concentration of ions was sensitive to the response of the annual precipitation change caused by extreme climate events. During the rainy season, the concentrations of Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺ and SO₄²⁻ in 2013 were relatively higher and more stable than those in 2014. The response time and susceptivity of each monitoring site were inconsistent. PMID:27011980

  1. The Research of Development of New-type Urbanization Based on Ecological Civilization---Taking Hunan Province as an Example%基于生态文明的新型城镇化发展研究--以湖南省为例



    After years of development,Urbanization has made remarkable achievements,and entering the stage of accelerated development. However,influenced by the mode of economic development and the inertia of economic development,Urbanization has some problems, such as urbanization quality is not high,resource consumption is bigger,ecological environment situation is serious,and development is unsustainable,etc.Therefore,in order to realize sustainable economic development,we must promote the construction of new-type urbanization based on the guidance of ecological civilization.In this paper,on the base of analyzing the basic situation and the problems of urbanization in Hunan,it put forward the main path of the development model of new-type urbanization followed by the construction of ecological civilization concept.%城镇化经过多年的发展,已经取得了显著成绩,进入加速发展阶段,但是,受经济发展方式、经济发展惯性等因素影响,存在城镇化质量不高、资源消耗较大、生态环境形势严峻、发展不可持续等问题,因此,为实现经济可持续发展,必须以生态文明为指导,推进新型城镇化建设。在对湖南城镇化的基本情况和问题进行分析的基础上,遵循生态文明建设的理念,提出新型城镇化发展的主要路径。

  2. Cave breakdown by vadose weathering.

    Osborne R. Armstrong L.


    Full Text Available Vadose weathering is a significant mechanism for initiating breakdown in caves. Vadose weathering of ore bodies, mineral veins, palaeokarst deposits, non-carbonate keystones and impure, altered or fractured bedrock, which is intersected by caves, will frequently result in breakdown. Breakdown is an active, ongoing process. Breakdown occurs throughout the vadose zone, and is not restricted to large diameter passages, or to cave ceilings. The surfaces of disarticulated blocks are commonly coated, rather than having fresh broken faces, and blocks continue to disintegrate after separating from the bedrock. Not only gypsum, but also hydromagnesite and aragonite are responsible for crystal wedging. It is impossible to study or identify potential breakdown foci by surface surveys alone, in-cave observation and mapping are essential.

  3. Research on the subject relationship and effect of the land transferring in the process of urban-rural integration--Based on the research of the Guanshan model of Ningxiang County in Hunan Province%城乡一体化进程中土地流转之主体与流转效益的调查研究--基于湖南省宁乡县关山模式的调查

    吴晓林; 胡柳


    土地的合理流转,是盘活农村土地和劳动力资源、推进城乡一体化的核心问题。湖南省宁乡县金洲镇以土地流转为龙头,形成城乡一体化“内源性”发展的“关山模式”。他们区别对待两种用地类型:对农用地实施统一整理、集体入社,流出经营;对建设用地实施节约指标、有偿转让,置换集居。保证农民获得“租金”“股金”“薪金”和“保障金”等稳定收入,通过土地专业合作社和居委会协调土地流转并经营土地,保证了农民的主体地位;政府的土地规划以及政策引导和服务、企业投资保证了土地增值和经济发展。土地流转推动了城乡一体化的规划对接、基础设施升级、经济效益持续增长等“三重效果”。但是,土地流转过程中仍然面临“部分农民抵触、企业投资成本上涨、流转风险潜存”等障碍。总体而言,推动土地流转应当立足现实,保证农民收益、进行城乡资本的联结。%The rational circulation of land is a core issue of activating the resources of land and labor in rural areas and promoting urban and rural development. In Jinzhou town of Ningxiang County, Hunan Province, circulation of land is served as the flagship, a “Guanshan model”, which takes inner power to promote the urban and rural development was built .Two kinds of land there in Guanshan are treated differently: the farmland is being integrated consistently, united collectively and operated freely, accordingly, saved budgets; paid transfers and trans-positional settlements are also being practiced on the construction land. Through coordinating the land circulation and management by professional cooperatives and residents’ committees, the farmers can take the stable income like “rents”, “capital”, “salary” and“security”. Therefore, the farmer’s main body status is guaranteed. As to the local government, integrated

  4. Exposure to radon in Cuban tourist caves

    With the objective of estimating the dose, due to Radon-222, received by tour guides and other people who work inside some of the most important tourist caves in the Republic of Cuba, measurements of radon concentrations were carried out in four of these caves: Santo Tomas Cave, Tapiada Cave, Del Indio Cave and Jose Miguel Cave. All these caves are located in the Vinales Valley (Pinar del Rio City), a very important tourist area in the country. The relationship among radon concentration, the concentration of natural radionuclides inside the caves and the geologic characteristics of the specific locations was analyzed. In order to select the most appropriates measurement places, different criteria were taken into account: representatives points of the geology of the caves, level of gamma radiation, exchange of air, places of work inside the caves (cafeterias, restaurants and shops) and places more frequently visited by tour guides. The maximum radon concentration was found in Jose Miguel Cave with a value of 220 Bq/m3. The measurement of gamma dose rate inside the caves was carried out with a scintillation detector type Scintrex BGS-3 previously calibrated at SSI, Sweden. The radon concentrations were measured with the equipment Alpha Guard PQ2000/MC50 and SARAD RM2000, both also calibrated at SSI, Sweden. The obtained results indicated that, in the studied caves, the annual dose is not greater than 1 mSv considering a work year of 2000 hours. (author)

  5. The future of the CAVE

    DeFanti, Thomas


    The CAVE, a walk-in virtual reality environment typically consisting of 4–6 3 m-by-3 m sides of a room made of rear-projected screens, was first conceived and built in 1991. In the nearly two decades since its conception, the supporting technology has improved so that current CAVEs are much brighter, at much higher resolution, and have dramatically improved graphics performance. However, rear-projection-based CAVEs typically must be housed in a 10 m-by-10 m-by-10 m room (allowing space behind the screen walls for the projectors), which limits their deployment to large spaces. The CAVE of the future will be made of tessellated panel displays, eliminating the projection distance, but the implementation of such displays is challenging. Early multi-tile, panel-based, virtual-reality displays have been designed, prototyped, and built for the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia by researchers at the University of California, San Diego, and the University of Illinois at Chicago. New means of image generation and control are considered key contributions to the future viability of the CAVE as a virtual-reality device.

  6. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    Jim W. Simons


    Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA) for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and are...

  7. Observations on the Cave-Associated Beetles (Coleoptera of Nova Scotia, Canada

    Moseley M.


    Full Text Available The cave-associated invertebrates of Nova Scotia constitute a fauna at a very early stage of post-glacial recolonization. TheColeoptera are characterized by low species diversity. A staphylinid Quedius spelaeus spelaeus, a predator, is the only regularlyencountered beetle. Ten other terrestrial species registered from cave environments in the province are collected infrequently. Theyinclude three other rove-beetles: Brathinus nitidus, Gennadota canadensis and Atheta annexa. The latter two together with Catopsgratiosus (Leiodidae constitute a small group of cave-associated beetles found in decompositional situations. Quedius s. spelaeusand a small suite of other guanophiles live in accumulations of porcupine dung: Agolinus leopardus (Scarabaeidae, Corticariaserrata (Latrididae, and Acrotrichis castanea (Ptilidae. Two adventive weevils Otiorhynchus ligneus and Barypeithes pellucidus(Curculionidae collected in shallow cave passages are seasonal transients; Dermestes lardarius (Dermestidae, recorded fromone cave, was probably an accidental (stray. Five of the terrestrial beetles are adventive Palaearctic species. Aquatic beetles arecollected infrequently. Four taxa have been recorded: Agabus larsoni (Dytiscidae may be habitual in regional caves; another Agabussp. (probably semivittatus, Dytiscus sp. (Dytiscidae, and Crenitis digesta (Hydrophilidae are accidentals. The distribution andecology of recorded species are discussed, and attention is drawn to the association of beetles found in a Nova Scotia “ice cave”.

  8. Studies of acid deposition and its effects in two small catchments in Hunan, China

    Xue, N.; Seip, H. M.; Liao, B; R. D. Vogt


    Acid deposition and its effects were studied by analysing the chemistry in precipitation, stream water, soil water and soils in two catchments in Hunan. One site, Linkesuo (denoted LKS), is on the outskirts of Changsha, the provincial capital of Hunan, the other (Bailutang, denoted BLT) on the outskirts of Chenzhou in southern Hunan. Volume-weighted average pH values and sulphate concentrations in wet deposition were 4.58 (BLT) and 4....

  9. 湖南省社会林业工程区域评价指标体系研究%Study on the Regional Evaluation Indexes for Hunan Provincial Social Forestry Project



    Centred around 37l indexes including natural environment, human activities, condition of society, economic situation,forest resources, forestry organizations, technology, management and administration, we have investigated 105 counties(cities,districts) in Hunan Province. Eighty three counties out of them were designated for our research objects. For each county,we selected 28 indexes which had directly bearing on our social forestry project such as natural environment, social economy, forest resources. Then through Cluster Analysis and Factor Analysis, we used a social science statistical analysis software(SPSS) to analyze the impact of natural, environmental, social, economical and forest resources' factors on community forestry activities. Based on such work, we have established a set of indexes system for Hunan provincial social forestry project' s regionaleval uation. According to the cluster analysis results and the current situation of the project implementation, Hunan provincial social forestry project could be divided into five types, the results will provide a scientific basis for Hunan provincial social forestry project' s implementation.

  10. Cambrian Fossil Embryos from Western Hunan,South China

    DONG Xiping


    The exquisitely preserved fossil embryos of Markuelia recovered from the limestones of the Middle Cambrian Haoqiao Formation and Upper Cambrian Bitiao formation in western Hunan,South China are described and illustrated in detail for the first time.A new species Markuelia elegans established based mainly on embryos from the Upper Cambrian.A few of animal's resting eggs,which are comparable with those of the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation,have been also found in the Upper Cambrian of western Hunan.The membrane of oue egg from the uppermost Cambrian has been replaced by pyrite and the overgrowth of the pyrite crystals exhibits a unique inorganic reducing conditions promoted the excellent preservation for the Markuelia specimens.The study of Markuelia provides not only constraint on the anatomy,affinity,embryonic development and phylogenetic significance of this wormlike animal and but also opens a new window onto the evolution and development of the earliest animals.

  11. 3N Cave: Longest salt cave in the world

    Bruthans, J.; Filippi, Michal; Zare, M.; Asadi, N.; Vilhelm, Z.


    Roč. 64, č. 9 (2006), s. 10-18. ISSN 0027-7010 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB301110501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : salt cave * salt karst * Iran * expedition Namak Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  12. Hunan Shuikoushan Gold & Copper Project Entered Substantive Construction Stage


    <正>The Hunan Shuikoushan Gold&Copper Integrated Recycling Project for industry upgrading&technology transformation entered substantive construction stage;In April,two of its early stage sub-projects,namely the concentrate storage bin project and auxiliary material plant house&temporary road project,formally kicked off.The Project’s core engineering construction will kick off in July this year.The already started concentrate storage bin and

  13. Developmental Strategies of Betel Nut Industry in Hainan Province


    The developmental status of the betel nut industry is introduced, including cultivation situation, processing and development situation, and consumer market situation. The result shows that the cultivation of betel nut in Hainan Province develops rapidly and the primary processing of betel nut has formed certain scale, but the deep processing of betel nut is backward. Except for the mino amount of the betel nuts consumed by Hainan Island, a large majority of the betel nuts are processed into dry fruit to sell to Hunan Province to reprocess. The problems exist in the development of betel nut industry in Hainan Province are analyzed, covering blind cultivation, extensive management, backward processing, lagged new product development and the single and concentrated consumer market. The strategic choice of developing the betel nut industry of Hainan Province is analyzed as well. Hainan Province should carry out the green, sustainable, diversified, cooperative and export-oriented industrial developmental strategy.

  14. Comparing flow-through and static ice cave models for Shoshone Ice Cave

    Kaj E. Williams


    Full Text Available In this paper we suggest a new ice cave type: the “flow-through” ice cave. In a flow-through ice cave external winds blow into the cave and wet cave walls chill the incoming air to the wet-bulb temperature, thereby achieving extra cooling of the cave air. We have investigated an ice cave in Idaho, located in a lava tube that is reported to have airflow through porous wet end-walls and could therefore be a flow-through cave. We have instrumented the site and collected data for one year. In order to determine the actual ice cave type present at Shoshone, we have constructed numerical models for static and flow-through caves (dynamic is not relevant here. The models are driven with exterior measurements of air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. The model output is interior air temperature and relative humidity. We then compare the output of both models to the measured interior air temperatures and relative humidity. While both the flow-through and static cave models are capable of preserving ice year-round (a net zero or positive ice mass balance, both models show very different cave air temperature and relative humidity output. We find the empirical data support a hybrid model of the static and flow-through models: permitting a static ice cave to have incoming air chilled to the wet-bulb temperature fits the data best for the Shoshone Ice Cave.

  15. The microbiology of Lascaux Cave

    Bastian, F.; Jurado, V.; Nováková, Alena; Alabouvette, C.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.


    Roč. 156, č. 3 (2010), s. 644-652. ISSN 1350-0872 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Lascaux Cave * microbiology * Paleolithic paintings Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.957, year: 2010

  16. Mini-hydropower development in human province of China and its position in the national economy

    Hunan province is situated in the southern part of the middle reaches of Yangtze River. With a population of 61 million, it covers an area of about 211,800 km2, equivalent to forty percents of the territorial area of France. Throughout the province, there are more than 5300 rivers and 13000 reservoirs completed before 1991, of which over 7300 mini-hydropower stations are under operation. The theoretical hydropower potential is 15320 MW among them 12990 MW can be exploited with a total installed capacity of 1320 MW and an annual generation output of 4150 GWh. The paper will describe the general condition of the hydropower resources, development of mini-hydropower in Human province and its positive role in the national economy. Additionally, the standard of classification, the type of equipment for the medium and small-sized hydropower plants and market conditions in Hunan will be also involved in the paper. 5 tabs


    Onondaga Cave State Park is located in the north central portion of the Ozarks near Leasburg, Missouri. The park is known for two extensive cave systems, Onondaga Cave and Cathedral Cave. Both of these cave systems have active streams (1-2 cfs at baseflow) which have unknown recharge areas. As a man...

  18. On the Graduates’ Employment Issues of Colleges and Universities in Hunan%湖南省高校毕业生就业问题探讨

    方勤敏; 刘海凤


    Based on the enrollment and graduates dates of Hunan province for ten years,the paper analyzed and predicted the number of the university graduates during "the Twelfth Five-Year Plan" of Hunan province by the EVEWS method.With the talent development planning,industrial structure adjustment line and the opportunities of future development,the paper proposed advices in terms of universities,enterprises and government to promote college students finding jobs.%在收集和整理湖南省高校近10年招生与毕业生数据的基础上,采用EVIEWS数量分析方法对"十二五"期间湖南省的高校毕业生数量进行预测,并结合湖南省人才发展规划、产业结构调整思路和未来发展提供的机遇,从高校、企业和政府三个方面提出促进高校毕业生就业的建议。

  19. [Estimation of Hunan forest carbon density based on spectral mixture analysis of MODIS data].

    Yan, En-ping; Lin, Hui; Wang, Guang-xing; Chen, Zhen-xiong


    With the fast development of remote sensing technology, combining forest inventory sample plot data and remotely sensed images has become a widely used method to map forest carbon density. However, the existence of mixed pixels often impedes the improvement of forest carbon density mapping, especially when low spatial resolution images such as MODIS are used. In this study, MODIS images and national forest inventory sample plot data were used to conduct the study of estimation for forest carbon density. Linear spectral mixture analysis with and without constraint, and nonlinear spectral mixture analysis were compared to derive the fractions of different land use and land cover (LULC) types. Then sequential Gaussian co-simulation algorithm with and without the fraction images from spectral mixture analyses were employed to estimate forest carbon density of Hunan Province. Results showed that 1) Linear spectral mixture analysis with constraint, leading to a mean RMSE of 0.002, more accurately estimated the fractions of LULC types than linear spectral and nonlinear spectral mixture analyses; 2) Integrating spectral mixture analysis model and sequential Gaussian co-simulation algorithm increased the estimation accuracy of forest carbon density to 81.5% from 74.1%, and decreased the RMSE to 5.18 from 7.26; and 3) The mean value of forest carbon density for the province was 30.06 t · hm(-2), ranging from 0.00 to 67.35 t · hm(-2). This implied that the spectral mixture analysis provided a great potential to increase the estimation accuracy of forest carbon density on regional and global level. PMID:26915200

  20. Pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms in caves

    Sanchez-Moral Sergio; Hermosin Bernardo; Boiron Patrick; Rodriguez-Nava Veronica; Laiz Leonila; Jurado Valme; Saiz-Jimenez Cesareo


    With today’s leisure tourism, the frequency of visits to many caves makes it necessary to know about possible potentially pathogenic microorganisms in caves, determine their reservoirs, and inform the public about the consequences of such visits. Our data reveal that caves could be a potential danger to visitors because of the presence of opportunistic microorganisms, whose existence and possible development in humans is currently unknown.

  1. Development, management and economy of show caves.

    Cigna Arrigo A.; Burri Ezio


    The problems concerning the development of show caves are here considered by taking into account different aspects of the problem. A procedure to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been established in the last decade and it is now currently applied. Such an assessment starts with a pre-operational phase to obtain sufficient information on the undisturbed status of a cave to be developed into a show cave. Successively a programme for its development is established with the ...

  2. Cave temperatures and global climatic change.

    Badino Giovanni


    The physical processes that establish the cave temperature are briefly discussed, showing that cave temperature is generally strictly connected with the external climate. The Global Climatic changes can then influence also the underground climate. It is shown that the mountain thermal inertia causes a delay between the two climates and then a thermal unbalance between the cave and the atmosphere. As a consequence there is a net energy flux from the atmosphere to the mountain, larger than the ...

  3. Utilization of Bellae Prehistory Cave Complex



    ABSTRACT Bellae Prehistoric Cave Complex is located in South Sulawesi. Bellae has rich archaeological heritage that make this cave complex important as cultural resource in South Sulawesi as well as in Indonesia generally. Nowadays, the Bellae Prehistoric Cave Complex is threatened by the local population as the sites are close to settlement. Furthermore, its archaeological potentials as well as the uniqueness of the complex which is situated in karstic area have attracted many parties to...

  4. Cave of the Astronomers at Xochicalco

    Lebeuf, Arnold

    The chimney built in the roof of the artificial large cave at Xochicalco, known as "Cave of the astronomers", has been interpreted as a solar zenithal observation tube. Nevertheless, different elements and especially the latitude of the site itself led the author to present a lunar hypothesis. Precise measurements of the impact of light inside the cave show the degree of precision that can be obtained in this camera obscura.

  5. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    Jim W. Simons


    Full Text Available Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and areas are shortly reported.

  6. Cave temperatures and global climatic change.

    Badino Giovanni


    Full Text Available The physical processes that establish the cave temperature are briefly discussed, showing that cave temperature is generally strictly connected with the external climate. The Global Climatic changes can then influence also the underground climate. It is shown that the mountain thermal inertia causes a delay between the two climates and then a thermal unbalance between the cave and the atmosphere. As a consequence there is a net energy flux from the atmosphere to the mountain, larger than the geothermal one, which is deposited mainly in the epidermal parts of caves.

  7. Modeling and analysis of caves using voxelization

    Szeifert, Gábor; Szabó, Tivadar; Székely, Balázs


    Although there are many ways to create three dimensional representations of caves using modern information technology methods, modeling of caves has been challenging for researchers for a long time. One of these promising new alternative modeling methods is using voxels. We are using geodetic measurements as an input for our voxelization project. These geodetic underground surveys recorded the azimuth, altitude and distance of corner points of cave systems relative to each other. The diameter of each cave section is estimated from separate databases originating from different surveys. We have developed a simple but efficient method (it covers more than 99.9 % of the volume of the input model on the average) to convert these vector-type datasets to voxels. We have also developed software components to make visualization of the voxel and vector models easier. Since each cornerpoint position is measured relative to another cornerpoints positions, propagation of uncertainties is an important issue in case of long caves with many separate sections. We are using Monte Carlo simulations to analyze the effect of the error of each geodetic instrument possibly involved in a survey. Cross-sections of the simulated three dimensional distributions show, that even tiny uncertainties of individual measurements can result in high variation of positions that could be reduced by distributing the closing errors if such data are available. Using the results of our simulations, we can estimate cave volume and the error of the calculated cave volume depending on the complexity of the cave. Acknowledgements: the authors are grateful to Ariadne Karst and Cave Exploring Association and State Department of Environmental and Nature Protection of the Hungarian Ministry of Rural Development, Department of National Parks and Landscape Protection, Section Landscape and Cave Protection and Ecotourism for providing the cave measurement data. BS contributed as an Alexander von Humboldt Research

  8. Studies of acid deposition and its effects in two small catchments in Hunan, China

    Xue, N.; Seip, H. M.; Liao, B; R. D. Vogt


    Acid deposition and its effects were studied by analysing the chemistry in precipitation, stream water, soil water and soils in two catchments in Hunan. One site, Linkesuo (denoted LKS), is on the outskirts of Changsha, the provincial capital of Hunan, the other (Bailutang, denoted BLT) on the outskirts of Chenzhou in southern Hunan. Volume-weighted average pH values and sulphate concentrations in wet deposition were 4.58 (BLT) and 4.90 (LKS) and 174 μmolc L-1 and 152 μmolc L-1, ...

  9. Gravity for Detecting Caves: Airborne and Terrestrial Simulations Based on a Comprehensive Karstic Cave Benchmark

    Braitenberg, Carla; Sampietro, Daniele; Pivetta, Tommaso; Zuliani, David; Barbagallo, Alfio; Fabris, Paolo; Rossi, Lorenzo; Fabbri, Julius; Mansi, Ahmed Hamdi


    Underground caves bear a natural hazard due to their possible evolution into a sink hole. Mapping of all existing caves could be useful for general civil usages as natural deposits or tourism and sports. Natural caves exist globally and are typical in karst areas. We investigate the resolution power of modern gravity campaigns to systematically detect all void caves of a minimum size in a given area. Both aerogravity and terrestrial acquisitions are considered. Positioning of the gravity station is fastest with GNSS methods the performance of which is investigated. The estimates are based on a benchmark cave of which the geometry is known precisely through a laser-scan survey. The cave is the Grotta Gigante cave in NE Italy in the classic karst. The gravity acquisition is discussed, where heights have been acquired with dual-frequency geodetic GNSS receivers and Total Station. Height acquisitions with non-geodetic low-cost receivers are shown to be useful, although the error on the gravity field is larger. The cave produces a signal of -1.5 × 10-5 m/s2, with a clear elliptic geometry. We analyze feasibility of airborne gravity acquisitions for the purpose of systematically mapping void caves. It is found that observations from fixed wing aircraft cannot resolve the caves, but observations from slower and low-flying helicopters or drones do. In order to detect the presence of caves the size of the benchmark cave, systematic terrestrial acquisitions require a density of three stations on square 500 by 500 m2 tiles. The question has a large impact on civil and environmental purposes, since it will allow planning of urban development at a safe distance from subsurface caves. The survey shows that a systematic coverage of the karst would have the benefit to recover the position of all of the greater existing void caves.

  10. Management issues in a Tasmanian tourist cave: potential microclimatic impacts of cave modifications.

    Russell, Mick J; MacLean, Victoria L


    Caves can be difficult to navigate and often require physical modification to allow easy access for visitors. Single entrance caves double the access impact of each visitor. Visitors in tourist caves have direct physical effects such as the introduction of concrete and steel structures; transport of mud, dust, and nutrients; installation of lights and the exhalation of water vapour and carbon dioxide into the air. Indirect physical effects include alteration of the microclimate, both through physical modifications that change the ventilation regime and through the presence of visitors leading to changes in temperature, humidity and CO2 within the cave environment. Anthropomorphic changes to cave physical environments to aid access or to reduce backtracking can have adverse effects on the internal microclimate of cave systems with subsequent changes to the cave environment affecting the quality of decorations and cave art and the diversity of cave fauna. Although often stated that caves operate at or near a constant temperature, closer examination indicates that cave temperatures are neither static nor constant. The degree of variation depends largely on the structure and physical characteristics of the cave. Air temperature and humidity gradients between the inside and outside cave environment can result in air density differences, which create airflow, which will in turn affect the cave microclimate. As part of the development of a management framework for King Solomons Cave, Tasmania, a study of the microclimate was carried out on behalf of Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service. Analysis of the variables showed significant differences in air temperature within each site and between sites. These differences range from 4 degrees C variation at one site to 0 degrees C at another site. The data were used to model potential airflow between the cave and the external environment. Results indicate that part of the cave is dominated by airflow between the chimney and the