Sample records for cattle production systems

  1. Indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka: production systems and genetic diversity

    Production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a nondescript mixture of genotypes, and represents more than half of the total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Five distinct indigenous populations were investigated for morphological analysis, and four were included in evaluating genetic differences. Farming systems were analysed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The genetic variation was assessed within and between populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers, and compared with two indigenous populations from the African region. Farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle rearing was based on traditional mixed-crop integration practices and operates under limited or no input basis. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from zero to 90% reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping. Morphometric measurements explained specific phenotypic characteristics arising from geographical isolation and selective breeding. Though varying according to the region, the compact body, narrow face, small horns and humps with shades of brown and black coat colour described the indigenous cattle phenotype in general. Genetic analysis indicated that indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka have high diversity with average number of alleles per locus ranging from 7.9 to 8.5. Average heterozygosity of different regions varied within a narrow range (0.72 ± 0.04 to 0.76 ± 0.03). Genetic distances between regions were low (0.085 and 0.066) suggesting a similar mixture of genotypes across regions. Y-specific analysis indicated a possible introgression of Taurine cattle in one of the cattle populations. (author)

  2. Indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka: Production systems and genetic diversity

    Full text: The production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations in Sri Lanka, which is a small island located below the southern tip of Indian subcontinent. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a non-descript type mixture of genotypes, and represent more than the half of total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Six distinct indigenous populations (NE, NC, So, No, TK and Th) were investigated for morphological and genetic differences. The respective farming systems were also evaluated to complete the requirement in developing conservation and utilization strategies. The sampling was carried out based on the non-existence of artificial insemination facilities to assure the target populations are indigenous. The six populations were assumed genetically isolated from each other in the absence of nomadic pattern of rearing and regular cattle migration. The farming systems were analyzed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire by single visits to each location. Single visits were practiced, as there is no variation in farming system according to the period of the year. Morphometric measurements were taken during the visit and the genetic variation was assessed within and between five populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers. The farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle are reared as a traditional practice in all the regions of the country under limited or no input situations. Since the low productivity masks its real contribution to the rural livelihood, the level of utilization was confounded within the attributes of respective farming systems. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from 0% to 90% in different regions reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping indigenous cattle. Integration with crop, especially with paddy was the common

  3. Modeling methane emissions by cattle production systems in Mexico

    Castelan-Ortega, O. A.; Ku Vera, J.; Molina, L. T.


    Methane emissions from livestock is one of the largest sources of methane in Mexico. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a realistic estimate of the national inventory of methane produced by the enteric fermentation of cattle, based on an integrated simulation model, and to provide estimates of CH4 produced by cattle fed typical diets from the tropical and temperate climates of Mexico. The Mexican cattle population of 23.3 million heads was divided in two groups. The first group (7.8 million heads), represents cattle of the tropical climate regions. The second group (15.5 million heads), are the cattle in the temperate climate regions. This approach allows incorporating the effect of diet on CH4 production into the analysis because the quality of forages is lower in the tropics than in temperate regions. Cattle population in every group was subdivided into two categories: cows (COW) and other type of cattle (OTHE), which included calves, heifers, steers and bulls. The daily CH4 production by each category of animal along an average production cycle of 365 days was simulated, instead of using a default emission factor as in Tier 1 approach. Daily milk yield, live weight changes associated with the lactation, and dry matter intake, were simulated for the entire production cycle. The Moe and Tyrrell (1979) model was used to simulate CH4 production for the COW category, the linear model of Mills et al. (2003) for the OTHE category in temperate regions and the Kurihara et al. (1999) model for the OTHE category in the tropical regions as it has been developed for cattle fed tropical diets. All models were integrated with a cow submodel to form an Integrated Simulation Model (ISM). The AFRC (1993) equations and the lactation curve model of Morant and Gnanasakthy (1989) were used to construct the cow submodel. The ISM simulates on a daily basis the CH4 production, milk yield, live weight changes associated with lactation and dry matter intake. The total daily CH

  4. Zebu cattle farming in Sri Lanka: Production systems and reproductive characteristics

    Zebu cattle (Bos indicus) constitute 72.3% of the cattle population in Sri Lanka and consist of indigenous exotic and crosses. Indigenous Zebu cattle were primarily found in the dry and the intermediate zones with the remainder in the wet zone. In the latter two zones the indigenous Zebu have been gradually replaced by dairy-type exotic genotypes. In the dry zone Zebu cattle farming is done as a traditional village system (DTVS) and irrigated settlement system (DISS). The DTVS is the most prevalent system and 24% of small holdings within this system rear cattle. In 91.4% of these households cattle farming is either a primary or secondary occupation. Zebu cattle farming provides a modest income with meat, milk, draught and manure contribution 45%, 34%, 9% and 12%, respectively to the total income. Scarcity of grazing lands, high incidence of crop damages by cattle, an inadequate veterinary service and poor milk collecting network are having adverse effects on the sustainability of the system. The objective of the present study were to assess the distribution, production systems and reproductive patterns of cattle with special reference to indigenous Zebu cattle in traditional management systems. 39 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

  5. Survey of smallholder beef cattle production systems in different agro-ecological zones of Cambodia.

    Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Holtenius, Kjell


    A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD = 2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD = 0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia. PMID:26055891

  6. Effects of Three Feeding Systems on Production Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Digesta Particle Structure of Beef Cattle

    Liu, Y. F.; Sun, F. F.; Wan, F. C.; Zhao, H. B.; Liu, X. M.; You, W.; Cheng, H. J.; Liu, G. F.; Tan, X. W.; Song, E. L.


    The effects of three different feeding systems on beef cattle production performance, rumen fermentation, and rumen digesta particle structure were investigated by using 18 Limousin (steers) with a similar body weight (575±10 kg) in a 80-d experiment. The animals were equally and randomly divided into three treatment groups, namely, total mixed ration group (cattle fed TMR), SI1 group (cattle fed concentrate firstly then roughage), and SI2 group (cattle fed roughage firstly then concentrate). The results showed that the average daily gain was significantly higher in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (pfermentation of beef cattle. PMID:26954181

  7. Production standards and the quality of milk and meat products from cattle and sheep raised in sustainable production systems

    Jovanović S.; Savić M.; Aleksić S.; Živković D.


    Basic principles that inform organic livestock production are reviewed in this paper, with special emphasis on milk and meat production in cattle and sheep. Research findings to date are presented on the impact of various management practices, both organic and conventional, as they effect product yield and quality. The importance of incorporating autochnochous breeds into organic milk and meat production systems is particularly emphasized. Additionally, a g...

  8. Effects of Three Feeding Systems on Production Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Digesta Particle Structure of Beef Cattle.

    Liu, Y F; Sun, F F; Wan, F C; Zhao, H B; Liu, X M; You, W; Cheng, H J; Liu, G F; Tan, X W; Song, E L


    The effects of three different feeding systems on beef cattle production performance, rumen fermentation, and rumen digesta particle structure were investigated by using 18 Limousin (steers) with a similar body weight (575±10 kg) in a 80-d experiment. The animals were equally and randomly divided into three treatment groups, namely, total mixed ration group (cattle fed TMR), SI1 group (cattle fed concentrate firstly then roughage), and SI2 group (cattle fed roughage firstly then concentrate). The results showed that the average daily gain was significantly higher in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (psilage, and combined net energy (NEmf) were significantly decreased when cattle received TMR, unlike when they received SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05), indicating that the feed efficiency of TMR was the highest. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was significantly decreased when cattle received TMR compared with that in cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), whereas there was no difference compared with that in cattle receiving SI2. Ammonia nitrogen concentration was significantly lower in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05). The rumen area of cattle that received TMR was significantly larger than that of cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), but there was no difference compared with that of cattle receiving SI2. Although there was no significant difference among the three feeding systems in rumen digesta particle distribution, the TMR group trended to have fewer large- and medium-sized particles and more small-sized particles than those in the SI1 and SI2 groups. In conclusion, cattle with dietary TMR showed increased weight gain and ruminal development and decreased BUN. This indicated that TMR feeding was more conducive toward improving the production performance and rumen fermentation of beef cattle. PMID:26954181

  9. Neutron activation analysis of zinc in forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied for the determination of Zn concentration in the main tropical grass forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems, in Brazil. Smaller Zn concentration could be verified in the rainy period. Comparison of results obtained in these analyses of forages dry matter with daily requirements pointed towards deficiency of Zn in the forages. (author)

  10. Evaluation of mycotoxins contamination in intensive beef cattle production system

    B. Ronchi; P. P. Danieli; U. Bernabucci; A. Sabatini


    Feed samples from 15 intensive beef cattle farms located in Northern Italy (provinces of Verona and Mantova) were checked for mycotoxin contamination [aflatoxins (AF), fumonisins (FB), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenol (ZEN)]. Total mixed rations (TMR) resulted positive for AF and FB contamination. Among feedstuffs corn and corn gluten feed were the only responsible of TMR contamination. Level of contamination was positively related to corn moisture content.

  11. Sustainability of US Organic Beef and Dairy Production Systems: Soil, Plant and Cattle Interactions

    Kathy J. Soder


    Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.

  12. Unitary input DEA model to identify beef cattle production systems typologies

    Eliane Gonçalves Gomes


    Full Text Available The cow-calf beef production sector in Brazil has a wide variety of operating systems. This suggests the identification and the characterization of homogeneous regions of production, with consequent implementation of actions to achieve its sustainability. In this paper we attempted to measure the performance of 21 livestock modal production systems, in their cow-calf phase. We measured the performance of these systems, considering husbandry and production variables. The proposed approach is based on data envelopment analysis (DEA. We used unitary input DEA model, with apparent input orientation, together with the efficiency measurements generated by the inverted DEA frontier. We identified five modal production systems typologies, using the isoefficiency layers approach. The results showed that the knowledge and the processes management are the most important factors for improving the efficiency of beef cattle production systems.

  13. Effect of cattle breed on finishing performance, carcass characteristics and economic benefits under typical beef production system in China

    Liping Ren; Bo Zhou; Fengshua Shi; Xiangxue Xie; Qingxaing Meng


    This study compared the finishing performance carcass characteristics and economic benefits of two imported (Limousin and Simmental) and three local (Luxi, Jinnan and Qinchuan) cattle breeds slaughtered at 18.5 months of age under thetypical Chinese beef production system. All cattle (n=71) were reared under the same production system and fed the same finishing diet for 105 days. Eight bulls from each breed were randomly selected for slaughtering. Compared with the three local breeds, the two...

  14. Prediction of methane emissions from beef cattle in tropical production systems

    McCrabb, G.J.; Hunter, R.A. [CSIRO, Rockhampton, Qld. (Australia). Division of Tropical Agriculture


    The northern beef cattle herd accounts for more than half of Australia's beef cattle population, and is a major source of anthropogenic methane emissions for Australia. National Greenhouse Gas Inventory predictions of methane output from Australian beef cattle are based on a predictive equation developed for British breeds of sheep and cattle offered temperate forage-based diets. However, tropical forage diets offered to cattle in northern Australia differ markedly from temperate forage-based diets used in the United Kingdom to develop the predictive equations. The paper reviews recent respiration chamber measurements of daily methane production for Brahman cattle offered a tropical forage or high grain diet, and compares them with values predicted using methodologies of the Australian National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Committee and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. It is concluded that a reliable inventory of methane emissions for cattle in northern Australia can only be achieved after a wider range of tropical forage species has been investigated. Some opportunities for reducing methane emissions of beef cattle by dietary manipulation are discussed.

  15. Productivity and hay requirements of beef cattle in a Midwestern year-round grazing system.

    Janovick, N A; Russell, J R; Strohbehn, D R; Morrical, D G


    Our objective was to evaluate a replicated (n = 2) Midwestern year-round grazing system's hay needs and animal production compared with a replicated (n = 2) conventional (minimal land) system over 3 yr. Because extended grazing systems have decreased hay needs for the beef herd, it was hypothesized that this year-round system would decrease hay needs without penalizing animal production. In the minimal land (ML) system, two replicated 8.1-ha smooth bromegrass-orchardgrass-birdsfoot trefoil (SB-OG-BFT) pastures were rotationally stocked with six mature April-calving cows and calves and harvested as hay for winter feeding in a drylot. After weaning, calves were finished on a high-concentrate diet. Six mature April-calving cows, six mature August-calving cows, and their calves were used in the year-round (YR) grazing system. During the early and late summer, cattle grazed two replicated 8.1-ha SB-OG-BFT pastures by rotational stocking. In mid-summer and winter, April- and August-calving cows grazed two replicated 6.1-ha, endophyte-free tall fescue-red clover (TF-RC) and smooth bromegrass-red clover (SB-RC) pastures, respectively, by strip-stocking. In late autumn, spring-calving cows grazed 6.1-ha corn crop residue fields by strip-stocking. Calves were fed hay with corn gluten feed or corn grain over winter and used as stocker cattle to graze SB-OG-BFT pastures with cows until early August the following summer. First-harvest forage from the TF-RC and SB-RC pastures was harvested as hay. Body condition scores of April-calving cows did not differ between grazing systems, but were lower (P < or = 0.03) than those of August-calving cows from mid-gestation through breeding. Preweaning calf BW gains were 47 kg/ha of perennial pasture (P < 0.01) and 32 kg/cow (P = 0.01) lower in the YR grazing system than in the ML system. Total BW gains ofpreweaning calf and grazing stocker cattle were 12 kg/ha of perennial pasture less (P = 0.07), but 27 kg/cow greater (P = 0.02) in

  16. Validation and recovery rates of an indirect calorimetry headbox system used to measure heat production of cattle

    A headbox system was constructed at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln to determine heat production from dairy cattle using indirect calorimetry. The system was designed for use in a tie-stall barn to allow the animal to be comfortable and was mounted on wheels to transport between animals between s...

  17. Intensification of cattle ranching production systems:Socioeconomic and environmental synergies and risks in Brazil

    Latawiec, A. E.; Strassburg, B. B. N.; Valentim, J. F.; Ramos, F.; Alves-pinto, H. N.


    Intensification of Brazilian cattle ranching systems has attracted both national and international attention due to its direct relation with Amazon deforestation on the one hand and increasing demand of the global population for meat on the other. Since Brazilian cattle ranching is predominantly pasture-based, we particularly focus on pasture management. We summarize the most recurrent opportunities and risks associated with pasture intensification that are brought up within scientific and po...


    Decreasing cattle stocking densities is one practice that has been suggested to improve surface runoff quality draining into Lake Okeebhobee, Florida. A holistic approach is needed to address both production and economic implications associated with lower animal densities. The objective of this st...

  19. Economic assessment of the performance of trypanotolerant cattle breeds in a pastoral production system in Kenya

    M.W. Maichomo


    Full Text Available Cattle are the major source of food security and income for pastoral farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. However, infectious and parasitic diseases remain a major constraint to improved cattle productivity in the region. The use of animal health economics to support decision-making on cost-effective disease control options is increasingly becoming important in the developing world. Trypano-tolerant indigenous Orma / zebu cattle in a trypanosomosis-endemic area of Kenya were evaluated for economic performance using gross-margin analysis and partial-farm budgeting. Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu cross-bred cattle were exposed to similar husbandry practices and monitored for growth rate, incidence of common infections (trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, East Coast Fever and helminthosis and the cost of treatment assessed. Interview questionnaires were also used to assess the preference rating of the 2 breeds. Results indicated that incidence of infection was trypanosomosis 3 %, anaplasmosis 58 %, babesiosis 11 %, East Coast Fever 22 % and helminthosis 28 %, with no significant difference between breeds. The Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu breeds had comparable economic benefits, hence a pastoralist in Magadi division is likely to get similar returns from both breeds. This study therefore recommends adoption of not only the Sahiwal / zebu but also the Orma / zebu breed for cattle improvement in trypanosomosis endemic areas and conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  20. Serological investigation of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division, south-western Nigeria.

    Cadmus, Simeon I B; Alabi, Peter I; Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Dale, Emma J; Stack, Judy A


    Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127) were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Overall, 24 (8.6%) and 16 (5.7%) of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% - 12.6%) and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% - 10.5%) than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% - 4.7%). Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043) and breed (Djali; p = 0.038) were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234), production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208) or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359) was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd. PMID:23905207

  1. Serological investigation of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division, south-western Nigeria

    Simeon I.B. Cadmus


    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127 were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. Overall, 24 (8.6% and 16 (5.7% of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% – 12.6% and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% – 10.5% than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% – 4.7%. Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043 and breed (Djali; p = 0.038 were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234, production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208 or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359 was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd.

  2. Serological investigation of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division, south-western Nigeria

    Emma J. Dale


    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127 were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. Overall, 24 (8.6% and 16 (5.7% of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% – 12.6% and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% – 10.5% than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% – 4.7%. Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043 and breed (Djali; p = 0.038 were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234, production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208 or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359 was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd.

  3. Socio-cultural factors determining roles and responsibilities in traditional cattle production systems within rural communities of upper Egypt

    Molina-flores, B.; Velasco, G; Loza, S.; Soliman, I.


    Livestock, and particularly cattle production, represents one of the main sources of revenue for Upper Egypt rural communities. An understanding of the socio-cultural factors influencing rural communities’ traditional livestock production systems is essential for the formulation and implementation of any intervention strategies willing to preserve and manage animal genetic resources at community-based level. The objective of this study was to identify and understand the socio-cultural factors...

  4. Constraints to cattle production in a semiarid pastoral system in Kenya.

    Onono, Joshua Orungo; Wieland, Barbara; Rushton, Jonathan


    Livestock keeping is the mainstay for the pastoral community while also providing social and cultural value. This study ranked main production constraints and cattle diseases that impacted livelihood and estimated herd prevalence, incidence rate, and impact of diseases on production parameters in a semiarid pastoral district of Narok in Kenya. Data collection employed participatory techniques including listing, pairwise ranking, disease incidence scoring, proportional piling, and disease impact matrix scoring and this was disaggregated by gender. Production constraints with high scores for impact on livelihood included scarcity of water (19%), lack of extension services (15%), presence of diseases (12%), lack of market for cattle and their products (10%), and recurrent cycle of drought (9%). Diseases with high scores for impact on livelihood were East Coast fever (ECF) (22%) and foot and mouth disease (FMD) (21%). High estimated incidence rates were reported for FMD (67%), trypanosomosis (28%), and ECF (15%), while contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) had an incidence rate <1%. Milk yield was affected by FMD, ECF, and trypanosomosis, while ECF was the cause of increased mortality. FMD, ECF, CBPP, and brucellosis caused increased abortion, while effect of gender and location of study was not significant. Despite CBPP being regarded as an important disease affecting cattle production in sub-Sahara Africa, its estimated incidence rate in herds was low. This study indicates what issues should be prioritized by livestock policy for pastoral areas. PMID:23417827

  5. Effect of cattle breed on finishing performance, carcass characteristics and economic benefits under typical beef production system in China

    Liping Ren


    Full Text Available This study compared the finishing performance carcass characteristics and economic benefits of two imported (Limousin and Simmental and three local (Luxi, Jinnan and Qinchuan cattle breeds slaughtered at 18.5 months of age under thetypical Chinese beef production system. All cattle (n=71 were reared under the same production system and fed the same finishing diet for 105 days. Eight bulls from each breed were randomly selected for slaughtering. Compared with the three local breeds, the two imported breeds had higher average daily gain, dry matter intake and gain efficiency. Regarding carcass characteristics, the two imported breeds had higher carcass weight, bone weight, net meat weight, and ribeye area (P<0.001. However, the local breeds had higher (P<0.01 marbling scores than the imported breeds. The imported breeds showed higher economic benefits (P<0.001 than the local breeds. In conclusion, the imported cattle breeds had better growth performance, carcass traits and economic benefits compared with the local cattle breeds at 18.5 months old under the typical Chinese feeding conditions whereas, in this study, the local breeds may have some advantage in terms of meat quality.

  6. Sero-positivity and associated risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia under two cattle production systems in North Central Nigeria.

    Alhaji, Nma Bida; Babalobi, Olutayo Olajide


    A cross-sectional survey of 765 cattle in 125 nomadic and 375 cattle in 125 sedentary herds was conducted to investigate prevalence and risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the two production systems of Niger State in North Central Nigeria, between January and August 2013. Data on herd characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on herd owners. Serological analysis was conducted using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) test. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted with OpenEpi version 2.3.1 software. Statistical significance was held at P trekking during migrations (P = 0.0009). This study had shown the burden of CBPP in the two production systems. Sero-diagnosis and risk factor identification should be institutionalized as elements of epidemio-surveillance and control strategies for CBPP, especially in resource-poor pastoralists' settlements in Nigeria. PMID:26563271

  7. Productive and income contributions of sheep, goat, and cattle, and different diversification schemes in smallholder production systems of Northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    Villagra, Edgar Sebastián; Easdale, Marcos Horacio; Giraudo, Celso Gabriel; Bonvissuto, Griselda Luz


    Wool production oriented sheep keeping is the most important rural activity in Patagonia, Argentina, followed by goat and at a lower extent cattle production. The existing perception on the smallholder production systems from most decision makers (e.g., policy) is that they are marginal, with low productivity and have negative returns. Since the Argentinean economic scenario has changed drastically in the last decade, the aim of this study was to analyze the economic and productive contribution of different livestock species in smallholdings. The results showed that the post-1990's economic scenario turned most smallholder livestock systems to have positive economic performance, but there were still productive restrictions that limited to fully benefit from these favorable circumstances. Goats were the most profitable livestock due to their higher productive performance, followed by sheep and cattle, with poorer performances. A strong cooperation between the intervention programs and research institutions is recommended to overcome the current production bottlenecks, by focusing on cattle and sheep production systems. PMID:26089256

  8. Feed and manure use in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle production systems

    In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa fertilizers and feeds are costly, not readily available and used sparingly in agricultural production. In many parts of Western Europe, North America, and Oceania fertilizers and feeds are relatively inexpensive, readily available and used abundantly to maximize profitable agricultural production. A case study, dairy systems approach was used to illustrate how differences in feed and manure management in a low-N-input dairy cattle system (Niger, West Africa) and a high-N-input dairy production system (Wisconsin, USA) impact agricultural production and environmental N loss. In Niger, an additional daily feed N intake of 114 g per dairy animal unit (AU, 1000 kg live weight) could increase annual milk production from 560 to 1320 kg AU−1, and the additional manure N could greatly increase millet production. In Wisconsin, reductions in daily feed N intake of 100 g AU−1 would not greatly impact milk production but decrease urinary N excretion by 25% and ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from manure by 18% to 30%. In Niger, compared to the practice of housing livestock and applying dung only onto fields, corralling cattle or sheep on cropland (to capture urinary N) increased millet yields by 25% to 95%. The additional millet grain due to dung applications or corralling would satisfy the annual food grain requirements of 2–5 persons; the additional forage would provide 120–300 more days of feed for a typical head of cattle; and 850 to 1600 kg ha−1 more biomass would be available for soil conservation. In Wisconsin, compared to application of barn manure only, corralling heifers in fields increased forage production by only 8% to 11%. The application of barn manure or corralling increased forage production by 20% to 70%. This additional forage would provide 350–580 more days of feed for a typical dairy heifer. Study results demonstrate how different approaches to feed and manure management in low-N-input and high

  9. Production and economic potentials of cattle in pasture-based systems of the western Amazon region of Brazil.

    Rueda, B L; Blake, R W; Nicholson, C F; Fox, D G; Tedeschi, L O; Pell, A N; Fernandes, E C M; Valentim, J F; Carneiro, J C


    Our objectives were to evaluate strategies to improve productivity and economic returns from beef and dual-purpose cattle systems based on data collected on one dual-purpose (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) and two beef (Nellore) cattle farms in the western Amazon region of Brazil. Forage chemical composition and digestion rates of carbohydrate fractions of grazed Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu grasses and Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu) legume were measured monthly during a 9-mo period from the end of one dry season to the end of the subsequent rainy season. Measurements of milk and growth responses to grazing these forages were used to predict animal productivity responses to dietary nutrient availability throughout an annual cycle. The ME available for gain in our simulations was always more limiting than metabolizable protein. The predicted ME available for gain was 0.50 kg/d for steers grazing B. brizantha and 0.40 kg/d for finishing steers grazing B. decumbens. Grasses contained more NDF and neutral detergent insoluble protein and less ME (P cattle systems to improve economic returns under current conditions. It also might help decrease the motivation for additional forest clearing. PMID:14677847

  10. Neutron activation analysis application for determining iron concentration in forage grasses used in intensive cattle production system

    Iron is an essential element to the life. It is an important hemoglobin component and it is involved in the transport of oxygen to cells. A deficiency of iron results in an unsuitable synthesis of hemoglobin and a delay in the growth. Iron contents above the tolerable level in animal feed can cause serious damages to the health and the death in extreme cases. The forages are the main source of feed to cattle in grazing. It is known from the literature, that the growth and the nutritious value of the forage are influenced by specie and physiologic age of the plant, soil fertility and environmental conditions. Therefore, an agronomical evaluations of the forages are necessary before to introduce in an intensive cattle production systems to program adequate grazing management. Neutron activation analysis was applied to evaluate the Fe concentration in the main tropical forage grasses used in intensive dairy cattle production systems in Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil. Iron concentrations were smaller in the rain season than in the dry one. Comparison of results obtained in the analyses of forages with daily requirements of iron in dry matter, showed that the Fe concentration in forages was adequate. (author)

  11. Intensification of cattle ranching production systems: socioeconomic and environmental synergies and risks in Brazil.

    Latawiec, A E; Strassburg, B B N; Valentim, J F; Ramos, F; Alves-Pinto, H N


    Intensification of Brazilian cattle ranching systems has attracted both national and international attention due to its direct relation with Amazon deforestation on the one hand and increasing demand of the global population for meat on the other. Since Brazilian cattle ranching is predominantly pasture-based, we particularly focus on pasture management. We summarize the most recurrent opportunities and risks associated with pasture intensification that are brought up within scientific and political dialogues, and discuss them within the Brazilian context. We argue that sustainable intensification of pasturelands in Brazil is a viable way to increase agricultural output while simultaneously sparing land for nature. Since environmental degradation is often associated with low-yield extensive systems in Brazil, it is possible to obtain higher yields, while reversing degradation, by adopting practices like rotational grazing, incorporation of legumes and integrated crop-livestock-forestry systems. Technical assistance is however essential, particularly for small- and medium-scale farmers. Sound complementary policies and good governance must accompany these measures so that a 'rebound effect' does not lead to increased deforestation and other adverse social and environmental impacts. It is also important that animal welfare is not compromised. Although the discussion is presented with respect to Brazil, some aspects are relevant to other developing countries. PMID:26263189

  12. Investigation into Possible Differences in Salmonella Prevalence in the Peripheral Lymph Nodes of Cattle Derived from Distinct Production Systems and of Different Breed Types.

    Brown, T R; Edrington, T S; Loneragan, G H; Hanson, D L; Malin, K; Ison, J J; Nisbet, D J


    Previous research demonstrated significant variation in the prevalence of Salmonella in peripheral lymph nodes (LNs) of feedlot cattle and cull cows, with greater prevalence in feedlot cattle. Therefore, we performed experiments to investigate whether these differences in Salmonella prevalence in subiliac LNs are due to, or influenced by, breed, which in many respects is a proxy for the production system in which the animal is derived. Holstein steers are a by-product of dairy systems, and beef steers are an intended product of commercial beef operations. For the first experiment, Holstein and beef steers originating from the same feedlot and harvested on the same day were sampled. Of the 467 Holstein and 462 beef cattle LNs collected, 62.1% of Holstein and 59.7% of beef cattle samples harbored Salmonella (P = 0.46; qualitative culture), with 51.2 and 48.9% of samples containing quantifiable concentrations (P = 0.49), respectively. The concentration of Salmonella within the LN followed a decreasing trend over the collection period (May to October), averaging 1.4 log CFU/g of LN for both Holstein and beef cattle samples (P = 0.78). In a second experiment, we compared 100% Brahman cattle to their beef cattle counterparts, as we hypothesized that the resistance of Brahman cattle to insects may reduce Salmonella transmission via biting insects. Of the 42 Brahman and 31 beef cattle LNs collected, the concentration of Salmonella within the LN averaged 3.0 log CFU/g for Brahman cattle and 2.9 log CFU/g for beef cattle samples (P = 0.30). Using qualitative culture, we recovered Salmonella from 100% of LNs from Brahman cattle and 97% of beef cattle samples (P = 0.25). Results of this research indicate that the differences observed are not due to breed and are likely a function of age, immune function, or other factors yet to be identified. Understanding which cattle are more likely to harbor Salmonella within LNs will aid in targeting both pre- and postharvest intervention

  13. Eating beef: cattle, methane and food production.

    Wahlquist, Åsa K


    A number of prominent people have advocated eating less meat or becoming a vegetarian to reduce global warming, because cattle produce the greenhouse gas methane. This raises a number of questions including: what will happen to the grasslands that much of the world's cattle currently graze; how will alternate protein be produced, and what will the greenhouse consequences of that production be? It comes down to production systems. About 70 per cent of the world's agricultural land is grassland, and the only way to produce food from grasslands is to graze ruminants on it. If domesticated animals do not graze the grasslands, native or feral ruminants, which also produce methane, tend to move in. Feeding high quality grain to cattle is much less defensible. Replacing animal protein with plant proteins like soybeans necessitates more cropping land, water, fuel and chemicals being used. A more rational food system would raise cattle on grasslands but not feed them high quality grains. Instead more of the currently grown crop could be devoted to human consumption. PMID:23353606

  14. Evaluation of wolf impacts on cattle productivity and behavior

    We have initiated and employed an Adaptive Management System (AMS) to document the effects of gray wolves on cattle production systems in Oregon and Idaho. The project has collected information on cattle movement on land in both wolf common and wolf rare areas with GPS collars that record positions ...

  15. A large seroprevalence survey of brucellosis in cattle herds under diverse production systems in northern Nigeria

    Mai Hassan M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was carried out to investigate the status of brucellosis in cattle under various management systems in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states, northern Nigeria. Using multi-stage sampling, serum samples of 4,745 cattle from 271 herds were tested using the Rose-Bengal plate-agglutination test (RBPT and positives were confirmed using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA. Results Prevalence estimates were calculated by adjusting for sampling weights and where possible for test sensitivity and specificity. Thirty-seven percent of all animals were RBPT positive, and after confirmation with c-ELISA the overall animal-level prevalence, adjusted for sampling weights, was 26.3% (95% CI, 22.1%-31.0%. Of the herds sampled, 210 (77.5%; 95% CI, 68.6%-84.5% had at least one animal positive to both tests; this did not differ significantly between states (P = 0.538. Mean within-herd seroprevalence in positive herds was 30.2% (95% CI, 25.3%-35.1% and ranged from 3.1% to 85.7%. Overall animal-level seroprevalences of 29.2% (95% CI, 22.5%-36.9% n = 1,827, 23.3% (95% CI, 18.9%-28.3% n = 1,870 and 26.7% (95% CI, 18.8%-36.7% n = 1,048 were observed in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states, respectively (P = 0.496. A significantly higher seroprevalence was found in males (38.2%; 95% CI, 31.7%-45.2% than in females (24.7%; 95% CI, 20.4%-29.5% (P P P 7 years. Seroprevalence also varied between management systems (P  Conclusion This is the first large study to assess the prevalence of bovine brucellosis over a wide geographic area of northern Nigeria, in a variety of management systems and using accurate tests. The seroprevalence of brucellosis was high, and higher than results of previous studies in northern Nigeria. The pastoral management systems of the traditional Fulanis may be encouraging the dissemination of the disease. Public enlightenment of the farmers about the disease, vaccination and appropriate national

  16. Preferential traits for breeding Nguni cattle in low-input in-situ conservation production systems

    Tada, Obert; Muchenje, Voster; Dzama, Kennedy


    A cross-sectional study was conducted in communal and small-scale Nguni cattle enterprises to determine preferential traits for improvement under low-input cattle breeding programs. Forty-one farmers participated in ranking six specific traits of breeding bulls and cows. Kruskal-Wallis test and ordinal logistic regression were used to determine mean ranks of traits and odds ratios of predictors (enterprise ownership, gender, farmer age, education level, agriculture training) on specified trai...

  17. Peanut by-products fed to cattle.

    Hill, Gary M


    Peanut by-products supply substantial quantities of feedstuffs to beef cattle grown in the same region where peanuts are produced. Included in the list of products fed to cattle are peanuts and peanut meal, peanut skins, peanut hulls, peanut hay, and silages. Residual peanut hay is by far the most widely used peanut by-product fed to beef cattle, and if it is properly harvested with minimal leaf shatter, it is comparable to good-quality grass hays in nutrient content. Peanut skins are often included in small quantities in cattle and pet foods, supplying both protein and energy. High tannin content of peanut skins can cause severe performance depressions in beef cattle if peanut skins are included at levels higher than 10% of the diet, unless diets contain relatively high CP (above 15% CP), or additional N sources are added such as ammonia or urea. Because dairy cattle diets are often above 16% CP in the total dietary DM, peanut skins may increase milk production when added at levels up to 16% of the dry matter. Peanut hulls are effectively used as a roughage source at levels up to 20% of beef finishing diets, for bedding in dairy cattle loafing sheds (if tested and found to contain low aflatoxin levels), and in a variety of manufactured products. Peanut hulls are economically priced because of their quantity, their inherent high fiber, and low CP content, and they should not be fed as a primary feedstuffs for beef cattle. Peanut by-products are generally priced below other by-products, and they can be incorporated into a variety of supplements and diets for cow herds, growing-finishing cattle, and dairy cattle. PMID:12235662

  18. Radiation-hygienic supervision in cattle production by application of HACCP system

    Mitrović Radosav; Kljajić Ranko R.; Vićentijević Mihajlo


    In this work is exposed instructive methodology for introducing and conducting HACCP system in intensive livestock production on the example of bullock fattening as a typical representative of intensive breeding. Aim is establishing radiation-hygienic supervision. Attention is focused on the fattened bull calves as a key link in chain of food production. In reference to selection of row materials components necessity in production of concentrated food for fattened bull calves in intensive bre...

  19. Cattle production in agroforestry systems. An analysis on the role of intensification and dependence of subsidies

    Escribano, A.J.; Gaspar, P.; Mesias, F.J.; Rosas, J.P.; Escribano, M.


    Extensive livestock production systems have faced socio-economic factors (such as the loss of profitability and competitiveness) that have led to modifications in their management and structure. The main changes have been the abandonment of grazing, the increase in the use of external feed, the abandonment of farms, and the intensification of the systems. The dehesa is the consequence of human intervention in the natural Mediterranean forest. Due to this, the conservation of this ecosystem...

  20. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for tenderness in Brahman cattle: 2. Objective meat quality.

    Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Robinson, D L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Pethick, D W; Thompson, J M; Greenwood, P L


    Effects and interactions of calpain-system tenderness gene markers on objective meat quality traits of Brahman (Bos indicus) cattle were quantified within 2 concurrent experiments at different locations. Cattle were selected for study from commercial and research herds at weaning based on their genotype for calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene markers for beef tenderness. Gene marker status for mu-calpain (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) was also determined for inclusion in statistical analyses. Eighty-two heifer and 82 castrated male cattle with 0 or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in New South Wales (NSW), and 143 castrated male cattle with 0, 1, or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in Western Australia (WA). The cattle were backgrounded for 6 to 8 mo and grain-fed for 117 d (NSW) or 80 d (WA) before slaughter. One-half the cattle in each experiment were implanted with a hormonal growth promotant during feedlotting. One side of each carcass was suspended from the Achilles tendon (AT) and the other from the pelvis (tenderstretch). The M. longissimus lumborum from both sides and the M. semitendinosus from the AT side were collected; then samples of each were aged at 1 degrees C for 1 or 7 d. Favorable alleles for one or more markers reduced shear force, with little effect on other meat quality traits. The size of effects of individual markers varied with site, muscle, method of carcass suspension, and aging period. Individual marker effects were additive as evident in cattle with 4 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 markers, which had shear force reductions of 12.2 N (P 0.05) of interactions between the gene markers, or between the hormonal growth promotant and gene markers for any meat quality traits. This study provides further evidence that selection based on the CAST or CAPN3 gene markers improves meat tenderness in Brahman cattle, with little if any detrimental effects on other meat quality traits. The CAPN1-4751 gene

  1. Life-cycle assessment of the beef cattle production system for the northern great plains, USA.

    Lupo, Christopher D; Clay, David E; Benning, Jennifer L; Stone, James J


    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) model was developed to estimate the environmental impacts associated with four different U.S. Northern Great Plains (NPG) beef production systems. The LCA model followed a "cradle-to-gate" approach and incorporated all major unit processes, including mineral supplement production. Four distinct operation scenarios were modeled based on production strategies common to the NGP, and a variety of impacts were determined. The scenarios include a normal operation, early weaning of the calf, fast-tack backgrounding, and grassfed. Enteric emissions and manure emissions and handling were consistently the largest contributors to the LCA impacts. There was little variability between production scenarios except for the grassfed, where the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were 37% higher due to a longer finishing time and lower finishing weight. However, reductions to GHG emissions (15-24%) were realized when soil organic carbon accrual was considered and may be a more realistic estimate for the NGP. Manure emissions and handing were primary contributors to potential eutrophication and acidification impacts. Mitigation strategies to reduce LCA impacts, including diet manipulation and management strategies (i.e., treatment of manure), were considered from a whole-systems perspective. Model results can be used for guidance by NGP producers, environmental practitioners, and policymakers. PMID:24216416

  2. Farm-level Economic Evaluation of Net Feed Efficiency in Australia’s Southern Beef Cattle Production System: A Multi-period Linear Programming Approach

    Alford, Andrew R.; Griffith, Garry R.; Cacho, Oscar J.


    Selection of beef cattle for increased net feed efficiency is a current major focus for research. At present the trait seems to be more apparent in Australia’s southern beef production system which is dominated by mixed farming enterprises. Farm-level evaluation of net feed efficiency should take account of the farming system for which it is proposed along with the dynamic nature of genetic selection. Gross margin, linear programming and multi-period linear programming approaches to evaluatio...

  3. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for tenderness in Brahman cattle: 1. Growth, efficiency, temperament, and carcass characteristics.

    Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Robinson, D L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Greenwood, P L


    Experiments were conducted concurrently at 2 locations to quantify effects and interactions of calpain-system tenderness gene markers on growth, efficiency, temperament, and carcass traits of Brahman cattle. Cattle were selected at weaning from commercial and research herds based on their genotype for commercially available calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene markers for beef tenderness. Genotypes for mu-calpain gene markers (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) were also determined and included in statistical analyses. The New South Wales (NSW) herd was composed of 82 heifers and 82 castrated male cattle with 0 or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3. The Western Australia (WA) herd was composed of 173 castrated male cattle with 0, 1, or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3. One-half of the cattle at each site were implanted with a hormonal growth promotant (HGP: Revalor-H) during grain finishing. Cattle were backgrounded at pasture for 6 to 8 mo and grain-fed for 117 d (NSW) or 80 d (WA) before slaughter. Individually, or in combination with each other and with CAPN1-4751 status, CAST and CAPN3 status had no significant (all P > 0.05) effects on BW, growth, feed efficiency, or temperament traits. The only significant effect of CAST or CAPN3 on carcass characteristics was a small increase in rib fat with increasing number of favorable CAST alleles (P = 0.042) in the WA herd. There were no significant interactions (all P > 0.05) between the markers, or between the markers and sex or HGP treatment apart from CAST x HGP for area of the M. longissimus lumborum (P = 0.024) in the NSW experiment. Favorable CAST or CAPN3 alleles appear unlikely to have detrimental effects on growth, efficiency, temperament, or carcass characteristics of Brahman cattle; however, some effects evident for CAPN1 status indicate the need for further production studies on effects of these markers. Overall, the findings of the present study indicate that calpain-system gene markers are

  4. Estimation of tsetse challenge and its relationship with trypanosomosis incidence in cattle kept under pastoral production systems in Kenya.

    Bett, B; Irungu, P; Nyamwaro, S O; Murilla, G; Kitala, P; Gathuma, J; Randolph, T F; McDermott, J


    In an on-farm trial conducted amongst the Maasai pastoralists in Nkuruman and Nkineji areas of Kenya between April 2004 and August 2005 designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a synthetic tsetse repellent technology, we assessed the relationship between tsetse challenge and trypanosomosis incidence in cattle. Six villages were used in each area. Each of these villages had a sentinel cattle herd that was screened for trypanosomosis on monthly basis using buffy coat technique. Animals found infected at each sampling were treated with diminazene aceturate at 7 mg kg(-1) body weight. Treatments administered by the owners over the sampling intervals were recorded as well. Tsetse flies were trapped at the time of sampling using baited stationary traps and apparent tsetse density estimated as flies per trap per day (FTD). A fixed proportion (10%) of the flies was dissected and their infection status determined through microscopy. Blood meals were also collected from some of the flies and their sources identified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Tsetse challenge was obtained as a product of tsetse density, trypanosome prevalence and the proportion of blood meals obtained from cattle. This variable was transformed using logarithmic function and fitted as an independent factor in a Poisson model that had trypanosomosis incidence in the sentinel cattle as the outcome of interest. The mean trypanosomosis incidence in the sentinel group of cattle was 7.2 and 10.2% in Nkuruman and Nkineji, respectively. Glossina pallidipes was the most prevalent tsetse species in Nkuruman while G. swynnertoni was prevalent in Nkineji. The proportions of tsetse that had mature infections in the respective areas were 0.6 and 4.2%. Most tsetse (28%) sampled in Nkuruman had blood meals from warthogs while most of those sampled in Nkineji (30%) had blood meals from cattle. A statistically significant association between tsetse challenge and trypanosomosis incidence was obtained only

  5. Range Beef Cattle Productivity in Southern Utah

    Maiga, Mouslim A.


    Twenty-six range beef cattle ranches in southern Utah were surveyed by personal interview to obtain production data. The data were used to characterize the level of production efficiency in terms of calving rate, weaning rate, weaning weight, and net weaning weight in these operations; and to identify factors associated with differences in productivity. The data revealed that productive efficiency was generally lower than the potential. Mean calving rate of cows exposed for breeding was...

  6. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; de Carvalho, Osmar Abílio; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini


    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, “traditional” cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates. PMID:26814797

  7. Tick loads in Bos taurus cattle grazing in two contrasting production systems

    Raquel Salazar B; Rolando Barahona-Rosales; María-Solange Sánchez P


    Objectives. To relate the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick loads on cows grazing either in intensive silvopastoral systems (ISS) (Lucerna) or in grass pastures associated with sugarcane plantations (La Isabela). Materials and methods. Tick counts were performed on 27 Lucerne breed animals that were in different physiological states, six of which were grazing on forage grass paddocks associated with commercial sugarcane plantations and the remain...

  8. Quality Risk and Profitability in Cattle Production: A Multivariate Approach

    Belasco, Eric J; Schroeder, Ted C.; Goodwin, Barry K.


    This study evaluates quality, production, and price risk within the context of overall profit variability in fed cattle production. The approach used offers a flexible way to estimate a large system of equations with more than three jointly related censored outcomes. Trade-offs between quality and yield grade levels and production measures, such as average daily gain and feeding efficiency, are evaluated. Simulation procedures are used to assess the impact of quality risk on overall profit va...

  9. Southern Section Interdisciplinary Beef Cattle Symposium: Forage and co-product systems for stockers in the South: have fundamental shifts in markets changed the optimal system?

    Rankins, D L; Prevatt, J W


    Stockering calves in the southern United States has been an economically viable enterprise for decades. Historically, the system that yielded the best opportunity for profitability was to purchase lightweight calves (130 kg to 220 kg) in autumn, add 100 to 200 kg of BW gain, and sell them in the spring. In most years, the value of the BW gain was worth more than the cost of BW gain in this system. With the exponential price increases in feed, fuel, and fertilizer during 2008 and the significant increase in cattle prices, it is prudent to assess the potential for continued profitability in this segment of the beef industry. Evaluation of 37 grazing experiments indicated that the forage systems most likely to result in inexpensive costs of BW gain for stocker calves involve tall fescue with legumes or ryegrass with small grains. Even with increased input prices, these systems still yield economical BW gain for stocker calves. Likewise, many diets can be blended to produce ADG of 1 kg using co-products that are abundant across the South. With many of these co-products, the most important performance factor in determining their value is G:F. In several experiments, DMI has exceeded 3% of BW in stocker calves, and the resulting G:F has been less than desirable. Several experiments have reported G:F of 0.13 to 0.16, resulting in economical BW gain, whereas some experiments have reported G:F as low as 0.09, which could result in BW gain that costs more to produce than it is worth. From 1979, the value of BW gain for stocker calves in Alabama has averaged US$1.05/kg. However, in the last 3 yr, the value of BW gain has risen to $2.32/kg. Fundamental shifts in feed, fuel, and fertilizer prices experienced in the United States between 2005 and 2010 have markedly changed the amount of capital needed to purchase several hundred stocker calves and to provide adequate feedstuffs for BW gain. However, the value of BW gain associated with producing feeder calves from those stockers

  10. Improvement of beef cattle genetics provided increasing sustainability of beef cattle production and protein consumption in Thailand

    The rural innovation research and development (R and D) in beef cattle genetics, biotechnology, climate science and production systems, supported profitable and sustainable beef cattle production in Thailand. Department of Livestock Development (DLD) undertakes R and D to achieve continuous improvement in genetics, production technologies to improve productivity, profitability and sustainability of beef cattle production and quality of products. Efficiencies were achieved through improvements in genetics, nutrition and grazing management, use of information, meat science, and reduction in ruminant methane production. This function was essential to maintain long-term production competitiveness and achieve sustained economic growth in rural Thailand, where the beef cattle production was the important livestock production, accounting for 36.99% of the value of livestock production in Thailand. Molecular, quantitative genetics, and biotechnology tool were being combined in the development of genetic improvement. In 2006, beef meat was imported 1,842.53 thousand tons (0.41% of all consumption, 120.84 baht/kg). For the big size cattle, such as Tak cattle, Kabinburi cattle (Thai synthetic breeds by DLD, Tak = 62.5 Charoles-Brahman, Kabinburi = 50 Simental- Brahman), and cross breed cattle, they were in fattening period for 6-12 month. Fattening group, they were raised for restaurant, hotel, super market, and steak house. Data were collected from 2 parts: 1) 354 cattle of experimental trial in DLD part, and 2) 492 fattening cattle of small holders in Tak province and Nakorn Pathom province during October 2004-September 2007. Data collecting was separated into 2 parts (performance data and reference). Data were adjusted by group location month and year to analyze for growth, carcass performance and economic performances). There were 5 breeds of fattening beef cattle: 1) Thai Native, 2) Thai Brahman, 3) Kabinburi, 4) Tak, and 5) Tajima-Native. The first group was around 41

  11. Cattle Candidate Genes for Meat Production Traits

    Bláhová, Alice


    The objective of this study was to compile a summary of the most important candidate genes for meat production. The studied genes were: GH, GHR, MSTN, MyoD family, leptin, IGF, TG5, SCD, DGAT and STAT5A. Growth hormone (GH) is involved in physiological processes of growth and metabolism. Growth hormone receptor (GHR) has been proposed as a candidate gene for meat production in cattle. Myostatin is a significant marker. It affects the amount of muscle, reduces marbling and elevate meat tendern...

  12. Carbon and nitrogen cycling in an integrated soybean-beef cattle production system under different grazing intensities

    Joice Mari Assmann


    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of grazing intensity on the decomposition of cover crop pasture, dung, and soybean residues, as well as the C and N release rates from these residues in a long-term integrated soybean-beef cattle system under no-tillage. The experiment was initiated in 2001, with soybean cultivated in summer and black oat + Italian ryegrass in winter. The treatments consisted of four sward heights (10, 20, 30, and 40 cm, plus an ungrazed area, as the control. In 2009-2011, residues from pasture, dung, and soybean stems and leaves were placed in nylon-mesh litter bags and allowed to decompose for up to 258 days. With increasing grazing intensity, residual dry matter of the pasture decreased and that of dung increased. Pasture and dung lignin concentrations and C release rates were lower with moderate grazing intensity. C and N release rates from soybean residues are not affected by grazing intensity. The moderate grazing intensity produces higher quality residues, both for pasture and dung. Total C and N release is influenced by the greater residual dry matter produced when pastures were either lightly grazed or ungrazed.

  13. The suitability for organic cattle beef production of mixed farming systems in the highlands of north east Portugal

    Pires, Jaime; Rodrigues, M. A.; Sousa, Fernando Ruivo de; Bernardo, Adelino; Pires, João; Cabanas, J.E.; Resendes, Hugo; Ferreira, Maria; Silva, Infância; Moreira, Nuno


    Two beef cattle farms (Farm 1 – “Barrosã” breed – Montalegre and Farm 2 – “Mirandesa” breed – Vinhais) were monitored for a year (autumn 2002-03) – Farm activities, inputs, outputs, yields components and flows were recorde

  14. Reproductive Systems for North American Beef Cattle Herds.

    Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J


    A systems approach to beef cattle reproduction facilitates evaluating the flow of cattle through the herd population based on temporal changes in reproductive and production state. The previous years' timing of calving has either a positive or negative effect on the present year's reproductive success. In order to create and maintain high reproductive success, one must focus on: developing heifers to become pregnant early in the breeding season, ensuring bull breeding soundness, aligning the calving period with optimal resource availability, managing forage and supplementation to ensure good cow body condition going into calving, and minimizing reproductive losses due to disease. PMID:27156223

  15. QTL mapping for production traits in Czech Fleckvieh cattle

    Matejickova, J; Stipkova, M; Sahana, Goutam;


    The objective of this study was to find QTL for milk production traits in Czech Fleckvieh cattle on chromosomes 6, 7, 11, 14, and 23 where QTL were previously identified in other dairy cattle populations. Sixteen grandsire families were genotyped for 38 microsatellite markers on the selected...... associated with milk production traits appeared on other studied chromosomes (BTA6, BTA7, BTA11, and BTA23). This first QTL search on five chromosomes in Czech Fleckvieh population showed several suggestive QTL that can be promising for further studies and contribute to better understanding of genetics of...... milk production in the Czech Fleckvieh cattle....

  16. The Welfare of Cattle kept for Beef Production

    Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare,


    Content: 1) Introduction 2) State of the Industry 3) Hosing Systems 4) Behaviour of Cattle 5)Effect of Housing on the Welfare of the Animals 6) the effects of Management on Cattle Welfare 7)Futere Research Needed 8) Conclusions 9) Recommodations 10) References 11) Acknowledgements

  17. Simulated influence of postweaning production system on performance of different biological types of cattle: I. Estimation of model parameters.

    Williams, C B; Bennett, G L; Keele, J W


    Breed parameters for a computer model that simulated differences in the composition of empty-body gain of beef cattle, resulting from differences in postweaning level of nutrition that are not associated with empty BW, were estimated for 17 biological types of cattle (steers from F1 crosses of 16 sire breeds [Hereford, Angus, Jersey, South Devon, Limousin, Simmental, Charolais, Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, Chianina, Brahman, Sahiwal, Pinzgauer, and Tarentaise] mated to Hereford and Angus dams). One value for the maximum fractional growth rate of fat-free matter (KMAX) was estimated and used across all breed types. Mature fat-free matter (FFMmat) was estimated from data on mature cows for each of the 17 breed types. Breed type values for a fattening parameter (THETA) were estimated from growth and composition data at slaughter on steers of the 17 breed types, using the previously estimated constant KMAX and breed values for FFMmat. For each breed type, THETA values were unique for given values of KMAX, FFMmat, and composition at slaughter. The results showed that THETA was most sensitive to KMAX and had similar sensitivity to FFMmat and composition at slaughter. Values for THETA were most sensitive for breed types with large THETA values (Chianina, Charolais, and Limousin crossbred steers) and least sensitive for breed types with small THETA values (purebred Angus, crossbred Jersey, and Red Poll steers).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7607999

  18. Reducing Methane Emissions from Cattle Production in Central Queensland

    Rolfe, John


    Beef cattle contribute about 7% of national greenhouse gas emissions through the release of methane into the atmosphere. Cattle in northern Australia produce more methane per unit of beef produced because of tropical (C4) grasses and slower average growth rates. In this paper the level of emissions from different herds and some strategies to reduce emissions are modelled. The results indicate that few options exist to reduce methane emissions without reducing beef production. The opportunity ...

  19. Growth characteristics, reproductive performance, and evaluation of their associative relationships in Brangus cattle managed in a Chihuahuan Desert production system1.

    Luna-Nevarez, P; Bailey, D W; Bailey, C C; VanLeeuwen, D M; Enns, R M; Silver, G A; DeAtley, K L; Thomas, M G


    Balancing growth and reproductive performance in beef cattle managed in desert environments is challenging. Our objectives were to 1) evaluate trends in growth and reproductive traits, and 2) assess associative relationships between growth characteristics and reproductive performance in a Brangus herd managed in a Chihuahuan Desert production system from 1972 to 2006. Data were from bull (n = 597) and heifer calves (n = 585; 1988 to 2006) and cows (n = 525; repeated records of cows, n = 2,611; 1972 to 2006). Variables describing the growth curve of each cow were estimated using a nonlinear logistic function (each cow needed 6 yr of data). Mixed-effect models and logistic regression were used to analyze trends across years in growth and reproductive traits (both continuous and categorical). For continuous traits of calves, a slight cubic response (P Brangus herd managed in the Chihuahuan Desert. Opposing relationships were observed among measures of cow size and fertility; as growth curves shifted toward earlier maturity, measures of reproductive performance suggested that fertility improved. PMID:20154157

  20. Clitoria ternatea, The Alternative Shrub Legume for Cattle and Corn Integration System in Timor Island

    Jacob Nulik


    Cattle and maize play important roles in the dryland faming systems in Timor island of East Nusa Tenggara province, contributing to the farmers’ income, social status, and the regional food security and sources of income. However, the productivity of both commodities is low because of several problems. Lack of feed supply and management knowledge has contributed to the low cattle productivity, while lack of cultivation knowledge and the use of low productivity local maize hav...

  1. Implicit prices of traits of indigenous cattle - Implications for sustainable livestock production

    Full text: Both revealed and stated preference approaches were employed to determine the values attached to the different features of indigenous cattle in central Ethiopia. For the revealed preference analysis a hedonic model was employed to examine the determinants of cattle prices in the primary rural markets of central Ethiopia. Transaction level data of cattle farmers and farmer-traders were used in the analyses. Data collected in rural markets to identify cattle price determinants result in estimates with standard errors that are mostly heteroscedastic. We employed SHM estimations to account for heteroscedastic errors. The empirical estimation of revealed preferences showed that market place, seasonal differences, sex and function based classification of cattle, body size, and age were very important factors influencing the market prices cattle sellers receive. The significance of the characteristics of animals in influencing prices paid for the animals reveals the importance of the preferences for traits in the decision-making process related to buying and selling of cattle. These preferences at the farmers and farmer-traders levels are the ones that matter most in shaping up the diversity of animals kept at farm level. This diversity of the cattle genetic resources is essential for generating or identifying best-suited breeds of cattle in the context of the livelihood objectives of the target community. Thus, the cattle breeding strategies and activities should duly consider the preferences expressed through the prices paid for animals in such markets, where the cattle keepers are the main sellers and buyers. For the stated preference analysis the study employed choice experiments (CE) and random parameters logit to elicit and analyze cattle trait preferences of buyers in the semi-subsistence livelihood systems of rural central Ethiopia. The results of the cows CE revealed that in areas where livestock serve multitude of purposes and where the production and


    Johnson, Rachel J.; Damona G. Doye; Lalman, David L.; Peel, Derrell S.; Raper, Kellie Curry


    This study identifies current production and management practices of Oklahoma stocker cattle producers and analyzes factors affecting the adoption of best management practices (BMPs) using chi-square analysis. Results reveal that factors influencing the adoption of BMPs are operation size, dependency upon income from the operation, and specialization in stocker production.

  3. Labour in Swedish intensive beef cattle production

    Bostad, Elise


    Red veal and young bull production are the two main intensive beef finishing systems in Sweden and utilise practically all male calves from the dairy and suckler cow herds. This thesis examined labour input and physical working conditions in the two systems in order to identify factors influencing these parameters. Data collection was mainly based on questionnaires, complemented by observations and interviews on farm visits, and related to the most common work tasks performed during diffe...

  4. Simulated influence of postweaning production system on performance of different biological types of cattle: III. Biological efficiency.

    Williams, C B; Bennett, G L; Keele, J W


    Methods were developed and incorporated into a previously published computer model to predict ME intake and calculate biological efficiencies in terms of grams of empty BW (EBW) and fat-free matter (FFM) gained/megacalorie of ME consumed from weaning to slaughter. Efficiencies were calculated for steers from F1 crosses of 16 sire breeds (Hereford, Angus, Jersey, South Devon, Limousin, Simmental, Charolais, Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, Chianina, Brahman, Sahiwal, Pinzgauer, and Tarentaise) mated to Hereford and Angus dams, grown under nine backgrounding systems, finished at either a low (1.0 kg) or high (1.36 kg) ADG, and slaughtered at 300 kg carcass weight, small or greater degree of marbling, and 28% carcass fat. Backgrounding systems were high ADG (.9 kg) for 111, 167, or 222 d, medium ADG (.5 kg) for 200, 300, or 400 d, and low ADG (.25 kg) for 300 or 400 d, and 0 d backgrounding. The high ADG finishing system was more biologically efficient than the low ADG finishing system, and generally backgrounding systems were less biologically efficient than direct finishing after weaning (0 d backgrounding). Large-framed breeds were more efficient at the constant carcass weight and carcass fatness end point, and breeds that achieved the marbling end point at low levels of carcass fatness were more efficient at this end point. Some small-framed breeds gained EBW more efficiently but gained FFM less efficiently than some of the large-framed breeds. Variation in efficiency between genotypes was greatest with 0 d backgrounding and decreased in the other backgrounding systems. PMID:7608001

  5. Simulated influence of postweaning production system on performance of different biological types of cattle: II. Carcass composition, retail product, and quality.

    Williams, C B; Bennett, G L; Keele, J W


    A computer simulation model was used to characterize the response in carcass composition, retail product, and quality of steers from F1 crosses of 16 sire breeds (Hereford, Angus, Jersey, South Devon, Limousin, Simmental, Charolais, Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, Chianina, Brahman, Sahiwal, Pinzgauer, and Tarentaise) mated to Hereford and Angus dams, grown under nine backgrounding systems, and finished at either a low (1.0 kg) or high (1.36 kg) ADG. The backgrounding systems were a high ADG (.9 kg) for 111, 167, or 222 d, a medium ADG (.5 kg) for 200, 300, or 400 d, a low ADG (.25 kg) for 300 or 400 d and 0 d backgrounding. For specific genotype x production system combinations, results showed that carcasses of compensating steers may be either leaner, not different in fatness, or fatter than carcasses of steers put on a finishing diet directly after weaning. Systems in which steers gained a greater proportion of the final slaughter weight over long durations of growth restriction resulted in leaner carcasses. There were 12 common production systems in which 13 of the genotypes produced a carcass with a maximum of 28% fat or with a marbling score of 11 or greater. These results suggest sire breeds used to produce these steers can be used over a wide range of nutritional and management environments, and that a mixed group of steers can be fed and managed similarly from weaning to slaughter to produce a carcass with a specified composition, retail product, or quality. PMID:7608000


    Ouma, Emily Awuor; Obare, Gideon A.; Staal, Steven J.


    This paper uses data from a survey of two hundred and fifty cattle households in three cattle keeping systems; intensive, semi-intensive and extensive systems to estimate the value of non-market, socio-economic benefits of cattle in Kenya. These benefits of cattle keeping are of special importance in developing countries, where financial markets function poorly and opportunities for risk management through formal insurance generally absent. However, when estimating the total contribution of l...

  7. Production and environmental impact of dairy cattle production in Denmark 1900–2010

    Kristensen, Troels; Aaes, Ole; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis


    emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) per kg product has been evaluated for the Danish dairy cattle sector based on historic information. Typical farms representing the average situation for Danish dairy cattle farms and land required for feed supply was modeled for the situation in: (A) 1920 – representing a......Cattle production during the last century has changed dramatically in Western Europe, including Denmark, with a steady increase in production per animal and in herd and farm size. The effect of these changes on total production, herd efficiency, surplus of nitrogen (N) at herd and farm level and...

  8. Systems Genetics and Transcriptomics of Feed Efficiency in Dairy Cattle

    Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Hoglund, J.; Løvendahl, P.;

    Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking...... are of high or low efficiency. mRNA will be extracted from liver biopsies samples for RNA-sequencing which will be performed on the Illumina HiSeq2500. Blood samples will be collected for genotyping and plasma. Plasma will be extracted from the blood for analysis of glucose, NEFA, β...

  9. Subsidies and Cattle Production in the Amazon: An Economic Policy Analysis

    McClain, Emily A.; Catherine HALBRENDT; Sherbourne, Jennifer; Gempesaw, Conrado


    Cattle production has been a major source of agricultural deforestation in Brazil's Amazon rainforest. Brazilian credit subsidies have been blamed for speeding cattle expansion and thus deforestation. A stochastic coefficients regression approach was used to quantify the effects of credit subsidies and world prices on cattle numbers in five Amazon rigions for the 1963-83 period. Results show that cattle production has been positively correlated to both prices and credit. Elasticities show tha...

  10. Production indices for dual purpose cattle in central Brazil

    Concepta McManus


    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of crossbreeding low genetic potential cows of Bos indicus origin characterized by Gyr crossed with Holstein-Friesian and Simmental bulls to produce animals in a low input dual purpose system. The farm is situated near Brasilia, in the savannah region of Brazil. The climate of the region is classified as Aw by Köppen. Data was available on 1580 calvings and completed lactations of cows with three genetic types: Gyr, Holstein-Friesian × Gyr and Simmental × Gyr. The bulls ran with the cows all year round and the diet comprised of pasture (mainly Brachiaria and Andropogon during the summer (rainy season and milled sugar cane with added urea during the winter (dry season. A mineral salt mixture was available ad libitum. Data was analysed using Statistical Analysis System. The results show that, under low input management conditions, the crossbred cows produce approximately twice the volume of milk per lactation, calve at a younger age and have a shorter open period, but there are no significant differences between crosses for growth rates of the calves or body condition of the cows. In this system, crossbred cows had production higher indices than zebu cattle. The best indices were found for cows calving in the rainy season (September to December and thinner cows (with body condition 3-5 on a scale of 9.

  11. Fertility management of bulls to improve beef cattle productivity.

    Thundathil, Jacob C; Dance, Alysha L; Kastelic, John P


    Global demand for animal proteins is increasing, necessitating increased efficiency of global food production. Improving reproductive efficiency of beef cattle, especially bull fertility, is particularly critical, as one bull can breed thousands of females (by artificial insemination). Identifying the genetic basis of male reproductive traits that influence male and female fertility, and using this information for selection, would improve herd fertility. Early-life selection of elite bulls by genomic approaches and feeding them to optimize postpubertal reproductive potential are essential for maximizing profitability. Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation, or systematic analysis of frozen semen, eliminates bulls or semen samples that are grossly abnormal. However, semen samples classified as satisfactory on the basis of traditional approaches differ in fertility. Advanced sperm function assays developed for assessing compensatory and noncompensatory (submicroscopic) sperm traits can predict such variations in bull fertility. New knowledge on epigenetic modulations of sperm DNA, messenger RNA, and proteins is fundamental to refine and expand sperm function assays. Sexed semen, plus advanced reproductive technologies (e.g., ovum pickup and in vitro production of embryos) can maximize the efficiency of beef cattle production. This review is focused on genetic considerations for bull selection, physiology of reproductive development, breeding soundness evaluation, recent advances in assessing frozen semen, and existing and emerging uses of sexed semen in beef cattle production. PMID:27173954

  12. Cattle traceability system in Japan for bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Katsuaki Sugiura


    Full Text Available To promote consumer confidence in the safety of beef and to ensure the proper implementation of eradication measures against bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, the Cattle Traceability Law was approved by the Diet in June 2003 and a cattle traceability system has been in operation in Japan since December 2003. The system enables tracing the cohort and offspring animals of a BSE case within 24 h of its detection. The traceability database system also provides distributors, restaurants and consumers with information on the cattle from which the beef that they sell, serve and consume originate.

  13. Preliminary Results for Ways to Increase Meat Production in Cattle

    Doina Popa; Dorina Cotarlea; Doina Sprinjean


    In order to improve the quality and quantity of meat production in cattle in the ICDM Cristian institute and two private farms, Beef Technology and Artificial Insemination was applied. Artificial Insemination was performed with semen from bulls of meat breeds (Charolaise, Bleu Belge, Aberdeen Angus). The average daily gains obtained were between 0.40-1.30 kg / head / day, varying based on race, sex, technology applied, etc.

  14. Inbreeding on productive and reproductive traits of dairy Gyr cattle

    João Cruz Reis Filho


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters and to evaluate the effects of inbreeding on productive and reproductive traits of dairy Gyr cattle. Single-trait animal models were used to estimate genetic parameters and solutions for inbreeding coefficients for milk (milk 305-d, fat (fat 305-d, protein (protein 305-d, lactose (lactose 305-d, and total solids (TS 305-d yield up to 305 days of lactation, days in milk (DIM, age at first calving (AFC and calving intervals (CI. The mean inbreeding coefficient was 2.82%. The models with linear and quadratic effects of inbreeding coefficients fitted the data better than the models without or with only linear effect of inbreeding coefficient for all traits. The increase in inbreeding coefficient caused several losses in productive and reproductive traits of dairy Gyr cattle. Estimates of heritability for milk 305-d, fat 305-d, protein 305-d, lactose 305-d, TS 305-d, DIM, AFC, and CI were 0.28, 0.27, 0.22, 0.21, 0.22, 0.17, 0.20, and 0.10, respectively. It is possible to achieve genetic progress in productive traits (especially in milk 305-d and fat 305-d and age at first calving in dairy Gyr cattle through selection.

  15. Cattle traceability system in Japan for bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Katsuaki Sugiura; Takashi Onodera


    To promote consumer confidence in the safety of beef and to ensure the proper implementation of eradication measures against bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the Cattle Traceability Law was approved by the Diet in June 2003 and a cattle traceability system has been in operation in Japan since December 2003. The system enables tracing the cohort and offspring animals of a BSE case within 24 h of its detection. The traceability database system also provides distributors, restaurants and ...

  16. The role of geographical labelling in inserting extensive cattle systems into beef marketing channels. Evidence from three Spanish case studies

    Gómez Ramos, Almudena; Bardají Azcaráte, Isabel; Atance Muñiz, Ignacio


    The beef cattle sector is adapting to increasing demand-side requirements. Customers are looking for a differentiated product of constant quality in a market that is beginning to be dominated by major distribution companies. In this background, mechanisms to differentiate production are being implemented to co-ordinate both production and marketing processes and integrate livestock farmers into the commercial system. Extensive cattle systems carry an important weight in Spain because of their...

  17. The anaerobic co-digestion of sheep bedding and ⩾ 50% cattle manure increases biogas production and improves biofertilizer quality.

    Cestonaro, Taiana; Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça; Costa, Luiz Antônio de Mendonça; Rozatti, Marcos Antonio Teofilo; Pereira, Dercio Ceri; Lorin, Higor Eisten Francisconi; Carneiro, Leocir José


    Sheep manure pellets are peculiarly shaped as small 'capsules' of limited permeability and thus are difficult to degrade. Fragmentation of manure pellets into a homogeneous mass is important for decomposition by microorganisms, and occurs naturally by physical shearing due to animal trampling, when sheep bedding is used. However, the high lignocellulose content of sheep bedding may limit decomposition of sheep manure. Here, we evaluated if co-digestion of sheep bedding with cattle manure would improve the yield and quality of the useful products of anaerobic digestion of sheep bedding--biogas and biofertilizer--by providing a source of nutrients and readily available carbon. Mixtures of sheep bedding and cattle manure in varying proportions (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% cattle manure) were added to 6-L digesters, used in a batch system, and analyzed by uni and multivariate statistical tools. PC1, which explained 64.96% of data variability, can be referred to as 'organic fraction/productivity', because higher rates of organic fraction consumption (COD, cellulose and hemicellulose contents) led to higher digester productivity (biogas production, nutrient concentration, and sample stability changes). Therefore, productivity and organic fraction variables were most influenced by manure mixtures with higher (⩾ 50%) or lower (⩽ 25%) ratios of cattle manure, respectively. Increasing the amount of cattle manure up to 50% enhanced the biogas potential production from 142 L kg(-1)TS (0% of cattle manure) to 165, 171, 160 L biogas kg(-1)TS for the mixtures containing 100%, 75% and 50% of cattle manure, respectively. Our results show that the addition of ⩾ 50% cattle manure to the mixture increases biogas production and improves the quality of the final biofertilizer. PMID:26341827

  18. Resistome diversity in cattle and the environment decreases during beef production.

    Noyes, Noelle R; Yang, Xiang; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Dettenwanger, Adam; Cook, Shaun; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Woerner, Dale E; Gow, Sheryl P; McAllister, Tim A; Yang, Hua; Ruiz, Jaime; Jones, Kenneth L; Boucher, Christina A; Morley, Paul S; Belk, Keith E


    Antimicrobial resistant determinants (ARDs) can be transmitted from livestock systems through meat products or environmental effluents. The public health risk posed by these two routes is not well understood, particularly in non-pathogenic bacteria. We collected pooled samples from 8 groups of 1741 commercial cattle as they moved through the process of beef production from feedlot entry through slaughter. We recorded antimicrobial drug exposures and interrogated the resistome at points in production when management procedures could potentially influence ARD abundance and/or transmission. Over 300 unique ARDs were identified. Resistome diversity decreased while cattle were in the feedlot, indicating selective pressure. ARDs were not identified in beef products, suggesting that slaughter interventions may reduce the risk of transmission of ARDs to beef consumers. This report highlights the utility and limitations of metagenomics for assessing public health risks regarding antimicrobial resistance, and demonstrates that environmental pathways may represent a greater risk than the food supply. PMID:26952213

  19. Productivity and carcass characteristics of pure and crossbred Chinese Yellow Cattle.

    Zhou, G H; Liu, L; Xiu, X L; Jian, H M; Wang, L Z; Sun, B Z; Tong, B S


    The carcass characteristics of 334 Chinese Yellow Cattle, and their Simmental and Limousin crosses, were investigated in abattoirs in Hebei and Sandong provinces of China. The overall slaughter age was 4.8±2.2 years at a mean liveweight of 527.28±77.0 kg. Mean ages and liveweights for Yellow Cattle and its crosses were, respectively, 5.29±2.03 and 2.85±1.71 years and 519.43±78.7 and 563.13±56.8 kg. Carcass weights varied considerably and, consequently, so did subcutaneous fat depths and dressing percentages. Overall, mean carcass weights, subcutaneous fat depths and, dressing percentages and eyemuscle areas were 283.9±64.1 kg, 14.0±8.0 mm, 54.0±4.0%, and 62.7 ±13.3 cm(2), respectively. Compared with pure Yellow Cattle, the crosses were slaughtered at younger age, and had larger live and carcass weights, higher dressing percentages, less subcutaneous fat depth and bigger eyemuscle areas. It is concluded that crossbreeding can significantly improve Yellow Cattle' meat productivity, however feeding systems need to be improved and an appropriate grading system developed to improve beef production and quality in China. PMID:22062425

  20. Glycerol from biodiesel production: the new corn for dairy cattle

    Shawn S Donkin


    Full Text Available Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattle is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental evidence supports the use of glycerol as a transition cow therapy but feeding rates are low, ranging from 5 to 8 % of the diet DM. There is a paucity of research that examines the use of glycerol as a macro-ingredient in rations for lactating dairy cows. Most reports indicate a lack of effect of addition of glycerol to the diet when it replaces corn or corn starch. Recent feeding experiments with lactating dairy cows indicate replacing corn with glycerol to a level of 15% of the ration DM does not adversely effect milk production or composition. Milk production was 37.0, 36.9, 37.3, 36.4 ± 0.6 kg/d and feed intake was 24.0, 24.5, 24.6, 24.1 ± 0.5 kg/d for 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerol treatments respectively and did not differ (P > 0.05 except for a modest reduction in feed intake during the first 7 days for the 15% glycerol treatment. Glycerol fed to dairy cattle is fermented to volatile fatty acids in the rumen and early reports indicated that glycerol is almost entirely fermented to propionate. In vitro data indicates glycerol fermentation increases the production of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate. Rumen microbes appear to adapt to glycerol feeding and consequently, cows fed glycerol also require an adaptation period to glycerol inclusion. Debate exists regarding the fate of glycerol in the rumen and although most reports suggest that glycerol is largely fermented in the rumen, the extent of rumen digestion may depend on level of

  1. Present situation and future challenges of beef cattle production in Italy and the role of the research

    G. Cozzi


    Full Text Available The paper aims at describing the current features and the future challenges of the beef cattle production systems in Italy. The first part of the article analyzes the main domestic production systems of veal calves and more adult beef cattle in terms of farm size and location, housing structures, feeding plans and cattle genotypes. The second part is address towards the analysis of a set of issues related to the current systems of production which could become important critical points in the short future. Potential solutions to reduce the environmental impact of the beef farms, to improve the animal welfare and to limit the import of foreign young livestock to be finished in our fattening units are proposed and discussed in the light of the more recent advances of the scientific research.

  2. Niche marketing production practices for beef cattle in the United States and prevalence of foodborne pathogens.

    Fox, J Trent; Reinstein, Shelby; Jacob, Megan E; Nagaraja, T G


    Niche-marketed food products are rapidly gaining market share in today's society. Consumers are willing to pay premium prices for food perceived to be safer, healthier, more nutritious, and better tasting than conventional food. This review outlines typical production practices for niche-market beef production systems in the United States and compares prevalence estimates of foodborne pathogens in animals and produce from conventional and niche-market production systems. The two main niches for food animal production are organic and natural productions. Organic and natural beef productions are becoming increasingly popular and there is high consumer demand. Two major differences between conventional beef production systems and niche-market production systems (natural and organic) are in the use of antimicrobials and growth-promoting hormones. The impacts of these production systems on foodborne pathogens in beef cattle are variable and often data are nonexistent. Studies directly comparing conventional and niche-market production systems for dairy, swine, poultry, and produce have observed that the prevalence of foodborne pathogens was seldom statistically different between production systems, but when differences were observed, prevalence was typically greater for the niche-market production systems than the conventional production system. The published literature suggests that the perception of niche-marketed food products being safer and healthier for consumers with regard to foodborne pathogens may not be justified. PMID:18681794


    Ivanka Hadzic


    Full Text Available Dermatitis digitalis is an extremely contagious disease of cattle hooves multicausal etiology, which soon turns into a problem of the whole herd. It significantly decreases the milk, which may be in the global market economy can seriously undermine the competitiveness of producers who do not suppressed adequately. Analysis of data collected in 2013. and 2014th year coincides with the findings from the literature that bacterial causes of dermatitis digitalis in conditions of high temperature and humidity raised the number of infected animals in the warm period of the year. The most economical way to control this disease is constant zoohygienic implementation of measures and procedures: Hygiene herd at the prescribed level, proper design and construction of the reservoir, the proper design of the ventilation facility and strict implementation measures of disinfection and hoof bearing animals. The most effective way suppression diseases and hoof it to reduce the losses caused by the conditions of intensive livestock production that preventive measures and procedures as well as raising the level of biotechnology thinking of all employees in cattle production, while curative repair problems in patients with animals but does not eliminate losses manufacturer.

  4. Illegal Use of Clenbuterol in Cattle Production in México

    Benjamin Valladares-Carranza; Rómulo Bañuelos-Valenzuela; Silvia D. Peña-Betancourt; Valente Velázquez-Ordoñez; Yadira Velázquez-Armenta; Alejandro Nava-Ocampo


    Slaughtered cattle (n = 582) from México State were bled for a serological screening of clenbuterol residues, using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Clenbuterol residues were found in a total of 153/582 (26.2%) sera analysed. These results reinforced the assumption of the illegal use of clenbuterol in cattle production in México; therefore, routine screening examinations in slaughtered cattle were strongly advised considering the toxic potential for humans.


    N. Hilmia; R.R Noor; C Sumantri; R. E.Gurnadi; R. Priyanto


    The objectives of this study were to identify the productivity and genetic diversity of local cattle in Ciamis West Java based on DNA microsatellite, in order to provide the basic information for its rearing, conservation and development. Eighteen of local cattle were kept for 58 days by feeding concentrates and rice straw. The measured parameters were weekly body weight as well as carcass percentage. The percentage of comparing carcass was taken from PO, Bali and crossbred cattle from local ...


    N. Hilmia


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to identify the productivity and genetic diversity of local cattle in Ciamis West Java based on DNA microsatellite, in order to provide the basic information for its rearing, conservation and development. Eighteen of local cattle were kept for 58 days by feeding concentrates and rice straw. The measured parameters were weekly body weight as well as carcass percentage. The percentage of comparing carcass was taken from PO, Bali and crossbred cattle from local cattle with Limousin, Simmental, Brahman and Angus cattle. Data were analyzed using Excel software and SAS (2004. Blood samples were taken from two subpopulations i.e., 46 and 52 samples from Tambaksari and Cijulang areas, respectively. Other DNA samples were collected from Bali, PO, Limousin, Simental, Brahman and Angus cattle. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis were analyzed using 3 microsatellite loci, that were INRA35, HEL9 and BM2113. The genotyping data were analyzed using POPGENE.32 program, while phylogenetic trees were analyzed by MEGA 4. Average daily gain (ADG of local cattle in Ciamis was 0.62±0.23 kg/head/day with a carcass percentage was 51.62±1.80%. The carcasses percentage of local cattle in Ciamis was not significantly different from those of Bali, PO, and crossbred cattle. The genetic diversity of local cattle in Ciamis was categorized in the medium level, the diversity of local cattle in Tambaksari subpopulation was higher than in Cijulang subpopulation. Local cattle in Ciamis had a closer genetic distance with the PO cattle.

  7. Factors influencing the reproduction and production performance of the Nguni cattle ecotypes in South Africa.

    Maciel, Sónia Maria Ataíde; Fair, Michael Denis; Scholtz, Michiel Matthys; Neser, Frederick Wilhelm Cornelius


    The objective of this experiment was to assess the reproductive and productive performance of Nguni cattle distributed among 11 farms in four regions of South Africa. Only data of registered Appendix A to Stud Proper Nguni animals from the Agricultural Research Council of South Africa’s database were used. Data were collected from 2061 dams and 3285 calves between 1990 and 2009. Overall means for age at first calving (AFC) and calving intervals (CI) were 33.79 ± 4.90 months and 400.29 ± 78.70 days, respectively. Dry season-born heifers had lower AFC than wet season-born heifers. Dry seasons 4 and wet seasons 1 had lower CI than seasons 2 and 3, indicating that conceptions take place between December and May. Average growth weights of calves were 24.87 ± 3.13, 151.91 ± 21.09, 169.25 ± 23.68 and 237.96 ± 27.34 kg at birth (BW), weaning (WW), 12 months (YW) and 18 months of age, respectively. BW was higher in dry seasons 4 and wet seasons 1; WW and YW were higher in dry than in wet seasons. This is the first study demonstrating that performance of Nguni cattle is influenced by ecological regions of the dam’s origin, year-season of birth/calving, breeder’s management, parity and herdbook status, confirming that environment-genotype interactions influence the performance of Nguni cattle in southern Africa. This stimulated a follow-up study on the use of geographic information systems to specifically identify factors influencing the reproductive and productive performance of Nguni cattle in southern Africa. PMID:26466944

  8. Productivity of Thai Brahman and Simmental-Brahman crossbred (Kabinburi) cattle in central Thailand

    Boonprong, S.; Choothesa, A.; Sribhen, C.; Parvizi, N.; Vajrabukka, C.


    The productivity of the new crossbred cattle Kabinburi (K) was compared to that of Thai Brahman (TB) using 756 production records from K cattle and 1,316 production records from TB cattle kept at three locations in Thailand. The data were analyzed for the effect of breeds and locations. The ambient temperature, the humidity, the Temperature-Humidity Index (THI) and the rainfall of the three locations were different. Lamphayaklang Livestock Research and Breeding Center (LP) had the highest rainfall/year followed by Nongkwang Livestock Research and Breeding Center (NK), and Prachinburi Livestock Breeding Station (PC). Kabinburi cattle had a higher bodyweight at birth as well as at 200, 400 and 600 days of age than TB cattle. Furthermore, K heifers gave birth to their first calf at a younger age and had a shorter calving interval than TB cows. Thai Brahman cattle kept at LP had significantly higher bodyweight at 400 and 600 days than the animals kept at NK, but bodyweight at birth and 600 days of age were not significantly different. Thai Brahman cattle kept at LP were younger at first calving and had a shorter calving interval than the animals kept at NK. K cattle kept at NK were heavier at birth and at 200, 400 and 600 days of age than the animals kept at PC. Furthermore, Kabinburi cows kept at NK were younger at first calving ( P < 0.01), but the calving interval was not different between the two groups kept at NK or PC.


    N. Hilmia


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to identify the productivity and genetic diversity of local cattle inCiamis West Java based on DNA microsatellite, in order to provide the basic information for its rearing,conservation and development. Eighteen of local cattle were kept for 58 days by feeding concentratesand rice straw. The measured parameters were weekly body weight as well as carcass percentage. Thepercentage of comparing carcass was taken from PO, Bali and crossbred cattle from local cattle withLimousin, Simmental, Brahman and Angus cattle. Data were analyzed using Excel software and SAS(2004. Blood samples were taken from two subpopulations i.e., 46 and 52 samples from Tambaksariand Cijulang areas, respectively. Other DNA samples were collected from Bali, PO, Limousin, Simental,Brahman and Angus cattle. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis were analyzed using 3microsatellite loci, that were INRA35, HEL9 and BM2113. The genotyping data were analyzed usingPOPGENE.32 program, while phylogenetic trees were analyzed by MEGA 4. Average daily gain (ADGof local cattle in Ciamis was 0.62±0.23 kg/head/day with a carcass percentage was 51.62±1.80%. Thecarcasses percentage of local cattle in Ciamis was not significantly different from those of Bali, PO, andcrossbred cattle. The genetic diversity of local cattle in Ciamis was categorized in the medium level, thediversity of local cattle in Tambaksari subpopulation was higher than in Cijulang subpopulation. Localcattle in Ciamis had a closer genetic distance with the PO cattle.

  10. Breeding objectives for a Nellore cattle rearing system

    Caio Victor Damasceno Carvalho


    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to define the traits that should be included as breeding objectives for Nellore cattle, according to simulations with a bio-economic model for rearing systems. The economic values (EVs of the traits were calculated as the differences between the profits due to an increased performance of 1% in each trait, with the others traits remaining constant. To determine the impact of each selection on the revenue system, two scenarios were simulated based on the traits being selected. In the first scenario, the adopted selection criteria were: weaning weight (WW, weaning rate (WR, yearling weight (YW, and mature cow weight (MCW. In the second scenario, the cumulative productivity (CP of dams was used as an indirect evaluation of the performance of calves, with all the other traits included, except WW. In the first scenario, an EV of R$ 1.44 kg-1 was obtained for WW. In the second scenario, an EV of R$ 2.91 kg-1 was obtained for CP. The trait with the highest EV in both scenarios was WR, which enhanced the profits by R$ 3.21 for each 1% increased performance. The meat price paid to the producer is the factor with the greatest impact on the EVs of all examined traits.

  11. What we can make of the cattle sector production in favor of the environment

    A plan for agricultural residues management is composed of a group of activities that leads to adapt residues production to crops and animal needs and improve and maintain soil quality. This article proposes some stages that should be taken into account to conceive, construct and put to work system of residual water treatment in a cattle enterprise. These stages can be overlapped, or even, inverted in some cases. With the establishment of these tasks, farmers are led to a more efficient management of their resources and to a reduction of the pollution in the farms

  12. The Kinetics of Methane Production from Co-digestion of Cattle Manure

    Zh.K. Bakhov; K.U. Korazbekova; K.M. Lakhanova


    In this article, the kinetics of methane production from co-digestion of liquid manure from cattle with the addition of winemaking waste, food waste and biowaste was investigated in order to describe and evaluate methanogenesis in terms of growth curve of methanogenic bacteria. Experiments were carried out in «Hohenheim» biogas yield testing system at the temperature of 37°C. The cumulative methane yield was 0.330±0.038, 0.277±0.041, 0.148±0.013 and 0...

  13. Analysis of small-scale biogas utilization systems on Ontario cattle farms

    The production of biogas through the anaerobic digestion of cattle manure and its subsequent use in the generation of electricity on larger farms in Ontario is currently economically attractive. This is a result of the Ontario Feed-In Tariff (FIT) program, which provides incentivized rates for the production of electricity from biogas. Although larger farms can take advantage of the higher rates for electricity, there are substantially more smaller farms for which individually designed and engineered biogas systems would be prohibitively expensive. By employing the concept of modular biogas plants, this analysis evaluates the economics of small-scale biogas utilization systems. Dairy farms with at least 33 animals and beef farms with at least 78 animals can operate economically attractive biogas systems. This analysis shows that approximately 9000 additional Ontario cattle farms would be able to take advantage of the FIT program, which would add 120 MWe of renewable energy capacity to the Ontario electrical grid. (author)

  14. Cattle tick vaccines: many candidate antigens, but will a commercially viable product emerge?

    Guerrero, Felix D; Miller, Robert J; Pérez de León, Adalberto A


    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, is arguably the world's most economically important external parasite of cattle. Sustainable cattle tick control strategies are required to maximise the productivity of cattle in both large production operations and small family farms. Commercially available synthetic acaricides are commonly used in control and eradication programs, but indiscriminate practices in their application have resulted in the rapid evolution of resistance among populations in tropical and subtropical regions where the invasive R. microplus thrives. The need for novel technologies that could be used alone or in combination with commercially available synthetic acaricides is driving a resurgence of cattle tick vaccine discovery research efforts by various groups globally. The aim is to deliver a next-generation vaccine that has an improved efficacy profile over the existing Bm86-based cattle tick vaccine product. We present a short review of these projects and offer our opinion on what constitutes a good target antigen and vaccine, and what might influence the market success of candidate vaccines. The previous experience with Bm86-based vaccines offers perspective on marketing and producer acceptance aspects that a next-generation cattle tick vaccine product must meet for successful commercialisation. PMID:22549026

  15. Produtividade e Eficiência Biológica de Sistemas de Recria e Engorda de Gado de Corte no Rio Grande de Sul Productivity and Biological Efficiency of Growing and Finishing Beef Cattle Systems in Rio Grande do Sul

    Virginia Beretta


    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas, por meio de simulações, a produtividade e a eficiência de sistemas de produção de gado de corte no Rio Grande do Sul, diferindo na idade de abate (IA dos novilhos (54, 42, 36, 30, 24 e 18 meses, IA54, IA42, IA36, IA30, IA24 e IA18, respectivamente, ou nos pesos de compra e venda (sistemas especializados na recria desde 150 a 250 kg - R1, recria de 250 a 350 kg - R2 ou engorda desde 350 a 450 kg -R3. Foi utilizado um modelo estático determinístico, representando os sistemas em equilíbrio. O manejo alimentar foi caracterizado para cada sistema com base em dados bibliográficos, conforme a IA estabelecida, enquanto os sistemas R1, R2 e R3 foram avaliados somente em campo nativo. Houve uma resposta em produtividade de tipo quadrático à redução na IA, atingindo o menor valor (65 kg/ha no sistema IA54 e o maior no IA18 (343 kg/ha. O custo energético por quilo de peso vivo produzido aumentou em 1,19 Mcal EM/kg a cada mês a mais na IA. Associada à redução da IA, a proporção de pastagens melhoradas cresceu até 68% da área de pastejo, possibilitando um aumento paralelo da carga e do ganho médio diário. A diminuição do peso de compra e venda dos animais, para um mesmo ganho total de peso vivo, aumentou a produtividade das empresas (R1=113; R2=81; R3=63 kg/ha, demonstrando ser a especialização na produção uma alternativa de melhoria em sistemas dependentes exclusivamente do campo nativo.A static deterministic model was used to evaluate productivity and efficiency of growing and finishing beef steers systems in Rio Grande do Sul State differing at steers slaughter age (IA: 54, 42, 36, 30, 24 and 18 months (IA54, IA42, IA36, IA30, IA24 e IA18, respectively, or in market live weight for buying and sale (cattle growing systems from 150 to 250 kg -R1, from 250 to 350 kg -R2, or finishing cattle from 350 to 450 kg -R3. Feeding management was described for each system based on published reports according to IA, while

  16. Tipologia de sistemas de produção bovina com ênfase na ocorrência de ectoparasitoses Typology of beef cattle production systems related to ectoparasitosis frequency

    José Roberto Funck Teixeira


    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para identificar, por meio da utilização de procedimentos de pesquisa diagnóstica, características dos sistemas de produção relacionadas à ocorrência de ectoparasitos. Foram aplicadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas em 62 propriedades, cujos dados foram analisados por procedimentos estatísticos multivariados. Observou-se maior importância da área das propriedades, do manejo de pastagens e da freqüência de visitas do proprietário ao seu estabelecimento. O método utilizado, a época e a freqüência das aplicações de carrapaticidas destacaram-se entre as medidas de controle de ectoparasitoses. Os resultados reafirmaram a importância dos procedimentos de pesquisa diagnóstica como ferramenta de identificação de problemas técnicos e econômicos de sistemas de produção e de representação de sua diversidade, subsídios indispensáveis para o desenvolvimento de trabalhos experimentais mais coerentes com a realidade produtiva do estado.This study was carried out to identify, by using diagnostic research procedures, characteristics of production systems related to the occurrence of ectoparasites. Data of semi-structuralized interviews in 62 farms were analyzed by multivariate statistical procedures. Greater importance was observed for the property area, pasture management and the frequency of the property visits to his establishment. The used method, the season and the frequency of the applications of tick pesticides differed among the control types of ectoparasites. The results reaffirmed the importance of the research diagnostic procedures as tool of identification of economic and technician problems of production systems and representation of its diversity, indispensable subsidies for the development of more coherent experimental works with the productive reality of the state.

  17. Crop-Cattle Integrated Farming System: An Alternative of Climatic Change Mitigation



    Full Text Available An integrated farming system is one of the alternatives for climatic change mitigation. This paper reports the application of corn-cattle based integrated farming system in Agrotechno Park Center of Palembang, and discusses its impact on CO2 fixation and the reduction of methane emissions. The study was based on the data of the first 6 yr from 2003 until 2009. The CO2 fixed in the soil and plants was determined based on the content of organic C which was multiplied by the index of 3.67. The methane gas produced by Balinese cattle and its dung was observed and modified into feed rations. The results showed that soil organic C increased from 40.80 tons C/ha in the 1st yr to 66.40 tons C/ha in the 6th yr. In addition, there was organic C fixation equivalent to 93.95 tons of CO2e. Corn biomass increased from 6.67 tons/ha to 18.66 tons/ha, equivalent to an increase in the fixation of atmospheric CO2e as much as 19.80 tons CO2e/ha. The supplementation of 60%-80% grass fodder with concentrate lowered the concentration of methane gas in cattle breathing by 28.7%, from 617 ppm to 440 ppm, while the methane emissions from cattle manure decreased by 31%, from 1367 mL/head/d to 943 mL/head/d. Installing a bio digester that generates biogas served to accommodate methane gas emissions from cattle dung and used it for bioenergy. Composting reduced the formation of methane gas from cattle manure through a regular process of turning over that gives aeration and forms aerobic condition in the heap of cattle dung. Recycling produces a variety of organic products that store carbon for a longer period of time and slowed the conversion of organic C into CO2. This study showed that the diverse activities of an integrated crop-cattle farming could be an alternative solution to climatic change mitigation.

  18. Social behaviour of cattle in tropical silvopastoral and monoculture systems.

    Améndola, L; Solorio, F J; Ku-Vera, J C; Améndola-Massiotti, R D; Zarza, H; Galindo, F


    Silvopastoral systems can be a good alternative for sustainable livestock production because they can provide ecosystem services and improve animal welfare. Most farm animals live in groups and the social organization and interactions between individuals have an impact on their welfare. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe and compare the social behaviour of cattle (Bos indicus×Bos taurus) in a silvopastoral system based on a high density of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) combined with guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus), star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) and some trees; with a monoculture system with C. nlemfuensis, in the region of Merida, Yucatán. Eight heifers in each system were observed from 0730 to 1530 h each day for 12 consecutive days during the dry season and 12 consecutive days during the rainy season. The animals followed a rotation between three paddocks, remaining 4 days in each paddock. The vegetation was characterized in the paddocks of the silvopastoral system to estimate the average percentage of shade provided. To make a comparison between systems, we used a t test with group dispersion, and Mann-Whitney tests with the frequency of affiliative and agonistic behaviours. We assessed differences in linearity and stability of dominance hierarchies using Landau's index and Dietz R-test, respectively. The distance of cows with respect to the centroid of the group was shorter, and non-agonistic behaviours were 62% more frequent in the intensive silvopastoral system than in the monoculture one. Heifers in the silvopastoral system had a more linear and non-random dominance hierarchy in both seasons (dry season: h'=0.964; rainy season: h'=0.988), than heifers in the monoculture system (dry season: h'=0.571, rainy season: h'=0.536). The dominance hierarchy in the silvopastoral system was more stable between seasons (R-test=0.779) than in the monoculture system (R-test=0.224). Our results provide the first evidence that heifers in the

  19. Avaliação da produção de leite em bovinos utilizando diferentes sistemas de climatização Evaluation of the production in dairy cattle in different climatization systems

    M. Perissinotto


    Full Text Available O presente estudo avaliou a eficiência térmica de diferentes sistemas de arrefecimento evaporativo; aspersão (TA e nebulização (TN, conjugados com a ventilação forçada, quanto à melhoria do microclima interior das instalações e na resposta produtiva dos animais. O estudo foi realizado numa vacaria em sistema de estabulação livre localizada no interior de São Paulo/Brasil, tendo sido utilizado 10 animais da raça Holstein Freisian por tratamento. A recolha de dados efectuou-se, durante 21 dias consecutivos. No interior da vacaria recolheram-se os dados climáticos, em cada tratamento, e calculou-se o Índice de Temperatura e Humidade (THI. Os sistemas de arrefecimento avaliados não diferiram estatisticamente ao longo do período de estudo. Os sistemas só foram accionados quando a temperatura ambiente ultrapassou os 24 ºC. Ambos os tratamentos (TA e TN mantiveram um ambiente com condições temohigrométricas acima das recomendadas pela literatura. O consumo alimentar foi semelhante em ambos tratamentos, porém, o sistema de arrefecimento por aspersão (TA promoveu um aumento na produção de leite de 8%, relativamente ao sistema por nebulização (TN.This study evaluated the thermal efficiency of different systems of evaporative cooling; sprinkling (TA and fogging (TN, conjugated with the forced ventilation, in the improvement of the internal microclimate of the installations and in the productivity of dairy cattle. The study it was carried through a cow house provided with free-stall system in the interior of Sao Paulo/Brasil.Ten animals of Holstein Frisian breed per treatment were used. Collection of data occurred in November of 2003 during 21 consecutive days. Outside and inside climatic data in each treatment were recorded and the Index of Temperature and Humidity (THI was calculated. The system of evaporative cooling evaluate had not differed with relation to the climatic variables. Both systems (TA and TN had kept an

  20. Genetic evaluation of retail product percentage in Simmental cattle.

    Crews, D H; Enns, R M; Rumph, J M; Pollak, E J


    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters required for genetic evaluation of retail product percentage (RPP) in Simmental cattle. Carcass weight (HCW), subcutaneous fat thickness (FAT), longissimus muscle area (REA) and kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (KPH) records were available to compute RPP on steers (n = 5171) and heifers (n = 1400) from the American Simmental Association database; animals were sired by 561 Simmental bulls and out of 5886 crossbred dams. Genetic parameters were estimated using residual maximal likelihood and a four trait animal model for the components of RPP including fixed harvest contemporary group effects, random animal genetic effects, and a linear covariate for age at harvest. Heritability estimates were 0.51 +/- 0.05, 0.36 +/- 0.05, 0.46 +/- 0.05, and 0.18 +/- 0.05 for HCW, FAT, REA and KPH respectively. Non-zero genetic correlations were estimated between HCW and REA (rg = 0.51 +/- 0.06) and between REA and FAT (rg = -0.43 +/- 0.08), but other genetic correlation estimates among the component traits were low. As a linear function of its components, heritability and genetic correlations involving RPP were estimated using index methods. The heritability estimate for RPP was 0.41, and genetic correlations were -0.17, -0.83, 0.67, and 0.01 with HCW, FAT, REA and KPH respectively. Therefore, RPP was strongly associated with muscle and fat deposition, but essentially independent of carcass weight and internal body cavity fat. Genetic evaluation of RPP would be straightforward using multiple trait index methods and genetic regression, although the inclusion of KPH would be of marginal value. PMID:18254821

  1. Thai indigenous cattle production provided a sustainable alternative for the benefit of small-scale farmers, healthy food and the environment

    In Thailand, there were 5.66 million indigenous cattle and 1.76 million of their crosses. Farmers raised these cattle integrated with crop and fish in livestock-crop-fish integrated farming systems. These farming systems are in small scales for efficient utilization of available resources and for maximisation of production of diversified products per unit area to increase the income of the farmers and enhance food production. Thai indigenous cattle meat have more specific nutrient that are beneficial for consumers, such as omega 3, omega 6, and CLA. Furthermore, farmers use cattle manures as fertilizer for crop production, production of plankton for the fish and biogas/electric power used in the household. Additionally, Thai indigenous cattle are used for draught power. Consequently, Thai indigenous cattle increased food production and there was minimal cattle waste on farms thus, we could keep the environment clean and green. Performance data, meat quality, compost production, biogas production, and draught animal and reference were collected from 103 smallholder farmers in the northern part of Thailand, northeastern, central and southern parts of Thailand during October 2005 to September 2007. Growth and reproductive performance: Thai indigenous cattle had various skin and hair colour such as red, light brown, black, piebald, and only Kow-Lamphun cattle in northern part of Thailand, orange-pink skin and white hair colour. Their navels were not slackened but attached to the belly. Their dewlaps were also not slacken. The average birth weight was 19.6 kg and the weaning weight at 200 d of age was 137.96 kg. They had good characteristics of heat tolerance, disease resistance, and high fertility traits. They were the main red-meat source for consumers. Thai indigenous cattle were main source of red meat for consumption in Thailand. They produced high Omega 3 and Omega 6 in red meat, so their meat was the main source of protein and healthy food.Other utility of Thai

  2. Productive and reproductive performance of cattle in the tropics

    The interactions of management system, environment and genotype are discussed and the importance of the selection of the optimum system and the appropriate genotype for the economic and environmental climate is emphasized. Productivity is indicated as a function of yield, fertility and survival rate; realistic estimates of all three parameters must be considered when planning livestock development. Intensive, semi-intensive and extensive milk producing systems are briefly discussed in this context. It is suggested that research workers should have a firm understanding of the most valid systems in their areas so that the solution of problems limiting production can be given research priority. It is finally emphasized that the estimates of yield, fertility and survival rate are not constants and will change with increases in the knowledge of animal health, nutrition and forage plant breeding, while the most appropriate system will also change with this new knowledge and with changes in costs of production and market price. (author)

  3. Breed diversification in south western Uganda: characterisation of a new cattle farming system

    In response to increasing land pressure due to rapidly growing population, growing demand for livestock products in urban centres and new land policies which encourage individual land ownership in Uganda, pastoralists rearing the long horned Ankole cattle in south western Uganda have now become sedentary and less dependent on communal grazing systems. Crossbreeding of Ankole cattle with the Holstein Friesian for increased milk production is taking place at a very fast rate. A new production system in which pure bred Ankole and crosses of Ankole with Holstein Friesian are reared in separate herds on one farm has now emerged in the area. As part of a programme evaluating the ecological and economic sustainability of breeding in pastoral systems, a survey of sixteen farmers selected from three sub-counties in Kiruhura District in south west Uganda was undertaken. Two sets of detailed structured questionnaires were used to collect information from the farmers. Set one was administered at the beginning of the study in April 2007, while set two was administered on a monthly basis for a period of 12 months. In addition, production data from the animals was collected monthly. Results show that crossbreeding is taking place with no defined programme, farmers still have an attachment to the Ankole cattle and that the most important challenges to the production system are insufficient pasture during the dry season and livestock diseases. The crossbreeds produce significantly more milk than the Ankole and have higher live weights. There is need to formulate appropriate breeding programmes for the farmers and to develop guidelines for suitable stocking densities. (author)

  4. Clinical state, reproductive and productive indices of cattle in the near zone of the Chernobyl NPP

    Since 1987 specialists of Scientific and Technical Centre of RIA ''Pripyat'' carry out investigations of physiological and cytogenetic state of cattle at an experimental vivarium at the 30-km Chernobyl zone. The animals are represented by ones endured the Chernobyl accident at the closest zone and their generation, and by animals carried inside the zone after 1990. The first animals got about 130 Gy on thyroid gland, 2.5 Gy on whole body and 10-11 Gy on gastro-intestinal tract. Some health decline of them were observed in 1987-1988. During last 5 years of the research the most indices of cattle state, as well as productivity and reproduction, are in physiological norm limits. Since 1989 yearly calves of three generation have got from all suffered cows. Decrease of chromosome aberrations frequency to total population level has been showed. Some data testify of tension existence in hemopoietic and antioxidantic systems of organism. Nevertheless, until now there is no unique opinion of origin nature of the found atypical features. In the report numerous data of hematological, biochemical, hormonal, cytogenetic features of the animals have been presented and discussed

  5. Estimation of rumen microbial protein production from urinary purine derivatives in zebu cattle and water buffalo

    Two experiments were conducted in order to develop equations for predicting rumen microbial protein production for indigenous Kedah-Kelantan (KK) cattle and swamp buffaloes in Malaysia, using urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion rates. Endogenous PD excretion rates determined by a fasting procedure for KK cattle and swamp buffalo were 275 and 370 μmol/kg W0.75/day, respectively. Urinary PD excretion rate per kg digestible organic matter intake (DOMI) for KK cattle was higher than that for swamp buffalo, reconfirming the earlier findings. Glomerular filtration rate, allantoin and uric acid tubular load and PD re-absorption rate for swamp buffalo were generally higher than those for KK cattle. However, due to the large variations among animals within species, these parameters were not significantly different between species. Nevertheless, the higher PD reabsorption in swamp buffalo provides support for the earlier postulation that the lower urinary PD excretion rate of swamp buffalo was due to their higher recycling of plasma PD as compared to KK cattle. Labelled 8-14C uric acid was used to estimate the ratio of renal to non-renal PD excretion. The recovery rates of the radioactive tracer via the renal route for both species were much lower than values reported previously for unlabelled PD for European cattle. (author)

  6. Thai pigs and cattle production, genetic diversity of livestock and strategies for preserving animal genetic resources

    Kesinee Gatphayak


    This paper reviews the current situation of livestock production in Thailand, genetic diversity and evaluation, as well as management strategies for animal genetic resources focusing on pigs and cattle. Sustainable conservation of indigenous livestock as a genetic resource and vital components within the agricultural biodiversity domain is a great challenge as well as an asset for the future development of livestock production in Thailand.

  7. Genetic relationships between calving performance and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle

    Albera, A.; Groen, A.F.; Carnier, P.


    The aim of the study was to obtain estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal calving performance of heifers and cows and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle. Beef production traits were daily gain, live fleshiness, and bone thinness measured on 1,602 young bulls tested at

  8. Production of cattle immunotolerant to bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    McClurkin, A W.; Littledike, E T; Cutlip, R C; Frank, G H; Coria, M F; Bolin, S R


    Inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into 58 to 125 day old fetuses of bovine virus diarrhea virus seropositive pregnant cows, or inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into seronegative cows 42 to 114 days pregnant, may produce clinically normal calves which are persistently infected with the specific isolate of bovine virus diarrhea virus yet seronegative to the homologous and heterologous isolates. Reinoculation of these persistently infected cattle with their homologous isolate ...

  9. Glycerol from biodiesel production: the new corn for dairy cattle

    Donkin, Shawn S.


    Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattle is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental ...

  10. Role of cattle and local feed resources on the sustainability of a coconut cattle integrated system

    due to overgrazing by animals with out supplementation. Depletion of soil and herbage nitrogen in T3 stimulated conservation of nitrogen through recirculation within the animal. It was also estimated that each coconut palm received 141 kg of fresh dung /year in T3 and 146 kg/year in T4 along with 66.6 kg/urine /year in T3 and 69.6 kg/yr in T4. The dung and urine could totally replace nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers applied to coconuts. Also it could reduce the potassium fertilizer applied to coconut by 85% in T3 and 88% in T4 and magnesium fertilizer applied by 85% in T3 and 88% by T4. There was a marked increase (P < 0.05) in live weight gains of cattle recording 688 g/d for heifers in T4 and 349 g/d for heifers in T3. Heifers fed supplements were in oestrus significantly earlier and at a higher body weight than those fed on natural herbage only. Thus fairly evenly matched initial ages and live weights of T3 (145.5 ± 2.4) and T4 (144.2 ± 2.9) groups, respectively differed significantly in favour of T4 at first oestrus. Heifer fed supplements calved significantly earlier than the heifers fed only natural herbage. An additional benefit of the integrated system was the improvement (P < 0.05) of coconut and copra yield per palm in grazed plots over monoculture plots, especially in T4 plots with animals receiving supplements. Soil nitrogen content also increased (P < 0.05) in grazed plots (T3 - 0.964% and T4 -1.004%) plots as compared to monoculture plots (T1-0.839%, T2-0.859%) demonstrating further benefits on cattle integration. Results suggest that supplementation of tree fodder and low cost concentrate to heifer's grazed natural herbage under coconut alleviated seasonal feed shortages and improved cattle and coconut performance, which contributed to sustainability of the integrated system. Further investigations, would show the actual benefits with the passage of time. (author)

  11. Targeting cattle-borne zoonoses and cattle pathogens using a novel trypanosomatid-based delivery system.

    G Adam Mott


    Full Text Available Trypanosomatid parasites are notorious for the human diseases they cause throughout Africa and South America. However, non-pathogenic trypanosomatids are also found worldwide, infecting a wide range of hosts. One example is Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum theileri, a ubiquitous protozoan commensal of bovids, which is distributed globally. Exploiting knowledge of pathogenic trypanosomatids, we have developed Trypanosoma theileri as a novel vehicle to deliver vaccine antigens and other proteins to cattle. Conditions for the growth and transfection of T. theileri have been optimised and expressed heterologous proteins targeted for secretion or specific localisation at the cell interior or surface using trafficking signals from Trypanosoma brucei. In cattle, the engineered vehicle could establish in the context of a pre-existing natural T. theileri population, was maintained long-term and generated specific immune responses to an expressed Babesia antigen at protective levels. Building on several decades of basic research into trypanosomatid pathogens, Trypanosoma theileri offers significant potential to target multiple infections, including major cattle-borne zoonoses such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Brucella abortus and Mycobacterium spp. It also has the potential to deliver therapeutics to cattle, including the lytic factor that protects humans from cattle trypanosomiasis. This could alleviate poverty by protecting indigenous African cattle from African trypanosomiasis.

  12. Considerations on Cattle Stock and Cow Fresh Milk Production in the EU Countries

    Agatha Popescu


    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the evolution of cattle stock and cow milk production in order to point out the main trends and differences between the EU-27 member states in the period 2004-2008. The data collected from FAO Stat, 2010 have been processed calculating the fixed basis index, average annual rhythm index and also the share of each EU state in cow milk production at the EU and world level.The main trends in the EU concerning cow milk sector are the continuous decrease in cattle stock, the increase of cow milk yield under the conditions of keeping a constant milk production and also milk production per capita. In 2008, the EU-27 was raising 90,478 thou cattle, and produced 149,388 thou tons cow fresh milk. The EU -27 is placed on the 5th position for number of cattle and on the 1st position for cow milk production, producing 25.8 % of world production. The largest milk producers in the EU-27 are Germany, France, United Kingdom, Poland, Netherlands, Italy, Spain, Ireland, Romania and Denmark, whose contribution to the EU productions is 82.82 %.

  13. Cattle temperament: persistence of assessments and associations with productivity, efficiency, carcass and meat quality traits.

    Cafe, L M; Robinson, D L; Ferguson, D M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Greenwood, P L


    Relationships between temperament and a range of performance, carcass, and meat quality traits in young cattle were studied in 2 experiments conducted in New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA), Australia. In both experiments, growth rates of cattle were assessed during backgrounding on pasture and grain finishing in a feedlot. Carcass and objective meat quality characteristics were measured after slaughter. Feed intake and efficiency during grain finishing were also determined in NSW. Brahman (n = 82 steers and 82 heifers) and Angus (n = 25 steers and 24 heifers) cattle were used in the NSW experiment. In NSW, temperament was assessed by measuring flight speed [FS, m/s on exit from the chute (crush)] on 14 occasions, and by assessing agitation score during confinement in the crush (CS; 1 = calm to 5 = highly agitated) on 17 occasions over the course of the experiment. Brahman (n = 173) and Angus (n = 20) steers were used in the WA experiment. In WA, temperament was assessed by measuring FS on 2 occasions during backgrounding and on 2 occasions during grain feeding. At both sites, a hormonal growth promotant (Revalor-H, Virbac, Milperra, New South Wales, Australia) was applied to one-half of the cattle at feedlot entry, and the Brahman cattle were polymorphic for 2 calpain-system markers for beef tenderness. Temperament was not related (most P > 0.05) to tenderness gene marker status in Brahman cattle and was not (all P > 0.26) modified by the growth promotant treatment in either breed. The Brahman cattle had greater individual variation in, and greater correlations within and between, repeated assessments of FS and CS than did the Angus cattle. Correlations for repeated measures of FS were greater than for repeated assessments of CS, and the strength of correlations for both declined over time. Average FS or CS for each experiment and location (NSW or WA × backgrounding or finishing) were more highly correlated than individual measurements, indicating

  14. Thai indigenous cattle production provide a sustainable alternative for the benefit of smallscale farmers, healthy food, and the environment

    In Thailand, there are 5.66 million Thai indigenous cattle and their crossbred derivatives (1.76 million cows). The Department of Livestock Development (DLD) has a policy to conserve and use Thai indigenous cattle as the genetic base for establishing and developing new breeds of beef cattle. The objectives of this study were to study the production performance, carcass quality, healthy food production, economic potential, and environmental impacts of four breeds of Thai indigenous cattle (Kow-Lamphun, Kho-Esarn, Kho-Lan, and Kho-Chon cattle). Data were collected from two studies: i) 1 220 cattle from an experimental trial in DLD part, and ii) 390 cattle kept by smallholders in Northern, Northeastern, Central, and Southern parts of Thailand between October 2004 and September 2008. Data were adjusted by group, location, month, and year to analyse for the above parameters. Kho-Lan and Kho-Esarn cattle had the highest weaning weight and preweaning daily weight gains while Kow-Lamphun cattle had the highest Omega 3 (8.98%) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) levels in their meat (0.02%), and produced the highest net incomes (306 915.80 Baht/y). Through the conservation and use policies of the DLD, Thai indigenous cattle provided various advantages for farmers, consumers, and environment. (author)

  15. Atributos físicos do solo em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária sob plantio direto Soil physical attributes in integrated cattle raising-crop production system under no-tillage

    Mastrângello Enívar Lanzanova


    üência de pastejo (P28 ou à ausência de pastejo (SP, observaram-se as maiores taxas de infiltração de água no solo.Soil compaction is one of the most important reasons for decrease in crop yield. The impact of animal trampling on integrated beef cattle raising-crop production systems were studied to evaluate the changes in soil physical properties (bulk density, porosity, soil resistance to penetration and soil water infiltration. The field experiment was carried out in Jari, in the mid- plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Three management systems of winter pastures (black oat; Avena strigosa Schreber + ryegrass; Lolium multiflorum Lam. were studied under different grazing frequencies: (1 No grazing (NG, (2 grazing every 28 days (G28 and (3 grazing every fourteen days (G14. The summer crops soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. or corn (Zea mays L., as antecedent crop in rotation to the winter pastures, were also studied to measure the increasing or decreasing effects on compaction by animal trampling. The greatest effects of animal trampling were concentrated in the top soil layer (0 to 0.05 m, but under the highest grazing frequency (G14 macroporosity was reduced down to the 0.10-0.15 m layer. The soil resistance to penetration had peaks of 2.61 and 2.49 MPa in the G28 and G14 treatments, respectively, in the 0.05-0.08 layer. In the ungrazed areas the values remained lower, around 1.66 MPa. Soil water infiltration was significantly affected by animal trampling and by the previous summer crop. In the case of corn area, the soil was less sensitive to cattle trampling, unlike in the areas following soybean, where the highest grazing frequency (G14 reduced the water infiltration rates. Soybean induced higher values of macroporosity in the evaluated soil layers; when related with lower beef cattle density or ungrazed pastures, the rates of water infiltration and accumulated infiltration were higher.

  16. Prospective application of farm cattle manure for bioenergy production in Portugal

    Monteiro, Eliseu [CITAB, University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro, 5000 Vila Real (Portugal); Mantha, Vishveshwar [CIDESD, University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro (Portugal); Rouboa, Abel [CITAB-UTAD/Dept.of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania, PA 19104-6391 (United States)


    Biogas is a promising renewable fuel, which can be produced from a variety of organic raw materials and used for various energetic purposes, such as heat, combined heat and power or as a vehicle fuel. Biogas systems implementation are, therefore, subjected to several support measures but also to several constraints, related with policy measures on energy, waste treatment and agriculture. In this work, different policies and policy instruments, as well as other factors, which influence a potential expansion of Portuguese biogas systems are identified and evaluated. The result of this analysis shows that the use of the cattle manure for biogas production is still far from its potential. The main reason is the reduced dimension of the Portuguese farms, which makes biogas production unfeasible. Various options are suggested to increase or improve biogas production such as co-digestion, centralized plants and modular plants. Horizontal digesters are the most suitable for the typical Portuguese plant size and have the advantage of being also suitable for co-digestion due to the very good mixing conditions. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion due to a more robustness, stability and lower energy consumption should be the choice. The recent increase in the feed-in tariffs for the electricity production based on anaerobic digestion biogas is seen as a political push to this sector. (author)

  17. Prospective application of farm cattle manure for bioenergy production in Portugal

    Biogas is a promising renewable fuel, which can be produced from a variety of organic raw materials and used for various energetic purposes, such as heat, combined heat and power or as a vehicle fuel. Biogas systems implementation are, therefore, subjected to several support measures but also to several constraints, related with policy measures on energy, waste treatment and agriculture. In this work, different policies and policy instruments, as well as other factors, which influence a potential expansion of Portuguese biogas systems are identified and evaluated. The result of this analysis shows that the use of the cattle manure for biogas production is still far from its potential. The main reason is the reduced dimension of the Portuguese farms, which makes biogas production unfeasible. Various options are suggested to increase or improve biogas production such as co-digestion, centralized plants and modular plants. Horizontal digesters are the most suitable for the typical Portuguese plant size and have the advantage of being also suitable for co-digestion due to the very good mixing conditions. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion due to a more robustness, stability and lower energy consumption should be the choice. The recent increase in the feed-in tariffs for the electricity production based on anaerobic digestion biogas is seen as a political push to this sector. (author)

  18. Comparing Carbon and Water Footprints for Beef Cattle Production in Southern Australia

    Bradley G. Ridoutt


    Full Text Available Stand-alone environmental indicators based on life cycle assessment (LCA, such as the carbon footprint and water footprint, are becoming increasingly popular as a means of directing sustainable production and consumption. However, individually, these metrics violate the principle of LCA known as comprehensiveness and do not necessarily provide an indication of overall environmental impact. In this study, the carbon footprints for six diverse beef cattle production systems in southern Australia were calculated and found to range from 10.1 to 12.7 kg CO2e kg−1 live weight (cradle to farm gate. This compared to water footprints, which ranged from 3.3 to 221 L H2Oe kg−1 live weight. For these systems, the life cycle impacts of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and water use were subsequently modelled using endpoint indicators and aggregated to enable comparison. In all cases, impacts from GHG emissions were most important, representing 93 to 99% of the combined scores. As such, the industry’s existing priority of GHG emissions reduction is affirmed. In an attempt to balance the demands of comprehensiveness and simplicity, to achieve reliable public reporting of the environmental impacts of a large number of products across the economy, a multi-indicator approach based on combined midpoint and endpoint life cycle impact assessment modelling is proposed. For agri-food products, impacts from land use should also be included as tradeoffs between GHG emissions, water use and land use are common.

  19. Milk production on smallholder dairy cattle farms in Southern Vietnam

    Lam, Vo


    Dairy production is a rather new and not a traditional system in Vietnam. It is mainly based on smallholder dairy farms. The general aim of the studies in this thesis was to improve milk production on smallholder dairy farms in Southern Vietnam and also to create a foundation that could be used in the advisory service or/and in further research for better milking management routines. Studies were done to cover the specific objectives of this thesis. The studies were designed to identify the p...

  20. EVALUACIÓN ECONÓMICA DE SISTEMAS DE RECRÍA-ENGORDA CON GANADO HEREFORD PARA LA PRECORDILLERA ANDINA DE LA VIII REGIÓN Economic evaluation of beef cattle production systems with Hereford cattle in the Andean foothills of the VIII Region

    Jorge González


    Full Text Available Se evaluaron económicamente tres sistemas de recría-engorda para la precordillera andina basados en trébol subterráneo (Trifolium subterraneum y suplementación invernal con heno (TS; trébol subterráneo y suplementación invernal con heno y avena grano (TC, y trébol subterráneo en mezcla con trébol encarnado (Trifolium incarnatum, trébol subterráneo con festuca (Festuca arundinacea y alfalfa (Medicago sativa más suplementación invernal con heno de trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense y avena (Avena sativa grano (VE. Se utilizaron terneros Hereford enteros de 197 kg PV inicial y 6,3 meses de edad promedio, saliendo de los sistemas con 385 kg PV promedio entre los 14 y 16 meses de edad. Los sistemas se proyectaron a tamaños de 25, 50 y 200 ha de praderas. La estructura de costos consideró costos variables (CV y fijos (CF. Los precios utilizados correspondieron a abril de 2001. La rentabilidad sin CF varió entre 17,1% en TS y 23,4%, en VE. Al incluir el CF la rentabilidad disminuyó en todos los sistemas con valores que fluctuaron entre 1,2 y 18,5% en TS y VE, respectivamente. La rentabilidad de los sistemas según tamaño varió entre -0,1% en sistema TS/predio 25 ha, único con rentabilidad negativa, y 19,17% en la combinación sistema VE/predio 200 ha. Los indicadores económicos fueron mayores en los sistemas TC y VE. Se presentó una mayor influencia del CF en la rentabilidad de los predios de tamaños menores. El sistema VE resultó siempre con margen neto positivo cuando se sensibilizó por precio de compra de terneros, precio de venta de toritos, costo de alimentación y porcentaje de mortalidad de terneros.Three beef cattle production systems were economically evaluated for the Andean foothills based on subterraneum clover (Trifolium subterraneum and hay supplementation during winter (TS; subterraneum clover with winter supplementation of hay and oats (TC; and subterraneum clover in a mix with crimson clover (Trifolium

  1. Triennial Lactation Symposium: Opportunities for improving milk production efficiency in dairy cattle.

    Connor, E E; Hutchison, J L; Olson, K M; Norman, H D


    Increasing feed costs and the desire to improve environmental stewardship have stimulated renewed interest in improving feed efficiency of livestock, including that of US dairy herds. For instance, USDA cost projections for corn and soybean meal suggest a 20% increase over 2010 pricing for a 16% protein mixed dairy cow ration in 2011, which may lead to a reduction in cow numbers to maintain profitability of dairy production. Furthermore, an October 2010 study by The Innovation Center for US Dairy to assess the carbon footprint of fluid milk found that the efficiency of feed conversion is the single greatest factor contributing to variation in the carbon footprint because of its effects on methane release during enteric fermentation and from manure. Thus, we are conducting research in contemporary US Holsteins to identify cows most efficient at converting feed to milk in temperate climates using residual feed intake (RFI), a measure used successfully to identify the beef cattle most efficient at converting feed to gain. Residual feed intake is calculated as the difference between predicted and actual feed intake to support maintenance and production (e.g., growth in beef cattle, or milk in dairy cattle). Heritability estimates for RFI in dairy cattle reported in the literature range from 0.01 to 0.38. Selection for a decreased RFI phenotype can reduce feed intake, methane production, nutrient losses in manure, and visceral organ weights substantially in beef cattle. We have estimated RFI during early lactation (i.e., to 90 d in milk) in the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Holstein herd and observed a mean difference of 3.7 kg/d (P 0.20) in mean BW, ADG, or energy-corrected milk exhibited between the 2 groups. These results indicate promise for using RFI in dairy cattle to improve feed conversion to milk. Previous and current research on the use of RFI in lactating dairy cattle are discussed, as well as opportunities to improve production efficiency of dairy

  2. Biogas production from cattle manure by anaerobic digestion

    Full text: In order to deal with the energy shortage problem, we are searching for more alternative energy resources especially renewable or sustainable. Biogas is one of the solutions in dealing with the energy shortage problem. Biogas is a type of energy resources derives from organic matter during the process called anaerobic digestion. The biogas produced is mainly consisting of methane and carbon dioxide. In this research, diluted cattle manure (1:1 ration with water) was inoculated with palm oil mill (POME) activated sludge at the ratio of 1:5 and placed in a 10 liter bioreactor. The temperature and pH in the bioreactor was regulated at 6.95 and 53 degree Celsius, respectively to enhance the anaerobic digestion process. Parameters such as chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total solid, volatile solid, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), methane (CH4) and the volume of biogas generated was monitored for effectiveness of the treatment of cattle manure via anaerobic digestion. The total volume of biogas produced in this study is 80.25 liter in 29 days while being able to treat the COD content up to 52 %. (author)

  3. Resilience and vulnerability of beef cattle production in the southern great plains

    Climate variability and periodic drought is a defining characteristic of the Southern Great Plains. Beef cattle production, based on a variety of crop, pasture, and native rangeland forages, is the most important economic commodity in this region and dominates the agricultural landscape. Press cov...

  4. Nitrous oxide production by fungi isolated from cattle-disturbed upland soil

    Jirout, Jiří; Šimek, Miloslav; Elhottová, Dana

    Dundee : British Mycological Society, 2009. s. 27. [The Fungal Cell. 01.09.2009-04.09.2009, Dundee] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : nitrous oxide production * fungi * cattle-disturbed upland soil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  5. Biological water contamination in some cattle production fields of Argentina subjected to runoff and erosion

    Celio I Chagas; Filipe B. Kraemer; Oscar J. Santanatoglia; Marta Paz; Juan Moretton


    Grain production has displaced livestock to marginal lands in most of the productive regions in Argentina since 1990. In the fertile Rolling Pampa region, extensive cattle production has been concentrated in lowlands subjected to flooding, salt excess, erosion and sedimentation processes but also in some feedlots recently located in sloping arable lands prone to soil erosion. We studied the concentration of microbiological contamination indicators in runoff water and sediments accumulated in ...

  6. Peripheral and gastrointestinal immune systems of healthy cattle raised outdoors at pasture or indoors on a concentrate-based ration

    Reilly Petrina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite an increasing preference of consumers for beef produced from more extensive pasture-based production systems and potential human health benefits from the consumption of such beef, data regarding the health status of animals raised on pasture are limited. The objective of this study was to characterise specific aspects of the bovine peripheral and the gastrointestinal muscosal immune systems of cattle raised on an outdoor pasture system in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based system. Results A number of in vitro functional tests of immune cells suggested subtle differences between the animals on the outdoor versus indoor production systems. There was a decrease in the number of neutrophils and monocytes engaged in phagocytosis in outdoor cattle (P P P P P P P Conclusion Despite distinctly contrasting production systems, only subtle differences were identified in the peripheral immune parameters measured between cattle raised at pasture in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based production system.

  7. Selection criteria and breeding objectives in improvement of productivity of cattle and buffaloes

    Breeding objectives for improving the productivity of or conserving particular breeds or genetic groups of livestock depend upon many factors. Among these factors are the agro-climatic conditions of the area of inhabitation (including endemic diseases), agricultural and livestock systems in vogue, availability of feedstuffs - including crop by-products, herd size, marketing structure and locally available animal genetic resources, socio-cultural and economic level of the livestock owners, available infrastructure and facilities, desire and capabilities of farmers and the political and administrative will of the state to bring about change in animal productivity to improve the living standard of livestock farmers. The religious sentiments of some populations attached with animals, especially cows, shall also not be ignored in defining breeding objectives. In addition, breeding objectives must not only consider the present status of these factors, but also take into consideration the future needs for quantity and quality of animal products. As the generation intervals of livestock, particularly of cattle and buffaloes is quite long, the impact of breeding plans are not expected to be realized for several years, by which time the requirements may be different

  8. Methane and carbon dioxide production from simulated anaerobic degradation of cattle carcasses

    Highlights: ► This study evaluates methane and carbon dioxide production after land burial of cattle carcasses. ► Disposal of animal mortalities is often overlooked in evaluating the environmental impacts of animal production. ► we quantify annual emissions from cattle carcass disposal in the United States as 1.6 Tg CO2 equivalents. - Abstract: Approximately 2.2 million cattle carcasses require disposal annually in the United States. Land burial is a convenient disposal method that has been widely used in animal production for disposal of both daily mortalities as well as during catastrophic mortality events. To date, greenhouse gas production after mortality burial has not been quantified, and this study represents the first attempt to quantify greenhouse gas emissions from land burial of animal carcasses. In this study, anaerobic decomposition of both homogenized and unhomogenized cattle carcass material was investigated using bench-scale reactors. Maximum yields of methane and carbon dioxide were 0.33 and 0.09 m3/kg dry material, respectively, a higher methane yield than that previously reported for municipal solid waste. Variability in methane production rates were observed over time and between reactors. Based on our laboratory data, annual methane emissions from burial of cattle mortalities in the United States could total 1.6 Tg CO2 equivalents. Although this represents less than 1% of total emissions produced by the agricultural sector in 2009, greenhouse gas emissions from animal carcass burial may be significant if disposal of swine and poultry carcasses is also considered.

  9. A 660-Kb Deletion with Antagonistic Effects on Fertility and Milk Production Segregates at High Frequency in Nordic Red Cattle

    Kadri, Naveen Kumar; Sahana, Goutam; Charlier, Carole; Iso-Touru, Terhi; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Karim, Latifa; Nielsen, Ulrik Sander; Panitz, Frank; Pedersen, Gert Aamand; Schulmann, Nina; Georges, Michel; Vilkki, Johanna; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Druet, Tom

    The spectacular increase in productivity of dairy cattle has been accompanied by a decline in fertility. It is assumed that this reduction is due to the negative energy balance of high producing cows. We herein describe the dissection of a fertility QTL in Nordic Red cattle to a 660-Kb deletion o...

  10. Genetic Relationships under Different Management Systems and their Consequences for Dairy Cattle Breeding

    Birgit Fuerst-waltl


    Full Text Available Advances in breeding and management resulted in a considerable increase of production traits in Austrian dairy cattle. Besides, low input systems were also established. Possible genotype by environment interactions (G x E and genetic antagonisms dependent on production level might indicate the need for separate breeding programmes for dairy farms differing in management intensity. Thus, G x E and genetic correlations (ra between milk yield and selected fitness traits were estimated for Upper Austrian Fleckvieh cattle under high and low production levels. Data of the current herdbook cow population and their dams were extracted. Two data sets were selected based on the herd average of milk; extensive (≤6,000 kg herd average and intensive (≥9,000 kg herd average farms. Yield deviations were used for the analysis of yield traits, functional longevity, reproduction traits and milking speed; raw data were used for somatic cell count (SCC. For yield deviations, a model including the effects year of birth (fixed and animal (genetic, random was applied, while a model close to the routine evaluation was run for SCC. The lowest ra between extensive and intensive farms was found for protein yield (ra = 0.89 while ra values close to unity were found for all functional traits. Genetic antagonisms between milk yield and functional traits were stronger in intensive systems, however, standard errors were large. Currently, separate breeding programmes for different management intensities do not seem to be necessary.

  11. Animal Health and Productivity Status of Cattle After The Eruption of Mount Merapi

    Yulvian Sani


    Full Text Available The eruption of Merapi from October 26th to November 6th, 2010 has affected social life and environment around the Merapi. The eruption has caused destruction of land and water resources, plants, death of animals and human casualities. The lava, dust and stones released from the eruption of Merapi had caused residential destruction, casualities, agricultural land and plants destruction, and contamination of water. The eruption has directly affected 4 districts including Sleman (Yogyakarta, Magelang, Boyolali and Klaten (Central Java categorized as Disaster Risk Area (DRA. The purpose of this assessment is to analyse the impacts of Merapi eruption in animal health and productivity in particular for dairy and beef cattle. A total of 2.828 heads of cattle was reported died during the eruption of Merapi, and 1.962 heads died at the time of eruption and 36 heads at the arrival on evacuation areas. Animal that found died including 423 heads of beef cattle (0.13% and 2.405 heads of dairy cattle (3.2%. Clinical sains noted after the eruption were reduction of milk production, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, respiratory disturbances, mastitis and collapse. The main problems for livestock were reduction of milk production, collapse of dairy milk corporation activities and contamination of water resources. Other than dairy cattle mortality, the reduction of milk production may be caused by subclinical mastitis and environmental distress due to temperature and noise of eruption for few days. The subclinical mastitis should be further investigated to establish rehabilitation programme for dairy milk agribussiness activity in particular around the DRA of Merapi.

  12. Effect of Dietary Monensin or Chlortetracycline on Methane Production from Cattle Waste

    Varel, V. H.; Hashimoto, A. G.


    Wastes from feedlot cattle fed finishing diets containing either monensin, chlortetracycline, or no antibiotic were investigated as substrates for methane production. We used continuously mixed anaerobic fermentors with 3-liter working volumes at 35 and 55°C; these fermentors were fed once per day. Within a few days after waste from animals fed monensin was added, the volume of methane produced began to decrease in the 55°C fermentors. After 9 days of daily feeding, methane production was sev...

  13. Correlations of visual scores, carcass traits, feed efficiency and retail product yield in Nellore cattle

    Paulo Henrique Cancian


    Full Text Available The growing use of visual scores (VS and ultrasound (US for carcass evaluation in breeding programs, calls for a knowledge of the relationships between these traits and other relevant characteristics, such as feed efficiency and production of commercial cuts. The objective of this study was to evaluate correlations between body visual scores and carcass traits identified by ultrasound (US and feed efficiency (FE, carcass weight (HCW, dressing percentage (DP and retail product yield (RPY in beef cattle. Nellore cattle (male, 42 non-castrated [NCAST] and 44 castrated [CAST] were evaluated by both VS and US, at the postweaning (15-month old and finishing phases (21-month old. Visual scores of conformation (C, precocity (P and muscling (M were assessed and the backfat thickness (UBFT, rump fat thickness (URFT and ribeye area (UREA were measured by ultrasound. Gain-to-feed (G:F ratio and residual feed intake (RFI were measured in feedlot. Hot carcass weight, DP and RPY were determined at harvest. Non-castrated cattle had greater HCW and RPY but lower UBFT and URFT than CAST. Postweaning VS and US were poorly correlated with FE in both sexual conditions. Finishing VS were negatively correlated with G:F in CAST and finishing URFT was negatively correlated with RPY in NCAST. The relationship of VS and US with feed efficiency and meat yield is affected by age at the date of evaluation and by castration. Feed efficiency is not related to the yield of meat cuts in Nellore cattle

  14. Enhancing Soil Productivity Using a Multi-Crop Rotation and Beef Cattle Grazing

    Şentürklü, Songül; Landblom, Douglas; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric


    Agricultural production systems that include complimentary plant, soil and animal interaction contribute to sustainability. In sustainable livestock systems integrated with crop production, the soil resource is impacted positively. The goal of this research was to maximize beef cattle and crop economic yield, while improving the soil resource by increasing soil organic matter (SOM) and subsequently seasonal soil nitrogen fertility over a 5-year period (2011-2015). Each experimental crop field used in the study was 1.74 ha. Small-seeded crops were planted using a JD 1590 No-Till drill. Corn (C) and sunflowers (SF) were planted using a JD 7000 No-Till planter. The cropping sequence used in the study was SF, hard red spring wheat (HRSW), fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (T-HV), spring harvested for hay/mid-June seeded 7-species cover crop (CC; SF, Everleaf Oat, Flex Winter Pea, HV, Winfred Forage Rape, Ethiopian Cabbage, Hunter Leaf Turnip), C (85-day var.), and field pea-barley intercrop (PBY). The HRSW and SF were harvested as cash crops and the PBY, C, and CC were harvested by grazing cattle. In the system, yearling beef steers grazed PBY and unharvested C before feedlot entry, and after weaning, gestating cows grazed CC. Seasonal soil nitrogen fertility was measured at 0-15, 15-30, and 30-61 cm depths approximately every two weeks from June to October, 2014. The regression illustrating the relationship between SOM and average seasonal available mineral nitrogen shows that for each percentage increase in SOM there is a corresponding N increase of 1.47 kg/ha. Nitrogen fertilizer applications for the 5-year period of the study were variable; however, the overall trend was for reduced fertilizer requirement as SOM increased. At the same time, grain, oilseed, and annual forage crop yields increased year over year (2011-2015) except for the 2014 crop year, when above average precipitation delayed seeding and early frost killed the C and SF crops prematurely

  15. Cradle-to-farm gate environmental footprints of beef cattle production in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.

    Rotz, C A; Asem-Hiablie, S; Dillon, J; Bonifacio, H


    A comprehensive national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted by the U.S. beef industry. The first of 7 regions to be analyzed is Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. A survey and visits conducted throughout the region provided data on common production practices. From these data, representative ranch and feedyard operations were defined and simulated for the varying climate and soil conditions throughout the region using the Integrated Farm System Model. These simulations predicted environmental impacts of each operation including cradle-to-farm gate footprints for greenhouse gas emissions, fossil-based energy use, nonprecipitation water use, and reactive N loss. Individual ranch and feedyard operations were linked to form 28 representative production systems. A weighted average of the production systems was used to determine the environmental footprints for the region where weighting factors were developed based on animal numbers reported in the survey and agricultural statistics data. Along with the traditional beef production systems, Holstein steer and cull cow production from the dairy industry in the region were also modeled and included. The carbon footprint of all beef produced was 18.3 ± 1.7 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg carcass weight (CW) with the range in individual production systems being 13 to 25 kg CO2e/kg CW. Energy use, water use, and reactive N loss were 51 ± 4.8 MJ/kg CW, 2,470 ± 455 L/kg CW, and 138 ± 12 g N/kg CW, respectively. The major portion of each footprint except water use was associated with the cow-calf phase; most of the nonprecipitation water use was attributed to producing feed for the finishing phase. These data provide a baseline for comparison as new technologies and strategies are developed and implemented to improve the sustainability of cattle production. Production information also will be combined with processing, marketing, and consumer data to complete a comprehensive life cycle assessment of beef. PMID

  16. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    Jacobsen, Peter


    Abstract: To day, more and more products are customized. Trends are not only to sell a product to the customer, but to sell a product system. The system can either be a combination of physical products or physical products together with some kind of service. Customers get in this way not a product...... but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks....... Here the decoupling point has a central role. The scope for this article is therefore to analyse the possibilities for using modularisation in designing and controlling a production system. How will the development of modularised product systems influence the production system? In the paper, a case...

  17. Avaliação produtiva e econômica de sistemas de produção bovina em pastagens de capim-elefante Productive and economic evaluation of cattle production systems on elephant-grass pastures

    A.A.C. Peres


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho produtivo de novilhas manejadas em capim-elefante com suplementação alimentar e estudou-se a viabilidade econômica dos sistemas de produção. Utilizaram-se novilhas Holandês-Zebu com idade média de 17 meses e peso médio de 215±8kg, distribuídas nos seguintes sistemas de produção: SP1 - sem suplementação; SP2 - suplementadas com ração concentrada; e SP3 - suplementadas com leguminosa Stylosanthes guianensis, cv. Mineirão. Foram utilizadas 22 novilhas sendo 12 distribuídas nos três sistemas e as demais utilizadas como animais de equilíbrio em função da quantidade de forragem disponível. Os ganhos de peso médio diário foram 429±18g, 624±23g e 535±8g para SP1, SP2 e SP3, e os ganhos de peso diário por área de 2,38; 3,46 e 1,43kg/ha/dia, para SP1, SP2 e SP3, respectivamente. A taxa interna de retorno obtida foi 29,6%, 30,1% e 10,5% para SP1, SP2 e SP3, respectivamente. O preço de venda das novilhas foi o fator de maior impacto no desempenho econômico dos sistemas de produção.Productive and economic performance of heifers grazing elephant-grass pastures under different production systems were evaluated. Twenty-two Holstein-Zebu heifers, 17-month-old and averaging 215kg of live weight, were used. The animals were managed on elephant-grass pastures under three production systems: PS1 - without supplementation; PS2 - supplemented with concentrate feeds; and PS3 - supplemented with Stylosanthes guianensis, cv. Mineirão pasture. Twelve heifers were used as testers and 10 heifers were used as "put-and-take". The average daily gains were 429±18g, 624±23g and 535±8g for animals on PS1, PS2 and PS3, respectively. The total daily gains per hectare were 2.38, 3.46 and 1.43kg, for animals on PS1, PS2 and PS3, respectively. The calculated internal rates of return were 29.6%, 30.1% and 10.5% for PS1, PS2 and PS3, respectively. The sale price of heifers had the largest impact on the economic performance of

  18. Large-scale production in Pichia pastoris of the recombinant vaccine Gavac against cattle tick.

    Canales, M; Enríquez, A; Ramos, E; Cabrera, D; Dandie, H; Soto, A; Falcón, V; Rodríguez, M; de la Fuente, J


    A gene coding for the Bm86 tick protein was recently cloned, expressed in Pichia pastoris and shown to induce an inmunological response in cattle against ticks. Moreover, the Gavac vaccine (Heber Biotec S.A., Havana, Cuba), which contains this recombinant protein, has proved to control the Boophilus microplus populations under field conditions. This paper reviews the development and large-scale production of this vaccine, the efficacy of the resulting product and the strategy followed in designing its production plant. The production plant fulfills biosafety requirements and GMP. PMID:9141213

  19. Effects of nitrogen deposition and cattle grazing on productivity, invasion impact, and soil microbial processes in a serpentine grassland

    Pasari, J.; Hernandez, D.; Selmants, P. C.; Keck, D.


    In recent decades, human activities have vastly increased the amount of biologically available nitrogen (N) in the biosphere. The resulting increase in N availability has broadly affected ecosystems through increased productivity, changes in species composition, altered nutrient cycles, and increases in invasion by exotic plant species, especially in systems that were historically low in N. California serpentine grasslands are N-limited ecosystems historically dominated by native species including several threatened and endangered plants and animals. Cattle grazing has emerged as the primary tool for controlling the impact of nitrophilic exotic grasses whose increased abundance has paralleled the regional traffic-derived increase in atmospheric N deposition. We examined the interactive effects of cattle grazing and N deposition on plant community composition, productivity, invasion resistance, and microbial processes in the Bay Area's largest serpentine grassland to determine the efficacy of current management strategies as well as the biogeochemical consequences of exotic species invasion. In the first two years of the study, aboveground net primary productivity decreased in response to grazing and increased in response to nitrogen addition. However, contrary to our hypotheses the change in productivity was not due to an increase in exotic species cover as there was little overall effect of grazing or N addition on species composition. Microbial activity was more responsive to grazing and N. Potential net N mineralization rates increased with N addition, but were not affected by grazing. In contrast, soil respiration rates were inhibited by grazing, but were not affected by N addition; suggesting strong carbon-limitation of soil microbial activity, particularly under grazing. Site differences in soil depth and grazing intensity were often more important than treatment effects. We suspect that the unusually dry conditions in the first two growing seasons inhibited

  20. A 660-Kb deletion with antagonistic effects on fertility and milk production segregates at high frequency in Nordic Red cattle

    Kadri, Naveen Kumar; Sahana, Goutam; Charlier, Carole;


    In dairy cattle, the widespread use of artificial insemination has resulted in increased selection intensity, which has led to spectacular increase in productivity. However, cow fertility has concomitantly severely declined. It is generally assumed that this reduction is primarily due...

  1. Towards the creation of a welfare assessment system in intensive beef cattle farms

    Igino Andrighetto; Giulio Cozzi; Barbara Contiero; Marta Brscic; Flaviana Gottardo


    This study aimed to develop an assessment scheme for the evaluation at farm level of beef cattle welfare in the intensive rearing system that is capable of both identifying weak points in animal welfare and grading farms to such extent. The basic principle of the method was the avoidance of animal handling and the prolonged observation of cattle using animal-based and resource provision measures grouped in four classes of parameters: 1) Housing systems and facilities; 2) Health and cleanlines...

  2. Design of Information System for Milking Dairy Cattle and Detection of Mastitis


    A novel information system for detecting mastitis in dairy cattle and managing their milking processes in the milking parlor is designed. The system comprises three major subsystems—the mastitis detection device, the information display device, and the cloud database. The mastitis detection device can detect and evaluate the degree of mastitis immediately before the milking operations are carried out. The information display device shows information on the health of the dairy cattle obtained ...

  3. Molecular Survey of Toxoplasma gondii in Sheep, Cattle and Meat Products in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari Province, Southwest of Iran

    Hamidreza Azizi; Behrouz Shiran; Arash Borjian Boroujeni; Milad Jafari


    Background Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide spread disease. The present study examined the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among animals of edible meat (cattle and sheep) in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari Province (Southwest of Iran) in 2012. Furthermore, we attempted for the first time to identify this parasite from the meat products in the province. Methods The tongue, brain, femur muscle and liver of 50 sheep and 70 cattle as well as 50 samples of meat products were selected and collected ...

  4. Aspects of productivity of traditionally managed Barotse cattle in the Western Province of Zambia.

    Klink, van der, M.R.


    In sub-Saharan Africa, traditionally managed livestock is important because of the provision of draught power and manure, the provision of security and investment possibilities, for the provision of meat and milk, and for social purposes (eg. brideprice, gifts). In the Western Province of Zambia, cattle are the only livestock of significance. The soils of the province virtually entirely consist of Kalahari sands, that are not very suitable for crop production, but with a good suitability for ...

  5. Database of cattle candidate genes and genetic markers for milk production and mastitis

    Ogorevc, J; Kunej, T; Razpet, A; Dovc, P


    A cattle database of candidate genes and genetic markers for milk production and mastitis has been developed to provide an integrated research tool incorporating different types of information supporting a genomic approach to study lactation, udder development and health. The database contains 943 genes and genetic markers involved in mammary gland development and function, representing candidates for further functional studies. The candidate loci were drawn on a genetic map to reveal positio...

  6. Cattle productivity on smallholder farms in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

    A study of the traditional cattle production systems in the Western Highlands of Cameroon was carried out between August 1994 and September 1997. Fifty two cows selected from 14 farms in 4 locations were monitored monthly. Data were collected on calf and dam weight, dam's body condition, milk offtake and forage quality. Reproductive performance was monitored by measuring progesterone levels in milk sampled weekly. Crude protein content of grazed pastures rose from 12.5% in July to 14.5% in October and declined steadily to reach 4.5% in February. With such a decline in forage quality during the dry season, cows are unable to obtain their nutrient needs, thus productivity was low. Body condition score declined from medium (5.6) at calving to upper low (4.5) 4 months after the initiation of milk offtake. Body weight of cows decreased by nearly 14% during the same period. The interval between calving to first progesterone rise, calving to conception, and inter-calving intervals were 172 ± 116, 185 ± 106 and 448 ± 86 days, respectively. Milk offtake averaged 1.29 ± 0.44 kg/cow/day for a lactation length of 10.5 months. A significant effect of season was detected in milk offtake (P <0.001), body condition score (P <0.05), body weight of cows (P <0.05), intervals from calving to first progesterone rise (P <0.05), calving to conception (P <0.05) and inter-calving interval (P <0.01). Supplementary feeding during the dry season and early lactation to cover the nutrient requirements of the cows in the traditional production system of Western Highlands of Cameroon is recommended and forms the purpose of the second part of this study which is now underway. (author)

  7. Influence of Supporting Agrarian Policy Measures onto Increase of Cattle Production in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Ferhat Ćejvanović


    Full Text Available Bosnia and Herzegovina has a deficit of most agricultural products, and that is why it is compelled to import significant quantities of food. In order to increase the degree of self sufficiency, particularly for those products that have good potentials for production growth, creators of agrarian policy try to apply different agrarian policy measures for stimulation of agricultural production growth. One production with good potential is cattle production, i.e. production of milk and meat, for which Bosnia and Herzegovina has significant development potentials, and for whose advancement there have been provided different supporting measures. This paper presents the possible application of the cost-benefit analysis in evaluation of efficiency for some supporting agrarian policy measures adopted in order to improve the cattle production in Bosnia and Herzegovina . The cost-benefit analysis was completed for the six year period, taking into account the productive period of bought heifer. The analysis includes economic and financial parameters (inflows and outflows, which annual amounts were discounted to the present values by utilization of the average social discount rate, in order to put all annual amounts at the same trend of calculation and to account for opportunity capital costs as well.

  8. Constraints and efficiency of cattle marketing in semiarid pastoral system in Kenya.

    Onono, Joshua Orungo; Amimo, Joshua Oluoch; Rushton, Jonathan


    Livestock keeping is regarded as a store of wealth for pastoralists in Kenya, besides their social and cultural functions. The objective of this study was to prioritize constraints to cattle marketing in a semiarid pastoral area of Narok in Kenya and to analyze efficiency of cattle marketing in transit markets located in Garissa, Kajiado and Narok counties. Primary data collection from traders was done through participatory interviews and market surveys, while time series market price data were obtained from secondary sources. Five focus group interviews were organized with a total of 61 traders in markets from Narok County, while a total of 187 traders who purchased cattle from transit markets provided data on a number of cattle purchased, purpose of purchase, buying prices and mode of transport. Market performance was analyzed through trader's market share, gross margins, Gini coefficient and coefficient of correlation between time series price data. The marketing constraints which were ranked high included lack of market for meat, trekking of cattle to markets, lack of price information and occurrence of diseases. About 10 % of traders purchased over 50 % of cattle which were supplied in markets, revealing a high concentration index. Further, a gross marketing margin per cattle purchased was positive in all markets revealing profitability. Moderate correlation coefficients existed between time series market price data for cattle purchased from Ewaso Ngiro and Mulot markets (r = 0.5; p  0.05). The integration of markets, occurrence of diseases and trekking of cattle to markets are factors which may increase a risk of infectious disease spread. These results call for support of disease surveillance activities within markets in pastoral areas so that farms and systems which are connected are protected from threats of infectious diseases. PMID:25700674

  9. Suplementacion de minerales en la produccion bovina – Mineral supplementation for cattle production

    Arcesio Salamanca


    Full Text Available ResumenSe hace una revisión de las deficiencias de minerales en los suelos y su relación con la planta y el animal, evidencias en las pajas nativas de la sabana inundable del Departamento de Arauca, de la importancia de los minerales en la alimentación bovina, de algunos resultados de investigación y de las convicciones productivas al suplementar a los bovinos con sales mineralizadas SummaryA review of mineral deficiencies in soils and its relation to plant and animal evidence in the native straw flooded savanna of the Department of Arauca, the importance of mineral in the diet of cattle, some results research and belief productive to supplement the cattle with mineral salts.

  10. Effects of CSN3 and LGB gene polymorphisms on production traits in beef cattle

    Rogério A. Curi


    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of the CSN3/HinfI and LGB/HaeIII gene polymorphisms in beef cattle belonging to different genetic groups, and to determine the effects of these polymorphisms on growth and carcass traits in these animals, which are submitted to an intensive production model. Genotyping was performed on 79 Nelore, 30 Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu and 275 crossbred cattle originating from the crosses of Simmental (n = 30 and Angus (n = 245 sires with Nelore females. Body weight, weight gain, dressing percentage, longissimus dorsi area and backfat thickness were fitted using the GLM procedure, and least square means of the genotypes were compared by the F test. The results showed that the CSN3/HinfI and LGB/HaeIII polymorphisms did not have any effect on growth or carcass traits (p > 0.05.

  11. Anthelmintic resistance impact on tropical beef cattle productivity: effect on weight gain of weaned calves.

    Borges, Fernando A; Almeida, Gabriel D; Heckler, Rafael P; Lemes, Raul T; Onizuka, Marcel K V; Borges, Dyego G L


    The performance of grazing cattle in tropical areas is deeply influenced by parasitism, and the increasing reports of resistance are a threat to effective nematode control. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of avermectins on the performance of weaned calves naturally infected by ivermectin-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. The effect of four commercial endectocides (ivermectin 2.25 % + abamectin 1.25 %, ivermectin 3.15 %, doramectin 3.15 %, and doramectin 1 %) on parasitism and performance of a hundred weaned Nellore calves were evaluated during 112 days. The most effective anthelmintic showed efficacy of 84 % and resulted in an increase (P parasites in beef cattle in the weaning phase may not result in increased productivity when carried out without technical criteria. PMID:23076819

  12. Breed diversification in southwestern Uganda: Characterization of a new cattle farming system

    A new production system in which pastoral communities are becoming more sedentary and are keeping different genotypes (Holstein-Friesians or their crosses and pure Ankole) is emerging in South Western Uganda. In this system the Ankole, cattle are being crossed with Holstein-Friesian and the two genotypes are being kept in separate herds on the same farm. This is in response to the rapidly growing population, new land policies that favour individual land ownership high demand of livestock products in the urban centres and improved rural infrastructure. As part of a larger research program that aims at evaluating the ecological and economic sustainability of the new pastoral systems, a survey was undertaken of sixteen farmers selected from 3 sub-counties in Kiruhura District in South West Uganda. Two sets of detailed structured questionnaires were used to collect information from the farms. The 1st set was administered at the beginning of the study in April 2007, and the 2nd one was administered on a monthly basis for a period of the last 12 months. On each farm visit performance traits such as milk yield (MY), heart girth measurement (HG) and Body Condition Score (BCS) of the animals were recorded. Comparative MY, BCS and body weight performance for mature cows for the different genotypes are considered here. because the crossbreds gave them more marketable milk, while the Ankole provides security in case diseases or prolonged drought affected the crossbreds. Another group (19.9%) stated that they still prefer to keep Ankole cattle besides the crosses because they are hardy, while others (13.3%) stated that they kept Ankole for beef production because they were easier to sell off for this purpose and the crosses for milk production. Another 13.3% stated that the crossbreds were kept for income through milk sales and Ankole were kept for cultural reasons. Different reasons were given for rearing the animals in separate herds: (i) to control breeding (ii) Ankole

  13. National Genetic Evaluation (System) of Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle)

    Park, B; Choi, T; Kim, S.; Oh, S.-H.


    Hanwoo (Also known as Korean native cattle; Bos taurus coreanae) have been used for transportation and farming for a long time in South Korea. It has been about 30 yrs since Hanwoo improvement began in earnest as beef cattle for meat yield. The purpose of this study was to determine the trend of improvement as well as to estimate genetic parameters of the traits being used for seedstock selection based on the data collected from the past. Hanwoo proven bulls in South Korea are currently selec...

  14. Invited review: Enteric methane in dairy cattle production: quantifying the opportunities and impact of reducing emissions.

    Knapp, J R; Laur, G L; Vadas, P A; Weiss, W P; Tricarico, J M


    Many opportunities exist to reduce enteric methane (CH4) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of product from ruminant livestock. Research over the past century in genetics, animal health, microbiology, nutrition, and physiology has led to improvements in dairy production where intensively managed farms have GHG emissions as low as 1 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM), compared with >7 kg of CO2 e/kg of ECM in extensive systems. The objectives of this review are to evaluate options that have been demonstrated to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions per unit of ECM (CH4/ECM) from dairy cattle on a quantitative basis and in a sustained manner and to integrate approaches in genetics, feeding and nutrition, physiology, and health to emphasize why herd productivity, not individual animal productivity, is important to environmental sustainability. A nutrition model based on carbohydrate digestion was used to evaluate the effect of feeding and nutrition strategies on CH4/ECM, and a meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of lipid supplementation on CH4/ECM. A second model combining herd structure dynamics and production level was used to estimate the effect of genetic and management strategies that increase milk yield and reduce culling on CH4/ECM. Some of these approaches discussed require further research, but many could be implemented now. Past efforts in CH4 mitigation have largely focused on identifying and evaluating CH4 mitigation approaches based on nutrition, feeding, and modifications of rumen function. Nutrition and feeding approaches may be able to reduce CH4/ECM by 2.5 to 15%, whereas rumen modifiers have had very little success in terms of sustained CH4 reductions without compromising milk production. More significant reductions of 15 to 30% CH4/ECM can be achieved by combinations of genetic and management approaches, including improvements in heat abatement, disease and fertility management, performance

  15. Biogas production by anaerobic co-digestion of cattle slurry and cheese whey

    Comino, Elena; Riggio, Vincenzo Andrea; Rosso, Maurizio


    Biogas yield of mixtures of cattle slurry and cheese whey, rates of production of methane, removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) were investigated at 35 C. Stable biogas production of 621 l/kg volatile solids at a hydraulic retention time of 42 days in a mixture containing 50% slurry and whey was obtained. The concentration of methane in the biogas was around 55%. Maximum removal efficiencies for COD and BOD5 were 82% and 90%, respectively. A ...

  16. Modelling the spread of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a beef cattle herd and its impact on herd productivity

    Damman, Alix; Viet, Anne France; Arnoux, Sandie; Guerrier-Chatellet, Marie-Claude; Petit, Etienne; Ezanno, Pauline


    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a common pathogen of cattle herds that causes economic losses due to reproductive disorders in breeding cattle and increased morbidity and mortality amongst infected calves. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of BVDV spread on the productivity of a beef cow-calf herd using a stochastic model in discrete time that accounted for (1) the difference in transmission rates when animals are housed indoors versus grazing on pasture, (2) the external risk of...

  17. Effects of probiotic bacteria at different concentrations on production of immunomodulatory antibodies against rabies virus in vaccinated cattle

    Renata Maria Bottino Vizzotto-Martino; Cristina Cecilia Augusto Vella Bonancéa; Thaís Cristina de Souza Geroti; Neuza Maria Frazati-Gallina; Paulo Eduardo Pardo; Hermann Bremer-Neto


    This study evaluated the effects of supplementation with a combination of probiotic microorganisms, added at different concentrations to the mineral mixture, on the production of serum antibodies against rabies virus in cattle vaccinated with a single dose of rabies vaccine. Forty-two male Nellore cattle, aged 12 months, were randomly divided into three groups (n = 14): the control group (CG) received 70 grams of mineral mixture/animal/day; and the 2 gram probiotic group (G2P) and 8 gram prob...

  18. Physiological level production of antigen-specific human immunoglobulin in cloned transchromosomic cattle.

    Akiko Sano

    Full Text Available Therapeutic human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs derived from pooled plasma from human donors are Food and Drug Administration approved biologics used in the treatment of a variety of human diseases. Powered by the natural diversity of immune response, hpAbs are effective in treating diseases caused by complex or quickly-evolving antigens such as viruses. We previously showed that transchromosomic (Tc cattle carrying a human artificial chromosome (HAC comprising the entire unrearranged human immunoglobulin heavy-chain (hIGH and kappa-chain (hIGK germline loci (named as κHAC are capable of producing functional hpAbs when both of the bovine immunoglobulin mu heavy-chains, bIGHM and bIGHML1, are homozygously inactivated (double knockouts or DKO. However, B lymphocyte development in these Tc cattle is compromised, and the overall production of hpAbs is low. Here, we report the construction of an improved HAC, designated as cKSL-HACΔ, by incorporating all of the human immunoglobulin germline loci into the HAC. Furthermore, for avoiding the possible human-bovine interspecies incompatibility between the human immunoglobulin mu chain protein (hIgM and bovine transmembrane α and β immunoglobulins (bIgα and bIgβ in the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR complex, we partially replaced (bovinized the hIgM constant domain with the counterpart of bovine IgM (bIgM that is involved in the interaction between bIgM and bIgα/Igβ; human IgM bovinization would also improve the functionality of hIgM in supporting B cell activation and proliferation. We also report the successful production of DKO Tc cattle carrying the cKSL-HACΔ (cKSL-HACΔ/DKO, the dramatic improvement of B cell development in these cattle and the high level production of hpAbs (as measured for the human IgG isotype in the plasma. We further demonstrate that, upon immunization by tumor immunogens, high titer tumor immunogen-specific human IgG (hIgG can be produced from such Tc cattle.

  19. Valorization of indigenous dairy cattle breed through salami production.

    Gaglio, Raimondo; Francesca, Nicola; Maniaci, Giuseppe; Corona, Onofrio; Alfonzo, Antonio; Giosuè, Cristina; Di Noto, Annamaria; Cardamone, Cinzia; Sardina, Maria Teresa; Portolano, Baldassare; Alabiso, Marco


    The aim of the research was to produce salami manufactured with meat of three different commercial categories of bovine breed: cow on retirement, beef and young bull. A total of six experimental productions, at small-scale plant, were carried out with and without starter culture inoculums. The evolution of physico-chemical parameters in all trials followed the trend already registered for other fermented meat products. Several LAB species were found during process with different levels of species diversity and frequency of isolation among inoculated (mainly Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus xylosus) and uninoculated (mainly Enterococcus devriesei, Lactobacillus curvatus and Lactobacillus sakei) trials. Enterobacteriaceae were found at very low levels during the entire ripening period and no pathogenic bacteria were found in any samples. The multivariate analysis showed that starter inoculums and meat affected significantly the physico-chemical and the microbiological composition of salami. The sensory analysis evidenced the highest overall acceptability was displayed by salami produced with meat from cow on retirement. PMID:26735574

  20. Efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle (Bos Indicus

    Debashis Saha


    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle. 18 lactating crossbred cattle of early to mid-lactation, approximate body weight (375.39±23.43 kg, milk yield, parity and stage of lactation were divided into three groups of six animals each and were fed 0, 50 and 100% diammonium phosphate (DAP in the mineral mixture of concentrates for 120 days. The chaffed mixed roughage (berseem + wheat straw and concentrate mixture was fed to supply about nearly 18:82 concentrate to roughage ratio on dry matter basis. Tap water was available to the animals twice daily. A metabolism trial of seven days was conducted at the end of experiment to study digestibility of organic nutrients and balances of energy. DAP did not affect the nutrient intake, body weight changes, digestibility of Dry matter (DM, Crude protein (CP, Ether extract (EE, Crude fiber (CF, Nitrogen free extract (NFE and daily milk yield. It was concluded that the at 46.07 Mcal Gross energy intake level the losses in feces, urine, methane and heat production was 45.82%, 5.40%, 4.31% and 33.01%, respectively, and net energy retention for milk production was 11.43%. The gross efficiency of conversion of metabolic energy ME for milk production was 35.69% and the net efficiency of conversion of ME for milk production was 39.56%.

  1. In vitro study of the biochemical origin and production limits of odorous compounds in cattle feedlots.

    Miller, D N; Varel, V H


    Livestock odors are closely correlated to airborne concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC), which are a complex mixture of carbon-, sulfur-, and nitrogen-containing compounds produced primarily during the incomplete anaerobic fermentation of animal manure by microorganisms. Volatile fatty acids, alcohols, and aromatic ring compounds comprise a substantial fraction of VOC, yet very little is known about their biochemical origin and environmental factors controlling their production. The anaerobic production of fermentation products and consumption of substrates (CP, starch, and nonstarch carbohydrate) were analyzed in slurries of fresh ( 1 d) cattle manure over several weeks. Ethanol, acetate, propionate, butyrate, lactate, and H2 were the major products of fermentation. Aged cattle manure produced twice the concentration of VFA during incubation produced by the fresh manure (P manures. Production of VFA from fresh manure was inhibited when the pH fell below 4.5. It is likely that the presence of calcareous soil, which has a high buffering capacity, and lactate-consuming microorganisms minimized acidification in the aged manure slurries. Low starch content limited VFA production in the aged manure. Starch was the likely biochemical source for fermentation products in both manures based on the strong negative correlations between fermentation product and starch content (r = -0.944 and -0.773) and ratio of fermentation products produced to starch consumed (r = 0.64 and 0.72) for fresh and aged manure, respectively. Nonstarch carbohydrate served an indeterminate role in the production of fermentation products. Nonstarch carbohydrate decreased by 4.7 and 23.4 g/L in the fresh and aged manure, respectively, whereas the starch content decreased by 18.6 and 22.4 g/L in the fresh and aged manure, respectively. The concentration of CP did not change, which suggests a balance between protein consumption and new bacterial biomass production. We conclude that the

  2. Possibilities for converting conventional cattle production to the organic model in the Grijalva River Basin, Mexico

    J. Nahed


    Full Text Available The possibilities for converting conventional cattle production to the organic model were evaluated in the Grijalva River Basin, Mexico, and possible interventions were identified. A multi-criteria organic livestock conversion index (OLCI with 10 indicators comprising 35 variables was used. Information was obtained through participatory workshops, direct observation, and interviews to 91 farmers of 11 different communities in the municipalities of Mazapa de Madero (n = 17, Huitiupán (n = 30, and Tacotalpa (n = 44. Results show higher OLCI values in Mazapa (56.8% and Tacotalpa (56.7% than in Huitiupán (49.0%. The production units evaluated show: (i limitations with respect to indicators ecological weed control in pastures and crops, veterinary prevention and treatment, food safety, and ecological management, and (ii strengths to reach the organic standards are: feed management, sustainable pasture management, soil fertilization, ecological pest and disease control in pastures and crops, breeds and reproduction, and animal well-being. In order to revert the future scenario of conventional livestock production and to transition to organic cattle raising, it is necessary to: (1 train and advice farmers regarding ecological production techniques and management, principally with respect to the limitations pointed out, and (2 implement a policy for development of livestock raising with specific functional and structural changes.

  3. Biological water contamination in some cattle production fields of Argentina subjected to runoff and erosion

    Celio I. Chagas


    Full Text Available Grain production has displaced livestock to marginal lands in most of the productive regions in Argentina since 1990. In the fertile Rolling Pampa region, extensive cattle production has been concentrated in lowlands subjected to flooding, salt excess, erosion and sedimentation processes but also in some feedlots recently located in sloping arable lands prone to soil erosion. We studied the concentration of microbiological contamination indicators in runoff water and sediments accumulated in depressions along the tributary network from these lands devoted to cattle production. The aims of this work were: (i to gather a reliable set of data from different monitoring periods and scales, (ii to search for simple and sensible variables to be used as indicators for surface water quality advising purposes and (iii to corroborate previous biological contamination conceptual models for this region. Concentration of pollution indicators in these ponds was related to mean stocking rates from nearby fields and proved to depend significantly on the accumulated water and sediments. Viable mesophiles and total coliforms were found mainly attached to large sediments rather than in the runoff water phase. Seasonal sampling showed that the time period between the last significant runoff event and each sampling date regarding enterococci proved to be a sensible variable for predicting contamination. Enterococci concentration tended to increase gradually until the next extraordinary runoff event washed away contaminants. The mentioned relationship may be useful for designing early warning surface water contamination programs regarding enterococci dynamics and other related microbial pollutants as well.

  4. Mixed grazing systems benefit both upland biodiversity and livestock production.

    Mariecia D Fraser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With world food demand expected to double by 2050, identifying farming systems that benefit both agricultural production and biodiversity is a fundamentally important challenge for the 21(st century, but this has to be achieved in a sustainable way. Livestock grazing management directly influences both economic outputs and biodiversity on upland farms while contributing to potentially damaging greenhouse gas emissions, yet no study has attempted to address these impacts simultaneously. METHODS: Using a replicated, landscape-scale field experiment consisting of five management 'systems' we tested the effects of progressively altering elements within an upland farming system, viz i incorporating cattle grazing into an upland sheep system, ii integrating grazing of semi-natural rough grazing into a mixed grazing system based on improved pasture, iii altering the stocking ratio within a mixed grazing system, and iv replacing modern crossbred cattle with a traditional breed. We quantified the impacts on livestock productivity and numbers of birds and butterflies over four years. RESULTS CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: We found that management systems incorporating mixed grazing with cattle improve livestock productivity and reduce methane emissions relative to sheep only systems. Systems that also included semi-natural rough grazing consistently supported more species of birds and butterflies, and it was possible to incorporate bouts of summer grazing of these pastures by cattle to meet habitat management prescriptions without compromising cattle performance overall. We found no evidence that the system incorporating a cattle breed popular as a conservation grazer was any better for bird and butterfly species richness than those based on a mainstream breed, yet methane emissions from such a system were predicted to be higher. We have demonstrated that mixed upland grazing systems not only improve livestock production, but also benefit

  5. Effect of Temperature and Retention Time on Methane Production from Beef Cattle Waste

    Varel, V. H.; Hashimoto, A. G.; Chen, Y R


    The effect of temperature and retention time on the rate of methane production from waste of beef cattle fed a finishing diet was investigated by using continuously mixed 3-liter working volume anaerobic fermentors. The temperatures ranged from 30 to 65°C with 5°C increments between fermentors. The fermentors were fed once per day with 6% volatile solids (organic matter). Retention time for each temperature was varied from 18 to 2.5 days. After 3-volume turnovers, samples were obtained on 4 c...

  6. Biophysical and economic water productivity of dual-purpose cattle farming.

    Sraïri, M T; Benjelloun, R; Karrou, M; Ates, S; Kuper, M


    This study analyzes key factors influencing water productivity in cattle rearing, particularly in contexts characterized by water scarcity. This was done through year-round monitoring of on-farm practices within five smallholder farms located in the Saïss area (northern Morocco). The on-farm monitoring protocol consisted of characterizing: (i) volumes of water used for fodder production and distinguished by source (rainfall, surface irrigation and groundwater), (ii) virtual water contained in off-farm feed resources, (iii) total forage biomass production, (iv) dietary rations fed to lactating cows and their calves and (v) milk output and live weight gain. Findings reveal a mean water footprint of 1.62±0.81 and 8.44±1.09 m3/kg of milk and of live weight gain, respectively. Groundwater represented only 13.1% and 2.2% of the total water used to get milk and live weight gain, respectively, while rainfall represented 53.0% and 48.1% of the total water for milk and live weight gain, respectively. The remaining water volumes used came from surface irrigation water (7.4% for milk and 4.0% for live weight gain) and from virtual water (26.5% for milk and 44.7% for live weight gain). The results also revealed a relatively small gross margin per m3 of water used by the herd, not exceeding an average value of US $ 0.05, when considering both milk and live weight. Given the large variability in farm performances, which affect water productivity in cattle rearing throughout the production process, we highlight the potential for introducing a series of interventions that are aimed at saving water, while concurrently improving efficiency in milk production and live weight gain. These interventions should target the chain of production functions that are implemented throughout the process of water productivity in cattle rearing. Moreover, these interventions are of particular importance given our findings that livestock production depends largely upon rainfall, rather than


    Fabricio da Silva Oliveira


    Full Text Available We studied the effect of 9 quantities of cattle manure (Q1 = 0 kg / pit, Q2= 1.0 kg / hill, Q3 = 2.0 kg / hill, Q4 = 3.0 kg/hill, Q5 = 4,0kg/pit, Q6=5.0kg/hill, Q7 =6.0kg/hill,; Q8 =7.0kg/hill, Q9 = 8.0kg/hill and 5 doses of biofertilizer (D1 = 0 mL / plant / time, D2 = 30 mL / plant / time, D3 = 60 mL / plant / time, D4 = 90 mL / plant / time, D5 = 120 mL / plant / time, growth and the productivity of maize. The experimental design was to randomized blocks, 45 treatments in a factorial scheme 9x5, with 4 replications, and planted 2 plants per plot in each repetition, totaling 360 experimental plants. The growth and production of corn were not affected significantly when it was applied to 8 kg of cattle manure pit in the foundation of fertilization, growth and production of corn were not affected significantly when applications were made 5 of biofertilizer in fertilization coverage in dosages up to 120mL/plant/time.


    Tomáš FREJLACH


    Full Text Available The breeding of dairy cattle, in terms of investment and operating costs, is the most demanding sector of livestock production. In terms of importance for agricultural enterprises and all of society, in most EU Member States and the Czech Republic it is one of the major agrarian sectors. Milk production in the Czech Republic has been an important source of income for farmers. For this reason, it is important to ensure an adequate level of milk production in dairy cattle herds and the resulting profit of the enterprise. At the present time in the Czech Republic, it is difficult to ensure profitability in dairy farming because input costs have a continuously rising trend, as compared to the price of milk, which is very unstable. The evaluation of selected indicators of milk yield and fertility in dairy herds is an important tool for evaluating the economics and the level of the breeding. The highest milk yield in kilograms during the first lactation was attained by dairy cows that calved at the age of 27 to 29 months (9,335 kg of milk. When utilizing the DOUBLE OVSYNCH synchronization protocol, the average calving interval was 412 days, and a higher conception rate after first insemination (43% was found as compared to the nationwide average in the Czech Republic (34.2%.

  9. Mapping the impact of crossbreeding in smallholder cattle systems in Indonesia

    Tri Satya Mastuti Widi, Tri


    ABSTRACT In response to increasing demand for meat, Indonesia’s government has been implementing crossbreeding with European beef breeds to improve the meat production of local cattle. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the benefits and consequences of cr

  10. [Grounds for using cattle as one of reference organisms in the system of environmental protection from radiation].

    Budarkov, V A


    Taking into consideration the basic principles of environmental protection from radiation as stated in Publication 91 of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), we suggest cattle to be included into fauna reference species group. The choice is based upon cattle being a typical representative of specific ecosystems and may serve as an informative biological indicator and comparable with humans for its susceptibility to radiation effects. Cattle will receive some higher radiation doses as compared to humans due to its habitat, also earlier determined physiological and radiation constants for cattle are available. Furthermore, there are some data for the effects of radiation levels more than 10 times as higher than the natural ones upon cattle reproductive function and leucosis infection. Using cattle as one of reference organisms will not complicate considerably the systems for environmental protection against radiation as compared to the ones existing now, that will just modify and supplement them. PMID:19507686

  11. Productive and reproductive behavior of three herd of Cebu cattle of the Magdalena Area

    The productive and reproductive behavior of 3 herd of cattle is studied of Cebu cattle located in Savannah of Torres, Giron and Lebrija to the northwest of Santander, with heights of 118 to 160 m.s.n.m, temperatures of 25 to 27 centigrade degrees, relative humidity of 65 to 80 percent and plane topography with waves and acid soil. The exploitation system evolved from the continuous shepherding in native prairies to the rotational with improved prairies and mineral supplementation. The system of it mounts it was continuous and oscillate among 35 cows/bull to the beginning and 25-30 cows/bull at the end. Due to the location and different handling, the 3 herds were analyzed independently. 1, 1843 observations were analyzed to measure the interval between childbirths and 478 for the weight to the birth and the weaning (270 days). An analysis was used by minimum squares with unequal subclasses. The weight to the weaning was adjusted by covariance, due to the dispersion of the age to the weaning. For the natality rate they were processed and they analyzed for high X to the 2 3175 herds. The prevalence of infectious illnesses of the reproduction was studied in 156 blood samples and it was analyzed by the pattern 1 of Cavanzo. The intervals among childbirths for the herds 1, 2 and 3 were: 466 days (C V same 24 percent), 458 days (C V same 29 percent) and 513 days (C V same 31 percent), respectively. When studying the effect of the month of the childbirth on the interval among childbirths, the months of low precipitation (December to March and July) they diminished the interval the bull it also influenced in the duration of the interval among childbirths; in all the herds, the effect of the reproducer increased or it diminished the interval significantly. In the herd 1, the weight average to the birth was of 32 but or less 1.9 kg and the males weighed 3.8 kg more that the females. The weight to the weaning was of 219.4 but or less 16.9 kg (C V similar to 8.0 percent) and it

  12. Anti-cattle tick vaccines: Many candidate antigens, but will a commercially viable product emerge?

    This is an invited paper from the editor-in-chief of International Journal for Parasitology who requested a Current Opinion manuscript to discuss the status of anti-cattle tick vaccine research. Arguably the world's most significant arthropod pest of cattle, control of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus...

  13. Perspectives of Using Ultra-Fine Metals as Universal Safe BioStimulators to Get Cattle Breeding Quality Products

    Polishchuk, S.


    We have conducted investigations of ultra-fine metals biological activity with lab non-pedigree white rats, rabbits breed “Soviet chinchilla” and cattle young stock of the black and white breed as the most widely spread in the central part of Russia. One can see the possibility of using microelements of ultra-fine iron, cobalt and copper as cheap, non-toxic and highly effective biological catalyst of biochemical processes in the organism that improve physiological state, morphological and biochemical blood parameters increasing activity of the experimental animals’ ferment systems and their productivity and meat biological value. We have proved the ultra-fine powders safety when adding them to the animals’ diet.

  14. Co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sludge to increase biogas production

    Highlights: ► Small increase in methane production was observed applying sonication pretreatment. ► Biogas productions between 720 and 1100 mL/Lreactor day were achieved. ► Volatile solids removal efficiencies ranged between 53% and 60%. ► Lower methane yields were obtained when operating under thermophilic conditions. ► Optimum OLR in lab-scale CSTR was 1.2–1.3 g VS/L day (HRT: 20 days). - Abstract: Anaerobic co-digestion strategies are needed to enhance biogas production, especially when treating certain residues such as cattle/pig manure. This paper presents a study of co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sewage sludge. With the aim of maximising biogas yields, a series of experiments were carried out under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions using continuously stirred-tank reactors, operating at different hydraulic residence times. Pretreatment with ultrasound was also applied to compare the results with those obtained with non-pretreated waste. Specific methane production decreases when increasing the OLR and decreasing HRT. The maximum value obtained was 603 LCH4/kg VSfeed for the co-digestion of a mixture of 70% manure, 20% food waste and 10% sewage sludge (total solid concentration around 4%) at 36 °C, for an OLR of 1.2 g VS/L day. Increasing the OLR to 1.5 g VS/L day led to a decrease of around 20–28% in SMP. Lower methane yields were obtained when operating at 55 °C. The increase in methane production when applying ultrasound to the feed mixtures does not compensate for the energy spent in this pretreatment.

  15. Co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sludge to increase biogas production

    Maranon, E., E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University Institute of Technology of Asturias, Campus of Gijon, University of Oviedo, 33203 Gijon (Spain); Castrillon, L.; Quiroga, G.; Fernandez-Nava, Y. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University Institute of Technology of Asturias, Campus of Gijon, University of Oviedo, 33203 Gijon (Spain); Gomez, L.; Garcia, M.M. [Zero Emissions Technology, 41018 Seville (Spain)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small increase in methane production was observed applying sonication pretreatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biogas productions between 720 and 1100 mL/Lreactor day were achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Volatile solids removal efficiencies ranged between 53% and 60%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lower methane yields were obtained when operating under thermophilic conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimum OLR in lab-scale CSTR was 1.2-1.3 g VS/L day (HRT: 20 days). - Abstract: Anaerobic co-digestion strategies are needed to enhance biogas production, especially when treating certain residues such as cattle/pig manure. This paper presents a study of co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sewage sludge. With the aim of maximising biogas yields, a series of experiments were carried out under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions using continuously stirred-tank reactors, operating at different hydraulic residence times. Pretreatment with ultrasound was also applied to compare the results with those obtained with non-pretreated waste. Specific methane production decreases when increasing the OLR and decreasing HRT. The maximum value obtained was 603 LCH{sub 4}/kg VS{sub feed} for the co-digestion of a mixture of 70% manure, 20% food waste and 10% sewage sludge (total solid concentration around 4%) at 36 Degree-Sign C, for an OLR of 1.2 g VS/L day. Increasing the OLR to 1.5 g VS/L day led to a decrease of around 20-28% in SMP. Lower methane yields were obtained when operating at 55 Degree-Sign C. The increase in methane production when applying ultrasound to the feed mixtures does not compensate for the energy spent in this pretreatment.

  16. "Mirandês" cattle breed: systems and practices of the farmers

    Fragata, António; Sousa, Fernando Ruivo de


    Over the centuries, the mirandesa breed has been very useful! as traction animal and meat production. The latter, and in relation to other national breeds, their productive capacity occupies the first position and is famous for the quality of "posta mirandesa", a very special and appreciated dish by the rich gastronomy in the Northeast of Portugal. In spite of erosion suffered in the last decades, the ''mirandês'' cattle breed still has an important economi...

  17. Diversity of forage system work and adoption of intensive techniques in dairy cattle farms of Amazonia

    HOSTIOU, Nathalie; Dedieu, Benoit


    Forest ecosystems of Brazilian Amazonia are cleared to allow livestock production. Deforestation contributes significantly to climate change and losses of biodiversity. Degradation by scrubs reduces pasture productivity after a few years, thus leading farmers to deforest new areas. For this reason, sustaining cultivated pastures is of major importance for cattle farms. Intensive pasture management techniques have been proposed to the farmers, with little success so far. Our hypothesis is that...

  18. The Use Of Feed Technology Of Local Based Source To Support The Productivity Of Beef Cattle In West Sumatra



    Full Text Available The use of feed technology of local based sources to support beef cattle productivity is the key of the successful PSDS/K program in 2014. In 2009, the cattle population in West Sumatra was about 492,272 heads, and the population growth during 2005 – 2009 was about 6.1 percent per year are the growth of cattle slaughtered for local consumption was around 11.0 percent or about 86,028 heads/year. The rate of population growth is much lower than the target of PSDS/K 2014 which around 12.5 percent. The source of feedstuffs come from native grass and by product of agro-industry. These agro-industry by products such as rice, maize, cassava, palm oil, cacao, coffee by products have big potential for feed which account for supporting 1.75 to 2.1 million animal unit. These by-products mostly used for feed supplement by simple process technology. The role of institution like LM3 and SMD can be optimized to support local feed supply which available on location either for local cattle consumption or for commercial use.

  19. Análise econômica de sistemas de produção com bovinocultura de leite da depressão central do Rio Grande do Sul Economic analysis of production systems of dairy cattle farms in central Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Jorge Nunes Portela


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido junto às unidades de produção familiar (UPFs associadas à Cooperativa dos Produtores de Leite de Santa Maria (COOPROL RS, com o objetivo de identificar o desempenho econômico e os sistemas de produção existentes entre as mesmas. Foram coletadas as informações de 53 propriedades, sendo identificados os seguintes sistemas de produção: a leite e arroz com tração animal (TA e superfície agrícola útil (SAU média de 30ha; b leite e arroz com tração mecanizada (TM e SAU média de 54ha; c leite e hortigranjeiros com TA e SAU média de 20ha; d leite e hortigranjeiros com TM e SAU média de 50ha; e leite e bovinos de corte com TA e SAU média de 40ha; f leite e bovinos de corte com TA e SAU média de 308ha; g leite e bovinos de corte com TM e SAU média de 80ha; h leite estreme com TA e SAU média de 2 ha; i leite estreme com TM e SAU média de 45ha. Os sistemas A, B, C, F, H e I apresentam um desempenho econômico por unidade de trabalho homem (UTH superior ao salário mínimo regional, enquanto os sistemas D, E e G apresentam desempenho abaixo deste indicador.This work was developed in family production units (UPFs, associated to a co-operative society, the Cooperativa dos Produtores de Leite de Santa Maria (COOPROL RS. The goal was to identify the economical performance and the different systems of production used by the UPFs. The information was obtained from 53 farms, and among them the following production systems were identified: a Milk associated to rice crops, with animal traction (AT and an average of 30ha of tillable area (TA; b Milk associated to rice crops with mechanical traction (MT and TA=54ha; c Milk associated to olericulture with AT and TA= 20ha; d Milk associated to olericulture with MT and TA= 50ha; e Milk associated to beef cattle with AT and TA= 40ha; f Milk associated to beef cattle with AT and TA= 308ha; g Milk associated to beef cattle with MT and TA= 80 ha; h Milk with AT




    Full Text Available This survey aims were to determine the potency of dairy cattle development, and to find the relationship among of various factors to improve productivity and income of dairy cattle farmers. Semarang, Boyolali and Banyumas districts were taken as study location. Total respondents were 495 farmers, in which 225 farmers were members of the Village Unit Cooperative (VUC, 180 farmers were member of Various Business Cooperative (VBC and 90 farmers were member of Farmer Group Association (FGA. Primary data were obtained through interviews with farmers and secondary data were obtained from related institution. Descriptive and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM analysis were used in the study. Based on LQ (Location Quotiens analysis, dairy cattle in Central Java was potential to be developed. The LQ value of Semarang, Boyolali and Banyumas districs were 4.57, 7.68 and 0.46, respectively, with 4.24 on average. The dairy cattle farmer income was IDR 1.024.095/month with an average of scale ownership lactation cattle was 2.7 head/farmer. Model Goodness of Fit of SEM was fit with the SEM requirement. The productivity was influenced significantly (P<0.01 by environmental, economic, institutional, and social factors. Dairy cattle farmer income were influenced highly significant (P<0.01 by technical and institutional factors (P<0.05 of the income. These results indicated that the role of technical factors, social, economic, institutional and business environment needs to be considered in order to increase business productivity and farmer incomes.

  1. Effect of daily milk production on the economic impact of mastitits in cattle herds

    Fabiana Alves Demeu


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to analyze and quantify the effect of daily productivity per animal on the economic impact of mastitis in dairy cattle herds. A simulation study was conducted using the CU$TO MASTITE computational program. Dairy herds with an average production of 10, 20 and 30 liters of milk/day were considered. As preventive measures, expenses with mastitis incidence monitoring (culture and antibiogram, somatic cell count in the tank and somatic cells count per animal, pre and post dipping, vaccination, and treatment of dry cows were computed. Treatments of clinical cases, which corresponded to 7% of all lactating cows, were considered as curative measures. The impact of mastitis was estimated as total losses (reduction in production and milk disposal during treatment and antibiotic withdrawal period plus expenses with prevention and treatment of clinical cases. An increase in daily productivity per animal reduced the economic impact of mastitis. Higher productivity was associated with lower economic impact values, per liter of commercialized milk, due to optimization of the products and materials used per animal, reducing operating expenses. The expenses with preventive treatment corresponded to a maximum of 13.5% of economic impact. This percentage was lower than the economic impact of expenses with curative treatment. These results demonstrate the advantages of investing in preventive treatment, which will contribute to reduce the economic impact of mastitis.

  2. A genome wide association study for milk production traits in Danish Jersey cattle using a 50K SNP chip

    Mai, M D; Sahana, G; Christiansen, F B;


    QTL for milk production traits in Danish Jersey cattle were mapped by a genome-wide association analysis using a mixed model. The analysis incorporated 1,039 bulls and 33,090 SNP, and resulted in 98 detected combinations of QTL and traits on 27 BTA. These QTL comprised 30 for milk index, 50 for fat...

  3. Short communication: Impact of the intensity of milk production on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions in Portuguese cattle farms

    José Pereira


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the relationship between the intensity of milk production for a wide range of Portuguese commercial cattle farms and NH3 and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from manure management and enteric fermentation. A survey was carried out at 1471 commercial dairy cattle farms (Holstein-Friesian and the NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions at each stage of manure management were estimated as well as CH4 losses from enteric fermentation. Gaseous emissions were estimated by a mass flow approach and following the recommendations of IPCC guidelines. The manure management and enteric fermentation in a typical Portuguese cattle farm contributes with 7.5±0.15 g N/L milk produced as NH3 and 1.2±0.22 kg CO2 equivalent per litre of milk as GHG. Increasing milk production will significantly reduce NH3 and GHG emissions per litre of milk produced. It can be concluded that a win-win strategy for reducing NH3 and GHG emissions from dairy cattle farms will be the increase of milk production on these farms. This goal can be achieved by implementing animal breeding programs and improving feed efficiency in order to increase productivity.

  4. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure in Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle using five loci related to milk production

    Lirón J.P.


    Full Text Available Data from five protein-coding loci related to dairy production were used to study the genetic diversity and population structure of Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle breeds. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of six Creole cattle breeds: Argentine (n = 230, Patagonian (n = 25; "Saavedreño" (n = 140, "Chaqueño Boliviano" (n = 30, "Yacumeño" (n = 27, and "Chusco" (n = 11. kappa-casein, beta-lactoglobulin, growth hormone and prolactin were measured by PCR-RFLP, while alphaS1-casein was typed by PCR-ASO. The results are discussed, focusing on: historical origin, recent differentiation and selection events, Zebu gene introgression, and population structure. This work shows that: (i For the studied genes, the observed gene frequency profiles of Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle breeds were close to the data reported for Iberian breeds and for other South-American Creole cattle breeds which are historically related; (ii although Zebu gene introgression has been reported at the studied loci, these breeds seem to be far from the Zebu gene frequency profiles; and (iii the Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle showed significant levels of subdivision, but each population has maintained its degree of genetic variability.

  5. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    Rasali Hakim Matondang


    Full Text Available Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried out by raising Bali cattle under oil palm plantation through nucleus estate scheme model or individual farmers estates business. Some of Bali cattle raising systems have been applied in the integration of palm plantation-Bali cattle. One of the intensive systems can increase daily weight gain of 0.8 kg/head, calfcrop of 35% per year and has the potency for industrial development of feed and organic fertilizer. In the semi-intensive system, it can improve the production of oil palm fruit bunches (PFB more than 10%, increase harvested-crop area to 15 ha/farmer and reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer. The extensive system can produce calfcrop ³70%, improve ³30% of PFB, increase business scale ³13 cows/farmer and reduce weeding costs ³16%. Integrated Bali cattle development may provide positive added value for both, palm oil business and cattle business.

  6. Climate, Cattle Rearing Systems and African Animal Trypanosomosis Risk in Burkina Faso

    Pagabeleguem, Soumaïla; Sangaré, Mamadou; Bengaly, Zakaria; Akoudjin, Massouroudin; Belem, Adrien M. G.; Bouyer, Jérémy


    Background In sub-Saharan countries infested by tsetse flies, African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT) is considered as the main pathological constraint to cattle breeding. Africa has known a strong climatic change and its population was multiplied by four during the last half-century. The aim of this study was to characterize the impact of production practices and climate on tsetse occurrence and abundance, and the associated prevalence of AAT in Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings Four ...

  7. Product Configuration Systems and Productivity

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper


    Twelve companies have been interviewed with the purpose to get information about technical, economic and organisational matters in respect of Product Configuration Systems (PCS).Combinations of qualitative interviews and quantitative scoring have been used in ranking expected and realized results...

  8. Production of Transgenic Korean Native Cattle Expressing Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein Using a FIV-Based Lentiviral Vector Injected into MII Oocytes

    Yong-Nan Xu; Joon-Ho Yoon; Dae-Hwan Ko; Teoan Kim; Nam-Hyung Kim; Sang-Jun Uhm; Bon-Chul Koo; Mo-Sun Kwon; Ji-Yeol Roh; Jung-Seok Yang; Hyun-Yong Choi; Young-Tae Heo; Xiang-Shun Cui


    The potential benefits of generating and using transgenic cattle range from improvements in agriculture to the production of large quantities of pharmaceutically relevant proteins.Previous studies have attempted to produce transgenic cattle and other livestock by pronuclear injection and somatic cell nuclear transfer,but these approaches have been largely ineffective; however,a third approach,lentivirus-mediated transgenesis,has successfully produced transgenic livestock.In this study,we generated transgenic (TG) Korean native cattle using perivitelline space injection of viral vectors,which expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) systemically.Two different types of lentiviral vectors derived from feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)carrying EGFP were injected into the perivitelline space of MII oocytes.EGFP expression at 8-cell stage was significantly higher in the FIV group compared to the HIV group (47.5% ± 2.2% v.s.22.9% ± 2.9%).Eight-cell embryos that expressed EGFP were cultured into blastocysts and then transferred into 40 heifers.Ten heifers were successfully impregnated and delivered 10 healthy calves.All of these calves expressed EGFP as detected by in vivo imaging,PCR and Southern blotting.In addition,we established an EGFP-expressing cell line from TG calves,which was followed by nuclear transfer (NT).Recloned 8-cell embryos also expressed EGFP,and there were no differences in the rates of fusion,cleavage and development between cells derived from TG and non-TG calves,which were subsequently used for NT.These results illustrate that FIV-based lentiviruses are useful for the production of TG cattle.Moreover,our established EGFP cell line can be used for additional studies that involve induced pluripotent stem cells.

  9. Factors affecting the milk production of dairy cattle in northern rural areas of Bangladesh

    M.R. Begum


    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted to observe the factors affecting the productive performance of dairy cattle from northern rural areas of Bangladesh during July and September 2013. Data of 105 cows, 85 (80.95% from local and 20 (19.05% cows from cross breed, were randomly selected for the study. A binary logistic regression, expressed by odds ratio with 95% confidence interval, was done to determine the association of daily milk production categorized into ≤ 2 and > 2 liters (L, based on median, with the significant explanatory variables of body weight, age at first calving, lactation period, vitamin use, type of floor and milking person. The result demonstrated that the probability of milk production of >2 L was 6.16, 4.5, 20.65 and 5.7 times higher from the with animal body weight of >140 kg, age at first calving of >36 m, lactation period of >8 m and vitamin use than that of body weight of 140 kg, age at first calving of ≤36 m, lactation period of ≤ 8 m, and not vitamin used respectively. The chance of milk production of > 2 L was 0.25 and 0.22 times lower for mud floor, and owner milking than that of brick floor and gowala (professional milking person respectively.

  10. Application of a microfluidic sperm sorter to in vitro production of dairy cattle sex-sorted embryos.

    Li, Jingchun; Zhu, Sibing; He, Xianjing; Sun, Rui; He, Qianyu; Gan, Yi; Liu, Shengjun; Funahashi, Hiroaki; Li, Yanbing


    Viable sperm from sex-sorted semen without centrifugal treatment was separated by a microfluidic sperm sorter (MFSS) for IVF to improve in vitro embryo production of dairy cattle. The MFSS was originally developed to isolate motile human sperm by two laminar flows in the micro-channel (there are four chambers in an MFSS. Chamber A is the inlet for semen, chamber B is the inlet for the medium, chamber C is the exit chamber for motile sperm, and chamber D is the outlet for nonmotile sperm). Sex-sorted sperm were adjusted to 1 × 10(7) spermatozoa/mL (2 million cells/dose, sperm motility was 30% above after thawing). In a first experiment, diluted sex-sorted semen was mixed with modified Medium199(mM199) containing 5-mM caffeine for 5 minutes, resulting in variations in sperm concentration and quality parameters at chambers A, C, and D. In a second experiment, medium containing sperm from three MFSS chambers was collected and mitochondrial activity of the sperm was determined by flow cytometry, the relative activity of sperm mitochondria in chamber C (1.56 ± 0.03) was the highest in three observation areas (P competence of fertilized oocytes to the blastocyst stage was also higher in the MFSS-IVF system (40.12% ± 2.61%) than the modified standard IVF technique (24.55% ± 4.54%). These results demonstrate that a short coculture of dairy cattle oocytes with isolated motile sex-sorted spermatozoa gradually accumulated in the MFSS device improves the efficiencies of normally produced fertilized embryos and blastocyst formation. PMID:26768540

  11. Estimation of economic values in three breeding perspectives for longevity and milk production traits in Holstein dairy cattle in Iran

    Abdolahad Shadparvar


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate economic values (EVs for three production traits (milk, fat and protein yields and longevity and to develop a national selection index. The proposed Iranian selection index was compared with selection indices of three other countries in the world. A simple and appropriate model was used to describe the Holstein dairy cattle industry under an Iranian production system. Production parameters and economic data were collected from two Holstein dairy farms in Tehran province. The EVs were estimated at farm level for three breeding perspectives (maximized profit, minimized costs, and economic efficiency and two restrictions in production system (fixed herd size and fixed total input. The average absolute EVs on profit perspective and herd size restriction for milk, fat, and protein yields (based on $/kg and longevity ($/month were 0.11, 0.89, -0.20, and 6.20, respectively. The average absolute EVs under minimized costs per unit of product interest for milk, fat, protein yields and longevity were -0.30, -3.43, 0.88 and -20.40, respectively. The average absolute EVs under maximized economic efficiency for milk, fat and protein yields and longevity were 0.34, 2.73, -0.99 and 36.33, respectively. Relative emphasis for three production traits and longevity were 59.7, 14.3, -3.0 and 23.1, respectively. The comparison of the proposed Iranian index with those countries where most of the semen and embryos are imported points out that developing a national selection index to improve cow profitability and optimum generic trends is necessary. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the influence of milk payment changes on EVs was the greatest as its influence on fat and protein EVs is substantial. EVs for milk and fat yields, with respect to price changes (milk, feed and non-feed, were the least sensitive and most sensitive, respectively.

  12. Construction and Operation of a Ventilated Hood System for Measuring Greenhouse Gas and Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Cattle

    Yongjing Zhao; Mitloehner, Frank M.; Yuee Pan; Place, Sara E.


    Simple Summary We describe the construction and operation of a unique system for measuring gaseous emissions that arise from the rumen and metabolism of cattle. This system allows for the collection of high quality data that can be used to improve emission inventories at the regional and national level. Additionally, the system can be used to test various emission mitigation techniques. Abstract Recent interest in greenhouse gas emissions from ruminants, such as cattle, has spawned a need for...

  13. The cumulative methane production from dairy cattle slurry can be explained by its volatile solid, temperature and length of storage.

    Sawamoto, Takuji; Nakamura, Megumi; Nekomoto, Kenji; Hoshiba, Shinji; Minato, Keiko; Nakayama, Motoo; Osada, Takashi


    In order to refine the national estimate of methane emission from stored cattle slurry, it is important to comprehend the basic characteristics of methane production. Two dairy cattle slurries were obtained from livestock farms located in Hokkaido (a northern island) and Kyushu (a southern island). The slurries were diluted with water into three levels: undiluted, three times diluted, and 10 times diluted. Three hundred mL of the slurries were put into a bottle with a headspace volume of 2.0 L, which was filled with nitrogen gas and then sealed by butyl rubber. Four levels of temperature were used for incubation: 35, 25, 15 and 5 °C. The time course of the cumulative methane production per volatile solid (VS) was satisfactorily expressed by an asymptotic regression model. The effect of dilution on the methane production per VS was not distinctive, but that of temperature was of primary importance. In particular, higher temperature yields a higher potential production and a shorter time when the cumulative production reaches half of the potential production. The inclusive and simple models obtained in this study indicate that the cumulative methane production from stored cattle slurry can be explained by VS, temperature and length of storage. PMID:26387490

  14. Systemic productivity must complement structural productivity

    Lavie, René-Joseph


    Linguistic productivity is not just structural productivity (the making of assemblies), it also contains 'systemic productivity' (the productive placement within pluridimensional paradigms). An occurrential, dynamic model provides a cognitively founded explanation of systemic productivity.

  15. A single nucleotide polymorphism in NEUROD1 is associated with production traits in Nelore beef cattle.

    de Oliveira, P S N; Tizioto, P C; Malago, W; do Nascimento, M L; Cesar, A S M; Diniz, W J S; de Souza, M M; Lanna, D P D; Tullio, R R; Mourão, G B; de A Mudadu, M; Coutinho, L L; de A Regitano, L C


    Feed efficiency and carcass characteristics are late-measured traits. The detection of molecular markers associated with them can help breeding programs to select animals early in life, and to predict breeding values with high accuracy. The objective of this study was to identify polymorphisms in the functional and positional candidate gene NEUROD1 (neurogenic differentiation 1), and investigate their associations with production traits in reference families of Nelore cattle. A total of 585 steers were used, from 34 sires chosen to represent the variability of this breed. By sequencing 14 animals with extreme residual feed intake (RFI) values, seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NEUROD1 were identified. The investigation of marker effects on the target traits RFI, backfat thickness (BFT), ribeye area (REA), average body weight (ABW), and metabolic body weight (MBW) was performed with a mixed model using the restricted maximum likelihood method. SNP1062, which changes cytosine for guanine, had no significant association with RFI or REA. However, we found an additive effect on ABW (P ≤ 0.05) and MBW (P ≤ 0.05), with an estimated allele substitution effect of -1.59 and -0.93 kg0.75, respectively. A dominant effect of this SNP for BFT was also found (P ≤ 0.010). Our results are the first that identify NEUROD1 as a candidate that affects BFT, ABW, and MBW. Once confirmed, the inclusion of this SNP in dense panels may improve the accuracy of genomic selection for these traits in Nelore beef cattle as this SNP is not currently represented on SNP chips. PMID:27420997

  16. Treatment of cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater and the reuse of sludge for biodiesel production by microalgal heterotrophic bioreactors

    Mariana Manzoni Maroneze; Juliano Smanioto Barin; Cristiano Ragagnin de Menezes; Maria Isabel Queiroz; Leila Queiroz Zepka; Eduardo Jacob-Lopes


    Microalgal heterotrophic bioreactors are a potential technological development that can convert organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus of wastewaters into a biomass suitable for energy production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of microalgal heterotrophic bioreactors in the secondary treatment of cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater and the reuse of microalgal sludge for biodiesel production. The experiments were performed in a bubble column bioreactor using the microalgae ...

  17. Production of transgenic cattle highly expressing human serum albumin in milk by phiC31 integrase-mediated gene delivery.

    Luo, Yan; Wang, Yongsheng; Liu, Jun; Lan, Hui; Shao, Minghao; Yu, Yuan; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong


    Transgenic cattle expressing high levels of recombinant human serum albumin (HSA) in their milk may as an alternative source for commercial production. Our objective was to produce transgenic cattle highly expressing HSA in milk by using phiC31 integrase system and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The mammary-specific expression plasmid pIACH(-), containing the attB recognition site for phiC31 integrase, were co-transfected with integrase expression plasmid pCMVInt into bovine fetal fibroblast cells (BFFs). PhiC31 integrase-mediated integrations in genome of BFFs were screened by nested inverse PCR. After analysis of sequence of the PCR products, 46.0% (23/50) of the both attB-genome junction sites (attL and attR) were confirmed, and four pseudo attP sites were identified. The integration rates in BF3, BF11, BF19 and BF4 sites were 4.0% (2/50), 6.0% (3/50), 16.0% (8/50) and 20.0% (10/50), respectively. BF3 is located in the bovine chromosome 3 collagen alpha-3 (VI) chain isomer 2 gene, while the other three sites are located in the non-coding region. The transgenic cell lines from BF11, BF19 and BF4 sites were used as donors for SCNT. Two calves from transgenic cells BF19 were born, one died within a few hours after birth, and another calf survived healthy. PCR and Southern blot analysis revealed integration of the transgene in the genome of cloned calves. The nested reverse PCR confirmed that the integration site in cloned calves was identical to the donor cells. The western blotting assessment indicated that recombinant HSA was expressed in the milk of transgenic cattle and the expression level was about 4-8 mg/mL. The present study demonstrated that phiC31 integrase system was an efficient and safety gene delivery tool for producing HSA transgenic cattle. The production of recombinant HSA in the milk of cattle may provide a large-scale and cost-effective resource. PMID:26198751

  18. Utilization of geothermal energy for methane production for J. A. Albertson Land and Cattle Company. Final report


    The feasibility of an integrated system to utilize a geothermal resource for a bioconversion plant. This integrated facility would use the manure from approximately 30,000 head of feedlot cattle as a feedstock for an anaerobic digestion plant. The findings on engineering design, geological assessment, environmental, economic, and institutional requirements of the proposed project are summarized. (MHR)

  19. Genetic and phenotypic parameters of productivity traits on the first three lactations in Gyr cattle herds

    Albuquerque Maria do Socorro Maués


    Full Text Available Records of Gyr cows selected for milk production were obtained from the National Gyr Dairy Cattle Breeding Program (Embrapa/CNPGL and analyzed, in order to estimate genetic parameters for the first three lactations and to verify the effects of some environmental factors on milk production from 1979 to 1994. Genetic parameters were estimated by REML with an animal model and a group of fixed effects that included classes of herd, year, season and age at calving. Milk production means and standard deviations were 2,183 kg, 707 kg; 2,682 kg, 762 kg and 2,638 kg, 851 kg, for first, second, and third lactations, respectively. Heritability estimates were 0.20, 0.12, and 0.19 for first, second, and third lactations, respectively, and repeatability was 0.44. Genetic correlation estimates were: 0.68 between first and second lactations, 0.84 between first and third lactations and 1.0 between second and third lactations. Results confirm other research for specialized dairy breeds and firmly suggest that even in breeds of Indian origin the best time to make selection decisions is during the first lactation.

  20. Participatory diagnosis and prioritization of constraints to cattle production in some smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe.

    Chatikobo, P; Choga, T; Ncube, C; Mutambara, J


    A participatory epidemiological study was conducted to identify and prioritize constraints to livestock health and production on smallholder farms in Sanyati and Gokwe districts of Zimbabwe. Questionnaires were administered to 294 randomly selected livestock owners across the two districts. Livestock diseases (29% of the respondents), high cost of drugs (18.21%), weak veterinary extension (15.18%), inadequate grazing (13.60%), inadequate water (13.54%), and livestock thefts (10.44%) were the major livestock health and production constraints identified. The number of diseases reported varied (Psheep and goats, domestic chicken, donkeys, and guinea fowls, respectively. Seven (19.4%) of the 36 diseases including rabies and foot and mouth disease were those listed by the OIE. Thirty-four percent of the respondents rated bovine dermatophilosis as the most important livestock disease. Respondents rated, in descending order, other diseases including tick borne diseases (21%); a previously unreported disease, "Magwiriri" or "Ganda renzou" in vernacular (14%); mastitis (11%); parafilariosis (11%); and blackleg (9%). Cattle skin samples from "Magwiriri" cases had Besnoitia besnoiti parasites. Overall, this study revealed factors and diseases that limit livestock production in Zimbabwe and are of global concern; in addition, the study showed that the skin diseases, bovine dermatophilosis and besnoitiosis, have recently emerged and appear to be spreading, likely a consequence of ectoparasite control demise in smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe over the last 15 years. PMID:23149306

  1. Climate change, cattle herd vulnerability and food insecurity : adaptation through livestock diversification in the Borana pastoral system of Ethiopia

    Megersa Bati, Bekele


    Climate change is one of the dominant drivers of changing patterns in precipitation, rise in temperature and increasing frequency of extreme weather events that present a major challenge to livestock production in arid and semi-arid environments. In the Borana region of southern Ethiopia, the resulting reduction in the resilience of rangelands and heavy cattle losses associated with recurrent droughts pose serious challenges to cattle pastoralism. This study aimed at investigating regional ma...

  2. Measurement and mitigation of methane emissions from beef cattle in tropical grazing systems: a perspective from Australia and Brazil.

    Berndt, A; Tomkins, N W


    The growing global demand for food of animal origin will be the incentive for countries such as Australia and Brazil to increase their beef production and international exports. This increased supply of beef is expected to occur primarily through on-farm productivity increases. The strategies for reducing resultant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should be evaluated in the context of the production system and should encompass a broader analysis, which would include the emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon sequestration. This paper provides an insight into CH4 measurement techniques applicable to grazing environments and proposed mitigation strategies, with relevance to the production systems that are predominant in grazing systems of Australia and Brazil. Research and technology investment in both Australia and Brazil is aimed at developing measurement techniques and increasing the efficiency of cattle production by improving herd genetics, utilization of the seasonal feed-base and reducing the proportion of metabolizable energy lost as CH4. Concerted efforts in these areas can be expected to reduce the number of unproductive animals, reduce age at slaughter and inevitably reduce emission intensity (EI) from beef production systems. Improving efficiency of livestock production systems in tropical grazing systems for Australia and Brazil will be based on cultivated and existing native pastures and the use of additives and by-products from other agricultural sectors. This approach spares grain-based feed reserves typically used for human consumption, but potentially incurs a heavier EI than current intensive feeding systems. The determination of GHG emissions and the value of mitigation outcomes for entire beef production systems in the extensive grazing systems is complex and require a multidisciplinary approach. It is fortunate that governments in both Australia and Brazil are supporting ongoing research activities. Nevertheless, to achieve


    Abdullah, Agustina; M Ali, Hikmah; J. A. Syamsu1


    FACTORS AFFECTING FARMER???S ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY FOR PROCESSING BEEF CATTLE WASTE ON INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEMS Agustina Abdullah 1*), J. A.Syamsu 1) dan Hikmah M.A 1) 1) Faculty of Animal Agriculture, Hasanuddin University. * Corresponding author : Jl.Perintis Kemerdekaan Km.10 Tamalanrea, Makassar - 90245 South Sulawesi. Email address : ABSTRACT Integrated farming systems of beef cattle with paddy is the best strategy to improve the op...

  4. Efecto del pastoreo sobre la resistencia mecánica del suelo en sistemas de producción bajo siembra directa continua Impact of cattle grazing on soil mechanical resistance in production systems under continuous no-till

    Hugo R Krüger


    Full Text Available Los objetivos del estudio fueron: a caracterizar la variación de la resistencia mecánica a la penetración (RST de la capa de suelo de 0 a 20 cm en dos rotaciones con y sin pastoreo directo y b establecer su relación con el contenido de agua del suelo (W. El estudio se realizó sobre un Hapludol típico del sudoeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires, sobre secuencias basadas en girasol y trigo. Se estudiaron dos tratamientos: a Agrícola, que no incluyó pastoreo y b Mixta que incorporó un cultivo de avena pastoreado por novillos de 350 a 400 kg (25 cabezas/ha previo al girasol. Se determinaron RST y W en diez fechas de muestreo. Luego del pastoreo de avena, la RST de Mixta fue mayor que la de Agrícola en toda la capa, con picos en 2,5-7,5 cm. Ajustada a un W de 190 g kg-1, la RST de Agrícola mostró una tendencia lineal ligeramente creciente en el tiempo; la RST Mixta ajustó a un modelo cuadrático con tendencia a estabilizarse en valores cercanos a 2,5 MPa. Mixta presentó además un segundo nivel de variación relacionado con las fechas de muestreo: la RST luego del pastoreo de avena fue mayor que al final del ciclo avena-girasol-trigo. La disminución se atribuyó a una recuperación de la bioporosidad por efecto de las raíces de los cultivos. Las RST observadas fueron cercanas o mayores a las críticas para la penetración de las raíces en el 20 y 50% de las fechas de muestreo para Agrícola y Mixta, respectivamente.The objectives of this study, were: a to characterize the soil mechanical penetration resistance (RST variation in the 0 to 20 -cm depth of two rotation treatments with and without cattle grazing and b to determine the RST relationship with soil water content (W. The experiment took place on a Typic Haplustoll in SW Buenos Aires province, on sunflower-wheat based rotations. Treatments included: a 100 % cash-crop rotation with no cattle grazing and b Mixed rotation, including an oat forage crop with direct grazing by 350

  5. Heifer fertility and carry over consequences for life time production in dairy and beef cattle.

    Wathes, D C; Pollott, G E; Johnson, K F; Richardson, H; Cooke, J S


    The rearing period has a key influence on the later performance of cattle, affecting future fertility and longevity. Producers usually aim to breed replacement heifers by 15 months to calve at 24 months. An age at first calving (AFC) close to 2 years (23 to 25 months) is optimum for economic performance as it minimises the non-productive period and maintains a seasonal calving pattern. This is rarely achieved in either dairy or beef herds, with average AFC for dairy herds usually between 26 and 30 months. Maintaining a low AFC requires good heifer management with adequate growth to ensure an appropriate BW and frame size at calving. Puberty should occur at least 6 weeks before the target breeding age to enable animals to undergo oestrous cycles before mating. Cattle reach puberty at a fairly consistent, but breed-dependent, proportion of mature BW. Heifer fertility is a critical component of AFC. In US Holsteins the conception rate peaked at 57% at 15 to 16 months, declining in older heifers. Wide variations in growth rates on the same farm often lead to some animals having delayed first breeding and/or conception. Oestrous synchronisation regimes and sexed semen can both be used but unless heifers have been previously well-managed the success rates may be unacceptably low. Altering the nutritional input above or below those needed for maintenance at any stage from birth to first calving clearly alters the average daily gain (ADG) in weight. In general an ADG of around 0.75 kg/day seems optimal for dairy heifers, with lower rates delaying puberty and AFC. There is some scope to vary ADG at different ages providing animals reach an adequate size by calving. Major periods of nutritional deficiency and/or severe calfhood disease will, however, compromise development with long-term adverse consequences. Infectious disease can also cause pregnancy loss/abortion. First lactation milk yield may be slightly lower in younger calving cows but lifetime production is higher as

  6. Invited review: The use of distillers products in dairy cattle diets.

    Schingoethe, D J; Kalscheur, K F; Hippen, A R; Garcia, A D


    Distillers grains with solubles (DGS) is the major coproduct of ethanol production, usually made from corn, which is fed to dairy cattle. It is a good protein (crude protein, CP) source (>30% CP) high in ruminally undegradable protein (approximately 55% of CP) and is a good energy source (net energy for lactation of approximately 2.25 Mcal/kg of dry matter). The intermediate fat concentration (10% of dry matter) and readily digestible fiber (approximately 39% neutral detergent fiber) contribute to the high energy content in DGS. Performance was usually similar when animals were fed wet or dried products, although some research results tended to favor the wet products. Diets can contain DGS as partial replacement for both concentrates and forages, but DGS usually replaces concentrates. Adequate effective fiber was needed to avoid milk fat depression when DGS replaced forages in lactating cow diets. Nutritionally balanced diets can be formulated that contain 20% or more of the diet dry matter as DGS. Such diets supported similar or higher milk production compared with when cows were fed traditional feeds. Although DGS can constitute more than 30% of diet dry matter, gut fill may limit dry matter intake and production in diets with more than 20% wet DGS and that also contain other moist feeds. The fiber in DGS, which often replaces high-starch feeds, does not eliminate acidosis but minimizes its problems. Distillers solubles, which are often blended with distillers grains to provide DGS, can be fed separately as condensed corn distillers solubles. Other distillers coproducts besides DGS such as high-protein distillers grains, corn germ, corn bran, and low-fat distillers grains are becoming available. PMID:19923586

  7. Pesticide Product Label System

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  8. Genomic Characterisation and Polymorphism Analysis of Candidate Genes for Milk Production Traits and Association Studies in Three Cattle Breeds

    Seefried, Franz Reinhold


    In the past decades, various mapping experiments resulted in the detection of several markers affecting milk production traits on bovine chromosome 6. The aim of this study was to identify causative polymorphisms of milk traits using a multiple breed approach. Six selected candidate genes on chromosome 6 in cattle were characterised and screened for polymorphisms. Following this, 50 polymorphisms were genotyped in sires of German Brown, Fleckvieh and German Holstein for investigation in assoc...

  9. Estimates of genetic parameters for visual scores and their correlation with production and reproductive traits in Brahman cattle

    Tássia Souza Bertipaglia; Luis Orlando Duitama Carreño; Carlos Henrique Cavallini Machado; Cristiana Andrighetto; Ricardo da Fonseca


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of visual scores of body structure, precocity and muscularity with production (body weight at 18 months and average daily gain) and reproductive (scrotal circumference) traits in Brahman cattle in order to determine the possible use of these scores as selection criteria to improve carcass quality. Covariance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using an animal model that included contemporary group as...

  10. Continuing Discontinuities: Local and State Perspectives on Cattle Production and Water Management in Botswana

    Emmanuel Manzungu


    Full Text Available From 1885 when the modern state of Botswana was founded until the discovery of significant mineral deposits in 1967, one year after independence, the livestock industry, particularly cattle production, played a significant role in the country’s economy. Today there are concerns about how the livestock industry, because of its importance to many rural households, and its potential to diversify the mineral-dominated economy, can be revived. In recognition of the country’s semi-arid climate, the government has promoted a policy of developing water sources for livestock watering. The state has acknowledged the policy has largely been ineffective, but continues to implement it. This paper attempts to explain this paradox by examining state and local perspectives in the management of water and related resources in the Botswana part of the Limpopo river basin. The discontinuities between the local inhabitants and state practitioners are analyzed within the wider physical social, political, and economic landscape. We ascribe the continued implementation of an ineffective policy to modernisation claims.

  11. Performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, as practiced in Kiambu and Nyandarua district of Central Kenya

    A study was carried out in Central Kenya to compare the performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, stall feeding in Kiambu and grazing in Nyandarua. A total of 23 dairy farmers were randomly selected, 11 from the Kiambu district with a total of 61 cows and 12 from Nyandarua district with a total of 102 cows. Data on milk production and reproduction was collected over a period of two years. Stall-fed cattle showed a significantly higher milk yield (P <0.05) than the grazed animals over a 10 month lactation period (3,150 vs 2,299 kg/lactation). In both feeding systems Ayshires performed better than the other breeds. The cross-bred animals compared well with pure-breds in the grazing system. Lactation yield increased with parity for the stall-fed animals while for grazed animals, milk yield declined from the 5th parity onwards. The calving intervals were long for both feeding systems (437 vs 513 days, stall-fed vs grazed, respectively). Services per conception were significantly lower (P <0.05) for stall-fed (1.85 vs 2.36) compared to grazed animals. Calving season did not have any significant effect on milk yield in both feeding systems but animals calving during the wet season, on average, had a slightly higher milk yield. Lactation curves for animals in both feeding systems did not show a distinct peak. Body weight and body condition score varied with the stage of lactation. (author)

  12. Ruminant production systems in developing countries: Resource utilization

    Ruminant production systems are discussed with specific reference to the resource utilization required to support them. Particular focus is placed on the main production resources (animals and feeds) and their underutilization. The ruminant animals include buffaloes, cattle, goats, sheep and camels. With the exception of cattle and sheep, their numbers in developing countries account for between 94 and 100% of total world population. Their biological attributes, including inherent characteristics, feeding behaviour and metabolism, are summarized. The extent and availability of feed resources are considered; resources include permanent pastures, crop residues, agroindustrial by-products and non-conventional feeds. The prevailing ruminant production systems are classified into three main categories: extensive systems, systems incorporating arable cropping (roadside, communal and arable grazing systems; tethering and cut-and-carry feeding), and systems integrated with tree cropping. Their genesis and endurance with patterns of crop production and farming systems are discussed. Integrated systems, involving animals and tree crops, are potentially important. Prevailing ruminant production systems are unlikely to change in the foreseeable future, unless there are major shifts in resource use and the proposed new systems are demonstrably superior. Factors likely to influence future ruminant production systems are market requirements, available feed resources and growth in human populations. Two associated strategies for improvement are proposed: increased priority to buffaloes, goats, sheep and camels, consistent with their potential contribution to meat, milk and fibre supplies and draught power; and more complete utilization of the available feed ingredients and increased feed supplies

  13. Investigation of major cattle production constraints in Kembata Tambaro zone of Southern Ethiopia using participatory epidemiology methods.

    Ayele, Birhanu; Tigre, Worku; Deresa, Benti


    Ethiopia has enormous livestock resources from which rural households derive their livelihoods. A cross-sectional study based on participatory appraisal methods was conducted in Kembata Tambaro zone to assess major constraints to livestock production and major diseases of cattle and their treatment options. Four districts were selected purposively for this study, and 18 peasant associations were randomly sampled from the selected districts. Focus group discussion, semistructured interviews, simple ranking and scoring, proportional piling, pairwise ranking, and matrix scoring were the participatory epidemiological tools used in the study. Feed and free grazing land shortages and diseases were found to be the major constraints to cattle production in the area. Mastitis was ranked as the most serious disease of cattle. Modern veterinary treatments are used alongside traditional herbal remedies. Matrix scoring showed strong agreement between focus groups in identifying the major diseases using their indicators (clinical signs). Hence, it was concluded that indigenous knowledge complemented with participatory methods and approaches allow community and field researchers to jointly study specific livestock problems and help identify appropriate solutions. PMID:26477032

  14. Production objectives and breeding goals of Sahiwal cattle keepers in Kenya and implications for a breeding programme.

    Ilatsia, Evans D; Roessler, Regina; Kahi, Alexander K; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Zárate, Valle


    The Sahiwal breed has been used for upgrading the East African Zebu (EAZ) for improved milk production and growth performance in the southern rangelands of Kenya. Main users of this breed are Maasai pastoralists. Until now, there has been no deliberate effort to understand why these pastoralists specifically prefer to keep Sahiwal genetic resources as well as which traits are considered important by them and what is the underlying reason for this. However, this information is regarded vital for further development of the breed. A survey was conducted between May and October 2009 among Maasai pastoralists in Kajiado and Narok counties in the Southern part of Kenya, and private ranches and government farms to identify production objectives and breeding goals of Sahiwal cattle producers. Sahiwal genetic resources were mainly kept for domestic milk production and for revenue generation through milk sales and live animals. To a limited extent, they were kept for breeding and also for multiple objectives that included insurance against risks and social functions. Production aims were influenced to varying extents by various household and farmer characteristics. Sahiwal cattle and their crosses were generally perceived to be better with respect to productive traits and fertility traits when compared to the EAZ. However, the EAZ was rated higher with respect to adaptation traits. The breeding objective traits of primary importance were high milk yield and big body size, good reproductive efficiency and relatively good adaptation to local production conditions. Performance and functional traits are important breeding goals that play a major role in fulfilling the multiple production objectives. This forms the basis for the optimisation of a breeding programme for sustainable utilisation to meet the needs of Sahiwal cattle producers. PMID:21796425

  15. Morphological characterization ofMadura Cattle

    Bambang Setiadi


    Full Text Available Morphological characterization of Madura cattle in Madura islands was done as an input for "action plans" of national animals genetic resources management according to the global system ofFAO. Assessments were done in Sumenep District and Pamekasan District, East Java. According to the body measurements, Madura cattle can be classified as a small to medium type with withers height of about 120 cm. Because of potential productivity in the limitation of environmental resources, Madura cattle can be classified as a "superior" cattle . Body measurements of Madura cattle in the present study were relatively the same with those of 50 years ago, indicating that there is no breeding improvement activities except natural selection . The variability of body measurements is relatively narrow . Improving productivity by outbreeding is needed . To conserve the unique germ plasm of the Indonesian genotype, such as Madura cattle and a possibility to improve their productivity by a complete prevention of cross breeding in the Madura islands needs further evaluation .

  16. Main critical factors affecting the welfare of beef cattle and veal calves raised under intensive rearing systems in Italy: a review

    Flaviana Gottardo


    Full Text Available This review describes the principal causes of poor welfare in beef cattle and veal calves raised in intensive husbandry systems in Italy. Nowadays there are no specific regulations in force for beef cattle welfare. However, a document produced in 2001 by the Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare of the European Commission on Health and Consumer Protection identified the main causes of inadequate welfare levels in the different cattle rearing systems in Europe. In Italy and in the Po Valley in particular, the beef cattle farms are mainly finishing units characterised by animals kept at high density in multiple pens and fed high starch diets. Under these rearing conditions the limited space allowance is one of the most important issues impairing animal welfare. Other risk factors for poor welfare related to the housing structures are type of floor, space at the manger, number of water dispensers and lack of specific moving and handling facilities. Microclimatic conditions can be critical especially during the summer season when cattle can experience heat stress. The feeding plan adopted in the Italian beef farms may be another factor negatively affecting the welfare of these animals due to the low content of long fibre roughage which increases the risk of metabolic acidosis. In the veal calf rearing systems there has been a mandatory introduction of the new system of production according to the European Council Directives 91/629/EEC and 97/2/EC. Farms had to adopt group housing and to provide calves with an increasing amount of fibrous feed in addition to the all-liquid diet. Despite this specific legislation, several risk factors for calves’ welfare can still be identified. Some of them are related to the housing system (type of floor, air quality, feed and water supply equipment and lack of loading facilities and some others to the feeding plan (type and amount of roughage, quality of milk replacers. Recent studies have

  17. Improvement of zebu cattle productivity in the Sahel region: Feed supplementation on smallholder farms in peri-urban Dakar

    Two studies were conducted in the peri-urban area of Dakar to collect baseline information on feeding, milk production, reproduction, body weight and body condition (Phase I), and to examine the influence of supplementation with local by-products on productive and reproductive parameters of indigenous cattle in traditional smallholder farms (Phase II). Baseline data collected from smallholder farms between 1994 and 1996 indicated delayed first calving, long calving intervals, decreasing body condition score (BCS) and body weight and low milk yields as major problems associated with cattle productivity in the region. Fertility was related to forage availability; animals showed high fertility after the rainy season and low fertility during the dry season. Supplementation during the critical period of the dry season using agro-industrial by-products (brewer's grains, molasses, groundnut cake, oyster shell and salt) had beneficial effects on productivity. Supplementation reduced loss in body weight and body condition, maintained milk yield and growth rate of the calves during the dry season and reduced length of 'days open' and the calving interval. (author)

  18. Genetic variability and population structure in loci related to milk production traits in native Argentine Creole and commercial Argentine Holstein cattle

    C.D. Golijow; G. Giovambattista; M.V. Rípoli; F.N. Dulout; M.M. Lojo


    Many cattle breeds have been subjected to high selection pressure for production traits. Consequently, population genetic structure and allelic distribution could differ in breeds under high selection pressure compared to unselected breeds. Analysis of k-casein, aS1-casein and prolactin gene frequencies was made for Argentine Creole (AC) and Argentine Holstein (AH) cattle herds. The calculated FST values measured the degree of genetic differentiation of subpopulations, depending on the varian...

  19. Improving the productivity of imported dairy cattle on small-holder farms in Morocco through supplementation with fish silage blocks

    The present study was designed to identify problems that lower the productivity of imported dairy cattle in Morocco. For this purpose, a comprehensive survey was carried out on 8 small-holder farms over a period of two years. Analysis of the data collected indicated that in most of the herds reproductive performance was adequate (calving intervals ranging from 338 ± 11 to 420 ± 31 and services to conception ranging from 1.14 ± 0.13 to 1.91 ± 0.3), but the animals had difficulty in meeting the nutrient requirements for milk production. Although some farmers provided supplements to their animals they were either expensive or not available at the required time. One possible way of alleviating the problem was the introduction of a fish by-product into the dairy cattle ration. Two experiments were conducted, one at the Institute experimental farm and the other at a private farm selected for the survey. In both experiments, fish silage blocks were incorporated into the ration of dairy cattle in replacement of an equal amount of the most commonly used supplements. The introduction of fish silage blocks in the ration did not affect their intake or body condition. In addition, the yield and quality of the milk were maintained. This substitution allowed the farmer to utilize by-products from the fish industry which are readily available and less costly than most conventional supplementary feeds. It is concluded, that the proposed utilization of fish silage blocks will reduce the production costs and improve the economic efficiency of the small-holder farms. (author)

  20. Crossbreeding in Dairy Cattle: A Danish Perspective

    Sørensen, M K; Norberg, E; Pedersen, J;


    The value of crossbreeding in livestock species has been known for a long time; it has been used heavily within beef cattle, pig, and poultry production systems for several decades. This has not been the case for dairy production but lately there has been increased interest in crossbreeding dairy...

  1. Inbreeding effects on postweaning production traits, conformation, and calving performance in Irish beef cattle.

    McParland, S; Kearney, J F; MacHugh, D E; Berry, D P


    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of inbreeding on carcass quality, growth rate, live conformation measures, and calving performance in purebred populations of Charolais, Limousin, Simmental, Hereford, and Angus beef cattle using data from Irish commercial and pedigree herds. Variables analyzed are reflective of commercial farming practices. Inbreeding was included in a linear mixed model as either a class variable or a linear continuous variable. Nonlinear effects were nonsignificant across all traits. Inbred animals had decreased carcass weight and less carcass fat. The effects of inbreeding were more pronounced in the British beef breeds. Effects for carcass weight ranged from -0.87 kg (Charolais) to -1.90 kg (Hereford) per 1% increase in inbreeding. Inbred Charolais and Hereford animals were younger at slaughter by 3 and 5 d, respectively, per percentage of increase in inbreeding, whereas the effect of inbreeding on age at slaughter differed significantly with animal sex in the Limousin and Angus breeds. Inbred Limousin and Angus heifers were younger at slaughter by 5 and 7 d, respectively, per percentage of increase in inbreeding. Continental animals were more affected by inbreeding for live muscling and skeletal conformational measurements than the British breeds; inbred animals were smaller and narrower with poorer developed muscle. Calf inbreeding significantly affected perinatal mortality in Charolais, Simmental, and Hereford animals. The effects were dependent upon dam parity and calf sex; however, where significant, the association was always unfavorable. Dam inbreeding significantly affected perinatal mortality in Limousin and Hereford animals. Effects differed by parity in Limousins. Inbred first-parity Angus dams had a greater incidence of dystocia. Although the effects of inbreeding were some-times significant, they were small and are unlikely to make a large financial effect on commercial beef production in Ireland. PMID

  2. Design of a Fuzzy Expert Based System for Diagnosis of Cattle Diseases

    Oluwatoyin Catherine Agbonifo


    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence (AI is the core of computing research that makes machine to mimic the intelligence of a man. Intelligent means less of user interaction and automated adaptation to changing environment. When compared to other primitive techniques used in the past, AI has been highly efficient in knowledge acquisition in diverse areas of application. In the light of this, the paper focuses on intelligent technique of determining the possible diseases that affect the life of cattle. Hence, fuzzy expert technique is proposed for the diagnosis of the Antrax, Babesiosis, Blackleg and Epizootic Hemorrrhapic diseases. The result generated by the system was sufficient to demonstrate its performance.

  3. Effects of wolves on elk and cattle behaviors: implications for livestock production and wolf conservation.

    Isabelle Laporte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many areas, livestock are grazed within wolf (Canis lupus range. Predation and harassment of livestock by wolves creates conflict and is a significant challenge for wolf conservation. Wild prey, such as elk (Cervus elaphus, perform anti-predator behaviors. Artificial selection of cattle (Bos taurus might have resulted in attenuation or absence of anti-predator responses, or in erratic and inconsistent responses. Regardless, such responses might have implications on stress and fitness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared elk and cattle anti-predator responses to wolves in southwest Alberta, Canada within home ranges and livestock pastures, respectively. We deployed satellite- and GPS-telemetry collars on wolves, elk, and cattle (n = 16, 10 and 78, respectively and measured seven prey response variables during periods of wolf presence and absence (speed, path sinuosity, time spent head-up, distance to neighboring animals, terrain ruggedness, slope and distance to forest. During independent periods of wolf presence (n = 72, individual elk increased path sinuosity (Z = -2.720, P = 0.007 and used more rugged terrain (Z = -2.856, P = 0.004 and steeper slopes (Z = -3.065, P = 0.002. For cattle, individual as well as group behavioral analyses were feasible and these indicated increased path sinuosity (Z = -2.720, P = 0.007 and decreased distance to neighbors (Z = -2.551, P = 0.011. In addition, cattle groups showed a number of behavioral changes concomitant to wolf visits, with variable direction in changes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest both elk and cattle modify their behavior in relation to wolf presence, with potential energetic costs. Our study does not allow evaluating the efficacy of anti-predator behaviors, but indicates that artificial selection did not result in their absence in cattle. The costs of wolf predation on livestock are often compensated considering just the market value of the animal killed

  4. Process-based Modeling of Ammonia Emission from Beef Cattle Feedyards with the Integrated Farm Systems Model.

    Waldrip, Heidi M; Rotz, C Alan; Hafner, Sasha D; Todd, Richard W; Cole, N Andy


    Ammonia (NH) volatilization from manure in beef cattle feedyards results in loss of agronomically important nitrogen (N) and potentially leads to overfertilization and acidification of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, NH is involved in the formation of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM), which can affect human health. Process-based models have been developed to estimate NH emissions from various livestock production systems; however, little work has been conducted to assess their accuracy for large, open-lot beef cattle feedyards. This work describes the extension of an existing process-based model, the Integrated Farm Systems Model (IFSM), to include simulation of N dynamics in this type of system. To evaluate the model, IFSM-simulated daily per capita NH emission rates were compared with emissions data collected from two commercial feedyards in the Texas High Plains from 2007 to 2009. Model predictions were in good agreement with observations and were sensitive to variations in air temperature and dietary crude protein concentration. Predicted mean daily NH emission rates for the two feedyards had 71 to 81% agreement with observations. In addition, IFSM estimates of annual feedyard emissions were within 11 to 24% of observations, whereas a constant emission factor currently in use by the USEPA underestimated feedyard emissions by as much as 79%. The results from this study indicate that IFSM can quantify average feedyard NH emissions, assist with emissions reporting, provide accurate information for legislators and policymakers, investigate methods to mitigate NH losses, and evaluate the effects of specific management practices on farm nutrient balances. PMID:25603064

  5. Selection criteria in organic cattle breeding

    Savić Mila


    Full Text Available The central issue in process of organizing organic cattle breeding is the knowledge about specificities of this kind of production, good knowledge of breed characteristics (body composition, immune tolerance, expressed predisposition towards some diseases, production properties. Research centres, in collaboration with producers, have defined the essential features on which the selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are based on. Of the greatest importance for veterinary service is the fact that selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are in the first place based on giving priority to healthy animals, with strong immune system, good reproductive characteristics, which can be in production system for a long period. Additional important selective criteria is specific body resistance and adaptability of autochtonous breeds to environmental conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31085

  6. Effects of supplementing urine treated rice straw with concentrates on productivity and methane emissions of Ongole crossbred cattle

    Cattle were fed rice straw treated with urine (1 kg urine/1 kg DM rice straw, and kept in the container for a week) ad libitum and a concentrate mixture (50:50) of wheat bran and beer cake. One group of cattle (C25, four animals) was fed the concentrate at 25% of estimated dry matter intake (DMI) at 3% of body weight, while the other four cattle (C75) received concentrate at 75% of estimated DMI for a period of six weeks. Daily DMI, methane (CH4) production and live weight gain (LWG) were measured. Dry matter intakes were similar in both groups (6.72 kg/d and 7.59 kg/d), but LWG of C75 (1.07 kg/d) was higher (P < 0.05) than that of C25 (0.47 kg/d). Methane production was similar in both groups (219.3 L/d vs 240.4 L/d and 29.29L/kg DMI vs 35.15 L/kg DMI for C25 and C75 respectively). However, when calculated per kg LWG, CH4 production was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of C25 (205.8 L/kg LWG and 967.2 L/kg LWG, respectively). The results suggest that better feeding not only increases productivity but also leads to significant mitigation of CH4 emissions. Feeding management should therefore be considered for controlling CH4 emissions in the animal industry. (author)

  7. Cattle owners' perceptions of African bovine trypanosomiasis and its control in Busia and Kwale Districts of Kenya.

    Machila, Noreen; Wanyangu, Samuel W; McDermott, John; Welburn, Susan C; Maudlin, Ian; Eisler, Mark C


    A study using a structured questionnaire was conducted in Busia District, Western Kenya and Kwale District, Coastal Kenya to obtain qualitative and quantitative information from 256 cattle owners about their production systems, their perceptions of the diseases encountered in their cattle, the drugs used, and other measures adopted to control trypanosomiasis in cattle. The predominant production system was mixed crop-livestock with farmers owning 2-11 local cattle on holdings between 2 and 5 ha. Approximately 15% of disease episodes in cattle were perceived to be trypanosomiasis, although the farmers' ability to make diagnoses was limited in that over half of the diagnoses were inconsistent with the clinical signs described. Drugs were generally obtained from agro-veterinary shops, and the farmers themselves administered slightly more than half of these. One third of drug treatments given to sick cattle were trypanocides, but over half of these trypanocidal treatments were given to cattle believed to have diseases other than trypanosomiasis. PMID:12711100

  8. The economics of Raramuri Criollo versus British crossbred cattle production in the Chihuahuan Desert

    Preliminary research indicates Raramuri Criollo cattle may range significantly further and forage in areas where traditional breeds rarely venture. They are thought to impose a lighter environmental footprint compared to their mainstream British crossbred counterparts. These small-frame animals are ...

  9. Cattle production on small holder farms in East Java, Indonesia : II Feeds and feeding practices

    Marjuki,; Zemmelink, G.; Ibrahim, M.N.M.


    A survey on feeding practices was conducted with thirty-one cattle farmers belonging to three categories: households without land and no income from agricultural labour (Class 100;10 farms), households without land but deriving considerable income from agricultural labour (Class 101;10 farms), and h

  10. Nitrous oxide production by micromycetes isolated from soils under cattle overwintering husbandry

    Jirout, Jiří; Šimek, Miloslav; Elhottová, Dana


    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2013), s. 427. ISSN 2040-4700. [Greenhouse Gases and Animal Agriculture Conference (GGAA 2013) /5./. 23.06.2013-26.06.2013, Dublin] R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP504/12/P752 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : nitrous oxide * micromycetes * soils * cattle overwintering husbandry Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  11. Nitrous oxide productivity of soil fungi along a gradient of cattle impact

    Jirout, Jiří


    Roč. 17, October (2015), s. 155-163. ISSN 1754-5048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP504/12/P752 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soil * fungi * nitrous oxide * selective inhibition * cattle overwintering * oxygen availability Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.929, year: 2014

  12. Milk production responses to dietary stearic acid vary by production level in dairy cattle.

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S


    Effects of stearic acid supplementation on feed intake and metabolic and production responses of dairy cows with a wide range of milk production (32.2 to 64.4 kg/d) were evaluated in a crossover design experiment with a covariate period. Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows (142±55 d in milk) were assigned randomly within level of milk yield to treatment sequence. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet dry matter) with stearic acid (SA; 98% C18:0) or control (soyhulls). The diets were based on corn silage and alfalfa and contained 24.5% forage neutral detergent fiber, 25.1% starch, and 17.3% crude protein. Treatment periods were 21 d with the final 4 d used for data and sample collection. Compared with the control, SA increased dry matter intake (DMI; 26.1 vs. 25.2 kg/d) and milk yield (40.2 vs. 38.5 kg/d). Stearic acid had no effect on the concentration of milk components but increased yields of fat (1.42 vs. 1.35 kg/d), protein (1.19 vs. 1.14 kg/d), and lactose (1.96 vs. 1.87 kg/d). The SA treatment increased 3.5% fat-corrected milk (3.5% FCM; 40.5 vs. 38.6 kg/d) but did not affect feed efficiency (3.5% FCM/DMI, 1.55 vs. 1.53), body weight, or body condition score compared with the control. Linear interactions between treatment and level of milk yield during the covariate period were detected for DMI and yields of milk, fat, protein, lactose, and 3.5% FCM; responses to SA were positively related to milk yield of cows. The SA treatment increased crude protein digestibility (67.4 vs. 65.5%), tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility (43.6 vs. 42.3%), decreased fatty acid (FA) digestibility (56.6 vs. 76.1%), and did not affect organic matter digestibility. Fatty acid yield response, calculated as the additional FA yield secreted in milk per unit of additional FA intake, was only 13.3% for total FA and 8.2% for C18:0 plus cis-9 C18:1. Low estimated digestibility of the SA supplement was at least partly responsible for the low FA yield response

  13. Defining product service systems

    McAloone, Timothy Charles; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup


    , company and society benefit from the service systems related to each one of these dimensions, rather than simply one of the above. There are existing examples of the enhancement of business and market share by focusing on PSS, but this is often not a result of upfront strategy and ambitious goals. We...... example, a factor 20 improvement in our environmental performance. One attempt, however, has recently emerged, which combines the product as an artefact with the service that the product provides to the user. Through the combination of these two facets, the company retains ownership of the physical...... artefact and instead provides what the customer really wants the actual functionality from the product. This enables a series of potential improvements to the product´s performance throughout its lifecycle. The ideal of product service system (PSS) development is that all three stakeholder groups customer...

  14. Belle II production system

    Miyake, Hideki; Grzymkowski, Rafal; Ludacka, Radek; Schram, Malachi


    The Belle II experiment will record a similar quantity of data to LHC experiments and will acquire it at similar rates. This requires considerable computing, storage and network resources to handle not only data created by the experiment but also considerable amounts of simulated data. Consequently Belle II employs a distributed computing system to provide the resources coordinated by the the DIRAC interware. DIRAC is a general software framework that provides a unified interface among heterogeneous computing resources. In addition to the well proven DIRAC software stack, Belle II is developing its own extension called BelleDIRAC. BelleDIRAC provides a transparent user experience for the Belle II analysis framework (basf2) on various environments and gives access to file information managed by LFC and AMGA metadata catalog. By unifying DIRAC and BelleDIRAC functionalities, Belle II plans to operate an automated mass data processing framework named a “production system”. The Belle II production system enables large-scale raw data transfer from experimental site to raw data centers, followed by massive data processing, and smart data delivery to each remote site. The production system is also utilized for simulated data production and data analysis. Although development of the production system is still on-going, recently Belle II has prepared prototype version and evaluated it with a large scale simulated data production. In this presentation we will report the evaluation of the prototype system and future development plans.

  15. Improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Mzuzu milk shed area in Malawi: Constraints and possible interventions

    A study was carried out in the Mzuzu milk shed area in Northern Malawi, to identify major constraints to dairy cattle production systems prevailing in the area (Phase I) and develop a sustainable feed supplementation intervention (Phase II) based on tree legume leaves of Sesbania sesban for increasing milk production. Phase I of the study revealed that the major constraint to increasing productivity was poor nutrition related to the fluctuating supply of quality and quantity of feed. Body weights of cows averaged 301 ± 81.3 kg and ranged from 189 to 550 kg whereas the body condition score (BCS, on 1-9 scale) averaged 5.73 ± 1.35 and ranged from 2.00 to 9.00. Average milk production was 6.1 ± 5 kg/d and ranged from 1.5 to 19.0 kg/d. Post-partum reproductive status varied considerably. Cows consumed 10.6 ± 6.2 kg/day of roughage and 2.96 ± 1.45 kg/day of concentrates. The quality of the feeds was moderate. Roughages contained 1.56 ± 0.12% N while concentrates contained 1.88 ± 0.04% N. Poor reproductive management and prevalence of internal parasites were also identified as constraints. The intervention (Phase II) based on supplementation with tree legume leaves of Sesbania sesban significantly (P <0.05) improved the performance of dairy cows. Cows supplemented with tree legume leaves showed significantly higher body weights (368 ± 65.5 vs 348.7 ± 59.2 kg) and BCS (6.3 ± 0.9 vs 5.3 ± 1) compared to their counterparts receiving a supplement according to the present management practice. Daily milk yields of cows on the experimental diet averaged 8.6 ± 3.2 kg whereas those on control diet averaged 5.4 ± 1.7 kg. Significant differences in milk yields between the two groups of cows could have been due to higher dry matter intake from the supplementary diet. Cows on experimental diet consumed 3.5 ± 1.2 kg of supplementary feed as compared to 2.2 ± 0.7 kg by cows on the control diet. (author)

  16. Effects of probiotic bacteria at different concentrations on production of immunomodulatory antibodies against rabies virus in vaccinated cattle

    Renata Maria Bottino Vizzotto-Martino


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of supplementation with a combination of probiotic microorganisms, added at different concentrations to the mineral mixture, on the production of serum antibodies against rabies virus in cattle vaccinated with a single dose of rabies vaccine. Forty-two male Nellore cattle, aged 12 months, were randomly divided into three groups (n = 14: the control group (CG received 70 grams of mineral mixture/animal/day; and the 2 gram probiotic group (G2P and 8 gram probiotic group (G8P received 70 grams of mineral mix/animal/day with 2 and 8 grams added, respectively, of a combination of probiotic microorganisms (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus faecium, Bifidobacterium thermophilum and Bifidobacterium longum. Individual antibody titers were determined using a neutralization in cell-based rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT technique. One-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA was used with contrasts using the Tukey method to determine whether the experimental groups differed within each time point, and the paired t-test was used to determine whether differences occurred between time points within each group. The level of significance was set at 5%. There were statistically significant differences between the mean serum concentrations of the CG and G8P groups at 30 and 60 days after the first vaccination, and at 60 days, 100% of the animals maintained minimum titers of protective antibodies only in the G8P group. There was also improvement in the production of antibodies in the G2P group compared with the CG after 30 and 60 days, but this difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, increasing doses of probiotic added to the mineral mix beneficially affected the rabies humoral immune response, as determined by serum antibodies, and enabled the maintenance of minimum protective titers for a longer period in previously vaccinated cattle.


    Aleš Pavlík


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare concentrations of iron (Fe in soil, pasture sward and blood plasma of extensive reared Aberdeen Angus bulls and heifers on a farm in the foothills of the Orlické Mountains. We sampled soil, pasture sward from pasture areas and blood from 22 bulls and 22 heifers in the period from birth to weaning at regular intervals (81, 151, 189 and 273 days of age. Concentrations of iron were analysed. Not significant relationships were noted between soil and pasture iron concentrations (r = 0.32, pasture and blood plasma iron concentration (r = 0.39. In this study, there were not found relationships between iron-soil, forage and blood concentration in beef cattle reared in suckling cows The objective of this study was to compare concentrations of iron (Fe in soil, pasture sward and blood plasma of extensive reared Aberdeen Angus bulls and heifers on a farm in the foothills of the Orlické Mountains. We sampled soil, pasture sward from pasture areas and blood from 22 bulls and 22 heifers in the period from birth to weaning at regular intervals (81, 151, 189 and 273 days of age. Concentrations of iron were analysed. Not significant relationships were noted between soil and pasture iron concentrations (r = 0.32, pasture and blood plasma iron concentration (r = 0.39. In this study, there were not found relationships between iron-soil, forage and blood concentration in beef cattle reared in suckling cows system.

  18. ATLAS production system

    Borodin, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration; De, Kaushik; Klimentov, Alexei; Golubkov, Dmitry; Maeno, Tadashi; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Wenaus, Torre; Padolski, Siarhei


    The second generation of the ATLAS production system called ProdSys2 is a distributed workload manager which used by thousands of physicists to analyze the data remotely, with the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, across a more than hundred heterogeneous sites. It achieves high utilization by combining dynamic job definition based on many criterias, such as input and output size, memory requirements and CPU consumption with manageable scheduling policies and by supporting different kind of computational resources, such as GRID, clouds, supercomputers and volunteering computers. Besides jobs definition Production System also includes flexible web user interface, which implements user-friendly environment for main ATLAS workflows, e.g. simple way of combining different data flows, and real-time monitoring, optimised for using with huge amount of information to present. We present an overview of the ATLAS Production System major components: job and task definition, workflow manager web user i...

  19. Reproductive disorders in dairy cattle under semi-intensive system of rearing in North-Eastern India

    Khan, M. H.; Manoj, K.; Pramod, S.


    Aim: This study was conducted to determine the incidence of major reproductive problems of dairy cattle reared under a semi-intensive system by small and marginal farmers in Meghalaya province of North-Eastern India. Materials and Methods: In a 3 years study, a total of 576 crossbred dairy cattle (212 Holstein Friesian cross and 364 Jersey cross) from all districts (n=11) of Meghalaya were assessed with the survey, clinical examination, and personal observations. Results: Out of the total animal assessed, 33.85% (n=195) were found to be affected with one or more of the clinical reproductive problems. Repeat breeding (RB), anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion were found to be the major clinical reproductive problems. Out of the total animal affected with reproductive disorders, the incidence of anestrus, RB, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion was found to be 31.79% (n=62), 24.61% (n=48), 14.35% (n=28), and 11.25% (n=22), respectively. In addition, dystocia (5.12%), prolapse (1.53%), endometritis (4.61%), and pyometra (6.66%) were minor clinical reproductive problems. There was a significant difference in the incidence of reproductive disorders with respect to breed, age, and parity. Conclusion: It was revealed from this study that RB, anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and dystocia are the major clinical reproductive problems in Meghalaya. Results indicated unsatisfactory feeding, housing, and health management practices are the main cause of low fertility of dairy cows. Lack of scientific knowledge, low access to breeding, and health services further contributed to low productivity and fertility. PMID:27284229

  20. Reproductive disorders in dairy cattle under semi-intensive system of rearing in North-Eastern India

    M. H. Khan


    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to determine the incidence of major reproductive problems of dairy cattle reared under a semi-intensive system by small and marginal farmers in Meghalaya province of North-Eastern India. Materials and Methods: In a 3 years study, a total of 576 crossbred dairy cattle (212 Holstein Friesian cross and 364 Jersey cross from all districts (n=11 of Meghalaya were assessed with the survey, clinical examination, and personal observations. Results: Out of the total animal assessed, 33.85% (n=195 were found to be affected with one or more of the clinical reproductive problems. Repeat breeding (RB, anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion were found to be the major clinical reproductive problems. Out of the total animal affected with reproductive disorders, the incidence of anestrus, RB, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion was found to be 31.79% (n=62, 24.61% (n=48, 14.35% (n=28, and 11.25% (n=22, respectively. In addition, dystocia (5.12%, prolapse (1.53%, endometritis (4.61%, and pyometra (6.66% were minor clinical reproductive problems. There was a significant difference in the incidence of reproductive disorders with respect to breed, age, and parity. Conclusion: It was revealed from this study that RB, anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and dystocia are the major clinical reproductive problems in Meghalaya. Results indicated unsatisfactory feeding, housing, and health management practices are the main cause of low fertility of dairy cows. Lack of scientific knowledge, low access to breeding, and health services further contributed to low productivity and fertility.

  1. Body measures and milk production, milk fat globules granulometry and milk fatty acid content in Cabannina cattle breed

    Ricardo Communod


    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to achieve scientific information about body measures and milk production of Cabannina cattle, a local breed reared in northern Italy. Fourteen body measures and five morphologic indexes were recorded from 86 heads enrolled in the herd book. Low differences between males and females of the same age-class were shown. Body measures were generally greater than those reported in previous studies, probably due to recent crosses. With reference to milk production, 991 test-day records from 128 lactations of 59 cows were analysed. Average milk daily production was 8 kg/d in 1st lactation to 10.61 in 3rd (P<0.05; the parameters of the Wood equation draw atypical curves with the exception of curves from spring calving cows. Only 74.5% of lactations with an adjusted R2 >0.75 showed a standard curve, with low persistence (7.7%, high value of d at peak (103 d and peak production of 20.18 kg of milk. Moreover, 100 milk samples (40 to 220 d of lactation were submitted to a granulometric survey by laser scatter technique in order to evaluate the dimensions of fat globules; then milk fat was analyzed by gas chromatography, and desaturase indexes were determined. Cabannina cows showed small fat globules with high specific surface. Furthermore mean diameter of milk fat globules decreased during lactation then rose. Milk fat contained high levels of cis-MUFA, and high desaturase indexes. In conclusion, the low size of Cabannina cattle orients for a limited meat production. Instead milk production has a higher economic potential, aimed at cheese production and human nutrition.

  2. Development of Production Systems

    Christiansen, Thomas Bøhm

    This paper presents the initial considerations related to a Ph.D. study initiated at IPV, DTU in February 1997, concerning the research subject "Development of Production Systems". The content and aim of this paper is to 1) to introduce the study by......This paper presents the initial considerations related to a Ph.D. study initiated at IPV, DTU in February 1997, concerning the research subject "Development of Production Systems". The content and aim of this paper is to 1) to introduce the study by...

  3. Acidosis ruminal en bovinos lecheros: implicaciones sobre la producción y la salud animal - Ruminal acidosis in dairy cattle: implications for animal health and production

    Granja Salcedo, Yury Tatiana


    Full Text Available ResumenLa acidosis ruminal es un importante problema en la producción de bovinos alimentados con dietas ricas en concentrados, especialmente en vacas de alta producción lechera.AbstractRuminal acidosis is a major problem in the production of cattle fed diets rich in concentrates, especially in cows of high milk production.

  4. Odorant production and persistence of generic E. coli in manure slurries from cattle fed 0, 20, 40, and 60% wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS).

    Ethanol production from corn removes starch and concentrates the remaining nutrients including CP and minerals. When WDGS are fed to cattle in place of corn, CP and minerals exceed dietary needs. This may increase N emission, P run-off, and odor production. Crossbred steers (n = 160; 434 kg) were...

  5. Methane emissions of beef cattle on forages: efficiency of grazing management systems.

    DeRamus, H Alan; Clement, Terry C; Giampola, Dean D; Dickison, Peter C


    Fermentation in the rumen of cattle produces methane (CH4). Methane may play a role in global warming scenarios. The linking of grazing management strategies to more efficient beef production while reducing the CH4 emitted by beef cattle is important. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique was used to determine the effects of best management practices (BMP) grazing compared with continuous grazing on CH4 production in several Louisiana forages during 1996-1998. Cows and heifers (Bos taurus) grazed common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pastures and were wintered on bahiagrass hay with supplements of protein molasses blocks (PMB), cottonseed meal and corn (CSMC), urea and corn (URC), or limited ryegrass grazing (LRG). Daily CH4 emissions were between 89 and 180 g d(-1) for young growing heifers and 165 to 294 g d(-1) for mature Simbrah cows. Heifers on "ad lib" ryegrass in March and April produced only one-tenth the CH4 per kg of gain as heifers on LRG of 1 h. Using BMP significantly reduced the emission of CH4 per unit of animal weight gain. Management-intensive grazing (MIG) is a BMP that offers the potential for more efficient utilization of grazed forage crops via controlled rotational grazing and more efficient conversion of forage into meat and milk. Projected CH4 annual emissions in cows reflect a 22% reduction from BMP when compared with continuous grazing in this study. With the BMP application of MIG, less methane was produced per kilogram of beef gain. PMID:12549566

  6. Beef cattle on semi-natural grasslands - production of meat and nature conservation

    Hessle, Anna


    Beef production is performed in varying systems, with or without grazing, but the common goal is to obtain high-quality carcasses. Semi-natural grasslands are characterized by specific flora and fauna and they are dependent on grazing management to be maintained. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate factors influencing nature conservation, animal performance and meat quality in beef production using semi-natural grasslands in summer. In a first study, effects of breed and season on foraging...

  7. The effect of production system and age on levels of iron, taurine, carnosine, coenzyme Q(10), and creatine in beef muscles and liver.

    Purchas, R W; Busboom, J R


    Samples of longissimus (LL) and triceps brachii (TB) muscles from Angus-cross heifers finished either on a high-concentrate ration in Washington, USA, (US cattle, n=15) or on pasture in New Zealand (NZ cattle, n=16) were assessed for composition characteristics. Half of the NZ cattle were of a similar age to the US cattle (NZAge) and half were of a similar weight (NZWt). Iron concentration was higher in TB (20.9 vs. 17.5μgg(-1); Pcarnosine, creatine and creatinine, as expected for a muscle with a more aerobic metabolism. These differences were magnified for the even more aerobic cheek muscle. Differences between the two NZ groups were small, but muscles from the US cattle contained less taurine, carnosine, coenzyme Q(10), and creatinine. Reasons for these differences in various meat components for similar cattle from different production systems are not clear. PMID:22063884

  8. Improving the productivity of cattle in sub-tropical environments: Effects of cross-breeding on age and live weight at puberty in Zebu, European and Zebu X European heifers

    During the evolutionary adaptation of cattle to a particular environment the frequency of genes that confer desirable traits is increased at the expense of undesirable genes. Accordingly, in the temperate climates of Europe evolution has favoured cattle with high genetic potentials for growth and reproduction, whilst in the harsher tropical and sub-tropical environments, inherent potentials for productive characteristics are low but resistance to stresses such as heat, feed shortages, and endo- and ecto-parasites is high. Information on the relative genetic merits of different breeds of cattle can be exploited through cross-breeding, which relies on heterosis, to produce animals that have the complement of productive and adaptive traits that is considered desirable for different tropical and sub-tropical production systems. For example, crossing Brahman (Bos indicus, tropically-adapted) with Hereford-Shorthorn (Bos taurus, temperate) results in F1 offspring that have high resistance to tropical stresses and high genetic potentials for growth and reproduction. The F1 shows higher productivity than either parent genotype over a wide range of environments. This includes increased growth rate, earlier age at puberty and increased lifetime fertility. Heterosis is progressively lost through inter-breeding; however, this can be substantially reduced by reciprocal cross-breeding and the formation of multi-breed synthetics which retain a high degree of hybrid vigour with inter-breeding. (author). 9 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Production management system of ecosafety agricultural products

    S.M. Denysenko


    This paper deals with suggestions for improving the production management system of ecosafety agricultural products according to international standards in the sphere of quality and environmental protection. The production management algorithm of ecosafety products, including methodological and application platform of forming of administrative decisions has been suggested.

  10. Independence and Product Systems

    Skeide, Michael


    Starting from elementary considerations about independence and Markov processes in classical probability we arrive at the new concept of conditional monotone independence (or operator-valued monotone independence). With the help of product systems of Hilbert modules we show that monotone conditional independence arises naturally in dilation theory.