Sample records for carrier mishaps longitudinal

  1. Accident/Mishap Investigation System

    Keller, Richard; Wolfe, Shawn; Gawdiak, Yuri; Carvalho, Robert; Panontin, Tina; Williams, James; Sturken, Ian


    InvestigationOrganizer (IO) is a Web-based collaborative information system that integrates the generic functionality of a database, a document repository, a semantic hypermedia browser, and a rule-based inference system with specialized modeling and visualization functionality to support accident/mishap investigation teams. This accessible, online structure is designed to support investigators by allowing them to make explicit, shared, and meaningful links among evidence, causal models, findings, and recommendations.

  2. X-31 Mishap: Lessons Learned

    Larson, Richard R.


    The experimental X-31 High Angle of Attack Research Aircraft crashed during a 1995 test mission flight conducted by NASA at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The pilot lost control of the airplane and was forced to eject, sustaining a permanent back injury that ended his flying career. Prior to this incident the airplane had a perfect record of several hundred non-eventful flights supported by an experienced team. During the subsequent investigation by a mishap committee it was discovered that a series of cascading events contributed to this accident. Some of the identified contributing factors that resulted in this mishap are common to aircraft design and to flight-test in general. The mistakes and the solutions are presented here so that the flight-test community may consider and learn from them. The primary cause of the crash was icing and, ultimately, a complete blockage of the pitot-static nose probe. The icing was caused by a freak weather phenomenon that was neither expected nor known to exist on the day of the mishap. The normal probe had been replaced with a special Kiel probe to allow total pressure measurements of up to 70 degrees angle of attack for flight-test purposes. The Kiel probe did not include a heater, because it was assumed that the airplane would not be flown in the clouds or in conditions conducive to icing. This assumption was later proven to be incorrect. The iced Kiel probe caused incorrect gain scheduling in the flight control system, resulting in an unstable aircraft. This failure was essentially undetected because of a faulty design in the flight control system architecture. There were, however, also a number of other issues that lead up to this situation that never should have happened. This presentation discusses what the issues were that contributed to the incident. After the incident was investigated, some of these issues were addressed and some changes were made. The second X-31 aircraft flew the remainder of the flight tests

  3. Helios High Altitude Long Endurance Mission Mishap

    Henwood, Barton E.


    This slide presentation reviews the failure of the Helios solar aircraft failure. Included are pictures of the aircraft, inflight, and after the mishap, analysis of the root causes of the mishap, contributing factors, recommendations and lessons learned in respect to crew training, and assessing the level of risk.

  4. Fourier-transform-based model for carrier transport in semiconductor heterostructures: Longitudinal optical phonon scattering

    Lü, X.; Schrottke, L.; Grahn, H. T.


    We present scattering rates for electrons at longitudinal optical phonons within a model completely formulated in the Fourier domain. The total intersubband scattering rates are obtained by averaging over the intrasubband electron distributions. The rates consist of the Fourier components of the electron wave functions and a contribution depending only on the intersubband energies and the intrasubband carrier distributions. The energy-dependent part can be reproduced by a rational function, which allows for the separation of the scattering rates into a dipole-like contribution, an overlap-like contribution, and a contribution which can be neglected for low and intermediate carrier densities of the initial subband. For a balance between accuracy and computation time, the number of Fourier components can be adjusted. This approach facilitates an efficient design of complex heterostructures with realistic, temperature- and carrier density-dependent rates.

  5. Digital Reconstruction Supporting Investigation of Mishaps

    Macy, William D.; Luecking, Robert B.


    In support of investigations of mishaps like the crash of the space shuttle Columbia, a process based on digital reconstruction from recovered components has been developed. The process is expected to reduce the need for physical reconstruction from recovered parts, reduce the time and cost of determining the cause of a mishap, and provide information useful in redesigning to prevent future mishaps. The process involves utilization of pre-existing techniques, hardware, and software to capture sizes and shapes of recovered parts in sets of digital data. The data are manipulated to enable rendering of captured geometric information by use of computer-aided design (CAD) and viewing software. The digitization of a part and study of its spatial relationship with other parts is taken to one of three levels of successively greater detail, depending on its importance to the investigation. The process includes a trajectory-analysis subprocess in which information from the digital reconstruction is combined with locations of recovered parts to reduce the area that must be searched to find other specified parts that have not yet been recovered. The digital product of the process is compatible with preexisting CAD and solid-model-rendering software.

  6. Lessons of History: Organizational Factors in Three Aviation Mishaps

    Merlin, Peter William


    This presentation examines organizational factors that contributed to three aircraft mishaps and provides analysis of lessons learned. Three historical aviation mishaps were studied from a human factors perspective, and organizational factors identified and analyzed. These case studies provide valuable lessons for understanding the interaction of people with aircraft systems and with each other during flight operations.

  7. The effects of carrier gas and liquid feed flow rates on longitudinal patterns of CNT growth

    We report detailed longitudinal profiles of four samples of carbon nanotubes (CNT) arrays synthesized using ferrocene-xylene in 850 deg. C. Point-to-point analysis of the CNTs grown in 'growth windows' (GWs) were performed using optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, FESEM, and high-resolution TEM techniques. All samples showed a maximum array height around the middle of their GWs. The height profiles comprised a secondary peak/shoulder, attributed to evolution of C2 byproducts. The results showed that pyrolytic deposition of amorphous carbon as well as catalytic growth of CNTs strongly depend on the local temperature along the GW. It was also observed that the CNT grew longer at the higher flow rate of the carrier gas while the GWs became wider and extended towards the end of the reactor. On the other hand, the higher liquid flow rate reduced the average diameter and length of the CNTs. While residence time was revealed to be important, no significant analogy was found between samples with the same feed dilution. The termination of GWs was attributed to the inhibition of amorphous carbon as well as temperature drop below ∼815 deg. C.

  8. Mishap Investigation Team (MIT) - Barksdale AFB, Louisiana

    Stepaniak, Philip


    The Shuttle Program is organized to support a Shuttle mishap using the resources of the MIT. The afternoon of Feb. 1, 2003, the MIT deployed to Barksdale AFB. This location became the investigative center and interim storage location for crewmembers received from the Lufkin Disaster Field Office (DFO). Working under the leadership of the MIT Lead, the medical team executed a short-term plan that included search, recovery, and identification including coordination with the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Temporary operations was set up at Barksdale Air Force Base for two weeks. During this time, coordination with the DFO field recovery teams, AFIP personnel, and the crew surgeons was on going. In addition, the crewmember families and NASA management were updated daily. The medical team also dealt with public reports and questions concerning biological and chemical hazards, which were coordinated with SPACEHAB, Inc., Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Medical Operations and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Space Medicine office. After operations at Barksdale were concluded the medical team transitioned back to Houston and a long-term search, recovery and identification plan was developed.

  9. Mishap risk control for advanced aerospace/composite materials

    Olson, John M.


    Although advanced aerospace materials and advanced composites provide outstanding performance, they also present several unique post-mishap environmental, safety, and health concerns. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on some of the unique hazards and concerns associated with these materials when damaged by fire, explosion, or high-energy impact. Additionally, recommended procedures and precautions are addressed as they pertain to all phases of a composite aircraft mishap response, including fire-fighting, investigation, recovery, clean-up, and guidelines are general in nature and not application-specific. The goal of this project is to provide factual and realistic information which can be used to develop consistent and effective procedures and policies to minimize the potential environmental, safety, and health impacts of a composite aircraft mishap response effort.

  10. Assessing the influence of human factors and experience on Predator mishaps

    Herz, Robert P.

    This applied dissertation was designed to assess the influence of human factors and experience on Predator mishaps as measured by unsafe acts and the frequency and cost of mishaps. The use of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) in military operations is expanding rapidly, and this trend will likely continue given increases in funding for UAV development from 3 billion in the 1990s to over 12 billion for 2004-2009. High UAV mishap numbers have generated multiple reviews of unmanned operations in the past few years, but even within common platforms, different analysts attributed these mishaps to differing causes. Sixty-four Air Force Predator Class A, B, C mishaps occurred from the introduction of this system into the operational Air Force inventory in 1997 through the end of fiscal year 2006. Reports were reviewed to identify trends. Substantial changes over time were observed regarding annual mishap rates, annual mishap counts, causal factors and impacts due to experience levels. Mishap rates across the past three years dropped to less than one-half the rate across earlier years. Mishap counts, however, steadily increased, as did Predator flying hours. Early mishap reports typically cited mechanical problems and operator station design issues. Mechanical problems were much less frequently cited in the last three years. Rather, 80% of recent mishaps cited causal human error factors. Equipment interface problems were still cited as causal or major contributing factors in almost half of recent mishaps. Recent mishap reports often cited shortfalls in human factors attributes including skill and knowledge to include checklist error, task prioritization, lack of training for task attempted, and inadequate system knowledge, situational awareness focused on channelized attention, and crew coordination. These trends come in a period characterized by a rapidly growing crew force and highlight the need to revisit both individual and team Predator training objectives and consider

  11. Criminal prosecution arising from medical mishaps: a Japanese perspective.

    Tsukamoto, Yasushi


    In Japan, the number of physicians being investigated on suspicion of medical malpractice has increased. Specifically, the criminal prosecutions arising from professional negligence resulting in bodily injury or death have also increased. Article 21 of the Japanese Physician's Act compels a doctor to notify the district police when he diagnoses a death to be 'unnatural'. Originally this provision was to increase public safety through crime detection, but one recent criminal case broadened the application of this article to include the death from a mishap during medical treatment. This criminal case made a tremendous impact on physicians, as the convictions and sentences forced physicians to notify the police even when it is not certain the patient died of the malady or of the medical misconduct itself. Besides, we wonder if such obligation of doctors to notify such 'unnatural' death from medical mishap may be against a person's privilege against self-incrimination which is assured by Japanese Constitutional Law (article 38). PMID:16440862

  12. Longitudinal review of state-level accident statistics for carriers of interstate freight

    State-level accident rates by mode of freight transport have been developed and refined for application to the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) environmental mitigation program, which may involve large-quantity shipments of hazardous and mixed wastes from DOE facilities. These rates reflect multi-year data for interstate-registered highway earners, American Association of Railroads member carriers, and coastal and internal waterway barge traffic. Adjustments have been made to account for the share of highway combination-truck traffic actually attributable to interstate-registered carriers and for duplicate or otherwise inaccurate entries in the public-use accident data files used. State-to-state variation in rates is discussed, as is the stability of rates over time. Computed highway rates have been verified with actual carriers of high- and low-level nuclear materials, and the most recent truck accident data have been used, to ensure that the results are of the correct order of magnitude. Study conclusions suggest that DOE use the computed rates for the three modes until (1) improved estimation techniques for highway combination-truck miles by state become available; (2) continued evolution of the railroad industry significantly increases the consolidation of interstate rail traffic onto fewer high-capacity trunk lines; or (3) a large-scale off-site waste shipment campaign is imminent

  13. Web-Based Information Management of Maintenance Errors in Aviation Mishaps

    Zolla, George; Flanders, Pat; Boex, Tony


    This paper describes a safety information management system designed to capture maintenance factors that contribute to aircraft mishaps. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System-Maintenance Extension taxonomy (HFACS-ME), an effective framework for classifying and analyzing the presence of maintenance errors that lead to mishaps, incidents, and personal injuries, is the theoretical foundation. An existing desktop mishap application is updated, a prototype web-base...

  14. Quantum states of charge carriers and longitudinal conductivity in double periodic n-type semiconductor lattice structures in electric field

    Quantum states of charge carriers in double periodic semiconductor superlattices of n-type quantum dots with Rashba spin–orbit coupling in an electron gas have been calculated in the one-electron approximation in the presence of mutually perpendicular electric and magnetic fields. For these structures in weak constant electric field, the solution to the quasi-classical kinetic Boltzmann equation shows that the states of carriers in magnetic Landau minibands with negative differential conductivity are possible

  15. Loss of Signal: Aeromedical Lessons Learned from the STS-107 Columbia Space Shuttle Mishap

    Stepaniak, Philip C. (Editor); Lane, Helen W. (Editor); Davis, Jeffrey R.


    The editors of Loss of Signal wanted to document the aeromedical lessons learned from the Space Shuttle Columbia mishap. The book is intended to be an accurate and easily understood account of the entire process of recovering and analyzing the human remains, investigating and analyzing what happened to the crew, and using the resulting information to recommend ways to prevent mishaps and provide better protection to crewmembers. Our goal is to capture the passions of those who devoted their energies in responding to the Columbia mishap. We have reunited authors who were directly involved in each of these aspects. These authors tell the story of their efforts related to the Columbia mishap from their point of view. They give the reader an honest description of their responsibilities and share their challenges, their experiences, and their lessons learned on how to enhance crew safety and survival, and how to be prepared to support space mishap investigations. As a result of this approach, a few of the chapters have some redundancy of information and authors' opinions may differ. In no way did we or they intend to assign blame or criticize anyone's professional efforts. All those involved did their best to obtain the truth in the situations to which they were assigned.

  16. The Use of Crow-AMSAA Plots to Assess Mishap Trends

    Dawson, Jeffrey W.


    Crow-AMSAA (CA) plots are used to model reliability growth. Use of CA plots has expanded into other areas, such as tracking events of interest to management, maintenance problems, and safety mishaps. Safety mishaps can often be successfully modeled using a Poisson probability distribution. CA plots show a Poisson process in log-log space. If the safety mishaps are a stable homogenous Poisson process, a linear fit to the points in a CA plot will have a slope of one. Slopes of greater than one indicate a nonhomogenous Poisson process, with increasing occurrence. Slopes of less than one indicate a nonhomogenous Poisson process, with decreasing occurrence. Changes in slope, known as "cusps," indicate a change in process, which could be an improvement or a degradation. After presenting the CA conceptual framework, examples are given of trending slips, trips and falls, and ergonomic incidents at NASA (from Agency-level data). Crow-AMSAA plotting is a robust tool for trending safety mishaps that can provide insight into safety performance over time.

  17. An assessment of the relationship between safety climate and mishap risk in U.S. Naval Aviation

    O'Connor, Paul; Samuel E. Buttrey; O'Dea, Angela; Kennedy, Quinn


    This study used a prospective design to assess whether 12 items from the Command Safety Assessment Survey (CSAS) can be used to differentiate between U.S. Naval aviation squadrons who have had a mishap within a recent period of time, and those that have not. Logistic regression modeling was carried out using the survey responses of U.S. Naval aircrew (n = 23,442) and mishap data. The models that were used to attempt to predict severe and moderately severe mishaps together, performed better...

  18. Loss of Signal, Aeromedical Lessons Learned from the STS-107 Columbia Space Shuttle Mishap

    Stepaniak, Phillip C.; Patlach, Robert


    Loss of Signal, a NASA publication to be available in May 2014 presents the aeromedical lessons learned from the Columbia accident that will enhance crew safety and survival on human space flight missions. These lessons were presented to limited audiences at three separate Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA) conferences: in 2004 in Anchorage, Alaska, on the causes of the accident; in 2005 in Kansas City, Missouri, on the response, recovery, and identification aspects of the investigation; and in 2011, again in Anchorage, Alaska, on future implications for human space flight. As we embark on the development of new spacefaring vehicles through both government and commercial efforts, the NASA Johnson Space Center Human Health and Performance Directorate is continuing to make this information available to a wider audience engaged in the design and development of future space vehicles. Loss of Signal summarizes and consolidates the aeromedical impacts of the Columbia mishap process-the response, recovery, identification, investigative studies, medical and legal forensic analysis, and future preparation that are needed to respond to spacecraft mishaps. The goal of this book is to provide an account of the aeromedical aspects of the Columbia accident and the investigation that followed, and to encourage aerospace medical specialists to continue to capture information, learn from it, and improve procedures and spacecraft designs for the safety of future crews. This poster presents an outline of Loss of Signal contents and highlights from each of five sections - the mission and mishap, the response, the investigation, the analysis and the future.

  19. The Strengths and Weaknesses of Logic Formalisms to Support Mishap Analysis

    Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C. M.


    The increasing complexity of many safety critical systems poses new problems for mishap analysis. Techniques developed in the sixties and seventies cannot easily scale-up to analyze incidents involving tightly integrated software and hardware components. Similarly, the realization that many failures have systemic causes has widened the scope of many mishap investigations. Organizations, including NASA and the NTSB, have responded by starting research and training initiatives to ensure that their personnel are well equipped to meet these challenges. One strand of research has identified a range of mathematically based techniques that can be used to reason about the causes of complex, adverse events. The proponents of these techniques have argued that they can be used to formally prove that certain events created the necessary and sufficient causes for a mishap to occur. Mathematical proofs can reduce the bias that is often perceived to effect the interpretation of adverse events. Others have opposed the introduction of these techniques by identifying social and political aspects to incident investigation that cannot easily be reconciled with a logic-based approach. Traditional theorem proving mechanisms cannot accurately capture the wealth of inductive, deductive and statistical forms of inference that investigators routinely use in their analysis of adverse events. This paper summarizes some of the benefits that logics provide, describes their weaknesses, and proposes a number of directions for future research.

  20. Lessons learned or lessons noted: A retrospective case study of the stored organizational memory of the causes of mishaps in NASA

    Miller, Susan Burgess

    This study of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) organizational memory explores how the root causes of NASA mishaps have changed from the creation of NASA in 1958 through 2002. Official Mishap Board Reports document in stored organizational memory the organization's analyses of the causes of the mishaps. Using Parsons' Social Action Theory for its theoretical frame, and the Schwandt Organizational Learning Systems Model as the theoretical lens, this study provides a meta-analysis of 112 Type A mishap reports to discern what patterns in this stored organizational memory have emerged over time. Results indicate marked stability in the causes of mishaps until the latter portion of the study period. The theory of revolutionary change is considered to explain this apparent shift. Discussion includes the roles organizational culture, sensemaking and identity played in data collection and knowledge management challenges as well as in the lack of change in mishap causes.

  1. Loss of Signal, Aeromedical Lessons Learned for the STS-I07 Columbia Space Shuttle Mishap

    Patlach, Robert; Stepaniak, Philip C.; Lane, Helen W.


    Loss of Signal, a NASA publication to be available in May 2014, presents the aeromedical lessons learned from the Columbia accident that will enhance crew safety and survival on human space flight missions. These lessons were presented to limited audiences at three separate Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA) conferences: in 2004 in Anchorage, Alaska, on the causes of the accident; in 2005 in Kansas City, Missouri, on the response, recovery, and identification aspects of the investigation; and in 2011, again in Anchorage, Alaska, on future implications for human space flight. As we embark on the development of new spacefaring vehicles through both government and commercial efforts, the NASA Johnson Space Center Human Health and Performance Directorate is continuing to make this information available to a wider audience engaged in the design and development of future space vehicles. Loss of Signal summarizes and consolidates the aeromedical impacts of the Columbia mishap process-the response, recovery, identification, investigative studies, medical and legal forensic analysis, and future preparation that are needed to respond to spacecraft mishaps. The goals of this book are to provide an account of the aeromedical aspects of the Columbia accident and the investigation that followed, and to encourage aerospace medical specialists to continue to capture information, learn from it, and improve procedures and spacecraft designs for the safety of future crews.

  2. Human error and crew resource management failures in Naval aviation mishaps: a review of U.S. Naval Safety Center data, 1990-96.

    Wiegmann, D A; Shappell, S A


    The present study examined the role of human error and crew-resource management (CRM) failures in U.S. Naval aviation mishaps. All tactical jet (TACAIR) and rotary wing Class A flight mishaps between fiscal years 1990-1996 were reviewed. Results indicated that over 75% of both TACAIR and rotary wing mishaps were attributable, at least in part, to some form of human error of which 70% were associated with aircrew human factors. Of these aircrew-related mishaps, approximately 56% involved at least one CRM failure. These percentages are very similar to those observed prior to the implementation of aircrew coordination training (ACT) in the fleet, suggesting that the initial benefits of the program have not persisted and that CRM failures continue to plague Naval aviation. Closer examination of these CRM-related mishaps suggest that the type of flight operations (preflight, routine, emergency) do play a role in the etiology of CRM failures. A larger percentage of CRM failures occurred during non-routine or extremis flight situations when TACAIR mishaps were considered. In contrast, a larger percentage of rotary wing CRM mishaps involved failures that occurred during routine flight operations. These findings illustrate the complex etiology of CRM failures within Naval aviation and support the need for ACT programs tailored to the unique problems faced by specific communities in the fleet. PMID:10596766

  3. Design of automatic control system for longitudinal landing on carrier%舰载机自动着舰纵向控制系统设计

    黄得刚; 章卫国; 邵山; 王志刚; 张秀林


    When a aircraft carrier sails in the sea at a certain speed for uniform linear motion, the sea wave motivates the ship to motion in 3 degree of freedom and accompanying the interference of low altitude atmosphere turbulent flow and airwake at the same time, which makes the landing environment of carrier aircraft fair adverse. That proposes a huge challenge for the control system of autolanding. For the special problem, a method of the Command Filter Integral backstepping and Sliding Mode Control is presented in this paper. First, the command filter to deal with the problem of calculation expansion in backstepping method is adopted in this method, and then introduces of sliding mode control to handle the problems of matched uncertainty and external disturbance. In order to depress the shake of sliding mode control, using the idea of higher order sliding mode control in this paper, introducing an additional virtual control equation of state to make the outputs of control system work on the integration device, which could not only depress the chattering, but also dispose the matched and unmatched uncertainty. At last, the global stability of the proposed method is proved on the whole and the effectiveness is tested by the simulations.%航空母舰在大海上以一定速度作匀速直线运动时,海浪激励舰体作三自由度摆动运动,同时伴有低空大气紊流和舰尾流的干扰,使得舰载机着舰的环境十分恶劣,这样对自动着舰控制系统提出了极大的挑战。针对这一特殊问题,本文提出一种指令滤波积分反步滑模控制方法,首先该方法采用指令滤波处理反步的计算膨胀问题,然后引入滑模控制来解决外界扰动和匹配不确定性问题。考虑到降低滑模控制引起的抖动,本文利用高阶滑模控制的思想,在传统的反步方法上增加了一个附加虚拟控制状态方程,将控制器的最终输出作用在一个积分器上

  4. Technical Findings, Lessons Learned, and Recommendations Resulting from the Helios Prototype Vehicle Mishap

    Noll, Thomas E.; Ishmael, Stephen D.; Henwood, Bart; Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Tiffany, Geary C.; Madura, John; Gaier, Matthew; Brown, John M.; Wierzbanowski, Ted


    The Helios Prototype was originally planned to be two separate vehicles, but because of resource limitations only one vehicle was developed to demonstrate two missions. The vehicle consisted of two configurations, one for each mission. One configuration, designated HP01, was designed to operate at extremely high altitudes using batteries and high-efficiency solar cells spread across the upper surface of its 247-foot wingspan. On August 13, 2001, the HP01 configuration reached an altitude of 96,863 feet, a world record for sustained horizontal flight by a winged aircraft. The other configuration, designated HP03, was designed for long-duration flight. The plan was to use the solar cells to power the vehicle's electric motors and subsystems during the day and to use a modified commercial hydrogen-air fuel cell system for use during the night. The aircraft design used wing dihedral, engine power, elevator control surfaces, and a stability augmentation and control system to provide aerodynamic stability and control. At about 30 minutes into the second flight of HP03, the aircraft encountered a disturbance in the way of turbulence and morphed into an unexpected, persistent, high dihedral configuration. As a result of the persistent high dihedral, the aircraft became unstable in a very divergent pitch mode in which the airspeed excursions from the nominal flight speed about doubled every cycle of the oscillation. The aircraft s design airspeed was subsequently exceeded and the resulting high dynamic pressures caused the wing leading edge secondary structure on the outer wing panels to fail and the solar cells and skin on the upper surface of the wing to rip away. As a result, the vehicle lost its ability to maintain lift, fell into the Pacific Ocean within the confines of the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility, and was destroyed. This paper describes the mishap and its causes, and presents the technical recommendations and lessons learned for improving the design

  5. Software in military aviation and drone mishaps: Analysis and recommendations for the investigation process

    Software plays a central role in military systems. It is also an important factor in many recent incidents and accidents. A safety gap is growing between our software-intensive technological capabilities and our understanding of the ways they can fail or lead to accidents. Traditional forms of accident investigation are poorly equipped to trace the sources of software failure, for instance software does not age in the same way that hardware components fail over time. As such, it can be hard to trace the causes of software failure or mechanisms by which it contributed to accidents back into the development and procurement chain to address the deeper, systemic causes of potential accidents. To identify some of these failure mechanisms, we examined the database of the Air Force Accident Investigation Board (AIB) and analyzed mishaps in which software was involved. Although we have chosen to focus on military aviation, many of the insights also apply to civil aviation. Our analysis led to several results and recommendations. Some were specific and related for example to specific shortcomings in the testing and validation of particular avionic subsystems. Others were broader in scope: for instance, we challenged both the investigation process (aspects of) and the findings in several cases, and we provided recommendations, technical and organizational, for improvements. We also identified important safety blind spots in the investigations with respect to software, whose contribution to the escalation of the adverse events was often neglected in the accident reports. These blind spots, we argued, constitute an important missed learning opportunity for improving accident prevention, and it is especially unfortunate at a time when Remotely Piloted Air Systems (RPAS) are being integrated into the National Airspace. Our findings support the growing recognition that the traditional notion of software failure as non-compliance with requirements is too limited to capture the

  6. Radionuclide carriers

    A new carrier for radionuclide technetium 99m has been prepared for scintiscanning purposes. The new preparate consists of physiologically acceptable water-insoluble Tcsup(99m)-carrier containing from 0.2 to 0.8 weight percent of stannic ion as reductor, bound to an anionic starch derivative with about 1-20% of phosphate substituents. (EG)

  7. Aircraft Carriers

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    the majority of its foreign trade, as well as its oil imports, upon which the country is totally dependent. China therefore has good reasons for acquiring an aircraft carrier to enable it to protect its national interests. An aircraft carrier would also be a prominent symbol of China’s future status...... information is pieced together, then a picture is created of a Chinese aircraft carrier program, where Varyag will be made operational for training purposes. With this as the model, China will build a similar sized carrier themselves. If this project does become a reality, then it will take many years for...... Kuznetsov carrier. The SU-33 is, in its modernized version, technologically at the same level as western combat aircraft in both the offensive as well as the defensive roles. But Russia and China currently have an arms trade 6 dispute that is likely to prevent a deal, unless the dispute is resolved. As an...

  8. Aircraft Carriers

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    as a great power in Asia and will balance the carrier acquisitions of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia and India. China’s current military strategy is predominantly defensive, its offensive elements being mainly focused on Taiwan. If China decides to acquire a large carrier with...... offensive capabilities, then the country will also acquire the capability to project military power into the region beyond Taiwan, which it does not possess today. In this way, China will have the military capability to permit a change of strategy from the mainly defensive, mainland, Taiwan-based strategy...... to a more assertive strategy, with potentially far-reaching consequences for the countries of the region. The Chinese have bought several retired carriers, which they have studied in great detail. The largest is the Russian-built carrier Varyag of the Kuznetsov class, which today is anchored in the...

  9. Eastern minds in western cockpits: A cross-cultural comparison of aviation mishaps by applying human factors analysis and classification system

    Li, Wen-Chin; Harris, Don


    Aviation accident rates are varied in different regions; Asia and Africa have higher rates than Europe and America. There has been a great deal of discussion about the role of culture in aviation mishaps, however, culture is hardly ever mentioned as a causal factor of accidents. It is hypothesized that different cultures will show different patterns in the underlying causal factors in aircraft accidents. Method: This research examined statistical differences in the 18 categories of HFACS acro...

  10. Preconception Carrier Screening

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preconception Carrier Screening Home For Patients Search FAQs Preconception Carrier Screening ... Screening FAQ179, August 2012 PDF Format Preconception Carrier Screening Pregnancy What is preconception carrier screening? What is ...

  11. What Is Carrier Screening?

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Carrier screening You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... help you make the decision. What Is Carrier Screening? Carrier screening checks if a person is a " ...

  12. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schønning, Kristian; Fredholm, Merete; Guardabassi, Luca


    Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed using the DESeq2 package in R to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with differential abundance between S. aureus carriers and non-carriers. Twenty OTUs were significantly associated to non-carriers, including species with known probiotic potential and antimicrobial effect such as lactic acid-producing isolates described among Leuconostoc spp. and some members of the Lachnospiraceae family, which is known for butyrate production. Further 5 OTUs were significantly associated to carriage, including known pathogenic bacteria such as Pasteurella multocida and Klebsiella spp. Our results show that the nasal microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate these bacteria and assess their possible antagonistic effect on S. aureus for the pursuit of new strategies to control MRSA in pig farming. PMID:27509169

  13. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schønning, Kristian; Fredholm, Merete; Guardabassi, Luca


    Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed using the DESeq2 package in R to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with differential abundance between S. aureus carriers and non-carriers. Twenty OTUs were significantly associated to non-carriers, including species with known probiotic potential and antimicrobial effect such as lactic acid-producing isolates described among Leuconostoc spp. and some members of the Lachnospiraceae family, which is known for butyrate production. Further 5 OTUs were significantly associated to carriage, including known pathogenic bacteria such as Pasteurella multocida and Klebsiella spp. Our results show that the nasal microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate these bacteria and assess their possible antagonistic effect on S. aureus for the pursuit of new strategies to control MRSA in pig farming. PMID:27509169

  14. Influence of quasi-bound states on the carrier capture into quantum dots

    Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Uskov, A.; Bischoff, Svend; Tromborg, Bjarne; Mørk, Jesper; Ferreira, R.; Bastard, G.


    An important characteristic of quantum dot (QD) materials is the timescale on which carriers are captured into the dots and relax to their ground state. The properties of devices based on QDs, such as lasers, thus rely on efficient carrier feeding to the active QD states. These processes are...... believed to be mediated by carrier-phonon and carrier-carrier interaction (Auger processes). In systems of higher dimensionality, carrier relaxation via emission of LO (Longitudinal Optical) phonons is dominant. However, due to the discrete QD density of states, this process is often considered impossible...

  15. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    Hansen, Paul Robert

    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined.......To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  16. Asymmetric Carrier Random PWM

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Rasmussen, Peter Omand;


    This paper presents a new fixed carrier frequency random PWM method, where a new type of carrier wave is proposed for modulation. Based on the measurements, it is shown that the spread effect of the discrete components from the motor current spectra is very effective independent of the modulation...

  17. Applied longitudinal analysis

    Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Ware, James H


    Praise for the First Edition "". . . [this book] should be on the shelf of everyone interested in . . . longitudinal data analysis.""-Journal of the American Statistical Association   Features newly developed topics and applications of the analysis of longitudinal data Applied Longitudinal Analysis, Second Edition presents modern methods for analyzing data from longitudinal studies and now features the latest state-of-the-art techniques. The book emphasizes practical, rather than theoretical, aspects of methods for the analysis of diverse types of lo

  18. Restoration of longitudinal images.

    Hu, Y; Frieden, B R


    In this paper, a method of restoring longitudinal images is developed. By using the transfer function for longitudinal objects, and inverse filtering, a longitudinal image may be restored. The Fourier theory and sampling theorems for transverse images cannot be used directly in the longitudinal case. A modification and reasonable approximation are introduced. We have numerically established a necessary relationship between just-resolved longitudinal separation (after inverse filtering), noise level, and the taking conditions of object distance and lens diameter. An empirical formula is also found to well-fit the computed results. This formula may be of use for designing optical systems which are to image longitudinal details, such as in robotics or microscopy. PMID:20523607

  19. Sleipner mishap jolts booming Norway

    This paper reports on Norway's buoyant offshore industry that was stunned when the concrete substructure for Sleipner natural gas field's main production platform sank in the Grandsfjord off Stavanger late last month. The accident, a blow to Norway's gas sales program in Europe, came with offshore activity in the Norwegian North Sea moving into a new boom period. Currently, 10 oil and gas fields are under development, and several projects are on the drawing board. Aker Oil and Gas, a leading offshore firm, says the country's construction industry will be working at capacity for the next 4 years. Norwegian oil production has been hovering just below 2 million b/d since the beginning of this year, making Norway the North Sea's largest producer, a position formerly held by the U.K. Gas production averages about 3 bcfd. With European gas demand sharply increasing, Norway is under pressure to increase output from new fields in the mid to late 1990s. The Sleipner setback forces state owned Den norske stats oljeselskap AS (Statoil) to cast around for supplies. Sleipner was to have begun deliveries to a consortium of continental gas companies in October 1993. Statoil believes it can fill the gap from existing fields in Norwegian waters

  20. Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers

    By means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 values) of the skeletal muscles were measured in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers and normal controls. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from the T1 values obtained, according to the fast proton diffusion model. In the DMD carriers, T1 values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris muscles were significantly higher, and BWFs of these muscles were significantly lower than in normal control. Degenerative muscular changes accompanied by interstitial edema were presumed responsible for this abnormality. No correlation was observed between the muscle T1 and serum creatine kinase values. The present study showed that MRI could be a useful method for studying the dynamic state of water in both normal and pathological skeletal muscles. Its possible utility for DMD carrier detection was discussed briefly. (orig.)

  1. On Longitudinal Spectral Coherence

    Kristensen, Leif


    It is demonstrated that the longitudinal spectral coherence differs significantly from the transversal spectral coherence in its dependence on displacement and frequency. An expression for the longitudinal coherence is derived and it is shown how the scale of turbulence, the displacement between ...

  2. Longitudinal impedance of RHIC

    The longitudinal impedance of the two RHIC rings has been measured using the effect of potential well distortion on longitudinal Schottky measurements. For the blue RHIC ring Im(Z/n) = 1.5±0.2?. For the yellow ring Im(Z/n) = 5.4±1?.

  3. Longitudinal categorical data analysis

    Sutradhar, Brajendra C


    This is the first book in longitudinal categorical data analysis with parametric correlation models developed based on dynamic relationships among repeated categorical responses. This book is a natural generalization of the longitudinal binary data analysis to the multinomial data setup with more than two categories. Thus, unlike the existing books on cross-sectional categorical data analysis using log linear models, this book uses multinomial probability models both in cross-sectional and longitudinal setups. A theoretical foundation is provided for the analysis of univariate multinomial responses, by developing models systematically for the cases with no covariates as well as categorical covariates, both in cross-sectional and longitudinal setups. In the longitudinal setup, both stationary and non-stationary covariates are considered. These models have also been extended to the bivariate multinomial setup along with suitable covariates. For the inferences, the book uses the generalized quasi-likelihood as w...

  4. Intestinal solute carriers

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger; Eriksson, André Huss; Andersen, Rikke; Frokjaer, Sven


    A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and...

  5. Glycosylation of solute carriers

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Carlsson, Michael C; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig


    Solute carriers (SLCs) are one of the largest groups of multi-spanning membrane proteins in mammals and include ubiquitously expressed proteins as well as proteins with highly restricted tissue expression. A vast number of studies have addressed the function and organization of SLCs as well as...

  6. Information and Its Carriers.

    Herrmann, F.; And Others


    Describes: (1) the structure of a data transmission source, carrier, and receiver; (2) a quantitative measure for the amount of data, followed by some quantitative examples of data transmission processes; (3) the concept of data current; (4) data containers; and (5) how this information can be used to structure physics courses. (JN)

  7. Hungarian students’ carrier aspirations

    A.S. Gubik


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the students’ carrier aspiration, right after their graduation and five years after their studies. It examines the differences arising from the students’ family business background and their most important social variables (gender, age. Then the study highlights the effects of study field on the students’ intention. The direct effect of education on starting an enterprise is undiscovered in the literature, the paper deals with the influence of availability and services use, offered by higher institutions.

  8. Longitudinal Beam Dynamics

    Tecker, F.


    The course gives a summary of longitudinal beam dynamics for both linear and circular accelerators. After discussing different types of acceleration methods and synchronism conditions, it focuses on the particle motion in synchrotrons.

  9. Longitudinal beam dynamics

    Tecker, F


    The course gives a summary of longitudinal beam dynamics for both linear and circular accelerators. After discussing different types of acceleration methods and synchronism conditions, it focuses on the particle motion in synchrotrons.

  10. Comparison of human solute carriers

    Schlessinger, Avner; Matsson, Pär; Shima, James E.; Pieper, Ursula; Yee, Sook Wah; Kelly, Libusha; Apeltsin, Leonard; Stroud, Robert M.; Ferrin, Thomas E; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Sali, Andrej


    Solute carriers are eukaryotic membrane proteins that control the uptake and efflux of solutes, including essential cellular compounds, environmental toxins, and therapeutic drugs. Solute carriers can share similar structural features despite weak sequence similarities. Identification of sequence relationships among solute carriers is needed to enhance our ability to model individual carriers and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of their substrate specificity and transport. Here, we desc...

  11. Carrier transport uphill. I. General

    Rosenberg, T; Wilbrandt, W


    A quantitative treatment of a carrier pump operating with two carrier forms C and Z is presented. Asymmetric metabolic reactions are assumed to transform Z into C on one and C into Z on the other side of the membrane, establishing a carrier cycle. The kinetical consequences of this mechanism are...

  12. Carrier cooling and exciton formation in GaSe

    The initial cooling of hot carriers and the subsequent exciton formation in GaSe are studied by time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) using femtosecond up-conversion techniques. From the time-resolved PL spectra of this layered III-VI semiconductor two different energy relaxation channels are derived. After an initial subpicosecond cooling due to Froehlich-type interaction of carriers with longitudinal optical E'(22) phonons a slower regime follows, which is dominated by deformation potential interaction with the nonpolar optical A1'(12) phonons. The coupling constant for nonpolar optical phonon scattering is derived. The subsequent formation of excitons is studied at different carrier densities and detection energies. A cross section for the free-exciton formation is determined based on a rate equation model. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  13. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    Chen, Chen-An; Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor; Ma, Diana Xiaobing


    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  14. Ultrafast dynamics of carrier LO phonon system in high electric field in polar semiconductors

    Iida, M.; Katayama, S.


    The dynamics of carriers excited by an ultrashort laser pulse is simulated numerically in the presence of a strong electric field. The carrier density matrices (DMs) are treated within the equation of motion method by taking interaction with longitudinal optical (LO) phonons into account. It is shown that the temporal evolution of an electron DM exhibits a strong modification owing to LO phonon emissions in addition to interferences between the interband polarization and the optical pulse field in the external strong electric field.

  15. Autonomous component carrier selection

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben


    in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...... management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem...

  16. Lack of neural compensatory mechanisms of BDNF val66met met carriers and APOE E4 carriers in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

    Gomar, Jesus J; Conejero-Goldberg, Concepcion; Huey, Edward D; Davies, Peter; Goldberg, Terry E


    Compromises in compensatory neurobiologic mechanisms due to aging and/or genetic factors (i.e., APOE gene) may influence brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism effects on temporal lobe morphometry and memory performance. We studied 2 cohorts from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: 175 healthy subjects and 222 with prodromal and established Alzheimer's disease. Yearly structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive performance assessments were carried out over 3 years of follow-up. Both cohorts had similar BDNF Val/Val and Met allele carriers' (including both Val/Met and Met/Met individuals) distribution. In healthy subjects, a significant trend for thinner posterior cingulate and precuneus cortices was detected in Met carriers compared to Val homozygotes in APOE E4 carriers, with large and medium effect sizes, respectively. The mild cognitive impairment/Alzheimer's disease cohort showed a longitudinal decline in entorhinal thickness in BDNF Met carriers compared to Val/Val in APOE E4 carriers, with effect sizes ranging from medium to large. In addition, an effect of BDNF genotype was found in APOE E4 carriers for episodic memory (logical memory and ADAS-Cog) and semantic fluency measures, with Met carriers performing worse in all cases. These findings suggest a lack of compensatory mechanisms in BDNF Met carriers and APOE E4 carriers in healthy and pathological aging. PMID:26923413

  17. Longitudinal Lisfranc injury.

    Oak, Nikhil R; Manoli, Arthur; Holmes, James R


    Most Lisfranc or tarsometatarsal (TMT) joint injuries result from a horizontally directed force in which the metatarsals are displaced relative to the midfoot. The injury pattern that is described in this article is one of a longitudinal force through the first ray and cuneiform. A reliable measure to recognize the longitudinal Lisfranc variant injury has been the height difference between the distal articular surfaces of the first and second cuneiform bones in an anteroposterior (AP) weight-bearing radiograph. This measure helps identify subtle injuries in which there is a proximal and medial subluxation of the first cuneiform-metatarsal complex. Delayed diagnosis and treatment have been associated with poorer results and significant functional consequences. This article describes a simple radiographic measurement to recognize the longitudinal injury pattern and to aid in determining whether operative intervention is required. PMID:25785475


    Daniel Posavec


    Full Text Available Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 LNG carriers currently in operation (the paper is published in Croatian.

  19. Influence of quasibound states on the carrier capture in quantum dots

    Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Uskov, A.V.; Ferreira, R.; Bastard, G.; Mørk, Jesper; Tromborg, Bjarne


    The interaction of carriers in quantum-dot quasibound states with longitudinal optical phonons is investigated. For a level separation between the quasibound state and a discrete quantum-dot state in the vicinity of the phonon energy, a strong electron-phonon coupling occurs. A mixed electron...

  20. Monte Carlo study of carrier-light coupling in terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    Jirauschek, Christian


    We present a method for self-consistently including the optical cavity field into Monte Carlo-based carrier transport simulations. This approach allows for an analysis of the actual lasing operation in quantum cascade lasers, considering effects such as gain saturation and longitudinal mode competition. Simulation results for a terahertz quantum cascade laser are found to be consistent with experiment.

  1. Determining the approach speed envelope of carrier aircraft

    Geng Jianzhong; Yao Hailin; Duan Zhuoyi


    Many factors,such as deck motion and air wave,influence the determination of the approach speed which has an important effect on landing safety. Until recently,there are no design criteria about approach speed of carrier aircraft in the current standards and available publications. Therefore,the requirements of stall margin, longitudinal acceleration ability,altitude correction and field-of-view on approach speed were researched. Based on the flight dynamics model,the flight simulations were conducted to study the effect of the response time of en-gine,wave off requirements,elevator efficiency and deflection rate on the approach speed. The results presented that the approach longitudinal acceleration and altitude correction ability had crucial influence on the approach speed envelope of the aircraft. The limitations of the control requirements,field-of-view requirements and gear were also given through the simulation and analysis. Based on the above results,the approach speed envelope were determined.

  2. Carrier transport uphill. I. General

    Rosenberg, T; Wilbrandt, W


    A quantitative treatment of a carrier pump operating with two carrier forms C and Z is presented. Asymmetric metabolic reactions are assumed to transform Z into C on one and C into Z on the other side of the membrane, establishing a carrier cycle. The kinetical consequences of this mechanism are...... worked out with respect to net transport rate, initial rate, unidirectional fluxes including back-flow through the pump, maximum accumulation ratio, competitive inhibition and acceleration, counter transport, and metabolic poisoning. The energetics of the system are treated. The fact that the system...

  3. Investigation of microwave photonic filter based on multiple longitudinal modes fiber laser source

    Cao, Yuan; Li, Feng; Feng, Xinhuan; Lu, Chao; Guan, Bai-ou; Wai, P. K. A.


    We theoretically study the transfer function of a finite impulse response microwave photonic filter (FIR-MPF) system using a multi-wavelength fiber laser source by considering multiple longitudinal modes in each wavelength. The full response function with the response from longitudinal mode taps is obtained. We also discussed the influence of the longitudinal mode envelope and mode spacing on the performance of FIR-MPF. The response function of the longitudinal mode taps is fully discussed and the contribution is compared with the response of the carrier suppression factor for double sideband (DSB) modulation. The multiple longitudinal modes structure in the wavelength taps can be utilized to engineer the response of the FIR-MPF such that desirable features such as high side lode suppression ratio can be realized. The analysis provides a guideline for designing incoherent FIR-MPF systems.

  4. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  5. Motor carrier evaluation program plan

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Transportation Management Program (TMP) has established a program to assist the DOE field offices and their contractors in evaluating the motor carriers used to transport DOE-owned hazardous and radioactive materials. This program was initiated to provide the DOE field offices with the tools necessary to help ensure, during this period of motor carrier deregulation, that only highly qualified carriers transport radioactive and hazardous commodities for the DOE. This program will assist DOE in maintaining their excellent performance record in the safe transportation of hazardous commodities. The program was also developed in response to public concern surrounding the transportation of hazardous materials. Representatives of other federal agencies, states, and tribal governments, as well as the news media, have expressed concern about the selection and qualification of carriers engaged in the transportation of Highway Route-Controlled Quantities (HRCQ) and Truckload (TL) quantities of radioactive material for the DOE. 8 refs

  6. Content Distribution for Telecom Carriers

    Ben Falchuk


    Full Text Available Distribution of digital content is a key revenue opportunity for telecommunications carriers. As media content moves from analog and physical media-based distribution to digital on-line distribution, a great opportunity exists for carriers to claim their role in the media value chain and grow revenue by enhancing their broadband “all you can eat” high speed Internet access offer to incorporate delivery of a variety of paid content. By offering a distributed peer to peer content delivery capability with authentication, personalization and payment functions, carriers can gain a larger portion of the revenue paid for content both within and beyond their traditional service domains. This paper describes an approach to digital content distribution that leverages existing Intelligent Network infrastructure that many carriers already possess, as well as Web Services.

  7. Sustainable bioenergy carriers from wastes

    Pereira, M.A.; Cavaleiro, A. J.; Abreu, A. A.; Costa, J.C.; Sousa, D. Z.; Alves, M.M.


    The development of new technologies for renewable energy production is crucial for decreasing the reliance in fossil fuels and improving global sustainability. Waste materials are valuable resources that can be used for the production of energy carriers. Organic wastes can be anaerobically digested to ultimately produce methane. Hydrogen can be recovered from this process, if methanogenesis is inhibited. These energy carriers can also be derived from recalcitrant materials in a two step-proce...

  8. Longitudinal microwave instability

    A derivation of the relationship between growth rate and impedance is given. The only other instability considered here is the resonance effect produced by excessive tune shift due to space charge. We assume, without discussion, the (Δν)/sub max/ = .25; that is, this resonance growth is avoided (stability) by limiting the ring charge. On the other hand, the longitudinal microwave instability is assumed to be present (cannot be stabilized). Thus, the latter involves a limiting impedance to keep the growth rate low enough. The maximum allowed impedance for a maximum allowed growth rate is listed

  9. Antedependence models for longitudinal data

    Zimmerman, Dale L


    The First Book Dedicated to This Class of Longitudinal ModelsAlthough antedependence models are particularly useful for modeling longitudinal data that exhibit serial correlation, few books adequately cover these models. By gathering results scattered throughout the literature, Antedependence Models for Longitudinal Data offers a convenient, systematic way to learn about antedependence models. Illustrated with numerous examples, the book also covers some important statistical inference procedures associated with these models.After describing unstructured and structured antedependence models an

  10. Motor Carrier Evaluation Program procedure

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Transportation Management Division (DOE-TMD) has the overall responsibility to provide a well-managed transportation program for the safe, efficient, and economical transportation of DOE-owned material. In the performance of these duties, the DOE-TMD has established an exemplary safety record in the transportation of hazardous materials. The DOE recognizes that its responsibility for hazardous material does not end when the shipments leave the DOE sites. A special partnership is needed between the DOE, the DOE contractors, and the carriers chosen to transport hazardous materials. As in any partnership, it is critical that DOE know essential information about its partner in this joint venture. In fulfillment of its responsibility for the safe transportation of radioactive materials as well as other hazardous commodities and wastes routinely shipped from many DOE locations nationwide, the DOE-TMD has developed this policy for a motor carrier evaluation program. It is the intent of the DOE-TMD that this Motor Carrier Evaluation Program be implemented at all DOE locations to the fullest extent practicable. This program will assist in the evaluation of carriers transporting Highway Route Controlled Quantities (HRCQ) of radioactive material, because these shipments frequently are in the ''public eye.'' The program will also evaluate truckload (TL) quantity transporters of hazardous materials, including radioactive material and chemical wastes. The program has also recently been expanded to include motor carriers transporting less-than-truckload (LTL) quantities of these materials

  11. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    Sørensen, Herman


    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  12. Carrier sense data highway system

    Frankel, Robert


    A data transmission system includes a transmission medium which has a certain propagation delay time over its length. A number of data stations are successively coupled to the transmission medium for communicating with one another. Each of the data stations includes a transmitter for originating signals, each signal beginning with a carrier of a duration which is at least the propagation delay time of the transmission medium. Each data station also includes a receiver which receives other signals from other data stations and inhibits operation of the transmitter at the same data station when a carrier of another signal is received.

  13. 75 FR 72863 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting


    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that the Agency's Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee...

  14. 76 FR 12214 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting


    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice: Announcement of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting; request for comment. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  15. 75 FR 50797 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting


    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  16. Hot carrier degradation in semiconductor devices


    This book provides readers with a variety of tools to address the challenges posed by hot carrier degradation, one of today’s most complicated reliability issues in semiconductor devices.  Coverage includes an explanation of carrier transport within devices and book-keeping of how they acquire energy (“become hot”), interaction of an ensemble of colder and hotter carriers with defect precursors, which eventually leads to the creation of a defect, and a description of how these defects interact with the device, degrading its performance. • Describes the intricacies of hot carrier degradation in modern semiconductor technologies; • Covers the entire hot carrier degradation phenomenon, including topics such as characterization, carrier transport, carrier-defect interaction, technological impact, circuit impact, etc.; • Enables detailed understanding of carrier transport, interaction of the carrier ensemble with the defect precursors, and an accurate assessment of how the newly created defects imp...

  17. Electron-phonon energy transfer in hot-carrier solar cells

    Luque López, Antonio; Martí Vega, Antonio


    Hot-carrier solar cells may yield very high efficiency if the heat transfer from electrons to phonons is low enough. In this paper we calculate this heat transfer for the two inelastic mechanisms known to limit the electric conductivity: the multi-valley scattering in non-polar semiconductors and the coupling of electrons to longitudinal optical phonons in polar semiconductors. Heat transfer is ruled by matrix elements deduced from electric conductivity measurements. The cell power extracted ...

  18. Longitudinal Vortices in Granular Flows

    Forterre, Yoel; Pouliquen, Olivier


    We present a new instability observed in rapid granular flows down rough inclined planes. For high inclinations and flow rates, the free surface of the flow experiences a regular deformation in the transverse direction. Measurements of the surface velocities imply that this instability is associated with the formation of longitudinal vortices in the granular flow. From the experimental observations, we propose a mechanism for the longitudinal vortex formation based on the concept of granular ...

  19. Summary of longitudinal instabilities workshop

    A five-day ISABELLE workshop on longitudinal instabilities was held at BNL, August 9--13, 1976. Heavy emphasis was put on single bunched beam instabilities in the microwave region extending above the cut-off frequency of the ISABELLE vacuum chamber. A discussion is given of the mechanism governing the instability, and calculations as well as measurements of the longitudinal coupling impedances in the ISABELLE rings are described

  20. Immigrant earnings: a longitudinal analysis

    Chiswick, Barry R; Lee, Yew Liang; Paul W. Miller


    This paper uses the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Australia to analyze the determinants of the level and growth in earnings of adult male immigrants in their first 3.5 years in Australia. The theoretical framework is based on the immigrant adjustment model, which incorporates both the transferability of immigrant skills and selectively in migration. The cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses generate similar findings. The level and relative growth of earnings are higher for immigran...

  1. Longitudinal motion in circular accelerators

    A general description is given of the longitudinal motion of an idealized synchronous particle, exactly in step with the radiofrequency field of a circular accelerator, and a domain in phase and energy, called a bucket, around this particle within which particles are focused around the synchronous particle. This general picture is then made more precise and quantitative. The equations of longitudinal motion and their solutions and the resulting motion are discussed, followed by applications and amplication of the theory. 7 refs., 8 figs

  2. Carrier Deformability in Drug Delivery.

    Morilla, Maria Jose; Romero, Eder Lilia


    Deformability is a key property of drug carriers used to increase the mass penetration across the skin without disrupting the lipid barrier. Highly deformable vesicles proved to be more effective than conventional liposomes in delivering drugs into and across the mammalian skin upon topical non occlusive application. In the past five years, highly deformable vesicles have been used for local delivery of drugs on joint diseases, skin cancer, atopic dermatitis, would healing, psoriasis, scar treatment, fungal, bacteria and protozoa infections. Promising topical vaccination strategies rely also in this type of carriers. Here we provide an overview on the main structural and mechanical features of deformable vesicles, to finish with an extensive update on their latest preclinical applications. PMID:26675226

  3. Fatigue reliability for LNG carrier

    Xiao Taoyun; Zhang Qin; Jin Wulei; Xu Shuai


    The procedure of reliability-based fatigue analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carrier of membrane type under wave loads is presented. The stress responses of the hotspots in regular waves with different wave heading angles and wave lengths are evaluated by global ship finite element method (FEM). Based on the probabilistic distribution function of hotspots' short-term stress-range using spectral-based analysis, Weibull distribution is adopted and discussed for fitting the long-term probabilistic distribution of stress-range. Based on linear cumulative damage theory, fatigue damage is characterized by an S-N relationship, and limit state function is established. Structural fatigue damage behavior of several typical hotspots of LNG middle ship section is clarified and reliability analysis is performed. It is believed that the presented results and conclusions can be of use in calibration for practical design and initial fatigue safety evaluation for membrane type LNG carrier.

  4. Gemini surfactants as gene carriers

    Teresa Piskorska


    Full Text Available Gemini surfactants are a new class of amphiphilic compounds built from two classic surfactant moieties bound together by a special spacer group. These compounds appear to be excellent for creating complexes with DNA and are effective in mediating transfection. Thanks to their construction, DNA carrier molecules built from gemini surfactants are able to deliver genes to cells of almost any DNA molecule size, unattainable when using viral gene delivery systems. Moreover, they are much safer for living organisms.

  5. Recursive SDN for Carrier Networks

    McCauley, James; Liu, Zhi; Panda, Aurojit; Koponen, Teemu; Raghavan, Barath; Rexford, Jennifer; Shenker, Scott


    Control planes for global carrier networks should be programmable (so that new functionality can be easily introduced) and scalable (so they can handle the numerical scale and geographic scope of these networks). Neither traditional control planes nor new SDN-based control planes meet both of these goals. In this paper, we propose a framework for recursive routing computations that combines the best of SDN (programmability) and traditional networks (scalability through hierarchy) to achieve t...

  6. Biocheese: A Food Probiotic Carrier

    J. M. Castro; M. E. Tornadijo; Fresno, J. M.; H. Sandoval


    This review describes some aspects related to the technological barriers encountered in the development and stability of probiotic cheeses. Aspects concerning the viability of probiotic cultures in this matrix are discussed and the potential of cheese as a biofunctional food carrier is analyzed, outlying some points related to health and safety. In general, the manufacture of probiotic cheese should have little change when compared with the elaboration of cheese in the traditional way. The ph...

  7. Preventative maintenance of straddle carriers

    Si Li


    Full Text Available Background: Robotic vehicles such as straddle carriers represent a popular form of cargo handling amongst container terminal operators.Objectives: The purpose of this industry-driven study is to model preventative maintenance (PM influences on the operational effectiveness of straddle carriers.Method: The study employs historical data consisting of 21 273 work orders covering a 27-month period. Two models are developed, both of which forecast influences of PM regimes for different types of carrier.Results: The findings of the study suggest that the reliability of the straddle fleet decreases with increased intervals of PM services. The study also finds that three factors – namely resources, number of new straddles, and the number of new lifting work centres – influence the performances of straddles.Conclusion: The authors argue that this collaborative research exercise makes a significant contribution to existing supply chain management literature, particularly in the area of operations efficiency. The study also serves as an avenue to enhance relevant management practice.

  8. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening.

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut


    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines. PMID:26980105

  9. IOCs keep the faith despite mishaps

    A short article discusses some of the expensive setbacks suffered by some international oil companies with interests in the developing Brazilian oil industry. Devon Energy was hit by the loss of two blocks when the Brazilian Environment Agency decided that a marine habitat was at risk, although Petrobras had drilled there for many years. Unocal suffered through the delay of a drilling permit. The complicated tax structure and the 'murky' import procedures are also sources of disquiet -the Brazilian tax structure and environmental policies are discussed in detail. The situation is made worse by the comparatively more investment-attractive discoveries in the Gulf of Mexico and West Africa. Despite the problems, most companies appear to have accepted the disappointments as part of a learning process and plan to stay in Brazil. Shell, El Paso, Phillips, TotalFinaElf, Kerr McGee, Unocal and Texaco all have plans to drill new wells

  10. 49 CFR 376.22 - Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers.


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS LEASE AND INTERCHANGE OF VEHICLES Exemptions for the Leasing Regulations § 376.22 Exemption for private carrier leasing and leasing between authorized carriers....

  11. Low-cost carriers fare competition effect

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.


    This paper examines the effects that low-cost carriers (LCC’s) produce when entering new routes operated only by full-service carriers (FSC’s) and routes operated by low-cost carriers in competition with full-service carriers. A mathematical model has been developed to determine what routes should be operated by a low-cost carrier with better possibilities to subsist. The proposed model in this paper was set up by analyzing The United States domestic air transport market 2005 year database fr...

  12. Impact of carriers in oral absorption

    Gram, Luise Kvisgaard; Rist, Gerda Marie; Lennernäs, Hans; Steffansen, Bente

    Carriers may mediate the permeation across enterocytes for drug substances being organic anions. Carrier mediated permeation for the organic anions estrone-3-sulfate (ES) and glipizide across Caco-2 cells were investigated kinetically, and interactions on involved carriers evaluated. Initial...... with K(m) 44microM and 38microM, respectively. BCRP inhibition affected both absorptive an exsorptive P(EPA) and P(APP) for ES. Glipizide apical P(UP) and absorptive P(APP) were not inhibitable. Basolateral P(UP) for glipizide was inhibitable, its P(EPA) prevented, and P(UP) was saturable with K(m) 56......microM, but exsorptive P(APP) was not affected. Carrier mediated exsorption kinetics for ES are seen at both apical and basolateral membranes, resulting in predominant exsorption despite presence of absorptive carrier(s). Carrier mediated basolateral P(UP) for glipizide was observed, but glipizide P...

  13. Summary of longitudinal instabilities workshop

    Chasman, R.


    A five-day ISABELLE workshop on longitudinal instabilities was held at Brookhaven, August 9-13, 1976. About a dozen outside accelerator experts, both from Europe and the U.S.A., joined the local staff for discussions of longitudinal instabilities in ISABELLE. An agenda of talks was scheduled for the first day of the workshop. Later during the week, a presentation was given on the subject ''A more rigorous treatment of Landau damping in longitudinal beam instabilities''. A few progress meetings were held in which disagreements regarding calculations of coupling impedances were clarified. A summary session was held on the last day. Heavy emphasis was put on single bunched beam instabilities in the microwave region extending above the cut-off frequency of the ISABELLE vacuum chamber.

  14. Longitudinal Wobbling in $^{133}$La

    Biswas, S; Garg, U; Bhat, G H; Frauendorf, S; Li, W; Sheikh, J A; Sethi, J; Saha, S; Singh, Purnima; Choudhury, D; Matta, J T; Ayangeakaa, A D; Dar, W >; Singh, V; Sihotra, S


    Excited states of $^{133}$La have been investigated to search for the wobbling excitation mode in the low-spin regime. Wobbling bands with $n_\\omega$ = 0 and 1 are identified along with the interconnecting $\\Delta I$ = 1, $E2$ transitions, which are regarded as fingerprints of the wobbling motion. An increase in wobbling frequency %of the $n_\\omega$ = 1 band with spin implies longitudinal wobbling for $^{133}$La, in contrast with the case of transverse wobbling observed in $^{135}$Pr. This is the first observation of a longitudinal wobbling band in nuclei. The experimental observations are accounted for by calculations using the quasiparticle triaxial rotor with harmonic frozen approximation and the triaxial projected shell model approaches, which attribute the appearance of longitudinal wobbling to the early alignment of an h$_{11/2}$ neutron pair.

  15. Neural nets and chaotic carriers

    Whittle, Peter


    ""Neural Nets and Chaotic Carriers"" develops rational principles for the design of associative memories, with a view to applying these principles to models with irregularly oscillatory operation so evident in biological neural systems, and necessitated by the meaninglessness of absolute signal levels. Design is based on the criterion that an associative memory must be able to cope with 'fading data', i.e., to form an inference from the data even as its memory of that data degrades. The resultant net shows striking biological parallels. When these principles are combined with the Freeman speci

  16. Carrier frequencies, holomorphy and unwinding

    Coifman, Ronald R; Wu, Hau-tieng


    We prove that functions of intrinsic-mode type (a classical models for signals) behave essentially like holomorphic functions: adding a pure carrier frequency $e^{int}$ ensures that the anti-holomorphic part is much smaller than the holomorphic part $ \\| P_{-}(f)\\|_{L^2} \\ll \\|P_{+}(f)\\|_{L^2}.$ This enables us to use techniques from complex analysis, in particular the \\textit{unwinding series}. We study its stability and convergence properties and show that the unwinding series can stabilize and show that the unwinding series can provide a high resolution time-frequency representation, which is robust to noise.

  17. Technetium diagnostic agent and carrier

    A stable sup(99m)Tc-labelled radioactive diagnostic agent is produced by contacting sup(99m)Tc-containing pertechnetate with a non-radioactive carrier comprising a chelating agent, a water-soluble reducing agent and a stabilizer. The stabilizer is chosen from ascorbic acid and erythorbic acid and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts and esters. A mole ratio of more than 100 moles ascorbic or erythorbic acid to 1 mole of reducing agent provides a stable composition at high levels of radioactivity

  18. Wuestite - a solar energy carrier

    Weidenkaff, A.; Nueesch, P.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Reller, A. [Hamburg Univ., Hamburg (Germany)


    Hydrogen is produced when Wuestite (Fe{sub 1-y}O) is oxidised by water. This reaction is part of a two-step thermochemical metal oxide cycle for the storage of solar energy in the form of chemical energy carriers, characterised by a high chemical potential. The reaction was studied in a tubular furnace with on-line gas analysis and further characterised in detail by DTA und high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction. The influence of non-stoichiometry, morphology and temperature on the mechanism and kinetics of the water-splitting reaction was determined. (author) 3 figs., tabs., 3 refs.

  19. 78 FR 66801 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal


    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Announcement of advisory... Committee that provides the Agency with advice and recommendations on motor carrier safety programs...

  20. Longitudinal feedback system for PEP

    Allen, M.A.; Cornacchia, M.; Millich, A.


    Whether the wide bandwidth longitudinal feedback system described in this paper is made to act on the individual modes in frequency domain or on the individual bunches in time domain, it represents a clean and efficient way of damping the longitudinal oscillations without influencing other beam parameters such as bunch shape or synchrotron frequency distribution. The frequency domain feedback presents the advantage of providing information on which modes are unstable and on their risetimes, which may be helpful in locating dangerous resonators in the ring.

  1. Longitudinal compression of ion beams

    This paper examines the longitudinal compression of ion beams which is necessary in some designs of drivers intended to realize inertial thermonuclear fusion by heavy ions. Taking space-charge forces in the beams into account, two compression schemes are investigated: the first preserves the longitudinal phase-space area of the beams, and the second allows an increase of the phase-space area. The compression-system parameters are optimized for an example of a driver for inertial thermonuclear fusion by heavy ions with an energy of 10 MJ and with a pulse length of 25 ns on the target

  2. Carrier detection in xeroderma pigmentosum

    We were able to detect clinically normal carriers of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) genes with coded samples of either peripheral blood lymphocytes or skin fibroblasts, using a cytogenetic assay shown previously to detect individuals with cancer-prone genetic disorders. Metaphase cells of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated T-lymphocytes from eight individuals who are obligate heterozygotes for XP were compared with those from nine normal controls at 1.3, 2.3, and 3.3 h after x-irradiation (58 R) during the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Lymphocytes from the XP heterozygotes had twofold higher frequencies of chromatid breaks or chromatid gaps than normal (P less than 10(-5)) when fixed at 2.3 or 3.3 h after irradiation. Lymphocytes from six XP homozygotes had frequencies of breaks and gaps threefold higher than normal. Skin fibroblasts from an additional obligate XP heterozygote, when fixed approximately 2 h after x-irradiation (68 R), had a twofold higher frequency of chromatid breaks and a fourfold higher frequency of gaps than fibroblasts from a normal control. This frequency of aberrations in cells from the XP heterozygote was approximately half that observed in the XP homozygote. The elevated frequencies of chromatid breaks and gaps after G2 phase x-irradiation may provide the basis of a test for identifying carriers of the XP gene(s) within known XP families

  3. Carrier localization in gallium nitride

    Wetzel, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)][California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Walukiewicz, W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Haller, E.E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)][California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others


    In wide bandgap GaN, a large number of interesting and important scientific questions remain to be answered. For example, the large free electron concentration reaching 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup - 3} in nominally undoped material are ascribed to intrinsic defects because no chemical impurity has been found at such high concentrations. According to theoretical models, a nitrogen vacancy acts as a donor but its formation energy is very large in n-type materials, making this suggestion controversial. We have investigated the nature of this yet unidentified donor at large hydrostatic pressure. Results from infrared reflection and Raman scattering indicate strong evidence for localization of free carriers by large pressures. The carrier density is drastically decreased by two orders of magnitude between 20 and 30 GPa. Several techniques provide independent evidence for results in earlier reports and present the first quantitative analysis. A possible interpretation of this effect in terms of the resonant donor level is presented.

  4. Longitudinal and Transverse Nuclear Shadowing

    Barone, V.; M.; Genovese


    Nuclear shadowing arises from multiple scattering of the hadronic fluctuations of the virtual photon in a nucleus. We predict different longitudinal and transverse shadowing and an A-dependence of R which can be up to a 50% effect. The possibility of detecting nuclear effects on R at HERA is discussed.

  5. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja;


    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise i...

  6. Recent Advances in Subunit Vaccine Carriers.

    Vartak, Abhishek; Sucheck, Steven J


    The lower immunogenicity of synthetic subunit antigens, compared to live attenuated vaccines, is being addressed with improved vaccine carriers. Recent reports indicate that the physio-chemical properties of these carriers can be altered to achieve optimal antigen presentation, endosomal escape, particle bio-distribution, and cellular trafficking. The carriers can be modified with various antigens and ligands for dendritic cells targeting. They can also be modified with adjuvants, either covalently or entrapped in the matrix, to improve cellular and humoral immune responses against the antigen. As a result, these multi-functional carrier systems are being explored for use in active immunotherapy against cancer and infectious diseases. Advancing technology, improved analytical methods, and use of computational methodology have also contributed to the development of subunit vaccine carriers. This review details recent breakthroughs in the design of nano-particulate vaccine carriers, including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, and inorganic nanoparticles. PMID:27104575

  7. Inert carriers for column extraction chromatography

    Inert carriers used in column extraction chromatography are reviewed. Such carriers are devided into two large groups: hydrophilic carriers which possess high surface energy and are well wetted only with strongly polar liquids (kieselguhrs, silica gels, glasses, cellulose, Al2O3) and water-repellent carriers which possess low surface energy and are well wetted with various organic solvents (polyethylene, polytetrafluorethylene polytrifluorochlorethylene). Properties of various carriers are presented: structure, chemical and radiation stability, adsorption properties, extracting agent capacity. The effect of structure and sizes of particles on the efficiency of chromatography columns is considered. Ways of immovable phase deposition on the carrier and the latter's regeneration. Peculiarities of column packing for preparative and continuous chromatography are discussed

  8. Global Telecommunications Services: Strategies of Major Carriers

    Jerry Mccreary; William R. Boulton; Chetan Sankar


    The globalization of telecommunications markets is of primary concern for today’s large telecommunications carriers. International business telecommunications is growing at a rate twice that of domestic traffic. Multi-national customers with offices around the world are demanding integrated solutions to their telecommunications needs. As telecommunication carriers respond to these customers’ needs, the carriers are beginning to expand outside their national boundaries. This paper identifi...

  9. Free carrier absorption in quantum cascade structures

    Carosella, F.; Ndebeka-Bandou, C.; Ferreira, R.; Dupont, E; K. Unterrainer; Strasser, G.; Wacker, Andreas; Bastard, G.


    We show that the free carrier absorption in Quantum Cascade Lasers is very small and radically different from the classical Drude result on account of the orthogonality between the direction of the carrier free motion and the electric field of the laser emission. A quantum mechanical calculation of the free carrier absorption and inter-subband oblique absorption induced by interface defects, coulombic impurities and optical phonon absorption/emission is presented for QCL's with a double quant...

  10. Secure quantum carriers for quantum state sharing

    Karimipour, Vahid; Marvian, Milad


    We develop the concept of quantum carrier and show that messages can be uploaded and downloaded from this carrier and while in transit, these messages are hidden from external agents. We explain in detail the working of the quantum carrier for different communication tasks, including quantum key distribution, classical secret and quantum state sharing among a set of $n$ players according to general threshold schemes. The security of the protocol is discussed and it is shown that only the legi...

  11. Heterozygote advantage in Tay-Sachs carriers?

    Spyropoulos, B; Moens, P B; Davidson, J.; Lowden, J. A.


    Chi-square analyses of new data as well as data previously reported by Myrianthopoulos have shown that grandparents of Tay-Sachs carriers die from proportionally the same causes as grandparents of noncarriers. It is unlikely that there is any advantage to being a Tay-Sachs carrier insofar as resistance to tuberculosis is concerned. Our results are further evidence to support Fraikor's claim that the high carrier frequency of the allele in Ashkenazi Jews is probably caused by a combination of ...

  12. Multi-carrier technologies for wireless communication

    Nassar, Carl R; Wu, Zhiqiang; Wiegandt, David A; Zekavat, S Alireza; Shattil, Steve


    1. Introduction. 2. Overview of Multi-Carrier Technologies. 3. High-Performance High-Capacity MC-CDMA for Future Generations: The CI Approach. 4. High Performance, High Throughput TDMA via Multi-Carrier Implementations. 5. High-Performance, High-Capacity DS-CDMA via Multicarrier Implementation. 6. High-Performance, High-Throughput OFDM with Low PAPR via Carrier Interferometry Phase Coding. 7. The Marriage of Smart Antenna Arrays and Multi-Carrier Systems: Spatial Sweeping, Transmit Diversity, and Directionality. Index.

  13. Exploring Longitudinal Risk-return Relationships

    Andersen, Torben J.; Bettis, Richard A.


    We study a longitudinal fit model of adaptation and its association with the longitudinal risk-return relationship. The model allows the firm to adjust its position in response to partial learning about a changing environment characterized by two path-dependent processes—a random walk and a...... can lead to the inverse longitudinal risk-return relationships observed empirically. We discuss this apparent paradox and the possible resolution between mindless and conscious behavior as plausible causes of the longitudinal Bowman Paradox....

  14. 14 CFR 221.204 - Adoption of provisions of one carrier by another carrier.


    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.204... carrier, the effective and prospective fares of the adopted carrier shall be changed to reflect the...

  15. The Importance of Longitudinal Studies

    Knezek, Patricia


    It has been eight years since the AAS Council unanimously endorsed the document, known as "Equity Now: The Pasadena Recommendations for Gender Equality in Astronomy," in January 2005. This document was the main product of the conference entitled “Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After” (WIA II), held in June 2003 in Pasadena, CA. One of the key recommendations represented in that document was the need for a longitudinal study of astronomers. It was recognized that in order to understand our own field, how it is evolving, and the impact on individuals, we need to track people over time. I will discuss the fundamental questions that led to the recommendation, and set the stage for the current (ongoing) longitudinal study.

  16. Longitudinal misalignment based strain sensor

    Andrews, Jeffrey Pratt


    A practical fiber optic strain sensor has been developed to measure strains in the range of 0.0 to 2.0 percent strain with a resolution ranging between 10 and 100 microstrain depending on sensor design choices. This intensity based sensor measures strain by monitoring strain induced longitudinal misalignment in a novel fiber interconnection. This interconnection is created by aligning fibers within a segment of hollow core fiber. Related splice loss mechanisms are investigated ...

  17. Inert carrier drying and coating process

    An inert carrier process is described for drying radioactive (particularly low level) waste material and for incorporating the dry material into a binder matrix from which the dried material will not be leached. Experimental details, and examples of the carrier and binder materials, are given. (U.K.)

  18. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang; Manolova, Anna Vasileva; Rasmussen, Anders; Dittmann, Lars; Berger, Michael Stübert


    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulation...

  19. Towards 100 gigabit carrier ethernet transport networks

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao;


    OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  20. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang;


    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulation...... that the availability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying relevant resilience techniques....

  1. Parameterized Linear Longitudinal Airship Model

    Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Bayard, David; Quadrelli, Marco; Johnson, Joseph


    A parameterized linear mathematical model of the longitudinal dynamics of an airship is undergoing development. This model is intended to be used in designing control systems for future airships that would operate in the atmospheres of Earth and remote planets. Heretofore, the development of linearized models of the longitudinal dynamics of airships has been costly in that it has been necessary to perform extensive flight testing and to use system-identification techniques to construct models that fit the flight-test data. The present model is a generic one that can be relatively easily specialized to approximate the dynamics of specific airships at specific operating points, without need for further system identification, and with significantly less flight testing. The approach taken in the present development is to merge the linearized dynamical equations of an airship with techniques for estimation of aircraft stability derivatives, and to thereby make it possible to construct a linearized dynamical model of the longitudinal dynamics of a specific airship from geometric and aerodynamic data pertaining to that airship. (It is also planned to develop a model of the lateral dynamics by use of the same methods.) All of the aerodynamic data needed to construct the model of a specific airship can be obtained from wind-tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics

  2. Selection of Carrier Waveforms for PWM Inverter

    陈国呈; 屈克庆; 许春雨; 孙承波


    In this paper the influence of different carrier waveforms upon the output characteristics of PWM inverter is described in detail. When a triangular carrier waveform is used in hard-switching PWM inverters, harmonics exist in the neighborhood of the output frequency of the inverter output voltage and current due to the dead time. The triangular carrier waveform used in soft-switching PWM inverter will cause difficulties in controlling resonance-trigger time, higher loss in the resonant circuit, and less utilization of the DC bus voltage. If a sawtooth carrier is used in hard-switching PWM inverter, there will be severe distortion in the current waveform. When sawtooth carriers with alternate positive and negative slopes are used in soft-switching PWM inverters, the resonancetrigger time is easy to control, and distortion in the output voltage and current caused by the dead time will not appear.

  3. Methanol as an energy carrier

    Biedermann, P.; Grube, T.; Hoehlein, B. (eds.)


    For the future, a strongly growing energy demand is expected in the transport sector worldwide. Economically efficient oil production will run through a maximum in the next decade. Higher fuel prices and an environmentally desirable reduction of emissions will increase the pressure for reducing fuel consumption and emissions in road traffic. These criteria show the urgent necessity of structural changes in the fuel market. Due to its advantages concerning industrial-scale production, storage and global availability, methanol has the short- to medium-term potential for gaining increased significance as a substitution product in the energy market. Methanol can be produced both from fossil energy sources and from biomass or waste materials through the process steps of synthesis gas generation with subsequent methanol synthesis. Methanol has the potential to be used in an environmentally friendly manner in gasoline/methanol mixtures for flexible fuel vehicles with internal combustion engines and in diesel engines with pure methanol. Furthermore, it can be used in fuel cell vehicles with on-board hydrogen production in direct methanol fuel cell drives, and in stationary systems for electricity and heat generation as well as for hydrogen production. Finally, in portable applications it serves as an energy carrier for electric power generation. In this book, the processes for the production and use of methanol are presented and evaluated, markets and future options are discussed and issues of safety and environmental impacts are addressed by a team of well-known authors. (orig.)

  4. Optoelectronic characterization of carrier extraction in a hot carrier photovoltaic cell structure

    Dimmock, James A. R.; Kauer, Matthias; Smith, Katherine; Liu, Huiyun; Stavrinou, Paul N.; Ekins-Daukes, Nicholas J.


    A hot carrier photovoltaic cell requires extraction of electrons on a timescale faster than they can lose energy to the lattice. We optically and optoelectronically characterize two resonant tunneling structures, showing their compatability with hot carrier photovoltaic operation, demonstrating structural and carrier extraction properties necessary for such a device. In particular we use time resolved and temperature dependent photoluminescence to determine extraction timescales and energy levels in the structures and demonstrate fast carrier extraction by tunneling. We also show that such devices are capable of extracting photo-generated electrons at high carrier densities, with an open circuit voltage in excess of 1 V.

  5. Effects of carrier-carrier scattering on population inversion in graphene under pulse photoexcitation

    Satou, Akira; Ryzhii, Victor; Otsuji, Taiichi


    We study the carrier relaxation dynamics in intrinsic graphene after pulse photoexcitation and reveal effects of intraband carrier-carrier scattering on population inversion in the terahertz region, by conducting simulation based on the quasi-classical Boltzmann equation. It is demonstrated that by changing the dielectric constant of the surrounding materials the rate of carrier-carrier scattering can be controlled and the relaxation dynamics differs for cases with low and high dielectric constants. It is also found that the Pauli blocking of photogeneration in case of the pulse photoexcitation causes decrease in the photocarrier concentration and thus weakening of population inversion with higher dielectric constant.

  6. 49 CFR 369.2 - Classification of carriers-motor carriers of property, household goods carriers, and dual...


    ... operating revenues after applying the revenue deflator formula shown in Note A. (3) When a business combination occurs such as a merger, reorganization, or consolidation, the surviving carrier shall...

  7. Cognitive impairment in the preclinical stage of dementia in FTD-3 CHMP2B mutation carriers

    Stokholm, Jette; Teasdale, Thomas W; Johannsen, Peter;


    -3). Subjects were assessed with neuropsychological tests in 2002, 2005 and 2010. RESULTS: Cross-sectional analyses showed that the mutation carriers scored lower on tests of psychomotor speed, working memory, executive functions and verbal memory than a control group consisting of not-at-risk family...... members and spouses. Longitudinal analyses showed a gradual decline in psychomotor speed, working memory capacity and global executive measures in the group of non-demented mutation carriers that was not found in the control group. In contrast, there were no significant group differences in domain scores...... on memory or visuospatial functions. On an individual level the cognitive changes over time varied considerably. CONCLUSION: Subjects with CHMP2B mutation show cognitive changes dominated by executive dysfunctions, years before they fulfil diagnostic criteria of FTD. However, there is great...

  8. High capacity carrier ethernet transport networks

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao; Fu, Rong; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Berger, Michael Stübert


    technology, making the use of Ethernet as a convergence layer for Next Generation Networks a distinct possibility. Triple Play services, in particular IPTV, are expected to be a main drivers for carrier Ethernet, however, a number of challenges must be addressed including QoS enabled control plane, enhanced...... OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  9. High capacity carrier ethernet transport networks

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao;


    Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and T-MPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport...... OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...


    Nathan Cohen


    The National Water Carrier of Israel (Ha Movil Ha' Artzi). It is the main water project of Israel and its main task is to transfer water from the rainy north to the center and to the arid south. The National Water Carrier connects the Sea of Galilee with Israel's water system. The original goal was to provide irrigation water to Negev. Today 80% of the water is utilized for Israel's domestic consumption. Most of the water works in Israel are combined with the National Water Carrier for about...

  11. Carrier scattering in metals and semiconductors

    Gantmakher, VF


    The transport properties of solids, as well as the many optical phenomena in them are determined by the scattering of current carriers. ``Carrier Scattering in Metals and Semiconductors'' elucidates the state of the art in the research on the scattering mechanisms for current carriers in metals and semiconductors and describes experiments in which these mechanisms are most dramatically manifested.The selection and organization of the material is in a form to prepare the reader to reason independently and to deal just as independently with available theoretical results and experimental

  12. Carrier diffusion and higher order transversal modes in spectral dynamics of the semiconductor laser

    Buus, Jens; Danielsen, Magnus


    The dynamic and spectral behavior of the semiconductor stripe laser has been investigated. For this purpose the rate equations have been generalized to include several longitudinal and transversal modes, spontaneous emission into the active modes, and position dependence of the electron density...... through a term describing the charge-carrier diffusion in the plane of the active layer. The parameters used for solving these equations are found by theoretical and experimental considerations. The results show a broadening of the spectrum together with a significant content of higher order transversal...

  13. Time Resolved Studies of Carrier Dynamics in III -v Heterojunction Semiconductors.

    Westland, Duncan James

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Picosecond time-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy has been used to study transient processes in Ga _{.47}In_{.53 }As/InP multiple quantum wells (MQWs), and in bulk Ga_{.47}In _{.53}As and GaSb. To facilitate the experimental studies, apparatus was constructed to allow the detection of transient luminescence with 3ps time resolution. A frequency upconversion technique was employed. Relaxation of energetic carriers in bulk Ga _{.47}In_{.53 }As by optic phonons has been investigated, and, at carrier densities ~3 times 10^{18}cm ^{-3} is found to be a considerably slower process than simple theory predicts. The discrepancy is resolved by the inclusion of a non-equilibrium population of longitudinal optic phonons in the theoretical description. Slow energy loss is also observed in a 154A MQW under similar conditions, but carriers are found to relax more quickly in a 14A MQW with a comparable repeat period. The theory of non-equilibrium mode occupation is modified to describe the case of a MQW and is found to agree with experiment. Carrier relaxation in GaSb is studied and the importance of occupation of the L _6 conduction band valley in this material is demonstrated. The ambipolar diffusion of a photoexcited carrier plasma through an InP capping layer was investigated using an optical time-of-flight technique. This experiment also enables the efficiency of carrier capture by a Ga _{.47}In_{.53 }As quantum well to be determined. A capture time of 4ps was found.

  14. Transverse and longitudinal vibrations in amorphous silicon

    Beltukov, Y. M.; De Fusco, C; Tanguy, A.; Parshin, D. A.


    We show that harmonic vibrations in amorphous silicon can be decomposed to transverse and longitudinal components in all frequency range even in the absence of the well defined wave vector ${\\bf q}$. For this purpose we define the transverse component of the eigenvector with given $\\omega$ as a component, which does not change the volumes of Voronoi cells around atoms. The longitudinal component is the remaining orthogonal component. We have found the longitudinal and transverse components of...

  15. Clusters of dislocations in a carrier wave

    Clusters of point dislocations (wave vortices) may be present within an otherwise perfect plane scalar wave, a carrier wave in two dimensions, which may be evanescent. The question arises: is it possible to deduce the orientation of the distant undisturbed carrier wave purely from local information about the cluster itself? For groups of two and four dislocations in a carrier wave, this may be done by using no other information than the local phase map or the individual positions of the singularities. The maximum number possible in a cluster with a carrier wave is 4 and the total strength (topological charge) of a cluster is always zero or ± 2. The study includes an examination of degenerate dislocations of strength zero or ± 1

  16. The Kinetics of Carrier Transport Inhibition

    Rosenberg, T.; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter


    The kinetical treatment of enzymatic carrier transports as given in previous communications has been extended to conditions of inhibition. Various possible types of inhibitors have been considered differing in the site of attack (enzyme or carrier), in the mode of action (competing with the...... substrate for the enzyme or the carrier or for both, competing with the carrier for the enzyme, or non-competitive) and in the ability of penetrating the membrane. Experiments are reported on the inhibition of glucose and fructose transport across the human red cell membrane by phlorizine, phloretine and......, with the result that a certain asymmetry of inhibition (stronger inhibition of exit than of entrance) is to be expected. This asymmetry was termed “first order asymmetry”. In experiments with each of the three inhibitors an asymmetry of inhibition in the expected direction was observed which however...

  17. Physician Fee Schedule Carrier Specific Files

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has condensed all 56 Physician Fee Schedule (PFS) carrier specific pricing files into one zip file. It is...

  18. Intraoral radiation carrier for edentulous patients

    The principles of fabricating an intraoral radioactive carrier have been described to treat malignant diseases of the oral cavity. The prosthesis provides consistent direction and fixation of the radioactive source into the same location

  19. Intraoral radiation carrier for edentulous patients

    Sela, M.; Taicher, S.


    The principles of fabricating an intraoral radioactive carrier have been described to treat malignant diseases of the oral cavity. The prosthesis provides consistent direction and fixation of the radioactive source into the same location.

  20. Protection switching for carrier ethernet multicast

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Berger, Michael Stübert


    This paper addresses network survivability for IPTV multicast transport in Carrier Ethernet networks. The impact of link failures is investigated and suggestions for intelligent multicast resilience schemes are proposed. In particular, functions of the multicast tree are integrated with the Carrier...... recovery path length, recovery time, number of branch nodes and operational complexity. The integrated approach therefore shows significant potential to increase the QoE for IPTV users in case of network failures and recovery actions....

  1. Airport Congestion When Carriers Have Market Power

    Brueckner, Jan K.


    This paper analyzes airport congestion when carriers are nonatomistic, showing how the results of the road-pricing literature are modified when the economic agents causing congestion have market power. The analysis shows that when an airport is dominated by a monopolist, congestion is fully internalized, yielding no role for congestion pricing under monopoly conditions. Under a Cournot oligopoly, however, carriers are shown to internalize only the congestion they impose on themselves. A toll ...

  2. Evaluating multicast resilience in carrier ethernet

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang;


    This paper gives an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we show how multicast traffic, which is essential for IPTV can be protected. We detail the ackground for resilience mechanisms and their control and e present Carrier Ethernet...... resilience methods for linear nd ring networks. By simulation we show that the vailability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying protection methods....

  3. Preparation and application of magnetic microsphere carriers

    ZHANG Bo; XING Jianmin; LIU Huizhou


    Magnetic microsphere carriers have received considerable attention,primarily because of their wide applications in the fields of biomedicine and bioengineering.In this paper,preparation methods,surface modification and application of magnetic carriers are reviewed.Emphasis will be placed on recent biological and biomedical developments and trends such as enzyme immobilization,cell isolation,protein purification,target drugs and DNA separation.

  4. Hot carrier solar cell absorbers: investigation of carrier cooling properties of candidate materials

    Conibeer, G.; Shrestha, Santosh; Huang, Shujuan; Patterson, Robert; Xia, Hongze; Feng, Yu; Zhang, Pengfei; Gupta, Neeti; Smyth, Suntrana; Liao, Yuanxun; Lin, Shu; Wang, Pei; Dai, Xi; Chung, Simon; Yang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Yi


    The hot carrier cell aims to extract the electrical energy from photo-generated carriers before they thermalize to the band edges. Hence it can potentially achieve a high current and a high voltage and hence very high efficiencies up to 65% under 1 sun and 86% under maximum concentration. To slow the rate of carrier thermalisation is very challenging, but modification of the phonon energies and the use of nanostructures are both promising ways to achieve some of the required slowing of carrier cooling. A number of materials and structures are being investigated with these properties and test structures are being fabricated. Initial measurements indicate slowed carrier cooling in III-Vs with large phonon band gaps and in multiple quantum wells. It is expected that soon proof of concept of hot carrier devices will pave the way for their development to fully functioning high efficiency solar cells.

  5. Radio Science Measurements with Suppressed Carrier

    Asmar, Sami; Divsalar, Dariush; Oudrhiri, Kamal


    Radio Science started when it became apparent with early Solar missions that occultations by planetary atmospheres would affect the quality of radio communications. Since then the atmospheric properties and other aspects of planetary science, solar science, and fundamental physics were studied by scientists. Radio Science data was always extracted from a received pure residual carrier (without data modulation). For some missions, it is very desirable to obtain Radio Science data from a suppressed carrier modulation. In this paper we propose a method to extract Radio Science data when a coded suppressed carrier modulation is used in deep space communications. Type of modulation can be BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, MPSK or even GMSK. However we concentrate mostly on BPSK modulation. The proposed method for suppressed carrier simply tries to wipe out data that acts as an interference for Radio Science measurements. In order to measure the estimation errors in amplitude and phase of the Radio Science data we use Cramer-Rao bound (CRB). The CRB for the suppressed carrier modulation with non-ideal data wiping is then compared with residual carrier modulation under the same noise condition. The method of derivation of CRB for non-ideal data wiping is an innovative method that presented here. Some numerical results are provided for coded system.

  6. Introduction to Longitudinal Beam Dynamics

    Holzer, B J


    This chapter gives an overview of the longitudinal dynamics of the particles in an accelerator and, closely related to that, the issue of synchronization between the particles and the accelerating field. Beginning with the trivial case of electrostatic accelerators, the synchronization condition is explained for a number of driven accelerators like Alvarez linacs, cyclotrons and finally synchrotrons and storage rings, where it plays a crucial role. In the case of the latter, the principle of phase focusing is motivated qualitatively as well as on a mathematically more correct level and the problem of operation below and above the transition energy is discussed. Throughout, the main emphasis is more on physical understanding rather than on a mathematically rigorous treatment.

  7. Modeling a Longitudinal Relational Research Data Systems

    Olsen, Michelle D. Hunt


    A study was conducted to propose a research-based model for a longitudinal data research system that addressed recommendations from a synthesis of literature related to: (1) needs reported by the U.S. Department of Education, (2) the twelve mandatory elements that define federally approved state longitudinal data systems (SLDS), (3) the…

  8. Fears in Czech Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    Michalcáková, Radka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kyjonková, Hana; Bouša, Ondrej; Jelínek, Martin


    The present study investigates developmental patterns of fear in adolescence. It is based on longitudinal data collected as a part of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) project. A total of 186 Czech adolescents (43% girls) were assessed repeatedly at the age of 11, 13, and 15 years. The free-response method was…

  9. Adiabatic Excitation of Longitudinal Bunch Shape Oscillations

    By modulating the rf voltage at near twice the synchrotrons frequency we are able to modulate the longitudinal bunch shape. We show experimentally that this can be done while preserving the longitudinal emittance when the rf voltage modulation is turned on adiabatically. Experimental measurements will be presented along with theoretical predictions

  10. Transverse and longitudinal vibrations in amorphous silicon

    Beltukov, Y. M.; Fusco, C.; Tanguy, A.; Parshin, D. A.


    We show that harmonic vibrations in amorphous silicon can be decomposed to transverse and longitudinal components in all frequency range even in the absence of the well defined wave vector q. For this purpose we define the transverse component of the eigenvector with given ω as a component, which does not change the volumes of Voronoi cells around atoms. The longitudinal component is the remaining orthogonal component. We have found the longitudinal and transverse components of the vibrational density of states for numerical model of amorphous silicon. The vibrations are mostly transverse below 7 THz and above 15 THz. In the frequency interval in between the vibrations have a longitudinal nature. Just this sudden transformation of vibrations at 7 THz from almost transverse to almost longitudinal ones explains the prominent peak in the diffusivity of the amorphous silicon just above 7 THz.

  11. Longitudinal Phase Space Studies at PITZ

    Roensch, J R


    The main goal of the Photo Injector Test facility at DESY Zeuthen (PITZ) is to test and to optimize photo injectors for Free-Electron Lasers (FELs). The demands on such a photo injector are small transverse emittances, short bunches and a high bunch charge. A FEL is driven by an accelerator which consists of a rf gun followed by an acceleration section and a magnetic bunch compressor. For the effective bunch compression detailed studies of the longitudinal phase space have to be performed. The correlation between the positions of the particles in the bunch and their longitudinal momenta has to be understood and the non-linearities of the longitudinal phase space have to be analysed. A special apparatus for longitudinal phase space tomography at 5 MeV using a dipole, a Cherenkov radiator, an optical transmission line and a streak camera was developed. Results of longitudinal phase space measurements are presented and compared with simulations.

  12. 49 CFR 1139.22 - Revenue data for study carriers.


    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Revenue data for study carriers. 1139.22 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES IN MOTOR CARRIER REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry § 1139.22 Revenue data for study carriers. The study carriers, as identified...

  13. 76 FR 32390 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting


    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory... MCSAC will complete action on Task 11-01, regarding Patterns of Safety Violations by Motor...

  14. 75 FR 2923 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting


    ... sessions announced on January 5, 2010 (75 FR 285), and elsewhere in today's Federal Register, and to... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety...

  15. Charge carrier transport in liquid crystals

    The materials exhibiting charge carrier mobility ranging from 10−3 to 0.1 cm2/Vs, i.e., between those of amorphous and crystalline materials, had been missing before the 1990s when the electronic conduction in liquid crystals was discovered. Since then, various liquid crystalline materials including discotic and calamitic liquid crystals have been studied in order to clarify their charge carrier transport properties in liquid crystalline mesophases. In this article, the historical background of the discovery of electronic conduction in liquid crystals, intrinsic and extrinsic conductions, unique properties of the charge carrier transport, the effect of molecular alignment on it, and the conduction mechanism in liquid crystalline mesophases are shortly described on the basis of the experimental and theoretical studies accumulated in these two decades, noting that the missing materials were liquid crystals. - Highlights: • Liquid crystals exhibit charge mobility ranging from 10–3 to 0.1 cm2/Vs. • Electronic (intrinsic) and ionic (extrinsic) conductions in liquid crystals • Unique charge carrier transport properties in liquid crystals • Effect of molecular alignment in mesophases on charge carrier transport • Conduction mechanism in smectic liquid crystals

  16. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    Zhu, Xiaoyang


    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  17. Carbon: Hydrogen carrier or disappearing skeleton?

    The use of liquid hydrocarbons as energy carriers implies the use of carbon as a carrier for hydrogen to facilitate hydrogen transport and storage. The current trend for liquid energy carriers used in the transport sector is to maximize the load of hydrogen on the carbon carrier. The recently developed Shell Middle Distillate Hydrogenation process for the manufacture of high quality diesel from aromatic refinery streams fits this picture. In the future, the hydrogen required to raise the product H/C ratio will be increasingly produced via gasification of large amounts of heavy residues. In the light of the strong preference towards using liquid fuels in the transport sector, the Shell Middle Distillate Synthesis process to convert natural gas into diesel of very high quality is discussed. Finally, a few comments on the use of hydrogen without a carbon carrier are made. Long lead times and the likelihood of producing the 'first' hydrogen from fossil fuel are highlighted. 13 figs., 6 tabs., 5 refs

  18. Dedicated Carrier Deployment in Heterogeneous Networks with Inter-site Carrier Aggregation

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    picos with dedicated carrier deployment. Collaborative inter-site carrier aggregation (CA) is proposed in scenarios with macro+RRH deployment to make an efficient use of the fragmented spectrum from multiple cells. While in scenarios with macro+pico deployment, UEs can only connect to either the...

  19. Longitudinal research and data collection in primary care

    Weel, C. van


    PURPOSE: This article reviews examples of and experience with longitudinal research in family medicine. The objective is to use this empirical information to formulate recommendations for improving longitudinal research. METHODS: The article discusses 3 longitudinal studies from the Nijmegen academi

  20. Elastic scattering by hot electrons and apparent lifetime of longitudinal optical phonons in gallium nitride

    Khurgin, Jacob B., E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Bajaj, Sanyam; Rajan, Siddharth [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)


    Longitudinal optical (LO) phonons in GaN generated in the channel of high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) are shown to undergo nearly elastic scattering via collisions with hot electrons. The net result of these collisions is the diffusion of LO phonons in the Brillouin zone causing reduction of phonon and electron temperatures. This previously unexplored diffusion mechanism explicates how an increase in electron density causes reduction of the apparent lifetime of LO phonons, obtained from the time resolved Raman studies and microwave noise measurements, while the actual decay rate of the LO phonons remains unaffected by the carrier density. Therefore, the saturation velocity in GaN HEMT steadily declines with increased carrier density, in a qualitative agreement with experimental results.

  1. Carrier lifetimes in thin-film photovoltaics

    Baek, Dohyun


    The carrier lifetimes in thin-film solar cells are reviewed and discussed. Shockley-Read-Hall recombination is dominant at low carrier density, Auger recombination is dominant under a high injection condition and high carrier density, and surface recombination is dominant under any conditions. Because the surface photovoltage technique is insensitive to the surface condition, it is useful for bulk lifetime measurements. The photoconductance decay technique measures the effective recombination lifetime. The time-resolved photoluminescence technique is very useful for measuring thin-film semiconductor or solar-cell materials lifetime, because the sample is thin, other techniques are not suitable for measuring the lifetime. Many papers have provided time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) lifetimes for copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) and CdTe thin-film solar cell. The TRPL lifetime strongly depends on open-circuit voltage and conversion efficiency; however, the TRPL life time is insensitive to the short-circuit current.

  2. Hot Carrier extraction with plasmonic broadband absorbers

    Ng, Charlene; Dligatch, Svetlana; Roberts, Ann; Davis, Timothy J; Mulvaney, Paul; Gomez, Daniel E


    Hot charge carrier extraction from metallic nanostructures is a very promising approach for applications in photo-catalysis, photovoltaics and photodetection. One limitation is that many metallic nanostructures support a single plasmon resonance thus restricting the light-to-charge-carrier activity to a spectral band. Here we demonstrate that a monolayer of plasmonic nanoparticles can be assembled on a multi-stack layered configuration to achieve broad-band, near-unit light absorption, which is spatially localised on the nanoparticle layer. We show that this enhanced light absorbance leads to $\\sim$ 40-fold increases in the photon-to-electron conversion efficiency by the plasmonic nanostructures. We developed a model that successfully captures the essential physics of the plasmonic hot-electron charge generation and separation in these structures. This model also allowed us to establish that efficient hot carrier extraction is limited to spectral regions where the photons possessing energies higher than the S...

  3. Effective Charge Carrier Utilization in Photocatalytic Conversions.

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tuo; Chang, Xiaoxia; Gong, Jinlong


    Continuous efforts have been devoted to searching for sustainable energy resources to alleviate the upcoming energy crises. Among various types of new energy resources, solar energy has been considered as one of the most promising choices, since it is clean, sustainable, and safe. Moreover, solar energy is the most abundant renewable energy, with a total power of 173 000 terawatts striking Earth continuously. Conversion of solar energy into chemical energy, which could potentially provide continuous and flexible energy supplies, has been investigated extensively. However, the conversion efficiency is still relatively low since complicated physical, electrical, and chemical processes are involved. Therefore, carefully designed photocatalysts with a wide absorption range of solar illumination, a high conductivity for charge carriers, a small number of recombination centers, and fast surface reaction kinetics are required to achieve a high activity. This Account describes our recent efforts to enhance the utilization of charge carriers for semiconductor photocatalysts toward efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion. During photocatalytic reactions, photogenerated electrons and holes are involved in complex processes to convert solar energy into chemical energy. The initial step is the generation of charge carriers in semiconductor photocatalysts, which could be enhanced by extending the light absorption range. Integration of plasmonic materials and introduction of self-dopants have been proved to be effective methods to improve the light absorption ability of photocatalysts to produce larger amounts of photogenerated charge carriers. Subsequently, the photogenerated electrons and holes migrate to the surface. Therefore, acceleration of the transport process can result in enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency. Different strategies such as morphology control and conductivity improvement have been demonstrated to achieve this goal. Fine-tuning of the

  4. Biogenesis of the mitochondrial phosphate carrier

    Zara, Vincenzo; Rassow, Joachim; Wachter, Elmar; Tropschug, Maximilian; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Neupert, Walter; Pfanner, Nikolaus


    The mitochondrial phosphate carrier (PiC) is a member of the family of inner-membrane carrier proteins which are generally synthesized without a cleavable presequence. Surprisingly, the cDNA sequences of bovine and rat PiC suggested the existence of an amino-terminal extension sequence in the precursor of PiC. By expressing PiC in vitro, we found that PiC is indeed synthesized as a larger precursor. This precursor was imported and proteolytically processed by mitochondria, whereby the correct...

  5. Hot-carrier effects in MOS devices

    Takeda, Eiji; Miura-Hamada, Akemi


    The exploding number of uses for ultrafast, ultrasmall integrated circuits has increased the importance of hot-carrier effects in manufacturing as well as for other technological applications. They are rapidly movingout of the research lab and into the real world.This book is derived from Dr. Takedas book in Japanese, Hot-Carrier Effects, (published in 1987 by Nikkei Business Publishers). However, the new book is much more than a translation. Takedas original work was a starting point for developing this much more complete and fundamental text on this increasingly important topic. The new work

  6. Line broadening caused by Coulomb carrier-carrier correlations and dynamics of carrier capture and emission in quantum dots

    Uskov, Alexander V; Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Tromborg, Bjarne;


    Mechanisms of pure dephasing in quantum dots due to Coulomb correlations and the dynamics of carrier capture and emission are suggested, and a phenomenological model for the dephasing is developed. It is shown that, if the rates of these capture and emission processes are sufficiently high, signi......, significant homogeneous line broadening of the order of several meV can result....

  7. Myocardial structural alteration and systolic dysfunction in preclinical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation carriers.

    Kai Hang Yiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate the presence of myocardial structural alterations and subtle myocardial dysfunction during familial screening in asymptomatic mutation carriers without hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM phenotype. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sixteen HCM families with pathogenic mutation were studied and 46 patients with phenotype expression (Mut+/Phen+ and 47 patients without phenotype expression (Mut+/Phen- were observed. Twenty-five control subjects, matched with the Mut+/Phen- group, were recruited for comparison. Echocardiography was performed to evaluate conventional parameters, myocardial structural alteration by calibrated integrated backscatter (cIBS and global and segmental longitudinal strain by speckle tracking analysis. All 3 groups had similar left ventricular dimensions and ejection fraction. Basal anteroseptal cIBS was the highest in Mut+/Phen+ patients (-14.0±4.6 dB, p-19.0 dB basal anteroseptal cIBS or >-18.0% basal anteroseptal longitudinal strain had a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 72% in differentiating Mut+/Phen- group from controls. CONCLUSION: The use of cIBS and segmental longitudinal strain can differentiate HCM Mut+/Phen- patients from controls with important clinical implications for the family screening and follow-up of these patients.

  8. Longitudinal Variations in Jupiter's Winds

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Gierasch, P. J.; Tierney, G.


    Long-term studies of Jupiter's zonal wind field revealed temporal variations on the order of 20 to 40 m/s at many latitudes, greater than the typical data uncertainties of 1 to 10 m/s. No definitive periodicities were evident, however, though some latitudinally-confined signals did appear at periods relevant to the Quasi- Quadrennial Oscillation (Simon-Miller & Gierasch, Icarus, in press). As the QQO appears, from vertical temperature profiles, to propagate downward, it is unclear why a signal is not more obvious, unless other processes dominate over possibly weaker forcing from the QQO. An additional complication is that zonal wind profiles represent an average over some particular set of longitudes for an image pair and most data sets do not offer global wind coverage. Lien avoiding known features, such as the large anticyclonic vortices especially prevalent in the south, there can be distinct variations in longitude. We present results on the full wind field from Voyager and Cassini data, showing apparent longitudinal variations of up to 60 m/s or more. These are particularly obvious near disruptions such as the South Equatorial Disturbance, even when the feature itself is not clearly visible. These two dates represent very different states of the planet for comparison: Voyagers 1 & 2 flew by Jupiter shortly after a global upheaval, while many regions were in a disturbed state, while the Cassini view is typical of a more quiescent period present during much of the 1990s and early 2000s.

  9. Longitudinal dynamics and tomography in the Tevatron

    Stogin, J. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States); Sen, T. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Moore, R. S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)


    Motivated by the desire to understand the longitudinal effects of beam-beam forces, we study the longitudinal dynamics of protons and anti-protons at injection and top energy in the Tevatron. Multi-turn data of the longitudinal profiles are captured to reveal information about frequencies of oscillation, and changes in the bunch distributions. Tomographic reconstruction is used to create phase space maps which are subsequently used to find the momentum distributions. Changes in these distributions for both proton and anti-proton beams are also followed through the operational cycle. We report too on the details of interesting dynamics and some unexpected findings.

  10. APOE polymorphisms influence longitudinal lipid trends preceding intracerebral hemorrhage

    Phuah, Chia-Ling; Raffeld, Miriam R.; Ayres, Alison M.; Gurol, M. Edip; Viswanathan, Anand; Greenberg, Steven M.; Biffi, Alessandro; Rosand, Jonathan


    Objective: We sought to determine whether APOE genotype influences a previously observed decline in serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels preceding primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), as a potential demonstration of nonamyloid mechanisms of APOE in ICH risk. Methods: We performed a single-center retrospective longitudinal analysis using patients with known APOE genotype drawn from an ongoing cohort study of ICH. Serum lipid measurements for TC, triglycerides (TGs), LDL, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) collected within 2 years before and after index ICH were extracted from electronic medical records. Piecewise linear mixed-effects models were used to compare APOE allele–specific effects on temporal serum lipid trends in ICH. Demographics, medical history, medications, and health maintenance data were included as fixed effects. Inter- and intraindividual variations in lipid levels were modeled as random effects. Results: A total of 124 ICH cases were analyzed. APOE ε4 carriers had greater rates of decline in serum TC and LDL within 6 months preceding ICH (TC: −7.30 mg/dL/mo, p = 0.0035; LDL: −8.44 mg/dL/mo, p = 0.0001). Conversely, serum TC and LDL levels in APOE ε2 carriers were unchanged within the same time period. APOE genotype had no associations with serum HDL or TG trends. Conclusions: APOE allele status predicts serum TC and LDL changes preceding acute ICH. Our results have implications for ongoing efforts in dissecting the role of dyslipidemia in cerebrovascular disease risk. APOE genotype–specific influence on lipid trends provides a clue for one mechanism by which APOE may influence risk of ICH. Further characterization of the metabolic roles of APOE is needed to improve the understanding of APOE biology in cerebrovascular disease risk. PMID:27433544

  11. Electric disc brakes hold nuclear aircraft carriers

    Two nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, the U.S.S. Nimitz and the soon-to-be-completed U.S.S. Dwight D. Eisenhower, use electric disc brakes to stop and hold lines on warping and mooring capstans during docking maneuvers and mooring operations

  12. Managing photons and carriers for photocatalysis

    Thomann, Isabell; Robatjazi, Hossein; Bahauddin, Shah; Doiron, Chloe; Liu, Xuejun; Tumkur, Thejaswi; Wang, Wei-Ren; Wray, Parker

    While small plasmonic nanoparticles efficiently generate energetic hot carriers, light absorption in a monolayer of such particles is inefficient, and practical utilization of the hot carriers in addition requires efficient charge-separation. Here we describe our approach to address both challenges. By designing an optical cavity structure for the plasmonic photoelectrode, light absorption in these particles can be significantly enhanced, resulting in efficient hot electron generation. Rather than utilizing a Schottky barrier to preserve the energy of the carriers, our structure allows for their direct injection into the adjacent electrolyte. On the substrate side, the plasmonic particles are in contact with a wide band gap oxide film that serves as an electron blocking layer but accepts holes and transfers them to the counter electrode. The observed photocurrent spectra follow the plasmon spectrum, and demonstrate that the extracted electrons are energetic enough to drive the hydrogen evolution reaction. A similar structure can be designed to achieve broadband absorption enhancement in monolayer MoS2. Time permitting, I will discuss charge carrier dynamics in hybrid nanoparticles composed of plasmonic / two-dimensional materials, and applications of photo-induced force microscopy to study photocatalytic processes.

  13. Polyester Dendrimers: Smart Carriers for Drug Delivery

    Jean–d’Amour K. Twibanire


    Full Text Available Polyester dendrimers have been shown to be outstanding candidates for biomedical applications. Compared to traditional polymeric drug vehicles, these biodegradable dendrimers show excellent advantages especially as drug delivery systems because they are non-toxic. Here, advances on polyester dendrimers as smart carriers for drug delivery applications have been surveyed. Both covalent and non-covalent incorporation of drugs are discussed.

  14. Polyester Dendrimers: Smart Carriers for Drug Delivery

    Jean–d’Amour K. Twibanire; T. Bruce Grindley


    Polyester dendrimers have been shown to be outstanding candidates for biomedical applications. Compared to traditional polymeric drug vehicles, these biodegradable dendrimers show excellent advantages especially as drug delivery systems because they are non-toxic. Here, advances on polyester dendrimers as smart carriers for drug delivery applications have been surveyed. Both covalent and non-covalent incorporation of drugs are discussed.

  15. A new lubricant carrier for metal forming

    Arentoft, Mogens; Bay, Niels; Tang, Peter Torben;


    A lubricant carrier for metal forming processes is developed. Surfaces with pores of micrometer size for entrapping lubricant are generated by electrochemical deposition of an alloy, consisting of two immiscible metals, of which one metal subsequently is etched away leaving 5 mu m layers with a s...... extrusion at high reduction and excessive stroke comparing with conventionally lubrication using phosphate coating and soap....

  16. Biodegradable PEG-based drug carriers

    Pechar, Michal; Braunová, Alena; Ulbrich, Karel; Jelínková, Markéta; Říhová, Blanka; Seymour, L. W.

    Glasgow : University of Strathclyde, 2005, s. 7-9. [Conference on New Approaches to Drug Delivery "Nanomedicines of the Future". Glasgow (GB), 18.11.2005] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : biodegradable polymers * drug carriers Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  17. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang


    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  18. Energy dissipation by a longitudinal Raman process

    The concept of a longitudinal Raman process is introduced to encompass the indirect transmission of energy from slow electrons to nuclei through the reversible polarization of surrounding electrons. Experimental approaches are sought to assess this process quantitatively

  19. Modeling Disease Progression with Longitudinal Markers

    Inoue, Lurdes Y.T.; Etzioni, Ruth; Morrell, Christopher; Müller, Peter


    In this paper we propose a Bayesian natural history model for disease progression based on the joint modeling of longitudinal biomarker levels, age at clinical detection of disease and disease status at diagnosis. We establish a link between the longitudinal responses and the natural history of the disease by using an underlying latent disease process which describes the onset of the disease and models the transition to an advanced stage of the disease as dependent on the biomarker levels. We...

  20. The muonic longitudinal shower profiles at production

    Andringa, S; Conceição, R; Pimenta, M


    In this paper the longitudinal profile of muon production along the shower axis is studied. The characteristics of this distribution is investigated for different primary masses, zenith angles, primary energies, and different high energy hadronic models. It is found that the shape of this distribution displays universal features similarly to what is known for the electromagnetic profile. The relation between the muon production distribution and the longitudinal electromagnetic evolution is also discussed.

  1. Longitudinal Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking Following Rape

    Ananda B. Amstadter; Resnick, Heidi S.; Nugent, Nicole R.; Acierno, Ron; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Minhinnett, Robin; Kilpatrick, Dean G.


    Although prior research has identified increases in cigarette smoking following trauma exposure, no studies have examined longitudinal trajectories of smoking following rape. The present investigation identifies and characterizes longitudinal ( 6 months post-assault) trajectories of smoking (N = 152) following a rape in a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in a forensic medical exam. Further, we examine acute predictors of subsequent smoking trajec...

  2. Longitudinal study on osteoarthritis and bone metabolism

    L Postiglione; Savastano, S; A. Scognamiglio; G. Nutile; Carpinelli, A; Esposito, A.; del Puente, A; Padula, S.; Oriente, P


    Objective: The relationship between Osteoarthritis (OA) and Osteoporosis (OP) is not well defined due to lacking in longitudinal data, mainly regarding correlations between biochemical factors and OA incidence. Aim of this paper was to investigate the predictive value for OA incidence of bone mass variations and of selected biochemical markers in healthy women participating in a population-based longitudinal study carried out in Naples (Italy). Subjects and Methods: High completion rate (85.2...

  3. Digital Longitudinal Tomography Using Backprojection.

    Kampp, Thomas Dalton


    Conventional tomography allows a single section to be demonstrated on film with a single sweep of an x -ray tube. Each sweep of the x-ray tube exposes the patient to approximately one rad of radiation dose. This tomographic method has been extended by using a backprojection method to allow six degrees of freedom in the selection of the plane to be synthesized. As many planes as desired can be retrospectively tomosynthesized from a single sweep of the apparatus. This can greatly reduce the dose to the patient as well as eliminate patient motion artifacts that would occur with individually acquired slices using the traditional analogue film method. A linear tomographic table was modified by the addition of a digital imaging chain so that a set of projection images could be acquired with each sweep of the apparatus. The digital images were manipulated by a computer to tomosynthesize retrospectively any desired plane. This advanced tomographic system would complement CT which cannot yet match the resolution of this system for longitudinal studies. Various special phantoms were imaged in order to provide data which were used to determine the operating characteristics of this particular system. The characteristics measured are the system gray level response, sampling density, modulation transfer function, small area contrast, detection limits, signal-to-noise ratio, noise Wiener spectrum, and slice thickness. This laboratory piece of equipment could significantly detect approximately 1.7% contrast with a 1 mm pixel size. The MTF values and limiting resolution were approximately one -third of what can be obtained with current CT scanners. The system performed precisely as the computer simulations indicated. The dynamic range of the display is less than that of the image. Windowing of the final image can increase displayed contrast up to the limits imposed by noise. This is an improvement compared to film. With current state -of-the-art equipment, a little engineering and

  4. PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems with Large Number of Sub-Carriers by Carrier Interferometry Approaches

    HE Jian-hui; QUAN Zi-yi; MEN Ai-dong


    High Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) is one of the major drawbacks of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing ( OFDM) systems. This paper presents the structures of the particular bit sequences leading to the maximum PAPR (PAPRmax) in Carrier-Interferometry OFDM (CI/OFDM) and Pseudo Orthogonal Carrier-Interferometry OFDM (PO-CI/OFDM) systems for Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation. Furthermore, the simulation and analysis of PAPRmax and PAPR cumulative distribution in CI/OFDM and PO-CI/OFDM systems with 2048 sub-carriers are presented in this paper. The results show that the PAPR of OFDM system with large number of sub-carriers reduced evidently via CI approaches.

  5. LWS/SET Technology Experiment Carrier

    Sherman, Barry; Giffin, Geoff


    This paper examines the approach taken to building a low-cost, modular spacecraft bus that can be used to support a variety of technology experiments in different space environments. It describes the techniques used and design drivers considered to ensure experiment independence from as yet selected host spacecraft. It describes the technology experiment carriers that will support NASA's Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed space missions. NASA has initiated the Living With a Star (LWS) Program to develop a better scientific understanding to address the aspects of the connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A principal goal of the program is to bridge the gap between science, engineering, and user application communities. The Space Environment Testbed (SET) Project is one element of LWS. The Project will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. The SET Project is highly budget constrained and must seek to take advantage of as yet undetermined partnering opportunities for access to space. SET will conduct technology validation experiments hosted on available flight opportunities. The SET Testbeds will be developed in a manner that minimizes the requirements for accommodation, and will be flown as flight opportunities become available. To access the widest range of flight opportunities, two key development requirements are to maintain flexibility with respect to accommodation constraints and to have the capability to respond quickly to flight opportunities. Experiments, already developed to the technology readiness level of needing flight validation in the variable Sun-Earth environment, will be selected on the basis of the need for the subject technology, readiness for flight, need for flight resources and particular orbit. Experiments will be

  6. Detachment factors for enhanced carrier to carrier transfer of CHO cell lines on macroporous microcarriers

    Landauer, K.; Dürrschmid, M.; Klug, H.; Wiederkum, S.; Blüml, G.; Doblhoff-Dier, O.


    In this publication different detachment factors were tested for enhancing carrier to carrier transfer for scale-up of macroporous microcarrier based bioprocesses. Two Chinese hamster ovary cell lines, CHO-K1 and a genetically engineered CHO-K1 derived cell line (CHO-MPS), producing recombinant human Arylsulfatase B, were examined. The cells were grown on Cytoline 1microcarriers (Amersham Biosciences, Uppsala, Sweden) in protein-free and chemically defined medium respectively. Fully colonised...

  7. Carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool

    Cai, Yu; Sha, Shuang


    This paper proposes a new carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool used in a cylindrical borehole environment during oil-based mud drilling processes. The new tool is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access-based contactless multi-measurand detection tool. The tool can measure formation resistivity in different azimuthal angles and elevational depths. It can measure many more measurands simultaneously in a specified bandwidth than the legacy frequency division multiplexing multi-measurand tool without a channel-select filter while avoiding inter-carrier interference. The paper also shows that formation resistivity is not sensitive to frequency in certain frequency bands. The average resistivity collected from N subcarriers can increase the measurement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by N times given no amplitude clipping in the current-injection electrode. If the clipping limit is taken into account, with the phase rotation of each single carrier, the amplitude peak-to-average ratio can be reduced by 3 times, and the SNR can achieve a 9/N times gain over the single-carrier system. The carrier-interleaving technique is also introduced to counter the carrier frequency offset (CFO) effect, where the CFO will cause inter-pad interference. A qualitative analysis and simulations demonstrate that block-interleaving performs better than tone-interleaving when coping with a large CFO. The theoretical analysis also suggests that increasing the subcarrier number can increase the measurement speed or enhance elevational resolution without sacrificing receiver performance. The complex orthogonal multi-pad multi-carrier resistivity logging tool, in which all subcarriers are complex signals, can provide a larger available subcarrier pool than other types of transceivers.

  8. Benchmark and gap analysis of current mask carriers vs future requirements: example of the carrier contamination

    Fontaine, H.; Davenet, M.; Cheung, D.; Hoellein, I.; Richsteiger, P.; Dejaune, P.; Torsy, A.


    In the frame of the European Medea+ 2T302 MUSCLE project, an extensive mask carriers benchmark was carried out in order to evaluate whether some containers answer to the 65nm technology needs. Ten different containers, currently used or expected in the future all along the mask supply chain (blank, maskhouse and fab carriers) were selected at different steps of their life cycle (new, aged, aged & cleaned). The most critical parameters identified for analysis versus future technologies were: automation, particle contamination, chemical contamination (organic outgassing, ionic contamination), cleanability, ESD, airtightness and purgeability. Furthermore, experimental protocols corresponding to suitable methods were then developed and implemented to test each criterion. The benchmark results are presented giving a "state of the art" of mask carriers currently available and allowing a gap analysis for the tested parameters related to future needs. This approach is detailed through the particular case of carrier contamination measurements. Finally, this benchmark / gap analysis leads to propose advisable mask carrier specifications (and the test protocols associated) on various key parameters which can also be taken as guidelines for a standardization perspective for the 65nm technology. This also indicates that none of tested carriers fulfills all the specifications proposed.

  9. Non-Invasive Biomarkers for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Carrier Detection

    Mónica Alejandra Anaya-Segura


    Full Text Available Non-invasive biological indicators of the absence/presence or progress of the disease that could be used to support diagnosis and to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment are of utmost importance in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD. This neuromuscular disorder affects male children, causing weakness and disability, whereas female relatives are at risk of being carriers of the disease. A biomarker with both high sensitivity and specificity for accurate prediction is preferred. Until now creatine kinase (CK levels have been used for DMD diagnosis but these fail to assess disease progression. Herein we examined the potential applicability of serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9 and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1, myostatin (GDF-8 and follistatin (FSTN as non-invasive biomarkers to distinguish between DMD steroid naïve patients and healthy controls of similar age and also for carrier detection. Our data suggest that serum levels of MMP-9, GDF-8 and FSTN are useful to discriminate DMD from controls (p < 0.05, to correlate with some neuromuscular assessments for DMD, and also to differentiate between Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD and Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD patients. In DMD individuals under steroid treatment, GDF-8 levels increased as FSTN levels decreased, resembling the proportions of these proteins in healthy controls and also the baseline ratio of patients without steroids. GDF-8 and FSTN serum levels were also useful for carrier detection (p < 0.05. Longitudinal studies with larger cohorts are necessary to confirm that these molecules correlate with disease progression. The biomarkers presented herein could potentially outperform CK levels for carrier detection and also harbor potential for monitoring disease progression.

  10. 48 CFR 1615.470 - Carrier investment of FEHB funds.


    ... CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1615.470 Carrier investment of FEHB funds. (a) Except for contracts based on a combination of cost and price analysis (community-rated), the carrier is required...

  11. Screening-induced carrier transport in silicene

    Based on the Boltzmann transport equation in the MRT approximation, we present a theory to investigate low-field carrier transport in dual-gated silicene FETs by taking into account screened charged impurity scattering, which is the most likely scattering mechanism limiting the conductivity. Static RPA dielectric screening is also included in the conductivity calculation to study temperature-dependent silicene transport. It is found that both calculated conductivity and band gap not only depend strongly on carrier sheet density, but also depend strongly on effective offset density. More importantly, screening-induced metal-insulator-transition phenomena in buckled silicene can be observed theoretically, which is similar to that obtained in monolayer graphene. (paper)

  12. Energy carriers in Norway; Energibaerere i Norge


    Within the Norwegian energy consumption, electricity is by far the most dominant energy carrier. In the last thirty years electricity has had an increased significance, while oil has been reduce. A trend that is likely to continue. Energy politics has among others these objectives: environment, reliability of supply and effective energy supply. These objectives are somewhat contradictory. In agreement with the environmental politic phasing out oil leads to a reduction in greenhouse gases. However this politic will have a local impact only effecting Norway, in a larger European connection it might lead to a larger net emission of CO{sub 2}. A political intervention in the energy market might also lead to a reduction in the energy markets effectiveness and flexibility. This report addresses this problem: If a total phase out of the stationary oil consumption is conducted, what energy carriers will this consumption convert to?

  13. Some remarks on the carrier distillation method

    The method described by SCRIBNER and MULLIN makes possible the spectrographic analysis of the refractory oxides of uranium and plutonium. It uses a distillation of the elements which is more or less selective. The influence of the carrier is the subject of as many hypotheses as there are parameters involved in the process. The measurements of the arc temperature carried out on the leading edges of the vibration bands and of certain copper lines have made it possible to show the influence of the nature of the carrier and to establish a relationship between the values of the excitation potentials of the atoms and the temperatures produced. Further, this result makes it possible to explain certain contradictions between the principle of a fractional distillation in the arc which is incompatible with the refractory properties of certain elements and their spectrographic sensitivity. (author)

  14. Carrier synchronization and detection of polyphase signals.

    Lindsey, W. C.; Simon, M. K.


    Digital communication networks used for the distribution of high-speed digital information are currently the subject of design studies for many civil and military applications. This paper presents results that are useful in such studies as well as in network planning. In particular, the paper is concerned with the problems of carrier synchronization and noisy reference detection of polyphase signals. Reconstruction of coherent references for the detection of polyphase signals is considered and analyzed for three carrier reconstruction loops, namely, Nth power (multiply-and-divide) loops, generalized Costas (I-Q) loops, and extensions of data-aided (modulation wipeoff) loops. General expressions for the error probability are developed when the reconstructed reference signals are noisy.

  15. Terahertz transport dynamics of graphene charge carriers

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due

    The electronic transport dynamics of graphene charge carriers at femtosecond (10-15 s) to picosecond (10-12 s) time scales are investigated using terahertz (1012 Hz) time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The technique uses sub-picosecond pulses of electromagnetic radiation to gauge the electrodynamic...... response of thin conducting films at up to multi-terahertz frequencies. In this thesis THz-TDS is applied towards two main goals; (1) investigation of the fundamental carrier transport dynamics in graphene at femtosecond to picosecond timescales and (2) application of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy...... to rapid and non-contact electrical characterization of large-area graphene, relevant for industrial integration. We show that THz-TDS is an accurate and reliable probe of graphene sheet conductance, and that the technique provides insight into fundamental aspects of the nanoscopic nature of conduction...

  16. Superconductivity in carrier-doped silicon carbide

    Takahiro Muranaka, Yoshitake Kikuchi, Taku Yoshizawa, Naoki Shirakawa and Jun Akimitsu


    Full Text Available We report growth and characterization of heavily boron-doped 3C-SiC and 6H-SiC and Al-doped 3C-SiC. Both 3C-SiC:B and 6H-SiC:B reveal type-I superconductivity with a critical temperature Tc=1.5 K. On the other hand, Al-doped 3C-SiC (3C-SiC:Al shows type-II superconductivity with Tc=1.4 K. Both SiC:Al and SiC:B exhibit zero resistivity and diamagnetic susceptibility below Tc with effective hole-carrier concentration n higher than 1020 cm−3. We interpret the different superconducting behavior in carrier-doped p-type semiconductors SiC:Al, SiC:B, Si:B and C:B in terms of the different ionization energies of their acceptors.

  17. High carrier mobilities in black diamond

    Williams, Oliver A.; Jackman, Richard B.; Nebel, Christoph; Foord, John S.


    Hydrogen plasma treatment of diamond renders the surface p-type, with the carriers emerging with little thermal activation, in sharp contrast to the use of boron for the formation of p-type material. To date, it has been thought that only the highest quality 'white' polycrystalline material is useful for electronic device applications, with many regarding single-crystal diamond as ultimately the substrate material of choice. In this paper it is shown that when p-type material is produced through hydrogenation, this is not the case. 'Black' polycrystalline diamond, which can be grown much more rapidly than white, shows carrier concentrations and mobility values similar to both white polycrystalline diamond and single-crystal material. This result has important implications for the provision of low-cost black-diamond substrates for device applications.

  18. Atlas V Aft Bulkhead Carrier Rideshare System

    Willcox, Maj Travis


    This paper gives the background and details of the Atlas V Aft Bulkhead Carrier to be flown on the National Recoinnassance Office Launch 36 with the Operationally Unique Technologies Satellite Auxiliary Payload. The CubeSats included are from a number of labs, universities and government entities for the purpose of technology demonstration, science experimentation and operational proof of concepts. This mission will pave the way for rideshare on NRO missions and other Atlas V launches.

  19. Nanogel Carrier Design for Targeted Drug Delivery

    Eckmann, D.M.; Composto, R. J.; Tsourkas, A; Muzykantov, V. R.


    Polymer-based nanogel formulations offer features attractive for drug delivery, including ease of synthesis, controllable swelling and viscoelasticity as well as drug loading and release characteristics, passive and active targeting, and the ability to formulate nanogel carriers that can respond to biological stimuli. These unique features and low toxicity make the nanogels a favorable option for vascular drug targeting. In this review, we address key chemical and biological aspects of nanoge...

  20. Crude Carrier Consolidation and Capital Cost

    T T Gilje; J Dinwoodie; J Challacombe


    This paper investigates the role of consolidation strategies amongst crude carrier operators anxious to reduce costs and attract institutional capital. Could consolidation combat erratic tonnage demand, mounting regulatory pressure to provide quality service at reduced costs, rising costs of finance and unpredictable long-term returns that deter institutional capital? A questionnaire survey of capital providers' and charterers' attitudes towards consolidation found that long-term vessel emplo...

  1. Electroactuation with Single Charge Carrier Ionomers

    Lee, Alpha A; Colby, Ralph H.; Kornyshev, Alexei A.


    A simple theory of electromechanical transduction for single-charge-carrier double-layer electroactuators is developed, in which the ion distribution and curvature are mutually coupled. The obtained expressions for the dependence of curvature and charge accumulation on the applied voltage, as well as the electroactuation dynamics, are compared with literature data. The mechanical- or sensor- performance of such electroactuators appears to be determined by just three cumulative parameters, wit...

  2. Uptake Carriers and Oncology Drug Safety

    Sprowl, Jason A.; Sparreboom, Alex


    Members of the solute carrier (SLC) family of transporters are responsible for the cellular influx of a broad range of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics in multiple tissues. Many of these transporters are highly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and kidney and are considered to be of particular importance in governing drug absorption, elimination, and cellular sensitivity of specific organs to a wide variety of oncology drugs. Although the majority of studies on the interacti...

  3. Software defined networking: meeting carrier grade requirements

    Staessens, Dimitri; Sharma, Sachin; Colle, Didier; Pickavet, Mario; Demeester, Piet


    Software Defined Networking is a networking paradigm which allows network operators to manage networking elements using software running on an external server. This is accomplished by a split in the architecture between the forwarding element and the control element. Two technologies which allow this split for packet networks are ForCES and Openflow. We present energy efficiency and resilience aspects of carrier grade networks which can be met by Openflow. We implement flow restoration and ru...

  4. Food proteins as potential carriers for phenolics

    Bohin, M.C.


    The development of phenolic-rich functional foods is often limited by the off-tastes of phenolics that might be counteracted by sequestering these compounds using a carrier, thereby preventing them to interact with bitter taste receptors and salivary proteins. A range of common animal food proteins were tested for binding of phenolics. It appeared that a proline-rich open protein structure, as in β-casein, favored binding of phenolics. Globular proteins other than bovine serum albumin sh...

  5. 24 CFR 17.46 - Claims involving carriers or insurers.


    ... amount recoverable from the carrier or insurer may result in reducing the amount recoverable from the Government by the maximum amount which would have been recoverable from the carrier or insurer, had the claim... from the carrier or insurer before his claim under this subpart is settled, the amount or...

  6. 44 CFR 11.75 - Claims involving carriers and insurers.


    ... prosecute rights available against a carrier or insurer and to collect the amount recoverable from the carrier or insurer may result in reducing the amount recoverable from the Government by the maximum amount which would have been recoverable from the carrier or insurer, had the claim been timely or...

  7. 29 CFR 15.25 - Claims involving carriers or insurers.


    ... carrier or insurer and to collect the amount recoverable from the carrier or insurer may result in reducing the amount recoverable from the Government by the maximum amount which would have been recoverable... the loss from the carrier or insurer before his or her claim under this subpart is settled, the...

  8. A Multi-Carrier Scheduling Algorithm for LTE-Advanced

    Vulpe, Alexander; Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Ramjee; Fratu, Octavian

    LTE-Advanced aims to provide a transmission bandwidth of 100 MHz by using Carrier Aggregation to aggregate LTE Rel. 8 carriers. In order to increase the system capacity, resource allocation becomes a very good tool, and, in the context of the existence of multiple Component Carriers in LTE...

  9. Terahertz carrier dynamics in graphene and graphene nanostructures

    Jensen, Søren A.; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Tielrooij, Klaas Jan;


    Photoexcited charge carriers in 2D graphene and in 1D graphene nanostructures were studied with optical pump-THz probe spectroscopy. We find efficient hot-carrier multiplication in 2D graphene, and predominantly free carrier early time response in 1D nanostructures. © 2014 OSA....

  10. Legionella pneumophila Secretes a Mitochondrial Carrier Protein during Infection

    Pavel Dolezal; Margareta Aili; Janette Tong; Jhih-Hang Jiang; Marobbio, Carlo M.T.; Sau Fung Lee; Ralf Schuelein; Simon Belluzzo; Eva Binova; Aurelie Mousnier; Gad Frankel; Giulia Giannuzzi; Ferdinando Palmieri; Kipros Gabriel; Thomas Naderer


    Author Summary Mitochondrial carrier proteins evolved during endosymbiosis to transport substrates across the mitochondrial inner membrane. As such the proteins are associated exclusively with eukaryotic organisms. Despite this, we identified putative mitochondrial carrier proteins in the genomes of different intracellular bacterial pathogens, including Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaire's disease. We named the mitochondrial carrier protein from L. pneumophila LncP and...

  11. Literature review of the passenger airline business models: Full service carrier, low-cost carrier and charter airlines

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.


    The deregulation and liberalization of the air transportation industry have developed three main passenger business models: full service carriers, low-cost carriers, and charter airlines. Deregulation removed regulated fares and routes increasing competition and yields. Airlines business models main

  12. Longitudinal surface structures (flowstripes on Antarctic glaciers

    N. F. Glasser


    Full Text Available Longitudinal surface structures (''flowstripes'' are common on many glaciers but their origin and significance are poorly understood. In this paper we present observations of the development of these longitudinal structures from four different Antarctic glacier systems (the Lambert Glacier/Amery Ice Shelf area, outlet glaciers in the Ross Sea sector, ice-shelf tributary glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula, and the onset zone of a tributary to the Recovery Glacier Ice Stream in the Filchner Ice Shelf area. Mapping from optical satellite images demonstrates that longitudinal surface structures develop in two main situations: (1 as relatively wide flow stripes within glacier flow units and (2 as relatively narrow flow stripes where there is convergent flow around nunataks or at glacier confluence zones. Our observations indicate that the confluence features are narrower, sharper, and more clearly defined features. They are characterised by linear troughs or depressions on the ice surface and are much more common than the former type. Longitudinal surface structures within glacier flow units have previously been explained as the surface expression of localised bed perturbations but a universal explanation for those forming at glacier confluences is lacking. Here we propose that these features are formed at zones of ice acceleration and extensional flow at glacier confluences. We provide a schematic model for the development of longitudinal surface structures based on extensional flow that can explain their ridge and trough morphology as well as their down-ice persistence.

  13. Study of CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity

    The scheme of longitudinal bunch compression cavity for the Cooling Storage Ring (CSR)is an important issue. Plasma physics experiments require high density heavy ion beam and short pulsed bunch,which can be produced by non-adiabatic compression of bunch implemented by a fast compression with 90 degree rotation in the longitudinal phase space. The phase space rotation in fast compression is initiated by a fast jump of the RF-voltage amplitude. For this purpose, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity, loaded with FINEMET-FT-1M is studied and simulated with MAFIA code. In this paper, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity is simulated and the initial bunch length of 238U72+ with 250 MeV/u will be compressed from 200 ns to 50 ns.The construction and RF properties of the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity are simulated and calculated also with MAFIA code. The operation frequency of the cavity is 1.15 MHz with peak voltage of 80 kV, and the cavity can be used to compress heavy ions in the CSR. (authors)

  14. Solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers--innovative generations of solid lipid carriers.

    Shidhaye, S S; Vaidya, Reshma; Sutar, Sagar; Patwardhan, Arati; Kadam, V J


    The first generation of solid lipid carrier systems in nanometer range, Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN), was introduced as an alternative to liposomes. SLN are aqueous colloidal dispersions, the matrix of which comprises of solid biodegradable lipids. SLN are manufactured by techniques like high pressure homogenization, solvent diffusion method etc. They exhibit major advantages such as modulated release, improved bioavailability, protection of chemically labile molecules like retinol, peptides from degradation, cost effective excipients, improved drug incorporation and wide application spectrum. However there are certain limitations associated with SLN, like limited drug loading capacity and drug expulsion during storage, which can be minimized by the next generation of solid lipids, Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). NLC are lipid particles with a controlled nanostructure that improves drug loading and firmly incorporates the drug during storage. Owing to their properties and advantages, SLN and NLC may find extensive application in topical drug delivery, oral and parenteral administration of cosmetic and pharmaceutical actives. Cosmeceuticals is emerging as the biggest application target of these carriers. Carrier systems like SLN and NLC were developed with a perspective to meet industrial needs like scale up, qualification and validation, simple technology, low cost etc. This paper reviews present status of SLN and NLC as carrier systems with special emphasis on their application in Cosmeceuticals; it also gives an overview about various manufacturing techniques of SLN and NLC. PMID:18855604

  15. Bunched beam longitudinal instability: Coherent dipole motion

    In this paper, the authors present a new formulation for the longitudinal coherent dipole motion, where a quadrature response of the environmental impedance is shown to be the effective longitudinal impedance for the beam instability. The Robinson-Pedersen formulation for the longitudinal dipole motion is also presented, the difference of the two approaches is discussed in the comparison. The results by using the Sacherer integral equation for the coherent dipole motion can generate the same results as by using the other two approaches, except for a scaling difference. The formulation is further generalized to the rigid bunch motion using signal analysis method, where a form factor shows up naturally. Finally, the formulation is applied to solve the coupled bunch instabilities. Examples of the AGS Booster and the AGS coupled bunch instabilities are used to illustrate the applications of the formulation

  16. Longitudinal Electroproduction of Charged Pions from

    Separated longitudinal and transverse cross sections for charged pion electroproduction from 1H, 2H, and 3He were measured at Q2 = 0.4 (GeV/c)2 for two values of the invariant mass, (bar W) = 1.15 GeV and (bar W) = 1.60 GeV, in a search for a mass dependence which would signal the effect of nuclear pions. This is the first such study that includes recoil momenta significantly above the Fermi surface. The longitudinal cross section, if dominated by the pion-pole process, should be sensitive to nuclear pion currents. Comparisons of the longitudinal cross section target ratios to a quasifree calculation reveal a significant suppression in 3>He at (bar W) = 1.60 GeV. The (bar W) = 1.15 GeV results are consistent with simple estimates of the effect of nuclear pion currents, but are also consistent with pure quasifree production

  17. Emittance minimisation with longitudinal dipole field variation

    The reduction of horizontal emittance beyond the conventional limit is pursued by introducing a longitudinal variation of the field in a bending magnet. For a given dipole field, the search for the minimal emittance is formulated analytically under different boundary conditions, starting from the achromat condition, preferred for light source rings. With a dipole field rapidly decaying along the longitudinal position, it is shown that the emittance can be further reduced, essentially by rendering the H function to be out of phase with the third power of the local curvature. Under the minimal emittance condition analytically obtained, the optimal dipole field distribution is searched numerically with a polynomial function, analysing at the same time the mechanism of the emittance reduction. The minimal emittance is argued as a function of the required peak field and the field distribution. Adaptability of longitudinally varying dipole fields in a standard magnet lattice for light sources is also addressed

  18. Performance of Uplink Carrier Aggregation in LTE-Advanced Systems

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus


    paper, we evaluate the performance of uplink CA in LTE-Advanced systems with different CC allocation schemes. We first present the radio resource management (RRM) framework of multi-component carrier LTE-Advanced systems, with special attention on CC selection, adaptive transmission bandwidth, and......Carrier aggregation (CA) has been proposed to aggregate two or more component carriers (CCs) to support a much wider transmission bandwidth for LTE-Advanced systems. With carrier aggregation, it is possible to schedule a user equipment (UE) on multiple component carriers simultaneously. In this...... traffic conditions....

  19. Longitudinal tibial epiphyseal bracket in Nievergelt syndrome

    A patient is described with lower extremity mesomelic dwarfism associated with bilateral congenital elbow, hip, and knee dislocations. Rhomboid-shaped tibiae and delayed ossification of the primary fibular ossification centers were demonstrated at birth. Plain films and magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the tibial deformities were due to the presence of longitudinal epiphyseal brackets. These brackets were observed at surgery and confirmed histologically. Recognition of the longitudinal epiphyseal bracket and its relationship to the tibial deformities seen in this patient with Nievergelt syndrome is important for planning surgical treatment. (orig.)

  20. Longitudinal stent deformation during coronary bifurcation stenting.

    Vijayvergiya, Rajesh; Sharma, Prafull; Gupta, Ankush; Goyal, Praveg; Panda, Prashant


    A distortion of implanted coronary stent along its longitudinal axis during coronary intervention is known as longitudinal stent deformation (LSD). LSD is frequently seen with newer drug eluting stents (DES), specifically with PROMUS Element stent. It is usually caused by impact of guide catheter tip, or following passage of catheters like balloon catheter, IVUS catheter, guideliner, etc. We hereby report a case of LSD during coronary bifurcation lesion intervention, using two-stents technique. Patient had acute stent thrombosis as a complication of LSD, which was successfully managed. PMID:26811144

  1. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in tetrahedral amorphous carbon: carrier trapping versus electron-hole recombination

    We report the investigation of the ultrafast carrier dynamics in thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films by means of femtosecond time-resolved reflectivity. We estimated the electron-phonon relaxation time of a few hundred femtoseconds and we observed that under low optical excitation photo-generated carriers decay according to two distinct mechanisms attributed to trapping by defect states and direct electron-hole recombination. With high excitation, when photo-carrier and trap densities are comparable, a unique temporal evolution develops, as the time dependence of the trapping process becomes degenerate with the electron-hole recombination. This experimental evidence highlights the role of defects in the ultrafast electronic dynamics and is not specific to this particular form of carbon, but has general validity for amorphous and disordered semiconductors

  2. Carrier Load Balancing and Packet Scheduling for Multi-Carrier Systems

    Wang, Yuanye; Pedersen, Klaus; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard;


    Abstract-In this paper we focus on resource allocation for next generation wireless communication systems with aggregation of multiple Component Carriers (CCs), i.e., how to assign the CCs to each user, and how to multiplex multiple users in each CC. We first investigate two carrier load balancing...... methods for allocating the CCs to the users- Round Robin (RR) and Mobile Hashing (MH) balancing by means of a simple theoretical formulation, as well as system level simulations. At Layer-2 we propose a simple cross-CC packet scheduling algorithm that improves the coverage performance and the resource...... allocation fairness among users, as compared to independent scheduling per CC. The Long Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced is selected for the case study of a multi-carrier system. In such a system, RR provides better performance than MH balancing, and the proposed simple scheduling algorithm is shown to be...

  3. Carrier Transport Mechanism in Single Crystalline Organic Semiconductor Thin Film Elucidated by Visualized Carrier Motion.

    Matsubara, Kohei; Abe, Kentaro; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa


    Time-resolved microscopic second harmonic generation (TRM-SHG) measurement was conducted to evaluate temperature dependence of the anisotropic carrier transport process in 6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS) pentacene single crystalline domains for two orthogonal directions. Enhancement of the electric field induced SHG (EFI-SHG) signal at the electrode edge at low temperature suggests the presence of potential drop in the injection process. We directly evaluated temperature dependence of the carrier mobility by taking into account the potential drop, and concluded that the Marcus theory is appropriate to interpret the carrier transport in anisotropic TIPS pentacene thin film. TRM-SHG method is a facile and effective way to directly visualize transport process in anisotropic materials and to evaluate injection and transport processes simultaneously. PMID:27451638

  4. How Europe's Low-Cost Carriers Sidestepped Traditional Carriers' Competitive Advantages

    Hvass, Kristian Anders

    The initial appearance of U.S. low-cost carriers forced incumbents to create new forms of competitive advantage. These were successful hindrances for nearly two decades. Concurrently, incumbents in Europe implemented similar tools, although within a regulated market. However, Europe's low...... sidestepped traditional carriers' competitive advantages.......-cost airlines were more successful and had a greater initial impact in their early years than their U.S. compatriots. This paper will attempt to highlight some of the differences between the two markets and explain why European low-cost airlines had more advantages following their market deregulation and...

  5. Studies on carrier free promethium-147

    The present investigation was intended to study the state of Pm-147 in solution and its adsorbed state on membrane filters by varying the concentrations of Pm-147 solution and its pH. Also, the study on the coprecipitation of Pm-147 with Fe(OH)3 was carried out by varying amounts of Fe(OH)3 and pH of the solution. The carrier-free Pm-147 exists in an ionic state of pm3+ in solution, and is adsorbed on membrane filter in filtration process. The adsorbed state of Pm-147 on the membrane filter shows various ionic state at a constant ionic strength of 0.1M NaCl, that is, Pm3+ state exists until pH value of 5.0, then gradually Pm(OH)2+ state appears between pH value of 5.0 to 6.0, and the state of Pm(OH)2+ and Pm(OH)3 would be expected at the higher pH value of 6.0. Coprecipitation of Pm-147 on Fe(OH)3 is an adsorption penomenon in an ionic state of Pm3+ in acidic condition. At higher pH and larger amount of Fe carrier, the adsorbed state of Pm-147 shows Pm(OH)2+ and Pm(OH)2+ state. As a results of the present studies, it is seen that the characteristic of carrier free radioisotopes is not due to the radioactivity, but due to the adsorption of ultramicroquantity of radioisotopes. Therefore, the knowledge on the ultramicroquantity of radioisotopes could help for the solution of decontamination in handing and chemical procedure with radioisotopes. (author)

  6. Carbon-neutral fuels and energy carriers

    Muradov, Nazim Z


    Concerns over an unstable energy supply and the adverse environmental impact of carbonaceous fuels have triggered considerable efforts worldwide to find carbon-free or low-carbon alternatives to conventional fossil fuels. Carbon-Neutral Fuels and Energy Carriers emphasizes the vital role of carbon-neutral energy sources, transportation fuels, and associated technologies for establishing a sustainable energy future. Each chapter draws on the insight of world-renowned experts in such diverse fields as photochemistry and electrochemistry, solar and nuclear energy, biofuels and synthetic fuels, ca

  7. Recent advancements in the cardiovascular drug carriers.

    Singh, Baljeet; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam


    Cardiovascular disease is the disease that affects the cardiovascular system, vascular diseases of the brain and kidney, and peripheral arterial disease. Despite of all advances in pharmacological and clinical treatment, heart failure is a leading cause of morbidness and mortality worldwide. Many new therapeutic advance strategies, including cell transplantation, gene delivery or therapy, and cytokines or other small molecules, have been research to treat heart failure. The main aim of this review article is to focus on nano carriers advancement and addressing the problems associated with old and modern therapeutics such as nonspecific effects and poor stability. PMID:25046615

  8. Investigation of sugar sulfur carrier in nickel

    For the purposes of galvanotechnics it is necessary to have nickel which is easely subjected to the anode dissolving (the so called depolarized nickel). In the industry, nickel of such a quality is produced by the method of electrolytic sedimentation from the nickel solution in the presence of sulfur carriers, usually in the presence of saccharin. To study behaviour of saccharin in the process of electrolysis, investigations of saccharin labelled by sulfur-35 have been done. These investigations have permitted to determine the type and quantity of products of decomposition formed, as well as to determine possibilities for rising the quantity of introducer sulfur due to the variants of technological process

  9. 77 FR 60507 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Subcommittee Meeting


    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Subcommittee Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Meeting of Compliance, Safety, Accountability (CSA) Subcommittee of Motor Carrier Safety...

  10. Distraction osteogenesis using a longitudinal corticotomy

    AL-SAATI, Ma'ad F.; Magnussen, Robert A; LUSTIG, Sebastien; Testa, Rodolphe; Al-Saati, Gazal; Al-Saati, Faisal


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the use of a longitudinal corticotomy (S-Z osteotomy) results in more rapid consolidation following distraction osteogenesis of short tibiae. Sixty-seven lengthening procedures were performed in 51 patients ranging in age from nine to 38 (mean 25) years.

  11. The longitudinal static stability of tailless aircraft

    de Castro, Helena V.


    This paper describes the development of a simple theory of the longitudinal controls fixed static stability of tailless aeroplanes. The classical theory, as developed for the conventional aircraft, is modified to accommodate the particular features of the tailless aeroplanes. The theory was then applied to a particular blended-wing-body tailless civil transport aircraft, BWB-98.

  12. Kinetic theory of a longitudinally expanding system

    Gelis François


    Full Text Available We use kinetic theory in order to study the role of quantum fluctuations in the isotropization of the pressure tensor in a system subject to fast longitudinal expansion, such as the matter produced in the early stages of a heavy ion collision.

  13. Teaching Technology Longitudinally to Virtual Children

    Matthews, Lynley


    Children of Generation Y are entering our schooling system. These children have always known instant communication and the internet. They possess basic skills in using technology, but they still need to develop a deeper understanding of technology. Teaching longitudinally will increase the learner's confidence and develop a deeper understanding.…

  14. Investigating Ceiling Effects in Longitudinal Data Analysis

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Zhiyong; McArdle, John J.; Salthouse, Timothy A.


    Score limitation at the top of a scale is commonly termed "ceiling effect." Ceiling effects can lead to serious artifactual parameter estimates in most data analysis. This study examines the consequences of ceiling effects in longitudinal data analysis and investigates several methods of dealing with ceiling effects through Monte Carlo simulations…

  15. Kinetic theory of a longitudinally expanding system

    Gelis, Francois


    We use kinetic theory in order to study the role of quantum fluctuations in the isotropization of the pressure tensor in a system subject to fast longitudinal expansion, such as the matter produced in the early stages of a heavy ion collision.

  16. Longitudinal bulk a coustic mass sensor

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja;


    Design, fabrication and characterization, in terms of mass sensitivity, is presented for a polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever. The device is operated in air at 51 MHz, resulting in a mass sensitivity of 100 HZ/fg (1 fg = 10{su−15 g). The initial characterization is cond...

  17. Gamma herpesvirus carrier status of captive artiodactyls.

    Flach, E J; Reid, H; Pow, I; Klemt, A


    Between 1998 and 2000, 103 individuals of 19 species of the order Artiodactyla at Whipsnade Wild Animal Park were tested for evidence of infection with gamma herpesviruses in order to distinguish between species which are susceptible to malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1) of wildebeest (Connochaetes sp.) or ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) of domestic sheep, and species which carry related viruses sub-clinically. Gamma herpesvirus DNA was detected in the known, or suspected, carrier species: roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus), scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), gemsbok (Oryx gazella), musk ox (Ovibos muschatus) and mouflon (Ovis musimon). In six other species: lowland anoa (Bubalus depressicornis) yak (Bos grunniens), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) and Nile lechwe (Kobus megaceros), DNA was present in some newborn calves and over 30% of adults, strongly suggesting a carrier state. In contrast five Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus) and two swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli) died of MCF during the study. A virus isolated from scimitar-horned oryx calves produced cytopathic effects in scimitar-horned oryx kidney cell-culture and caused MCF in a rabbit. PMID:12208112

  18. Probiotics and immunosenescence: cheese as a carrier.

    Ibrahim, Fandi; Ruvio, Suvi; Granlund, Linda; Salminen, Seppo; Viitanen, Matti; Ouwehand, Arthur C


    Oral intake of specific probiotics has been reported to enhance the immunity of the elderly. Earlier studies have used milk or yoghurt as a probiotic carrier. We chose a commercial probiotic cheese to evaluate its potential as a probiotic food. Thirty-one healthy elderly volunteers (21 female, 10 male) aged from 72 to 103 (median 86) consumed a commercial probiotic cheese containing approximately 10(9) CFU day(-1) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM. The 4-week probiotic intervention was preceded by a 2-week consumption of probiotic-free cheese (run-in) and followed by a 4-week wash-out period with the same control cheese. The cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), the relative numbers of natural killer (NK) and NKT cells in the total PBMCs, and phagocytic activity were assessed. Consumption of the probiotic cheese significantly increased the cytotoxicity of NK cells. A significant increase in phagocytosis was observed for both the control and the probiotic cheese. Cheese was found to be an effective carrier for the study of probiotics, and daily consumption of the probiotic enhanced parameters of innate immunity in elderly volunteers. It remains to be determined whether this enhancement correlates with a beneficial effect on the health of the elderly population. PMID:20236323

  19. Analysing the risk of LNG carrier operations

    This paper presents a generic, high-level risk assessment of the global operation of ocean-going liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers. The analysis collects and combines information from several sources such as an initial hazid, a thorough review of historic LNG accidents, review of previous studies, published damage statistics and expert judgement, and develops modular risk models for critical accident scenarios. In accordance with these risk models, available information from different sources has been structured in the form of event trees for different generic accident categories. In this way, high-risk areas pertaining to LNG shipping operations have been identified. The major contributions to the risk associated with LNG shipping are found to stem from five generic accident categories, i.e. collision, grounding, contact, fire and explosion, and events occurring while loading or unloading LNG at the terminal. Of these, collision risk was found to be the highest. According to the risk analysis presented in this paper, both the individual and the societal risk level associated with LNG carrier operations lie within the As Low As Reasonable Practicable (ALARP) area, meaning that further risk reduction should be required only if available cost-effective risk control options could be identified. This paper also includes a critical review of the various components of the risk models and hence identifies areas of improvements and suggests topics for further research

  20. Charged carrier spin dynamics in ZnO quantum wells and epilayers

    Kim, Jungtaek; Puls, J.; Sadofev, S.; Henneberger, F.


    Longitudinal charged carrier spin dynamics is studied for ZnO quantum wells and epilayers using the optical transition of the negatively charged exciton X- and the neutral donor bound exciton D0X , respectively. The hole spin relaxation is derived from the optical orientation of X- and D0X photoluminescence, whereas the spin relaxation of the resident electrons and donor electrons is accessed via the bleaching of the spin selective excitation process. Hole spin relaxation times of τ1s ,h of 80 and 140 ps are found for D0X and X-, respectively, which are practically independent of a magnetic field B∥ applied along the ZnO c ⃗ axis. Much longer longitudinal electron spin relaxation times in the 1 μ s range are uncovered if the hyperfine interaction is suppressed by a proper B∥. A field strength of ≈2 mT is large enough proving the extremely small value of the Overhauser field in ZnO. This is related to the very restricted number of magnetic nuclei interacting with the electron inside the volume of the exciton complex.

  1. Influence of carrier on the performance of dry powder inhalers.

    Saint-Lorant, G; Leterme, P; Gayot, A; Flament, M P


    The aim of this work is to study carriers which can become alternatives to monohydrate lactose in dry powder inhalers and to consider particle parameters that influence adhesion between drug and carrier in dry powder inhalers. Different forms of mannitol, lactose and maltitol were mixed with either terbutaline sulphate or formoterol fumarate. The blends were submitted to different adhesion tests where drug detachment from the carrier was obtained either through mechanical vibration or by aspiration. Parameters like particle shape, roughness, amorphous content and cristalline form may affect interactions between drug and carrier. In our case, crystallized forms of the carrier offered lower adhesion but better release of the active ingredient than spray-dried forms. The crystallized mannitol produced maximal fine particle dose. The blends of the mannitols and the two active ingredients gave different results. The two techniques used to assess the adhesion of drugs to carrier particles provide complementary information about drug/carrier interactions and detachment. The mechanical sieving allows to assess blend stability and the air-jet sieving makes it possible to determine how easily the drug separates from carrier. For the drugs tested, the results of fine particle doses are in agreement with the Alpine air-jet sieve results. The tests used are helpful for the choice of a new carrier in the field of the development of new carriers for dry powder inhalers. PMID:17113733

  2. Features of charge carrier transport determined from carrier extraction current in .mu.c-Si:H

    Juška, G.; Arlauskas, K.; Nekrašas, N.; Stuchlík, Jiří; Niquille, X.; Wyrsch, N.

    299-302, - (2002), s. 375-379. ISSN 0022-3093 Grant ostatní: VMSF(LT) 01SP-02 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : mobility of majority carriers * photoconductivity transport Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.435, year: 2002

  3. 47 CFR 69.105 - Carrier common line for non-price cap local exchange carriers.


    ... residential and single-line business lines multiplied by the difference between the residential and single-line business End User Common Line rate cap and the lesser of $6.50 or the non-price cap local exchange... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier common line for non-price cap...

  4. Graphene, a material for high temperature devices; intrinsic carrier density, carrier drift velocity, and lattice energy

    Yin, Yan; Wang, Li; Jin, Kuijuan; Wang, Wenzhong


    Heat has always been a killing matter for traditional semiconductor machines. The underlining physical reason is that the intrinsic carrier density of a device made from a traditional semiconductor material increases very fast with a rising temperature. Once reaching a temperature, the density surpasses the chemical doping or gating effect, any p-n junction or transistor made from the semiconductor will fail to function. Here, we measure the intrinsic Fermi level (|E_F|=2.93k_B*T) or intrinsic carrier density (n_in=3.87*10^6 cm^-2 K^-2*T^2), carrier drift velocity, and G mode phonon energy of graphene devices and their temperature dependencies up to 2400 K. Our results show intrinsic carrier density of graphene is an order of magnitude less sensitive to temperature than those of Si or Ge, and reveal the great potentials of graphene as a material for high temperature devices. We also observe a linear decline of saturation drift velocity with increasing temperature, and identify the temperature coefficients of ...

  5. Nasal carriers are more likely to acquire exogenous Staphylococcus aureus strains than non-carriers.

    Ghasemzadeh-Moghaddam, H; Neela, V; van Wamel, W; Hamat, R A; Shamsudin, M Nor; Hussin, N Suhaila Che; Aziz, M N; Haspani, M S Mohammad; Johar, A; Thevarajah, S; Vos, M; van Belkum, A


    We performed a prospective observational study in a clinical setting to test the hypothesis that prior colonization by a Staphylococcus aureus strain would protect, by colonization interference or other processes, against de novo colonization and, hence, possible endo-infections by newly acquired S. aureus strains. Three hundred and six patients hospitalized for >7 days were enrolled. For every patient, four nasal swabs (days 1, 3, 5, and 7) were taken, and patients were identified as carriers when a positive nasal culture for S. aureus was obtained on day 1 of hospitalization. For all patients who acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) or methicillin-susceptible S. aureus via colonization and/or infection during hospitalization, strains were collected. We note that our study may suffer from false-negative cultures, local problems with infection control and hospital hygiene, or staphylococcal carriage at alternative anatomical sites. Among all patients, 22% were prior carriers of S. aureus, including 1.9% whom carried MRSA upon admission. The overall nasal staphylococcal carriage rate among dermatology patients was significantly higher than that among neurosurgery patients (n = 25 (55.5%) vs. n = 42 (16.1%), p 0.005). This conclusion held when the carriage definition included individuals who were nasal culture positive on day 1 and day 3 of hospitalization (p 0.0001). All MRSA carriers were dermatology patients. There was significantly less S. aureus acquisition among non-carriers than among carriers during hospitalization (p 0.005). The mean number of days spent in the hospital before experiencing MRSA acquisition in nasal carriers was 5.1, which was significantly lower than the score among non-carriers (22 days, p 0.012). In conclusion, we found that nasal carriage of S. aureus predisposes to rather than protects against staphylococcal acquisition in the nose, thereby refuting our null hypothesis. PMID:26183299


    Chen, Yasheng; An, Hongyu; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Lin, Weili


    There are imminent needs for longitudinal analysis to make physiological inferences on NIH MRI study of normal brain development. But up to date, two critical aspects for longitudinal analysis, namely the selections of mean and covariance structures have not been addressed by the neuroimaging community. For the mean structure, we employed a linear free-knot B-spline regression in combination with quasi-least square estimating equations to approximate a nonlinear growth trajectory with piecewi...

  7. Longitudinal Analyses of the Effects of Trade Unions

    Freeman, Richard Barry


    This paper examines how measurement error biases longitudinal estimates of union effects. It develops numerical examples, statistical models, and econometric estimates which indicate that measurement error is a major problem in longitudinal data sets, so that longitudinal analyses do not provide the research panacea for determining the effects of unionism (or other economic forces) some have suggested. There are three major findings:1) The difference between the cross-section and longitudinal...

  8. Relationship between structural coherence and intrinsic carrier transport in an isolated poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanofiber

    Shimomura, Takeshi; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Ichimura, Yasutaka; Nakagawa, Shino; Noguchi, Keiichi; Heike, Seiji; Hashizume, Tomihiro


    Our study is focused on the relationship between the structural coherence and intrinsic carrier transport in a regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) nanofiber, particularly in an isolated nanofiber, formed in various ratios of good and poor solvent mixtures. The P3HT nanofiber, which is formed in solvent mixtures, had a whisker structure with the length of several μm, the height decreased from 9 to 2 nm as estimated by scanning force microscope observation, and the structural coherent length along the longitudinal axis increased from 40 to 59 Å as determined by x-ray-diffraction measurement, with increasing ratio of the good solvent. The I-V characteristics measured by the four-probe method showed that the activation energy of hopping conduction, which was considerably related with the structural disorder, decreased with increasing ratio of the good solvent. Moreover, the field-effect-transistor characteristics of the nanofiber showed that the carrier mobility increased with increasing ratio of the good solvent, and the nanofiber formed under the good-solvent-rich condition showed the mobility from 3.8×10-2 to 5.6×10-2 cm2 V-1 s-1. The tendency of the mobility to increase has been explained on the basis of the change in the structural coherent length and thermal activation energy, assuming the model that regarded the nanofiber as a one-dimensional array of electronically coherent regions and incoherent defects, and hence the relationship between the structural coherence and carrier transport has been clarified.


    段萍萍; 聂宏; 魏小辉


    In view of the complexity of landing on the deck of aircraft carrier ,a systematic model ,composed of six-degree-of-freedom mathematic model of carrier-based aircraft ,four-degree-of-freedom model of landing gears and six-degree-of-freedom mathematic model of carrier , is established in the Matlab-Simulink environment , with damping function of landing gears and dynamic characteristics of tires being considered .The model ,where the car-rier movement is introduced ,is applicable for any abnormal landing condition .Moreover ,the equations of motion and relevant parameter are also derived .The dynamic response of aircraft is calculated via the variable step-size Runge-Kuta algorithm .The effect of attitude angles of aircraft and carrier movement during the process of landing is illustrated in details .The analytical results can provide some reference for carrier-based aircraft design and main-tenance .

  10. Avoiding asymmetry-induced bias in longitudinal image processing

    Reuter, Martin; Fischl, Bruce


    Longitudinal image processing procedures frequently transfer or pool information across time within subject, with the dual goals of reducing the variability and increasing the accuracy of the derived measures. In this note, we discuss common difficulties in longitudinal image processing, focusing on the introduction of bias, and describe the approaches we have taken to avoid them in the FreeSurfer longitudinal processing stream.