Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This study sought to identify factors associated with health service utilisation by individuals with mental disorders in a Canadian catchment area. Methods To be included in the study, participants had to be aged between 15 and 65 and reside in the study location. Data was collected randomly from June to December 2009 by specially trained interviewers. A comprehensive set of variables (including geospatial factors was studied using the Andersen's behavioural health service model. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were carried out. Results Among 406 individuals diagnosed with mental disorders, 212 reported using a mental health service at least once in the 12 months preceding the interviews. Emotional problems and a history of violence victimisation were most strongly associated with such utilisation. Participants who were middle-aged or deemed their mental health to be poor were also more likely to seek mental healthcare. Individuals living in neighbourhoods where rental accommodations were the norm used significantly fewer health services than individuals residing in neighbourhoods where homeownership was preponderant; males were also less likely to use services than females. Conclusions Our study broke new ground by uncovering the impact of longstanding violence victimisation, and the proportion of homeownership on mental health service utilisation among this population. It also confirmed the prominence of some variables (gender, age, emotional problems and self-perceived mental health as key enabling variables of health-seeking. There should be better promotion of strategies designed to change the attitudes of males and youths and to deal with violence victimisation. There is also a need for initiatives that are targeted to neighbourhoods where there is more rental housing.
McGrail Matthew R
Full Text Available Abstract Background The two step floating catchment area (2SFCA method has emerged in the last decade as a key measure of spatial accessibility, particularly in its application to primary health care access. Many recent ‘improvements’ to the original 2SFCA method have been developed, which generally either account for distance-decay within a catchment or enable the usage of variable catchment sizes. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of various proposed methods within these two improvement groups. Moreover, its assessment focuses on how well these improvements operate within and between rural and metropolitan populations over large geographical regions. Results Demonstrating these improvements to the whole state of Victoria, Australia, this paper presents the first comparison between continuous and zonal (step decay functions and specifically their effect within both rural and metropolitan populations. Especially in metropolitan populations, the application of either type of distance-decay function is shown to be problematic by itself. Its inclusion necessitates the addition of a variable catchment size function which can enable the 2SFCA method to dynamically define more appropriate catchments which align with actual health service supply and utilisation. Conclusion This study assesses recent ‘improvements’ to the 2SFCA when applied over large geographic regions of both large and small populations. Its findings demonstrate the necessary combination of both a distance-decay function and variable catchment size function in order for the 2SFCA to appropriately measure healthcare access across all geographical regions.
Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Hu, Xiaoyan
Studies indicate that women in China are not frequently carrying out breast cancer prevention practices. This is assumed to be due to lack of knowledge and/or lack of personalized instruction. This study was to explore the effect of breast cancer health education on women's knowledge and attitudes on breast cancer and breast self-examination, behavior related to breast self-examination among women living in the catchment area of a community health center. A pretest and posttest assessment of a 1-h health education session was conducted with 38 participants. A telephone reminder and questionnaires were administered at 1 and 3 months after the education. Three instruments were administered at each contact to assess the knowledge and attitudes on breast cancer and behavior related to breast self-examination and accuracy of breast self-examination before education, 1- and 3-month follow-ups after education. The findings showed the incidence of self-examination, and scores on the accuracy of breast self-examination practice were significantly increased immediately following the intervention and at 1- and 3-month follow-ups. Furthermore, the scores of the health belief regarding perceived benefits, perceived competency, and perceived seriousness significantly improved. The current findings imply community-based intervention could be used to teach women about the general knowledge of breast cancer and how to perform breast self-examination correctly, especially for women who are lack of such information. PMID:24504664
Mathuthu, Manny; Kamunda, Caspah; Madhuku, Morgan
Mining is one of the major causes of elevation of naturally-occurring radionuclide material (NORM) concentrations on the Earth’s surface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the human risk associated with exposure to NORMs in soils from mine tailings around a gold mine. A broad-energy germanium detector was used to measure activity concentrations of these NORMs in 66 soil samples (56 from five mine tailings and 10 from the control area). The RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) OFFSITE modeling program (version 3.1) was then used to estimate the radiation doses and the cancer morbidity risk of uranium-238 (238U), thorium-232 (232Th), and potassium-40 (40K) for a hypothetical resident scenario. According to RESRAD prediction, the maximum total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) during 100 years was found to be 0.0315 mSv/year at year 30, while the maximum total excess cancer morbidity risk for all the pathways was 3.04 × 10−5 at year 15. The US Environmental Protection Agency considers acceptable for regulatory purposes a cancer risk in the range of 10−6 to 10−4. Therefore, results obtained from RESRAD OFFSITE code has shown that the health risk from gold mine tailings is within acceptable levels according to international standards. PMID:27338424
Mathuthu, Manny; Kamunda, Caspah; Madhuku, Morgan
Mining is one of the major causes of elevation of naturally-occurring radionuclide material (NORM) concentrations on the Earth's surface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the human risk associated with exposure to NORMs in soils from mine tailings around a gold mine. A broad-energy germanium detector was used to measure activity concentrations of these NORMs in 66 soil samples (56 from five mine tailings and 10 from the control area). The RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) OFFSITE modeling program (version 3.1) was then used to estimate the radiation doses and the cancer morbidity risk of uranium-238 ((238)U), thorium-232 ((232)Th), and potassium-40 ((40)K) for a hypothetical resident scenario. According to RESRAD prediction, the maximum total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) during 100 years was found to be 0.0315 mSv/year at year 30, while the maximum total excess cancer morbidity risk for all the pathways was 3.04 × 10(-5) at year 15. The US Environmental Protection Agency considers acceptable for regulatory purposes a cancer risk in the range of 10(-6) to 10(-4). Therefore, results obtained from RESRAD OFFSITE code has shown that the health risk from gold mine tailings is within acceptable levels according to international standards. PMID:27338424
Full Text Available Mining is one of the major causes of elevation of naturally-occurring radionuclide material (NORM concentrations on the Earth’s surface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the human risk associated with exposure to NORMs in soils from mine tailings around a gold mine. A broad-energy germanium detector was used to measure activity concentrations of these NORMs in 66 soil samples (56 from five mine tailings and 10 from the control area. The RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD OFFSITE modeling program (version 3.1 was then used to estimate the radiation doses and the cancer morbidity risk of uranium-238 (238U, thorium-232 (232Th, and potassium-40 (40K for a hypothetical resident scenario. According to RESRAD prediction, the maximum total effective dose equivalent (TEDE during 100 years was found to be 0.0315 mSv/year at year 30, while the maximum total excess cancer morbidity risk for all the pathways was 3.04 × 10−5 at year 15. The US Environmental Protection Agency considers acceptable for regulatory purposes a cancer risk in the range of 10−6 to 10−4. Therefore, results obtained from RESRAD OFFSITE code has shown that the health risk from gold mine tailings is within acceptable levels according to international standards.
Marie-Josée Fleury; Jean-Marie Bamvita; Guy Grenier; Jean Caron
This study sought to identify variables associated with help received in terms of information, medication, counselling and total help received (including other needs) among 571 individuals needing health care services for mental health problems. Study participants were randomly selected from an epidemiological survey. Data on help received were collected using the Canadian version of the Perceived Need for Care Questionnaire (PNCQ), and were analyzed using a multinomial logistic regression mo...
Full Text Available This study sought to identify variables associated with help received in terms of information, medication, counselling and total help received (including other needs among 571 individuals needing health care services for mental health problems. Study participants were randomly selected from an epidemiological survey. Data on help received were collected using the Canadian version of the Perceived Need for Care Questionnaire (PNCQ, and were analyzed using a multinomial logistic regression model. Most help received was in the form of counselling, followed by medication and information. Compared with individuals who received no help, those who reported receiving help for all their needs were more likely to have psychological distress, to be non-verbally aggressive, to consult more healthcare professionals, to be men and to be somewhat older. Compared with individuals who received no help, those who received partial help were more likely to be not addicted to drugs or alcohol, to consult more healthcare professionals, and to be older. Healthcare services should prioritize strategies (e.g., early detection, outreach, public education on mental and addiction disorders that address barriers to help seeking among youth, as well as individuals addicted to drugs and alcohol or those presenting with aggressive behavior.
Manny Mathuthu; Caspah Kamunda; Morgan Madhuku
Mining is one of the major causes of elevation of naturally-occurring radionuclide material (NORM) concentrations on the Earth’s surface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the human risk associated with exposure to NORMs in soils from mine tailings around a gold mine. A broad-energy germanium detector was used to measure activity concentrations of these NORMs in 66 soil samples (56 from five mine tailings and 10 from the control area). The RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) OFFSITE modeling ...
Jones, Simon; Wardlaw, Jessica; Crouch, Susan; Carolan, Michelle
Hospitals need to understand patient flows in an increasingly competitive health economy. New initiatives like Patient Choice and the Darzi Review further increase this demand. Essential to understanding patient flows are demographic and geographic profiles of health care service providers, known as 'catchment areas' and 'catchment populations'. This information helps Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) to review how their populations are accessing services, measure inequalities and commission services; likewise it assists Secondary Care Providers (SCPs) to measure and assess potential gains in market share, redesign services, evaluate admission thresholds and plan financial budgets. Unlike PCTs, SCPs do not operate within fixed geographic boundaries. Traditionally, SCPs have used administrative boundaries or arbitrary drive times to model catchment areas. Neither approach satisfactorily represents current patient flows. Furthermore, these techniques are time-consuming and can be challenging for healthcare managers to exploit. This paper presents three different approaches to define catchment areas, each more detailed than the previous method. The first approach 'First Past the Post' defines catchment areas by allocating a dominant SCP to each Census Output Area (OA). The SCP with the highest proportion of activity within each OA is considered the dominant SCP. The second approach 'Proportional Flow' allocates activity proportionally to each OA. This approach allows for cross-boundary flows to be captured in a catchment area. The third and final approach uses a gravity model to define a catchment area, which incorporates drive or travel time into the analysis. Comparing approaches helps healthcare providers to understand whether using more traditional and simplistic approaches to define catchment areas and populations achieves the same or similar results as complex mathematical modelling. This paper has demonstrated, using a case study of Manchester, that when estimating
Landex, Alex; Hansen, Stephen; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær
The paper presents a method to examine the catchment areas for stops in high quality public transport systems based on the street network in the examined area. This is achieved by implementing the Service Area functions from the ArcGIS extension Network Analyst. The method is compared to a more...... simple method using only the Euclidean distance from the examined stop and the paper describes the differences in detail-level of the results. Furthermore, the paper describes how the Service Area method can be used to examine increments in the catchment areas by adding extra entrances to stations or by...... improvements are well suited for examinations of changes in station entrances and/or street network....
Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex
simplest approach. The Service Area approach is based on searches in road networks and represents the actual feeder routes and is thereby a more detailed approach. The Service Area approach can be refined by adding additional resistance to certain points in the road network, e.g. stairways. Differences...
Groneberg, David A.
We integrated recent improvements within the floating catchment area (FCA) method family into an integrated ‘iFCA`method. Within this method we focused on the distance decay function and its parameter. So far only distance decay functions with constant parameters have been applied. Therefore, we developed a variable distance decay function to be used within the FCA method. We were able to replace the impedance coefficient β by readily available distribution parameter (i.e. median and standard deviation (SD)) within a logistic based distance decay function. Hence, the function is shaped individually for every single population location by the median and SD of all population-to-provider distances within a global catchment size. Theoretical application of the variable distance decay function showed conceptually sound results. Furthermore, the existence of effective variable catchment sizes defined by the asymptotic approach to zero of the distance decay function was revealed, satisfying the need for variable catchment sizes. The application of the iFCA method within an urban case study in Berlin (Germany) confirmed the theoretical fit of the suggested method. In summary, we introduced for the first time, a variable distance decay function within an integrated FCA method. This function accounts for individual travel behaviors determined by the distribution of providers. Additionally, the function inherits effective variable catchment sizes and therefore obviates the need for determining variable catchment sizes separately. PMID:27391649
Full Text Available Abstract Background This report presents the initial results of the first Epidemiological Catchment Area Study in mental health in Canada. Five neighbourhoods in the South-West sector of Montreal, with a population of 258,000, were under study. The objectives of the research program were: 1 to assess the prevalence and incidence of psychological distress, mental disorders, substance abuse, parasuicide, risky behaviour and quality of life; 2 to examine the links and interactions between individual determinants, neighbourhood ecology and mental health in each neighbourhood; 3 to identify the conditions facilitating the integration of individuals with mental health problems; 4 to analyse the impact of the social, economic and physical aspects of the neighbourhoods using a geographic information system. 5 to verify the adequacy of mental health services. Method A longitudinal study in the form of a community survey was used, complemented by focused qualitative sub-studies. The longitudinal study included a randomly selected sample of 2,433 individuals between the ages of 15 and 65 in the first wave of data collection, and three other waves are projected. An overview of the methods is presented. Results The prevalence of psychological distress, mental disorders and use of mental health services and their correlates are described for the first wave of data collection. Conclusion Several vulnerable groups and risk factors related to socio-demographic variables have been identified such as: gender, age, marital status, income, immigration and language. These results can be used to improve treatment services, prevention of mental disorders, and mental health promotion.
AZAD, Mohammad Reza Afshari
Abstract. Objective of studying hydroclimatology is studying effects of climate in water balance of the catchment. Current research has been conducted to study climatic and hydroclimatic characteristics of catchment area of Khotbeh Sara via hydrological modeling of the catchment. The main purpose of this research is recognition of climatic parameters dominant in this area and its effect on surface flows and required activities were done to gain this purpose. Physical characteristics of catchm...
Thorndahl, Søren; Johansen, C.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld
In numerical modelling of rainfall caused runoff in urban sewer systems an essential parameter is the hydrological reduction factor which defines the percentage of the impervious area contributing to the surface flow towards the sewer. As the hydrological processes during a rainfall are difficult...... residential areas with mainly detached houses is recommended-contrary to the literature recommended values of 0.7-0.9....... now recommended literature values for residential areas. It is proven by comparing rainfall-runoff measurements from four different residential catchments that the literature values of the hydrological reduction factor are over-estimated for this type of catchment. In addition, different catchment...
Landex, Alex; Hansen, Stephen
The paper presents a method to examine the catchment areas for stops in high quality public transport systems based on the actual street network in the examined area. This is achieved by implementing the service area functions from the ArcGIS extension Network Analyst. The method is compared to a...
The Lower Seyhan Catchment Area starts at the downstream of the Seyhan Dam on the Seyhan River. This fertile area is exposed to dense agricultural activities. Nutrient loads (nitrogen and phosphorus) from these activities create an important pollution potential for surface and groundwater resources in the area. In addition to the agricultural areas, these nutrient loads also originate from domestic and industrial discharges. In this study, the transport of the estimated nutrient lo...
Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Johansen, C.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld
In numerical modelling of rainfall caused runoff in urban sewer systems an essential parameter is the hydrological reduction factor which defines the percentage of the impervious area contributing to the surface flow towards the sewer. As the hydrological processes during a rainfall are difficult...... to determine with significant precision the hydrological reduction factor is implemented to account all hydrological losses except the initial loss. This paper presents an inconsistency between calculations of the hydrological reduction factor, based on measurements of rainfall and runoff, and till...... now recommended literary values for residential areas. It is proven by comparing rainfall-runoff measurements from four different residential catchments that the literary values of the hydrological reduction factor are over-estimated for this type of catchments. In addition, different catchment...
Constant, Thibaut; Charrière, Séverine; Lioeddine, Abdejalil; Emsellem, Yves
The degradation of water resources by diffuse pollution, mainly due to nitrate and pesticides, is an important matter for public health. Restoration of the quality of natural water catchments by focusing on their catchment areas is therefore a national priority in France. To consider catchment areas as homogeneous and to expend an equal effort on the entire area inevitably leads to a waste of time and money, and restorative actions may not be as efficient as intended. The variability of the pedological and geological properties of the area is actually an opportunity to invest effort on smaller areas, simply because every action is not equally efficient on every kind of pedological or geological surface. Using this approach, it is possible to invest in a few selected zones that will be efficient in terms of environmental results. The contributive hydraulic areas (CHA) concept is different from that of the catchment area. Because the transport of most of the mobile and persistent pollutants is primarily driven by water circulation, the concept of the CHA is based on the water pathway from the surface of the soil in the catchment area to the well. The method uses a three-dimensional hydrogeological model of surface and groundwater integrated with a geographic information system called Watermodel. The model calculates the contribution (m(3)/h or %) of each point of the soil to the total flow pumped in a well. Application of this model, partially funded by the Seine Normandy Basin Agency, to the catchment of the Dormelles Well in the Cretaceous chalk aquifer in the Orvanne valley, France (catchment area of 23,000 ha at Dormelles, county 77), shows that 95 % of the water pumped at the Dormelles Well comes from only 26 % of the total surface area of the catchment. Consequently, an action plan to protect the water resource will be targeted at the 93 farmers operating in this source area rather than the total number of farmers (250) across the entire 23,000 ha. Another
The symposium 'Environmental Impact and Water Management in a catchment area perspective' reviews the results of research conducted in the past period, based on the principle of complex use and protection of the water body. In addition to Finnish specialists, Swedish, Russian, Latvian, and Lithuanian specialists have participated in the studies
Schipper, Janus Willem
This work has been carried out in the framework of the project GLOWA-Danube (GLObal WAter cycle) where a joint effort is made by several groups to model the interaction of the water cycle and society in the Upper Danube catchment area. In particular regional climate models are used to simulate and eventually predict precipitation in this research area, while other groups convert this information into river runoff estimates and groundwater fluxes. It has been agreed in the project that prec...
Full Text Available There are three successive regions of the Danube, each of which has to deal with its own problems in fisheries. Sport fishing and ecological recontruction problem matters predominate in the upper flow. These problems also characterize the middle flow, where to a certain extent, commercial fishery is coming into view, while the lower flow has to deal with commercial fishery problems to full extent. The difference is not so much due to the morphometry as to the development and state of the economy of the countries in the river basin, their legislation on fishery and the manner in which the legislation is applied. Numerous dams of the upper flow of the Danube (29 in Germany, 9 in Austria, influence significantly the ichthyocenoses. An extreme example of that is Gabčikovo dam at the Slovak-Hungarian border where fish catch decreased to one fourth. In the lower segment of the Danube fish catch falls down to one third and is followed, by a drastically negative change of fish species composition. The records show that highly valued species as sturgeons, pike and tench are in drastic decline over the last few years. The changes were caused by physical barriers, like dams and weirs, by water pollution, by increasing concentration of nutrients and heavy metals, by poaching and by overexploitation. For all those alarming reasons, some legal interventions in commercial fishery must be undertaken. In the middle flow, where the Danube flows through Croatian territory, there have also been declining trends of bentivore and phytophyl species respectively. The law supports the coexistence of sport and commercial fishery in this area and although sport fishing should be given the advantage, commercial fishing should be rigorously supervised and allowed only when there is a naturally produced surplus. Because of fish migrations and political frontiers of Danube area, it is essential that the neighboring countries coordinate their efforts in managing fisheries
Agroecological studies of the of the Swat River catchment area showed that the terrestrial ecosystem of the area is divided into subtropical, humid temperate, cool temperate, cold temperate, subalpine, alpine and cold desert zones. Indicator species along with their altitudinal limits are specified for each zone. Unplanned population growth, agriculture extension, habitat losses, deforestation, environmental pollution and unwise use of natural resources are threats to the natural biodiversity of these zones. Its severity is very evident in the subtropical and humid temperate zones. The losses encountered to the biodiversity of the area under the influence of various anthropogenic stresses are highlighted. (author)
A study on the sediment size distribution and determination of sediment density profile in the selected area of Muda dam catchment area, Kedah is presented. The objective of the study was to establish a base line data of the input sedimentation with regards to the effects of development within the catchment in the future. Three main sampling locations were identified namely at Sungai Teliang, Sungai Muda and Muda reservoir. Measurement of sediment thickness was performed by using nuclear gauges i.e. direct transmission and backscattering methods. Results showed that the grain size distribution of sediment ranges from gravel to clay sizes. In the reservoir and downstream of the river, most of the samples studied consisting of fine sediment i.e silt and clay sizes (<63,um). However, sediment distribution in the upstream section of Sungai Teliang mainly consist of fine to coarse sand. Sediment density profiles in the reservoir showed little changes, whereas bed sediment profiles in the river cross-sectional areas exhibit some changes. The results also showed that thickness of bedload sediment were different from one location to another, in which the thickness may achieve up to 0.75 metre in some areas. Based on the sediment distribution profile analysis, the study site could be divided into two parts comprising of dynamic area (region) covering selected locations along the river and deposited sediment in the reservoir. Basic information derived from this study may provide as one of the important inputs for the MADA reservoir management authority in monitoring, supervising y and identifying rate and source of sediment in the catchment area
Full Text Available The article summarizes the analysis carried out in two European projects in progress on the Romanian territory of the Tisa Catchment Area and aims to identify areas vulnerable to climate change, and their socio-demographic characterization. In areas identified, the most exposed category of the population is elderly and the most affected economic activity is agriculture.
ALINA CHICOŞ; GEORGIANA TOTH; ALEXANDRU IONUŢ PETRIŞOR
The article summarizes the analysis carried out in two European projects in progress on the Romanian territory of the Tisa Catchment Area and aims to identify areas vulnerable to climate change, and their socio-demographic characterization. In areas identified, the most exposed category of the population is elderly and the most affected economic activity is agriculture.
Full Text Available The present paper represents a preliminary study of periphyton and zoobenthos community from the Someşul Cald catchment area. Zoobenthos was sampled seasonally during 2000. Benthic community structure was similar at the five sampling sites. Thus, mayflies and chironomids recorded high numerical percentage abundances and densities. Oligochaetes, water mites and caddisflies were identified to species level. 38 Oligochaeta, 28 water mite and 12 caddis fly species were found in the sampling period. The samplings collected in the year 2001 included 80 algal species belonging to 5 phyla. Diatoms (Bacillariophyta dominated both qualitatively and quantitatively at all sampling sites.
The main purpose of this diploma thesis is defining the catchment areas of surface waters for suitable land management, which is also reflected on water quality. Besides basic concepts, legal backgrounds in Slovenia, which are related to water areas and water management, are introduced. The thesis presents the existing models of catchment areas of waters in Slovenia and it especially exposes the subsistent methodology of defining catchment areas of surface waters on the basis of digital eleva...
The aim of this paper is the evaluation of anthropogenic loading of upper Hron's catchment area, that is the valley surrounded with mountains. It is the narrow stripe with stream, with varied radial and longitudinal structure and with hard conditions for spreading the pollutants. The climate situation of Hron's catchment area belongs to European continental region of temperate zone with ocean air masses, which are changed by continental way. Contemporary landscape structure is a result of long-time human impact on the landscape. The human impact intensity influenced both the proportion of stability and quality of landscape system. In the paper is evaluated the pollutants amount (1, 2) drained from main contamination sources into air and Hron river. Pollutants are evaluated especially from the point of view of their hazardous chemical properties (3) that are the leading factor in the disturbing process of natural balance of water ecosystem. Beside the mentioned facts, the great negative influence, on chemical substances balance at this locality, has dealing with waste too. There is a review of dangerous waste production.which is influenced mainly by metallurgical (Zeleziarne, a.s., Podbrezova), petrochemical (Petrochema, a.s. Dubova), pharmaceutical industry (Biotika, a.s., Slovenska Lupca) (authors)
The chemical behaviour and ecological transfer in human food chain of some radionuclides in aqueous ecosystems and their risk on population health. Part of a coordinated programme on radiological and environmental protection studies in the Danube River catchment area
The radioecological concentration of H-3, K-40, Sr-90, Cs-137, and Ra-226 in the Danube River catchment area in Romania as well as the migration of these radionuclides in the food chain was determined. It was found that the concentration of each of these radionuclides in the Danube water was very low and that the radioactivity in the food chain was lower than the maximum permissible level. Very low incidence of cancer was detected among the inhabitants along the river
Shevchenko, V. P.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Starodymova, D. P.; Vasyukova, E. V.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Drovnina, S. I.; Zamber, N. S.; Makhnovich, N. M.; Savvichev, A. S.; Sonke, J.
This paper presents new data on the multielemental composition of terricolous lichens in the White Sea catchment area. The content of 51 chemical elements was determined in 31 samples using modern analytical methods. It was shown that the chemical composition of terricolous lichens varies widely and depends on many factors. The lithogenic dust plays the main role in accumulation of Ti, Cr, Co, Ga, Fe, Zr, Nb, Ga, Th, U, and REE. Long-range transport from remote pollution sources is important for Pb, Zn, Cd, Bi, Hg, and Se. The Kostomuksha ore dressing mill provides the local enrichment of the lichens in Fe, whereas the Monchegorsk copper-nickel enterprise affects large distances and additionally enriches the lichens in Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, and Cd in comparison with the background regions. The marine impact is reflected in elevated contents and enrichment factors in Na, Mg, and the Na/K ratio.
Schoos, Mikkel Malby; Pedersen, Frants; Holmvang, Lene;
baseline, organisational and procedural characteristics. Quality measures were treatment delays and 30-day all-cause mortality. In the three-year study period, 2,066 consecutive pPCIs were performed. After the fusion of the two centres, pPCI procedures increased by 102%, while door-to-balloon remained......AIMS: The currently stated optimal catchment population for a pPCI centre is 300,000-1,100,000, resulting in 200-800 procedures/year. pPCI centres are increasing in number even within small geographic areas. We describe the organisation and quality of care after merging two high-volume centres......, creating one mega centre serving 2.5 million inhabitants, and performing ~1,000 procedures/year. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this descriptive cohort study, we linked individual-level data from the national Central Population Register holding survival status with our in-hospital dedicated PCI database of...
Németh, T; Szabó, J; Pásztor, L; Bakacsi, Zs
Rearrangement of land resources after political changes has not yet been finished in Hungary. It is almost impossible to collect information necessary for planning activities on outer areas of settlements. The data are distributed among various organizations and can be found in diverse forms or there are no available data at all. However water quality protection has become legally ordered concerning municipal activities around Lake Balaton which is considered as the most important recreation area and tourist target in Hungary and is also affected by a number of factors providing sources of environmental conflicts. Settlements in a catchment area (Tetves Creek) on the southern shoreline of Lake Balaton in Central Hungary tendered a complex project for collecting sources of authentic data of the Hungarian rural areas along with systematizing and saving these data in a uniform GIS. An application using Autodesk MapGuide Program for Internet realization was developed. The implemented web-based system can be used in Internet and Intranet environments. PMID:12079095
Catalano, R; Dooley, D; Wilson, G; Hough, R
The hypothesis that job loss affects the incidence of clinically significant alcohol abuse is tested using panel data from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area project. Results suggest that the incidence of clinically significant alcohol abuse is greater among those who have been laid off than among those who have not. However, employed persons in communities in which total employment is unexpectedly low are at reduced risk of becoming alcohol abusers. The implications of the results for economic policy and for mental health services are discussed briefly. PMID:7989666
O. V. Barron; D. Pollock; Dawes, W.
Contributing Catchment Area Analysis (CCAA) is a spatial analysis technique developed and used for estimation of the hydrological connectivity of relatively flat catchments. It allows accounting for the effect of relief depressions on the catchment rainfall-runoff relationship which is not commonly considered in hydrological modelling. Analysis of distributed runoff was based on USDA runoff curves numbers (USDA, 1986), which utilised the spatial information on land cover and soil types, while...
Full Text Available After this short note adding 8 species to the faunal list of the area, a total of 130 mollusk species are known from the catchment area of Rusenski Lom River both aquatic and terrestrial.
Bourdon, K H; Rae, D S; Locke, B Z; Narrow, W.E.; Regier, D A
The National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area Survey is a comprehensive, community-based survey of mental disorders and use of services by adults, ages 18 and older. Diagnoses are based on the criteria in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," third edition, and were obtained in five communities in the United States through lay-interviewer administration of the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Results from the surv...
Muhammad Mukhlisin; Sukoco
Problem statement: Embung is a small dam created by manmade lakes and used to catch water during rainy season for an irrigation source. In Sragen area, Embung Sono is one of around twenty embung that used to catch rain water for irrigation. Soil erosions in catchment area are potential to reduce water capacity of the embung. Although many embung have been constructed in Sragen areas, the numbers of soil erosion in catchment area of embung are not well considered. Approach:...
Nkomo, Sakhiwe; van der Zaag, Pieter
This paper investigates water availability and use in the Komati catchment. The Komati catchment is shared by Swaziland and South Africa and forms part of the Incomati basin, with Mozambique as the third riparian country. In 2002 the three countries reached agreement about how the scarce water should be allocated, based on the principle of equitable and sustainable utilization, as stipulated by the SADC Protocol. The Komati catchment has five main water uses: afforestation, irrigation, the environment, urban/industrial/mining (UIM), and interbasin water transfers (for industrial use). In addition, South Africa and Swaziland have committed themselves to satisfy a certain cross border flow to downstream Mozambique. Frequently, debate has arisen between users and riparian countries on the direction that water resources development has taken in the catchment. Downstream farmers have often complained about interbasin transfers taking place in the upstream portions of the catchment. There has also been animosity about effecting environmental flow releases. A relatively simple, spreadsheet-based water resources model (Waflex) was developed to analyse water availability and use under current and future scenarios. The results were then compared to results obtained from another model that was used in a joint study by Mozambique, South Africa and Swaziland. The Waflex model showed a high degree of consistency with the one used for comparison, especially in terms of trends. It was found that the recent completion of two new dams has improved water supply to irrigation in the two countries. Future water demands will result in appreciable shortages for irrigation and domestic use. The agreed maximum development levels will soon outstrip the ability of the catchment’s supply. The paper shows that a combination of measures will be required to ensure equitable and sustainable water utilisation in the Komati catchment. These will have to be agreed by the riparian countries
Löffler, Jörg; Rößler, Ole
Large-scaled landscape structure is regarded as a mosaic of ecotopes where process dynamics of water and energy fluxes are analysed due to its effects on ecosystem functioning. The investigations have been carried out in the continental most Vågå/Oppland high mountains in central Norway since 1994 (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1999, 2000, 2001). Additionally, comparable investigations started in 2000 dealing with the oceanic high mountain landscapes on same latitudes (LÖFFLER et al. 2001). The theoretical and methodological framework of the project is given by the Landscape-Ecological Complex Analysis (MOSIMANN 1984, 1985) and its variations due to technical and principle methodical challenges in this high mountain landscape (KÖHLER et al. 1994, LÖFFLER 1998). The aim of the project is to characterize high mountain ecosystem structure, functioning and dynamics within small catchment areas, that are chosen in two different altitudinal belts each in the eastern continental and the western oceanic region of central Norway. In the frame of this research project hydrological and meteorological measurements on ground water, percolation and soil moisture dynamics as well as on evaporation, air humidity and air-, surface- and soil-temperatures have been conducted. On the basis of large-scaled landscape-ecological mappings (LÖFFLER 1997) one basic meteorological station and several major data logger run stations have been installed in representative sites of each two catchment areas in the low and mid alpine belts of the investigation regions ( JUNGet al. 1997, LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1997). Moreover, spatial differentiations of groundwater level, soil moisture and temperature profiles have been investigated by means of hand held measurements at different times of the day, during different climatic situations and different seasons. Daily and annual air-, surface- and soil-temperature dynamics are demonstrated by means of thermoisopleth-diagrams for different types of ecotopes of the
Xi Fuliu; Lam K.C.; Chen Yongqin; Tao Shu
The paper demonstrates why it is necessary to take the restoration of marine coastal ecosystem health as a new goal for integrated catchment management, in coastal area of the Tolo Harbour. The present goal of integrated catchment management (ICM) in the Tolo Harbour is to meet with Water Quality Objectives. The performance of an ICM plan, Tolo Harbour Action Plan (THAP), is evaluated by using marine coastal ecosystem health indicators including stress indicators and responses indicators. Since the implementation of THAP in 1988,some significant reduction in pollution loading has been observed - reduction of 83 % of BOD load and 82 % of TN between 1988 and 1999. There has been an improvement in the health state of Tolo Harbour marine coastal ecosystem as evidenced in the trends of the physical, chemical and biological indicators,although some reverse fluctuations in some periods exist. However, this can only be considered as the first sign of the ecosystem health restoration, since ecosystem health covers not only physical, chemical and biological aspects of an ecosystem, but also ecosystem-service-function aspect. Tt is recommended to take the restoration and protection of marine coastal ecosystem health as a new goal, instead of water quality objective management, for integrated catchment management in Tolo Harbour catchment.Steps to further improve the marine coastal ecosystem health of Tolo harbour are discussed in the paper.
Full Text Available Problem statement: Embung is a small dam created by manmade lakes and used to catch water during rainy season for an irrigation source. In Sragen area, Embung Sono is one of around twenty embung that used to catch rain water for irrigation. Soil erosions in catchment area are potential to reduce water capacity of the embung. Although many embung have been constructed in Sragen areas, the numbers of soil erosion in catchment area of embung are not well considered. Approach: Soil erosion in the Sono catchment area was analyzed using Geographic Information System (GIS and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE method. Results: The result showed that total number of soil erosion in the Sono catchment area is 63.50 ton/ha-year and categorized in moderate classified. Value of Sediment Delivery Ratio (SDR for catchment was 0.34. Empirical equation proposed by Renfro, Vanoni and USDA were also used to analyze the SDR value. Conclusion: It was found that USDA is the best method that can be used to predict soil erosion in Sragen area. It means the crop management and environmental conservation in Sono catchment need to be improved.
SILVIU-FLORIN FONOGEA; VIOREL GLIGOR; IULIU VESCAN
The uniform transnational assessment of the environmental indices in the catchment area of the Tisa river aims at rehabilitating, protecting and conserving the environmental systems, as well as creating a commonly strategic demarche concerning a sustainable spatial development, based on integrated intersectorial approaches of environmental issues, viewed in their territorial dimension. The information necessary in underlining the current situation in the Romanian catchment area of the Tisa ha...
Larsen, Torben; Broch, Kirsten; Andersen, Margit Riis
The paper describes the results of measurements from a 2 year period on a 95 hectare urban catchment in Aalborg, Denmark. The results of the rain/discharge measurements include 160 storm events corresponding to an accumulated rain depth of totally 753 mm. The water quality measurements include 15...
Cho, Maeng Je; Seong, Su Jeong; Park, Jee Eun; Chung, In-Won; Lee, Young Moon; Bae, Ahn; Ahn, Joon Ho; Lee, Dong-Woo; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Park, Jong-Ik; Son, Jungwoo; Chang, Sung Man; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young
Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of mental disorders in Korean adults. Methods Door to door household surveys were conducted with community residents aged 18-74 years from July 19, 2011, to November 16, 2011 (n=6,022, response rate 78.7%). The sample was drawn from 12 catchment areas using a multistage cluster method. Each subject was assessed using the Korean version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CI...
Magda Sikora; Roman Cieśliński
The aim of the study is to determine what influence made various forms of land use of catchment area on the size and variability of the outflow. Linking the flow rate with the forms of land use will determine which factors affect the runoff in the basin. The object of the research is Strzyża river basin situated within the administrative boundaries of the city of Gdańsk. It was found that streams flowing through urban areas, including the city of Gdańsk (river Strzyża), quickly react to any e...
Larsen, Torben; Brpch, Kirsten; Andersen, Margit Riis
events with time series of concentration of SS, COD, BOD, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The quality parameters showed significant first flush effects. The paper discusses whether either the event average concentration or the accumulated event mass is the most appropriate way to characterize the......The paper describes the results of measurements from a 2 year period on a 95 hectare urban catchment in Aalborg, Denmark. The results of the rain/discharge measurements include 160 storm events corresponding to an accumulated rain depth of totally 753 mm. The water quality measurements include 15...... quality of the outflow....
Full Text Available This paper presents results of analysis focused on impact of urbanization of Poznań suburban area on water relation for Doływ spod Lusówka and Przeźmierki catchments during 1936–2011. Both catchments are located in municipalities which recently showing sharp growth in urban area. Analysis of changes in land use for studied catchments showed almost 5-fold increase in urban area for Dopływ spod Lusówka and 10-fold for Przeźmierka. As a consequence of land sealing increase in amounts of effective precipitation was observed that led to fast runoff of rain waters and almost double flow in watercourses.
Copard, Yoann; Lebouteiller, Caroline; Regues-Munoz, David; Latron, Jerome; Solé-Benet, Albert; Canton, Yolanda; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Della Seta, Marta; Rossi, Mauro; Capolongo, Domenico; Maquaire, Olivier; Forey, Estelle; Di-Giovanni, Christian; Gallart, Francesc; Delmonte, Maurizio; Vergari, Francesca; Massei, Nicolas; Torri, Dino
Between 2013 and 2014, a network funded by MISTRALS-ENVIMED institution, was born around some instrumented catchments developing a badland-type morphology. This network has grouped 3 countries (France, Spain and Italy) with 12 scientific labs. RESOBAM has concerned two sites in France (Draix-Bléone and Vaches Noires), three in Spain (Vallcebre, Araguas and El Cautivo) and some sites in Italy (Tuscany, Basilicata). Main goal of this network was to federate the research around badlands at the European scale, by proposing some scientific topics as: sediment and water transports / budget, (bio)geochemical cycles, agricultural (farming), education, restoration, cultural heritage, soil conservation / biodiversity, climatic change etc. Other main interests were also to propose some common scientific projects and the development of students exchanges. This communication presents the synthesis of our four meetings held at Draix, Zaragoza, Almeriá and Rouen and some perspectives to continue this network.
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine what influence made various forms of land use of catchment area on the size and variability of the outflow. Linking the flow rate with the forms of land use will determine which factors affect the runoff in the basin. The object of the research is Strzyża river basin situated within the administrative boundaries of the city of Gdańsk. It was found that streams flowing through urban areas, including the city of Gdańsk (river Strzyża, quickly react to any excess water. Heavy rain combined with the discharge of water through the storm sewer system results of increasing the flow and runoff in streams, among others, Strzyża river.
Ivicheva Ksenya Nikolayevna
Full Text Available Catch basins for a number of the rivers of Vologda region were framed using ARCGIS 10, method Hydrobiology , and their usage was assessed. Parts of catchments for 11 small and medium rivers with different anthropogenic stress were analyzed. The area of each catch basin was divided into 3 categories: little-developed, agricultural and urban ones. For 3 city rivers 2 categories were analized. The data on catchment area use were recorded for all sites from satellite image with ScanEx Image Processor. Areas of 3 land-use types (forest, agriculture, and urbanized terrain were calculated. Forest on the parts of catchments composed from 12 to 100%, urbanized terrain composing from 0 to 51,5 %. Areas of differnt categories were compared with hydrochemical indexes of water quality. Indexes of water quality showed strong positive correlation with the areas of urbanized terrains on the parts of catchments (0,81-0,95,but weak correlation with areas of agriculture (0,62-0,8. As for the forest areas, they showed strong negative correlation (-0,75…-0,9. Indexes of water quality were sensitive to negative anthropology influence.
The Putrajaya Administrative area covers 70 % of the Putrajaya Lake catchment area. Development work carried out within the Putrajaya area abides by the rules and regulations set by the Putrajaya Corporation to ensure that the quality of the lake water and wetland within the Putrajaya area meets the stipulated benchmark standards. However, 30 % of the Putrajaya lake and wetland catchment area is located outside of administration and prerogative of the Putrajaya Corporation. The North Putrajaya catchment area which originates from the Sg. Chuau River contributes the bulk of the water that flows into the lake and wetlands of Putrajaya. Water quality data collected by the Putrajaya Corporation for the period of 2002 to 2005 has been analysed to identify major issues in the Putrajaya Wetland North Catchment area. Data from 2002 shows average percentage parameter of non-compliance Putrajaya Standard for ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) at 43.7 %, E. coli at 31.3 % and TSS at 12.5 % while the DO and COD are both 6.2 %. For 2003, the average percentage parameter of non compliance for NH3-N was at 23.7 %, E. coli at 18.4 %, total coliform at 18.4 %, TSS at 2.6 %, DO at 13.2 %, COD at 13.2 % and BOD at 10.5 %. For 2004, the average percentage parameter of non complying for NH3-N was at 35.5 %, E. coli at 22.6 %, total coliform at 12.9 %, TSS at 9.7 %, COD at 3.2 % and BOD at 16.1 %. For 2005, the average percentage parameter of non compliance were at is 36.4 % for E. coli, 22.7 % for NH3-N, 18.2 % for total coliform, 13.6 % for BOD and 4.5 % for both DO and COD. In conclusion the analysed data within the four year period showed that the NH3-N and E. coli discharge from the north catchment area did not comply with the Putrajaya Standard. The main factors of water quality issues in the Putrajaya Wetland North Catchment area include the failure of integrating the management of the catchment areas and the stake holders attitude of total disregard of the management and control of
R. S. Smith
Full Text Available The role of spatial variability in water inputs on runoff source area dynamics has generally not received as much research attention as topography and soils; however, the influence of topography and forest cover on snow surface energy exchanges can result in asynchronous snowmelt throughout a catchment complicating the space-time patterns of runoff generation. This study investigates temporal variation in the relative importance of spatial controls on the occurrence, timing, and persistence of shallow groundwater response utilizing a highly distributed monitoring network in a snowmelt-dominated montane catchment in western Canada. The study findings indicate that deep soil hydraulic conductivity is a first-order control on the distribution of sites that generate shallow groundwater response versus sites that experience only deep percolation. Upslope contributing area and slope gradient are first-order controls on the persistence of groundwater response during peak flow, recession flow, and low flow periods. Runoff source areas expand and contract throughout these periods according to an interplay between catchment wetness and the spatial patterns of topographic convergence. However, controls on the differential timing, intensity, and quantity of snowmelt and controls on vertical versus lateral flux partitioning in the soil overwhelm the influence of topographic convergence on runoff source area dynamics during early spring freshet periods. The study findings suggest that various topographic indices and topography-based rainfall runoff models are not necessarily applicable to modelling snowmelt runoff source area dynamics during all streamflow periods for snowmelt-dominated montane catchments.
P. Suau-Sanchez; G. Burghouwt; M. Pallarres-Barbera
This paper presents a free available dataset, the CORINE land cover that helps dealing with the biases caused by pre-defined and heterogeneous census district boundaries in airport catchment area analysis in Europe. Using this dataset and a conventional GIS software it is possible to measure the siz
Muchuru, Shepherd; Botai, Joel O.; Botai, Christina M.; Landman, Willem A.; Adeola, Abiodun M.
In this study, average monthly and annual rainfall totals recorded for the period 1970 to 2010 from a network of 13 stations across the Lake Kariba catchment area of the Zambezi river basin were analyzed in order to characterize the spatial-temporal variability of rainfall across the catchment area. In the analysis, the data were subjected to intervention and homogeneity analysis using the Cumulative Summation (CUSUM) technique and step change analysis using rank-sum test. Furthermore, rainfall variability was characterized by trend analysis using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall statistic. Additionally, the rainfall series were decomposed and the spectral characteristics derived using Cross Wavelet Transform (CWT) and Wavelet Coherence (WC) analysis. The advantage of using the wavelet-based parameters is that they vary in time and can therefore be used to quantitatively detect time-scale-dependent correlations and phase shifts between rainfall time series at various localized time-frequency scales. The annual and seasonal rainfall series were homogeneous and demonstrated no apparent significant shifts. According to the inhomogeneity classification, the rainfall series recorded across the Lake Kariba catchment area belonged to category A (useful) and B (doubtful), i.e., there were zero to one and two absolute tests rejecting the null hypothesis (at 5 % significance level), respectively. Lastly, the long-term variability of the rainfall series across the Lake Kariba catchment area exhibited non-significant positive and negative trends with coherent oscillatory modes that are constantly locked in phase in the Morlet wavelet space.
Distribution of Cs-137, as one of the most important anthropogenic radioactive pollutant on the environment, in various samples within the Vardar river catchment area has been determined. By application of adequate radioecological model, an effective equivalent dose for different transfer media and exposure pathways as a contribution of Cs-137 to the total exposure of man of different age, were calculated. (author)
Full Text Available The article presents the context of energetic equipment in the TICAD area, traditional and alternative sources of energy, and includes a short presentation and the possibilities of use for each of them
The article presents the context of energetic equipment in the TICAD area, traditional and alternative sources of energy, and includes a short presentation and the possibilities of use for each of them
Yu, Liang; van der Vlugt, Corné; Rozemeijer, Joachim; Broers, Hans Peter; van Breukelen, Boris; Ouboter, Maarten; Stuyfzand, Pieter
In Dutch lowland polder systems, groundwater quality significantly contributes to surface water quality. This process is influenced by landscape characteristics such as topography, geology, and land use types. In this study, 23 variables were selected for 144 polder catchments, including groundwater and surface water solute concentrations (TN, TP, NH4+, NO3-, HCO3-, SO42-, Ca2+, Cl-), seepage rate in mm per year, elevation, paved area percentage, surface water area percentage, and soil types (calcite, humus and lutum percentage). The spatial patters in groundwater and surface water quality can largely be explained by groundwater seepage rates in polders and partly by artificial redistribution of water via the regional surface water system. High correlations (R2 up to 0.66) between solutes in groundwater and surface water revealed their probable interaction. This was further supported by results from principal component analysis (PCA) and linear regression. The PCA distinguished four factors that were related to a fresh groundwater factor, seepage rate factor, brackish groundwater factor and clay soil factor. Nutrients (TP, TN, NH4+ and NO3-) and SO42- in surface water bodies are mainly determined by groundwater quality combined with seepage rate, which is negatively related to surface water area percentage and elevation of the catchment. This pattern is more obvious in deep urban lowland catchments. Relatively high NO3- loads more tend to appear in catchments with high humus, but low calcite percentage soil type on top, which was attributed to clay soil type that was expressed by calcite percentage in our regression. Different from nitrogen contained solutes, TP is more closely related to fresh groundwater quality than to seepage rate. Surface water Cl- concentration has a high relation with brackish groundwater. Due to the artificial regulation of flow direction, brackish inlet water from upstream highly influences the chloride load in surface water bodies
The compartment model describing the runoff of Cs 137 from the catchment area is proposed. It includes two compartments: radiocaesium in 'outflow areas' and in 'inflow areas'. The results of modeling are in good agreement with experimental data. The compartment model enables to determine the main factors regulating Cs 137 runoff from the catchment area and to predict short-term (months) and long-terms (several years) migration of radiocaesium in water. (authors)
During the field surveys conducted at the Muda and Ahning catchment areas, several rare and endemic plant species were recorded. The presence of relatively high population of Lagerstroemia speciosa in Muda is one of the conspicuous features of the forest in this catchment area. Unlike the Muda lake, a blue green algal bloom Oscillatoria kawamurde was observed at some parts of the Ahning lake particularly at the water surface. These catchment areas not only act as a buffer zone in the overall forest hydrological cycle but also play important roles in protecting and harbouring various species of plants and animals. (Author)
Full Text Available The uniform transnational assessment of the environmental indices in the catchment area of the Tisa river aims at rehabilitating, protecting and conserving the environmental systems, as well as creating a commonly strategic demarche concerning a sustainable spatial development, based on integrated intersectorial approaches of environmental issues, viewed in their territorial dimension. The information necessary in underlining the current situation in the Romanian catchment area of the Tisa has been structured according to the following categories of analysed indices: sources of surface waters, resources of drinkable water and water supply resources, the risk of not reaching the environmental objectives, significant sources of water pollution (punctual sources of pollution, diffuse sources of pollution, significant hydromorphic pressure, the quality of water, significant sources of air pollution, soils affected by agricultural and industrial activities, nature protection and waste management.
Full Text Available Of the various approaches for estimating groundwater recharge, the chloride mass balance (CMB method is one of the most frequently used, especially for arid and semiarid regions. Widespread native vegetation clearance, common in many areas globally, has changed the land surface boundary condition, posing the question as to whether the current system has reached new chloride equilibrium, required for a CMB application. Although a one-dimensional CMB can be applied at a point where the water and chloride fluxes are locally in steady state, the CMB method is usually applied at a catchment scale owing to significant lateral flows in mountains. The applicability of the CMB method to several conceptual catchment types of various chloride equilibrium conditions is examined. The conceptualisation, combined with some local climate conditions, is shown to be useful in assessing whether or not a catchment has reached new chloride equilibrium. The six conceptual catchment types are tested with eleven selected catchments in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area in South Australia having experienced widespread historical forest clearance. The results show that six of the eleven catchments match a type VI chloride balance condition (chloride non-equilibrium with a gaining stream, with the ratios of stream chloride output (O over atmospheric chloride input (I, or catchment chloride O/I ratios, ranging from 2 to 4. Two catchments match a type V chloride balance condition (chloride non-equilibrium with a losing stream, with catchment chloride O/I ratios about 0.5. For these type V and type VI catchments, the CMB method is not applicable. The results also suggest that neither a chloride O/I ratio less than one nor a low seasonal fluctuation of streamflow chloride concentration (a factor below 4 guarantees a chloride equilibrium condition in the study area. A large chloride O/I value (above one and a large fluctuation of streamflow chloride
Full Text Available Among various approaches for estimating groundwater recharge, chloride mass balance (CMB method is one of the most frequently used, in particular, for arid and semiarid regions. Widespread native vegetation clearance, common history in many areas globally, has changed land surface boundary condition, posing a question whether the current system has reached new chloride equilibrium for CMB application. To examine CMB applicability for catchments, conceptual catchment types of various chloride equilibrium conditions are defined. The conceptualization, combined with some local climate conditions, is demonstrated to be useful in examining whether a catchment has reached new chloride equilibrium. The six conceptual catchment types are tested with eleven selected catchments in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area in South Australia having experienced historical widespread forest clearance. The results show that six of the eleven catchments match type VI chloride balance condition (chloride non-equilibrium with a gaining stream, with the ratio of stream chloride output over atmospheric chloride input (catchment chloride O/I ranging from 2 to 4. Two catchments match type V chloride balance condition (chloride non-equilibrium with a losing stream, with catchment chloride O/I values about 0.5. For these catchments, the CMB method is not appropriate to apply. The results also suggest that neither a below-one chloride O/I value nor a low seasonal fluctuation of streamflow chloride concentration (a factor below 4 guarantees a chloride equilibrium condition in the study area. But a large chloride O/I value (above one and a large fluctuation of streamflow chloride concentration (a factor of 10 and above generally indicates either a chloride disequilibrium, or cross-catchment water transfer, or both, for which CMB is not applicable. Based on the regression between chloride O/I values and annual precipitation for type VI catchments, a catchment with
To date, soil and water conservation and land degradation in many different environments have always been placed in the framework of development, both for rural and urban areas. Soil erosion is influenced by a considerable number of factors (including climate, soil, topography, land use and types of land management), so that the information on the quantity and spatial distribution of soil erosion and its related effects can be effectively employed as a baseline data for urban catchment manage...
The TICAD project is in essence a symbiosis between what natural organization of the territory through the agency of catchment areas means and its anthropogenic organization having growth poles and gravity axes as pillars. The analysis highlights the historically-exemplified difficulties in correlating the two forms of organization and the factors that caused them. An increase of the index of spatial overlapping and functional imbrication between them can be noticed with the approach of lower...
The map presents the proposal of revitalisation of the model territory in the catchment of the Drietomica river oriented to elimination of the present and prevention of new environmental problems caused by the effect of stress factors on the individual environmental components. The colour scale expresses the type of revitalising measure, the hatching represents the particular eco-stabilising measure, which should be applied to the particular area. (authors)
Itoh, Nobuyasu; Sakagami, Nobuo; Torimura, Masaki; Watanabe, Makiko
Perylene, which is composed of five benzene rings, is commonly found in sediments throughout the world at concentrations and distributions that are different from those of other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The only information available on the origin of perylene comes from 4,9-dihydroxyperylene-3,10-quinone (DHPQ), which originates from fungal component symbiosis or from parasites on plants; however, there is no direct evidence of a mechanism of perylene formation. In this study, we examined the relationship between sedimentary perylene and Cenococcum geophilum (C. geophilum) in a catchment area at Lake Biwa. Sclerotium grains of C. geophilum containing DHPQ were found in this catchment area (approximately 40 balls kg-1 dried soil for >1 mm-ϕ), and small sclerotium grains were frequently found in the sediment. In the sediment sample, we also found broken particles containing perylene, and they had a porous structure characteristic of sclerotium grains. Furthermore, the particles contained DHPQ in different transformation stages to perylene via 3,10-perylenequinone (3,10-PQ). This finding was consistent with results from elemental analysis (oxygen/carbon). Because a remarkable amount of DHPQ originating from C. geophilum also exists in the humic acids of soils and because the inputs of compounds to the lake depend strongly on the rivers, perylene in the Lake Biwa sediment originates mainly from the DHPQ of C. geophilum in its catchment area.
Ebrahimian, Ali; Wilson, Bruce N.; Gulliver, John S.
Impervious surfaces are useful indicators of the urbanization impacts on water resources. Effective impervious area (EIA), which is the portion of total impervious area (TIA) that is hydraulically connected to the drainage system, is a better catchment parameter in the determination of actual urban runoff. Development of reliable methods for quantifying EIA rather than TIA is currently one of the knowledge gaps in the rainfall-runoff modeling context. The objective of this study is to improve the rainfall-runoff data analysis method for estimating EIA fraction in urban catchments by eliminating the subjective part of the existing method and by reducing the uncertainty of EIA estimates. First, the theoretical framework is generalized using a general linear least square model and using a general criterion for categorizing runoff events. Issues with the existing method that reduce the precision of the EIA fraction estimates are then identified and discussed. Two improved methods, based on ordinary least square (OLS) and weighted least square (WLS) estimates, are proposed to address these issues. The proposed weighted least squares method is then applied to eleven urban catchments in Europe, Canada, and Australia. The results are compared to map measured directly connected impervious area (DCIA) and are shown to be consistent with DCIA values. In addition, both of the improved methods are applied to nine urban catchments in Minnesota, USA. Both methods were successful in removing the subjective component inherent in the analysis of rainfall-runoff data of the current method. The WLS method is more robust than the OLS method and generates results that are different and more precise than the OLS method in the presence of heteroscedastic residuals in our rainfall-runoff data.
The present paper, with reference to the Motru catchment area, contributes to the hydrochemical studies at an international level and to the completion of the characteristics regarding the chemical flow in Romania. In this regard, it emphasizes once again the dependence between the content of dissolved salts (fixed residue — mg/l) on the one hand and the lithological conditions, human activity, flow and the surface of the catchments on the other hand. The calculation and the analysis of the chemical flow for the Motru catchment area (located in the south-west of Romania) was performed on the basis of two parameters: the average flow of dissolved chemical substances (mg/s) and specific average chemical flow (t/kmp year) recorded at the monitoring stations on the Motru River and its tributaries during the period 2005-2009. The values obtained (for example: 2.63 mg/s and 47.7 t/km2 year, at the Fata Motrului station, on the Motru River, in 2009) confirm the importance of the areal factors of natural background in the analysis of chemical flow as a morpho-dynamic process and implicitly for the chemical quality of surface waters.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs) Data Download makes data and information concerning Designated HPSAs readily available to our users in a one-stop...
Estimating the water balance of ungauged catchments has been the subject of decades of research. An extension of the fundamental problem of estimating the hydrology is then understanding how do changes in catchment attributes affect the water balance component? This is a particular issue in forest hydrology where vegetation exerts such a strong influence on evapotranspiration (ET), and consequent streamflow (Q). Given the primacy of trees in the water balance, and the potential for change to species and density through logging, fire, pests and diseases and drought, methods that directly relate ET/Q to vegetation structure, species, and stand density are very powerful. Plot studies on tree water use routinely use sapwood area (SA) to calculate transpiration and upscale to the stand/catchment scale. Recent work in south eastern Australian forests have found stand-wide SA to be linearly correlated (R2 = 0.89) with long term mean annual loss (P-Q), and hence, long term mean annual catchment streamflow. Robust relationships can be built between basal area (BA), tree density and stand SA. BA and density are common forest inventory measurements. Until now, no research has related the fundamental stand attribute of SA to streamflow. The data sets include catchments that have been thinned and with varying age classes. Thus far these analyses have been for energy limited systems in wetter forest types. SA has proven to be a more robust biometric than leaf area index which varies seasonally. That long term ET/Q is correlated with vegetation conforms to the Budyko framework. Use of a downscaled (20 m) Aridity Index (AI) has shown distinct correlations with stand SA, and therefore T. Structural patterns at a the hillslope scale not only correlate with SA and T, but also with interception (I) and forest floor evaporation (Es). These correlations between AI and I and Es have given R2 > 0.8. The result of these studies suggest an ability to estimate mean annual ET fluxes at sub
S. F. FONOGEA; V. GLIGOR; C. N. BOŢAN; I. H. PAVEL; CS. HORVATH; CRISTINA BOLOG; V. PUIU
Bistriţa Ardeleană Catchment Area – Coordinates of Strategic Land Management. The approach of “creation and execution” / designing of this territorial cut-out of basin type, in the paradigmatic context of the durable development, is subordinate to an (almost)exhaustive investigation of the vocation and potentiality of this area in terms of geographical and spatial organization of the territory. There may be multiple reasons to justify the existence of a paper which approaches this territory i...
S. F. FONOGEA
Full Text Available Bistriţa Ardeleană Catchment Area – Coordinates of Strategic Land Management. The approach of “creation and execution” / designing of this territorial cut-out of basin type, in the paradigmatic context of the durable development, is subordinate to an (almostexhaustive investigation of the vocation and potentiality of this area in terms of geographical and spatial organization of the territory. There may be multiple reasons to justify the existence of a paper which approaches this territory in an integrating and prospective manner. First of all, this area has an “identity card” type of evidence, at the level of the collective memory of the county’s inhabitants. Even if many contradictions multiplied along the years, nuances and specificities have been imposed, there is a filiation and a common territorial manifestation for the population and the settlements in this area. Secondly, the building of the settlements from Bârgău area and their later historical evolution was accomplished in a close interdependence, therefore the premise of development cannot be achieved outside the association (the access to different financing sources is easier when partnerships are built. Thirdly, the challenge of developing a study that shows the real prospects of developing a territory from the Bistriţa Ardeleană catchment area was motivated by subjective arguments, and the love of nature and environment played a key role in the effort to complete this action.
Valdés, Wendy; Díaz-Perera, Georgia; Espinosa, Tania M
INTRODUCTION Atherosclerosis is the common underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases; the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. It is a major contributor to disability and poorer quality of life and is costly to health systems, individuals, families and society. Early signs of atherogenesis are manifestations of atherosclerosis and known atherogenic risk factors occurring at young ages and detectable by health professionals. Early detection of such signs in children and adolescents enables actions to prevent short- and long-term complications. OBJECTIVE Detect early signs of atherogenesis in adolescents in Family Doctor-and-Nurse Office No. 13 of the Raúl Gómez García Polyclinic in Havana's 10 de Octubre Municipality. METHODS An observational, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted: the universe consisted of 110 adolescents and, once exclusion criteria were applied, the sample was made up of 96 adolescents in the office's geographical catchment area. Variables included sociodemographic data; measurements from physical and anthropometric examinations (weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, presence of acanthosis nigricans); maternal history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, smoking during pregnancy; birth weight and duration of exclusive breastfeeding; lifestyle (physical activity, dietary habits by frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables, salt intake, and smoking); and a history of atherogenic risk factors and atherosclerotic diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease and chronic kidney disease) in adolescents and their families. The number of early signs of atherogenesis was determined. Descriptive statistics and a chi-square test, with significance threshold set at p = 0.05, were used to examine differences by sex and age. RESULTS A total of 62.5% of participating adolescents were female and the same percent of the total
H. Guan; Love, A.; C. T. Simmons; Ding, Z; Hutson, J
Among various approaches for estimating groundwater recharge, chloride mass balance (CMB) method is one of the most frequently used, in particular, for arid and semiarid regions. Widespread native vegetation clearance, common history in many areas globally, has changed land surface boundary condition, posing a question whether the current system has reached new chloride equilibrium for CMB application. To examine CMB applicability for catchments, conceptual catchment types of various chloride...
We discuss the effect of catchment area nonresidency on estimates of cancer incidence from a tumor-registry-based cohort study and demonstrate that a relatively simple correction is possible in the context of Poisson regression analysis if individual residency histories or the probabilities of residency are known. A comparison of a complete data maximum likelihood analysis with several Poisson regression analyses demonstrates the adequacy of the simple correction in a large simulated data set. We compare analyses of stomach-cancer incidence from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation tumor registry with and without the correction. We also discuss some implications of including cases identified only on the basis of death certificates. (author)
Full Text Available The goals of this study are the identification of the centres of gravity of the Northern-Transdanubian cities, including Győr, by using a gravitation model and, based on empirical examination, the definition of manpower catchment areas. Then, we are going to analyze the impact fields determined by two methods and seek explanations for the overlaps and differences of the two delineations, which are also going to be analyzed with the consideration of geographic, social and economic factors. Both examinations were carried out at two dates, covering a timeframe of 10 years.
Thiéry, Frédérik; Grieu, Stéphane; Traoré, Adama; Barreau, Mathieu; Polit, Monique
International audience The present work takes part in a global development of reliable and robust tools allowing real-time controlling and supervising of the Têt catchment area, the main river of the Pyrénées-Orientales department (Southern France). The impact of the Têt on the department life is significant and the management of its water quality must be largely improved and better supervised. The main purpose of the work was to develop "rain flow" predictive models, using Elman recurrent...
Jaiswal, R. K.; Thomas, T.; Galkate, R. V.; Ghosh, N. C.; Singh, S.
A scientifically developed catchment area treatment (CAT) plan and optimized pattern of crop areas may be the key for sustainable development of water resource, profitability in agriculture and improvement of overall economy in drought affected Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh (India). In this study, an attempt has been made to develop a CAT plan using spatial variation of geology, geomorphology, soil, drainage, land use in geographical information system for selection of soil and water conservation measures and crop area optimization using linear programming for maximization of return considering water availability, area affinity, fertilizers, social and market constraints in Benisagar reservoir project of Chhatarpur district (M.P.). The scientifically developed CAT plan based on overlaying of spatial information consists of 58 mechanical measure (49 boulder bunds, 1 check dam, 7 cully plug and 1 percolation tank), 2.60 km2 land for agro forestry, 2.08 km2 land for afforestation in Benisagar dam and 67 mechanical measures (45 boulder bunds and 22 gully plugs), 7.79 km2 land for agro forestry, 5.24 km2 land for afforestation in Beniganj weir catchment with various agronomic measures for agriculture areas. The linear programming has been used for optimization of crop areas in Benisagar command for sustainable development considering various scenarios of water availability, efficiencies, affinity and fertilizers availability in the command. Considering present supply condition of water, fertilizers, area affinity and making command self sufficient in most of crops, the net benefit can be increase to Rs. 1.93 crores from 41.70 km2 irrigable area in Benisagar command by optimizing cropping pattern and reducing losses during conveyance and application of water.
Lintnerová, Otília; Šottník, Peter; Šoltés, Stanislav
Smolník is a historical Cu-mining area that was exploited from the 14th century to 1990. The Smolník mine was definitively closed and flooded in 1990–1994. Acid mine drainage discharging from the flooded mine (pH = 3.83, Fe = 542 mg/l, SO42– = 3642 mg/l, Cu = 1880 µg/l, Zn = 9599 µg/l, As = 108 mg/l) acidified and contaminated the Smolník Creek water, which transported pollution into the Hnilec River catchment. The Smolník mine waste area has been used as a model area to document pollution of...
Nadal Romero, Estela; Cammeraat, Erik; Serrano Muela, Pili; Lana-Renault, Noemi; Regüés, David
The fraction of forest cover in the Mediterranean region is increasing due to afforestation programs conducted by national forest services and also due to natural revegetation processes. Literature review suggests that afforestation might threaten water resources because it (i) reduces the number of floods and many rainfall events produce no notable flow; (ii) decreases annual water yield and low flows; (iii) delays peak flows but increases the duration of floods; and (iv) increases rainfall interception, reducing the water reaching the soil. Also, afforestation typically reduces erosion risk and the volume of sediment reaching the streams, but not during the first years after plantation due to high geomorphic activity when invasive techniques are used. Although the great amount of literature on these topics, there is still considerable scientific uncertainty about the impact of afforestation on extreme events and groundwater dynamics. The MED-AFFOREST project studies the effects of afforestation on the hydrological response of a small catchment (Araguás afforestation catchment) monitored in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. In this study, we present the first results , as an example of the likely effects of afforestation in Mediterranean mountain areas. The results show that the hydrological response in the afforestation area is variable and complex, because the discharge was generated by a combination of different runoff generation processes. Acknowledgments This research was supported by a Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship in the project "MED-AFFOREST" (PIEF-GA-2013-624974).
Ajon, A. T
Full Text Available The assessment of water qualities for irrigation in river Katsina-Ala catchment areas of Benue State was carried out. Surface water and groundwater samples from three selected catchment areas namely, Logo, Ambighir and Katsina-Ala, were collected and analyzed for physicochemical parameters. Several soil samples were also analysed for infiltration capacity. All the physicochemical parameters monitored fell within FAO specifications for irrigation purposes. Groundwater samples were found to have higher concentrations of physicochemical parameters than surface water. On the basis of hydrochemical classification, earth alkali types were dominant (100% in both groundwater and surface water samples while the alkali type was totally absent. Assessment of the water samples for irrigation showed that the water samples posed no problems with regard to sodicity, salinity and lime deposition. However, high risk of infiltration was envisaged as a result of very low values of conductivity (0.03ds/m – 0.13ds/m. At the present, infiltration problem is minimal because of high proportion of sand (68% - 89% in the soils but this situation may not be sustained for long. A regression model (R = 0.773 was obtained which showed that the rate of infiltration strongly depended on the sand content of soil. Both water and soil samples were found to be suitable for a wide range of irrigation.
Full Text Available In January and March 2000 two tailings dam failures occurred in the upper Tisza catchment area near Baia Mare and Baia Borsa (Romania. These accidents focused attention on the metal pollution of the Tisza catchment area, and the short term effects of them were studied by many researchers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term effects of these pollutions by determining the Lakanen-Erviö extractable easily available metal contents of samples collected in 2011 from floodplains and pastures along the Tisza (Tivadar, Vásárosnamény, Rakamaz, Tiszacsege, and comparing them to our earlier results. Cu and Zn contents were measured by Optima 3300 DV ICP-OES (Perkin-Elmer. The measurement of Pb and Cd was conducted by QZ 939 GF-AAS (Unicam in 2000 and by an X7 ICP-MS (Thermo Fisher in 2011. We found that the Cd, Zn and Pb contents of the pasture near Vásárosnamény exceed limit values and natural background values. In addition, during a 11 year period the easily available Cd, Zn and Pb contents increased significantly, suggesting that the hazard of this pollution should not be neglected.
Full Text Available Civil administration departments require reliable measures of accessibility so that residential care facility shortage areas can be accurately identified. Building on previous research, this paper proposes an enhanced variable two-step floating catchment area (EV2SFCA method that determines facility catchment sizes by dynamically summing the population around the facility until the facility-to-population ratio (FPR is less than the FPR threshold (FPRT. To minimize the errors from the supply and demand catchments being mismatched, this paper proposes that the facility and population catchment areas must both contain the other location in calculating accessibility. A case study evaluating spatial accessibility to residential care facilities in Nanjing demonstrates that the proposed method is effective in accurately determining catchment sizes and identifying details in the variation of spatial accessibility. The proposed method can be easily applied to assess other public healthcare facilities, and can provide guidance to government departments on issues of spatial planning and identification of shortage and excess areas.
GABRIELA ANDREEA DESPESCU
Full Text Available This study is focused on the monitoring and evaluation of river’s water bodies from Maramureş County, using the methodology associated with the EU Water Framework Directive 60/2000. Thus, in the first part are defined the theoretical terms of monitoring activities related to the water bodies’ quality and the specific features of those we can find in the studied area. There are presented the water bodies’ features, quality indicators and the monitoring frequencies for the rivers situated in the Tisa catchment area. The results have shown the actual ecological and chemical state of those water bodies, in relation with the standard values mentioned through the Water Framework Directive.
In this paper it will be presented the overview of the climate change and climate regimes of the world in general according different scenarios in the latest assessment (the 3d Report published in 2001) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and its impact on the Crn Drim catchment area in Macedonia.This analysis and interpretation only provides a preliminary investigation into climate change and how it will affect Ohrid and Prespa lake system as a part of Crn Drim catchment area, which is already attacked by the climate changed. From the climatological aspect two elements: temperature and rainfall, will be' calculated and their expected changes over the century in the same area. Dates used in these analyses are from the Hydro meteorological Service of Republic of Macedonia archives In the graphs are shown changes in average seasonal climate for the period around the 2080s, relative to 1961-1990 climate. Results are shown for the SRES A2 scenario, which assumes a future world of fairly conventional energy development, i.e., continuing dependence on fossil carbon fuels. The projections for average seasonal climate for temperature and precipitation are estimated and shown separately for two seasons: winter and summer. The estimated values are compared with annual mean global worming for the 2080s,-and for the SRES A2 scenario, as calculated by the IPCC (a value of about 3.2oC). The results show rate of worming greater in summer than in winter for Ohrid Lake as well as for Prespa Lake. Concerning the precipitation, it increases slightly in winter and decreases substantially in summer, by around 30 per cent. As the conclusion it is obviously that the temperature will rise in all Crn Drim catchment area with implications for increasing water temperature and water quality, which would be degraded by higher water temperature. This will increase evaporation and as the results can be expected water level decreasing. Also, higher temperatures and heat waves
Full Text Available Hydrological risk phenomena such as floods are among the most costly natural disasters worldwide, effects consisting of socioeconomic damages and deaths. The Bâsca Chiojdului catchment area, by its morphometric and hydrographic peculiarities, is prone to generate these hydrological risk phenomena, so there is a high vulnerability in the socioeconomic elements. This paper is focused on the identification of the main socioeconomic elements vulnerable to hydrological risk phenomena such as floods, based on the assessment of their manifestation potential. Thus, following the delimitation of areas with the highest flood occurrence potential (susceptibility to floods, major socioeconomic factors existing in the basin, considering human settlements (constructions, transport infrastructure, and agricultural areas (the most important category, were superimposed. Results showed a high vulnerability for all three exposed socioeconomic elements especially in valley sectors, of which household structures were the most vulnerable, given both their importance and the high number of areas highly exposed to floods (approximately 2,500 houses and outbuildings, out of a total of about 10,250, intersect the most susceptible area to floods in the study area.
Gaitan, Santiago; ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire; van de Giesen, Nick
Extreme weather events such as floods and storms are expected to cause severe economic losses in The Netherlands. Cumulative damage due to pluvial flooding can be considerable, especially in lowland areas where this type of floods occurs relatively frequently. Currently, in The Netherlands, water-related damages to property and contents are covered through private insurance. As pluvial flooding is becoming heavier and more likely to occur, sound modelling of damages is required to ensure that insurance systems are able to stand as an adaptation measure. Current damage models based on rainfall intensity, registries of insurance claims, and classifications of building types are unable to fully explain damage variability. Further developments assessing additional explanatory factors and reducing uncertainties, are required in order to significantly explain damage. In this study, urban topography is used as an explanatory factor for modelling of urban pluvial flooding. Flood damage is evaluated based on complaints data, a valuable resource for assessing vulnerability to urban pluvial flooding. Though previous research has shown coincidences between the localization of high complaint counts and large size catchments areas in Rotterdam, additional research is needed to establish the precise spatial relationship of those two variables. This additional task is the focus of the presented work. To that end a data base of complaints, that was made available by the Municipality Administration of the City, will be analysed. It comprises close to 36800 complaints from 2004 to 2011. The geographical position of the registries is aggregated into 4 to 6-digit Postal Code zones, which represents entire streets or relative positions along a street, respectively. The Municipality also provided the DEM, characterized by a spatial resolution of 0.5 m × 0.5 m, a vertical precision of 5 cm, and an accuracy better than two standard deviations of 15 cm. First the localization of complaints
Full Text Available The TICAD project is in essence a symbiosis between what natural organization of the territory through the agency of catchment areas means and its anthropogenic organization having growth poles and gravity axes as pillars. The analysis highlights the historically-exemplified difficulties in correlating the two forms of organization and the factors that caused them. An increase of the index of spatial overlapping and functional imbrication between them can be noticed with the approach of lower hydrographic taxa (collectors, 1st to 3rd rank tributaries and regional taxa (region, county, microregion, commune, a genuine identification often appearing for the basal ones. The new geopolitical circumstances, induced by the creation and enlargement of the European Union, represent a catalyst for the organisation of the Tisa river basin in the light of the new concepts of economic, cultural or environmental cross-border collaboration.
Full Text Available Smolník is a historical Cu-mining area that was exploited from the 14th century to 1990. The Smolník mine was definitively closed and flooded in 1990–1994. Acid mine drainage discharging from the flooded mine (pH = 3.83, Fe = 542 mg/l, SO42– = 3642 mg/l, Cu = 1880 µg/l, Zn = 9599 µg/l, As = 108 mg/l acidified and contaminated the Smolník Creek water, which transported pollution into the Hnilec River catchment. The Smolník mine waste area has been used as a model area to document pollution of waters, stream sediments, and soils by metals and other toxic elements. Major goals of this complex study were to document creek water transport of the main pollutants (Fe, sulphates, Cu, Al, As, etc. in the form of suspended solids, to investigate elements mobility in common mine waste (rock and processing waste heaps and tailing impoundment and in the soil on the basis of neutralization and leach experiments. Different methodologies and techniques for sampling and chemical and mineralogical characterization of samples were used and checked to evaluate environmental risk of this abandoned mine area.
Yoshida, T.; Masumoto, T.; Horikawa, N.; Kudo, R.; Minakawa, H.; Nawa, N.
Irrigation in Japan is predominantly used for rice cultivation, and it accounts for 70% of total water withdrawal. Water loss, which is attributable to nature of open channel irrigation system and percolation from fields, leads to relatively low irrigation efficiencies compared with ones for upland crops. However, because part of water gradually returns to rivers (river-return flow), it contributes to stable water use in downstream. This study investigated how irrigation water circulates and returns to rivers, and quantified a ratio of river-return flow to irrigation intake for an irrigation area (river-return ratio). One difficulty in river-return flow analysis lies in the fact that two types of flow pathways exist in an irrigation area; natural rivers that drain water from the areas, and channel networks whose directions do not necessarily coincide with river directions. In addition, outflux from irrigation area is consisted of water from different sources, such as water loss during water allocation, rainfall, irrigation, and influx from adjacent upstream areas. To cope with such difficulties, we used a grid-based distributed water circulation model that represents both catchment scale hydrological cycles and water flows related to irrigation channel network. The model calculates water flow for irrigation networks based on a GIS database of water use facilities. The model also incorporates operation rules for facilities and field level water management. Using the modeled river network, we first identify grid-cells where influx and outflux occurs across boundaries of irrigation areas. Then, to eliminate the effect of influx from adjacent upstream areas, we subtract influx from outflux. This makes us to capture outflux that purely originates in rainfall and irrigation within an irrigated area. Next, we separate the amount of outflux that originates in irrigation from the total amount of outflux. As residence time of each flow pathway had not been clarified yet, we
Osinowo, Olawale Olakunle
Hydrogeochemical mapping of the Asata River Catchment area in the Enugu metropolis, southeast Nigeria was carried out in order to assess the quality of the surface and groundwater and based on the analyses of the hydrogeochemical data, establish the level of chemical contaminations which inhibit the availability of potable water in the area. Forty (40) water samples comprising five (5) springs, nineteen (19) surface (streams/rivers) and sixteen (16) groundwater (well/borehole) samples were collected and analysed for the presence and degree of contamination of nine (9) major chemical contaminants. Hydrochemical analyses indicate that Electrical Conductivity (EC) which has a linear relationship with Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) ranges between 015 and 887 μS/cm, pH between 4.4 and 8.3, nitrate (NO3-) ranges between 40 and 130 mg/l and chloride (Cl-) between 7 and 130 mg/l. The concentrations of the dissolved chemical constituents defined the pollution trend and the rate of dispersion of contaminants. The degree of contaminants followed a simple trend, where the level of contamination of the dissolved chemical constituents is least in sampled spring water, with measured chemical constituents of EC, pH, NO3- and Cl- range from 15 to 354 μS/cm; 6.4-6.5; 4.0-70 mg/l and 8-36 mg/l, respectively. However, the value of the measured chemical constituent of EC, pH, NO3- and Cl- gradually increases down the stream in both the surface (63-354 μS/cm; 4.5-7.7; 7.1-110 mg/l; 8-41 mg/l) and groundwater (56-531 μS/cm; 4.5-7.5; 40-130 mg/l; 7-130 mg/l), respectively. Noticeable peaks in contamination levels characterised sections of the study area where human population or their activities is highest. The result of the hydrogeochemical mapping indicate that Enugu coal mine operation, the industrial activities, fertilizer applied to plants cultivated on river banks and domestic human wastes which are indiscriminately dumped along river channels are the major sources of chemical
Ahmed A. Melegy; T. Paces
Heavy metals in different environmental compartments can be hazardous to ecosystems. Budgets of Cd, Pb and Zn in small ecosystems of the Shubra El-Kheima area in Egypt are presented. The budgets are not in steady state because they change with time. So the concentrations of the metals are a function of time. The critical loads of heavy metals to soils can be calculated from an inventory of inputs and outputs of the trace components in the catchment area. Critical time is an important parameter for critical load evaluation because it can indicate which of the heavy metals may be the most acute threat to the soils. Egyptian soil in the Shubra El-Kheima area seems to be in danger of heavy metal pollution by Zn, Cd and Pb. The calculated critical loads and their exceedances are approximate indicators of the hazards in the soil system. The critical time is a warning signal to initiate an environmental evaluation of possible pollution hazards.
Crema, Stefano; Bossi, Giulia; Marchi, Lorenzo; Cavalli, Marco
Identifying areas that are directly delivering sediment to the channel network or to a catchment outlet is of great importance for a sound sediment dynamic characterization and for assessing sediment budget. We present an integration of remote sensing analysis techniques to characterize the effective sediment contributing area that is the sub-portion of the catchment in which sediment is effectively routed towards the catchment outlet. A semi-automatic mapping of active sediment source areas is carried out via image analysis techniques. To this purpose, satellite multispectral images and aerial orthophotos are considered for the analysis. Several algorithms for features extraction are applied and the maps obtained are compared with an expert-based sediment source mapping derived from photointerpretation and field surveys. The image-based analysis is additionally integrated with a topography-driven filtering procedure. Thanks to the availability of High-Resolution, LiDAR-derived Digital Terrain Models, it is possible to work at a fine scale and to compute morphometric parameters (e.g., slope, roughness, curvature) suitable for refining the image analysis. In particular, information on local topography was integrated with the image-based analysis to discriminate between rocky outcrops and sediment sources, thus improving the overall consistency of the procedure. The sediment source areas are then combined with the output of a connectivity assessment. A topography-based index of sediment connectivity is computed for the analyzed areas in order to better estimate the effective sediment contributing area and to obtain a ranking of the source areas in the studied catchments. The study methods have been applied in catchments of the Eastern Italian Alps where a detailed census of sediment source areas is available. The comparison of the results of image analysis with expert-based sediment sources mapping shows a satisfactory agreement between the two approaches
Wang, Chin-Lun; Chung, Chi-Rong; Shieh, Chjeng-Lun; Lai, Wen-Chi
Typhoon Morakot accompanied strong southwesterly monsoonal flow brought extreme heavy rain over the southern half region of Taiwan in August 2009. The large extent, high intensity and long duration rainfall caused huge damage. The objectives of this paper are to evaluate the benefit of reconstruction and management for the main disaster catchment areas, to arrange the results of conservation management of the Soil and water Conservation Bureau in sediment-related disaster area and to review a...
peaks only to calcite, dolomite and quartz. No speciation of metals in flood plain soils was done, nor XRD. The flood plain contains mostly terra rossa soils high in oxides and it is expected that the Ferric soil phase would have a major role in metal retention. The objective of this study is a complete hydro-geochemical survey of Nahr-Ibrahim catchment area and this study would clarify fluvial metal transport within the catchment area. The outcome of this work might assess the factors that influence water quality. This is attained through an improved knowledge of river hydrology, texture of sediment and soil, minerals in soil and sediment and soil and sediment geochemistry
Full Text Available Wijayanto N (2011 Species identification and selection to develop agroforestry at Lake Toba Catchment Area (LTCA. Biodiversitas 12: 52-58. In order to improve land productivity surrounding the LTCA, the existing ITTO project tries to establish agroforestry system. The system will be designed to meet consideration of both sides. on one side is to generate the people awareness of the forest and land rehabilitation, and on the other side is to support the poverty reduction. The aims of this research are: species identification and selection to develop agroforestry at LTCA. Data collecting was carried out with: interview, group discussion, field observation, divining manual study, and PRA. The diversity of the available crop kind shows the number of choices to be developed by the farmer. The farmers generally have the economic objective to develop agroforestry, including increase in net income, risk reduction, increase in environmental service, and the wealth and savings accumulation. Various types of agricultural crops, plantations and forest trees were found in LTCA. They can be the basis for building a wide variety of agroforestry systems.
Bie, W.; Casper, M. C.; Reiter, P.; Vohland, M.
In this paper, a method combining graphical and statistical techniques is proposed for surface resistance calibration in a distributed hydrological model, WaSiM-ETH, by comparing daily evapotranspiration simulated by model WaSiM-ETH with corresponding daily evapotranspiration retrieved from remote sensing images. The study area locates in Nahe catchment (Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, 4065 km2) forest regions. The remote sensing based observations are available for a very limited number of da...
Skjerdal, M.; Reuder, J.; Villanger, F.
Orography is strongly affecting precipitation. Especially over complex terrain, the precipitation fields can show high spatial variability even over very small scales. Along the Western coast of Norway with its large precipitation amounts of up to above 3000 mm per year, an improved understanding of the spatial precipitation patterns is of large socio-economic impact, as it can improve both the prediction of floods and landslides and the water management for hydro power plants. The producers of hydroelectric power continuously want the water resources to be utilized in the best suited way. Control and supervision of the water resources are therefore of the utmost economic importance. To get an overview over the water resource situation, it is essential to know about the spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation. In cooperation with the Norwegian power company BKK, 20 HOBO rain gauges and two Aanderaa weather stations have been deployed between 22 and 898 meters above sea level in the catchment area for the Matre water system in Western Norway in the period May - October 2009. The main purpose of the project is to investigate the horizontal variability and the altitude dependence of precipitation in complex terrain under different synoptic conditions in this catchment area. Moreover, the representativeness of a few single point measurements on the total precipitation amount of the whole catchment area has been addressed. The total amount of precipitation recorded by the 20 rain gauges during the deployment period ranges between 535 mm and 1190 mm, which indicate the large variability within the catchment area. Analysis of the data with respect to wind direction shows that 75 % of the total precipitation amount during the measurement period arrives when the wind direction is S - SW. During a high precipitation event, which will be investigated in more detail, amounts of precipitation between 58 mm - 121 mm within a 24-hour period have been observed during a
The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of human activities in the Mau catchment area and Lake Nakuru National Park. The increase in human population has led to increased pressure and diminishing of natural resources such as forests, grassland and water. This has led to conflicts over these resources. Developments in Nakuru town and other urban centers have contributed to pollution of Lake Nakuru National Park through the disposal of industrial and domestic wa...
Katarzyna Tokarczyk-Dorociak; Andrzej Drabiński; Szymon Szewrański; Sławomir Mazurek; Wanda Kraśniewska
One of the factors that contributed to the construction of approx.77 km2 offish ponds in the catchment of Barycz starting from the 13th century, which in turn transformed the woods into a mosaic of waters, forests and arable land, were the advantageous physiographic conditions. Fish farming operations conducted in this area led to the creation of a cultural landscape characterised by unique natural values, similar to the natural landscape.Approx.240 species of birds are observed here, of whic...
Zhou, Wei; Bucher, Kurt
Research on water-rock interaction quantitatively models geochemical reactions and transport of solutes as coupled phenomena. We studied the chemical evolution of surface waters in Zermatt-Matterhorn area, Switzerland. The chemical characteristics of the surface water have been used to infer the mechanisms of solute acquisition in open system in geologically diverse Alpine catchments. The surface water in study area is predominantly controlled by the interaction of meteoric water with the exposed rocks. Dissolving primary minerals of the predominantly metamorphic rocks contribute to the observed total dissolved solids with leaving behind a residue of newly formed insoluble minerals. A total of 102 water samples were collected mainly from small water bodies located in Zermatt-Matterhorn area representing the geographical and lithological diversity. Altitudes of sampling locations range from 1600m to 3200m. Since water samples were from water bodies at high elevation, water-rock interaction was little affected by anthropogenic or biologic contributions. Temperature, pH, and electric conductivity were measured on site. Total dissolved solids was relatively low and varies from 6 to 244 mg/l. Dominant solutes are Ca, Mg, HCO3, SO4 and minor components are Na, K, NO3, Cl and Si, while F and B occur in traces only. The calculation of saturation states with PHREEQC shows that all surface waters are undersaturated with respect to all relevant minerals. Statistical analysis of the composition data shows that Ca-HCO3-SO4 and Na-K-SiO2 are strongly correlated. Three chemical types of water can be distinguished: Ca-HCO3, Mg-HCO3 and Ca-SO4. A hydro-geochemical inverse model has been set up for interpreting the water-rock interaction that estimated the contributions of the various rock-forming minerals to the composition of the waters. It shows that: 1) Ca-HCO3 water result from interaction of precipitation with mafic schist or calcareous micaschist, the reaction can be
Ferreira, António J. D.; Soares, Daniel; Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Walsh, Rory P. D.
Cities are the home to 50% of the human specie [UN 2011 Ramalho & Hobbs 2012], whose wellbeing, way of life and exposure to hazard situations are directly related to the built environment. Cities are often seen as ecological systems just a short step away from collapse [Newman 2006]. Being a human construction, cities disrupt the natural cycles and the patterns of temporal and spatial distribution of environmental and ecological processes. Urbanization produces ruptures in biota, water, energy and nutrients connectivity that can lead to an enhanced exposure to disruptive events that hamper the wellbeing and the resilience of urban communities in a global change context. A major issue in what concerns the threats to human and ecosystem health in urban areas is the presence of heavy metals, and the related processes that govern their source, transport and fade r uptake by the vegetation. In this work, we present an analysis of heavy metal sources and transport processes at various types of roads within the Ribeira dos Covões peri-urban experimental catchment in central Portugal. The surveyed heavy metals (Cadmium, Lead, Coper, and Zinc) show significant differences as a result of the type of rainfall event, the length of the antecedent dry spell, the traffic volume and the heavy metals sources. For some locations, namely for the roads with heavy traffic volume, the heavy metal concentrations exceed the limits established by law, which has severe implications to the downstream ecosystems and to the possible use of the water from roads to close the resources loop in urban areas, namely in what concerns their use to water the urban green infrastructure or to irrigate the urban agriculture fields.
Full Text Available Increasing of natural resources utilization as a result of population growth and economic development has caused severe damage on the watershed. The impacts of natural disasters such as floods, landslides and droughts become more frequent. Cisadane Catchment Area is one of 108 priority watershed in Indonesia. SWAT is currently applied world wide and considered as a versatile model that can be used to integrate multiple environmental processes, which support more effective watershed management and the development of better informed policy decision. The objective of this study is to examine the applicability of SWAT model for modeling mountainous catchments, focusing on Cisadane catchment Area in west Java Province, Indonesia. The SWAT model simulation was done for the periods of 2005 – 2010 while it used landuse information in 2009. Methods of Sequential Uncertainty Fitting ver. 2 (SUFI2 and combine with manual calibration were used in this study to calibrate a rainfall-runoff. The Calibration is done on 2007 and the validation on 2009, the R2 and Nash Sutchliffe Efficiency (NSE of the calibration were 0.71 and 0.72 respectively and the validation are 0.708 and 0.7 respectively. The monthly average of surface runoff and total water yield from the simulation were 27.7 mm and 2718.4 mm respectively. This study showed SWAT model can be a potential monitoring tool especially for watersheds in Cisadane Catchment Area or in the tropical regions. The model can be used for another purpose, especially in watershed management.
A study of vegetation structure, composition and diversity of Hub-dam catchment area was conducted. A total of 106 species were recorded of which 57 were annuals while 49 were perennials. The vegetation was dominated by small trees and shrubs. Spatial patterns within-community of plant populations using variance/mean ratio and Morisita's index was also investigated. Of the 14 perennial species investigated seven (Barleria acanthoides, Grewia tenax, Indigofera oblongifolia, Aerva persica, Rhazya stricta, Iphiona grantioides and Cymbopogon jwarancusa) predominately exhibited aggregated pattern. Four species (Acacia senegal, Prosopis juliflora, Salvadora oleoides and Calotropis procera) usually exhibited random distribution but infrequently aggregated pattern. Three species (Senna holosericea, Zizyphus nummularia and Vernonia cinerescens) showed aggregated pattern or random distribution more or less equally often. The distribution pattern of vegetation composition and the underlying environmental gradients, correspondence analysis (CA) ordination and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were employed. Group structure inherent in the vegetation was disclosed using Ward's agglomerative cluster analysis. Species diversity was measured and diversity was averaged for each group. Diversity of group I (Acacia senegal and Prosopis juliflora community type) was highest because this community included a number of mid-succession species, while diversity was lowest for group 4 (Prosopis juliflora and Capparis decidua community type) as this community was highly disturbed. In the climax community (group 3), the diversity level slightly decreased, suggesting the monopolization of resources by this community. Four major community types were recognized by Ward's cluster analysis, each of which was associated with particular topographic-edaphic factors, while one was mainly governed by anthropogenic disturbance. Biological spectrum constructed for the flora showed dominance of
Slight increase in 90 Sr content from river discharges was observed in the near-the-surface layers og the Asikkalanselk bay of the Pyajanne lake in the years directly following the Chernobyl accident; later it remained almost runchanged, whereas 137Cs concentration is decreasing. 90Sr was identified in the bottoms at greater depth than 137Cs. Radionuclides transport by small rivers from water catchment zones to Asikkalanselsk was studied in 1995-1997. It is established that greater part of 137Cs is leached into the surface waters from swamped areas. The swamped soils are also characterized by higher degree of 90Sr washing out. The role of 137Cs and 90Sr surface discharges from catchment as compared to radionuclide exchange with other parts of the lake, containing greater water volumes
Full Text Available With the tremendous influx of people and consequent urban development, increased anthropogenic activities in the catchment, inflow of untreated sewage, nutrients and pesticides from urban and rural areas, the water quality of Upper Lake, Bhopal has deteriorated significantly. An attempt has been made to study various physico – chemical parameters, specifically nitrates and phosphates of five different sampling sites of Upper Lake and to study the effect of catchment area activities on these sites.
Terrestrial and aquatic systems were contaminated with radioactive materials following the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on 11 March, 2011. It is important that levels of radiocesium (Cs) in stream water from affected areas be monitored as this water is used for paddy irrigation and domestic water. Additionally, soil particles and organic matter from the streams are deposited in rivers, estuaries and into the ocean. Predictions suggest that Cs levels will increase during intense rainfall-runoff events. To check this prediction, we monitored temporal changes in runoff events and Cs levels in stream water from a mountainous catchment area northwest of the Fukushima plant. In March and April, 2012, the concentrations of Cs and suspended solids (SS) in stream water taken from low-level water flow were found to be 0.2-0.3 Bq/L and 2-7 mg/L, respectively. A heavy rainfall event in July 2012 resulted in an increase and subsequent decrease of both the runoff volume and SS concentration. At the beginning of the rainfall event the concentration of Cs absorbed in the SS was measured to be 23 Bq/L, this decreased gradually to 0.3 Bq/L over the course of the event. The concentration of Cs dissolved in the water was 0.1 Bq/L, this decreased only slightly during the runoff event. During a low rainfall event in September 2012 the concentration of Cs absorbed in the SS at the beginning of the rainfall event was found to be 15 Bq/L, this decreased gradually to 0.5 Bq/L as the amount of SS in the water decreased. The concentration of Cs dissolved in the water was 0.2 Bq/L, again this decreased only slightly over the course of the runoff event. The Cs levels in stream water, during rainfall-runoff events, were primary influenced by the concentration of SS. The amount of Cs dissolved in the water, on the other hand, was roughly constant at 0.1-0.2 Bq/L. The results of this study indicate that, although the concentration of Cs in stream water is below the
Döhler, Susanne; Damm, Bodo; Terhorst, Birgit;
, the Holocene landscape development and soil erosion history are investigated using anthropogenic soil sediments and alluvial fan sediments. Until now, a combination of these approaches has not been applied to a gully catchment to this extent. The distribution of the different Quaternary sediments...
Lissak, Candide; Fort, Monique; Fassetta, Gilles Arnaud; Viel, Vincent; Carlier, Benoit
In mountainous areas, especially in large river catchments with torrential tributaries, the production and sediment transport significantly increase flood impacts in the valley bottoms. For a better understanding of Alpine river catchments considered as complex systems, we focused our research on the Guil River catchment (Queyras, Southern French Alps - 317km²). This catchment is prone to catastrophic summer floods (June 1957 (> R.I. 100 yr), June 2000 (R.I. 30 yr)...) characterized by considerable sediment transport from tributaries to downvalley, very much facilitated by strong hillslope-channel connectivity (≈12,000 m3 volume of sediment aggraded during the June 2000 flood event). During the last flood events, several infrastructures and buildings were seriously damaged. Most of them were located at confluences and, at specific reaches such as canyon reaches constrained by infrastructures. For risk mitigation some protection equipments were built after the 1957 event, but most of them are now poorly maintained and might be less effective in case of flood event. In the frame of SAMCO (ANR 12 SENV-0004) project designed for mountain hazard mitigation in a context of Climate Change, one objective is to understand the hydro-geomorphological functioning of Alpine catchments for a sustainable management of sediment yield, transfer and deposition. Part of our study is aimed at a better assessment of sediment transfers, especially on adjacent sediment supply (i.e. from hillslope to channel, and from tributaries to the trunk river) for a better management of sediment fluxes in the frame of the local "River Scheme". For this reason, we decided to establish a sediment budget of the Guil River catchment, with a quantitative assessment and a spatial analysis of erosion, transport, and deposition processes. The initial phase of our study consists in identifying contributive, erosion and deposition areas with a twofold approach: (i) assessment of longitudinal sedimentary
Full Text Available With time, after Romania’s accession to the E.U., the national legislation adhered to the Water Framework Directive. In the study we present the Someş and Tisa river catchments management and development plans, from the beginnings till today. We also conclude that the ecological and chemical state for the water bodies in agreement with the Water Framework Directive represents the main challenge for the future of these waters.
SOFRONIE C.; STOICA F.
With time, after Romania’s accession to the E.U., the national legislation adhered to the Water Framework Directive. In the study we present the Someş and Tisa river catchments management and development plans, from the beginnings till today. We also conclude that the ecological and chemical state for the water bodies in agreement with the Water Framework Directive represents the main challenge for the future of these waters.
Nordblom, Thomas L.; Hume, Iain H.; Cresswell, Hamish; Glover, Mark; Hean, Robyn L.; Finlayson, John D.; Wang, Enli
Although dryland farming and grazing have been practiced for over 130 years in the 17,000 ha Simmons Creek catchment without surface salinity problems, the area has been identified as a significant source of salt seepage to Billabong Creek in the NSW Murray catchment. Groundwater movement and salinity levels are spatially heterogenous at Simmons Creek. Groundwater of the upper catchment is relatively fresh and seemingly unconnected with the highly saline groundwater of the lower catchment. Ho...
Mojarrad, Morteza; Wörman, Anders; Riml, Joakim
Water resources intense development within the past century has had an enormous impact on hydrological systems especially on rivers and groundwater resources. A river basin is a flow system involving the interaction between surface water and groundwater. This interaction occurs in terrestrial and coastal zone and even in arid and semi-arid areas, where surface water overlie on a permeable sediment. A key zone for the interaction between surface water and groundwater is the hyporheic zone, which forms by stream water that in- and exfiltrating in the permeable sediments surrounding the river corridor. Groundwater and hyporheic flows arise due to different range of topographical scales and their relative importance is investigated in this study. Krycklan is a well-monitored research catchment in which the data collection for more than 90 years has comprised hydrology, biochemistry, and aquatic ecology. The catchment is located in a boreal area of northern Sweden. The head-water streams begin in mountainous area and fall to the Baltic Sea near the city of Umea. In this paper, COMSOL Multi-physics simulation software has been used to model the subsurface flow of the whole Krycklan catchment in order to reach a comprehensive understanding of large-scale groundwater circulation and its impact of the stream hyporheic flows. The model statement is based on the 3D Laplace equation, which has been applied independently on two ranges of topographical scales to obtain a superimposed solution. Steady state simulation has been done based on the simplified assumption of constant boundary conditions of the groundwater surface and otherwise non-flow boundaries. The hydraulic head of the groundwater surface was taken as the topography, which apply as an approximation in wet climate with shallow soil layers. The results demonstrated how the ratio of the topographical amplitudes on different scales affect the size (depth) and fragmentation of the hyporheic zone. "Fragmentation" was
Were KO; Owenga PO; Wagate PN; Orlale R
Land cover in Kenya is in a state of flux at different spatial and temporal scales.This compromises environmental integrity and socioeconomic stability of the population hence increasing their vulnerability to the externalities of environmental change.The Oroba-Kibos catchment area in western Kenya is one locality where rapid land use changes have taken place over the last 30 years.The shrubs,swamps,natural forests and other critical ecosystems have been converted on the altar of agriculture,human settlement,fuel wood and timber.This paper presents the results ora study that aimed at providing spatially-explicit information for effective remedial response through (a) Mapping the land cover; (b) Identifying the spatial distribution of land cover changes; (c) Determining the nature,rates and magnitude of the land cover changes,and; (d) Establishing the drivers of land use leading to land cover changes in Oroba-Kibos catchment area.Bi-temporal Landsat TM imagery,field observation,household survey and ancillary data were obtained.Per-field classification of the Landsat TM imagery was performed in a GIS and the resultant land cover maps assessed using the field observation data.Post-classification comparison of the maps was then done to detect changes in land cover that had occurred between 1994 and 2008.SPSS was used to analyze the household survey data and attribute the detected land cover changes to their causes.The findings showed that 9 broad classes characterize the catchment area including the natural forests,swamps,natural water bodies,woodlands,shrublands,built-up lands,grasslands,bare lands and croplands.Croplands are dominant and accounted for about 65% (57122 ha) of the total land in 1994,which increased at the rate of 0.89% to 73% (64772 ha) in 2008,while natural water bodies has the least spatial coverage accounting for about 0.6% (561 ha) of the total land in 1994,which diminished at the rate of 3.57% to 0.3% (260 ha) in 2008.Climate,altitude,access and
Full Text Available Seasonal cultivation in northern part of Thailand leads to widely uses of agrochemicals especially atrazine herbicide. To examine whether an intensive use of atrazine could lead to contamination in aquatic environment, sediment and water were collected from an agricultural catchment in Nan Province during 2010-2011 and subjected to analysis for atrazine by GC-MS. The results showed that detectable levels of atrazine were found in water (0.16 µg/ml and sediment (0.23 µg/g of the catchment. To monitor potential effects of atrazine on aquatic animals, a freshwater mussel Uniandra contradens was used as a sentinel species for bioaccumulation and potential health effects. Mussels collected from the catchment during 2010-2011 were subjected to analysis for atrazine residue in tissue and condition factor based on body weight and shell length. The results showed that detectable levels of atrazine were found in mussel tissue with the highest level (8.40 2.06 ng/g in late wet season when runoff from heavy rain was evidenced. Condition factor, an indicative of overall health, showed a significant negative correlation with atrazine residue in the tissue. This information could be used as part of the monitoring program for herbicide contamination and potential health effects in agricultural environment.
The aim of the work was to estimate plutonium inflow from the Vistula River's catchments area to the Baltic Sea. There were differences in plutonium activities depending on season and sampling site. The highest activities of 238Pu and 239+240Pu were transported from the Vistula River watershed to the Baltic Sea in spring and the lowest in summer. Annually, the southern Baltic Sea is enriched via the Vistula River with 10.3 MBq of 238Pu and 89.0 MBq of 239+240Pu. The enhanced concentration of plutonium in water from the Vistula River is the result of its runoff from the Vistula drainage area, mostly from snowmelt, enhanced rainfalls and leached materials from river bed. - Highlights: → We estimated plutonium inflow from the Vistula River catchment area to the Baltic Sea. → We found differences in Pu activities depending on season and sampling site. → The highest amount of 239 + 240Pu was transported in spring and the lowest in summer. → Annually, the southern Baltic Sea is enriched with 89.0 MBq of 239 + 240Pu. → Enhanced Pu amount in water came from snowmelt, rainfalls and leached materials.
Memuna M. Mattah
Full Text Available Pesticide use in modern day agriculture has increased tremendously. Pesticides are used to control pests and weeds, as well as protect crops from postharvest losses; however, their effects on humans and the environment cannot be overstated. This study examined pesticide acquisition, handling, and use among 120 farmers within the catchment of a small urban irrigation scheme. Also, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted among selected farmers through which further data was collected to augment that of the survey. Twelve types of pesticides, including herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides, were found in use in the study areas. Three main sources of information about pesticides were identified, 43.3% from extension officers, 39.2% from agrochemical dealers, and 10% from colleague farmers. Seventy-five percent (75% of the respondents purchased the pesticides from agrochemical shops. Out of 74 farmers who were observed spraying pesticides on their farms, only 25.7% wore dresses that covered their whole body but without goggles. About sixty-seven percent (66.7% of the farmers whose chemical got finished left the containers on their farms or threw them into the bushes around. The frequency of application was influenced by affordability and size of farm, among others. The study recommended that training of farmers on pesticide handling and use should be intensified.
Srinivasan, M. S.; McDowell, R. W.
SummaryValidity of five empirical to process-based, hydrological models described by Srinivasan and McDowell (2007) in mapping transport areas was tested in the Invermay and Glenomaru headwater catchments in Otago, New Zealand. These transport areas together with contaminant source areas form critical source areas (CSAs), where the majority of contaminant loss occurs and therefore represent areas where mitigation potential would be most efficient. Rainfall and 15-min instantaneous surface flows at the catchment outlets and the shallow water table (animal tracks. During wet periods (above-average rainfall), flow from these areas accounted for 10-70% of total stormflows. Water table data indicated that saturated areas with the water table at the surface rarely extended >10 m from the stream during storm events. There appeared to be an active subsurface (shallow) flow system transferring flows from land to streams. However, during many rainfall events, semi-pervious areas like fence lines, animal tracks and gateways were connected to the stream via infiltration-excess surface runoff, as measured by surface runoff samplers. This may be a significant for contaminant transfer given the amount of time spent by animals on these areas and deposition of contaminants (e.g., in dung) and is explored in a companion paper. Of the approaches used to delineate transport areas during storms, generally the empirically-based curve number model and Phosphorus Index over-predicted stormflow areas. The drainage density approach predicted stormflow areas well, but under-predicted flow volumes by 55-82%. The physically-based topographic index (TI) model and a model combining TI model and surface runoff from semi-pervious areas predicted flow volumes within 6% of that observed, but the extent of predicted transport areas greatly differed from those observed. Among the five approaches, the process-based approaches were identified to be more applicable and expandable for future prediction of
Bajwa, Anam; Ali, Usman; Mahmood, Adeel; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were investigated in passive air and soil samples from the catchment area of the Indus River, Pakistan. ∑15OCPs ranged between 0.68 and 13.47 ng g(-1) in soil and 375.1-1975 pg m-(3) in air. HCHs and DDTs were more prevalent in soil and air compartments. Composition profile indicated that β-HCH and p,p'-DDE were the dominant of all metabolites among HCHs and DDTs respectively. Moreover, fBC and fTOC were assessed and evaluated their potential role in the distribution status of OCPs. The fTOC and fBC ranged between 0.77 and 2.43 and 0.04-0.30% respectively in soil. Regression analysis showed the strong influence of fBC than fTOC on the distribution of OCPs in the Indus River catchment area soil. Equilibrium status was observed for β-HCH, δ-HCH, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, TC, HCB and Heptachlor with ff ranged between 0.3 and 0.59 while assessing the soil-air exchange of OCPs. PMID:26978705
Human activities in river basin affect river water quality as water discharges into river with pollutant after we use it. By detecting pollutants source, pathway, and influential factor of human activities, it will be possible to consider proper river basin management. In this study, material flow analysis was done first and then nutrient emission modeling by MONERIS was conducted. So as to clarify land use contribution and climate condition, comparison of Japanese and European river basin area has been made. The model MONERIS (MOdelling Nutrient Emissions in RIver Systems; Behrendt et al., 2000) was applied to estimate the nutrient emissions in the Danube river basin by point sources and various diffuse pathways. Work for the Mur River Basin in Austria was already carried out by the Institute of Water Quality, Resources and Waste Management at the Vienna University of Technology. This study treats data collection, modelling for the Tone River in Japan, and comparative analysis for these two river basins. The estimation of the nutrient emissions was carried out for 11 different sub catchment areas covering the Tone River Basin for the time period 2000 to 2006. TN emissions into the Tone river basin were 51 kt/y. 67% was via ground water and dominant for all sub catchments. Urban area was also important emission pathway. Human effect is observed in urban structure and agricultural activity. Water supply and sewer system make urban water cycle with pipeline structure. Excess evapotranspiration in arable land is also influential in water cycle. As share of arable land is 37% and there provides agricultural products, it is thought that N emission from agricultural activity is main pollution source. Assumption case of 10% N surplus was simulated and the result was 99% identical to the actual. Even though N surplus reduction does not show drastic impact on N emission, it is of importance to reduce excess of fertilization and to encourage effective agricultural activity
Ekström, Sara M.; Regnell, Olof; Reader, Heather E.; Nilsson, P. Anders; Löfgren, Stefan; Kritzberg, Emma S.
Recent studies report trends of strongly increasing iron (Fe) concentrations in freshwaters. Since Fe is a key element with a decisive role in the biogeochemical cycling of major elements, it is important to understand the mechanisms behind these trends. We hypothesized that variations in Fe concentration are driven mainly by redox dynamics in hydraulically connected soils. Notably, Fe(III), which is the favored oxidation state except in environments where microbial activity provide strong reducing intensity, has several orders of magnitude lower water solubility than Fe(II). To test our hypothesis, seasonal variation in water chemistry, discharge, and air temperature was studied in three Swedish rivers. Methylmercury and sulfate were used as indicators of seasonal redox changes. Seasonal variability in water chemistry, discharge, and air temperature in the Emån and Lyckeby Rivers implied that the variation in Fe was primarily driven by the prevalence of reducing conditions in the catchment. In general, high Fe concentrations were observed when methylmercury was high and sulfate was low, indicative of reducing conditions. The Fe concentrations showed no or weak relationships with variations in dissolved organic matter concentration and aromaticity. The seasonal variation in Fe concentration of the Ume river was primarily dependent on timing of the snowmelt in high- versus low-altitude areas of the catchment. There were long-term trends of increasing temperature in all catchments and also trends of increasing discharge in the southern rivers, which should increase the probability for anaerobic conditions in space and time and thereby increase Fe transport to the aquatic systems.
Leuschner, Annette; Merz, Christoph; Steidl, Jörg; van Gasselt, Stephan
The water budget of a catchment area can be depicted by the complex interaction between topography and discharge as well as anthropogenic and climatic impacts. Over the last decades, the Pleistocene lowlands of North-Eastern Germany have experienced extensive anthropogenic modifications. The hydrological system has been significantly altered by the installation of artificial drainage, such as surface ditches and subsurface tile drains. It has been shown, that artificial drainage systems provide pathways for diffuse nutrients and pollutants leaching into surface and also subsurface water bodies, which is especially pronounced in lowland areas. The detection of these transport paths is important for obtaining an understanding of the regional water and substance balance and the development of strategies to improve hydrological conditions. Unfortunately, detailed data about locations of historic artificial drainage are rare or not available at all. The aim of this study was to identify the extensive anthropogenic modifications, like artificial drainage networks and land use changes, over the last decades with the aid of photogrammetric data and multispectral imagery. The detection of anthropogenic modifications is based on the method of Tetzlaff, et al. (2009), who developed an approach by interpreting aerial photographs for drained areas. We used color-infrared (CIR) aerial photographs, in order to apply different spectral techniques for obtaining information about water content and vitality status of plant cover. Although this method is sensitive to daily variations of soil moisture and plant growth as response to climate conditions, and the type of drainage pipe installation technique, we were able to identify different locations of artificial drainage. Complementary to this approach we utilized spectral classification methods for land cover in order to extract different land cover categories, and evaporation rates, depending on the land cover and surface
Burke, Victoria; Richter, Doreen; Greskowiak, Janek; Mehrtens, Anne; Schulz, Lena; Massmann, Gudrun
The contamination of the aquatic environment with organic micropollutants, such as veterinary pharmaceuticals, has become an increasingly serious problem and has aroused attention in the course of the last decades. This study presents a screening for a series of veterinary antibiotics, potentially introduced by the application of liquid manure, in ground- and surface water of a drinking water catchment in Lower Saxony, Germany. Of the 26 compounds analyzed, eight, including sulfadiazine, sulfapyridine, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, dehydrato-erythromycin, sulfadimidine, tylosin, and tetracycline were detected in surface water samples. Trimethoprim was detected in 11 out of 15 shallow groundwater samples, indicating its high environmental relevance. Column sorption experiments conducted on trimethoprim show a comparatively moderate sorption affinity to sandy aquifer material with a retardation coefficient of 5.7. PMID:27329061
Schneider, C.; Moritz, M.; Kilian, R.
The river runoff from a small partly glaciated catchment area in southernmost Patagonian Andes in Chile is measured to analyse the influence of regional precipitation and climate dependent glacier ablation on runoff. The first data from March to September 2002 were compared to climate data recorded at an automatic weather station in the area. The poster presents the first detailed hydrometeorological investigation from this part of the Andes. The investigation area is located at 53°S in southernmost South America exactly east of the main divide of the mountain range of the Andes at 72.5°W. The catchment area of about 15 km2 comprises parts of the Gran Campo Nevado Ice Cap reaching up to 1500 m asl, and the outlet glacier Glaciar Lengua which ends at a proglacial lake at 100 m asl. The Gran Campo Nevado Ice Cap is the major ice mass between the Southern Patagonian Ice field in the north and the Strait of Magallan to the South. Climate in the area is characterised by whole-year round cool and super-humid conditions with a mean annual air temperature of 5,6°C at sea level and an annual precipitation sum of approximately 7,000 mm. The Río Lengua itself meets approximately 3.5 km downstreams from the proglacial lake into the fjord system of Canal Garjado which is a branch of Seno Skyring. A continuous hourly record of water levels in the river was obtained from two digital water depth sensors. Runoff was calibrated against river level by measuring runoff at different times with the tracer method of salt dilution and with velocity measurements employing a hydrometric vane. Mean runoff was computed to about 3 m3/s with peak flows exceeding 10 m3/s. Ablation on the glacier was estimated using the degree-day method with a degree-day factor that has been calibrated previously using data from a temporal energy balance weather station on Glacíar Lengua. The correlation between runoff and air temperature and precipitation returned significant correlation coefficients of rt
Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Terracciano, Antonio; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Patriciu, Nicholas S.; Nestadt, Gerald; McCrae, Robert R.; Eaton, William W.; Costa, Paul T.
We examined the influence of age, gender, Black vs. White ethnicity, and education on five indices of personality stability and change across an average interval of 8 years in the East Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. In the full sample (n = 505, aged 30-88), examination of structural, rank-order, ipsative, and mean level stability, as well as indices of reliable change suggested that NEO-PI-R personality traits showed moderate to high levels of stability over time. There were few age and gender effects on temporal stability but rank-order, ipsative, and mean level stability were lower among Blacks and individuals with lower education. Future research should explore additional demographic predictors of temporal plasticity in a diverse range of samples, and employ observer ratings to assess personality. PMID:19122849
Charrière, Séverine; Aumond, Claire
The quality of raw water is problematic in France, largely polluted by nitrates and pesticides (Mueller and Helsel, Nutrients in the nation's waters-too much of a good thing? Geological Survey (U.S.), 1996; European Environment Agency, European waters-assessment of status and pressures, 2012).This type of pollution, even though not always due to agriculture (example of the catchment of Ambleville, county 95, France where the nitrate pollution is mainly due to sewers (2012)), has been largely related to the agricultural practices (Sci Total Environ 407:6034-6043, 2009).Taking note of this observation, and instead of letting it paralyze their actions, the agricultural cooperatives decided with Agrosolutions to act directly on the field with their subscribers to change the agricultural practices impacting the water and the environment.This article shows how the French agricultural cooperatives transformed the awareness of the raw water quality problem into an opportunity for the development and implementation of more precise and responsible practices, to protect their environment. They measure in order to pilot, co-construct and build the best action plans possible according to the three pillars of environment, economy and agronomy. PMID:27074925
Abraham R Oduro
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Presently, many malaria control programmes use health facility data to evaluate the impact of their interventions. Facility-based malaria data, although useful, have problems with completeness, validity and representativeness and reliance on routinely collected health facility data might undermine demonstration of the magnitude of the impact of the recent scaleups of malaria interventions. To determine whether carefully conducted health centre surveys can be reliable means of monitoring area specific malaria epidemiology, we have compared malaria specific indices obtained from surveys in health centres with indices obtained from cross-sectional surveys conducted in their catchment communities. METHODS: A series of age stratified, seasonal, cross-sectional surveys were conducted during the peak malaria transmission season in 2008 and during the following dry season in 2009 in six ecologically diverse areas in The Gambia. Participants were patients who attended the health centres plus a representative sample from the catchment villages of these health facilities. Parasitaemia, anaemia, attributable proportion of fever and anti-MSP1-(19 antibody seroprevalence were compared in the health facility attendees and community participants. RESULTS: A total of 16,230 subjects completed the study; approximately half participated in the health centre surveys and half in the wet season surveys. Data from both the health centre and community surveys showed that malaria endemicity in The Gambia is now low, heterogeneous and seasonal. In the wet season, parasitaemia, seroprevalence and fever prevalence were higher in subjects seen in the health centres than in the community surveys. Age patterns of parasitaemia, attributable proportions of fever and seroprevalence rates were similar in subjects who participated in the community and health centre surveys. CONCLUSION: Health centre surveys have potential as a surveillance tool for evaluating area
Full Text Available One of the factors that contributed to the construction of approx.77 km2 offish ponds in the catchment of Barycz starting from the 13th century, which in turn transformed the woods into a mosaic of waters, forests and arable land, were the advantageous physiographic conditions. Fish farming operations conducted in this area led to the creation of a cultural landscape characterised by unique natural values, similar to the natural landscape.Approx.240 species of birds are observed here, of which 170 are nesting species. Due to its natural values, this area has been subject to natural reserve protection as part of the Landscape Park "Dolina Baryczy" (the Barycz Valley. It was entered in the "Living Lakes" list and it is protected under the Ramsar Convention as well as under the European nature protection network Natura 2000.The established forms of nature protection mean the introduction of a certain binding regime, pursuant to which the economic activity conducted in protected areas must take into account the prohibitions and orders introduced by documents that establish the said forms of protection. Additionally, there is a legal requirement to create a protection plan or conservation plan that constitutes a basis for the realisation of conservation-related objectives. A commercial company Stawy Milickie S.A. (public limited company operates in the area of this largest fish pond complex in Poland. The scope of its operations includes more than just the breeding and sale of freshwater fish (6500 ha of ponds but also environmental protection, environmental education and the development of tourism as well as stimulating the development and professional activation of local communities basing on the natural resources that exist in the catchment of Barycz. This study presents the conditions related to fish farming operations conducted in this area. Conducting an extensive management (i.e. often uneconomical from the economic point of view is a
Abong'o, Deborah; Wandiga, Shem; Jumba, Isaac; Madadi, Vincent; Kylin, Henrik
The population of the River Nyando catchment largely relies on rain fed agriculture for their subsistence. Important crops grown include cereals, cash crops fruits and vegetables. Farming is one of the contributors of pollution to Lake Victoria. Organophosphates and other banned organochlorine pesticides such as lindane, aldrin and dieldrin were used by farmers. The pesticides transport was by storm water run-off and air drift into the lake. Environmental risk assessment background informatio...
Full Text Available The analysis of the land use structure of the 13 counties of the Romanian part of Tisa catchment area has been made according to the 2000 edition of CORINE Land Cover, while the 1990 edition has been used for comparative purposes. Out of the total area of 8,269,229.48 hectares, the forests cover 37.92%, the arable lands 35.02% and the grasslands 17.97%. The other types of land use have lower weights, such as the continuous and discontinuous urban fabric 4.81%, the orchards 1.10% and the vineyards 0.98%. In the category of forests, the following types of land use are included: broad-leaved forests, which form the majority (24.72%, coniferous forests (6.22%, mixed forests (3.46% and transitional woodland-shrub areas (3.52%. The forests are mainly located in the Carpathians and the hills. The non-irrigated arable lands (23.50% are predominant within the arable lands. They lie mostly in the Western Plain and in the basins and corridors of the Transylvanian Depression and the Western Hills. The analysis of the dynamics of the land use structure between 1990 and 2000 indicates a relative stability in the case of forests, a decrease of arable lands and an increase of grasslands.
A number of discharge measurements using radioisotope and current metering techniques at selected streams in Sg. Weng Experimental Catchment were conducted by MINT and JPS gauging teams starting from 2003-2005. This study aims to prepare stage-discharge relationships or rating curves of the selected streams during variable flow conditions. The rating curve of the stream is one of the important parameters and usually appraised in certain routine operations of hydrological studies. It may be used in the planning of water resources management and flood control scheme. The radioisotope method employed in this study involved the injection of short-lived radioisotope tracer, that is, technetium-99m (99mTc having its half-life ∼ 6.023 hrs) which was supplied from a high activity technetium generator (55.5 Gbq). Measurement of stream discharges were concurrently undertaken by JPS staff using a current meter type 0TT-C2 mounted on a wading rod at selected gauging stations for comparison purposes. Methodologies from the two methods of discharge measurements, comparison of results and identifying the uncertainties (errors) in performing the measurement during low, medium and high turbulent flows were explained in this paper. Generally, the entire results of streamflow data (2003-2005) measured by both methods during low flows (Q3/s) exhibit almost comparable values to each other. However, for moderate flows (1.0 m3/s3/s), the different in gauging results are slightly higher using radioisotope method ( i.e. Q isotope > Q current meter and may goes up to 40%) , and during high turbulent flows (Q>6.0 m3/s) the radioisotope method presented more than 40% higher discharge values as compared to the measurement made by the conventional current-meter. Observation made on site anticipated that inaccurate gauging data measured by conventional means during high flow and turbulent conditions are expected. The average estimated measurement error associated with isotope method is within
Wennberg, J; Gittelsohn
Health information about total populations is a prerequisite for sound decision-making and planning in the health care field. Experience with a population-based health data system in Vermont reveals that there are wide variations in resource input, utilization of services, and expenditures among neighboring communities. Results show prima facie inequalities in the input of resources that are associated with income transfer from areas of lower expenditure to areas of higher expenditure. Variations in utilization indicate that there is considerable uncertainty about the effectiveness of different levels of aggregate, as well as specific kinds of, health services. Informed choices in the public regulation of the health care sector require knowledge of the relation between medical care systems and the population groups being served, and they should take into account the effect of regulation on equality and effectiveness. When population-based data on small areas are available, decisions to expand hospitals, currently based on institutional pressures, can take into account a community's regional ranking in regard to bed input and utilization rates. Proposals by hospitals for unit price increases and the regulation of the actuarial rate of insurance programs can be evaluated in terms of per capita expenditures and income transfer between geographically defined populations. The PSRO's can evaluate the wide variations in level of services among residents of different communities. Coordinated exercise of the authority vested in these regulatory programs may lead to explicit strategies to deal directly with inequality and uncertainty concerning the effectiveness of health care delivery. Population-based health information systems, because they can provide information on the performance of health care systems and regulatory agencies, are an important step in the development of rational public policy for health. PMID:4750608
The research project focuses on the glacial landform sequences in the upper Quitarasca valley (8°51´S/77°36´W) with particular consideration of the Pucahirca glacier. The study area is located at the eastern side of the Cordillera Blanca, about almost 40 km valley upstream of the confluence with the Rio Santa valley. The highest catchment area is the Pucahirca Massif (6020 m a.s.l.). The present glacier tongue terminates at an elevation of 4500 m a.s.l.. The investigations analyzed the extent of the glaciations from the Last Glacial Maximum to modern times in regard to the transition of the moraine types during the course of deglaciation. The distinct moraine stages were correlated with existent glacial chronologies of adjacent valleys. Due to the hazard potential of the Laguna Safuna Alta, which developed in the late 1940s at the terminus of the Pucahirca glacier, detailed studies have been carried out by various research groups in regard to the composition of the historical / Neoglacial moraine composition providing at the same time valuable material for multi-temporal comparison of the recent development of the glacier tongue. The investigations presented here are part of a project on the glacial geomorphology in the Tropical Andes, financed by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.
Sinking watercourse Trbuhovica is located at the topping karst of Gorski Kotar in Croatia, near the Slovenian border. About 900 inhabitants live in Trbuhovica catchment area. Sewage system had not been built. The project KEEP WATERS CLEAN (INTERREG III A project) was approved by EU commission and has a purpose of investigating water resources of that area, their appropriate protection and improving management of those resources. This paper presents project's 1st phase investigation results: hydrologic conditions and water quality at several locations on stream and at the springs of Trbuhovica, Mlake and Obrh. Climatologic (precipitation, air temperature and snow cover), basic hydrologic characteristics (flow and water temperature), water quality parameters (pH, electric conductivity, alkalinity, oxygen regime, nutrients and mineral oils) and microbiology indicators have been monitored. Samples of micro invertebrates and samples of periphyton have been collected in the field. Biological results have been elaborated via Saprobial Index according to Pantle-Buck. Analyses results showed a strong connection between hydrologic condition and selected water quality parameters. The groundwater quality changes are very quick. Maximum pollutions occur during the period of intensive rain. Water at the spring of Mlaka is very clean and is classified in the first to second water category, while Trbuhovica shows higher organic pollution.
The Belledune area has been home to various industrial activities such as mining, smelting, fertilizer plants, battery-recycling plants, gypsum plants, sawmills, and a coal-fired electricity generating facility. These industries have had various types and quantities of emissions over the past 4 decades that may have impacted on the health of people in the area. This report provided details of the Belledune Health Area Study. The objective of the study was to ensure that the concerns of residents were addressed and that the historical and human health risks associated with past and current industrial activities were quantified. The current health status of residents in the area was examined with reference to environmental exposures, and recommendations for future studies and research based on the results of the study were presented. Two main components were used: the human health risk assessment (HHRA), and community health status assessment (CHSA). Best estimate calculations for residents in the core communities showed that exposures to cadmium, lead and mercury were predicted to be below toxicity reference values. In Belledune itself, child exposures to cadmium and mercury were above the toxicity reference value. Results indicated that the health status pattern for the study area was different from that found in the surrounding areas. There was a statistically significantly elevated incidence of oral, respiratory, and prostate cancer and elevated incidences of kidney and colorectal cancer. There was a higher mortality rate than expected, and there were more deaths than expected due to circulatory disease, cancer and other causes such as accidents and suicides. An expanded survey of blood lead among child residents and pregnant women was recommended. A program was launched to collect data on metal concentrations in fish from the Baie des Chaleurs and additional data on vegetables from the Greater Belledune area. Future research on some of the factors associated
The Belledune area has been home to various industrial activities such as mining, smelting, fertilizer plants, battery-recycling plants, gypsum plants, sawmills, and a coal-fired electricity generating facility. These industries have had various types and quantities of emissions over the past 4 decades that may have impacted on the health of people in the area. This report provided details of the Belledune Health Area Study. The objective of the study was to ensure that the concerns of residents were addressed and that the historical and human health risks associated with past and current industrial activities were quantified. The current health status of residents in the area was examined with reference to environmental exposures, and recommendations for future studies and research based on the results of the study were presented. Two main components were used: the human health risk assessment (HHRA), and community health status assessment (CHSA). Best estimate calculations for residents in the core communities showed that exposures to cadmium, lead and mercury were predicted to be below toxicity reference values. In Belledune itself, child exposures to cadmium and mercury were above the toxicity reference value. Results indicated that the health status pattern for the study area was different from that found in the surrounding areas. There was a statistically significantly elevated incidence of oral, respiratory, and prostate cancer and elevated incidences of kidney and colorectal cancer. There was a higher mortality rate than expected, and there were more deaths than expected due to circulatory disease, cancer and other causes such as accidents and suicides. An expanded survey of blood lead among child residents and pregnant women was recommended. A program was launched to collect data on metal concentrations in fish from the Baie des Chaleurs and additional data on vegetables from the Greater Belledune area. Future research on some of the factors associated
Full Text Available Periods of extreme heat pose a risk to the health of individuals, especially the elderly, the very young, and the chronically ill. Risk factors include housing characteristics, and socioeconomic factors, or environmental risk factors such as urban heat islands. This study developed an index of population vulnerability in an urban setting using known environmental, demographic, and health-related risk factors for heat stress. The spatial variations in risk factors were correlated with spatial variation in heat-related health outcomes in urban Melbourne. The index was weighted using measured health outcomes during heatwave periods. The index was then mapped to produce a spatial representation of risk. The key risk factors were identified as areas with aged care facilities, higher proportions of older people living alone, living in suburban rather than inner city areas, and areas with larger proportions of people who spoke a language other than English at home. The maps of spatial vulnerability provide information to target heat-related health risks by aiding policy advisors, urban planners, healthcare professionals, and ancillary services to develop heatwave preparedness plans at a local scale.
Bie, W.; Casper, M. C.; Reiter, P.; Vohland, M.
In this paper, a method combining graphical and statistical techniques is proposed for surface resistance calibration in a distributed hydrological model, WaSiM-ETH, by comparing daily evapotranspiration simulated by model WaSiM-ETH with corresponding daily evapotranspiration retrieved from remote sensing images. The study area locates in Nahe catchment (Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, 4065 km2) forest regions. The remote sensing based observations are available for a very limited number of days but representative for most soil moisture conditions. By setting canopy resistance (rc) at 150 s/m, soil surface resistance (rse) at 250 s/m or at 300 s/m for deciduous forest and setting rc at 300 s/m, rse at 600 s/m or at 650 s/m for pine forest, the model exhibits its best overall performance in space and time. It is also found that with sufficient soil moisture, the model exhibits its best performance in space scale.
An electrical safety in health care area is necessary to protect patients and staff from potential electrical hazards.Functional, accurate and safe clinical equipment is an essential requirement in the provision of health services. Well-maintained equipment will give clinicians greater confidence in the reliability of its performance and contribute to a high standard of client care. Clinical equipment, like all health services, requires annual or periodic servicing of medical equipment. In addition to planned servicing and preventative maintenance, there may be the unexpected failure of medical (and other) equipment, necessitating repair. In general, clinical equipment that has an electrical power source and has direct contact with the client must be serviced as a first priority. In this presentation, a review of the main concepts related to the electrical safety in health area,theinternational standard, the distribution of electric power in hospital and protection against shockwill be introduced. Protection system in hospital will be presented in its two ways: inpower distribution in hospitaland inbiomedical equipment design,finally the optimum maintenance technology and safety tests in health care areawill presented also.
Pedersen, Morten Lauge
Rivers and streams form a longitudinal network in which physical conditions and biological processes change through the river system. Geomorphology, topography, geology and hydraulic conditions change from site to site within the river system, thereby creating a complex network of reaches that are......, substrata and coverage of macrophytes. Riparian land use, valley form and information on channelisation and channel dredging were also collected. Small headwater streams were either dominated by forests or semi-natural land use. In contrast, the riparian areas of the streams in the larger streams were...
GABRIELA ANDREEA DESPESCU; S. NACU; BĂTINAŞ R
This study is focused on the monitoring and evaluation of river’s water bodies from Maramureş County, using the methodology associated with the EU Water Framework Directive 60/2000. Thus, in the first part are defined the theoretical terms of monitoring activities related to the water bodies’ quality and the specific features of those we can find in the studied area. There are presented the water bodies’ features, quality indicators and the monitoring frequencies for the rivers situated in th...
In this study the activity of polonium 210Po in the Odra River water samples, collected from October 2003 to July 2004 has been was determined using alpha spectrometry. In autumn the highest concentration of 210Po was found in the Odra River water at Gozdowice (1.64 ± 0.08 Bq m-3) and in the Nysa Luzycka River (5.21 ± 0.19 Bq m-3). In contrary, the lowest concentrations were determined in water from the Barycz and the Bystrzyca Rivers (1.09 ± 0.07 and 1.09 ± 0.06 Bq m-3, respectively). During winter season, in turn, the highest concentration of 210Po was observed in the Odra River water collected at Chalupki (3.64 ± 0.03 Bq m-3) and Slubice (3.62 ± 0.03 Bq m-3), and the lowest in the Notec River (1.00 ± 0.06 Bq dm-3). In spring the highest concentration was in the Odra at Slubice (3.32 ± 0.04 Bq m-3) and in the Nysa Klodzka River (4.04 ± 0.03 Bq m-3), and the lowest in the Barycz River (1.10 ± 0.05 Bq m-3) and the Odra at Glogow (1.04 ± 0.06 Bq m-3). In summer the highest 210Po concentration was observed in Odra River at Widuchowa (1.79 ± 0.04 Bq m-3) and in the Nysa Klodzka River (2.00 ± 0.05 Bq m-3), and the lowest in the Odra at Gozdowice (1.10 ± 0.05 Bq m-3) and in the Barycz River (0.60 ± 0.09 Bq m-3). The highest quantity of polonium 210Po was transported to the Baltic Sea in spring, and the lowest in winter. It was calculated that the southern Baltic Sea, especially the Pomeranian Bay with the Szczecin Lagoon, receives 14.76 GBq 210Po annually. Among the Odra tributaries the highest surface runoff of 210Po was observed in autumn (up to 88 kBq km-2 quarter-1 for the Nysa Luzycka drainage area), and the lowest in summer (1 kBq km-2 quarter-1 for the Barycz drainage area). (authors)
Full Text Available There is an ever increasing need to apply hydrological models to catchments where streamflow data are unavailable or to large geographical regions where calibration is not feasible. Estimation of model parameters from spatial physical data is the key issue in the development and application of hydrological models at various scales. To investigate the suitability of transferring the regression equations relating model parameters to physical characteristics developed from small sub-catchments to a large region for estimating model parameters, a conceptual snow and water balance model was optimised on all the sub-catchments in the region. A multiple regression analysis related model parameters to physical data for the catchments and the regression equations derived from the small sub-catchments were used to calculate regional parameter values for the large basin using spatially aggregated physical data. For the model tested, the results support the suitability of transferring the regression equations to the larger region. Keywords: water balance modelling,large scale, multiple regression, regionalisation
Gao, Lei; Chen, Jianyao; Tang, Changyuan; Ke, Zhiting; Wang, Jiang; Shimizu, Yuta; Zhu, Aiping
The distribution, migration and potential risk of heavy metals in water and soil environments, related to city water supply, were investigated. Heavy metal concentrations in waters from the Shima River water ranged from not detected (n.d.) to 749 μg L(-1) for Mn, n.d. to 151 μg L(-1) for Ni, 7.00 to 494 μg L(-1) for Zn, n.d. to 93.0 μg L(-1) for Cu and n.d. to 9860 μg L(-1) for Fe. The highest concentration of heavy metals was found at an upstream site in February as a result of industrial effluent discharge. Groundwater (GW1-GW5) and soil (S1-S8) samples along the riverbank showed similar levels of contamination due to a close hydraulic relationship and frequent exchange of water, probably resulting in migration of heavy metals from river water to the aquifer and accumulation at the interface. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in soil profiles were in the ranges of 2.50-19.0 mg kg(-1) for As, 2.80-11.2 mg kg(-1) for Cd, 20.3-165 mg kg(-1) for Cr, 14.5-298 mg kg(-1) for Cu, 11.4-102 mg kg(-1) for Ni, 7.00-95.0 mg kg(-1) for Pb, 40.4-465 mg kg(-1) for Zn, 8.80 × 10(3)-21.8 × 10(3) mg kg(-1) for Fe, and 62.2-430 mg kg(-1) for Mn, showing severe soil pollution by Cd. LUMISTox testing and the potential ecological risk index (RI) were used to assess the potential for adverse ecological effects caused by heavy metals in water and soil media. River water samples posed slight acute toxicity to Vibrio fischeri with luminescence inhibition rates (LIRs) ranging from 24.6% to 38.4% in February. Elevated Zn and Cu concentrations significantly contributed to the toxicity. However, groundwater did not exhibit any toxicity to Vibrio fischeri. The severity of the potential ecological risk for individual metals (Er(i)) decreased in the order of Cd > Cu > Ni > As > Pb > Zn > Cr. RI values indicated that all soil samples in the study area posed a high level of ecological risk. Cd contributed significantly (95.5-98.9%) to potential ecological risk in soils. PMID:26308469
.78 mg m-3 for total uranium). The values of 234U/238U activity ratio lie between 1.10-1.74. Annually, the southern Baltic Sea is enriched by about 507 GBq uranium isotopes 234U and 238U, with 490 GBq going to the Gdansk Bay and 16.5 GBq to Vistula Lagoon. The highest surface 238U runoff was observed in spring (to 1200 kBq km-2 quarter-1 for catchment's area), the lowest in summer for Bug with Narew catchment's area to 20 kBq km-2 quarter-1. These studies are very important for the inflow estimation of natural and anthropogenic alpha radionuclides to the Baltic Sea. (orig.)
Lyons Ronan A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining population-based rates for major injury poses methodological challenges. We used hospital discharge data over a 10-year period (1996–2005 from a national trauma registry, the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN Manchester, to construct valid numerators and denominators so that we can calculate population-based rates of major injury in the future. Methods We examined data from all hospitals reporting to TARN for continuity of numerator reporting; rates of completeness for patient postcodes, and clear denominator populations. We defined local market areas (>70% of patients originating from the same postcode district as the hospital. For relevant hospitals we assessed data quality: consistency of reporting, completeness of patient postcodes and for one selected hospital, North Staffordshire Royal Infirmary (NSRI, the capture rate of numerator data reporting. We used an established method based on patient flow to delineate market areas from hospitals discharges. We then assessed the potential competitors, and characterized these denominator areas. Finally we performed a denominator sensitivity analysis using a patient origin matrix based on Hospital Episodes Statistics (HES to validate our approach. Results Sixteen hospitals met the data quality and patient flow criteria for numerator and denominator data, representing 12 hospital catchment areas across England. Data quality issues included fluctuations numbers of reported cases and poor completion of postcodes for some years. We found an overall numerator capture rate of 83.5% for the NSRI. In total we used 40,543 admissions to delineate hospital catchment areas. An average of 3.5 potential hospital competitors and 15.2 postcode districts per area were obtained. The patient origin matrix for NSRI confirmed the accuracy of the denominator/hospital catchment area from the patient flow analysis. Conclusion Large national trauma registries, including TARN, hold
Full text: The topic of this study is to understand the behaviour of surface waters in a small catchment area (c.a. 3300 ha - altitudes ranging from 550m to 1300m). Six springs located in the southern part of the French Massif Central have been studied for two years. The 'Furan' watershed composed of metric arena overlays in a granitic and gneissic basement. Oxygen and Hydrogen stable isotope ratios were determined routinely. Tritium, carbon isotopes as well as alkalinity were punctually determined. Cations and anions were quantified using ICP-AES and ion chromatography. Further more, to better understand stable isotopes catchment's behavior, three years of daily rainwater sampling provide a well define local meteoric water line (collection at 400m asl). Moreover, two other LMWL were established, at 770m and 1100m to quantify spatial and altitudinal changes. Cations and anions content of springs are enriched regarding precipitation compositions (few mg/L), and the chemical content refers to low temperature reactions. Total dissolved ions range between 30 mg/L and 130 mg/L. Few alkalinity values were measured, from 1 to 7 mg/L as bicarbonate alkalinity, but there is no clear evidence that they match real values, sulphate content being higher. Ionic mass balance, based on pe redox equilibrium, were made using PhreeQC and appears to be good for half of the springs (4+ content might be related to agricultural impact. Inverse modelling suggests interaction with minerals such as kaolinite, chlorite, K-feldspar, underlining reactions between percolating water and altered granites. From rainwater isotopic records, altitudinal variations are too small to modify both slope and D-excess of the LMWL. So the monthly mean of three years record is taken as representative of local rains and leads to δD=7.4δ18O+3.8 (r2=0.96). During the year 2003 occurred a 40% decrease of pluviometry/mean annual pluviometry: high isotopes values recorded for these summer months lead to a
West, R T; Howard, F H
A study to determine the impact that the Area Health Education Center type of programs may have on health science libraries was conducted by the Extramural Programs, National Library of Medicine, in conjunction with a contract awarded by the Bureau of Health Manpower, Health Resources Administration, to develop an inventory of the AHEC type of projects in the United States. Specific study tasks included a review of these programs as they relate to library and information activities, on-site surveys on the programs to define their needs for library services and information, and a categorization of library activities. A major finding was that health science libraries and information services are generally not included in AHEC program planning and development, although information and information exchange is a fundamental part of the AHEC type of programs. This study suggests that library inadequacies are basically the result of this planning failure and of a lack of financial resources; however, many other factors may be contributory. The design and value of library activities for these programs needs explication. PMID:884349
Musolff, Andreas; Schmidt, Christian; Selle, Benny; Fleckenstein, Jan H.
Dynamics of solute export from catchments can be classified in terms of chemostatic and chemodynamic export regimes by an analysis of concentration-discharge relationships. Previous studies hypothesized that distinct export regimes emerge from the presence of solute mass stores within the catchment and their connectivity to the stream. However, so far a direct link of solute export to identifiable catchment characteristics is missing. Here we investigate long-term time series of stream water quality and quantity of nine neighboring catchments in Central Germany ranging from relatively pristine mountain catchments to agriculturally dominated lowland catchments, spanning large gradients in land use, geology, and climatic conditions. Given the strong collinearity of catchment characteristics we used partial least square regression analysis to quantify the predictive power of these characteristics for median concentrations and the metrics of export regime. We can show that median concentrations and metrics of the export regimes of major ions and nutrients can indeed be inferred from catchment characteristics. Strongest predictors for median concentrations were the share of arable land, discharge per area, runoff coefficient and available water capacity in the root zone of the catchments. The available water capacity in the root zone, the share of arable land being artificially drained and the topographic gradient were found to be the most relevant predictors for the metrics of export regime. These catchment characteristics can represent the size of solute mass store such as the fraction of arable land being a measure for the store of nitrate. On the other hand, catchment characteristics can be a measure for the connectivity of these solute stores to the stream such as the fraction of tile drained land in the catchments. This study demonstrates the potential of data-driven, top down analyses using simple metrics to classify and better understand dominant controls of
Full Text Available Water plays a vital role in the developmental activities of any country. Present mismanagement of water resources causes future deterioration, both in quantity and quality. Increase in population causes changes in the landuse / landcover in the peri-urban areas. The Chembarambakkam tank taken for study has recently been developed as a major source of water supply to the Chennai city. It has maximum storage capacity of 103 MFt. The major treatment plant of 530 MLD has been commissioned on July 2007. It is necessary to safeguard the existing water resources and analyse the present status of the water body. The catchment area contributes to the inflow and the quantity of water is analysed by estimating the runoff from the catchment area using Soil Conservation Services – Curve Number (SCS-CN model. Water released to the command area for irrigation is analysed from the secondary data. The landuse / landcover change in the command area was identified by comparing the satellite imageries of the years 1991 and 2003. Questionnaire and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA tools like village mapping and time – line analysis were used to get the social and economic data to analyse the reasons for changes in landuse. This project proves that urbanization and industrialization has reduced the irrigation to the worst level.
Shrimali, S. S.; Aggarwal, S. P.; Samra, J. S.
Traditionally, assessment of productivity of land took priority over all other aspects of evaluating land use performance. Presently, the effects of land use on the quality of the environment and environmental sustainability of production systems have become the major issues. In hills, the terrain conditions aggravate erosion-induced land degradation. Judicious allocation of available resources for sustainable production requires mapping, monitoring and prioritizing the areas based on their susceptibility to degradation. Remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems are effective tools for inventory, monitoring and management of spatially distributed resources. This paper presents a case study of the 42 km 2 Sukhna Lake catchment in the Shiwalik hills conducted for the delineation and prioritization of erosion-prone areas using RS and Geographic Information Systems. Multi-spectral IRS ID-LISS III data acquired in March 1998 was used for the supervised digital classification of the land use/land cover type. The catchment was classified in six land use classes: forest, agriculture, scrub, barren hills, streambed and settlements. These classes were divided into sub-classes based on the cover characteristics. Using the U.S. Soil Conservation Service curve number method, runoff potential of each delineated hydrologic unit was computed in a grid-based analysis using an ARC/INFO GIS. Erosion-prone areas were classified further by integration of a digital elevation model or DEM-derived slope, aspect and flow length. To get an ordered priority of the erosion-prone areas, a cumulative erosion index was computed from the rating given to the three main causative factors, ie, slope, soil erodibility, and land cover, on a scale of 1-7 for each grid. The cumulative index was further classified in four classes for spatial representation of the erosion-prone areas on the catchment map. The study revealed that 32.9 percent of the catchment area is susceptible to high or very
Saccon, P.; A. Leis; Marca, A.; Kaiser, J; Campisi, L.; Böttcher, M.E.; Savarino, J.; Escher, P.; A. Eisenhauer; J. Erbland
A multi-isotope approach has been used in the Marano lagoon (NE Italy) and parts of its catchment area to identify causes of increased View the MathML source pollution. The hydrogeochemical features of different water types and potential sources of View the MathML source were characterized using the isotopic composition of View the MathML source (d15N, d18O, and ?17O) and other source-related species such as B (d11B), water (d2H and d18O) and View the MathML source (d34S and d18O). Water samp...
Recently, a new technique was established to estimate groundwater residence times of up to about 15 days. The technique assumes that the ingrowth of 222Rn upon infiltration and movement in the ground can be described by the growth law of radioactivity. Radon-222 emanates from mineral grains by alpha recoil or by diffusion. It dissolves in the groundwater and migrates in the aquifer without interactions. This was confirmed at two sites of naturally infiltrating rivers and at a canal where the saturated aquifer is recharged. In this poster, we give results from the application of the method to a water catchment area with artificial groundwater recharge. 2 refs, 1 fig
Rothenberg, Richard; Weaver, Scott R.; Dai, Dajun; Stauber, Christine; Prasad, Amit; Kano, Megumi
Available urban health metrics focus primarily on large area rankings. Less has been done to develop an index that provides information about level of health and health disparities for small geographic areas. Adopting a method used by the Human Development Index, we standardized indicators for small area units on a (0, 1) interval and combined them using their geometric mean to form an Urban Health Index (UHI). Disparities were assessed using the ratio of the highest to lowest decile and meas...
Evtyugina, Z. A.; Guseva, N. V.; Kopylova, J. G.; A, Vorobeva D.
The study of the current chemical composition of natural waters in the eastern and western parts of the Imandra Lake catchment was performed using ion chromatography, potentiometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. It was found that the content of trace elements in the surface water is considerably higher than that in the groundwater. The nickel and copper concentrations exceed the background levels over 19 and 2 times respectively in groundwater, and 175 and 61 times in the surface waters. These data show that the Severonikel influences negatively air and surface water.
the sulfide bearing layers. Sulfide oxidation by oxygen was identified by the oxygen isotopic composition of the mobilized sulfate. A further process which characteristically affects the isotopic sulfate composition is the dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Sulfate influenced by reduction can be found on rare locations, especially in the lower sampling level. Surface waters cannot be neglected in the sulfur balance of the study area. Evaporation leads to an enrichment of 2H and 18O in the remaining water. In case of an infiltration of surface water into the aquifer the isotopic composition of the groundwater should be altered significantly. In numerous sampling wells in the flood plain the δ18O and δ2H values are increased up to -4.5 per mille and -40 per mille, respectively. Considering the average isotopic composition of the groundwater in the Tertiary upland (-9.2 per mille, -66 per mille), which is believed to be the main recharge area of the catchment, the clearly elevated values in the flood plain prove the massive influence of surface waters
Full Text Available A case study on the evolution of hydrological drought in nonstationary environments is conducted over the Laohahe catchment in northern China. Using hydrometeorological observations during 1964–2009, meteorological and hydrological droughts are firstly analyzed with the threshold level method. Then, a comprehensive analysis on the changes within the catchment is conducted on the basis of hydrological variables and socioeconomic indices, and the whole period is divided into two parts: the undisturbed period (1964–1979 and the disturbed period (1980–2009. A separating framework is further introduced to distinguish droughts induced by different causes, that is, the naturalized drought and human-induced drought. Results showed that human activities are more inclined to play a negative role in aggravating droughts. Drought duration and deficit volume in naturalized conditions are amplified two to four times and three to eight times, respectively, when human activities are involved. For the two dry decades 1980s and 2000s, human activities have caused several consecutive drought events with rather long durations (up to 29 months. These results reflect the considerable impacts of human activities on hydrological drought, which could provide some theoretical support for local drought mitigation and water resources management.
Ko, Ara; Park, Kisoon; Lee, Hyosang
Similarity measure of catchments is essential for regionalization studies, which provide in depth analysis in hydrological response and flood estimations at ungauged catchments. However, this similarity measure is often biased to the selected catchments and is notclearly explained in hydrological sense. This study applied a type of hydrological similarity distance measure-Flood Estimation Handbook to 25 Geum river catchments, Korea. Three Catchment Characteristics, Area (A)-Annual precipitation (SAAR)-SCS Curve Number (CN), are used in Euclidian distance measures. Furthermore, six index of Flow Duration Curve (ILow:Q275/Q185, IDrought:Q355/Q185, IFlood:Qmax/Q185, IAbundant:Q95/Q185, IFloodDuration:Q10/Q355 and IRiverRegime:Qmax/Qmin) are applied to clustering analysis of SPSS. The catchments' grouping of hydrological similarity measures suggests three groups: H1 (Cheongseong, Gidae, Bukil, Oksan, Seockhwa, Habgang and Sangyeogyo), H2 (Cheongju, Guryong, Ugon, Boksu, Useong and Seokdong) and H3 (Muju, Yangganggyo and YongdamDam). The four catchments (Cheoncheon, Donghyang, DaecheongDam and Indong) are not grouped in this study. The clustering analysis of FDC provides four Groups; CFDC1 (Muju, YongdamDam, Yangganggyo, DaecheongDam, Cheongseong, Gidae, Seokhwa, Bukil, Habgang, Cheongju, Oksan, Yuseong and Guryong), CFDC2 (Cheoncheon, Donghyang, Boksu, Indong, Nonsan, Seokdong, Ugon, Simcheon, Useong and Sangyeogyo), CFDC3 (Songcheon) and CFDC4 (Tanbu). The six catchments (out of seven) of H1 are grouped in CFDC1, while Sangyeogyo is grouped in CFDC2. The four catchments (out of six) of H2 are also grouped in CFDC2, while Cheongju and Guryong are grouped in CFDC1. The catchments of H3 are categorized in CFDC1. The authors examine the results (H1, H2 and H3) of similarity measure based on catchment physical descriptors with results (CFDC1 and CFDC2) of clustering based on catchment hydrological response. The results of hydrological similarity measures are supported by
Approximately 3000 km of underground shafts, ranging in depth between 30 to 940 m below surface, were developed by the former SDAG WISMUT in the Uranium mining region of Ronneburg between 1952 and 1990. The shafts were dug into intensively folded and faulted, incompetent and competent rocks of Paleozoic age. The mining activities resulted in the development of a cone of depression of groundwater covering nearly 70 km2, 17 dumps with a total volume of 200 million m3, as well as the open pit mine of Lichtenberg, now partly filled, with an original volume of 160 million m3. Several tributaries and brooks drain the area to the Weisse Elster in the west and to the Pleisse in the east. Recently, the flooding of the shafts has been started. In the near future, the flooding water will reach the surface and will discharged into the local tributaries. To find out about the amount and the distribution of the discharged flooding water, an investigation of the pre-flooding scenario has been started. One of the most important drainage systems of this region is the orohydrographic catchment area of the Gessenbach, located in the western part of the Uranium mining area, between the cities of Ronneburg and Gera. In its upper part it is heavily influenced by the mining activities. Being highly enriched in marcasite and pyrite and therefore representing a high acid-forming potential under an oxidating environment, rocks of Silurian and Permian age are cut by the tributaries in E-W flow direction at elevations of 200 to 270 m. In addition to more or less untreated sewage of adjacent towns, highly mineralized and acidic seepage water of various dumps, especially the northern dump, is added diffusely to the upper section of the Gessenbach. Additional diffuse water inflows in meter-thick Quaternary deposits provide information on the groundwater movement in these sediments. In the following years several potential locations of flooding water discharge are expected in the catchment area
Tongchai Thitiphuree; Jirarach Kitana; Pakorn Varanusupakul; Noppadon Kitana
Seasonal cultivation in northern part of Thailand leads to widely uses of agrochemicals especially atrazine herbicide. To examine whether an intensive use of atrazine could lead to contamination in aquatic environment, sediment and water were collected from an agricultural catchment in Nan Province during 2010-2011 and subjected to analysis for atrazine by GC-MS. The results showed that detectable levels of atrazine were found in water (0.16 µg/ml) and sediment (0.23 µg/g) of the catchment. T...
Global land and water resources are under threat from both the agricultural and urban development to meet increased demand for food and from the resulting degradation of the environment. Poor crop yields due to water stress is one of the main reasons for the prevailing hunger and rural poverty in parts of the world. The Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s particularly in Latin America and Asia resulted in increased agricultural production and depended partly on water management. In the future, most food will still need to come from rain-fed agriculture. Water conservation zones in agricultural catchments, particularly in rainfed areas, play an important role in the capture and storage of water and nutrients from farmlands and wider catchments, and help improve crop production in times of need in these areas. Water conservation zones are considered to be an important part of water resource management strategies that have been developed to prevent reservoir siltation, reduce water quality degradation, mitigate flooding, enhance groundwater recharge and provide water for farming. In addition to making crop production possible in dry areas, water conservation zones minimize soil erosion, improve soil moisture status through capillary rise and enhance soil fertility and quality. These water conservation zones include natural and constructed wetlands (including riparian wetlands), farm ponds and riparian buffer zones. The management of water conservation zones has been a challenge due to the poor understanding of the relationship between upstream land use and the functions of these zones and their internal dynamics. Knowledge of sources and sinks of water and redefining water and nutrient budgets for water conservation zones are important for optimizing the capture, storage and use of water and nutrients in agricultural landscapes. The overall objective of this coordinated research project (CRP) was to assess and enhance ecosystem services provided by wetlands, ponds
Margaret Loughnan; Neville Nicholls; Tapper, Nigel J.
Periods of extreme heat pose a risk to the health of individuals, especially the elderly, the very young, and the chronically ill. Risk factors include housing characteristics, and socioeconomic factors, or environmental risk factors such as urban heat islands. This study developed an index of population vulnerability in an urban setting using known environmental, demographic, and health-related risk factors for heat stress. The spatial variations in risk factors were correlated with spatial ...
Wittmer, I. K.; Bader, H.-P.; Scheidegger, R.; Stamm, C.
During rain events, biocides and plant protection products are transported from agricultural fields but also from urban sources to surface waters. Originally designed to be biologically active, these compounds may harm organisms in aquatic ecosystems. Although several models allow either urban or agricultural storm events to be predicted, only few combine these two sources, and none of them include biocide losses from building envelopes. This study therefore aims to develop a model designed to predict water and substance flows from urban and agricultural sources to surface waters. We developed a model based on physical principles for water percolation and substance flow including micro- (also called matrix-) and macropore-flows for the agricultural areas together with a model representing sources, sewer systems and a wastewater treatment plant for urban areas. In a second step, the combined model was applied to a catchment where an extensive field study had been conducted. The modelled and measured discharge and compound results corresponded reasonably well in terms of quantity and dynamics. The total cumulative discharge was only slightly lower than the total measured discharge (factor 0.94). The total modelled losses of the agriculturally used herbicide atrazine were slightly lower (∼25%) than the measured losses when the soil pore water distribution coefficient (describing the partition between soil particles and pore water) (Kd) was kept constant and slightly higher if it was increased with time. The modelled urban losses of diuron from facades were within a factor of three with respect to the measured values. The results highlighted the change in importance of the flow components during a rain event from urban sources during the most intensive rain period towards agricultural ones over a prolonged time period. Applications to two other catchments, one neighbouring and one on another continent showed that the model can be applied using site specific data for
José Polo, María; Herrero, Javier; Millares, Agustín; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Aguilar, Cristina; Jurado, Alicia; Contreras, Eva; Gómez-Beas, Raquel; Carpintero, Miriam; Gulliver, Zacarías
Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) aims at planning water, land and other natural resources for an equitable and sustainable management, also capable of preserving or restoring freshwater ecosystems. Long term series of significant variables at different scales and a sound knowledge of the river basin processes are needed to establish the current state and past&future evolution of the hydrological system, soil use and vegetation distribution, and their social impacts and feedbacks. This is particularly crucial if future scenario analyses are to be performed to assess decision-making processes and adaptive plans. This work highlights the need for an adequate design and development of process-oriented monitoring systems at the basin scale in a decision-making framework. First, the hydrologic monitoring network of the Guadalfeo River Basin, in the southern face of Sierra Nevada Range (Spain), is shown, in a pilot catchment of 1300 km2 in which snow processes in Mediterranean conditions have been studied over the last ten years with a holistic approach. The network development and the main features of the dataset are described together with their use for different scientific and environmental applications; their benefits for assessing social and economic impact in the rural environment are shown from a study case in which the sustainability of ancient channels fed by snowmelt, in use since the XIIIth century for traditional irrigated crops in the mountainous area, was assessed in a future scenarios analyses. Secondly, the standard flow and water quality monitoring networks in the Guadalquivir River Basin, a large (57400 km2) and highly regulated agricultural catchment in southern Spain, are shown, and their strengths and weaknessess for an IRBM framework are analysed. Sediments and selected pollutants are used to trace soil erosion and agricultural/urban exports throughout the catchment, and the final loads to the river estuary in the Atlantic Ocean are assessed
Sener, Sehnaz; Sener, Erhan; Nas, Bilgehan; Karagüzel, Remzi
Landfills are the most common method for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Turkey. However, determining the location of landfill sites is a difficult and complex process because it must combine social, environmental and technical parameters. Additionally, it depends on several criteria and regulations. The main objective of this study was to select of a landfill site for the Lake Beyşehir catchment area. The Beyşehir Lake is the largest freshwater lake and drinking water reservoir in Turkey, but there is no controlled landfill site in the region. Therefore, the landfill site should be determined such that the lake is protected. To determine the most suitable landfill site, an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was combined with a geographic information system (GIS) to examine several criteria, such as geology/hydrogeology, land use, slope, height, aspect and distance from settlements, surface waters, roads, and protected areas (ecologic, scientific or historic). Each criterion was evaluated with the aid of AHP and mapped by GIS. Data were assorted into four suitability classes within the study area, i.e., high, moderate, low and very low suitability areas, which represented 3.24%, 7.55%, 12.70% and 2.81%, of the study area, respectively. Additionally, 73.70% was determined to be completely unsuitable for a landfill site. As a result, two candidate landfill sites are suggested and discussed. The final decision for landfill site selection will require more detailed field studies. PMID:20594819
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To conduct a pilot population-based study within a general practice catchment area to determine whether the incidence of breast cancer was increased in the Ashkenazi population. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting A single general practice catchment area in North London. Participants 1947 women over the age of 16 who responded to a questionnaire about ethnicity and breast cancer. Main outcome measures Incidence of breast cancer, ethnicity. Results This study showed a 1.5-fold (95% CI 0.93–2.39 increase in breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazim compared with the non-Ashkenazi white population. The increased incidence was for both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer (expected incidence pre:post is 1:4 whereas in the Ashkenazim it was 1:1; 51 and 52% of cases respectively. This increase was not shown in the Sephardim. Asians had a reduction in incidence (OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.10–1.89. Results were adjusted for other risk factors for breast cancer. Conclusion This study showed a 1.5-fold increase in breast cancer rates in Ashkenazim compared with the non-Jewish white population when adjusted for age (i.e. corrections were made to allow comparison of age groups and this is not observed in the Sephardic population. The proportion of premenopausal breast cancer was just over double that of the general population. This is the first general practice population-based study in the UK to address this issue and has implications for general practitioners who care for patients from the Ashkenazi community.
In the following assignment, we will research the concepts of information security and information security management system in a business environment. Then we will try to develop an actual information security management system for an organization, active in healthcare area, which will be specified by restrictions, introduced by the current state legislation for the healthcare area. In the developing information security management system, we will first try to define the desired system's...
Yoshida, Takeo; Troch, Peter A.
Present-day landscapes have evolved over time through interactions between the prevailing climates and geological settings. Understanding the linkage between spatial patterns of landforms, soils, and vegetation in landscapes and their hydrological response is critical to make quantitative predictions in ungaged basins. Catchment coevolution is a theoretical framework that seeks to formulate hypotheses about the mechanisms and conditions that determine the historical development of catchments and how such evolution affects their hydrological response. In this study, we selected 14 volcanic catchments of different ages (from 0.225 to 82.2 Ma) in Japan. We derived indices of landscape properties (drainage density and slope-area relationship) as well as hydrological response (annual water balance, baseflow index, and flow-duration curves) and examined their relation with catchment age and climate (through the aridity index). We found a significant correlation between drainage density and baseflow index with age, but not with climate. The intra-annual flow variability was also significantly related to catchments age. Younger catchments tended to have lower peak flows and higher low flows, while older catchments exhibited more flashy runoff. The decrease in baseflow with catchment age is consistent with the existing hypothesis that in volcanic landscapes the major flow pathways change over time from deep groundwater flow to shallow subsurface flow. The drainage density of our catchments decreased with age, contrary to previous findings in a set of similar, but younger volcanic catchments in the Oregon Cascades, in which drainage density increased with age. In that case, older catchments were thought to show more landscape incision due to increasing near-surface lateral flow paths. Our results suggests two competing hypotheses on the evolution of drainage density in mature catchments. One is that as catchments continue to age, the hydrologically active channels retreat
Tran, Bach Xuan; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Nong, Vuong Minh; Nguyen, Cuong Tat
Background Self-rated health status and healthcare services utilization are important indicators to evaluate the performance of health system. In disadvantaged areas, however, little is known about the access and outcomes of health care services. This study aimed to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL), health status and healthcare access and utilization of residents in mountainous and remote areas in Vietnam. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenient sample of re...
Sedláček, Jan; Bábek, Ondřej; Kielar, Ondřej
We present a comprehensive study concerning sedimentary processes in fluvial sediment traps within the Morava River catchment area (Czech Republic) involving three dammed reservoirs, four meanders and oxbow lakes, and several natural floodplain sites. The objective of the study was to determine sediment accumulation rates (SAR), estimate erosion rates, calculating these using a combination of the 137Cs method and historical data. Another purpose of this study was to provide insight into changing erosion and accumulation rates over the last century. Extensive water course modifications were carried out in the Morava River catchment area during the twentieth century, which likely affected sedimentation rates along the river course. Other multiproxy stratigraphic methods (X-ray densitometry, magnetic susceptibility, and visible-light reflectance spectrometry) were applied to obtain additional information about sediment infill. Sediment stratigraphy revealed distinct distal-to-proximal patterns, especially in reservoirs. Granulometrically, silts and sandy silts prevailed in sediments. Oxbow lakes and meanders contained larger amounts of clay and organic matter, which is the main difference between them and reservoirs. Pronounced 137Cs peaks were recorded in all studied cores (maximum 377 Bq·kg- 1), thus indicating Chernobyl fallout from 1986 or older events. Calculated sediment accumulation rates were lowest in distal parts of reservoirs (0.13-0.58 cm/y) and floodplains (0.45-0.88 cm/y), moderately high rates were found in proximal parts of reservoirs and oxbow lakes (2.27-4.4 cm/y), and the highest rates in some oxbow lakes located near the river (6-8 cm/y). The frequency of the inundation still can be high in some natural areas as in the Litovelské Pomoraví protected area, whereas the decreasing frequency of the inundation in other modified parts can contribute to a lower sedimentation rate. The local effects such as difference between SARs in oxbow lakes and
Bukari, S. M.; Ahmad, M. A.; Wai, T. L.; Kaamin, M.; Alimin, N.
Floods that struck Johor state in 2006 and 2007 and the East Coastal in 2014 have triggered a greatly impact to the flood management here in Malaysia. Accordingly, this study conducted to determine potential areas of flooding, especially in Batu Pahat district since it faces terrifying experienced with heavy flood. This objective is archived by using the application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) on study area of flood risk location at the watershed area of Sungai Sembrong. GIS functions as spatial analysis is capable to produce new information based on analysis of data stored in the system. Meanwhile the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used as a method for setting up in decision making concerning the existing data. By using AHP method, preparation and position of the criteria and parameters required in GIS are neater and easier to analyze. Through this study, a flood prone area in the watershed of Sungai Sembrong was identified with the help of GIS and AHP. Analysis was conducted to test two different cell sizes, which are 30 and 5. The analysis of flood prone areas were tested on both cell sizes with two different water levels and the results of the analysis were displayed by GIS. Therefore, the use of AHP and GIS are effective and able to determine the potential flood plain areas in the watershed area of Sungai Sembrong.
G. T. Aronica
Full Text Available This paper concerns the analysis of the 1 October 2009 flash flood and debris flow event caused by a very intense rainfall concentrated over the Messina area. The storm caused severe flash floods in many villages around the city of Messina, such as Giampilieri, Scaletta Zanclea, Altolia Superiore and Molino, with 38 casualties and significant damages to property, buildings, roads and bridges estimated close to 550 million Euro. The main focus of this work is to perform a post event analysis, putting together available meteorological and hydrological data in order to get better insight into temporal and spatial variability of the rain storm, the soil moisture conditions and the consequent flash flood in the Giampilieri catchment. The event was investigated using observed data from a raingauge network. Statistical analysis using GEV distribution was performed and rainfall return period (storm severity was estimated. Further, measured rainfall data and rainfall-runoff modelling were used to estimate soil moisture conditions, to analyse the hydrological behaviour and to reconstruct flood hydrograph. With the help of GIS technology and particularly spatial analysis, the volume of debris which has gone down into the Giampilieri village was also calculated. GIS maps with landslide and material deposit areas were produced and analysed.
Data collected for 10 years following the Chernobyl accident in 1986 have provided a unique opportunity to test the reliability of computer models for contamination of terrestrial and aquatic environments. The Iput River scenario was used by the Dose Reconstruction Working Group of the BIOMASS (Biosphere Modelling and Assessment Methods) programme. The test area was one of the most highly contaminated areas in Russia following the accident, with an average contamination density of 137Cs of 800,000 Bq m-2 and localized contamination up to 1,500,000 Bq m-2, and a variety of countermeasures that were implemented in the test area had to be considered in the modelling exercise. Difficulties encountered during the exercise included averaging of data to account for uneven contamination of the test area, simulating the downward migration and changes in bioavailability of 137Cs in soil, and modelling the effectiveness of countermeasures. The accuracy of model predictions is dependent at least in part on the experience and judgment of the participant in interpretation of input information, selection of parameter values, and treatment of uncertainties
Full Text Available The land use/land cover pattern of a region is an outcome of natural and socio-economic factors and the utilization by humans in time and space. The land use/cover change analysis is used to evaluate and monitor land use change in the specific period of time. Nowadays, the rapid changes of land use and land cover can lead to land degradation and environmental problems by anthropogenic activities like agriculture development, deforestation, urbanization and tourism. The study is conducted in Cameron Highland which is the agriculture and recreational area situated in Pahang, Malaysia. It aims to analyze land use change and make the prediction of future land use scenario in this region. In order to detect and evaluate land use changes, supervised classification and image differencing method are applied. Then, Cellular Automata and Markov Chain analysis is employed predict of future land use in study area. The output of study reveals that land use change in study area has changed about 18.95% in 1997-2014 and estimated to change about a further 3.66% in 2014-2020. Additionally, it predicted that open water, mixed agriculture, open land and built up areas will increase by 80.37 (0.54%, 501.02 (12.24%, 499.95 (5.47% and 119.88 ha (0.85% in 2020.
Comby, Emeline; Le Lay, Yves-François; Piégay, Hervé
Different water Acts (e.g., the European Water Framework Directive) and stakeholders involved in aquatic affairs have promoted integrated river basin management over recent decades. However, few studies have provided feedback on these policies. The aim of the current article is to fill this gap by exploring how local newspapers reflect the implementation of a broad public participation within a catchment of France known for its innovation with regard to this domain. The media coverage of a water management strategy in the Drôme watershed from 1981 to 2008 was investigated using a content analysis and a geographic information system. We sought to determine what public participation and decentralized decision-making can be in practice. The results showed that this policy was integrated because of its social perspective, the high number of involved stakeholders, the willingness to handle water issues, and the local scale suitable for participation. We emphasized the prominence of the watershed scale guaranteed by the local water authority. This area was also characterized by compromise, arrangements, and power dynamics on a fine scale. We examined the most politically engaged writings regarding water management, which topics of each group emphasized, and how the groups agreed and disagreed on issues based on their values and context. The temporal pattern of participation implementation was progressive but worked by fits and starts.
The impact of uranium mining and milling as well as that of traditional mining activities on river sediments and flood plain soils in the catchment area of the river Elbe was investigated over the years 1994 to 1995. Contamination resulting from mining activities has been identified by comparing the median values for the measured radionuclides, and by establishing the ratio between Ra-226 and Ra-228. The transport and deposition of contaminated materials as a result of high water events, and river discharge of waste water from mining and milling facilities, can be considered to be the main paths of sediment and soil contamination. Sediments and flood plain soils located in the vicinity of former uranium mining and milling sites are primarily influenced by discharges of waste water. Long distance transport and deposition at dams, barrages and on flood plains has mainly been caused by high water events. In many cases the radionuclide concentrations were higher in the subsurface layer than in the top layer of flood plain soil. Due to termination of uranium mining and milling activities, no significant contamination of newer or fresh sediments was found. Radiation exposure arising in relation to angling or walking on flood plains is low
M. Hrachowitz; Bohte, R.; Mul, M.L.; Bogaard, T.A.; Savenije, H. H. G.; S. Uhlenbrook
Hydrological processes in small catchments are not quite understood yet, which is true in particular for catchments in data scarce, semi-arid regions. This is in contrast with the need for a better understanding of water fluxes and the interactions between surface- and groundwater in order to facilitate sustainable water resources management in such environments, where both floods and droughts can result in severe crop loss. In this study, event runoff coefficient analysis and limited tracer ...
HUANG Heping; YANG Jie; SONG Bingyu; BAO Tiejun
Maintenance of ecosystem health is the primary focus of a sound ecological restoration.Yet methods involved in quantifying and assessing the health level remain a challenge to the ecological community.In this study,we selected the hill and gully area of Loess Plateau,Inner Mongolia,China,as our study area.The soil and water erosions in this area continue to be responsible for many environmental problems in northern China because of its fragility and long disturbance history.In this study,we developed an assessment method of indicator system(AMIS)based on analytical hierarchy process(AHP),fuzzy mathematics.and the theory of net-hierarchy.At ecosystem or catchment scale,three sample areas,that is(1)intact vegetation(i.e., Aguimiao Natural Reserve,110°45'E,39°28'N),(2)reconstructed vegetation(Wufendigou Soil and Water Conservation Experimental Area,111°07'E 39°45'N),and (3)severely degraded vegetation(Yangquangou Catchment,111°06'E,39°45'N)in the hill and gully area of Loess Plateau in Inner Mongolia.China.were selected to examine ecosystem vigor,organizational structure,service function,and soil healm.We applied the AMIS for all three landscapes by categorizing each ecosystem into five health levels.Wle found that the health index for reconstructed vegetation were at levels of Ⅳ,Ⅱ,Ⅳ,and Ⅲ,while those of degraded vegetation were ranked at Ⅴ,Ⅳ,Ⅴ,and Ⅳ.Overall.the comprehensive ecosystem health index of reconstmcted vegetation was lower than that of intact vegetation but higher than that of degraded vegetation.The health index for reconstructed vegetation was at level Ⅲ.and that of degraded vegetation was still at level Ⅳ.The contributing values were:organization structure＞soil health＞vigor＞service function.Based on our results and assessments,we proposed several management recommendations and methods for restoring the regional ecosystems.
H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; Hutson, J; Ding, Z
Of the various approaches for estimating groundwater recharge, the chloride mass balance (CMB) method is one of the most frequently used, especially for arid and semiarid regions. Widespread native vegetation clearance, common in many areas globally, has changed the land surface boundary condition, posing the question as to whether the current system has reached new chloride equilibrium, required for a CMB application. Although a one-dimensional CMB can be applied at a point where the water a...
137Cs radiogenic content in the soil can be used to estimate the rate of erosion/deposition in an area occurring since 1950’s, by comparing the content of the 137Cs in observed site with those in a stable reference site. The study is to investigate distribution of erosion/deposition rate on cultivation area. The study site located at Coffee plantation in West-Lampung. Sampling of soil was done by using scraper (20 x 50) cm for reference site, and coring (di = 6.9 cm) for distribution of erosion/deposition rate. Eight locations had been chosen for transect sampling and 4 to 12 sampling points were selected for each transect. The result showed that erosion/deposition distribution rate was range from -0.4 to 40.0 t/ha.yr, and the net erosion/deposition for different 8 transect were -5.6 to 11.5 t/ha.yr. (author)
Mathys, Nicolle; Allenbach, Michel; Wottling, Geoffroy; Carpentier, Laureen; Freydier, Perrine; Navarrot, Lucie
Water management in mining environments is a major challenge of the mining projects. In New Caledonia large areas have been excavated for Nickel mining since the end of the 19th century. In the past, the bad management of the water and coarse sediments left scars in the landscape and management problems in the channel reaches downstream. Nowadays, open mining techniques no longer yield coarse material out of the mining areas but the management of water and fine sediment remains a difficult question as the suspended sediments reach the very fragile environment of the lagoon. In addition, in many areas, it threatens human activities in the downstream rivers. In order to quantify and understand the formation of runoff, erosion and sediment transport in small mining watersheds the "Hydromine" project was initiated in 2008 by the New Caledonia government (DAVAR) with the collaboration of the University of New Caledonia (UNC) and later with the scientific support of Irstea Grenoble. The questions addressed by this project are: - What is the response (water and sediments) of a mining watershed to a rainfall input? - What factors control this response? - What are the processes involved? And which are dominant in the various hydrometeorological situations? - What are the characteristics of the transported materials? - What is the efficiency of mitigation works in the mining area? Two small embedded catchments (0.09 and 0.30 km²) are monitored for measuring rainfall, runoff and fine sediment transport in the mining area of Poro, East cost of New Caledonia. Elevation ranges from 197 to 366 m.a.s.l. The slope are steep (36 % in average but locally up to 130%) and the vegetation cover is very low (20% for the larger basin, 0% for the headwater basin). Rainfall-runoff and discharge-sediment concentration (SSC) relationship were analysed at the event and annual time scale. As a result, we pointed out the main factors that influence the response of the basins to a rainfall event
Thelemann, Michael; Bebermeier, Wiebke; Hoelzmann, Philipp
Spreading from the Near East in the declining Bronze Age from the 2nd millennium BCE onwards, the technique of iron smelting reached Eastern Silesia, Poland, in approximately the 2nd century BCE (pre-Roman Iron Age). At this time the region of the Widawa catchment area was inhabited by the Przeworsk culture. While the older moraine landscape of the study area lacks ores from geological rock formations, bog iron ores were relatively widespread and, due to their comparatively easy accessibility, were commonly exploited for early iron production. In this poster the mineralogical and elemental composition of local bog iron ore deposits and iron slag finds, as a by-product of the smelting process, are investigated. The crystalline mineralogical composition of local bog iron ores is dominated by quartz (SiO2) and goethite (α FeO(OH)), in contrast to slag samples in which fayalite (Fe2SiO4), wüstite (FeO) and quartz, with traces of goethite, represent the main minerals. Ores and slags are both characterized by notable hematite (Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) contents. Analyzed bog iron ore samples show iron contents of up to 64.9 mass% Fe2O3 (45.4 mass% Fe), whereas the iron contents of bloomery slags vary between 48.7 and 72.0 mass% FeO (37.9 and 56.0 mass% Fe). A principal component analysis of the element contents, which were quantified by portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (p-ED-XRF), indicates local variations in the elemental composition. Our results show that bog iron ores are relatively widely distributed with spatially varying iron contents along the Widawa floodplain but present-day formation conditions (e.g. different ground-water levels) are negatively affected by modern land-use practices, such as agriculture and melioration measures.
San, B. Taner
The main purpose of this study was to present an approach that uses all of the input parameters from remotely sensed data to map landslide susceptibility. Furthermore, a novel sampling strategy, namely polygon-based random sampling (PBRS), which maintains the complete independence of sampled data sets for training and testing, was proposed to generate more realistic landslide susceptibility maps. An ASTER image of the Candir catchment area which is located in western Antalya (Turkey) was selected for implementing the proposed approach using a support vector machine classification (SVM) algorithm. The proposed methodology contains three sections: a polygon based sampling algorithm, an SVM classification, and an accuracy assessment. Two data sets (A and B) were generated and compared. Topographical parameters, proximity parameters and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were used in the two data sets. In addition to these common parameters, data set (A) included lithological unit data produced from conventional geology maps and data set (B) had decorrelation stretched ASTER bands with four mineral (alunite, kaolinite, calcite, and quartz) indices. To construct and evaluate the models, training and testing data sets were generated using the proposed sampling strategy with three random sets for each data set (A and B). Next, the spatial performance of the obtained landslide susceptibility maps was evaluated using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC). The AUC values of the three random sets from data set (A) were 0.913, 0.912, and 0.906. The AUC values of the three random sets from data set (B) were 0.923, 0.912, and 0.907. After a comparison of the obtained AUC values, data set (B) presented considerably acceptable spatial performances in landslide susceptibility map production.
Concentrations of geogenic heavy metals in meadowland sediments and soils in the Saale river catchment area. A contribution to the ecological assessment of heavy metal pollution in bodies of surface water
In a joint project covering the main tributaries of the Elbe river, heavy metal concentrations in recent river sediments of the Saale river were measured. Apart from the most relevant pollutants (Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni, Hg, As), further metals and Se were also measured. The results provided information on the volumes, distribution, sources and regional distribution of heavy metal pollution as well as on the development of pollution with time since 1991. Natural (geogenic) metal concentrations are an issue as renaturing plans are being developed. In order to avoid unrealistic sanitation goals, an attempt was made to assess the distribution of the geogenic background values of fine-grained river sediments in part catchment areas of a large river catchment area (here: the Saale river) in order to obtain a standard regional geogenic background value for each element
Morales-Marin, L. A.; Chun, K. P.; Wheater, H. S.; Lindenschmidt, K. E.
Nutrient loadings in river catchments have increased in the past years as a consequence of rapid expansion of agricultural areas, new urban developments and industries, and population growth. Nutrient enrichment of water bodies has intensified eutrophication conditions that degrade water quality and ecosystem health. In large-scale catchments, the assessment of temporal and spatial variability of nutrient loads imply challenges due to climate, land use and geology heterogeneity, and to anthropogenic changes. In this study we carried out a trend analysis of total phosphorus and total nitrogen loads in the South Saskatchewan River (SSR) catchment. This catchment is located in the Canadian Prairie Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The eastern and central areas of the catchment consist mostly of croplands, pasture lands and livestock farms, whereas the western parts are located on the Rocky Mountains that are the source of most of the catchment's streamflows. The trend analysis was performed applying a novel approach to analyse nutrient time series recorded at long-term water quality stations along the main stems of the SSR river network. Since water quality is taken infrequently, in the proposed approach the time series were complemented using regression analysis methods based on streamflow data recorded at the nearest gauge stations. The time series were subsequently pre-whitened in order to remove the autocorrelation, and then subjected to non-parametric statistical test to detect trends. Seasonal analysis of trends at each of the water quality stations were performed in order to determine the relationships between annual flow regimes and nutrient loads in the catchment, in particular, the influence of the high spring runoff on nutrient export. Decadal analysis was also performed to determine the long-tern relationships of nutrients with anthropogenic changes in the catchment. In particular, the capacity of reservoirs to trap nutrients and the effects of the
Otto, Marco; Seidel, Jochen; Trachte, Katja
The main moisture source for precipitation on the western slopes of the Central Andes is located east of the mountain range known as the Amazon basin. However, the Andean mountains, which reach up to 6000 m a.s.l., strongly influence climatic conditions along the Pacific coastline of South America as a climatic barrier for the low-level tropospheric flow and associated moisture transport from the Amazon basin. Additional, large scale subsidence caused by the South Pacific High inhabits convective rainfall at the Pacific coast where large metropolitan areas such as the Peruvian capital Lima are located. Two contrasts in precipitation can be found while crossing the Andean mountains from West to East. On the Pacific coast, at the location of the metropolitan area of Lima, no more than 10 mm mean annual rainfall occurs. In contrast, up to 1000 mm mean annual rainfall occur only 100 km east of Lima within the upper region (4000 m .a.s.l.) of the Western Cordillera. The transition takes place along the western slopes of the Western Cordillera and is characterised by a strong precipitation gradient. Here, catchment areas are located that provide most of the water resources needed to sustain an urban area of approximately 10 million people. This study investigates the interannual variability of the precipitation gradient between 1998 and 2012. The analysis is based on daily precipitation data of 22 rain gauge station, daily rainfall data of the Tropical Rainfall Mission (TRMM 3B42) at 0.25 degrees and reanalysis data at 36 km spatial resolution at the mesoscale. The reanalysis data was produced using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model. Station data was provided by the Peruvian weather service during the project "Sustainable Water and Wastewater Management in Urban Growth Centres Coping with Climate Change - Concepts for Lima Metropolitana (Peru) (LiWa)", which is financed by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). We are interested in the
Razanamahandry, Lovasoa Christine; Andrianisa, Harinaivo Anderson; Karoui, Hela; Kouakou, Koffi Marcelin; Yacouba, Hamma
Soil and water samples were collected from a watershed in Burkina Faso where illegal artisanal gold extraction using cyanidation occurs. The samples were used to evaluate cyanide contamination and the presence of cyanide degrading bacteria (CDB). Free cyanide (F-CN) was detected in all samples, with concentrations varying from 0.023 to 0.9 mg kg(-1), and 0.7-23 μg L(-1) in the soil and water samples, respectively. Potential CDB also were present in the samples. To test the effective F-CN degradation capacity of the isolated CDB species, the species were cultivated in growth media containing 40, 60 or 80 mg F-CN L(-1), with or without nutrients, at pH 9.5 and at room temperature. More than 95% of F-CN was degraded within 25 h, and F-CN degradation was associated with bacterial growth and ammonium production. However, initial concentrations of F-CN higher than 100 mg L(-1) inhibited bacterial growth and cyanide degradation. Abiotic tests showed that less than 3% of F-CN was removed by volatilization. Thus, the degradation of F-CN occurred predominately by biological mechanisms, and such mechanisms are recommended for remediation of contaminated soil and water. The bacteria consortium used in the experiment described above exist in a Sahelian climate, which is characterized by a long hot and dry season. Because the bacteria are already adapted to the local climate conditions and show the potential for cyanide biodegradation, further applicability to other contaminated areas in West Africa, where illegal gold cyanidation is widespread, should be explored. PMID:27209555
Kim N. Dirks
Full Text Available People typically choose to live in quiet areas in order to safeguard their health and wellbeing. However, the benefits of living in quiet areas are relatively understudied compared to the burdens associated with living in noisy areas. Additionally, research is increasingly focusing on the relationship between the human response to noise and measures of health and wellbeing, complementing traditional dose-response approaches, and further elucidating the impact of noise and health by incorporating human factors as mediators and moderators. To further explore the benefits of living in quiet areas, we compared the results of health-related quality of life (HRQOL questionnaire datasets collected from households in localities differentiated by their soundscapes and population density: noisy city, quiet city, quiet rural, and noisy rural. The dose-response relationships between noise annoyance and HRQOL measures indicated an inverse relationship between the two. Additionally, quiet areas were found to have higher mean HRQOL domain scores than noisy areas. This research further supports the protection of quiet locales and ongoing noise abatement in noisy areas.
Hollert, Ner; Dürr, Matthias; Olsman, Helena; Halldin, Krister; van Bavel, E; Brack, Werner; Tysklind, Mats; Engwall, Magnus; Braunbeck, Thomas
To evaluate the sediment quality of selected sites in the catchment area of the River Neckar, an integrative assessment approach was used to assess the ecological hazard potential of dioxin-like sediment compounds. The approach is based on 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction in embryonic chicken liver culture and comprehensive chemical analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (priority PAHs according to the US Environmental Protection Agency). The majority of the sediment extracts exhibited high potencies as EROD-inducers. In one sediment sample, which was influenced by a sewage treatment plant, a very high concentration of 930 ng bioassay 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents (bio-TEQs )/g organic carbon could be determined. However, in none of the samples, more than 6% of the EROD-inducing potency could be explained by the PAHs analyzed chemically. Thus, non-analyzed compounds with EROD-inducing potency were present in the extracts. A fractionation of sediment samples according to pH allowed to localize the major part of EROD-inducing compounds in the neutral fractions. However, a significant portion of the EROD induction could also be explained by the acidic fractions. Following the concept of the Sediment Quality Triad according to Chapman, in situ alterations of macrozoobenthos were examined. A comparison of the results predicted by the EROD assay and chemical analyses with alterations in situ, as measured by means of the saprobic index and the ecotoxicological index according to Carmargo, revealed a high ecological relevance of the results of bioassays and chemical analyses for major sites. PMID:12463678
Highlights: • Multi-tracer approach for the identification and characterisation of nitrate sources in a lagoon environment was used. • Different nitrate pollution sources in the lagoon were identified. • Isotopes in nitrate and boron were applied to distinguish different anthropogenic pollution sources. • Atmospheric depositions (based on Δ17O analyses of nitrate) were recognized as additional nitrate source. - Abstract: A multi-isotope approach has been used in the Marano lagoon (NE Italy) and parts of its catchment area to identify causes of increased NO3- pollution. The hydrogeochemical features of different water types and potential sources of NO3- were characterized using the isotopic composition of NO3- (δ15N, δ18O, and Δ17O) and other source-related species such as B (δ11B), water (δ2H and δ18O) and SO42- (δ34S and δ18O). Water samples from the lagoon, its tributary rivers, the groundwater up-welling line, groundwater, sewer pipes, and open sea water have been collected at quarterly intervals in the years 2009–2010. The results indicate that the NO3- load in the lagoon was not only derived from agricultural activities but also from other sources such as urban waste water, in situ nitrification and atmospheric deposition. The δ34S signature in the lagoon clearly denotes the largely prevailing origin of aqueous SO42- from seawater, and practically points to the absence of any appreciable redox process involving S species in the lagoon. It also supports the existence of a connection between the lagoon and the nearby Tagliamento river
In hydrology a basic task is the estimation of design discharges and runoff changes in ungauged catchments. However, traditional empirical rules of thumb as well as regionalization of measured discharges are subject to uncertainty. It seems that precipitation-runoff modelling is the only comprehensible way to predict discharge alterations due to changes in ungauged basins, even though the results are perhaps not less uncertain. In order to minimize this uncertainty this work presents a new methodology for discharge estimation in ungauged basins by introducing runoff coefficients derived from field assessment, by a new adapted precipitation-runoff model (ZEMOKOST) and routines for a plausibility check. Subsequently ten gauged Austrian catchments were used as hypothetical ungauged catchments for application and verification of this method. Except for special questions in karst- and glacier-hydrology the procedure showed satisfying results. (author)
Assessment of Diversity, Distribution, Conservation Status and Preparation of Management Plan for Medicinal Plants in the Catchment Area of Parbati Hydroelectric Project Stage -Ⅲ in Northwestern Himalaya
S.S. Samant; Jitendra S. Butola; Aman Sharma
ligulata may be considered as threatened species due to their over exploitation for trade. 90 species are propagated by seeds, 8 species by seeds and rhizomes/roots/tubers,4 species by seeds and cuttings, and 2 species by sori.A management plan for the cultivation and conservation of the medicinal plants in the dam submergence area, and the commercially viable medicinal plants with high value in the catchment area is suggested.
Elvira Sanz Tolosana
Full Text Available Health is greatly influenced by social, economic and political determinants. Accordingly, decisions influencing people's health do not concern only health services or 'health policies', but decisions in many different policy areas have their influence on these health determinants. Health Impact assessment (HIA is a predictive tool to support decisions in policy-making. The ultimate goal of this framework is to maximize health gains and, as far as possible, to reduce health inequalities. HIA presents a commitment to ensure that the rural dimension is routinely considered as part of the making and implementing of policy. The aim of this paper is to review the use of HIA on rural areas. Conclusions: HIA shows its great potential to contribute to local authority decision making. The use of HIA was identified in 2 key areas: strategic planning (sustainable development, EU Common Agricultural Policy, Federal Farm Bill, land-use planning work; and in specific smaller scale projects (rural health service redesign proposal, accessing healthy food, transport, health care disparities, etc..
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the views and expectations of a selected group of customers regarding health information in Swedish pharmacies. Methods: A repeated cross sectional, questionnaire study carried out in 2004 and 2005. Customers buying calcium products answered questions on osteoporosis and general questions on health promotion and information. Results: Respondents had a positive attitude towards receiving health information from the pharmacies and towards the pharmacies’ future role in health promotion. However, only 30% of the respondents expected to get information on general health issues from the pharmacy. In spite of this, 76% (2004 and 72% (2005 of the respondents believed that the pharmacies could influence people’s willingness to improve their health.Conclusion: There is a gap between the respondents’ positive attitudes towards the Swedish pharmacies and their low expectations as regards the pharmacies’ ability to provide health information. In the light of the upcoming change to the state monopoly on medicine sales, this gap could be an important area for competition between the actors in the new situation for medicine sales in Sweden.
Endangering of the groundwater by acid rain - investigations in the catchment area of a drinking-water gallery of the Wiesbadener Hochtaunus. Pt. 1. Presentation of the investigation area and description of the water section-model
A research programme for water- and groundwater-acidification was realized in the catchment-area of the shallow groundwater-gallery ''Kalter Born'', which is part of the public water supply of Wiesbaden. The water chemistry of the sources and galleries shows the strongest acidification in the upper part of the aquifer, whereas the deeper groundwater sections show less acidification symptoms. Therefore the water of the deep gallery ''Kellerskopfstollen'' is nearly free of acidification signs in consequence of its long percolation distance (about 200-300 m) between the infiltration level and the gallery. On the other hand, we get an absolutely acid water with pH-values of about 4 and aluminium-concentrations of about 6 mg/l from the upper sources representing the highest groundwater level in the investigation area. As a whole, the aquifer can at least be separated in 4 levels of well distinguishable acidification rates. An exact analysis of the change of ion-concentrations by the water passage between the different water sections shows, that a considerable part of the acid depositions (H+) is temporarily neutralized by the aluminium puffer close below the infiltration level. So the acid is transported downwards masked as aluminium sulfates. In deeper regions the masked acid is converted and finally neutralized by contact with carbonates. (orig.)
Maria Jalila Vieira de Figueirêdo Leite; Aldo Dantas; Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli
The authors present a theoretical discussion related to spatial areas used in Epidemiology, analysing their theoretical and methodological strengths and weaknesses in the recognition of social determinants of health. Some territorial divisions were defended as alternative scales because of homogeneity and accuracy characteristics, and because of their particular criteria of definitions, while recognizing the necessity to overcome some challenges related to the concepts, research designs and a...
Raidel González Rodríguez
Full Text Available Background: the increase of the number of the elderly in our country augments necessities, social and health system demands during the last years.Objective: to describe the epidemiological aspects related to the population aging of the health area corresponding to a family doctor’s office in Pinar del Río province.Methods: a cross-sectional, descriptive and observational research was carried out in the family doctor’s office no. 15 belonging to "Raúl Sánchez" Teaching Polyclinic during the last three-month period of 2014. The universe was made up of 113 elderly belonging to that health area and the sample comprised 73 of them, according to intentional sampling. The variables analyzed were: age groups, most frequent diseases and medication intake.Results: elderly aged between 80 and 89 years old represented 56,1 %. The medication groups most frequently taken were the vitamins, in 82,1 %, the sedative-hypnotic ones, in 56,1 % and the antihypertensive drugs in 43,8 %. The most frequent diseases were hypertension, with 64,3 % cerebrovascular diseases, with 35,6 % and psychiatric diseases, with 24,6 %.Conclusions: issues related to the population aging were described in the study sample. A conception and integral medical care to ensure the quality of life and health of that population is required.
Olenici, Adriana; Baciu, Calin; Momeu, Laura; Cozma, Alexandra; Brahaita, Dorian; Pop, Cristian; Lazar, Laura; Popita, Gabriela; Teodosiu, Gabriela
Keywords: diatom communities, indicator species, mine waters, water quality, Romania. Diatoms are a very distinct group of algae, identifiable under the light microscope by their yellow - brown coloration and by the presence of a thick silica cell wall. The potential for freshwater organisms to reflect changes in environmental conditions was first noted by Kolenati (1848) and Cohn (1853), who observed that biota in polluted waters were different from those in non-polluted situations. Diatoms are widely used to monitor river pollution because they are sensitive to water chemistry, especially to ionic content, pH, dissolved organic matter and nutrients. Wide geographic distribution and well-studied ecology of most diatom species are mentioned as major advantages of using diatoms as indicator organisms. At the same time water quality has begun to deteriorate increasingly, mainly as a result of the physical, chemical and bacteriological alterations, and the aquatic ecosystems are evermore affected by various types of pollution, the anthropic one being almost always included. A good example is Abrud River and its main tributaries (Roșia Montană and surrounding areas, Romania), which has suffered along the years because of the mining waters discharge. In this context, this study presents data on benthic diatom communities from the Abrud River catchment area. Sixteen sites have been sampled seasonal and the best represented diatom genera were Navicula, Nitzschia, Cymbella, Gomphonema, Achnantes, Surirella and Fragilaria. Qualitatively, the number of diatom species exhibited significant variation among sampling sites, also suggesting seasonal dynamics. For instance, in some sampling sites, algal assemblages were absent, as diatom communities were strongly affected by acid mine waters, released from old mining works and waste rocks depots. Some dominant taxa have been observed as well, suggesting critical saprobic levels of the Abrud River and some of its tributaries. The
Julia Brown; Philip Woodhouse
The 1998 National Water Act is one of a number of environmental legislative reforms promulgated in post apartheid South Africa that reflects international principles of good environmental practice while seeking to redress past inequity of access to natural resources. The Act incorporates a set of guiding principles agreed at the 1992 Dublin International Conference on Water and the Environment (ICWE), including: Integrated Catchment Management (ICM); stakeholder participation; devolution/dece...
Wpływ antropopresji na stan ekologiczny małej zlewni rzecznej na przykładzie Strugi Młyńskiej = Influence of human impact on the ecological condition of small catchment area on the example of Struga Młyńska
Szatten Dawid. Wpływ antropopresji na stan ekologiczny małej zlewni rzecznej na przykładzie Strugi Młyńskiej = Influence of human impact on the ecological condition of small catchment area on the example of Struga Młyńska. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(5):401-412. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI 10.5281/zenodo.17905 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%285%29%3A401-412 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/561551 http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.17905 Forme...
王军; 傅伯杰; 邱扬
Serious soil erosion is one of the major issues threatening sustainable land use in semiarid areas, especially in the Loess Plateau of China. Understanding the effects of land use on soil and water loss is important for sustainable land use strategy. Two sub-catchments: catchment A (CA) and catchment B (CB) with distinct land uses were selected to measure soil moisture, runoff and soil nutrient loss in Da Nangou catchment of the Loess Plateau of China. The effects of land use patterns on runoff and nutrient losses were analyzed based on soil moisture pattern by kriging and soil nutrients using multiple regression model. The results indicated that there were significant differences in runoff yield and soil nutrient losses between the two sub-catchments. With similar land uses, the CA produced an average sediment yield of 49 kg ha-1 and 22.27 kg ha-1 during two storm events.Meanwhile, there was almost no runoff in the CB with dissimilar land uses during the same events.Buffer zones should be established to re-absorb runoff and to trap sediments in catchment with similar land use structure such as the CA. Moreover, land use management strategy aiming to increase the infiltration threshold of hydrological response units could decrease the frequency of runoff occurrence on a slope and catchment scale.
At present, the radioecological situation is characterized by the decrease of pollution densities of higher lying water catchment areas and by wash-out of radionuclides to lowlands, bottom lands and deep into the ground. On this account, increase of surface pollution density takes place in lowlands and flood lands. Comparison of the data on ground water from the weels of constant observation in the near zone shows that the content of 137Cs and 90Sr in ground water is lower than that in surface water by 2...15 and 3...90 times, respectively, in observation sites of the near zone it depends on time and place of sampling
Effect of the Resolution and Accuracy of DTM produced with Aerial Photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning on Slope- and Catchment-scale Erosion Assessment in a Recently Burnt Forest Area: a Case Study
Cambra, S.; Gomes Pereira, L.; Keizer, J
Wildfires are a common phenomenon in Portugal, affecting on average 100.000 ha of rural areas per year and up to 400.000 ha in dramatic years like 2003 and 2005. Wildfires can strongly enhance the hydrological response and associated sediment losses in recently burnt forest catchments and, thereby, negatively affect land-use sustain- ability of the affected terrains as well as ecosystem functioning of downstream aquatic habitats. Therefore, the EROSFIRE-I and –II projects aim at developing a ...
Ma Li; Han Hai-rong; Ma Qin-yan; Liu Hong-wen; Xia Wei-wei; Cheng Xiao-qin
The evaluation of ecosystem health has become one of the main research topics of ecosystem science, thus more and more assessment methods and frameworks have been put forward in recent years. However, the attention people pay to ecosystem health is actually more about what the social functions the ecosystem affords, which depend on the integrity and maintenance of the ecosystem structure and function, and the intensity of disturbance from outside. Accordingly, this research commenced from three main aspects,selected the evaluation indices, and then established the Evaluation Index System of Beijing Forest Ecosystem Health (EIS-BFEH).In the EIS-BFEH, each of the three foundations contained an easily-operated and standard sub-index system, which compounded the specific natural and social conditions of Beijing and was concrete enough to measure and evaluate. Then with the method of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), the comprehensive index (CI) could be obtained, which represented the health of the forest ecosystem. As a case study, the forest ecosystems in the Badaling area were sampled, evaluated, compared and ranked by use of the EIS-BFEH. The result show that the health of natural forests is much better than that of plantations in the Badaling forest center: the average comprehensive index of the former is 7.9, while the latter is only 6.6. From the results, it could also be found that there are nine units in the healthy state, two units in the subhealthy state, and only one unit of Robinia pseudoacacia in the morbid state.
Beerten, Koen; Leterme, Bertrand
Reliably predicting the future state of the hydrological system under transient climate and land use conditions is a major challenge. Hydrological models are usually calibrated and validated for a short time period (e.g. 30 years), for conditions that are similar to today's. In order to test model performance for future (unverifiable) projections, palaeohydrological modelling is first needed to build confidence in model output under different conditions. One of the major challenges of palaeohydrological modelling is the acquisition of verification data that is representative for the past state(s) of the hydrological system. Here, we present the reconstructed evolution of the groundwater table depth over the last six centuries, in a sandy interfluvium (20 km² with altitude varying between 16 m and 28 m a.s.l.) of the Nete catchment. For periods before 1770 AD, the altitude (depth) of blown-out surfaces in the drift sand landscape is used as a proxy for the average highest groundwater level. These surfaces are generally interpreted as the lower limit for wind erosion. Soil profiles investigations where these surfaces are overblown by younger drift sand show that they were created in the time period between ca. 1400 AD and 1600 AD. For younger periods, historical maps were analysed for the presence of surface water features, such as fens (shallow lakes that are groundwater fed in this sandy landscape under temperate climate), marshes and wetlands. The results clearly show declining water levels in the second half of the 19th century, i.e., between 1854 AD and 1909 AD. The decline is most pronounced for the higher areas of the interfluve (drift sand landscape) and becomes less clear towards the floodplains. The amount of groundwater level decline is 1-2 m on average. The cause for the synchronous groundwater level drop seems to be linked to land use and land cover changes during that period. In the time interval between 1854 AD and 1909 AD, the total length of drains
Marshall, L. A.; Weber, K.; Smith, T. J.; Greenwood, M. C.; Sharma, A.
In an effort to improve hydrologic analysis in areas with limited data, hydrologists often seek to link catchments where little to no data collection occurs to catchments that are gauged. Various metrics and methods have been proposed to identify such relationships, in the hope that "surrogate" catchments might provide information for those catchments that are hydrologically similar. In this study we present a statistical analysis of over 150 catchments located in southeast Australia to examine the relationship between a hydrological model and certain catchment metrics. A conceptual rainfall-runoff model is optimized for each of the catchments and hierarchical clustering is performed to link catchments based on their calibrated model parameters. Clustering has been used in recent hydrologic studies but catchments are often clustered based on physical characteristics alone. Usually there is little evidence to suggest that such "surrogate" data approaches provide sufficiently similar model predictions. Beginning with model parameters and working backwards, we hope to establish if there is a relationship between the model parameters and physical characteristics for improved model predictions in the ungauged catchment. To analyze relationships, permutational multivariate analysis of variance tests are used that suggest which hydrologic metrics are most appropriate for discriminating between calibrated catchment clusters. Additional analysis is performed to determine which cluster pairs show significant differences for various metrics. We further examine the extent to which these results may be insightful for a hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach that is aimed at generating model predictions at an ungauged site. The method, known as Bayes Empirical Bayes (BEB) works to pool information from similar catchments to generate informed probability distributions for each model parameter at a data-limited catchment of interest. We demonstrate the effect of selecting
Sierra, Isabel; Cabezas, Carmen; Brugulat, Pilar; Mompart, Anna
Through the Law 2/2004 on improving neighbourhoods, urban areas and towns requiring special attention, the Government of Catalonia set up a fund for financing projects prepared by town/city councils for the integral improvement of neighbourhoods. The Ministry of Health signed on to the strategy with The Neighbourhood Health Programme, which was a healthcare policy priority. Healthcare and municipal structures cooperate at neighbourhood level in all of the phases of the community intervention project (analysis and detection of needs, prioritisation of the problems detected, definition and distribution of actions). Techniques such as the nominal group are used. Four vulnerable groups have been identified with higher levels of illness, co-morbidity, situations of risk, etc. (the young, the elderly, women and recent immigrants). The actions of all the agents involved, among them those from the Ministry of Health itself, are then intensified and prioritised and a specific portfolio of public health services is prepared. PMID:19195480
Diagramas de Voronoi para a definição de áreas de abrangência de hospitais públicos no Município do Rio de Janeiro Defining catchment areas for public hospitals in the Municipality of Rio de Janeiro through Weighted Voronoi Diagrams
Flavio Astolpho Vieira Souto Rezende
Full Text Available No planejamento de recursos em saúde é importante o conhecimento da área de abrangência de uma unidade. Os Diagramas de Voronoi constituem uma técnica para tal; são polígonos construídos de tal forma que as bordas de polígonos adjacentes encontram-se eqüidistantes de seus respectivos pontos geradores. Uma modificação nas áreas de abrangência assim definidas é sua ponderação (Diagramas de Voronoi ponderados, representando a capacidade da unidade de forma mais real. No presente trabalho foram utilizados, como pontos geradores, 21 hospitais gerais públicos no Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Inicialmente foram criados os Diagramas de Voronoi sem ponderação, e, a partir destes, os diagramas ponderados, empregando-se como variável de ponderação as estimativas de internação anual para cada unidade. Na divisão clássica, áreas de abrangência similares foram atribuídas a hospitais com características diferenciadas, problema esse contornado no método ponderado. O método é de simples implementação e visualização, utiliza dados de fácil acesso e independe de parâmetros arbitrários ou geopolíticos. Portanto, esses diagramas podem fornecer, a gerentes de saúde, uma visão mais realista para o planejamento da demanda de suas unidades.One of the most important pieces of information for health resources planning is the definition of catchment areas for health units. Voronoi Diagrams are a potential technique for this purpose. They are polygons with the property whereby adjacent polygons have their borders located within the same distance of the respective generator points. One possible adjustment to the catchment areas thus defined is the use of weighted Voronoi Diagrams, which result in an improved representation of a health unit's actual capacity. In this study, the 21 public general hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were used as generator points for Voronoi Diagrams. Non-weighted Voronoi Diagrams were initially
Gironas, J. A.; Mejia, A.; Rossel, F.; Rinaldo, A.; Rodriguez, F.
Dispersion mechanisms have been examined in-depth in natural catchments in previous studies. However, these dispersion mechanisms have been studied little in urban catchments, where artificial transport elements and morphological arrangements are expected to modify travel times and mobilize excess rainfall from spatially distributed impervious sites. Thus, these features can modify the variance of the catchment's travel times and hence the total dispersion. This work quantifies the dispersion mechanisms in an urban catchment using the theory of transport by travel times as represented by the Urban Morpho-climatic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (U-McIUH) model. This model computes travel times based on kinematic wave theory and accounts explicitly for the path heterogeneities and altered connectivity patterns characteristic of an urban drainage network. The analysis is illustrated using the Aubinière urban catchment (France) as a case study. We found that kinematic dispersion is dominant for small rainfall intensities, whereas geomorphologic dispersion becomes more dominant for larger intensities. The total dispersion scales with the drainage area in a power law fashion. The kinematic dispersion is dominant across spatial scales up to a threshold of approximately 2-3 km2, after which the geomorphologic dispersion becomes more dominant. Overall, overland flow is responsible for most of the dispersion, while conduits tend to counteract the increase of the geomorphologic dispersion with a negative kinematic dispersion. Further studies with other catchments are needed to assess whether the latter is a general feature of urban drainage networks.
Full Text Available Noise or unwanted sound is an environmental stressor. At the international level studies are based on the auditory and non-auditory effects of aircraft noise mostly. The present survey was conducted among people exposed to loud noise in Kolkata, a metropolitan city in India. The study area includes railway stations of Sealdah and Dumdum and music shops in Chandni Chowk. The study was conducted among the working class people among whom the adverse health effects may lead to productivity loss with corresponding economic losses. A detailed social survey was carried out to investigate the ill effects of noise on exposed male individuals. The ages of interviewed persons were ranging from 26-35 years (18.3 %, 36- 45 years (26.7% , 46-55 years (13.3% , 56-65 years (18.3% and 23.3% were below the age of 25 years. The average time of exposure to noise was 68.25 hours per week. Among the sixty persons interviewed the effects were found as moderate to severe fatigue (87% suffered, loss of concentration (81.5% suffered, irritation (81% suffered, headache (80% suffered and hypertension (76.8%. 74.1% complained of suffering from dizziness, more than 60% reported other psychological discomforts like depression (65.5 %, indecisiveness (64.9 %, withdrawal ((64.9 % and loss of appetite (64.3 %. 52.7 % faced problems like memory disorder, however, only 41.5 % suffered from lack of sleep or insomnia. Noise pollution is an obvious result of urbanization whereas in the music industry, noise is the desired product. But there is little awareness on chronic exposure to noise, its health impact and management. An extensive survey with awareness generation is necessary to check the health impact of noise in our country.
Ergen, Kayra; Kentel, Elcin
Stream gauges measure the temporal variation of water quantity; thus they are vital in managing water resources. The stream gauge network in Turkey includes a limited number of gauges and often streamflow estimates need to be generated at ungauged locations where reservoirs, small hydropower plants, weirs, etc. are planned. Prediction of streamflows at ungauged locations generally relies on donor gauges where flow is assumed to be similar to that at the ungauged location. Generally, donor stream gauges are selected based on geographical proximity. However, closer stream gauges are not always the most-correlated ones. The Map Correlation Method (MCM) enables development of a map that shows the spatial distribution of the correlation between a selected stream gauge and any other location within the study region. In this study, a new approach which combines MCM with the multiple-source site drainage-area ratio (DAR) method is used to estimate daily streamflows at ungauged catchments in the Western Black Sea Region. Daily streamflows predicted by the combined three-source sites DAR with MCM approach give higher Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) values than those predicted using the nearest stream gauge as the donor stream gauge, for most of the trial cases. Hydrographs and flow duration curves predicted using this approach are usually in better agreement with the observed hydrographs and flow duration curves than those predicted using the nearest catchment. PMID:26520038
Full Text Available Purpose: In this study, it evaluted that exposure to violence and effect of this exposure to occupational satisfaction of health personel in Melikgazi Health Group Area. Materials And Methods: This cross sectional and descriptive study was performed in April-May 2006. Sampling not planned, it assumed to reach all of health personel. Data were analysed using computer and chi square test were used for statistical analyses. Lesser than 0,05 values were accepted as statistically significant. Results: Of the research group 66,7 % were female and 33,3 % were male. Mean age was 34,48 ± 5,73 years. Of the study participants were working in health center, 80,4 % day time and 19,6 % in night time and mean duration of working was 11,99 ± 5,3 years. Of the study group 57,1 % were chosen profession willingly and 65,5 % of them didn’t want to their children chose same profession. Of the study group 68,2 % were thought their fare were not enough. Of the study group, 50,3 % were experinced verbal and/or physical violence with different degrees. Of the violence victims 63,6 % were working in night shift of health centers and most of them doctors. Conclusion: Exposure to violence during work effects the satisfaction negativeley. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 13-18
Evrard, Olivier; Laceby, J. Patrick; Onda, Yuichi; Lefèvre, Irène
Several coastal catchments located in Northeastern Japan received significant radioactive fallout following the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011, with initial 137Cs activities exceeding 100 kBq m-2. Although radiocesium poses a considerable health risk for local populations, it also provides a relatively straightforward tracer to investigate sediment transfers in catchments exposed to spring floods and heavy typhoons in late summer and early fall. This study focused on two catchments (the Niida and Mano Rivers) covering a surface area of 450 km² that drain the main radioactive plume. A database of radiocesium activities measured in potential source samples (n=260) was used to model radiocesium dilution in 342 sediment deposit samples collected at 38 locations during 9 different sampling campaigns conducted every 6 months from Nov. 2011 to Nov. 2015. The dilution of the initial radiocesium contamination in sediment was individually calculated for each of the 342 samples using a distribution model. Results show that the proportion of heavily contaminated sediment increased from 27% to 39% after the occurrence of typhoons in 2013 (with rainfall amount exceeding 100 mm in 48 hours) and from 29% to 45% after the 2015 spring floods, illustrating the occurrence of soil erosion and resuspension of contaminated material stored in the river channel. In contrast, the occurrence of a very strong typhoon in September 2015 (up to 450 mm in 48h) led to the dilution and the flush of the contamination to the Pacific Ocean, with the proportion of heavily contaminated material decreasing from 45 to 21%. This case study in catchments impacted by the Fukushima accident illustrates their high reactivity to both human activities and rainfall. These results will improve our understanding of sediment transfers in similar coastal mountainous environments frequently exposed to heavy rainfall.
Effect of the Resolution and Accuracy of DTM produced with Aerial Photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning on Slope- and Catchment-scale Erosion Assessment in a Recently Burnt Forest Area: a Case Study
Cambra, Sílvia; Pereira, Luísa; Keizer, Jan Jacob
Wildfires are a common phenomenon in Portugal, affecting on average 100.000 ha of rural areas per year and up to 400.000 ha in dramatic years like 2003 and 2005. Wildfires can strongly enhance the hydrological response and associated sediment losses in recently burnt forest catchments and, thereby, negatively affect land-use sustainability of the affected terrains as well as ecosystem functioning of downstream aquatic habitats. Therefore, the EROSFIRE-I and -II projects aim at developing a GIS-tool for predicting soil erosion hazard following wildfire and, ultimately, for assessing the implications of alternative post-fire land management practices. Assessment of runoff and soil erosion rates critically depends on accurate estimates of the corresponding runoff areas. In the case of catchments as well as unbounded erosion plots (arguably, the only practical solution for slope-scale measurements), delineation of runoff area requires a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) with an adequate resolution and accuracy. The DTM that was available for the Colmeal study area, localized in the mountain range of Lousã, in the central part of Portugal, of EROSFIRE-II project is that of the 1:25.000 topographic map produced by the Military Geographic Institute. Since the Colmeal area involves a rather small experimental catchment of roughly 10 ha and relatively short study slopes of less than 100 m long, two different data acquisition techniques were used to produce high-resolution and high-accuracy DTM. One of the data acquisition techniques is aerial photogrammetry whilst the other is terrestrial laser scanning. In order to produce a DTM by photogrammetric means, a dedicated digital aerial photography mission was carried out. The images have a pixel size of 10 cm. Manual measurements permitted to measure breaklines and were complemented by automatic measurements. In this way, a DTM in a TIN format was produced. This was further converted to grid format using the ArcGIS software system
Full Text Available Flash floods, accompanied by high waters and regular floods, represent the most dangerous natural hazards in the Gemenea catchment, inducing other risks such as geomorphologic, environmental, social and economical risks. Flash floods occurred during the 1969 to 2014 monitoring interval are characterized by extremely high discharge values, of 68.9 m3/s in 2006 and 95.3 m3/s in 2008 and a magnitude 2.5 times higher than the average discharge recorded until that timeframe. With an area of 77.7 km2, the Gemenea catchment falls into the category of small catchments, where the peak discharge during exceptional hydrological phenomena is caused by torrential rainfall. Flash floods of particularly high intensities caused serious damages through: total destruction or damage of the torrent correction works, clogging of culverts on catchment forest roads, failure of river banks and deterioration of the bridges that affected roads and homes in Gemenea, Slătioara and Stulpicani villages. These floods have also caused damage to the forest/agriculture fund through deep and lateral erosion, failure of river banks and landslides. Within this study we aim to emphasize the magnitude, frequency, duration and area of manifestation of such phenomena in the Gemenea catchment. Furthermore, we aim to advance our knowledge of the genesis and specific mechanisms of flash flood occurrence for reducing their negative impacts on the local environment and communities
High precision, lead isotope analyses of archived stream sediments from the River Wear catchment, northeast England (1986-88), provide evidence for three main sources of anthropogenic lead pollution; lead mining, industrial lead emissions and leaded petrol. In the upper catchment, pollution is totally controlled and dominated by large lead discharges from historic mining centres in the North Pennine Orefield (208Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/206Pb ratios range from 2.0744-2.0954 and 0.8413-0.8554 respectively). In the lower catchment, co-extensive with the Durham Coalfield and areas of high population density, pollution levels are lower and regionally more uniform. Isotope ratios are systematically higher than in the upper catchment (208Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/206Pb ratios range from 2.0856-2.1397 and 0.8554-0.8896 respectively) and far exceed values determined for the geogenic regional background. Here, the pollution is characterised by the atmospheric deposition of industrial lead and petrol lead. Lead derived from the combustion of coal, although present, is masked by the other two sources. Recent sediments from the main channel of the River Wear are isotopically indistinguishable from older, low order stream sediments of the North Pennine Orefield, indicating that contamination of the river by lead mining waste (up to several 1000 mg/kg Pb at some locations) continues to pose an environmental problem; a pattern that can be traced all the way to the tidal reach. Using within-catchment isotope variation and sediment lead concentrations, estimates can be made of the discharges from discrete mines or groups of mines to the overall level of lead pollution in the River Wear. As well as providing information pertinent to source apportionment and on-going catchment remediation measures, the database is a valuable resource for epidemiologists concerned with the health risks posed by environmental lead.
Zhou, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Vaze, J.; Lane, P; Xu, S.
Most of the surface water for natural environmental and human water uses in southeast Australia is sourced from forested catchments located in the higher rainfall areas. Water yield of these catchments is mainly affected by climatic conditions, but it is also greatly affected by vegetation cover change. Bushfires are a major natural disturbance in forested catchments and potentially modify the water yield of the catchments through changes to evapotranspirat...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The term Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is used to describe a capability that focuses on determining the condition (health) of every element in a...
Charzyńska-Gula, Marianna; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian; Goździewska, Małgorzata; Dobrowolska, Beata; Gałęziowska, Edyta
Health promotion is aimed at the reduction of the differences in society's access to factors determining the frequency of occurrence of pro-health behaviours. This means the construction of health resources and increase in the level of egalitarianism in access to these resources. Health education carried out on a high level in rural schools provides actual possibilities for gaining these resources. Many examples of educational practices confirm that the establishment of health conditioning and health behaviours of schoolchildren, and the diagnosis of rural school on the background of the specificity of the community in which it functions. These are a basis for the construction of effective educational programmes, and not analysis of the differences between urban and rural children and adolescents. In Poland, the performance of health education in rural schools encounters many problems associated both with the lack of infrastructure for health promotion, insufficient perception of the importance of health education at school by the educational authorities, underestimation of primary health care, low activity of the local governments, and lack of qualified rural health promoters. Current health education in Polish rural schools deepens inequalities in access to health, and postpones the moment of providing equal opportunities for rural and urban schoolchildren with access to the resources which condition the maintenance or even an enhancement of health. The objective of the study is to present selected problems in the performance of health education in a Polish rural school in the light of international trends, experiences and discussions related with an optimum form of health promotion in the environment of rural a school and the community. PMID:24069857
Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.
James P Wirth
Full Text Available Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana.
Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.
Wirth, James P; Leyvraz, Magali; Sodani, Prahlad R; Aaron, Grant J; Sharma, Narottam D; Woodruff, Bradley A
Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana. PMID:27447925
Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India
Wirth, James P.; Leyvraz, Magali; Sodani, Prahlad R.; Aaron, Grant J.; Sharma, Narottam D.; Woodruff, Bradley A.
Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0–35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana’s rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana’s anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana’s public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana. PMID:27447925
Boadi, Kwasi Owusu
Inadequate provision of environmental health facilities for rapidly growing urban populations is a major constraint of socio-economic development in the less developed world. The situation leads to deteriorating urban environment and attendant health threats. The study examines household environmental problems in Accra, and the impacts on the health of identifiable different social classes. As a result of rapid increase in the population of Accra, and inadequate provision of facilities, the m...
Evans, Sarah G.; Ge, Shemin; Liang, Sihai
Headwater catchments have a direct impact on the water resources of downstream lowland regions as they supply freshwater in the form of surface runoff and discharging groundwater. Often, these mountainous catchments contain expansive permafrost that may alter the natural topographically controlled groundwater flow system. As permafrost could degrade with climate change, it is imperative to understand the effect of permafrost on groundwater flow in headwater catchments. This study characterizes groundwater flow in mountainous headwater catchments and evaluates the effect of permafrost in the context of climate change on groundwater movement using a three-dimensional, finite element, hydrogeologic model. The model is applied to a representative headwater catchment on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. Results from the model simulations indicate that groundwater contributes significantly to streams in the form of baseflow and the majority of groundwater flow is from the shallow aquifer above the permafrost, disrupting the typical topographically controlled flow pattern observed in most permafrost-free headwater catchments. Under a warming scenario where mean annual surface temperature is increased by 2°C, reducing the areal extent of permafrost in the catchment, groundwater contribution to streamflow may increase three-fold. These findings suggest that, in headwater catchments, permafrost has a large influence on groundwater flow and stream discharge. Increased annual air temperatures may increase groundwater discharge to streams, which has implications for ecosystem health and the long-term availability of water resources to downstream regions.
Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Birkel, C.; Capell, R.; Speed, M.
The non-linearities of catchment hydrological behaviour are strongly influenced by the connectivity of hillslopes and channel networks, particularly where overland flow is an important runoff mechanism. Such surface connectivity also controls the flux of microbiological pollutants (coliform bacteria) from areas of live stock grazing which can have serious health implications for potable water supplies. We report a nested catchment study where hydrological and tracer monitoring over a two year period has been coupled with regular sampling for faecal indicator organisms (FIOs). The study has been based in catchments with mixed landuse where FIOs are derived from livestock (sheep and cows) in agricultural land and wild animals (red deer) on moorlands. At all scales (3-1800km2), high levels of FIO were transient and episodic and strongly correlated with periods of high hydrological connectivity. We show how this non-linearity in connectivity can be captured within a dynamic hydrological model. The model was used, along with climate change predictions, to assess possible scenarios of change in connectivity and microbiological contamination in catchments with different land use.
Rose, Steve; Worrall, Peter; Rosolova, Zdenka; Hammond, Gene
techniques will include: controlling headwater drainage, increasing evapotranspiration and interception by creating new woodlands in the upper catchment areas, enabling coarse woody debris dams to slow down water flows through steep valleys, improving soil water storage potential by appropriate soil and crop management, retaining water on lowland flood meadows and wet woodland creation within the floodplain. The project, due to run from 2009 until 2013, incorporates hydrometric and water quality monitoring, together with hydrologic and hydraulic modelling in order to attempt to demonstrate the effect of land management changes on flood dynamics and flood risk management. To date, the project team have undertaken the fundamental catchment characterisation work to understand its physical setting and the interaction of the physical processes that influence the hydrological response of the catchment to incident precipitation. The results of this initial work has led to the identification of a suitably robust hydrometric monitoring network within the catchments to meet the needs of providing both quantitative evidence of the impacts of land management change on flood risk, together with generating good quality datasets for the validation and testing of the new hydrologic models. As the project aims to demonstrate ‘best practice' in all areas, the opportunity has been taken to install a network of automatic hydrometric monitoring equipment, together with an associated telemetry system, in order to maximise data coverage, accuracy and reliability. Good quality datasets are a critical requirement for reliable modelling. The modelling will also be expanded to incorporate climate change scenarios. This paper will describe the catchment characterisation work undertaken to date, the proposed land management changes in relation to flood risk management, the initial catchment hydraulic modelling work and the implementation of the new hydrometric monitoring network within the study area.
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the area of bedrock geology types in square meters compiled for every catchment of MRB_E2RF1 catchments for Major River Basins...
Khonde Kumbu, R; Mbanzulu Makola, K; Bin, Lu
Background. Schistosomiasis is a public health problem in Democratic Republic of the Congo but estimates of its prevalence vary widely. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection and associated risk factors among children in 4 health areas of Kisantu health zone. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 4 health areas of Kisantu health zone. 388 children randomly selected were screened for S. mansoni using Kato Katz technique and the sociodemographic data was collected. Data were entered and encoded using software EpiData version 3.1. Analysis was performed using SPSS version 21 software. Results. The prevalence of S. mansoni was 26.5% (103); almost two-thirds (63) (61.2%) had light infection intensity. A significant association was found between S. mansoni infection and age (p = 0.005), educational level (p = 0.001), and practices of swimming/bathing (p < 0.001) and using water from river/lake/stream for domestic use (p < 0.001). Kipasa health area had high prevalence of schistosomiasis (64.6%) (64/99; 95% CI 54.4-74.0) compared to other health areas. Conclusion. Schistosoma mansoni infection still remains a public health problem in these areas. There is a need to promote health education and promote behavioral changes in children towards schistosomiasis. PMID:27579346
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The term Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is used to describe a capability that focuses on determining the condition of every element in a complex System...
Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman
In tropical areas especially during monsoon seasons intense precipitation is the main caused that trigger the natural shallow landslide phenomena. This phenomenon can be disastrous and widespread in occurrence even in undisturbed forested catchment. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the susceptibility of natural hill slopes to failure for a popular hill resort area, the Fraser Hill Catchment under different rainfall regimes and soil thickness. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM)...
Full Text Available The Plynlimon headwater catchments in mid-Wales have been a landmark study of water resources in the UK uplands for over 30 years. The main physical features of the catchments have been digitised as the basis for linking new model developments and process understanding. Examples are given of how the main physical attributes are related to land management, hydrology and water quality. These data are also being used to provide insights into catchment processes that may underpin the development of new research. This work is particularly relevant given the need for the assessment of water status under the Water Framework Directive. The paper presents hypothetical management scenarios for the catchments, to show how ecological status may be improved, for example, by selectively restructuring areas of commercial forest. Keywords: Plynlimon, GIS, catchment study, forestry, hydrology, WFD
Hao, Xuewen; Cao, Yan; Zhang, Lai; Zhang, Yongyong; Liu, Jianguo
Concern is increasing regarding the environmental impact of the high usage rate and intensive release of antibiotics used for human and animal therapy in major urban areas of China. In the present study, regional environmental distribution simulations and risk assessments for 3 commonly used fluoroquinolones in the Wenyu River catchment were conducted using a typical catchment model widely used in Europe. The fluoroquinolone antibiotics investigated (ofloxacin, norfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin) are consumed at high levels for personal health care in China. These antibiotics were simulated in the aquatic environment of the Wenyu River catchment across the Beijing City area for annual average concentrations, with regional predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of approximately 711 ng/L, 55.3 ng/L, and 22.2 ng/L and local PECs up to 1.8 µg/L, 116 ng/L, and 43 ng/L, respectively. Apart from hydrological conditions, the concentrations of fluoroquinolones were associated closely with the sewage treatment plants (STPs) and their serving population, as well as hospital distributions. The presence of these fluoroquinolones in the catchment area of the present study showed significant characteristics of the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment in an urban river, with typical "down-the-drain" chemicals. Significantly high concentrations of specific antibiotics indicated non-negligible risks caused by the intensive use in the local aquatic environment in a metropolitan area, particularly ofloxacin in upstream Shahe Reservoir, middle stream and downstream Qing River, and Liangma River to the Ba River segment. Specific treatment measures for these pharmaceuticals and personal care products in STPs are required for such metropolitan areas. PMID:26178666
Background: Water scarcity remains a major hurdle in the overall development of tribal people living on hilly terrain, and it is one of the major reasons for their various health problems. Integrated watershed management (IWM) aims to increase water availability and to enhance socio-economic development in such areas. There is a lack of information on the implications of IWM on various aspects of public health, especially in hilly tribal areas. Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was t...
... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentive payments for Health Professional Shortage... SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.67 Incentive payments for Health Professional Shortage... Shortage Area (HPSA) are eligible for a 10 percent incentive payment above the amount paid for...
Full Text Available Abstracts Background With regards to equity, the objective for health care systems is “equal access for equal needs”. We examined associations of predisposing, enabling and need factors with health facility utilization in areas with high HIV prevalence and few people being aware of their HIV status. Methods The data is from a population-based survey among adults aged 15years or older conducted in 2003. The current study is based on a subset of this data of adults 15–49 years with a valid HIV test result. A modified Health behaviour model guided our analytical approach. We report unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals from logistic regression analyses. Results Totals of 1042 males and 1547 females in urban areas, and 822 males and 1055 females in rural areas were included in the study. Overall, 53.1% of urban and 56.8% of rural respondents utilized health facilities past 12 months. In urban areas, significantly more females than males utilized health facilities (OR=1.4 (95% CI [1.1, 1.6]. Higher educational attainment (10+ years of schooling was associated with utilization of health facilities in both urban (OR=1.7, 95% CI [1.3, 2.1] and rural (OR=1.4, 95% CI [1.0, 2.0] areas compared to respondents who attained up to 7 years of schooling. Respondents who self-rated their health status as very poor/ poor/fair were twice more likely to utilize health facilities compared to those who rated their health as good/excellent. Respondents who reported illnesses were about three times more likely to utilize health facilities compared to those who did not report the illnesses. In urban areas, respondents who had mental distress were 1.7 times more likely to utilize health facilities compare to those who had no mental distress. Compared to respondents who were HIV negative, respondents who were HIV positive were 1.3 times more likely to utilize health facilities. Conclusion The health care needs were the factors most
Full Text Available Dr J.S.G. McCulloch was deeply involved in the establishment of research catchments in East Africa and subsequently in the UK to investigate the hydrological consequences of changes in land use. Comparison of these studies provides an insight into how influential his inputs and direction have been in the progressive development of the philosophy, the instrumentation and the analytical techniques now employed in catchment research. There were great contrasts in the environments: tropical highland (high radiation, intense rainfall vs. temperate maritime (low radiation and frontal storms, contrasting soils and vegetation types, as well as the differing social and economic pressures in developing and developed nations. Nevertheless, the underlying scientific philosophy was common to both, although techniques had to be modified according to local conditions. As specialised instrumentation and analytical techniques were developed for the UK catchments many were also integrated into the East African studies. Many lessons were learned in the course of these studies and from the experiences of other studies around the world. Overall, a rigorous scientific approach was developed with widespread applicability. Beyond the basics of catchment selection and the quantification of the main components of the catchment water balance, this involved initiating parallel process studies to provide information on specific aspects of catchment behaviour. This information could then form the basis for models capable of extrapolation from the observed time series to other periods/hydrological events and, ultimately, the capability of predicting the consequences of changes in catchment land management to other areas in a range of climates.
曹瑞娜; 齐伟; 李乐; 蒋文惠; 曹向生
This paper used Qixia City (which lies in the center of Jiaodong Peninsula) as a case study of typical mountain areas to investigate catchment-based landscape pattern divisions with cluster analysis of landscape indices generated from digital elevation model (DEM). Firstly, Landsat TM image (2010) covering the whole study area was interpreted and geo-referenced to generate the landscape patterns in Qixia City and the corresponding relief map (1︰25 000) vectorized to build DEM model. Then 300 catchments were divided using hydrology extension support in ArcGIS. Taking into account ecological significance and features of common landscape indices as well as local ground truth, five indices were selected for the analysis. The indices included edge density (ED), Shannon’s diversity index (SDI), coefficient of variance of patch size (PSCOV), area-weighted mean patch fractal dimension (AWMPFD) and core area density (CAD). Based on average elevation and spatial distributions, landscape patterns in each catchment were analyzed. The effects of human activity and natural disturbance on regional landscape ecology were also discussed in the paper. All the indices analyzed in each catchment were synthesized using cluster analysis and combined with dominant landscape type in the catchment to build zoning maps of landscape. The results suggested that ED and CAD values increased as altitude gradually increased and significant vertical differentiation characteristics were noted. The SDI values gradually grew smaller with increasing altitude. Then PSCOV values showed inverted U-shaped trend with increasing altitude. The AWMPFD values did not show significant vertical differentiation characteristics. Three landscape ecology classes were regionalized in Qixia City. ClassⅠhad the smallest land area (10.14%) and stable agricultural zones. This implied that the landscape structure and scale were very stable and needed protection. ClassⅡhad the biggest land area (50.93%). Here, a
Full Text Available Deforestations, besides the global climate change, are the main cause of the intensification of f loods and flash - floods in the latest years. Since surface runoff is the main phenomenon leading to floods or flash - floods, afforestation is necessary, forest coverage being the element that retains most of the water from precipitation. The study area, repr esented by the upper and middle sectors of Buzau River basin, is one of the most affected regions of Romania by torrential phenomena. Also, the study area was chosen due to its considerable deforestation. This paper proposes a methodology created exclusive ly by GIS techniques in order to identify the areas suitable for afforestation. Thus, land cover and slope relief were taken into account when running the GIS model. Database processing and obtaining the final results were possible by implementing a workfl ow in Model Builder from ArcGIS 10.3, which can be later used as a tool for other study areas. The results of the study highlight Balaneasa, Bâsca Chiojdului and Sărăţel river basins, which record the highest shares of areas suitable for afforestation.
It was found that man-caused accidents and high concentration of industrial facilities in the Ural Region caused considerable accumulation of radionuclides and heavy metals in animals of some relevant areas. These animals were examined for immune system indices and chromosomal aberrations vs. body content of accumulated toxic agents. It was also found that animal oncological morbidity including cattle leucosis is considerably higher in urban regions as compared to areas of relative ecological well-being. A system of actions has been developed to mitigate negative impact of man-caused contamination. (author)
Sylvie Linsuke; Sabin Nundu; Sylvain Mupoyi; Rodin Mukele; Faustin Mukunda; Madeleine Mbuyi Kabongo; Raquel Inocêncio da Luz; Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden; Marc Van Sprundel; Marleen Boelaert; Katja Polman; Pascal Lutumba
School-aged children suffer the most from schistosomiasis infection in sub Saharan Africa due to poverty and limited sanitary conditions. Mapping of disease burden is recommended and there is a need of updating prevalence data which is as old as 20 years in the Democratic Republic of Congo. An epidemiological and parasitological study was carried out in 2011 in the health zone of Kasansa. Six health areas (HA) were included in the study. In each health area, one primary school was selected. S...
Weiler, Markus; Staudinger, Maria; Stölzle, Michael; Seeger, Stefan; Seibert, Jan; Stahl, Kerstin
One of the most important functions of catchments is the temporary storage of water, which directly influences runoff dynamics, rainfall-runoff transformation, partitioning of evaporation and runoff fluxes, and accessibility of water to plants. Generally, a large catchment storage is considered beneficial and in particular increases the transit times and hence the buffer functioning related to water quality. Many different methods have been developed to assess catchment storage, however, there are hardly any direct comparisons of several of these methods. One challenge is the definition of water storage, while some methods allow estimation of the entire water storage in a catchment, other methods quantify only the dynamic storage. In addition, most studies focused more on lowland catchments with rain-dominated runoff regimes and observed groundwater fluctuations. Furthermore, these studies often focus on one or two catchments, but do not consider the influence of different climates on the relevance of water storage in the catchment. We applied a range of different methods to assess catchment storage characteristics in 18 catchments in the Swiss Alps, ranging from 500 to 2000m of mean elevation and hence from rainfall- to snowmelt dominated runoff regimes. The first method use only discharge information during recession periods and with varying approaches to extract discharge and storage changes between high flow and low flow, the dynamic catchment storage can be derived. In the next methods the conceptual hydrological model HBV is calibrated to the runoff dynamics and the dynamic and total catchment storages of the different compartments are being evaluated. The last methods are based on stable water isotope data analysis. We use the model TRANSEP to derive the dynamic storage as well as the total water storage of the catchment based on the transit times using several years of fortnightly isotope data in streamflow. The results show that the derived catchment
Pallas, Sarah W; Curry, Leslie; Bashyal, Chhitij; Berman, Peter; Bradley, Elizabeth H
Health systems strengthening (HSS) is a priority for global health funders, policy-makers and practitioners. Although many HSS efforts have focused on policy levers such as financing approaches, payment schemes or regulatory reforms, less attention has been directed to targeting the organisations that deliver health services such as hospitals, health centres and clinics. Evidence suggests that the impact of organisation-level interventions varies by context; however, we lack a general framework for integrating organisational context into performance improvement strategies for health service delivery organisations. Drawing on open systems theories from organisational behaviour and management as well as a review of 181 empirical studies of health service delivery organisations in low- and middle-income countries, we propose a taxonomy of seven strategy areas for improving organisational performance as well as a multistage conceptual framework for selecting among them. We propose that the choice of strategy for improving health service delivery organisational performance should be informed by: (i) the root cause of the organisation's performance gap; (ii) the environmental conditions facing the organisation; and (iii) the implementation capability of the organisation. We also highlight conditions under which different strategy areas may be expected to be optimally effective. The approaches presented in this paper offer a way for health system decision-makers and researchers to systematically assess and incorporate organisational context in the process of developing strategies to improve the performance of health service delivery organisations and, ultimately, of health systems. PMID:24030877
Kelaher Margaret; Ferdinand Angeline; Taylor Hugh
Abstract Background This project is a community-level study of equity of access to eye health services for Indigenous Australians. Methods The project used data on eye health services from multiple sources including Medicare Australia, inpatient and outpatient data and the National Indigenous Eye Health Survey. The analysis focused on the extent to which access to eye health services varied at an area level according to the proportion of the population that was Indigenous (very low = 0-1.0%, ...
Weiss, Frederik; Zurbrügg, Christian; Eggen, Rik; Castillo, Luisa; Ruepert, Clemens; Stamm, Christian
Today, pesticides are intensively used in agriculture across the globe. Worldwide about 2.4×106 tons of pesticides are used annually on 1.6×109 ha of arable land. This yields a global average use of pesticides of 1.53 kg ha-1 year-1. Available data suggest that the use in the agricultural sector will continue to grow. Recently it was estimated that within the last decade, the world pesticide market increased by 93% and the Brazilian market alone by 190%. Though pesticides are intensively used in many low and middle income countries (LAMICs), scientifically sound data of amounts and types of pesticide use and the resulting impact on water quality are lacking in many of these countries. Therefore it is highly relevant to: i) identify risk areas where pesticides affect environmental health, ii) understand the environmental behavior of pesticides in vulnerable tropical ecosystems; and iii) develop possible mitigation options to reduce their exposure to ecosystems and humans. Here we present a project that will focus on assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment and humans in tropical catchments of LAMICs. A catchment in the Zarcero province in Costa Rica will be the test case. Pesticide exposure will be assessed by passive sampling. In order to cover a broad range of compounds of possible use, two sampling devices will be used: SDB membranes for collecting polar compounds and silicon sheets for accumulating apolar pesticides. Extracts will be subsequently analysed by GC-MSMS and LC-HRMS.
Amarasekara, M. G. T. S.; Kumarihamy, R. M. K.; Dayawansa, N. D. K.; R.P. Silva
The results of many studies have revealed that intensive farming on steep slopes, coupled with over application of fertilizers and accumulation of nutrients in downstream water bodies due to soil erosion, have contributed to environmental hazards in the Upper Mahaweli Catchment Area (UMCA) of Sri Lanka. The encroachment of riparian zones for exotic vegetable cultivation has aggravated this situation. In view of this, a study was conducted in the Kurundu Oya catchment, a micro-catchment of the...
Brodie, J; Christie, C; Devlin, M; Haynes, D; Morris, S; Ramsay, M; Waterhouse, J; Yorkston, H
Pollution of coastal regions of the Great Barrier Reef is dominated by runoff from the adjacent catchment. Catchment land-use is dominated by beef grazing and cropping, largely sugarcane cultivation, with relatively minor urban development. Runoff of sediment, nutrients and pesticides is increasing and for nitrogen is now four times the natural amount discharged 150 years ago. Significant effects and potential threats are now evident on inshore reefs, seagrasses and marine animals. There is no effective legislation or processes in place to manage agricultural pollution. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act does not provide effective jurisdiction on the catchment. Queensland legislation relies on voluntary codes and there is no assessment of the effectiveness of the codes. Integrated catchment management strategies, also voluntary, provide some positive outcomes but are of limited success. Pollutant loads are predicted to continue to increase and it is unlikely that current management regimes will prevent this. New mechanisms to prevent continued degradation of inshore ecosystems of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area are urgently needed. PMID:11419129
Full Text Available Abstract Background High-quality review evidence is useful for informing and influencing public health policy and practice decisions. However, certain topic areas lack representation in terms of the quantity and quality of review literature available. The objectives of this paper are to identify the quantity, as well as quality, of review-level evidence available on the effectiveness of public health interventions for public health decision makers. Methods Searches conducted on http://www.health-evidence.ca produced an inventory of public health review literature in 21 topic areas. Gaps and areas of wealth in the review literature, as well as the proportion of reviews rated methodologically strong, moderate, or weak were identified. The top 10 topic areas of interest for registered users and visitors of http://www.health-evidence.ca were extracted from user profile data and Google Analytics. Results Registered users' top three interests included: 1 healthy communities, 2 chronic diseases, and 3 nutrition. The top three preferences for visitors included: 1 chronic diseases, 2 physical activity, and 3 addiction/substance use. All of the topic areas with many (301+ available reviews were of interest to registered users and/or visitors (mental health, physical activity, addiction/substance use, adolescent health, child health, nutrition, adult health, and chronic diseases. Conversely, the majority of registered users and/or visitors did not have preference for topic areas with few (≤ 150 available reviews (food safety and inspection, dental health, environmental health with the exception of social determinants of health and healthy communities. Across registered users' and visitors' topic areas of preference, 80.2% of the reviews were of well-done methodological quality, with 43.5% of reviews having a strong quality rating and 36.7% a moderate review quality rating. Conclusions In topic areas in which many reviews are available, higher level