Sample records for catalyst system task

  1. Catalyst for microelectromechanical systems microreactors

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Sopchak, David A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA); Satcher, Joseph H. (Patterson, CA); Gash, Alex E. (Brentwood, CA)


    A microreactor comprising a silicon wafer, a multiplicity of microchannels in the silicon wafer, and a catalyst coating the microchannels. In one embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a nanostructured material. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises an aerogel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a solgel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises carbon nanotubes.

  2. Catalyst for microelectromechanical systems microreactors

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Sopchak, David A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Reynolds, John G.; Satcher, Joseph H.; Gash, Alex E.


    A microreactor comprising a silicon wafer, a multiplicity of microchannels in the silicon wafer, and a catalyst coating the microchannels. In one embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a nanostructured material. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises an aerogel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a solgel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises carbon nanotubes.

  3. Manufacture of Catalyst Systems for Ammonia Conversion



    Platinum catalyst gauzes have been in use since the moment of development of the process of catalyst oxidation of ammonia for production of nitric acid or hydrocyanic acid.Catalyst gauzes are usually made of platinum or its alloys with rhodium and palladium.These precious metals have remarkable properties that make them ideal catalysts for acceleration of the ammonia/oxygen reaction.In 2008,OJSC "SIC ‘Supermetal’" and Umicore AG&Co.KG launched a production line for Pt-alloy-based catalyst systems to be used for ammonia oxidation in the production of weak nitric acid.Catalyst systems consist of a pack of catalyst gauzes and a pack of catchment gauzes,which are made using flat-bed knitting machines and wire-cloth looms.Today,up-to-date catalyst systems MKSpreciseTM are being manufactured,the basic advantages of which are an individual structure of gauzes and composition of the material,which allows to define precisely the position of each gauze in the catalyst pack,a high activity of the catalyst pack,direct catching of platinum and rhodium in the catalyst system,and a reasonable combination of single- and multilayer types of gauzes.This makes it possible to vary the configuration of the catalyst and select an optimum composition of the system to ensure the maximum efficiency of the ammonia oxidation process.We also produce the catchment systems that allow to find the best decision from the economic point view for each individual case.

  4. CATALYSTS NHI Thermochemical Systems FY 2009 Year-End Report

    Fiscal Year 2009 work in the Catalysts project focused on advanced catalysts for the decomposition of sulfuric acid, a reaction common to both the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) cycle and the Hybrid Sulfur cycle. Prior years effort in this project has found that although platinum supported on titanium oxide will be an acceptable catalyst for sulfuric acid decomposition in the integrated laboratory scale (ILS) project, the material has short comings, including significant cost and high deactivation rates due to sintering and platinum evaporation. For pilot and larger scale systems, the catalyst stability needs to be improved significantly. In Fiscal Year 2008 it was found that at atmospheric pressure, deactivation rates of a 1 wt% platinum catalyst could be reduced by 300% by adding either 0.3 wt% iridium (Ir) or 0.3 wt% ruthenium (Ru) to the catalyst. In Fiscal Year 2009, work focused on examining the platinum group metal catalysts activity and stability at elevated pressures. In addition, simple and complex metal oxides are known to catalyze the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction. These metal oxides could offer activities comparable to platinum but at significantly reduced cost. Thus a second focus for Fiscal Year 2009 was to explore metal oxide catalysts for the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction. In Fiscal Year 2007 several commercial activated carbons had been identified for the HI decomposition reaction; a reaction specific to the S-I cycle. Those materials should be acceptable for the pilot scale project. The activated carbon catalysts have some disadvantages including low activity at the lower range of reactor operating temperature (350 to 400 C) and a propensity to generate carbon monoxide in the presence of water that could contaminate the hydrogen product, but due to limited funding, this area had low priority in Fiscal Year 2009. Fiscal Year 2009 catalyst work included five tasks: development, and testing of stabilized platinum based H2SO4 catalysts

  5. Optimization of catalyst system reaps economic benefits

    Champlin Refining and Chemicals Inc. is learning to optimize its catalyst systems for hydrotreating Venezuelan gas oils through a program of research, pilot plant testing, and commercial unit operation. The economic results of this project have been evaluated, and the benefits are most evident in improvements in product yields and qualities. The project has involved six commercial test runs, to date (Runs 10-15), with a seventh run planned. A summary of the different types of catalyst systems used in the test runs, and the catalyst philosophy that developed is given. Runs 10 and 11 used standard CoMo and NiMo catalysts for heavy gas oils hydrotreating. These catalysts had small pore sizes and suffered high deactivation rates because of metals contamination. When it was discovered that metals contamination was a problem, catalyst options were reviewed

  6. Innovative synthetic rubbers via ruthenium catalyst systems

    Tuba, Robert; Grubbs, Robert H.


    The trans-polypentenamer has unique relevance among the synthetic rubbers since it has similar phys. properties to the natural rubber. The polypentenamer additives have propitious effect on the tire properties and have been studied extensively for this application. Polypentenamer synthetic rubber was synthesized by ringopening metathesis polymn. (ROMP) using ruthenium catalyst systems. It was found that the cyclopentene conversion does not depend on the catalyst activity and catal...

  7. Process of activation of a palladium catalyst system

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A.; Knapke, Michael J.


    Improved processes for activating a catalyst system used for the reduction of nitrogen oxides are provided. In one embodiment, the catalyst system is activated by passing an activation gas stream having an amount of each of oxygen, water vapor, nitrogen oxides, and hydrogen over the catalyst system and increasing a temperature of the catalyst system to a temperature of at least C. at a heating rate of from Use of activation processes described herein leads to a catalyst system with superior NOx reduction capabilities.

  8. Supported catalyst systems and method of making biodiesel products using such catalysts

    Kim, Manhoe; Yan, Shuli; Salley, Steven O.; Ng, K. Y. Simon


    A heterogeneous catalyst system, a method of preparing the catalyst system and a method of forming a biodiesel product via transesterification reactions using the catalyst system is disclosed. The catalyst system according to one aspect of the present disclosure represents a class of supported mixed metal oxides that include at least calcium oxide and another metal oxide deposited on a lanthanum oxide or cerium oxide support. Preferably, the catalysts include CaO--CeO.sub.2ZLa.sub.2O.sub.3 or CaO--La.sub.2O.sub.3/CeO.sub.2. Optionally, the catalyst may further include additional metal oxides, such as CaO--La.sub.2O.sub.3--GdOxZLa.sub.2O.sub.3.

  9. Task oriented evaluation system for maintenance robots

    The adaptability evaluation of maintenance robots to autonomous plants has been discussed. In this paper, a new concept of autonomous plant with maintenance robots are introduced, and a framework of autonomous maintenance system is proposed. Then, task-oriented evaluation of robot arms is discussed for evaluating their adaptability to maintenance tasks, and a new criterion called operability is proposed for adaptability evaluation. The task-oriented evaluation system is implemented and applied to structural design of robot arms. Using genetic algorithm, an optimal structure adaptable to a pump disassembly task is obtained. (author)

  10. Decision Making System for Operative Tasks

    Shakah, G.; Krasnoproshin, V. V.; Valvachev, A. N.


    Actual problems of construction of computer systems for operative tasks of decision making are considered. possibilities of solving the problems on the basis of the theory of active systems (tas) are investigated.

  11. Task planning systems with natural language interface

    In this report, a natural language analyzer and two different task planning systems are described. In 1988, we have introduced a Japanese language analyzer named CS-PARSER for the input interface of the task planning system in the Human Acts Simulation Program (HASP). For the purpose of a high speed analysis, we have modified a dictionary system of the CS-PARSER by using C language description. It is found that the new dictionary system is very useful for a high speed analysis and an efficient maintenance of the dictionary. For the study of the task planning problem, we have modified a story generating system named Micro TALE-SPIN to generate a story written in Japanese sentences. We have also constructed a planning system with natural language interface by using the CS-PARSER. Task planning processes and related knowledge bases of these systems are explained. A concept design for a new task planning system will be also discussed from evaluations of above mentioned systems. (author)

  12. Heimdall System for MSSS Sensor Tasking

    Herz, A.; Jones, B.; Herz, E.; George, D.; Axelrad, P.; Gehly, S.

    In Norse Mythology, Heimdall uses his foreknowledge and keen eyesight to keep watch for disaster from his home near the Rainbow Bridge. Orbit Logic and the Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research (CCAR) at the University of Colorado (CU) have developed the Heimdall System to schedule observations of known and uncharacterized objects and search for new objects from the Maui Space Surveillance Site. Heimdall addresses the current need for automated and optimized SSA sensor tasking driven by factors associated with improved space object catalog maintenance. Orbit Logic and CU developed an initial baseline prototype SSA sensor tasking capability for select sensors at the Maui Space Surveillance Site (MSSS) using STK and STK Scheduler, and then added a new Track Prioritization Component for FiSST-inspired computations for predicted Information Gain and Probability of Detection, and a new SSA-specific Figure-of-Merit (FOM) for optimized SSA sensor tasking. While the baseline prototype addresses automation and some of the multi-sensor tasking optimization, the SSA-improved prototype addresses all of the key elements required for improved tasking leading to enhanced object catalog maintenance. The Heimdall proof-of-concept was demonstrated for MSSS SSA sensor tasking for a 24 hour period to attempt observations of all operational satellites in the unclassified NORAD catalog, observe a small set of high priority GEO targets every 30 minutes, make a sky survey of the GEO belt region accessible to MSSS sensors, and observe particular GEO regions that have a high probability of finding new objects with any excess sensor time. This Heimdall prototype software paves the way for further R&D that will integrate this technology into the MSSS systems for operational scheduling, improve the software's scalability, and further tune and enhance schedule optimization. The Heimdall software for SSA sensor tasking provides greatly improved performance over manual tasking, improved

  13. Better algorithms for unfair metrical task systems and applications

    Fiat, Amos; Mendel, Manor


    Unfair metrical task systems are a generalization of online metrical task systems. In this paper we introduce new techniques to combine algorithms for unfair metrical task systems and apply these techniques to obtain improved randomized online algorithms for metrical task systems on arbitrary metric spaces.

  14. The Nexus task-parallel runtime system

    Foster, I.; Tuecke, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kesselman, C. [Caltech, Pasadena, CA (United States). Beckman Institute


    A runtime system provides a parallel language compiler with an interface to the low-level facilities required to support interaction between concurrently executing program components. Nexus is a portable runtime system for task-parallel programming languages. Distinguishing features of Nexus include its support for multiple threads of control, dynamic processor acquisition, dynamic address space creation, a global memory model via interprocessor references, and asynchronous events. In addition, it supports heterogeneity at multiple levels, allowing a single computation to utilize different programming languages, executables, processors, and network protocols. Nexus is currently being used as a compiler target for two task-parallel languages: Fortran M and Compositional C++. In this paper, we present the Nexus design, outline techniques used to implement Nexus on parallel computers, show how it is used in compilers, and compare its performance with that of another runtime system.

  15. Polyethylene glycol: A recyclable solvent system for the synthesis of benzimidazole derivatives using CAN as catalyst

    Mazaahir Kidwai; Anwar Jahan; Divya Bhatnagar


    Ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) efficiently catalysed the synthesis of benzimidazole derivatives from -phenylenediamine and aldehydes in PEG. This method provides a novel route for the synthesis of benzimidazoles in good yields with little catalyst loading. The recovery and the successful reutilization of the solvent system are also presented. Moreover, the easy set-up and purification tasks of this sustainable method make it appealing for bulk industry applications.

  16. Latency Minimizing Tasking for Information Processing Systems

    Horey, James L [ORNL; Lagesse, Brent J [ORNL


    Real-time cyber-physical systems and information processing clusters require system designers to consider the total latency involved in collecting and aggregating data. For example, applications such as wild-fire monitoring require data to be presented to users in a timely manner. However, most models and algorithms for sensor networks have focused on alternative metrics such as energy efficiency. In this paper, we present a new model of sensor network aggregation that focuses on total latency. Our model is flexible and enables users to configure varying transmission and computation time on a node-by-node basis, and thus enables the simulation of complex computational phenomena. In addition, we present results from three tasking algorithms that trade-off local communication for overall latency performance. These algorithms are evaluated in simulated networks of up to 200 nodes. We've presented an aggregation-focused model of sensor networks that can be used to study the trade-offs between computational coverage and total latency. Our model explicitly takes into account transmission and computation times, and enables users to define different values for the basestation. In addition, we've presented three different tasking algorithms that operate over model to produce aggregation schedules of varying quality. In the future, we expect to continue exploring distributed tasking algorithms for information processing systems. We've shown that the gap between highly optimized schedules that use global information is quite large relative to our distributed algorithms. This gives us encouragement that future distributed tasking algorithms can still make large gains.

  17. Engineering task plan for purged light system

    A purged, closed circuit television system is currently used to video inside of waste tanks. The video is used to support inspection and assessment of the tank interiors, waste residues, and deployed hardware. The system is also used to facilitate deployment of new equipment. A new light source has been requested by Characterization Project Operations (CPO) for the video system. The current light used is mounted on the camera and provides 75 watts of light, which is insufficient for clear video. Other light sources currently in use on the Hanford site either can not be deployed in a 4-inch riser or do not meet the ignition source controls. The scope of this Engineering Task Plan is to address all activities associated with the specification and procurement of a light source for use with the existing CPO video equipment. The installation design change to tank farm facilities is not within the scope of this ETP

  18. Multi-agent tasks scheduling system in software defined networks

    In this paper a multi-agent tasks scheduling system in software defined networks is considered. This system is designed for distribution simulation and tasks implementation on computational resources including network dynamic characteristics and topology.

  19. Clinical task performance and imaging task performance compared for two different commercial electronic portal imaging systems

    Full text: This paper reports on the investigation and comparison of performance of a Varian Portal Vision system and a Siemens Beamview Plus system using the framework outlined by ICRU Report 54. Radiation Therapy EPI (Electronic Portal Imaging) systems are one of the main applications of digital imaging technology in a radiation therapy department. Radiation Therapy EPI systems may produce images of a lesser quality than the diagnostic radiology equivalent. It is therefore important to optimise the system to obtain the best performance possible. Contrasting opinion on the performance of EPI by clinicians, radiation therapists, medical physicists and engineers often exists, even when the same system and even the same image are being evaluated. Differing opinion occurs because of differences in task end points and task assessment methods of two broad groups of individuals, the human-observer group and the technical-measurement group. Each group uses different task criteria and methodology for assessing performance. The human-observer group is primarily interested in system performance that assures a high level clinical-task performance while the technical-measurement group is concerned with system performance that assures a high level of imaging-task performance. The technical-measurement group tends to be closely associated with imaging system technology, testing, adjustment and optimisation tasks which are couched in terms imaging-task criteria. The human-observer group is usually attempting to optimise performance using clinical-task criteria. The challenge is to provide a balanced evaluation using complementary imaging-task performance and clinical-task performance assessments. Comparison of the systems is on the basis of imaging-task performance i.e. technical-measurement through physical performance assessments such as spatial resolution and noise level, and clinical-task performance i.e. human-observer measurements through the application of psychophysical

  20. Catalysts for portable, solid state hydrogen genration systems

    Gabl, Jason Robert

    Hydrogen and air powered proton exchange membrane fuel cells are a potential alternative to batteries. In portable power systems, the design requirements often focus on cost efficiency, energy density, storability, as well as safety. Ammonia borane (AB), a chemical hydride containing 19.6 wt. % hydrogen, has a high hydrogen capacity and is a stable and non-toxic candidate for storing hydrogen in portable systems. Throughout this work, Department of Energy guidelines for low power portable hydrogen power systems were used as a baseline and comparison with commercially available systems. In order to make this comparison, the system parameters of a system using AB hydrolysis were estimated by developing capacity and cost correlations from the commercial systems and applying them to this work. Supporting experiments were designed to evaluate a system that would use a premixed solid storage bed of AB and a catalyst. This configuration would only require a user input of water in order to initiate the hydrogen production. Using ammonia borane hydrolysis, the hydrogen yield is ˜9 wt. %, when all reactants are considered. In addition to the simplicity of initiating the reaction, hydrolysis of AB has the advantage of suppressing the production of some toxic borazines that are present when AB is thermally decomposed. However, ammonia gas will be formed and this problem must be addressed, as ammonia is damaging to PEM fuel cells. The catalyst focused on throughout this work was Amberlyst - 15; an ion exchange resin with an acid capacity of 4.7 eq/kg and ammonia adsorbent. At less than 0.30/g, this is a cost effective alternative to precious metal catalysts. The testing with this catalyst was compared to a traditional catalyst in literature, 20% platinum in carbon, costing more than 40/g. The Amberlyst catalyst was found to reduce the formation of ammonia in the gas products from ˜3.71 wt. % with the Pt/C catalyst to 90 % to < 30 % over a 70 day aging study. This results

  1. Realization of parking task based on affine system modeling

    This paper presents a motion control system of an unmanned vehicle, where parallel parking task is realized based on a self-organizing affine system modeling and a quadratic programming based robust controller. Because of non-linearity of the vehicle system and complexity of the task to realize, control objective is not always realized with a single algorithm or control mode. This paper presents a hybrid model for parallel parking task in which seven modes for describing sub-tasks constitute an entire model

  2. Real-time multi-task operators support system

    The development in computer software and hardware technology and information processing as well as the accumulation in the design and feedback from Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operation created a good opportunity to develop an integrated Operator Support System. The Real-time Multi-task Operator Support System (RMOSS) has been built to support the operator's decision making process during normal and abnormal operations. RMOSS consists of five system subtasks such as Data Collection and Validation Task (DCVT), Operation Monitoring Task (OMT), Fault Diagnostic Task (FDT), Operation Guideline Task (OGT) and Human Machine Interface Task (HMIT). RMOSS uses rule-based expert system and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The rule-based expert system is used to identify the predefined events in static conditions and track the operation guideline through data processing. In dynamic status, Back-Propagation Neural Network is adopted for fault diagnosis, which is trained with the Genetic Algorithm. Embedded real-time operation system VxWorks and its integrated environment Tornado II are used as the RMOSS software cross-development. VxGUI is used to design HMI. All of the task programs are designed in C language. The task tests and function evaluation of RMOSS have been done in one real-time full scope simulator. Evaluation results show that each task of RMOSS is capable of accomplishing its functions. (authors)

  3. Palladium catalyst system comprising zwitterion and/or acid-​functionalized ionic liquid


    The present invention concerns a catalyst system in particular a catalyst system comprising Palladium (Pd), a zwitterion and/or an acid-functionalized ionic liquid, and one or more phosphine ligands, wherein the Pd catalyst can be provided by a complex precursor, such as Pd(CH3COO)2, PdCI2, Pd(CH3...

  4. Palladium catalyst system comprising zwitterion and/or acid-functionalized ionic liquid


    The present invention concerns a catalyst system in particular a catalyst system comprising Palladium (Pd), a zwitterion and/or an acid-functionalized ionic liquid, and one or more phosphine ligands, wherein the Pd catalyst can be provided by a complex precursor, such as Pd(CH3COO)2, PdCI2, Pd(CH3...

  5. Sol-gel based oxidation catalyst and coating system using same

    Watkins, Anthony N. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Patry, JoAnne L. (Inventor); Schryer, Jacqueline L. (Inventor)


    An oxidation catalyst system is formed by particles of an oxidation catalyst dispersed in a porous sol-gel binder. The oxidation catalyst system can be applied by brush or spray painting while the sol-gel binder is in its sol state.

  6. Integrating Robot Task Planning into Off-Line Programming Systems

    Sun, Hongyan; Kroszynski, Uri


    The addition of robot task planning in off-line programming systems aims at improving the capability of current state-of-the-art commercially available off-line programming systems, by integrating modeling, task planning, programming and simulation together under one platform. This article proposes...

  7. Control System Query Oriented Accounting Tasks

    Mykhaylo Prodanchuk


    The role of accounting for the purposes of company management has been studied. According to the author, rather than on accounting, the object focuses participants of the economic process: owners, managers, accountants, investors, and other economic players interested in obtaining complete, true and impartial accounting information. Based on the analysis of existing approaches to identifying accountancy and managerial objectives the tasks of higher priority have been singled out. General acco...

  8. Communication scheduling in parallel task executions on large parallel systems

    Hai Xiang Lin


    Scheduling is an important issue in parallel processing. Most scheduling algorithms makes assigns tasks in a direct acyclic graph (DAG) to processors. Usually only the allocation and ordering of tasks are considered, and sometimes communication time is included in the determination of priorities of the tasks, however, communication messages are not explicitly scheduled. Moreover, communication contention plays an increasing important role because of the increased system size of parallel compu...

  9. Crab: A Dashboard System for Monitoring Archiving Tasks

    Bell, G.; Jenness, T.; Agarwal, A.


    In order to make the large number of cron jobs required to perform data archiving tasks at the Joint Astronomy Centre more manageable, we have designed and implemented a dashboard system for monitoring their progress. The status of all of the tasks can be monitored on the dashboard's web interface, and via consolidated notification emails.

  10. Initial development of an automated task analysis profiling system

    A program for automated task analysis is described. Called TAPS (task analysis profiling system), the program accepts normal English prose and outputs skills, knowledges, attitudes, and abilities (SKAAs) along with specific guidance and recommended ability measurement tests for nuclear power plant operators. A new method for defining SKAAs is presented along with a sample program output

  11. A task-specific approach to computational imaging system design

    Ashok, Amit

    The traditional approach to imaging system design places the sole burden of image formation on optical components. In contrast, a computational imaging system relies on a combination of optics and post-processing to produce the final image and/or output measurement. Therefore, the joint-optimization (JO) of the optical and the post-processing degrees of freedom plays a critical role in the design of computational imaging systems. The JO framework also allows us to incorporate task-specific performance measures to optimize an imaging system for a specific task. In this dissertation, we consider the design of computational imaging systems within a JO framework for two separate tasks: object reconstruction and iris-recognition. The goal of these design studies is to optimize the imaging system to overcome the performance degradations introduced by under-sampled image measurements. Within the JO framework, we engineer the optical point spread function (PSF) of the imager, representing the optical degrees of freedom, in conjunction with the post-processing algorithm parameters to maximize the task performance. For the object reconstruction task, the optimized imaging system achieves a 50% improvement in resolution and nearly 20% lower reconstruction root-mean-square-error (RMSE) as compared to the un-optimized imaging system. For the iris-recognition task, the optimized imaging system achieves a 33% improvement in false rejection ratio (FRR) for a fixed alarm ratio (FAR) relative to the conventional imaging system. The effect of the performance measures like resolution, RMSE, FRR, and FAR on the optimal design highlights the crucial role of task-specific design metrics in the JO framework. We introduce a fundamental measure of task-specific performance known as task-specific information (TSI), an information-theoretic measure that quantifies the information content of an image measurement relevant to a specific task. A variety of source-models are derived to illustrate

  12. Effect of Fuel Cell System Contaminants on the Pt Catalyst

    Wang, H.; Christ, J.; Macomber, C. S.; O' Neill, K.; Neyerlin, K. C.; O' Leary, K. A.; Reid, R.; Lakshmanan, B.; Das, M.; Ohashi, M.; Van Zee, J. W.; Dinh, H. N.


    The cost of the balance of plant (BOP) fuel cell system has increased in importance with recent decreases in fuel cell stack cost. In order to lower the cost of the BOP system, low cost but relatively clean components must be used. Selection of these materials requires an understanding of potential materials and the contaminants that evolve from them, which have been shown to affect the performance and durability of fuel cells. The present work evaluates the influence of leachable constituents from prospective materials and model compounds on the electrochemical performance of a platinum catalyst.


    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Fuel-Borne Catalyst with CleanAir System's Diesel Oxidation Catalyst manufactured by Clean Diesel Technologies, Inc. The technology is a fuel-borne catalyst used in ultra low sulfur d...

  14. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping; Smith, R. Davis


    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  15. Use of experimental design in development of a catalyst system

    NOx storage and reduction experiments have been performed with stationary operation of a heavy-duty diesel engine rig. An optimization of the NOx reduction performance has been done using experimental design. The adjustable parameters in this study were cycle time, injection time, injection rate and bypass time (period of reduced flow through catalysts). NOx was reduced by 50-60% (3.3-4.1g/kWh) with a fuel penalty below 5%. It was shown that experimental design was efficient for optimizing the NOx reduction and this systematic approach enabled important conclusions to be drawn about the system performance

  16. Budget-Optimal Task Allocation for Reliable Crowdsourcing Systems

    Karger, David R; Shah, Devavrat


    Crowdsourcing systems, in which numerous tasks are electronically distributed to numerous "information piece-workers", have emerged as an effective paradigm for human-powered solving of large scale problems in domains such as image classification, data entry, optical character recognition, recommendation, and proofreading. Because these low-paid workers can be unreliable, nearly all crowdsourcers must devise schemes to increase confidence in their answers, typically by assigning each task multiple times and combining the answers in some way such as majority voting. In this paper, we consider a general model of such crowdsourcing tasks and pose the problem of minimizing the total price (i.e., number of task assignments) that must be paid to achieve a target overall reliability. We give a new algorithm for deciding which tasks to assign to which workers and for inferring correct answers from the workers' answers. We show that our algorithm, inspired by belief propagation and low-rank matrix approximation, signi...

  17. Task Analysis as a Resource for Strengthening Health Systems.

    Hart, Leah J; Carr, Catherine; Fullerton, Judith T


    Task analysis is a descriptive study methodology that has wide application in the health professions. Task analysis is particularly useful in assessment and definition of the knowledge, skills, and behaviors that define the scope of practice of a health profession or occupation. Jhpiego, a US-based nongovernmental organization, has adapted traditional task analysis methods in several countries in assessment of workforce education and practice issues. Four case studies are presented to describe the utility and adaptability of the task analysis approach. Traditional task analysis field survey methods were used in assessment of the general and maternal-child health nursing workforce in Mozambique that led to curriculum redesign, reducing the number of education pathways from 4 to 2. The process of health system strengthening in Liberia, following a long history of civil war conflict, included a traditional task analysis study conducted among 119 registered nurses and 46 certified midwives who had graduated in the last 6 months to 2 years to determine gaps in education and preparation. An innovative approach for data collection that involves "playing cards" to document participant opinions (Task Master, Mining for Data) was developed by Jhpiego for application in other countries. Results of a task analysis involving 54 nurses and 100 nurse-midwives conducted in Lesotho were used to verify the newly drafted scope and standards of practice for nurses and to inform planning for a competency-based preservice curriculum for nursing. The Nursing and Midwifery Council developed a 100-question licensing examination for new graduates following a task analysis in Botswana. The task analysis process in each country resulted in recommendations that were action oriented and were implemented by the country governments. For maximal utility and ongoing impact, a task analysis study should be repeated on a periodic basis and more frequently in countries undergoing rapid change in

  18. Task management in the new ATLAS production system

    This document describes the design of the new Production System of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC [1]. The Production System is the top level workflow manager which translates physicists' needs for production level processing and analysis into actual workflows executed across over a hundred Grid sites used globally by ATLAS. As the production workload increased in volume and complexity in recent years (the ATLAS production tasks count is above one million, with each task containing hundreds or thousands of jobs) there is a need to upgrade the Production System to meet the challenging requirements of the next LHC run while minimizing the operating costs. In the new design, the main subsystems are the Database Engine for Tasks (DEFT) and the Job Execution and Definition Interface (JEDI). Based on users' requests, DEFT manages inter-dependent groups of tasks (Meta-Tasks) and generates corresponding data processing workflows. The JEDI component then dynamically translates the task definitions from DEFT into actual workload jobs executed in the PanDA Workload Management System [2]. We present the requirements, design parameters, basics of the object model and concrete solutions utilized in building the new Production System and its components.

  19. Novel catalysts and photoelectrochemical system for solar fuel production

    Zhang, Yan

    Solar fuel production from abundant raw chemicals such as CO2 and water is highly desired as a clean renewable energy solution for the future. Developing photoelectrochemical cells is viewed as a promising approach to realize this energy conversion and storage process. Efficient and robust oxygen evolution catalyst made from non-precious materials remains a major challenge for such a system. This thesis basically consists of three parts of work, including studies on enhancing the photocatalytic oxygen evolution activity of cobalt-based spinel nanoparticles by manganese3+ substitution, in situ formation of cobalt oxide nanocubanes as highly active catalyst for photocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction, and development of a photoanode-driven photoelectrochemical cell for CO2 reduction with water. The first part of this thesis work devotes efforts in the development and study on cobalt and other transition metal oxide based oxygen evolution catalyst. Photocatalytic oxygen evolution is a critical step for solar fuel production from abundant sources. It poses a significant challenge because it requires an efficient catalyst to bridge the one-electron photon capture process with the four-electron oxygen reaction. Among all the metal oxides, Co3O4 spinel exhibits a high activity as an oxygen evolution catalyst. The results of this work demonstrate that the photocatalytic oxygen evolution activity of Co3O4 spinel can be further enhanced by substituting Co with Mn in the spinel structure. Using a facile hydrothermal approach, Co3O4 spinel nanoparticles as well as Mn-substituted and Ni-substituted Co3O4 spinel nanoparticles with a typical particle size of 5-7 nm were successfully synthesized. The morphology and crystal structures of the as-synthesized nanoparticle catalysts have been carefully examined using various structural characterization techniques, including powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), gas adsorption, and x-ray absorption

  20. A mobile robot system executing a task under human assistance

    We have developed a new type of mobile robot system, in which robot executes a task under human assistance, aiming to improve reliability and rapidity of task performance. This robot system incorporates the human assistance for solving the unexpected problem arose during the task execution. The basic idea of the system is that in normal situation robot takes an autonomous action derected by the program, while in abnormal situation which means that some unexpected problem arose, human assists to help the robot action. As a system component, we have developed navigation command interpreter with intervention function to realize human assisted navigation conveniently. In this system, human assistance is also effectively utilized in the image information extraction for positioning error correction. We have demonstrated the feasibility of the system under the mock-up environment. (author)

  1. A framework for cognitive task analysis in systems design

    The present rapid development if advanced information technology and its use for support of operators of complex technical systems are changing the content of task analysis towards the analysis of mental activities in decision making. Automation removes the humans from routine tasks, and operators are left with disturbance control and critical diagnostic tasks, for which computers are suitable for support, if it is possible to match the computer strategies and interface formats dynamically to the requirements of the current task by means of an analysis of the cognitive task. Such a cognitive task analysis will not aim at a description of the information processes suited for particular control situations. It will rather aim at an analysis in order to identify the requirements to be considered along various dimensions of the decision tasks, in order to give the user - i.e. a decision maker - the freedom to adapt his performance to system requirements in a way which matches his process resources and subjective preferences. To serve this purpose, a number of analyses at various levels are needed to relate the control requirements of the system to the information processes and to the processing resources offered by computers and humans. The paper discusses the cognitive task analysis in terms of the following domains: The problem domain, which is a representation of the functional properties of the system giving a consistent framework for identification of the control requirements of the system; the decision sequences required for typical situations; the mental strategies and heuristics which are effective and acceptable for the different decision functions; and the cognitive control mechanisms used, depending upon the level of skill which can/will be applied. Finally, the end-users' criteria for choice of mental strategies in the actual situation are considered, and the need for development of criteria for judging the ultimate user acceptance of computer support is

  2. A Multiagent Recommender System with Task-Based Agent Specialization

    Lorenzi, Fabiana; Correa, Fabio Arreguy Camargo; Bazzan, Ana L. C.; Abel, Mara; Ricci, Francesco

    This paper describes a multiagent recommender system where agents maintain local knowledge bases and, when requested to support a travel planning task, they collaborate exchanging information stored in their local bases. A request for a travel recommendation is decomposed by the system into sub tasks, corresponding to travel services. Agents select tasks autonomously, and accomplish them with the help of the knowledge derived from previous solutions. In the proposed architecture, agents become experts in some task types, and this makes the recommendation generation more efficient. In this paper, we validate the model via simulations where agents collaborate to recommend a travel package to the user. The experiments show that specialization is useful hence providing a validation of the proposed model.

  3. Hybrid Heuristic-Based Artificial Immune System for Task Scheduling

    sanei, Masoomeh


    Task scheduling problem in heterogeneous systems is the process of allocating tasks of an application to heterogeneous processors interconnected by high-speed networks, so that minimizing the finishing time of application as much as possible. Tasks are processing units of application and have precedenceconstrained, communication and also, are presented by Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs). Evolutionary algorithms are well suited for solving task scheduling problem in heterogeneous environment. In this paper, we propose a hybrid heuristic-based Artificial Immune System (AIS) algorithm for solving the scheduling problem. In this regard, AIS with some heuristics and Single Neighbourhood Search (SNS) technique are hybridized. Clonning and immune-remove operators of AIS provide diversity, while heuristics and SNS provide convergence of algorithm into good solutions, that is balancing between exploration and exploitation. We have compared our method with some state-of-the art algorithms. The results of the experiments...

  4. On the degradation of fuel cell catalyst. From model systems to high surface area catalysts

    Arenz, M. [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry


    In the presented work, as an alternative accelerated degradation tests in the form of half-cell measurements combined with identical location transmission electron microscopy (IL-TEM){sup 10,} {sup 11} are presented. It is demonstrated that for different catalysts the degradation mechanism can be scrutinized in detail. Thus this approach enables the systematic investigation of fuel cell catalyst degradation in a reduced period of time. (orig.)

  5. Market-based task allocation in distributed satellite systems

    van der Horst, Johannes


    This thesis addresses the problem of task allocation in a distributed satellite system. These spacecraft specialise in different functions, and must collaborate to complete the mission objectives. The energy available for task execution and communication is, however, extremely limited, which poses a challenging design problem. I propose the use of a market-based, multi-agent approach to achieve the necessary macro-level behaviour. The development and verification of this allocation mechanism ...

  6. Uniform task level definitions for robotic system performance comparisons

    Price, Charles; Tesar, Delbert


    A series of ten task levels of increasing difficulty was compiled for use in comparative performance evaluations of available and future robotics technology. Each level has a breakdown of ten additional levels of difficulty to provide a layering of 100 levels. It is assumed that each level of task performance must be achieved by the system before it can be appropriately considered for the next level.

  7. An intercomparison of single-tasking and multi-tasking systems for clinical scientific computing

    Various characteristics of the multi-tasking system used for clinical scientific computers as implemented at UCH have been investigated. It was found, for example, that both individual (Central Processing Unit) usage of tasks, and the overall CPU usage when many users are simultaneously active, are relatively low. This indicates, firstly, that multi-tasking systems are likely to be cost-effective (since there is potential for sharing resources), and secondly, that disk access is probably more important in limiting the performances of such systems than is often realised. Both considering replacement cost and using a simple model of single-user/multi-user system, cost benefits of the order of 10-50% when at least four separate users exist seem to have been realised. This benefit is expressed as the cost saving that has been achieved in providing computer power in that manner, and ignores the question of whether that computer power is used effectively. Considerations of reliability and extendibility have given impetus to the use of multiple CPUs, that is, creating a network. Guidelines for a loosely-connected network using Dijkstra's concept of levels have been developed

  8. Using Multiple Unmanned Systems for a Site Security Task

    Matthew O. Anderson; Curtis W. Nielsen; Mark D. McKay; Derek C. Wadsworth; Ryan C. Hruska; John A. Koudelka


    Unmanned systems are often used to augment the ability of humans to perform challenging tasks. While the value of individual unmanned vehicles have been proven for a variety of tasks, it is less understood how multiple unmanned systems should be used together to accomplish larger missions such as site security. The purpose of this paper is to discuss efforts by researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to explore the utility and practicality of operating multiple unmanned systems for a site security mission. This paper reviews the technology developed for a multi-agent mission and summarizes the lessons-learned from a technology demonstration.

  9. Systems Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART)

    Schuh, Joseph; Mitchell, Brent; Locklear, Louis; Belson, Martin A.; Al-Shihabi, Mary Jo Y.; King, Nadean; Norena, Elkin; Hardin, Derek


    SMART is a uniform automated discrepancy analysis and repair-authoring platform that improves technical accuracy and timely delivery of repair procedures for a given discrepancy (see figure a). SMART will minimize data errors, create uniform repair processes, and enhance the existing knowledge base of engineering repair processes. This innovation is the first tool developed that links the hardware specification requirements with the actual repair methods, sequences, and required equipment. SMART is flexibly designed to be useable by multiple engineering groups requiring decision analysis, and by any work authorization and disposition platform (see figure b). The organizational logic creates the link between specification requirements of the hardware, and specific procedures required to repair discrepancies. The first segment in the SMART process uses a decision analysis tree to define all the permutations between component/ subcomponent/discrepancy/repair on the hardware. The second segment uses a repair matrix to define what the steps and sequences are for any repair defined in the decision tree. This segment also allows for the selection of specific steps from multivariable steps. SMART will also be able to interface with outside databases and to store information from them to be inserted into the repair-procedure document. Some of the steps will be identified as optional, and would only be used based on the location and the current configuration of the hardware. The output from this analysis would be sent to a work authoring system in the form of a predefined sequence of steps containing required actions, tools, parts, materials, certifications, and specific requirements controlling quality, functional requirements, and limitations.

  10. Tasking Framework: Parallelization of Computations in Onboard Control Systems

    Maibaum, Olaf; Lüdtke, Daniel; Gerndt, Andreas


    For the next generation of onboard computer in space application a high demand on processing power exists. Currently used onboard system didn't provide the necessary computing power. The in the paper describe tasking frame work is the core processing model for the OBC-NG (On Board Computer - Next Generation) operating system with an reactive computing model.

  11. Ruthenium on rutile catalyst, catalytic system, and method for aqueous phase hydrogenations

    Elliot, Douglas C.; Werpy, Todd A.; Wang, Yong; Frye, Jr., John G.


    An essentially nickel- and rhenium-free catalyst is described comprising ruthenium on a titania support where the titania is greater than 75% rutile. A catalytic system containing a nickel-free catalyst comprising ruthenium on a titania support where the titania is greater than 75% rutile, and a method using this catalyst in the hydrogenation of an organic compound in the aqueous phase is also described.

  12. Comparative Study of Static Task Scheduling Algorithms for Heterogeneous Systems

    Miss. Kalpana A. Manudhane


    Full Text Available On the distributed or parallel heterogeneous computing systems, an application is usually decomposed into several interdependent sets of co-operating subtasks and assigned to a set of available processors for execution. Task scheduling is in general NP-compete problem. Static task scheduling algorithms are categorized as Heuristic based and Guided random search based scheduling algorithms. Heuristic algorithms guaranteed to find near optimal solution in less than polynomial time. Heuristic based list scheduling algorithms are Heterogeneous Earliest Finish Time (HEFT and Critical-Path-On- -Processor (CPOP. Whereas, Guided random search based scheduling algorithms have shown robust performance on verity of schedulingproblems. Typical examples are Multiple Priority Queueing Genetic Algorithm (MPQGA, Tabu Search(TS, Ant Colony System (ACS. This paper gives comparative study of all these static task scheduling algorithms and compares them on the basis of average makespan, schedule length ratio (SLR and speedup and running time of algorithm.

  13. Alarm handling systems and techniques developed to match operator tasks

    This paper covers alarm handling methods and techniques explored at the Halden Project, and describes current status on the research activities on alarm systems. Alarm systems are often designed by application of a bottom-up strategy, generating alarms at component level. If no structuring of the alarms is applied, this may result in alarm avalanches in major plant disturbances, causing cognitive overload of the operator. An alarm structuring module should be designed using a top-down approach, analysing operator's tasks, plant states, events and disturbances. One of the operator's main tasks during plant disturbances is status identification, including determination of plant status and detection of plant anomalies. The main support of this is provided through the alarm systems, the process formats, the trends and possible diagnosis systems. The alarm system should both physically and conceptually be integrated with all these systems. 9 refs, 5 figs


    Panagiotis G. Smirniotis; Robert G. Jenkins


    The work performed during this project focused on the identification of materials capable of providing high activity and selectivity for the selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia. The material surface characteristics were correlated with the catalytic behavior of our catalysts to increase our understanding and to help improve the DeNO{sub x} efficiency. The catalysts employed in this study include mixed oxide composite powders (TiO{sub 2}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2}, and TiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) loaded with varying amounts of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, along with 5 different commercial sources of TiO{sub 2}. V{sub 2}O{sub 5} was added to the commercial sources of TiO{sub 2} to achieve monolayer coverage. Since the valence state of vanadium in the precursor solution during the impregnation step significantly impacted catalytic performance, catalysts were synthesized from both V{sup +4} and V{sup +5} solutions explain this phenomenon. Specifically, the synthesis of catalysts from V{sup 5+} precursor solutions yields lower-performance catalysts compared to the case of V{sup 4+} under identical conditions. Aging the vanadium precursor solution, which is associated with the reduction of V{sup 5+} to V{sup 4+} (VO{sub 2}{sup +} {yields} VO{sup 2+}), prior to impregnation results in catalysts with excellent catalytic behavior under identical activation and operating conditions. This work also added vanadia to TiO{sub 2}-based supports with low crystallinity. These supports, which have traditionally performed poorly, are now able to function as effective SCR catalysts. Increasing the acidity of the support by incorporating oxides such as WO{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} significantly improves the SCR activity and nitrogen selectivity. It was also found that the supports should be synthesized with the simultaneous precipitation of the corresponding precursors. The mixed oxide catalysts possess

  15. Dynamic Task Optimization in Remote Diabetes Monitoring Systems

    Suh, Myung-kyung; Woodbridge, Jonathan; Moin, Tannaz; Lan, Mars; Alshurafa, Nabil; Samy, Lauren; Mortazavi, Bobak; Ghasemzadeh, Hassan; Bui, Alex; Ahmadi, Sheila; Sarrafzadeh, Majid


    Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States, but careful symptom monitoring can prevent adverse events. A real-time patient monitoring and feedback system is one of the solutions to help patients with diabetes and their healthcare professionals monitor health-related measurements and provide dynamic feedback. However, data-driven methods to dynamically prioritize and generate tasks are not well investigated in the domain of remote health monitoring. This paper presents a wireless health project (WANDA) that leverages sensor technology and wireless communication to monitor the health status of patients with diabetes. The WANDA dynamic task management function applies data analytics in real-time to discretize continuous features, applying data clustering and association rule mining techniques to manage a sliding window size dynamically and to prioritize required user tasks. The developed algorithm minimizes the number of daily action items required by patients with diabetes using association rules that satisfy a minimum support, confidence and conditional probability thresholds. Each of these tasks maximizes information gain, thereby improving the overall level of patient adherence and satisfaction. Experimental results from applying EM-based clustering and Apriori algorithms show that the developed algorithm can predict further events with higher confidence levels and reduce the number of user tasks by up to 76.19 %.

  16. Non-Precious Bimetallic Catalysts for Selective Dehydrogenation of an Organic Chemical Hydride System

    Shaikh Ali, Anaam


    Methylcyclohexane (MCH)-Toluene (TOL) chemical hydride cycles as a hydrogen carrier system is successful with the selective dehydrogenation reaction of MCH to TOL, which has been achieved only using precious Pt-based catalysts. Herein, we report improved selectivity using non-precious metal nickel-based bimetallic catalysts, where the second metal occupies the unselective step sites.

  17. Dependence of frame catalysts composition of the rhodium-ruthenium system on conditions of aluminium leacing

    The alteration in the composition of frame rhodium-ruthenium catalytic electrodes is studied depending on temperature (0-40O deg C) and time (24h) of their leaching. It is shown that the greater part of residual aluminium in catalysts of rhodium-ruthenium system is in the form of bayerite. The chemical composition of frame rhodium-ruthenium catalysts is established

  18. Development of a Cognitive Robotic System for Simple Surgical Tasks

    Riccardo Muradore; Paolo Fiorini; Gokhan Akgun; Duygun Erol Barkana; Marcello Bonfe; Fabrizio Boriero; Andrea Caprara; Giacomo De Rossi; Riccardo Dodi; Ole Jakob Elle; Federica Ferraguti; Lorenza Gasperotti; Roger Gassert; Kim Mathiassen; Dilla Handini


    ARTICLE International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems Development of a Cognitive Robotic System for Simple Surgical Tasks Invited Feature Article Riccardo Muradore1*, Paolo Fiorini1, Gokhan Akgun2, Duygun Erol Barkana3, Marcello Bonfe4, Fabrizio Boriero1, Andrea Caprara11, Giacomo De Rossi1, Riccardo Dodi5, Ole Jakob Elle6, Federica Ferraguti7, Lorenza Gasperotti1, Roger Gassert8, Kim Mathiassen6, Dilla Handini9, Olivier Lambercy8, Lin Li10, Maarja Kruusmaa10, Aura...

  19. Development of micro-cogeneration system with porous catalyst microcombustor

    Takahashi, S.; Tanaka, M.; Ieda, N.; Ihara, T.


    A self-standing micro-cogeneration system was developed by coupling a microcombustor, thermoelectric (TE) modules, and an air supply device. The microcombustor has a porous monolithic Pt catalyst layer, and a combustion efficiency of 90% was achieved. A microblower is used to supply air to the combustor, and it is driven by electricity from the Bi-Te TE modules through a dc-dc converter. We investigated the optimal point where the output became maximal and the system was self-standing. At the optimal point, the input fuel enthalpy was 13.2 W, and 440 mW of electricity was generated from the TE modules. The microblower consumed 280 mW, and the net generated electricity was 160 mW. Therefore, the final thermal efficiency was 1.21%. The net thermal efficiency of the developed system was the same magnitude as that of TeeDee01 (COX Co. Ltd.), the world’s smallest model plane engine (0.163 cc), even though the magnitude of the output power was less than 1/20 in comparison.

  20. Using task analysis to understand the Data System Operations Team

    Holder, Barbara E.


    The Data Systems Operations Team (DSOT) currently monitors the Multimission Ground Data System (MGDS) at JPL. The MGDS currently supports five spacecraft and within the next five years, it will support ten spacecraft simultaneously. The ground processing element of the MGDS consists of a distributed UNIX-based system of over 40 nodes and 100 processes. The MGDS system provides operators with little or no information about the system's end-to-end processing status or end-to-end configuration. The lack of system visibility has become a critical issue in the daily operation of the MGDS. A task analysis was conducted to determine what kinds of tools were needed to provide DSOT with useful status information and to prioritize the tool development. The analysis provided the formality and structure needed to get the right information exchange between development and operations. How even a small task analysis can improve developer-operator communications is described, and the challenges associated with conducting a task analysis in a real-time mission operations environment are examined.

  1. Development of Micro Cogeneration System with a Porous Catalyst Microcombustor

    The self-standing micro cogeneration system by coupling a microcombustor, thermoelectric modules and an air supply device was developed. The microcombustor has a porous monolithic Pt catalyst layer and the combustion efficiency of 90% was attained. A micro-blower was used to supply air to the combustor, and it was driven by a part of the electricity from the Bi-Te TE modules through a DC-DC converter. We investigated the optimal point where the output became maximal and the system stood by itself. At the optimal point, the input fuel enthalpy was 13.2W and the electricity of 403mW was generated from the TE modules. The micro blower used 280mW and the net electricity was 123mW. Therefore the final thermal efficiency was 0.93%. The efficiency was the same magnitude of the world smallest model plane engine TeeDee01 (COX Co. Ltd.) although the thermal input was less than its 1/20

  2. Unique sensor fusion system for coordinate-measuring machine tasks

    Nashman, Marilyn; Yoshimi, Billibon; Hong, Tsai Hong; Rippey, William G.; Herman, Martin


    This paper describes a real-time hierarchical system that fuses data from vision and touch sensors to improve the performance of a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) used for dimensional inspection tasks. The system consists of sensory processing, world modeling, and task decomposition modules. It uses the strengths of each sensor -- the precision of the CMM scales and the analog touch probe and the global information provided by the low resolution camera -- to improve the speed and flexibility of the inspection task. In the experiment described, the vision module performs all computations in image coordinate space. The part's boundaries are extracted during an initialization process and then the probe's position is continuously updated as it scans and measures the part surface. The system fuses the estimated probe velocity and distance to the part boundary in image coordinates with the estimated velocity and probe position provided by the CMM controller. The fused information provides feedback to the monitor controller as it guides the touch probe to scan the part. We also discuss integrating information from the vision system and the probe to autonomously collect data for 2-D to 3-D calibration, and work to register computer aided design (CAD) models with images of parts in the workplace.

  3. Web text corpus extraction system for linguistic tasks

    Héctor Fabio Cadavid Rengifo


    Full Text Available Internet content, used as text corpus for natural language learning, offers important characteristics for such task, like its huge vo- lume, being permanently up-to-date with linguistic variants and having low time and resource costs regarding the traditional way that text is built for natural language machine learning tasks. This paper describes a system for the automatic extraction of large bodies of text from the Internet as a valuable tool for such learning tasks. A concurrent programming-based, hardware-use opti- misation strategy significantly improving extraction performance is also presented. The strategies incorporated into the system for maximising hardware resource exploitation, thereby reducing extraction time are presented, as are extendibility (supporting digi- tal-content formats and adaptability (regarding how the system cleanses content for obtaining pure natural language samples. The experimental results obtained after processing one of the biggest Spanish domains on the internet, are presented (i.e. Such results are used for presenting initial conclusions about the validity and applicability of corpus directly ex- tracted from Internet as morphological or syntactical learning input.

  4. Task-Based Optimization of Computed Tomography Imaging Systems

    Sanchez, Adrian A


    The goal of this thesis is to provide a framework for the use of task-based metrics of image quality to aid in the design, implementation, and evaluation of CT image reconstruction algorithms and CT systems in general. We support the view that task-based metrics of image quality can be useful in guiding the algorithm design and implementation process in order to yield images of objectively superior quality and higher utility for a given task. Further, we believe that metrics such as the Hotelling observer (HO) SNR can be used as summary scalar metrics of image quality for the evaluation of images produced by novel reconstruction algorithms. In this work, we aim to construct a concise and versatile formalism for image reconstruction algorithm design, implementation, and assessment. The bulk of the work focuses on linear analytical algorithms, specifically the ubiquitous filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithm. However, due to the demonstrated importance of optimization-based algorithms in a wide variety of CT...

  5. Exhaust system having a gold-platinum group metal catalyst

    Ragle, Christie Susan; Silver, Ronald G.; Zemskova, Svetlana Mikhailovna; Eckstein, Colleen J.


    A method of providing an exhaust treatment device is disclosed. The method includes applying a catalyst including gold and a platinum group metal to a particulate filter. The concentration of the gold and the platinum group metal is sufficient to enable oxidation of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide.

  6. Metal/ceria water-gas shift catalysts for automotive polymer electrolyte fuel cell system

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems are a leading candidate for replacing the internal combustion engine in light duty vehicles. One method of generating the hydrogen necessary for the PEFC is reforming a liquid fuel, such as methanol or gasoline, via partial oxidation, steam reforming, or autothermal reforming (a combination of partial oxidation and steam reforming). The H(sub 2)-rich reformate can contain as much as 10% carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide has been shown to poison the platinum-based anode catalyst at concentrations as low as 10 ppm,1 necessitating removal of CO to this level before passing the reformate to the fuel cell stack. The water-gas shift (WGS) reaction, CO+ H(sub 2)O(rightleftharpoons) CO(sub 2)+ H(sub 2), is used to convert the bulk of the reformate CO to CO(sub 2). Industrially, the WGS reaction is conducted over two catalysts, which operate in different temperature regimes. One catalyst is a FeCr mixed oxide, which operates at 350-450 C and is termed the high-temperature shift (HTS) catalyst. The second catalyst is a CuZn mixed oxide, which operates at 200-250 C and is termed the low-temperature shift (LTS) catalyst. Although these two catalysts are used industrially in the production of H(sub 2) for ammonia synthesis, they have major drawbacks that make them unsuitable for transportation applications. Both the LTS and the HTS catalysts must first be ''activated'' before being used. For example, the copper in the copper oxide/zinc oxide LTS catalyst must first be reduced to elemental copper in situ before it becomes active for the WGS reaction. This reduction reaction is exothermic and must be carried out under well- controlled conditions using a dilute hydrogen stream (1 vol% H(sub 2)) to prevent high catalyst temperatures, which can result in sintering (agglomeration) of the copper particles and loss of active surface area for the WGS reaction. Also, once the catalyst has been activated by reduction, it must be protected from

  7. Design of Embedded Metal Catalysts via Reverser Micro-Emulsion System: a Way to Suppress Catalyst Deactivation by Metal Sintering

    AlMana, Noor


    The development of highly selective and active, long-lasting, robust, low-cost and environmentally benign catalytic materials is the greatest challenge in the area of catalysis study. In this context, core-shell structures where the active sites are embedded inside the protecting shell have attracted a lot of researchers working in the field of catalysis owing to their enhanced physical and chemical properties suppress catalyst deactivation. Also, a new active site generated at the interface between the core and shell may increases the activity and efficiency of the catalyst in catalytic reactions especially for oxide shells that exhibit redox properties such as TiO2 and CeO2. Moreover, coating oxide layer over metal nanoparticles (NPs) can be designed to provide porosity (micropore/mesopore) that gives selectivity of the various reactants by the different gas diffusion rates. In this thesis, we will discuss the concept of catalyst stabilization against metal sintering by a core-shell system. In particular we will study the mechanistic of forming core-shell particles and the key parameters that can influence the properties and morphology of the Pt metal particle core and SiO2 shell (Pt@SiO2) using the reverse micro-emulsion method. The Pt@SiO2 core-shell catalysts were investigated for low-temperature CO oxidation reaction. The study was further extended to other catalytic applications by varying the composition of the core as well as the chemical nature of the shell material. The Pt NPs were embedded within another oxide matrix such as ZrO2 and TiO2 for CO oxidation reaction. These materials were studied in details to identify the factors governing the coating of the oxide around the metal NPs. Next, a more challenging system, namely, bimetallic Ni9Pt NPs embedded in TiO2 and ZrO2 matrix were investigated for dry reforming of methane reaction at high temperatures. The challenges of designing Ni9Pt@oxide core-shell structure with TiO2 and ZrO2 and their tolerance

  8. Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System

    Gary Blythe; Jennifer Paradis


    This document presents and discusses results from Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42778, 'Full-scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System,' which was conducted over the time-period July 24, 2006 through June 30, 2010. The objective of the project was to demonstrate at full scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in pulverized-coal-fired flue gas. Oxidized mercury is removed downstream in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and collected with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA), who also provided the host site, Great River Energy, Johnson Matthey, Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), NRG Energy, Ontario Power and Westar. URS Group was the prime contractor and also provided cofunding. The scope of this project included installing and testing a gold-based catalyst upstream of one full-scale wet FGD absorber module (about 200-MW scale) at LCRA's Fayette Power Project (FPP) Unit 3, which fires Powder River Basin coal. Installation of the catalyst involved modifying the ductwork upstream of one of three wet FGD absorbers on Unit 3, Absorber C. The FGD system uses limestone reagent, operates with forced sulfite oxidation, and normally runs with two FGD modules in service and one spare. The full-scale catalyst test was planned for 24 months to provide catalyst life data. Over the test period, data were collected on catalyst pressure drop, elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst module, and mercury capture by the downstream wet FGD absorber. The demonstration period began on May 6, 2008 with plans for the catalyst to remain in service until May 5, 2010. However, because of continual increases in pressure drop across the catalyst and concerns that further increases would adversely affect Unit 3 operations, LCRA decided to end the

  9. Task Scheduling in Multiprocessor System using Fork-Join Method (TSFJ)

    Ranjit Rajak; C.P. Katti


    The performance of the multiprocessor system depends on how the tasks are scheduled in multiprocessors. If we allocate tasks wisely then we can get good performance of the system. The primary goal of task scheduling in multiprocessor system is to minimize the total execution time, so that we can achieve maximum speed-up and efficiency. The application program is represented by directed acyclic graph (DAG) in scheduling problem. In this paper, we have proposed an algorithm for task scheduling ...


    Jun Huang; Feng-bo Li; Jin Zou; Guo-qing Yuan; Xiu-li Shi; Ding-sheng Yu


    Copolymerization of ethylene with carbon monoxide was performed with Cu catalyst systems. Novel catalyst systems based on Cu (Cu(CH3COO)2/ligand/acid) were firstly reported for the copolymerization of ethylene with carbon monoxide, in which the ligand was a bidentate phosphorus chelating ligand. The experimental results showed that this kind of Cu catalyst system exhibited high activity. When DPPP (1,3-bis(diphenylphosphine)propane) and CH3COOH were used catalyst system had the advantages of high stability and low cost.

  11. Progress Report of the Engineering Data Management System Task Force

    Faber, G; CERN. Geneva; Hervé, A; Hauviller, Claude; Klempt, W; Kuipers, J; Loos, R; Nicquevert, B; Onnela, A; Price, M; Rollinger, G; Witzeling, W; Hameri, A P; Mottier, M; Nikkola, J; Pettersson, Thomas Sven; Schinzel, Josi; Tarrant, M; Vuoskoski, J; Farthouat, Philippe; Palazzi, P; Rousseau, B; Ferran, M; Høimyr, Nils-Joar; De Jonghe, J; Strubin, Pierre M; Oliger, S


    An Engineering Data Management System (EDMS) is a collection of tools and rules, which enables, as a minimum, a body of vetted information to be built up in a safe place and be easily accessible to the users. The Task Force worked through 1995 - to elucidate CERN's needs for an EDMS in the construction and lifetime of LHC and its experiments - to discover the state of the art of EDMS and find a product on the market which fulfilled CERN's needs. A Call for Tenders was issued in December 1995 and the replies are being evaluated. The name CEDAR has been chosen for the activity of implementing an EDMS at CERN. (CERN EDMS for Detectors and AcceleratoRs). see

  12. Development of Pt/ASDBC catalyst for room temperature recombiner of atmosphere detritiation system

    A combined catalytic reactor and water absorber system has been applied in the field of nuclear fusion to control the tritium release into the environment as low as reasonably achievable. Efficient tritium oxidation performance at room temperature has been strongly required taking a severe accident in a facility into consideration. We have developed hydrophobic Pt catalysts applicable for tritium oxidation in the presence of saturated water vapor at room temperature. A new type of hydrophobic catalyst, Pt/ASDBC, has been prepared by dipositting platinum on alkyl-styrene diviyl-benzene copolymer (ASDBC). Tritium oxidation tests of the catalysts using 3 GBq/m3 of tritium were performed in the absence/presence of saturated water vapor at room temperature. The overall reaction rate constant for Pt/ASDBC catalyst in the ambient temperature range was considerably larger than that for the traditionally applied Pt/Al2O3 catalyst. Oxidation reaction on the catalyst surface is the rate-controlling step in the ambient temperature range. The overall reaction rate constant in the ambient temperature range was dependent on the space velocity and hydrogen concentration in carrier. Values of the overall reaction rate constant in the ambient temperature range were correlated to koverall = 1.60 x 105exp(-33.0 (kJ/mol)/Rg/T) (s-1) at the space velocity of 5556 h-1 under the dry condition.

  13. Unique Systems Analysis Task 7, Advanced Subsonic Technologies Evaluation Analysis

    Eisenberg, Joseph D. (Technical Monitor); Bettner, J. L.; Stratton, S.


    To retain a preeminent U.S. position in the aircraft industry, aircraft passenger mile costs must be reduced while at the same time, meeting anticipated more stringent environmental regulations. A significant portion of these improvements will come from the propulsion system. A technology evaluation and system analysis was accomplished under this task, including areas such as aerodynamics and materials and improved methods for obtaining low noise and emissions. Previous subsonic evaluation analyses have identified key technologies in selected components for propulsion systems for year 2015 and beyond. Based on the current economic and competitive environment, it is clear that studies with nearer turn focus that have a direct impact on the propulsion industry s next generation product are required. This study will emphasize the year 2005 entry into service time period. The objective of this study was to determine which technologies and materials offer the greatest opportunities for improving propulsion systems. The goals are twofold. The first goal is to determine an acceptable compromise between the thermodynamic operating conditions for A) best performance, and B) acceptable noise and chemical emissions. The second goal is the evaluation of performance, weight and cost of advanced materials and concepts on the direct operating cost of an advanced regional transport of comparable technology level.

  14. Micro-Task Processing in Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Systems

    Sebastian Wallner


    New reconfigurable computing architectures are introduced to overcome some of the limitations of conventional microprocessors and fine-grained reconfigurable devices (e.g., FPGAs). One of the new promising architectures are Configurable System-on-Chip (CSoC) solutions. They were designed to offer high computational performance for real-time signal processing and for a wide range of applications exhibiting high degrees of parallelism. The programming of such systems is an inherently challenging problem due to the lack of an programming model. This paper describes a novel heterogeneous system architecture for signal processing and data streaming applications. It offers high computational performance and a high degree of flexibility and adaptability by employing a micro Task Controller (mTC) unit in conjunction with programmable and configurable hardware. The hierarchically organized architecture provides a programming model, allows an efficient mapping of applications and is shown to be easy scalable to future VLSI technologies. Several mappings of commonly used digital signal processing algorithms for future telecommunication and multimedia systems and implementation results are given for a standard-cell ASIC design realization in 0.18 micron 6-layer UMC CMOS technology.

  15. Multisensor-based robotic systems for inspection and manipulation tasks

    The advanced technology division of the US Department of Energy is sponsoring research at four universities (Florida, Michigan, Tennessee, and Texas) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) directed toward the development of advanced robotic systems for use in nuclear environments. The primary motivation for using robotic technology in such hazardous environments is to reduce exposure and costs associated with performing tasks such as surveillance, maintenance, and repair. The main focus of research at the University of Tennessee has been to contribute to the development of autonomous inspection and manipulation systems, which utilize a wide array of sensory inputs in controlling the actions of a stationary robot. This involves several important research issues, including selection of sensor modalities, processing and analysis of data acquired by individual sensors, integration of sensory information, control of the robotic arm and end effectors, and efficient computational architectures for implementing various algorithms. Experimental research effort is directed toward design and evaluation of new methodologies using a laboratory-based robotic test bed. A unique feature of this test bed is a multisensor module that is useful in the characterization of the robots work space. In this paper, the authors describe the development of a robotic vision system for automatic spill detection, localization, and cleanup verification and the development of efficient techniques for analyzing range images using a parallel computer. The simulated spill cleanup scenario allows demonstration of the applicability of robotic systems to problems encountered in nuclear environments

  16. Development of high performance catalyst for off-gas treatment system in BWR

    A high performance catalyst for off-gas treatment system in boiling water reactor (BWR) has been developed. The hydrogen concentration in the outlets of off-gas recombiners increased at several BWR plants in Japan. These phenomena were caused by deactivation of catalysts for the recombiners, and we assumed two types of deactivation mechanisms. The first cause was an increase of the amount of boehmite in the catalyst support due to alternation of the manufacturing process. The other cause was catalysts being poisoned by cyclic siloxanes that were introduced from the silicone sealant used in the upstream of the off-gas recombiners. The catalysts were manufactured by Pt adhering on alumina support. The conventional catalyst (CAT-A) used the aqueous solution of the chloroplatinic acid for adhesion of Pt. A dechlorination process by autoclave was applied to prevent the equipment at the downstream of the recombiners from stress corrosion cracking, but this process caused the support material to transform into boehmite. The boehmite-rich catalysts were deactivated more easily by organic silicon than gamma alumina-rich catalysts. Therefore, the CAT-A was replaced at many Japanese BWR plants by the improved catalyst (CAT-B), and their support was transformed into more stable gamma alumina by heating at 500degC. However, the siloxanes keep being detected in the off-gas though the source of siloxane had been removed and there still remain possibilities to deactivate the catalysts. Therefore, we have been developing high performance catalyst (CAT-C) that has higher activity and durability against poisoning. We investigated the properties of CAT-C by performance tests and instrumental analyses. The dependency of thermal output of nuclear reactor, and durability against siloxane poisoning were investigated. We found that CAT-C showed higher performance and better properties than CAT-B did. Moreover, we have been developing a modeling method to evaluate the hydrogen recombination

  17. Development of a Cognitive Robotic System for Simple Surgical Tasks

    Riccardo Muradore


    Full Text Available The introduction of robotic surgery within the operating rooms has significantly improved the quality of many surgical procedures. Recently, the research on medical robotic systems focused on increasing the level of autonomy in order to give them the possibility to carry out simple surgical actions autonomously. This paper reports on the development of technologies for introducing automation within the surgical workflow. The results have been obtained during the ongoing FP7 European funded project Intelligent Surgical Robotics (I-SUR. The main goal of the project is to demonstrate that autonomous robotic surgical systems can carry out simple surgical tasks effectively and without major intervention by surgeons. To fulfil this goal, we have developed innovative solutions (both in terms of technologies and algorithms for the following aspects: fabrication of soft organ models starting from CT images, surgical planning and execution of movement of robot arms in contact with a deformable environment, designing a surgical interface minimizing the cognitive load of the surgeon supervising the actions, intra-operative sensing and reasoning to detect normal transitions and unexpected events. All these technologies have been integrated using a component-based software architecture to control a novel robot designed to perform the surgical actions under study. In this work we provide an overview of our system and report on preliminary results of the automatic execution of needle insertion for the cryoablation of kidney tumours.

  18. Synchronized Task Decomposition for Cooperative Multi-agent Systems

    Karimadini, M


    The key challenge in cooperative control for multi-agent systems could be how to design the local interaction rules and coordination principles among agents so as to achieve certain desired global behaviors. In this paper, we try to tackle this challenge from the angle of hierarchical control, and propose a divide-and-conquer approach. The basic idea is to decompose the requested global specification into subtasks for individual agents or small clusters of agents. It should be noted that the decomposition is not arbitrary. The global specification should be decomposed in such a way that the fulfilment of these subtasks by each individual agent will imply the satisfaction of the global specification as a team. Formally, a given global specification can be represented as an automaton A, while a multi-agent system can be captured as a set of parallel distributed systems. The first question needs to be answered is whether it is always possible to decompose a given task automaton A into a finite number of sub-auto...

  19. Design and Implementation of a Task Manager of Sensor Network Operating System

    Haicheng Li


    Full Text Available Based on the requirements of low-power, high reliability and scalability of wireless sensor network, this article designs and implements a real-time multi-task manager of wireless sensor network. The advantage is that it provides preemptive multi-task scheduling, so sensor nodes could perform cross execution of multiple time-sensitive complex tasks, thus avoiding the situation that any long-time demanding task would block the implementation of some time-sensitive tasks. In addition, this dissertation makes improvement of the bitmap method, which is frequently used in task switching and innovatively presents a positioning switching algorithm to save the storage space of the system, to determine the switching time of system task and to improve the response speed of the system, providing systematic assurance for those real-time tasks. Finally, the system is tested to prove its performance.

  20. A Leveled Dag Critical Task Firstschedule Algorithm in Distributed Computing Systems

    Amal EL-NATTAT


    Full Text Available In distributed computing environment, efficient task scheduling is essential to obtain high performance. A vital role of designing and development of task scheduling algorithms is to achieve better makes pan. Several task scheduling algorithms have been developed for homogeneous and heterogeneous distributed computing systems. In this paper, a new static task scheduling algorithm is proposed namely; Leveled DAG Critical Task First (LDCTF that optimizes the performance of Leveled DAG Prioritized Task (LDPT algorithm to efficiently schedule tasks on homogeneous distributed computing systems. LDPT was compared to B-level algorithm which is the most famous algorithm in homogeneous distributed systems and it provided better results. LDCTF is a list based scheduling algorithm which depends on sorting tasks into a list according to their priority then scheduling one by one on the suitable processor. LDCTF aims to improve the performance of the system by minimizing the schedule length than LDPT and B-level algorithms.

  1. Engineering Task Plan for Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System Operation

    MCCAIN, D.J.


    Tanks that are known or suspected to retain and occasionally release flammable gases are equipped with Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System (SHMS) cabinets. These cabinets contain Whittaker{trademark} electrochemical cells and may also have a gas chromatograph (GC) and/or a Bruel and Kjaer infrared photo-acoustic multi-gas monitor (B&K). The GC and B&K will be referred to collectively as ''analytical instruments'' in this document. Using these instruments, a tank can be monitored for hydrogen, helium, ammonia, methane, and nitrous oxide. Air from the tank vent header (for actively ventilated tanks) or dome space (for passively ventilated tanks) is drawn continuously through the monitoring instruments via a sample pump. This monitoring is performed to track the gas release behavior of selected waste storage tanks and to help identify any potentially serious gas release behavior. Vapor grab samples may be obtained from the SHMS as well and analyzed with a mass spectrometer to obtain concentration data about hydrogen and other gases. This document describes the requirements for the operation, maintenance, calibration, and data collection for the Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System. Additionally, this document defines who is responsible for the various tasks.

  2. System and method for seamless task-directed autonomy for robots

    Nielsen, Curtis; Bruemmer, David; Few, Douglas; Walton, Miles


    Systems, methods, and user interfaces are used for controlling a robot. An environment map and a robot designator are presented to a user. The user may place, move, and modify task designators on the environment map. The task designators indicate a position in the environment map and indicate a task for the robot to achieve. A control intermediary links task designators with robot instructions issued to the robot. The control intermediary analyzes a relative position between the task designators and the robot. The control intermediary uses the analysis to determine a task-oriented autonomy level for the robot and communicates target achievement information to the robot. The target achievement information may include instructions for directly guiding the robot if the task-oriented autonomy level indicates low robot initiative and may include instructions for directing the robot to determine a robot plan for achieving the task if the task-oriented autonomy level indicates high robot initiative.

  3. Synthesis of Ultra—high Molecular Weight Polystyrene with a Catalyst System Based on Calixarene—Yttrium Complex

    陈耀烽; 张一烽; 沈之荃


    Polymerization of styrene(St)with a new catalyst system composed of calixarene-yitrium complex,magnesium-aluminium alkyls and hexamethyl phosphoramide was studied.The catalyst system shows extremely high activity(>7×106gPSt/mol Y·h)and gives polystyrene with very high viscosity-average molecular weight(>5×105).

  4. A Synthetic Heuristic Algorithm for Independent Task Scheduling in Cloud Systems

    Arash Ghorbannia Delavar


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a synthetic method based on genetic algorithm, for independent task scheduling in cloud computing systems. Task scheduling is a major issue in large-scale distributed systems that impresses on system performance. For some reasons such as heterogeneous and dynamic features in cloud environment, task scheduling has appeared as a NP-complete problem. Our proposed algorithm (SHIS, by some goal oriented operations such as, making an optimize initial population, dual step evaluation, and also, running the tasks by a special ordering considering resource load balancing and quality of service, achieves the optimize makespan. It also decreases the probability of task failure rate on running, based on the resource failure frequency rate, and also decreases the task starvation problem. It supports the scheduling for new entered tasks in system by a dynamic method. The experimental results show that the proposed method solution is better than the other studied algorithms.

  5. A support system for water system isolation task in NPP by using augmented reality and RFID

    Aiming at improvement of task performance and reduction of human error of water system isolation task in NPP periodic maintenance, a support system using state-of-art information technology, Augmented Reality (AR) and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has been proposed, and a prototype system has been developed. The system has navigation function of which an indication is superimposed directly on the user's view to help to find the designated valves by AR. It also has valve confirmation function by scanning RFID tag attached on the valve. In case of applying it to practical use, its information presentation device is important because it affects the task performance. In this study, therefore, a suitable information presentation device has been pursued by conducting subject experiments employing psychological experimental technique. The candidates of the devices are one-eye video see-through HMD (SCOPO) and both-eye video see-through HMD (Glasstron) as wearable system configuration, and tablet PC and compact TV as handheld system configuration. In the experiment, task completion time, number of errors, NASA-TLX score as subjects' mental workload and subjective usability questionnaire were measured when using the above devices. As the results, it was found that one-eye video see-through head mounted display, SCOPO was suitable device as wearable system configuration, and compact TV was suitable device as handheld system configuration. (author)

  6. Communicate only when necessary: Cooperative tasking for multi-agent systems

    Karimadini, Mohammad


    New advances in large scale distributed systems have amazingly offered complex functionalities through parallelism of simple and rudimentary components. The key issue in cooperative control of multi-agent systems is the synthesis of local control and interaction rules among the agents such that the entire controlled system achieves a desired global behavior. For this purpose, three fundamental problems have to be addressed: (1) task decomposition for top-down design, such that the fulfillment of local tasks guarantees the satisfaction of the global task, by the team; (2) fault-tolerant top-down design, such that the global task remains decomposable and achievable, in spite of some failures, and (3) design of interactions among agents to make an undecomposable task decomposable and achievable in a top-down framework. The first two problems have been addressed in our previous works, by identifying necessary and sufficient conditions for task automaton decomposition, and fault-tolerant task decomposability. This...

  7. Multi-level computational chemistry study on hydrogen recombination catalyst of off-gas treatment system

    In order to reveal the deactivation mechanism of the hydrogen recombination catalyst of off-gas treatment system, we investigate by using multi-level computational chemistry simulation methods. The recombiner apparatus is modeled by the numerical mesh system in the axial coordinates, and unsteady, advection and reaction rate equations are solved by using a finite difference method. The chemical reactions are formulated to represent adsorption-desorption of hydrogen and oxygen on Pt catalyst, and time developments of the coverage factors of Pt are solved numerically. The computational simulations successfully reproduce the very similar behaviors observed by experiments, such as increasing of the inversion rates of H2 to H2O, the temperatures distributions along the flow direction, dependencies of experimental condition, and so on. Thus Pt poisoning is considered to cause the deactivation of the hydrogen recombination catalyst. To clarify the poisoning mechanism, the molecular level simulation is applied to the system of Pt on boehmite attacked by a cyclic siloxane which has been detected by experiments and considered as one of poisoning spices. The simulation shows ring-opening reaction of the cyclic siloxane on Pt, then attachment of two ends of the chain-like siloxane to Pt and boehmite, respectively, and that finally the recombination reaction is prevented. This may be the first study to find out the detailed dynamical mechanism of hydrogen recombination catalyst poisoning with cyclic siloxane. (author)

  8. An Integrated Information System for Supporting Quality Management Tasks

    Beyer, N.; Helmreich, W.


    In a competitive environment, well defined processes become the strategic advantage of a company. Hence, targeted Quality Management ensures efficiency, trans- parency and, ultimately, customer satisfaction. In the particular context of a Space Test Centre, a num- ber of specific Quality Management standards have to be applied. According to the revision of ISO 9001 dur- ing 2000, and due to the adaptation of ECSS-Q20-07, process orientation and data analysis are key tasks for ensuring and evaluating the efficiency of a company's processes. In line with these requirements, an integrated management system for accessing the necessary infor- mation to support Quality Management and other proc- esses has been established. Some of its test-related fea- tures are presented here. Easy access to the integrated management system from any work place at IABG's Space Test Centre is ensured by means of an intranet portal. It comprises a full set of quality-related process descriptions, information on test facilities, emergency procedures, and other relevant in- formation. The portal's web interface provides direct access to a couple of external applications. Moreover, easy updating of all information and low cost mainte- nance are features of this integrated information system. The timely and transparent management of non- conformances is covered by a dedicated NCR database which incorporates full documentation capability, elec- tronic signature and e-mail notification of concerned staff. A search interface allows for queries across all documented non-conformances. Furthermore, print ver- sions can be generated at any stage in the process, e.g. for distribution to customers. Feedback on customer satisfaction is sought through a web-based questionnaire. The process is initiated by the responsible test manager through submission of an e- mail that contains a hyperlink to a secure website, ask- ing the customer to complete the brief online form, which is directly fed to a database

  9. Engineering Task Plan for a vapor treatment system on Tank 241-C-103

    This Engineering Task Plan describes tasks and responsibilities for the design, fabrication, test, and installation of a vapor treatment system (mixing system) on Tank 241-C-103. The mixing system is to be installed downstream of the breather filter and will use a mixing blower to reduce the chemical concentrations to below allowable levels

  10. Task analysis for the single-shell Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System

    Draper, J.V.


    This document describes a task analysis for the Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System. A task analysis is a formal method of examining work that must be done by the operators of human-machine systems. The starting point for a task analysis is the mission that a human-machine system must perform, and the ending point is a list of requirements for human actions and the displays and controls that must be provided to support them. The task analysis approach started with a top-down definition of the steps in a tank retrieval campaign. It started by dividing a waste retrieval campaign for one single-shell tank into the largest logical components (mission phases), then subdivided these into secondary components (sub functions), and then further subdivided the secondary components into tertiary units (tasks). Finally, the tertiary units were divided into potentially observable operator behaviors (task elements). In the next stage of the task analysis, the task elements were evaluated by completing an electronic task analysis form patterned after one developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for task analysis of nuclear power plant control rooms. In the final stage, the task analysis data base was used in a bottom-up approach to develop clusters of controls and displays called panel groups and to prioritize these groups for each subfunction. Panel groups are clusters of functionally related controls and displays. Actual control panels will be designed from panel groups, and panel groups will be organized within workstations to promote efficient operations during retrieval campaigns.

  11. Method of preparing and utilizing a catalyst system for an oxidation process on a gaseous hydrocarbon stream

    Berry, David A; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Smith, Mark; Haynes, Daniel


    The disclosure relates to a method of utilizing a catalyst system for an oxidation process on a gaseous hydrocarbon stream with a mitigation of carbon accumulation. The system is comprised of a catalytically active phase deposited onto an oxygen conducting phase, with or without supplemental support. The catalytically active phase has a specified crystal structure where at least one catalytically active metal is a cation within the crystal structure and coordinated with oxygen atoms within the crystal structure. The catalyst system employs an optimum coverage ratio for a given set of oxidation conditions, based on a specified hydrocarbon conversion and a carbon deposition limit. Specific embodiments of the catalyst system are disclosed.

  12. Shared Task System Description: Frustratingly Hard Compositionality Prediction

    Johannsen, Anders Trærup; Martinez Alonso, Hector; Rishøj, Christian;


    We considered a wide range of features for the DiSCo 2011 shared task about compositionality prediction for word pairs, including COALS-based endocentricity scores, compositionality scores based on distributional clusters, statistics about wordnet-induced paraphrases, hyphenation, and the likelih...

  13. ITER task T299 (1996) : fuel cleanup system demonstration tests

    The objective of this task is to demonstrate processes for efficient cleanup and detritiation of the plasma exhaust. In this subtask, the objectives were to provide further design data on the HITEX process, and to build and demonstrate 2-stage high-detritiation HITEX performance. (author). 9 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs

  14. Analysis and Modeling of Control Tasks in Dynamic Systems

    Ursem, Rasmus Kjær; Krink, Thiemo; Jensen, Mikkel Thomas;


    -case generators (TCGs), which requires a systematic analysis of dynamic optimization tasks. So far, only a few TCGs have been suggested. Our investigation leads to the conclusion that these TCGs are not capable of generating realistic dynamic benchmark tests. The result of our research is the design of a new TCG...

  15. Study on oxidation of hydrogen over commercial catalyst for tritium recovery system

    For the establishment of the D-T fusion reactor technology, recovery of tritium released into the working area of fusion power plants is quite important. When tritium leaks to working areas, the last barrier is the wall of the building. Due to higher diffusion coefficient of tritium, it diffuses through the wall and would be readily liberated to the environment. Thus, the tritium recovery system is indispensable for the D-T fusion reactor. The objective of the present study is to develop the advanced technology of the tritium recovery system. In the near future, deuterium plasma discharge experiments scheduled be conducted with Large Helical Device (LHD) in National Institute for Fusion Science. A small amount of tritium is produced by D-D reaction in LHD. Tritium in plasma exhaust gases and process gas during discharge needs to be recovered, and thus the design and construction of the tritium recovery system used for that purpose is a matter of considerable urgency. The tritium recovery system usually consists of catalysts and adsorbents, which is the most conventional and reliable method for removing tritium that is accidentally released into the working area of these facilities. However, more recent and advanced type of catalysts on the market cannot be directly applied to the design of tritium recovery system, because of paucity of design data for tritium recovery system. In this study, the authors performed oxidation experiments of hydrogen over a catalyst. The experiments were performed by changing various experimental parameters.

  16. The effect of processing code, response modality and task difficulty on dual task performance and subjective workload in a manual system

    Liu, Yili; Wickens, Christopher D.


    This paper reports on the first experiment of a series studying the effect of task structure and difficulty demand on time-sharing performance and workload in both automated and corresponding manual systems. The experimental task involves manual control time-shared with spatial and verbal decisions tasks of two levels of difficulty and two modes of response (voice or manual). The results provide strong evidence that tasks and processes competing for common processing resources are time shared less effecively and have higher workload than tasks competing for separate resources. Subjective measures and the structure of multiple resources are used in conjunction to predict dual task performance. The evidence comes from both single-task and from dual-task performance.

  17. The Logic Description of the System of Embedded Hardware Logic Task

    FENG Dan; ZHU Yong; ZHANG Jiangling


    A new task mode, hardware logic task mode, is presented. Its architecture, schedule and implementation are described with HDL( Hardware Description Language ), and the validity of the system has been proved by logic simulation. It has advantage for real-time applications and overheadsaving for operating system, so it is profitable for the controller in the embedded system. The relationship among RTOS (Real-Time Operating System), SoC(System on Chip), VIA (Virtual Interface Architecture) and hardware logic task is also discussed in the paper.

  18. Figures of merit for optimizing imaging systems on joint estimation/detection tasks

    Clarkson, Eric


    Previously published work on joint estimation/detection tasks has focused on the area under the Estimation Receiver Operating Characteristic (EROC) curve as a figure of merit for these tasks in imaging. A brief discussion of this concept and the corresponding ideal observer is included here, but the main focus is on three new approaches for system optimization on these joint tasks. One of these approaches is a generalization of Shannon Task Specific Information (TSI) to this setting. The form of this TSI is used to show that a system optimized for the joint task will not in general be optimized for the detection task alone. Another figure of merit for these joint tasks is the Bayesian Risk, where a cost is assigned to all detection outcomes and to the estimation errors, and then averaged over all sources of randomness in the object ensemble and the imaging system. The ideal observer in this setting, which minimizes the risk, is shown to be the same as the ideal EROC observer, which maximizes the area under the EROC curve. It is also shown that scaling the estimation cost function upwards, i.e making the estimation task more important, degrades the performance of this ideal observer on the detection component of the joint task. Finally we generalize these concepts to the idea of Estimation/Detection Information Tradeoff (EDIT) curves which can be used to quantify the tradeof between estimation performance and detection performance in system design.

  19. La-Ce-Ni-O monolithic perovskite catalysts potential for gasoline autothermal reforming system

    Qi, Aidu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000, Station Forces, Kingston, Ont. (Canada); Wang, Shudong; Fu, Guizhi; Ni, Changjun; Wu, Diyong [Department of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Dalian 116023 (China)


    Hydrogen generation from gasoline is essentially one of the critical technologies for the commercialization of small-scale fuel cells auxiliary/backup power systems, so catalysts suitable for autothermal reforming (ATR) of gasoline are desperately needed. La{sub 0.8}Ce{sub 0.2}NiO{sub 3} with a crystal structure of perovskite was developed both in pellet and on cordierite substrate by citrate method. Autothermal reforming of gasoline or its surrogates, n-octane with or without thiophene additive, was carried out on either bulk perovskite pellet or monolithic perovskite catalyst. During the 220-h long-term test, the pellet catalyst exhibited high thermal stability and activity with hydrogen yield approaching to the theoretical maximum value and only minor amount of CH{sub 4} slipping through. It possessed fairly good sulfur tolerance, almost immune to 5ppmw sulfur although could still be seriously poisoned when subjected to high concentration of sulfur or gasoline. The monolithic perovskite catalysts were developed by screening slurries, binders as well as substrates with or without pre-washcoating CeZrO{sub 2}. The monolithic La{sub 0.8}Ce{sub 0.2}NiO{sub 3} formed in situ on the raw cordierite monolith could be an effective catalyst for ATR of gasoline, exhibiting superior performance to the catalyst of 0.3wt.%Rh/CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}/cordierite at a temperature range 650-800{sup o}C. On whatever the pellet or monolithic catalysts, the active sites were presumably the in situ reduced Ni{sup 0} which were well dispersed and stabilized by the perovskite crystal structure. The good performances of La{sub 0.8}Ce{sub 0.2}NiO{sub 3}, better thermal stability and immunity to carbon foul and sulfur poison than LaNiO{sub 3} could be ascribed to the increased oxygen mobility with the presence of sesquioxide of cerium.

  20. Safety and Mission Assurance (SMA) Automated Task Order Management System (ATOMS) Operation Manual

    Wallace, Shawn; Fikes, Lou A.


    This document describes operational aspects of the ATOMS system. The information provided is limited to the functionality provided by ATOMS and does not include information provided in the contractor's proprietary financial and task management system.

  1. Task Scheduling in Multiprocessor System using Fork-Join Method (TSFJ

    Ranjit Rajak


    Full Text Available The performance of the multiprocessor system depends on how the tasks are scheduled in multiprocessors. If we allocate tasks wisely then we can get good performance of the system. The primary goal of task scheduling in multiprocessor system is to minimize the total execution time, so that we can achieve maximum speed-up and efficiency. The application program is represented by directed acyclic graph (DAG in scheduling problem. In this paper, we have proposed an algorithm for task scheduling in multiprocessor system based on fork- join method. Tasks are allocated to the processors follows fork-join structure. The performance of the TSFJ algorithm is measured based on scheduling length, speedup and efficiency. Further, we have shown the comparative study between TSFJ algorithm and heuristic algorithms.

  2. Dehydration of xylose to furfural over niobium phosphate catalyst in biphasic solvent system

    Boonrat; Pholjaroen; Ning; Li; Zhiqiang; Wang; Aiqin; Wang; Tao; Zhang


    Phosphoric acid treated niobic acid(NbP)was used for the dehydration of xylose to furfural in biphasic solvent system,which was found to exhibit the best performance among the tested catalysts.The excellent performance of NbP could be explained by the better synergistic cooperation between Bro¨nsted and Lewis acid sites.Moreover,NbP showed good stability and no obvious deactivation or leaching of Nb could be observed after six continuous recycles.

  3. An Adaptive Regulator for Space Teleoperation System in Task Space

    Chao Ge


    Full Text Available The problem of the gravity information which can not be obtained in advance for bilateral teleoperation is studied. In outer space exploration, the gravity term changes with the position changing of the slave manipulator. So it is necessary to design an adaptive regulator controller to compensate for the unknown gravity signal. Moreover, to get a more accurate position tracking performance, the controller is designed in the task space instead of the joint space. Additionally, the time delay considered in this paper is not only time varying but also unsymmetrical. Finally, simulations are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  4. Logistic Task of Fuel Supply for the Regional Distributed Heat Supply System

    Ivan RUSYAK


    Full Text Available The technique for solving the logistic task of fuel supply in the region, including the interconnected tasks of routing, clustering, optimal distribution of resources and stock control is proposed. The complex algorithm for solving the routing task contains Astar method, Yen method, as well as the genetic algorithm adapted for the task being solved. To identify the location of facilities for fuel preparation the two-stage algorithm of cluster analysis applying the hierarchical cluster analysis and method of k-averages has been worked out. The effective algorithm for solving the task of optimal resource distribution on district and regional has been proposed. To solve the task of optimal stock control the hybrid algorithm consisting of genetic algorithm and Hooke-Jeeves method has been applied. The calculations have been carried out on the example of fuel supply system of the Udmurt Republic.

  5. Space station data system analysis/architecture study. Task 3: Trade studies, DR-5, volume 2


    Results of a Space Station Data System Analysis/Architecture Study for the Goddard Space Flight Center are presented. This study, which emphasized a system engineering design for a complete, end-to-end data system, was divided into six tasks: (1); Functional requirements definition; (2) Options development; (3) Trade studies; (4) System definitions; (5) Program plan; and (6) Study maintenance. The Task inter-relationship and documentation flow are described. Information in volume 2 is devoted to Task 3: trade Studies. Trade Studies have been carried out in the following areas: (1) software development test and integration capability; (2) fault tolerant computing; (3) space qualified computers; (4) distributed data base management system; (5) system integration test and verification; (6) crew workstations; (7) mass storage; (8) command and resource management; and (9) space communications. Results are presented for each task.

  6. System Identification for Experimental Study for Polymerization Catalyst Reaction in Fluidized Bed

    Ahmmed Saadi Ibrehem


    Full Text Available In this work, system identification method is used to capture the reactor characteristics of production rate of polyethylene (PE based on published experimental data. The identification method is used to measure the percentage effect on the production rate of PE by measuring the effect of input factors of temperature of reaction, hydrogen concentration, and [Al]/[Ti] molar catalyst ratio. Temperature of reaction has big effects equal 52.4 % on the output of the system and 47.6 % on interaction of the system's parameters compare to other two factors. Also, hydrogen concentration has big effect equal 45.66 % on the output of the system and 14.7 % on interaction of the system's parameters. [Al]/[Ti] molar catalyst ratio has big effect on interaction of the system equal 28.6 and 1.94 % on the output of the system but less than the reaction temperature and hydrogen concentration. All these results depend on experiment results and these results are very important in industrial plants. ©2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 13rd May 2011; Revised: 27th July 2011; Accepted: 22th September 2011[How to Cite: Ahmmed S. Ibrehem. (2011. System Identification for Experimental Study for Polymerization Catalyst Reaction in Fluidized Bed. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6 (2: 137-146. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.2.874.137-146][How to Link / DOI: http://dx, || or local: ] | View in 

  7. Task Analysis in Action: The Role of Information Systems in Communicable Disease Reporting

    Pina, Jamie; Turner, Anne; Kwan-Gett, Tao; Duchin, Jeff


    In order to improve the design of information systems for notifiable conditions reporting, it is essential to understand the role of such systems in public health practice. Using qualitative techniques, we performed a task analysis of the activities associated with notifiable conditions reporting at a large urban health department. We identified seventeen primary tasks associated with the use of the department’s information system. The results of this investigation suggest that communicable d...

  8. Energy Efficiency of Task Allocation for Embedded JPEG Systems

    Yang-Hsin Fan; Jan-Ou Wu; San-Fu Wang


    Embedded system works everywhere for repeatedly performing a few particular functionalities. Well-known products include consumer electronics, smart home applications, and telematics device, and so forth. Recently, developing methodology of embedded systems is applied to conduct the design of cloud embedded system resulting in the applications of embedded system being more diverse. However, the more energy consumes result from the more embedded system works. This study presents hyperrectangle...

  9. Critical Task Re-assignment under Hybrid Scheduling Approach in Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems

    Nair, Gopalakrishnan T R


    Embedded hard real time systems require substantial amount of emergency processing power for the management of large scale systems like a nuclear power plant under the threat of an earth quake or a future transport systems under a peril. In order to meet a fully coordinated supervisory control of multiple domains of a large scale system, it requires the scenario of engaging multiprocessor real time design. There are various types of scheduling schemes existing for meeting the critical task assignment in multiple processor environments and it requires the tracking of faulty conditions of the subsystem to avoid system underperformance from failure patterns. Hybrid scheduling usually engages a combined scheduling philosophy comprising of a static scheduling of a set of tasks and a highly pre-emptive scheduling for another set of tasks in different situations of process control. There are instances where highly critical tasks need to be introduced at a least expected catastrophe and it cannot be ensured to meet a...

  10. Development of a ruthenium/phosphite catalyst system for domino hydroformylation-reduction of olefins with carbon dioxide.

    Liu, Qiang; Wu, Lipeng; Fleischer, Ivana; Selent, Detlef; Franke, Robert; Jackstell, Ralf; Beller, Matthias


    An efficient domino ruthenium-catalyzed reverse water-gas-shift (RWGS)-hydroformylation-reduction reaction of olefins to alcohols is reported. Key to success is the use of specific bulky phosphite ligands and triruthenium dodecacarbonyl as the catalyst. Compared to the known ruthenium/chloride system, the new catalyst allows for a more efficient hydrohydroxymethylation of terminal and internal olefins with carbon dioxide at lower temperature. Unwanted hydrogenation of the substrate is prevented. Preliminary mechanism investigations uncovered the homogeneous nature of the active catalyst and the influence of the ligand and additive in individual steps of the reaction sequence. PMID:24811949

  11. System and method for controlling an engine based on ammonia storage in multiple selective catalytic reduction catalysts

    Sun, MIn; Perry, Kevin L.


    A system according to the principles of the present disclosure includes a storage estimation module and an air/fuel ratio control module. The storage estimation module estimates a first amount of ammonia stored in a first selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst and estimates a second amount of ammonia stored in a second SCR catalyst. The air/fuel ratio control module controls an air/fuel ratio of an engine based on the first amount, the second amount, and a temperature of a substrate disposed in the second SCR catalyst.

  12. Minimizing Inter-Task Interferences in Scratch-Pad Memory Usage for Reducing the Energy Consumption of Multi-Task Systems

    Gauthier, Lovic; Ishihara, Tohru; Takase, Hideki; Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Takada, Hiroaki


    This paper presents a new technique for reducing the energy consumption of a multi-task system by sharing its scratchpad memory (SPM) space among the tasks. With this technique, tasks can interfere by using common areas of the SPM. However, this requires to update these areas during context switches, which involves considerable overheads. Hence, an integer linear programming formulation is used at compile time for finding the best assignment of memory objects to the SPM and their respective l...

  13. Development and Simulation of a Task Assignment Model for Multirobot Systems



    Full Text Available Multirobot systems (MRS hold the promise of improved performance and increased fault tolerance for large-scale problems. A robot team can accomplish a given task more quickly than a single agent by executing them concurrently. A team can also make effective use of specialists designed for a single purpose rather than requiring that a single robot be a generalist. Multirobot coordination, however, is a complex problem. An empirical study is described in the present paper that sought general guidelines for task allocation strategies. Different task allocation strategies are identified, and demonstrated in the multi-robot environment. A simulation study of the methodology is carried out in a simulated grid world. The results show that there is no single strategy that produces best performance in all cases, and that the best task allocation strategy changes as a function of the noise in the system. This result is significant, and shows the need for further investigation of task allocation strategies.

  14. A Verification Method of Inter-Task Cooperation in Embedded Real-time Systems and its Evaluation

    Yoshida, Toshio

    In software development process of embedded real-time systems, the design of the task cooperation process is very important. The cooperating process of such tasks is specified by task cooperation patterns. Adoption of unsuitable task cooperation patterns has fatal influence on system performance, quality, and extendibility. In order to prevent repetitive work caused by the shortage of task cooperation performance, it is necessary to verify task cooperation patterns in an early software development stage. However, it is very difficult to verify task cooperation patterns in an early software developing stage where task program codes are not completed yet. Therefore, we propose a verification method using task skeleton program codes and a real-time kernel that has a function of recording all events during software execution such as system calls issued by task program codes, external interrupts, and timer interrupt. In order to evaluate the proposed verification method, we applied it to the software development process of a mechatronics control system.

  15. Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems

    Gary Blythe; Conor Braman; Katherine Dombrowski; Tom Machalek


    This document is the final technical report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, 'Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,' which was conducted over the time-period January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2010. The objective of this project has been to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid catalysts and/or fixed-structure mercury sorbents to promote the removal of total mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Energy (now called Luminant), Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP) and Duke Energy. URS Group was the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses fixed-structure sorbents and/or catalysts to promote the removal of total mercury and/or oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury not adsorbed is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project has tested candidate materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. Pilot-scale catalytic oxidation tests have been completed for periods of approximately 14 to19 months at three sites, with an additional round of pilot-scale fixed-structure sorbent tests being conducted at one of those sites. Additionally, pilot-scale wet FGD tests have been conducted downstream of mercury oxidation catalysts at a total of four sites. The sites include the two of three sites from this project and two sites where catalytic oxidation pilot testing was conducted as part of a previous DOE-NETL project. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests were also conducted at a fifth site, but with no catalyst or fixed

  16. Design criteria document, Fire Protection Task, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, Project W-405

    The K Basin were constructed in the early 1950's with a 20 year design life. The K Basins are currently in their third design life and are serving as a near term storage facility for irradiated N Reactor fuel until an interim fuel storage solution can be implemented. In April 1994, Project W-405, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, was established to address (among other things) the immediate fire protection needs of the 100K Area. A Fire Barrier Evaluation was performed for the wall between the active and inactive areas of the 105KE and 105KW buildings. This evaluation concludes that the wall is capable of being upgraded to provide an equivalent level of fire resistance as a qualified barrier having a fire resistance rating of 2 hours. The Fire Protection Task is one of four separate Tasks included within the scope of Project W405, K Basin Essential systems Recovery. The other three Tasks are the Water Distribution System Task, the Electrical System Task, and the Maintenance Shop/Support Facility Task. The purpose of Project W-405's Fire Protection Task is to correct Life Safety Code (NFPA 101) non-compliances and to provide fire protection features in Buildings 105KE, 105KW and 190KE that are essential for assuring the safe operation and storage of spent nuclear fuel at the 100K Area Facilities' Irradiated Fuel Storage Basins (K Basins)

  17. Task 11 - systems analysis of environmental management technologies

    Musich, M.A.


    A review was conducted of three systems analysis (SA) studies performed by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) on integrated thermal treatment systems (ITTs) and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTSs) for the remediation of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team led by the Energy & Environment Research Center (EERC), including Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Waste Policy Institute (WPI), and Virginia Tech.

  18. Task 11 - systems analysis of environmental management technologies. Topical report

    A review was conducted of three systems analysis (SA) studies performed by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) on integrated thermal treatment systems (ITTs) and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTSs) for the remediation of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team led by the Energy ampersand Environment Research Center (EERC), including Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Waste Policy Institute (WPI), and Virginia Tech

  19. Energy efficiency of task allocation for embedded JPEG systems.

    Fan, Yang-Hsin; Wu, Jan-Ou; Wang, San-Fu


    Embedded system works everywhere for repeatedly performing a few particular functionalities. Well-known products include consumer electronics, smart home applications, and telematics device, and so forth. Recently, developing methodology of embedded systems is applied to conduct the design of cloud embedded system resulting in the applications of embedded system being more diverse. However, the more energy consumes result from the more embedded system works. This study presents hyperrectangle technology (HT) to embedded system for obtaining energy saving. The HT adopts drift effect to construct embedded systems with more hardware circuits than software components or vice versa. It can fast construct embedded system with a set of hardware circuits and software components. Moreover, it has a great benefit to fast explore energy consumption for various embedded systems. The effects are presented by assessing a JPEG benchmarks. Experimental results demonstrate that the HT, respectively, achieves the energy saving by 29.84%, 2.07%, and 68.80% on average to GA, GHO, and Lin. PMID:24982983

  20. Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a palladium and rhodium or ruthenium catalyst

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A.; Knapke, Michael J.


    A process for the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in a gas stream (29) in the presence of H.sub.2 is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream with a catalyst system (38) comprising zirconia-silica washcoat particles (41), a pre-sulfated zirconia binder (44), and a catalyst combination (40) comprising palladium and at least one of rhodium, ruthenium, or a mixture of ruthenium and rhodium.

  1. Solar dynamic heat rejection technology. Task 1: System concept development

    Gustafson, Eric; Carlson, Albert W.


    The results are presented of a concept development study of heat rejection systems for Space Station solar dynamic power systems. The heat rejection concepts are based on recent developments in high thermal transport capacity heat pipe radiators. The thermal performance and weights of each of the heat rejection subsystems is addressed in detail, and critical technologies which require development tests and evaluation for successful demonstration are assessed and identified. Baseline and several alternate heat rejection system configurations and optimum designs are developed for both Brayton and Rankine cycles. The thermal performance, mass properties, assembly requirements, reliability, maintenance requirements and life cycle cost are determined for each configuration. A specific design was then selected for each configuration which represents an optimum design for that configuration. The final recommendations of heat rejection system configuration for either the Brayton or Rankine cycles depend on the priorities established for the evaluation criteria.




    The authors consider the problems of constructing systems of accounting, management and analysis of a company. One of the most cost-effective ways to build such systems is the integration of legacy, acquired and developed components on a middleware base, which can be characterized as a technological platform for integration. Consideration is given to the formalization of principles for creation of such platform software. These principles are formed similarly to the principles of forming a mic...

  3. Report on task I: fire protection system study

    This study (1) evaluates, on a comparative basis, the national and international regulatory and insurance standards that serve as guidance for fire protection within the nuclear power industry; (2) analyzes the recommendations contained in the major reports on the Browns Ferry Fire; (3) proposes quantitative safety goals and evaluation methods for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection Systems (NPPFPS); (4) identifies potential improvements that may be incorporated into NPPFPS; and (5) recommends a plan of action for continuation of the fire protections systems study

  4. Task Scheduling in Energy Harvesting Real-time Embedded Systems

    Chetto, Maryline


    Harvesting energy from the environment is very desirable for many emerging applications that use embedded devices. Energy harvesting also known as energy scavenging enables us to guarantee quasi-perpetual system operation for wireless sensors, medical implants, etc. without requiring human intervention which is normally necessary for recharging batteries in classical battery-operated systems. Nevertheless, energy harvesting calls for solving numerous technological problems in relation with ch...

  5. Catalyst development and systems analysis of methanol partial oxidation for the fuel processor - fuel cell integration

    Newson, E.; Mizsey, P.; Hottinger, P.; Truong, T.B.; Roth, F. von; Schucan, Th.H. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    Methanol partial oxidation (pox) to produce hydrogen for mobile fuel cell applications has proved initially more successful than hydrocarbon pox. Recent results of catalyst screening and kinetic studies with methanol show that hydrogen production rates have reached 7000 litres/hour/(litre reactor volume) for the dry pox route and 12,000 litres/hour/(litre reactor volume) for wet pox. These rates are equivalent to 21 and 35 kW{sub th}/(litre reactor volume) respectively. The reaction engineering problems remain to be solved for dry pox due to the significant exotherm of the reaction (hot spots of 100-200{sup o}C), but wet pox is essentially isothermal in operation. Analyses of the integrated fuel processor - fuel cell systems show that two routes are available to satisfy the sensitivity of the fuel cell catalysts to carbon monoxide, i.e. a preferential oxidation reactor or a membrane separator. Targets for individual system components are evaluated for the base and best case systems for both routes to reach the combined 40% efficiency required for the integrated fuel processor - fuel cell system. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  6. Final task report on Fort St. Vrain temperature scanner system

    A Fort St. Vrain temperature scanner system was designed. Its primary use is to display in graphic format the thermal distribution of the helium, the feedwater, and the steam temperatures on the 12 steam generators during rise-to-power testing at the Fort St. Vrain High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor. The graphic information allows an operator to immediately access hot spots, thermal imbalance, and any thermal information that indicates impending trouble. The system, including the software written for it, is described. (auth)

  7. Nanolithographic Fabrication and Heterogeneous Reaction Studies ofTwo-Dimensional Platinum Model Catalyst Systems

    Contreras, A.M.


    In order to better understand the fundamental components that govern catalytic activity, two-dimensional model platinum nanocatalyst arrays have been designed and fabricated. These catalysts arrays are meant to model the interplay of the metal and support important to industrial heterogeneous catalytic reactions. Photolithography and sub-lithographic techniques such as electron beam lithography, size reduction lithography and nanoimprint lithography have been employed to create these platinum nanoarrays. Both in-situ and ex-situ surface science techniques and catalytic reaction measurements were used to correlate the structural parameters of the system to catalytic activity.

  8. Manganese(II)/Picolinic Acid Catalyst System for Epoxidation of Olefins.

    Moretti, Ross A; Du Bois, J; Stack, T Daniel P


    An in situ generated catalyst system based on Mn(CF3SO3)2, picolinic acid, and peracetic acid converts an extensive scope of olefins to their epoxides at 0 °C in <5 min, with remarkable oxidant efficiency and no evidence of radical behavior. Competition experiments indicate an electrophilic active oxidant, proposed to be a high-valent Mn = O species. Ligand exploration suggests a general ligand sphere motif contributes to effective oxidation. The method is underscored by its simplicity and use of inexpensive reagents to quickly access high value-added products. PMID:27191036

  9. Multiple-task real-time PDP-15 operating system for data acquisition and analysis

    The RAMOS operating system is capable of handling up to 72 simultaneous tasks in an interrupt-driven environment. The minimum viable hardware configuration includes a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-15 computer with 16384 words of memory, extended arithmetic element, automatic priority interrupt, a 256K-word RS09 DECdisk, two DECtape transports, and an alphanumeric keyboard/typer. The monitor executes major tasks by loading disk-resident modules to memory for execution; modules are written in a format that allows page-relocation by the monitor, and can be loaded into any available page. All requests for monitor service by tasks, including input/output, floating point arithmetic, request for additional memory, task initiation, etc., are implemented by privileged monitor calls (CAL). All IO device handlers are capable of queuing requests for service, allowing several tasks ''simultaneous'' use of all resources. All alphanumeric IO (including the PC05) is completely buffered and handled by a single multiplexing routine. The floating point arithmetic software is re-entrant to all operating modules and includes matrix arithmetic functions. One of the system tasks can be a ''batch'' job, controlled by simulating an alphanumeric command terminal through cooperative functions of the disk handler and alphanumeric device software. An alphanumeric control sequence may be executed, automatically accessing disk-resident tasks in any prescribed order; a library of control sequences is maintained on bulk storage for access by the monitor. (auth)

  10. Design of heterogeneous catalysts

    Frey, Anne Mette

    was inspired by a computational screening, suggesting that alloys such as Ni-Fe, Co-Ni, and Co-Fe should show superior activity to the industrially used nickel catalyst. Especially the Ni-Fe system was considered to be interesting, since such alloy catalysts should be both more active and cheaper than...... turned out to work well, and the best catalyst prepared had a C5+ yield almost a factor of two higher than a standard air calcined Co catalyst. In the NH3-SCR reaction it is desirable to develop an active and stable catalyst for NOx removal in automotive applications, since the traditionally used...

  11. Evaluation of modular robot system for maintenance tasks in hot cell

    Highlights: •Modular robot deployment inside hot cell for remote manipulation evaluated. •Flexible and adaptable system for variety of tasks presented. •Uses in large workspaces and evolving requirements shown. -- Abstract: This work assesses the use of a modular robot system to perform maintenance and inspection tasks such as, remote flexible inspection, manipulation and cooperation with deployed systems inside the hot cell. A flexible modular solution for the inclusion in maintenance operations is presented. The proposed heterogeneous modular robotic system is evaluated using simulations of the prototype across selected robot configuration to perform tasks. Results obtained show the advantages and ability of the modular robot to perform the necessary tasks as well as its ability to adapt and evolve depending on the need. The simulation test case inside hot cell shows modular robot configuration, a two modular arm to perform tele-operation tasks in the workspace and a wheeled platform for inspection collaborating to perform tasks. The advantage of using re-configurable modular robot over conventional robot platforms is shown

  12. Evaluation of modular robot system for maintenance tasks in hot cell

    Pagala, Prithvi Sekhar, E-mail: [Centre for Automation and Robotics UPM-CSIC (Spain); Ferre, Manuel, E-mail: [Centre for Automation and Robotics UPM-CSIC (Spain); Orona, Luis, E-mail: [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (Germany)


    Highlights: •Modular robot deployment inside hot cell for remote manipulation evaluated. •Flexible and adaptable system for variety of tasks presented. •Uses in large workspaces and evolving requirements shown. -- Abstract: This work assesses the use of a modular robot system to perform maintenance and inspection tasks such as, remote flexible inspection, manipulation and cooperation with deployed systems inside the hot cell. A flexible modular solution for the inclusion in maintenance operations is presented. The proposed heterogeneous modular robotic system is evaluated using simulations of the prototype across selected robot configuration to perform tasks. Results obtained show the advantages and ability of the modular robot to perform the necessary tasks as well as its ability to adapt and evolve depending on the need. The simulation test case inside hot cell shows modular robot configuration, a two modular arm to perform tele-operation tasks in the workspace and a wheeled platform for inspection collaborating to perform tasks. The advantage of using re-configurable modular robot over conventional robot platforms is shown.

  13. Sense of Control in Supervision Tasks of Automated Systems.

    Berberian, B.; Le Blaye, P.; Maille, N.; Sarrazin, J. C.


    We live in an increasingly technological world. Automated systems certainly can make life easier, but they can also create complexity and uncertainty. Moreover, it is clear that automation does not merely supplant human activity, but also transforms the nature of human work. This review examines an original account of this transformation – a link between automation technology and the sense that our actions cause effects on the outside world (so-called ‘agency’). Accordingly, we first discuss ...

  14. Development of a Cognitive Robotic System for Simple Surgical Tasks

    Yantaç, Asım Evren; Muradore, Riccardo; Fiorini, Paolo; Fiorini, Paolo; Barkana, Duygun Erol; Bonfe, Marcello; Borierol, Fabrizio; Caprara, Andrea; De Rossi, Giacomo; Dodi, Riccardo; Elle, Ole Jakob; Ferraguti, Federica; Gasperottil, Lorenza; Gassert, Roger; Mathiassen, Kim; Handini, Dilla; Lambercy, Olivier; Lil, Lin; Kruusmaal, Maarja; Manurung, Auralius Oberman; Meruzzi, Giovanni; Ho Quoc Phuong Nguyen; Freda, Nicola; Riolfo, Gianluca; Ristolainen, Asko; Sanna, Alberto; Secchi, Cristian; Torsello, Marco


    The introduction of robotic surgery within the operating rooms has significantly improved the quality of many surgical procedures. Recently, the research on medical robotic systems focused on increasing the level of autonomy in order to give them the possibility to carry out simple surgical actions autonomously. This paper reports on the development of technologies for introducing automation within the surgical workflow. The results have been obtained during the ongoing FP7 European funded pr...

  15. [The Chilean Health Care System: the task ahead].

    Goic, Alejandro


    The most important event in Chilean public health in the XXth Century was the creation of the National Health Service (NHS), in 1952. Systematic public policies for the promotion of health, disease prevention, medical care, and rehabilitation were implemented, while a number of more specific programs were introduced, such as those on infant malnutrition, complementary infant feeding, medical control of pregnant women and healthy infants, infant and adult vaccination, and essential sanitation services. In 1981, a parallel private health care system was introduced in the form of medical care financial institutions, which today cover 15% of the population, as contrasted with the public system, which covers about 80%. From 1952 to 2014, public health care policies made possible a remarkable improvement in Chile's health indexes: downward trends in infant mortality rate (from 117.8 to 7.2 x 1,000 live births), maternal mortality (from 276 to 18.5 x 100,000), undernourished children schooling, and years of primary school education, were significantly improved as well. Nevertheless, compared with OECD countries, Chile has a relatively low public investment in health (45.7% of total national investment), a deficit in the number of physicians (1.7 x 1,000 inhabitants) and nurses (4.8 x 1,000), in the number of hospital beds (2.1 x 1,000), and in the availability of generic drugs in the market (30%). Chile and the USA are the two OECD countries with the lowest public investment in health. A generalized dissatisfaction with the current Chilean health care model and the need of the vast majority of the population for timely access to acceptable quality medical care are powerful arguments which point to the need for a universal public health care system. The significant increase in public expenditure on health care which such a system would demand requires a sustainable growth of the Chilean economy. PMID:26230561

  16. Structured catalysts for methane auto-thermal reforming in a compact thermal integrated reaction system

    In this work a compact catalytic reactor was analysed for the ATR of CH4 as natural gas surrogate. Structured catalysts (commercial honeycomb and foam monoliths) performances in CH4 processing were studied. In reactor design, great attention has been paid to the thermal integration, in order to obtain a total self-sustainability of the process avoiding additional external heat sources, and improving the plant compactness. Through a heat exchange system integrated in the reactor, water and air streams are preheated by exploiting the heat from exhaust stream, allowing to feed reactants at room temperature as well as cooling products stream at a temperature suitable for further purification stages (Water Gas Shift, Preferential Oxidation). In order to have a very comprehensive process analysis, temperatures and composition were monitored in 6 point along the catalytic bed. The influence of catalytic system geometry and thermal conductivity in the process performances were also analysed. Preliminary tests showed high thermal system efficiency, with a good hydrocarbon conversion at different operating conditions for both catalyst typologies

  17. Using a network management system (NMS) as an integrated environment for the capacity planning task

    Freitas Filho, Paulo José de; Rivalino, Matias Júnior; Specialski, Elizabeth Sueli


    The recent years had disclose many issues related to network management. Most of them concerning about technical questions. This work discusses the possibilities of using a Network Management System (NMS) as an integrated environment for capacity planning. We give an overview of NMS and its relevance to the capacity planning tasks. We also take a look at the current NMS and their suitability for the capacity planning task.

  18. Task Partitioning and Load Balancing Strategy for Matrix Applications on Distributed System

    Adeela Bashir; Madani, Sajjad A.; Jawad Haider Kazmi; Kalim Qureshi


    In this paper, we present a load-balancing strategy (Adaptive Load Balancing strategy) for data parallel applications to balance the work load effectively on a distributed system. We study its impact on computation-hungry matrix multiplication application. The ALB strategy enhances the performance with features such as intelligent node selection, pre-task assignment, adaptive task sizing and buffer allocation, and load balancing. The ALB strategy exhibits reduced nodes idle time and inter pro...

  19. Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems. Technical report, Task 3

    Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. H.


    This report identifies those potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective, and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight programs recommended for pursuit are: gas-fired combined-cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cycle pump station; internal coatings in pipelines; and drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines.

  20. Effect of mixed Catalysts system on TEOS-based silica aerogels dried at ambient pressure

    In the present paper, the experimental results on the effect of mixed Catalysts system on the physical properties of the TEOS-based silica aerogels, are reported and discussed. The aerogels were produced by the single-step as well as two-step sol-gel process followed by atmospheric pressure drying. In the single-step process, only the NH4F was used as a catalyst, whereas in the two-step process, NH4F as well as a mixed catalysts, i.e., NH4F and NH4OH, were used after 12 h of acid (oxalic acid) addition. Effect of various exchanging solvents, viz., xylene, toluene, heptane or hexane and silylating agents, viz., MTMS, TMES, TMCS, HMDSO or HMDZ on the physical properties of the as prepared aerogels were studied. The volume of the NH4OH, the molar ratios of MeOH/TEOS and HMDZ/TEOS were varied from 0.2 to 1 ml, and 5.5 to 27.5, 0.34 to 0.9, respectively, by keeping the volume of NH4F and the concentrations of NH4F and NH4OH constant at 0.5 ml, 0.1 and 1 M, respectively. Remarkable results were obtained by using mixed catalyst system, hexane as exchanging solvent and surface chemical modification with 5% HMDZ in hexane. The aerogels were characterized by bulk density, optical transmission, thermal stability and contact angle measurements. The surface chemical modification was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The microstructural studies of the aerogels were done by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), which revealed highly ramified self-similar polymeric structure in large length scale. The thermal stability of the aerogels were tested using TG-DT analyses. It was found that low bulk density (0.065 g/cm3), superhydrophobic (153 deg.), high thermal stability (380 deg. C) and high optical transmission (95%) of the as produced aerogels obtained at the molar ratio of TEOS:MeOH:oxalic acid:NH4F:NH4OH:HMDZ for 1:16.5:0.81:0.62:0.63:0.41, respectively

  1. Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a zinc or titanium promoted palladium-zirconium catalyst

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A.; Knapke, Michael J.


    A process and system (18) for reducing NO.sub.x in a gas using hydrogen as a reducing agent is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream (29) with a catalyst system (38) comprising sulfated zirconia washcoat particles (41), palladium, a pre-sulfated zirconia binder (44), and a promoter (45) comprising at least one of titanium, zinc, or a mixture thereof. The presence of zinc or titanium increases the resistance of the catalyst system to a sulfur and water-containing gas stream.

  2. Novel electroless process for copper coating of flyash using titania/ultraviolet-radiation/metal catalyst-system

    A novel electroless process has been demonstrated in this investigation to coat the surface of flyash particles with a conducting metal such as copper. The conventional electroless process has been modified for this purpose by replacing the tin-palladium catalyst-system with the titania/ultraviolet-radiation/metal catalyst-system, where the metal is either copper or silver as demonstrated here. The mechanism of copper coating of flyash particles in an electroless bath, using the novel methods of surface-sensitization and surface-activation, has been systematically studied by monitoring changes in the surface-morphology, surface-chemistry, and surface-structure of flyash particles using the scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope, and X-ray diffraction. It has been revealed that the novel electroless method involves coating the flyash particles with titania photocatalyst via sol-gel, which acts as a surface-sensitizer under the ultraviolet-radiation exposure for the subsequent surface-activation with the copper- or silver-clusters. The latter in turn acts as surface-catalyst for the subsequent Cu-coating in an electroless bath. The proposed mechanism of surface-sensitization and surface-activation of flyash particles using the novel catalyst-system has been compared with that using the conventional catalyst-system.

  3. Novel electroless process for copper coating of flyash using titania/ultraviolet-radiation/metal catalyst-system

    Shijitha, T.; Baiju, K. V.; Shukla, S.; Patil, K.; Warrier, K. G. K.


    A novel electroless process has been demonstrated in this investigation to coat the surface of flyash particles with a conducting metal such as copper. The conventional electroless process has been modified for this purpose by replacing the tin-palladium catalyst-system with the titania/ultraviolet-radiation/metal catalyst-system, where the metal is either copper or silver as demonstrated here. The mechanism of copper coating of flyash particles in an electroless bath, using the novel methods of surface-sensitization and surface-activation, has been systematically studied by monitoring changes in the surface-morphology, surface-chemistry, and surface-structure of flyash particles using the scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope, and X-ray diffraction. It has been revealed that the novel electroless method involves coating the flyash particles with titania photocatalyst via sol-gel, which acts as a surface-sensitizer under the ultraviolet-radiation exposure for the subsequent surface-activation with the copper- or silver-clusters. The latter in turn acts as surface-catalyst for the subsequent Cu-coating in an electroless bath. The proposed mechanism of surface-sensitization and surface-activation of flyash particles using the novel catalyst-system has been compared with that using the conventional catalyst-system.

  4. Engineering task plan for Tanks 241-AN-103, 104, 105 color video camera systems

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the design, fabrication, assembly, and installation of the video camera systems into the vapor space within tanks 241-AN-103, 104, and 105. The one camera remotely operated color video systems will be used to observe and record the activities within the vapor space. Activities may include but are not limited to core sampling, auger activities, crust layer examination, monitoring of equipment installation/removal, and any other activities. The objective of this task is to provide a single camera system in each of the tanks for the Flammable Gas Tank Safety Program

  5. Hybrid and dependent task scheduling algorithm for on-board system software

    魏振华; 洪炳熔; 乔永强; 蔡则苏; 彭俊杰


    In order to solve the hybrid and dependent task scheduling and critical source allocation problems, atask scheduling algorithm has been developed by first presenting the tasks, and then describing the hybrid anddependent scheduling algorithm and deriving the predictable schedulability condition. The performance of thisagorithm was evaluated through simulation, and it is concluded from the evaluation results that the hybrid taskscheduling subalgorithm based on the comparison factor can be used to solve the problem of aperiodic task beingblocked by periodic task in the traditional operating system for a very long time, which results in poor schedu-ling predictability; and the resource allocation subalgorithm based on schedulability analysis can be used tosolve the problems of critical section conflict, ceiling blocking and priority inversion; and the scheduling algo-rithm is nearest optimal when the abortable critical section is 0.6.

  6. Co(acac)3/BMMImCl as a base-free catalyst system for clean syntheses of N,N’-disubstituted ureas from amines and CO2


    A base-free catalyst system Co(acac)3/BMMImCl was developed for the carbonylation of amines with CO2.45%-81% isolated yields for N,N’-dialkylureas and 6%-23% isolated yields for N,N-diarylureas were obtained.The catalyst system was recovered and reused without significant loss in activity.In this catalyst system,the base catalyst and chemical dehydrant were efficiently avoided.Different reaction conditions were also discussed and a postulated mechanism was proposed.

  7. Dual-Task Performance as a Measure of Mental Effort in Searching a Library System and the Web

    Kim, Yong-mi; Rieh, Soo Young


    This paper examines a dual-task method for the assessment of mental effort during online searching, having the users engage in two tasks simultaneously. Searching was assigned as a primary task and a visual observation was set up as a secondary task. The study participants were asked to perform two searches, one on the Web and the other in a webbased library system. Perceived search difficulty and mental effort for searching on the two types of systems were compared through participa...


    A. V. Krasnyuk


    Full Text Available Three-dimensional design possibilities of the AutoCAD system for performing graphic tasks are presented in the article. On the basis of the studies conducted the features of application of computer-aided design system are noted and the methods allowing to decrease considerably the quantity of errors at making the drawings are offered.

  9. The Developmental Directions and Tasks of the School Based Curriculum Management System in Korea

    Kim, Soon Nam


    The purpose of this paper is to inquire into the developmental directions and tasks of the School Based Curriculum Management (SBCM) system. The concept of the School Based Curriculum Management can be considered as a subsystem to School Based Management. The logics behind the SBCM system are autonomy, accountability, effectiveness, creativity,…

  10. A Study Of BNP Parallel Task Scheduling Algorithms Metric's For Distributed Database System

    Manik Sharma


    Full Text Available To solve number of complex scientific problems one must require elevated computation rate comparable to supercomputer. The modernization in latest technologies, communication and information lead to the development of distributed systems and parallel systems as an alternate to Super Computer for solving complex mathematical problems. Parallel processing is a method of executing the multiple tasks alongside on different processors. With the help of parallel processing one is able to solve the complex problems that require huge amount of processing time. In parallel processing or in distributed system task scheduling is one of the major problems. Distributed database system is defined as collection of computer that are connected with one another with the help of some network media over which data and tasks are scheduled for faster execution. The objective of this study is to analyze the various metrics of static (HLFET and dynamic (DLS BNP parallel scheduling algorithm in allocating the tasks of distributed database over number of processors. In the whole study the focus will be given on measuring the impact of number of processors on different metrics of performance like makespan, speed up and processor utilization by using HLFET and DLS, BNP task scheduling algorithms.

  11. Underwater-manipulation system for measuring- and cutting tasks in dismantling decommissioned nuclear facilities. Final report

    1. Status of technology: Besides fixed manipulators, additional flexible underwater-vehicles are needed for dismantling and inspection tasks during the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Free-diving underwater-vehicles for inspection and dismantling tasks are not yet developed and tested. 2. Objectives: Target of the project is the development of a cable-controlled small sized underwater-vehicle which is suitable for sensorguided inspection, survey and cutting tasks. 3. Method: Development of a modular constructed vehicle as a testing system for bouyancy tanks, mechanics, motors, tools, sensors and controlling components. Construction of a prototype vehicle based on the results. Testing and optimization of the handling-system. 4. Result: A flexible autonomous underwater-vehicle was developed, which performs sufficiantly inspection and cutting tasks, guided by sensors and integrated videocameras. The high flexibility of the handling-system guarantees precise operation at horizontal and vertical structures as well as in overhead position. The gripping device is able to pick up smaller parts with a visual process control using the integrated videocameras. 5. Applications: Using the free-diving underwater-handling-system inspection and cutting tasks can be done effectively not only in nuclear facilities but also inside tanks, locks and port installations. Easy adaptability allows specific missions without larger expense. (orig.)

  12. Behavioural adaptation and effectiveness of a Forward Collision Warning System depending on a secondary cognitive task

    BUENO, Mercedes; Fabrigoule, Colette; Ndiaye, Daniel; Fort, Alexandra


    Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) have been designed to enhance road safety by reducing the number of rear-end collisions. Nevertheless, little is known about how drivers adapt their behaviour over time when using this kind of system. In addition, these systems are expected to aid particularly distracted drivers. However, previous research has suggested that the effectiveness of the system could depend on the difficulty level of the secondary task. The objective of this study on dri...

  13. Exploration of Cocatalyst Effects on a Bimetallic Cobalt Catalyst System: Enhanced Activity and Enantioselectivity in Epoxide Polymerization

    Widger, Peter C. B.


    Organic ionic compounds were synthesized and investigated as cocatalysts with a bimetallic cobalt complex for enantioselective epoxide polymerization. The identities of both the cation and the anion were systematically varied, and the subsequent reactivity was studied. The nature of the ionic cocatalyst dramatically impacted the rate and enantioselectivity of the catalyst system. The ionic cocatalyst [P(N=P(N(CH2)4)3) 4 +][tBuCO2 -] in combination with a bimetallic cobalt complex produced a catalyst system that exhibited the greatest activity and selectivity for a variety of monosubstituted epoxides. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Catalyst size effects on the growth of single-walled nanotubes in neutral and plasma systems

    Tam, Eugene; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken


    The results of large-scale (~109 atoms) numerical simulations of the growth of different-diameter vertically-aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes in plasma systems with different sheath widths and in neutral gases with the same operating parameters are reported. It is shown that the nanotube lengths and growth rates can be effectively controlled by varying the process conditions. The SWCNT growth rates in the plasma can be up to two orders of magnitude higher than in the equivalent neutral gas systems. Under specific process conditions, thin SWCNTs can grow much faster than their thicker counterparts despite the higher energies required for catalyst activation and nanotube nucleation. This selective growth of thin SWCNTs opens new avenues for the solution of the currently intractable problem of simultaneous control of the nanotube chirality and length during the growth stage.

  15. Catalyst size effects on the growth of single-walled nanotubes in neutral and plasma systems

    Tam, Eugene; Ostrikov, Kostya, E-mail:, E-mail: Kostya.Ostrikov@csiro.a [Plasma Nanoscience, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia); CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 218, Lindfield NSW 2070 (Australia)


    The results of large-scale ({approx}10{sup 9} atoms) numerical simulations of the growth of different-diameter vertically-aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes in plasma systems with different sheath widths and in neutral gases with the same operating parameters are reported. It is shown that the nanotube lengths and growth rates can be effectively controlled by varying the process conditions. The SWCNT growth rates in the plasma can be up to two orders of magnitude higher than in the equivalent neutral gas systems. Under specific process conditions, thin SWCNTs can grow much faster than their thicker counterparts despite the higher energies required for catalyst activation and nanotube nucleation. This selective growth of thin SWCNTs opens new avenues for the solution of the currently intractable problem of simultaneous control of the nanotube chirality and length during the growth stage.

  16. Choosing Your Poison: Optimizing Simulator Visual System Selection as a Function of Operational Tasks

    Sweet, Barbara T.; Kaiser, Mary K.


    Although current technology simulator visual systems can achieve extremely realistic levels they do not completely replicate the experience of a pilot sitting in the cockpit, looking at the outside world. Some differences in experience are due to visual artifacts, or perceptual features that would not be present in a naturally viewed scene. Others are due to features that are missing from the simulated scene. In this paper, these differences will be defined and discussed. The significance of these differences will be examined as a function of several particular operational tasks. A framework to facilitate the choice of visual system characteristics based on operational task requirements will be proposed.

  17. Collaborative task planning for an internet based multi-operator multi-robot system

    GAO Sheng; ZHAO Jie; CAI He-gao


    In an Internet based multi-operator and multi-robot system (IMOMR), operators have to work collaboratively to overcome the constraints of space and time. Inherently, the activities among them can be defined as a computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW). As a practical application of CSCW, a collaborative task planning system (CTPS) for IMOMR is proposed in this paper on the basis of Petri nets. Its definition, components design, and concrete implementation are given in detail, respectively. As a result, a clear collaboration mechanism of multiple operators in an IMOMR is obtained to guarantee their task planning.

  18. Presentation an approach for useful rate based on changing many tasks of workflow in distributed systems

    Farzad Parseh


    Full Text Available Cloud computing refers to a network that distributes processing power, applications, and large systems among many computers With the significant advances in Information and Communications Technology (ICT over the last half century, there is an increasingly perceived vision that computing will one day be the 5th utility (after water, electricity, gas, and telephony. This computing utility, like all other four existing utilities, will provide the basic level of computing service that is considered essential to meet the everyday needs of the general community. To deliver this vision, a number of computing paradigms have been proposed, of which the latest one is known as Cloud computing. The distributed system consists of a number of data centers that presents different services through internet. In a distributed system Timing and mapping the priority of tasks among processors is one of the issues attracted most of attention to itself. This issue consists of mapping a Direct Acyclic Graph with a set of tasks on a number of parallel processors and its purpose is allocating tasks to the available processors in order to satisfy the needs of priority and decency of tasks, and also to minimize the duration time of execution in total graph. In this article, well represent an algorithm that useful rate based on changing many tasks of workflow. Simulation is showed that the way for me is better about the list schedule algorithm.

  19. IEA Task 32: Wind Lidar Systems for Wind Energy Deployment (LIDAR)

    Kuhn, Martin; Trabucchi, Davide; Clifton, Andrew; Courtney, Mike; Rettenmeier, Andreas


    Under the International Energy Agency Wind Implementing Agreement (IEA Wind) Task 11, researchers started examining novel applications for remote sensing and the issues around them during the 51st topical expert meeting about remote sensing in January 2007. The 59th topical expert meeting organized by Task 11 in October 2009 was also dedicated to remote sensing, and the first draft of the Task's recommended practices on remote sensing was published in January 2013. The results of the Task 11 topical expert meetings provided solid groundwork for a new IEA Wind Task 32 on wind lidar technologies. Members of the wind community identified the need to consolidate the knowledge about wind lidar systems to facilitate their use, and to investigate how to exploit the advantages offered by this technology. This was the motivation that led to the start of IEA Wind Task 32 'Lidar Application for Wind Energy Deployment' in November 2011. The kick-off was meeting was held in May 2012.

  20. Surface chemistry and catalytic properties of VOX/Ti-MCM-41 catalysts for dibenzothiophene oxidation in a biphasic system

    González, J.; Chen, L. F.; Wang, J. A.; Manríquez, Ma.; Limas, R.; Schachat, P.; Navarrete, J.; Contreras, J. L.


    A series of vanadium oxide supported on Ti-MCM-41 catalysts was synthesized via the incipient impregnation method by varying the vanadia loading from 5 wt% to 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt%. These catalysts were characterized by a variety of advanced techniques for investigating their crystalline structure, textural properties, and surface chemistry information including surface acidity, reducibility, vanadium oxidation states, and morphological features. The catalytic activities of the catalysts were evaluated in a biphasic reaction system for oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of a model diesel containing 300 ppm of dibenzothiophene (DBT) where acetonitrile was used as extraction solvent and H2O2 as oxidant. ODS activity was found to be proportional to the V5+/(V4+ + V5+) values of the catalysts, indicating that the surface vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) was the active phase. Reaction temperature would influence significantly the ODS efficiency; high temperature, i.e., 80 °C, would lead to low ODS reaction due to the partial decomposition of oxidant. All the catalysts contained both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites but the former was predominant. The catalysts with low vanadia loading (5 or 10 wt%V2O5) had many Lewis acid sites and could strongly adsorb DBT molecule via the electron donation/acceptance action which resulted in an inhibition for the reaction of DBT with the surface peroxometallic species. The catalyst with high vanadia loading (25wt%V2O5/Ti-MCM-41) showed the highest catalytic activity and could remove 99.9% of DBT at 60 °C within 60 min.

  1. Fault recovery for real-time, multi-tasking computer system

    Hess, Richard (Inventor); Kelly, Gerald B. (Inventor); Rogers, Randy (Inventor); Stange, Kent A. (Inventor)


    System and methods for providing a recoverable real time multi-tasking computer system are disclosed. In one embodiment, a system comprises a real time computing environment, wherein the real time computing environment is adapted to execute one or more applications and wherein each application is time and space partitioned. The system further comprises a fault detection system adapted to detect one or more faults affecting the real time computing environment and a fault recovery system, wherein upon the detection of a fault the fault recovery system is adapted to restore a backup set of state variables.

  2. The effect of the sensitivity of the BAS and BAS motivational systems on performance in stroke rehabilitation tasks

    Maja Milavec


    Full Text Available Stroke rehabilitation programs are often too short and not intensive enough, possibly due to a lack of patient motivation. This study examined whether the patient's mood, task success and psychophysiological responses are affected by the sensitivity of two motivational systems: the Behavioral Activation System (BAS and the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS. 22 subacute stroke patients participated in the study. They performed an easier and harder version of a motor rehabilition task as well as the Stroop task. The sensitivities of the two motivational systems were measured using the BIS/BAS scale. Additionally, psychophysiological measurements (heart rate, skin conductance, respiration and skin temperature were taken and the Self-Assessment Manikin was used to measure self-reported valence and arousal. Results showed that valence and arousal are not significantly correlated with BIS/BAS subscales during the rehabilitation task. A negative correlation between valence and the BAS subscales was found in the Stroop task. Results also confirmed the initial hypothesis that the BAS would be correlated with task performance during the rehabilitation task while the BIS would be negatively correlated with task performance during the Stroop task. Only partial confirmation was found for the hypothesis that tasks that include a reward would affect heart rate in subjects with a sensitive BAS while tasks without a reward would affect skin conductance in subjects with a sensitive BIS. In both versions of the rehabilitation task, which includes a reward, the BAS reward subscale was negatively correlated with mean skin temperature. In the harder rehabilitation task, the BAS reward responsiveness subscale was positively correlated with mean heart rate. In the Stroop task, which has no reward, the BIS scale was positively correlated with mean heart rate. The BAS subscale was also negatively correlated with the RMSSD measure of heart rate variability. The results of

  3. Plasma-catalyst system for NOx remediation in simulated lean exhaust

    No efficient catalyst presently exists for deNOx in lean burn conditions. Furthermore, actual catalysts generally deactivate during reaction. A cylindrical DBD non-thermal plasma reactor was coupled with a stable three-function catalyst in order to verify the nature of the effect of the plasma on the catalytic process. A mixture of NO/O2/C3H6 in N2 was used as a lean model exhaust. The plasma was found to perform two of the three functions: NO oxidation to NO2 and propene activation through the partial oxidation of the hydrocarbon to aldehyde or alcohol. A complete catalyst containing the first two previous functions and the associative chemisorption of NO (third function) was used, as well as a simplified catalyst containing only the third function. Results suggest an advantageous plasma-catalyst coupling effect on NOx remediation in accordance with the proposed catalytic model. (author)

  4. Simulation of a nuclear measurement system around a multi-task mode real-time monitor

    When debugging and testing material and software for the automation of systems, the non-availability of this last one states important logistic problems. A simulator of the system to be automatized, conceived around a multi-task mode real-time monitor, allowing the debugging of the software of automation without the physical presence of the system to be automatized, is proposed in the present report

  5. Photoreduction of CO2 Using [Ru(bpy)2(CO)L]n+ Catalysts in Biphasic Solution/Supercritical CO2 Systems

    Voyame, Patrick; Toghill, Kathryn E.; Méndez, Manuel A.; Girault, Hubert H.


    The photosensitized reduction of carbon dioxide by the molecular catalyst [Ru(bpy)2(CO)L] is studied in a biphasic liquid-condensed gas system. Increasing pressure is shown to enhance the initial production rate and turnover number of the catalyst before deactivation of the system, especially for formation of carbon monoxide.

  6. Training conquers multitasking costs by dividing task representations in the frontoparietal-subcortical system.

    Garner, K G; Dux, Paul E


    Negotiating the information-rich sensory world often requires the concurrent management of multiple tasks. Despite this requirement, humans are thought to be poor at multitasking because of the processing limitations of frontoparietal and subcortical (FP-SC) brain regions. Although training is known to improve multitasking performance, it is unknown how the FP-SC system functionally changes to support improved multitasking. To address this question, we characterized the FP-SC changes that predict training outcomes using an individual differences approach. Participants (n = 100) performed single and multiple tasks in pre- and posttraining magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions interspersed by either a multitasking or an active-control training regimen. Multivoxel pattern analyses (MVPA) revealed that training induced multitasking improvements were predicted by divergence in the FP-SC blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response patterns to the trained tasks. Importantly, this finding was only observed for participants who completed training on the component (single) tasks and their combination (multitask) and not for the control group. Therefore, the FP-SC system supports multitasking behavior by segregating constituent task representations. PMID:26460014

  7. Optimal task mapping in safety-critical real-time parallel systems

    This PhD thesis is dealing with the correct design of safety-critical real-time parallel systems. Such systems constitutes a fundamental part of high-performance systems for command and control that can be found in the nuclear domain or more generally in parallel embedded systems. The verification of their temporal correctness is the core of this thesis. our contribution is mainly in the following three points: the analysis and extension of a programming model for such real-time parallel systems; the proposal of an original method based on a new operator of synchronized product of state machines task-graphs; the validation of the approach by its implementation and evaluation. The work addresses particularly the main problem of optimal task mapping on a parallel architecture, such that the temporal constraints are globally guaranteed, i.e. the timeliness property is valid. The results incorporate also optimally criteria for the sizing and correct dimensioning of a parallel system, for instance in the number of processing elements. These criteria are connected with operational constraints of the application domain. Our approach is based on the off-line analysis of the feasibility of the deadline-driven dynamic scheduling that is used to schedule tasks inside one processor. This leads us to define the synchronized-product, a system of linear, constraints is automatically generated and then allows to calculate a maximum load of a group of tasks and then to verify their timeliness constraints. The communications, their timeliness verification and incorporation to the mapping problem is the second main contribution of this thesis. FInally, the global solving technique dealing with both task and communication aspects has been implemented and evaluated in the framework of the OASIS project in the LETI research center at the CEA/Saclay. (author)

  8. A study on the catalyst for the removal of dissolved oxygen from NPP's system water

    The catalytic removal method of dissolved oxgen was selected as optimm process, which can produce water with less than 5 ppb dissolved oxgen, maximum permissible concentration. To develope the catalyst essential to the removal process, technical investigation, fundamental experiment, property test and analysis for various catalysts were carried out. The setup of methodology, column design for catalyst performance test also have been carried out. (Author)

  9. Task Force Report 5. Report of the Task Force on Family Medicine’s Role in Shaping the Future Health Care Delivery System

    Roberts, Richard G.; Snape, Pam S.; Burke, Kevin


    BACKGROUND Recognizing that the implementation of needed changes within family medicine will be enhanced through a concurrent effort to transform the broader health care system, this Future of Family Medicine task force was charged with determining family medicine’s leadership role in shaping the future health care delivery system.

  10. Clean Catalysts for Water Recovery Systems in Long-Duration Missions Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Oxidation catalysts based on innovative, physically-robust activated carbon materials containing dispersed noble metals are essential in process optimization for...

  11. A Gesture Recognition System to Transition Autonomously through Vocational Tasks for Individuals with Cognitive Impairments

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Chen, Shu-Fang; Chuang, An-Fu


    This study assessed the possibility of training two individuals with cognitive impairments using a Kinect-based task prompting system. This study was carried out according to an ABAB sequence in which A represented the baseline and B represented intervention phases. Data showed that the two participants significantly increased their target…

  12. Interface Testing for RTOS System Tasks based on the Run-Time Monitoring

    Safety critical embedded system requires high dependability of not only hardware but also software. It is intricate to modify embedded software once embedded. Therefore, it is necessary to have rigorous regulations to assure the quality of safety critical embedded software. IEEE V and V (Verification and Validation) process is recommended for software dependability, but a more quantitative evaluation method like software testing is necessary. In case of safety critical embedded software, it is essential to have a test that reflects unique features of the target hardware and its operating system. The safety grade PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) is a safety critical embedded system where hardware and software are tightly coupled. The PLC has HdS (Hardware dependent Software) and it is tightly coupled with RTOS (Real Time Operating System). Especially, system tasks that are tightly coupled with target hardware and RTOS kernel have large influence on the dependability of the entire PLC. Therefore, interface testing for system tasks that reflects the features of target hardware and RTOS kernel becomes the core of the PLC integration test. Here, we define interfaces as overlapped parts between two different layers on the system architecture. In this paper, we identify interfaces for system tasks and apply the identified interfaces to the safety grade PLC. Finally, we show the test results through the empirical study

  13. Utilization of central nervous system resources for preparation and performance of complex walking tasks in older adults

    David J Clark


    Full Text Available IntroductionWalking in the home and community often involves performance of complex walking tasks. Understanding the control of such tasks is crucial to preserving independence and quality of life in older adults. However, very little research has been conducted in this area. Here we assess the extent to which two measures of central nervous system (CNS activity are responsive to the challenges posed by preparation and performance of complex walking tasks. Prefrontal cortical activity was measured by functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS and sympathetic nervous system arousal was measured by skin conductance level (SCL.Materials and MethodsSixteen older men and women (age 77.2 ± 5.6 years with mild mobility deficits participated in this study. Participants walked at their preferred speed without distractions along an unobstructed, well-lit course (control task and also walked on the same course under five separate challenging conditions: performing a cognitive verbal fluency task (verbal task, dim lighting (dim task, carrying a tray (carry task, negotiating obstacles (obstacles task and wearing a weighted vest (vest task. Mean prefrontal activation and SCL were calculated during the preparation and performance phases of each task. Gait spatiotemporal measurements were acquired by an instrumented gait mat.ResultsPrefrontal cortical activity and SCL were elevated during the preparation phase of complex walking tasks relative to the control task. During the performance phase, prefrontal activity remained elevated to a similar level as during task preparation. In contrast, SCL continued to increase beyond the level observed during task preparation. A larger increase in prefrontal activity was found to be linked to preserved quality of gait during complex walking tasks.DiscussionThese findings indicate that availability and utilization of CNS resources are important for optimizing performance of complex walking tasks in older adults.

  14. Degree of Schedulability of Mixed-Criticality Real-time Systems with Probabilistic Sporadic Tasks

    Boudjadar, Jalil; David, Alexandre; Kim, Jin Hyun;


    that follow user-defined continuous probability distributions. We determine the degree of schedulability of a single scheduling component which can contain both periodic and sporadic tasks using statistical model checking in the form of UPPAAL SMC. We support uniform, exponential, Gaussian and any user......We present the concept of degree of schedulability for mixed-criticality scheduling systems. This concept is given in terms of the two factors 1) Percentage of Missed Deadlines (PoMD), and 2) Degradation of the Quality of Service (DoQoS). The novel aspect is that we consider task arrival patterns...

  15. An intelligent real time 3D vision system for robotic welding tasks

    Rodrigues, Marcos; Kormann, Mariza; Schuhler, C; Tomek, P


    MARWIN is a top-level robot control system that has been designed for automatic robot welding tasks. It extracts welding parameters and calculates robot trajectories directly from CAD models which are then verified by real-time 3D scanning and registration. MARWIN's 3D computer vision provides a user-centred robot environment in which a task is specified by the user by simply confirming and/or adjusting suggested parameters and welding sequences. The focus of this paper is on describing a mat...

  16. Partitioned Scheduling of Parallel Real-time Tasks on Multiprocessor Systems

    Fauberteau, Frédéric; Qamhieh, Manar; Midonnet, Serge


    In this paper, we focus on the scheduling of periodic fork-join real-time tasks on multiprocessor systems. Parallel real-time tasks of fork-join model have strict parallel segments with no laxity. We propose a parti- tioned scheduling algorithm which increases the laxity of the parallel segments and therefore the schedula- bility of tasksets of this model. A similar algorithm has been proposed in the literature but it produces job migrations. Ours avoid the use of job migrations in order to c...

  17. NO{sub x} removal from a flue gas in a corona discharge-catalyst hybrid system

    Dors, Miroslaw; Mizeraczyk, Jerzy [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14, 80-231 Gdansk (Poland)


    The objective of this work was to investigate NO{sub x} removal with a hybrid system consisting of a dc corona discharge and a catalyst at a room temperature (22C) in the presence of ammonia. The experimental procedure was as follows. A positive dc corona discharge was generated between a stainless steel hollow needle and a flat mesh made of brass. The needle was placed perpendicularly to the mesh maintaining the interelectrode distance of 40mm. The outer and inner diameters of the hollow needle were 2 and 1.6mm, respectively. The catalyst used in this investigation was a layer of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and TiO{sub 2} deposited on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} globules of 5-6mm in diameter. They were placed on the mesh so that the distance between the tube and the globules was 30mm. The catalyst was either saturated with NH{sub 3} or free of NH{sub 3}. A gas mixture of N{sub 2} (80%):O{sub 2} (5%):CO{sub 2} (15%):NO (200ppm) flowed through the tube with a flow rate of 1l/min. Ammonia was added to the gas mixture through a hollow needle in a concentration of either 400ppm when NH{sub 3}-free catalyst was used or 30ppm when catalyst saturated with NH{sub 3} was used. Results of the investigation showed that the hybrid system (with NH{sub 3}-saturated catalyst) removes up to 96% of NO{sub x} with an energy efficiency of 3.4g NO/kWh. Without the catalyst, NO{sub x} removal in the 'pure' corona discharge in the gas mixture with ammonia was lower (up to 66%). Also the energy efficiency was lower (about 1.8gNO/kWh). The obtained results showed that the investigated corona discharge-catalyst hybrid system is attractive for NO{sub x} removal because of relatively high efficiency both in NO{sub x} decomposition and energy consumption.

  18. Using Bee Colony Optimization to Solve the Task Scheduling Problem in Homogenous Systems

    Vahid Arabnejad


    Full Text Available Bee colony optimization (BCO is one of the most recent algorithms in swarm intelligence that can be used in optimization problems this algorithm is based on the intelligent behavior of honey bees in foraging process. In this paper bee colony optimization is applied to solve the task scheduling problem which tasks have dependency with each other. Scheduling of tasks that represents by directed acyclic graph is a NP-complete problem. The main purpose of this problem is obtaining the minimum schedule length that is called make-span. To realize the performance of BCO in this problem, the obtained results are presented and compared with the most successful methods such as Ant colony system, Tabu search and simulate annealing. The comparison shows that BCO produces the solutions in a different way and it is still among the bests.

  19. Multilevel Flow Modeling Based Decision Support System and Its Task Organization

    Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    For complex engineering systems, there is an increasing demand for safety and reliability. Decision support system (DSS) is designed to offer su-pervision and analysis about operational situations. A proper model representa-tion is required for DSS to understand the process knowledge. Multilevel...... Flow Modeling (MFM) represents complex system in multiple levels of means-end and part-whole decompositions, which is considered suitable for plant supervi-sion tasks. The aim of this paper is to explore the different possible functionali-ties by applying MFM to DSS, where both currently available...... techniques of MFM reasoning and less mature yet relevant MFM concepts are considered. It also offers an architecture design of task organization for MFM software tools by using the concept of agent and technology of multiagent software system....

  20. Capturing Safety Requirements to Enable Effective Task Allocation Between Humans and Automaton in Increasingly Autonomous Systems

    Neogi, Natasha A.


    There is a current drive towards enabling the deployment of increasingly autonomous systems in the National Airspace System (NAS). However, shifting the traditional roles and responsibilities between humans and automation for safety critical tasks must be managed carefully, otherwise the current emergent safety properties of the NAS may be disrupted. In this paper, a verification activity to assess the emergent safety properties of a clearly defined, safety critical, operational scenario that possesses tasks that can be fluidly allocated between human and automated agents is conducted. Task allocation role sets were proposed for a human-automation team performing a contingency maneuver in a reduced crew context. A safety critical contingency procedure (engine out on takeoff) was modeled in the Soar cognitive architecture, then translated into the Hybrid Input Output formalism. Verification activities were then performed to determine whether or not the safety properties held over the increasingly autonomous system. The verification activities lead to the development of several key insights regarding the implicit assumptions on agent capability. It subsequently illustrated the usefulness of task annotations associated with specialized requirements (e.g., communication, timing etc.), and demonstrated the feasibility of this approach.

  1. A design fix to supervisory control for fault-tolerant scheduling of real-time multiprocessor systems with aperiodic tasks

    Devaraj, Rajesh; Sarkar, Arnab; Biswas, Santosh


    In the article 'Supervisory control for fault-tolerant scheduling of real-time multiprocessor systems with aperiodic tasks', Park and Cho presented a systematic way of computing a largest fault-tolerant and schedulable language that provides information on whether the scheduler (i.e., supervisor) should accept or reject a newly arrived aperiodic task. The computation of such a language is mainly dependent on the task execution model presented in their paper. However, the task execution model is unable to capture the situation when the fault of a processor occurs even before the task has arrived. Consequently, a task execution model that does not capture this fact may possibly be assigned for execution on a faulty processor. This problem has been illustrated with an appropriate example. Then, the task execution model of Park and Cho has been modified to strengthen the requirement that none of the tasks are assigned for execution on a faulty processor.

  2. Evidence of Encapsulated Learning Systems in an Alternating Serial Reaction Time Task

    McConville, Dan


    A model of learning systems that has received wide acknowledgment is that promulgated by Squire (1992). The model describes explicit and implicit learning systems as being encapsulated and operating in parallel. This paper aimed to investigate if implicit procedural sequence learning could be affected by explicit learning processes in an alternating serial reaction time task (ASRTT). The ASRTT involved visual-stimuli appearing in one of four spatial-locations placed horizo...

  3. Development of metal catalyst impregnation technology for membrane-based oxygen removal system

    Dissolved oxygen(DO) is a primary cause of PWSCC and its content in reactor coolant system in NPPs has been strictly controlled by various DO removal methods. There are several removal methods of DO, such as vacuum degasification, thermal deaeration, and reductive removal by oxygen scavengers. Although the operation principles of vacuum degasification and thermal deaeration are simple, these methods require a lot of energy for operation and show lower efficiency. And these methods have a few handicaps such as temperature, pH, toxicity, high cost of installation and so on. For the purpose of developing the best method for DO removal from make-up water storage tank, it is necessary to overcome the disadvantages of hydrazine treatment. From this point of view, membrane-based oxygen removal system (MORS) has many advantages than other methods for example, friendly environmental process, versatility of operation conditions with high temperature and low pressure, small space, low cost, etc. Recently de-gassing membrane is widely used in power plant's feed water system for DO removal. De-gassing membrane has some advantages; it removes other dissolved gases such as CO2, N2, as well as O2, and is more economical than Catalytic resin-based Oxygen Removal System. In this study, to obtain better efficiency of MORS, we modified the polypropylene (PP) hollow fiber membrane by plasma treatment and ion beam irradiation supported platinum(Pt), palladium(Pd) as metal catalyst on the surface of the membrane

  4. On the origin of DNA genomes: evolution of the division of labor between template and catalyst in model replicator systems.

    Takeuchi, Nobuto; Hogeweg, Paulien; Koonin, Eugene V


    The division of labor between template and catalyst is a fundamental property of all living systems: DNA stores genetic information whereas proteins function as catalysts. The RNA world hypothesis, however, posits that, at the earlier stages of evolution, RNA acted as both template and catalyst. Why would such division of labor evolve in the RNA world? We investigated the evolution of DNA-like molecules, i.e. molecules that can function only as template, in minimal computational models of RNA replicator systems. In the models, RNA can function as both template-directed polymerase and template, whereas DNA can function only as template. Two classes of models were explored. In the surface models, replicators are attached to surfaces with finite diffusion. In the compartment models, replicators are compartmentalized by vesicle-like boundaries. Both models displayed the evolution of DNA and the ensuing division of labor between templates and catalysts. In the surface model, DNA provides the advantage of greater resistance against parasitic templates. However, this advantage is at least partially offset by the disadvantage of slower multiplication due to the increased complexity of the replication cycle. In the compartment model, DNA can significantly delay the intra-compartment evolution of RNA towards catalytic deterioration. These results are explained in terms of the trade-off between template and catalyst that is inherent in RNA-only replication cycles: DNA releases RNA from this trade-off by making it unnecessary for RNA to serve as template and so rendering the system more resistant against evolving parasitism. Our analysis of these simple models suggests that the lack of catalytic activity in DNA by itself can generate a sufficient selective advantage for RNA replicator systems to produce DNA. Given the widespread notion that DNA evolved owing to its superior chemical properties as a template, this study offers a novel insight into the evolutionary origin of DNA

  5. Assistance tools for generic definition of ITER maintenance tasks and scenarios in advanced supervisory control systems

    Highlights: ► Improve supervisory control systems for ITER in-vessel and hot cell maintenance. ► Optimize remote handling operations effectiveness, reliability and safety. ► Provide a generic description of the maintenance tasks and scenarios. ► Development of context-based assistances for operators and supervisor. ► Improvement of operator's situation awareness. -- Abstract: This paper concerns the improvement of supervisory control systems in the context of remote handling for the maintenance tasks in ITER. This work aims at providing a single formalism and tools to define in a generic way the ITER maintenance tasks and scenarios for in-vessel and hot cell operations. A three-layered approach is proposed to model these tasks and scenarios. Physical actions are defined for the scene elements. From these physical actions, behaviours are defined to represent high-level functionalities. Finally, interaction modes define the way that behaviours are achieved in terms of human–machine interactions. Case study concerning the blanket maintenance procedure is discussed concerning the contributions of the descriptive model and the context-based assistances to the activities of supervisory control

  6. Performance and workload effects for full versus partial automation in a high-fidelity multi-task system

    Scallen, Stephen Francis

    This thesis evaluated theoretical predictions concerning performance and workload effects of the implementation of adaptive allocation. Five experiments are reported in which adaptive allocation was implemented in a multiple task aviation simulation with component tracking, monitoring, and target identification sub-tasks. Experiments 1 and 2 empirically determined input values for the tracking task which produced controlled levels of tracking difficulty. Experiment 3 exposed pilots and non pilots to single, dual, and multiple task combinations under independent and linked sub-tasks configurations. Results indicated that performance on all sub-tasks was sensitive to the number of concurrent tasks and further indicated that the non-linked system configuration contributed to reduced pilot efficiency. Experiment 4 implemented adaptive allocation for the tracking sub-task based on a model which identified an increase in tracking error during the initial presentation of a target. During initial target presentation, tracking control was either fully or partially allocated to the system for a brief period, after which full control was returned. Results indicated performance benefits on all tasks for both full and partial adaptive allocation strategies and confirmed that an independent task configuration may underestimate pilot efficiency. Experiment 5 extended the implementation of adaptive allocation to include adaptive display layout. It compared functional grouping of sub-tasks displays based on principles of perceptual and processing proximity. Results provided support for the implementation of adaptive display design in general but failed to support the specific layouts derived from the proximity conception.

  7. Comparison of multi-objective evolutionary approaches for task scheduling in distributed computing systems

    G Subashini; M C Bhuvaneswari


    Parallel and distributed systems play an important part in the improvement of high performance computing. In these type of systems task scheduling is a key issue in achieving high performance of the system. In general, task scheduling problems have been shown to be NP-hard. As deterministic techniques consume much time in solving the problem, several heuristic methods are attempted in obtaining optimal solutions. This paper presents an application of Elitist Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) and a Non-dominated Sorting Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (NSPSO) to schedule independent tasks in a distributed system comprising of heterogeneous processors. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem, aiming to obtain schedules achieving minimum makespan and flowtime. The applied algorithms generate Pareto set of global optimal solutions for the considered multi-objective scheduling problem. The algorithms are validated against a set of benchmark instances and the performance of the algorithms evaluated using standard metrics. Experimental results and performance measures infer that NSGA-II produces quality schedules compared to NSPSO.

  8. A comparison of Rh/CeO2/SiO2 catalysts with steam reforming catalysts, dolomite and inert materials as bed materials in low throughput fluidized bed gasification systems

    The gasification of cedar wood in the presence of Rh/CeO2/SiO2 has been conducted in the laboratory scale fluidized bed reactor using air as a gasifying agent at low temperatures (823-973 K) in order to produce high-quality fuel gas for gas turbine for power generation. The performance of the Rh/CeO2/SiO2 catalyst has been compared with conventional catalysts such as commercial steam reforming catalyst G-91, dolomite and noncatalyst systems by measurements of the cold gas efficiency, tar concentration, carbon conversion to gas and gas composition. The tar concentration was completely negligible in the Rh/CeO2/SiO2-catalyzed product gas whereas it was about 30, 113, and 139 g/m3 in G-91, dolomite and noncatalyzed product gas, respectively. Since the carbon conversion to useful gas such as CO, H2, and CH4 are much higher on Rh/CeO2/SiO2 catalyst than others at 873 K, the cold gas efficiency is much higher (71%) in this case than others. The hydrogen content in the product gas is much higher (>24 vol%) than the specified level (>10 vol%) for efficient combustion in the gas turbine engine. The char and coke formation is also very low on Rh/CeO2/SiO2 catalyst than on the conventional catalysts. Although the catalyst surface area was slightly decreased after using the same catalyst in at least 20 experiments, the deactivation problem was not severe

  9. A swarm intelligence based memetic algorithm for task allocation in distributed systems

    Sarvizadeh, Raheleh; Haghi Kashani, Mostafa


    This paper proposes a Swarm Intelligence based Memetic algorithm for Task Allocation and scheduling in distributed systems. The tasks scheduling in distributed systems is known as an NP-complete problem. Hence, many genetic algorithms have been proposed for searching optimal solutions from entire solution space. However, these existing approaches are going to scan the entire solution space without considering the techniques that can reduce the complexity of the optimization. Spending too much time for doing scheduling is considered the main shortcoming of these approaches. Therefore, in this paper memetic algorithm has been used to cope with this shortcoming. With regard to load balancing efficiently, Bee Colony Optimization (BCO) has been applied as local search in the proposed memetic algorithm. Extended experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method outperformed the existing GA-based method in terms of CPU utilization.

  10. Trends in evaluation of integrated hydrogen systems. IEA hydrogen Task 18

    Schoenung, Susan [Longitude 122 West, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gillie, Mary; Del Pilar Argumosa, Maria [National Institute of Aerospace Technology, Hampton, VA (United States); Miles Halliday, Shannon [Powertech Labs, Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)


    Under the auspices of the International Energy Agency's Hydrogen Implementing Agreement, Task 18, Evaluation of Integrated Hydrogen Systems, has been underway since the beginning of 2004. During this time, numerous hydrogen demonstration projects from participating countries have been evaluated for technical performance and lessons learned. As the work program has progressed, various trends have been discovered, based on the projects considered. Among the trends are types, sizes and complexity of projects; project lifetimes and successes; technical performance and maturity of subsystems; modeling tools; permitting and progress in safety standardization; funding mechanisms; early and niche market development; social acceptance and policy issues; and hydrogen and energy sources. In this paper the objectives and accomplishments of Task 18 are discussed, the project portfolio, consisting of both refueling stations for hydrogen-fueled vehicles and stationary power systems are described, and the trends are reviewed. Lessons learned are summarized. (orig.)

  11. Contrasting single and multi-component working-memory systems in dual tasking.

    Nijboer, Menno; Borst, Jelmer; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, Niels


    Working memory can be a major source of interference in dual tasking. However, there is no consensus on whether this interference is the result of a single working memory bottleneck, or of interactions between different working memory components that together form a complete working-memory system. We report a behavioral and an fMRI dataset in which working memory requirements are manipulated during multitasking. We show that a computational cognitive model that assumes a distributed version of working memory accounts for both behavioral and neuroimaging data better than a model that takes a more centralized approach. The model's working memory consists of an attentional focus, declarative memory, and a subvocalized rehearsal mechanism. Thus, the data and model favor an account where working memory interference in dual tasking is the result of interactions between different resources that together form a working-memory system. PMID:26859518

  12. Small Engine Technology (SET) Task 24 Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies

    Lieber, Lysbeth


    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Engines & Systems, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International Inc., documenting work performed during the period June 1999 through December 1999 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Small Engine Technology (SET) Program, Contract No. NAS3-27483, Task Order 24, Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies. The work performed under SET Task 24 consisted of evaluating the noise reduction benefits compared to the baseline noise levels of representative 1992 technology aircraft, obtained by applying different combinations of noise reduction technologies to five business and regional aircraft configurations. This report focuses on the selection of the aircraft configurations and noise reduction technologies, the prediction of noise levels for those aircraft, and the comparison of the noise levels with those of the baseline aircraft.

  13. The effects of a public address system on the off-task behavior of elementary physical education students.

    Ryan, Stu; Ormond, Tom; Imwold, Charles; Rotunda, Rob J


    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of teacher feedback delivered via a public address system on the off-task behavior of elementary-school physical education students. A multiple baseline design across three classes was used in this investigation. Results indicated a consistent decline in off-task behavior when the public address feedback system was used.

  14. Operationally efficient propulsion system study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 6; Space Transfer Propulsion Operational Efficiency Study Task of OEPSS

    Harmon, Timothy J.


    This document is the final report for the Space Transfer Propulsion Operational Efficiency Study Task of the Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) conducted by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International. This Study task studied, evaluated and identified design concepts and technologies which minimized launch and in-space operations and optimized in-space vehicle propulsion system operability.

  15. International PV QA Task Force's Proposed Comparative Rating System for PV Modules: Preprint

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S.


    The International PV Quality Assurance Task Force is developing a rating system that provides comparative information about the relative durability of PV modules. Development of accelerated stress tests that can provide such comparative information is seen as a major step toward being able to predict PV module service life. This paper will provide details of the ongoing effort to determine the format of such an overall module rating system. The latest proposal is based on using three distinct climate zones as defined in IEC 60721-2-1 for two different mounting systems. Specific stresses beyond those used in the qualification tests are being developed for each of the selected climate zones.

  16. A Workflow-Forecast Approach To The Task Scheduling Problem In Distributed Computing Systems

    Gritsenko, Andrey


    The aim of this paper is to provide a description of deep-learning-based scheduling approach for academic-purpose high-performance computing systems. The share of academic-purpose distributed computing systems (DCS) reaches 17.4 percents amongst TOP500 supercomputer sites (15.6 percents in performance scale) that makes them a valuable object of research. The core of this approach is to predict the future workflow of the system depending on the previously submitted tasks using deep learning al...

  17. Development and Simulation of a Task Assignment Model for Multirobot Systems

    Biswal, B. B.; B.B.Choudhury


    Multirobot systems (MRS) hold the promise of improved performance and increased fault tolerance for large-scale problems. A robot team can accomplish a given task more quickly than a single agent by executing them concurrently. A team can also make effective use of specialists designed for a single purpose rather than requiring that a single robot be a generalist. Multirobot coordination, however, is a complex problem. An empirical study is described in the present paper that sought general g...

  18. MediaEval 2015 Drone Protect Task: Privacy Protection in Surveillance Systems Using False Coloring

    Çiftçi, Serdar; Korshunov, Pavel; Akyüz, Ahmet Oguz; Ebrahimi, Touradj


    In this paper, we share our results for privacy protection using false coloring in surveillance systems in the Drone Protect Task. The aim is obscuring sensitive regions that are privacy related without sacrificing intelligibility and pleasantness. The idea in false coloring is transforming the colors of an image using a color palette into a different set of colors in which private information is harder to recognize. The method can be applied globally to the whole frame or to a given region o...

  19. Dynamic Scheduling of Skippable Periodic Tasks With Energy Efficiency In Weakly Hard Real-Time System

    Santhi Baskaran


    Full Text Available Energy consumption is a critical design issue in real-time systems, especially in battery- operated systems. Maintaining high performance, while extending the battery life between charges is an interesting challenge for system designers. Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS allows a processor to dynamically change speed and voltage at run time, thereby saving energy by spreading run cycles into idle time.Knowing when to use full power and when not, requires the cooperation of the operating system scheduler. Usually, higher processor voltage and frequency leads to higher system throughput whileenergy reduction can be obtained using lower voltage and frequency. Instead of lowering processorvoltage and frequency as much as possible, energy efficient real-time scheduling adjusts voltage andfrequency according to some optimization criteria, such as low energy consumption or high throughput,while it meets the timing constraints of the real-time tasks. As the quantity and functional complexity ofbattery powered portable devices continues to raise, energy efficient design of such devices has becomeincreasingly important. Many real-time scheduling algorithms have been developed recently to reduceenergy consumption in the portable devices that use DVS capable processors. Extensive power awarescheduling techniques have been published for energy reduction, but most of them have been focusedsolely on reducing the processor energy consumption. While the processor is one of the major powerhungry units in the system, other peripherals such as network interface card, memory banks, disks alsoconsume significant amount of power. Dynamic Power Down (DPD technique is used to reduce energyconsumption by shutting down the processing unit and peripheral devices, when the system is idle. Threealgorithms namely Red Tasks Only (RTO, Blue When Possible (BWP and Red as Late as Possible (RLPare proposed in the literature to schedule the real-time tasks in Weakly-hard real

  20. A support system for water system isolation task of nuclear power plant by using augmented reality and RFID

    Aiming at improvement of task performance and reduction of human error of water system isolation task in NPP periodic maintenance, a support system using state-of-art information technology. Augmented Reality (AR) and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has been proposed under the concept of off-site operation and maintenance support center, and a prototype system has been developed. The system has navigation function of which an indication is superimposed directly on the user's view to help to find the designated valves by AR. It also has valve confirmation function by scanning RFID tag attached on the valve. Using the prototype system, an evaluation experiment has been conducted in order to confirm its effectiveness and to reveal its problems. As the result of the experiment, it was found that the system improved efficiency and reliability of water system isolation task, and it was also found that the visibility of HMD and its troublesome feeling to wear were the problems of the system. (author)

  1. Preparation, characterization and degradation investigations of cathode catalysts for automotive PEM fuel cells systems

    Marcu, Alina


    This research was designed to meet Daimler systematic efforts to address future electromobility demands. The work focuses on developing potential cathode catalysts and tests procedures to be employed in prototype fuel cells. In order to achieve commercial cost-competitive polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEM FC), the following major challenges have to be addressed: i) The catalytic mass activity of the cathode catalysts has to be at least 0.44 A/mg Pt representing an increased factor ...

  2. Complementary roles of systems representing sensory evidence and systems detecting task difficulty during perceptual decision making



    Full Text Available Perceptual decision making is a multi-stage process where incoming sensory information is used to select one option from several alternatives. Researchers typically have adopted one of two conceptual frameworks to define the criteria for determining whether a brain region is involved in decision computations. One framework, building on single unite recordings in monkeys, posits that activity in a region involved in decision making reflects the accumulation of evidence toward a decision threshold, thus showing the lowest level of BOLD signal during the hardest decisions. The other framework instead posits that activity in a decision-making region reflects the difficulty of a decision, thus showing the highest level of BOLD signal during the hardest decisions. We had subjects perform a face detection task on degraded face images while we simultaneously recorded BOLD activity. We searched for brain regions where changes in BOLD activity during this task supported either of these frameworks by calculating the correlation of BOLD activity with reaction time - a measure of task difficulty. We found that the right supplementary eye field, right frontal eye field and right inferior frontal gyrus had increased activity relative to baseline that positively correlated with reaction time, while the left superior frontal sulcus and left middle temporal gyrus had decreased activity relative to baseline that negatively correlated with reaction time. We propose that a simple mechanism that scales a region’s activity based on task demands can explain our results.

  3. Utilization of central nervous system resources for preparation and performance of complex walking tasks in older adults

    Clark, David J.


    Introduction Walking in the home and community often involves performance of complex walking tasks. Understanding the control of such tasks is crucial to preserving independence and quality of life in older adults. However, very little research has been conducted in this area. Here we assess the extent to which two measures of central nervous system (CNS) activity are responsive to the challenges posed by preparation and performance of complex walking tasks. Prefrontal cortical activity...

  4. Utilization of central nervous system resources for preparation and performance of complex walking tasks in older adults

    Clark, David J.; Rose, Dorian K.; Ring, Sarah A.; Porges, Eric C.


    Introduction: Walking in the home and community often involves performance of complex walking tasks. Understanding the control of such tasks is crucial to preserving independence and quality of life in older adults. However, very little research has been conducted in this area. Here, we assess the extent to which two measures of central nervous system (CNS) activity are responsive to the challenges posed by preparation and performance of complex walking tasks. Prefrontal cortical activity was...

  5. Task Scheduling problem in distributed systems considering communication cost and precedence by population-based ACO

    Hossein Erfani


    Full Text Available With regard to the fact of the rapid growth of distributed systems and their large spectrum of usage of proposing and representing controlling solutions and optimization of task execution procedures is one of the most important issues. Task scheduling in distributed systems has determining role in improving efficiency in applications such as communication, routing, production plans and project management. The most important issues of good schedule are minimizing makespan and average of waiting time. However, the recent and previous effort usually focused on minimizing makespan. This article presents and analyze a new method based on Ant Colony Optimization (ACO algorithm with considerations to precedence and communication cost for task scheduling problem. In the mentioned method in addition to optimization of finish time, average of waiting time and number of needed processors are also optimized. In this method, by using of a new heuristic list, an algorithm based on ant colony is proposed. The results obtained in comparison with the latest similar models of random search algorithms, proves the higher efficiency of algorithm.

  6. ExM:System Support for Extreme-Scale, Many-Task Applications

    Katz, Daniel S


    The ever-increasing power of supercomputer systems is both driving and enabling the emergence of new problem-solving methods that require the efficient execution of many concurrent and interacting tasks. Methodologies such as rational design (e.g., in materials science), uncertainty quantification (e.g., in engineering), parameter estimation (e.g., for chemical and nuclear potential functions, and in economic energy systems modeling), massive dynamic graph pruning (e.g., in phylogenetic searches), Monte-Carlo- based iterative fixing (e.g., in protein structure prediction), and inverse modeling (e.g., in reservoir simulation) all have these requirements. These many-task applications frequently have aggregate computing needs that demand the fastest computers. For example, proposed next-generation climate model ensemble studies will involve 1,000 or more runs, each requiring 10,000 cores for a week, to characterize model sensitivity to initial condition and parameter uncertainty. The goal of the ExM project is to achieve the technical advances required to execute such many-task applications efficiently, reliably, and easily on petascale and exascale computers. In this way, we will open up extreme-scale computing to new problem solving methods and application classes. In this document, we report on combined technical progress of the collaborative ExM project, and the institutional financial status of the portion of the project at University of Chicago, over the rst 8 months (through April 30, 2011)

  7. Space Station data system analysis/architecture study. Task 1: Functional requirements definition, DR-5


    The initial task in the Space Station Data System (SSDS) Analysis/Architecture Study is the definition of the functional and key performance requirements for the SSDS. The SSDS is the set of hardware and software, both on the ground and in space, that provides the basic data management services for Space Station customers and systems. The primary purpose of the requirements development activity was to provide a coordinated, documented requirements set as a basis for the system definition of the SSDS and for other subsequent study activities. These requirements should also prove useful to other Space Station activities in that they provide an indication of the scope of the information services and systems that will be needed in the Space Station program. The major results of the requirements development task are as follows: (1) identification of a conceptual topology and architecture for the end-to-end Space Station Information Systems (SSIS); (2) development of a complete set of functional requirements and design drivers for the SSIS; (3) development of functional requirements and key performance requirements for the Space Station Data System (SSDS); and (4) definition of an operating concept for the SSIS. The operating concept was developed both from a Space Station payload customer and operator perspective in order to allow a requirements practicality assessment.

  8. Feasibility of the adaptive and automatic presentation of tasks (ADAPT system for rehabilitation of upper extremity function post-stroke

    Choi Younggeun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current guidelines for rehabilitation of arm and hand function after stroke recommend that motor training focus on realistic tasks that require reaching and manipulation and engage the patient intensively, actively, and adaptively. Here, we investigated the feasibility of a novel robotic task-practice system, ADAPT, designed in accordance with such guidelines. At each trial, ADAPT selects a functional task according to a training schedule and with difficulty based on previous performance. Once the task is selected, the robot picks up and presents the corresponding tool, simulates the dynamics of the tasks, and the patient interacts with the tool to perform the task. Methods Five participants with chronic stroke with mild to moderate impairments (> 9 months post-stroke; Fugl-Meyer arm score 49.2 ± 5.6 practiced four functional tasks (selected out of six in a pre-test with ADAPT for about one and half hour and 144 trials in a pseudo-random schedule of 3-trial blocks per task. Results No adverse events occurred and ADAPT successfully presented the six functional tasks without human intervention for a total of 900 trials. Qualitative analysis of trajectories showed that ADAPT simulated the desired task dynamics adequately, and participants reported good, although not excellent, task fidelity. During training, the adaptive difficulty algorithm progressively increased task difficulty leading towards an optimal challenge point based on performance; difficulty was then continuously adjusted to keep performance around the challenge point. Furthermore, the time to complete all trained tasks decreased significantly from pretest to one-hour post-test. Finally, post-training questionnaires demonstrated positive patient acceptance of ADAPT. Conclusions ADAPT successfully provided adaptive progressive training for multiple functional tasks based on participant's performance. Our encouraging results establish the feasibility of ADAPT; its

  9. Application of the selective equipment removal system to D ampersand D tasks

    The Selective Equipment Removal System has been designed as a generic and reconfigurable remote manipulation platform to demonstrate and evaluate mobile telerobotic concepts suitable for performing selective decontamination and dismantlement functions. Both radioactive and hazardous chemical environments dictate that human presence should be minimized in many of these activities. In addition, robotic deployment of large and heavy tools should improve safety of operation by limiting human proximity to tooling. Monotonous, repetitive, and high precision activities should also benefit by robotic completion. This paper discusses the development of the Selective Equipment Retrieval System and its remote manipulation platform, the Dual Arm Work Module, applicable tooling, and application to various decontamination and dismantlement tasks

  10. Heterogeneous hydrogenation catalysts

    The main types of heterogeneous catalysts used for hydrogenation, the methods for their preparation, and the structure and chemistry of their surfaces are considered, as well as the catalytic activity and the mechanism of action in the hydrogenation of unsaturated and aromatic compounds, of CO, and of carbonyl compounds and in the hydrorefining of fuels. Chief attention is paid to supported Ni catalysts, to the methods for their preparation and physicochemical studies, and to the development of novel catalytic systems through modification. A novel type of catalyst for hydrogenation, viz. metal carbides, is described. Some aspects of the mechanochemical treatment of hydrogenation catalysts, including in situ methods, are discussed. Sulfide catalysts for hydrotreating are also discussed in detail. The bibliography includes 340 references.

  11. Photochemical hydrogen production from water catalyzed by CdTe quantum dots/molecular cobalt catalyst hybrid systems.

    Han, Kai; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Shuai; Wu, Suli; Yang, Yong; Sun, Licheng


    A hybrid system with a coordinative interaction between a cobalt complex of a N2S2-tetradentate ligand and CdTe quantum dots displayed a high activity (initial TOF 850 h(-1)) and improved stability (TON 1.44 × 10(4) based on catalyst over 30 h) for the photochemical H2 generation from water, with a quantum efficiency of 5.32% at 400 nm. PMID:25800286

  12. Effects of methylphenidate on motor system excitability in a response inhibition task

    Moll Gunther H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor system excitability is based on a complex interaction of excitatory and inhibitory processes, which in turn are modulated by internal (e.g., volitional inhibition and external (e.g., drugs factors. A well proven tool to investigate motor system excitability in vivo is the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. In this study, we used TMS to investigate the effects of methylphenidate (MPH on the temporal dynamics of motor system excitability during a go/nogo task. Methods Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 14 healthy adults (8 male, 6 female; aged 20–40 yrs performed a spatial go/nogo task (S1-S2 paradigm either under dl-methylphenidate (MPH, 20 mg or placebo. TMS single and double-pulses (interstimulus interval: 3 ms were delivered either at 120, 230 or 350 ms after the S2 stimulus (control, go and nogo trials. Results At the performance level, faster reaction times and a trend towards less impulsivity errors under MPH vs. placebo were observed. In nogo trials, i.e., when a prepared response had to be inhibited, motor evoked potentials (MEPs had a smaller amplitude at an interval of 230 ms compared to 120 and 350 ms. The short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI increased over time. Under MPH, SICI in nogo trials was larger compared to placebo. With the interval between S2 and the TMS-pulse increasing, MEP amplitudes increased under MPH in nogo trials but an early inhibitory effect (at 120 ms could also be observed. Conclusion Our results show a distinct pattern of excitatory and inhibitory phenomena in a go/nogo task. MPH appears to significantly alter the dynamics of motor system excitability. Our findings suggest that a single dose of 20 mg MPH provides some fine-tuning of the motor system in healthy adults.

  13. Engineering task plan for flammable gas atmosphere mobile color video camera systems

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of the mobile video camera systems. The color video camera systems will be used to observe and record the activities within the vapor space of a tank on a limited exposure basis. The units will be fully mobile and designed for operation in the single-shell flammable gas producing tanks. The objective of this tank is to provide two mobile camera systems for use in flammable gas producing single-shell tanks (SSTs) for the Flammable Gas Tank Safety Program. The camera systems will provide observation, video recording, and monitoring of the activities that occur in the vapor space of applied tanks. The camera systems will be designed to be totally mobile, capable of deployment up to 6.1 meters into a 4 inch (minimum) riser

  14. Task Space Division and Trajectory Planning for a Flexible Macro-Micro Manipulator System


    This paper deals with a flexible macro-micro manipulator system, which includes a long flexible manipulator and a relatively short rigid manipulator attached to the tip of the macro manipulator. A flexible macro manipulator possesses the advantages of wide operating range, high speed, and low energy consumption, but the disadvantage of a low tracking precision. The macro-micro manipulator system improves tracking performance by compensating for the endpoint tracking error while maintaining the advantages of the flexible macro manipulator. A trajectory planning scheme was built utilizing the task space division method. The division point is chosen to optimize the error compensation and energy consumption for the whole system. Then movements of the macro-micro manipulator can be determined using separate inverse kinematic models. Simulation results for a planar 4-DOF macro-micro manipulator system are presented to show the effectiveness of the control system.

  15. Dynamic Scheduling of Skippable Periodic Tasks with Energy Efficiency in Weakly Hard Real-Time System

    Baskaran, Santhi


    Energy consumption is a critical design issue in real-time systems, especially in battery- operated systems. Maintaining high performance, while extending the battery life between charges is an interesting challenge for system designers. Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS) allows a processor to dynamically change speed and voltage at run time, thereby saving energy by spreading run cycles into idle time. Knowing when to use full power and when not, requires the cooperation of the operating system scheduler. Usually, higher processor voltage and frequency leads to higher system throughput while energy reduction can be obtained using lower voltage and frequency. Instead of lowering processor voltage and frequency as much as possible, energy efficient real-time scheduling adjusts voltage and frequency according to some optimization criteria, such as low energy consumption or high throughput, while it meets the timing constraints of the real-time tasks. As the quantity and functional complexity of battery powered porta...

  16. Task 3.0: Advanced power systems. Semi-annual report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    McCollor, D.P.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; Mann, M.D.; Willson, W.G.; Hurley, J.P.


    A variety of activities are incorporated into the Advanced Power Systems program. Tasks included are (1) fuel utilization properties, (2) pressurized combustion, (3) catalytic gasification, and (4) hot-gas cleanup. ATRAN is stochastic and combines initial coal inorganics in a random manner in order to predict the resulting fly ash particle size and composition. ASHPERT, is an expert system yielding a first-order estimate of fly ash size and composition. Both models are designed to emulate pulverized-coal combustion. Input data required include identity, chemistry, size, quantity, and mineral-to-coal associations. The pressurized combustion task has focused on the construction of a versatile reactor system to simulate pressurized fluidized-bed combustion. Both castable and monolithic refractories have been investigated in determining slag prevention under a variety of conditions. Catalytic gasification coupled with a molten carbonate fuel cell offers an extremely efficient and environmentally sound power generating system using coal. Work with an Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal has not been successful. Continued efforts will focus on using the more reactive low-rank coals to try to achieve this goal. Hot-gas cleanup is the critical issue in many of the proposed advanced power system operations on coal. The key to successful ash removal is an understanding of the properties of the ash to be collected as well as the interactions of this material with the barrier itself. The knowledge base under development will assist in assessing many of these barrier material issues for a variety of coal ashes.

  17. Efficient and limiting reactions in aqueous light-induced hydrogen evolution systems using molecular catalysts and quantum dots.

    Gimbert-Suriñach, Carolina; Albero, Josep; Stoll, Thibaut; Fortage, Jérôme; Collomb, Marie-Noëlle; Deronzier, Alain; Palomares, Emilio; Llobet, Antoni


    Hydrogen produced from water and solar energy holds much promise for decreasing the fossil fuel dependence. It has recently been proven that the use of quantum dots as light harvesters in combination with catalysts is a valuable strategy to obtain photogenerated hydrogen. However, the light to hydrogen conversion efficiency of these systems is reported to be lower than 40%. The low conversion efficiency is mainly due to losses occurring at the different interfacial charge-transfer reactions taking place in the multicomponent system during illumination. In this work we have analyzed all the involved reactions in the hydrogen evolution catalysis of a model system composed of CdTe quantum dots, a molecular cobalt catalyst and vitamin C as sacrificial electron donor. The results demonstrate that the electron transfer from the quantum dots to the catalyst occurs fast enough and efficiently (nanosecond time scale), while the back electron transfer and catalysis are much slower (millisecond and microsecond time scales). Further improvements of the photodriven proton reduction should focus on the catalytic rate enhancement, which should be at least in the hundreds of nanoseconds time scale. PMID:24799030

  18. Assessment of cognitive workload of in-vehicle systems using a visual peripheral and tactile detection task setting.

    Bengler, Klaus; Kohlmann, Martin; Lange, Christian


    The increase of driver information and infotainment systems includes also interaction technologies like speech interaction that minimize visual-manual demand and put the focus to cognitive demand. The question is whether this could lead to distraction effects and decreased traffic safety. This study presents an evaluation method for cognitive demand based on different detection paradigms in a dual task setting. A listening and a backward counting task are realized on three difficulty levels as simulations of cognitively loading secondary tasks and investigated using a visual versus a tactile detection paradigm. The results show that both detection paradigms are able to discriminate the task levels and that subjects successfully apply compensation strategies in the dual task setting especially during the listening task. PMID:22317480

  19. Engineering task plan for the annual revision of the rotary mode core sampling system safety equipment list

    This Engineering Task Plan addresses an effort to provide an update to the RMCS Systems 3 and 4 SEL and DCM in order to incorporate the changes to the authorization basis implemented by HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, Rev. 0 (Draft), Addendum 5 , Safety Analysis for Rotary Mode Core Sampling. Responsibilities, task description, cost estimate, and schedule are presented

  20. NASA Engineering Safety Center NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group 2007 Proactive Task Status

    Manzo, Michelle A.


    In 2007, the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) chartered the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group to bring forth and address critical battery-related performance/manufacturing issues for NASA and the aerospace community. A suite of tasks identifying and addressing issues related to Ni-H2 and Li-ion battery chemistries was submitted and selected for implementation. The current NESC funded are: (1) Wet Life of Ni-H2 Batteries (2) Binding Procurement (3) NASA Lithium-Ion Battery Guidelines (3a) Li-Ion Performance Assessment (3b) Li-Ion Guidelines Document (3b-i) Assessment of Applicability of Pouch Cells for Aerospace Missions (3b-ii) High Voltage Risk Assessment (3b-iii) Safe Charge Rates for Li-Ion Cells (4) Availability of Source Material for Li-Ion Cells (5) NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop This presentation provides a brief overview of the tasks in the 2007 plan and serves as an introduction to more detailed discussions on each of the specific tasks.

  1. The use Mitsubishi PLC systems in student's preparation for realization of industrial tasks

    J. Świder


    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to show the laboratory equipment, the methods of learning and the results of education process in student’s preparation for realization of industrial tasks.Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents the models elaborated by students as results of semestral or BSc Eng. works.Findings: Contemporary higher education must be directed to educate students according to needs of employers. In order to be up to these needs, a new technology should be presented and used during realization of syllabus. Moreover, the students should solve the real problems from industry.Practical implications: Working on real industrial problems and developing models introduce a new trend in practical teaching. Student involved in the project gets skills in engineering by completing the tasks from an idea to a working model.Originality/value: All of the projects presented in the paper have been made by the students according to their original concepts. In the Institute of Engineering Processes Automation and Integrated Manufacturing Systems the emphasis is put on these tasks, which are realized within the confines of diploma thesis, semestral works or researches with employees of the Institute.

  2. Prometheus: Scalable and Accurate Emulation of Task-Based Applications on Many-Core Systems.

    Kestor, Gokcen; Gioiosa, Roberto; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel


    Modeling the performance of non-deterministic parallel applications on future many-core systems requires the development of novel simulation and emulation techniques and tools. We present “Prometheus”, a fast, accurate and modular emulation framework for task-based applications. By raising the level of abstraction and focusing on runtime synchronization, Prometheus can accurately predict applications’ performance on very large many-core systems. We validate our emulation framework against two real platforms (AMD Interlagos and Intel MIC) and report error rates generally below 4%. We, then, evaluate Prometheus’ performance and scalability: our results show that Prometheus can emulate a task-based application on a system with 512K cores in 11.5 hours. We present two test cases that show how Prometheus can be used to study the performance and behavior of systems that present some of the characteristics expected from exascale supercomputer nodes, such as active power management and processors with a high number of cores but reduced cache per core.

  3. Space station data system analysis/architecture study. Task 3: Trade studies, DR-5, volume 1


    The primary objective of Task 3 is to provide additional analysis and insight necessary to support key design/programmatic decision for options quantification and selection for system definition. This includes: (1) the identification of key trade study topics; (2) the definition of a trade study procedure for each topic (issues to be resolved, key inputs, criteria/weighting, methodology); (3) conduct tradeoff and sensitivity analysis; and (4) the review/verification of results within the context of evolving system design and definition. The trade study topics addressed in this volume include space autonomy and function automation, software transportability, system network topology, communications standardization, onboard local area networking, distributed operating system, software configuration management, and the software development environment facility.

  4. Rapid analysis of hay attributes using NIRS. Final report, Task II alfalfa supply system



    This final report provides technical information on the development of a near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) system for the analysis of alfalfa hay. The purpose of the system is to provide consistent quality for processing alfalfa stems for fuel and alfalfa leaf meal products for livestock feed. Project tasks were to: (1) develop an NIRS driven analytical system for analysis of alfalfa hay and processed alfalfa products; (2) assist in hiring a qualified NIRS technician and recommend changes in testing equipment necessary to provide accurate analysis; (3) calibrate the NIRS instrument for accurate analyses; and (4) develop prototype equipment and sampling procedures as a first step towards development of a totally automated sampling system that would rapidly sample and record incoming feedstock and outbound product. An accurate hay testing program was developed, along with calibration equations for analyzing alfalfa hay and sun-cured alfalfa pellets. A preliminary leaf steam calibration protocol was also developed. 7 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Assessment of microcapsule—catalyst particles healing system in high performance fibre reinforced polymer composite

    Bolimowski, P. A.; Wass, D. F.; Bond, I. P.


    Autonomous self-healing in carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) is demonstrated using epoxy resin filled microcapsules and a solid-state catalyst. Microcapsules filled with oligomeric epoxy resin (20–450 μm) and particles of Sc(OTf)3 are embedded in an interleave region of a unidirectional CFRP laminate and tested under mode I loading. Double cantilever beam (DCB) test specimens containing variable concentrations of microcapsules and catalyst were prepared, tested and compared to those healed by manual injection with corresponding healing resin formulation. The healing efficiency was evaluated by comparing the maximum peak load recorded on load–displacement curves for pristine and healed specimens. A 44% maximum recovery was observed for specimens containing 10 wt% of solid phase catalyst and 11 wt% of epoxy microcapsules. However, a significant (80%) decrease in initial strain energy release rate (G IC) was observed for specimens with the embedded healing chemistries.


    Jun Zhang,


    Full Text Available SO42-/ZrO2-TiO2 catalysts prepared by precipitation and impregnation methods were employed for glucose conversion. The basic structures of the prepared catalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, NH3-TPD, XPS, and TEM techniques. The essential properties of SO42-/ZrO2 could be improved greatly by adding a suitable amount of TiO2. High BET area and pore volume favored glucose conversion. The conversion rate of glucose into levulinic acid catalyzed by SO42-/ZrO2-TiO2 increased significantly in an extremely low acid system, indicating that the acidic condition was favorable for levulinic acid formation. The combined yield of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid reached 28.8% with the presence of SO42-/ZrO2-TiO2 when the Zr-Ti molar ratio was 5:5 at 170 °C for 2 h in the extremely low acid system. Studies on catalyst recycling were also further investigated in this study.

  7. Task Mapping and Bandwidth Reservation for Mixed Hard/Soft Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems

    Saraswat, Prabhat Kumar; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    reserved for the servers determines the quality of service (QoS) for soft tasks. CBS enforces temporal isolation, such that soft task overruns do not affect the timing guarantees of hard tasks. Transient faults in hard tasks are tolerated using checkpointing with rollback recovery. We have proposed a Tabu...... Search-based approach for task mapping and CBS bandwidth reservation, such that the deadlines for the hard tasks are satisfied, even in the case of transient faults, and the QoS for the soft tasks is maximized. Researchers have used fixed execution time models, such as the worst-case execution times for...

  8. Tuning the properties of copper-based catalysts based on molecular in situ studies of model systems.

    Stacchiola, Darío J


    Studying catalytic processes at the molecular level is extremely challenging, due to the structural and chemical complexity of the materials used as catalysts and the presence of reactants and products in the reactor's environment. The most common materials used on catalysts are transition metals and their oxides. The importance of multifunctional active sites at metal/oxide interfaces has been long recognized, but a molecular picture of them based on experimental observations is only recently emerging. The initial approach to interrogate the surface chemistry of catalysts at the molecular level consisted of studying metal single crystals as models for reactive metal centers, moving later to single crystal or well-defined thin film oxides. The natural next iteration consisted in the deposition of metal nanoparticles on well-defined oxide substrates. Metal nanoparticles contain undercoordinated sites, which are more reactive. It is also possible to create architectures where oxide nanoparticles are deposited on top of metal single crystals, denominated inverse catalysts, leading in this case to a high concentration of reactive cationic sites in direct contact with the underlying fully coordinated metal atoms. Using a second oxide as a support (host), a multifunctional configuration can be built in which both metal and oxide nanoparticles are located in close proximity. Our recent studies on copper-based catalysts are presented here as an example of the application of these complementary model systems, starting from the creation of undercoordinated sites on Cu(111) and Cu2O(111) surfaces, continuing with the formation of mixed-metal copper oxides, the synthesis of ceria nanoparticles on Cu(111) and the codeposition of Cu and ceria nanoparticles on TiO2(110). Catalysts have traditionally been characterized before or after reactions and analyzed based on static representations of surface structures. It is shown here how dynamic changes on a catalyst's chemical state

  9. Testing of a Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst for methane steam reforming using different reaction systems

    De Miguel, N.; Manzanedo, J. [IKERLAN S. Coop, Alternative Generation Systems Area, Minano (Alava) (Spain); Arias, P.L. [University of the Basque Country, School of Engineering, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Bilbao (Spain)


    Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst activity was tested for methane steam reforming using two different reaction systems: a catalyst particle bed (0.42-0.5 mm catalyst particles diluted in SiC) with a surface area-to-volume ratio SA/V of 910 m{sup -1} and a porosity {epsilon} of 52 % and a catalyst-coated metal monolith with an SA/V of 3300 m{sup -1} and an {epsilon} of 86 %. Under a steam-to-carbon ratio of 2.5 and at a temperature of 700 C, the highest specific reaction rates were found for the catalyst-coated monolith. The high SA/V and {epsilon}, together with the high rate of heat transfer of the metal monolith were found to be responsible of this optimum behavior. However, in both systems, the Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst suffered a catalyst deactivation during operation. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Parallel Task Processing on a Multicore Platform in a PC-based Control System for Parallel Kinematics

    Harald Michalik


    Full Text Available Multicore platforms are such that have one physical processor chip with multiple cores interconnected via a chip level bus. Because they deliver a greater computing power through concurrency, offer greater system density multicore platforms provide best qualifications to address the performance bottleneck encountered in PC-based control systems for parallel kinematic robots with heavy CPU-load. Heavy load control tasks are generated by new control approaches that include features like singularity prediction, structure control algorithms, vision data integration and similar tasks. In this paper we introduce the parallel task scheduling extension of a communication architecture specially tailored for the development of PC-based control of parallel kinematics. The Sche-duling is specially designed for the processing on a multicore platform. It breaks down the serial task processing of the robot control cycle and extends it with parallel task processing paths in order to enhance the overall control performance.

  11. Indication of the suitable model of a mechatronic system as an introduction to the synthesis task

    M. Płaczek


    Full Text Available Purpose: The identification of the optimal mathematical model that meets the assumed criteria is the main purpose of this paper, which is an introduction to the task of synthesis of one-dimensional vibrating mechatronic systems. Assumed criteria are to provide the accurate analysis of the system together with maximum simplification of used mathematical tools and minimize required amount of time. The correct description of a given system by its model during the design phase is a fundamental condition for proper operation of it. Therefore, the processes of modelling, testing and verification of used models were presented. On the basis of carry out analysis the optimal (in case of assumed criteria model was selected and it will be used to realize the task of synthesis in future works.Design/methodology/approach: A series of mathematical models with different simplifying assumptions was created. Using the created models and corrected approximate Galerkin method the dynamic characteristic of the considered system was designated. The analysis of an influence of parameters of the system’s components on obtained characteristic was conducted. The approximate method was verified to check its accuracy and decide if it can be used to analyse such kind of mechatronic systems.Findings: The main result of the work is an indication of the suitable mathematical model of the considered system.Research limitations/implications: Influence of temperature changes on the transducer’s properties was neglected in developed mathematical models. It will be considered in the future works.Practical implications: Presented method of mechatronic system’s analysis can be use in process of designing of technical devices where both, simply and reverse piezoelectric effects can be used.Originality/value: Development of the mathematical models in which the considered system is modelled as a combined beam.

  12. Changing societies and four tasks of schooling: Challenges for strongly differentiated educational systems

    van de Werfhorst, Herman G.


    Changing labour markets, increased calls for selection and excellence, and increased diversity and individualisation have repercussions on how educational systems can prepare youth for work, optimise knowledge production, achieve equality of opportunity, and socialise students into active civic engagement. This paper discusses four central tasks of schooling and examines to what extent societal developments challenge education policy to deliver on the tasks at hand. Particular attention is given to the challenges Europe's strongly diversified educational systems are currently facing. Both the Netherlands and Germany, for example, have been offering vocationally-oriented pathways alongside traditional academic higher education for some time. But today's ongoing changes in job descriptions, mainly due to ever-accelerating technological developments, are causing a risk of skills obsolescence which can only be avoided by continuous upskilling and/or reskilling of a sufficiently flexible workforce. Overcoming differences of intelligence as well as differences of diverse socioeconomic, ethnic and linguistic backgrounds by way of education is another challenge, as is fostering "soft" skills and political awareness. This paper investigates the effectiveness of current education systems in preparing citizens for a functioning modern society.

  13. Myoelectric Control System and Task-Specific Characteristics Affect Voluntary Use of Simultaneous Control.

    Smith, Lauren H; Kuiken, Todd A; Hargrove, Levi J


    Clinically available myoelectric control does not enable simultaneous proportional control of prosthetic degrees of freedom. Multiple studies have proposed systems that provide simultaneous control, though few have investigated whether subjects voluntarily use simultaneous control or how they implement it. Additionally, few studies have explicitly evaluated the effect of providing proportional velocity control. The objective of this study was to evaluate factors influencing when and how subjects use simultaneous myoelectric control, including the ability to proportionally control the velocity and the required task precision. Five able-bodied subjects used simultaneous myoelectric control systems with and without proportional velocity control in a virtual Fitts' Law task. Though subjects used simultaneous control to a substantial degree when proportional velocity control was present, they used very little simultaneous control when using constant-velocity control. Furthermore, use of simultaneous control varied significantly with target distance and width, reflecting a strategy of using simultaneous control for gross cursor positioning and sequential control for fine corrective movements. These results provide insight into how users take advantage of simultaneous control and highlight the need for real-time evaluation of simultaneous control algorithms, as the potential benefit of providing simultaneous control may be affected by other characteristics of the myoelectric control system. PMID:25769167

  14. Homogeneous catalysts

    Chadwick, John C; Freixa, Zoraida; van Leeuwen, Piet W N M


    This first book to illuminate this important aspect of chemical synthesis improves the lifetime of catalysts, thus reducing material and saving energy, costs and waste.The international panel of expert authors describes the studies that have been conducted concerning the way homogeneous catalysts decompose, and the differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. The result is a ready reference for organic, catalytic, polymer and complex chemists, as well as those working in industry and with/on organometallics.

  15. Reliability of steam-turbine rotors. Task 1. Lifetime prediction analysis system. Final report

    Task 1 of RP 502, Reliability of Steam Turbine Rotors, resulted in the development of a computerized lifetime prediction analysis system (STRAP) for the automatic evaluation of rotor integrity based upon the results of a boresonic examination of near-bore defects. Concurrently an advanced boresonic examination system (TREES), designed to acquire data automatically for lifetime analysis, was developed and delivered to the maintenance shop of a major utility. This system and a semi-automated, state-of-the-art system (BUCS) were evaluated on two retired rotors as part of the Task 2 effort. A modified nonproprietary version of STRAP, called SAFER, is now available for rotor lifetime prediction analysis. STRAP and SAFER share a common fracture analysis postprocessor for rapid evaluation of either conventional boresonic amplitude data or TREES cell data. The final version of this postprocessor contains general stress intensity correlations for elliptical cracks in a radial stress gradient and provision for elastic-plastic instability of the ligament between an imbedded crack and the bore surface. Both linear elastic and ligament rupture models were developed for rapid analysis of linkup within three-dimensional clusters of defects. Bore stress-rupture criteria are included, but a creep-fatigue crack growth data base is not available. Physical and mechanical properties of air-melt 1CrMoV forgings are built into the program; however, only bounding values of fracture toughness versus temperature are available. Owing to the lack of data regarding the probability of flaw detection for the boresonic systems and of quantitative verification of the flaw linkup analysis, automatic evlauation of boresonic results is not recommended, and the lifetime prediction system is currently restricted to conservative, deterministic analysis of specified flaw geometries

  16. Nanophase Systems Dispersed in Mesoporous MCM-41 as Catalysts for Hydrodesupfurization

    Kraleva, E.; Spojakina, A.A.; Avdeev, G.; Jirátová, Květa; Petrov, L.


    Roč. 6, č. 7 (2006), s. 160-165. ISBN 978-954-580-228-7. ISSN N Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : mechanochemical treatment * heteropolycompounds * hds catalysts Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  17. In situ synthesis of nano clay filled polyethylene using polymer support metallocenes catalyst system

    In situ ethylene polymerizations were performed using bis(cyclopentadiene)titanium dichloride supported on poly ethersulfone as catalyst. The bis(cyclopentadiene)titanium dichloride supported on poly ethersulfone catalyst activity estimated by ethylene polymerization was 360 kg PE/mol Ti/h. During polymerization the fillers used were montmorillonite nano clays having surface modifications with 35-45 wt % dimethyl dialkyl(14-18)amine (FA) and 25-30 wt % trimethyl stearyl ammonium (FB). These fillers were pretreated with methylaluminoxine (MAO; co catalyst) for better dispersion onto the polymer matrix. The formation of polyethylene within the whole matrix was confirmed by FTIR studies. It was found that the nature of nano filler did not have any remarkable effect on the melting characteristics of the polymer. TGA study indicates that nano clay FB filled polyethylene has higher thermal stability than nano clay FA filled polyethylene. The melting temperature of the obtained polyethylenes was 142 degree C, which corresponds to that synthesized by the polyether sulfone supported catalyst. (author)

  18. Operator function modeling: Cognitive task analysis, modeling and intelligent aiding in supervisory control systems

    Mitchell, Christine M.


    The design, implementation, and empirical evaluation of task-analytic models and intelligent aids for operators in the control of complex dynamic systems, specifically aerospace systems, are studied. Three related activities are included: (1) the models of operator decision making in complex and predominantly automated space systems were used and developed; (2) the Operator Function Model (OFM) was used to represent operator activities; and (3) Operator Function Model Expert System (OFMspert), a stand-alone knowledge-based system was developed, that interacts with a human operator in a manner similar to a human assistant in the control of aerospace systems. OFMspert is an architecture for an operator's assistant that uses the OFM as its system and operator knowledge base and a blackboard paradigm of problem solving to dynamically generate expectations about upcoming operator activities and interpreting actual operator actions. An experiment validated the OFMspert's intent inferencing capability and showed that it inferred the intentions of operators in ways comparable to both a human expert and operators themselves. OFMspert was also augmented with control capabilities. An interface allowed the operator to interact with OFMspert, delegating as much or as little control responsibility as the operator chose. With its design based on the OFM, OFMspert's control capabilities were available at multiple levels of abstraction and allowed the operator a great deal of discretion over the amount and level of delegated control. An experiment showed that overall system performance was comparable for teams consisting of two human operators versus a human operator and OFMspert team.

  19. Development of the Task-Based Expert System for Machine Fault Diagnosis

    Bo, Ma; Zhi-nong, Jiang; Zhong-qing, Wei


    The operating mechanism of expert systems widely used in fault diagnosis is to formulate a set of diagnostic rules, according to the mechanism and symptoms of faults, in order to instruct the fault diagnosis or directly give diagnostic results. In practice, due to differences existing in such aspects as production technology, drivers, etc., a certain fault may derive from different causes, which will lead to a lower diagnostic accuracy of expert systems. Besides, a variety of expert systems now available have a dual problem of low generality and low expandability, of which the former can lead to the repeated development of expert systems for different machines, while the latter restricts users from expanding the system. Aimed at these problems, a type of task-based software architecture of expert system is proposed in this paper, which permits a specific optimization based on a set of common rules, and allows users to add or modify rules on a man-machine dialog so as to keep on absorbing and improving the expert knowledge. Finally, the integration of the expert system with the condition monitoring system to implement the automatic and semi-automatic diagnosis is introduced.

  20. Development of the Task-Based Expert System for Machine Fault Diagnosis

    The operating mechanism of expert systems widely used in fault diagnosis is to formulate a set of diagnostic rules, according to the mechanism and symptoms of faults, in order to instruct the fault diagnosis or directly give diagnostic results. In practice, due to differences existing in such aspects as production technology, drivers, etc., a certain fault may derive from different causes, which will lead to a lower diagnostic accuracy of expert systems. Besides, a variety of expert systems now available have a dual problem of low generality and low expandability, of which the former can lead to the repeated development of expert systems for different machines, while the latter restricts users from expanding the system. Aimed at these problems, a type of task-based software architecture of expert system is proposed in this paper, which permits a specific optimization based on a set of common rules, and allows users to add or modify rules on a man-machine dialog so as to keep on absorbing and improving the expert knowledge. Finally, the integration of the expert system with the condition monitoring system to implement the automatic and semi-automatic diagnosis is introduced.

  1. The flight telerobotic servicer Tinman concept: System design drivers and task analysis

    Andary, J. F.; Hewitt, D. R.; Hinkal, S. W.


    A study was conducted to develop a preliminary definition of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) that could be used to understand the operational concepts and scenarios for the FTS. Called the Tinman, this design concept was also used to begin the process of establishing resources and interfaces for the FTS on Space Station Freedom, the National Space Transportation System shuttle orbiter, and the Orbital Maneuvering vehicle. Starting with an analysis of the requirements and task capabilities as stated in the Phase B study requirements document, the study identified eight major design drivers for the FTS. Each of these design drivers and their impacts on the Tinman design concept are described. Next, the planning that is currently underway for providing resources for the FTS on Space Station Freedom is discussed, including up to 2000 W of peak power, up to four color video channels, and command and data rates up to 500 kbps between the telerobot and the control station. Finally, an example is presented to show how the Tinman design concept was used to analyze task scenarios and explore the operational capabilities of the FTS. A structured methodology using a standard terminology consistent with the NASA/National Bureau of Standards Standard Reference Model for Telerobot Control System Architecture (NASREM) was developed for this analysis.

  2. Improving the detection task performance of a LWIR imaging system through the use of wavefront coding

    Gross, Kevin A.; Kubala, Kenny


    In a traditional optical system the imaging performance is maximized at a single point in the operational space. This characteristic leads to maximizing the probability of detection if the object is on axis, at the designed conjugate, with the designed operational temperature and if the system components are manufactured without error in form and alignment. Due to the many factors that influence the system's image quality the probability of detection will decrease away from this peak value. An infrared imaging system is presented that statistically creates a higher probability of detection over the complete operational space for the Hotelling observer. The system is enabled through the use of wavefront coding, a computational imaging technology in which optics, mechanics, detection and signal processing are combined to enable LWIR imaging systems to be realized with detection task performance that is difficult or impossible to obtain in the optical domain alone. The basic principles of statistical decision theory will be presented along with a specific example of how wavefront coding technology can enable improved performance and reduced sensitivity to some of the fundamental constraints inherent in LWIR systems.

  3. Preparation of aromatic compound e.g. 1-chloronaphthalene involves exposing pre-formed benzenoid to an energy source in the presence of a catalyst system

    Hutchings, Michael Gordon; Quayle, Peter; Bull, James Alan; Barroso, Cristina Lujan; HUTCHINGS M G, QUAYLE P, BULL J A, BARROSO C L


    NOVELTY - An aromatic compound is prepared by exposing pre-formed benzenoid or other organic compound to an energy source in the presence of a catalyst system. USE - For preparing an aromatic compound (e.g. 1-chloronaphthalene) useful for pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, dyes and pigments, cosmetics, oil chemicals, electronic chemicals, auxiliaries, flavors and fragrances and as components or intermediates of polymers and catalysts. ADVANTAGE - The process allows conversion of readily ...

  4. Heterogeneous chromium catalysts


    The present invention relates to a heterogeneous chromium catalyst system for the polymerisation of ethylene and/or alpha olefins prepared by the steps of: (a) providing a silica-containing support, (b) treating the silica-containing support with a chromium compound to form a chromium-based silica-containing support, (c) activating the chromium-based silica-containing support, (d) chemically reducing the activated chromium-based silica-containing support to produce a precursor catalyst, (e) r...

  5. Report of the Census Task Force on beamline control system requirements

    A special task force was appointed to study the experience with the present beamline control system at Fermilab and to make recommendations in this area. The charge of the committee and the list of its members are appended. In order to carry out its assignment, the committee conducted a series of meetings in which it discussed the controls situation in general and the best way to approach the user community. The various groups of users were identified, and a letter was written to representatives of these groups asking questions concerning the present system and future needs. The committee met with each group to discuss the response to these questions. Written summaries of the discussions are appended. Conclusions are drawn regarding current problems, systematic upgrades and specific recommendations

  6. AAPM Task Group 128: Quality assurance tests for prostate brachytherapy ultrasound systems

    While ultrasound guided prostate brachytherapy has gained wide acceptance as a primary treatment tool for prostate cancer, quality assurance of the ultrasound guidance system has received very little attention. Task Group 128 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine was created to address quality assurance requirements specific to transrectal ultrasound used for guidance of prostate brachytherapy. Accurate imaging guidance and dosimetry calculation depend upon the quality and accuracy of the ultrasound image. Therefore, a robust quality assurance program for the ultrasound system is essential. A brief review of prostate brachytherapy and ultrasound physics is provided, followed by a recommendation for elements to be included in a comprehensive test phantom. Specific test recommendations are presented, covering grayscale visibility, depth of penetration, axial and lateral resolution, distance measurement, area measurement, volume measurement, needle template/electronic grid alignment, and geometric consistency with the treatment planning computer.

  7. Bimetallic Catalysts.

    Sinfelt, John H.


    Chemical reaction rates can be controlled by varying composition of miniscule clusters of metal atoms. These bimetallic catalysts have had major impact on petroleum refining, where work has involved heterogeneous catalysis (reacting molecules in a phase separate from catalyst.) Experimentation involving hydrocarbon reactions, catalytic…

  8. IEA PVPS Task 7 'Photovoltaic power systems in the built environment'; IEA PVPS Task 7 'Photovoltaic power systems in the built environment'

    Ruoss, D.; Toggweiler, P.


    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of Task 7, a task originally set up by the International Energy Agency (IEA) in 1997 to study the topic of building-integrated photovoltaic power systems (BIPV) that are incorporated into our built-up environment. The task's four subtasks are described that covered architectural design, systems technologies, non-technical barriers and the demonstration and dissemination of PV systems. The products of the task are introduced, including a publicly accessible PV database that presents a selection of BIPV applications in different building areas and an overview of BIPV technologies available today. A further subtask is described that published a book on 'Designing with Solar Power'. Other subtasks are also described: one dealt with the potential for PV power in IEA countries, another was involved with the setting up of DEMOSITE in Lausanne, Switzerland, where 32 different systems are on display. Also a 'Training and Education' package was developed and added to the Task 7 book as a CD-ROM supplement. The authors sum up by remarking that Task 7 provided a unique opportunity to link together leading programmes in the USA, Europe, Japan and other countries, to disseminate experience gained in BIPV applications and to promote the exchange of information on the subject.

  9. Modified Fe3O4- hydroxyapatite nanocomposites as heterogeneous catalysts in three UV, Vis and Fenton like degradation systems

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Photocatalytic degradation of dye by Ag modified HAP under visible light. • Study of Fenton like degradation of dye by transition metal ions modified HAP. • Comparison of catalytic systems according to Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic expression. - Abstract: The magnetite-hydroxyapatite (M-HAP) nanocomposites were prepared by a chemical co- precipitation procedure and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The ability of the synthesized catalyst for photocatalytic degradation of Acid Blue 25 (AB25), as an organic dye, under UV irradiation was studied. The catalyst was modified employing transition metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) trying to improve the catalytic performance of HAP in absence of UV irradiation and in the presence of hydrogen peroxide i.e. a Fenton like reaction. The best results obtained for Cu and Co modified M-HAPs and the effect of operational parameters such pH, amount of catalyst and hydrogen peroxide concentration was studied. In order to investigate the performance of HAP based photocatalyst in visible light region, M-HAP was modified with silver ions. At the end, Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic expression used to evaluate and compare the catalytic systems. The strongest degradation activity was observed for Ag-M-HAP/Vis system because of Ag3PO4 formation. Apparent reaction rate constant (Kapp) by Ag-M-HAP/Vis was 63, 36 and 19 times faster than Cu-M-HAP(II)/H2O2, Co-M-HAP(II)/H2O2 and M-HAP (I)/UV systems, respectively

  10. Evaluation of an inertial sensor system for analysis of timed-up-and-go under dual-task demands.

    Coulthard, Jason T; Treen, Tanner T; Oates, Alison R; Lanovaz, Joel L


    Functional tests, such as the timed-up-and-go (TUG), are routinely used to screen for mobility issues and fall risk. While the TUG is easy to administer and evaluate, its single time-to-completion outcome may not discriminate between different mobility challenges. Wearable sensors provide an opportunity to collect a variety of additional variables during clinical tests. The purpose of this study was to assess a new wearable inertial sensor system (iTUG) by investigating the effects of cognitive tasks in a dual-task paradigm on spatiotemporal and kinematic variables during the TUG. No previous studies have looked at both spatiotemporal variables and kinematics during dual-task TUG tests. 20 healthy young participants (10 males) performed a total 15 TUG trials with two different cognitive tasks and a normal control condition. Total time, along with spatiotemporal gait parameters and kinematics for all TUG subtasks (sit-to-stand, walking, turn, turn-to-sit), were measured using the inertial sensors. Time-to-completion from iTUG was highly correlated with concurrent manual timing. Spatiotemporal variables during walking showed expected differences between control and cognitive dual-tasks while trunk kinematics appeared to show more sensitivity to dual-tasks than reported previously in straight line walking. Non-walking TUG subtasks showed only minor changes during dual-task conditions indicating a possible attentional shift away from the cognitive task. Stride length and some variability measures were significantly different between the two cognitive tasks suggesting an ability to discriminate between tasks. Overall, the use of the iTUG system allows the collection of both traditional and potentially more discriminatory variables with a protocol that is easily used in a clinical setting. PMID:25827680