Sample records for cause of death

  1. Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury

    ... Overdose Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Violence-Related Injury Deaths, United States - 2013 Leading Causes of Death Charts Causes of Death by Age ...

  2. Cause of Death Affects Racial Classification on Death Certificates

    Andrew Noymer; Penner, Andrew M.; Aliya Saperstein


    Recent research suggests racial classification is responsive to social stereotypes, but how this affects racial classification in national vital statistics is unknown. This study examines whether cause of death influences racial classification on death certificates. We analyze the racial classifications from a nationally representative sample of death certificates and subsequent interviews with the decedents' next of kin and find notable discrepancies between the two racial classifications by...

  3. The Danish registers of causes of death

    Juel, K; Helweg-Larsen, K


    In 1875 registration of causes of death in Denmark was established by the National Board of Health, and annual statistics of death have since been published. Until 1970 the national statistics were based upon punched cards with data collected from the death certificates. Since then the register has...... been fully computerized and includes individual based data of all deaths occurring among all residents in Denmark dying in Denmark. Furthermore, a microfilm of all death certificates from 1943 and onward is kept in the National Board of Health. The Danish Institute for Clinical Epidemiology (DICE) has...... established a computerized register of individual records of deaths in Denmark from 1943 and onwards. No other country covers computerized individual based data of death registration for such a long period, now 54 years. This paper describes the history of the registers, the data sources and access to data...

  4. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2006. These data are...

  5. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2009. Data are based on...

  6. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDC WONDER Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death online database is a county-level national mortality and population database spanning the years since 1979....

  7. Causes of sudden cardiac death in athletes

    Popović Dejana


    Full Text Available Introduction Sudden cardiac death in athletes is a growing problem, despite the huge existing knowledge in medicine and sports. Effects of vigorous physical activity In response to vigorous physical activity, the body undergoes profound morphologic and functional changes. These changes are usually healthy, but sometimes may gravitate to some cardiac diseases. But still, most sudden cardiac deaths are due to previous unknown diseases. Causes of sudden cardiac death The most common cause of sudden cardiac death in athletes is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Other reasons are congenital coronary artery anomalies, myocarditis, dilatative cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy of the right ventricle, sarcoidosis, mitral valve prolapse, aortic valve stenosis, atherosclerosis, long QT syndrome, and blunt impact to the chest. Conclusion Bearing in mind the above mentioned, more frequent physical examinations of athletes are recommended.

  8. Causes of death in familial adenomatous polyposis

    Galle, T S; Juel, K; Bülow, S


    The prognosis in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) has improved over the past decades owing to a reduction in the prevalence of colorectal cancer, resulting from effective early screening. During the same period several polyposis registers have recorded an increasing number of deaths due to du...... duodenal/periampullary cancer and desmoid tumours. The aim of this study was to examine the causes of death with special emphasis on duodenal/periampullary cancer....

  9. 38 CFR 3.312 - Cause of death.


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cause of death. 3.312... Cause of death. (a) General. The death of a veteran will be considered as having been due to a service... contributory cause of death. The issue involved will be determined by exercise of sound judgment,...

  10. Deaths from heart failure: using coarsened exact matching to correct cause-of-death statistics

    Shibuya Kenji; King Gary; Stevens Gretchen A


    Abstract Background Incomplete information on death certificates makes recorded cause-of-death data less useful for public health monitoring and planning. Certifying physicians sometimes list only the mode of death without indicating the underlying disease or diseases that led to the death. Inconsistent cause-of-death assignment among cardiovascular causes of death is of particular concern. This can prevent valid epidemiologic comparisons across countries and over time. Methods We propose tha...

  11. Leading Causes of Death By ZIP Code 1989-1998

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Deaths by Cause of Death, by Zip Code 1989-1998 (By Place of Residence): This dataset is for death of California residents, by cause of death, by Zip Code, for year...

  12. Leading Causes of Death by ZIP Code, 1999-2013

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Deaths by Cause of Death, by Zip Code 1999-2013 (By Place of Residence): This dataset is for death of California residents, by cause of death, by Zip Code, for year...

  13. Underlying cause of death in Danish patients with multiple sclerosis

    Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Stenager, Egon


    To determine the underlying causes of death in a large population based register series of patients with multiple sclerosis.......To determine the underlying causes of death in a large population based register series of patients with multiple sclerosis....

  14. Leading Causes of Death in Males United States, 2010

    ... Women's Health Leading Causes of Death in Males United States Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... leading causes of death in males in the United States. Please note information in previous listings may no ...

  15. Potential misclassification of causes of death from COPD

    Jensen, Henriette Hvide; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Lange, Peter;


    Little is known about causes of death in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the validity of mortality statistics in COPD. The present authors examined causes of death using data from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Of the 12,979 subjects with sufficient data from the baseline...... COPD, CMH and smoking were predictors of COPD as underlying cause of death, ORs 2.3 (1.5-3.7) and 2.2 (1.4-3.6), respectively. It was concluded that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is underreported on death certificates, that biases in the use of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as cause of...... death can be assessed, and that possible "over-diagnosis" of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on death certificates in subjects unlikely to have significant disease should initiate caution when using causes of mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease epidemiology....

  16. Glucose sensor excludes hypoglycaemia as cause of death

    Schmidt, Signe; Nørgaard, Kirsten


    The cause of death can be difficult to verify post-mortem in unexpected deaths in patients with Type 1 diabetes. This report describes an unexpected death in a 44-year-old man with Type 1 diabetes treated with sensor-augmented pump therapy. Continuous glucose monitoring data proved useful in...

  17. Local perceptions of causes of death in rural South Africa: a comparison of perceived and verbal autopsy causes of death

    Laith Hussain-Alkhateeb


    Full Text Available Background: Understanding how lay people perceive the causes of mortality and their associated risk factors is important for public health. In resource-limited settings, where verbal autopsy (VA is used as the most expedient method of determining cause of death, it is important to understand how pre-existing concepts of cause of death among VA-informants may influence their VA-responses and the consequential impact on cause of death assessment. This study describes the agreement between VA-derived causes of death and informant-perceived causes and associated influential factors, which also reflects lay health literacy in this setting. Method: Using 20 years of VA data (n=11,228 from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS site in rural South Africa, we explored the agreement between the causes of death perceived by the VA-informants and those assigned by the automated Inter-VA tool. Kappa statistics and concordance correlation coefficients were applied to measure agreement at individual and population levels, respectively. Multivariable regression models were used to explore factors associated with recognised lay perceptions of causes of mortality. Results: Agreement between informant-perceived and VA-derived causes of death at the individual level was limited, but varied substantially by cause of death. However, agreement at the population level, comparing cause-specific mortality fractions was higher, with the notable exception of bewitchment as a cause. More recent deaths, those in adults aged 15–49 years, deaths outside the home, and those associated with external causes showed higher concordance with InterVA. Conclusion: Overall, informant perception of causes of death was limited, but depended on informant characteristics and causes of death, and to some extent involved non-biomedical constructs. Understanding discordance between perceived and recognised causes of death is important for public health planning; low

  18. Causes of death in 2877 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Nachtkamp, Kathrin; Stark, Romina; Strupp, Corinna; Kündgen, Andrea; Giagounidis, Aristoteles; Aul, Carlo; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Haas, Rainer; Gattermann, Norbert; Germing, Ulrich


    Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes face a poor prognosis. The exact causes of death have not been described properly in the past. We performed a retrospective analysis of causes of death using data of 3792 patients in the Düsseldorf registry who have been followed up for a median time of 21 months. Medical files as well as death certificates were screened and primary care physicians were contacted. Death after AML evolution, infection, and bleeding was considered to be clearly disease-related. Further categories of causes of death were heart failure, other possibly disease-related reasons, such as hemochromatosis, disease-independent reasons as well as cases with unclear causes of death. Median age at the time of diagnosis was 71 years. At the time of analysis, 2877 patients (75.9 %) had deceased. In 1212 cases (42.1 %), the exact cause of death could not be ascertained. From 1665 patients with a clearly documented cause of death, 1388 patients (83.4 %) succumbed directly disease-related (AML (46.6 %), infection (27.0 %), bleeding (9.8 %)), whereas 277 patients (16.6 %) died for reasons not directly related with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), including 132 patients with cardiac failure, 77 non-disease-related reasons, 23 patients with solid tumors, and 45 patients with possibly disease-related causes like hemochromatosis. Correlation with IPSS, IPSS-R, and WPSS categories showed a proportional increase of disease-related causes of death with increasing IPSS/IPSS-R/WPSS risk category. Likewise, therapy-related MDS were associated with a higher percentage of disease-related causes of death than primary MDS. This reflects the increasing influence of the underlying disease on the cause of death with increasing aggressiveness of the disease. PMID:27025507

  19. Risk factors and causes of sudden noncardiac death

    Risgaard, Bjarke; Lynge, Thomas Hadberg; Wissenberg, Mads;


    through review of death certificates. Autopsy reports were collected. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify both clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with SNCD. RESULTS: We identified 1039 autopsied cases of sudden death, of which 286 (28%) were classified as SNCD...... was to report the risk factors and causes of SNCD. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, nationwide study including all deaths between 2000 and 2006 of individuals aged 1-35 years and all deaths between 2007 and 2009 of individuals aged 1-49 years. Two physicians identified all sudden death cases.......3-2.3; OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.0-4.4; and OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.5-7.4, respectively). The most common cause of SNCD was pulmonary disease (n = 115 [40%]). CONCLUSION: Sudden death among individuals aged <50 years was caused by noncardiac diseases in 28% of cases. Risk factors were female sex, age, and the absence of...

  20. Foetal Autopsy-Categories and Causes of Death

    Fatima, Uroos; Sherwani, Rana; Khan, Tamkin; Zaheer, Sufian


    Introduction: Intrauterine death(IUD)/ Stillbirth forms a major part of perinatal mortality which thereby is a good indicator of pregnancy wastage as well as quality of healthcare available. The key objectives of autopsy examination are to know the cause(s) of death, elucidation of pathogenic mechanism and quality control of clinical management. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalent causes of IUD, thereby taking appropriate measures to prevent them and decrease the perinatal mor...

  1. Causes of death behind low life expectancy of Danish women

    Jacobsen, Rune; Keiding, Niels; Lynge, Elsebeth


    AIMS: The authors examined causes of death contributing to the relatively high mortality of Danish women born 1915-45, and evaluated the impact of smoking related causes of death. METHODS: Age-period-cohort analysis of mortality of Danish women aged 40-89 in 1960-98. Estimate of the negative...... explanation behind the relatively low life expectancy of Danish women born 1915-45....

  2. Causes of accidental childhood deaths in China in 2010

    Chan, Kit Yee; Yu, Xin-Wei; Lu, Jia-Peng;


    middle-income country (LMIC) settings. In this paper, we aim to establish cause structure for accidental deaths in children aged 0-4 years in China in the year 2010. METHODS: In this paper, we explored the database of 208 multi-cause child mortality studies in Chinese that formed a basis for the first...... deaths. We identified 71 further studies that provided specific causes for accidental deaths. We used epidemiological modeling to estimate the number of accidental child deaths in China in 2010 and to assign those deaths to specific causes. RESULTS: In 2010, we estimated 314 581 deaths in children 0......-4 years in China, of which 31 633 (10.1%) were accidental. Accidental deaths contributed 7240 (4.0%) of all deaths in neonatal period, 8838 (10.5%) among all post-neonatal infant deaths, and 15 554 (31.7%) among children with 1-4 years of age. Among four tested models, the most predictive was used to...

  3. Accuracy of Death Certificates and Assessment of Factors for Misclassification of Underlying Cause of Death

    Makiko Naka Mieno


    Background: Cause of death (COD) information taken from death certificates is often inaccurate and incomplete. However, the accuracy of Underlying CODs (UCODs) recorded on death certificates has not been comprehensively described when multiple diseases are present. Methods: A total of 450 consecutive autopsies performed at a geriatric hospital in Japan between February 2000 and August 2002 were studied. We evaluated the concordance rate, sensitivity, and specificity of major UCODs (cancer,...

  4. The shape of the global causes of death

    Dorling Danny


    Full Text Available Abstract Background World maps can provide an instant visual overview of the distribution of diseases and deaths. Results There is a particular geography to each type of death: in some places many thousands of deaths are caused by a particular condition, whilst other equally populous areas have few to no deaths from the same cause. Conclusion Physicians and other health professionals often specialise in the specifics of causes, symptoms and effects. For some practitioners gaining a worldview of disease burden complements smaller scale medical knowledge of where and how people are affected by each condition. Maps can make health related information much more accessible to planners and the general public than can tables, text, or even graphs. Ten cartograms based on World Health Organisation Burden of Disease data are introduced here; alongside seven based on data from other sources. The Burden of Disease cartograms are the latest in a much larger collection of social, economic and health world maps.

  5. CDC WONDER: Compressed Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDC WONDER Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death online database is a county-level national mortality and population database spanning the years since 1979...

  6. CDC WONDER: Detailed Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Detailed Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2009. Data are...

  7. [Causes of the people death from drunkenness and alcoholism].

    Erokhin, Iu A; Paukov, V S; Kirillov, Iu A


    We analyzed causes of 1008 people death, who abused by alcohol. Among them 2 groups were separated out: people died due to drunkenness and due to alcoholism. The structure of the death was similar in the both groups, however depended on alcoholism stages. The major cause of the death in group of drunkenness people was acute heart insufficiency, less commonly--lung pathology, and very rarely--brain vessels pathology and liver cirrhosis. In group of people, who died due to alcoholism, lung pathology was the major cause of these deaths, acute heart insufficiency was occurred less commonly, and very rare brain pathology because of delirium tremens or alcohol withdrawal syndrome, as so liver cirrhosis with complications. Hemorrhagic pancreonecrosis after alcoholic excess was found out in both groups, but it was more often in people, who died due to drunkenness. Obtained results show importance of chronic alcoholism identification as a disease with several stages including drunkenness and alcoholism. PMID:22937578

  8. Medico-legal study of intracranial causes of death

    Muataz A. Al-Qazzaz; Mohammad Abdul-Mohsin Jabor


    Background: A lot of incidents related to the head region could lead to death, but for sim-plicity’s sake, these incidents are mainly of two broad categories: either non-traumatic (natural) or traumatic (violent). Objectives: To classify all intra-cranial lesions and injuries according to the mode and manner of death, gender, age and admission to hospital, and to evaluate these lesions and their role in the cause of death. Materials and methods: The study was performed on 119 cases refe...

  9. Violence and other reasons as cause of death in women

    Can, Muhammet; Dokgöz, Halis; Turan, Nurşen; Sözen, Şevki; Bütün, Celal


    AbstractAim. Violence against women resulting in death is an important problem facing us in the society and community. This study aimed to determine the socio-economic, socio-cultural and demographical characteristics, compositions of committed violence and cause of death of the victims to display and interpret a profile of the assailants. Methods. Data of 40 women who underwent autopsy at the Department of Morgue Specialization, Forensic Medicine Institute were evaluated between the dates of...

  10. Mortality and causes of death in first admitted schizophrenic patients

    Mortensen, P B; Juel, K


    9156 first admitted schizophrenic patients. Suicide accounted for 50% of deaths in men and 35% of deaths in women. Suicide risk was particularly increased during the first year of follow-up. Death from natural causes, with the exception of cancer and cerebrovascular diseases, was increased. Suicide...... risk during the first year of follow-up increased by 56%, with a 50% reduction on psychiatric in-patient facilities. The study confirms that mortality in schizophrenia is still markedly elevated, and the finding of an increasing suicide risk may be an indicator of some adverse effects of...

  11. Primary Causes of Death After Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy

    Purpose: To evaluate the primary causes of death in low-risk (low-risk), intermediate-risk (intermediate-risk), and high-risk (high-risk) patients undergoing permanent prostate brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies. Methods and Materials: From April 1995 through November 2004, a total of 1,354 consecutive patients underwent prostate brachytherapy. All patients underwent brachytherapy >3 years before analysis. Of the patients, 532 (39.3%) received androgen deprivation therapy and 703 (51.9%) received supplemental radiation therapy. The median follow-up was 5.4 years. Multiple parameters were evaluated as predictors of cause-specific, biochemical progression-free, and overall survival. Results: The 10-year cause-specific survival was 97.0% (99.7%, 99.0%, and 90.1% for low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk patients). Overall survival was 76.7% (82.5%, 78.3%, and 67.6% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients, respectively). The cumulative death rate for cardiovascular disease was 11.5% (8.7%, 9.3%, and 19.8% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients). The death rate from second malignancies (nonprostate cancer) was 7.2% and was not substantially different when stratified by risk group. Death from all other causes was 6.5% for the entire cohort but 1.3%, 5.0%, and 10.8% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients. In multivariate analysis, death from prostate cancer was best predicted by Gleason score and risk group, whereas death from cardiovascular disease, nonprostate cancer, and all other causes were most closely related to patient age and tobacco use. Conclusions: Although cardiovascular mortality was the predominant cause of death, prostate cancer was responsible for approximately 10% of all deaths. In particular, overall survival was poorest in the high-risk group. Although high-risk patients were most likely to die of prostate cancer, the divergence in overall survival between high-risk and lower-risk patients primarily

  12. Fatal Injuries in Light Vehicle Crashes - Time to Death and Cause of Death

    Luchter, Stephen; Smith, Andrew; Wang, Jing


    FARS and NASS CDS data were analyzed to determine time and cause of occupant deaths resulting from light vehicle crashes in the early 1990s. The results shows 46 percent of the deaths occurred within half an hour, 24 percent between half an hour and an hour and a half and a total of 90 percent within 24 hours. Of the deaths occurring during the 1.5 hours following injury 52 percent were the result of head injuries and 36 percent were the result of thorax injuries. When compared with the class...

  13. First assumptions and overlooking competing causes of death

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Andersen, Anh Thao Nguyen


    of cause of death, which was based on results from bacteriology tests, proved to be wrong when the results from the forensic toxicology testing became available. This case also illustrates how post mortem computed tomography (PMCT) findings of radio opaque material in the stomach alerted the...

  14. Distinct Clones of Yersinia pestis Caused the Black Death

    Haensch, Stephanie; Bianucci, Raffaella; Signoli, Michel; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Schultz, Michael; Kacki, Sacha; Vermunt, Marco; Weston, Darlene A.; Hurst, Derek; Achtman, Mark; Carniel, Elisabeth; Bramanti, Barbara


    From AD 1347 to AD 1353, the Black Death killed tens of millions of people in Europe, leaving misery and devastation in its wake, with successive epidemics ravaging the continent until the 18th century. The etiology of this disease has remained highly controversial, ranging from claims based on genetics and the historical descriptions of symptoms that it was caused by Yersinia pestis to conclusions that it must have been caused by other pathogens. It has also been disputed whether plague had the same etiology in northern and southern Europe. Here we identified DNA and protein signatures specific for Y. pestis in human skeletons from mass graves in northern, central and southern Europe that were associated archaeologically with the Black Death and subsequent resurgences. We confirm that Y. pestis caused the Black Death and later epidemics on the entire European continent over the course of four centuries. Furthermore, on the basis of 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms plus the absence of a deletion in glpD gene, our aDNA results identified two previously unknown but related clades of Y. pestis associated with distinct medieval mass graves. These findings suggest that plague was imported to Europe on two or more occasions, each following a distinct route. These two clades are ancestral to modern isolates of Y. pestis biovars Orientalis and Medievalis. Our results clarify the etiology of the Black Death and provide a paradigm for a detailed historical reconstruction of the infection routes followed by this disease. PMID:20949072

  15. Causes of adult female deaths in Bangladesh: findings from two National Surveys

    Nahar, Quamrun; Arifeen, Shams El; Jamil, Kanta; Streatfield, Peter Kim


    Background Assessment of causes of death and changes in pattern of causes of death over time are needed for programmatic purposes. Limited national level data exist on the adult female causes of death in Bangladesh. Method Using data from two nationally representation surveys, the 2001 and 2010 Bangladesh Maternal Mortality Surveys (BMMS), the paper examines the causes of adult female death, aged 15–49 years, and changes in the patterns of these deaths. In both surveys, all household deaths t...

  16. Assessment of leukemia caused deaths due to internal radiation exposure

    A problem of finding the number of cancers, which are developed due to internal exposure to radioactive material, is not a trivial task. This problem is generally rather complex, because in case of protracted exposures, latency period may exceed the time of an individual's natural death, i.e. the age at death due to 'natural causes'. In this paper the model for calculating risk caused by an internal exposure (inhalation or ingestion of radioactive material) is modeled as a continuous irradiation till the end of an individual's life, taking into account natural deaths in the observed population. The basic tool in constructing the model were risk coefficients per unit dose, developed earlier [1]. Since an important role in radiation exposure of the people in South Serbia may play internal exposure to depleted uranium (DU), which was extensively used during the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, the leukemia was chosen as a stochastic effect which is to be considered. For this purpose, some different (artificial) amounts of DU intake were assumed. In order to present the continuous exposure of the whole population living on the contaminated area, the model separately considers those born after the environmental contamination. Therefore, the overall population is divided into two parts: the one which was alive at the time of the release, (LG-Living Generation), and the second one, born after that (FG- Following Generations). The paper primarily intends to present the model for risk calculation for the LG part of population. However, just for the purpose of demonstration of the overall risk model, the contribution of the FG is added to get an overall risk assessment for the case of leukaemia's deaths. Besides cumulative number of cases, which are usually calculated by other models, this model is able to assess differential values, what means it is able to predict the number of cases within a certain specified age and/or time intervals. According to results obtained by the

  17. NCHS - Age-adjusted Death Rates for the Top 10 Leading Causes of Death: United States, 2013

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Age-adjusted death rates for the top 10 leading causes of death in the United States, including mortality patterns from 1999 through 2013, and by state of residence...

  18. Pulmonary failure as a cause of death in COPD.

    Braghiroli, A; Zaccaria, S; Ioli, F; Erbetta, M; Donner, C F


    Data on the outcome of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are limited. We know that the prognosis is poor when respiratory insufficiency develops, but we have little information on the actual cause of death. Epidemiological studies are suitable for the assessment of the prevalence of the disease, but give no details on the actual cause of death. Age and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) have been recognized as the best predictors of mortality in studies designed to quantify survival of COPD patients, particularly when the post-brochodilator value is used, as this provides a better estimate of airway and parenchymal damage. Data from Intensive Care Units on acute respiratory failure have several significant limitations. Firstly, it is probable that some patients elect not to undergo intensive treatment for a terminal bout of respiratory failure, particularly if it is not first episode. Secondly, the actual cause of death is often not described in adequate detail. Hypoxaemia and acidaemia are the main risk factors in acute exacerbation of the disease and the presence of pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiographs worsens the prognosis. A single bout of respiratory failure appears to have no effect on the prognosis of COPD patients after recovery, but there is a consistent increase in mortality after the second episode. It seems possible to manage the majority of episodes of acute respiratory failure with mechanical ventilation administered with noninvasive techniques. When endotracheal intubation is necessary, the prognosis is usually poor and the survival after 1 yr is usually lower than 40%. The role of long-term home mechanical ventilation is still unclear. Results from pivotal studies have been encouraging, although survival is far less impressive than in neuromuscular disorders. In patients with end-stage lung disease, lung transplantation can be considered the only possibility of increasing pulmonary functional capacity


    Gh.- R. Walizadeh


    Full Text Available Autopsy findings in 138 newborn infants which died in a university nursery during 3 years are reviewed and discussed. 80 per cent were premature and small- for- date newborns of up to 2500 g birth weight. Most of these cases showed in addition to general prematurely signs, respiratory tract diseases such as atelectasia, amniotic fluid aspiration and hyaline membrane disease. The full term infants died mostly of malformations. In post neonatal period the cause of death was almost entirely infections such as bronchopneumonia, gastroenteritis and septicemia.

  20. Improving the usefulness of US mortality data: new methods for reclassification of underlying cause of death

    Foreman, Kyle J.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Ezzati, Majid


    Background Mortality data are affected by miscertification of the medical cause of death deaths and changes to cause of death classification systems. We present both mappings of ICD9 and ICD10 to a unified list of causes, and a new statistical model for reducing the impact of misclassification of cause of death. Methods We propose a Bayesian mixed-effects multinomial logistic model that can be run on individual record level death certificates to reclassify “garbage-coded” deaths onto causes t...

  1. Assessing quality of medical death certification: Concordance between gold standard diagnosis and underlying cause of death in selected Mexican hospitals

    Atkinson Charles


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Mexico, the vital registration system relies on information collected from death certificates to generate official mortality figures. Although the death certificate has high coverage across the country, there is little information regarding its validity. The objective of this study was to assess the concordance between the underlying cause of death in official statistics obtained from death certificates and a gold standard diagnosis of the same deaths derived from medical records of hospitals. Methods The study sample consisted of 1,589 deaths that occurred in 34 public hospitals in the Federal District and the state of Morelos, Mexico in 2009. Neonatal, child, and adult cases were selected for causes of death that included infectious diseases, noncommunicable diseases, and injuries. We compared the underlying cause of death, obtained from medical death certificates, against a gold standard diagnosis derived from a review of medical records developed by the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium. We used chance-corrected concordance and accuracy as metrics to evaluate the quality of performance of the death certificate. Results Analysis considering only the underlying cause of death resulted in a median chance-corrected concordance between the cause of death in medical death certificates versus the gold standard of 54.3% (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 52.2, 55.6 for neonates, 38.5% (37.0, 40.0 for children, and 66.5% (65.9, 66.9 for adults. The accuracy resulting from the same analysis was 0.756 (0.747, 0.769 for neonates, 0.683 (0.663, 0.701 for children, and 0.780 (0.774, 0.785 for adults. Median chance-corrected concordance and accuracy increased when considering the mention of any cause of death in the death certificate, not just the underlying cause. Concordance varied substantially depending on cause of death, and accuracy varied depending on the true cause-specific mortality fraction composition. Conclusions

  2. Drug induced mortality: a multiple cause approach on Italian causes of death Register

    Francesco Grippo


    Full Text Available Background: Drug-related mortality is a complex phenomenon that has several health, social and economic effects. In this paper trends of drug-induced mortality in Italy are analysed. Two approaches have been followed: the traditional analysis of the underlying cause of death (UC (data refers to the Istat mortality database from 1980 to 2011, and the multiple cause (MCanalysis, that is the analysis of all conditions reported on the death certificate (data for 2003-2011 period.Methods: Data presented in this paper are based on the Italian mortality register. The selection of Icd codes used for the analysis follows the definition of the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Using different indicators (crude and standardized rates, ratio multiple to underlying, the results obtained from the two approaches (UC and MC have been compared. Moreover, as a measure of association between drug-related causes and specific conditions on the death certificate, an estimation of the age-standardized relative risk (RR has been used.Results: In the years 2009-2011, the total number of certificates whit mention of drug use was 1,293, 60% higher than the number UC based. The groups of conditions more strongly associated with drug-related causes are the mental and behavioral disorders (especially alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis and fibrosis of liver, AIDS and endocarditis.Conclusions : The analysis based on multiple cause approach shows, for the first time, a more detailed picture of the drug related death; it allows to better describe the mortality profiles and to re-evaluate  the contribution of a specific cause to death.

  3. Algorithms for enhancing public health utility of national causes-of-death data

    Pourmalek Farshad; O'Brien Janaki; Foreman Kyle; Makela Susanna; Naghavi Mohsen; Lozano Rafael


    Abstract Background Coverage and quality of cause-of-death (CoD) data varies across countries and time. Valid, reliable, and comparable assessments of trends in causes of death from even the best systems are limited by three problems: a) changes in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) over time; b) the use of tabulation lists where substantial detail on causes of death is lost; and c) many deaths assigned to causes that cannot or should no...

  4. Cause-specific neonatal mortality: analysis of 3772 neonatal deaths in Nepal, Bangladesh, Malawi and India

    Fottrell, E.; Osrin, D.; Alcock, G; Azad, K.; Bapat, U; Beard, J.; Bondo, A.; Colbourn, T; Das, S; King, C.; Manandhar, D.; S Manandhar; Morrison, J; Mwansambo, C; Nair, N.


    Objective Understanding the causes of death is key to tackling the burden of three million annual neonatal deaths. Resource-poor settings lack effective vital registration systems for births, deaths and causes of death. We set out to describe cause-specific neonatal mortality in rural areas of Malawi, Bangladesh, Nepal and rural and urban India using verbal autopsy (VA) data. Design We prospectively recorded births, neonatal deaths and stillbirths in seven population surveillance sites. VAs w...

  5. Causes of death in a rural area of South Africa : an international perspective

    Garenne, Michel; Kahn, K.; Tollman, S.; Gear, J.


    The study compares the cause of death profile in a rural area of South Africa (Agincourt), with that in a rural area of West Africa (Niakhar), and in a developed country with the same life expectancy (France, 1951) in order to determine causes with high and low mortality and priorities for future health interventions. In the two African sites, causes of death were assessed by verbal autopsies, whereas they were derived from regular cause of death registration in France. Age-standardized death...

  6. Long-term prognosis and causes of death after spondylodiscitis

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed, Casper; Dahl, Benny; Obel, Niels


    BACKGROUND: Data on long-term prognosis after spondylodiscitis are scarce. The purpose of this study was to determine long-term mortality and the causes of death after spondylodiscitis. METHODS: A nationwide, population-based cohort study using national registries of patients diagnosed with non......-post-operative pyogenic spondylodiscitis from 1994-2009, alive 1 year after diagnosis (n = 1505). A comparison cohort from the background population individually matched for sex and age was identified (n = 7525). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed and Poisson regression analyses used to estimate mortality rate......). CONCLUSIONS: Patients diagnosed with spondylodiscitis have increased long-term mortality, mainly due to comorbidities, particularly substance abuse....

  7. Certified causes of death in patients with mesothelioma in South East England

    Peto Julian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesothelioma is a highly fatal cancer that is caused by exposure to asbestos fibres. In many populations, the occurrence of mesothelioma is monitored with the use of mortality data from death certification. We examine certified causes of death of patients who have been diagnosed with mesothelioma, and assess the validity of death certification data as a proxy for mesothelioma incidence. Methods We extracted mesothelioma registrations in the South East of England area between 2000 and 2004 from the Thames Cancer Registry database. We retained for analysis 2200 patients who had died at the time of analysis, after having excluded seven dead cases where the causes of death were not known to the cancer registry. The 2200 deaths were classified hierarchically to identify (1 mesothelioma deaths, (2 deaths certified as lung cancer deaths or (3 deaths from unspecified cancer, and (4 deaths from other causes. Results 87% of the patients had mesothelioma mentioned on the death certificate. 6% had no mention of mesothelioma but included lung cancer as a cause of death. Another 6% had no mention of mesothelioma or lung cancer, but included an unspecified cancer as a cause of death. Lastly, 2% had other causes of death specified on the death certificate. Conclusion This analysis suggests that official mortality data may underestimate the true occurrence of mesothelioma by around 10%.

  8. Causes of childhood deaths in Bangladesh: results of a nationwide verbal autopsy study.

    Baqui, A. H.; Black, R. E.; Arifeen, S.E.; Hill, K.; Mitra, S. N.; al Sabir, A.


    While knowledge of causes of deaths is important for health sector planning, little is known from conventional sources about the causes of deaths in Bangladesh. This is partly due to deficiencies in the registration system and partly because few deaths are attended by qualified physicians. The present study was undertaken to update the information available on causes of deaths among under-5-year-olds, taking advantage of advances in verbal autopsy methodology and of the national Bangladesh De...

  9. Cost–consequence analysis of cause of death investigation in Finland and in Denmark

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Boldsen, Jesper Lier; Lalu, Kaisa; Sajantila, Antti; Baandrup, Ulrik; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup; Ehlers, Lars Holger; Bøggild, Henrik


    Denmark with another cost profile. Data on cause of death investigation systems and costs were derived from Departments of Forensic Medicine, Departments of Pathology, and the National Police. Finnish and Danish autopsy rates were calculated in unnatural (accident, suicide, homicide and undetermined....... Only little is known about the possible differences between health economics of Finnish and Danish cause of death investigation systems. The aims of this article were to analyse costs and consequences of Finnish and Danish cause of death investigations, and to develop an alternative autopsy practice in...... demands that forensic autopsy be performed if causality between unnatural death and cause of death cannot be clarified or if cause of death remains unknown. The Danish Health and Medicines Authority should provide guidelines that request a medical autopsy in natural deaths where more information about...

  10. Causes of mortality for Indonesian Hajj Pilgrims: comparison between routine death certificate and verbal autopsy findings.

    Masdalina Pane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indonesia provides the largest single source of pilgrims for the Hajj (10%. In the last two decades, mortality rates for Indonesian pilgrims ranged between 200-380 deaths per 100,000 pilgrims over the 10-week Hajj period. Reasons for high mortality are not well understood. In 2008, verbal autopsy was introduced to complement routine death certificates to explore cause of death diagnoses. This study presents the patterns and causes of death for Indonesian pilgrims, and compares routine death certificates to verbal autopsy findings. METHODS: Public health surveillance was conducted by Indonesian public health authorities accompanying pilgrims to Saudi Arabia, with daily reporting of hospitalizations and deaths. Surveillance data from 2008 were analyzed for timing, geographic location and site of death. Percentages for each cause of death category from death certificates were compared to that from verbal autopsy. RESULTS: In 2008, 206,831 Indonesian undertook the Hajj. There were 446 deaths, equivalent to 1,968 deaths per 100,000 pilgrim years. Most pilgrims died in Mecca (68% and Medinah (24%. There was no statistically discernible difference in the total mortality risk for the two pilgrimage routes (Mecca or Medinah first, but the number of deaths peaked earlier for those traveling to Mecca first (p=0.002. Most deaths were due to cardiovascular (66% and respiratory (28% diseases. A greater proportion of deaths were attributed to cardiovascular disease by death certificate compared to the verbal autopsy method (p<0.001. Significantly more deaths had ill-defined cause based on verbal autopsy method (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Despite pre-departure health screening and other medical services, Indonesian pilgrim mortality rates were very high. Correct classification of cause of death is critical for the development of risk mitigation strategies. Since verbal autopsy classified causes of death differently to death certificates, further studies

  11. Causes of death and associated conditions (Codac – a utilitarian approach to the classification of perinatal deaths

    Harrison Catherine


    Full Text Available Abstract A carefully classified dataset of perinatal mortality will retain the most significant information on the causes of death. Such information is needed for health care policy development, surveillance and international comparisons, clinical services and research. For comparability purposes, we propose a classification system that could serve all these needs, and be applicable in both developing and developed countries. It is developed to adhere to basic concepts of underlying cause in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD, although gaps in ICD prevent classification of perinatal deaths solely on existing ICD codes. We tested the Causes of Death and Associated Conditions (Codac classification for perinatal deaths in seven populations, including two developing country settings. We identified areas of potential improvements in the ability to retain existing information, ease of use and inter-rater agreement. After revisions to address these issues we propose Version II of Codac with detailed coding instructions. The ten main categories of Codac consist of three key contributors to global perinatal mortality (intrapartum events, infections and congenital anomalies, two crucial aspects of perinatal mortality (unknown causes of death and termination of pregnancy, a clear distinction of conditions relevant only to the neonatal period and the remaining conditions are arranged in the four anatomical compartments (fetal, cord, placental and maternal. For more detail there are 94 subcategories, further specified in 577 categories in the full version. Codac is designed to accommodate both the main cause of death as well as two associated conditions. We suggest reporting not only the main cause of death, but also the associated relevant conditions so that scenarios of combined conditions and events are captured. The appropriately applied Codac system promises to better manage information on causes of perinatal deaths, the conditions

  12. Death by unnatural causes during childhood and early adulthood in offspring of psychiatric inpatients

    Webb, Roger; Pickles, Andrew R.; Appleby, Louis;


    MEASURES: Deaths from all natural causes and all unnatural causes, specifically, accidents, homicides, suicides, and undetermined causes. RESULTS: The highest observed relative risk (RR) was for homicide in young and older children with affected mothers or fathers. Homicides were between 5 and 10 times......-verdict deaths by poisoning were higher than for such deaths occurring by other means. CONCLUSIONS: Almost 99% of children studied survived to their mid-20s. However, they were more vulnerable to death from unnatural causes, notably, homicide during childhood and suicide in early adulthood. Further research is...... needed to establish how parental psychopathology contributes to increased risk of premature death in these offspring...

  13. Death Certificates Underestimate Infections as Proximal Causes of Death in the U.S

    Sushant Govindan; Letitia Shapiro; Langa, Kenneth M.; Iwashyna, Theodore J.


    BACKGROUND: Death certificates are a primary data source for assessing the population burden of diseases; however, there are concerns regarding their accuracy. Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) coding of a terminal hospitalization may provide an alternative view. We analyzed the rate and patterns of disagreement between death certificate data and hospital claims for patients who died during an inpatient hospitalization. METHODS: We studied respondents from the Health and Retirement Study (a natio...

  14. Changes in Contribution of Causes of Death to Socioeconomic Mortality Inequalities in Korean Adults

    Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Khang, Young-Ho; Cho, Hong-Jun


    Objectives This study aimed to analyze long-term trends in the contribution of each cause of death to socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality among Korean adults. Methods Data were collected from death certificates between 1990 and 2004 and from censuses in 1990, 1995, and 2000. Age-standardized death rates by gender were produced according to education as the socioeconomic position indicator, and the slope index of inequality was calculated to evaluate the contribution of each caus...

  15. Impact of Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors on Causes of Death in the U.S.

    Debertin, David L.; Goetz, Stephan J.


    The incidence of diseases and accidents that lead to death is not uniform throughout the U.S. but rather varies widely among different regions. This study uses county-level data on numbers and causes of death for the entire U.S. in an effort to link these causes of death to various county-level social and economic variables. Examples of causes of death for which county-level data are available include cancer, heart disease, infectious diseases, motor vehicle accidents, and other causes such a...

  16. Depression and Increased Mortality in Diabetes: Unexpected Causes of Death

    Lin, Elizabeth H. B.; Heckbert, Susan R; Rutter, Carolyn M.; Katon, Wayne J.; Ciechanowski, Paul; Ludman, Evette J.; Oliver, Malia; Young, Bessie A.; McCulloch, David K.; Von Korff, Michael


    PURPOSE Recent evidence suggests that depression is linked to increased mortality among patients with diabetes. This study examines the association of depression with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in diabetes.

  17. Bleeding to death because of hemorrhage into soft tissues as a cause of death in a beaten battered child

    Čukić Dragana


    Full Text Available Introduction. Bleeding to death is one of the leading causes of death speaking about violent death in general. Bleeding to death mostly happens through hurt organs or blood vessels of thorax, abdomen and neck or because of destruction of extremities or the whole body. Bleeding to death is very often the consequence of blood pouring, rarely of simultaneous pouring and suffusing of blood, and it is extremely rarely the result of blood suffusing solely and especially due to subcutaneous, retoperitoneal and intramediastinal blood suffusing. Fatal bleeding into soft tissues solely is very rare. During a 10- year- period among 3 000 performed autopsies in the Department of Forensic Medicine in Podgorica, the presented case was the unique one. Case report. The paper presents a 5-year-old boy who was beaten to death by his mother and step-father and died because of massive bleeding into soft tissues. Conclusion. In order to establish a cause of death in cases of exsanguination in soft tissues, a series of postmortem diagnostic procedures should be performed, like those presented in this paper.

  18. Socioeconomic differences in the use of ill-defined causes of death in 16 European countries

    I. Kulhánová (Ivana); G. Menvielle (Gwenn); M. Bopp (Matthias); C. Borrell (Carme); P. Deboosere (Patrick); T.A. Eikemo (Terje); R. Hoffmann (Rasmus); M. Leinsalu (Mall); P. Martikainen (Pekka); E. Regidor (Enrique); M. Rodriguez-Sanz (Maica); J. Rychtǎŕikov́a (Jitka); B. Wojtyniak (Bogdan); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)


    textabstractBackground: Cause-of-death data linked to information on socioeconomic position form one of the most important sources of information about health inequalities in many countries. The proportion of deaths from ill-defined conditions is one of the indicators of the quality of cause-of-deat

  19. Verbal autopsy of 48 000 adult deaths attributable to medical causes in Chennai (formerly Madras, India

    Kanaka Santhanakrishnan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the city of Chennai, India, registration of the fact of death is almost complete but the cause of death is often inadequately recorded on the death certificate. A special verbal autopsy (VA study of 48 000 adult deaths in Chennai during 1995–97 was conducted to arrive at the probable underlying cause of death and to measure cause specific mortality rates for Chennai. Methods Trained non-medical graduates with at least 15 years of formal education interviewed the surviving family members or an associate of the deceased to write a report on the complaints, symptoms, signs, duration and treatment details of illness prior to death. Each report was reviewed centrally by two physicians independently. The reliability was assessed by comparing deaths attributed to cancer by VA with records in Vital Statistics Department and Chennai Cancer Registry. Results The VA reduced the proportion of deaths attributed to unspecified medical causes and unknown causes from 37% to 7% in early adult life and middle age (25–69 yrs and has yielded fewer unspecified causes (only 10% than the death certificate. The sensitivity of VA to identify cancer was 94% in the age group 25–69. Conclusion VA is practicable for deaths in early adult life or middle age and is of more limited value in old age. A systematic program of VA of a representative sample of deaths could assign broad causes not only to deaths in childhood (as has previously been established but also to deaths in early adult life and middle age.

  20. Causes of death of Cogema active workers, 1980-1995

    Background: Populations exposed to risks at work show a deficit in deaths in comparison with the national population, the 'healthy worker effect'. This effect has been observed among former nuclear workers. The aim of our- cross-sectional study was to evaluate the mortality in a metallurgy worker population, and to study the impact of the choice of the reference population on the estimation of the Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR). Methods: The studied population was the COGEMA Metallurgy Department workers, aged 25 years to 64, during the period 1980-1995 in two regions of France (North - La Hague; South - Cadarache, Marcoule, Miramas and Pierrelatte). In order to account for geographical variability and the difference in mortality between the working population and the non-working population, we used several reference populations: national population, regional population, 'working' national population (farmer snot present in COGEMA and non-workers excluded), and 'working' regional population. Results: All SMRs were increased when we used a 'working' regional reference compared with the national reference population. Among men, eight pathologies presented a significant deficit with a national reference, whereas only two pathologies showed a deficit with the 'working' regional reference. Conclusion: The use of a reference population close to the study population enabled us to reduce the Healthy Worker Effect among metallurgy workers at COGEMA plants. (author)

  1. Causes of death in children with insulin dependent diabetes 1990-96

    Edge, J; Ford-Adams, M.; Dunger, D


    BACKGROUND—Mortality rates in children with insulin dependent diabetes (IDDM) in the UK are unknown and the causes of death not well documented.
AIM—To determine the mortality rate and causes of death in children with IDDM.
METHODS—The Office of National Statistics (England and Wales) and the General Register Office (Scotland) notified all deaths under 20 years of age from 1990 to 1996 with diabetes on the certificate. Further details were provided by coroners, pathologists,...

  2. Who dies from what ? Determining cause of death in South Africa's rural North-East

    Kahn, K.; Tollman, S. M.; Garenne, Michel; Gear, J.S.S.


    Information on cause of death is essential for rational public health planning, yet mortality data in South Africa is limited. In the Agincourt subdistrict, verbal autopsies (VA) have been used to determine cause of death. A VA is conducted on all deaths recorded during annual demographic and health surveillance. Trained lay fieldworkers interview a close caregiver to elicit signs and symptoms of the terminal illness. Each questionnaire is reviewed by three medical practitioners blind to each...

  3. Short- and Long-Term Cause of Death in Patients Treated With Primary PCI for STEMI

    Pedersen, Frants; Butrymovich, Vitalij; Kelbæk, Henning;


    describe the association between time and cause of death in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI. METHODS: A centralized civil registration system, patient files, and public disease and death cause registries with an accurate record linkage were used to trace time and cause of death in 2...... cardiac arrest. Age, culprit vessel size and flow, and the presence of heart failure and diabetes were independent predictors of mortality. After 30 days, the annual cardiac mortality rate was <1.5%. Causes of death beyond 30 days were noncardiac in 65% of cases (mainly malignancies and pulmonary diseases......BACKGROUND: Short-term mortality has been studied thoroughly in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), whereas long-term cause of death in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to...

  4. Trends in survival and cause of death in Danish patients with multiple sclerosis

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Stenager, Egon

    The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry contains information about all Danish patients in whom multiple sclerosis has been diagnosed since 1948. The purpose of this study was to analyse trends in survival and causes of death of these patients and to compare them with those of the general population...... and death, and 1 January 1999 for cause-specific deaths. Standardized mortality ratios and excess death rates were calculated for various causes of death and periods after multiple sclerosis onset, and time trends in survival probability were analysed by Cox regression. The study comprised 9881....... According to death certificates, more than half (56.4%) of the patients had died from multiple sclerosis. They also had excess mortality rates from other diseases, except cancer, and from accidents and suicide. The probability for survival improved significantly during the observation period. Thus, the 10...

  5. Redistribution of heart failure as the cause of death: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    Snyder, Michelle L.; Love, Shelly-Ann; Sorlie, Paul D.; Rosamond, Wayne D.; Antini, Carmen; Metcalf, Patricia A.; Hardy, Shakia; Suchindran, Chirayath M; Shahar, Eyal; Heiss, Gerardo


    Background Heart failure is sometimes incorrectly listed as the underlying cause of death (UCD) on death certificates, thus compromising the accuracy and comparability of mortality statistics. Statistical redistribution of the UCD has been used to examine the effect of misclassification of the UCD attributed to heart failure, but sex- and race-specific redistribution of deaths on coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in the United States has not been examined. Methods We used coarsened exact...

  6. Mortality and causes of death in schizophrenic patients in Denmark

    Mortensen, P B; Juel, K


    A cohort consisting of 6178 people that were psychiatric inpatients with a clinical schizophrenia diagnosis in 1957 were followed up from 1957 through 1986, and their cause-specific mortality was determined. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases, gastrointestinal and urogenital...

  7. Reproductive capability is associated with lifespan and cause of death in companion dogs.

    Hoffman, Jessica M; Creevy, Kate E; Promislow, Daniel E L


    Reproduction is a risky affair; a lifespan cost of maintaining reproductive capability, and of reproduction itself, has been demonstrated in a wide range of animal species. However, little is understood about the mechanisms underlying this relationship. Most cost-of-reproduction studies simply ask how reproduction influences age at death, but are blind to the subjects' actual causes of death. Lifespan is a composite variable of myriad causes of death and it has not been clear whether the consequences of reproduction or of reproductive capability influence all causes of death equally. To address this gap in understanding, we compared causes of death among over 40,000 sterilized and reproductively intact domestic dogs, Canis lupus familiaris. We found that sterilization was strongly associated with an increase in lifespan, and while it decreased risk of death from some causes, such as infectious disease, it actually increased risk of death from others, such as cancer. These findings suggest that to understand how reproduction affects lifespan, a shift in research focus is needed. Beyond the impact of reproduction on when individuals die, we must investigate its impact on why individuals die, and subsequently must identify the mechanisms by which these causes of death are influenced by the physiology associated with reproductive capability. Such an approach may also clarify the effects of reproduction on lifespan in people. PMID:23613790

  8. Gene expression analysis characterizes antemortem stress and has implications for establishing cause of death

    Cornel, Leanne; Emond, Mary


    Within the field of forensic pathology, determination of the cause of death depends upon identifying physical changes in the corpse or finding diagnostic laboratory abnormalities. When such perturbations are absent, definitive assignment of a cause of death may be difficult or impossible. An example of such a problem is sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), a common cause of neonatal mortality that does not produce physical findings or laboratory abnormalities. Although respiratory failure as a cause of SIDS represents the most widely held hypothesis, sudden cardiac death and hyperthermia have also been advanced as possible causes. We hypothesize that each of these physiological stresses would produce a different pattern of premortem gene expression and that these patterns of gene expression would remain evident in tissues collected postmortem. If these patterns were sufficiently distinctive, they could be used to identify the cause of death. Using an infant mouse model, we compared gene expression patterns in liver tissue after sudden death, lethal hyperthermia, and lethal hypoxia. Each of these conditions produced readily distinguishable differences in gene expression patterns. With the K-nearest neighbor classification algorithm, only 10 genes are necessary to correctly classify samples. If the liver tissue was not harvested immediately after death, additional alteration in gene expression patterns resulted; however, these alterations did not affect the group of genes used to classify the samples. Our findings suggest that gene expression analysis from tissues collected postmortem may provide useful clues about certain physiologic stresses that may precede death. PMID:21693618

  9. Changing Cause of Death Profile in Morocco: The Impact of Child-survival Programmes

    Garenne, Michel; Darkaoui, Nada; Braikat, Mhamed; Azelmat, Mustapha


    This study was carried out to evaluate the trends in cause-specific mortality and the impact of child-survival programmes in Morocco. Two national surveys on causes and circumstances of child deaths were conducted in Morocco in 1988 and 1998 (ECCD-1 and ECCD-2 respectively). These surveys were based on a representative sample of deaths of children aged less than five years (432 and 866 respectively). Causes of death were assessed by verbal autopsy and were validated on a subsample of 94 cases...

  10. Leading Causes of Death among Asian American Subgroups (2003-2011.

    Katherine G Hastings

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of Asian American mortality patterns has been distorted by the historical aggregation of diverse Asian subgroups on death certificates, masking important differences in the leading causes of death across subgroups. In this analysis, we aim to fill an important knowledge gap in Asian American health by reporting leading causes of mortality by disaggregated Asian American subgroups.We examined national mortality records for the six largest Asian subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs from 2003-2011, and ranked the leading causes of death. We calculated all-cause and cause-specific age-adjusted rates, temporal trends with annual percent changes, and rate ratios by race/ethnicity and sex. Rankings revealed that as an aggregated group, cancer was the leading cause of death for Asian Americans. When disaggregated, there was notable heterogeneity. Among women, cancer was the leading cause of death for every group except Asian Indians. In men, cancer was the leading cause of death among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese men, while heart disease was the leading cause of death among Asian Indians, Filipino and Japanese men. The proportion of death due to heart disease for Asian Indian males was nearly double that of cancer (31% vs. 18%. Temporal trends showed increased mortality of cancer and diabetes in Asian Indians and Vietnamese; increased stroke mortality in Asian Indians; increased suicide mortality in Koreans; and increased mortality from Alzheimer's disease for all racial/ethnic groups from 2003-2011. All-cause rate ratios revealed that overall mortality is lower in Asian Americans compared to NHWs.Our findings show heterogeneity in the leading causes of death among Asian American subgroups. Additional research should focus on culturally competent and cost-effective approaches to prevent and treat specific diseases among these growing diverse populations.

  11. Three cases of death caused by shots from blank cartridge.

    Zdravkovic, Miodrag; Milic, Miroslav; Stojanovic, Miroslav; Kostov, Milos


    The authors describe 3 cases of lethal injuries caused by 7.62 mm blank cartridge shots from military automatic rifle of domestic origin (AK 47, 7.62 mm). In 1 case, the cartridge was fired from a weapon that had been leaned on the head, with subsequent destruction of brain, and in other 2 cases, the weapon had been leaned on the chests, which led to destruction of heart parts. The injuries were caused by the action of striking wave of gunpowder explosion, the air blast type. The cases demonstrate that the gas pressure from the exploding propellant of blank cartridge is powerful enough to penetrate the thoracic wall and the skull. PMID:19901805

  12. Cause of death among Ghanaian adolescents in Accra using autopsy data

    Tettey Yao


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited data on adolescent mortality particularly from developing countries with unreliable death registration systems. This calls for the use of other sources of data to ascertain cause of adolescent mortality. The objective of this study was to describe the causes of death among Ghanaian adolescents 10 to 19 years in Accra, Ghana utilizing data from autopsies conducted in Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH. Findings Out of the 14,034 autopsies carried out from 2001 to 2003 in KBTH, 7% were among adolescents. Of the 882 deaths among adolescents analyzed, 402 (45.6% were females. There were 365 (41.4% deaths from communicable disease, pregnancy related conditions and nutritional disorders. Non-communicable diseases accounted for 362 (41% cases and the rest were attributable to injuries and external causes of morbidity and mortality. Intestinal infectious diseases and lower respiratory tract infections were the most common communicable causes of death collectively accounting for 20.5% of total deaths. Death from blood diseases was the largest (8.5% among the non-communicable conditions followed by neoplasms (7%. Males were more susceptible to injuries than females (χ2 = 13.45, p = .000. At least five out of ten specific causes of death were as a result of infections with pneumonia and typhoid being the most common. Sickle cell disease was among the top three specific causes of death. Among the females, 27 deaths (6.7% were pregnancy related with most of them being as a result of abortion. Conclusions The autopsy data from the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital can serve as a useful source of information on adolescent mortality. Both communicable and non-communicable diseases accounted for most deaths highlighting the need for health care providers to avoid complacency in their management of adolescents presenting with these diseases.

  13. Calculating expected years of life lost for assessing local ethnic disparities in causes of premature death

    Katcher Brian S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A core function of local health departments is to conduct health assessments. The analysis of death certificates provides information on diseases, conditions, and injuries that are likely to cause death – an important outcome indicator of population health. The expected years of life lost (YLL measure is a valid, stand-alone measure for identifying and ranking the underlying causes of premature death. The purpose of this study was to rank the leading causes of premature death among San Francisco residents, and to share detailed methods so that these analyses can be used in other local health jurisdictions. Methods Using death registry data and population estimates for San Francisco deaths in 2003–2004, we calculated the number of deaths, YLL, and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYRs. The results were stratified by sex, ethnicity, and underlying cause of death. The YLL values were used to rank the leading causes of premature death for men and women, and by ethnicity. Results In the years 2003–2004, 6312 men died (73,627 years of life lost, and 5726 women died (51,194 years of life lost. The ASYR for men was 65% higher compared to the ASYR for women (8971.1 vs. 5438.6 per 100,000 persons per year. The leading causes of premature deaths are those with the largest average YLLs and are largely preventable. Among men, these were HIV/AIDS, suicide, drug overdose, homicide, and alcohol use disorder; and among women, these were lung cancer, breast cancer, hypertensive heart disease, colon cancer, and diabetes mellitus. A large health disparity exists between African Americans and other ethnic groups: African American age-adjusted overall and cause-specific YLL rates were higher, especially for homicide among men. Except for homicide among Latino men, Latinos and Asians have comparable or lower YLL rates among the leading causes of death compared to whites. Conclusion Local death registry data can be used to measure, rank, and

  14. Postmortem computed tomography for diagnosis of cause of death in male prisoners

    To determine the utility of postmortem CT (PMCT) examination in establishing the cause of death among male prisoners dying in Karachi jails. A descriptive study was carried out from February 2006 to September 2007, CT Scan section, Civil Hospital Karachi and the Mortuary, Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi. Adult male prisoners dying in the Karachi central prison and referred to the study setting for determining the cause of death for medico legal purpose were included. Female prisoners and those cases where the final report of cause of death was not available were excluded. CT scan of the vital body regions (head, neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis) was carried out in all cases. The scan was read and reported by two radiologists. Anatomical dissection based autopsy was carried out by the forensic expert. Final report regarding the cause of death was issued by the forensic expert based on the combined findings, histopathology, toxicology results and circumstantial evidence. The CT scan and autopsy findings were compared and percentage agreement was determined using kappa statistics. There were 14 cases in all with mean age of 41.2 +- 17 years. The alleged mode of death was custodial torture in all cases. CT scan determined the cause of death to be natural cardio-respiratory failure in 10, strangulation in 01, pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in 02 and trauma to spine in 01 case. The autopsy determined natural death in 11 and pulmonary TB in 02 and asphyxia in 01. The percentage agreement between CT and autopsy was 92% (k=0.92) and between CT and finalized cause of death was 100% (k=1.0). PMCT is as effective as dissection autopsy in identifying pulmonary infections and natural causes of death. It is more effective in identifying vertebral fractures which may exclude hanging and corroborate trauma to spine (JPMA 60:4; 2010). (author)

  15. Starvation as Cause of Death in the Croatian Quarnero and Hinterland between 1816 and 1825

    Jovanović, Višnja; Čulina, Tatjana; Škrobonja, Ante


    Our aim is to investigate starvation as cause of death and social and demographic consequences in the Croatian Quarnero and its hinterland between 1816 and 1825, paying particular attention to the infamous »year of famine« 1817. Our sources were: registers of births, marriages, and deaths from 21 parishes kept at the Croatian State Archives in Rijeka and Zagreb. We collected and processed data for statistical analysis according to the date of baptism (birth), marriage, and death, and accordin...

  16. Change in Causes of Injury-Related Deaths in South Korea, 1996–2006

    Hong, Juhee; Lee, Won Kyung; Park, Hyesook


    Background The aims of this study were to describe temporal patterns of injury-related mortality by sex, age group, and mechanism, and to identify changes in the leading causes of injury-related deaths in South Korea from 1996 through 2006. Methods This retrospective, descriptive study analyzed national data on all injury-related deaths reported in official death certificates from 1996–2006. Incidence rates of fatal injuries are presented as crude and age-standardized rates per 100 000 popula...

  17. Mortality and causes of death in children referred to a tertiary epilepsy center

    Grønborg, Sabine; Uldall, Peter


    BACKGROUND: Patients with epilepsy, including children, have an increased mortality rate when compared to the general population. Only few studies on causes of mortality in childhood epilepsy exist and pediatric SUDEP rate is under continuous discussion. AIM: To describe general mortality......, incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), causes of death and age distribution in a pediatric epilepsy patient population. METHODS: The study retrospectively examined the mortality and causes of death in 1974 patients with childhood-onset epilepsy at a tertiary epilepsy center in Denmark...... over a period of 9 years. Cases of death were identified through their unique civil registration number. Information from death certificates, autopsy reports and medical notes were collected. RESULTS: 2.2% (n = 43) of the patient cohort died during the study period. This includes 9 patients with SUDEP...

  18. Mortality and causes of death of 344 Danish patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Halberg, P; Ullman, S


    To determine survival, mortality and causes of death in Danish patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), and to analyse how these parameters are influenced by demographic variables and the extent of skin involvement.......To determine survival, mortality and causes of death in Danish patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), and to analyse how these parameters are influenced by demographic variables and the extent of skin involvement....

  19. Determination of the underlying cause of death in three multicenter international HIV clinical trials

    Lifson, Alan R; Lundgren, Jens; Belloso, Waldo H; Carey, Cate; Davey, Richard T; Duprez, Daniel; El-Sadr, Wafaa M; Gatell, Jose M; Gey, Daniela C; Hoy, Jennifer F; Krum, Eric A; Nelson, Ray; Nixon, Daniel E; Paton, Nick; Pedersen, Court; Perez, George; Price, Richard W; Prineas, Ronald J; Rhame, Frank S; Sampson, James; Worley, John


    -defining diseases, 21% non-AIDS malignancies, 9% cardiac diseases, 9% liver disease, 8% non-AIDS-defining infections, 5% suicides, 5% other traumatic events/accidents, 4% drug overdoses/acute intoxications, 11% other causes, and 18% unknown. Major reasons for unknown classification were inadequate clinical......PURPOSE: Describe processes and challenges for an Endpoint Review Committee (ERC) in determining and adjudicating underlying causes of death in HIV clinical trials. METHOD: Three randomized HIV trials (two evaluating interleukin-2 and one treatment interruption) enrolled 11,593 persons from 36...... countries during 1999-2008. Three ERC members independently reviewed each death report and supporting source documentation to assign underlying cause of death; differences of opinion were adjudicated. RESULTS: Of 453 deaths reported through January 14, 2008, underlying causes were as follows: 10% AIDS...

  20. The risk and causes of death in childhoodonset epilepsy: A 4-study collaboration

    Berg, Anne T.; Nickels, K.; Wirrell, E.C.; Rios, C.; Geerts, A.T.; Callenbach, P.M.; Arts, W.F.; Camfield, P.R.; Camfield, C.S.


    Rationale: Young people with epilepsy experience high death rates compared to the general population. Understanding the magnitude of risk and the causes of death (CoD) is essential for counseling and for potential prevention. Methods: We combined the mortality experiences of four cohort studies of n

  1. Dementia in the National Cause of Death Registry in Norway 1969-2010

    Vidar Hjellvik


    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of dementia is expected to increase markedly during the coming decades. Epidemiological studies involving the National Cause of Death Registry (NCDR may be useful for exploring the aetiology of dementia. We therefore wanted to study developments in the reporting of dementia in the NCDR over the last four decades.Methods: We calculated the age- and gender specific proportion of deaths with dementia reported in the NCDR (dementia deaths in the period 1969-2010, and the proportion of vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease deaths in 1986-2010. Separate analyses were done for deaths occurring in nursing homes in 1996-2010. The proportion of dementia deaths where dementia was coded as underlying cause of death was also calculated.Results: The proportion of dementia deaths increased more than threefold in the period 1969-2010 among women (from 4% to 15%, and more than doubled among men (from 3% to 7%. In nursing homes the proportion increased from 17% to 26% for women and from 13% to 18% for men. The proportion of dementia deaths with Alzheimer’s disease reported in the NCDR increased from practically zero in 1986 to a maximum of 28% in 2005. The proportion of dementia deaths with dementia as underlying cause of death increased from a minimum of 6% in 1972 to a maximum of 51% in 2009.Conclusion: Although the reporting of dementia in the NCDR increased markedly from 1969 to 2010, dementia is still under-reported for old people and for deaths occurring in nursing homes when compared to prevalence estimates.

  2. Zika May Have Caused Death of Texas Newborn

    ... pregnancy because it can cause the birth defect microcephaly -- where babies are born with a small head ... The newborn was delivered in Harris County, had microcephaly, and died shortly after birth, state health officials ...

  3. Causes of childhood deaths in Bangladesh: results of a nationwide verbal autopsy study.

    Baqui, A. H.; Black, R. E.; Arifeen, S. E.; Hill, K.; Mitra, S. N.; al Sabir, A.


    While knowledge of causes of deaths is important for health sector planning, little is known from conventional sources about the causes of deaths in Bangladesh. This is partly due to deficiencies in the registration system and partly because few deaths are attended by qualified physicians. The present study was undertaken to update the information available on causes of deaths among under-5-year-olds, taking advantage of advances in verbal autopsy methodology and of the national Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 1993-94. About 25% of the deaths were associated with acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) and about 20% with diarrhoea. Neonatal tetanus and measles remained important causes of death, and drowning was a major cause for 1-4-year-olds. Research and programmes to enable mothers to identify ALRI cases, particularly pneumonia, and to encourage timely and appropriate care-seeking and strengthening of ALRI case management at the primary care facilities are important priorities. While promotion of oral rehydration for watery diarrhoea and antibiotic treatment for dysentery should continue, broader preventive interventions including provision of safe water and sanitation, and improvements in personal hygiene require more attention. Further intensification of immunization programmes and innovative experimental interventions to reduce childhood from drowning should be designed and tested. PMID:9648357

  4. Leading Causes of Death among Asian American Subgroups (2003–2011)

    Hastings, Katherine G.; Jose, Powell O.; Kapphahn, Kristopher I.; Frank, Ariel T. H.; Goldstein, Benjamin A.; Thompson, Caroline A.; Karen Eggleston; Mark R Cullen; Palaniappan, Latha P


    Background Our current understanding of Asian American mortality patterns has been distorted by the historical aggregation of diverse Asian subgroups on death certificates, masking important differences in the leading causes of death across subgroups. In this analysis, we aim to fill an important knowledge gap in Asian American health by reporting leading causes of mortality by disaggregated Asian American subgroups. Methods and Findings We examined national mortality records for the six larg...

  5. Causes of death among undocumented migrants in Sweden, 1997–2010

    Anna Wahlberg


    Full Text Available Background: Undocumented migrants are one of the most vulnerable groups in Swedish society, where they generally suffer from poor health and limited health care access. Due to their irregular status, such migrants are an under-researched group and are not included in the country's Cause of Death Register (CDR. Objective: To determine the causes of death among undocumented migrants in Sweden and to ascertain whether there are patterns in causes of death that differ between residents and undocumented migrants. Design: This is a cross-sectional study of death certificates issued from 1997 to 2010 but never included in the CDR from which we established our study sample of undocumented migrants. As age adjustments could not be performed due to lack of data, comparisons between residents and undocumented migrants were made at specific age intervals, based on the study sample's mean age at death±a half standard deviation. Results: Out of 7,925 individuals surveyed, 860 were classified as likely to have been undocumented migrants. External causes (49.8% were the most frequent cause of death, followed by circulatory system diseases, and then neoplasms. Undocumented migrants had a statistically significant increased risk of dying from external causes (odds ratio [OR] 3.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.83–4.52 and circulatory system diseases (OR 2.20, 95% CI: 1.73–2.82 compared to residents, and a lower risk of dying from neoplasms (OR 0.07, 95% CI: 0.04–0.14. Conclusions: We believe our study is the first to determine national figures on causes of death of undocumented migrants. We found inequity in health as substantial differences in causes of death between undocumented migrants and residents were seen. Legal ambiguities regarding health care provision must be addressed if equity in health is to be achieved in a country otherwise known for its universal health coverage.

  6. Sudden Death Caused by Anomalous Origin of the Coronary Artery During Exercise.

    Kurosu, Akira; Kuroyanagi, Kazumi; Yamauchi, Shinobu; Omura, Kazunobu; Saito, Kazuyuki


    Anomalous origin of the coronary artery (AOCA) is a rare, but important cause of sudden cardiac death among young athletes. Nine autopsy cases (8 male, 1 female; mean age, 17.9 years; age range, 11-31 years) of sudden death during or just after exercise caused by AOCA were reviewed. The exercises performed at the time of death were running (4 cases), soccer (2 cases), and baseball, swimming and kendo (Japanese swordsmanship) (1 case each). In 6 cases, the left coronary artery arose from the right sinus of Valsalva, and in 3, the right coronary artery from the left sinus. The coronary arteries passed between the pulmonary artery and the aorta with an acute angle takeoff from the orifice. Three cases had cardiovascular manifestations prior to death. In cases with cardiovascular manifestations, novel imaging methods should be considered to prevent sudden death. PMID:27404630

  7. Causes of death among people living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil

    Erika Luiza Lage Fazito Rezende; Ana Maria Nogales Vasconcelos; Mauricio Gomes Pereira


    BACKGROUND: The monitoring of the underlying causes of death in people living with HIV/AIDS is important so that actions to reduce morbidity and mortality can be taken. OBJECTIVE: To describe the temporal trends of underlying causes of death among people living with HIV/AIDS between 2000 and 2007 in Brazil and to identify factors associated with it. METHODS: The Mortality Information System data for deaths occurred in Brazil between 2000 and 2007 that contained reference to HIV/AIDS in any of...

  8. [Causes of death and the relation between scientific and popular knowledge].

    Perdiguero Gil, E


    "The framework of this contribution is the nexus between scientific and popular knowledge, and their importance assessing diagnostical expressions when studying death causes in times prior to the setting of a standard for the definition of illness. By means of a particular example, the expression teething, we shall show some nuances concerning the loanwords and equivalences between popular and academic knowledge, and their deep, if sometimes hidden, influence upon the diagnostical expressions informing us about the death causes as shown in the records of life and death statistics." The geographical focus is on Spain. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) PMID:12318740

  9. Mortality and causes of death among workers exposed to phosgene in 1943-45

    Mortality and causes of death from death certificates were analyzed among workers exposed to phosgene while working at a uranium-processing plant in Tennessee in 1943-45. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated by using death rates for U.S. white males. As of 1979, SMRs for all causes and for various selected causes were similar in 694 male chemical workers chronically exposed to low levels of phosgene in 1943-45 and in 9280 male controls who worked at the same plant. SMRs for diseases of the respiratory system were 107 (14 observed vs. 13.07 expected) in the chemical workers and 119 (292 observed vs. 245.75 expected) in the controls. In a group of 106 males who were acutely exposed to high levels of phosgene, there were 41 deaths observed vs. 33.87 expected (SMR = 121; 95% confidence limits = 86 and 165). One death, occurring within 24 hours of exposure, was from pulmonary edema due to phosgene poisoning (coded to accidental causes). Five deaths were coded to diseases of the respiratory system (SMR = 266; 95% CL = 86 and 622); in 2 of these 5 deaths, bronchitis due to phosgene exposure had been reported in 1945. Among 91 female workers with acute high-level phosgene exposure, frequencies of symptoms and early health effects (pneumonitis and bronchitis) differed from those reported for the 106 male cases; preliminary data on vital status of these females are too incomplete for analysis, and further follow-up is needed

  10. Survival and causes of death in systemic sclerosis patients: a single center registry report from Iran.

    Poormoghim, Hadi; Andalib, Elham; Jalali, Arash; Ghaderi, Afshin; Ghorbannia, Ali; Mojtabavi, Nazanin


    The aims of the study were to determine prognostic factors for survival and causes of death in a cohort of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). This was a cohort study of SSc patients in single rheumatologic center from January 1998 to August 2012. They fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for SSc or had calcinosis Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, telangiectasia or sine sclerosis. Causes of death were classified as SSc related and non-SSc related. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard regression models were used in univariate and multivariate analysis to analyse survival in subgroups and determine prognostic factors of survival. The study includes 220 patients (192 female, 28 male). Out of thirty-two (14.5 %) who died, seventeen (53.1 %) deaths were SSc related and in nine (28.1 %) non-SSc-related causes, and in six (18.8 %) of patients causes of death were not defined. Overall survival rate was 92.6 % (95 % CI 87.5-95.7 %) after 5 years and 82.3 % (95 % CI 73.4-88.4 %) after 10 years. Pulmonary involvement was a major SSc-related cause of death, occurred in seven (41.1 %) patients. Cardiovascular events were leading cause of in overall death (11) 34.3 % and 6 in non-SSc-related death. Independent risk factors for mortality were age >50 at diagnosis (HR 5.10) advance pulmonary fibrosis (HR 11.5), tendon friction rub at entry (HR 6.39), arthritis (HR 3.56). In this first Middle Eastern series of SSc registry, pulmonary and cardiac involvements were the leading cause of SSc-related death. PMID:27061806

  11. Pathology and causes of death of stranded cetaceans in the Canary Islands (1999-2005).

    Arbelo, Manuel; Los Monteros, Antonio Espinosa de; Herráez, Pedro; Andrada, Marisa; Sierra, Eva; Rodríguez, Francisco; Jepson, Paul D; Fernández, Antonio


    Between 1999 and 2005, 233 stranded cetaceans (comprising 19 species) were reported in the waters of the Canary Islands. Of these, 138/233 (59.2%) were subjected to a complete or partial standardized necropsy, including 4 Balaenopteridae, 9 Physeteridae, 8 Kogiidae, 27 Ziphiidae and 90 Delphinidae. Of these, 46/138 (33.3%) cetaceans were diagnosed with anthropogenic pathological categories (i.e. the cause of death was anthropogenic). These included fishing interaction (bycatch) (19 individuals), 'atypical' mass stranding events linked to naval exercises (13), ship collisions (8) and other anthropogenic-related pathology (6). 'Natural' (i.e. non-anthropogenic) causes of death accounted for another 82/138 (59.4%) cases, including infectious and non-infectious diseases (63), neonatal pathology (8), intra- and interspecific interactions (6) and mass strandings (5). The cause(s) of death could not be determined in 10/138 (7.3%) necropsied animals. The most common causes of death were ship collisions in 6/9 (66.6%) Physeteridae, 'atypical' mass stranding linked to naval exercises in 13/27 (48.1%) Ziphiidae, and 'natural' infectious and non-infectious diseases in 55/90 (61.1%) Delphinidae. Interaction with fishing activities was established as cause of death in 15/90 (16.7%) Delphinidae. These data show that a range of anthropogenic and natural single and mass mortality events occur in multiple cetacean species stranded in the Canary Islands. PMID:23548359

  12. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013

    Peterson, Carrie Beth


    expectancy showed the prominent role of reductions in age-standardised death rates for cardiovascular diseases and cancers in high-income regions, and reductions in child deaths from diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and neonatal causes in low-income regions. HIV/AIDS reduced life expectancy in...

  13. Defining the cause of death in hospitalised patients with acute kidney injury.

    Nicholas M Selby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high mortality rates that follow the onset of acute kidney injury (AKI are well recognised. However, the mode of death in patients with AKI remains relatively under-studied, particularly in general hospitalised populations who represent the majority of those affected. We sought to describe the primary cause of death in a large group of prospectively identified patients with AKI. METHODS: All patients sustaining AKI at our centre between 1(st October 2010 and 31(st October 2011 were identified by real-time, hospital-wide, electronic AKI reporting based on the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN diagnostic criteria. Using this system we are able to generate a prospective database of all AKI cases that includes demographic, outcome and hospital coding data. For those patients that died during hospital admission, cause of death was derived from the Medical Certificate of Cause of Death. RESULTS: During the study period there were 3,930 patients who sustained AKI; 62.0% had AKI stage 1, 20.6% had stage 2 and 17.4% stage 3. In-hospital mortality rate was 21.9% (859 patients. Cause of death could be identified in 93.4% of cases. There were three main disease categories accounting for three quarters of all mortality; sepsis (41.1%, cardiovascular disease (19.2% and malignancy (12.9%. The major diagnosis leading to sepsis was pneumonia, whilst cardiovascular death was largely a result of heart failure and ischaemic heart disease. AKI was the primary cause of death in only 3% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality associated with AKI remains high, although cause of death is usually concurrent illness. Specific strategies to improve outcomes may therefore need to target not just the management of AKI but also the most relevant co-existing conditions.

  14. Tabulador de causas múltiplas de morte Multiple causes- of-death tabulator

    Augusto H. Santo


    Full Text Available O uso de causas múltiplas de morte vem sendo atualmente preconizado para descrever e analisar os determinantes patológicos da mortalidade em populações, como complemento ao uso tradicional da causa básica de morte. O estudo das causas múltiplas pode realizar-se por meio da apresentação de todas as menções das causas básicas e associadas de morte e por meio de associações de causas. Um programa para microcomputador foi desenvolvido para processar bancos de dados contendo as causas de morte informadas no Modelo Internacional de Atestado Médico de Causa de Morte, denominado Tabulador de Causas Múltiplas, que gera uma tabela matriz a partir da qual podem ser derivadas as demais formas de apresentação e análise, além de poder ser usado como instrumento de crítica dos dados de mortalidade.The use of multiple-causes-of-death is currently being recommended in order to describe and analyze the pathological determinants of mortality in populations, as a supplement to the traditional use of the underlying cause of death. Multiple-causes-of-death can be studied by presenting all underlying and associated causes mentioned, and by means of associations of causes of death. Microcomputer software has been developed to process data files containing causes of death informed by physicians on the International Form of Medical Certificate of Causes of Death. The Multiple Cause of Death Tabulator software generates a matrix table from which the above forms of presentation and analysis can be achieved and mortality data be edited.

  15. Algorithms for enhancing public health utility of national causes-of-death data

    Pourmalek Farshad


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coverage and quality of cause-of-death (CoD data varies across countries and time. Valid, reliable, and comparable assessments of trends in causes of death from even the best systems are limited by three problems: a changes in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD over time; b the use of tabulation lists where substantial detail on causes of death is lost; and c many deaths assigned to causes that cannot or should not be considered underlying causes of death, often called garbage codes (GCs. The Global Burden of Disease Study and the World Health Organization have developed various methods to enhance comparability of CoD data. In this study, we attempt to build on these approaches to enhance the utility of national cause-of-death data for public health analysis. Methods Based on careful consideration of 4,434 country-years of CoD data from 145 countries from 1901 to 2008, encompassing 743 million deaths in ICD versions 1 to 10 as well as country-specific cause lists, we have developed a public health-oriented cause-of-death list. These 56 causes are organized hierarchically and encompass all deaths. Each cause has been mapped from ICD-6 to ICD-10 and, where possible, they have also been mapped to the International List of Causes of Death 1-5. We developed a typology of different classes of GCs. In each ICD revision, GCs have been identified. Target causes to which these GCs should be redistributed have been identified based on certification practice and/or pathophysiology. Proportionate redistribution, statistical models, and expert algorithms have been developed to redistribute GCs to target codes for each age-sex group. Results The fraction of all deaths assigned to GCs varies tremendously across countries and revisions of the ICD. In general, across all country-years of data available, GCs have declined from more than 43% in ICD-7 to 24% in ICD-10. In some regions, such

  16. Social inequalities in causes of death amenable to health care in Norway

    Camilla Hem


    Full Text Available Objective: Investigate if there are educational inequalities in causes of death considered amenable to health care in Norway and compare this with non-amenable causes. Methods: The study used the concept of “amenable mortality”, which here includes 34 specific causes of death. A linked data file, with information from the Norwegian Causes of Death Registry and the Educational Registry was analyzed. The study population included the whole Norwegian population in two age groups of interest (25-49 and 50-74 years. Information on deaths was from the period 1990-2001. Education was recorded in 1990 and it was grouped in four categories as: basic, lower secondary, higher secondary and higher. In the study men and women were analysed seperately. The analysis was conducted for all amenable causes pooled with and without ischemic heart disease. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was fitted to estimate hazard rate ratios. Results: The study showed educational differences in mortality from causes of death considered amenable to health care, in both age groups and sexes. This was seen both when including and excluding ischemic heart disease. The effect sizes were comparable for amenable and non-amenable causes in both age groups and sexes. Conclusions: This study revealed systematic higher risk of death in lower educational groups in causes of death considered amenable to health care. This indicates potential weaknesses in equitable provision of health care for the Norwegian population. Additional research is needed to identify domains within the health care system of particular concern.

  17. Factors associated with specific causes of death amongst HIV-positive individuals in the D:A:D Study

    Smith, Colette; Sabin, Caroline A; Lundgren, Jens D; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Weber, Rainer; Law, Matthew; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Kirk, Ole; Friis-Møller, Nina; Phillips, Andrew; Reiss, Peter; El Sadr, Wafaa; Pradier, Christian; Worm, Signe W


    To investigate any emerging trends in causes of death amongst HIV-positive individuals in the current cART era, and to investigate the factors associated with each specific cause of death.......To investigate any emerging trends in causes of death amongst HIV-positive individuals in the current cART era, and to investigate the factors associated with each specific cause of death....

  18. Gastro-intestinal complications as one of causes of death in patients with rheumatic diseases

    V N Sorotskaya


    Full Text Available Objective. To assess frequency of gastro-intestinal (Gl bleeding and ulcer perforation as direct cause of death in pts with rheumatic diseases. Material and methods. Statistical analysis of Tula region patient care institutions documentation was performed to assess frequency and character of severe GI complications leading to death of pts. 300 cases of death which took place during 5 years (1996-2000 in 3 rheumatologic (105 cases and 10 therapeutic (195 cases departments of Tula region patient care institutions were studied. Results. Gl bleeding and ulcer perforation were the direct causes of death in 15 pts with rheumatic diseases i.e. in 5% from the whole number of died. GI complications caused death in 4 pts with chronic rheumatic heart disease (HRHD (1,7%, in 7 (15,2%with rheumatoid arthritis -, in 2 with ankylosing spondylitis and systemic lupus erythematosus (8,0 and 22,2% respectively. Pts with systemic sclerosis did not die because of GI damage. GI changes most frequently localized in duodenum (8 pts. 4 pts had complications connected with gastric ulcer and in 2 diffuse erosive damage of Gl mucosa was the source of bleeding. Conclusion. Severe Gl complications quite often lead to death of pts with rheumatic diseases in Tula region.

  19. Polytrauma in the elderly: predictors of the cause and time of death

    Muwanga Cyrus


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing age and significant pre-existing medical conditions (PMCs are independent risk factors associated with increased mortality after trauma. Our aim was to review all trauma deaths, identifying the cause and the relation to time from injury, ISS, age and PMCs. Methods A retrospective analysis of trauma deaths over a 6-year period at the study centre was conducted. Information was obtained from the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN dataset, hospital records, death certificates and post-mortem reports. The time and cause of death, ISS, PMCs were analysed for two age groups ( Results Patients ≥ 65 years old were at an increased risk of death (OR 6.4, 95% CI 5.2-7.8, p 15 and died within the first 24 hours of admission, irrespective of age, from causes directly related to their injuries. Twelve patients with an ISS of Conclusion Elderly patients with minor injuries and PMCs have an increased risk of death relative to their younger counterparts and are more likely to die of medical complications late in their hospital admission.

  20. Cause of death--so-called designed event acclimaxing timed happenings.

    Kothari M


    Full Text Available Cause-of-death as an established global medical institution faces its greatest challenge in the commonplace observation that the healthy do not necessarily survive and the diseased do not necessarily die. A logical analysis of the assumed relationships between disease and death provides some insights that allow questioning the taken-for-granted relationship between defined disease/s and the final common parameter of death. Causalism as a paradigm has taken leave of all advanced sciences. In medicine, it is lingering on for anthropocentric reasons. Natural death does not come to pass because of some (replaceable missing element, but because the evolution of the individual from womb to tomb has arrived at its final destination. To accept death as a physiologic event is to advance thanatology and to disburden medical colleges and hospitals of a lot of avoidable thinking and doing.

  1. [Analysis on the causes of death of inhabitants at the inner and outer cities of Peking in late Qing Dynasty].

    You, J


    Reports were made on the causes of death of Peking people inhabited in inner and outer cities within 2 days in 1908. Analysis showed that over 50% of the deaths were due to infectious diseases. The first 8 causes accounted for 70% of the total deaths, while the average expectancy of life at birth was 40.16 years of age. PMID:11615223

  2. Global causes of maternal death: a WHO systematic analysis

    Dr. Lale Say, MD


    Funding: USAID, the US Fund for UNICEF through a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to CHERG, and The UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/The World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP, Department of Reproductive Health and Research.

  3. Causes of Deaths in Portugal and Challenges in Prevention

    George, Francisco


    In Portugal, the hope of living, in terms of probability, either at birth or at 65 years old, has reached levels that represent huge gains and certainly reflect the successful initiatives developed in many sectors in the last 30 years. In 2008-2010, the average life expectancy at birth was 79.20 years for men and women. By contrast, in 1980, the average life expectancy at birth was 71.78 years. Furthermore, premature mortality, defined as occurring before 70 years of age, expressed as rate, r...

  4. J wave syndromes as a cause of sudden arrhythmic death

    Charles Antzelevitch


    Full Text Available Accentuated J waves have been associated with idiopathic ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation (VT/VF for nearly three decades. Prominent J waves characterize both Brugada and early repolarization syndromes leading to their designation as J wave syndromes. An early repolarization (ER pattern, characterized by J point elevation, slurring of the terminal part of the QRS and ST segment elevation was considered to be a totally benign electrocardiographic manifestation until a decade ago. Recent casecontrol and population-based association studies have advanced evidence that an ER pattern in the inferior or infero-lateral leads is associated with increased risk for life-threatening arrhythmias, named early repolarization syndrome (ERS. ERS and Brugada syndrome (BrS share similar electrocardiogram features, clinical outcomes, risk factors as well as a common arrhythmic platform related to amplification of Ito-mediated J waves. Although BrS and ERS differ with respect to the magnitude and lead location of abnormal J wave manifestation, they are thought to represent a continuous spectrum of phenotypic expression, termed J wave syndromes. A classification scheme for ERS has been proposed: type 1, displaying an ER pattern predominantly in the lateral precordial leads, is considered to be largely benign; type 2, displaying an ER pattern predominantly in inferior or infero-lateral leads, is associated with a higher level of risk; whereas type 3, displaying an ER pattern globally in inferior, lateral and right precordial leads, is associated with the highest level of risk for development of malignant arrhythmias and is often associated with VF storms.

  5. Causes of death in children diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma between 1974 and 1985.

    Robertson, C M; Stiller, C A; Kingston, J E


    An investigation has been undertaken of 479 deaths occurring up to the end of 1990 among 883 patients diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma from 1974 to 1985 who were included in the population based National Registry of Childhood Tumours. The objectives were to perform a descriptive analysis looking particularly at the deaths not directly due to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, to determine the frequency of the different causes of death and to study the trends over time. Among the 476 patients with s...

  6. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim


    and flutter, drug use disorders, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and sickle-cell anaemias. Diarrhoeal diseases, lower respiratory infections, neonatal causes, and malaria are still in the top five causes of death in children younger than 5 years. The most important pathogens are rotavirus for......Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries......, and census data. We generally estimated cause of death as in the GBD 2010. Key improvements included the addition of more recent vital registration data for 72 countries, an updated verbal autopsy literature review, two new and detailed data systems for China, and more detail for Mexico, UK, Turkey...

  7. Malnutrition as an underlying cause of childhood deaths associated with infectious diseases in developing countries.

    Rice, A. L.; L. Sacco; Hyder, A; Black, R. E.


    INTRODUCTION: Recent estimates suggest that malnutrition (measured as poor anthropometric status) is associated with about 50% of all deaths among children. Although the association between malnutrition and all-cause mortality is well documented, the malnutrition-related risk of death associated with specific diseases is less well described. We reviewed published literature to examine the evidence for a relation between malnutrition and child mortality from diarrhoea, acute respiratory illnes...

  8. The leading causes of death after burn injury in a single pediatric burn center

    Williams, Felicia N.; Herndon, David N; Hawkins, Hal K.; Lee, Jong O; Cox, Robert A.; Kulp, Gabriela A; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Chinkes, David L.; Jeschke, Marc G.


    Introduction Severe thermal injury is characterized by profound morbidity and mortality. Advances in burn and critical care, including early excision and grafting, aggressive resuscitation and advances in antimicrobial therapy have made substantial contributions to decrease morbidity and mortality. Despite these advances, death still occurs. Our aim was to determine the predominant causes of death in burned pediatric patients in order to develop new treatment avenues and future trajectories a...

  9. Inhibition of telomerase causes vulnerability to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced neuronal cell death.

    Hosoi, Toru; Nakatsu, Kanako; Shimamoto, Akira; Tahara, Hidetoshi; Ozawa, Koichiro


    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in several diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated the possible involvement of telomerase in ER stress-induced cell death. ER stress-induced cell death was ameliorated in telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) over-expressing MCF7 cells (MCF7-TERT cell). Telomerase specific inhibitor, BIBR1532, reversed the inhibitory effect of TERT on ER stress-induced cell death in MCF7-TERT cells. These findings suggest that BIBR1532 may specifically inhibit telomerase activity, thereby inducing cell death in ER stress-exposed cells. TERT was expressed in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. To analyze the possible involvement of telomerase in ER stress-induced neuronal cell death, we treated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with BIBR1532 and analyzed ER stress-induced cell death. We found that BIBR1532 significantly enhanced the ER stress-induced neuronal cell death. These findings suggest that inhibition of telomerase activity may enhance vulnerability to neuronal cell death caused by ER stress. PMID:27443785

  10. Causes of death in the human immunodeficiency virus population in Western Jamaica

    Nikkiah Forbes


    Full Text Available Background: Monitoring the causes of death in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in the era of expanding access to antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings has implications as more deaths are reported for reasons other than AIDS. Aims: To determine the causes of mortality in HIV-infected adults in Western Jamaica. Materials and Methods: Patients with HIV infection with a death certificate with a known cause of death between 2005 and 2010 were reviewed. Results: There were 189 patients. Co-morbidities were present in 25.3%. The mean age at death was 42.4 years. Early disease (World Health Organization [WHO] stages 1 or 2 was the presentation in 21.5% while 78.6% presented with advanced disease (WHO stages 3 or 4. The mean CD4 count at diagnosis was 95 cells/mm 3 . In patients presenting with early disease, 14.2% presented with sexually transmitted infections, 22.8% skin manifestations, and 14.2% lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting with late disease, 41.7% had Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP, 18.9% central nervous system (CNS toxoplasmosis, 11.3% HIV-associated nephropathy, and 5% cryptococcal meningitis. At death, 72.6% were in WHO class 4, and 21.2% class 3. The average CD4 count at death was 75.5 cells/mm 3 . Overall, 55.2% of the patients had received highly active antiretroviral therapy. PCP accounted for 42.9% of deaths, 27.3% had CNS opportunistic infections, HIV nephropathy 16.4%, and 4.6% had malignancies. About 52.3% of patients died within 1 year of diagnosis with HIV, while 68.3% died within 2 years. Conclusion: Patients with HIV are presenting with late disease and dying of conditions that are AIDS-related. Efforts to improve early diagnosis and treatment are urgently needed in Jamaica.

  11. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013

    Beyene, T.J.; Hoek, H.; Zhang, Y.; Vos, T.



    Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countrie

  12. Causes of Death Data in the Global Burden of Disease Estimates for Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke

    Truelsen, Thomas; Krarup, Lars-Henrik; Iversen, Helle K;


    BACKGROUND: Stroke mortality estimates in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study are based on routine mortality statistics and redistribution of ill-defined codes that cannot be a cause of death, the so-called 'garbage codes' (GCs). This study describes the contribution of these codes to stroke......' and 'hypertension' with marked regional differences. Future advancements in stroke certification, data collections and statistical analyses may improve the estimation of the global stroke burden....... mortality estimates. METHODS: All available mortality data were compiled and non-specific cause codes were redistributed based on literature review and statistical methods. Ill-defined codes were redistributed to their specific cause of disease by age, sex, country and year. The reassignment was done based...... on the International Classification of Diseases and the pathology behind each code by checking multiple causes of death and literature review. RESULTS: Unspecified stroke and primary and secondary hypertension are leading contributing 'GCs' to stroke mortality estimates for hemorrhagic stroke (HS...

  13. Causes of death on antiretroviral therapy: a post-mortem study from South Africa.

    Emily B Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mortality in the first months of antiretroviral therapy (ART is a significant clinical problem in sub-Saharan Africa. To date, no post-mortem study has investigated the causes of mortality in these patients. METHODS: HIV-positive adults who died as in-patients at a Johannesburg academic hospital underwent chart-review and ultrasound-guided needle autopsy for histological and microbiological examination of lung, liver, spleen, kidney, bone marrow, lymph node, skin and cerebrospinal fluid. A clinico-pathologic committee considered all available data and adjudicated immediate and contributing causes of death. RESULTS: Thirty-nine adults were enrolled: 14 pre-ART, 15 early-ART (7-90 days, and 10 late-ART (>90 days. Needle sampling yielded adequate specimen in 100% of kidney, skin, heart and cerebrospinal fluid samples, 97% of livers and lungs, 92% of bone marrows, 87% of spleens and 68% of lymph nodes. Mycobacterial infections were implicated in 69% of deaths (26 of 27 of these due to M. tuberculosis, bacterial infections in 33%, fungal infections in 21%, neoplasm in 26%, and non-infectious organ failure in 26%. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS was implicated in 73% of early-ART deaths. Post-mortem investigations revealed previously undiagnosed causes of death in 49% of cases. Multiple pathologies were common with 62% of subjects with mycobacterial infection also having at least one other infectious or neoplastic cause of death. CONCLUSIONS: Needle biopsy was efficient and yielded excellent pathology. The large majority of deaths in all three groups were caused by M. tuberculosis suggesting an urgent need for improved diagnosis and expedited treatment prior to and throughout the course of antiretroviral therapy. Complex, unrecognized co-morbidities pose an additional challenge.

  14. Evaluating the Cause of Death in Obese Individuals: A Ten-Year Medical Autopsy Study

    Jad Saab


    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is a growing public health problem associated with increased morbidity and rate of death. Postmortem examination is imperative to determine the cause of death, to detect clinically unsuspected disease entities, and consequently to determine the actual impact of obesity on patient mortality. Methods. A total of 849 adult autopsies were retrospectively reviewed. Obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and nonobese patients were separately studied. The primary cause of death in each group was categorized into malignancy, infection, stroke, ischemic and nonischemic heart disease, pulmonary embolism, hemorrhage, and primary nonneoplastic diseases of different organ systems. Results. Of 849 autopsies, 32.3% were obese. The leading causes of death in the obese population were malignancy (31.4%, infection (25.9%, ischemic heart disease (12.8%, and pulmonary embolism (6.2%. Obese individuals were statistically more likely to die from pulmonary embolism and liver disease and less likely to die from neurologic diseases and nonischemic heart disease. Conclusion. Autopsies on obese individuals constitute a third of all adult medical autopsies in our center. Increased death rates in the obese due to pulmonary embolism and liver disease should receive special clinical attention. Autopsy findings in the obese population should contribute to overall premortem disease detection, prevention, and management.

  15. Coding ill-defined and unknown cause of death is 13 times more frequent in Denmark than in Finland

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Sajantila, Annti; Lalu, Kaisa;


    to the death. Thus, the aim of the study was, firstly, to analyse the frequencies of R00-R99-coded deaths in mortality statistics in Finland and in Denmark and, secondly, to compare these and the methods used to investigate the cause of death. To do so, we extracted a random 90% sample of the Finnish death...... higher in Denmark than in Finland; OR 18.6 (95% CI 15.3-22.4; ptime of death. Forensic autopsy was performed...... autopsy. Our study suggests that if all deaths in all age groups with unclear cause of death were systematically investigated with a forensic autopsy, only 2-3/1000 deaths per year would be coded as an ill-defined and unknown cause of death in national mortality statistics. At the same time the risk...

  16. Age-related differences in mechanism, cause, and location of trauma deaths

    Meisler, Rikke; Thomsen, Annemarie Bondegaard; Theilade, Peter;


    BACKGROUND: Trauma death has traditionally been described as primarily occurring in young men exposed to penetrating trauma or road traffic accidents. The epidemiology of trauma fatalities in Europe may change as a result of the increasing proportion of elderly patients. The goal of this study was...... to describe age-related differences in trauma type, mechanism, cause and location of death in a well-defined European region. METHODS: We prospectively registered all trauma patients and severe burn patients in eastern Denmark over 12 consecutive months. We analyzed all trauma fatalities in our...... region regarding the trauma type, mechanism, cause and location of death. RESULTS: A total of 2923 patients were registered, of which 292 (9.9%) died within 30 days. Mortality increased with age, with a mortality of 46.1% in patients older than 80 years old. Blunt trauma was the most frequent trauma type...

  17. An unusual and rare case of burn: challenge to cause and manner of death

    Sharad V. Kuchewar


    Full Text Available In the brought dead cases where the dead body is completely charred pose difficulty to autopsy surgeon in commenting cause and manner of death. Many a times, scene of incidence, the inquest report, history narrated by relatives and postmortem findings may not go hand-in-hand. Suicides by burning especially by females are very common in India, but charred (burn body without conflagration in which manner is suicidal is rarely occurred and reported. and ldquo;Char means to burn to charcoal and rdquo;. Investigation in this type of cases by police officer is again a matter of his knowledge and experience. Here we are reporting such case; a well built, 26 years old married but separated, mentally stressed female living with her mother and brother since 3 years, was found in bathroom in a charred condition on 03/01/2012 around 06:30 hours. As per inquest, manner of death is suicidal. The autopsy findings did not reveal exact cause of death but raised the suspicion of homicide. So the present case report will make everyone to think over not only importance of cause and manner of death in case of charred body but also to reinforce the investigating authority for thorough investigation in favor of justice to the victim. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1706-1709

  18. Comments on "Teen Suicide and Changing Cause-of-Death Certification, 1953-1987."

    Smith, Kim


    Responds to previous article by Males on teenage suicides and changing cause-of-death certification from 1953 through 1987. After closely examining Males' arguments, author comes to different conclusions concerning increase in teenage suicides during that time period. Concludes that increase in youth suicide is real and that increase is twice that…

  19. Comparing verbal autopsy cause of death findings as determined by physician coding and probabilistic modelling: a public health analysis of 54 000 deaths in Africa and Asia

    Peter Byass


    Full Text Available Background: Coverage of civil registration and vital statistics varies globally, with most deaths in Africa and Asia remaining either unregistered or registered without cause of death. One important constraint has been a lack of fit–for–purpose tools for registering deaths and assigning causes in situations where no doctor is involved. Verbal autopsy (interviewing care–givers and witnesses to deaths and interpreting their information into causes of death is the only available solution. Automated interpretation of verbal autopsy data into cause of death information is essential for rapid, consistent and affordable processing. Methods: Verbal autopsy archives covering 54182 deaths from five African and Asian countries were sourced on the basis of their geographical, epidemiological and methodological diversity, with existing physician–coded causes of death attributed. These data were unified into the WHO 2012 verbal autopsy standard format, and processed using the InterVA–4 model. Cause–specific mortality fractions from InterVA–4 and physician codes were calculated for each of 60 WHO 2012 cause categories, by age group, sex and source. Results from the two approaches were assessed for concordance and ratios of fractions by cause category. As an alternative metric, the Wilcoxon matched–pairs signed ranks test with two one–sided tests for stochastic equivalence was used. Findings: The overall concordance correlation coefficient between InterVA–4 and physician codes was 0.83 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.91 and this increased to 0.97 (95% CI 0.96 to 0.99 when HIV/AIDS and pulmonary TB deaths were combined into a single category. Over half (53% of the cause category ratios between InterVA–4 and physician codes by source were not significantly different from unity at the 99% level, increasing to 62% by age group. Wilcoxon tests for stochastic equivalence also demonstrated equivalence. Conclusions: These findings show strong concordance

  20. Notification of Huntington's disease as primary cause of death in Brazil from 1984 to 2008.

    Vaz, I P; Paiva, C L A


    The aim of this article was to conduct a retrospective observational study on reported deaths due to Huntington's disease (HD) in Brazil in the past 25 years (from 1984 to 2008). Data were obtained from the Brazilian Mortality Information System (SIM/DATASUS), the official system of Brazilian Mortality Database. The data obtained included information regarding the gender of the deceased and the number of death notifications, which we stratified by demographic regions and states. HD mortality per 100,000 was calculated and plotted in a graph. Linear regression was calculated using ordinary least square technique. We observed that the mortality due to HD recorded by SIM/DATASUS from 1984 to 2008 had increased at much higher rates than the population in the same period. Also, some Brazilian regions still show very low rates of HD mortality compared to the national average of deaths due to HD. These findings suggest that HD mortality has been underestimated. Ignorance about the disease as well as the fact that death from HD can occur as a consequence of heart disease, pneumonia, or suicide can strongly contribute to the misguided notification of HD as the cause of death in the official reports. PMID:27421006

  1. Life Expectancy and Cause of Death in Popular Musicians: Is the Popular Musician Lifestyle the Road to Ruin?

    Kenny, Dianna T; Asher, Anthony


    Does a combination of lifestyle pressures and personality, as reflected in genre, lead to the early death of popular musicians? We explored overall mortality, cause of death, and changes in patterns of death over time and by music genre membership in popular musicians who died between 1950 and 2014. The death records of 13,195 popular musicians were coded for age and year of death, cause of death, gender, and music genre. Musician death statistics were compared with age-matched deaths in the US population using actuarial methods. Although the common perception is of a glamorous, free-wheeling lifestyle for this occupational group, the figures tell a very different story. Results showed that popular musicians have shortened life expectancy compared with comparable general populations. Results showed excess mortality from violent deaths (suicide, homicide, accidental death, including vehicular deaths and drug overdoses) and liver disease for each age group studied compared with population mortality patterns. These excess deaths were highest for the under-25-year age group and reduced chronologically thereafter. Overall mortality rates were twice as high compared with the population when averaged over the whole age range. Mortality impacts differed by music genre. In particular, excess suicides and liver-related disease were observed in country, metal, and rock musicians; excess homicides were observed in 6 of the 14 genres, in particular hip hop and rap musicians. For accidental death, actual deaths significantly exceeded expected deaths for country, folk, jazz, metal, pop, punk, and rock. PMID:26966963

  2. Surveillance of potential associations between occupations and causes of death in Canada, 1965-91

    Aronson, K.J.; Howe, G R; Carpenter, M.; Fair, M. E.


    OBJECTIVE: To detect unsuspected associations between workplace situations and specific causes of death in Canada. METHODS: An occupational surveillance system was established consisting of a cohort of 457,224 men and 242,196 women employed between 1965 and 1971, constituting about 10% of the labour force in Canada at that time. Mortality between 1965 and 1991 has been determined by computerised record linkage with the Canadian mortality database. Through regression analysis, associatio...

  3. Discontinuation of antiplatelet treatment and risk of recurrent stroke and all-cause death

    Ostergaard, Kamilla; Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper; Bak, Søren; dePont Christensen, René; Gaist, David


    BACKGROUND: We wished to examine the impact of antiplatelet drug discontinuation on recurrent stroke and all-cause mortality. METHODS: We identified a cohort of incident ischaemic stroke patients in a Danish stroke registry, 2007-2011. Using population-based registries we assessed subjects' drug...... use and followed them up for stroke recurrence, or all-cause death. Person-time was classified by antiplatelet drug use into current use, recent use (≤150 days after last use), and non-use (>150 days after last use). Lipid-lowering drug (LLD) use was classified by the same rules. We used Cox...... proportional hazard models to calculate the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of recurrent stroke or death associated with discontinuation of antiplatelet or LLD drugs. RESULTS: Among 4,670 stroke patients followed up for up a median of 1.5 years, 237...


    Milan Kumar


    Full Text Available Reduction of maternal death to achieve MDG – 5 Target - 6 is a challenge for most of the developing countries of the world in spite of steady decline in maternal death. There is a great difference in MMR of developing and developed countries as well as within the countries, states, districts depending upon the socioeconomic and educational status. This study was conducted to estimate the MMR, evaluate the causes of maternal death and to formulate strategies for reduction of maternal death at Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh, Assam. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective study of causes of maternal deaths from 1st January 2012 to 31st August 2015 at Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh, Assam, India. The records were collected from Maternal Death Register and analysis were made to find out the MMR, causes of maternal deaths and its contributing factors. OBSERVATIONS There were 279 maternal deaths out of 33833 live births giving MMR of 824.64. Hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (37.63% was the leading direct cause followed by infections (14.69% and hemorrhage (12.90% and the anaemia (24.73% was the commonest indirect cause of maternal death. Contributory factors like age, locality, booking visit play a major rule in maternal death in our study.

  5. Deaths of obstructive lung disease in the Yangpu district of Shanghai from 2003 through 2011: a multiple cause analysis

    Cheng Yi; Han Xue; Luo Yong; Xu Weiguo


    Background Obstructive lung disease (OLD,chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma) is an important cause of death in older people.There has been no exhaustive population-based mortality study of this subject in Shanghai.The objective of this study was to use a multiple cause of death methodology in the analysis of OLD mortality trends in the Yangpu district of Shanghai,from 2003 through 2011.Methods We analyzed death data from the Shanghai Yangpu District Center for Disease Control and Prevention for Medical Cause of Death database,selecting all death certificates for individuals 40 years or older on which OLD was listed as a cause of death.Results From 2003 to 2011,there were 8 775 deaths with OLD listed,of which 6 005 (68%) were identified as the underlying cause of death.For the entire period,a significantly decreasing trend of age standardized rates of death from OLD was observed in men (-6.2% per year) and in women (-5.7% per year),similar trends were observed in deaths with OLD.The mean annual rates of deaths from OLD per 100 000 were 161.2 for men and 80.8 for women from 2003 to 2011.While,as the underlying cause of death,the main associated causes of death were as follows:cardiovascular diseases (70.7%),cerebrovascular diseases (13.3%),diabetes (8.6%),and cancer (4.3%).The associated causes and the principal overall underlying causes of death were cardiovascular diseases (37.0%),cancer (30.3%),and cerebrovascular disease (15.3%).A significant seasonal variation,with the highest frequency in winter,occurred in deaths identified with underlying causes of chronic bronchitis,other obstructive pulmonary diseases,and asthma.Conclusions Multiple cause mortality analysis provides a more accurate picture than underlying cause of total mortality attributed on death certificates to OLD.The major comorbidities associated with OLD were cardiovascular disease,cancer,and cerebrovascular disease.From 2003 to 2011,the mortality rate from OLD

  6. Causes of Deaths in Children under-Five Years Old at a Tertiary Hospital in Limpopo Province of South Africa

    Ntuli, Sam Thembelihle; Malangu, Ntambwe; Alberts, Marianne


    Objective: Accurate and timely information on the causes of child deaths is essential in guiding efforts to improve child survival, by providing data from which health profiles can be constructed and relevant health policies formulated. The purpose of this study was to identify causes of death in children younger than 5 years-old in a tertiary hospital in South Africa. Methods: Death certificates from the Pietersburg/Mankweng hospital complex, for the period of January 1, 2008 through Decembe...

  7. Cause of death in 1144 patients with diabetes mellitus: an autopsy study.

    Joron, G. E.; Laryea, E; Jaeger, D.; Macdonald, L


    The pathological reports for all patients over 13 years of age who had had an autopsy at one of three university-affiliated hospitals between 1967 and 1976 were reviewed to determine the principal cause of death. The clinical records of the patients with diabetes were reviewed to verify the diagnosis and to determine the known duration of diabetes. There were 1144 patients with diabetes mellitus and 5674 without. The sex distribution was similar in the two groups. The patients with diabetes w...

  8. Disease patterns and causes of death of hospitalized HIV-positive adults in West Africa

    Lewden, Charlotte; Drabo, Youssoufou J; Zannou, Djimon M;


    %) and cerebral toxoplasmosis (10%). Overall, 315 (38%) patients died during hospitalization and the underlying cause of death was AIDS (63%), non-AIDS-defining infections (26%), other diseases (7%) and non-specific illness or unknown cause (4%). Among them, the most frequent fatal diseases were: tuberculosis (36......%), cerebral toxoplasmosis (10%), cryptococcosis (9%) and sepsis (7%). Older age, clinical WHO stage 3 and 4, low CD4 count, and AIDS-defining infectious diagnoses were associated with hospital fatality. CONCLUSIONS: AIDS-defining conditions, primarily tuberculosis, and bacterial infections were the most...

  9. Mortality and cause-of-death reporting and analysis systems in seven pacific island countries

    Carter Karen L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality statistics are essential for population health assessment. Despite limitations in data availability, Pacific Island Countries are considered to be in epidemiological transition, with non-communicable diseases increasingly contributing to premature adult mortality. To address rapidly changing health profiles, countries would require mortality statistics from routine death registration given their relatively small population sizes. Methods This paper uses a standard analytical framework to examine death registration systems in Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Palau, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu. Results In all countries, legislation on death registration exists but does not necessarily reflect current practices. Health departments carry the bulk of responsibility for civil registration functions. Medical cause-of-death certificates are completed for at least hospital deaths in all countries. Overall, significantly more information is available than perceived or used. Use is primarily limited by poor understanding, lack of coordination, limited analytical skills, and insufficient technical resources. Conclusion Across the region, both registration and statistics systems need strengthening to improve the availability, completeness, and quality of data. Close interaction between health staff and local communities provides a good foundation for further improvements in death reporting. System strengthening activities must include a focus on clear assignment of responsibility, provision of appropriate authority to perform assigned tasks, and fostering ownership of processes and data to ensure sustained improvements. These human elements need to be embedded in a culture of data sharing and use. Lessons from this multi-country exercise would be applicable in other regions afflicted with similar issues of availability and quality of vital statistics.

  10. Causes of death in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents in a real-world setting.

    Lee, MS; Canan, T; Perlowski, A; R Bhatia; Jurewitz, D; Tobis, JM


    BACKGROUND: Reports of stent thrombosis and death in patients who have received drug-eluting stents (DES) have provoked debate regarding their long-term safety. We investigated the specific causes of death in patients receiving DES at an academic tertiary-care center. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 1,023 consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with DES from 2003 to 2006 at UCLA Medical Center was performed. Dates and cause of death were obtained by re...

  11. Discrepant comorbidity between minority and white suicides: a national multiple cause-of-death analysis

    Stack Steven


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinician training deficits and a low and declining autopsy rate adversely impact the quality of death certificates in the United States. Self-report and records data for the general population indicate that proximate mental and physical health of minority suicides was at least as poor as that of white suicides. Methods This cross-sectional mortality study uses data from Multiple Cause-of-Death (MCOD public use files for 1999–2003 to describe and evaluate comorbidity among black, Hispanic, and white suicides. Unintentional injury decedents are the referent for multivariate analyses. Results One or more mentions of comorbid psychopathology are documented on the death certificates of 8% of white male suicides compared to 4% and 3% of black and Hispanic counterparts, respectively. Corresponding female figures are 10%, 8%, and 6%. Racial-ethnic discrepancies in the prevalence of comorbid physical disease are more attenuated. Cross-validation with National Violent Death Reporting System data reveals high relative underenumeration of comorbid depression/mood disorders and high relative overenumeration of schizophrenia on the death certificates of both minorities. In all three racial-ethnic groups, suicide is positively associated with depression/mood disorders [whites: adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 31.9, 95% CI = 29.80–34.13; blacks: AOR = 60.9, 95% CI = 42.80–86.63; Hispanics: AOR = 34.7, 95% CI = 23.36–51.62] and schizophrenia [whites: AOR = 2.4, 95% CI = 2.07–2.86; blacks: AOR = 4.2, 95% CI = 2.73–6.37; Hispanics: AOR = 4.1, 95% CI = 2.01–8.22]. Suicide is positively associated with cancer in whites [AOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.69–1.93] and blacks [AOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.36–2.48], but not with HIV or alcohol and other substance use disorders in any group under review. Conclusion The multivariate analyses indicate high consistency in predicting suicide-associated comorbidities across racial-ethnic groups using MCOD data

  12. A placental cause of intra-uterine fetal death depends on the perinatal mortality classification system used

    Korteweg, F.J.; Gordijn, S.J.; Timmer, A.; Holm, J.P.; Ravise, J.M.; Erwich, J.J.


    Different classification systems for the cause of intra-uterine fetal death (IUFD) are used internationally. About two thirds of these deaths are reported as unexplained and placental causes are often not addressed. Differences between systems could have consequences for the validity of vital statis

  13. Death of a scuba diver caused by vomiting and panic: a case report.

    Petri, Nadan M; Stipancevic, Hrvoje; Sutlovic, Davorka; Gojanovic, Marija Definis


    Scuba diving fatalities are rare and sometimes extremely difficult to explain. A thorough forensic investigation, conducted by a qualified team, helps avoid possible later questions and doubts, family concerns and judicial matters, since a significant body of evidence is lost after the body of the victim is buried or the equipment is reused. We report about a death of a scuba diver who was drowned while diving to the depth of 30 meters. Before being assisted to the surface, the diver panicked and removed the regulator from his mouth. The technical expertise of the scuba gear and the chemical analysis of the air from the high-pressure cylinder revealed no irregularities. Homicide, suicide, nitrogen narcosis, oxygen toxicity, and regulator malfunction were ruled out as possible causes of death. The most probable cause that triggered the event was vomiting into the regulator, as confirmed nearly 4 years later by the toxicological analysis of the traces of matter found in the dry chamber of the breathing regulator. Such an analysis should be considered when investigating suspicious diving related deaths and could be undertaken even after a significant time delay if the equipment is kept properly stored. PMID:20190635

  14. [Causes of death, zoonoses, and reproduction in the European brown hare in Switzerland].

    Haerer, G; Nicolet, J; Bacciarini, L; Gottstein, B; Giacometti, M


    To elucidate the importance of different causes of mortality which could explain the downward trend of the hare populations in Switzerland and for monitoring selected zoonoses, the health and reproductive status of 167 perished brown hares (Lepus europaeus) was assessed. Concerning causes of mortality, traumas were by far the most frequent diagnosis, 80% of the hares dying because of injuries. Animals killed by road traffic were highly represented. Predators (such as dogs, domestic cats, lynx, martens, buzzards, and golden eagles) killed 16% of the analysed animals. In juveniles, predation was significantly more frequent than in adults. Infectious diseases led to death in 15% of the animals, and cases of pasteurellosis, brucellosis, pseudotuberculosis, tularaemia, listeriosis, and toxoplasmosis were diagnosed. In 5% of the hares, the cause of death pertained to other categories or remained unclear. Reproductive performance was judged to be normal, since mean litter size was 2.5 per female and pregnancy rate in March-June was 74%. We conclude that neither a specific infectious disease, for which adult hares are particularly susceptible, nor an insufficient reproductive performance are responsible for the decline of brown hare populations in Switzerland. This phenomenon is rather a cause of a reduced survival rate in leverets. PMID:11344944

  15. Widening Rural–Urban Disparities in All-Cause Mortality and Mortality from Major Causes of Death in the USA, 1969–2009

    Singh, Gopal K.; Siahpush, Mohammad


    This study examined trends in rural–urban disparities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the USA between 1969 and 2009. A rural–urban continuum measure was linked to county-level mortality data. Age-adjusted death rates were calculated by sex, race, cause-of-death, area-poverty, and urbanization level for 13 time periods between 1969 and 2009. Cause-of-death decomposition and log-linear and Poisson regression were used to analyze rural–urban differentials. Mortality rates increased ...

  16. Causes of Death in HIV Patients and the Evolution of an AIDS Hospice: 1988-2008.

    Stewart, Ann; Chan Carusone, Soo; To, Kent; Schaefer-McDaniel, Nicole; Halman, Mark; Grimes, Richard


    This paper reports on the transformation that has occurred in the care of people living with HIV/AIDS in a Toronto Hospice. Casey House opened in the pre-HAART era to care exclusively for people with HIV/AIDS, an incurable disease. At the time, all patients were admitted for palliative care and all deaths were due to AIDS-defining conditions. AIDS-defining malignancies accounted for 22 percent of deaths, mainly, Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoma. In the post-HAART era, AIDS-defining malignancies dropped dramatically and non-AIDS-defining malignancies became a significant cause of death, including liver cancer, lung cancer and gastric cancers. In the post-HAART era, people living with HIV/AIDS served at Casey House have changed considerably, with increasing numbers of patients facing homelessness and mental health issues, including substance use. Casey House offers a picture of the evolving epidemic and provides insight into changes and improvements made in the care of these patients. PMID:22666562

  17. Causes of Death in HIV Patients and the Evolution of an AIDS Hospice: 1988–2008

    Ann Stewart


    Full Text Available This paper reports on the transformation that has occurred in the care of people living with HIV/AIDS in a Toronto Hospice. Casey House opened in the pre-HAART era to care exclusively for people with HIV/AIDS, an incurable disease. At the time, all patients were admitted for palliative care and all deaths were due to AIDS-defining conditions. AIDS-defining malignancies accounted for 22 percent of deaths, mainly, Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoma. In the post-HAART era, AIDS-defining malignancies dropped dramatically and non-AIDS-defining malignancies became a significant cause of death, including liver cancer, lung cancer and gastric cancers. In the post-HAART era, people living with HIV/AIDS served at Casey House have changed considerably, with increasing numbers of patients facing homelessness and mental health issues, including substance use. Casey House offers a picture of the evolving epidemic and provides insight into changes and improvements made in the care of these patients.

  18. Potentially preventable premature deaths in women and men from the two leading causes of death in Austria, mortality statistics of the nine federal states 2010–2012

    Rásky, Éva; Stolz, Erwin; Burkert, Nathalie Tatjana; Großschädl, Franziska


    Background In Austria, mortality from diseases of the circulatory system and malignant neoplasms is high and varies among the federal states. Lower mortality in some states indicates a preventive potential in those states with higher mortality. Methods We computed the number of premature deaths, for women and men separately, from the two leading causes of death, diseases of the circulatory system (ICD-10: I00-I09) and cancer (ICD-10: C00-C97), in the nine Austrian federal states between 2010-...

  19. [A longitudinal cause-of-death analysis of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy].

    Matsumura, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Toshio; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Shinno, Susumu; Sakoda, Saburo


    Mechanical ventilation (MV) and cardiac protective therapy have improved the prognosis and quality of life of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). To understand how these therapies have changed prognosis, we performed a cause-of-death analysis in DMD patients. Mean age at death before initiation of MV (January 1977-July 1984) was 18.9±4.1 years. After the introduction of MV, from August 1984 to December 1993 (1(st) term), it was 20.0±4.5 years, from January 1994 to December 2003 (2(nd) term), it was 25.2±4.6 years, and from January 2004 to December 2010 (3(rd) term), it was 31.1±5.4 years. Almost half of all deaths before MV were due to respiratory failure (RF). Because MV was performed by a tracheostomy in the initial stage, some patients were reluctant to use it, and as a result, RF accounted for 43% of deaths in the 1(st) term. Over time, patients started to accept non-invasive ventilation and home mechanical ventilation, which became available in the 1990s. Consequently, no DMD patients have died from RF since 2000. Respiratory physiotherapy and risk management became important tools, because many patients undergo decades of respiratory managements at home. Cardiac treatments for patients with DMD consisted mainly of diuretics and digitalis in the 1(st) term, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) in the 2(nd) term, and a combination of ACEIs and beta blockers in the 3(rd) term. Compared to the 2(nd) term, the ratios of severe cardiac dysfunction (fractional shortening 75mm, plasma brain natriuretic peptide >1,000pg/ml) were reduced in the 3(rd) term. In the 3(rd) term, 14% of patients died from renal failure nevertheless their cardiac indices remained mildly abnormal or normal. We should pay enough attention for cardio-renal association. PMID:22019865

  20. Late Mortality and Causes of Death among Long-Term Survivors after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Atsuta, Yoshiko; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Nakasone, Hideki; Kurosawa, Saiko; Oshima, Kumi; Sakai, Rika; Ohashi, Kazuteru; Takahashi, Satoshi; Mori, Takehiko; Ozawa, Yukiyasu; Fukuda, Takahiro; Kanamori, Heiwa; Morishima, Yasuo; Kato, Koji; Yabe, Hiromasa; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Taniguchi, Shuichi; Yamashita, Takuya


    We sought to assess the late mortality risks and causes of death among long-term survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). The cases of 11,047 relapse-free survivors of a first HCT at least 2 years after HCT were analyzed. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated and specific causes of death were compared with those of the Japanese population. Among relapse-free survivors at 2 years, overall survival percentages at 10 and 15 years were 87% and 83%, respectively. The overall risk of mortality was significantly higher compared with that of the general population. The risk of mortality was significantly higher from infection (SMR = 57.0), new hematologic malignancies (SMR = 2.2), other new malignancies (SMR = 3.0), respiratory causes (SMR = 109.3), gastrointestinal causes (SMR = 3.8), liver dysfunction (SMR = 6.1), genitourinary dysfunction (SMR = 17.6), and external or accidental causes (SMR = 2.3). The overall annual mortality rate showed a steep decrease from 2 to 5 years after HCT; however, the decrease rate slowed after 10 years but was still higher than that of the general population at 20 years after HCT. SMRs in the earlier period of 2 to 4 years after HCT and 5 years or longer after HCT were 16.1 and 7.4, respectively. Long-term survivors after allogeneic HCT are at higher risk of mortality from various causes other than the underlying disease that led to HCT. Screening and preventive measures should be given a central role in reducing the morbidity and mortality of HCT recipients on long-term follow-up. PMID:27246369

  1. A standardized algorithm for determining the underlying cause of death in HIV infection as AIDS or non-AIDS related

    Kowalska, Justyna D; Mocroft, Amanda; Ledergerber, Bruno;


    Objectives: Analyzing changes in causes of death over time is essential for understanding the emerging trends in HIV population mortality, yet data on cause of death are often missing. This poses analytic limitations, as does the changing approach in data collection by longitudinal studies, which...... are a natural consequence of an increased awareness and knowledge in the field. To monitor and analyze changes in mortality over time, we have explored this issue within the EuroSIDA study and propose a standardized protocol unifying data collected and allowing for classification of all deaths as AIDS...... or non-AIDS related, including events with missing cause of death. Methods: Several classifications of the underlying cause of death as AIDS or non-AIDS related within the EuroSIDA study were compared: central classification (CC-reference group) based on an externally standardised method (the Co...

  2. Short- and long-term mortality and causes of death in HIV/tuberculosis patients in Europe

    Podlekareva, Daria N; Panteleev, Alexander M; Grint, Daniel;


    Mortality of HIV/tuberculosis (TB) patients in Eastern Europe is high. Little is known about their causes of death. This study aimed to assess and compare mortality rates and cause of death in HIV/TB patients across Eastern Europe and Western Europe and Argentina (WEA) in an international cohort...... study. Mortality rates and causes of death were analysed by time from TB diagnosis (12 months) in 1078 consecutive HIV/TB patients. Factors associated with TB-related death were examined in multivariate Poisson regression analysis. 347 patients died during 2625 person-years of follow-up. Mortality in...... Eastern Europe was three- to ninefold higher than in WEA. TB was the main cause of death in Eastern Europe in 80%, 66% and 61% of patients who died 12 months after TB diagnosis, compared to 50%, 0% and 15% in the same time periods in WEA (p...

  3. Right atrial myxoma as a possible cause of hemorrhagic stroke and sudden death

    Donatus Sabageh


    Full Text Available Right atrial myxomas are rare primary tumors of the heart. They may remain asymptomatic or eventually cause constitutional signs and symptoms. Less frequently, obstruction of the tricuspid valve occurs, resulting in exertional dyspnea, syncope, or sudden death. Neurological manifestation as initial presentation of atrial myxomas is rarely, if ever, associated with right atrial myxomas and may be secondary to cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage and, more rarely subarachnoid hemorrhage. We review the case of a previously unknown, middle-aged Nigerian man who presented to hospital with severe headache and sudden loss of consciousness. A clinical diagnosis of hypertensive hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident was made. The patient died suddenly a few hours after presentation. Post-mortem examination revealed a small intracerebral hemorrhage in the left superior temporal lobe as well as a large right atrial myxoma, a ventricular septal defect in the muscular septum, and right ventricular hypertrophy. The liver showed fatty change while the kidneys showed evidence of benign nephrosclerosis. Right atrial myxomas may, therefore, be remotely considered as a cause of intracranial hemorrhage, especially in the presence of predisposing cardiac anomalies such as a ventricular septal defect. Similarly, being a known cause of right heart failure, sudden death, and other constitutional derangements, it may contribute significantly to disease outcome. Hence, it should be given due consideration in the differential diagnosis of cerebrovascular accidents.

  4. Classifying countries according to leading causes of death in the world at the beginning of the 21st century

    Marinković Ivan


    Full Text Available Cause mortality of a population is an important segment in the analysis of mortality, because it sums up all factors which influence death indicators on a certain territory in a direct way. At the beginning of the 21st century, the situation is not the same everywhere in the world and countries do not share a unique pattern of the causes of deaths. Infectious and parasitic diseases are still dominant in underdeveloped countries, while the leading causes of deaths in developed countries are circulatory disorders and neoplasm. Cardiovascular diseases are the cause of 29% of total mortality in the world, infectious cause 19%, tumors 13% and violent deaths about 9% (based on data from 2002. This paper gives an analysis of the spatial distribution of the leading causes of deaths using the geographic information system (Arc-View GIS, based on the ratio of total mortality and death rates of the population from a certain group of diseases. Based on data analysis, a hypothesis has been set on the significance of the regional factor in forming a picture of population mortality according to causes of death. A regional factor implies a set of physical geographical as well as general social specificities of a certain region which form a pattern of population behavior. Based on death rates, cardiovascular diseases are represented the most in the mortality rates of countries in Eastern and Southeastern Europe. Infectious diseases imperil the population in the Sub-Saharan region of Africa; tumors are most common in Europe, North America and Japan. The highest rates of violent deaths are in countries of the former Soviet Union and the Sub- Saharan zone. Classifying death rates according to leading causes of death represents a prerequisite for forming a final picture of mortality according to causes of death in the world at the beginning of the 'new century'. The method of gathering together the causes of death is possible by applying a statistical model of

  5. Final report : Albuquerque Ecological Services, interpretation of cause of death of 3 golden eagles and 1 bald eagle

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report was prepared by Environmental Contaminant Specialists on the cause of death of the 3 golden eagles and 1 bald eagle found near Folsom, New Mexico. This...

  6. Mortality and causes of death in Crohn's disease. Review of 50 years' experience in Leiden University Hospital.

    Weterman, I T; Biemond, I; Peña, A S


    Six hundred and seventy one patients (52.5% women) with Crohn's disease seen at Leiden University Hospital between 1934 and 1984 were identified. Follow up was 98.2% complete. Sixty four (9.7%) of the 659 patients died. The cause of death was related to Crohn's disease in 34 patients, probably related to the disease in four, and unrelated, from incidental causes, in 25. The cause of death could not be identified in one patient. There was a significant decrease of deaths related to the disease...

  7. Changes in main causes of death in Macao residents from 1986-2006

    CHAN Man-si; CHEN Qing; LAM Christopher Wai-kei


    Background Since Macao's return of sovereignty to China in December 1999,the life style of Macao residents has changed.The aim of this study was to investigate changes of death patterns in Macao residents from 1986 to 2006 in order to identify the trends and patterns of major public health problems,which could provide the guidance for developing public health policies.Methods A retrospective study was conducted for this investigation.Research data were collected from official websites and statistical yearbooks and classified by the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9.Results It was observed that mortality from the three major causes of (1) infectious,maternal and childhood diseases,(2) chronic non-communicable diseases,and (3) injury and poisoning were 17.7,298.2 and 26.0 per 100 000,respectively.The largest decrease in death rate over the 21-year study-period was from infectious,maternal and childhood diseases (62.5%).The highest mortality rate was ischemic heart diseases (37.0%).The largest increase in mortality rate was lung cancer (46.9%).Conclusions Mortality rate of Macao residents progressively decreased,but the constituent ratio of death from chronic non-communicable diseases was increasing.The mortality rate of lung cancer was clearly ascending,so emphasis should be put on tertiary prevention in future.

  8. Verbal Autopsy: Reliability and Validity Estimates for Causes of Death in the Golestan Cohort Study in Iran

    Hooman Khademi; Arash Etemadi; Farin Kamangar; Mehdi Nouraie; Ramin Shakeri; Behrooz Abaie; Akram Pourshams; Mohammad Bagheri; Afshin Hooshyar; Farhad Islami; Abnet, Christian C.; Paul Pharoah; Paul Brennan; Paolo Boffetta; Dawsey, Sanford M.


    BACKGROUND: Verbal autopsy (VA) is one method to obtain valid estimates of causes of death in the absence of valid medical records. We tested the reliability and validity of a VA questionnaire developed for a cohort study in Golestan Province in northeastern Iran. METHOD: A modified version of the WHO adult verbal autopsy was used to assess the cause of death in the first 219 Golestan Cohort Study (GCS) subjects who died. The GCS cause of death was determined by two internists who independent...

  9. Capsaicinoids cause inflammation and epithelial cell death through activation of vanilloid receptors.

    Reilly, Christopher A; Taylor, Jack L; Lanza, Diane L; Carr, Brian A; Crouch, Dennis J; Yost, Garold S


    Capsaicinoids, found in less-than-lethal self-defense weapons, have been associated with respiratory failure and death in exposed animals and people. The studies described herein provide evidence for acute respiratory inflammation and damage to epithelial cells in experimental animals, and provide precise molecular mechanisms that mediate these effects using human bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells. Inhalation exposure of rats to pepper sprays (capsaicinoids) produced acute inflammation and damage to nasal, tracheal, bronchiolar, and alveolar cells in a dose-related manner. In vitro cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that cultured human lung cells (BEAS-2B and A549) were more susceptible to necrotic cell death than liver (HepG2) cells. Transcription of the human vanilloid receptor type-1, VR1 or TRPV1, was demonstrated by RT-PCR in all of these cells, and the relative transcript levels were correlated to cellular susceptibility. TRPV1 receptor activation was presumably responsible for cellular cytotoxicity, but prototypical functional antagonists of this receptor were cytotoxic themselves, and did not ameliorate capsaicinoid-induced damage. Conversely, the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine, as well as calcium chelation by EGTA ablated cytokine (IL-6) production after capsaicin exposure. To address these seemingly contradictory results, recombinant human TRPV1 was cloned and overexpressed in BEAS-2B cells. These cells exhibited dramatically increased cellular susceptibility to capsaicinoids, measured using IL-6 production and cytotoxicity, and an apoptotic mechanism of cell death. Surprisingly, the cytotoxic effects of capsaicin in TRPV1 overexpressing cells were also not inhibited by TRPV1 antagonists or by treatments that modified extracellular calcium. Thus, capsaicin interacted with TRPV1 expressed by BEAS-2B and other airway epithelial cells to cause the calcium-dependent production of cytokines and, conversely, calcium-independent cell death. These results

  10. Childhood deaths from external causes in Estonia, 2001–2005

    Soonets Ruth


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2000, the overall rate of injury deaths in children aged 0–14 was 28.7 per 100000 in Estonia, which is more than 5 times higher than the corresponding rate in neighbouring Finland. This paper describes childhood injury mortality in Estonia by cause and age groups, and validates registration of these deaths in the Statistical Office of Estonia against the autopsy data. Methods The data on causes of all child deaths in Estonia in 2001–2005 were abstracted from the autopsy protocols at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated. Coverage (proportion of the reported injury deaths from the total number of injury deaths and accuracy (proportion of correctly classified injury deaths of the registration of causes of death in Statistical Office of Estonia were assessed by comparing the Statistical Office of Estonia data with the data from Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Results Average annual mortality from external causes in 0–14 years-old children in Estonia was 19.1 per 100,000. Asphyxia and transport accidents were the major killers followed by poisoning and suicides. Relative contribution of these causes varied greatly between age groups. Intent of death was unknown for more than 10% of injury deaths. Coverage and accuracy of registration of injury deaths by Statistical Office of Estonia were 91.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion Childhood mortality from injuries in Estonia is among the highest in the EU. The number of injury deaths in Statistical Office of Estonia is slightly underestimated mostly due to misclassification for deaths from diseases. Accuracy of the Statistical Office of Estonia data was high with some underestimation of intentional deaths. Moreover, high proportion of death with unknown intent suggests underestimation of intentional deaths. Reduction of injury deaths should be given a high priority in Estonia. More information on

  11. Geographical patterns of proportionate mortality for the most common causes of death in Brazil

    Sichieri Rosely


    Full Text Available Mortality due to chronic diseases has been increasing in all regions of Brazil with corresponding decreases in mortality from infectious diseases. The geographical variation in proportionate mortality for chronic diseases for 17 Brazilian state capitals for the year 1985 and their association with socio-economic variables and infectious disease was studied. Calculations were made of correlation coefficients of proportionate mortality for adults of 30 years or above due to ischaemic heart disease, stroke and cancer of the lung, the breast and stomach with 3 socio-economic variables, race, and mortality due to infectious disease. Linear regression analysis included as independent variables the % of illiteracy, % of whites, % of houses with piped water, mean income, age group, sex, and % of deaths caused by infectious disease. The dependent variables were the % of deaths due to each one of the chronic diseases studied by age-sex group. Chronic diseases were an important cause of death in all regions of Brazil. Ischaemic heart diseases, stroke and malignant neoplasms accounted for more than 34% of the mortality in each of the 17 capitals studied. Proportionate cause-specific mortality varied markedly among state capitals. Ranges were 6.3-19.5% for ischaemic heart diseases, 8.3-25.4% for stroke, 2.3-10.4% for infections and 12.2-21.5% for malignant neoplasm. Infectious disease mortality had the highest (p < 0.001 correlation with all the four socio-economic variables studied and ischaemic heart disease showed the second highest correlation (p < 0.05. Higher socio-economic level was related to a lower % of infectious diseases and a higher % of ischaemic heart diseases. Mortality due to breast cancer and stroke was not associated with socio-economic variables. Multivariate linear regression models explained 59% of the variance among state capitals for mortality due to ischaemic heart disease, 50% for stroke, 28% for lung cancer, 24% for breast cancer

  12. Geographical patterns of proportionate mortality for the most common causes of death in Brazil

    Rosely Sichieri


    Full Text Available Mortality due to chronic diseases has been increasing in all regions of Brazil with corresponding decreases in mortality from infectious diseases. The geographical variation in proportionate mortality for chronic diseases for 17 Brazilian state capitals for the year 1985 and their association with socio-economic variables and infectious disease was studied. Calculations were made of correlation coefficients of proportionate mortality for adults of 30 years or above due to ischaemic heart disease, stroke and cancer of the lung, the breast and stomach with 3 socio-economic variables, race, and mortality due to infectious disease. Linear regression analysis included as independent variables the % of illiteracy, % of whites, % of houses with piped water, mean income, age group, sex, and % of deaths caused by infectious disease. The dependent variables were the % of deaths due to each one of the chronic diseases studied by age-sex group. Chronic diseases were an important cause of death in all regions of Brazil. Ischaemic heart diseases, stroke and malignant neoplasms accounted for more than 34% of the mortality in each of the 17 capitals studied. Proportionate cause-specific mortality varied markedly among state capitals. Ranges were 6.3-19.5% for ischaemic heart diseases, 8.3-25.4% for stroke, 2.3-10.4% for infections and 12.2-21.5% for malignant neoplasm. Infectious disease mortality had the highest (p < 0.001 correlation with all the four socio-economic variables studied and ischaemic heart disease showed the second highest correlation (p < 0.05. Higher socio-economic level was related to a lower % of infectious diseases and a higher % of ischaemic heart diseases. Mortality due to breast cancer and stroke was not associated with socio-economic variables. Multivariate linear regression models explained 59% of the variance among state capitals for mortality due to ischaemic heart disease, 50% for stroke, 28% for lung cancer, 24% for breast cancer

  13. Causes of death in diarrhoeal diseases after rehydration therapy: an autopsy study of 140 patients in Bangladesh

    T. Butler; Islam, M; Azad, A K; M. R. Islam; Speelman, P


    The cause of death (besides dehydration) for 140 diarrhoeal patients who died in hospital following rehydration was determined by autopsy examination. Children under 5 years comprised 74% of the patients. Diarrhoeal pathogens were identified as Shigella spp. in 27%, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in 17%, Entamoeba histolytica in 16%, Campylobacter jejuni in 12%, Salmonella spp. in 4%, Vibrio cholerae in 4%, and Giardia lambliain 4% of cases. The most frequent underlying causes of death were...

  14. Comorbidities and causes of death among Danish Tuberculosis patients 1998-2010

    Fløe, Andreas; Løkke, Anders; Ibsen, Rikke;

    causes of death in these groups. Material/methods: From the Danish National Patient Registry (NPR), we retrospectively identified all registered Danish TB-patients between 1998-2010. They were matched to controls (1:4) by age, gender, civil status and geography. Mortality data were obtained from Danish...... controls were followed for max. 12 (span: 0-12) years. Overall, 22.90% of cases and 9.12% of controls died during follow-up (HR 3.29, p<0.001). At baseline (TB-diagnosis or inclusion as control), 13.66% of cases had at least one comorbid diagnosis, vs. 6.01% of controls (p<0.001). For subjects with Deyo......-Charlson score up to 3, cases had significantly increased mortality; for higher Deyo-Charlson scores, an insignificant trend of higher mortality among controls was observed. The most common causes of death among TB cases were: Non-lung cancers (13.8%), COPD (13.48%), TB (11.7%) and Lung cancer (11.0 %). Among...

  15. Fatty acid oxidation disorders as primary cause of sudden and unexpected death in infants and young children

    Banner, Jytte; Kølvraa, S; Gregersen, N;


    Disorders of fatty acid metabolism are known to be responsible for cases of sudden and unexpected death in infancy. At least 14 disorders are known at present. 120 cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) had been examined for a prevalent mutation (G985) causing medium chain acyl Co...

  16. Elevation of Serum Aminotransferase Levels and Future Risk of Death from External Causes: A Prospective Cohort Study in Korea

    Sohn, Jungwoo; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Cho, Jaelim; Choi, Yoon Jung; Kim, Changsoo; Suh, Il


    Purpose The association between liver enzymes and death from external causes has not been examined. We investigated the association between serum aminotransferase levels and external-cause mortality in a large prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods A total of 142322 subjects of 35-59 years of age who completed baseline examinations in 1990 and 1992 were enrolled. Mortalities were identified using death certificates. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase ...

  17. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010

    Lozano, Rafael; Naghavi, Mohsen; Foreman, Kyle;


    Reliable and timely information on the leading causes of death in populations, and how these are changing, is a crucial input into health policy debates. In the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), we aimed to estimate annual deaths for the world and 21 reg...

  18. Causes of death in a cohort of EDF-GDF employees: comparison between occupational medicine and official statistics data

    Background: In an epidemiological study, medical causes of death may be obtained from different sources. In a study on French gas and electricity company (EDF-GDF) workers, they were obtained front the national INSERM database. Additionally, the causes collected by the EDF-GDF occupational physicians, were available for a subset of 1,330 deaths, which occurred between 1989 and 1994. The data from the two sources were compared with each other, in order to assess whether they were globally equivalent, and the potential impact of their differences on the results of epidemiological analyses. Methods: Concordance rates between causes of death in the INSERM and EDF-GDF physicians databases were calculated according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) ninth revision codes and for various causes groups. Causes of death records were also examined in order to clarify the observed divergences. SMRs were computed in order to evaluate the consequences of using each. database in epidemiological analyses. Finally, some SMRs were computed with the two sources and compared with each other. Results: INSERM and EDF-GDF physicians causes belonged to the same causes group in 81 % of cases, but the exact cause was different for- more than half of them. The concordance rate was high for the deaths by AIDS and by cancer, and low for deaths by respiratory system and digestive system diseases. More causes of death were coded as 'unknown' in EDF-GDF physicians data than in INSERM data. The SMRs varied widely depending on whether the INSERM or EDF-GDF physicians causes of death databases were used. Conclusions: Causes of death recorded in the INSERM and EDF-GDF physicians databases are very different. Therefore, using the national mortality rates computed by INSERM with the EDF-GDF physicians causes of death to calculate SMRs is not valid, and it is observed that they may be very different from those computed with INSERM data. In a general way, it should be better to use the

  19. Presumed cause of mass deaths of rooks (Corvus Frugilegus Pastinator) using PIXE analysis

    Eighty-nine wild birds were found dead in Ogata Village in northern Japan in March 2006. Eighty-eight of the birds were rooks (Corvus Frugilegus Pastinator), which are migratory birds. Since the use of rodenticide (thallium sulfide and zinc phosphide) in the area around where the birds had been found was revealed by a survey, etiological and pathological examinations including elemental analysis by means of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) were conducted. Elemental analysis showed high concentrations (56-365 dry-μg/g) of thallium in the lungs, gastric contents, intestines, livers and kidneys. Histopathological examination revealed vacuolar degeneration of hepatic cells and granular and/or hyaline droplet degeneration of renal tubular epithelia. The results suggest that the mass deaths were caused by thallium poisoning. (author)

  20. Mortality ratios, life expectancy, and causes of death in patients with Turner's syndrome.

    Price, W H; Clayton, J F; Collyer, S; De Mey, R; Wilson, J.


    In a prospective study of 156 female patients with Turner's syndrome who had survived infancy and been followed up for an average of 17 years there were 15 deaths. The expected mortality was 3.6. Sixteen of the patients had a congenital heart anomaly and five of the deaths occurred in this group. The 10 deaths in the remaining 140 were three times as many as expected. The reduction in life expectation was 12.5 years at age 1 year, 11 years at age 20, and 10 years at age 40. Deaths were due to...

  1. Postmortem computed tomography for detecting causes of sudden death in infants and children. Retrospective review of cases

    The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) in detecting causes of sudden death in infants and children. Our subjects were 15 nontraumatically deceased patients (nine boys and six girls, ranging in age from 20 days after birth to 12 years old, mean age 1.6 years), who had been in a state of cardiopulmonary arrest on arrival at our hospital. PMCT was performed within 2 h after certification of death: head (15 cases), chest (11 cases), and abdomen (12 cases). Blood was collected from 11 of the patients at the time of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. An autopsy was conducted on two. PMCT did not show any traumatic changes indicating child abuse. It was difficult to presume the cause of death with PMCT alone, but the cause of death in 14 of 15 cases could be presumed by combining information from their medical history, clinical course before death, PMCT findings, laboratory data, and bacterial culture. The remaining subject was classified as cause unknown. The causes of sudden death in infants and children were detected at a high rate when we comprehensively investigated the PMCT and other examination findings. (author)

  2. Neurocysticercosis-related mortality in Brazil, 2000-2011: Epidemiology of a neglected neurologic cause of death.

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Cavalcanti, Marta Guimarães; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg


    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important cause of severe neurological disease mainly in low- and middle-income countries, but data on NCC mortality from endemic areas are scarce. Here we analysed the epidemiological patterns of NCC-related mortality in Brazil. We included all deaths recorded in Brazil between 2000 and 2011, in which NCC was mentioned on death certificates, either as underlying or as associated cause of death. NCC was identified in 1829/12,491,280 deaths (0.015%), 1130 (61.8%) as underlying cause, and 699 (38.2%) as associated cause. Overall age-adjusted mortality rate for the period was 0.97 deaths/1,000,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-1.12). The highest NCC-related mortality rates were found in males, elderly, white race/colour and residents in endemic states/regions. Age-adjusted mortality rates at national level decreased significantly over time (annual percent change [APC]: -4.7; 95% CI: -6.0 to -3.3), with a decrease in the Southeast, South and Central-West regions, and a non-significant increasing trend in the North and Northeast regions. We identified spatial and spatiotemporal high-risk mortality clusters located mainly in NCC-endemic areas. Conditions related to the nervous system were the most commonly associated causes of death when NCC was mentioned as an underlying cause, and HIV/AIDS was the main underlying cause when NCC was an associated cause. NCC is a neglected and preventable cause of severe neurologic disease and death with high public health impact in Brazil. There is a clear need to strengthen nationwide epidemiological surveillance and control for the taeniasis/cysticercosis complex. PMID:26505283

  3. Changes in causes of death and mortality rates among children in Greenland from 1987 - 91 to 1992 - 99

    Aaen-Larsen, Birger; Bjerregaard, Peter


    This study analysed the spontaneous trends in mortality among children in Greenland from 1987 - 91 to 1992 - 99 and describes the changes in the causes of death, mortality rates, and variation between regions.......This study analysed the spontaneous trends in mortality among children in Greenland from 1987 - 91 to 1992 - 99 and describes the changes in the causes of death, mortality rates, and variation between regions....

  4. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy as a cause of sudden death in young people: Literature review

    Mazić Sanja


    Full Text Available Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia is a progressive condition with right ventricular myocardium being replaced by fibro-fatty tissue. It is a hereditary disorder mostly caused by desmosome gene mutations. The prevalence of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is about 1/1000-5000. Clinical presentation is usually related to ventricular tachycardias, syncope or presyncopa, or ventricular fibrillation leading to cardiac arrest, mostly in young people and athletes. It may be difficult to make the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy due to several problems arising from the specificity of electrocardiograph abnormalities, different potential etiologies of ventricular arrhythmias with a left bundle branch morphology, the assessment of the right ventricular structure and function, and the interpretation of endomyocardial biopsy findings. Therefore, standardized diagnostic criteria have been proposed by the Study Group on arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy of the European Society of Cardiology. In order to make the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, a number of clinical tests are employed, including the electrocardiogram, echocardiography, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, myocardial biopsy, right ventricular angiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and genetic testing. The therapeutic options include beta blockers, antiarrhythmic drugs, catheter ablation, and implantable cardioverter defibrillator. The implantable cardioverter defibrillator is the most effective safe-guard against arrhythmic sudden death. Preparticipation screening for sport eligibility has been proven to be effective in detecting asymptomatic patients and sport disqualification has been lifesaving, substantially declining sudden death in young athletes.

  5. Does proficiency creativity solve legal dilemmas? Experimental study of medical students' ideas about death-causes.

    Lynöe, Niels; Juth, Niklas


    The aim of the present study was to compare and examine how medical students on term one and nine understand and adopt ideas and reasoning when estimating death-causes. Our hypothesis was that compared to students in the beginning of their medical curriculum, term nine students would be more inclined to adopt ideas about causality that allows physicians to alleviate an imminently dying patient, without being suspected for manslaughter--a practice referred to as proficiency creativity. We used a questionnaire containing two similar cases describing an imminently dying patient who receive a drug in order to treat seizures. The treatment has the foreseen effect of shortening the patient's life. In one version of the vignette the patient dies immediately and in the other one the patient dies 5 h after having received the drug. We asked medical students in their first term (n = 149) and ninth term (n = 106) to fill in the two randomly distributed questionnaires. We used a χ2 test to examine our hypothesis and choose as significance level 0.05. A majority of term-one students (53%) stated that the patient died because of the provided drugs when dying immediately after and 32% stated it when the patient died 5 h after providing the drug. The difference was significant (p = 0.007). A minority of term-nine students (20 vs. 16%) stated the patient died because of the provided drug. The difference was not significant. The study indicates that term-nine students have espoused the idea that death-causes in such cases should always be classified as the underlying disease--even though another straightforward explanation could be the drug provided. To clinicians this might be a proficiency-creative strategy for managing a difficult legal dilemma. As hypothetical explanation we suggest that experienced clinicians might have transformed a normative issue of shortening life into an empirical issue about death-causes and tacitly transferred this strategy to term-nine students. If our

  6. Fermented Brown Rice Extract Causes Apoptotic Death of Human Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells via Death Receptor Pathway.

    Horie, Yukiko; Nemoto, Hideyuki; Itoh, Mari; Kosaka, Hiroaki; Morita, Kyoji


    Mixture of brown rice and rice bran fermented with Aspergillus oryzae, designated as FBRA, has been reported to reveal anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects in rodents. Then, to test its potential anti-cancer activity, the aqueous extract was prepared from FBRA powder, and the effect of this extract on human acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells was directly examined. The exposure to FBRA extract reduced the cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The reduction of the cell viability was accompanied by the DNA fragmentation, and partially restored by treatment with pan-caspase inhibitor. Further studies showed that FBRA extract induced the cleavage of caspase-8, -9, and -3, and decreased Bcl-2 protein expression. Moreover, the expression of tBid, DR5, and Fas proteins was enhanced by FBRA extract, and the pretreatment with caspase-8 inhibitor, but not caspase-9 inhibitor, restored the reduction of the cell viability induced by FBRA extract. These findings suggested that FBRA extract could induce the apoptotic death of human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells probably through mainly the death receptor-mediated pathway and supplementarily through the tBid-mediated mitochondrial pathway, proposing the possibility that FBRA was a potential functional food beneficial to patients with hematological cancer. PMID:26769704

  7. Verbal autopsy: reliability and validity estimates for causes of death in the Golestan Cohort Study in Iran.

    Hooman Khademi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Verbal autopsy (VA is one method to obtain valid estimates of causes of death in the absence of valid medical records. We tested the reliability and validity of a VA questionnaire developed for a cohort study in Golestan Province in northeastern Iran. METHOD: A modified version of the WHO adult verbal autopsy was used to assess the cause of death in the first 219 Golestan Cohort Study (GCS subjects who died. The GCS cause of death was determined by two internists who independently reviewed all available medical records. Two other internists ("reviewers" independently reviewed only the VA answers and classified the cause of death into one of nine general categories; they repeated this evaluation one month later. The reliability of the VA was measured by calculating intra-reviewer and inter-reviewer kappa statistics. The validity of the VA was measured using the GCS cause of death as the gold standard. RESULTS: VA showed both good validity (sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV all above 0.81 and reliability (kappa>0.75 in determining the general cause of death independent of sex and place of residence. The overall multi-rater agreement across four reviews was 0.84 (95%CI: 0.78-0.89. The results for identifying specific cancer deaths were also promising, especially for upper GI cancers (kappa = 0.95. The multi-rater agreement in cancer subgroup was 0.93 (95%CI: 0.85-0.99. CONCLUSIONS: VA seems to have good reliability and validity for determining the cause of death in a large-scale adult follow up study in a predominantly rural area of a middle-income country.

  8. The timing and cause of megafauna mass deaths at Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia

    Dortch, Joe; Cupper, Matt; Grün, Rainer; Harpley, Bernice; Lee, Kerrie; Field, Judith


    and only the very youngest fossil deposits could be coeval with the earliest human arrivals. Therefore, anthropogenic causes cannot be implicated in most if not all of mass deaths at the site. Climatic and environmental changes were the main factors in site formation and megafauna deaths at Lancefield Swamp.

  9. A 20-year prospective study of mortality and causes of death among hospitalized opioid addicts in Oslo

    Haldorsen Tor


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study mortality rate and causes of death among all hospitalized opioid addicts treated for self-poisoning or admitted for voluntary detoxification in Oslo between 1980 and 1981, and to compare their mortality to that of the general population. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted on 185 opioid addicts from all medical departments in Oslo who were treated for either self-poisoning (n = 93, 1980, voluntary detoxification (n = 75, 1980/1981 or both (n = 17. Their median age was 24 years; with a range from 16 to 41, and 53% were males. All deaths that had occurred by the end of 2000 were identified from the Central Population Register. Causes of death were obtained from Statistics Norway. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs were computed for mortality, in general, and in particular, for different causes of death. Results During a period of 20 years, 70 opioid addicts died (37.8%, with a standardized mortality ratio (SMR equal to 23.6 (95% CI, 18.7–29.9. The SMR remained high during the whole period, ranging from 32.4 in the first five-year period, to 13.4 in the last five-year period. There were no significant differences in SMR between self-poisonings and those admitted for voluntarily detoxification. The registered causes of death were accidents (11.4%, suicide (7.1%, cancer (4.3%, cardiovascular disease (2.9%, other violent deaths (2.9%, other diseases (71.4%. Among the 50 deaths classified as other diseases, the category "drug dependence" was listed in the vast majority of cases (37 deaths, 52.9% of the total. SMRs increased significantly for all causes of death, with the other diseases group having the highest SMR; 65.8 (95% CI, 49.9–86.9. The SMR was 5.4 (95% CI, 1.3–21.5 for cardiovascular diseases, and 4.3 (95% CI, 1.4–13.5 for cancer. The SMR was 13.2 (95% CI, 6.6–26.4 for accidents, 10.7 (95% CI, 4.5–25.8 for suicides, and 28.6 (95% CI, 7.1–114.4 for other violent deaths. Conclusion The risk

  10. Diabetes mellitus, fasting glucose, and risk of cause-specific death

    Seshasai, Sreenivasa Rao Kondapally; Kaptoge, Stephen; Thompson, Alexander;


    The extent to which diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia is related to risk of death from cancer or other nonvascular conditions is uncertain.......The extent to which diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia is related to risk of death from cancer or other nonvascular conditions is uncertain....

  11. Validity of verbal autopsy method to determine causes of death among adults in the urban setting of Ethiopia

    Misganaw Awoke


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy has been widely used to estimate causes of death in settings with inadequate vital registries, but little is known about its validity. This analysis was part of Addis Ababa Mortality Surveillance Program to examine the validity of verbal autopsy for determining causes of death compared with hospital medical records among adults in the urban setting of Ethiopia. Methods This validation study consisted of comparison of verbal autopsy final diagnosis with hospital diagnosis taken as a “gold standard”. In public and private hospitals of Addis Ababa, 20,152 adult deaths (15 years and above were recorded between 2007 and 2010. With the same period, a verbal autopsy was conducted for 4,776 adult deaths of which, 1,356 were deceased in any of Addis Ababa hospitals. Then, verbal autopsy and hospital data sets were merged using the variables; full name of the deceased, sex, address, age, place and date of death. We calculated sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values with 95% confidence interval. Results After merging, a total of 335 adult deaths were captured. For communicable diseases, the values of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values of verbal autopsy diagnosis were 79%, 78% and 68% respectively. For non-communicable diseases, sensitivity of the verbal autopsy diagnoses was 69%, specificity 78% and positive predictive value 79%. Regarding injury, sensitivity of the verbal autopsy diagnoses was 70%, specificity 98% and positive predictive value 83%. Higher sensitivity was achieved for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, but lower specificity with relatively more false positives. Conclusion These findings may indicate the potential of verbal autopsy to provide cost-effective information to guide policy on communicable and non communicable diseases double burden among adults in Ethiopia. Thus, a well structured verbal autopsy method, followed by qualified physician reviews could be capable of

  12. Late effects of whole- or partial-body X-irradiaton on mice. Causes of death

    The primary aim of the present experiments was to compare the late effects of partial-body irradiaton with those of whole-body irradiation. A total of 578 ddY female mice of 10 weeks old were assigned to the following five groups: (1) Whole-body exposure of 600 R, (2) head exposure of 800 R, (3) trunk exposure of 800 R, (4) lower body exposure of 800 R, (5) unirradiated control. Mean after-survival times of the above five groups were as follows: 69.2 +- 1.9 weeks for control, 43.0 +- 1.7 weeks for the whole-body exposure, 66.1 +- 2.2 weeks for the head exposure, 59.7 +- 1.6 weeks for the trunk exposure, 62.7 +- 1.8 weeks for the lower body exposure. The life-shortenings expressed as a percentage of the life span in the control were: 6%/100 R with whole-body exposure, 2%/100 R with trunk exposure, and 1%/100 R with lower body exposure. The increases in incidence of all tumours and of malignant lymphomas were statistically significant in the group of whole-body exposure of 600 R. The head exposure to 800 R increases the incidence of pituitary tumours. In the trunk exposure, the incidence of ovarian tumours increased and malignant lymphomas decreased in incidence. Calculating the mean after-survival time of mice who died from the same cause of death, reveals that most of the causes of death in the irradiated groups appeared earlier than in the control group. In particular, the mean after-survival time of the mice with malignant lymphoma in the whole-body exposure was 35 weeks, which was much earlier than the corresponding 73 weeks in the control. The increased life-shortening in thewhole-body exposure was due to the high incidence of malignant lymphomas and toearlier appearance of malignant lymphomas, lung tumours and mammary tumours. The life-shortening by the partial-body exposure was much less than that by the whole-body exposure owing to the lack of induction of malignant lymphomas

  13. Estimating Benefits of Past, Current, and Future Reductions in Smoking Rates Using a Comprehensive Model With Competing Causes of Death

    van Meijgaard, Jeroen; Fielding, Jonathan E.


    Introduction Despite years of declining smoking prevalence, tobacco use is still the leading preventable contributor to illness and death in the United States, and the effect of past tobacco-use control efforts has not fully translated into improvements in health outcomes. The objective of this study was to use a life course model with multiple competing causes of death to elucidate the ongoing benefits of tobacco-use control efforts on US death rates. Methods We used a continuous-time life c...

  14. Mortality due to systemic mycoses as a primary cause of death or in association with AIDS in Brazil: a review from 1996 to 2006

    Marli Prado; Marcelo Barbosa da Silva; Ruy Laurenti; Luiz R Travassos; Carlos P Taborda


    Deaths caused by systemic mycoses such as paracoccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, candidiasis, aspergillosis, coccidioidomycosis and zygomycosis amounted to 3,583 between 1996-2006 in Brazil. When analysed as the underlying cause of death, paracoccidioidomycosis represented the most important cause of deaths among systemic mycoses (~ 51.2%). When considering AIDS as the underlying cause of death and the systemic mycoses as associated conditions, cryptococcosis (50.9%) appeared...

  15. [Which are the causes of death among Chileans today?. Long-term perspectives].

    Solimano C, Giorgio; Mazzei P, Marinella


    During the last decades, Chile experienced substantial socioeconomic, epidemiological and demographic changes. These resulted, among other consequences, in a deceleration of population growth, a notorious decrease in fertility rates, and one of the most rapid and deepest drop in general and infant mortality rates in the Latin American region. These changes resulted in a sustained increase of life expectancy and a substantial ageing of the Chilean population. This process is also changing the disease burden of the population. Infectious and perinatal diseases lost relevance as major causes of mortality, and have been replaced by chronic non transmissible diseases, specifically cardiovascular conditions and cancer, that are becoming the main causes of death. High blood pressure, cardiovascular risk, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, overweight and obesity, smoking, sedentary lifestyle and depression will have a great impact on health conditions during the XXI century. These factors and a persistent social inequity will hinder the efforts to reduce the impact and consequences of chronic non transmissible, diseases in the Chilean population. PMID:17914552

  16. An evaluation of the effects of long term cryopreservation, cause of death, and time between death and donation on heart valve leaflet viability

    The protocol for cryopreservation of allograft heart valves at the Donor Tissue Bank of Victoria was based on validation studies on the viability of the heart valve leaflets at the time of processing. The heart block is removed within 24 hours of death and the aor-tic and pulmonary valves trimmed immediately following retrieval. Following this processing, the valves are incubated in antibiotics at 30 degree C for 6 to 8 hours before being frozen in 10% DMSO at a controlled rate. A sample of tricuspid valve leaflet is placed in Krebs solution at the time of trimfning and is used for viability studies. Leaflet viability studies have been perfon-ned on all heart valves retrieved from 1993 to the present day at the Donor Tissue Bank of Victoria. Viability involves a qualitative assessment of the cellular outgrowth by leaflet fibroblasts, this assessment ranging from '-' for no outgrowth to '++++' for maximum outgrowth. Surgeons do not request valves with any particular viability and will use them whether they are viable or not. This evaluation was to determine the effects of long-term cryopreservation, cause of death, and also time lapse of heart removal following death on the viability of the retrieved leaflets. The aim of investigating the effects of long-term cryopreservation was to determine whether there was any correlation between initial viability and viability following storage for several months to several years. It was also decided to investigate whether there was any correlation between time length between death and heart retrieval and the viability. It was also thought that the cause of death may have had an effect on the viability, for example, did death by carbon monoxide poisoning have an effect on the viability of heart valve cells. Heart valves, which had been cryopreserved but could not be transplanted for various reasons were used to study the effects of cryopreservation in this study. These were thawed according to protocol and a sample of the valve

  17. Short Term Patterns of Landslides Causing Death in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Sepulveda, S. A.; Petley, D. N.


    Among natural hazards, landslides represent a significant source of loss of life in mountainous terrains. Many regions of Latin America and the Caribbean are prone to landslide activity, due to strong topographic relief, high tectonic uplift rates, seismicity and/or climate. Further, vulnerable populations are often concentrated in deep valleys or mountain foothills susceptible to catastrophic landslides, with vulnerability further increased by dense urbanization and precarious settlements in some large cities. While historic extremely catastrophic events such as the 1999 Vargas flows in Venezuela or the 1970 Huascaran rock avalanche in Peru are commonly cited to characterize landslide hazards in this region, less known is the landslide activity in periods without such large disasters. This study assesses the occurrence of fatal landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean between 2004 and 2013. Over this time period we recorded 611 landslides that caused 11,631 deaths in 25 countries, mostly as a result of rainfall triggers. The countries with the highest number of fatal landslides are Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Guatemala, Peru and Haiti. The highest death toll for a single event was ca.3000. The dataset has not captured a strong El Niño event or large earthquakes in landslide prone areas, thus the analysis is indicative of short term rather than long term spatial and temporal patterns. Results show that at continental scale, the spatial distribution of landslides in the 2004-2013 period correlates well with relief, precipitation and population density, while the temporal distribution reflects the regional annual rainfall patterns. In urban areas, the presence of informal settlements has a big impact on the number of fatalities, while at national level weaker correlations with gross income, human development and corruption indices can be found. This work was funded by the Durham International Fellowships for Research and Enterprise and Fondecyt project 1140317.

  18. Haemorrhagic pancreatitis--a cause of death in severe potassium permanganate poisoning.

    Middleton, S J; Jacyna, M.; McClaren, D.; Robinson, R; Thomas, H C


    Severe potassium permanganate poisoning (more than 10 g of potassium permanganate) is invariably associated with massive systemic upset and death. Multiple organ damage has been recognized as an inevitable consequence of such an overdose, although pancreatitis has not been previously reported. Death due to cardiovascular collapse and profound hypotension is a common end point in those who reach hospital, but the pathogenesis is uncertain. We report a case of haemorrhagic pancreatitis followin...

  19. Combining diagnostic categories to improve agreement between death certificate and autopsy classifications of cause of death for atomic bomb survivors, 1950-87

    Several investigators have observed less-than-desirable agreement between death certificate diagnoses and autopsy diagnoses for most specific causes of death, and even for some causes grouped by major disease category. Our results from data on 5130 autopsies of members of the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki conducted prior to September 1987 were equally discouraging. Among diseases with more than 10 cases observed, confirmation rates ranged from 13 % to 97 % and detection rates from 6 % to 90 %. Both rates were greater than 70 % for only 6 of 60 disease categories studied and for only 1 of 16 categories defined by major International Classification of Disease categories (neoplasms). This deficiency suggests cautious interpretation of results from studies based on death certificate diagnoses. To determine whether any groupings of diagnoses might meet acceptable accuracy requirements, we applied a hierarchical clustering method to data from these 5130 cohort members. The resulting classification system had 10 categories: breast cancer; other female cancers; cancers of the digestive organs; cancer of the larynx; leukemia; nasal, ear, or sinus cancer; tongue cancer; external causes; vascular disease; and all other causes. Confirmation and detection rates for each of these categories were at least 66 %. Although the categories are broad, particularly for nonneoplastic diseases, further divisions led to unacceptable accuracy rates for some of the resulting diagnostic groups. Using the derived classification system, there was 72 % agreement overall between death certificate and autopsy diagnoses compared to 53 % agreement for a second system obtained by grouping strictly by major disease category. Eighty-seven percent agreement was observed for a similar classification system with vascular disease grouped with all other nonneoplastic diseases. Further agglomeration achieved very little additional improvement. (J.P.N.)

  20. Gains in life expectancy after elimination of major causes of death: revised estimates taking into account the effect of competing causes

    J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); A.E. Kunst (Anton); H. Lautenbach; Y.B. Oei; F. Bijlsma


    textabstractBACKGROUND: It is generally acknowledged that conventional estimates of the potential number of life years to be gained by elimination of causes of death are too generous. This is because these estimates fail to take into account the fact that those who are

  1. Causes of Stillbirth and Time of Death in Swedish Holstein Calves Examined Post Mortem

    Elvander M


    Full Text Available This study was initiated due to the observation of increasing and rather high levels of stillbirths, especially in first-calving Swedish Holstein cows (10.3%, 2002. Seventy-six Swedish Holstein calves born to heifers at 41 different farms were post mortem examined in order to investigate possible reasons for stillbirth and at what time in relation to full-term gestation they had occurred. The definition of a stillborn calf was dead at birth or within 24 h after birth after at least 260 days of gestation. Eight calves were considered as having died already in uterus. Slightly less than half of the examined calves (46.1% were classified as having died due to a difficult calving. Four calves (5.3% had different kinds of malformations (heart defects, enlarged thymus, urine bladder defect. Approximately one third of the calves (31.6% were clinically normal at full-term with no signs of malformation and born with no indication of difficulties at parturition or any other reason that could explain the stillbirth. The numbers of male and female calves were rather equally distributed within the groups. A wide variation in post mortem weights was seen in all groups, although a number of the calves in the group of clinically normal calves with unexplained reason of death were rather small and, compared with e.g. those calves categorised as having died due to a difficult calving, their average birth weight was 6 kg lower (39.9 ± 1.7 kg vs. 45.9 ± 1.5 kg, p ≤ 0.01. It was concluded that the cause of stillbirth with a non-infectious aetiology is likely to be multifactorial and difficult calving may explain only about half of the stillbirths. As much as one third of the calves seemed clinically normal with no obvious reason for death. This is a target group of calves that warrants a more thorough investigation in further studies.

  2. High Israeli mortality rates from diabetes and renal failure - Can international comparison of multiple causes of death reflect differences in choice of underlying cause?

    Goldberger, Nehama; Applbaum, Yael; Meron, Jill; Haklai, Ziona


    Background The age-adjusted mortality rate in Israel is low compared to most Western countries although mortality rates from diabetes and renal failure in Israel are amongst the highest, while those from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are amongst the lowest. This study aims to assess validity of choice of underlying causes (UC) in Israel by analyzing Israeli and international data on the prevalence of these diseases as multiple causes of death (MCOD) compared to UC, and data on comorbidity (MC...

  3. Statistical studies on cause of death among a-bomb survivors from 1970 to 1976 in Nagasaki City

    The death rate from malignant neoplasms in a-bomb survivors was higher than that in Japan through the whole period from 1970 to 1976. The death rate from malignant neoplasms was also high in a-bomb survivors in their thirties and fortieth exposed to a-bomb near the hypocenter. Seven thousand, five hundred and twenty-eight a-bomb survivors investigated this time were quivalent to 90% of all 8,334 a-bomb survivors who died during the period from 1970 to 1976. Therefore, the result obtained from this investigation seemed to indicate the cause of death correctly. Remaining 10% are now under investigation. (Tsunoda, M.)

  4. Causes of death of thoroughbred racehorses at Octavio Dupont Veterinary Hospital, Brazilian Jockey Club, Rio de Janeiro

    Marsel C. Pereira


    Full Text Available There are few studies that approach the epidemiology of deaths in racehorses in a broad manner. The majority focus on a specific affection or procedure. Brazil does not have a program instituted for the monitoring of deaths of horses. By means of a descriptive study in association with a multivariate analysis method, an epidemiologic profile was determined for deaths related to musculoskeletal (MS, gastrointestinal (GI, respiratory (RES systems, neurologic origin (NEU and sudden death (SD for the years of 2002 to 2008, at the Octavio Dupont Veterinary Hospital-Rio de Janeiro (ODVH. Males comprised the majority of deaths and that deaths were related to, decreasing order, MS>GI>SD>NEU>RES, with respect to general mortality rate per large group of determined causes (TSPMr. The majority of deaths registered included horses aged four to five years (ID4-ID5. We observed the following correspondence relations: (3-year period = SM - ID>5 - SD; ID>5 - GI; ID4-5 - MS; SF - ID5 - GI; SF - ID5. The present study points out the importance and necessity of epidemiologic studies of lesions in horses, based on diagnosis for the recognition of predisposing factors and prevention.

  5. Mortality and causes of death of 513 Danish patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Jacobsen, Søren; Petersen, Jørgen; Ullman, S;


    A multicentre cohort of 513 clinic attenders with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was retrospectively identified, representing 4185 patient-years of follow-up. Expected numbers of death were calculated by means of age- and sex-specific mortality rates of the general Danish population. The...

  6. Liver-Specific Deletion of SRSF2 Caused Acute Liver Failure and Early Death in Mice.

    Cheng, Yuanming; Luo, Chunling; Wu, Wenwu; Xie, Zhiqin; Fu, Xiangdong; Feng, Ying


    The liver performs a variety of unique functions critical for metabolic homeostasis. Here, we show that mice lacking the splicing factor SRSF2 but not SRSF1 in hepatocytes have severe liver pathology and biochemical abnormalities. Histological analyses revealed generalized hepatitis with the presence of ballooned hepatocytes and evidence of fibrosis. Molecular analysis demonstrated that SRSF2 governs splicing of multiple genes involved in the stress-induced cell death pathway in the liver. More importantly, SRSF2 also functions as a potent transcription activator, required for efficient expression of transcription factors mainly responsible for energy homeostasis and bile acid metabolism in the liver. Consistent with the effects of SRSF2 in gene regulation, accumulation of total cholesterol and bile acids was prominently observed in the mutant liver, followed by enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species and increased endoplasmic reticulum stress, as revealed by biochemical and ultrastructural analyses. Taking these observations together, inactivation of SRSF2 in liver caused dysregulated splicing events and hepatic metabolic disorders, which trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, and finally liver failure. PMID:27022105

  7. Evaluation of Impact of Major Causes of Death on Life Expectancy Changes in China, 1990-2005



    Objective To evaluate the impact of major causes of death on changes of life expectancy in China. Methods Life expectancy was calculated by standard life table techniques using mortality data from the national censuses in 1990 and 2000 and the 1% National Population Sampling Surveys in 1995 and 2005. Mortality data about the major causes of death from VR-MOH were used as reference values to estimate their death proportions of the specific age groups by sex and regions, as well as all-cause mortality and age-specific mortality rates of major causes of death. Decomposition method was used to quantitatively evaluate the impact. Results Three key findings were identified in our study. First, China's health challenge was shifted from diseases related to living conditions to those related to behavior and lifestyle, with rural areas relatively lagged behind urban areas. Second, the impacts of cardiovascular diseases and neoplasm on the middle aged and elderly population were stressed. Third, compared to the urban population, the rural population tended to have increasing mortality of neoplasm and cardiovascular diseases, especially in adults at the age of 15-39 years. Conclusion Further efforts should be made to reduce the incidence of neoplasm and cardiovascular diseases, especially in rural areas, by promoting healthy behavior and lifestyle and providing appropriate therapies for all patients in need.

  8. Trends in underlying causes of death in people with HIV from 1999 to 2011 (D:A:D)

    Smith, Colette J; Nielsen, Lene Ryom; Weber, Rainer;


    BACKGROUND: With the advent of effective antiretroviral treatment, the life expectancy for people with HIV is now approaching that seen in the general population. Consequently, the relative importance of other traditionally non-AIDS-related morbidities has increased. We investigated trends over...... time in all-cause mortality and for specific causes of death in people with HIV from 1999 to 2011. METHODS: Individuals from the Data collection on Adverse events of anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study were followed up from March, 1999, until death, loss to follow-up, or Feb 1, 2011, whichever occurred first....... The D:A:D study is a collaboration of 11 cohort studies following HIV-1-positive individuals receiving care at 212 clinics in Europe, USA, and Australia. All fatal events were centrally validated at the D:A:D coordinating centre using coding causes of death in HIV (CoDe) methodology. We calculated...

  9. Revising the WHO verbal autopsy instrument to facilitate routine cause-of-death monitoring

    Leitao, Jordana; Chandramohan, Daniel; Byass, Peter; Jakob, Robert; Bundhamcharoen, Kanitta; Choprapawon, Chanpen; de Savigny, Don; Fottrell, Edward; França, Elizabeth; Frøen, Frederik; Gewaifel, Gihan; Hodgson, Abraham; Hounton, Sennen; Kahn, Kathleen; Krishnan, Anand; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Masanja, Honorati; Nichols, Erin; Notzon, Francis; Rasooly, Mohammad Hafiz; Sankoh, Osman; Spiegel, Paul; AbouZahr, Carla; Amexo, Marc; Kebede, Derege; Alley, William Soumbey; Marinho, Fatima; Ali, Mohamed; Loyola, Enrique; Chikersal, Jyotsna; Gao, Jun; Annunziata, Giuseppe; Bahl, Rajiv; Bartolomeus, Kidist; Boerma, Ties; Ustun, Bedirhan; Chou, Doris; Muhe, Lulu; Mathai, Matthews


    Objective Verbal autopsy (VA) is a systematic approach for determining causes of death (CoD) in populations without routine medical certification. It has mainly been used in research contexts and involved relatively lengthy interviews. Our objective here is to describe the process used to shorten, simplify, and standardise the VA process to make it feasible for application on a larger scale such as in routine civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems. Methods A literature review of existing VA instruments was undertaken. The World Health Organization (WHO) then facilitated an international consultation process to review experiences with existing VA instruments, including those from WHO, the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health in Developing Countries (INDEPTH) Network, InterVA, and the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC). In an expert meeting, consideration was given to formulating a workable VA CoD list [with mapping to the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) CoD] and to the viability and utility of existing VA interview questions, with a view to undertaking systematic simplification. Findings A revised VA CoD list was compiled enabling mapping of all ICD-10 CoD onto 62 VA cause categories, chosen on the grounds of public health significance as well as potential for ascertainment from VA. A set of 221 indicators for inclusion in the revised VA instrument was developed on the basis of accumulated experience, with appropriate skip patterns for various population sub-groups. The duration of a VA interview was reduced by about 40% with this new approach. Conclusions The revised VA instrument resulting from this consultation process is presented here as a means of making it available for widespread use and evaluation. It is envisaged that this will be used in conjunction with automated models for assigning CoD from VA data, rather than involving physicians. PMID

  10. Mortality Rates and Causes of Death of Convicted Dutch Criminals 25 Years Later

    Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Piquero, Alex R.


    Extant theory hypothesizes that offenders have greater risk of premature and unnatural death than nonoffenders, but few studies have assessed this hypothesis; those doing so have relied on U.S. samples of male offenders typically followed until midlife. This article examines the relation between cri

  11. RBE of tritium beta rays for causes of death other than myeloid leukemia in male CBA/H mice

    Causes of death were examined for 5,206 male CBA/H mice which had previously been treated with tritiated water or with X rays at comparable doses and comparable dose rates. Data on induced myeloid leukemia had been examined in detail in a previous report. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relative biological effectiveness of tritium beta rays for causes of death other than mye-loid leukemia. However, no consistent values for the tritium relative biological effectiveness were obtained. The values were spread over a wide range for different endpoints and were generally less reliable than those for induction of myeloid leukemia. A surprising decrease in time to death of animals without tumours was observed in the irradiated groups of mice. This observation suggests that a detailed review of recent data on non-specific life shortening in irradiated animals and humans might be useful

  12. Death in Irish Prisons: An Examination of the Causes of Deaths and the Compliance of Investigations with the European Convention on Human Rights

    Barry, Colette


    Death is a tragic and unfortunately unavoidable aspect of life in a prison. The death of a prisoner raises significant questions in relation to the conditions of confinement and the conduct of the prison authorities. Robust investigations into these deaths can enhance accountability by shedding light on deficits in both institutional and systemic practices, as well as providing families of the deceased with a sense of closure. In Ireland, the investigative responses to prison deaths are neith...

  13. Investigation of final causes of death in 5360 deceased patients within a teaching hospital in Isfahan, Iran

    Zahra Tolou-Ghamari


    To increase quality of care for critically ill patients admitted to hospitals, understanding various causes of death could provide better quality of care. In this study, medical records of 5360 deceased patientswere reviewed with reference to the mortality reports.A total of 2019 deceased females and 3341deceased males were studied from 2011 to 2013. Neurologic disorders could be categorized as the highest cause of mortality report (25%). Pulmonary, gastrointestinal and heart diseases could b...

  14. A sexual comparative study on the death cause of the nuclear industry workers

    By the analysis of nuclear industry workers death causation in sexual distribution, standardized management and relative risk, it indicated that crude mortality for male and female was 224.77 x 10-5 and 88.42 x 10-5 respectively; standardized mortality rate was 257.31 x 10-5 and 135.13 x 10-5 respectively, RR 1.90 (P female (P female, P < 0.01), it seemed that the death risk in radiation group was larger than that of control group and in male group was larger than that in female group

  15. Prognostic factors affecting the all-cause death and sudden cardiac death rates of post myocardial infarction patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction

    DAI Shi-mo; ZHANG Shu; CHEN Ke-ping; HUA Wei; WANG Fang-zheng; CHEN Xin


    Background Post myocardial infarction (post-MI) patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) have been candidates for an implantable cardioverter-deflbrillator (ICD) since the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trail II (MADIT II).However,due to the high costs of ICDs,widespread usage has not been accepted.Therefore,further risk stratification for post-MI patients with low LVEF may aid in the selection of patients that will benefit most from ICD treatment.Methods Four hundred and seventeen post-MI patients with low LVEF (≤35%) were enrolled in the study.All the patients received standard examination and proper treatment and were followed up to observe the all-cause death rate and sudden cardiac death (SCD) rate.Then COX proportional-hazards regression model was used to investigate the clinical factors which affect the all-cause death rate and SCD rate.Results Of 55 patients who died during (32±24) months of follow-up,37 (67%) died suddenly.After adjusting for baseline clinical characteristics,multivariate COX proportional-hazards regression model identified the following variables associated with death from all causes:New York Heart Association (NYHA) heart failure class ≥111 (Hazard ratio:2.361),LVEF ≤20% (Hazard ratio:2.514),sustained ventricular tachycardia (Hazard ratio:6.453),and age ≥70 years (Hazard ratio:3.116).The presence of sustained ventricular tachycardia (Hazard ratio:6.491) and age ≥70 years (Hazard ratio:2.694) were specifically associated with SCD.Conclusions In the post-MI patients with low LVEF,factors as LVEF ≤20%,age ≥70 years,presence of ventricular tachycardia,and NYHA heart failure class≥111 predict an adverse outcome.The presence of sustained ventricular tachycardia and age ≥70 years was associated with occurrence of SCD in these patients.

  16. Temporal trends and gender differentials in causes of childhood deaths at Ballabgarh, India - Need for revisiting child survival strategies

    Krishnan Anand


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relating Information on causes of deaths to implementation of health interventions provides vital information for program planning and evaluation. This paper from Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS site in north India looks at temporal trends and gender differentials in the causes of death among under-five children. Methods Data on causes of death for 1972-74, 1982-84, 1992-94, 2002-04 were taken from existing HDSS publications and database. Physicians’ assigned causes of death were based on narratives by lay health worker till 1994 and later by verbal autopsy. Cause Specific Mortality Fractions (CSMF and Cause Specific Mortality Rates (CSMR per 1000 live births were calculated for neonatal ( Results The CSMF of prematurity and sepsis was 32% and 17.6% during neonatal period in 2002-04. The share of infections in all childhood deaths decreased from 55.2% in 1972-74 to 43.6% in 2002-04. All major causes of mortality (malnutrition, diarrhea and acute lower respiratory infection except injuries showed a steep decline among children and seem to have plateued in last decade. Most of disease specific public health interventions were launched in mid eighties. . Girls reported significantly higher mortality rates for prematurity (RR 1.52; 95% CI 1.01-2.29; diarrhea (2.29; 1.59 – 3.29, and malnutrition (3.37; 2.05 – 5.53. Conclusions The findings of the study point out to the need to move away from disease-specific to a comprehensive approach and to address gender inequity in child survival through socio-behavioural approaches.

  17. Decomposition of educational differences in life expectancy by age and causes of death among South Korean adults

    Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Khang, Young-Ho; Cho, Hong-Jun; Yun, Sung-Cheol


    Background Decomposition of socioeconomic inequalities in life expectancy by ages and causes allow us to better understand the nature of socioeconomic mortality inequalities and to suggest priority areas for policy and intervention. This study aimed to quantify age- and cause-specific contributions to socioeconomic differences in life expectancy at age 25 by educational level among South Korean adult men and women. Methods We used National Death Registration records in 2005 (129,940 men and 1...

  18. Age-related differences in mechanism, cause, and location of trauma deaths

    Meisler, Rikke; Thomsen, Annemarie Bondegaard; Theilade, Peter;


    BACKGROUND: Trauma death has traditionally been described as primarily occurring in young men exposed to penetrating trauma or road traffic accidents. The epidemiology of trauma fatalities in Europe may change as a result of the increasing proportion of elderly patients. The goal of this study was...

  19. Blockage of spontaneous Ca2+ oscillation causes cell death in intraerythrocitic Plasmodium falciparum.

    Masahiro Enomoto

    Full Text Available Malaria remains one of the world's most important infectious diseases and is responsible for enormous mortality and morbidity. Resistance to antimalarial drugs is a challenging problem in malaria control. Clinical malaria is associated with the proliferation and development of Plasmodium parasites in human erythrocytes. Especially, the development into the mature forms (trophozoite and schizont of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum causes severe malaria symptoms due to a distinctive property, sequestration which is not shared by any other human malaria. Ca(2+ is well known to be a highly versatile intracellular messenger that regulates many different cellular processes. Cytosolic Ca(2+ increases evoked by extracellular stimuli are often observed in the form of oscillating Ca(2+ spikes (Ca(2+ oscillation in eukaryotic cells. However, in lower eukaryotic and plant cells the physiological roles and the molecular mechanisms of Ca(2+ oscillation are poorly understood. Here, we showed the observation of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphospate (IP(3-dependent spontaneous Ca(2+ oscillation in P. falciparum without any exogenous extracellular stimulation by using live cell fluorescence Ca(2+ imaging. Intraerythrocytic P. falciparum exhibited stage-specific Ca(2+ oscillations in ring form and trophozoite stages which were blocked by IP(3 receptor inhibitor, 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2-APB. Analyses of parasitaemia and parasite size and electron micrograph of 2-APB-treated P. falciparum revealed that 2-APB severely obstructed the intraerythrocytic maturation, resulting in cell death of the parasites. Furthermore, we confirmed the similar lethal effect of 2-APB on the chloroquine-resistant strain of P. falciparum. To our best knowledge, we for the first time showed the existence of the spontaneous Ca(2+ oscillation in Plasmodium species and clearly demonstrated that IP(3-dependent spontaneous Ca(2+ oscillation in P. falciparum is critical for the development

  20. Causas mal definidas de morte e óbitos sem assistência Ill-defined causes of death and unattended deaths, Brazil, 2003

    Augusto Hasiak Santo


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Este trabalho estuda a distribuição dos óbitos por causas mal definidas no Brasil, no ano de 2003, entre as quais identifica a proporção de mortes sem assistência. MÉTODOS: Os dados provieram do Sistema de Informações Sobre Mortalidade, coordenado pelo Ministério da Saúde. As causas mal definidas de morte compreenderam as incluídas no "Capítulo XVIII - Sintomas, sinais e achados anormais de exames clínicos e de laboratório não classificados em outra parte" da Classificação Estatística Internacional de Doenças e Problemas Relacionados à Saúde, décima revisão, capítulo este no qual a categoria R98 identificava a "morte sem assistência". RESULTADOS: No Brasil, em 2003, a causa básica de 13,3% dos óbitos foi identificada como mal definida, sendo que as proporções maiores ocorreram nas Regiões Nordeste e Norte. Do total de causas mal definidas no país, 53,3% corresponderam a mortes sem assistência, proporção esta que superou 70% nos Estados do Maranhão, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, Pernambuco, Bahia, Paraíba e Alagoas. CONCLUSÃO: Dada a estrutura descentralizada para o levantamento dos óbitos no país, identifica-se a maior responsabilidade dos municípios e, em seguida, dos Estados para o aprimoramento da qualidade das estatísticas de mortalidade.BACKGROUND: We studied the distribution of deaths from ill-defined causes that occurred in Brazil during 2003, from which was identified the proportion of unattended deaths. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Mortality Information System, coordinated by the Ministry of Health. Causes of death included in "Chapter XVIII - Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not classified elsewhere" of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, tenth revision, were considered ill-defined, among which the category R98 identified "unattended deaths". RESULTS: In Brazil during 2003 the underlying causes of

  1. Suicides, homicides, accidents, and other external causes of death among blacks and whites in the Southern Community Cohort Study.

    Jennifer S Sonderman

    Full Text Available Prior studies of risk factors associated with external causes of death have been limited in the number of covariates investigated and external causes examined. Herein, associations between numerous demographic, lifestyle, and health-related factors and the major causes of external mortality, such as suicide, homicide, and accident, were assessed prospectively among 73,422 black and white participants in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated in multivariate regression analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model. Men compared with women (HR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.87-2.89, current smokers (HR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.40-2.17, and unemployed/never employed participants at the time of enrollment (HR = 1.67; 95% CI 1.38-2.02 had increased risk of dying from all external causes, with similarly elevated HRs for suicide, homicide, and accidental death among both blacks and whites. Blacks compared with whites had lower risk of accidental death (HR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.38-0.57 and suicide (HR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.31-0.99. Blacks and whites in the SCCS had comparable risks of homicide death (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.63-1.76; however, whites in the SCCS had unusually high homicide rates compared with all whites who were resident in the 12 SCCS states, while black SCCS participants had homicide rates similar to those of all blacks residing in the SCCS states. Depression was the strongest risk factor for suicide, while being married was protective against death from homicide in both races. Being overweight/obese at enrollment was associated with reduced risks in all external causes of death, and the number of comorbid conditions was a risk factor for iatrogenic deaths. Most risk factors identified in earlier studies of external causes of death were confirmed in the SCCS cohort, in spite of the low SES of SCCS participants. Results from other epidemiologic cohorts are needed to confirm the novel findings

  2. Teen Suicide and Changing Cause-of-Death Certification, 1953-1987.

    Males, Mike


    Examined whether tripling in teenage suicides since 1950s represents increase in suicides or in skill of medical examiners. Examined firearms and poisoning death from 1953-87. Concludes that increase in youth suicide is less dramatic than reported, and suicide increase indicated among youths and adults occurred from 1964-71 and has since…

  3. Association of body mass index with cause specific deaths in Chinese elderly hypertensive patients: Minhang community study.

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most studies have suggested that elevated body mass index (BMI was associated with the risk of death from all cause and from specific causes. However, there was little evidence illustrating the effect of BMI on the mortality in elderly hypertensive patients in Chinese population. METHODS: The information of 10,957 hypertensive patients at baseline not less than 60 years were from Xinzhuang, a town in Minhang district of Shanghai, was extracted from the Electronic Health Record (EHR system. All study participants were divided into eight categories of baseline BMI (with cut-points at 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28 and 30 kg/m(2. Relative hazard ratio of death from all cause, cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular cause by baseline BMI groups were calculated, standardized for sex, age, smoking, drinking, physical activity, systolic blood pressure, history of cardiovascular disorders, serum lipid disturbance, diabetes mellitus and antihypertensive drug treatment. RESULTS: DURING FOLLOW UP (MEDIAN: 3.7 years, 561 deaths occurred. Underweight (BMI<18 kg/m(2 was associated with significantly increased mortality from all cause mortality (OR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.43-2.79 and non cardiovascular mortality (OR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.87-4.07, but not with cardiovascular mortality. For the cause specific analysis, the underweight was associated significantly with neoplasms (OR: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.16-4.00 and respiratory disorders (OR: 3.41; 95% CI: 1.64-7.06. The results for total mortality and specific cause mortality were not influenced by sex, age and smoking status. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed an association between underweight and increased mortality from non-cardiovascular disorders in elderly hypertensive patients in Chinese community. Overweight and obesity were not associated with all cause or cause specific death.

  4. Air pollution and mortality: Effect modification by personal characteristics and specific cause of death in a case-only study

    Short-term effects of air pollution on mortality have been well documented in the literature worldwide. Less is known about which subpopulations are more vulnerable to air pollution. We conducted a case-only study in Hong Kong to examine the potential effect modification by personal characteristics and specific causes of death. Individual information of 402,184 deaths of non-external causes and daily mean concentrations of air pollution were collected from 2001 to 2011. For a 10 μg/m3 increase of pollution concentration, people aged ≥∇65 years (compared with younger ages) had a 0.9–1.8% additional increase in mortality related to PM, NO2, and SO2. People dying from cardiorespiratory diseases (compared with other non-external causes) had a 1.6–2.3% additional increase in PM and NO2 related mortality. Other subgroups that were particularly susceptible were females and those economically inactive. Lower socioeconomic status and causes of cardiorespiratory diseases would increase the likelihood of death associated with air pollution. - Highlights: • We conducted a case-only study in Hong Kong to examine the effect modification. • We identified the subpopulations particularly vulnerable to air pollution related death. • Elderly, female and those economically inactive would increase the risk of air pollution. • Specific causes of cardiorespiratory death showed vulnerability to air pollution. - We conducted a case-only study to identify several personal characteristics and specific cardiorespiratory causes that vulnerable to air pollution related mortality

  5. A population-based study relevant to seasonal variations in causes of death in children undergoing surgery for congenital cardiac malformations

    Eskedal, Leif T.; Hagemo, Petter S.; Eskild, Anne; Frøslie, Kathrine F; Seiler, Stephen; Thaulow, Erik


    Aims: Our objectives were, first, to study seasonal distribution of perioperative deaths within 30 days after surgery, and late death, in children undergoing surgery for congenitally malformed hearts, and second, to study the causes of late death. Methods: We analysed a retrospective cohort of 1,753 children with congenital cardiac malformations born and undergoing surgery in the period from 1990 through 2002 with a special focus on the causes of late death. The data was obtained from the...

  6. Multiple causes of asphyxia in infants at high risk for sudden infant death.

    Jeffery, H E; Rahilly, P; Read, D J


    A wide range of clinical findings was present in 58 near-miss sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) infants and 6 surviving twins of SIDS siblings. Specific investigations included: studies of gastro-oesophageal reflux and aspiration (24-hour oesophageal pH recordings, barium swallow, radionuclide 'milk-scan'); polygraphic studies of breathing, reflux, and sleep state; studies of upper airways disease (lateral airways radiography and endoscopy); detection of seizure activity by electroencephalo...

  7. Vascular disease as a cause of death in patients with severe disability due to osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis

    Smith, Ann Marie; Lingard, Liz; Heslop, Peta; Gray, Janine; Walker, David J


    Objectives The mechanism of the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains uncertain. We had the opportunity to compare the causes and ages of death in a population of osteoarthritis (OA) and RA patients who had had similar lower limb disability. Methods Death certificates were sought for a population of OA and RA patients who had had knee joint replacements performed by a single orthopaedic surgeon over a 10 year period with a minimum follow up period of 18...

  8. The Preventable Causes of Death in the United States: Comparative Risk Assessment of Dietary, Lifestyle, and Metabolic Risk Factors

    Danaei, Goodarz; Ding, Eric L.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Taylor, Ben; Rehm, Jürgen; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Ezzati, Majid


    Background Knowledge of the number of deaths caused by risk factors is needed for health policy and priority setting. Our aim was to estimate the mortality effects of the following 12 modifiable dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors in the United States (US) using consistent and comparable methods: high blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and blood pressure; overweight–obesity; high dietary trans fatty acids and salt; low dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids (seafood), and fruits and vegetables; physical inactivity; alcohol use; and tobacco smoking. Methods and Findings We used data on risk factor exposures in the US population from nationally representative health surveys and disease-specific mortality statistics from the National Center for Health Statistics. We obtained the etiological effects of risk factors on disease-specific mortality, by age, from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies that had adjusted (i) for major potential confounders, and (ii) where possible for regression dilution bias. We estimated the number of disease-specific deaths attributable to all non-optimal levels of each risk factor exposure, by age and sex. In 2005, tobacco smoking and high blood pressure were responsible for an estimated 467,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 436,000–500,000) and 395,000 (372,000–414,000) deaths, accounting for about one in five or six deaths in US adults. Overweight–obesity (216,000; 188,000–237,000) and physical inactivity (191,000; 164,000–222,000) were each responsible for nearly 1 in 10 deaths. High dietary salt (102,000; 97,000–107,000), low dietary omega-3 fatty acids (84,000; 72,000–96,000), and high dietary trans fatty acids (82,000; 63,000–97,000) were the dietary risks with the largest mortality effects. Although 26,000 (23,000–40,000) deaths from ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and diabetes were averted by current alcohol use, they were

  9. The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors.

    Goodarz Danaei


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the number of deaths caused by risk factors is needed for health policy and priority setting. Our aim was to estimate the mortality effects of the following 12 modifiable dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors in the United States (US using consistent and comparable methods: high blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure; overweight-obesity; high dietary trans fatty acids and salt; low dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids (seafood, and fruits and vegetables; physical inactivity; alcohol use; and tobacco smoking. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data on risk factor exposures in the US population from nationally representative health surveys and disease-specific mortality statistics from the National Center for Health Statistics. We obtained the etiological effects of risk factors on disease-specific mortality, by age, from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies that had adjusted (i for major potential confounders, and (ii where possible for regression dilution bias. We estimated the number of disease-specific deaths attributable to all non-optimal levels of each risk factor exposure, by age and sex. In 2005, tobacco smoking and high blood pressure were responsible for an estimated 467,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 436,000-500,000 and 395,000 (372,000-414,000 deaths, accounting for about one in five or six deaths in US adults. Overweight-obesity (216,000; 188,000-237,000 and physical inactivity (191,000; 164,000-222,000 were each responsible for nearly 1 in 10 deaths. High dietary salt (102,000; 97,000-107,000, low dietary omega-3 fatty acids (84,000; 72,000-96,000, and high dietary trans fatty acids (82,000; 63,000-97,000 were the dietary risks with the largest mortality effects. Although 26,000 (23,000-40,000 deaths from ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and diabetes were averted by current alcohol use, they were outweighed by

  10. Death caused by heat stroke: Case report

    Savić Slobodan


    Full Text Available Introduction. Heat stroke is the most dangerous among numerous disorders caused by elevated environmental temperature. It is characterized by an increased body temperature of over 40°C, the dysfunction of the central nervous system and the development of multiple organ failure. The aim of this paper was to highlight problems in the clinical and post-mortal diagnosis of fatal heat stroke. Case Outline. A 20-year-old male was found unconscious on the street; on admission at the Emergency Center, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, he was in a coma. The body temperature of 40°C was maintained despite the applied therapy, meningeal signs were negative, tachycardia with gallop rhythm, hypotension, bleeding from the nose and mouth, and presence of skin bruises. Laboratory findings: highly elevated LDH and creatine kinase, elevated serum creatinine, AST, and signs of DIC. Lethal outcome occurred 6 hours after admission, and the case remained clinically unsolved. Autopsy showed signs of hemorrhagic diathesis, brain and pulmonary edema, and microscopic examination revealed general congestion, internal bleeding in various organs, cerebral edema, massive blood aspiration and pulmonary edema. Toxicological and bacteriological examinations were negative. Based on these findings and subsequently obtained data on the conditions at the workplace where the young man had a part-time job, it was concluded that the violent death was caused by heat stroke. Conclusion. Since heat stroke is associated with a high mortality rate and high incidence of serious and permanent organ damage in survivors, it is important to make the diagnosis of heat stroke as quickly as possible and apply appropriate treatment. Misdiagnosis of heat stroke, and consequently inadequate treatment, with a potential fatal outcome for the patient, can be the reason for blaming doctors for the legal offense of medical malpractice in failing to administer first aid.

  11. Postmortem diagnosis of infectious heart diseases: A mystifying cause of Sudden Infant Death.

    Gaaloul, Imed; Riabi, Samira; Evans, Mark; Hunter, Timothy; Huber, Sally; Aouni, Mahjoub


    Sudden infant death (SID) is an unresolved problem of high relevance and previous studies have indicated a role of viral heart infections. The diagnosis remains difficult in clinical practice using routine diagnostic tests and must be substantially improved. A prospective study based on post-mortem samples from SID victims whose heart disease was not clinically recognized was conducted for 4 years in a Tunisian University Hospital. Pediatric cases of unnatural death served as controls. Both SID victims and controls were investigated for possible coxsackievirus-B (CV-B) infection in heart tissue. During the study period, 39 cases with a male predominance (77%) were reported. There was no positive family history of coronary artery disease among the victims. In 35 cases (90%), low birth weight and/or critical development period were reported. All SID victims had complained of mild fever and insomnia for a few days preceding death, which required infectious laboratory investigations marked with an elevated white blood cell count (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The cardiac biomarkers were also elevated. The histopathological investigations of the heart tissue samples revealed signs of myocardial and pericardial inflammation. Enterovirus was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and PCR from myocardial samples from 6 cases (15.3%) having myocarditis and 3 cases (7.7%) having perimyocarditis. The current study is of great interest and is aimed at urging health professionals to adopt systematically long intensive heart care in infants with underlying vulnerability as well as new diagnostic approaches including histopathology complemented with IHC and molecular pathology. PMID:27016640

  12. Clinico-pathological discrepancies in the diagnosis of causes of maternal death in sub-Saharan Africa: retrospective analysis.

    Jaume Ordi


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality is a major public-health problem in developing countries. Extreme differences in maternal mortality rates between developed and developing countries indicate that most of these deaths are preventable. Most information on the causes of maternal death in these areas is based on clinical records and verbal autopsies. Clinical diagnostic errors may play a significant role in this problem and might also have major implications for the evaluation of current estimations of causes of maternal death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A retrospective analysis of clinico-pathologic correlation was carried out, using necropsy as the gold standard for diagnosis. All maternal autopsies (n = 139 during the period from October 2002 to December 2004 at the Maputo Central Hospital, Mozambique were included and major diagnostic discrepancies were analyzed (i.e., those involving the cause of death. Major diagnostic errors were detected in 56 (40.3% maternal deaths. A high rate of false negative diagnoses was observed for infectious diseases, which showed sensitivities under 50%: HIV/AIDS-related conditions (33.3%, pyogenic bronchopneumonia (35.3%, pyogenic meningitis (40.0%, and puerperal septicemia (50.0%. Eclampsia, was the main source of false positive diagnoses, showing a low predictive positive value (42.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Clinico-pathological discrepancies may have a significant impact on maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa and question the validity of reports based on clinical data or verbal autopsies. Increasing clinical awareness of the impact of obstetric and nonobstetric infections with their inclusion in the differential diagnosis, together with a thorough evaluation of cases clinically thought to be eclampsia, could have a significant impact on the reduction of maternal mortality.

  13. Capsaicinoids Cause Inflammation and Epithelial Cell Death through Activation of Vanilloid Receptors

    Reilly, Christopher A.; Taylor, Jack L.; Lanza, Diane L.; Carr, Brian A.; Crouch, Dennis J.; Yost, Garold S.


    Capsaicinoids, found in less-than-lethal self-defense weapons, have been associated with respiratory failure and death in exposed animals and people. The studies described herein provide evidence for acute respiratory inflammation and damage to epithelial cells in experimental animals, and provide precise molecular mechanisms that mediate these effects using human bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells. Inhalation exposure of rats to pepper sprays (capsaicinoids) produced acute inflammatio...

  14. Development of post-hospital mortality indicators at different timeframes taking into account the causes of death

    Mechinaud Lamarche - Vadel, Agathe


    The main objective of this PhD work was to investigate different methodological options for the elaboration of post hospital mortality indicators aiming at reflecting quality of care, in particular to identify the most relevant timeframes and to assess the contribution of the causes of death information.In a first phase, the hospital discharge data of the French General health insurance scheme beneficiaries who died during the year following an hospital stay in 2008 or 2009 were linked to the...

  15. Long-Term Follow-Up of Individuals Undergoing Sex-Reassignment Surgery: Somatic Morbidity and Cause of Death

    Simonsen, Rikke Kildevæld; Hald, Gert Martin; Kristensen, Ellids; Giraldi, Annamaria


    Introduction Studies of mortality and somatic well-being after sex-reassignment surgery (SRS) of transsexual individuals are equivocal. Accordingly, the present study investigated mortality and somatic morbidity using a sample of transsexual individuals who comprised 98% (n = 104) of all surgically reassigned transsexual individuals in Denmark. Aims To investigate somatic morbidity before and after SRS and cause of death and its relation to somatic morbidity after SRS in Danish individuals wh...

  16. Aplastic anemia as a cause of death in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme treated with temozolomide

    Kopecky, Jindrich; Priester, Peter; Slovacek, Ladislav; Petera, Jiri; Macingova, Zuzana [Dept. of Clinical Oncology and Radiotherapy, Charles Univ. Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Kopecky, Otakar [Clinical Oncology, Regional Hospital Nachod (Czech Republic)


    Background: Standard treatment of glioblastoma multiforme consists of postoperative radiochemotherapy with temozolomide, followed by a 6-month chemotherapy. Serious hematologic complications are rarely reported. Case Report and Results: The authors present the case of a 61-year-old female patient with glioblastoma multiforme treated with external-beam radiation therapy and concomitant temozolomide. After completion of treatment, the patient developed symptoms of serious aplastic anemia that eventually led to death due to prolonged neutro- and thrombocytopenia followed by infectious complications. Conclusion: Lethal complications following temozolomide are, per se, extremely rare, however, a total of four other cases of aplastic anemia have been reported in the literature so far. (orig.)

  17. Aplastic anemia as a cause of death in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme treated with temozolomide

    Background: Standard treatment of glioblastoma multiforme consists of postoperative radiochemotherapy with temozolomide, followed by a 6-month chemotherapy. Serious hematologic complications are rarely reported. Case Report and Results: The authors present the case of a 61-year-old female patient with glioblastoma multiforme treated with external-beam radiation therapy and concomitant temozolomide. After completion of treatment, the patient developed symptoms of serious aplastic anemia that eventually led to death due to prolonged neutro- and thrombocytopenia followed by infectious complications. Conclusion: Lethal complications following temozolomide are, per se, extremely rare, however, a total of four other cases of aplastic anemia have been reported in the literature so far. (orig.)

  18. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    Naghavi, Mohsen; Wang, Haidong; Lozano, Rafael; Davis, Adrian; Liang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Vollset, Stein Emil; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abdalla, Safa; Abd-Allah, Foad; Aziz, Muna I. Abdel; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Biju; Abraham, Jerry P.; Abuabara, Katrina E.; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola; Ademi, Zanfi Na; Adofo, Koranteng; Adou, Arsene Kouablan; Adsuar, Jose C.; Aernlov, Johan; Agardh, Emilie Elisabet; Akena, Dickens; Al Khabouri, Mazin J.; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed; Alegretti, Miguel Angel; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Mohammed K.; Ali, Raghib; Alla, Francois; Al Lami, Faris; Allebeck, Peter; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alviz-Guzman, Nelson; Amankwaa, Adansi A.; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Ameli, Omid; Amini, Hassan; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, H. Ross; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Apfel, Henry; Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu; Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic; Al Artaman, Ali; Asad, Majed Masoud; Asghar, Rana J.; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S.; Atkinson, Charles; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C.; Bakfalouni, Talal; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balalla, Shivanthi; Banerjee, Amitava; Barber, Ryan M.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Basulaiman, Mohammed Omar; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L.; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Benzian, Habib; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bikbov, Boris; Bin Abdulhak, Aref; Biryukov, Stan; Blore, Jed D.; Blyth, Fiona M.; Bohensky, Megan A.; Borges, Guilherme; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R.; Boyers, Lindsay N.; Brainin, Michael; Brauer, Michael; Brayne, Carol E. G.; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D. M.; Brown, Jonathan C.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Buckle, Geoffrey C.; Bui, Linh Ngoc; Bukhman, Gene; Burch, Michael; Nonato, Ismael Ricardo Campos; Carabin, Helesne; Cardenas, Rosario; Carapetis, Jonathan; Carpenter, David O.; Caso, Valeria; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Castro, Ruben Estanislao; Catala-Lopez, Ferrn; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Chang, Jung-Chen; Charlson, Fiona C.; Che, Xuan; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Yingyao; Chen, Jian Sheng; Chen, Zhengming; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Hanne; Christophi, Costas A.; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Chugh, Sumeet S.; Cirillo, Massimo; Coates, Matthew M.; Coffeng, Luc Edgar; Coggeshall, Megan S.; Cohen, Aaron; Colistro, Valentina; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Colomar, Mercedes; Cooper, Leslie Trumbull; Cooper, Cyrus; Coppola, Luis M.; Cortinovis, Monica; Courville, Karen; Cowie, Benjamin C.; Criqui, Michael H.; Crump, John A.; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Leite, Iuri da Costa; Dabhadkar, Kaustubh C.; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dansereau, Emily; Dargan, Paul I.; Dayama, Anand; De la Cruz-Gongora, Vanessa; de la Vega, Shelley F.; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Jarlais, Don C. Des; Dessalegn, Muluken; deVeber, Gabrielle A.; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dherani, Mukesh; Diaz-Ortega, Jose-Luis; Diaz-Torne, Cesar; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L.; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E. Ray; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duan, Leilei; Duber, Herbert C.; Durrani, Adnan M.; Ebel, Beth E.; Edmond, Karen M.; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Elshrek, Yousef; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Erskine, Holly E.; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Fuerst, Thomas; Fahimi, Saman; Fahrion, Anna S.; Faraon, Emerito Jose A.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F. J.; Feigl, Andrea B.; Feigin, Valery L.; Felicio, Manuela Mendonca; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Jefferson G.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fleming, Thomas D.; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fowkes, F. Gerry R.; Fra Paleo, Urbano; Franklin, Richard C.; Futran, Neal D.; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gambashidze, Ketevan; Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho; Garcia-Guerra, Francisco Armando; Garcia, Ana Cristina; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gillum, Richard F.; Gilmour, Stuart; Abdelmageem, Ibrahim; Ginawi, Mohamed; Giroud, Maurice; Glaser, Elizabeth L.; Goenka, Shifalika; Dantes, Hector Gomez; Gona, Philimon; Gonzalez-Medina, Diego; Guinovart, Caterina; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gosselin, Richard A.; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Gowda, Hube N.; Graetz, Nicholas; Greenwell, K. Fern; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gunnell, David; Gutierrez, Reyna A.; Haagsma, Juanita; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Hagstromer, Maria; Halasa, Yara A.; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamavid, Hannah; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hancock, Jamie; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hansen, Gillian M.; Harb, Hilda L.; Harewood, Heather; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Roderick J.; Hay, Simon I.; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Pi, Ileana B. Heredia; Heuton, Kyle R.; Heydarpour, Pouria; Higashi, Hideki; Hijar, Martha; Hoek, Hans W.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Hornberger, John C.; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hossain, Mazeda; Hotez, Peter J.; Hoy, Damian G.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, John J.; Huffman, Mark D.; Hughes, Andrew J.; Husseini, Abdullatif; Huynh, Chantal; Iannarone, Marissa; Iburg, Kim M.; Idrisov, Bulat T.; Ikeda, Nayu; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Ismayilova, Samaya; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jassal, Simerjot; Jayaraman, Sudha P.; Jensen, Paul N.; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jonas, Jost B.; Joseph, Jonathan; Juel, Knud; Kabagambe, Edmond Kato; Kan, Haidong; Karch, Andre; Karimkhani, Chante; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kassebaum, Nicholas; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazanjan, Konstantin; Kazi, Dhruv S.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Keren, Andre; Kereselidze, Maia; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khan, Ejaz Ahmed; Khan, Gulfaraz; Khang, Young-Ho; Kieling, Christian; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M.; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Sowarta; Kotagal, Meera; Kravchenko, Michael A.; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Krueger, Hans; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Kumar, Ravi B.; Kwan, Gene F.; Kyu, Hmwe; Lai, Taavi; Balaji, Arjun Lakshmana; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C.; Larson, Heidi J.; Larsson, Anders; Lavados, Pablo M.; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E. B.; Leasher, Janet L.; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leigh, James; Leinsalu, Mall; Leung, Ricky; Levitz, Carly; Li, Bin; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Liddell, Chelsea; Lim, Stephen S.; de Lima, Graca Maria Ferreira; Lind, Maggie L.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Lofgren, Katherine T.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; London, Stephanie J.; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lucas, Robyn M.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan Anthony; Ma, Stefan; Machado, Vasco Manuel Pedro; MacIntyre, Michael F.; Mackay, Mark T.; MacLachlan, Jennifer H.; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Mahdi, Abbas A.; Majdan, Marek; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mangalam, Srikanth; Mapoma, Christopher Chabila; Marape, Marape; Marcenes, Wagner; Margono, Christopher; Marks, Guy B.; Marzan, Melvin Barrientos; Masci, Joseph R.; Mashal, Mohammad Taufi Q.; Masiye, Felix; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Matzopolous, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Mazorodze, Tasara T.; McGrath, John J.; Mckay, Abigail C.; Mckee, Martin; McLain, Abigail; Meaney, Peter A.; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Meltzer, Michele; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Mensah, George A.; Meretoja, Atte; Mhimbira, Francis A.; Miller, Ted R.; Mills, Edward J.; Misganaw, Awoke; Mishra, Santosh K.; Mock, Charles N.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mola, Glen Liddell; Monasta, Lorenzo; Monis, Jonathan de la Cruz; Hernandez, Julio C. Montaez; Montico, Marcella; Montine, Thomas J.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Moore, Ami R.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moran, Andrew E.; Mori, Rintaro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Moturi, Wilkister Nyaora; Moyer, Madeline L.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Mullany, Erin C.; Murray, Joseph; Mustapha, Adetoun; Naghavi, Paria; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S.; Naldi, Luigi; Nand, Devina; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Nash, Denis; Nasher, Jamal; Nejjari, Chakib; Nelson, Robert G.; Neuhouser, Marian; Neupane, Sudan Prasad; Newcomb, Polly A.; Newman, Lori; Newton, Charles R.; Ng, Marie; Ngalesoni, Frida Namnyak; Nguyen, Grant; Nhung Thi Trang Nguyen, [Unknown; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F.; Norman, Rosana E.; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Odell, Shaun; O'Donnell, Martin; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ohno, Summer Lockett; Olusanya, Bolajoko O.; Omer, Saad B.; Opio, John Nelson; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Ortblad, Katrina F.; Ortiz, Alberto; Otayza, Maria Lourdes K.; Pain, Amanda W.; Pandian, Jeyaraj D.; Panelo, Carlo Irwin; Panniyammakal, Jeemon; Papachristou, Christina; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J.; Patten, Scott B.; Patton, George C.; Paul, Vinod K.; Pavlin, Boris; Pearce, Neil; Pellegrini, Carlos A.; Pereira, David M.; Peresson, Sophie C.; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando P.; Perico, Norberto; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie B.; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Bryan K.; Phillips, David E.; Phillips, Michael R.; Plass, Dietrich; Piel, Frederic Bernard; Poenaru, Dan; Polinder, Suzanne; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Qato, Dima; Quezada, Amado D.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rabito, Felicia; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad U. R.; Raju, Murugesan; Rakovac, Ivo; Rana, Saleem M.; Refaat, Amany; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Ricci, Stefano; Riccio, Patricia M.; Richardson, Lee; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Roberts, Bayard; Roberts, D. Allen; Robinson, Margaret; Roca, Anna; Rodriguez, Alina; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Room, Robin; Roth, Gregory A.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Rothstein, David H.; Rowley, Jane Tf; Roy, Nobhojit; Ruhago, George M.; Rushton, Lesley; Sambandam, Sankar; Soreide, Kjetil; Saeedi, Mohammad Yahya; Saha, Sukanta; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Sahle, Berhe Weldearegawi; Salomon, Joshua A.; Salvo, Deborah; Samonte, Genesis May J.; Sampson, Uchechukwu; Sanabria, Juan Ramon; Sandar, Logan; Santos, Itamar S.; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Saylan, Mete; Scarborough, Peter; Schoettker, Ben; Schmidt, Juergen C.; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schumacher, Austin E.; Schwebel, David C.; Scott, James G.; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shackelford, Katya; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Shakh-Nazarova, Marina; Shangguan, Siyi; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shepard, Donald S.; Shibuya, Kenji; Shinohara, Yukito; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Shivakoti, Rupak; Shrime, Mark G.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Silberberg, Donald H.; Silva, Andrea P.; Simard, Edgar P.; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Lavanya; Sioson, Edgar; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; So, Samuel; Soljak, Michael; Soneji, Samir; Soshnikov, Sergey S.; Sposato, Luciano A.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stanaway, Jeff Rey D.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki Kalliopi; Steenland, Kyle; Stein, Claudia; Steiner, Caitlyn; Stevens, Antony; Stoeckl, Heidi; Straif, Kurt; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sturua, Lela; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Swaroop, Mamta; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabb, Karen M.; Takahashi, Ken; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio; Tan, Feng; Tanne, David; Tanner, Marcel; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Ao, Braden Te; Teixeira, Carolina Maria; Templin, Tara; Tenkorang, Eric Yeboah; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Thomas, Bernadette A.; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Thurston, George D.; Tillmann, Taavi; Tirschwell, David L.; Tleyjeh, Imad M.; Tonelli, Marcello; Topouzis, Fotis; Towbin, Jeffrey A.; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach X.; Truelsen, Thomas; Trujillo, Ulises; Trillini, Matias; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tuzcu, E. Murat; Ubeda, Clotilde; Uchendu, Uche S.; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Vallely, Andrew J.; van de Vijver, Steven; van Gool, Coen H.; Varakin, Yuri Y.; Vasankari, Tommi J.; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales; Vavilala, Monica S.; Venketasubramanian, N.; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Villalpando, Salvador; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Wagner, Gregory R.; Waller, Stephen G.; Wang, JianLi; Wang, Linhong; Wang, XiaoRong; Wang, Yanping; Warouw, Tati Suryati; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Wenzhi, Wang; Werdecker, Andrea; Wessells, K. Ryan R.; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wilkinson, James D.; Williams, Thomas Neil; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Wolock, Timothy M.; Woolf, Anthony D.; Wong, John Q.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Wulf, Sarah; Wurtz, Brittany; Xu, Gelin; Yang, Yang C.; Yano, Yuichiro; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa; Yu, Chuanhua; Jin, Kim Yun; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zamakhshary, Mohammed Fouad; Zeeb, Hajo; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zhu, Jun; Zhu, Shankuan; Zonies, David; Zou, Xiao Nong; Zunt, Joseph R.; Vos, Theo; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.


    Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specifi c all-cause and cause-specifi c mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries betwe

  19. Diseases of comfort: primary cause of death in the 22nd century

    Choi, B. C. K.; Hunter, D. J.; Tsou, W.; Sainsbury, P.


    Context: The world has started to feel the impact of a global chronic disease epidemic, which is putting pressure on our health care systems. If uncurbed, a new generation of "diseases of comfort" (such as those chronic diseases caused by obesity and physical inactivity) will become a major public health problem in this and the next century. Objective: To describe the concept, causes, and prevention and control strategies of diseases of comfort. Methods: Brokered by a senior researc...

  20. Selective inhibition of apicoplast tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase causes delayed death in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Pasaje, Charisse Flerida A; Cheung, Vanessa; Kennedy, Kit; Lim, Erin E; Baell, Jonathan B; Griffin, Michael D W; Ralph, Stuart A


    The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum relies on efficient protein translation. An essential component of translation is the tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) that charges tRNA(trp). Here we characterise two isoforms of TrpRS in Plasmodium; one eukaryotic type localises to the cytosol and a bacterial type localises to the remnant plastid (apicoplast). We show that the apicoplast TrpRS aminoacylates bacterial tRNA(trp) while the cytosolic TrpRS charges eukaryotic tRNA(trp). An inhibitor of bacterial TrpRSs, indolmycin, specifically inhibits aminoacylation by the apicoplast TrpRS in vitro, and inhibits ex vivo Plasmodium parasite growth, killing parasites with a delayed death effect characteristic of apicoplast inhibitors. Indolmycin treatment ablates apicoplast inheritance and is rescuable by addition of the apicoplast metabolite isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP). These data establish that inhibition of an apicoplast housekeeping enzyme leads to loss of the apicoplast and this is sufficient for delayed death. Apicoplast TrpRS is essential for protein translation and is a promising, specific antimalarial target. PMID:27277538

  1. Early Mortality and Primary Causes of Death in Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability or Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Jenny Fairthorne; Geoff Hammond; Jenny Bourke; Peter Jacoby; Helen Leonard


    INTRODUCTION: Mothers of children with intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have poorer health than other mothers. Yet no research has explored whether this poorer health is reflected in mortality rates or whether certain causes of death are more likely. We aimed to calculate the hazard ratios for death and for the primary causes of death in mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD compared to other mothers. METHODS: The study population comprised all mothe...

  2. Early Mortality and Primary Causes of Death in Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability or Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Hammond, Geoff; Bourke, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen


    Introduction Mothers of children with intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have poorer health than other mothers. Yet no research has explored whether this poorer health is reflected in mortality rates or whether certain causes of death are more likely. We aimed to calculate the hazard ratios for death and for the primary causes of death in mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD compared to other mothers. Methods The study population comprised all mothers...

  3. Tuberculosis Case Fatality and Other Causes of Death among Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in a High HIV Prevalence Setting, 2000-2008, South Africa

    Martie van der Walt; Joey Lancaster; Karen Shean


    Introduction South Africa has the highest reported rates of multi-drug resistant TB in Africa, typified by poor treatment outcomes, attributable mainly to high default and death rates. Concomitant HIV has become the strongest predictor of death among MDR-TB patients, while anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced mortality. TB Case fatality rate (CFR) is an indicator that specifically reports on deaths due to TB. Aim The aim of this paper was to investigate causes of death among...

  4. The pathology of embryo death caused by the male-killing Spiroplasma bacterium in Drosophila nebulosa

    Heraty Joseph


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inherited bacteria that kill male offspring, male-killers, are known to be common in insects, but little is understood about the mechanisms used by male-killing bacteria to kill males. In this paper we describe the tempo and changes that occur during male-killing by Spiroplasma bacteria in the host Drosophila nebulosa. Results Spiroplasma infected D. nebulosa males were developmentally retarded from 6–8 h into embryonic development at 25°C, and arrested at between stages 12 and 13 of embryogenesis (10–12 h. Dying males were characterized by a failure to form segments, and ultimately disintegration of the normal oval embryonic shape. Prior to death, dying males exhibited widespread apoptosis, as testified by TUNEL staining. Conclusion The Spiroplasma kills male Drosophila in a narrow developmental period, shortly after the formation of the host dosage compensation complex that is required for male-killing. Male death is preceded by widespread apoptosis, but it is uncertain if this is primary or secondary apoptosis.

  5. Cause of Death and the Quest for Meaning after the Loss of a Child

    Lichtenthal, Wendy G.; Neimeyer, Robert A.; Currier, Joseph M.; Roberts, Kailey; Jordan, Nancy


    This study examined patterns of making meaning among 155 parents whose children died from a variety of violent and non-violent causes. Findings indicated 53% of violent loss survivors could not make sense of their loss, as compared to 32% of non-violent loss survivors. Overall, there was overlap in sense-making strategies across different causes…

  6. Certification of deaths attributable to epilepsy

    Langan, Y.; Nashef, L; Sander, J


    Methods: All 1997 death entries mentioning epilepsy as a cause of death in those 16–50 years were examined and classified as sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), other epilepsy related deaths, or non-epilepsy deaths.

  7. Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death

    Thomas Peterson


    Full Text Available Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema.

  8. Tobacco consumption in relation to causes of death in an urban population of north India

    Singh, Ram B; Singh, Surendra; Chattopadhya, Pronobesh; Singh, Kalpana; Singh, Vijender; Kulshrestha, Shallendra K; Tomar, Rukam S.; Kumar, Rajeev; Singh, Garima; Mechirova, Viola; Pella, Daniel


    Background: Noncommunicable diseases have become a public heath problem in India concomitant with economic development, leading to increases in tobacco consumption, obesity, and changes in diet and lifestyle. Although observation suggests that tobacco consumption is a major risk factor for deaths due to circulatory, pulmonary, and malignant diseases, such studies are not available from most populations in developing countries. Subjects and methods: For the period 1999–2001, we studied the ran...

  9. Whether to report diabetes as the underlying cause-of-death? a survey of internists of different sub-specialties

    Kwok Ching-Fai


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cause-specific mortality is a commonly used endpoint of clinical trials or prospective studies. However, it is sometimes difficult for physician to determine the underlying-cause-of-death (UCD, especially for diabetic patients coexisted with cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The aim of this survey was to examine whether internists with different specialties have different opinions on the reporting of diabetes as the UCD. Methods A total of 549 physicians completed the questionnaire in Taiwan, which comprised seven hypothetical case scenarios, each indicating a different level of contribution of diabetes in initiating the chain of events leading to death. Results As a whole, endocrinologists were more likely than cardiologists and nephrologists to report diabetes as the UCD. The differences were more prominent when the diabetic patient had a coexisting CVD. In scenario 3 (a diabetic patient with hypertension who died from acute myocardial infarction, the percentage was 56% in endocrinologists, which was significantly higher than in cardiologists (42% and nephrologists (41%. In scenario 4 (a diabetic patient with hypertension who died from cerebrovascular infarction, the percentage was 45% in endocrinologists, and only 31% in cardiologists and 36% in nephrologists. Conclusions Internists of different sub-specialties do have different opinions on the reporting of diabetes as the UCD, especially when the diabetic patient has a coexisting CVD.

  10. Brain metastases from breast cancer: prognostic significance of HER-2 overexpression, effect of trastuzumab and cause of death

    To access the prognostic significance of HER-2 overexpression, the effect of trastuzumab and the cause of death in patients with brain metastases (BM) from breast cancer (BC). We analyzed the outcome of 130 patients with BM from BC who received whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) (without surgery or radiosurgery) between January 1998 and April 2006. Demographic data, tumor characteristics, and treatments were prospectively recorded. The impact of HER-2 overexpression and trastuzumab-based therapy on overall survival (OS) and the cause of death were evaluated. The median follow-up for the whole population was 6.25 months (mean: 9.15; range: 0.23-53). The median survival time and 1-year survival rates after BM diagnosis were 7.43 months and 35.8% (95% CI: 28-45.7) respectively. The median survival time for HER-2 negative patients (n = 78), HER-2 positive patients not treated with trastuzumab (n = 20) and HER-2 positive patients treated with trastuzumab (n = 32) were 5.9 months, 5.6 months and 19.53 months, respectively. The 1-year survival rates were 26.1%, 29.2% and 62.6% respectively, (p < 0.004). Among the 18 HER-2 positive patients treated with trastuzumab who died, 11 (61%) apparently succumbed from CNS progression, in the face of stable or responsive non-CNS disease. Trastuzumab-based therapy was associated with a 51% reduction in the risk of death (multiadjusted hazard ratio: 0.49; 95% CI, 0.29-0.83). In our experience, trastuzumab-based therapy for HER-overexpressing tumors was associated with improved survival in BM BC patients. This subgroup of patients may benefit from innovative approaches, in order to obtain better intra cerebral control

  11. Suicidal death caused by electrocution: Two case reports

    Nikolić Slobodan


    Full Text Available Suicides by electrocution are extremly rare in our country. In these cases, specific or characteristic external lesions caused through contact with conductors at the sites of entry and exit of the current, as well as general autopsy findings, and excluding the other possible causes of death, are important to elucidate them. Dilema if death was sucidal, homicidal or accidental in manner, could be solved through good police investigation, and properly explained circumstantial events. Herein, we reported two cases of suicidal deaths, caused by electrocution. In the first case, it was a male, age of 32, who wraped the electrical cord around his rists, and kiled himself by plugging it in. In second case, it was a female, age of 46, abused by her husband, who commited suicide by putting the switched hear-dryer into the water in bathtube.

  12. Mortality Statistics of Major Causes of Death among Atomic Bomb Survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture from 1968 to 1982

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Ohtaki, Megu; Ueoka,Hiroshi; Matsuura, Masaaki; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru


    A comparative study was made on mortality during a 15-year period from 1968 to 1982 between atomic bomb survivors resident in Hiroshima Prefecture and non-exposed controls. The mortality rate for all causes of death was lower in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but the rate was higher among those directly exposed within about 1 km than in the non-exposed. The mortality rate for malignant neoplasms was higher in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but that for cere...

  13. Systematization of the Mechanism by Which Plasma Irradiation Causes Cell Growth and Tumor Cell Death

    Shimizu, Nobuyuki


    New methods and technologies have improved minimally invasive surgical treatment and saved numerous patients. Recently, plasma irradiation has been demonstrated that might be useful in medical field and the plasma irradiation device is expected to become practically applicable. Mild plasma coagulator showed some advantages such as hemostasis and adhesion reduction in experimental animal model, but the mechanism of plasma irradiation remains unclear. Our study group aim to clarify the mechanism of plasma irradiation effects, mainly focusing on oxidative stress using cultured cell lines and small animal model. First, a study using cultured cell lines showed that the culture medium that was activated by plasma irradiation (we called this kind of medium as ``PAM'' -plasma activated medium-) induced tumor cell death. Although this effect was mainly found to be due to hydrogen peroxide, the remaining portion was considered as the specific effect of the plasma irradiation and we are now studying focusing on this effect. Second, we established a mouse intra-peritoneal adhesion model and checked biological reaction that occurred in the adhesion part. Histopathological study showed inflammatory cells infiltration into adhesion part and the expression of PTX3 that might involve tissue repair around adhesion part. We also confirmed that cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 might be useful as a marker of adhesion formation in this model. Applying ``PAM'' or mild plasma irradiation in this model, we examine the effects of plasma on inflamed cells. The samples in these experiments would be applied to targeted proteomics analysis, and we aim to demonstrate the systematization of the cell's reaction by plasma irradiation.

  14. Lead poisoning as possible cause of deaths at the Swedish House at Kapp Thordsen, Spitsbergen, winter 1872-3

    Aasebø, Ulf; Kjær, Kjell G


    Objective To investigate cause of death in 17 sealers who died in the Swedish house in Kapp Thordsen, Spitsbergen, during the winter of 1872-3. Design Analysis of skeletal samples from one sealer’s grave. Setting Field trip to Spitsbergen to exhume skeletal remains. Subjects One of 17 sailors who died in 1872-3. Results No objective signs of scurvy were found. The concentration of lead in the bone samples was 102.05 µg/g. Conclusions The high concentrations of lead indicate that this man died...

  15. Mortality by Cause of Death Among Immigrants and Natives in a South European Country: The Case of Greece, 2011.

    Verropoulou, Georgia; Tsimbos, Cleon


    The aim of the paper is to examine for the first time in Greece mortality by cause of death among immigrants. The analysis makes use of vital registration statistics for 2010-2012 and census data for 2011; standardised mortality ratios are estimated for four distinct groups: natives, migrants from EU-27 (excluding Greece), other Europeans (mainly Albanians) and those from all other countries (mainly Asia/Africa). All immigrants seem to experience favourable mortality from neoplasms but higher mortality from external causes in comparison to Greeks. The results regarding cardiovascular diseases are mixed. Persons originating in Asian/African regions exhibit higher mortality from infectious diseases and TB. The findings highlight the specificities of immigrant mortality which stem from pre-existing conditions in the country of origin as well as from the adverse socio-economic environment in the country of destination. As immigrants experience some excessive 'avoidable' mortality implementation of appropriate measures should be a social policy priority. PMID:25784141

  16. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy as a cause of sudden death in young people: Literature review

    Mazić Sanja; Lazović Biljana; Đelić Marina


    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia is a progressive condition with right ventricular myocardium being replaced by fibro-fatty tissue. It is a hereditary disorder mostly caused by desmosome gene mutations. The prevalence of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is about 1/1000-5000. Clinical presentation is usually related to ventricular tachycardias, syncope or presyncopa, or ventricular fibrillation leading to cardiac arrest, mostly in young people and ...

  17. Most common causes of natural and injury-related deaths in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Gemechu, Tufa; Tinsae, Mihrete; Ashenafi, Senait; Rodriguez, Victor Manuel; Lori, Alfredo; Collins, Michelle; Hurford, Rosemary; Haimanot, Rahel; Sandoval, Melissa; Mehari, Enawgaw; Langford, T. Dianne


    In Ethopia, like many developing countries, autopsy is rare unless conducted in the medico-legal arena, making vital statistics that include sparse pathological diagnoses. To determine the most common factors contributing to death among individuals who died from natural or injury-related events in Ethiopia in 2006, 200 consecutive autopsies were conducted at the Forensic Medico-legal Pathology Department, Menelik II Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The results describe significant pathologica...

  18. Drug suicide: a sex-equal cause of death in 16 European countries

    Varnik, Airi


    Abstract Background There is a lack of international research on suicide by drug overdose as a preventable suicide method. Sex- and age-specific rates of suicide by drug self-poisoning (ICD-10, X60-64) and the distribution of drug types used in 16 European countries were studied, and compared with other self-poisoning methods (X65-69) and intentional self-injury (X70-84). Methods Data for 2000-04\\/05 were collected from national statistical offices. Age-adjusted suicide rates, and age and sex distributions, were calculated. Results No pronounced sex differences in drug self-poisoning rates were found, either in the aggregate data (males 1.6 and females 1.5 per 100,000) or within individual countries. Among the 16 countries, the range (from some 0.3 in Portugal to 5.0 in Finland) was wide. \\'Other and unspecified drugs\\' (X64) were recorded most frequently, with a range of 0.2-1.9, and accounted for more than 70% of deaths by drug overdose in France, Luxembourg, Portugal and Spain. Psychotropic drugs (X61) ranked second. The X63 category (\\'other drugs acting on the autonomic nervous system\\') was least frequently used. Finland showed low X64 and high X61 figures, Scotland had high levels of X62 (\\'narcotics and hallucinogens, not elsewhere classified\\') for both sexes, while England exceeded other countries in category X60. Risk was highest among the middle-aged everywhere except in Switzerland, where the elderly were most at risk. Conclusions Suicide by drug overdose is preventable. Intentional self-poisoning with drugs kills as many males as females. The considerable differences in patterns of self-poisoning found in the various European countries are relevant to national efforts to improve diagnostics of suicide and appropriate specific prevention. The fact that vast majority of drug-overdose suicides came under the category X64 refers to the need of more detailed ICD coding system for overdose suicides is needed to permit better design of suicide

  19. Statistical test of a null hypothesis: Taser shocks have not caused or contributed to subsequent in-custody deaths

    Lundquist, Marjorie


    Since 1999 over 425 in-custody deaths have occurred in the USA after law enforcement officers (LEOs) used an M26 or X26 Taser, causing Amnesty International and the ACLU to call for a moratorium on Taser use until its physiological effects on people have been better studied. A person's Taser dose is defined as the total duration (in seconds) of all Taser shocks received by that person during a given incident. Utilizing the concept of Taser dose for these deaths, TASER International's claim of Taser safety can be treated as a null hypothesis and its validity scientifically tested. Such a test using chi-square as the test statistic is presented. It shows that the null hypothesis should be rejected; i.e., model M26 and X26 Tasers are capable of producing lethal effects non-electrically and so have played a causal or contributory role in a great many of the in-custody deaths following their use. This implies that the Taser is a lethal weapon, and that LEOs have not been adequately trained in its safe use!

  20. POLA PENYEBAB KEMATIAN DI KOTA AMBON TAHUN 2010–2012 (Pattern of Cause of Death (COD in Ambon 2010–2012

    Eva Sulistiowati


    Full Text Available Background: Cause of death statistics is one of the key indicators to describe the health status of a population and it is important for health planners or policy makers of a country. Cause of Death Information Form we called FKPK is an instrument for recording causes of death using the criteria of the International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10 which can be used directly by the examining or a treating physician deceased before dying and recommended by WHO. The purpose of writing this article to see the pattern of causes of death in Ambon during 2010–2012 and saw the cause of the trend pattern of deaths each year. Methods:The methods is a descriptive research using cause of death (COD data collected in Ambon 2010-2012 using tools FKPK collected from 22 health centers and 9 hospitals. The population was residents who died in Ambon at 2010–2012. The research sample included all deaths that occurred in the population of Ambon in 2010–2012. Results: the pattern of causes of death in Ambon City is dominated by non-communicable diseases (NCD and the highest infectious diseases death is pulmonary tuberculosis. The high non-communicable occurs in many early age and the elderly, so it is necessary to establish posbindu elderly or posbindu NCD in Ambon city, as well as the need to increase the emphasis on health promotion Clean and Healthy Behavior.

  1. Comparing causes of death between formal and informal neighborhoods in urban Africa: evidence from Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    Abdramane Bassiahi Soura


    Full Text Available Background: The probable coexistence of two or more epidemiological profiles in urban Africa is poorly documented. In particular, very few studies have focused on the comparison of cause-specific mortality between two types of neighborhoods that characterize contemporary southern cities: formal neighborhoods, that is, structured or delineated settlements (planned estates that have full access to public utilities (electricity and water services, and the informal neighborhoods, that is, spontaneous and unplanned peri-urban settlements where people live in slum-like conditions, often with little or no access to public utilities. Objective: To compare the causes of death between the formal and informal neighborhoods covered by the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSS. Design: The data used come from the INDEPTH pooled dataset which includes the contribution of Ouagadougou HDSS and are compiled for the INDEPTH Network Data repository. The data were collected between 2009 and 2011 using verbal autopsy (VA questionnaires completed by four fieldworkers well trained in the conduction of VAs. The VA data were then interpreted using the InterVA-4 program (version 4.02 to arrive at the causes of death. Results: Communicable diseases are the leading cause of death among children (aged between 29 days and 14 years in both formal and informal neighborhoods, contributing more than 75% to the mortality rate. Mortality rates from non-communicable diseases (NCDs are very low before age 15 but are the leading causes from age 50, especially in formal neighborhoods. Mortality from injuries is very low, with no significant difference between the two neighborhoods. Conclusions: The fact that mortality from NCDs is higher among adults in formal neighborhoods seems consistent with the idea of a correlation between modern life and epidemiological transition. However, NCDs do affect informal neighborhoods as well. They consist mainly of

  2. Inappropriate mediastinal baroreceptor reflex as a possible cause of sudden infant death syndrome - Is thorough burping before sleep protective?

    Flaig, Christian


    Despite extensive research, a link between the assumed mechanisms of death and known risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has not yet been established. Modifiable risk factors such as prone sleeping position, nicotine exposure and thermal stress and non-avoidable risk factors like male gender and some risky socio-economic conditions could be detected, but the etiology of SIDS remains unknown. In many SIDS cases histopathological findings suggest an involvement of vital autonomic control functions and unidentified trigger factors seem to play a role. From a hypothetical point of view, a developmental sympatheticovagal imbalance of the cardiovascular reflex control could cause a predisposition for SIDS. An assumed gastroesophageal trigger impulse is possibly developed during the first weeks of life and could lead to the infant's vagal reflex death. Air swallowed during feeding escapes through the esophagus while the infant is sleeping. The temporarily bloated esophagus exerts pressure on neighboring mediastinal baroreceptors, which is potentially misinterpreted as a rise in arterial pressure. The following cardiodepressoric baroreceptor reflex could lead to arterial hypotension, bradycardia and cardiac arrest. Sleeping in prone position may create an increased thoracic pressure on mediastinal baroreceptors, causing a more pronounced vagal reflex and an increased likelihood of SIDS. Prone position in connection with soft objects in the infant's sleeping environment potentially generates an increased oculobulbar pressure, resulting in an additional cardiodepressoric condition (Aschner-Dagnini phenomenon). From the sixth month of life onwards the sympatheticovagal balance seems to have matured sufficiently to compensate the life-threatening challenges in most infants. Insufficient postprandial burping could either create another independent modifiable risk factor or present the missing link to a common trigger mechanism for SIDS. Further investigations

  3. Early death in active professional athletes: Trends and causes.

    Lemez, S; Wattie, N; Baker, J


    The objective of the study was to examine mortality trends and causes of death among professional athletes from the four major sports in North America who died during their playing careers. 205 deceased athletes who were registered as active when they died from the National Basketball Association (NBA), National Football League (NFL), National Hockey League (NHL), and Major League Baseball (MLB) were examined. Results were compared with the Canadian and U.S. general population. The leading causes of death in players reflected the leading causes of death in the Canadian and U.S. general population (i.e., car accidents). Descriptively, NFL and NBA players had a higher likelihood of dying in a car accident (OR 1.75, 95% CI: 0.91-3.36) compared with NHL and MLB players. In addition, NFL and NBA players had a significantly higher likelihood of dying from a cardiac-related illness (OR 4.44, 95% CI: 1.59-12.43). Mortality trends were disproportionate to team size. Overall, death in active athletes is low. Out of 53 400 athletes who have historically played in the four leagues, only 205 died while active (0.38%). Future examinations into the trends and causes of mortality in elite athlete populations will create a better understanding of health-related risks in elite sport. PMID:25996659

  4. Suicide Mortality in Comparison to Traffic Accidents and Homicides as Causes of Unnatural Death. An Analysis of 14,441 Cases in Germany in the Year 2010

    Karoline Lukaschek


    Full Text Available Aim: To assess suicide mortality in comparison to traffic accidents and homicide deaths in Germany in the year 2010 and to compare years of life lost (YLL due to these unnatural deaths. Methods: Mortality data were provided by the Federal Statistical Office giving death rates (related to 100,000 inhabitants and proportions (related to 100 deaths of individuals for suicide, traffic accidents and homicide as well as YLL data. Results: A total of 14,441 unnatural deaths (suicide, traffic accidents, homicide were reported in 2010 in Germany. Of those, 10,021 subjects (69.4% committed suicide, 3,942 (27.3% died in traffic accidents, 478 (3.3% were murdered. Suicide death rates were by far the highest, with rates for men (18.6 three times higher than for women (6.1. For both sexes, suicide rates increased with age, whereas suicide as a proportion of all causes of death was higher in younger age groups. In both sexes, suicide was the leading cause of YLL (men: 314 YLL, women: 90 YLL. Conclusions: Suicide is the leading cause of unnatural death and YLL. The sex- and age- specific patterns in suicide mortality call for different action plans to target high risk groups.


    Amol R


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Reaching the MDG on reducing child mortality will require universal coverage with key effective and affordable interventions. Records of vital events like death constitute an important component of publi c health information system. In - depth analysis of death of children provides valuable information. Aim of the study wa s to describe the causes of deaths among hospitalized pediatric patient and contributing factors associated with it. METHODS AND MATERIALS : This was a r etrospective re cord based study. Total pediatric deaths were identified & segregated through admission records from medical record section under PSM department of Government Medical College , during January 2010 to December 2010. Variables lik e age , sex , birth weight and cause of death were collected from death records. WHO Child Growth Standards (z score separate for boys & girls were used for comparing weight of child at the time of admission. Data was entered , cleaned and analyzed using MS excel. RESULTS : An overall 313 (13.1% death occurred among 2380 hospitalized pediatric cases.56.4% were male child and 43.8% female child. Maximum deaths (67.8% were among early neonates. 175(60% were severely underweight a t the time of admission. Time interval between admission and death i.e. hospital stay revealed that 134 (42.8% of deaths occurred within 24 h of ad mission. 180 (77% deaths were in low birth weight (less than 2.5 kg. Infection (35% was the leading cause of death among all pediatric age groups followed by birth asphyxia (29% , prematurity (22% nutritional (4% and congenital (6%.Viral encephalitis was found to be the most common cause of death in more than 5 yrs. age group. CONCLUSION : Monitoring the mo rtality pattern among hospitalized cases is important strategy to address public health issues at community level as well as to strengthen the hospital services. Strategies like antenatal care about nutrition to avoid LBW , timely treatment of

  6. INCODE-DK 2014. Classification of cause of intrauterine fetal death – a new approach to perinatal audit

    Maroun, Lisa Leth; Ramsing, Mette; Olsen, Tina Elisabeth;

    Introduction Evaluating the cause of intrauterine fetal death (C- IUFD) is important to comfort the parents, as a quality control and feed-back for the medical staff, as well as for guidance in future pregnancies. An extensive work-up including autopsy and placental examination is recommended on a...... intention of improving the evaluation process for IUFD a working group of fetal pathologists and obstetricians was established in 2013 by the Danish Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecology (DSOG) and the Danish Pathology Society (DPAS). Two selected modern international classification systems (CODAC and...... developed by translation and adaptation to Danish conditions on the basis of updated literature. The section on placental pathology was adapted to the recent Danish guideline for placental examination 2013. In addition a new perinatal audit scheme (INCODE perinatal audittabel 2014) was created based on the...

  7. Trends in aortic aneurysm- and dissection-related mortality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, 1985–2009: multiple-cause-of-death analysis

    Santo Augusto


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aortic aneurysm and dissection are important causes of death in older people. Ruptured aneurysms show catastrophic fatality rates reaching near 80%. Few population-based mortality studies have been published in the world and none in Brazil. The objective of the present study was to use multiple-cause-of-death methodology in the analysis of mortality trends related to aortic aneurysm and dissection in the state of Sao Paulo, between 1985 and 2009. Methods We analyzed mortality data from the Sao Paulo State Data Analysis System, selecting all death certificates on which aortic aneurysm and dissection were listed as a cause-of-death. The variables sex, age, season of the year, and underlying, associated or total mentions of causes of death were studied using standardized mortality rates, proportions and historical trends. Statistical analyses were performed by chi-square goodness-of-fit and H Kruskal-Wallis tests, and variance analysis. The joinpoint regression model was used to evaluate changes in age-standardized rates trends. A p value less than 0.05 was regarded as significant. Results Over a 25-year period, there were 42,615 deaths related to aortic aneurysm and dissection, of which 36,088 (84.7% were identified as underlying cause and 6,527 (15.3% as an associated cause-of-death. Dissection and ruptured aneurysms were considered as an underlying cause of death in 93% of the deaths. For the entire period, a significant increased trend of age-standardized death rates was observed in men and women, while certain non-significant decreases occurred from 1996/2004 until 2009. Abdominal aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections prevailed among men and aortic dissections and aortic aneurysms of unspecified site among women. In 1985 and 2009 death rates ratios of men to women were respectively 2.86 and 2.19, corresponding to a difference decrease between rates of 23.4%. For aortic dissection, ruptured and non-ruptured aneurysms, the

  8. Increase in non-AIDS related conditions as causes of death among HIV-infected individuals in the HAART era in Brazil.

    Antonio G Pacheco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 1996, Brazil became the first developing country to provide free and universal access to HAART. Although a decrease in overall mortality has been documented, there are no published data on the impact of HAART on causes of death among HIV-infected individuals in Brazil. We assessed temporal trends of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD, diabetes mellitus (DM and other conditions generally not associated with HIV-infection among persons with and without HIV infection in Brazil between 1999 and 2004. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Odds ratios were used to compare causes of death in individuals who had HIV/AIDS listed on any field of the death certificate with those who did not. Logistic regression models were fitted with generalized estimating equations to account for spatial correlation; co-variables were added to the models to control for potential confounding. Of 5,856,056 deaths reported in Brazil between 1999 and 2004 67,249 (1.15% had HIV/AIDS listed on the death certificate and non-HIV-related conditions were listed on 16.3% in 1999, increasing to 24.1% by 2004 (p<0.001. The adjusted average yearly increases were 8% and 0.8% for CVD (p<0.001, and 12% and 2.8% for DM (p<0.001, for those who had and did not have HIV/AIDS listed on the death certificate, respectively. Similar results were found for these conditions as underlying causes of death. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In Brazil between 1999 and 2004 conditions usually considered not to be related to HIV-infection appeared to become more likely causes of death over time than reported causes of death among individuals who had HIV/AIDS listed on the death certificate than in those who did not. This observation has important programmatic implications for developing countries that are scaling-up access to antiretroviral therapy.

  9. Death of an Adult Child

    ... Purchase Through AmazonSmile Contact Us Donate Death of an Adult Child The death of any child, regardless of cause or age, ... the situations that may have caused their child’s death. Judgmental statements from others indicating that the child ...

  10. Causes of Death among AIDS Patients after Introduction of Free Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART in Three Chinese Provinces, 2010-2011.

    Liyan Wang

    Full Text Available Although AIDS-related deaths have had significant economic and social impact following an increased disease burden internationally, few studies have evaluated the cause of AIDS-related deaths among patients with AIDS on combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART in China. This study examines the causes of death among AIDS-patients in China and uses a methodology to increase data accuracy compared to the previous studies on AIDS-related mortality in China, that have taken the reported cause of death in the National HIV Registry at face-value.Death certificates/medical records were examined and a cross-sectional survey was conducted in three provinces to verify the causes of death among AIDS patients who died between January 1, 2010 and June 30, 2011. Chi-square analysis was conducted to examine the categorical variables by causes of death and by ART status. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate factors associated with AIDS-related death versus non-AIDS related death.This study used a sample of 1,109 subjects. The average age at death was 44.5 years. AIDS-related deaths were significantly higher than non-AIDS and injury-related deaths. In the sample, 41.9% (465/1109 were deceased within a year of HIV diagnosis and 52.7% (584/1109 of the deceased AIDS patients were not on cART. For AIDS-related deaths (n = 798, statistically significant factors included CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 at the time of cART initiation (AOR 1.94, 95%CI 1.24-3.05, ART naïve (AOR 1.69, 95%CI 1.09-2.61; p = 0.019 and age <39 years (AOR 2.96, 95%CI 1.77-4.96.For the AIDS patients that were deceased, only those who initiated cART while at a CD4 count ≥200 cells/mm3 were less likely to die from AIDS-related causes compared to those who didn't initiate ART at all.