Sample records for catharsis

  1. Catharsis: Psychoanalysis and the theatre.

    Vives, Jean-Michel


    The notion of catharsis, in relation to tragedy, was introduced by Aristotle in his work Poetics. Over the centuries, Aristotle's innovative and enigmatic reference to this process has been widely commented on and given rise to intense controversy. In 1895, Freud and Breuer reconsidered this notion in their Studies on Hysteria, where they present the so-called cathartic therapeutic method. It is not, however, this aspect of psychoanalytical theory that the author of this article seeks to elucidate: drawing on a detailed study of the references to tragic catharsis in the work of Freud and Lacan, the author proposes to examine their implications for psychoanalytic treatment.With specific reference to Freud's article Psychopathic characters on the stage (1905) and Lacan's commentary on Sophocles' Antigone (1960), the author argues that catharsis is to be understood not so much as a mechanism of discharge linked to abreaction, but rather as the actual analytic process itself during which the Subject is 'unveiled' and thus faced with the enigma of his own desire. PMID:21843246

  2. Catharsis and Media Violence: A Conceptual Analysis

    Gentile, Douglas A.


    The concept that doing something to “vent†aggression as a method of reducing aggressive feelings and behaviors, such as watching media violence or playing violent video games, continues to enjoy widespread public support despite a lack of empirical support. This article describes the historical origins of the concept and examines how well these conceptions fit with the modern usage of the aggression catharsis hypothesis. It is argued that there are four primary flaws with the catharsis hy...

  3. Catharsis and Media Violence: A Conceptual Analysis

    Douglas A. Gentile


    Full Text Available The concept that doing something to “vent” aggression as a method of reducing aggressive feelings and behaviors, such as watching media violence or playing violent video games, continues to enjoy widespread public support despite a lack of empirical support. This article describes the historical origins of the concept and examines how well these conceptions fit with the modern usage of the aggression catharsis hypothesis. It is argued that there are four primary flaws with the catharsis hypothesis. First, the metaphor underlying Freud, Breuer, and Lorenz’s conception of aggression is flawed. Aggression is not a drive. Second, although Aristotle did use the term catharsis with relation to violent media (plays and poetry, he did not mean that viewing media violence can purge the viewer of aggressive feelings or behaviors. Furthermore, he describes several detailed requirements of plot and character that must be followed if his type of catharsis is to be achieved, and modern media violence does not meet these requirements. Third, the empirical support is not only lacking, a large empirical base contradicts the catharsis hypothesis. This is seen both in studies attempting to demonstrate catharsis directly and in the broader media violence literature. Fourth, human neuroscience contradicts the catharsis hypothesis. Learning is not hindered by viewing something one more time—it is improved. Taken together, it appears that there is no possible way that the aggression catharsis hypothesis can be accurate. It nevertheless continues to “feel” correct at a phenomenological level, and the reasons for this are discussed.

  4. Contesting Pornography: Terministic Catharsis and Definitional Argument.

    Palczewski, Catherine Helen


    Focuses on the debates over the MacKinnon-Dworkin Anti-Pornography Ordinance to explore one instance of definitional argument: the attempt to effect a redefinition. Argues that advocates for a definitional shift created the possibility for a "terministic catharsis" by simultaneously locating pornography in multiple locations on the pentad,…

  5. Corrigendum: Like a Magnet: Catharsis Beliefs Attract Angry People to Violent Video Games.


    Bushman, B. J., & Whitaker, J. L. (2010). Like a magnet: Catharsis beliefs attract angry people to violent video games. Psychological Science, 21, 790-792. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0956797610369494). PMID:27207875

  6. Catharsis – Philosophical and Spiritual Aspects of Long-Distance Running

    Nemec Marcel


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify and analyze the occurrence of cathartic states in a sample of long-distance runners. Data collected via questionnaires were used to evaluate quantitative variables complemented by heuristics while aiming at qualitatively categorize the areas of cathartic states in the context of philosophical and spiritual aspects of long-distance running. The study findings objectify philosophical and spiritual aspects affecting personalities of long-distance runners. The study findings have shown that catharsis represents a relevant philosophical and spiritual aspect affecting long-distance running. We assume that authentic experience of catharsis and its effects motivates runners to perform regular physical activity. The analysis of philosophical and spiritual aspects of long-distance running has revealed a multi-spectral holistic relevance based on the transfer affecting a specific way of life, spectrum of values, ethical personality traits, and also the quality of long-distance runners’ lives.


    Olga Vladimirovna Zakharova


    Full Text Available The question of catharsis was first brought up by Aristotle in his Poetics. Aristotle used to interpret catharsis in an extended sense. For him it could be tragic or musical, but it always meant purification or purgation as a dialogue between a poet and a spectator seen as one of the aims of art. In Dostoevsky’s thesaurus there is no such a category as catharsis, but there is this word’s equivalent in the Russian language: ochishchenie (which can be translated as purification. Purification through suffering is one of the key ideas of Dostoevsky’s works. He expressed this idea in his prose beginning with Notes from the House of the Dead, but it was first stated directly in the third chapter (entitled Environment of A Writer’s Diary of 1873. Dostoyevsky contrasted the socialist doctrine of environment with the Christian idea of personal responsibility for our own and other people’s actions. Liberal journalists didn’t accept Dostoevsky’s idea of “purification through suffering” and met it with derision (e.g., L. K. Panyutin, A. G. Kovner, V. P. Burenin, A. S. Suvorin. Instead of understanding and a justifiable dispute, Dostoyevsky faced malediction and rudeness. Conservative critics, on the other hand, overlooked this episode of A Writer’s Diary. This idea started to be appreciated only in the 20th century, long after the writer’s death, and was developed in the works of S. Zweig, N. Berdyaev and others. Notwithstanding the fact that contemporary critics question the presence of catharsis in Dostoevsky’s prose, one should admit that it is one of the categories of his poetics. The purification through suffering is the essence of the aesthetic empathy between the author and his reader. It implies the meaning of his creative works.

  8. Couples Counseling Directive Technique: A (Mis)communication Model to Promote Insight, Catharsis, Disclosure, and Problem Resolution

    Mahaffey, Barbara A.


    A psychoeducational model for improving couple communication is proposed. An important goal in couples counseling is to assist couples in resolving communication conflicts. The proposed communication model helps to establish a therapeutic environment that encourages insight, therapeutic alliance formation, catharsis, self-disclosure, symptom…

  9. Emotional Catharsis of High School Students from the Perspective of Popular Music Aesthetic Theory%论高中生在通俗音乐审美中的情感宣泄



    通俗音乐作为音乐的一种形式,关注人的情绪与情感、成长与生活,成为了很多人宣泄情感、张扬生命的方式。它具有主题内容通俗、简单性、娱和}生、流行性以及多元文化性等特征,这些特征促使通俗音乐成为各种心灵压抑不同的人的情感宣泄地带。高中学生精神上的压力是极大的,通俗音乐的曲调和歌词能张扬他们的内心世界,宣泄他们的情感,减轻他们的沉重压力,使他们有轻松的精神去迎接学习和生活上的挑战。%Popular music,as a form of music, focuses on people' s mood and emotion,growth and tile and has been the way tor many peo- ple's emotional catharsis. It is characterized by popular content, simplicity, entcttaintnent, epidemic and multiple cultural features, which make popular music emotional catharsis for the depressed. High school students study under great pressure mental, and the melodies and lyrics of pop- ular music can help them publicize their inner world,give vent to their emotional,relieve their stress,and relax themselves to meet the challeng- es in study and life.

  10. 漂白土洗胃联合清胰Ⅱ号导泻对口服百草枯中毒兔的治疗观察%Therapeutic effects of gastric lavage with fuller earth combined with QingyiⅡ catharsis in treatment of oral paraquat poisoning in rabbits

    陆元兰; 周满红; 胡杰; 李建国


    ObjectiveTo observe the therapeutic effects of gastric lavage with fuller earth combined with QingyiⅡ catharsis in treatment of oral paraquat poisoning in rabbits.Methods Thirty healthy adult Japanese white rabbits were randomly divided into five groups: namely control group, model group, gastric lavage group (lavage of 10%fuller earth suspension), catharsis group (QingyiⅡ catharsis), and combination group (10 minutes after gastric lavage of fuller earth suspension liquid, giving QingyiⅡ for catharsis), with 6 rabbits in each group. All groups were challenged with paraquat (100 mg/kg) diluted to 5 mL with normal saline by lavage to reproduce the model of acute poisoning, while the control group was given 5 mL of normal saline instead. Each treatment group was treated accordingly at 1 hour after gavages of paraquat, and treatment continued for 3 days. The animal survival rate was observed. Venous blood samples were collected from ear marginal vein to determine the plasma concentration of paraquat by ultraviolet spectrophotometer at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 hours after the poisoning. The animals were sacrificed by intravenous air injection on the 8th day after the poisoning, and the right lower lobe of lung was harvested to observe the lung tissue pathological changes with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining.Results① Survival rate: the surviving rate of the combination group (6 rabbits) was higher than that of gastric lavage group (5 rabbits), catharsis group (2 rabbits) and model group (0 rabbit) on the 2nd day with statistically significant difference (P< 0.001). The survival rate on the 7th day in combination group (5 rabbits) was higher than that of gastric lavage group (3 rabbits), and catharsis group (0 rabbit) with statistically significant difference (P = 0.003).② Plasma concentrations of paraquat: plasma paraquat concentration in all groups peaked at 2 hours after intoxication, and its levels in the gastric lavage, catharsis and combination groups were

  11. Fantasy Aggression and the Catharsis Phenomenon

    Spiegel, Sharon Baron; Zelin, Martin


    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of fantasy aggression on blood pressure, affective states, and probability of subsequent aggression. The results are inconclusive because of the limited range of fantasy stimuli used and the short amount of time allowed for aggression to occur. (Author/KM)

  12. Confusion and Catharsis in Filmmaking for Fieldwork.

    Lawrence, Andy Richard James


    This thesis provides a commentary on three films that I have made on the subjects of childbirth and death; Born (Lawrence 2008); The Lover and the Beloved: A Journey into Tantra (Lawrence 2012); The One and the Many (Lawrence 2013). I discuss these films as practice-based research within the discipline areas of anthropology, media and performance in order to suggest an innovative way in which intersubjectivity may be explored and evoked through a method of ethnographic filmmaking. After a bri...

  13. Catharsis from Violence Content in Video Games%游戏暴力的宣泄作用

    缑赫; 李景华







  15. Effects of Varying Session Length and Frequency in Brief Emotive Psychotherapy

    Bierenbaum, Howard; And Others


    This study examined the role of emotional catharsis in brief emotive psychotherapy and its differential effects within three time frames. The findings are seen as supporting the contention that within a specific time frame emotional catharsis can lead to certain positive outcomes in brief emotive psychotherapy. (Author)

  16. Outcome of Brief Cathartic Psychotherapy

    Nichols, Michael P.


    This comparison (with University Health Service patients) between emotive psychotherapy and insight oriented analytic therapy confirmed effectiveness of emotive psychotherapy in producing catharsis leading to therapeutic improvement. (Author/EK)

  17. Group Leader Development: Effects of Personal Growth and Psychoeducational Groups

    Ohrt, Jonathan H.; Robinson, E. H., III; Hagedorn, W. Bryce


    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to compare the effects of personal growth groups and psychoeducational groups on counselor education students' (n = 74) empathy and group leader self-efficacy. Additionally, we compared the degree to which participants in each group valued: (a) cohesion, (b) catharsis, and (c) insight. There were no…

  18. Northern Economic Hub:Beijing or Tianjin?


    The government says Tianjin, today's market suggests Beijing and some academics say the "or" is all wrong Beijing and Tianjin, the two largest cities in north China, are going through catharsis. According to the re-planning of the State Council, Beijing should shed its role as north China's economic center, and Tianjin should grow into being just that. Tianjin has long been viewed as an important economic center, but not the cen

  19. 'Torture in the country of the mind', a study of suffering and self in the novels of Patrick White / Albert Pieter Brugman

    Brugman, Albert Pieter


    This study is concerned with an evaluation of the suffering and self of the elected characters in the novels of Patrick White. The suffering these elected characters endure, apart from the uncomprehending antagonism of society, takes place mainly in the country of the mind - "that solitary land of the individual experience, in which no fellow footfall is ever heard" (Epigraph to The Aunt's Story) - and is a form of catharsis in preparatory to a reunion with God as the ...

  20. Discussion on Confucian culture on modern ceramic art innovation%Discussion on Confucian culture on modern ceramic art innovation



    Chinese contemporary ceramic art influenced by abstract expressionism and the influence of post- modernism, began to abandon the traditional and the pursuit of emotional catharsis, Undeniably, this approach has accelerated the modern ceramic art in China's development process, but the traditional culture is worthy of a lot of Chinese artists to study and research. In view of this, this paper mainly discusses the influence of Confucianism on modern ceramic art.

  1. Individual differences in motives, preferences, and pathology in video games: the gaming attitudes, motives, and experiences scales (GAMES)

    Hilgard, Joseph; Engelhardt, Christopher R.; Bartholow, Bruce D.


    A new measure of individual habits and preferences in video game use is developed in order to better study the risk factors of pathological game use (i.e., excessively frequent or prolonged use, sometimes called “game addiction”). This measure was distributed to internet message boards for game enthusiasts and to college undergraduates. An exploratory factor analysis identified 9 factors: Story, Violent Catharsis, Violent Reward, Social Interaction, Escapism, Loss-Sensitivity, Customization, ...

  2. Individual differences in motives, preferences, and pathology in video games: The gaming attitudes, motives, and experiences scales (GAMES)

    Joseph eHilgard; Engelhardt, Christopher R.; Bartholow, Bruce D.


    A new measure of individual habits and preferences in video game use is developed in order to better study the risk factors of pathological game use (i.e., excessively frequent or prolonged use, sometimes called game addiction). This measure was distributed to internet message boards for game enthusiasts and to college undergraduates. An exploratory factor analysis identified 9 factors: Story, Violent Catharsis, Violent Reward, Social Interaction, Escapism, Loss-Sensitivity, Customization,...

  3. Dream and emotion regulation: insight from the ancient art of memory.

    Desseilles, Martin; Duclos, Catherine


    During dreaming, as well as during wakefulness, elaborative encoding, indexing and ancient art of memory (AAOM) techniques, such as the method of loci, may coincide with emotion regulation. These techniques shed light on the link between dreaming and emotional catharsis, post-traumatic stress disorder, supermemorization during sleep as opposed to wakefulness, and the developmental role of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in children. PMID:24304754

  4. Aggression, anger and violence in South Africa

    M.J. Masango


    This article traces the roots of aggression, anger and violence in South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper is divided into four parts: Aggression, Anger, Catharsis and Violence. As a result of violence against other human beings, especially women and children, a profound respect for human dignity has been lost. People have become extremely aggressive. The last few decades have created a culture of violence because of the suppression or oppression of feelings. The article argues that...

  5. Technology addiction's contribution to mental wellbeing: The positive effect of online social capital

    Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Billotte-Verhoff, China; Greene, Kathryn


    This research examines the effect of online social capital and Internet use on the normally negative effects of technology addiction, especially for individuals prone to self-concealment. Self-concealment is a personality trait that describes individuals who are more likely to withhold personal and private information, inhibiting catharsis and wellbeing. Addiction, in any context, is also typically associated with negative outcomes. However, we investigate the hypothesis that communication te...

  6. テレビ暴力番組の非社会的行動に及ぼす効果の実証的研究(視聴覚教育)

    渡辺, 功; ワタナベ, イサオ; Isao, Watanabe


    1. The Background Research on the influence among viewers of violent television programs has been very active since the 1960s. From previous research findings, the consequence of violent television program viewing can be explained through the theories of catharsis, observational learning, desensitization and cultivation. However, due to the current lack of empirical evidence concerning the cathartic effect of violent television programs, research on it is not now popular. Research on televisi...

  7. Connection Between Ethics and Poetics in Aristoteles

    Ismet Tekerek


    Action and character are two major concepts which called human into being in the past and also for the moment and will render human exist in the future. If action is being executed through the preference of free will of a conscious and prudent person then character of that person can be spoken. Action, character and preference of free will have an important position at the ethical and aesthetical views of Aristotle. He presents his views on the function of action, character and tragedia at his work Poetics in which he composed theatre aesthetics of the era by analysing tragedias originated from rituals and mythology and which are played for thousands of people. According to his views, sciences can be classified as practical and theoretical. Since practical sciences deal with human-character which is the source of action, theatre can be evaluated as practical art by following his views on tragedia and examples. Because tragedia is the imitation of an action which is experienced by a character who is better than the average, and this action orients the person to the good through catharsis which it creates. Aeschylus’ “Prometheus Bound” and Sophocles’ “Antigone”, which are among the most important and mature tragedias, are two examples projecting Aristotle’s ideas on action, character, free will, individual preference and average ethics. Only a tragic hero who executes his action by using his individual preference with his free will and carries out this action coherently can create catharsis on the audience. The audience watchs the conflict between equal powers developed by the tragedia, gets into catharsis; and the calmness after catharsis serves the view of good-wise citizen which is the target of Atistotle’s total views. Thinking once more on this dialectical relation between action, character, free will and individual preference which are also the basis of Aristotle’s philosophy is important in terms of interrogating the human and his values, of

  8. Connection Between Ethics and Poetics in Aristoteles

    Ismet Tekerek


    Full Text Available Quality Research AwardEditorial InformationEditorial SummaryEditorial BoardSearch Home Journal Archive Vol.1,no.1,2012,Abstract10Connection Between Ethics and Poetics in Aristoteles   Ismet TEKEREKPh.D., Aegean University, Izmir.   ABSTRACT Action and character are two major concepts which called human into being in the past and also for the moment and will render human exist in the future. If action is being executed through the preference of free will of a conscious and prudent person then character of that person can be spoken. Action, character and preference of free will have an important position at the ethical and aesthetical views of Aristotle. He presents his views on the function of action, character and tragedia at his work Poetics in which he composed theatre aesthetics of the era by analysing tragedias originated from rituals and mythology and which are played for thousands of people. According to his views, sciences can be classified as practical and theoretical. Since practical sciences deal with human-character which is the source of action, theatre can be evaluated as practical art by following his views on tragedia and examples. Because tragedia is the imitation of an action which is experienced by a character who is better than the average, and this action orients the person to the good through catharsis which it creates. Aeschylus’ “Prometheus Bound” and Sophocles’ “Antigone”, which are among the most important and mature tragedias, are two examples projecting Aristotle’s ideas on action, character, free will, individual preference and average ethics. Only a tragic hero who executes his action by using his individual preference with his free will and carries out this action coherently can create catharsis on the audience. The audience watchs the conflict between equal powers developed by the tragedia, gets into catharsis; and the calmness after catharsis serves the view of good-wise citizen which is the

  9. United States Holocaust Museums: Pathos, Possession, Patriotism

    Rob Baum


    Full Text Available This article examines the role of United States holocaust museums in directing (American knowledge and memory of World War II, and demonstrates how signifiers of race, colour and Jewishness are played out and theatricalised. Erected in two principal U.S. cities of Los Angeles and Washington, D.C., the Holocaust Museum and Museum of Tolerance uphold very different mandates: the first dedicated to revealing European civilian tragedies during WWII; the latter dealing with Jewish persecution and the L.A. Riots of 1991, with references to other cultural catastrophes. While these projects are different, they are not opposed; both museums locate the American perspective of events and their meanings at the forefront. American holocaust museums seem to challenge spaces between memory and its direction, vision and revision. Within the gruesome context of holocaust portrayal, interrogate the valences of memory’s play and expose American holocaust museums as theatres of pornographic memory. The seduction of feeling does not invite change so much as purgation, what Aristotle identified as catharsis — an emotional and physical release, unfortunately replicating the seductive techniques used by Goebbels for the glorification of Hitler. Through manipulation of viewers as automatic audiences, these museums function as centres for pathos I question the policy and polity of presenting genocide as an entertainment leading to catharsis, recognizing that the final act of purgation is all too easily negation.

  10. An Angle of Seeing: Pornography and Profanity as Pharmakon in Darko’s Beyond the Horizon and The Housemaid

    Philomena Abeka


    Full Text Available What strategies does a female writer develop to overcome her anxiety of correcting the moral decadence in her society? Inappropriate as the use of pornography and profanity must have always seemed, Amma Darko has managed to put some positive and meritorious spins on them and seriously use them. In this paper, we examine how in two books, Beyond the Horizon and The housemaid, Amma Darko strategizes to use pornography and profanity as remedies; that moral cleansing can be achieved by the strategic use of immoral pictures and language. This strategy traces back to Aristotle’s age-old prescription that catharsis must be the final achievement of curtailing tragedy. In this paper, therefore, we observe how the use of pornography and profanity can contribute to the cleansing of a society whose moral fibre is engulfed in decadence. Furthermore, a near-laser analysis of the relationships between (catharsis-based pharmakon, pornography and profanity as given in the books in discussion is done.

  11. The Emotional Healing Efficacy of Romance Fiction for Undergraduates with Love-related Emotional Disturbance Problems: An Exploratory Research

    Chen Su-may Sheih


    Full Text Available Previous studies have revealed that emotional healing reading materials can sooth readers’ negative emotions. Among the various reading materials, the romance fiction is a genre of high healing efficacy for undergraduate students who encounter love-related emotional disturbance. To explore the problems they experience in love relationships and the emotional healing efficacy of romance fictions for such situations, this study first employed content analysis to identify a list of fictions that are considered of emotional healing efficacy. It continued to conduct an online survey to examine the emotional healing process in undergraduate students’ reading experiences. The results showed that undergraduate students often experienced one-sided love, ambiguous relationship, lack of intimacy, rivalry, conflict, and breakup. It also identified 18 Chinese romance titles that may assist the readers to go through the emotional healing stages of identification, catharsis, and insight. [Article content in Chinese

  12. An expressive therapy group disclosure intervention for women living with HIV improves social support, self-efficacy, and the safety and quality of relationships: a qualitative analysis.

    Machtinger, Edward L; Lavin, Sonja M; Hilliard, Starr; Jones, Rhodessa; Haberer, Jessica E; Capito, Kristen; Dawson-Rose, Carol


    Women living with HIV (WLHIV) face high rates of morbidity and mortality. HIV disclosure interventions have been identified as a promising but under-evaluated approach for WLHIV to improve their health and well-being. The Medea Project is an expressive therapy group intervention that was first developed to help incarcerated women develop the confidence and skills to tell their stories publicly in theatrical performances. The intervention was subsequently adapted as a community-based disclosure intervention for WLHIV. Our study describes an analysis of the impact of the Medea Project on the lives of the WLHIV who participated. All participating WLHIV publicly disclosed their HIV status during the performances. Five impact themes emerged from the data: sisterhood, catharsis, self-acceptance, safer and healthier relationships, and gaining a voice. Our study identifies a voluntary, effective, and broadly beneficial disclosure intervention for women living with HIV. PMID:25027284

  13. Angelic and Crepuscular in Alexandru Sever’s Drama

    Elena IANCU


    Full Text Available The illustration of a world, apparently drifting, the (demystification of the transcendent and of the act of creation, as idea and textual strategy, seem to Alexandru Sever (1921-2010 a means for another beginning. The impossibility of action in Înger bătrîn/ The Old Angel (1977 and the pact-making in Îngerul slut/ The Miscreated Angel (1982, imply metamorphosis in essence, supported by the dialogue with the great texts of the world, by intertextuality (the biblical text, Shakespeare's texts -Hamlet -Yorick, texts written by Göethe, Beckett, Marlowe, Dostoevsky, J. P. Sartre, Mikhail Bulgakov and others. The projection of Auschwitz, as a Siberia of the spirit, and that of Faustianism, result in a detailed analysis of the human, both as individuality and as community, in an attempt to illustrate the (inintelligible inaction, death involving catharsis in the mundane and the theatre alike.

  14. 《文选》中哀伤赋以及选录标准%Grief Fu in"The Selection of Literary Works"and Selecting Criteria



    魏晋南北朝中弥漫着哀怨伤感的气息,《文选》中的哀伤赋正是这乱世文人在作品中的宣泄呐喊,作者巧妙地运用抒情小赋特有的铺陈手法,再现了六朝黑暗狡诈的社会现实以及文人沉浮其中的感情内涵。%It was filled with sorrow and sadness in the Wei ,Jin ,Northern and Southern Dynasties ,so the grief Fu in"The Selection of Literary Works"was the literators'catharsis and cry in this trouble time .The author skillfully used the elaborated method that lyrical Fu peculiarly had to reproduce dark cunning social reality of Six Dynasties and the literators'emotion connotation .




    Full Text Available Aristotle was concerned with the comedy genre as a kind of poetry. Its creators, the comic poets, interested him only marginally. This genological approach to its subject-matter dominated the theory and philosophy of art for subsequent centuries as evidenced by the subsequent elaborations of interpretations of Aristotle’s catharsis. The alternative approach focused instead on subjects as creators of art. As a consequence of the long-term development of anthropocentrism in the humanities, however, this approach took over. The “ performative turn” represents its more recent version. It allows one to interpret Poetics and other classical works not in the context of an object (comedy, but in the context of the acting subject. I claim that social anthropology further explores the concept of comedy and itself presumes it in its conceptual foundations and research approach. I elaborate the argument on the basis of the concept of the “spirit of comedy” coined by Alfred Gell .

  16. [Psychotherapeutic function of the South American medicine man].

    Stubbe, H


    Observing the medicine man system in South America from a psychological point of view, the function of the medicine man can be characterized as psychohygienic or psychotherapeutic; that is to say he employs many methods similar to modern psychotherapeutic ones. We know from many ethnological field research reports that the medicine man employs in his healing procedures - among other things - dream interpretation, (auto-) hynosis, and healing suggestion, advises the sick, uses imaginative techniques, and initiates group catharsis, i.e. he treats his patients by psychological means. The psychic disturbances which he treats concern less the individual but much more often the whole group. Here the medicine man must work as a regulator and valve for the group and try to equalize, to prevent and to heal all disturbances within the collective. PMID:1024011

  17. An Expressionist Interpretation of Tennessee Williams’ The Two-Character Play

    Danni Lin


    Tennessee Williams was a master playwright of the twentieth century, and his plays A Streetcar Named Desire, The Glass Menagerie, and Cat On A Hot Tin Roof are considered among the finest of the American stage. However, his stylistic innovations in his later period had the playwright trapped in negative criticism. Since scholars have largely ignored the study of his late plays, this essay aims to rediscover one of Tennessee Williams’ late plays, The Two-Character Play for its expressionist features: the abstraction of time and place; the symbolic settings and the use of monologues and fragmented utterances. Through the in-depth study of the playwright’s rendering of human tragedies and desperation, the thesis aims to expose the existential crisis of modern man, thus serving the function of catharsis in Tennessee Williams’ tragedies.

  18. Otázka viny a trestu v Aristotelovej Poetike (Question of Guilt and Punishment in Aristotle’s Poetics

    Anton Vydra


    Full Text Available The Greek term hamartia means guilt, and sin, mistake or error as well. The origin of the word is a verb hamartanein—missing the mark. In his Poetics Aristotle describes it as an important constituent of tragedy. Guilt must be punished, even if it is not personal. A hero can be punished without his personal participation on any guilt. Father’s sin is sufficient reason for son’s punishment—that is a problem of “ancestral sin.” Two examples of Greek dramas, of Aeschylus and Euripides, point out to the use of the word in different contexts. Guilt (or sin and punishment of tragic hero lead beholders to the catharsis of two emotions: of pity and fear.

  19. A Critical Study of Modern Religious Poetry of pre –Islamic Revolution

    m akrami


    Full Text Available Religious verse is a kind of committed verse which has religious color with regard to semantic aspect and originates from religious teachings and Islamic history. Religious rituals, praising religious figures, paying attention to celestial issues and catharsis of man are in the center of it. Emergence of new religious verse in 40’s and 50’s should be considered as a major event in Persian literature. Undoubtedly, extensive entrance of religious forces to the scene of political and cultural fight was the origin of emergence of this branch of social verse. Because of some reasons, in most sources about the new Persian verse (free, blank, New Wave new religious verse has been neglected which, consequently, made a work like this one inevitable.

  20. The rites in the mysteries of Dionysus: the birth of the drama

    Britt-Mari Näsström


    Full Text Available The Greek drama can be apprehended as an extended ritual, originating in the ceremonies of the Dionysus cult. In particular, tragedy derived its origin from the sacrifice of goats and the hymns which were sung on that occasion. Tragedia means "song of the male goat" and these hymns later developed into choruses and eventually into tragedy, in the sense of a solemn and purifying drama. The presence of the god Dionysus is evident in the history and development of the Greek drama at the beginning of the fifth century B.C. and its sudden decline 150 years later. Its rise seems to correspond with the Greek polis, where questions of justice and divine law in conflict with the individual were obviously a matter of discussion and where the drama had individual and collective catharsis (purifying in mind.

  1. Arthur Schnitzler et la Révolution. Le Perroquet vert : prologue en forme de grotesque

    Roussel, Geneviève


    Avec Le Perroquet vert, pièce en un acte qu’il situe à Paris le soir de la prise de la Bastille, Schnitzler écrit un possible prologue à la Révolution. Acteurs et nobles posent, sous couvert de divertissement – exorcisme et catharsis ambiguë –, le problème de l’identité, celui de l’interaction de la fiction et de l’action, tout en étant figures d’un quatorze juillet conforme à l’Histoire. La Révolution sert de réfèrent implicite. Pivot extérieur à la pièce, elle fonde le recours au grotesque,...

  2. [Reflections on the cause and consequences of exposure to violent presentations in children].

    Rauchfleisch, U


    The article deals with the questions why children and adolescents nowadays have an intensive use of violent videos and which are the consequences of this use. The motives of the use are compensation and flight of daily problems and of inner psychic emptiness, identification with grandiose heroes, the experience of anxiety-joy, protest against the parents' generation and the test of courage to obtain a social status in the peer group. The consequences of violent presentations can be understood by different psychological concepts as social cognitive learning theory, suggestion hypothesis, justification hypothesis, habituation hypothesis, catharsis theory, priming effect, arousal theory. These findings lead to the following consequences: Media critical lectures at school, governmental protection of children against harmful products, solution of the underlying social problems which lead to resignation and hopelessness in children and adolescent. PMID:9312772

  3. Práxis e "catarsis" como referências avaliativas das ações educacionais das ONG'S, dos sindicatos e dos partidos políticos Praxis and "catarsis" as evaluative references of the education activities of NGO'S, trade unions and political parties

    Marcos Francisco Martins


    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata das referências avaliativas das ações educacionais desenvolvidas pelas ONG's, sindicatos e partidos políticos, que são entendidas como práxis capazes de gerar "catarsis" de diferentes tipos. Sustentado teoricamente em, basicamente, três autores: Marx, Gramsci e Vázquez, o texto inicia apresentando alguns apontamentos sobre o conceito de práxis e sobre o de "catarsis", para posteriormente identificar a educação como um processo práxico e catártico. Essa compreensão da educação, que resgata os conceitos de "práxis comunitária" e "práxis social", resulta em dupla asserção conclusiva, a saber: primeiro, que todo processo educativo resulta em alguma transformação e, segundo, que nem toda transformação resultante da educação é capaz de alterar as estruturas e superestruturas que caracterizam a totalidade da vida social.This article refers to the evaluation of educational activities developed by NGO's, trade unions and political parties, which are understood as praxis capable of generating "catharsis" of different types. Referenced in basically three authors: Marx, Gramsci and Vázquez, the text begins by presenting some remarks on the concept of praxis and "catharsis", identifying afterwards education as a process at the same praxic and cathartic. This understanding of education, which recalls the concepts of "community praxis" and "social praxis", resulting in a double conclusive assertion, namely: first that the entire educational process results in some change, and second, that not all resulting transformation of education is able to change the structures and superstructures that characterize all social life.

  4. 团体心理治疗对强迫症患者治疗的疗效因子研究%Study for therapeutic factors of group psychotherapy in the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    杨磊; 李幼辉; 连楠


    Objective To investigate the relative importance of therapeutic factors in group psychotherapy for patients with obsessive compulsive disorder.Methods Thirty obsessive-compulsive disorder patients underwent 12 weeks of group psychotherapy were given the therapeutic factors questionnaire to assess the relative importance of therapeutic factors in group psychotherapy.Results The important group therapeutic factors were sorted as following:interpersonal gain,interpersonal pay-out,self-realization,catharsis,existential factors,group cohesiveness,universality,instillation of hope,information imparting,altruism,the corrective recapitulation of the primary family group,imitative behavior.One-Way ANOVA showed that the mean difference was significant (P < 0.05 ).Conclusions The relatively important group therapeutic factors are interpersonal gain,interpersonal pay-out,self-realization,catharsis,existential factors and group cohesiveness.%目的 探讨在对强迫症患者进行团体心理治疗过程中各个疗效因子的相对重要性.方法 对符合入组标准的同时完成为期12周的团体心理治疗的30例强迫症患者,进行团体治疗疗效因子问卷的测量,对团体治疗疗效因子的重要性做出评定.结果 本研究提示在强迫症的治疗中,团体心理治疗疗效因子的相对重要性排序为:人际学习(获取)、人际学习(付出)、自我了解、宣泄、存在意识、团体凝聚力、普遍性、希望重塑、传递信息、利他性、原先家庭的矫正性重现、行为模仿.12个因子平均数方差分析差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 人际学习(获取和付出)、自我了解、宣泄、存在意识、团体凝聚力是团体治疗中相对比较重要的疗效因子.

  5. Positive Psychology Group Counseling for New Students of Higher Vocational Schools%积极心理学团体辅导对高职新生的应用研究

    叶红萍; 陆伟


    目的:探讨积极心理学团体辅导对高职新生主观幸福感的影响。方法:将50位高职新生随机分组,实验组接受为期10周、每周一次的积极心理学团体辅导,将其余学生列入等候名单,设为对照组,比较两组团体辅导前后主观幸福感有无差异,分析团体辅导中的疗效因素。结果:1)经过10周的积极心理学团体辅导后,实验组的主观幸福感各项指标均高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义。2)高职新生积极心理学团体辅导中,重要的疗效因子依次为:存在意识因子、团体凝聚力、情绪宣泄。结论:积极心理学团体辅导能有效提高高职学生的主观幸福感,存在意识、团体凝聚力和情感宣泄是积极心理学团体辅导发挥积极影响的重要因素。%Objective To investigate the effectiveness of positive psychology group counseling on the subjective well-being of new students of vocational institute.Methods:50 new students of vocational institute were randomized to Positive Psychology Group Counseling as experiment group or waiting list as control group for an 10-week observation.Index of well-being were administered to compare independently both at baseline and at the end of 10th week.The important therapeutic factor was also suryeyed.Result:1)Compared to control group,after 10-week positive psychology group counseling,index of well-being of the experiment group is significantly higher.2)The important therapeutic factors in positive psychology group counseling were existential factors,group cohesiveness,catharsis.Conclu sion:Positive psychology group counseling can heighten the subjective well-being of new students of vocational institute.Existential factors,group cohesiveness,catharsis play significant role in positive psychology group counseling.

  6. 心理健康视角下的大学生失业群体问题研究%A Study of Unemployed Graduate College Students From Mental Health View

    常保瑞; 方建东


    在职业危机面前,大学生失业群体面临巨大的心理应激,表现在心理健康方面主要为孤独感、焦虑、抑郁、低自尊、偏激、攻击行为和非理性情绪宣泄等方面,他们在承受生活窘困、身心痛苦的同时也可能对社会产生一些负面影响。因此,对失业大学生应该进行心理辅导,建立社会支持体系、注重预防的工作机制。%Under career crisis unemployed graduate college students face severe stress,which is loneliness,anxiety,depression,low self-esteem,crankiness,Aggressive behavior and Irrational emotion catharsis in mental health.They may have some negative impacts on the society as bearing living embarrassment mental and physical pain.We must set up a system of management on stress and social support and psychological communication.

  7. Swearing: A Biopsychosocial Perspective

    Ad J.J.M. Vingerhoets


    Full Text Available Swearing, also known as cursing, can be best described as a form of linguistic activity utilizing taboo words to convey the expression of strong emotions. Although swearing and cursing are frequently occurring behaviors, the actual functions of swearing remain largely unknown. Since swearing typically includes taboo words, these words can be more powerful than non-swear words. Therefore, people who swear are often judged negatively, because the uttered swearwords can shock and disturb others, though the comments of others are strongly dependent on contextual factors. In this review, we provide an insight into the current state of the literature with respect to the interpersonal functions of swearing. In addition, we briefly discuss neurological, psychosocial and contextual factors that may contribute to person’s swearing behavior. Swearing is hypothesized to produce a catharsis-effect, which results in a relief of stress or pain. Swearing also influences the perceived credibility, intensity, and persuasiveness of the swearer. Additionally, swearing can have a variety of interpersonal consequences, including promoting group bonding and solidarity, inhibiting aggression, eliciting humor, and causing emotional pain to others. This paper further presents a hypothetical model of swearing that draws from basic emotion research in an attempt to provide a scaffolding for future research.

  8. Evaluations of the quality of coping reported by prisoners who have self-harmed and those who have not.

    Dear, G E; Slattery, J L; Hillan, R J


    Yufit and Bongar (1992) argued that a deficiency in coping skills is an important risk factor for suicidal behavior. Dear, Thomson, Hall, and Howells (1998) found that prisoners who had self-harmed in the past 3 days were less likely than a comparison group to have used problem-solving or active cognitive coping strategies to handle the most significant stressor of the past week, but it was not clear whether this represented a difference in the quality of coping responses used. In this study, three groups of blind raters (prisoners, prison officers, and forensic psychologists) rated the coping responses of the participants in Dear et al.'s study. The coping responses of self-harmers were judged less beneficial and more risky. Problem-solving strategies were most often cited as contributing to beneficial outcomes and the catharsis strategies employed by self-harmers were most often judged to be counterproductive. It remains unclear whether prisoners who self-harmed routinely employ poor quality coping strategies or if they simply used poor quality coping on this occasion. PMID:11775719

  9. Art and Psychosis

    Sarafis P.


    Full Text Available Aim: The interpretation of the special paint language of psychotics in order to understand of what he couldcommunicate and the way he shows his urge to build again reality, compose his ego again and to verify the fears andthreats that he feels. The purpose of this literature review is to investigate the ways that mental health nursing can useexpression through art therapeutically in order to lead to catharsis. Material-Method: a bibliographic review isattempted for the therapeutic implications and approaches of mental health nursing using art. The literature reviewwas carried out in a systematic way in electronic databases, but also through number of books and articles in Greekand international psychiatric and medical periodicals.Results: Art therapy offers a mirror to the feelings and thoughts.Giving format in sentiments through the image is a step towards achieving control over them. Art is a dialect of a greatvalue that could be used to transfer sometimes the unexespressed and to transmit vibrations and tragedies of thedepth of human life.Conclusions: This bibliographic review will lead mental health nurses to discover new ways ofcommunication and to enrich their capabilities to provide holistic, qualitative, individual care in mental patient. Arthelps person to find new solutions and gives life to the dead energy in order internal feelings and individualexperiences to be expressed to the outside world.

  10. 音乐干预对高职学生负性情绪的影响研究%Study on the Influences of Music Intervention to the Negative Emotions of Vocational Students



    Music has various mental efficiencies, such as transfer, catharsis, infection. By means of music intervention to higher vocational students’negative emotions to positive effect; the paper proves that it can achieve the goal of slowing students’negative emotions. 80 freshmen are selected in this experiment, and they are divided into two groups equally. The intervention group is interfered by means of music intervention, while the control group adopts the conventional music teaching method. The SCL-90 scales is used to measure the two groups’level of negative emotions. After 8 weeks, it shows that music intervention can effectively reduce the vocational students’level of negative emotions.%本实验共选取80名高职一年级新生,分为人数相等的两组进行对比研究。干预组采用音乐干预手段,对照组采用常规音乐教学手段,通过为期8周的实验,采用SCL-90等量表来测量两组学生的负性情绪水平。研究结果表明,音乐干预能够有效降低高职学生的负性情绪水平。

  11. An Inquiry into Middle School Students' Emotional Management%中学生情绪管理探析



    情绪是影响中学生生活、学习和人际交往的重要因素,情绪管理有助于中学生保持良好的情绪状态,有利于中学生的身心健康。因此,应加强对中学生情绪管理能力的培养,尤其要重视对中学生的认知调控能力、情绪宣泄能力、对象转移能力等方面能力的培养。%Emotion is an important factor in affecting students' life, learning and interpersonal communications, and emotional management can help middle school students to maintain good emotional state,physical and mental health.Therefore,students should strengthen emotional management ability,with particular emphasis on the students' cognitive control, emotional catharsis capabilities, object transfer ability and so on.

  12. Individual differences in motives, preferences, and pathology in video games: The gaming attitudes, motives, and experiences scales (GAMES

    Joseph eHilgard


    Full Text Available A new measure of individual habits and preferences in video game use is developed in order to better study the risk factors of pathological game use (i.e., excessively frequent or prolonged use, sometimes called game addiction. This measure was distributed to internet message boards for game enthusiasts and to college undergraduates. An exploratory factor analysis identified 9 factors: Story, Violent Catharsis, Violent Reward, Social Interaction, Escapism, Loss-Sensitivity, Customization, Grinding, and Autonomy. These factors demonstrated excellent fit in a subsequent confirmatory factor analysis, and, importantly, were found to reliably discriminate between inter-individual game preferences (e.g., Super Mario Brothers as compared to Call of Duty. Moreover, three factors were significantly related to pathological game use: the use of games to escape daily life, the use of games as a social outlet, and positive attitudes towards the steady accumulation of in-game rewards. The current research identifies individual preferences and motives relevant to understanding video game players’ evaluations of different games and risk factors for pathological video game use.

  13. On the Wechat and Moral Education%浅议微信与高校德育



    随着智能手机的普及,微信逐渐占据网络社交媒介的主导地位,微信不仅给大学生提供了交流、宣泄和学习的平台,也对大学生的人格和道德带来一定的影响.微信正深刻地影响着大学生的人生观、世界观和价值观,既给高校德育带来了挑战也带来了一定的机遇.如何利用微信实现对大学生道德教育的实效性,成为高校德育工作者面临的重要课题.%With the popularity of smart phones, Wechat is occupying the dominant position of social media. Wechat brings a platform for college students to chat, catharsis and study, and brings influence for students' personality and ethics. Wechat is having a profound impact on the college students' life, world outlook and values. It brings both opportunity and challenge. How to use wechat to realize college students' moral education becomes a major issue for educators.

  14. Attempts to Save Tragedy in the 19th Century

    Alicja Przybyszewska


    Full Text Available The article outlines the issue of genre-transformation of tragedy in 19th-century Polish drama. The fundamental question is tragedy’s potential after liberation from the most important structural categories of the genre: the three unities, catharsis and anagnorisis. The discussion on the 19th-century patterns of tragedy, derived from contemporary theory, criticism, and theatrical production, are based on research by Marek Dybizbański, who presented an interesting analysis of the problem, which was an important indicator of contemporary literary thought, in his study called Tragedia polska drugiej połowy XIX wieku — wzorce i odstępstwa [The Polish Tragic Drama in Late 19th Century — Patterns and Divergence]. The issues discussed were: disproportion between expectations and effects, indicated by repertoires and contemporary debate on drama, lack of standard productions of tragedy, matched by great surplus of texts that tried to set the standard, and by programmatic declarations on how to do it. The author, following Dybizbański’s discussion, focuses on the question why the 19th century in Poland was, for tragedy, a lost time.

  15. El desempeño de grupos con responsabilidad personal

    Alberto Alexander S.


    Full Text Available En este ensayo he identificado varias bases para poder interaccionar entre los miembros de un grupo. En particular he sugerido que una manera que he denominado el grupo de responsabilidad personal, permite a los participantes la posibilidad de experimentar libertad y responsabilidad, dos características valiosísimas en el potencial humano. He sugerido también un número de conceptos y técnicas que podrían usar un conjunto de personas, que deseen funcionar bajo la base de responsabilidad personal . REFERENCIAS Berne, E. Transactional analysis in psychotherapy. Nueva York: Grove Press, 1961. Deutsch, M., y Krauss, R. M. Studies of interpersonal bargaining. [ournal 01 Conilict Resoluiion, 1962, 6, 52-76. Di Marco, N. Life style, work group structure, compatibility, and job satisfaction. Academy 01 Management [ournal, 1975, 18, !l1!l-!l22. Gibb, J. R. Defensive communication. ]ournal 01 Comrmmication, 1961, 11, 141-148. Gordon, T. Parent eitectioeness training. Nueva York: New American Library, 1970. Freud, S. The interpretation 01 dreams. Traducido del alemán. Nueva York: Avon Books, 1965. Heider, J. Catharsis in encounter. [oumal 01 Humanistic Psychology, 1974, U, 27-48.

  16. Network Literature: Moving towards Maturity --A Comparative Study of City of Masks and Please Forgive Me%网络文学:从青涩走向成熟——小说《蒙面之城》和《网逝》创作比较



    The existence and development of network literature fits the needs of emotional communication and catharsis in our life. As a representative piece of the early works of network literature, City of Masks breaks away from the common failing of network literature catering to vulgar tastes through the author' s successful characterization. Meanwhile, Please Forgive Me is one of the recent representatives of network literature. The two network literary works stand out among their peers, with the latter surpassing the former in terms of characterization, ideological content, artistic representation, storyline crafting, etc.%《蒙面之城》是网络文学的前期作品,它摆脱网络文学低俗化的通病,走向成熟,其标志在于较为成功地塑造了人物性格。《网逝》是网络文学的近期作品,如果说《蒙面之城》超越一般的网络文学作品,那么《网逝》从人物形象、思想性、艺术手法、故事情节等方面较之《蒙面之城》更胜一筹。

  17. Clinical results of virtual colonoscopy

    With increasing emphasis among the medical community on the early diagnosis and staging of colorectal cancer, interest has grown in CT colonography as a developing technique to challenge existing methods such as the barium enema and conventional colonoscopy. First introduced in 1994, CT colonography has experienced dramatic improvements in both hardware and software capabilities, resulting in shorter scanning times, greater user-friendliness and promising performance statistics. The recent development in multi-slice CT scanners has meant the ability to scan patients in a single breath hold, while innovations in image reconstruction and manipulation have optimised and yet greatly simplified study interpretation. Recent imaging protocols that use IV contrast to stage known or suspected colorectal cancer have been described. Current interest has focused on improving patient acceptance of the technique through the development of faecal tagging agents to avoid full bowel catharsis. This review summarises the development of CT colonography to date, evaluates its applications and performance in the detection and screening of colorectal polyps and looks at future directions of this exciting technique. (orig.)

  18. Bibliotherapy: the therapeutic use of didactic and literary texts in treatment, diagnosis, prevention, and training.

    Silverberg, Lawrence I


    The term bibliotherapy has been defined by Russell and Shrodes as "a process of dynamic interaction between the personality of the reader and literature--an interaction which may be used for personality assessment, adjustment, and growth." In the clinical setting, the dynamics that promote change in a patient-reader can include identification, projection, introjection, catharsis, and insight. Clinicians may use bibliotherapy as a tool for patient treatment, medical diagnosis, and the prevention of illness related to psychosocial dysfunction, allowing for gradual and mutual insight into patient complaints over time. Bibliotherapy may display efficacy on intellectual, psychosocial, interpersonal, emotional, and behavioral levels. The author identifies two basic types of resources that are useful to clinicians administering bibliotherapy: didactic texts, which are instructive, and imaginative literature, which can be a literary text, biography, or autobiography and fosters an imaginative response from the patient-reader. The author identifies the advantages and risks of using bibliotherapy and explores its possible applications in osteopathic medical education, encouraging osteopathic medical educators to familiarize themselves with this treatment modality. PMID:12665221

  19. Individual differences in motives, preferences, and pathology in video games: the gaming attitudes, motives, and experiences scales (GAMES).

    Hilgard, Joseph; Engelhardt, Christopher R; Bartholow, Bruce D


    A new measure of individual habits and preferences in video game use is developed in order to better study the risk factors of pathological game use (i.e., excessively frequent or prolonged use, sometimes called "game addiction"). This measure was distributed to internet message boards for game enthusiasts and to college undergraduates. An exploratory factor analysis identified 9 factors: Story, Violent Catharsis, Violent Reward, Social Interaction, Escapism, Loss-Sensitivity, Customization, Grinding, and Autonomy. These factors demonstrated excellent fit in a subsequent confirmatory factor analysis, and, importantly, were found to reliably discriminate between inter-individual game preferences (e.g., Super Mario Brothers as compared to Call of Duty). Moreover, three factors were significantly related to pathological game use: the use of games to escape daily life, the use of games as a social outlet, and positive attitudes toward the steady accumulation of in-game rewards. The current research identifies individual preferences and motives relevant to understanding video game players' evaluations of different games and risk factors for pathological video game use. PMID:24058355

  20. Aggression, anger and violence in South Africa

    M.J. Masango


    Full Text Available This article traces the roots of aggression, anger and violence in South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper is divided into four parts: Aggression, Anger, Catharsis and Violence. As a result of violence against other human beings, especially women and children, a profound respect for human dignity has been lost. People have become extremely aggressive. The last few decades have created a culture of violence because of the suppression or oppression of feelings. The article argues that frustration yields anger that leads to violent acts. The root cause of violence is frustration, which finally (if not attended to produces anger, anxiety, conflict and the eruption of violence. Suicide bombers in Palestine and other parts of the world demonstrate this type of aggression, anger and violence. Anger, on the one hand, is a good defense mechanism. It helps people cope with frustration. Violence, on the other hand, is used as a means of dominance, especially against women and children. In a political situation it is used as a means of changing social structures.

  1. Integrating African and Western healing practices in South Africa.

    Straker, G


    Through a detailed analysis of a dream shared by three adolescent girls suffering from PTSD, this paper has outlined many similarities between an African and a Western understanding of their symptoms. It has shown how both systems would acknowledge these symptoms to be a function of: (a) the breaching of stimulus boundaries; (b) the existence of survivor guilt; (c) the phenomenon of frozen mourning. It has illustrated further how many factors considered to be part of Western psychotherapy, e.g., (a) catharsis following an emotional reliving of the traumatic event; (b) re-ordering of perceptions following insight; (c) fostering hope for the future following a re-establishment of continuity with the past, may be promoted while interpreting dreams within the traditional meanings ascribed to them by an African healing framework. That is, it has been shown how these elements may be fostered while working within the African belief that dreams are not the manifestation of intrapsychic conflict but communications from ancestral spirits concerning interpersonal duties that need to be fulfilled. Finally this paper has illustrated the importance of therapists developing a general appreciation of myths and metaphors. PMID:7992875

  2. Care of the comatose patient: building mutual staff values.

    Hofmann, P B; Smoot, F L


    Recognizing individuals' value differences is important to the success of health teams that care for comatose patients, since decisions to withhold or withdraw life-support treatment may lead to conflicts among team members. Such conflicts can adversely affect professional and family relationships. For example, health care personnel cannot work together in harmony or help the family effectively if they disagree about treatment decisions. Although institutional procedures for "do not resuscitate" orders, the treatment of incompetent patients, and other complex issues are helpful, they rarely address value conflicts, which inevitably influence a problem's resolution. Staff members therefore must acknowledge and confront differences they have faced. Such reflection enables catharsis as well as reconciliation of unresolved conflict and permits the group to develop guidelines for future situations. A fictional case also may be used to help work groups gain an understanding of the need for community. Ideally, the team members will sharpen their decision-making skills and gain the confidence to make tough choices in an imperfect, unpredictable world. PMID:10271501

  3. 大学生对突发公共事件微博网络舆情的认知%A Study of College Students'Online Opinion on Emergency lncidents

    袁晓浩; 谭顺霞; 常进


    在微博新媒体时代下,大学生上网方式、使用时长、表达方式与以往都有较大改变。面对突发公共事件网络舆情,大学生群体通过微博平台,其心理认知具体表现为片面仇官仇富与质疑、逆反宣泄、娱乐消遣等。大学生群体对突发网络舆情的舆情主体、对象、基础以及政府调控都有不同的体认。%In the era New Media,Weibo has changed not only the way college students get online,but also the time they spend online and the way they express themselves.Opinions college students ex-press via Weibo on public incidents show that they tend to harbor negative feelings like one-sided ha-tred for government officials or the rich,skepticism,rebellious catharsis or simple amusement.Col-lege students as a group have different views about the subject,the object and the foundation of public incidents and about the government control.

  4. [The present conditions and future of National Sanatorium Kikuchi Keifuen].

    Nogami, Reiko


    National Sanatorium Kikuchi Keifuen (NSKK), housing 286 residents as of May 2015, is one of the biggest and oldest Hansen's disease sanatoriums in Japan. Located near the center of Kumamoto city, NSKK has maintained an excellent working relationship with Kumamoto University along with other neighboring medical institutions over the years. However, despite its advantages in standing, it may suffer the same problems as other sanatoriums: continually declining numbers of residents combined with the increasing frailty and dementia of existing residents due to aging and an increasing difficulty in maintaining a competent medical staff into the future. By placing our social exchange hall/historical museum as the focal point for the production and dissemination of information, we are producing an educational DVD that records an oral history through actual testimony on film as a cooperative effort between the residents' association and NSKK. Both perspectives are very important to verify the historical problems that Hansen's disease has encountered. One expected benefit of this project is the catharsis found in reminiscing over the past thus promoting the spiritual care of the residents; a matter which remains as a top priority in our sanatorium's "ending period". PMID:26630799

  5. A Comparison of Dying for Love Between Oriental and Occidental Drama: Taking Du Liniang and Juliet as Examples

    Rui KONG


    Full Text Available Both The Peony Pavilion and Romeo and Juliet concern similar theme of eulogizing the beautiful and passionate love of a young couple, exploring the relationship between love and death, the value and significance of lovers’ dying for love. Both heroines, Du Liniang and Juliet, dare to pursue genuine love relentlessly even sacrifice their lives for love. Liniang’s death is not the final destination, and her resurrection meets the readers’ expectation in the view of Chinese culture. Juliet’s death not only sublimates love but redeems the sin of family feud, aiming to arouse audience’s pity and fear to achieve tragic catharsis in Occidental dramas. This paper attempts to compare the two heroines’ dying for love by tracing the different stages in their love process so as to reveal the similarities of seemingly-coincident scheme and explore the reasons which cause the differences. And this may facilitate the understanding of historical and cultural background in the orient and occident.

  6. Investigation and research of self-efficacy and mental remodeling strategy of medical students%医学生自我效能感调查及心理重塑对策研究



    大学生自我效能感和人格特征关系密切,对其心理健康的影响作用显著。目前影响医学大学生心理健康因素中,人格状态是个重要的影响因子。研究发现个体的自我效能感和人格中猎奇性、躲避伤害性和奖赏依赖性等特征呈显著正相关。医学生可以通过人格塑造、合理归因和适当的情绪宣泄来提升自我效能,同时促进心理健康。%The students’ self-efficacy is related to personality characteristics, has a significant impact on the mental health effects. In the factors influencing medical college students' mental health, personality is an important influence factor. Study found that the individual self-efficacy and personality of novelty, avoiding harm and reward dependence and other characteristics have significant positive correlation. Medical students can through personality, attribution and appropriate emotional catharsis to enhance self-efficacy, while promoting mental health.

  7. The Limited Yet Eternal Life in Ceremony--A Cultural Anthropology Study on Guanzhong Funeral Ritual%在仪式中获得永生的有限存在者1--关中丧葬仪礼的文化人类学考察



    Funeral ritual is an important part of the tradition in peasant society. The decedent is well-locat⁃ed in the history of the family. Complicated rituals serve as a comfort to catharsis the sad of the family ,and the fear for dead is overcome. Certain"eternal life of the individual life"is realized in the funeral rituals.%扶风丧葬礼仪是乡民社会小传统的一个重要组成部分。在丧葬仪式中,逝者的文化身份在“血地一体”的复杂社会关系网络中得到准确定位,在繁复多样的仪式中,痛失至亲者的情感得以宣泄,并获得精神的慰藉,个体对于死亡的恐惧得到克服。丧葬仪式实现了个体生命的象征性“永生”。

  8. “And all the windows, great and small”. Finestre in Nightwood di Djuna Barnes

    Francesca Chiappini


    Full Text Available As a recurring subject and powerful symbol, the window dominates the female literary and artistic imagery of the twentieth century. It has been developed into mirror, photograph or painting, according to the writer’s needs, yet the basic shape of the frame is always retraceable. Among late modernist and postmodernist women writers, Djuna Barnes explores in detail the structural resources of this literary device. Although she already understands the potential of the frame in her early career as a journalist, she mostly challenges its extents of versatility in Nightwood (1936. Its crucial moments – either flashing epiphanies or missed catharsis – involve the physical presence of a window, which embodies a powerful narrative agent; more than mere symbol, it is active at several levels. Thematically, doors and windows, pictures and mirrors, play an important cohesive role. At a deeper stage of analysis, the structure of the novel itself is shored up by doors and windows, since the setting is essentially organized into indoors and outdoors scenes; windows and doors allow the characters to move between these two dimensions. On the metaphorical level, windows and doors represent a communicative channel; a room-door opening suggests the access to one’s inner life, whereas a shut window denies any chance of dialogue. However, all the characters seem to be too absorbed by their obsessions to realize such communicative potential, and rather meander uselessly in their mental frames.

  9. 流行音乐及其情感表达刍议%Discussion on Popular Music and Its Emotional Expression



    Pop music as a form of music is concerned about the individual’ s emotions and feelings and growth and life, while it has become the means of the emotional release and publicity of life.Its content is featured non-mainstream, entertainment, com-mercial, fashion and cultural diversity, and these features prompted the pop music into the zone of emotional catharsis.Pop tunes e-voke audience’ s spiritual pleasure and rich lyrics publicizes people’ s inner world.%流行音乐作为音乐的一种现代表达形式,关注人的情绪与情感、成长与生活,成为目前很多人情感宣泄、张扬生命的方式。它具有内容非主流性、娱乐性、商品性、流行性以及多元文化性等特征,而这些特征促使了流行音乐成为人的情感宣泄地带。流行音乐的曲调唤起了听众精神上的愉悦,丰富的歌词张扬了不同人的内心世界。

  10. 从阴阳失调辨治失眠%Treating Insomnia from Imbalance of Yin and Yang

    谷凌云; 王蕴伶; 查青山


    中医药治疗失眠具有副作用小、消除症状快、临床疗效好等优势。失眠的病因病机:眠为阴,醒为阳,阳气重则醒,阴气重则眠,正常的睡眠是阴阳运行平衡的结果,心肾不交、脾胃不和、肝失疏泄、肺失宣降等导致阴阳的失调而引起失眠。无论病因虚实,均致阴阳失调,才是失眠的关键所在。%Chinese medicine treatment of insomnia have side effects,rapid elimination of symptoms,the clinical efficacy and good advantage. Pathogenesis of insomnia:sleep is yin,yang awake,yang weight is awake,chi while in sleep,normal sleep is the result of running balance of yin and yang,heart and kidney,stomach and liver failure catharsis,lung failure declared down as a result of the imbalance of yin and yang and cause insomnia. Regardless of cause actual situation,are caused by imbalance of yin and yang,is the key to insomnia.

  11. A Study on Emotional Healing Efficacy of Fiction for Undergraduate

    Chen Su-May Sheih


    Full Text Available In modern society, undergraduates may encounter multiple pressures and thus feel the sense of alienation, anxiety, disturbance and depression. For undergraduates, reading can be independently conducted without the intervention of an instructor; therefore, undergraduates who feel reluctant to expose private emotions to counselors can help themselves through the reading of emotional healing books. This is the application of bibliotherapy. Among various resources, fiction can serve as an appropriate emotional reading material. The researcher deployed semi-structured in-depth interview, and interviewed 21 undergraduates in Taipei City and Taipei County. This study is aimed to understand the kinds of fictions undergraduates read when they are upset and to analyze the emotional healing process of identification, catharsis, and insight so that the emotional healing efficacy can be evaluated. The findings showed that romance, realistic fiction, fantasy, martial arts novel, inspirational fiction, historical fiction, and science fiction can provide full process of emotional healing efficacy. However, detective fiction, online novel, psychological fiction, and horror fiction can only provide parts of the healing process. Besides, the healing efficacy of a specific fiction is different from reader to reader.

  12. Diferencias en el uso de las estrategias de afrontamiento, el catastrofismo y el estado de ánimo en función del tiempo de evolución del dolor crónico Coping strategies, catastrophism and mood differences depending on chronic pain duration

    A. Peñarroya Baulíes


    use of pain coping strategies depending on the time of evolution. The assessment instruments are McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ, "Strategies for Coping with Chronic Pain" (CADR, Hopital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD, Catastro-phism Scale CSQ (CSQ-C. Participants of this study are patients with chronic pain and are treated in to specialized unit. The results show that duration and patient's age are associated with the use of a passive strategy, the "catharsis". The perception of pain has a positive relationship with catastrophizing, passive strategies, anxiety and depression. Results: results obtained by comparing the average of the two groups, one with 1 to 5 years of evolution, and another 13 to 33 years, show that the group of shorter duration makes greater use of the coping strategy of catharsis and it has scored higher on catastrophizing compared to another group. Conclusion: we observe the relationship between pain and psychological variables of this study and changes that may occur in different stages of duration of pain.

  13. Phenomenological study of posttraumatic growth of severe burn patients%严重烧伤患者创伤后成长的现象学研究

    戚贵芹; 张爱华


    目的:探讨严重烧伤患者创伤后成长的维度和促进因素。方法采用现象学研究方法,对本院接受治疗的严重烧伤康复期的患者,进行目的性抽样,抽取20例患者进行半结构式深度访谈。结果创伤后成长的促进因素包括:感情宣泄,社会比较,意义应对,自我效能;分析出PTG的3个结构维度:精神寄托,欣赏生活,苦难衍生。结论此次访谈收获的烧伤患者的创伤后成长维度和促进因素与其他研究具有共同点和不同之处。%Objective To explore the dimensions and positive influences of posttraumatic growth of severe burn patients.Methods Phenomenological method was used in the study. A depth interview was conducted on 20 severe burn patients who were treated in our hospital and recruited by purposive sampling method.Results The positive influences of posttraumatic growth included emotional catharsis, social comparison, meaning response and self-efficacy. The factors which contributed to posttraumatic growth were spiritual sustenance, enjoying life and derivative sufferings.Conclusion There are common points and differences between our study and other studies on the positive influences and dimensions of posttraumatic growth of severe burn patients.

  14. Kajian Aspek Ketidaksadaran dalam Karya Seni Rupa Indonesia Periode 2000-2011

    Irma Damajanti


    thethree artists is originated in their traumatic experiences which generate fear, pain, andaggression. For them, painting is their catharsis process, the media to sublime/smoothentheir impulse of fear, pain, and aggression so that the society can accept and appreciatetheir works.

  15. On the transformation of antique stories and images in German literature of the 20th century

    Sharypina T. A.


    Full Text Available On the basis of analysis of Russian and foreign scholars, the work is aimed at studying the specificity of the transformation of antique stories and images, which is the desired model in the art of the 20th century thanks to its fluidity and unlimited variability. Actualization of antique stories and images in the works of German-language writers account for life-changing moments of social life, the periods of losing of constant moral landmarks and the periods of looking for new moral and aesthetic ideals. The analysis of the reception and transformation of mythological stories and images in the contemporary literature proves the conception of its polysemy. The built-in contradiction of myths is realized through the transformation of mythological stories and images in the literary works of contemporary writers and is explained by the individuality of writers and theirs aesthetic aims. On the one side, the absence de facto in German drama of the 20th century of interpretations of the story about Achilles and of the image of Achilles, and numerous variations on the topic of moral strivings of fearless and peccant Ulysses, on the other side, are proving the statements of classic aesthetic that the tragedy is based on the conflict, which is close to lofty and linked with the idea of dignity of the man, which is ready and capable of promoting the views of his own by the real acts that are often lead to suffer and death. According to Aristotle, the sympathy for the character leads to catharsis - the basis of education of real civic-mindedness and humanness.

  16. 大学生网络去个性化行为与内外控的关系研究%Study on the Elationship between Internet Deindividualization of College Students and Locus of Control



    Objective to understand students' network to personalized features and locus of control relationship. Methods using the Internet to individualized questionnaire and Rotter "I-E" psychological and locus of control scale survey 502 College students. Results (1) network to individual existence time, gender differences; (2) college students network to personalization in aggressive behavior, emotional catharsis, self control horizontal dimension, significant gender differences; (3) network to personalization in locus of control there were significant differences. Conclusion (1) time, gender, locus of control and other factors that affect the network to personalized important variables; (2) for men than women are more vulnerable to network attack behavior, self-control ability is low and negative performance.%目的 旨在了解大学生网络去个性化的表现特点及其与内外控的关系.方法 采用大学生网络去个性化调查问卷和罗特“I-E”心理控制源量表调查502名大学生.结果 网络去个性化存在时间、性别差异;大学生网络去个性化在攻击行为、情感宣泄、自我控制水平3维度上,呈现显著的性别差异;网络去个性化在内外控上呈显著差异.结论 时间、性别、内外控等因素是影响网络去个性化的重要变量;男生较女生更易出现网络攻击行为、自控能力低等消极表现.

  17. Humanized assistance in the terminal phase La asistencia humanizada en la fase terminal

    Tiberio Alvarez Echeverri


    Full Text Available

    Some reflections on the humanized assistance to terminal patients are presented, namely that modern Medicine considers death as a physical phenomenon resulting from a series of measurable facts but does not take into consideration the transcendental death of the person with feelings, morality and spirituality. Good listening should be offered and catharsis stimulated to allow the patient to advance from the archaic phase of suffering to that of communication and solidarity, specially through the sense of tact.

    Se presentan algunas reflexiones sobre la asistencia humanizada del paciente en fase terminal: la medicina actual considera la muerte como un fenómeno físico que resulta de una serle de hechos medibles; no se ocupa de la muerte trascendental de la persona con sentimientos, moralidad y espiritualidad. Es Importante permitir la catarsis del paciente para que pase de la fase arcaica del sufrimiento a las de comunicación y solidaridad, empleando los distintos sistemas de comunicación Interhumana, especialmente el sentido del tacto. El personal de la salud debe evitar herir los sentimientos del paciente y su familia. Se reflexiona sobre lo espiritual y 10 religioso como fuentes de humanización. ";Lo espiritual es fuerza unificada que motiva hacia la búsqueda de un significado a la existencia, que trasciende el individuo y le define la conducta a seguir";.

  18. The meaning of destruction: Definition and contextualization of disaster movies

    Tomašević Milan


    Full Text Available The disaster movie is one of the most persistent genres in cinematography, but it constantly escapes our attention because it is presented as “easy summer fun”. If we want to understand it as a cultural document of an epoch in which the genre is important and popular, we need to come up with a definition, formula and conventions of a disaster movie. Also, we must propose one of many possible comprehensions of its popularity and religious heritage. The paper uses definitions of genre, conventions and formulae in the attempt to show a way of using popular narratives in the transmission of a world view. Using a narrative structure gives us a glimpse into the deeper cultural, social and political context in which the disaster movie is created, popular or rejected. The paper discusses disaster movies as cultural artifacts, as a ritual we are practicing without remembering its purpose. Also, paper is examining identifying apocalyptic and catastrophic as an product of interposition of Apocalypse to Johan and Great Tribulation. Using apocalyptic literature, end times narratives and disaster movies, the paper shows the fruitfulness of destruction representations and imaginarium of terror. Using fear and shock, the messages of disaster movies seems more urgent and relevant. Through the ideas of Susan Sontag and Maurice Yacowar, the paper presents a way for analyzing the contemporary disaster movie. Conventions and formulae of disaster movies help us to understand the way modern cinematography is used for cultural and political means. The popularity of disaster movies can be seen as a form of ”ritualization of discontent” wherein the viewers experience some sort of catharsis. Also, disaster movie gathers different interests and actualizes thirstness for transformation of order or achieving justice. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177026

  19. The characteristics of the fear emotion enhanced regulation of the soldiers with different mental quality levels%不同心理素质水平军人恐惧情绪增强调节特点

    蒋娟; 宋新涛; 涂静; 刘可愚; 佗婷婷; 杜征; 冯正直


    Quality Questionnaire of Armymen was used to select participants from 818 armymen,screening out 30 armymen with low mental quality,30 armymen with moderate and 30 armymen with high.With elicitation of fear emotion,the participants adopted enhance emotion regulation strategies (cognition emphasis and emotion catharsis),and their blood volume pulse( BVP),skin conductance( SC ),normalized high frequency spectral component(HFnorm),standard deviation of all normal intervals(SDNN) and the recovery time of BVP and SC were recorded.Results ( 1 ) The different mental quality of army men activity in the autonomic physiological changes were not significant differences in resting state.(2) When using the cognition emphasis,the SC of different mental quality of armymen were reduced,and low mental quality of armymen( ( -0.67 ± 1.05 )μ.Ω),moderate mental quality of armymen ( ( - 0.49 ± 0.75 ) μΩ) had larger SC than high mental quality of armymen ( ( - 2.16 ± 2.18 ) μΩ ) ;high mental quality of armymen( ( - 2.17 ± 8.96) nU ) had lower HFnorm than the control( ( 6.96 ± 7.08 ) nU ).When using emotion catharsis,high mental quality of armymen ( ( 1.95 ± 6.58 ) nU ) had lower HFnorm than the control( (6.96 ±7.08)nU).(3)When using the cognition emphasis,low mental quality of armymen ((65.50 ±43.43 )s) had longer recovery time of BVP than high mental quality of armymen( (26.50 ± 25.72)s).When using emotion catharsis,low mental quality of armymen( (71.50 ± 48.36)mm Hg)had longer recovery time of BVP than high mental quality of armymen ( ( 21.00 ± 35.50 ) mm Hg) ; low mental quality of armymen ( ( 103.50 ± 38.01 ) s)had longer SC than moderate( (63.50 ±48.59)s) and high mental quality of armymen( (61.50 ±33.09) s).Conclusion The ability to regulate sympathetic in low mental quality group is weaker than the high mental quality group,although sympathetic can be suppressed when enhanced emotion regulation are adopted.

  20. The experience of emergency treatment on acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒的急救与体会



    目的:总结急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒的急救经验。方法:2011年2月-2013年12月救治急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒患者30例,对其实施救治措施。结果:本组30例患者经过救治,意识转清醒时间(1.83±1.2)天,胆碱酯酶活性恢复时间(3.2±1.6)天,住院时间(7.3±2.6)天。临床疗效:治愈29例,治愈率96.7%,死亡1例,死亡率3.3%。结论:清洗被污染的皮肤,彻底洗胃,眼污染时用微温水、2%碳酸氢钠溶液清洗,导泻,阿托品的应用以及早期足量使用氯磷定等,是急救急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒的重要措施。%Objective:To summary the experience of emergency treatment on acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods:30 cases with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were selected from February 2011 to December 2013. They were treated with first aid measures.Results:After treatment,the average time of 30 cases from consciousness turned to clear was(1.83 ± 1.2)days.Cholinesterase recovery time was(3.2 ± 1.6)days.Hospitalization time was(7.3 ± 2.6)days.Clinical curative effect:29 cases were cured,and the cure rate was 96.7%.1 cases died,and the mortality was 3.3%.Conclusion: There are important measures for emergency treatment on acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,including:washing the contaminated skin,complete gastric lavage,If eye pollution cleaning its with lukewarm water and 2% sodium bicarbonate solution,catharsis, atropine application,early and adequate use of pralidoxime chloride poisoning.

  1. Religious Feelings and Psychological Guidance of Public Opinions in New Stories about Social Incidents%突发事件报道中的宗教情感与舆论的心理引导



    宗教问题历来是新闻报道中最为敏感和复杂的政治话题之一,近年来各种与宗教相关的社会突发事件、社会热点事件不断发生,使得这些事件中的舆论引导问题成了大众传媒、宗教媒体比较棘手、需要迫切解决的重要课题,当前学术界相应的研究也显现不足。本文认为,具有偏执和妄想特征的宗教情感是一种特殊的群体心理,在突发事件或一定刺激下表现得更加强烈,传播者在坚持宗教禁忌报道的“恪守”原则等基础上,可以从归属、认同、怂动、凝聚四个方面加大舆论的感性心理引导,在满足其心理慰藉和情感宣泄的同时,能更有效地化解矛盾,使其宗教情感朝着更为平和与高尚、和谐与积极的方向发展。%Religion problem has always been one of the most complex and politically sensitive topics in the news reports. In recent years, a variety of social emergencies and social hot events associated with religion occur continu- ously. How to effectively guide the public opinion is more difficult and important issue in the mass media and reli- gion media. And the academic research also shows lack of corresponding. The article thinks religious feeling is a kind of special crowd psychology, with paranoid and delusional features. And it is more intense when emergencies and certain stimulation happened. So media should not only strictly follow the varieties of report principles, but also they can strengthen psychological guidance from the ownership, identity, encourage, condensed. It can meet the needs of the crowd psychological comfort and emotional catharsis, at the same time it can effectively resolve contra- dictions and can make the religious emotion toward a more peaceful, noble, harmonious, positive development.

  2. Voix-off et silences chez Isabel Coixet

    Silvina Bénévent González


    Full Text Available Le recours presque systématique de la voix-off chez Isabel Coixet laisse présupposer une unité de sens qui reste à démontrer. L'originalité de A los que aman (1997, La vida secreta de las palabras (2005 et El mapa de los sonidos de Tokio (2009apparaît dans leur capacité à montrer une voix qui semble incarner la présence mais renvoie paradoxalement à l’absence. De fait, on pourra s'interroger sur l'acte de parole comme véritable lien entre le corps et le code quand la voix-off complète une confession salvatrice et révèle le sens du vécu. En effet, entre mémoire et prise de conscience, la voix-off dit surtout la douleur de la situation traumatique. Mais est-elle pour autant l'instrument de la catharsis ?El empleo casi sistemático de la voz en off en la obra de Isabel Coixet ofrece una unidad de sentido que incita a buscar más allá. La originalidad de tres películas en concreto - A los que aman (1997, La vida secreta de las palabras (2005 et El mapa de los sonidos de Tokio (2009- emerge de su capacidad a mostrar una voz que parece remitir a una presencia y sin embargo remite paradójicamente a una ausencia. De hecho, cabe interrogarnos sobre este acto de palabra que conlleva una verdadera unión del cuerpo y del código cuando la voz en off completa una confesión que ha de salvar y revela pues el sentido de lo vivido. En efecto entre memoria y toma de conciencia, la voz en off confiesa sobre todo el dolor del trauma. ¿ Apunta entonces tal proceso a la catarsis inadvertida en la confesión ?

  3. 网络对大学生情感的相关影响探讨%Impact of Internet to the Emotion of College Students



    In the contemporary studying and living of college students, in an increasingly wide range of network applications, but also for the formation and development of their emotional also had varying degrees of impact. In the information age, and exchange students through the network means more than catharsis, but not with relatives, teachers, friends, students exchanges in the real world is gradually reduced, which is not conducive to healthy emotional development of students, some students may even lead to of negative, pessimistic, lazy and other bad feelings, so in the future in higher education, the education sector must be network-related emotional impact on college students as an important research topic, and in practice, constantly sum up experience and accumulated to promote the comprehensive development of contemporary college students.%在当代大学生的学习和生活中,网络的应用日趋广泛,而且对他们情感的形成与发展也产生了不同程度的影响。在网络信息时代,大学生的情感交流和宣泄多是通过网络途径,而与亲人、老师、朋友、同学在现实中的交流在逐渐减少,这不利于大学生情感的健康发展,甚至有可能导致部分大学生出现消极、悲观、不思进取等不良情感。因此,在今后的高校教育中,广大教育工作者必须将网络对大学生情感的相关影响作为重要研究课题之一,并且在实践中不断总结和积累经验,以促进当代大学生的全面发展。

  4. Early alcoholism treatment: the Emmanuel Movement and Richard Peabody.

    McCarthy, K


    felt that relaxation, suggestion and catharsis were important. Unlike the E. Movement, he regarded the unconscious as an obstacle. His method was also less spiritual. His philosophy seemed to have been derived from the mind-cure movement, including New Thought; he was not interested in the body. The fact that the practitioners of the Emmanuel and Peabody methods were not physicians is discussed. The treatment success of both methods is unclear. PMID:6366377

  5. A Study of Undergraduates' Psychological Status on College Desk Culture%大学生课桌文化的心理现状研究



    This paper analyses college desk culture, applying opened questionnaire and content analysis method, to explore undergraduates' psychological status. The results revealed that eight psychological types were indicated from it: pondering on the meaning of life ( F1 ), groping for love and puzzling ( F2), undecided ( F3 ), the view of sex (F4), the dissatisfaction to the school, judging themselves and others (F6), boring catharsis (F7), learn and test anxiety (F8) . The diversity of eight psychological types was significance, and thereinto, it reflected the obvious of F1, F2, F7 and F8. Furthermore, there were great divergence among the different psychological characteristics of the types, and the same situation arose from the common study rooms and the rooms for postgraduate exam preparation.%运用开放式问卷和内容分析法对课桌文化进行分析,以此探究大学生的心理现状。结果表明:大学生课桌文化体现在八种心理类型:思索人生的意义型(F1)、情爱探索与困惑型(F2)、自我迷茫型(F3)、对性的看法型(F4)、对学校的不满型(F5)、评价他人与自我型(F6)、无聊宣泄型(F7)、学习与考试焦虑型(F8)。各种心理类型的差异非常显著,其中Fl、F2、F7和礴体现明显。此外,除无聊宣泄型外,其他类型的心理特征的差异显著;一般与考研教室的课桌文化的心理类型差异非常显著。

  6. The Chinese Logic and Governance of Government Network Crisis of Public Opinion---Analysis from Perspective of Netizens%政府网络舆论危机形成的中国逻辑及其治理--一种基于网民视角的分析



    政府网络舆论危机是全球风险社会下中国社会结构紧张长期诱发的结果。处在中国社会急剧变迁中的普通网民,不单是政府网络舆论危机的发动主体,更是中国经验最为直接的感知者,因而,从普通网民视角探求政府网络舆论危机形成的中国逻辑具有合理性。政府网络舆论危机的形成,体现了网民“理性”和“非理性”言论相互交织的特点,在逻辑上具体包括利益表达逻辑、逼迫回应逻辑、群体极化逻辑、抗争动员逻辑以及情感宣泄逻辑等;在治理上,政府及相关部门应坚持利益共享、制度表达、公信修复、信息公开、网络盟友、话语引领及真诚沟通等原则,这才是政府网络舆论危机的标本并治之道。%Government network crisis is a long-term result of Chinese social structure tension in the global risky society. Ordinary netizens, in the rapid changed Chinese society, are not only the government�s main launched body of network media crisis, but also the most direct perceiver of Chinese experience. Thus, from the perspective of ordinary netizens, it is reasonable to explore the network of public opinion crisis. The forma-tion of Government network public opinion crisis reflects the netizens�“rational” and“irrational” speech inter-twined characteristics, including expression of interest logic, forced response logic, group polarization logic, protest mobilization logic and emotional catharsis logic; in governance, government and relevant departments should adhere to shared interests, the expression system, the public trust repair, information disclosure, net-work allies, discourse leading principles and sincere communication, and this is solution to government network opinion crisis.

  7. Размышления о божественной литургии: границы театральности в творчестве Н. В. Гоголя | Dieviškosios liturgijos apmąstymai: teatrališkumas Nikolajaus Gogolio kūryboje | Meditations on the divine liturgy: boundaries of the theatricality in the creative work of Nikolay Gogol

    Inga Vidugirytė


    Full Text Available Meditatons on the divine liturgy: boundaries of the theatricality in the creative work of Nikolay GogolInga VidugirytėSummary The purpose of the present article is to demonstrate the theatricality of Gogol’s Meditations on the Divine Liturgy. Theatricality is “the language of theatre as art”, as Jurij Lotman has stated. Phillis Hartnoll points out three aspects, viz. an actor, a dialogue, and a spectator, that separate theatre from its origins – the ritual. The birth of the spectator seems to Lotman and to Boris Uspenskij to be the decisive factor to establish a situation of the performance. The visuality of the performance is the main feature of theatre as art.There are three presumptions Gogol has about liturgy: (1 liturgy is a dramatic form of the evangelical plot, (2 the forms of worship in liturgy are so perfect that watching them is enough to understand the meaning of the ritual, (3 in liturgy, it is possible to achieve the unity of souls and feelings of all participants of the ritual. Gogol presents liturgy as performance. The narrative is based on separate scenes with clearly marked beginnings and ends. Gogol even renders intonations of dialogues between a priest and a deacon. The motif of performing distinguishes Gogol’s work from his predecessors.The only point of view in the text is from the outside. The narrator is one of the spectators of liturgical performance. On the other hand, the narrator is also a participator of the worship. Gogol shows the effect the performance makes on people and also renders their praying. Taking the sacrament is described as catharsis and in the same terms as Aristotle has done, viz. the horror and the purging. So even at this moment the theatrical nature of liturgy is retained.In the context of the Gogol’s discourse of theatre, liturgy seems to be the ideal performance. One can presuppose that the writer’s wish to explain the role of the theatre has ended with describing the most

  8. The Serum Levels of AT-Ⅱ, NO and Hcy of Healthy University Students in Four Seasons and Their Correlation With Neuroticism and Life Events%健康大学生血清血管紧张素Ⅱ、一氧化氮、同型半胱氨酸水平的四时观测及其与神经质、生活事件的关联性研究

    韦昱; 唐利龙; 邓华亮; 赵勇; 吴昊; 郑敏; 赵燕


    Objective To investigate the changing laws of serum levels of AT-Ⅱ, NO and Hcy of healthy university students in four seasons , and to study the correlation between the three indicators and neuroticism and life events .Methods From December 2011 to October 2012, we enrolled 308 healthy sophomore students in the universities of traditional Chinese medicine in Beijing , Shandong and Shanxi .Self-designed questionnaire of health condition , EPQ-RSC and self -administrated scale of adolescent life events were used to conduct survey on physical and psychological health condition .Three days before and after winter solstice , spring equinox , summer solstice and autumn equinox , the levels of serum AT-Ⅱ, NO and Hcy were measured, and the levels of healthy university students with different conditions of neuroticism and life events were analyzed.Results At last, 307 university students were included after the exclusion of one female student in Beijing who didn ′t finish the survey due to sick rest .According to the score of neuroticism in EPQ-RSC and life event , the students were divided into group of low neuroticism and low life event (group A, n=41) and group of high neuroticism and high life event (group, n=34) .These healthy students were significantly different in the levels of serum AT-Ⅱ, NO and Hcy (P0.05); the two groups were different in the amplitude of variation and changing trend of the levels of AT-Ⅱ, NO and Hcy in the four seasons; B group had more cases with emotions like depression and preference for sighing and body discomfort , which resembled the symptoms of insufficient liver catharsis in TCM .Conclusion The serum levels of AT-Ⅱ, NO and Hcy have changing laws with the four seasons .The three indicators have close correlation with neuroticism and life events.From the prospective of TCM , the phenomenon may be related with the catharsis function of liver .%目的 了解健康大学生血清血管紧张素Ⅱ (AT-Ⅱ)、 一氧化氮 (NO

  9. Hanford's Battle with Nuclear Waste Tank SY-101: Bubbles, Toils, and Troubles

    people, from pervasive misconception to grand insight, near miss to sweeping success, meddling interference to close teamwork, all on an uncommonly large scale. It was a necessary catharsis that transformed the entire Hanford culture from a closed defense production operation to an open environmental cleanup project. Its tight project discipline and close teamwork became the Hanford standard. The final remediation of SY-101 placed second in an international ''project of the year'' competition. Many consider SY-101 work the peak of their careers and measure all other experience by it. SY-101 defines some of the worst and the best of Hanford history. This book attempts to narrate and explain the whole vast story

  10. Vigotski e o teatro: descobertas, relações e revelações Vygotsky y el teatro: descubrimientos, relaciones laborales y revelaciones Vygotsky and theatre: findings, relationships and discoveries

    Edlucia Robelia Oliveira de Barros


    aims to reveal the partial results of ongoing research that investigates the deep relationship of the writings of psychologist Lev S. Vygotsky (1896 - 1934 with the theatrical art. It presents data on the biography of the author, as a matter of him having been in youth, lover, reader of dramatic works, director and actor. Experiences that contributed to its formation and are expressed in productions such as The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark (1968, which has strong influences of the show Hamlet (1911, directed by Gordon Craig and Stanislavsky. Moreover, the text displays brief comments about the works of Vygotsky, among these, Psychology of Art (1965 that provides a notion of aesthetic reception based on contradictory catharsis. Data that are expanding knowledge and interpretations about the life and work of the Russian psychologist, as well as studies regarding his relationship with the theater.

  11. Personality characteristics of patients with male climacteric syndrome%男性更年期综合征患者性格特征及应对方式



    Objective To explore the personality characteristics of patients with male climacteric syndrome and summarize the coping styles.Method 32 patients with male climacteric syndrome involved in the investigation of personality characteristics and coping styles by Eysenck Personality Questionnaire(EPQ).As a control,another 32 healthy subjects were enrolled for the controlled investigation.Results In the climacteric syndrome group,the scores on extraversion(E)was significantly lower than that of the control group,the scores on neuroticism(N)and lie(L)were significantly higher than the control group(P<0.01).In the climacteric syndrome group,the scores on active coping style was significantly lower than those of the control group and the scores on negative coping style score were significantly higher than those in the control group(P<0.01).Conclusions The patients with male climacteric syndrome is characterized with incomplete catharsis and emotional lability.They tend to suppress their negative emotions and take passive coping styles.%  目的探讨男性更年期综合征患者个性特征及应对方式。方法采用艾森克人格问卷(eysenck personality questionnaire,EPQ)和简易应对方式量表对32例男性更年期综合征患者进行性格特征和应对方式调查,并选择32例健康人进行对比。了解男性更年期综合征患者性格特征及应对方式状况。结果更年期综合征组中内外向(E)维度得分明显低于对照组,情绪稳定性(N)维度及掩饰性(L)维度得分明显高于对照组,两组比较,差异具有统计学意义,(均P<0.01);更年期综合征组患者积极应对方式得分明显低于对照组,消极应对方式得分明显高于对照组,两组比较,差异具有统计学意义,(均P<0.01)。结论男性更年期综合征患者具有不完善的宣泄和情绪不稳定性,过分压抑自己的负性情绪特点,而且倾向于采取消极的应对方式。

  12. Effects of Chinese rhubarb combined with Smecta in treatment of ;organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%两组用药清除有机磷农药中毒肠道毒物的临床观察



    目的:探讨大黄、思密达与硫酸镁、漂白土在治疗急性有机磷农药中毒的疗效。方法将76例口服有机磷中毒的重度患者随机均分2组。两组均给予彻底洗胃、适量应用长托宁及阿托品解毒,氯磷定复能剂等综合常规治疗。A组(治疗组)应用大黄导泻、思密达吸附;B组(对照组)应用硫酸镁导泻、漂白土吸附。观察首次排便时间,胃肠功能不全发生率及严重程度评分;观察胃肠功能恢复时间、阿托品化时间、意识恢复时间、胆碱酯酶活力恢复50%以上时间、阿托品和长托宁用量、药物耐受、中毒反跳、中间综合征、迟发性神经病、住院时间和死亡情况。结果治疗组各指标均优于对照组,均差异有统计学意义(均P<0.01或P<0.05)。结论思密达、大黄是目前彻底清除AOPP患者胃肠道残留毒物较好的导泻、吸附联合用药,减少了药物用量和并发症、缩短了住院时间。%Objective investigate the effects of Chinese rhubarb combined with Smecta in treatment of organopjophorus pesticide poisoning. Methods Seventy-six patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning underwent conventional treatment including thorough gastric lavage, muscular injection of penehyckiine hydrochloride, intravenous injection of atropine through micropumping, and intravenous drip of pyraloxime methylchloride. The patients were randomly divided into 2 equal groups: Group A underdoing catharsis with 200 ml of Chinese Rhubarb powder and then suspension of Smecta through gastric tube 2h later as a cycle per 4 hours for 48 hours, and Group B undergoing irrigation of magnesium sulphate solution and suspension of Fuller's earth per 4 hours as a cycle for 48 hours. The effects were observed. Results The first defecation yime, recovery time of gastrointestinal tract, time of atropinization time, consciousness recovery time, recovery time of cholinesterase activity, and length

  13. Wytwarzanie „winy obojętności” oraz kategorii „obojętnego świadka” na przykładzie artykułu Jana Błońskiego „Biedni Polacy patrzą na getto”

    Tomasz Żukowski


    Full Text Available Producing the 'guilt of indifference' and the category of "indifferent witness". A case study of Jan Błoński’s 'Biedni Polacy patrzą na getto'Błoński’s article Biedni Polacy patrzą na getto (1987 is regarded as a milestone for the Polish awareness of the Holocaust. Błoński tried to tackle the issue of the Polish complicity, and his narration updated an important model in the Polish culture. It contained some facts about the wartime reality, but at the same time it overturned much of the knowledge about those times and rendered it mostly transparent. The analysis of Błoński’s article allowed me to elucidate the relation between the catharsis effect and the denial, which appeared as the effect of the article. The paper attempts at answering some important questions: What is the Polish complicity according to Błoński? What are the different perceptions of the relations between Poles and Jews? What is the perception of the majority? How the different opinions on the Polish complicity in the Holocaust are legitimised by the majority? How are they removed and delegitimised at the same time?[The article was prepared with financial support of the NPRH.] Wytwarzanie „winy obojętności” oraz kategorii „obojętnego świadka” na przykładzie artykułu Jana Błońskiego „Biedni Polacy patrzą na getto”Tekst Jana Błońskiego Biedni Polacy patrzą na getto (1987 uznaje się za przełomowy dla polskiej świadomości zbiorowej dotyczącej Zagłady. Błoński stawia w nim problem polskiej współwiny. Jego narracja aktualizuje ważny wzór polskiej kultury. Zawiera elementy wiedzy o wojennych realiach, a jednocześnie ją unieważnia i czyni w dużym stopniu niewidoczną. Analiza tekstu Błońskiego pozwala uchwycić związek między efektem przełomu i jednoczesnym wyparciem. Autor pyta, w jaki sposób Błoński stawia kwestię polskiej winy, jakie wyobrażenia relacji polsko-żydowskich jej towarzyszą, jaki jest obraz polskiej

  14. 大学生情绪调节方式与人际交往的关系%The Relationship between Emotion Regulation and Human Communication of College Students

    程玉文; 成欣蕊; 吕怀芳


    Objective:To study the relationship between emotion regulation and human communication in college students.Method:712 college students in Soochow University were selected,they were evaluated by Emotion regulation scale and Interpersonal competence scale respectively.Result:There was a big difference in undergraduate's adjusting way of emotion.Boys tended to value adjustment,but girls ignored and maintained regulation.Emotion regulation of sadness and shy had a large effect on interpersonal skills.With analysis of variance and chi-square analysis results,we knew among 10 kinds of emotions,way of regulating shyness and sadness had the impact on their interpersonal skills,students maintaining the shyness were more likely to achieve good interpersonal relationships than those who attached great importance to the adjustment,the probability of them got a good interpersonal relationship was 1.74 times of the other students.Conclusion:Now the college students have problems in adjusting the shy and sadness,so for sadness,shy,anger and other negative emotions,we suggest they should take a correct way of catharsis and positive adjustment.Effective emotion regulation can help the individual get good state of mood and excellent interpersonal communications kills,better meet the needs of the society and the environment.%目的:本文着重于初探大学生情绪调节方式与人际交往的研究。方法:选取712名苏州大学本科生,分别接受情绪调节方式量表、人际交往能力量表的评定。结果:大学生对于不同的情绪,调节方式有很大差异,男生偏向重视调节,女生则无明显偏向。针对悲伤和害羞两种情绪的调节方式对人际交往能力有较大的影响,对于害羞进行维持调节的大学生比那些运用重视调节的大学生更易获得较好的人际关系,其获得良好的人际关系的概率是重视调节学生的1.74倍。结论:当下大学生对于害羞、悲伤等情绪的忽

  15. Investigation of self-care knowledge and behavior of community elderly%社区老年人自我保健知识与行为的调查

    马艳; 刘志英


    Objective To explore self-care knowledge level and elderly health behavior methods and provide theory basis for elderly health behavior.Methods Through the questionnaire survey manner,the survey of 4 communities in Beijing,and age is not less than 60 years old about the self-care knowledge and behavior.Results Average score of elderly self-care knowledge was (23.45 ± 5.27),and score of health behavior was (47.23 ± 11.06) ; the relationship was positive ( r =0.34,P <0.01 ) ; three highest scores about elderly selfcare knowledge were as follows: vegetables and fruits were rich in vitamin,Banana have travel catharsis function,alcohol and smoking were harmful for health; three highest scores about elderly behavior were:ventilation in the room,eating hot food and gluttony and hungry.Conclusions The elderly self-care knowledge and behavior in the overall level was medium and low.The elderly culture degree influences on the level of health care knowledge.Self health care knowledge can promote self care behavior.%目的 探讨增进老年人自我保健知识水平及保健行为的方法,为普及老年人自我保健知识及行为提供依据.方法 通过问卷调查的方式,调查北京市4个社区年龄≥60岁的老年人的自我保健知识和行为.结果 社区老年人自我保健知识平均得分(23.45±5.27)分和自我保健行为平均得分(47.23±11.06)分,两者呈正相关(r=0.34,P<0.01);社区老年人自我保健知识得分较高的前三位项目分别为:蔬菜、水果其维生素含量较丰富,香蕉具有通便作用,酗酒吸烟有害健康;行为得分较高的前三位项目分别为:室内通风,进食温热食品,暴饮暴食或过饥过饱.结论 老年人的自我保健知识和行为总体水平中等偏低,老年人的文化程度影响自我保健知识的掌握水平,自我保健知识的正确掌握对自我保健行为具有促进作用.

  16. 'Life?': modernism and liminality in Douglas Livingstone’s A littoral zone

    E. Terblanche


    Full Text Available In an attempt to find his place within nature in South Africa and in a global modern context, Douglas Livingstone returns strongly to modernist poetry in his 1991 volume A littoral zone. In contrast to his predecessors like Wallace Stevens in “The glass of water” and T.S. Eliot in The waste land, this volume at critical moments gets stuck in a liminal stage. Images and poems, and eventually the volume as a whole, despite the highlights they present, say that it no longer seems so possible to end up also within the postliminal stage, so as to complete a rite of passage. Yet modernist poems such as Stevens’s “The glass of water” have the ability to end up in postliminal affirmation through and beyond the liminal stage of the overall process. Here light becomes a thirsty lion that comes down to drink from the glass, with a resultant transcendence of the dualistic between-ness that characterises the liminal stage in the modernist poetic mode, while this further results in the incorporation of a deeper and refreshing, dynamic unity. Even more remarkable is that this poetic rite is not of a closing nature, but open, especially in the sense that it affirms all that is possible and greater than the individual ego or subject, this, while getting stuck within a liminal stage just short of the postliminal stage can be in the nature of closure, as Livingstone shows, for example, when he says in “Low tide at Station 20” that humanity is trapped in its inability to see the original power of unity with and within nature in order to live within it; and while humanity remains an ugly outgrowth on the gigantic spine of evolution. In provisional conclusion this article finds that it will be better to view Victor Turner’s 1979 celebration of what he terms the “liminoid” in the place of a “true liminality” critically. Although it is impossible to return to a collective catharsis in watching a play, one cannot feel too comfortable about

  17. Sweat Under Leave Evil Moving Diaphragmatic Interrupting God and Adaptation of Gardenia Soup According to Syndrome Differentiation——Syndrome Differentiation of Gardenia Soup%第19章汗下留邪动膈扰神变通应用栀子豉汤——栀子豉汤类证的辨治



    Objective:To study the mechanism of " sweat under leave evil moving diaphragmatic interrupting god" and " adaptation of gardenia soup according to syndrome differentiation ".Methods:From the 76th,77th,76th article of the gardenia decoction treatise on febrile disease.Results:(1) Gardenia Soup syndrome and pathogenesis same but degree different,clinical manifestation from virtual tired not sleep-bother and hot,leave evil,the one god is heavier,the evil heat deeper;-—chests are smothering—pain in the heart,evil depression is increasingly heavy,and qi stagnation,qi activity.(2) There are attack under effect of pills the treatise on febrile disease such as didangwan and dadidang pill,treatment of blood storage heavy card respectively and big chest card,the fact of blood storage in lower heat exchange,the big chest card water heat exchange node in the upper energizer.After the accumulation of blood,blood stasis to heat left,its heat should be lower,this card micro vexed is evil faze mind,its is not possible in hardness,heat will be in the upper energizer reason gardenia dry ginger soup is big knot chest syndrome with after the big chest shot under attack.(3).Gardenia soup after the parties have served "after" have to spit,footnotes,vomit just muggy after taking the drug for potential catharsis hair have a form of performance,rather than the efficacy of the inevitable,have a have to vomit,after the clinical most won't appear vomiting after taking the medicine.But "have to vomit,after the check,the conclusion:the application of gardenia fish soup medicine may arise after the reaction,the prompt gardenia fish soup drugs dosage of degrees,more important is the main disease suggests gardenia fish soup in the upper energizer,to spit on every disease in later don't take the medicine.%目的:探讨“汗下留邪动膈扰神”及“变通应用栀子豉汤”的机理.方法:从《伤寒论》第76条、第77条、第78条、第80条、第81条、第221条、第228

  18. 碳酸氢钠联合乌司他丁治疗急性辛硫磷农药中毒胆碱酯酶活力的变化%The influence of sodium bicarbonate combined with ulinastatin on cholinesterase activity for patients with acute phoxim pesticide poisoning

    赵波; 杨兰菊; 肖磊; 孙宝泉; 邹宪宝; 高冬梅; 菅向东


    Objective To observe the effect of sodium bicarbonate combined with ulinastatin on cholinesterase activity for patients with acute phoxim pesticide poisoning.Methods A total of 67 eligible patients with acute phoxim pesticide poisoning,Who were admitted to the emeryency department of hospital from March 2011 to February 2014,Acording to different treatments au patients were randomly divided into the conventional treatment group (n=34) and the sodium bicarbonate+ulinastatin group (n=35).The conventional treatment group were given thorough gastric lavage with water,the sodium bicarbonate + ulinastatin group were given gastric lavage with 2% sodium bicarbonate solution.Both groups were given such treatments as catharsis,administration of oxygen,fluid infusion,diuresis,and antidotes such as atropine and pralidoxime methylchloride.On the basis of comprehensive treatment,people in the sodium bicarbonate+ulinastatin group were given 5% sodium bicarbonate injection and ulinastatin.The clinical effect of the two groups were compared.Results The serum cholinesterase activity of the sodium bicarbonate +ulinastatin group was significantly higher than the conventional treatment group from the 5th day,and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).The total atropine dosage,total pralidoxime methylchloride dosage and hospitalization days were better than the conventional treatment group,and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).The difference in the time of atropinization between the two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05).The results of arterial blood pH,HCO3-of the sodium bicarbonate + ulinastatin group were higher than the conventional treatment group,and the difference of HCO3-at the 10th day was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusions Sodium bicarbonate combined with ulinastatin can improve the therapeutic effect and reduce complications in the treatment of acute phoxim pesticide poisoning,and have beneficial

  19. Contribution of historical and literary works to the understanding of political phenomena

    Stanovčić Vojislav


    ones from the 20th century, used found inspiration and drew ideas and incentives or material from the sources with which they supplemented their theoretical categories, notions and explanations, including the images of political life. These sources are represented in the great literary works. Contradictory opinions about the character and significance of ail and literature are found in Plato's and Aristotle's writings. Aristotle, who analyzed this problem, presented arguments why literary insights - precisely because of the character of insights they offer - deserve to stand in the same pedestal with philosophy. He used the expression he himself introduced to mark one aspect of the effect of art and literature - and that is catharsis. Psychology facilitates our insights into the motives and consequences of the participants' behavior social psychology being particularly important, but also ethics. The means used to convey a certain truth is less important, its essence is more important. Several Greek philosophers (Parmenides, Empedocles, Xenophon even the Roman ones (for example, Lucretius Cains wrote their philosophical treatises in verse. Kant's famous words Sapere aude! with which he asks people to have courage to use their own mind and thus become enlightened originate from the Roman poet Horace, and Michel de Montaigne also used them. Plato and Aristotle referred not only to the available sources about preceding philosophical ideas and political systems, including the first Greek historians, but also to the tragedians, primarily Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, to the comedy writers (like Aristophanes, to the lyricists (Solon, Simonides, Archilochus. When Aristotle expounds one of the key categories of his political theory about man as a political animal (zoon politikon, he refers to Homer to confirm what he himself believes. Anica Savić-Rebac quotes Strabo's formulations about poetry as "the first philosophy", as well as about Homer's work as "poetic

  20. Coping style and psychological adaptation of college students%大学生的应付方式与其心理适应性

    张宏宇; 魏文风


    results.RESULTS: A total of 422 copies of questionnaires were sent out, and 362 copies were drawn back, 19 copies were invalid questionnaires due to either there were missing answers or the answer had reflective tendency. At last, 343 sets of data entered the analysis procedure. ① According to factor analysis results, the main coping styles used by college students were F1 (seeking support), F2(positive thinking), F3(cognitive adjustment), F4(passive blame oneself), F5(facing reality), F6(avoidance), F7(emotional catharsis).There were three main coping styles from cluster analysis, that was, A (positive confrontation), B (passive avoidance) and C(passive catharsis).② Those who were more adaptive used A coping style more frequently, and those who had lower adaptation level used B or C coping style more frequently. But few students used C coping style. A coping style was significantly negatively correlated with mental or physical symptoms (r= -0.258,P< 0.01 ),but significantly positively correlated with adaptation level (r =0.467, P < 0.01);But both B and C coping styles were significantly positively correlated with mental or physical symptoms (r=0.338, 0.364, P < 0.01 ), B coping style was significantly negatively correlated with psychological adaptation(r =-0.140, P < 0.05). It seemed that C coping style had no correlation with long-term adaptation. A and C coping styles were two dependent styles respectively. In addition, different levels of stress were significantly correlated with three styles. Few A coping styles were used under high level of stress, but more B and C coping styles did.CONCLUSION: Coping style is complex. Use of different copying styles is significantly correlated with psychological adaptation levels. But the direction of correlation is effected by the factors, such as individuals, index of results and degree of stress.