Sample records for case study based

  1. Study on Case-Based Fixture Design


    Fixture is an important manufacturing activity. A fixture design system based on case-based reasoning (CBR) is proposed in this paper. A new method of case representation on the basis of fixture function is presented, where the case representation is constituted of workpiece knowledge, processing feature knowledge, and fixture feature knowledge. Running the prototype system shows that the knowledge representation method, using cases, is a better way to transform and explain the design knowledge.

  2. Logistics case study based research: Towards higher quality

    Pedrosa, Alex; Näslund, Dag; Jasmand, Claudia


    analysis of 134 case study based articles published in six leading logistics and supply chain management (SCM) journals between 1998 and 2010 is used to assess and evaluate the quality of the case study based research approach as documented in these publications. Findings – This research provides an...... overview of the quality of the case study based research approach. Results show that the quality is generally low, supporting the ongoing, but empirically unsupported criticism on the quality of case study based research. The results also highlight which specific aspects authors and reviewers need to...... address to ensure high quality of the case study based research approach in published articles. Research limitations/implications – This study is limited to the analysis of published articles in six logistics and SCM journals. Further research should investigate different journals in logistics and other...

  3. Case Studies for Contract-based Systems

    Jakob, Michal; Pěchouček, Michal; Chábera, Jiří; Miles, Simon; Luck, Michael; Oren, Nir; Kollingbaum, Martin; Holt, Camden; Vazquez, Javier; Storms, Patrick; Dehn, Martin


    Of the ways in which agent behaviour can be regulated in a multi-agent system, electronic contracting - based on explicit representation of different parties' responsibilities, and the agreement of all parties to them - has significant potential for modern industrial applications. Based on this assumption, the CONTRACT project aims to develop and apply electronic contracting and contract-based monitoring and verification techniques in real world applications. This paper presents results from ...

  4. Arts-Based Learning and Leadership Development: A Case Study

    Brenner, Michael Yoel


    This qualitative case study was designed to explore how participants in an arts-based leadership development program learned to draw on their right brain capabilities in order to develop the creative competencies required to solve complex modern-day problems in new and different ways. The rationale for this study emerges from the researcher's…

  5. A Specification—Based Case Study from Test Class Framework

    LIULing; MIAOHuai-kou


    Testing is a standard method for verification of software performance.Producing efficinet and appropriate test case is an important aspect in testing.Specification-based testing presents a method to derive test data from software specification.Because of the precision and concision of specification.the test data derived from specification can test the software efficiently and entirely.This paper demonstrates a test class framework(TCF) on a file reading case study,specifiec using Z notation,This class framework defines test case sets,providing structure to the testing process.Flexbility is preserved so that many testing strategies can be used.

  6. Predictive Software Measures based on Z Specifications - A Case Study

    Andreas Bollin


    Full Text Available Estimating the effort and quality of a system is a critical step at the beginning of every software project. It is necessary to have reliable ways of calculating these measures, and, it is even better when the calculation can be done as early as possible in the development life-cycle. Having this in mind, metrics for formal specifications are examined with a view to correlations to complexity and quality-based code measures. A case study, based on a Z specification and its implementation in ADA, analyzes the practicability of these metrics as predictors.

  7. Study Paper on Test Case generation for GUI Based Testing

    Isabella, A


    With the advent of WWW and outburst in technology and software development, testing the software became a major concern. Due to the importance of the testing phase in a software development life cycle, testing has been divided into graphical user interface (GUI) based testing, logical testing, integration testing, etc.GUI Testing has become very important as it provides more sophisticated way to interact with the software. The complexity of testing GUI increased over time. The testing needs to be performed in a way that it provides effectiveness, efficiency, increased fault detection rate and good path coverage. To cover all use cases and to provide testing for all possible (success/failure) scenarios the length of the test sequence is considered important. Intent of this paper is to study some techniques used for test case generation and process for various GUI based software applications.

  8. An Evaluation of Web-Based Case Studies in Microscopy

    Susan M. Merkel


    Full Text Available It is often difficult to provide students in introductory science courses with opportunities that mimic the investigative learning experience of doing research. This is particularly true in microbiology courses where advanced microscopy techniques are expensive and difficult to do. To that end, we developed three computer-based case studies around real-life scenarios. Our goals were to: (i improve students’ understanding of advanced microscopic techniques, (ii give students practice analyzing and interpreting data, and (iii model a scientific approach to how these techniques are applied to current issues in microbiology. Each case requires students to use references and interpret actual microscopic images, thus giving them a more realistic experience than we could previously provide. We analyzed student learning and perceptions to these case studies. After doing the case studies, students were more able to apply microscopic methods to a realistic problem, thus demonstrating an understanding of how the methods are used. Students appreciated the intellectual challenges presented by having to interpret and analyze actual microscopic images. This approach has allowed us to introduce new areas of content to our course and to stimulate critical thinking skills, a difficult task in a large introductory microbiology course.

  9. Discrete Surface Modeling Based on Google Earth: A Case Study

    Mei, Gang; Tipper, John C.; Xu, Nengxiong


    Google Earth (GE) has become a powerful tool for geological, geophysical and geographical modeling; yet GE can be accepted to acquire elevation data of terrain. In this paper, we present a real study case of building the discrete surface model (DSM) at Haut-Barr Castle in France based on the elevation data of terrain points extracted from GE using the COM API. We first locate the position of Haut-Barr Castle and determine the region of the study area, then extract elevation data of terrain at...

  10. Case Studies

    Proven options available to Sri Lanka for large scale electricity generation in the future are coal-fired thermal, oil-fired thermal and Nuclear. Four case studies for groups participated are indicated. Case study for group 1 is comparison of the three options by taking into consideration the capital and recurrent expenditure involved. Environmental effects of the three options are also given. Case study for group 2 is economic comparison of three renewable energy based power generation system. Case study for group 3 is based on energy conservation, efficiency, improvement and demand management. Assuming that a continuous saving of 20 MW of demand from 1996 onwards is effective two projects are suggested to achieve this result. Case study for group 4 is a feasibility study for hydro power development of the Kukule Ganga (river) in Sri Lanka. Participants are required to evaluate one of the three optional development concepts which are technically feasible

  11. Case Studies in Agnotology-Based Learning (Invited)

    Cook, J.; Bedford, D. P.; Mandia, S. A.


    Agnotology is the study of how and why ignorance or misconceptions exist. While misconceptions are a challenge for educators, they also present an opportunity to improve climate literacy through agnotology-based learning. This involves refutational lessons that challenge misconceptions while teaching scientific concepts. I will summarize two decades of research that find refutational texts are among the most effective forms of reducing misconceptions. I will present case studies in improving climate literacy through agnotology-based learning, both in the college classroom and in public outreach promoted through mainstream and social media. I will also explore how content from the website is being used by educators as a teaching resource. These real-world examples demonstrate effective ways to reduce misperceptions and improve climate literacy.

  12. Game Mechanic based E-Learning : A case study

    Gåsland, Magne Matre


    This thesis presents a case study of Game Mechanic based E-Learning. This is put forward as a new approach to E-Learning that tries to mimic games to harness some of their motivational properties. A prototype system was developed as a web application, using an Agile and Lean development approach.The system was evaluated with a class at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.This was done to give an indication of the system's ability to make work with exercises more engaging a...

  13. Discrete Surface Modeling Based on Google Earth: A Case Study

    Mei, Gang; Xu, Nengxiong


    Google Earth (GE) has become a powerful tool for geological, geophysical and geographical modeling; yet GE can be accepted to acquire elevation data of terrain. In this paper, we present a real study case of building the discrete surface model (DSM) at Haut-Barr Castle in France based on the elevation data of terrain points extracted from GE using the COM API. We first locate the position of Haut-Barr Castle and determine the region of the study area, then extract elevation data of terrain at Haut-Barr, and thirdly create a planar triangular mesh that covers the study area and finally generate the desired DSM by calculating the elevation of vertices in the planar mesh via interpolating with Universal Kriging (UK) and Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW). The generated DSM can reflect the features of the ground surface at Haut-Barr well, and can be used for constructingthe Sealed Engineering Geological Model (SEGM) in further step.




    Full Text Available With the advent of WWW and outburst in technology and software development, testing the softwarebecame a major concern. Due to the importance of the testing phase in a software development lifecycle,testing has been divided into graphical user interface (GUI based testing, logical testing, integrationtesting, etc.GUI Testing has become very important as it provides more sophisticated way to interact withthe software. The complexity of testing GUI increased over time. The testing needs to be performed in away that it provides effectiveness, efficiency, increased fault detection rate and good path coverage. Tocover all use cases and to provide testing for all possible (success/failure scenarios the length of the testsequence is considered important. Intent of this paper is to study some techniques used for test casegeneration and process for various GUI based software applications.

  15. A simulation based case study for control of DSTATCOM.

    Kumar, Pradeep; Kumar, Niranjan; Akella, A K


    This paper presents a distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) for power quality improvements in terms of harmonics and power factor correction in a three-phase four-wire distribution system. The DSTATCOM is implemented with PWM current controlled six-leg voltage source converter (VSC) and the switching patterns are generated through a novel synchronous reference frame controller (SRFC). The insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) based VSC is supported by a capacitor and is controlled for the required compensation of the load current. The DSTATCOM is connected to the power system feeding nonlinear loads. Nonlinear loads include either current-source type or voltage-source type. Harmonic spectrum of the source current is compared in between without DSTATCOM and with DSTATCOM by considering both types of nonlinear loads. The SRFC based DSTATCOM system is validated through extensive simulation for diode-rectifier and unbalanced R-L loads with a case study. PMID:24656282

  16. Expanded fluid based viscosity correlation : diluted heavy oil case study

    Yarranton, H.; Satyro, M.A.; Schoeggl, F. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering


    The viscosity of pure hydrocarbons has been correlated using a simple function involving fluid density, low pressure gas viscosity and pressure. The correlation was developed based on measured densities from the NIST database. The correlation has been refit to use densities predicted from the Advanced Peng-Robinson equation of state. The usefulness of the correlation was shown for pure hydrocarbons such as n-alkanes, branched alkanes, alkenes, cyclics and aromatics as well as binary mixtures of pure hydrocarbons. This presentation included a case study on the viscosity of heavy oil diluted with solvent. The newly proposed, simple and quick method for calculating liquid and vapour viscosities was found to be suitable for incorporation into process and reservoir simulators. tabs., figs.

  17. Clinicians adopting evidence based guidelines: a case study with thromboprophylaxis

    Fry Margaret


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous Thromboembolism (VTE is a cause of hospital mortality and managing its morbidity is associated with significant expenditure. Uptake of evidenced based guideline recommendations intended to prevent VTE in hospital settings is sub-optimal. This study was conducted to explore clinicians' attitudes and the clinical environment in which they work to understand their reluctance to adopt VTE prophylaxis guidelines. Methods Between February and November 2009, 40 hospital employed doctors from 2 Australian metropolitan hospitals were interviewed in depth. Qualitative data were analysed according to thematic methodology. Results Analysis of interviews revealed that barriers to evidence based practice include i the fragmented system of care delivery where multiple members of teams and multiple teams are responsible for each patient's care, and in the case of VTE, where everyone shares responsibility and no-one in particular is responsible; ii the culture of practice where team practice is tailored to that of the team head, and where medicine is considered an 'art' in which guidelines should be adapted to each patient rather than applied universally. Interviewees recommend clear allocation of responsibility and reminders to counteract VTE risk assessment being overlooked. Conclusions Senior clinicians are the key enablers for practice change. They will need to be convinced that guideline compliance adds value to their patient care. Then with the support of systems in the organisation designed to minimize the effects of care fragmentation, they will drive practice changes in their teams. We believe that evidence based practice is only possible with a coordinated program that addresses individual, cultural and organisational constraints.

  18. Behavior-based safety on construction sites: a case study.

    Choudhry, Rafiq M


    This work presents the results of a case study and describes an important area within the field of construction safety management, namely behavior-based safety (BBS). This paper adopts and develops a management approach for safety improvements in construction site environments. A rigorous behavioral safety system and its intervention program was implemented and deployed on target construction sites. After taking a few weeks of safety behavior measurements, the project management team implemented the designed intervention and measurements were taken. Goal-setting sessions were arranged on-site with workers' participation to set realistic and attainable targets of performance. Safety performance measurements continued and the levels of performance and the targets were presented on feedback charts. Supervisors were asked to give workers recognition and praise when they acted safely or improved critical behaviors. Observers were requested to have discussions with workers, visit the site, distribute training materials to workers, and provide feedback to crews and display charts. They were required to talk to operatives in the presence of line managers. It was necessary to develop awareness and understanding of what was being measured. In the process, operatives learned how to act safely when conducting site tasks using the designed checklists. Current weekly scores were discussed in the weekly safety meetings and other operational site meetings with emphasis on how to achieve set targets. The reliability of the safety performance measures taken by the company's observers was monitored. A clear increase in safety performance level was achieved across all categories: personal protective equipment; housekeeping; access to heights; plant and equipment, and scaffolding. The research reveals that scores of safety performance at one project improved from 86% (at the end of 3rd week) to 92.9% during the 9th week. The results of intervention demonstrated large decreases in

  19. Success Factors in Offset Deals: A Case Study Based Examination

    Heinz Kirchwehm


    Full Text Available The requests for offset obligations occurs primarily in the area of arms imports and covers the full range of industrial and commercial benefits that companies provide to foreign governments as inducements or conditions for the purchase of military goods and services. Increasingly, all major contracts ask for offset obligations. They are now key differentiators in major contracts and it is a fast growing market. For the suppliers, offsets are a key differentiator in earning new business and therefore should be accepted that much accurateness is put on the successful execution of the offset projects. Nevertheless, it comes to problems during the project phase and sometimes we’ve the situation that a offset project failed. The aim of this paper is to exam which success- giving factors are exists in the offset related interaction between buyer, seller and participating industry. The data for this investigation were obtained from secondary sources which were mainly accessible via internet. After data collection, an analysis was performed which was based on the context of this paper and also in connection with the chosen case study: Saudi Arabia. As a result of this analysis can be derived several success factors, which could be also seen as the foundation for an optimized execution of offset obligations. The paper concludes with a reflection of the investigation approach and as well with a classification of the subject offset. Furthermore the results of the analyzes are summarized and an outlook for further researches is given.

  20. Post stroke rehabilitation based on SMART goals: a case study

    Amir-ur Rehman


    Full Text Available Post stroke rehabilitation has been consistently reported in physiotherapy as being difficult to manage and limiting to rehabilitation outcome. It is reported that the first few months post stroke are crucial for rehabilitation to reach a maximum potential. However, after this period further recovery is unlikely. Specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-framed (SMART goals are used for goal setting for rehabilitation. They can provide coordination between a multidisciplinary team to develop a plan for the individual needs of patients. This case study explored the use of SMART goals, which are often not used in a rehabilitation setting due to being time-consuming and difficult to create. This case report provides the first evidence that SMART goals may serve as a powerful tool for rehabilitation following stroke. The case study illustrates the clinical role of physiotherapists in the management of a patient with stroke. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(1.000: 71-73

  1. Adaptation Knowledge Acquisition: a Case Study for Case-Based Decision Support in Oncology

    D'Aquin, Mathieu; Lieber, Jean; Napoli, Amedeo


    Kasimir is a case-based decision support system in the domain of breast cancer treatment. For this system, a problem is given by the description of a patient and a solution is a set of therapeutic decisions. Given a target problem, Kasimir provides several suggestions of solutions, based on several justified adaptations of source cases. Such adaptation processes are based on adaptation knowledge. The acquisition of this kind of knowledge from experts is presented in this paper. It is shown ho...

  2. Study on Measuring System of Casing Machine Based on PLC

    Huiqiang Wang


    Full Text Available According to the technology requirements of measurement for animal casing, in this paper, we use PLC and touch screen as the control core, the electromechanical integration design ideas to research the methods and principles for casing measure, and analyze the mechanical structures and mechanical characteristics of casing machine. As the control core, the programmable logic controller (PLC ensures that the whole control system has high precision, high stability, high reliability during the operation time. Through PLC and touch screen well match with PLC which make the casing machine more convenient to operate the whole system. The configuration software form has a brief and intuitive interface on touch screen which makes it easy to use. The mechanical structure and control system of this casing machine are more stable, more reliable and with high anti-interference ability, and satisfies various requirements for animal casings, easy and convenient to operate.

  3. Study on Measuring System of Casing Machine Based on PLC

    Huiqiang Wang; Yanqiu Xing; Weilian Sun


    According to the technology requirements of measurement for animal casing, in this paper, we use PLC and touch screen as the control core, the electromechanical integration design ideas to research the methods and principles for casing measure, and analyze the mechanical structures and mechanical characteristics of casing machine. As the control core, the programmable logic controller (PLC) ensures that the whole control system has high precision, high stability, high reliability during the o...

  4. Carrying capacity based regional EIA in Orissa- a case study

    The development of an industrial complex in Orissa for iron and steel sector along with associated infrastructure may lead to all round development in the region with significant impact on the environment. Hence, carrying capacity based regional EIA is conducted to assess whether the environment is able to sustain such development activities. To assess the sustainability, release analysis is needed both from physical and living system. Whenever major industries are located in a region necessary secondary development also result including network of roads, railways with the transport load and all these have combined effect due to the releases and its consequences. The impact evaluation is dependent on the size, type of major industries with secondary developments. In the study region detailed base line data is generated and recommended methodology is followed to estimate supportive capacity and assimilative capacity

  5. Dynamics of IGBT based PWM Converter A Case Study

    Vijay Shukla


    Full Text Available Optimizing the efficiency and dynamics of power converters is a critical tradeoff in power electronics. The increase of switching frequency can improve the dynamics of power converters, but theefficiency may be degraded as well as the switching losses. As power semiconductor devices like diodes, MOSFETS, IGBTs, Thyristors, BJTs have their own characterstics and dynamic responses. It is desired toanalyze and observe the dynamics of different semiconductor devices before they actually employed in the model. Inclusion of different PWM techniques help in the removal of power line interferences like harmonic losses, unwanted ripples, chopped frequencies, spikes. In this paper, we have studied and analyzed the dynamics of IGBT based PWM converter with subjected to different conditions like transient state, steady state feeding the RLC load. Snubber circuits are used to reduce the switching losses. The IGBT based PWM converter reflects the better dynamics with improved efficiency and reduced harmonics as compared to some other power semiconductor devices when FFT is performed and subjected to standard parameterized RLC load understeady state and transient analysis.




    Full Text Available Engineering Design modules, usually introduced in the first and second year’s undergraduate Mechanical Engineering courses, present a unique platform to practice the Project Based Learning (PBL. PBL is a widely accepted technique that can be used to achieve two major educational goals; affirming the theoretical principles studied in other modules and developing the professional skill essential for graduates such as team working and effective communication skills. In this paper we describe the use of PBL to enhance the understanding of turbulence, a classical problem in fluid mechanics. The project is carried out in the “Mechanical Engineering Design & Professional Skills” Module, which requires the students to construct the Prandtl recirculating water channel. The skills and knowledge involved not only fluid mechanics, but design, material selections and engineering mechanics, making it a truly multi-disciplinary project.

  7. A case study of the residual-based cointegration procedure

    Riccardo Biondini


    Full Text Available The study of long-run equilibrium processes is a significant component of economic and finance theory. The Johansen technique for identifying the existence of such long-run stationary equilibrium conditions among financial time series allows the identification of all potential linearly independent cointegrating vectors within a given system of eligible financial time series. The practical application of the technique may be restricted, however, by the pre-condition that the underlying data generating process fits a finite-order vector autoregression (VAR model with white noise. This paper studies an alternative method for determining cointegrating relationships without such a pre-condition. The method is simple to implement through commonly available statistical packages. This ‘residual-based cointegration’ (RBC technique uses the relationship between cointegration and univariate Box-Jenkins ARIMA models to identify cointegrating vectors through the rank of the covariance matrix of the residual processes which result from the fitting of univariate ARIMA models. The RBC approach for identifying multivariate cointegrating vectors is explained and then demonstrated through simulated examples. The RBC and Johansen techniques are then both implemented using several real-life financial time series.

  8. Epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases in Greater Noida: Hospital Based Study

    Rupali Roy


    Full Text Available Introduction: Road accidents are associated with numerous problems each of which needs to be addressed separately [1]. Accidents, therefore, can be studied in terms of agent, host and environmental factors and epidemiologically classified into time, place and person distribution [2]. Objectives: 1.To assess the prevalence of RTAs coming to hospital and 2.To know the epidemiological factors related to RTAs and associated prevalence in hospital based study. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at SMSR, Gr Noida, in 2012. The study group consisted of all the RTA victims reporting to casualty in the last one year. The victims of the accidents were interviewed on a pretested semi structured performa. Results: In that one year period total number of reported accident cases was 144. The age groups of the study subjects were between 13-65 years. Out of total study subjects, only 16 were female. Again out of the total accident cases 45% were attended by police and of all injured, 45.8% were driver by occupation (7% without driving license. Among these drivers, 11% were not attentive during driving because of various reasons. Ambulance services had reached in 46.5% cases. Fracture was the most common type (60% of injury among all types of injuries. Among the applicable population only 33% wore helmet or seat belts. Conclusions: Only half of the total accident cases were attended by police and again only half of them received ambulance services. One third injuries were because of not wearing seat belt and helmets.

  9. Evaluation Model for Experts Social Networks (Based on Case Study

    Fatemeh Saghafi


    Full Text Available Every Social network is considered as a structured Society constitute of individual or organizational group which are associated together within different type of dependency. The most important elements influence the success of such social network is the level of interest for sharing the information. This article addresses the important factors on assessment of Intellectual National Internet Network(ININ. For assessment we propose Enhanced technology acceptance model which we deployed by extending Davis TAM(technology acceptance model.ININ is a web base sites for think thanking of researchers which is acting within a four month at RICT(Research institute of ICT and the number of 214 ICT researchers distribute and delivered their experience. The result shows that in intellectual society, Intelligence has higher values to be disseminated and higher inspiration is needed for its successful sharing in new generation of Information technology.

  10. A Case Study: Problem-Based Learning for Civil Engineering Students in Transportation Courses

    Ahern, A. A.


    This paper describes two case studies where problem-based learning (PBL) has been introduced to undergraduate civil engineering students in University College Dublin. PBL has recently been put in place in the penultimate and final year transport engineering classes in the civil engineering degree in University College Dublin. In this case study,…

  11. A case study of the residual-based cointegration procedure

    Biondini, Riccardo; Lin, Yan-Xia; Mccrae, Michael


    The study of long-run equilibrium processes is a significant component of economic and finance theory. The Johansen technique for identifying the existence of such long-run stationary equilibrium conditions among financial time series allows the identification of all potential linearly independent cointegrating vectors within a given system of eligible financial time series. The practical application of the technique may be restricted, however, by the pre-condition that the underlying data ge...

  12. Population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Albania

    Pajenga E.; Rexha T.; Çeliku S.; Mariani E.


    In Albania, breast cancer is an important cause of death among women, with increasing incidence from 65 cases in 1970, to 400 cases in 2007. This is the first study concerning breast cancer risk factors in Albania. We used a population-based case-control study of 948 women with breast cancer compared with 1019 controls recruited from other hospitals through random selection. Early age at menarche was found to be a significantly strong risk factor during the pre- and postmenopausal group...

  13. Problem-based case study to enhance critical thinking in student nurses

    NM Mogale


    Full Text Available The use of traditional teaching methods, for example the lecture method, does not stimulate critical thinking in student nurses. This problem can be solved by the utilisation of problem-based case study in the classroom/clinical setting. The purpose of this study is to describe guidelines for the implementation of problem-based case study in a clinical setting among first year, comprehensive course students at the Northern Province College of Nursing: Sovenga campus. The research design of this study was qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual and was conducted in the following phases: Phase 1: The development and implementation of a program for problem-based case study in the clinical setting; Phase II: The experiences of student nurses who were exposed to problem-based case study in the clinical setting; Phase III: The perceptions of tutors regarding the implementation of problem-based case study in the clinical setting (focus group, and; ase IV: Guidelines for the implementation of problem-based case study. The data from Phases I, II and III were used to formulate guidelines for the implementation of problem-based case study. The sample group consisted of all 69 first year student nurses at the Northern Province College of Nursing: Sovenga campus and ten tutors teaching clinical courses at the same campus. The Tesch (1990 approach is used for data analysis. Nine guidelines for the implementation of a problem-based case study approach were formulated and recommendations for development of an instrument to measure critical thinking in nursing were recommended.

  14. Development and Evaluation of a Multi-Institutional Case Studies-Based Course in Food Safety

    Pleitner, Aaron M.; Chapin, Travis K.; Hammons, Susan R.; Stelten, Anna Van; Nightingale, Kendra K.; Wiedmann, Martin; Johnston, Lynette M.; Oliver, Haley F.


    Developing novel, engaging courses in food safety is necessary to train professionals in this discipline. Courses that are interactive and case-based encourage development of critical thinking skills necessary for identifying and preventing foodborne disease outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a case study…

  15. Feasibility Study of EO SARs as Opportunity Illuminators in Passive Radars: PAZ-Based Case Study

    Jose-Luis Bárcena-Humanes


    Full Text Available Passive radars exploit the signal transmitted by other systems, known as opportunity illuminators (OIs, instead of using their own transmitter. Due to its almost total invulnerability to natural disasters or physical attacks, satellite OIs are of special interest. In this line, a feasibility study of Earth Observation Synthetic Aperture Radar (EO SAR systems as OIs is carried out taking into consideration signal waveform, availability, bistatic geometry, instrumented coverage area and incident power density. A case study based on the use of PAZ, the first Spanish EO SAR, is presented. PAZ transmitted waveform, operation modes, orbit characteristics and antenna and transmitter parameters are analyzed to estimate potential coverages and resolutions. The study concludes that, due to its working in on-demand operating mode, passive radars based on PAZ-type illuminators can be proposed as complementing tools during the sensor commissioning phase, for system maintenance and for improving its performance by providing additional information about the area of interest and/or increasing the data updating speed, exploiting other sensors during the time PAZ is not available.

  16. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

    Morrison Howard; Gibbons Laurie; Zhou Jia; Pan Sai Yi; Wen Shi Wu


    Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal) and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk fact...

  17. Integrating Web-Based Applications into Aged Care: Two Case Studies and Discussion.

    Rehm, Imogen C; Musić, Selma; Carlsson, Anthony; Scanlan, Faye; Silver, Mark; Bhar, Sunil S


    In anticipation of the growing need for adequate mental health care for older adults in residential aged care facilities, psychologists are challenged to overcome several barriers that impede the uptake and delivery of their services in such settings. Information and communication technologies (ICT) have strong potential to overcome some of these barriers by supporting the delivery of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for common psychogeriatric issues. This paper presents two case studies that illustrate when and how psychologists can use various ICT applications (e.g., tablet devices, web-based applications) integrated with cognitive behavioural and reminiscence-based therapies. Both case studies demonstrate that ICT can effectively support the therapeutic alliance, enhance therapeutic engagement, and individualize treatment delivery to accommodate the needs of elderly patients. It is hoped that these case studies will encourage clinicians to consider using ICT to augment therapy with their elderly patients. PMID:27073103

  18. Behavioural Comorbidity in Tanzanian Children with Epilepsy: A Community-Based Case-Control Study

    Burton, Kathryn; Rogathe, Jane; Hunter, Ewan; Burton, Matthew; Swai, Mark; Todd, Jim; Neville, Brian; Walker, Richard; Newton, Charles


    Aim: The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of and risk factors for behavioural disorders in children with epilepsy from a rural district of Tanzania by conducting a community-based case-control study. Method: One hundred and twelve children aged 6 to 14 years (55 males, 57 females; median age 12y) with active epilepsy (at least two…

  19. The MORPG-Based Learning System for Multiple Courses: A Case Study on Computer Science Curriculum

    Liu, Kuo-Yu


    This study aimed at developing a Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game-based (MORPG) Learning system which enabled instructors to construct a game scenario and manage sharable and reusable learning content for multiple courses. It used the curriculum of "Introduction to Computer Science" as a study case to assess students' learning…

  20. Project Based Learning for Life Skill Building in 12th Grade Social Studies Classrooms: A Case Study

    Zimmerman, Daniele C.


    Based on the assumption that project based learning (PBL) in 12th grade social studies classrooms contributes to the development of life skills for high school seniors in this advanced and globalized time, this research will investigate student experiences with PBL methods for helping them acquire skills along with a case study of a successful PBL…

  1. Case Base Maintenance Approach.

    Haouchine, Mohamed-Karim; Chebel-Morello, Brigitte; Zerhouni, Noureddine


    Case base Maintenance is an active Case Based Reasoning research area. The main stream focuses on the method for reducing the size of the case-base while maintaining case-base competence. This paper gives an overview of these works, and proposes a case deletion strategy based on competence criteria using a novel approach. The proposed method, even if inspired from existing literature, combines an algorithm with a Competence Metric (CM). A series of tests are conducted using two standards data...

  2. Faith and Moral Development: A Case Study of a Jail Faith-Based Correctional Education Program

    Swanson, Karen


    Increasingly, faith-based programs have provided curriculum in correctional facilities to meet the challenge of rehabilitating offenders. To attempt to identify the impact of such instruction, this qualitative case study examines the faith and moral development of the participants in one such program. Through interviews, observations, document…

  3. Competency-Based Vocational Education. A Case Study. FEU/PICKUP Project Report.

    Hermann, G. D.; Kenyon, R. J.

    This document describes a case study of a competency-based vocational education (CBVE) project. An introduction outlines the nature of CBVE and places it in the context of vocational competence. This section also describes a rationale for how CBVE relates to the individual, to access, and to the recognition of previous learning. The features and…

  4. Adapting Learning Activities: a Case Study of IMS LD based Script and Tooling

    Miao, Yongwu


    Miao, Y. (2009). Adapting Learning Activities: a Case Study of IMS LD based Script and Tooling. Presentation at workshop "Adapting Activities Modeled by CSCL Scripts" of the 8th International Conference “Computer Supported Collaborative Learning” (CSCL’09). June, 8-13, 2009, Rhodes, Greece.

  5. Adapting Learning Activities: a Case Study of IMS LD based Script and Tooling

    Miao, Yongwu


    Miao, Y. (2009). Adapting Learning Activities: a Case Study of IMS LD based Script and Tooling. Paper presented at workshop "Adapting Activities Modeled by CSCL Scripts" of the 8th International Conference “Computer Supported Collaborative Learning” (CSCL’09). June, 8-13, 2009, Rhodes, Greece.

  6. Ecological bases for the forestry of the natural forest, Case study of the Catival (Prioretum copaiferae)

    A first development is presented for Colombia of the ecological bases for the forestry by means of the case study of the Catival consortium (prioretum copaiferae); recapturing the results of the investigations carried out for more of 16 years for the National Corporation of Investigation and Forestall Development-CONIF and the company Pizano adding the achievements of other investigations

  7. Postgraduate Work-Based Learning Programmes in English Higher Education: Exploring Case Studies of Organizational Practice

    Smith, Paul; Preece, David


    The first part of the paper outlines and discusses the nature of work-based learning (WBL) and WBL programmes, and the overall direction of government strategy towards WBL programmes in Higher Education (HE) in England, with particular reference to postgraduate programmes, policy documents, and the WBL literature. Drawing upon case study research,…

  8. Influence of social factors on avoidable mortality: a hospital-based case-control study.

    Bautista, Daniel; Alfonso, José Luis; Corella, Dolores; Saiz, Carmen


    OBJECTIVE: The effect of socioeconomic factors on avoidable mortality at an individual level is not well known, since most studies showing this association are based on aggregate data. The purpose of this study was to determine socioeconomic differences between those patients who die of avoidable causes and those who do not die. METHODS: A matched case-control study was carried out regarding in-hospital avoidable mortality (Holland's medical care indicators) that occurred in a university hosp...

  9. Challenges in Mentalization–Based Group Therapy (MBT-G) : A Video-based Explorative Case Study

    Inderhaug, Tryggve Sagen


    This paper presents a video-based explorative case study of therapeutic challenges in mentalization-based group therapy (MBT-G) for patients with borderline-type problems. Employing qualitative methodology, we explored a MBT group as part of routine psychiatric care at a Psychiatric District Centre (naturalistic study). Several phenomena emerged as important in understanding the therapists’ struggle to construe the group in a manner that foster mentalization. First and foremost, the main chal...

  10. Feasibility report: Delivering case-study based learning using artificial intelligence and gaming technologies

    Cresswell, Stephen; Prigmore, Martyn


    This document describes an investigation into the technical feasibility of a game to support learning based on case studies. Information systems students using the game will conduct fact-finding interviews with virtual characters. We survey relevant technologies in computational linguistics and games. We assess the applicability of the various approaches and propose an architecture for the game based on existing techniques. We propose a phased development plan for the development of the game.

  11. Managing Labor on Dairy Farms: A Resource-Based Perspective with Evidence from Case Studies

    Mugera, Amin W.; Bitsch, Vera


    Labor management practices in agriculture are a marginally and fragmentally researched subject with limited theoretical background in agricultural economics. The resource-based theory is proposed as a framework to analyze labor management on farms and its application discussed with evidence of six case studies. In-depth interviews with farm managers, supervisors, and non-supervisory employees provide data to illustrate the provisions of the resource-based theory. The theory requires heterogen...

  12. Web-based Peer Assessment: A Case Study with Civil Engineering Students

    Gonçalo Cruz; Caroline Dominguez; Ana Maia; Daniela Pedrosa; Gordon Grams


    Peer-assessed online collaborative writing is of growing importance for higher education. Based on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of collected data, this work presents the results of a case study in a graduate civil engineering course at the University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal. After an overall presentation of the learning activity, it examines students’ attitudes towards web-based peer assessment and identifies which factors are rela...

  13. A case study to estimate costs using Neural Networks and regression based models

    Nadia Bhuiyan


    Full Text Available Bombardier Aerospace’s high performance aircrafts and services set the utmost standard for the Aerospace industry. A case study in collaboration with Bombardier Aerospace is conducted in order to estimate the target cost of a landing gear. More precisely, the study uses both parametric model and neural network models to estimate the cost of main landing gears, a major aircraft commodity. A comparative analysis between the parametric based model and those upon neural networks model will be considered in order to determine the most accurate method to predict the cost of a main landing gear. Several trials are presented for the design and use of the neural network model. The analysis for the case under study shows the flexibility in the design of the neural network model. Furthermore, the performance of the neural network model is deemed superior to the parametric models for this case study.

  14. Population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Albania

    Pajenga E.


    Full Text Available In Albania, breast cancer is an important cause of death among women, with increasing incidence from 65 cases in 1970, to 400 cases in 2007. This is the first study concerning breast cancer risk factors in Albania. We used a population-based case-control study of 948 women with breast cancer compared with 1019 controls recruited from other hospitals through random selection. Early age at menarche was found to be a significantly strong risk factor during the pre- and postmenopausal groups with OR 10.04 and 12.1, respectively. In addition, nulliparity is associated with higher risk while abortion did not indicate any influence in the multivariate model. The findings from this study have shown that reproductive and menstrual variables are significant predictors of breast cancer risk in Albanian women, as seen in studies of other western countries.

  15. Regional science-based clusters:a case study of three European concentrations

    Teräs, J. (Jukka)


    Abstract The aim of this thesis is to provide an improved understanding of the structural characteristics and the dynamic evolution of regional science-based clusters. The study is based on an in-depth comparison of three non-metropolitan science-based clusters: Oulu in Finland, Luleå in Sweden, and Pisa in Italy. This thesis is the result of a qualitative multiple-case study consisting of in-depth interviews with cluster decision-makers and experts in Finland, Sweden and Italy. The thesi...

  16. Birth outcomes of patients with isolated anorectal malformations: A population-based case-control study.

    Vermes, Gabor; László, Daniel; Czeizel, Andrew E; Ács, Nándor


    In most patients affected by isolated anorectal malformation (IARM) the etiology is largely unknown. Thus, the aim of our project was to analyze possible risk factors for IARM. In the first step, birth outcomes of cases with IARM were analyzed on the basis of maternal socio-demographic variables, and these data are presented in this paper. Gestational age at delivery, birthweight, preterm birth, low birthweight and small for gestational age of cases with IARM were evaluated in the function of maternal age, birth/pregnancy order, marital and employment status of mothers in the population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. The study samples included 231 live-born cases with IARM, 361 matched and 38 151 population controls without any defect. IARMs are more frequent in males, twins and newborn infants with low birthweight and small-for-gestational-age, the latter being the consequence of intrauterine growth restriction. In addition, mothers of cases were younger but with higher birth order, and had lower socio-economic status. These maternal variables are characteristic for the gypsy population in Hungary. The higher proportion of gypsy women among the mothers of cases with IARM was confirmed during the home visits of the study. Male sex and intrauterine growth restriction of cases, in addition to low socioeconomic status and gypsy origin of mothers may have a role in the risk of IARMs. PMID:26259501

  17. Quantification of construction waste prevented by BIM-based design validation: Case studies in South Korea.

    Won, Jongsung; Cheng, Jack C P; Lee, Ghang


    Waste generated in construction and demolition processes comprised around 50% of the solid waste in South Korea in 2013. Many cases show that design validation based on building information modeling (BIM) is an effective means to reduce the amount of construction waste since construction waste is mainly generated due to improper design and unexpected changes in the design and construction phases. However, the amount of construction waste that could be avoided by adopting BIM-based design validation has been unknown. This paper aims to estimate the amount of construction waste prevented by a BIM-based design validation process based on the amount of construction waste that might be generated due to design errors. Two project cases in South Korea were studied in this paper, with 381 and 136 design errors detected, respectively during the BIM-based design validation. Each design error was categorized according to its cause and the likelihood of detection before construction. The case studies show that BIM-based design validation could prevent 4.3-15.2% of construction waste that might have been generated without using BIM. PMID:26754615

  18. Body Mass Index, Smoking and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy: A Population Based Case-Control Study

    Gudnadóttir, Thuridur A.; Bateman, Brian T.; Hernádez-Díaz, Sonia; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur; Zoega, Helga


    While obesity is an indicated risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be inversely associated with the development of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of high body mass index and smoking on hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. This was a case-control study based on national registers, nested within all pregnancies in Iceland 1989–2004, resulting in birth at t...

  19. Body Mass Index, Smoking and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy: A Population Based Case-Control Study.

    Gudnadóttir, TA; Bateman, BT; Hernádez-Díaz, S; Luque-Fernandez, MA; Valdimarsdottir, U; Zoega, H


    While obesity is an indicated risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be inversely associated with the development of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of high body mass index and smoking on hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. This was a case-control study based on national registers, nested within all pregnancies in Iceland 1989-2004, resulting in birth at t...

  20. A case study to estimate costs using Neural Networks and regression based models

    Nadia Bhuiyan; Adil Salam; Fantahun M. Defersha


    Bombardier Aerospace’s high performance aircrafts and services set the utmost standard for the Aerospace industry. A case study in collaboration with Bombardier Aerospace is conducted in order to estimate the target cost of a landing gear. More precisely, the study uses both parametric model and neural network models to estimate the cost of main landing gears, a major aircraft commodity. A comparative analysis between the parametric based model and those upon neural networks model will be con...

  1. Performance-Based Pay as a Motivational Tool for Achieving Organisational Performance: An Exploratory Case Study

    Francis Boachie-Mensah; Ophelia Delali Dogbe


    The issue of employees’ performance in furtherance of organisational objectives has occupied managementattention for long. Differences in levels of performance have been attributed to differences in skills and abilitieson the one hand, and to different theories of money on the other. This study examined the issue ofperformance-based pay as a motivational tool for achieving organisational performance, using the situation in amanufacturing company in Ghana as a case study. The main objective of...

  2. Risk factors for homicide victimization in post-genocide Rwanda : a population - based case- control study

    Rubanzana, Wilson; Ntaganira, Joseph; Freeman, Michael D; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L.


    Background: Homicide is one of the leading causes of mortality in the World. Homicide risk factors vary significantly between countries and regions. In Rwanda, data on homicide victimization is unreliable because no standardized surveillance system exists. This study was undertaken to identify the risk factors for homicide victimization in Rwanda with particular attention on the latent effects of the 1994 genocide. Methods: A population-based matched case-control study was conducted, with sub...

  3. Rehabilitation of Masonry Buildings Using Seismic Isolation Systems in the BaseCase Study

    Pintican, Maria Nicoleta Roman; Faur, Andrei; Dumitran, Mihaela; Iernuţan, Răzvan


    This paper aims to highlight the importance and efficiency of the rehabilitation of old buildings using an alternative to the classic rehabilitation, namely seismic isolation in the base. The method is efficient and will not interfer in the architecture and structure. The case study was conducted on a church that has a brick masonry structure. The structural analysis was pergormed by using SAP2000 soft, as for the study we used rubber bearings with metal inserts. The modeling was performed bo...

  4. Using Web-Based, Group Communication Systems to Support Case Study Learning at a Distance

    Liam Rourke


    Full Text Available This study explored the capacity of Web-based, group communication systems to support case-based teaching and learning. Eleven graduate students studying at a distance were divided into three groups to collaborate on a case study using either a synchronous voice, an asynchronous voice, or a synchronous text communication system. Participants kept a detailed log of the time they spent on various activities, wrote a 1,500-word reflection on their experience, and participated in a group interview. Analysis of these data reveals that each group supplemented the system that had been assigned to them with additional communication systems in order to complete the project. Each of these systems were used strategically: email was used to share files and arrange meetings, and synchronous voice systems were used to brainstorm and make decisions. Learning achievement was high across groups and students enjoyed collaborating with others on a concrete task.

  5. Population-based case control study of the safety of sulfasalazine use during pregnancy

    Nørgård, Bente; Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.;


    Background: We studied the human teratogenic risk of sulfasalazine because this drug interferes with folate metabolism. Methods: Case control study within the Hungarian Case Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980–1996; based on 22 865 new-born infants or foetuses with congenital...... abnormalities, and 38 151 babies without any detected congenital abnormalities (control group). Results: Seventeen pregnant women (0.07%) were treated with sulfasalazine in the case group, and 26 (0.07%) in the control group. The overall adjusted adds ratio of congenital abnormalities after sulfasalazine...... treatment was odds ratio=1.2 (95% confidence interval: 0.6–2.1). None of the analyses indicated any significant increased prevalence of selected congenital abnormalities among the exposed compared with the not exposed. Conclusions: We found no significant increased prevalence of selected congenital...

  6. The Effectiveness of a Case Study-Based First-Year Biology Class at a Black Women's College

    Pai, Aditi; Benning, Tracy; Woods, Natasha; McGinnis, Gene; Chu, Joanne; Netherton, Josh; Bauerle, Cynthia


    The authors used a case study-based approach in the introductory biology course at Spelman College. The course taught to entering freshmen was divided into three modules--ecology, evolution, and biodiversity, each designed around a case study. They noted that (1) case study teaching was dramatically more effective than the traditional lecture…

  7. Inquiry-based Science Instruction in High School Biology Courses: A Multiple Case Study

    Aso, Eze

    A lack of research exists about how secondary school science teachers use inquiry-based instruction to improve student learning. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how science teachers used inquiry-based instruction to improve student learning in high school biology courses. The conceptual framework was based on Banchi and Bell's model of increasing levels of complexity for inquiry-based instruction. A multiple case study research design was conducted of biology programs at 3 high schools in an urban school district in the northeastern region of the United States. Participants included 2 biology teachers from each of the 3 high schools. Data were collected from individual interviews with biology teachers, observations of lessons in biology, and documents related to state standards, assessments, and professional development. The first level of data analysis involved coding and categorizing the interview and observation data. A content analysis was used for the documents. The second level of data analysis involved examining data across all sources and all cases for themes and discrepancies. According to study findings, biology teachers used confirmation, structure, and guided inquiry to improve student learning. However, they found open inquiry challenging and frustrating to implement because professional development about scaffolding of instruction over time was needed, and students' reading and writing skills needed to improve. This study contributes to positive social change by providing educators and researchers with a deeper understanding about how to scaffold levels of inquiry-based science instruction in order to help students become scientifically literate citizens.

  8. Student-centered Role-based Case Study Model to Improve Learning in Decision Support Systems

    Farrukh Nadeem


    Full Text Available One of the important learning objectives of our bachelor course on "Techniques in Decision Support Systems" is to develop understanding of core decision making process in real-life business situations. The conventional teaching methods are unable to explain complexities of real-life business. Although the classroom discussions can be effective to understand general factors, such as opportunity cost, return on investment, etc. affecting business decisions, the effects of factors like dynamic business environment, incomplete information, time pressure etc. can not be truly explained through such simple discussions. In this paper, we describe our experience of adopting student-centered, role-based, case study to deal with this situation. The interactive case-based study not only provided students with experiential learning, but also gave them liberty to test their thoughts. As a result, we observed improved students' learning as well as improved grades. In addition, this approach made classes more dynamic and interesting.

  9. Acceptance of routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence: a mixed method study

    H. Stöckl; Hertlein, L; Himsl, I; Ditsch, N; C. Blume; Hasbargen, U; Friese, K.; Stöckl, D


    BACKGROUND The prevalence and detrimental health effects of intimate partner violence have resulted in international discussions and recommendations that health care professionals should screen women for intimate partner violence during general and antenatal health care visits. Due to the lack of discussion on routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence during antenatal care in Germany, this study seeks to explore its acceptability among pregnant German women. METHODS A m...

  10. A population based case-control study of agricultural injuries in children.

    Stueland, D. T.; Lee, B.C.; Nordstrom, D L; Layde, P M; Wittman, L. M.


    OBJECTIVES: To identify preventable risk factors related to agricultural injuries occurring to children on family farms. SETTING: A geographically defined central region of Wisconsin, USA with nearly 1800 family dairy farms. METHODS: A two year, population based incidence study of occupational injuries among farm residents was conducted. For cases, trained staff abstracted information on the nature, severity, and treatment of the injury from the patient's medical record. Staff also administer...

  11. Service Quality of Online Shopping Platforms: A Case-Based Empirical and Analytical Study

    Bin Shen; Shuk-Ching Liu; Bowood Kwok; Tsan-Ming Choi; Pui-Sze Chow


    Customer service is crucially important for online shopping platforms (OSPs) such as eBay and Taobao. Based on the well-established service quality instruments and the scenario of the specific case on Taobao, this paper focuses on exploring the service quality of an OSP with an aim of revealing customer perceptions of the service quality associated with the provided functions and investigating their impacts on customer loyalty. By an empirical study, this paper finds that the “fulfillment and...

  12. Case study: use of problem-based learning to develop students' technical and professional skills

    Warnock, James N.; Mohammadi-Aragh, M. Jean


    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogy that has attracted attention for many biomedical engineering curricula. The aim of the current study was to address the research question, 'Does PBL enable students to develop desirable professional engineering skills?' The desirable skills identified were communication, teamwork, problem solving and self-directed learning. Forty-seven students enrolled in a biomedical materials course participated in the case study. Students worked in teams to complete a series of problems throughout the semester. The results showed that students made significant improvements in their problem-solving skills, written communication and self-directed learning. Students also demonstrated an ability to work in teams and communicate orally. In conclusion, this case study provides empirical evidence of the efficacy of PBL on student learning. We discuss findings from our study and provide observations of student performance and perceptions that could be useful for faculty and researchers interested in PBL for biomedical engineering education.

  13. How substance-based ontologies for gravity can be productive: A case study

    Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew; Conlin, Luke D.


    Many science education researchers have argued that learners' commitment to a substance (matter-based) ontology impedes the learning of scientific concepts that scientists typically conceptualize as processes or interactions, such as force, electric current, and heat. By this account, students' tendency to classify these entities as substances or properties of substances leads to robust misconceptions, and instruction should steer novices away from substance-based reasoning. We argue that substance-based reasoning can contribute to the learning and understanding of these very same physics concepts. Our case study focuses on a group of elementary school science teachers in our professional development program. Starting from substance-based metaphors for gravity, the teachers build a sophisticated explanation for why objects of different masses fall with the same acceleration. We argue that, for conceptual, epistemological, and affective reasons, instructional interventions should focus on tapping these productive substance-based resources when they arise rather than attempting to suppress them.

  14. Bra wearing not associated with breast cancer risk: a population based case-control study

    Chen, Lu; Malone, Kathleen E.; Li, Christopher I.


    Despite the widespread use of bras among U.S. women and concerns in the lay media that bra wearing may increase breast cancer risk, there is a scarcity of credible scientific studies addressing this issue. The goal of the study was to evaluate the relationship between various bra wearing habits and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. We conducted a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in the Seattle-Puget Sound metropolitan area that compared 454 invasive ductal car...

  15. Suicide by people in a community justice pathway: population-based nested case-control study.

    King, Carlene; Senior, Jane; Webb, Roger T; Millar, Tim; Piper, Mary; Pearsall, Alison; Humber, Naomi; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny


    The elevated risk of suicide in prison and after release is a well-recognised and serious problem. Despite this, evidence concerning community-based offenders' suicide risk is sparse. We conducted a population-based nested case-control study of all people in a community justice pathway in England and Wales. Our data show 13% of general population suicides were in community justice pathways before death. Suicide risks were highest among individuals receiving police cautions, and those having recent, or impending prosecution for sexual offences. Findings have implications for the training and practice of clinicians identifying and assessing suicidality, and offering support to those at elevated risk. PMID:26159602

  16. Association between Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Appendicitis: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    Kao, Li-Ting; Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Cha-Ze


    Appendicitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are both prevalent diseases and might share similar pathological mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between GERD and appendicitis using a large population-based dataset. This study used administrative claims data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. We identified 7113 patients with appendicitis as cases, and 28452 matched patients without appendicitis as controls. This study revealed that GERD was found in 359 (5.05%) cases and 728 (2.56%) controls (p appendicitis were 1.96 (95% CI: 1.56~2.47), 2.36 (95% CI: 1.94~2.88), and 1.71 (95% CI: 1.31~2.22) than controls, respectively. We concluded that patients with appendicitis had higher odds of prior GERD than those without appendicitis regardless of age group. PMID:26932391

  17. How substance-based ontologies for gravity can be productive: A case study

    Gupta, Ayush; Conlin, Luke D


    Many science education researchers have argued that learners' commitment to a substance (matter-based) ontology impedes the learning of scientific concepts that scientists typically conceptualize as processes or interactions, such as such as force, electric current, and heat. By this account, students' tendency to classify these entities as substances or properties of substances leads to robust misconceptions, and instruction should steer novices away from substance-based reasoning. We argue that substance-based reasoning, when it supports learners' sense-making, can form the seeds for sophisticated understanding of these very same physics concepts. We present a case study of a group of elementary school science teachers in our professional development program. The teachers build a sophisticated explanation for why objects of different masses have the same acceleration due to gravity, starting from substance-based metaphors for gravity. We argue that, for conceptual, epistemological, and affective reasons, in...

  18. Web-based Peer Assessment: A Case Study with Civil Engineering Students

    Gonçalo Cruz


    Full Text Available Peer-assessed online collaborative writing is of growing importance for higher education. Based on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of collected data, this work presents the results of a case study in a graduate civil engineering course at the University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal. After an overall presentation of the learning activity, it examines students’ attitudes towards web-based peer assessment and identifies which factors are related to students’ use and appreciation of feedback. In addition, an analysis of the type of feedback is presented in an attempt to evaluate students’  written communication skills. The results of this study provide indications on how to improve the design and implementation of future web-based peer assessment tasks and raise questions on the effectiveness of peer/teacher grading in the use of feedback.

  19. Evaluating Pillar Industry's Transformation Capability: A Case Study of Two Chinese Steel-Based Cities.

    Zhidong Li

    Full Text Available Many steel-based cities in China were established between the 1950s and 1960s. After more than half a century of development and boom, these cities are starting to decline and industrial transformation is urgently needed. This paper focuses on evaluating the transformation capability of resource-based cities building an evaluation model. Using Text Mining and the Document Explorer technique as a way of extracting text features, the 200 most frequently used words are derived from 100 publications related to steel- and other resource-based cities. The Expert Evaluation Method (EEM and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP techniques are then applied to select 53 indicators, determine their weights and establish an index system for evaluating the transformation capability of the pillar industry of China's steel-based cities. Using real data and expert reviews, the improved Fuzzy Relation Matrix (FRM method is applied to two case studies in China, namely Panzhihua and Daye, and the evaluation model is developed using Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE. The cities' abilities to carry out industrial transformation are evaluated with concerns expressed for the case of Daye. The findings have policy implications for the potential and required industrial transformation in the two selected cities and other resource-based towns.

  20. Case-based reasoning

    Kolodner, Janet


    Case-based reasoning is one of the fastest growing areas in the field of knowledge-based systems and this book, authored by a leader in the field, is the first comprehensive text on the subject. Case-based reasoning systems are systems that store information about situations in their memory. As new problems arise, similar situations are searched out to help solve these problems. Problems are understood and inferences are made by finding the closest cases in memory, comparing and contrasting the problem with those cases, making inferences based on those comparisons, and asking questions whe

  1. Communicating for Climate Change Adaptation: Lessons from a Case Study with Nature-Based Tour Operators

    Timm, K.; Sparrow, E. B.; Pettit, E. C.; Trainor, S. F.; Taylor, K.


    Increasing temperatures are projected to have a positive effect on the length of Alaska's tourism season, but the natural attractions that tourism relies on, such as glaciers, wildlife, fish, or other natural resources, may change. In order to continue to derive benefits from these resources, nature-based tour operators may have to adapt to these changes, and communication is an essential, but poorly understood, component of the climate change adaptation process. The goal of this study was to determine how to provide useful climate change information to nature-based tour operators by answering the following questions: 1. What environmental changes do nature-based tour operators perceive? 2. How are nature-based tour operators responding to climate and environmental change? 3. What climate change information do nature-based tour operators need? To answer these questions, twenty-four nature-based tour operators representing 20 different small and medium sized businesses in Juneau, Alaska were interviewed. The results show that many of Juneau's nature-based tour operators are observing, responding to, and in some cases, actively planning for further changes in the environment. The types of responses tended to vary depending on the participants' certainty in climate change and the perceived risks to their organization. Using these two factors, this study proposes a framework to classify climate change responses for the purpose of generating meaningful information and communication processes that promote adaptation and build adaptive capacity. During the course of the study, several other valuable lessons were learned about communicating about adaptation. The results of this study demonstrate that science communication research has an important place in the practice of promoting and fostering climate change adaptation. While the focus of this study was tour operators, the lessons learned may be valuable to other organizations striving to engage unique groups in climate

  2. Image enhancement based on in vivo hyperspectral gastroscopic images: a case study.

    Gu, Xiaozhou; Han, Zhimin; Yao, Liqing; Zhong, Yunshi; Shi, Qiang; Fu, Ye; Liu, Changsheng; Wang, Xiguang; Xie, Tianyu


    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has been recognized as a powerful tool for noninvasive disease detection in the gastrointestinal field. However, most of the studies on HSI in this field have involved ex vivo biopsies or resected tissues. We proposed an image enhancement method based on in vivo hyperspectral gastroscopic images. First, we developed a flexible gastroscopy system capable of obtaining in vivo hyperspectral images of different types of stomach disease mucosa. Then, depending on a specific object, an appropriate band selection algorithm based on dependence of information was employed to determine a subset of spectral bands that would yield useful spatial information. Finally, these bands were assigned to be the color components of an enhanced image of the object. A gastric ulcer case study demonstrated that our method yields higher color tone contrast, which enhanced the displays of the gastric ulcer regions, and that it will be valuable in clinical applications. PMID:27206742


    Gaurav Singh Thakur; Anubhav Gupta; Ankur Bhardwaj; Biju R Mohan


    This paper uses a case based study – “product sales estimation” on real-time data to help us understand the applicability of linear and non-linear models in machine learning and data mining. A systematic approach has been used here to address the given problem statement of sales estimation for a particular set of products in multiple categories by applying both linear and non-linear machine learning techniques on a data set of selected features from the original data set. Feature ...

  4. The Special Place Project: Efficacy of a Place-Based Case Study Approach for Teaching Geoscience

    Moosavi, Sadredin


    Achieving geoscience literacy of the general population has become increasingly important world wide as ever more connected and growing societies depend more and more on our planet's limited natural resource base. Building citizen understanding of their dependence on the local environment, and the geologic processes which created and continue to change it, has become a great challenge to educators at all levels of the education system. The Special Place Project described in this presentation explores use of a place-based case study approach combining instruction in geoscience content with development of observation, reasoning, writing and presentation skills. The approach allows students to select the locations for their individual case studies affording development of personal connections between the learner and his environment. The approach gives instructors at many grade levels the ability to develop core pedagogical content and skills while exploring the unique geologic environments relevant to the local population including such critical issues as land use, resource depletion, energy, climate change and the future of communities in a changing world. The geologic reasons for the location of communities and key events in their histories can be incorporated into the students' case studies as appropriate. The project is unique in placing all course instruction in the context of the quest to explore and gain understanding of the student's chosen location by using the inherently more generalized course content required by the curriculum. By modeling how scientists approach their research questions, this pedagogical technique not only integrates knowledge and skills from across the curriculum, it captures the excitement of scientific thinking on real world questions directly relevant to students' lives, increasing student engagement and depth of learning as demonstrated in the case study reports crafted by the students and exam results. Student learning of topics

  5. Risk of miscarriage for pregnant users of pivmecillinam: a population-based case-control study.

    Nørgaard, Mette; Skriver, Mette Vinther; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Pedersen, Lars


    Few data exist on the risk of miscarriage after exposure to pivmecillinam. We therefore conducted a population-based case-control study in a Danish county with 0.5 million inhabitants during the period 1997-2002. We included 1,599 women with a miscarriage recorded in the Hospital Discharge Registry and selected 10 controls per case among primiparous women who had a live birth during the study period. Controls were selected from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. We obtained data on use of pivmecillinam and sulfamethizole from a prescription database. Five cases (0.30%) and 24 controls (0.15%) were exposed to pivmecillinam in the last week before the miscarriage/index date. After adjustment for maternal age, use of antidiabetics or antiepileptics, the odds ratio for miscarriages among users of pivmecillinam compared with non-users was 2.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.77-5.33) and the corresponding odds ratio for use of sulfamethizole was 1.53 (95% confidence interval: 0.76-3.09). Exposure within 2 to 12 weeks before the miscarriage was not associated with an increased risk. We concluded that use of pivmecillinam was associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, but the risk was not significantly (p=0.64) different from the risk associated with use of sulfamethizole. PMID:18397462

  6. Mass screening-based case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in Changchun, China

    Xiao-Meng Li; Jiang Li; Ichiro Tsuji; Naoki Nakaya; Yoshikazu Nishino; Xue-Jian Zhao


    Aim: To investigate possible correlation factors for prostate cancer by a population-based case-control study in China. Methods: We carded out a mass screening of prostate cancer in Changchun, China, using a prostate-specific antigen assisted by Japan International Cooperation Agency. From June 1998 to December 2000, 3 940 men over 50 years old were screened. Of these, 29 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. We selected 28 cases and matched them with controls of low prostate-specific antigen value (< 4.1 ng/mL) by 1:10 according to age and place of employment. A case-control study of diet and prostate cancer was then carded out. Results: After adjustment for education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, marriage and diet, intake of soybean product was discovered to be inversely related to prostate cancer. Men who consumed soybean product more than twice per week on different days had a multivariate odds ratio (OR) of 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-1.12). In addition, men who consumed soybean products more than once per day had a multivariate OR of 0.29 (95% CI, 0.11-0.79) compared with men who consumed soybean products less than once per week. The P for trend was 0.02, which showed significant difference. There was no significant difference in P trend for any dairy food. Even when we matched the cases and controls by other criteria, we found that soybean food was the only preventive factor associated with prostate cancer. Conclusion: Our study suggests that consumption of soybeans, one of the most popular foods in Asia, would decrease the risk of prostate cancer. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 551-560)

  7. A climate-based spatiotemporal prediction for dengue fever epidemics: a case study in southern Taiwan

    Yu, H.-L.; Yang, S.-J.; Lin, Y.-C.


    Dengue Fever (DF) has been identified by the World Health organization (WHO) as one of the most serious vector-borne infectious diseases in tropical and sub-tropical areas. DF has been one of the most important epidemics in Taiwan which occur annually especially in southern Taiwan during summer and autumn. Most DF studies have focused mainly on temporal DF patterns and its close association with climatic covariates, whereas few studies have investigated the spatial DF patterns (spatial dependence and clustering) and composite space-time effects of the DF epidemics. The present study proposes a spatio-temporal DF prediction approach based on stochastic Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) analysis. Core and site-specific knowledge bases are considered, including climate and health datasets under conditions of uncertainty, space-time dependence functions, and a Poisson regression model of climatic variables contributing to DF occurrences in southern Taiwan during 2007, when the highest number of DF cases was recorded in the history of Taiwan epidemics (over 2000). The obtained results show that the DF outbreaks in the study area are highly influenced by climatic conditions. Furthermore, the analysis can provide the required "one-week-ahead" outbreak warnings based on spatio-temporal predictions of DF distributions. Therefore, the proposed analysis can provide the Taiwan Disease Control Agency with a valuable tool to timely identify, control, and even efficiently prevent DF spreading across space-time.

  8. Integrated vibration-based maintenance: an approach for continuous reduction in LCC. A case study

    Najjar, B. [ER Konsult Utveckling AB, Vaexjoe (Sweden)


    The biggest thread in achieving and maintaining high equipment effectiveness can be stated as: whether the improved manufacturing processes capable of producing quality products at a competitive cost. The effect of a new vibration-based maintenance concept, called Total Quality Maintenance (TQMain), is introduced. It aims to make intensive use of the real-time data acquisition and analysis to detect causes behind product quality deviation and failures in machinery, and following defect development at an early stage to increase machine mean effective life and improve company`s economics. The effect of TQMain on LCC of machinery and company`s economics is discussed. A case study to reveal savings in maintenance cost when a vibration-based policy involved, is presented. Using TQMain, company`s economics can be improved effectively through continuous improvement of the technical and economic effectiveness of production processes. (orig.) 14 refs.

  9. Economics of pyrolysis-based energy production and biochar utilization: A case study in Taiwan

    Pyrolysis is an alternative form of renewable energy production and a potential source of greenhouse gas emissions mitigation. This study examines how poplar-based biochar can be applied in Taiwan for electricity generation and for soil improvement and to what extent it brings economic and environmental benefits. It is a preliminary study and focuses on the balances of different economic and environmental items. This paper reports on a case study examination of the economic and greenhouse gas implications of pyrolysis plus biochar utilization. The case study involves using poplar grown on set-aside land in Taiwan with the biochar applied to rice fields. We examine both fast and slow forms of pyrolysis and find how the profitability varies under different price structures. The results show that fast pyrolysis is more profitable than slow pyrolysis under current electricity price, GHG price and crop yield as the slow pyrolysis generates relatively less electricity but lower value product—biochar. We also find that fast pyrolysis and slow pyrolysis offset about 1.4 t and 1.57 t of CO2 equivalent per ton of raw material, respectively. - Highlights: • Profitability varies due to sales revenue from electricity generation. • Neither fast pyrolysis nor slow pyrolysis is profitable under current electricity price. • Both systems offset about 1.4 t to 1.57 t of CO2 equivalent per ton of raw material

  10. When to be skeptical of negative studies: pitfalls in evaluating occupational risks using population-based case-control studies.

    Hu, S W; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Siemiatycki, J


    This study investigated arsenic and lung cancer incidence in a community setting in the Montreal area. Job histories and sociodemographic factors were collected by interview from 857 lung cancer cases, 533 general population controls, and 1,360 controls with other cancers. Chemist-hygienists assessed each subject's life-time occupational exposure to 294 substances. Logistic regressions yielded arsenic/lung cancer odds ratios of 1.1 (95% confidence interval = 0.60, 1.7) based on cancer controls, and 0.82 (95% confidence interval = 0.41, 1.6) based on population controls. Risk did not rise with increasing level or probability of exposure. Worksite studies consistently show lung carcinogenicity from arsenic. Since confounding from other chemicals was well controlled, the most likely explanation is substantially lower exposures than in previous studies. The lack of association in this study demonstrates the need for caution in interpreting negative findings from population-based case-control studies, particularly when exposures are low or rare, as well as the difficulty in generating hypotheses from such studies. PMID:10349223

  11. Critical evaluation of financial supporting schemes for wind-based projects: Case study Greece

    After a long stagnating period during the second half of the 1990s, the market of wind energy in Greece was described by remarkable but unstable growth rates that resulted in the operation of 1 GW of wind power by the end of 2009. Still though, penetration of wind energy is not the one anticipated. On the other hand, national targets regarding the Renewable Energy Sources' (RES) contribution and existence of excellent wind potential areas across Greece challenge new wind energy investments. Acknowledging the unsteady development rates of wind power in Greece, efficiency of the State support mechanisms is currently investigated. Based on an analytical evaluation model, the investigation undertaken is extended to provide a detailed cost-benefit analysis of several wind energy case studies, including mainland and island applications as well as comparison with both conventional power stations and photovoltaic plants. For this purpose, the financial support provided by the State is directly compared with benefits accruing from the operation of wind parks, considering also the avoidance of social costs deriving from thermal power stations. Based on the results obtained, the beneficial characteristics of wind energy applications for the Greek society are clearly demonstrated, especially in the case of non-interconnected island grids. - Research highlights: → Since the mid-1990s, growth of wind power capacity in Greece has been unstable. → As a result, integration of wind energy is not the one anticipated. → Considering the situation, efficiency of State support mechanisms is evaluated. → An analytical cost-benefit model is developed and applied to various case studies. → Benefits from wind energy, especially in island regions, are designated.

  12. Incretin-Based Therapy and Risk of Acute Pancreatitis: A Nationwide Population-Based Case-Control Study

    Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Pedersen, Lars; Møller, Niels;


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the use of incretin-based drugs (GLP-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 [DPP4] inhibitors) is associated with acute pancreatitis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study was a nationwide population-based case-control study using medical databases in...... Denmark. Participants were 12,868 patients with a first-time hospitalization for acute pancreatitis between 2005 and 2012 and a population of 128,680 matched control subjects. The main outcome measure was the odds ratio (OR) for acute pancreatitis associated with different antihyperglycemic drugs. We...... adjusted for history of gallstones, alcoholism, obesity, and other pancreatitis-associated comorbidities and medications. RESULTS: A total of 89 pancreatitis patients (0.69%) and 684 control subjects (0.53%) were ever users of incretins. The crude OR for acute pancreatitis among incretin users was 1.36 (95...

  13. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie


    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  14. Agent-based modelling as scientific method: a case study analysing primate social behaviour.

    Bryson, Joanna J; Ando, Yasushi; Lehmann, Hagen


    A scientific methodology in general should provide two things: first, a means of explanation and, second, a mechanism for improving that explanation. Agent-based modelling (ABM) is a method that facilitates exploring the collective effects of individual action selection. The explanatory force of the model is the extent to which an observed meta-level phenomenon can be accounted for by the behaviour of its micro-level actors. This article demonstrates that this methodology can be applied to the biological sciences; agent-based models, like any other scientific hypotheses, can be tested, critiqued, generalized or specified. We review the state of the art for ABM as a methodology for biology and then present a case study based on the most widely published agent-based model in the biological sciences: Hemelrijk's DomWorld, a model of primate social behaviour. Our analysis shows some significant discrepancies between this model and the behaviour of the macaques, the genus used for our analysis. We also demonstrate that the model is not fragile: its other results are still valid and can be extended to compensate for these problems. This robustness is a standard advantage of experiment-based artificial intelligence modelling techniques over analytic modelling. PMID:17434852

  15. Cloud-Based Environmental Impact Assessment Expert System – A Case Study of Fiji

    Sam Goundar


    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessments [EIA] involve identifying, measuring, and assessing impacts. This complex process deals with considerable amount of information and requires processing and analysis of quantitative data, qualitative information as well as expert human judgements. Often, available information is incomplete, subjective, and inconsistent. This challenge of collecting, processing, analyzing, and reporting EIA information can be met by computer systems. A Cloud-based Environmental Impact Assessment [EIA] system is proposed in this paper to overcome the many challenges faced by practitioners. Fiji’s EIA process is used as a case study. The steps involved in the process are automated as a sequence of computer executable programs with Expert System. Based on the information provided about projects, the EIA system is expected to compute environmental impacts and produce Environment Impact Statements. With the system, a user enters information about the environmental settings in which the development project is expected to take place as well as the proposed development project activities. Based on the input, an expert system with an inference engine uses rules to check the knowledge base and report on possible impacts and mitigation actions. The knowledge base is connected to databases on domain experts, GIS and simulation models.

  16. Level of neurotoxic metals in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A population-based case-control study.

    Bocca, Beatrice; Forte, Giovanni; Oggiano, Riccardo; Clemente, Simonetta; Asara, Yolande; Peruzzu, Angela; Farace, Cristiano; Pala, Salvatore; Fois, Alessandro Giuseppe; Pirina, Pietro; Madeddu, Roberto


    The association between exposure to toxic metals and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was explored in a population-based case-control study in the Sardinia island (Italy), a region characterized by elevated rates of ALS cases. In 34 patients with ALS (mean age, 62 ± 10 years) and 30 controls (mean age, 65 ± 11 years), Al, Cd, Hg, Mn and Pb were determined in blood, hair and urine by sector field inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Results indicated that, in blood, concentrations of Al (p=0.045) and Pb were higher (p=0.026) in ALS patients than in control subjects. In hair, a depletion of Al (p=0.006) and Mn (p=0.032) concentrations in ALS subjects respect to controls was found. In urine, no significant differences between cases and controls were observed. Thus, some metals seemed to be associated with ALS degeneration, but a definitive conclusion is still far considering the multiple risk factors (genetic mutations, environmental toxicants and stressors) involved in the disease. Finally, the interpretation that deregulated metal concentrations can be a consequence of the degenerative process, rather than a cause, is also valid. PMID:26671079

  17. Association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi: a population-based case-control study.

    Shih-Ping Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia have been demonstrated to have higher overall morbidity and all-cause mortality rates from general medical conditions. However, little attention has been given to the urinary system of people with schizophrenia. As no direct evidence has been reported demonstrating a link between schizophrenia and urinary calculi, this study utilized a population-based case-control study design to investigate the possibility of an association between schizophrenia and the occurrence of urinary calculi. METHOD: This study used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Cases consisted of 53,965 urinary calculi patients newly diagnosed between 2002 and 2008. In total, 269,825 controls were randomly selected and matched with the cases in terms of age and sex. Each person was traced to discern whether he had previously received a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Conditional logistic regression models were performed for the analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3,119 (1.0% subjects had been diagnosed with schizophrenia prior to the index date. This included 0.7% of the patients with urinary calculi, and 1.0% of the controls. A prior diagnosis of schizophrenia was independently associated with a 30% decrease (95% CI = 0.62-0.76 in the occurrence of urinary calculi. The reduction was even more remarkable in males (38%, 95% CI = 0.55-0.71 and in elder individuals independent of gender (48% in those aged >69, 95% CI = 0.36-0.77. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an inverse association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi. Future studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which schizophrenia negatively associates with urinary calculi.

  18. Teaching Introductory Oceanography through Case Studies: Project based approach for general education students

    Farnsworth, K. L.; House, M.; Hovan, S. A.


    A recent workshop sponsored by SERC-On the Cutting Edge brought together science educators from a range of schools across the country to discuss new approaches in teaching oceanography. In discussing student interest in our classes, we were struck by the fact that students are drawn to emotional or controversial topics such as whale hunting and tsunami hazard and that these kinds of topics are a great vehicle for introducing more complex concepts such as wave propagation, ocean upwelling and marine chemistry. Thus, we have developed an approach to introductory oceanography that presents students with real-world issues in the ocean sciences and requires them to explore the science behind them in order to improve overall ocean science literacy among non-majors and majors at 2 and 4 year colleges. We have designed a project-based curriculum built around topics that include, but are not limited to: tsunami hazard, whale migration, ocean fertilization, ocean territorial claims, rapid climate change, the pacific trash patch, overfishing, and ocean acidification. Each case study or project consists of three weeks of class time and is structured around three elements: 1) a media analysis; 2) the role of ocean science in addressing the issue; 3) human impact/response. Content resources range from textbook readings, popular or current print news, documentary film and television, and data available on the world wide web from a range of sources. We employ a variety of formative assessments for each case study in order to monitor student access and understanding of content and include a significant component of in-class student discussion and brainstorming guided by faculty input to develop the case study. Each study culminates in summative assessments ranging from exams to student posters to presentations, depending on the class size and environment. We envision this approach for a range of classroom environments including large group face-to-face instruction as well as hybrid

  19. Challenges in Post Merger Integration: an analysis based on a case study from CEE

    Vodák, Martin


    The thesis is covering an analysis of a concrete acquisition case from CEE. Based on the review of theory a conceptual framework was created and then applied to the acquisition case in order to analyze the process of post-merger integration. As a result, recommendations were created for similar future transactions.

  20. An analysis of the perceived benefits of a case study-based competition in financial management / Rona van Hoepen

    Van Hoepen, Rona


    Students from 24 participating regions take part in teams of four in the CIMA (Chartered Institute of Management Accountants) GBC (Global Business Challenge) annually. The GBC is in the form of a business competition which is based on a case study of a real company. The participants receive the case study on which they should submit a written report. Teams are shortlisted based on the reports, and the shortlisted teams have to prepare a presentation to a panel of judges. This study explore...

  1. Air Pollution and the Risk of Cardiac Defects: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Hwang, Bing-Fang; Lee, Yungling Leo; Jaakkola, Jouni J K


    Previous epidemiologic studies have assessed the role of the exposure to ambient air pollution in the development of cardiac birth defects, but they have provided somewhat inconsistent results. To assess the associations between exposure to ambient air pollutants and the risk of cardiac defects, a population-based case-control study was conducted using 1087 cases of cardiac defects and a random sample of 10,870 controls from 1,533,748 Taiwanese newborns in 2001 to 2007.Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios for 10 ppb increases in O3 and 10 μg/m increases in PM10. In addition, we compared the risk of cardiac defects in 4 categories-high exposure (>75th percentile); medium exposure (75th to 50th percentile); low exposure (patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) were associated with 10 ppb increases in O3 exposure during the first 3 gestational months among term and preterm babies. In comparison between high PM10 exposure and reference category, there were statistically significant elevations in the effect estimates of ASD for all and terms births. In addition, there was a negative or weak association between SO2, NO2, CO, and cardiac defects.The study proved that exposure to outdoor air O3 and PM10 during the first trimester of gestation may increase the risk of VSD, ASD, and PDA. PMID:26554783

  2. Breast cancer risk associated with different HRT formulations: a register-based case-control study

    Thai Do; Möhner Sabine; Heinemann Lothar AJ; Dinger Juergen C; Assmann Anita


    Abstract Background Previous epidemiological studies have inconsistently shown a modestly increased breast cancer risk associated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Limited information is available about different formulations – particularly concerning different progestins. Methods A case-control study was performed within Germany in collaboration with regional cancer registries and tumor centers. Up to 5 controls were matched breast cancer cases. Conditional logistic regression analysis...

  3. Tumor-based case-control studies of infection and cancer: muddling the when and where of molecular epidemiology.

    Engels, Eric A; Wacholder, Sholom; Katki, Hormuzd A; Chaturvedi, Anil K


    We describe the "tumor-based case-control" study as a type of epidemiologic study used to evaluate associations between infectious agents and cancer. These studies assess exposure using diseased tissues from affected individuals (i.e., evaluating tumor tissue for cancer cases), but they must utilize nondiseased tissues to assess control subjects, who do not have the disease of interest. This approach can lead to exposure misclassification in two ways. First, concerning the "when" of exposure assessment, retrospective assessment of tissues may not accurately measure exposure at the key earlier time point (i.e., during the etiologic window). Second, concerning the "where" of exposure assessment, use of different tissues in cases and controls can have different accuracy for detecting the exposure (i.e., differential exposure misclassification). We present an example concerning the association of human papillomavirus with various cancers, where tumor-based case-control studies likely overestimate risk associated with infection. In another example, we illustrate how tumor-based case-control studies of Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer underestimate risk. Tumor-based case-control studies can demonstrate infection within tumor cells, providing qualitative information about disease etiology. However, measures of association calculated in tumor-based case-control studies are prone to over- or underestimating the relationship between infections and subsequent cancer risk. PMID:25063520

  4. Background radiation and childhood leukemia: A nationwide register-based case-control study.

    Nikkilä, Atte; Erme, Sini; Arvela, Hannu; Holmgren, Olli; Raitanen, Jani; Lohi, Olli; Auvinen, Anssi


    High doses of ionizing radiation are an established cause of childhood leukemia. However, substantial uncertainty remains about the effect of low doses of radiation, including background radiation and potential differences between genetic subgroups of leukemia have rarely been explored. We investigated the effect of the background gamma radiation on childhood leukemia using a nationwide register-based case-control study. For each of the 1,093 cases, three age- and gender matched controls were selected (N = 3,279). Conditional logistic regression analyses were adjusted for confounding by Down syndrome, birth weight (large for gestational age), and maternal smoking. Complete residential histories and previously collected survey data of the background gamma radiation in Finland were used to assess the exposure of the study subjects to indoor and outdoor gamma radiation. Overall, background gamma radiation showed a non-significant association with the OR of childhood leukemia (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.97, 1.05 for 10 nSv/h increase in average equivalent dose rate to red bone marrow). In subgroup analyses, age group 2-childhood leukemia, particularly at age 2-<7 years. Our findings suggest a larger effect of radiation on leukemia with high hyperpdiploidy than other subgroups, but this result requires further confirmation. PMID:27405274

  5. Asthma and Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Population-Based Case-Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    Su, Yu-Li; Chou, Ching-Lan; Rau, Kun-Ming; Lee, Charles Tzu-Chi


    Several epidemiologic studies in Western countries have examined the association between asthma and prostate cancer risk, but the results have been inconclusive. We investigated this association in a large, nationwide, population-based case-cohort study. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 1997 to 2008, we collected data from 12,372 men, including 4124 with asthma and 8248 age-, residence-, and insurance premium-matched control subjects, who were never diagnosed with asthma. Competing risk-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for determining the association between prostate cancer and asthma. During a mean follow-up of 5.05 years (standard deviation, 2.10), there were 74 cases of prostate cancer. The incidence of prostate cancer was 163.0/100,000 person-years (95% CI: 113.0-228.0) in the asthma patients. Asthma was significantly associated with prostate cancer (HR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.22-4.57; P = 0.011) after adjusting for age, residential area, insurance premium, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, duration of hospitalization, and mortality. In the subgroup analysis, independent risk factors for prostate cancer among men with asthma were age (HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.05-1.21; P risk of prostate cancer. PMID:26356691

  6. Case Based Reasoning: Case Representation Methodologies

    Shaker H. El-Sappagh


    Full Text Available Case Based Reasoning (CBR is an important technique in artificial intelligence, which has been applied to various kinds of problems in a wide range of domains. Selecting case representation formalism is critical for the proper operation of the overall CBR system. In this paper, we survey and evaluate all of the existing case representation methodologies. Moreover, the case retrieval and future challenges for effective CBR are explained. Case representation methods are grouped in to knowledge-intensive approaches and traditional approaches. The first group overweight the second one. The first methods depend on ontology and enhance all CBR processes including case representation, retrieval, storage, and adaptation. By using a proposed set of qualitative metrics, the existing methods based on ontology for case representation are studied and evaluated in details. All these systems have limitations. No approach exceeds 53% of the specified metrics. The results of the survey explain the current limitations of CBR systems. It shows that ontology usage in case representation needs improvements to achieve semantic representation and semantic retrieval in CBR system.

  7. Human-centered modeling in human reliability analysis: some trends based on case studies

    As an informal working group of researchers from France, Germany and The Netherlands created in 1993, the EARTH association is investigating significant subjects in the field of human reliability analysis (HRA). Our initial review of cases from nuclear operating experience showed that decision-based unrequired actions (DUA) contribute to risk significantly on the one hand. On the other hand, our evaluation of current HRA methods showed that these methods do not cover such actions adequately. Especially, practice-oriented guidelines for their predictive identification are lacking. We assumed that a basic cause for such difficulties was that these methods actually use a limited representation of the stimulus-organism-response (SOR) paradigm. We proposed a human-centered model, which better highlights the active role of the operators and the importance of their culture, attitudes and goals. This orientation was encouraged by our review of current HRA research activities. We therefore decided to envisage progress by identifying cognitive tendencies in the context of operating and simulator experience. For this purpose, advanced approaches for retrospective event analysis were discussed. Some orientations for improvements were proposed. By analyzing cases, various cognitive tendencies were identified, together with useful information about their context. Some of them match psychological findings already published in the literature, some of them are not covered adequately by the literature that we reviewed. Finally, this exploratory study shows that contextual and case-illustrated findings about cognitive tendencies provide useful help for the predictive identification of DUA in HRA. More research should be carried out to complement our findings and elaborate more detailed and systematic guidelines for using them in HRA studies

  8. Performance of Modular Prefabricated Architecture: Case Study-Based Review and Future Pathways

    Fred Edmond Boafo


    Full Text Available Even though tightened building energy efficiency standards are implemented periodically in many countries, existing buildings continually consume a momentous quota of the total primary energy. Energy efficiency solutions range from material components to bulk systems. A technique of building construction, referred to as prefabricated architecture (prefab, is increasing in reputation. Prefab encompasses the offsite fabrication of building components to a greater degree of finish as bulk building structures and systems, and their assembly on-site. In this context, prefab improves the speed of construction, quality of architecture, efficiency of materials, and worker safety, while limiting environmental impacts of construction, as compared to conventional site-built construction practices. Quite recently, a 57 story skyscraper was built in 19 days using prefabricated modules. From the building physics point of view, the bulk systems and tighter integration method of prefab minimizes thermal bridges. This study seeks to clearly characterize the levels of prefab and to investigate the performance of modular prefab; considering acoustic constrain, seismic resistance, thermal behavior, energy consumption, and life cycle analysis of existing prefab cases and, thus, provides a dynamic case study-based review. Generally, prefab can be categorized into components, panels (2D, modules (3D, hybrids, and unitized whole buildings. On average, greenhouse gas emissions from conventional construction were higher than for modular construction, not discounting some individual discrepancies. Few studies have focused on monitored data on prefab and occupants’ comfort but additional studies are required to understand the public’s perception of the technology. The scope of the work examined will be of interest to building engineers, manufacturers, and energy experts, as well as serve as a foundational reference for future study.

  9. Optimization-based methodology for wastewater treatment plant synthesis – a full scale retrofitting case study

    Bozkurt, Hande; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan


    Existing wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) need retrofitting in order to better handle changes in the wastewater flow and composition, reduce operational costs as well as meet newer and stricter regulatory standards on the effluent discharge limits. In this study, we use an optimization based...... technologies. The superstructure optimization problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer (non)Linear Programming problem and solved for different scenarios - represented by different objective functions and constraint definitions. A full-scale domestic wastewater treatment plant (265,000 PE) is used as a case...... framework to manage the multi-criteria WWTP design/retrofit problem for domestic wastewater treatment. The design space (i.e. alternative treatment technologies) is represented in a superstructure, which is coupled with a database containing data for both performance and economics of the novel alternative...

  10. A Process Re-engineering Framework for Reverse Logistics based on a Case Study

    Hing Kai Chan


    Full Text Available Reverse logistics has gained increasing attention in recent years as a channel for companies to achieve operational excellence. The process involves manipulation of returned materials, or even products, which forms a pivotal role in sustainable development throughout the whole supply chains. To make reverse logistics possible, process re-engineering may need to be carried out. However, the processes involved in reengineering are practically complicated. Objectives, benefits, and applicability of any process re-engineering require a careful and detailed strategic planning. This paper aims to propose an easy-to-follow step-by-step framework for practitioners to perform process re-engineering, to learn and identify the critical issues in each step, and to be successful in applying process re-engineering in order to enhance reverse logistics performance. A learner-centred approach is adopted based on a case study of process re-engineering, which is demonstrated in the paper for explanation.

  11. Instant tsunami early warning based on real-time GPS – Tohoku 2011 case study

    A. Hoechner


    Full Text Available Taking the 2011 Tohoku earthquake as an example, we demonstrate the ability of real-time GPS to provide qualified tsunami early warning within minutes. While in earlier studies we demonstrated the power of the so-called GPS shield concept based on synthetic data, we here present a complete processing chain starting from actual GPS raw data and fully simulate the situation as it would be in a warning center. The procedure includes processing of GPS observations with predicted high precision orbits, inversion for slip and computation of the tsunami propagation and coastal warning levels. We show that in case of the Tohoku earthquake, it would be feasible to provide accurate tsunami warning as soon as 3 min after the beginning of the earthquake.

  12. Agent-based simulation of pedestrian behaviour in closed spaces: a museum case study

    Pluchino, Alessandro; Inturri, Giuseppe; Rapisarda, Andrea; Ignaccolo, Matteo


    In order to analyse the behaviour of pedestrians at the very fine scale, while moving along the streets, in open spaces or inside a building, simulation modelling becomes an essential tool. In these spatial environments, in the presence of unusual demand flows, simulation requires the ability to model the local dynamics of individual decision making and behaviour, which is strongly affected by the geometry, randomness, social preferences, local and collective behaviour of other individuals. The dynamics of people visiting and evacuating a museum offers an excellent case study along this line. In this paper we realize an agent-based simulation of the Castello Ursino museum in Catania (Italy), evaluating its carrying capacity in terms of both satisfaction of the visitors in regime of normal fruition and their safety under alarm conditions.

  13. Assessment of solar electrification in Cuba. A case study based on GIS for rural development

    Pinedo, Irene; Dominguez, Javier [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain). Energy Dept.; Rodriguez, Maria [Solar Energy Research Center (CIES), Santiago de Cuba (Cuba)


    A quarter of total world population, mainly in developing countries, are lacking of electricity. Due to social, economic and geographical differences, detail studies are needed in order to find the appropriate technology for each case. The rural electrification analysis of Guama municipality is based on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) to define the best way of electrification using levelized electric cost (LEC) criterion to meet a particular demand. Applying SOLARGIS methodology, conventional and renewable energy technologies are compared in every non-electrified community. The analysis considers the social and geographical particularities of the area and shows a very high potential of remote sites to be electrified by means of photovoltaic systems. (orig.)

  14. The case-only independence assumption: associations between genetic polymorphisms and smoking among controls in two population-based studies

    Hodgson, M Elizabeth; Olshan, Andrew F.; North, Kari E; Poole, Charles L; Zeng, Donglin; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Keku, Tope O; Galanko, Joseph; Sandler, Robert; Millikan, Robert C.


    The independence assumption for a case-only analysis of statistical interaction, i. e. that genetic (G) and environmental exposures (E) are not associated in the source population, is often checked in surrogate populations. Few studies have examined G-E association in empirical data, particularly in controls from population-based studies, the type of controls expected to provide the most valid surrogate estimates of G-E association. We used controls from two population-based case-control stud...

  15. Body Mass Index, Smoking and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy: A Population Based Case-Control Study.

    Thuridur A Gudnadóttir

    Full Text Available While obesity is an indicated risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be inversely associated with the development of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of high body mass index and smoking on hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. This was a case-control study based on national registers, nested within all pregnancies in Iceland 1989-2004, resulting in birth at the Landspitali University Hospital. Cases (n = 500 were matched 1:2 with women without a hypertensive diagnosis who gave birth in the same year. Body mass index (kg/m2 was based on height and weight at 10-15 weeks of pregnancy. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals as measures of association, adjusting for potential confounders and tested for additive and multiplicative interactions of body mass index and smoking. Women's body mass index during early pregnancy was positively associated with each hypertensive outcome. Compared with normal weight women, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder was 1.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.3 for overweight women and 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.3 for obese women. The odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder with obesity was 3.9 (95% confidence interval 1.8-8.6 among smokers and 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1-4.3 among non-smokers. The effect estimates for hypertensive disorders with high body mass index appeared more pronounced among smokers than non-smokers, although the observed difference was not statistically significant. Our findings may help elucidate the complicated interplay of these lifestyle-related factors with the hypertensive disorders during pregnancy.

  16. A real options-based CCS investment evaluation model: Case study of China's power generation sector

    Highlights: → This paper establishes a carbon captures and storage (CCS) investment evaluation model. → The model is based on real options theory and solved by the Least Squares Monte Carlo (LSM) method. → China is taken as a case study to evaluate the effects of regulations on CCS investment. → The findings show that the current investment risk of CCS is high, climate policy having the greatest impact on CCS development. -- Abstract: This paper establishes a carbon capture and storage (CCS) investment evaluation model based on real options theory considering uncertainties from the existing thermal power generating cost, carbon price, thermal power with CCS generating cost, and investment in CCS technology deployment. The model aims to evaluate the value of the cost saving effect and amount of CO2 emission reduction through investing in newly-built thermal power with CCS technology to replace existing thermal power in a given period from the perspective of power generation enterprises. The model is solved by the Least Squares Monte Carlo (LSM) method. Since the model could be used as a policy analysis tool, China is taken as a case study to evaluate the effects of regulations on CCS investment through scenario analysis. The findings show that the current investment risk of CCS is high, climate policy having the greatest impact on CCS development. Thus, there is an important trade off for policy makers between reducing greenhouse gas emissions and protecting the interests of power generation enterprises. The research presented would be useful for CCS technology evaluation and related policy-making.

  17. Risk-Based, Hypothesis-Driven Framework for Hydrological Field Campaigns with Case Studies

    Harken, B.; Rubin, Y.


    There are several stages in any hydrological modeling campaign, including: formulation and analysis of a priori information, data acquisition through field campaigns, inverse modeling, and prediction of some environmental performance metric (EPM). The EPM being predicted could be, for example, contaminant concentration or plume travel time. These predictions often have significant bearing on a decision that must be made. Examples include: how to allocate limited remediation resources between contaminated groundwater sites or where to place a waste repository site. Answering such questions depends on predictions of EPMs using forward models as well as levels of uncertainty related to these predictions. Uncertainty in EPM predictions stems from uncertainty in model parameters, which can be reduced by measurements taken in field campaigns. The costly nature of field measurements motivates a rational basis for determining a measurement strategy that is optimal with respect to the uncertainty in the EPM prediction. The tool of hypothesis testing allows this uncertainty to be quantified by computing the significance of the test resulting from a proposed field campaign. The significance of the test gives a rational basis for determining the optimality of a proposed field campaign. This hypothesis testing framework is demonstrated and discussed using various synthetic case studies. This study involves contaminated aquifers where a decision must be made based on prediction of when a contaminant will arrive at a specified location. The EPM, in this case contaminant travel time, is cast into the hypothesis testing framework. The null hypothesis states that the contaminant plume will arrive at the specified location before a critical amount of time passes, and the alternative hypothesis states that the plume will arrive after the critical time passes. The optimality of different field campaigns is assessed by computing the significance of the test resulting from each one

  18. Association Between Obesity and Asthma among Adults: A Hospital Based Case-Control Study

    A.C. Mathew


    Full Text Available The aim is to study the association between obesity and asthma among adults by gender. The prevalences of both asthma and obesity have increased substantially in recent decades, leading to speculation that obese individuals might be at risk of asthma. However, the evidence of a relationship between obesity and asthma is not fully conclusive among adults. Hence we investigate the association between obesity and asthma among men and women using both measured weight and height and self-reported weight and height while controlling for the effects of the demographic and environmental factors. This case-control study involves a total of 159 adults; 53 cases and 106 controls enrolled in the month of July 2009 at PSG Hospitals. Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated based on measured weight and height. The Odds Ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval for obese individuals was estimated using logistic regression analysis with SPSS 11.5 for windows software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to adjust all risk estimates for covariates. Obese women were found to have 9.14 times the risk of asthma than non obese women (95% confidence interval (CI:1.38, 35.68 after adjusting for covariates, such as age, education, environmental tobacco smoke and pet keeping. No significant association was observed among men although the direction of association is positive; adjusted odds ratio was 1.06 (95% CI: 0.12, 9.70. No significant association was observed between self-reported prevalence of obesity and asthma; among women, adjusted odds ratio = 4.33 (95% CI: 0.69, 27.37; and among men, adjusted odds ratio = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.11, 7.12. The study indicates a strong positive association between obesity and asthma among adult Indian women. The causal links between obesity and asthma by gender need to be further examined using prospective cohort studies.

  19. Vibration measurement-based simple technique for damage detection of truss bridges: A case study

    Sudath C. Siriwardane


    Full Text Available The bridges experience increasing traffic volume and weight, deteriorating of components and large number of stress cycles. Therefore, assessment of the current condition of steel railway bridges becomes necessary. Most of the commonly available approaches for structural health monitoring are based on visual inspection and non-destructive testing methods. The visual inspection is unreliable as those depend on uncertainty behind inspectors and their experience. Also, the non-destructive testing methods are found to be expensive. Therefore, recent researches have noticed that dynamic modal parameters or vibration measurement-based structural health monitoring methods are economical and may also provide more realistic predictions to damage state of civil infrastructure. Therefore this paper proposes a simple technique to locate the damage region of railway truss bridges based on measured modal parameters. The technique is discussed with a case study. Initially paper describes the details of considered railway bridge. Then observations of visual inspection, material testing and in situ load testing are discussed under separate sections. Development of validated finite element model of the considered bridge is comprehensively discussed. Hence, variations of modal parameters versus position of the damage are plotted. These plots are considered as the main reference for locating the damage of the railway bridge in future periodical inspection by comparing the measured corresponding modal parameters. Finally the procedure of periodical vibration measurement and damage locating technique are clearly illustrated.

  20. Planning and Designing Web- Based Electronic Commerce: a case study in the insurance industry

    Rolf Teubner


    Full Text Available Electronic Commerce (EC comprises new ways of doing business with customers, suppliers and other business partners. EC is enabled by information and communication technology, in particular the World Wide Web (in short, the Web. While numerous organisations have started to use the Web as an interface to clients and business partners, many have been disappointed by lower than expected response rates and higher than expected costs. One reason for non profitable Web based EC applications is that they do not reflect the strategic preconditions of EC. This lack may be due to deficits in the process of developing an EC-strategy for their Web application. Furthermore, there is a void of instruments and tools to support this process. In order to fill this void, this paper proposes two basic frameworks for planning a Web based EC application. The application of these frameworks is illustrated by the example of a medium seized insurance company. Based on experiences drawn from the case study, the proposed frameworks will be evaluated.

  1. Prediction of quantitative phenotypes based on genetic networks: a case study in yeast sporulation

    Shen Li


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An exciting application of genetic network is to predict phenotypic consequences for environmental cues or genetic perturbations. However, de novo prediction for quantitative phenotypes based on network topology is always a challenging task. Results Using yeast sporulation as a model system, we have assembled a genetic network from literature and exploited Boolean network to predict sporulation efficiency change upon deleting individual genes. We observe that predictions based on the curated network correlate well with the experimentally measured values. In addition, computational analysis reveals the robustness and hysteresis of the yeast sporulation network and uncovers several patterns of sporulation efficiency change caused by double gene deletion. These discoveries may guide future investigation of underlying mechanisms. We have also shown that a hybridized genetic network reconstructed from both temporal microarray data and literature is able to achieve a satisfactory prediction accuracy of the same quantitative phenotypes. Conclusions This case study illustrates the value of predicting quantitative phenotypes based on genetic network and provides a generic approach.

  2. Construction of Agricultural University Students’ Entrepreneurship Incubation Base – Taking Sichuan Agricultural University as a Case Study

    Xia Yao; Jianping Xie; Linchun He


    In the recent years, as an effective practice in university students’ entrepreneurship education, construction of university students’ entrepreneurship incubation base has been rapidly developed in different universities. This paper takes construction of the entrepreneurship incubation base in Sichuan Agricultural University as a case study, analyzes the current status of university students’ entrepreneurship incubation base and makes a discussion on establishment of management institution, f...

  3. Shrinkage Estimators for Robust and Efficient Inference in Haplotype-Based Case-Control Studies

    Chen, Yi-Hau


    Case-control association studies often aim to investigate the role of genes and gene-environment interactions in terms of the underlying haplotypes (i.e., the combinations of alleles at multiple genetic loci along chromosomal regions). The goal of this article is to develop robust but efficient approaches to the estimation of disease odds-ratio parameters associated with haplotypes and haplotype-environment interactions. We consider "shrinkage" estimation techniques that can adaptively relax the model assumptions of Hardy-Weinberg-Equilibrium and gene-environment independence required by recently proposed efficient "retrospective" methods. Our proposal involves first development of a novel retrospective approach to the analysis of case-control data, one that is robust to the nature of the gene-environment distribution in the underlying population. Next, it involves shrinkage of the robust retrospective estimator toward a more precise, but model-dependent, retrospective estimator using novel empirical Bayes and penalized regression techniques. Methods for variance estimation are proposed based on asymptotic theories. Simulations and two data examples illustrate both the robustness and efficiency of the proposed methods.

  4. Estrogen and Alzheimer′s disease in Aging Population: Population based case-control study

    Xia Hong; Zhen-xin Zhang; Hui Li; Jie hao Zhao; Jue-bin Huang; ling Wei


    Objective: Wc conducted a population based case-control study to evaluate the effect of estrogen associated variables in Alzhcimer′s disease. Methods: A total of 2995 female residents aged 55 years or older was drawn-by means of stratified multistage cluster sampling in urban and rural areas of Beijing. Wc collected gynecological data of 2995 females. Cases were females Alzheimer′s disease ascertained by DSM-Ⅳ criteria and NINCDS-ADRDA critcria. Controls were female residents whose MMSE scores upper than 50 percentage. Odds Ratio were calculated from Logistic models. Results: By a Logistic stepwise multiple regression model, we found that the risk of dementia in women increased with increasing age (OR per year, 1.21, 95%CI, 1.16 -1.27). The risk decreased with increased duration with menstrual cycles (OR per year, 0.8L, 95%CI, 0.68 to 0.97). The risk decreased with increased age of menopause (OR per year, 0.97, 95%CI, 0.91 to 1.04). The risk decreased in women ever suffered from uterine, ovary, or breast tumor (OR, 0.30, 95%C1:0.04- 2.28). Conclusion: The risk of AD decreased with increased duration of menstrual cycles and increased age of menopause and in wome ever suffered fiom uterine. ovary or breast tumor. These findings offers additional support for a protective influence of estrogen i AD.

  5. Using case studies based on a nursing conceptual model to teach medical-surgical nursing.

    DeSanto-Madeya, Susan


    Nurse educators are continually challenged to develop teaching strategies that enhance students' critical thinking, problem-solving, and decision-making skills. Case studies are a creative learning strategy that fosters these skills through the use of in-depth descriptions of realistic clinical situations. Conceptual models of nursing provide a unique body of knowledge that can be used to guide construction of case studies and enhance application of didactic course content to nursing practice. In this column, the author discusses the use of case studies constructed within the context of the Roy adaptation model for a senior level medical-surgical nursing course. PMID:17911329

  6. Case Study of CPT-based Design Methods for Axial Capacity of Driven Piles in Sand

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard


    loaded offshore driven piles in cohesionless soil has until now been the β-method given in API. The API-method is based on the effective overburden pressure at the depth in question. Previous studies show deviations between full-scale load test measurements of the axial pile capacity and the predictions...... found by means of the API-method. Compared to the test measurements, the API-method under-estimates the capacity of short piles (<20m) in dense sand, over-estimates the capacity of long piles in loose sand, and gives a shaft capacity less conservative for piles in tension than for piles in compression....... Thus, several CPT-based methods have been proposed for the design of offshore driven piles in cohesionless soil such as the UWA-05, ICP-05, and NGI-99 methods. This article treats a case study where the API-method as well as the UWA-05 and NGI-99 methods are compared using CPT-data from an offshore...

  7. A population-based case-control study of thyroid cancer.

    Ron, E; Kleinerman, R A; Boice, J D; LiVolsi, V A; Flannery, J T; Fraumeni, J F


    A population-based case-control interview study of thyroid cancer (159 cases and 285 controls) was conducted in Connecticut. Prior radiotherapy to the head or neck was reported by 12% of the cases and 4% of the controls [odds ratio (OR) = 2.8; 95% confidence interval = 1.2-6.9]. Risk was inversely related to age at irradiation and was highest among children exposed under age 10. Few persons born after 1945 received prior radiotherapy, consistent with the declining use of radiation to treat benign conditions in the 1950's. Among females the radiogenic risk appeared to be potentiated by the number of subsequent live-births. Other significant risk factors included a history of benign thyroid nodules (OR = 33) or goiter (OR = 5.6). Miscarriage and multiparity increased risk but only among women who developed thyroid cancer before age 35 years. Consumption of shellfish (a rich source of iodine) seemed to increase the risk of follicular thyroid cancer, whereas consumption of goitrogen-containing vegetables appeared to reduce risk of total thyroid cancer, possibly because of their cruciferous nature. A significantly low risk was observed among persons of English descent, whereas Italian ancestry appeared to increase risk. No significant associations were found with a number of suspected risk factors: diagnostic x-rays, radioactive isotope scans, occupational radiation exposure, tonsillectomy, Jewish ethnicity, alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, oral contraceptives, lactation suppressants, menopausal estrogens, most other common medications, and water source. New associations were suggested for obesity among females (OR = 1.5), surgically treated benign breast disease (OR = 1.6), use of spironolactone (OR = 4.3) or vitamin D supplements (OR = 1.8), and a family history of thyroid cancer (OR = 5.2). About 9% of the incident thyroid cancers could be attributed to prior head and neck irradiation, 4% to goiter, and 17% to thyroid nodular disease, leaving the etiology of most

  8. A Case Study of a TPACK-Based Approach to Teacher Professional Development: Teaching Science with Blogs

    Jaipal-Jamani, Kamini; Figg, Candace


    This paper presents a case study of a technology professional development initiative and illustrates how a workshop approach based on technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (TPACK) was adapted for professional learning at a school site. The case further documents how three middle school science teacher participants developed knowledge about…

  9. Association between Herpesviruses and Chronic Periodontitis: A Meta-Analysis Based on Case-Control Studies

    Wong, May. Chun. Mei; Feng, Xi-Ping; Lu, Hai-Xia; Xu, Wei


    Objective Numerous studies have investigated the associations between herpesviruses and chronic periodontitis; however, the results remain controversial. To derive a more precise estimation, a meta-analysis on all available studies was performed to identify the association between herpesviruses and chronic periodontitis. Methods A computerized literature search was conducted in December 2014 to identify eligible case-control studies from the PUBMED and EMBASE databases according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the association between herpesviruses and risk of chronic periodontitis. A fixed or random effects model was determined based on a heterogeneity test. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate stability and reliability. Publication bias was investigated using the Begg rank correlation test and Egger's funnel plot. Results Ten eligible studies were included to investigate the association between Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and chronic periodontitis. The results showed that EBV has a significant association with chronic periodontitis compared with periodontally healthy group (OR = 5.74, 95% CI = 2.53–13.00, Pherpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) and chronic periodontitis risk (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.21–4.86). Conclusion The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that two members of the herpesvirus family, EBV and HCMV, are significantly associated with chronic periodontitis. There is insufficient evidence to support associations between HSV, HHV-7 and chronic periodontitis. PMID:26666412

  10. A case study of secondary teachers facilitating a historical problem-based learning instructional unit

    Pecore, John L.

    Current curriculum trends promote inquiry-based student-centered strategies as a way to foster critical thinking and learning. Problem-based learning (PBL), a type of inquiry focusing on an issue or "problem," is an instructional approach taught on the basis that science reform efforts increase scientific literacy. PBL is a constructivist approach to learning real life problems where understanding is a function of content, context, experiences, and learner goals; historical PBL situates the lesson in a historical context and provides opportunities for teaching NOS concepts. While much research exists on the benefits of historical PBL to student learning in general, more research is warranted on how teachers implement PBL in the secondary science curriculum. The purpose of this study was to examine the classroom-learning environment of four science teachers implementing a historical PBL instructional unit to identify the teachers' understandings, successes and obstacles. By identifying teachers' possible achievements and barriers with implementing a constructivist philosophy when executing historical PBL, educators and curriculum designers may improve alignment of the learning environment to constructivist principles. A qualitative interpretive case study guided this research study. The four participants of this study were purposefully and conveniently selected from biology teachers with at least three years of teaching experience, degrees in education, State Licensure, and completion of a PBL workshop. Data collection consisted of pre and post questionnaires, structured interviews, a card sort activity in which participants categorized instructional outcomes, and participant observations. Results indicated that the four teachers assimilated reform-based constructivist practices to fit within their preexisting routines and highlighted the importance of incorporating teachers' current systems into reform-based teacher instruction. While participating teachers

  11. Population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia in Shanghai

    Shu, X.O.; Gao, Y.T.; Brinton, L.A.; Linet, M.S.; Tu, J.T.; Zheng, W.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr.


    A population-based case-control interview study of 309 childhood leukemia cases and 618 healthy population control children was conducted in urban Shanghai, China. Like some studies in other countries, excess risks for both acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) were associated with intrauterine and paternal preconception diagnostic x-ray exposure, and with maternal employment in the chemical and agricultural industries during pregnancy. ANLL was linked to maternal occupational exposure to benzene during pregnancy, whereas both ALL and ANLL were significantly associated with maternal exposure to gasoline and the patient's prior use of chloramphenicol. New findings, previously unsuspected, included an association of ANLL with younger maternal age at menarche (odds ratio (OR) = 4.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-13.9); a protective effect for long-term (greater than 1 year) use of cod liver oil containing vitamins A and D for both ALL (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.2-0.9) and ANLL (OR = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-1.0); and excess risks of ANLL among children whose mothers were employed in metal refining and processing (OR = 4.6; 95% CI = 1.3-17.2) and of ALL associated with maternal occupational exposure to pesticides (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.1-11.2). No relationships were found with late maternal age, certain congenital disorders, or familial occurrence, which have been related to childhood leukemia in other studies. In contrast with other reports, an excess of leukemia, primarily ANLL, occurred among second or later-born rather than firstborn children.

  12. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

    Morrison Howard


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk factors for breast cancer were collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Results Compared with subjects with no supplementation, 10 years or longer supplementation of zinc had multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of 0.46 (0.25-0.85 for premenopausal women, while supplementation of 10 years or longer of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc had multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs of 0.74 (0.59, 0.92, 0.58 (0.36, 0.95, 0.79 (0.63-0.99, 0.75 (0.58, 0.97, and 0.47 (0.28-0.78, respectively, for postmenopausal women. No significant effect of antioxidants from dietary sources (including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and zinc or from supplementation less than 10 years was observed. Conclusions This study suggests that supplementation of zinc in premenopausal women, and supplementation of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc in postmenopausal women for 10 or more years may protect women from developing breast cancer. However, we were unable to determine the overall effect of total dose or intake from both diet and supplement.

  13. Population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia in Shanghai

    A population-based case-control interview study of 309 childhood leukemia cases and 618 healthy population control children was conducted in urban Shanghai, China. Like some studies in other countries, excess risks for both acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) were associated with intrauterine and paternal preconception diagnostic x-ray exposure, and with maternal employment in the chemical and agricultural industries during pregnancy. ANLL was linked to maternal occupational exposure to benzene during pregnancy, whereas both ALL and ANLL were significantly associated with maternal exposure to gasoline and the patient's prior use of chloramphenicol. New findings, previously unsuspected, included an association of ANLL with younger maternal age at menarche (odds ratio [OR] = 4.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-13.9); a protective effect for long-term (greater than 1 year) use of cod liver oil containing vitamins A and D for both ALL (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.2-0.9) and ANLL (OR = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-1.0); and excess risks of ANLL among children whose mothers were employed in metal refining and processing (OR = 4.6; 95% CI = 1.3-17.2) and of ALL associated with maternal occupational exposure to pesticides (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.1-11.2). No relationships were found with late maternal age, certain congenital disorders, or familial occurrence, which have been related to childhood leukemia in other studies. In contrast with other reports, an excess of leukemia, primarily ANLL, occurred among second or later-born rather than firstborn children

  14. Risk factors for breast cancer by oestrogen receptor status: a population-based case-control study.

    Cooper, J A; Rohan, T E; Cant, E. L.; Horsfall, D. J.; Tilley, W D


    Data from a population-based case-control study conducted in Adelaide, South Australia, and involving 451 case-control pairs, were analysed to determine whether the associations of menstrual, reproductive, dietary and other factors with risk of breast cancer differed by oestrogen receptor (ER) status. Data on ER status were available for 380 cases. The proportion of tumours which were ER+ increased with age, and there was a higher proportion of ER+ tumours in post-menopausal than in premenopa...

  15. Trade Union-based Workplace Learning: A Case Study in Workplace Reorganization and Worker Knowledge Production.

    Sawchuk, Peter H.


    A case study of Canada's telecommunications industry found the union engaged in education and research that helped build the potential for workplace democracy. However, scarce resources for these activities and management concerns about worker empowerment constrained progressive change. (SK)

  16. Determinants of Mortality from Severe Dengue in Brazil: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    Hentzy Moraes, Giselle; de Fátima Duarte, Eliane; Carmen Duarte, Elisabeth


    Although increases in severity of mortality from dengue infection have been observed in Brazil, their determinants are not fully known. A case–control study was conducted by using the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, including patients with severe dengue during 2000–2005. Cases were defined as patients that died and controls were those who survived. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression was performed. During the study period, there were 12,321 severe cases of dengue a...

  17. Creating the Future of Evidence-Based Nutrition Recommendations: Case Studies from Lipid Research.

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Rubin, Kristin H; Fritsche, Kevin L; Psota, Tricia L; Liska, DeAnn J; Harris, William S; Montain, Scott J; Lyle, Barbara J


    Strategic translational research is designed to address research gaps that answer specific guidance questions. It provides translational value with respect to nutrition guidance and regulatory and public policy. The relevance and the quality of evidence both matter in translational research. For example, design decisions regarding population, intervention, comparator, and outcome criteria affect whether or not high-quality studies are considered relevant to specific guidance questions and are therefore included as evidence within the context of systematic review frameworks used by authoritative food and health organizations. The process used in systematic reviews, developed by the USDA for its Nutrition Evidence Library, is described. An eating pattern and cardiovascular disease (CVD) evidence review is provided as an example, and factors that differentiated the studies considered relevant and included in that evidence base from those that were excluded are noted. Case studies on ω-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) and industrial trans-FAs illustrate key factors vital to relevance and translational impact, including choice of a relevant population (e.g., healthy, at risk, or diseased subjects; general population or high-performance soldiers); dose and form of the intervention (e.g., food or supplement); use of relevant comparators (e.g., technically feasible and realistic); and measures for both exposure and outcomes (e.g., inflammatory markers or CVD endpoints). Specific recommendations are provided to help increase the impact of nutrition research on future dietary guidance, policy, and regulatory issues, particularly in the area of lipids. PMID:27422509

  18. Antipsychotics and risk of venous thromboembolism: A population-based case-control study

    Anna K Jönsson


    Full Text Available Anna K Jönsson1, Erzsebet Horváth-Puhó2, Staffan Hägg3, Lars Pedersen4, Henrik Toft Sørensen41Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Centre for Registry Research, Aarhus C, Denmark; 3Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 4Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, DenmarkAbstract: During the last decade, the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE has been reported in users of antipsychotic drugs. However, the reports have been inconclusive. This study aimed to determine the relative risk of VTE in antipsychotic drug users. Using data from medical databases in North Jutland and Aarhus Counties, Denmark, and the Danish Civil Registration System, we identified 5,999 cases with a first-time diagnosis of VTE and, based on risk set sampling, 59,990 sex- and age-matched population controls during 1997–2005. Users of antipsychotic drugs were identified from population-based prescription databases and categorized based on filled prescriptions prior to admission date for VTE or index date for controls as current (at least one prescription within 90 days, recent (at least one prescription within 91–180 days, former (at least one prescription within 181–365 days or nonusers (no recorded prescription within 365 days. Compared with nonusers, current users of any antipsychotic drugs had an increased risk of VTE (adjusted relative risk [ARR]: 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.69–2.34. Former users of any antipsychotic drugs had a nonsignificant elevated risk of VTE compared with nonusers (ARR: 1.54, 95% CI: 0.99–2.40, p-value: 0.056. In conclusion, users of antipsychotic drugs have an increased risk of VTE, compared with nonusers, which might be due to the treatment itself, to lifestyle factors, to the underlying disease, or to residual confounding. Keywords: antipsychotic agents, venous thromboembolism, adverse effects, case-control study

  19. Case Study Teaching

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman


    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  20. Does marriage protect against hospitalization with pneumonia? A population-based case-control study

    Mor A


    Full Text Available Anil Mor, Sinna P Ulrichsen, Elisabeth Svensson, Klara Berencsi, Reimar W Thomsen Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Background: To reduce the increasing burden of pneumonia hospitalizations, we need to understand their determinants. Being married may decrease the risk of severe infections, due to better social support and healthier lifestyle. Patients and methods: In this population-based case-control study, we identified all adult patients with a first-time pneumonia-related hospitalization between 1994 and 2008 in Northern Denmark. For each case, ten sex- and age-matched population controls were selected from Denmark's Civil Registration System. We performed conditional logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratios (ORs for pneumonia hospitalization among persons who were divorced, widowed, or never married, as compared with married persons, adjusting for age, sex, 19 different comorbidities, alcoholism-related conditions, immunosuppressant use, urbanization, and living with small children. Results: The study included 67,162 patients with a pneumonia-related hospitalization and 671,620 matched population controls. Compared with controls, the pneumonia patients were more likely to be divorced (10% versus 7% or never married (13% versus 11%. Divorced and never-married patients were much more likely to have previous diagnoses of alcoholism-related conditions (18% and 11%, respectively compared with married (3% and widowed (6% patients. The adjusted OR for pneumonia-related hospitalization was increased, at 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-1.33 among divorced; 1.15 (95% CI: 1.12-1.17 among widowed; and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.29-1.37 among never-married individuals as compared with those who were married. Conclusion: Married individuals have a decreased risk of being hospitalized with pneumonia compared with never-married, divorced, and widowed patients

  1. Strategic approaches to simulation-based education: A case study from Australia

    Debra Nestel


    Full Text Available This paper addresses some of the challenges met when developing widely distributed, broad spectrum, simulation-based education (SBE for health professionals, such as resource duplication, inconsistent facilities utilization, discipline-specific silos, and the intersection of academic institutions and health services sectors. We examine three primary contributors to successful simulation-based practices - strategic planning, program development, and professional networks. Further, we provide examples of how each of these contributors function at different levels to assure comprehensive, yet sustainable approaches to implementing SBE for greatest impact at national, state, regional, and institutional levels. We draw on the example of Australia and its state and regional government structures, including the challenges in providing health services across a widely variable geography and population distribution. The types of health services and issues relating to health provision and management reflect those found in many western countries. Our hope is that the experiences gained at each level of governance within Australia may inform similar, successful development in other countries. We emphasize the importance of leadership and investment at the national level that serves to inform state, regional, and institutional efforts through a "trickle down" effect. Although evaluation of the strategic planning, program development, and professional networks described in this case study is still ongoing, their preliminary coordination has resulted in significant investment and support at all levels.

  2. Problem-based learning spanning real and virtual words: a case study in Second Life

    Judith Good


    Full Text Available There is a growing use of immersive virtual environments for educational purposes. However, much of this activity is not yet documented in the public domain, or is descriptive rather than analytical. This paper presents a case study in which university students were tasked with building an interactive learning experience using Second Life as a platform. Both problem-based learning and constructionism acted as framing pedagogies for the task, with students working in teams to design and build a learning experience which could potentially meet the needs of a real client in innovative ways which might not be possible in real life. A process account of the experience is provided, which examines how the pedagogies and contexts (real and virtual influence and enhance each other. The use of a virtual environment, combined with problem-based learning and constructionism, subtly changed the nature of the instructor–student relationship, allowed students to explore ‘problematic problems' in a motivating and relevant manner, provided students with greater ownership over their work, and allowed problems to be set which were flexible, but at the same time allowed for ease of assessment.

  3. Aircraft operational reliability—A model-based approach and a case study

    The success of an aircraft mission is subject to the fulfillment of some operational requirements before and during each flight. As these requirements depend essentially on the aircraft system components and the mission profile, the effects of failures can be very severe if they are not anticipated. Hence, one should be able to assess the aircraft operational reliability with regard to its missions in order to be able to cope with failures. We address aircraft operational reliability modeling to support maintenance planning during the mission achievement. We develop a modeling approach, based on a meta-model that is used as a basis: (i) to structure the information needed to assess aircraft operational reliability and (ii) to build a stochastic model that can be tuned dynamically, in order to take into account the aircraft system operational state, a mission profile and the maintenance facilities available at the flight stop locations involved in the mission. The aim is to enable operational reliability assessment online. A case study, based on an aircraft subsystem, is considered for illustration using the Stochastic Activity Networks (SANs) formalism

  4. Radiosurgery for skull base meningiomas: a study on 230 cases in Iranian Gamma Knife Center

    Ali Bitara M


    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Meningiomas are among the most common tumors of the brain. Skull base meningiomas comprise s major part of brain meningiomas. They are difficult to treat because of proximity to major vital neuro-vascular structures which makes their surgical resection hazardous and fraught with a high rate of complications. Radiosurgery is considered as an alternative efficient way to treat them, which targets the tumor and its supplying vasculature. The standard treatment consists of tumor eradication and its supplying vessels through homogeneous dose of 201 rays of cobalt 60 source."n"nMethods: In a case-series study, we report 230 meningiomas referred to Iraninan Gamma Knife Center, treated by radiosurgery with type C Gamma Knife. Radio-surgery was performed at a mean dose of 15 Gy and 50% isodose."n"nResults: Two hundred and thirty of all meningioma cases refered to our institute were skull base lesions. Eighty (35% were new case and the rest were previously treated microsurgically one or more times. None of the patients died after treatment and the most common post-operative complications were headache (30 patients and peri-tumoral edema (12 patients."n"nConclusion: Tumoral control is defined as reduced tumor volume

  5. Case study of inventory difference (ID) computation and analysis based on radiochemical plant model

    Inventory Difference (ID) computation and analysis is an urgent task of high priority in the field of nuclear material control and accountancy. In this paper this task is considered from the point of view of studying different practical cases (case study) in order to upgrade qualification of nuclear material control and accounting specialists. Training courses which are regularly held in Russian Methodological and Training Centre, SCI, Obninsk training center and discussions with specialists during those courses confirm how urgent this task is. In this paper the model of radiochemical plant is considered, for this case the practical tasks and solutions have been developed. The case study given in the paper is the first version of ID calculation and analysis for a radiochemical plant

  6. Teaching Pharmacology by Case Study.

    Jordan, Sue


    Using pharmacology case studies with nursing students encourages theory-practice links and infuses real-life content. Cases provide rich qualitative data for evaluating curriculum. However, they are not a substitute for evidence-based practice. (SK)

  7. Natural Learning Case Study Archives

    Lawler, Robert W.


    Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…

  8. A Collective Case Study of Secondary Students' Model-Based Inquiry on Natural Selection through Programming in an Agent-Based Modeling Environment

    Xiang, Lin


    This is a collective case study seeking to develop detailed descriptions of how programming an agent-based simulation influences a group of 8th grade students' model-based inquiry (MBI) by examining students' agent-based programmable modeling (ABPM) processes and the learning outcomes. The context of the present study was a biology unit on…

  9. Integrating EMDR into an evolutionary-based therapy for depression: a case study.

    Krupnik, Valery


    We present an intervention in a case of major depression, where eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy was integrated into an evolutionary-based psychotherapy for depression. At the end of the treatment and at follow up assessment we observed a more accepting disposition and decreased depressive but not anxiety symptoms. PMID:25984310

  10. Integrating EMDR into an evolutionary-based therapy for depression: a case study

    Krupnik, Valery


    Key Clinical Message We present an intervention in a case of major depression, where eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy was integrated into an evolutionary-based psychotherapy for depression. At the end of the treatment and at follow up assessment we observed a more accepting disposition and decreased depressive but not anxiety symptoms.

  11. The Change towards a Teaching Methodology Based on Competences: A Case Study in a Spanish University

    Gonzalez, Jose Maria G.; Arquero Montaño, Jose Luis; Hassall, Trevor


    The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) has promoted the implementation of a teaching methodology based on competences. Drawing on New Institutional Sociology, the present work aims to identify and improve knowledge concerning the factors which are hindering that change in the Spanish university system. This is investigated using a case study…

  12. Service Quality of Online Shopping Platforms: A Case-Based Empirical and Analytical Study

    Tsan-Ming Choi


    Full Text Available Customer service is crucially important for online shopping platforms (OSPs such as eBay and Taobao. Based on the well-established service quality instruments and the scenario of the specific case on Taobao, this paper focuses on exploring the service quality of an OSP with an aim of revealing customer perceptions of the service quality associated with the provided functions and investigating their impacts on customer loyalty. By an empirical study, this paper finds that the “fulfillment and responsiveness” function is significantly related to the customer loyalty. Further analytical study is conducted to reveal that the optimal service level on the “fulfillment and responsiveness” function for the risk averse OSP uniquely exists. Moreover, the analytical results prove that (i if the customer loyalty is more positively correlated to the service level, it will lead to a larger optimal service level, and (ii the optimal service level is independent of the profit target, the source of uncertainty, and the risk preference of the OSP.

  13. Caesarean Delivery and Postpartum Maternal Mortality: A Population-Based Case Control Study in Brazil

    Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Deneux-Tharaux, Catherine; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Saucedo, Monica; Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Hélène; Leal, Maria do Carmo


    Background Cesarean delivery rates continue to increase worldwide and reached 57% in Brazil in 2014. Although the safety of this surgery has improved in the last decades, this trend is a concern because it carries potential risks to women’s health and may be a modifiable risk factor of maternal mortality. This paper aims to investigate the risk of postpartum maternal death directly associated with cesarean delivery in comparison to vaginal delivery in Brazil. Methods This was a population-based case—control study performed in eight Brazilian states. To control for indication bias, deaths due to antenatal morbidity were excluded. We included 73 cases of postpartum maternal deaths from 2009–2012. Controls were selected from the Birth in Brazil Study, a 2011 nationwide survey including 9,221 postpartum women. We examined the association of cesarean section and postpartum maternal death by multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for confounders. Results After controlling for indication bias and confounders, the risk of postpartum maternal death was almost three-fold higher with cesarean than vaginal delivery (OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.63–5.06), mainly due to deaths from postpartum hemorrhage and complications of anesthesia. Conclusion Cesarean delivery is an independent risk factor of postpartum maternal death. Clinicians and patients should consider this fact in balancing the benefits and risks of the procedure. PMID:27073870

  14. 3D Geological Modeling and Visualization of Rock Masses Based on Google Earth: A Case Study

    Mei, Gang; Xu, Nengxiong


    Google Earth (GE) has become a powerful tool for geological modeling and visualization. An interesting and useful feature of GE, Google Street View, can allow the GE users to view geological structure such as layers of rock masses at a field site. In this paper, we introduce a practical solution for building 3D geological models for rock masses based on the data acquired by use with GE. A real study case at Haut-Barr, France is presented to demonstrate our solution. We first locate the position of Haut-Barr in GE, and then determine the shape and scale of the rock masses in the study area, and thirdly acquire the layout of layers of rock masses in the Google Street View, and finally create the approximate 3D geological models by extruding and intersecting. The generated 3D geological models can simply reflect the basic structure of the rock masses at Haut-Barr, and can be used for visualizing the rock bodies interactively.

  15. Overview of energy-conserving development planning and design techniques based on five case studies


    Findings and recommendations are presented of a review of five case studies of ways to conserve energy through development planning and site design in communities. Two approaches were used. In the first approach, a conventional, pre-existing plan was analyzed to determine potential energy use. Once energy-conservation options were identified and evaluated, the conventional plan was modified by employing those options. This approach was used in The Woodlands, Burke Center, and Radisson studies. In the second approach, energy-conservation options are independently identified and evaluated. Those options that passed specific criteria screening were then utilized in developing one or more totally new plans based on energy objectives. This approach was used in Greenbrier and Shenandoah. Radisson is a new town on the outskirts of Syracuse, New York. Greenbrier is a 3000 acre planned community adjacent to Norfolk and Virginia Beach. Shenandoah is a proposed new town in the Atlanta urbanized area. The Woodlands is a new community under development north of Houston. Burke Center is a residential planned unit development in Fairfax County, Virgnia. (MCW)

  16. Epilepsy and risk of suicide: a population-based case-control study

    Christensen, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens; Mortensen, Preben Bo;


    sex, birth year, and calendar date, were assigned to each suicide case. FINDINGS: We identified 21 169 cases of suicide and 423 128 controls. 492 (2.32%) individuals who committed suicide had epilepsy compared with 3140 (0.74%) controls, corresponding to a three times higher risk (rate ratio [RR] 3......BACKGROUND: Studies have linked epilepsy with an increased suicide risk, but the association might be modified by psychiatric, demographic, and socioeconomic factors. METHODS: Suicide cases were identified in the Cause of Death Register in Denmark from 1981 to 1997. Up to 20 controls, matched by...

  17. Implementation and utilisation of community-based mortality surveillance: a case study from Chad

    Bowden Sarah


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective surveillance is a recognised approach for measuring death rates in humanitarian emergencies. However, there is limited evidence on how such surveillance should optimally be implemented and on how data are actually used by agencies. This case study investigates the implementation and utilisation of mortality surveillance data by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF in eastern Chad. We aimed to describe and analyse the community-based mortality surveillance system, trends in mortality data and the utilisation of these data to guide MSF’s operational response. Methods The case study included 5 MSF sites including 2 refugee camps and 3 camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs. Data were obtained through key informant interviews and systematic review of MSF operational reports from 2004–2008. Results Mortality data were collected using community health workers (CHWs. Mortality generally decreased progressively. In Farchana and Breidjing refugee camps, crude death rates (CDR decreased from 0.9 deaths per 10,000 person-days in 2004 to 0.2 in 2008 and from 0.7 to 0.1, respectively. In Gassire, Ade and Kerfi IDP camps, CDR decreased from 0.4 to 0.04, 0.3 to 0.04 and 1.0 to 0.3. Death rates among children under 5 years (U5DR followed similar trends. CDR and U5DR crossed emergency thresholds in one site, Kerfi, where CDR rapidly rose to 2.1 and U5DR to 7.9 in July 2008 before rapidly decreasing to below emergency levels by September 2008. Discussion Mortality data were used regularly to monitor population health status and on two occasions as a tool for advocacy. Lessons learned included the need for improved population estimates and standardized reporting procedures for improved data quality and dissemination; the importance of a simple and flexible model for data collection; and greater investment in supervising CHWs. Conclusions This model of community based mortality surveillance can be adapted and used by

  18. Talent Management: A Research Based Case Study in the GCC Region

    Abhilasha Singh; Jones, David B; Nicholas Hall


    The present case study describes the talent landscape in the Gulf Cooperation Council region, as it exists today.With unprecedented economic growth and investment in infrastructure by the Government, there is anopportunity to increase the proportion of GCC nationals to engage in private and/or entrepreneurial enterprises.The case describes the various challenges and limitations in talent attraction and retention for private sectorcompanies to compete with government organizations that are abl...

  19. Education and occupations preceding Parkinson disease: a population-based case-control study.

    Frigerio, Roberta; Elbaz, Alexis; Sanft, Kevin,; Peterson, Brett,; Bower, James; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Grossardt, Brandon,; de Andrade, Mariza; Maraganore, Demetrius,; Rocca, Walter


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of Parkinson disease (PD) with education and occupations using a case-control study design. METHODS: The authors used the medical records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify all subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, MN, from 1976 through 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (+/-1 year) and sex to a general population control. The authors collected information about education and occupations using two independ...

  20. Comparative evaluation of activity-based costing and variable costing: a case study at IPEN

    This research aims to compare the results with the application of Activity Based Costing and Variable Costing methods in an administrative unit of the Brazilian Federal Government: the Radiopharmacy Facility of IPEN (Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research), which produces radiopharmaceuticals products and develops R and D activities. Faced with the need to adopt a more economical and managerial public administration, this research has provided information to assess which of the two costing methods proves more suitable for cost management in that unit. The research is exploratory and a single-case study. We traced about 80% of material costs by observation 'in loco' of the entire manufacturing process of technetium generator, which represents the main product in terms of production volume and revenues. The results show that the Contribution Margin Variable Costing of 29.12% is very close to the operating income of 28.86%, ahead of support activities, obtained by ABC. It is also noted that the operational result of the product does not change by using either one or another costing method. In the two costing methods the end result is 24.20%. This occurs because the production is on demand. There is no inventory of finished product because it is radioactive. The research has revealed that both methods provide useful information for the management and optimization of costs and results of processes/activities, and that the two methods, in this case, may be used in an integrated and complementary approach, enabling to use the best information content of both. (author)

  1. UAV-based Natural Hazard Management in High-Alpine Terrain - Case Studies from Austria

    Sotier, Bernadette; Adams, Marc; Lechner, Veronika


    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have become a standard tool for geodata collection, as they allow conducting on-demand mapping missions in a flexible, cost-effective manner at an unprecedented level of detail. Easy-to-use, high-performance image matching software make it possible to process the collected aerial images to orthophotos and 3D-terrain models. Such up-to-date geodata have proven to be an important asset in natural hazard management: Processes like debris flows, avalanches, landslides, fluvial erosion and rock-fall can be detected and quantified; damages can be documented and evaluated. In the Alps, these processes mostly originate in remote areas, which are difficult and hazardous to access, thus presenting a challenging task for RPAS data collection. In particular, the problems include finding suitable landing and piloting-places, dealing with bad or no GPS-signals and the installation of ground control points (GCP) for georeferencing. At the BFW, RPAS have been used since 2012 to aid natural hazard management of various processes, of which three case studies are presented below. The first case study deals with the results from an attempt to employ UAV-based multi-spectral remote sensing to monitor the state of natural hazard protection forests. Images in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) band were collected using modified low-cost cameras, combined with different optical filters. Several UAV-flights were performed in the 72 ha large study site in 2014, which lies in the Wattental, Tyrol (Austria) between 1700 and 2050 m a.s.l., where the main tree species are stone pine and mountain pine. The matched aerial images were analysed using different UAV-specific vitality indices, evaluating both single- and dual-camera UAV-missions. To calculate the mass balance of a debris flow in the Tyrolean Halltal (Austria), an RPAS flight was conducted in autumn 2012. The extreme alpine environment was challenging for both the mission and the evaluation of the aerial

  2. GIS-based landscape design research: Stourhead landscape garden as a case study

    Steffen Nijhuis


    Full Text Available Landscape design research is important for cultivating spatial intelligence in landscape architecture. This study explores GIS (geographic information systems as a tool for landscape design research - investigating landscape designs to understand them as architectonic compositions (architectonic plan analysis. The concept ‘composition’ refers to a conceivable arrangement, an architectural expression of a mental construct that is legible and open to interpretation. Landscape architectonic compositions and their representations embody a great wealth of design knowledge as objects of our material culture and reflect the possible treatment of the ground, space, image and program as a characteristic coherence. By exploring landscape architectonic compositions with GIS, design researchers can acquire design knowledge that can be used in the creation and refinement of a design. The research aims to identify and illustrate the potential role of GIS as a tool in landscape design research, so as to provide insight into the possibilities and limitations of using GIS in this capacity. The critical, information-oriented case of Stourhead landscape garden (Wiltshire, UK, an example of a designed landscape that covers the scope and remit of landscape architecture design, forms the heart of the study. The exploration of Stourhead by means of GIS can be understood as a plausibility probe. Here the case study is considered a form of ‘quasi-experiment’, testing the hypothesis and generating a learning process that constitutes a prerequisite for advanced understanding, while using an adjusted version of the framework for landscape design analysis by Steenbergen and Reh (2003. This is a theoretically informed analytical method based on the formal interpretation of the landscape architectonic composition addressing four landscape architectonic categories: the basic, the spatial, the symbolic and the programmatic form. This study includes new aspects to be

  3. Project management case studies

    Kerzner, Harold R


    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  4. Tea drinking habits and oesophageal cancer in a high risk area in northern Iran: population based case-control study

    Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Kamangar, Farin; Fahimi, Saman; Shakeri, Ramin; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Merat, Shahin; Vahedi, Homayoon; Semnani, Shahryar; Abnet, Christian C.; Brennan, Paul; Møller, Henrik; Saidi, Farrokh; Dawsey, Sanford M.


    Objective To investigate the association between tea drinking habits in Golestan province, northern Iran, and risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Design Population based case-control study. In addition, patterns of tea drinking and temperature at which tea was drunk were measured among healthy participants in a cohort study. Setting Golestan province, northern Iran, an area with a high incidence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Participants 300 histologically proved cases of o...

  5. A Case Study of Student Engagement in Collaborative Group Learning in a Blended Community Based (Service) Learning Module

    McGarrigle, John


    Abstract: A participatory action research case study employed mixed methods to examine student collaboration and engagement in a Community Based (Service) learning module. A quasi experimental testing of Coates (2007) typology of student engagement found low agreement between students and lecturers in assigning the terms, passive, intense, independent or collaborative to student postings to discussion fora. Evidence from this case study found greater student collaboration in discussion fora w...

  6. Water resources regulation based on ET management - A case study on Huabei Plain in China

    Wang, S.


    objective-ET distribution method, and the connections and interactions among ET water rights, surface-water rights and groundwater rights are studied. A case study is carried out to test the ET method over an agricultural area on Huabei Plain. SWAT model is employed to compare three water-saving scenarios. The results will lead to the practical water allocation scheme that is suitable in the study area.

  7. Project-based learning in a high school engineering program: A case study

    France, Todd

    Generating greater student interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has been a major topic of discussion among educators, policymakers, and researchers in recent years, as increasing the number of graduates in these fields is widely considered a necessary step for sustaining the progress of today's society. Fostering this interest must occur before students reach college, and substantial efforts have been made to engage students at K-12 levels in STEM-focused learning. Attempts to involve students in engineering, a vital and growing profession, yet one in which students often have little experience, have frequently emphasized the design and construction of physical products, a practice supported by project-based learning. This thesis examines the environment of an engineering high school course that employed the project-based model. The course is part of a dedicated curricular program which aims to provide students with positive experiences in engineering-related activities while also preparing them for the rigors of college. A case study was conducted to provide insight into the benefits and drawbacks of the learning model. The study's outcomes are intended to provide guidance to educators participating in the design and/or facilitation of project-based activities, particularly those involved with engineering education. The research was performed using a qualitative approach. Long-term engagement with course participants was deemed critical to gaining a comprehensive understanding of the interactions and events that transpired on a daily basis. Nine educators involved with the program were interviewed, as were nineteen of the course's thirty-nine students. A wealth of other relevant data -- including surveys, field notes, and evaluations of student work -- was compiled for analysis as well. The study findings suggest that experiences in problem solving and teamwork were the central benefits of the course. Limitations existed due to a

  8. Unit Sizing and Cost Analysis of Renewable Energy based Hybrid Power Generation System - A Case Study

    Nitin AGARWAL


    Full Text Available A simulation model is developed for optimal sizing and analysis of a PV-diesel-battery based hybrid power generation system with the objectives to minimize life cycle cost and CO2 emission, while maintaining the desired system autonomy. A case study of a boy’s hostel in Moradabad district is taken for analysis purposes. It has 91 rooms with a capacity of 3 boys in each room. The decision variables included in the optimization methodology are total PV area, number of PV modules of 600 Wp, diesel generator power, fuel consumption per year and number of 24 V and 150 Ah batteries. The simulation result shows that the PV percentage of 86 % and diesel penetration of 14 % gives the most optimized solution with minimum LCC of $110,547 and average CO2 emission of 28 kg/day. The developed model has been validated by comparing its results with earlier research work.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.24

  9. Communicating Archaeological Risk with Web-Based Virtual Reality: A Case Study

    Giacomo Landeschi


    Full Text Available In the last decade 3D technologies have become very effective and are widely used for managing and interpreting archaeological data. A better way to perceive, understand and communicate Cultural Heritage has been achieved through VR applications, which have enabled archaeologists to make both reconstructions of original landscapes and to put artefacts in their original context. Furthermore, the exponential growth of the Web has led to a massive availability of digital content, even in the field of Cultural Heritage, that can be accessed in an easier and more intuitive manner by a broader audience. The case study presented here is designed to demonstrate the potential importance of Web3D technologies for communicating specific research aspects, such as the ones connected to the GIS-based spatial analysis applied to the archaeological landscape. To this end, a research project was undertaken in order to get a final predictive model for detecting archaeological presence in an area of the Pisa coastal plain, implemented in a Web-orientated Virtual Reality system. The end-user is able to navigate the model in real-time and observe different thematic layers, such as the distribution of the archaeological sites, maps of lithology, land use and, finally, the assessment of the archaeological risk.

  10. Performance of grid-tied PV facilities: A case study based on real data

    Highlights: • A new procedure to analyse the performance of PV facilities is presented. • It only requires limited amounts of data that are easily sourced. • Data sets on production were collected over two complete years. • The transformerless inverter outperforms the isolated inverter. - Abstract: A new procedure is presented to analyse the performance of grid-tied PV facilities. It needs limited amounts of data that are easily sourced and is based on knowledge of the analysed system and its mode of operation. The procedure is applied, in a case study, to compare real PV production at two 100 kWp grid-connected PV installations. Located in the same geographical region, the installation of these two facilities followed the same construction criteria – PV panels, panel support system and wiring – and the facilities were exposed to the same atmospheric temperature and solar radiation. They differ with regard to their inverter technology: one facility uses an inverter with an integrated transformer system and the other uses a transformerless inverter. The results show that the transformerless inverter system performed better than the isolated system by a factor of 1.2%, which, in economic terms, represents more than 2000 €/year

  11. Leveraging Lean in construction: A case study of a BIM-based HVAC manufacturing process

    Colin J. Conway


    Full Text Available The impetus towards efficiency in the AECO (Architecture, Engineering, Construction & Operations sector is driving the implementation of Lean practices. BIM technologies and BIM processes provide methods by which this can be achieved. Major clients of building services contractors have begun to mandate the use of BIM and some are using BIM preparedness/experience as pre-tender qualification criteria. In this case study, an initial review has been conducted of the achievements of a major Irish M&E contractor in implementing BIM. The firm purpose-built a facility for the off-site manufacture of building services components. The operations of the plant are efficient and quality assured through the use of an appropriately skilled workforce at all stages of manufacture, and tracking software that has developed as the knowledge of the contractor grew. Standardised processes have been developed which have resulted in greater efficiencies and lower costs for the contractor as a result of fewer requirements for onsite modifications (such as those caused by clashes, less waste, and greater flexibility. Despite some initial objections, the employees of the company are now more satisfied with their working conditions and are, as a result, more productive. Through investment in BIM-based, Lean processes, the contractor can now better compete when tendering for large-scale projects in Ireland and worldwide, including the rapidly-increasing number where BIM experience and preparedness is mandated.

  12. Corporate Governance. Case Studies

    Manuel, Eduardo


    This paper pretends to do a theoretical approach of Corporate Governance, having as support some case studies about companies like Coca-Cola, Nokia, Microsoft, and The methodology adopted for this work is based in information from these companies available in their websites and annual reports. I concluded that both companies show the corporate governance components according to their core business and their environmental business.

  13. Institutionalizing evidence-based practice: an organizational case study using a model of strategic change

    Schultz Alyce A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a general expectation within healthcare that organizations should use evidence-based practice (EBP as an approach to improving the quality of care. However, challenges exist regarding how to make EBP a reality, particularly at an organizational level and as a routine, sustained aspect of professional practice. Methods A mixed method explanatory case study was conducted to study context; i.e., in terms of the presence or absence of multiple, inter-related contextual elements and associated strategic approaches required for integrated, routine use of EBP ('institutionalization'. The Pettigrew et al. Content, Context, and Process model was used as the theoretical framework. Two sites in the US were purposively sampled to provide contrasting cases: i.e., a 'role model' site, widely recognized as demonstrating capacity to successfully implement and sustain EBP to a greater degree than others; and a 'beginner' site, self-perceived as early in the journey towards institutionalization. Results The two sites were clearly different in terms of their organizational context, level of EBP activity, and degree of institutionalization. For example, the role model site had a pervasive, integrated presence of EBP versus a sporadic, isolated presence in the beginner site. Within the inner context of the role model site, there was also a combination of the Pettigrew and colleagues' receptive elements that, together, appeared to enhance its ability to effectively implement EBP-related change at multiple levels. In contrast, the beginner site, which had been involved for a few years in EBP-related efforts, had primarily non-receptive conditions in several contextual elements and a fairly low overall level of EBP receptivity. The beginner site thus appeared, at the time of data collection, to lack an integrated context to either support or facilitate the institutionalization of EBP. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence of some of the

  14. Habitat-Lite: A GSC case study based on free text terms for environmental metadata

    Kyrpides, Nikos; Hirschman, Lynette; Clark, Cheryl; Cohen, K. Bretonnel; Mardis, Scott; Luciano, Joanne; Kottmann, Renzo; Cole, James; Markowitz, Victor; Kyrpides, Nikos; Field, Dawn


    There is an urgent need to capture metadata on the rapidly growing number of genomic, metagenomic and related sequences, such as 16S ribosomal genes. This need is a major focus within the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC), and Habitat is a key metadata descriptor in the proposed 'Minimum Information about a Genome Sequence' (MIGS) specification. The goal of the work described here is to provide a light-weight, easy-to-use (small) set of terms ('Habitat-Lite') that captures high-level information about habitat while preserving a mapping to the recently launched Environment Ontology (EnvO). Our motivation for building Habitat-Lite is to meet the needs of multiple users, such as annotators curating these data, database providers hosting the data, and biologists and bioinformaticians alike who need to search and employ such data in comparative analyses. Here, we report a case study based on semi-automated identification of terms from GenBank and GOLD. We estimate that the terms in the initial version of Habitat-Lite would provide useful labels for over 60% of the kinds of information found in the GenBank isolation-source field, and around 85% of the terms in the GOLD habitat field. We present a revised version of Habitat-Lite and invite the community's feedback on its further development in order to provide a minimum list of terms to capture high-level habitat information and to provide classification bins needed for future studies.

  15. Pesticide exposure and risk of Parkinson's disease: A family-based case-control study

    Scott Burton L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticides and correlated lifestyle factors (e.g., exposure to well-water and farming are repeatedly reported risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD, but few family-based studies have examined these relationships. Methods Using 319 cases and 296 relative and other controls, associations of direct pesticide application, well-water consumption, and farming residences/occupations with PD were examined using generalized estimating equations while controlling for age-at-examination, sex, cigarette smoking, and caffeine consumption. Results Overall, individuals with PD were significantly more likely to report direct pesticide application than their unaffected relatives (odds ratio = 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.29. Frequency, duration, and cumulative exposure were also significantly associated with PD in a dose-response pattern (p ≤ 0.013. Associations of direct pesticide application did not vary by sex but were modified by family history of PD, as significant associations were restricted to individuals with no family history. When classifying pesticides by functional type, both insecticides and herbicides were found to significantly increase risk of PD. Two specific insecticide classes, organochlorines and organophosphorus compounds, were significantly associated with PD. Consuming well-water and living/working on a farm were not associated with PD. Conclusion These data corroborate positive associations of broadly defined pesticide exposure with PD in families, particularly for sporadic PD. These data also implicate a few specific classes of pesticides in PD and thus emphasize the need to consider a more narrow definition of pesticides in future studies.

  16. A case study in the participatory design of a collaborative science-based learning environment

    Chin, George, Jr.

    Educational technology research studies have found computer and software technologies to be underutilized in U.S. classrooms. In general, many teachers have had difficulty integrating computer and software technologies into learning activities and classroom curriculums because specific technologies are ill-suited to their needs, or they lack the ability to make effective use of these technologies. In the development of commercial and business applications, participatory design approaches have been applied to facilitate the direct participation of users in system analysis and design. Among the benefits of participatory design include mutual learning between users and developers, envisionment of software products and their use contexts, empowerment of users in analysis and design, grounding of design in the practices of users, and growth of users as designers and champions of technology. In the context of educational technology development, these similar consequences of participatory design may lead to more appropriate and effective education systems as well as greater capacities by teachers to apply and integrate educational systems into their teaching and classroom practices. We present a case study of a participatory design project that took place over a period of two and one half years, and in which teachers and developers engaged in the participatory analysis and design of a collaborative science learning environment. A significant aspect of the project was the development methodology we followed---Progressive Design. Progressive Design evolved as an integration of methods for participatory design, ethnography, and scenario-based design. In this dissertation, we describe the Progressive Design approach, how it was used, and its specific impacts and effects on the development of educational systems and the social and cognitive growth of teachers.

  17. Pro Poor and Community Based Tourism: Case Study of an Investigation into PPT and CBT in Les Village, Bali

    weigall, vanessa


    This paper presents the case study of an attempt to introduce tourism as a tool to alleviate poverty in a Balinese village. Despite a positive feasibility study in 2011, tourism has failed to develop. The case study describes the series of events which occurred before, during and after the feasibility study. It then reviews these events in light of themes uncovered during an extensive literature review of Pro-poor and Community-Based Tourism. The study concludes that that the failure to imp...

  18. MIDAS case studies

    Brusger, E.C.; Farber, M.A.; Sharpe Hayes, M.M.


    This series of three case studies illustrates the validity and usefulness of MIDAS, a microcomputer-based tool for integrated resource planning under uncertainty. The first, at Union Electric, serves to test and validate the model and to illustrate its use for demand/supply option evaluation. Focusing on nuclear plant life extension, the Virginia Power case demonstrates the model's extensive detail, particularly in the production cost and financial areas, as well as its flexibility in addressing approximately 70 uncertainty scenarios. Puget Sound Power Light, the third case, used MIDAS for the preparation of its integrated resource plan. A 108-endpoint decision tree illustrates the full power of the decision analysis capability.

  19. Practicing Sustainability in an Urban University: A Case Study of a Behavior Based Energy Conservation Project

    Chan, Stuart; Dolderman, Dan; Savan, Beth; Wakefield, Sarah


    This case study of the University of Toronto Sustainability Office's energy conservation project, Rewire, explores the implementation of a social marketing campaign that encourages energy efficient behavior. Energy conservation activities have reached approximately 3,000 students and staff members annually, and have saved electricity, thermal…

  20. Rethinking Sport Teaching in Physical Education: A Case Study of Research Based Innovation in Teacher Education

    Pill, Shane; Penney, Dawn; Swabey, Karen


    This paper focuses on the significance of physical education teacher education (PETE) in the diffusion of "new" thinking about sport teaching in physical education. It explores issues arising from a case study investigation that sought to respond to the critical commentary about the form and substance of sport teaching in physical education by…

  1. Mind the Gap: A Case Study of Values-Based Decision Making in a Nonprofit Organization

    Craft, Jana L.


    Using an exploratory case study approach, this research examined the consistency between espoused and enacted values within a large nonprofit organization known as an ethical leader in the human services industry. This research explored ethical business culture, ethical decision making, deontological and utilitarian moral paradigms and learning…

  2. A Case Study of Two Regional State Universities Qualifying as Learning Organizations Based on Administration and Staff Viewpoints

    Rich, Tammy Morrison


    This case study of 2 state universities qualifying as learning organizations, based on administration and staff viewpoints, was completed using a qualitative methodology. The idea of what a learning organization is can be different depending on who or what is being analyzed. For this study, the work of theorists including W. Edwards Deming,…

  3. Comparing the Principle-Based SBH Maieutic Method to Traditional Case Study Methods of Teaching Media Ethics

    Grant, Thomas A.


    This quasi-experimental study at a Northwest university compared two methods of teaching media ethics, a class taught with the principle-based SBH Maieutic Method (n = 25) and a class taught with a traditional case study method (n = 27), with a control group (n = 21) that received no ethics training. Following a 16-week intervention, a one-way…

  4. Academic English Teaching for Postgraduates Based on Self-Regulated Learning Environment: A Case Study of Academic Reading Course

    Zhao, Wei


    This study selects postgraduate students in the first grade as the participants, based on their needs analysis, classroom presentations and performance of assignments completion, through the methodology of case study, the results show that students at the university level even the graduate levels still struggle with academic English. Thus, this…




    Full Text Available The players activating in the post-recession business environment have to and begin to be more and more prudent and attentive to any sign of human errors, uncertainty, lack of objectivity, attempt of fraud which may occur when financial statements are prepared, in their own case or in the case of their trade clients/suppliers, debtors, business partners, in general. Auditors thus became the mediators between the producers and the users of accountant information, using their high theoretical training, authority, competence and independence as pledge for the fairness of the financial statements and for the compliance with the Law. But even their reports are subject to uncertainty, therefore the author considered useful to approach in the current paper the issue of risk in financial audit, by use of a study-case of several audit reports, in order to explain and exemplify it and to highlight the difference between its components’ evaluation.

  6. The relation between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and inorganic selenium in drinking water: a population-based case-control study

    Rothman Kenneth J; Bonvicini Francesca; Vinceti Marco; Vescovi Luciano; Wang Feiyue


    Abstract Background A community in northern Italy was previously reported to have an excess incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis among residents exposed to high levels of inorganic selenium in their drinking water. Methods To assess the extent to which such association persisted in the decade following its initial observation, we conducted a population-based case-control study encompassing forty-one newly-diagnosed cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and eighty-two age- and sex-match...

  7. Phytoestrogen consumption from foods and supplements and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: a population-based case control study

    Paddock Lisa E; Chandran Urmila; King Melony; Bandera Elisa V; Rodriguez-Rodriguez Lorna; Olson Sara H


    Abstract Background While there is extensive literature evaluating the impact of phytoestrogen consumption on breast cancer risk, its role on ovarian cancer has received little attention. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study to evaluate phytoestrogen intake from foods and supplements and epithelial ovarian cancer risk. Cases were identified in six counties in New Jersey through the New Jersey State Cancer Registry. Controls were identified by random digit dialing, CMS (C...

  8. The implementation of mentalization-based treatment for adolescents: a case study from an organizational, team and therapist perspective

    Hutsebaut Joost; Bales Dawn L; Busschbach Jan JV; Verheul Roel


    Abstract Background Reports on problems encountered in the implementation of complex interventions are scarce in psychotherapy literature. This is remarkable given the inherent difficulties of such enterprises and the associated safety risks for patients involved. Case description A case study of the problematic implementation process of Mentalization- Based Treatment for Adolescents (MBT-A), a new therapy for 14 to 18 year old youngsters with severe personality disorders, is presented. The i...

  9. Childhood leukemia and parental occupation: a register-based case-control study

    Van Steensel-Moll, H.A.; Valkenburg, H.A.; Van Zanen, G.E.


    To explore possible etiologic factors of childhood leukemia, a case-control study was performed in the Netherlands. Cases were selected from a complete nationwide register of cases of childhood leukemia which were diagnosed between 1973 and 1980. Controls were matched with cases for year of birth, sex, and place of residence at the time of diagnosis. Information about possible exposure was collected by a postal questionnaire addressed to the parents. This report concerns the results of the analysis of parental occupations and occupational exposures for 519 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia and 507 controls. During pregnancy, more mothers of patients were working in ''hydrocarbon-related'' occupations; relative risk (RR) = 2.5 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.7 - 9.4). Likewise, greater occupational exposure to chemicals (paint, petroleum products, and unspecified chemicals) during pregnancy was found for mothers of patients (RR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2 - 4.6). The kind of work being performed by the mothers one year before diagnosis did not differ between cases and controls. For the fathers, no relationship was found between a hydrocarbon-related occupation or occupational exposure to chemicals and leukemia in the offspring. Adjustment for birth order, social class, and degree of urbanization did not materially change the relative risks. 16 references, 5 tables.

  10. [Ecological compensation based on farmers' willingness: A case study of Jingsan County in Hubei Province, China].

    Yu, Liang-liang; Cai, Yin-ying


    Farmland protection is a pressing issue in China' s major agricultural regions because of the strategic importance of these regions for national food security. This study quantified the appropriate ecological compensation criteria for farmland protection by way of estimating farmers' opportunity cost and willingness to adopt environment-friendly farming practices. Based on survey data collected from Jingsan County, Hubei Province, a Tobit model was constructed to identify factors affecting farmers' willingness to accept (WTA). The result showed that with appropriate economic compensation for farmland protection, 77.1% and 64.7% of the surveyed households were willing to reduce usage of fertilizers and pesticides. When the reduced rates of fertilizer and pesticide increased from 50%, farmers' opportunity costs of production respectively increased from 1198 and 5850 yuan to 9698 and 9750 yuan per hectare per year, and their WTA increased from 4750 and 7313 yuan to 9781 and 12393 yuan per hectare per year. Farmers' opportunity cost and WTA in reducing pesticide inputs were larger than those in reducing the same rate of fertilizer inputs, and in each case farmers' WTA was greater than their opportunity cost. A farm' s distance from township, farmers' knowledge about the ecology of farmland, and their expectation to improve the ecological environment of farmland had positive, significant effect on the farmers' WTA to reducing fertilization, while farmers' education level and the overall economic condition of the village had significantly negative effect. The proportion of agriculture income, farmers' knowledge about the ecology of farmland, and their expectation to improve the ecological environment of farmland had positive, significant effect on the farmers' WTA to reducing pesticide, while household' cash income and the overall economic condition of the village had significantly negative effect. PMID:25985673


    Gaurav Singh Thakur


    Full Text Available This paper uses a case based study – “product sales estimation” on real-time data to help us understand the applicability of linear and non-linear models in machine learning and data mining. A systematic approach has been used here to address the given problem statement of sales estimation for a particular set of products in multiple categories by applying both linear and non-linear machine learning techniques on a data set of selected features from the original data set. Feature selection is a process that reduces the dimensionality of the data set by excluding those features which contribute minimal to the prediction of the dependent variable. The next step in this process is training the model that is done using multiple techniques from linear & non-linear domains, one of the best ones in their respective areas. Data Remodeling has then been done to extract new features from the data set by changing the structure of the dataset & the performance of the models is checked again. Data Remodeling often plays a very crucial and important role in boosting classifier accuracies by changing the properties of the given dataset. We then try to explore and analyze the various reasons due to which one model performs better than the other & hence try and develop an understanding about the applicability of linear & non-linear machine learning models. The target mentioned above being our primary goal, we also aim to find the classifier with the best possible accuracy for product sales estimation in the given scenario.

  12. Childhood asthma in Beijing, China: A population-based case-control study

    Zheng, T.Z.; Niu, S.R.; Lu, B.Y.; Fan, X.E.; Sun, F.Y.; Wang, J.P.; Zhang, Y.W.; Zhang, B.; Owens, P.; Hao, L.Y.; Li, Y.D.; Leaderer, B. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Epidemiology & Public Health


    A population-based case-control study was conducted in Shunyi County, People's Republic of China, in January 1999 and March 2001 to investigate the risk factors for childhood asthma. An increased risk of childhood asthma was associated with smoking by relatives in front of the mother while she was pregnant with the child (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 1.6) and with smoking by relatives in front of the child (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). The risk increased with the increasing number of smokers and the total minutes of smoking by relatives in front of both the child and the mother while she was pregnant with the child. An increased risk was observed for use of coal for heating (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). Those who reported using coal for cooking without ventilation also had an increased risk (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.5). An increased risk was observed for those who reported having molds or fungi on the ceilings of their houses (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.9) or inside the child's room (OR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.2). An increased risk was also found for those having both a dog and a cat as pets (OR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.3) or for finding both cockroaches and rats inside their houses (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.8).

  13. The student tutor experience in a problem-based learning course: A case study

    Moore, Tricia Susan

    This case study, conducted from an interpretive paradigm, illuminates contextual factors related to the tutor experience when senior undergraduate dental hygiene students served as tutors for beginning undergraduate dental hygiene students, or sophomores, in a 1-semester, 2-hour long problem-based learning (PBL) course in a Baccalaureate Dental Hygiene (BDH) curriculum during the spring semester of 2008. Data were collected using various sources and methods. Six tutors and three administrators were interviewed, tutees completed an anonymous questionnaire, the tutorial process and tutor training sessions were observed, and related documents were examined. Data analysis included open and axial coding, creation of tutor profiles, and identification of patterns. Tutor behaviors varied with respect to the nature of intervention (e.g., telling, asking, clarifying, acknowledging), emphasis (process, content, social), and facilitation style (directive, suggestive, empowering). Patterns in tutor behavior and attitudes emerged related to comfort and growth, persistence and lenience, and compliance, resistance, and innovation. Differences in tutor understanding and perception of their role and the purpose of PBL influenced the role the tutor assumed. Other factors that influenced tutor behavior included tutor intentions, tutor training, and environmental factors such as the nature of problems, allotted time, and tutorial group characteristics. The influence of these factors can be understood by applying Fishbein's integrated model of behavior prediction (Fishbein, 2008). Tutor training included experiencing the PBL student role, attending class, and sharing experiences with other tutors in weekly seminar sessions facilitated by a tutor supervisor. Tutor's gained confidence, knowledge, skills, and friendship. They also had the opportunity to see things from a new perspective, that of a teacher encouraging self-direction rather than a student depending on others for direction


    Andrei Florin


    Full Text Available The global financial crisis from 2008 was considered a trigger to reshape the financial systems and to enhance the risk management practices. Considering the developments and new guidelines that are now used it can be observed a “positive” effect of the crisis, in particular to strengthen the risk management culture and governance in all aspects. Comparing to 2008 year, the improvements that have been made to the risk management systems can be easily observed in the financial institutions. For the scope of the article, the subject of this review will be focused on the internal audit function. The main aspect is to capture the new practices that are now used in order to contribute to a performing internal governance system. A case study will be presented in order to better understand how the internal audit function is designed and acting as a “line” of defence in the internal governance system. Also, it is in the scope of the article to issue some recommendations for future developments of the audit function in order to better manage its mission and the objectives. A risk based model used in the planning activities is presented. The financial institutions improved significantly their internal governance system. The internal audit function is now better integrated in the internal structures and clear lines of communication were settled. As the conclusion of the article is illustrating, the internal governance was frequently not sufficiently developed causing a failure in the risk management systems from the systemically financial institutions. The content of the article has practical applicability, as the results and the recommendations could be used in the design of an audit function within a financial institution.

  15. An approach to model validation and model-based prediction -- polyurethane foam case study.

    Dowding, Kevin J.; Rutherford, Brian Milne


    Enhanced software methodology and improved computing hardware have advanced the state of simulation technology to a point where large physics-based codes can be a major contributor in many systems analyses. This shift toward the use of computational methods has brought with it new research challenges in a number of areas including characterization of uncertainty, model validation, and the analysis of computer output. It is these challenges that have motivated the work described in this report. Approaches to and methods for model validation and (model-based) prediction have been developed recently in the engineering, mathematics and statistical literatures. In this report we have provided a fairly detailed account of one approach to model validation and prediction applied to an analysis investigating thermal decomposition of polyurethane foam. A model simulates the evolution of the foam in a high temperature environment as it transforms from a solid to a gas phase. The available modeling and experimental results serve as data for a case study focusing our model validation and prediction developmental efforts on this specific thermal application. We discuss several elements of the ''philosophy'' behind the validation and prediction approach: (1) We view the validation process as an activity applying to the use of a specific computational model for a specific application. We do acknowledge, however, that an important part of the overall development of a computational simulation initiative is the feedback provided to model developers and analysts associated with the application. (2) We utilize information obtained for the calibration of model parameters to estimate the parameters and quantify uncertainty in the estimates. We rely, however, on validation data (or data from similar analyses) to measure the variability that contributes to the uncertainty in predictions for specific systems or units (unit-to-unit variability). (3) We perform statistical


    M. Shamim Ahmad; Vijaya Subramaniam; Halimah Mohammad; Anis Mokhtar; Ismail, B. S.


    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an important tool for identifying potential environmental impacts associated with the production of palm based plywood. This study is to make available the life cycle inventory for gate-to-gate data so that the environmental impact posed by oil palm based plywood production can be assessed. Conducting an LCA on the palm based plywood that are derived from the wastes of the oil palm industry is a first step towards performing green environmental product. Therefor...

  17. Linking activity-based travel demand models and traffic assignment: A Flemish case study

    Ramaekers, Katrien; Kochan, Bruno; BELLEMANS, Tom; JANSSENS, Davy; Wets, Geert


    A custom agent-based simulation framework is developed that combines the fields of traffic demand modeling and traffic assignment, applied to the region of Flanders (Belgium). The framework uses an activity-based approach to model traffic demand and an assignment module that is linked to the traffic demand module. Activity data for the framework is provided by a large scale survey, conducted on 2500 households in the study area. The agent-based simulation model consists of over six million ag...

  18. TEFL Training Program for Local and Cultural-based Instruction: Case Studies in Thai Primary Schools

    Sasiwan Potcharapanpong; Sumlee Thongthew


    The main purpose of this study is to develop an EFL Training Program based on the combination of three theories: reflective teaching, brain-based learning, and school-based training. The program was voluntarily applied by ten elementary teachers from Surin province, Thailand. The program included competency assessment, EFL competency enhancement, EFL teaching activities development and practices, and program evaluation. The activity created positive impacts to the EFL teaching particularly st...

  19. [Analysis suspected allergic factors to shenqi fuzheng injection based on prescription sequence analysis and nested case control study].

    Ai, Qing-Hua; Zeng, Xian-Bin; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei


    This study based on twenty 3A grade hospital information system (HIS) database in China, adopt toprescription sequence analysis (PSA) with nested case control study (NCCS) to analysis mainly suspected allergy factor of Shenqi Fuzheng injection (Shenqi Fuzheng). Study design according to start to stop using Shenqi Fuzheng whether using dexamethasone injection will crowd divided into cases group and control group, each case matched 4 controls were selected, two groups according to the ratio of the age and sex matched well. Square test, Fisher exact test, single factor and multiple factor logistic regression were used to analyze data Condition on admission, allergic history, dosage and drug combinations were taken into account in cases of suspected allergic reactions. After analysis in two subgroups we found that the single dose (P = 0.000 2) and the combined use of matrine (P marketing Chinese medicine injection. PMID:25532396

  20. Report on decision-making of geological disposal. Discussion based on case study

    History of geological disposal from 1950 to 2000 in the world and some examples of change of policy in France, Sweden and Canada are explained. On the case study of three countries, investigations of background of the change, site decision process, communication, flexible concept of disposal are stated. Japan decided the high level radioactive waste is disposed in underground (300m deeper) under the Law Concerning the Final Disposal of Special Radioactive Waste in June, 2000. NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) was established to manage disposal of radioactive waste in October, 2000. NUMO started to accept application for the site of disposal in the country in December, 2002. The above case study is a good guide to promote geological disposal of radioactive waste. (S.Y.)

  1. Can Interactive Web-Based CAD Tools Improve the Learning of Engineering Drawing? A Case Study

    Pando Cerra, Pablo; Suárez González, Jesús M.; Busto Parra, Bernardo; Rodríguez Ortiz, Diana; Álvarez Peñín, Pedro I.


    Many current Web-based learning environments facilitate the theoretical teaching of a subject but this may not be sufficient for those disciplines that require a significant use of graphic mechanisms to resolve problems. This research study looks at the use of an environment that can help students learn engineering drawing with Web-based CAD…

  2. Evaluation Criteria for Competency-Based Syllabi: A Chilean Case Study Applying Mixed Methods

    Jerez, Oscar; Valenzuela, Leslier; Pizarro, Veronica; Hasbun, Beatriz; Valenzuela, Gabriela; Orsini, Cesar


    In recent decades, higher education institutions worldwide have been moving from knowledge-based to competence-based curricula. One of the greatest challenges in this transition is the difficulty in changing the knowledge-oriented practices of teachers. This study evaluates the consistency between syllabus design and the requirements imposed by a…

  3. Energy saving in smart homes based on consumer behaviour: A case study

    Zehnder, Michael; Wache, Holger; Witschel, Hans-Friedrich; Zanatta, Danilo; Rodriguez, Miguel


    This paper presents a case study of a recommender system that can be used to save energy in smart homes without lowering the comfort of the inhabitants. We present an algorithm that uses consumer behavior data only and uses machine learning to suggest actions for inhabitants to reduce the energy consumption of their homes. The system mines for frequent and periodic patterns in the event data provided by the Digitalstrom home automation system. These patterns are converted into association rul...

  4. Virtual RTCP: A Case Study of Monitoring and Repair for UDP-based IPTV Systems

    Soni García, A.; Ott, J; Ellis, M; Perkins, C.(University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA)


    IPTV systems have seen widespread deployment, but often lack robust mechanisms for monitoring the quality of experience. This makes it difficult for network operators to ensure that their services match the quality of traditional broadcast TV systems, leading to consumer dissatisfaction. We present a case study of virtual RTCP, a new framework for reception quality monitoring and reporting for UDP-encapsulated MPEG video delivered over IP multicast. We show that this allows incremental deploy...

  5. Invasive fungal disease in university hospital: a PCR-based study of autopsy cases

    Ruangritchankul, Komkrit; Chindamporn, Ariya; Worasilchai, Navaporn; Poumsuk, Ubon; Keelawat, Somboon; Bychkov, Andrey.


    Invasive fungal disease (IFD) has high mortality rate, especially in the growing population of immunocompromised patients. In spite of introduction of novel diagnostic approaches, the intravital recognition of IFD is challenging. Autopsy studies remain a key tool for assessment of epidemiology of visceral mycoses. We aimed to determine species distribution and trends of IFD over the last 10 years in unselected autopsy series from a large university hospital. Forty-five cases of visceral mycos...

  6. Stem Cell Based Regenerative Medicine: Is Russia Taking the Lead? A Case Study from St. Petersburg

    Iryna Palona; Jokull Johannesson


    The recent scientific breakthroughs in genetics have lead to a thriving stem cell industry transforming the way medicine is practiced. This article discusses these developments and presents a case study of Russian research institute in St. Petersburg which is doing state of the art stem cell trials providing successful treatment of blood vessel disease andbone fractures. The potential impact of stem cell technology on regenerative medicine is discussed, the potential convergence of nanopartic...

  7. Translating evidence-based guidelines to improve feedback practices: the interACT case study

    Barton, Karen L.; Schofield, Susie J.; McAleer, Sean; Ajjawi, Rola


    Background There has been a substantial body of research examining feedback practices, yet the assessment and feedback landscape in higher education is described as ‘stubbornly resistant to change’. The aim of this paper is to present a case study demonstrating how an entire programme’s assessment and feedback practices were re-engineered and evaluated in line with evidence from the literature in the interACT (Interaction and Collaboration via Technology) project. Methods Informed by action r...

  8. The Quality of Stakeholder-Based Decisions: Lessons from the Case Study Record

    Beierle, Thomas


    The increased use of stakeholder processes in environmental decisionmaking has raised concerns that the inherently “political” nature of such processes may sacrifice substantive quality for political expediency. In particular, there is concern that good science will not be used adequately in stakeholder processes nor be reflected in their decision outcomes. This paper looks to the case study record to examine the quality of the outcomes of stakeholder efforts and the scientific and technical ...

  9. Metamorphoses of cogeneration-based district heating in Romania: A case study

    The paper presents the birth and evolution of the cogeneration-based district heating (DH) system in a medium size city in Romania (Targoviste). The evolution of the industrialization degree was the main factor which controlled the population growth and led to a continuous reconfiguration of the DH system. The DH system assisted by cogeneration emerged as a solution in a certain phase of the demographic development of the city. The political and social changes occurring in Romania after 1990 have had important negative consequences on the DH systems in small towns. In Targoviste the DH system survived but in 2001 the solution based on cogeneration became economically inefficient, due to the low technical quality of the existing equipment and the low gas prices, to the procedure of setting the DH tariffs and the service cost at consumer's level and to some bureaucratic problems. Energy policy measures taken at national and local levels in 2003 and 2005 led to the re-establishment of the cogeneration-based district heating in 2005. However, a different technical solution has been adopted. Details about the present (2009) cogeneration-based DH system in Targoviste are presented together with several technical and economical indicators. The main conclusion is that by a proper amendment of the technical solutions, cogeneration could be a viable solution for DH even in case of abrupt social and demographic changes, such as those occurring in Romania after 1990. - Research Highlights: →Birth and evolution of the cogeneration-based district heating system in a medium size city. →The industrialization degree is the main factor which controlled the reconfiguration of the district heating system. →Each stage of the evolution of district heating system has been a technological leap. →Cogeneration is a solution for district heating even in case of abrupt social changes.

  10. Streamline-based Simulation of Geological CO2 Storage: Otway Case-Study

    Lazaro Vallejo, Lorena; Dance, Tess; Cinar, Yildiray; Laforce, Tara


    Three of the most important challenges for the near future: maximizing oil extraction, securing fresh water supplies and mitigating climate change through Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), require a better understanding of flow in porous media. It has been shown by Qi et al [1] that an optimum injection strategy for CO2 storage can result in up to 90% of the injected CO2 being trapped in the pore network of the rock during the injection phase of a CO2 storage project. When the non-wetting phase saturation increases and then decreases in the pore space, part of the non-wetting phase is trapped in pores as a residual saturation. Injection of CO2 and water in alternating cycles can be used to engineer this trapping. With time, CO2 will dissolve in the brine surrounding it and finally precipitate as carbonate. The Otway Project, taking place in the south-east of Australia and lead by the Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies (CO2CRC), is the world's largest research and geosequestration demonstration project [2]. CO2CRC has proposed testing the concept of using residual trapping to improve storage security by using Huff and Push injections. In this case, CO2 is injected in a depleted gas reservoir together with methane. The Huff and Push injection mechanism consists of a single well which alternates injection and production. Initially, brine is injected followed by a mixture of CO2/CH4/other gases (77/20/3 mole%) followed by a shut-in period. Then, when production starts the water front should move faster towards the production well and immobilise CO2 in the micro pores of the rock. Very little production of CO2 should be observed, confirming that it has been immobilized within the formation. Traditional grid-based reservoir simulations are used to predict fluid behaviour and to design injection strategies that maximize both oil extraction and trapping of carbon dioxide in the rock formation. Unlike conventional grid-based simulations, streamline-based

  11. Determinants of mortality from severe dengue in Brazil: a population-based case-control study.

    Moraes, Giselle Hentzy; de Fátima Duarte, Eliane; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen


    Although increases in severity of mortality from dengue infection have been observed in Brazil, their determinants are not fully known. A case-control study was conducted by using the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, including patients with severe dengue during 2000-2005. Cases were defined as patients that died and controls were those who survived. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression was performed. During the study period, there were 12,321 severe cases of dengue and 1,062 deaths. Factors independently associated with death included age ≥ 50 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.59-3.29), history of previous dengue (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62-0.99), positive tourniquet test result (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.33-0.66), laboratory diagnosis of dengue (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.61-0.92), and a platelet count of 50,000-100,000 cells/mm(3) (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.36-0.87). The risk profile identified in this study should serve to direct public health interventions to minimize deaths. PMID:23400577

  12. Energy Provider: Delivered Energy Efficiency: A global stock-taking based on case studies



    In 2011 the IEA and the Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP) took on a work programme focused on the role of energy providers in delivering energy efficiency to end-users. This work was part of the IEA’s contribution to the PEPDEE Task Group, which falls under the umbrella of the International Partnership on Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC). In addition to organizing regional dialogues between governments, regulators, and energy providers, the PEPDEE work stream conducted global stock-takings of regulatory mechanisms adopted by governments to obligate or encourage energy providers to delivery energy savings and the energy savings activities of energy providers. For its part the IEA conducted a global review of energy provider-delivered energy savings programmes. The IEA reached out to energy providers to identify the energy savings activities they engaged in. Some 250 energy saving activities were considered, and 41 detailed case studies spanning 18 countries were developed. Geographic balance was a major consideration, and much effort was expended identifying energy provider-delivered energy savings case studies from around the world. Taken together these case studies represent over USD 1 billion in annual spending, or about 8% of estimated energy provider spending on energy efficiency.

  13. A MCDM-based model for vendor selection: a case study in the particleboard industry

    Reza Zanjirani Farahani; Moslem Fadaei


    We investigated procurement of raw materials for particleboard to minimize costs and develop an efficient optimization model for product mix.In a multiple-vendor market,vendors must be evaluated based on specified criteria.Assuming sourcing from the highest-scoring vendors,annual purchase quantities are then planned.To meet procurement needs,we first propose a model to describe the problem.Then,an appropriate multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) technique is selected to solve it.We ran the model using commercial software such as LINGO(R) and then compared the model results to a real case involving one of the largest particleboard manufacturers in the region.The model mn based real data yielded a procurement program that is more efficient and lower in cost than the program currently in use.Use of this procurement modelling approach would yield considerable financial returns.

  14. The Art of Empathy: A Mixed Methods Case Study of a Critical Place-Based Art Education Program

    Bertling, Joy Gaulden


    This mixed methods case study examined middle school students' empathy with the environment within a critical place-based art classroom. The curriculum was informed by the ecological imagination, which calls for a new mode of education: education that embraces the arts as a way to conceive of pro-ecological perspectives, other ways of being…

  15. Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing for Inter-Library Services: A Case Study in a University

    Pernot, Eli; Roodhooft, Filip; Van den Abbeele, Alexandra


    Although the true costs of inter-library loans (ILL) are unknown, universities increasingly rely on them to provide better library services at lower costs. Through a case study, we show how to perform a time-driven activity-based costing analysis of ILL and provide evidence of the benefits of such an analysis.

  16. BladeRunners and Picasso Cafe: A Case Study Evaluation of Two Work-Based Training Programs for Disadvantaged Youth.

    Currie, Sheila; Foley, Kelly; Schwartz, Saul; Taylor-Lewis, Musu

    In 1998, Canada's Social Research and Demonstration Corporation (SRDC) conducted case studies of two work-based training and skill development programs for street youth in Vancouver, British Columbia. The BladeRunners program places youth on construction sites while encouraging them to work toward an apprenticeship in the building trades. The…

  17. Training Post-9/11 Police Officers with a Counter-Terrorism Reality-Based Training Model: A Case Study

    Biddle, Christopher J.


    The purpose of this qualitative holistic multiple-case study was to identify the optimal theoretical approach for a Counter-Terrorism Reality-Based Training (CTRBT) model to train post-9/11 police officers to perform effectively in their counter-terrorism assignments. Post-9/11 police officers assigned to counter-terrorism duties are not trained…

  18. Innovative Asia: Advancing the Knowledge-Based Economy: Country Case Studies for the PRC, India, Indonesia, and Kazakhstan

    Asian Development Bank


    This report presents the case studies of the People’s Republic of China, India, Indonesia and Kazakhstan in their knowledge-based economy approaches. It identifies a range of policies and initiatives that these economies need to consider to strengthen innovation led growth and make a transition from middle income to high income levels.

  19. A Case Study on Collective Cognition and Operation in Team-Based Computer Game Design by Middle-School Children

    Ke, Fengfeng; Im, Tami


    This case study examined team-based computer-game design efforts by children with diverse abilities to explore the nature of their collective design actions and cognitive processes. Ten teams of middle-school children, with a high percentage of minority students, participated in a 6-weeks, computer-assisted math-game-design program. Essential…

  20. Contributions of Early Work-Based Learning: A Case Study of First Year Pharmacy Students

    Ting, Kang Nee; Wong, Kok Thong; Thang, Siew Ming


    Generally work-based learning opportunities are only offered to students in their penultimate year of undergraduate study. Little is known about the benefits and shortcomings of such experiential learning for students in the early stages of their undergraduate education. This is a mixed method study investigating first year undergraduate pharmacy…

  1. Risk of hospitalization for acute pancreatitis associated with conventional and atypical antipsychotics: a population-based case-control study

    Gasse, Christiane; Jacobsen, Jacob; Pedersen, Lars;


    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of atypical and conventional antipsychotics with the risk of hospitalization for acute pancreatitis. DESIGN: Population-based, case-control study. DATA SOURCE: Health care databases of Northern Denmark. PATIENTS: A total of 3083 adults hospitalized with...... acute pancreatitis (case patients) and 30,830 control subjects. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Controls were selected from the general population by using risk-set sampling and were matched to case patients by age and sex. The date of the case patients' admission for acute pancreatitis was used as the...... index date for the matched control subjects. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate rate ratios (RRs) for hospitalization due to acute pancreatitis in current users (0-90 days before admission or index date) and former users (> 90 days before admission or index date) of atypical...

  2. An aircraft-based case study of new particle formation and growth in the summertime Arctic

    Willis, M. D.; Abbatt, J.; Burkart, J.; Bozem, H.; Koellner, F.; Schneider, J.; Hoor, P. M.; Herber, A. B.; Leaitch, W. R.


    Motivated by the changing climate of the Arctic and decreasing summer sea-ice extent, we aim to better understand how atmospheric composition will impact, or be impacted by, climate and environmental change in this region. Much attention has been paid to springtime Arctic aerosol owing to significant anthropogenic influence on this remote environment, but the cleaner, more locally influenced summertime Arctic is not well characterized. We present results of vertically resolved, particle number, aerosol size distributions, submicron aerosol composition from an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations from the NETCARE 2014 Polar 6 aircraft campaign. The campaign was based in the high Arctic, at Resolute Bay, Nunavut, Canada (74°N, 94°W), allowing measurements from 60 to 2900 meters over ice, open water and near the ice-edge. The focus of this case study is a new particle formation and growth event observed at the eastern end of Lancaster Sound (74°N, 81°W) on July 12, 2014 under clear sky conditions. During this flight Polar 6 travelled to the end of Lancaster Sound at 2900 m and subsequently descended to 60-70 m above the surface heading due west, with winds from the west. At the lowest altitude we observed a significant increase in particles > 4 nm, between 20 - 100 nm, and > 100 nm, indicating the presence of small particles between 4 - 20 nm and growth to larger sizes. In addition, CCN concentrations were enhanced up to ~ 200/cm3 from background levels of ≤ 100/cm3. Concurrently, the AMS indicated enhanced levels of methane sulfonic acid (MSA) and marine-like organic aerosol (OA) correlated in time with the presence of larger particles, as well as an iodide signal which correlated with the presence of small particles. These observations suggest that iodine oxides could be one contributor to particle formation, and that marine-like OA and MSA could contribute to particle growth in the summertime Arctic.

  3. Motivations, Risks, Barriers, and Results Associated with the Adoption of Global Sourcing by Brazilian Companies: a Case-Based Study

    Moema Pereira Nunes


    This article aims to identi fy the motivations behind g lobal s ourcing (GS) adoption , the associated risks and barriers , and the results that companies from emerging countries are achieving . The research explores the distinguishing features of these companies ' experience and examines established theories about GS that are based on companies from developed countries. In the article, a case - based study investigat ed four companies from t...

  4. Academic staff's perceptions of implementing performance-based review system in a tertiary institution : a case study

    Kwok, Nga-man; 郭雅文


    Introducing a new performance-based review with 100% support from staff in a well-established university is difficult for the university management. Apart from measuring whether regulations have been followed or not, acceptance of academic staff is one key area that educational organizations should not ignore when evaluating effectiveness of a performance-based policy. Using the case university as an example, this study aims at investigating academic staff’s perceptions of gradually introduci...

  5. Thyroid cancer in French Polynesia: a population based case control study

    Brindel, P.; Doyon, F.; Adjadj, E.; Vathaire, F. de [Institut Gustave Roussy, INSERM U605, 94 - Villejuif (France); Drozdovitch, V. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 69 - Lyon (France); Bouville, A. [DHHS/NIH/NCI/Div. of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics EPS (United States); Paoaafaite, J.; Teuri, J. [IRD, Papeete Tahiti (France)


    Full text of publication follows: Because a previous study had shown that registered thyroid cancer incidence is higher among natives of French Polynesia (FP) than in other Maori populations from Hawaii and New-Zealand, a case-control study of thyroid cancer coordinated by Unit 605 of INSERM was conducted in FP. The main objective was to assess the potential role of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed by France between 1966 and 1974 on such a high incidence. The study included 600 subjects born and residing in FP: 229 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, aged up to 30 years old at start of nuclear weapons testing and 371 control s matched on gender and birth date randomly selected from the FP registry of births. Face to face interviews were conducted from 2002 to 2004 by specialized investigators native from FP who received a specific formation for this study. Addresses were collected from the territorial medical insurance, which covers all the inhabitants, whatever their professional status. Detailed information about nutrition at time of interview and at the end of adolescence was collected by means of a semi-quantitative method using pictures. Data concerning residence, hormonal and reproductive life, familial and personal background of thyroid pathologies and cancers, and professional and environmental exposure to carcinogens were also collected. For each study subject, radiation thyroid dose was estimated taking into account residential history and dietary habits of the subject and deposition densities of radionuclides reconstructed for each island where the subject resided during the testing period. The iodine intake will be estimated from the dietary questionnaire, as well as from mass-spectrometry measurements of stable iodine in nail clippings, which were collected during the interviews. Among the 229 cases, 89% were females, 54% declared themselves as of pure Maori origin, another 36% of Maori-Asian or Maori

  6. Thyroid cancer in French Polynesia: a population based case control study

    Full text of publication follows: Because a previous study had shown that registered thyroid cancer incidence is higher among natives of French Polynesia (FP) than in other Maori populations from Hawaii and New-Zealand, a case-control study of thyroid cancer coordinated by Unit 605 of INSERM was conducted in FP. The main objective was to assess the potential role of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed by France between 1966 and 1974 on such a high incidence. The study included 600 subjects born and residing in FP: 229 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, aged up to 30 years old at start of nuclear weapons testing and 371 control s matched on gender and birth date randomly selected from t he FP registry of births. Face to face interviews were conducted from 2002 to 2004 by specialized investigators native from FP who received a specific formation for this study. Addresses were collected from the territorial medical insurance, which covers all the inhabitants, whatever their professional status. Detailed information about nutrition at time of interview and at the end of adolescence was collected by means of a semi-quantitative method using pictures. Data concerning residence, hormonal and reproductive life, familial and personal background of thyroid pathologies and cancers, and professional and environmental exposure to carcinogens were also collected. For each study subject, radiation thyroid dose was estimated taking into account residential history and dietary habits of the subject and deposition densities of radionuclides reconstructed for each island where the subject resided during the testing period. The iodine intake will be estimated from the dietary questionnaire, as well as from mass-spectrometry measurements of stable iodine in nail clippings, which were collected during the interviews. Among the 229 cases, 89% were females, 54% declared themselves as of pure Maori origin, another 36% of Maori-Asian or Maori

  7. Biopharmaceutics classification system-based biowaivers for generic oncology drug products: case studies.

    Tampal, Nilufer; Mandula, Haritha; Zhang, Hongling; Li, Bing V; Nguyen, Hoainhon; Conner, Dale P


    Establishing bioequivalence (BE) of drugs indicated to treat cancer poses special challenges. For ethical reasons, often, the studies need to be conducted in cancer patients rather than in healthy volunteers, especially when the drug is cytotoxic. The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) introduced by Amidon (1) and adopted by the FDA, presents opportunities to avoid conducting the bioequivalence studies in humans. This paper analyzes the application of the BCS approach by the generic pharmaceutical industry and the FDA to oncology drug products. To date, the FDA has granted BCS-based biowaivers for several drug products involving at least four different drug substances, used to treat cancer. Compared to in vivo BE studies, development of data to justify BCS waivers is considered somewhat easier, faster, and more cost effective. However, the FDA experience shows that the approval times for applications containing in vitro studies to support the BCS-based biowaivers are often as long as the applications containing in vivo BE studies, primarily because of inadequate information in the submissions. This paper deliberates some common causes for the delays in the approval of applications requesting BCS-based biowaivers for oncology drug products. Scientific considerations of conducting a non-BCS-based in vivo BE study for generic oncology drug products are also discussed. It is hoped that the information provided in our study would help the applicants to improve the quality of ANDA submissions in the future. PMID:25245330

  8. Using Analysis of Governance to Unpack Community-Based Conservation: A Case Study from Tanzania

    Robinson, Lance W.; Makupa, Enock


    Community-based conservation policies and programs are often hollow with little real devolution. But to pass a judgment of community-based or not community-based on such initiatives and programs obscures what is actually a suite of attributes. In this paper, we analyze governance around a specific case of what is nominally community-based conservation—Ikona Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in Tanzania—using two complementary sets of criteria. The first relates to governance "powers": planning powers, regulatory powers, spending powers, revenue-generating powers, and the power to enter into agreements. The second set of criteria derive from the understanding of governance as a set of social functions: social coordination, shaping power, setting direction, and building community. The analysis helps to detail ways in which the Tanzanian state through policy and regulations has constrained the potential for Ikona WMA to empower communities and community actors. Although it has some features of community-based conservation, community input into how the governance social functions would be carried out in the WMA was constrained from the start and is now largely out of community hands. The two governance powers that have any significant community-based flavor—spending powers and revenue-generating powers—relate to the WMA's tourism activities, but even here the picture is equivocal at best. The unpacking of governance that we have done, however, reveals that community empowerment through the processes associated with creating and recognizing indigenous and community-conserved areas is something that can be pursued through multiple channels, some of which might be more strategic than others.

  9. Developing an Agent-Based Model to Simulate Urban Land-Use Expansion (Case Study: Qazvin

    F. Nourian


    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionUrban land-use expansion is a challenging issue in developing countries. Increases in population as well as the immigration from the villages to the cities are the two major factors for that phenomenon. Those factors have reduced the influence of efforts that try to limit the cities’ boundaries. Thus, spatial planners always look for the models that simulate the expansion of urban land-uses and enable them to prevent unbalanced expansions of cities and guide the developments to the desired areas. Several models have been developed and evaluated for simulating urban land-use expansions. Despite the variety of the models, most of them have focused on simulating urban land-use expansions just around a city. Thus, the regional models that consider wider area are of primary importance.2- Theoretical basesIn this study a new agent-based model has been developed and implemented to simulate urban land-use expansion in Qazvin and Alborz regions of Qazvin state which have an area of 1620 square kilometers. In this model, land-use developers have been treated as agents that move in the landscape explicitly and assess the state of parcels for development. So, the environment of the model is raster. The agents are developed into five groups which have different aims. The agents may fall in competition to develop the same parcels. Moreover, due to the spatial essence of the problem, GIS were used to prepare the environment of agents’ movement and search and to aggregate and analyze the results.Two main steps can be recognized in this model: the Searching step and the Development step:Searching step: The agents are created and distributed in the districts. The selection of districts is probabilistic and is based on the primary probability of selection, assumed for districts. When agents go to the districts, at first they move randomly to the neighborhood of pre-developed areas. Wherever the agent starts its activities, it

  10. A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of gastrointestinal stromal tumors based on 122 cases

    Shanglong Liu; Zifang Song; Wei Li; Xiaowei Liu; Chen Zhang; Qichang Zheng


    Objective:The aim of the study was to review the clinical records of 122 patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors(GISTs)and analyze their clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics.Methods:The medic records of 122 patients with GISTs during the periods from January 2002 to May 2010 were reviewed.All tumors were confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical analyses.Results:The tumors occurred in 59 males and 63 females,ranging from 25to 77 years.Of all cases,46 cases originated from stomach,42 from small intestine,17 from colon and rectum and 9 from retroperitoneal cavity and 4 cases from extra-gastrointestinal site.Liver was the most common organ that tumors metastases involved.Immunohistochemically,there were 114 tumors being positive for CD117 while 8 tumors negative for it.The frequencies of CD34 positive were higher in the stomach and rectum(89.1% and 86.7% respectively)than in the small intestine(64.3%,P < 0.05).Higher expression of SMA was in the tumors located in small intestine(54.8%)while the expressions of SMA in the gastric and rectal tumors were relatively low(21.7% and 20.0% respectively,P < 0.05).Conclusion:Gastrointestinal stromal tumors can occur in the gastrointestinal tract as well as in the extra-gastrointestinal sites.The frequencies of CD34 and SMA expression vary significantly with different locations.

  11. Enhanced Web-Based Otitis Study Case vs. Simple Paper-Case: Impact on Medical Student Objective Structured Clinical Exam Performance

    Michael H. Malloy, M.D., M.S.


    Full Text Available Background: Distance education methods have taken on greater importance as medical student education has moved off campus into the community. What the best methods are for conveying information to students at distant sites has not been determined. Objective: To determine if students at distant community sites who received an otitis media study case by e-mail that was enhanced with a referral to a web-based otitis study case, performed better on otitis OSCE stations than students who received the same case not enhanced with visuals or referrals to a web-based otitis case. Design/Methods: Students were randomized by community site to receive either the enhanced (E or simple otitis study case (S. Students were e-mailed an otitis media study case during the 5th week of the rotation. Those randomized to the E-case received a case that started with a case scenario followed by a "Task" that instructed them to go to this web address: (American Academy of Pediatrics Otitis Web Site. They were then to select "Case 1" which was a continuation of the case scenario present on their e-mail. A list of learning objectives was also printed on the e-mail. Students receiving the S-case viewed the same case scenario and objectives, but were not instructed to go to the web page. All students rotated through two OSCE otitis stations. In the first station they interviewed a simulated patient(OSCE-SP and counseled her on the management of her 12 month old with otitis. Within that station they viewed a video of a pneumoscopic exam of two ears, one ear with otitis and the other ear normal. At the 2nd otitis station the student presented the case to a faculty and was asked a series of questions about otitis media(OSCE-PR. Scores on the two stations were compared by group. Results: There were 198 students who took the OSCE. 178 (90% responded to a survey that indicated they had opened and read the e-mailed case. There

  12. Selection and ranking of occupational safety indicators based on fuzzy AHP: A case study in road construction companies

    Janackovic, Goran Lj.


    Full Text Available This paper presents the factors, performance, and indicators of occupational safety, as well as a method to select and rank occupational safety indicators based on the expert evaluation method and the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (fuzzy AHP. A case study is done on road construction companies in Serbia. The key safety performance indicators for the road construction industry are identified and ranked according to the results of a survey that included experts who assessed occupational safety risks in these companies. The case study confirmed that organisational factors have a dominant effect on the quality of the occupational health and safety management system in Serbian road construction companies.

  13. The shallows: Development of Alibaba in Chinese domestic logistics system : A Case Study Based Analysis

    Liu, Shun


    The aim of the research is to critically analyse the influence of Alibaba as 3PL service providers for Chinese businesses needs and Domestic Logistics. Alibaba is the case study selected for discussion here. Mixed research methods are used, the research is a mix of both primary data and secondary data. A primary data collection method has been used where consumers were queried The aim of the research is to critically analyse the influence of Alibaba as 3PL service providers for Chinese busine...

  14. Open Access and Database Anonymization an Open Source Procedure Based on an Italian Case Study

    Leschiutta, Luca; Futia, Giuseppe


    The only method, believed to be compliant to privacy laws, to open a database that contains personal data is anonymization. This work is focused on a car accidents database case study and on the Italian DP law. Database anonymization is described from a procedural point of view and it is explained how it is possible to complete the whole process relying solely on widespread open-source software applications. The proposed approach is empirical and is founded on the letter of the Italian privac...

  15. Towards a Corpus-Based Analysis of Anglicisms in Spanish: A Case Study

    José L. Oncins-Martínez


    This paper aims to show some of the advantages of and the need for using corpora for exploring and assessing Anglicisms in contemporary Spanish. In order to do this a case study is presented: the adverb dramáticamente, as it is taking on the new sense ‘espectacularmente’ under the influence of English dramatically. The presence of this adverb with this new sense in contemporary Spanish is explored and supported with the data found in CORDE and CREA, the two corp...

  16. Fifteen Weddings and a Funeral: Case Studies and Resilience-based Management

    Ann P. Kinzig


    Full Text Available “Resilience theory” is a systematic methodology for understanding the dynamics of coupled social-ecological systems (SESs. Its ongoing development requires that resilience theory be confronted with case studies to assess its capacity to help understand and develop policy for SESs. This paper synthesizes the findings from several papers in the special feature "Exploring Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems" that do just this. It then highlights key challenges facing resilience as a theory for understanding SESs and provides some avenues for future research.

  17. Investigation of an online, problem-based introduction to nuclear sciences: A case study

    An online, grant-funded course on nuclear engineering in society was developed at a large Midwestern university with the goal of providing non-majors a meaningful introduction to the many applications of nuclear science in a modern society and to stimulate learner interest in academic studies and/or professional involvement in nuclear science. Using a within-site case study approach, the current study focused on the efficacy of the online learning environment's support of learners' acquisition of knowledge and the impact of the environment on learners' interest in and beliefs about nuclear sciences in society. Findings suggest the environment successfully promoted learning and had a positive impact on learners' interests and beliefs. (authors)

  18. Pathological study of 130 cases of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease based on NASH-CRN system

    ZHOU Guangde; ZHAO Jingmin; DING Xiaohui; PAN Deng; SUN Yanling; YANG Jianfa; ZHAO Yulai


    To summarize the pathological features of nonalcoholic liver disease(NAFLD)in China based on a histological scoring system for NAFLD designed by the Pathology Committee of NASH Clinical Research Network(NASHCRN),the specimens of liver needle biopsies from 130 patients with NAFLD were histopathologically analyzed by haematoxylin eosin,reticular fiber and Masson trichrome stain.Immunohistochemistry staining was used to exclude non-NAFLD cases combined with clinical data.Hepatic steatosis,lobular inflammation,hepatocytic ballooning and fibrosis were presented widespread in NAFLD liver tissues.Furthermore,macrovesicular steatosis predominantly located in acinar zone 3 was the main histologic feature of NAFLD and lobular inflammation was usually presented mildly.Hepatocyte ballooning was observed in 94.6% of all 130 cases.Mild perisinusoidal fibrosis and periportal fibrosis were often observed in stage 1 cases.According to the statistic analysis,hepatic steatosis was positively correlated with lobular inflammation,hepatocytic ballooning and fibrosis (r=0.587,0.488,0.374,respectively,all P value<0.01).The number of microgranulomas,lipogranulomas and apoptotic bodies increased following severity of steatosis,lobular inflammation and fibrosis.Meanwhile,the number of megamitochondria and glycogen nuclei was paralleveled to the degree of hepatocytic ballooning(P value all<0.01).We suggest that the role of portal inflammation should be emphasized besides hepatic steatosis,lobular inflammation,hepatocyte ballooning and fibrosis in diagnosis and evaluation of NAFLD.It needs to be further verified whether microgranulomas,lipogranulomas and apoptosis bodies could be used as histopathological markers of development of NAFLD.The number of megamitochondria is more frequently be found in NAFLD,while in alcoholic liver diseases was Mallory bodies.

  19. Surgical History and the Risk of Endometriosis: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study.

    Liu, Xishi; Long, Qiqi; Guo, Sun-Wei


    Women tend to receive more surgical procedures than men. Our mouse study shows that surgical stress promotes the development of endometriosis. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that surgery increases the risk of endometriosis. We recruited 208 patients with ovarian endometrioma and 212 age-matched patients with ovarian teratoma and retrieved information on the history of any surgical procedures after menarche, grouped by laparotomy, laparoscopy, gynecologically related procedures, cesarean section, and surgeries performed on torso and extremities was recorded. We then evaluated the association, if any, between endometriosis and history of surgical procedures. Cases and controls were comparable with respect to age, marital status, education level, and occupation. Eleven (5.3%) cases had laparotomy before the index surgery while 4 (1.9%) controls did. Sixty-six (31.7%) cases had Cesarean section while 53 (25.0%) controls did. Multivariate analysis identified age, at the index surgery laparotomy, and cesarean section as 3 factors positively associated with the risk of endometriosis while parity was found to be negatively associated with the risk. Laparotomy was associated with increased risk of endometriosis (odds ratio [OR] = 3.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08-12.31), while cesarean section was associated with 2-fold increase in risk (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.31-3.55). Both laparotomy and cesarean section may increase the risk of endometriosis probably by activation of adrenergic signaling, thus facilitating angiogenesis and accelerating the growth of endometriotic lesions that are already in existence. This finding may have important ramifications for the perioperative management of patients with increased risk or recurrence risk of endometriosis. PMID:26919976

  20. Case Studies of Secondary School Teachers Designing Socioscientific Issues-Based Instruction and Their Students' Socioscientific Reasoning

    Karahan, Engin

    Addressing socioscientific issues (SSI) has been one of the main focuses in science education since the Science, Technology, and Society (STS) movement in the 1970s (Levinson, 2006); however, teaching controversial socioscientific issues has always been challenging for teachers (Dillon, 1994; Osborne, Duschl, & Fairbrother, 2002). Although teachers exhibit positive attitudes for using controversial socioscientific issues in their science classrooms, only a small percentage of them actually incorporate SSI content into their science curricula on a regular basis (Sadler, Amirshokoohi, Kazempour, & Allspaw, 2006; Lee & Witz, 2009). The literature in science education has highlighted the signi?cant relationships among teacher beliefs, teaching practices, and student learning (Bryan & Atwater, 2002; King, Shumow, & Lietz, 2001; Lederman, 1992). Despite the fact that the case studies present a relatively detailed picture of teachers' values and motivations for teaching SSI (e.g. Lee, 2006; Lee & Witz, 2009; Reis & Galvao, 2004), these studies still miss the practices of these teachers and potential outcomes for their students. Therefore, there is a great need for in-depth case studies that would focus on teachers' practices of designing and teaching SSI-based learning environments, their deeper beliefs and motivations for teaching SSI, and their students' response to these practices (Lee, 2006). This dissertation is structured as three separate, but related, studies about secondary school teachers' experiences of designing and teaching SSI-based classes and their students' understanding of science and SSI reasoning. The case studies in this dissertation seek answers for (1) teachers' practices of designing and teaching SSI-based instruction, as well as its relation to their deeper personal beliefs and motivations to teach SSI, and (2) how their students respond to their approaches of teaching SSI in terms of their science understanding and SSI reasoning. The first paper

  1. Risk factors for homicide victimization in post-genocide Rwanda: a population -based case- control study

    Rubanzana, Wilson; Ntaganira, Joseph; Freeman, Michael D.; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L


    Background: Homicide is one of the leading causes of mortality in the World. Homicide risk factors vary significantly between countries and regions. In Rwanda, data on homicide victimization is unreliable because no standardized surveillance system exists. This study was undertaken to identify the risk factors for homicide victimization in Rwanda with particular attention on the latent effects of the 1994 genocide. Methods: A population-based matched case–control study was conducted, with sub...

  2. Case Studies on Sustainable Buildings

    Hui, Sam CM


    This web site is developed with the aim to promote sustainable design and planning of buildings. A knowledge base of case studies and resources has been established to illustrate the sustainable design strategies and features in realistic building projects all over the world. The database of case studies can be searched by project names, locations, design strategies and design features.

  3. Core-firm Based View on the Mechanism of Constructing a Corporate Innovation Ecosystem: A Case Study of Haier Group

    Jiang, Shimei; Wang, Ziyuan; Hu, Yimei


    The fierce transformation of the competitive status of business world in the 21st century has urged the innovation activities turned from mechanistic and deterministic to ecological and organic. The study firstly defines the concept of core firm based on reviewing existing corporate innovation...... ecosystem literature, and then adopts a multi-embedded case study method on Haier Group’s corporate innovation ecosystem, focusing on six exploratory sub-cases. Based on qualitative coding and analysis on the value realization of six new product/technology of the Haier Group, we investigate how a core firm...... constructing a corporate innovation ecosystem through building up an innovation platform that include multi-level collaborative relationships based on different technologies; while at the same time integrating non-technological issues such as strategy, culture, management, organization, institution and market...

  4. From needs to competencies : a case study on the integration of a rights based approach into NGO practises

    Mesiäislehto, Virpi


    The objective of this qualitative case study is to provide knowledge on the possibilities of incorporating a rights based approach (RBA) into practises of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in the context of development and children. The study is confined to examine the possibilities of RBA in realising children’s rights within the child sponsorship programme (CSP) of a Finnish NGO, Fida International (Fida), and the conceptualisation of the child in regard to different appr...

  5. Temperament and School-Based Mental Health Practice: A Case Study of Interdisciplinary Collaboration

    Carpenter-Aeby, Tracy; Aeby, Victor G.; Boyd, Jane S.


    This study describes the application of temperament styles to school-based mental health practice in an alternative school and illustrates how a multidisciplinary team consisting of a special education teacher, health educator, and social worker used temperament to maximize effective interactions with a student who had been placed in the school…

  6. Managing School-Based Curriculum Innovations: A Hong Kong Case Study

    Law, Edmond H. F.; Wan, Sally W. Y.; Galton, Maurice; Lee, John C. K.


    This study was originally designed to explore the impact of a distributed approach to developing curriculum leadership among schoolteachers. Previous papers have focused on reporting evidence of teacher learning in the process of engaging teachers in various types of curriculum decision-making in an innovation project based on interview data. This…

  7. Assessing Long-Term Effects of Inquiry-Based Learning: A Case Study from College Mathematics

    Kogan, Marina; Laursen, Sandra L.


    As student-centered approaches to teaching and learning are more widely applied, researchers must assess the outcomes of these interventions across a range of courses and institutions. As an example of such assessment, this study examined the impact of inquiry-based learning (IBL) in college mathematics on undergraduates' subsequent grades…

  8. Computer-Based Basic Skills Instruction in a CETA Funded Project: A Case Study.

    Caldwell, Robert M.; Hedl, John J., Jr.


    Reports on a study that (1) examined the effectiveness of computer-based education in developing literacy and mathematics skills in young adults to enable them to secure unsubsidized employment and (2) compared motivation of CETA-funded students with those who sought training voluntarily. Discusses failures of CETA training projects and makes…

  9. A Case Study in Project-Based Learning: An International Partnership

    Smith, Rachel Korfhage


    As our world becomes more integrated, international business students should develop skills that match corporations' needs. Moreover, students need hands-on, problem-solving, team-based, critical-thinking skills that companies demand. Students need international business experience but many of them lack the funds or support to study or intern…

  10. Case Study: Use of Problem-Based Learning to Develop Students' Technical and Professional Skills

    Warnock, James N.; Mohammadi-Aragh, M. Jean


    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogy that has attracted attention for many biomedical engineering curricula. The aim of the current study was to address the research question, "Does PBL enable students to develop desirable professional engineering skills?" The desirable skills identified were communication, teamwork, problem…