Sample records for carp ctenopharyngodon idellus

  1. Gene Expression Profiling of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and Crisp Grass Carp

    Ermeng Yu; Jun Xie; Guangjun Wang; Deguang Yu; Wangbao Gong; Zhifei Li; Haiying Wang; Yun Xia; Nan Wei


    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is one of the most important freshwater fish that is native to China, and crisp grass carp is a kind of high value-added fishes which have higher muscle firmness. To investigate biological functions and possible signal transduction pathways that address muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp, microarray analysis of 14,900 transcripts was performed. Compared with grass carp, 127 genes were upregulated and 114 genes were downregulated in crisp grass c...

  2. Effect of Ultrastructure on Changes of Textural Characteristics between Crisp Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon Idellus C.Et V) and Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon Idellus) Inducing Heating Treatment.

    Lin, Wan-Ling; Yang, Xian-Qing; Li, Lai-Hao; Hao, Shu-Xian; Wang, Jin-Xu; Huang, Hui; Wei, Ya; Wu, Yan-Yan


    The research studies the ultrastructure effect on texture of crisp grass carp (CGC) and grass carp (GC) fillets inducing heating for 15, 25, and 40 min with boiling water. After heating, the hardness, fracturability, springiness, chewiness, resilience, and cohesiveness of CGC were higher than that of raw CGC, whereas the all textural characteristics of heating GC were lower obviously than that of raw GC. The hardness, fracturability, springiness, chewiness, resilience, and cohesiveness of CGC for heating 15 min were higher by 6.3%, 9.0%, 27.0%, 71.8%, 9.4%, and 23.9%, respectively, than that of raw CGC (RCGC). The hardness increasing of CGC flesh with the extension of heating time related closely to more coagulating connective tissue in interstitial spaces, especially relating to smaller muscle fiber diameter and denser muscle fiber density. The more and larger spaces between fiber and fiber with the extension of heating time results in the decrease of cohesiveness and resilience of CGC flesh. For chewiness, the stronger chewiness of cooked CGC associated with more detachment of myofiber-myocommata and fiber-fiber. Overall, the results show that the changes of texture characteristics of CGC fillet with extension of heating time correlates positively with the ultrastructure. PMID:26757426

  3. Effect of Sugar on the Changes in Quality of Lightly Salted Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) Fillets under Vacuum Packaging at 4°C.

    Wang, Zhiying; Chen, Kexin; Chen, Jingru; Fan, Hongbing; Luo, Yongkang


    To estimate the effect of a low concentration of sugar on the changes in quality of lightly salted grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) during storage under vacuum packaging at 4°C, we determined the sensory score, total viable counts, biochemical quality, and physical quality of fish fillets. Fish samples were left untreated, dry cured with 1.3% salt, or dry cured with 1.3% salt plus 1.0% sugar. Compared with untreated samples, curing treatments reduced chemical changes reflected in pH, inosine monophosphate, hypoxanthine riboside, hypoxanthine, and total volatile base nitrogen; decreased the formation of phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and histamine; and increased the overall sensory quality of fillets (P effect on the shelf life of vacuum-packaged grass carp fillets. PMID:26939658

  4. Effects of L-carnitine against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in grass carp ovary cells (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Wang, Qiuju; Ju, Xue; Chen, Yuke; Dong, Xiaoqing; Luo, Sha; Liu, Hongjian; Zhang, Dongming


    This study was designed in vitro to investigate the effects of L-carnitine against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) ovary cell line (GCO). GCO cells were pre-treated with different concentrations of L-carnitine, followed by incubation with 2.5 mM H2O2 for 1 h to induce oxidative damage. The results indicated that adding L-carnitine at concentrations of 0.01-1 mM into the medium for 12 h significantly increased cell viability. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine at concentrations of 0.1-5 mM for 12 h significantly inhibited 2.5 mM H2O2-induced cell viability loss. The significant decreases in the level of reactive oxygen species and cell apoptosis were observed in 0.5 mM L-carnitine group compared to the H2O2 group. Malondialdehyde values of all of the L-carnitine groups were significantly lower than those of the H2O2 group, while total glutathione levels of all of the L-carnitine groups were significantly higher than of the H2O2 group. The activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as total superoxide dismutase (0.1 and 0.5 mM L-carnitine), catalase (0.5 mM L-carnitine) and γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (0.5 and 1 mM L-carnitine), was significantly increased. In addition, pre-treatment of L-carnitine in GCO cells exposed to 2.5 mM H2O2 significantly increased the mRNA expression of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase, catalase (0.5 mM L-carnitine), glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (0.1-1 mM) and glutathione peroxidase (0.1 mM L-carnitine). In conclusion, L-carnitine promotes GCO cell growth and improves antioxidant function, it plays a protective role against oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in GCO cells, and the appropriate supplemental amount of L-carnitine is 0.1-1 mM. PMID:26701137

  5. Transcriptome profiling of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Yang, Ying; Yu, Hui; Li, Hua; Wang, Anli


    Aeromonas hydrophila is the causative pathogen of intestinal hemorrhage which has caused great economic loss in grass carp aquaculture. In order to understand the immunological response of grass carp to infection by A. hydrophila, the transcriptomic profiles of the spleens from infected and non-infected grass carp groups were obtained using HiSeq™ 2500 (Illumina). An average of 63 million clean reads per library was obtained, and approximately 80% of these genes were successfully mapped to the reference genome. A total of 1591 up-regulated and 530 down-regulated genes were identified. Eight immune-related categories involving 105 differently expressed genes were scrutinized. 16 of the differently expressed genes involving immune response were further validated by qRT-PCR. Our results provide valuable information for further analysis of the mechanisms of grass carp defense against A. hydrophila invasion. PMID:26945937

  6. Postmortem changes in actomyosin dissociation, myofibril fragmentation and endogenous enzyme activities of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) muscle.

    Wang, Daoying; Zhang, Muhan; Deng, Shaoying; Xu, Weimin; Liu, Yuan; Geng, Zhiming; Sun, Chong; Bian, Huan; Liu, Fang


    The changes of actomyosin, proteolytic activities and myofibril fragmentation during the postmortem aging of grass carp were studied. The study revealed dramatically increased actomyosin dissociation within 6 h of storage postmortem in grass carp, and it was associated with the drop of pH from 6.9 to 6.7, while liberated actin remained almost unchanged after 6 h postmortem. The myofibril fragmentation also increased significantly with the storage time in 6 h, and a highly positive correlation (Ptenderization and textural changes in grass carp. PMID:26616958

  7. The use of food wastes as feed ingredients for culturing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) in Hong Kong.

    Choi, W M; Lam, C L; Mo, W Y; Wong, M H


    Different types of food wastes, e.g., meats, bones, cereals, fruits, and vegetables, were collected from hotels in Hong Kong, mixed in different ratio, and processed into feed pellets (food wastes (FWs) A, B, and C) for feeding trials in aquaculture species. Grass carp fed with cereal-dominant feed (FW A) showed the best growth (in terms of specific growth rate, relative weight gain, and protein efficiency ratio), among all food waste feeds. However, the growth rates of food waste groups especially the meat product-contained feeds (FW B and FW C) were lower than the commercial feed, Jinfeng(®) 613 formulation (control). The results indicated that grass carp utilized plant proteins better than animal proteins and preferred carbohydrate as a major energy source than lipid. The high-lipid content in feed containing meat products was also a possible reason for hindering growth and resulted high body lipid. It is suggested that lipid should be removed in the preparation of food waste feed or further investigations by implementing supplements, e.g., enzymes in feed to enhance lipid or protein utilization by fish. This utilization of food waste could be an effective and practical way to deal with these wastes in this densely populated city. PMID:26432269

  8. Purification and characterization of a gelatinolytic matrix metalloproteinase from the skeletal muscle of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Wu, Jiu-Lin; Ge, Shang-Ying; Cai, Zhi-Xing; Liu, Hui; Liu, Ying-Xiang; Wang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Qi-Qing


    A gelatinolytic matrix metalloproteinase (gMMP) from grass carp skeletal muscle was purified by 30-70% ammonium sulphate fractionation and a combination of chromatographic steps including ion exchange on DEAE-Sephacel, gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200, and affinity on gelatin-sepharose. The molecular weight of the proteinase as estimated by SDS-PAGE was 70 kDa under non-reducing conditions. The enzyme revealed high activity from 30 to 50 °C, and the gelatin hydrolysing activity was investigated at a slightly alkaline pH range using gelatin as substrate. Metalloproteinase inhibitor EDTA completely suppressed the gelatinolytic activity, while other proteinase inhibitors did not show any inhibitory effect. Divalent metal ion Ca(2+) was essential for the gelatinolytic activity. Further, peptide mass fingerprinting obtained four fragments with 45 amino acid residues, which were highly identical to MMP-2 from fish species. The gMMP could effectively hydrolyse type I collagen even at 4 °C, suggesting its involvement in the texture softening of fish muscle during the post-mortem stage. PMID:24128525

  9. 投喂低聚木糖对草鱼肠道菌群的影响%Effects of dietary xylo-oligosaccharide on intestinal microflora of grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    熊娟; 吴志新; 张朋; 曲艺; 付思思; 刘佳佳; 陈孝煊


    Intestinal microflora of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) feeding with xylo-oligosaccharide for 56 days by concentrations of 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% respectively was investigated in this paper. Numbers of E. coli, Aeromonas and Bifidobacterium were analyzed before feeding and after 14, 28, 42, 56 days. The results showed that there was a certain influence on the intestinal microflora of grass carp after fed with different concentrations of xylo-oligosaccharides. The quantity of E.coli in the intestine of grass carps was smallest on the 28th day, and compared with the control group, 0.4% group significantly different (P<0.05) has the highest decreasing magnitudes. The quantity of Aeromonas reduced but there was no significant difference with control. The quantity of Bifidobacterium increased and there was significant difference (P<0.05) between control and 0.4% group on 14th day. Therefore,feedstuffs with xylo-oligosaccharide, which were conducive to maintain a healthy state of intestinal microflora, group with 0.4% has the best effect.%投喂添加0.1%、0.2%、0.4%和0.6%低聚木糖的基础饲料56 d,对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肠道菌群进行了研究.分别在投喂前(0 d)和投喂后的第14、28、42和56天取样,对草鱼肠道大肠杆菌(E.coli)、气单胞菌(Aeromonas)和双歧杆菌(Bifidobacterium)数量进行了分析.结果表明:基础饲料中添加不同浓度的低聚木糖对草鱼肠道菌群有一定影响,大肠杆菌数量在28 d达最低值,其中0.4%组减少的幅度最大,与对照组比较显著减少(P<0.05);气单胞菌数量均有减少但与对照组比较差异并不显著;双歧杆菌数量均有增加,其中0.4%组在第14天时差异显著(P<0.05).因此,饲料中添加0.4%低聚木糖效果最佳,有利于草鱼肠道菌群保持健康的状态.

  10. Effects of different stunning methods on the flesh quality of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets stored at 4 °C.

    Qin, Na; Li, Dapeng; Hong, Hui; Zhang, Yuemei; Zhu, Beiwei; Luo, Yongkang


    The effects of stunning methods (percussion (T1), stunning at -22 °C in a freezer (T2), and immersion in ice slurry (T3)) on the flesh quality of grass carp fillets were evaluated in terms of K-value, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), electrical conductivity (EC), total viable counts (TVC), biogenic amines, and sensory scores during storage. Moreover, fillets were analyzed periodically for pH, hardness, acid phosphatase activity, and the content of glycogen, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and lactate. Significantly slower ATP depletion, slower reduction in pH, slower lactate formation, and higher initial glycogen level were observed in T3 compared to T1 and T2 (Pbiogenic amines, and lower sensory scores. Significantly lower TVC (P<0.05) was exhibited in T3, which indicated that stunning in ice slurry could improve the quality and prolong the shelf life of grass carp. PMID:26868557

  11. Evaluation of medicated feeds with antiparasitical and immune-enhanced Chinese herbal medicines against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Lin, De-Jie; Hua, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Xu, De-Hai; Fu, Yao-Wu; Liu, Yan-Meng; Zhou, Sheng-Yu


    Since malachite green was banned for using in food fish due to its carcinogenic and teratogenic effects on human, the search of alternative drug to treat Ichthyophthirius multifiliis becomes urgent. This study aimed to (1) evaluate the ethanol extracts of medicinal plants Cynanchum atratum, Zingiber officinale, Cynanchum paniculatum, immunostimulant (A), and immunostimulant (B) for their efficacy against I. multifiliis, and (2) determine effects of medicated feeds with C. atratum, Z. officinale, C. paniculatum, and immunostimulant (A) to treat I. multifiliis in grass carp. The results in this study showed that the minimum concentrations of C. atratum, Z. officinale, and C. paniculatum extracts for killing all theronts were 16, 8, and 16 mg/L, respectively. In vivo experiments, fish fed with medicated feeds of C. atratum for 10 days, or Z. officinale for 3 days, or combination of three plants for 10 days resulted in a significant reduction in the I. multifiliis infective intensity on grass carp after theronts exposure. Grass carp fed with medicated feeds of immunostimulant (A) for 21 days showed no infection and 100 % of survival 15 days post theronts exposure. Therefore, immunostimulant (A) is a promising feed supplement to treated I. multifiliis with good antiparasitic efficacy. PMID:27003405

  12. Effect of replacing soybean meal with cottonseed meal on growth, hematology, antioxidant enzymes activity and expression for juvenile grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Zheng, Qingmei; Wen, Xiaobo; Han, Chunyan; Li, Haobo; Xie, Xiaohui


    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with cottonseed meal (CSM) on growth and health of grass carp. Four isonitrogenous diets containing 0, 16.64, 32.73 and 48.94% of CSM, respectively, as replacements of 0, 35, 68 and 100% of SBM were fed to fish (initial body weight 7.14 ± 0.75 g/fish) in triplicate aquaria twice daily. The results indicated that fish fed diet containing 16.64% CSM as a replacement of 35% of SBM was not affected in wei...

  13. Effect of dietary cottonseed meal on growth performance, physiological response, and gossypol accumulation in pre-adult grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Liu, Haokun; Yan, Quangen; Han, Dong; Jin, Junyan; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia; Xie, Shouqi


    Cottonseed meal (CM) was used at up to 36.95% content in the diet (replacing 60% of dietary fish meal protein) without any negative eff ects on growth performance of pre-adult grass carp (initial body weight, 761 g) under outdoor conditions. A culture trial was conducted in net cages installed in a large concrete pond. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing a gradient of CM concentrations (0, 12.2%, 24.4%, 36.6%, 48.8%, 54.8%, and 61.0%) as replacement for dietary fish meal protein (0, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 90%, and 100%) were formulated. Dietary non-resistant starch (from maize) was inverse to dietary CM. Growth performance and feed utilization of fish fed the diets containing CM replacing 0-40% fishmeal protein were not aff ected after the 6-week feeding trial. Accumulation of hepatopancreatic total gossypol in the hepatopancreas was significantly correlated with free gossypol content in the diets (HTG=88.6+1.5×DFG, R 2=0.89, Pprotein replacement). Increasing dietary CM content increased serum alanine aminotransferase levels but decreased serum alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and albumin (P<0.05).

  14. 脆化草鱼与氹仔草鱼的肠道细菌群落PCR-DGGE指纹图谱及多样性分析%Fingertprinting and Diversity of the Intestinal Bacterial Community of Crisp Grass Carp and Dang-zai Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) with PCR-DGGE

    郁二蒙; 余德光; 毕香梅; 谢骏; 王广军; 龚望宝; 王海英; 李志斐


    确定地理来源是水产品跟踪和追溯的一个重要指标,基于鱼类肠道细菌16S核糖体rRNA基因(16S rDNA)构建的PCR-DGGE指纹图谱可标示鱼类来源.本研究采用PCR-DGGE技术构建了中山脆化草鱼和茂名氹仔草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肠道内容物和肠道壁群落的PCR-DGGE指纹图谱.肠道内容物DGGE图谱显示,脆化草鱼和氹仔草鱼分别有17条和15条可鉴别的条带;脆化草鱼特异条带代表3种未培养细菌GU301246.1、FJ675051.1和GU293197.1,氹仔草鱼特异条带代表未培养细菌AY578409.1和GU301246.1.脆化草鱼的肠道壁前肠与中肠、中肠与后肠、前肠与后肠的DGGE图谱相似性依次为50.5%、54.3%和33.2%,氹仔草鱼的肠道壁前肠与中肠中肠与后肠、前肠与后肠的DGGE图相似性分别为36.1%、47.7%和15.4%.脆化草鱼的前肠、中肠和后肠的DGGE图谱的相似性远大于氹仔草鱼.脆化草鱼和氹仔草鱼的肠道群落PCR-DGGE指纹图谱有助于这2种草鱼产品的跟踪和销售.%The determination of geographical origin is a demand of the traceability system of import-export food products, and 16S ribosomal rRNA (rDNA) PCR-DGGE fingerprinting based on fish intestinal microbia has been considered to trace the fish sources. For this purpose, PCR-DGGE technology were used to detect the variation in bacterial community structures in the intestinal contents and intestinal wall of Crisp grass carp (CGC)(Ctenopharyngodon idellus) from Zhongshan and Dang-zai grass carp (DGC)(C. idellus) from Maoming district. The V3 region of bacterial 16S rDNA from fish was amplified by PCR and was analyzed by DGGE. It's demonstrated in the DGGE profiles of intestinal contents that there were 17 bands in the CGC and 15 bands in the DGC, 11 bands co-exiting in both CGC and DGC. The results of molecular identification of specific bands showed that specific bacteria of CGC included uncultured bacteria GU301246.1, FJ675051.1 and GU293197


    M. S. Khan, S. A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhary, M. N. Khan,1 A. Aslam , K. Ashraf2, R. M. Ayyub and M. F. Rai.


    The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D). Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided int...

  16. Effects of Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels on Growth, Body Composition and Digestive Enzyme Activity in Juvenile Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus%饲料蛋白质和能量水平对草鱼幼鱼生长和消化酶活性的影响

    蒋湘辉; 刘刚; 金广海; 李敬伟; 解涵; 宋文华; 闫有利


    在水温24~29℃下,将675尾规格整齐、健康、体质量为(35.59士0.44)g的草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)随机分为9个处理,每处理3个重复,放养于水泥池中的网箱(100cm×50cm×100cm)内,投喂以鱼粉和豆粕为蛋白源,豆油作为脂肪源配制的3个蛋白水平(24%、28%、32%),每一蛋白水平设3个脂肪水平(4%、6%、8%),共计9种饲料.饲料蛋能比(P/E)在15.81~22.46 mg·kJ-1之间.92d的饲养表明:D4组(蛋白质含量为28.02%,脂肪为4.30%)草鱼的特定生长率最高,显著高于其他各组(P<0.05).随着饲料中蛋白含量的增加,草鱼全肠中蛋白酶的活力逐渐升高,之后又降低,以D4组饲料的蛋白酶活性最高,显著高于D1、D8和D9(P<0.05).本实验表明,该生长阶段的草鱼所需最适蛋白水平为28.02%,能量为14307kJ·kg-1,P/E约为19.58mg·kJ-1.%Six hundred and seventy five grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) juveniles (body weight 35.59 t 0.44g) were randomly divided into nine groups with triplication,stocked into net cages displaced in an indoor tank and fed one of the nine diets containing three protein levels (24%,28% and 32%,fishmeal and soybean meal as dietary protein) and three lipid levels (4%,6% and 8%,soybean oil as dietary lipid) for 92 days to evaluate the effects of dietary protein and lipid levels on the growth performance and digestive enzyme activities of grass carp.The results showed that specific growth rate was found significantly higher in the fish fed the diet D4 (containing 28.02% protein,and 4.30% fat) than that in the fish fed the other diets (P< 0.05).There was significantly higher proteinase activity in the fish fed the diet D4 than those in the fish fed diets D1,D8 and D9 (P< 0.05).It is recommended that the optimal ratio of protein level to energy (P/E) be 28.02/19.58,optimal dietary proten level 28.02% and optimal energy 14307 kJ· kg-1,for grass carp juveniles.

  17. 草鱼过氧化氢酶全长cDNA的克隆、序列同源分析与组织表达%Full-length cDNA Cloning, Sequence Homology Analysis and Tissue Expre-ssion of a Catalase Gene from Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    郑清梅; 韩春艳; 温茹淑; 钟艳梅; 姚琼凤; 侯雨文


    过氧化氢酶(catalase,CAT)是生物体内抗氧化防御系统的关键酶之一,在清除过氧化氢而避免机体产生氧化应激的过程中起重要作用.本研究从草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肝胰脏中克隆了CAT完整编码序列(complete coding sequence,CDS).该CAT序列(GenBank登陆号:FJ560431)全长2 263 bp,包括完全开放阅读框(ORF) 1 575 bp、5'非编码区(UTR) 118 bp和3' UTR 570 bp.其ORF编码525个氨基酸残基,理论分子量为59.59 kD,等电点为7.02.在草鱼CAT cDNA的终止密码子附近,其3' UTR具有长且完整的AC重复序列,与斑马鱼、鲢鱼及啮齿类动物CAT的3' UTR AC重复序列相似.序列比较表明,草鱼CAT的核苷酸及推测氨基酸序列与其它多种物种的一致性均较高,其一致性分别为93.4%~43.0%和98.1%~63.3%.同时,草鱼CAT cDNA的推测氨基酸序列具有与其它动物高度保守的特征性基序,包括亚铁血红素结合信号序列"RLFSYPDTH"、酶活性中心序列"FDRERIPERVVHAKGA"及3个催化位点残基His74、Asn147和Tyr357.此外,草鱼CAT还具有保守的亚铁血红素结合口袋与NADPH 结合位点.根据草鱼CAT基因的上述特征,推测其属于CAT基因家族中的单功能或典型CAT基因亚群.采用实时荧光定量PCR (Q-PCR)检测草鱼CAT的组织表达特征.结果显示,草鱼CAT mRNA在所检测的11种组织器官中均有表达,其中在肝中表达水平量较高,在红肌、白肌和脂肪中表达量较低.本研究结果将有助于进一步探讨鱼类CAT基因的结构与功能,并为研究其抗氧化分子机理奠定基础.%Catalase is a key enzyme in the antioxidant systems of living organisms that plays an important role in the against oxidative stress by eliminating hydrogen peroxide. The full-length catalase cDNA was cloned from hepatopancreas of grass carp {Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The gene CA T (GenBank Accession No. FJ560431) was 2 263 base-pairs (bp), including a complete protein coding region (ORF) of 1

  18. 草鱼ghrelin基因的分子克隆与组织分布及其摄食调控作用分析%Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and food intake regulatory effects of ghrelin in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    陈勇; 李家乐; 沈玉帮; 傅建军; 王荣泉; 宣云峰


    ghrelin是一种在脊椎动物摄食调节过程中起重要作用的脑肠肽,具有明显的摄食促进作用.实验利用同源克隆技术获得了草鱼ghrelin基因的cDNA序列和DNA序列,其中cDNA序列全长506 bp,包括90 bp的5 '端非编码区(5’-untranslated region,5'UTR),312 bp的开放阅读框(open reading frame,ORF),以及104 bp的3’端非编码区(3’-untranslated region,3'UTR).开放阅读框编码的103个氨基酸的ghrelin前体肽,经剪切加工后形成含有19个氨基酸的成熟肽.氨基酸序列分析结果显示,草鱼ghrelin与硬骨鱼类ghrelin相似度最高,而与其他脊椎动物相似度较低,同时草鱼ghrelin成熟肽N端的“活性中心”(active core)为鲤科鱼类中常见的GTSF形式.与大多数硬骨鱼类的ghrelin基因结构相同,草鱼ghrelin基因也包括4个外显子和3个内含子.荧光定量PCR检测到ghrelin mRNA大量分布于草鱼的前肠和脾,脑、肾、肝、肌肉、皮和鳔等组织也有ghrelin mRNA分布.草鱼脑和肠中的ghrelin表达水平在摄食后下降,随着饥饿时间的延长表达水平逐步升高,最后维持在较高水平,表明ghrelin作为摄食启动信号对草鱼的摄食活动起到了促进作用.%Ghrelin is one of vital brain-gut peptides involved in feeding regulation in vertebrates, and is well known for its appetite-stimulating capacity. Nucleotide sequences of ghrelin gene were identified both at DNA and cDNA levels, using homology-based cloning techniques from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The 506 bp full-length ghrelin cDNA consists of a 90 bp 5'-untranslated region, a 312 bp open reading frame and a 104 bp 3'-untranslated region. The 103-amino acid prepropeptide encoded by open reading frame turns into a mature peptide with 19 amino acids after posttranslational modification, putative amino acid sequence analysis among vertebrates indicated that grass carp ghrelin showed the highest sequence homology with teleosts, and lower homology

  19. 草鱼胰岛素样生长因子1受体基因cDNA全序列的克隆及功能%cDNA cloning and function of insulin-like growth factor-I receptor gene (Igf-Ir) in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    周春雪; 蒋霞云; 陈杰; 邹曙明


    本研究采用cDNA末端快速扩增法(RACE)克隆了草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)IGF-IR基因全长cDNA序列,并对该基因在草鱼不同时期胚胎和成鱼不同组织中的表达进行了分析。序列分析表明,草鱼IGF-IR基因cDNA序列全长5741 bp,包括5′端非翻译区822 bp,3′端非翻译区581 bp,开放阅读框4338 bp,共编码1445个氨基酸。序列比对结果显示,草鱼 IGF-IR 可能属于 a 型,该基因编码的氨基酸序列与鲤(Cyprinus carpio)IGF-IRa、斑马鱼(Danio rerio)IGF-IRa和人类(Homo sapiens)IGF-IR的相似性分别为95%、93%和66%,具有较高的同源性,表明该基因在长期进化中具有较高的保守性。RT-PCR结果表明,该基因从16 hpf(hours post fertilization)胚胎期到出苗期都有表达,在成鱼大部分组织中均有表达。原位杂交结果显示,草鱼IGF-IR mRNA在不同时期胚胎组织中广泛存在,其中在脑部、脊索和尾部等生长旺盛组织的细胞中表达量较高。本研究为进一步探索草鱼IGF-IR基因在生长发育信号通路中的作用和育种提供了基础资料。%The insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) is an important component of the insulin-like growth fac-tor system, which plays a key role in embryonic growth, formation of the nervous system, skeletal muscle development, and also appears to contribute to the establishment and progression of tumors. Despite its importance, little is known about the tissue distribution and expression pattern of IGF-IR during embryonic development in most commercially important cultured fish species. We isolated a 5 741 bp IGF-IR full-length cDNA from grass carp(Ctenopha ryngodon idellus). The IGF-IR cDNA included an 822 bp complete 5′untranslated region (5′UTR), a 581 bp 3′UTR, and a 4 338 bp open reading frame (ORF) region which encoded a 1 445 amino acid protein. The mature peptide contained seven structural domains including two Recep-L-domains, one Furin-like domain, three FN3

  20. Effects of fish CYP inducers on difloxacin N-demethylation in kidney cell of Chinese idle (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Yu, Ling Zhi; Yang, Xian Le; Wang, Xiang Ling; Yu, Wen Juan; Hu, Kun


    A drug-drug interaction occurs when the effect of one drug is altered by the presence of another drug which is generally associated with the induction of cytochrome P450s (CYPs) activity. Thus, unexpected treatment failures often happen resulting from inappropriate coadministration in fisheries. However, little information is available about CYP induction in fish. The reaction of difloxacin (DIF) biotransformation to sarafloxacin (SAR) belongs to N-demethylation catalyzed mainly by CYP(s). In order to supply useful information on CYP induction, the present study assessed the effects of fish-specific CYP inducers on DIF N-demethylation and enzyme kinetics in kidney cell of Chinese idle (CIK; grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)) by RP-HPLC. Results demonstrated that the amounts of SAR formation and enzymatic parameters Clint and Vmax were significantly increased due to beta-naphthoflavone (BNF) pretreatment. Therefore, we suggest that CYP1A may be involved in DIF N-demethylation in CIK. This study provides instructive information to ensure treatment success via avoiding CYP induction in fisheries. PMID:19685219

  1. Case report of chondroma in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    Mesbah, Mehrzad; Rezaie, Annahita; Tulaby Dezfuly, Zahra


    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is a herbivorous, freshwater fish species of the family Cyprinidae, and the only species of the genus Ctenopharyngodon. Neoplasms in fishes are generally less aggressive than neoplasms in mammals and are most commonly discrete, focal and benign neoplasms. A 3-year-old grass carp with a big mass on the vertebrae was referred to the clinic. According to the owner’s statements, the fish had no signs of lethargy, ataxia and abnormal behaviors. The size of the mass was 7 × 6 × 6 cm. It cut hardly with audible sounds. The consistency of the mass was as hard as a cartilage. Microscopic examination revealed numerous irregular crests of hyaline cartilage beneath the skin. According to histopathologic characteristics, chondroma on the vertebrae of grass carp was diagnosed.

  2. Effect of different levels of earthworms and vermicompost on the flesh quality of grass carp,ctenopharyngodon idellus%不同水平的蚯蚓和蚯蚓粪对草鱼肌肉品质的影响

    程静; 茅沈丽; 梁日深; 邹青; 曾运丁; 邹记兴


    To investigate the effects of earthworms and vermicompost on the flesh quality of grass carp, grass carp with the average body weight (54.03+0.15) g were fed for 100 days by adding 5%,7.5%,10% earthworms or 2%, 4%, 6% vermicompost in basal diets.The results showed that: adding earthworms and vermicompost could significantly improve the content of crude protein in flesh (P0.05); in the aspect of muscle total amino acids content,almost all test groups were better than the control group except the group added with 2%vermicompost with no difference compared with the control group(P>0.05), while the test group added with 7.5% earthworm worked the best; in the aspect of essential amino acids content,the EAA content of adding 7.5% earthworms test group was significantly higher than that of the control group, while the other groups had just a high trend; in the aspect of flavor amino acid concentration in muscle, all the test groups had no difference with the control group; the evaluation results of amino acid nutritional value showed that,diets added with appropriate earthworms and vermicompost can increase EAAI, EAAI was the highest while adding with 7.5% earth-worms.In summary,diets added with a certain concentration of earthworms and vermicompost had a trend of improving the flesh quality of grass carp, while adding 7.5% earthworms worked the best.%实验在基础饲料中添加不同浓度的蚯蚓(5%、7.5%、10%)和蚯蚓粪(2%、4%、6%),饲养平均体重(54.03±0.15)g的草鱼100 d,研究蚯蚓和蚯蚓粪对草鱼肌肉品质的影响.结果表明:添加蚯蚓和蚯蚓粪可显著提高肌肉中粗蛋白的含量(P<0.05),以添加7.5%~10%蚯蚓和6%蚯蚓粪效果最好,对水分、粗脂肪和粗灰分均无显著影响(P>0.05);在肌肉氨基酸总量方面,除去2%蚯蚓粪组与对照组相比差异不显著外,其余实验组均显著高于对照组,并以添加7.5%蚯蚓实验组氨基酸总量最高;在肌

  3. Cloning and Tissue Expression Analysis ofPAX7 Gene in Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)%草鱼PAX7基因的克隆、序列分析及组织表达

    甘甜; 冷向军; 郭婷; 胡静; 魏静; 李小勤


    Paired box gene 7(PAX7)is crucially important to the cellular renewal, differentiation and apoptosis, especially in neural crest development, gastrulation, and muscle self-renewal. ThePAX7 domains sequence is conserved among several species, such as zebrafish, apteronotidae, and rainbow trout, and the conserved sequence zebrafish was used to design degenerate primers for reverse-transcription PCR(RT-PCR). A partial sequence ofPAX7 from grass carp was obtained for a 645 bp segment encoding a 214 amino acid peptide, containing a paired box domain with 128 amino acids. The deduced protein showed homology to zebrafish(Danio rerio), apteronotidae(Sternopygus macrurus), Japanese Medaka(Oryzias latipes), gilthead bream(Sparus aurata), rainbow trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss), Atlantic salmon(Salmo salar), Arctic charr(Salvelinus alpinus), human(Homo sapiens), wild yak(Bos grunniens mutus), brown rat(Rattus norvegicus), and mouse(Mus musculus)with 90%-97% identities. Analysis of the PAX7 phylogenetic tree revealed that the grass carp joined with zebrafish, and there was a confluence of Japanese medaka, Arctic charr, Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, apteronotidae and gilthead bream. The other branch was consisted of mouse, brown rat, wild yak and human. These results conformed to the traditional species classification evolution status. The expression in tissues was detected by Real-time quantitative PCR, which indicated that the highest level ofPAX7 gene expression was found in muscle, a lower expression level was found in foregut and skin, and the lowest detectable level was found in heart, brain, kidney and liver. The results are in agreement with the function of the gene.%配对盒基因7(Paired box 7 gene,PAX7)在神经嵴发育及原肠胚形成、肌肉自主更新与再生中扮演着重要角色,对细胞更新、分化、凋亡等起着十分重要的调控作用。参照GenBank中斑马鱼、线鳍电鳗和虹鳟等物种PAX7序列的保守区域设计简并引

  4. Differential expression of two C-type lectins in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and their response to grass carp reovirus.

    Ju, C S; He, L B; Pei, Y Y; Jiang, Y; Huang, R; Li, Y M; Liao, L J; Jang, S H; Wang, Y P


    The cDNAs of two C-type lectins in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, galactose-binding lectin (galbl) and mannose-binding lectin (mbl), were cloned and analysed in this study. Both of them exhibited the highest expression level in liver, whereas their expression pattern differed in early phase of embryonic development. Following exposure to grass carp reovirus (GCRV), the mRNA expression level of galbl and mbl was significantly up-regulated in liver and intestine. PMID:26643267

  5. The growth of Ctenopharyngodon idellus in Bositeng Lake in Xinjiang%博斯腾湖草鱼生长特征的研究

    陈朋; 马燕武; 谢春刚; 祁峰; 李红


    This paper deals with growth characteristics of Ctenopharyngodon idellus based on the 33 specimens collected in Bositeng Lake in August 2014.The ages and growth characteristics of Ctenopharyngodon idellus were determined by scale reading.The body weight increasesallometrically with the body length .The length -weight relationship can be described by the following equations: W =0.0444SL 2.8322.Growth could be described by von Bertalanffy equation with the growth param -eters: SL8 =103.7664 cm, k =0.1385 /y, t0 =-0.0542 y, and weight growth parameters : W8 =22.7674 kg, k =0.1385 /y, t0 =0.0027 y, =9.5875.The inflexion point of age for body weight growth and the corresponding body length and body weight is at 7.5 years, 67.3 cm and 6.6 kg.Constrained by the lack of food supply , the growth rate of Ctenopha-ryngodon idellus has significantly declined comparing with that of 1979 and 2000.In consequence, the recoverable resource of aquatic macrophyte should be as one important objective of the proliferation of Ctenopharyngodon idellus.The concrete measures include reduce Ctenopharyngodon idellus releasing, lowing the fishable size to 3 kg and increase the fishing inten -sity and quantity of Ctenopharyngodon idellus.%根据2014年8月采集的33尾标本对博斯腾湖草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)的生长特征进行研究。以鳞片为年龄和生长退算材料,研究结果显示:博斯腾湖草鱼体重与体长表现为异速生长,关系式为 W =0.0444SL2.8322。用退算体长拟合的 von Bertalanffy 生长参数为: SL8=103.7664 cm, k =0.1385/y, t0=-0.0542 y。体重生长参数为: W8=22.7674 kg, k =0.1385/y, t0=0.0027 y。生长特征指数为3.16;生长拐点年龄为7.5龄,拐点时体长和体重分别为67.3 cm 和6.6 kg。与1979年和2000年种群相比,受饵料供给不足的制约,博斯腾湖草鱼生长速度明显下降。草鱼增殖管理措施的制定应以恢复沉

  6. Cloning, mRNA expression and bioinformatic analysis of full length type I collagen alpha 1 cDNA from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)%草鱼Ⅰ型胶原蛋白α1基因cDNA全序列克隆、组织分布及其生物信息学分析

    刘邦辉; 郁二蒙; 王广军; 余德光; 谢骏; 王海英; 龚望宝


    Type I collagen, as a number of collagen family, is the most abundant collagen and major components of the extracellular matrices of all metazoan life, and plays crucial roles in differentiation, formation of collagen fibers and tissue remodeling after injury, etc. Type I collagen alpha 1(COL1A1) cDNA of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was isolated through the RT-PCR and RACE approaches. The cDNA was 5 772-bp in length, including a 4 347-bp CDS (coding sequence) and encoded a polypeptide of 1 449 aa. The homology of COL1Al amino acid with relative species (zebrafish, goldfish, etc.) was as high as 93% with zebra fish and goldfish. The protein peptide molecular weight was 137.2 ku and theoretical pI was 5.44 using ProtParam software on line. The protein peptides of COL1A1 possessed 6 a-helixes, 12 β-sheets, others of ruleless coil regions, and 18 regions of triple helical repeats, 22 low complexity regions, 17 function domains. There were two calcium-binding sites and one zinc-binding site in the COL1A1 protein peptide. COL1A1 mRNA was determined in all the tested 8 tissues (muscle, intestine, hepatopancreas, gill, skin, fin, kidney and spleen) of grass carp by semi- quantitative RT-PCR, and the mRNAs expression in gill, kidney, skin and fin significantly higher than other tissues (P<0.05). The structure and bioinformat-ics characteristics of the COL1A1 from grass carp may help to further understand the function of COL1A1 gene in the repair process of damaged tissue in the grass carp.%利用PCR和RACE方法首次克隆了编码草鱼肌肉Ⅰ型胶原蛋白的α1基因(COL1A1)的cDNA全长序列,为5772 bp,其开放阅读框为4 347 bp,编码1448个氨基酸.BLAST同源性分析结果显示,草鱼COL1Al基因的氨基酸序列与斑马鱼、金鱼同源性较高,分别为93.90%和93.60%,呈现出较高的保守性.系统进化树分析表明,该基因与斑马鱼、金鱼处于同一支,亲缘性最近.生物信息学分析显示,草鱼COL1Al蛋白

  7. Sox genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella with their implications for genome duplication and evolution

    Tong Jingou


    Full Text Available Abstract The Sox gene family is found in a broad range of animal taxa and encodes important gene regulatory proteins involved in a variety of developmental processes. We have obtained clones representing the HMG boxes of twelve Sox genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, one of the four major domestic carps in China. The cloned Sox genes belong to group B1, B2 and C. Our analyses show that whereas the human genome contains a single copy of Sox4, Sox11 and Sox14, each of these genes has two co-orthologs in grass carp, and the duplication of Sox4 and Sox11 occurred before the divergence of grass carp and zebrafish, which support the "fish-specific whole-genome duplication" theory. An estimation for the origin of grass carp based on the molecular clock using Sox1, Sox3 and Sox11 genes as markers indicates that grass carp (subfamily Leuciscinae and zebrafish (subfamily Danioninae diverged approximately 60 million years ago. The potential uses of Sox genes as markers in revealing the evolutionary history of grass carp are discussed.

  8. Molecular genetic investigations on Balantidium ctenopharyngodoni Chen, 1955, a parasite of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Marton, Szilvia; Bányai, Krisztián; Forró, Barbara; Lengyel, György; Székely, Csaba; Varga, Ádám; Molnár, Kálmán


    Balantidium ctenopharyngodoni is a common ciliate in Hungary, infecting the hindgut of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a cyprinid fish of Chinese origin. Although data have already been presented on its occasional pathogenic effect on the endothelium of the host, generally it is a harmless inhabitant of the gut. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA and ITS fragments of this protozoan proved that it is in the closest phylogenetic relationship with endocommensalist and symbiont ciliates of mammals feeding on large volumes of green forage, in a similar way as Balantidium spp. known from algae-eating marine fishes. PMID:27342092

  9. A consensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella based on microsatellites and SNPs

    Li Jiale


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to construct a first generation genetic map of grass carp using microsatellites and SNPs to generate a new resource for mapping QTL for economically important traits and to conduct a comparative mapping analysis to shed new insights into the evolution of fish genomes. Results We constructed a first generation linkage map of grass carp with a mapping panel containing two F1 families including 192 progenies. Sixteen SNPs in genes and 263 microsatellite markers were mapped to twenty-four linkage groups (LGs. The number of LGs was corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of grass carp. The sex-specific map was 1149.4 and 888.8 cM long in females and males respectively whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 1176.1 cM. The average resolution of the map was 4.2 cM/locus. BLAST searches of sequences of mapped markers of grass carp against the whole genome sequence of zebrafish revealed substantial macrosynteny relationship and extensive colinearity of markers between grass carp and zebrafish. Conclusions The linkage map of grass carp presented here is the first linkage map of a food fish species based on co-dominant markers in the family Cyprinidae. This map provides a valuable resource for mapping phenotypic variations and serves as a reference to approach comparative genomics and understand the evolution of fish genomes and could be complementary to grass carp genome sequencing project.

  10. 草鱼胰岛素样生长因子结合蛋白IGFBP-1基因的全长cDNA克隆及表达%cDNA cloning and expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein gene IGFBP-1 in Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    陶洋; 邹曙明


    克隆了草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)胰岛素样生长因子结合蛋白1(IGFBP-1)基因的全长cDNA,并对草鱼不同时期的胚胎和成鱼不同组织进行了RT-PCR分析,以探索草鱼IGFBP-1基因的生物学功能.结果显示:(1)草鱼IGFBP-1基因cDNA全长为1 135bp,包含一个789 bp阅读框,编码262个氨基酸残基;草鱼与鲤、斑马鱼、沟鲶、大鳞大麻哈鱼、虹鳟、五条(蛳)、小鼠和人的IGFBP-1氨基酸序列相似度分别为94%、93%、69%、60%、58%、56%、40%和38%;草鱼IGFBP-1蛋白的N端和C端序列负责与胰岛素样生长因子(IGF)结合,其保守性较高.(2)RT-PCR分析结果表明,草鱼胚胎期IGFBP-1 mRNA的表达水平很低,在受精后4 hrs和8 hrs胚胎未能检测到转录本,受精12 hrs后,仅能检测到微量表达;草鱼IGFBP-1mRNA在肝脏、肾脏、肠和心脏组织中具有表达活性.鉴于IGFBP-1基因在IGF信号通路中的重要作用,又是一个低氧诱导基因,上述结果可为进一步探索IGFBP-1基因的功能奠定基础.%In this study, the complete cDNA of a insulin-like growth factor binding gene IGFBP-1 was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus. And mRNA transcripts during embryogenesis and in adult tissues were studied by RT-PCR. The results showed that: ( 1 )The complete cDNA of C. idellus IGFBP-1 is 1 135 bp and its ORF includes 789 bp which coding 262 aminoacid residue. The deduced amino acid analysis showed that the sequence similarities between C. idellus and Cyprinus carpio , Danio rerio , Ictalurus punctatus, Salmo salar , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Seriola quinqueradiata,Mus musculus and Homo sapiens are 94%, 93%, 69%, 60%, 58%, 56%, 40% and 38%, respectively.Its functional N-terminal and C-terminal domains, which are involved in binding with IGF ligand, are very conservative. (2) RT-PCR results demonstrated that IGFBP-1 gene had a iow expression in embryos at different stages in C. idellus

  11. A specific CpG oligodeoxynucleotide induces protective antiviral responses against grass carp reovirus in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Su, Hang; Yuan, Gailing; Su, Jianguo


    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) show strong immune stimulatory activity in vertebrate, however, they possess specific sequence feature among species. In this study, we screened out an optimal CpG ODN sequence for grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), 1670A 5'-TCGAACGTTTTAACGTTTTAACGTT-3', from six published sequences and three sequences designed by authors based on grass carp head kidney mononuclear cells and CIK (C. idella kidney) cells proliferation. VP4 mRNA expression was strongly inhibited by CpG ODN 1670A in CIK cells with GCRV infection, showing its strong antiviral activity. The mechanism via toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-mediated signaling pathway was measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, and TLR21 did not play a role in the immune response to CpG ODN. The late up-regulation of CiRIG-I mRNA expression indicated that RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) signaling pathway participated in the immune response to CpG ODN which is the first report on the interaction between CpG and RLRs. We also found that the efficient CpG ODN can activates interferon system. Infected with GCRV, type I interferon expression was reduced and type II interferon was induced by the efficient CpG ODN in CIK cells, especially IFNγ2, suggesting that IFNγ2 played an important role in response to the efficient CpG ODN. These results provide a theoretical basis and new development trend for further research on CpG and the application of CpG vaccine adjuvant in grass carp disease control. PMID:26972738

  12. Growth Performance and Production of Organically Cultured Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.) Under Mid-Hill Conditions of Meghalaya; North Eastern India

    Majhi, Sullip K.; Das, Anup; Mandal(1), Binoy K.


    The aquatic fern Azolla (Azolla caroliniana) can be easily grown organically in North Eastern India due to favorable climatic conditions. This fern was fed to the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.) as a step towards producing organic fish. In the study, Azolla was found to be a preferred feed by the grass carp and mean daily growth increment was recorded. The statistically paired t-test indicated that the final weight gain of grass carp in Azolla fed ponds were significantly higher (t...

  13. Effects of fish cytochromes P450 inducers and inhibitors on difloxacin N-demethylation in kidney of Chinese idle (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Yu, Ling Zhi; Yang, Xian Le


    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) play key roles in drug metabolism which are widely distributed in kidney in aquatic organisms. CYP(s) mainly catalyzed the N-demethylation reaction of difloxacin (DIF) biotransformation to sarafloxacin (SAR). However, limited information is available about CYP investigation in fish. In order to supply useful information on CYP(s) characterization for DIF N-demethylation, the present study assessed the effects of fish potent CYP inducers and inhibitors on DIF N-demethylation and the inductive and inhibitive enzyme kinetics in kidney of Chinese idle (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Results demonstrated that the amounts of SAR formation pretreated by β-naphthoflavone (BNF) increased by 1.1-fold and α-naphthoflavone (ANF) inhibited SAR formation level by 0.6-fold at the third day. Enzymatic parameters V(max) and Cl(int) of DIF N-demethylase were increased by 0.56- and 0.38-fold due to β-naphthoflavone (BNF) pretreatment. DIF N-demethylation inhibition by varying ANF concentrations represented a mixed-type inhibition with the value of the inhibition constants (K(i)) 12.9mg/kg. BNF and ANF are the separate typical inducer and inhibitor for CYP1A in fish. Thus, we suggest that CYP1A may be responsible for DIF N-demethylation in kidney. This study provides instructive information to ensure treatment success in fisheries medication with two or more drugs. PMID:21787603

  14. 铜对草鱼及花鲢的毒性预测:基于生物配体模型%Predicting Copper Toxicity to Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ctenopharyngodon idellus Based on Biotic Ligand Model

    王万宾; 陈莎; 吴敏; 赵婧


    A series of 96 h copper acute toxicity experiments were conducted with Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix under different concentrations of DOC [ρ(DOC) 0. 05,0. 5,1,2,4 mg·L-1]. Higher DOC resulted in a reduction of toxicity, which was in line with the concepts of the biotic ligand model ( BLM) . It was concluded that the mean absolute deviation ( MAD) of LC50 with Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix was 591. 2, 157. 14 μg·L-1 and 728. 18, 91. 24 μg·L-1 , respectively, by the prediction of copper BLM developed for Fathead minnow and Rainbow trout. Based on speciation analysis of biotic ligand model, it was shown that LA50 values of Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix were 10. 960 and 3. 978 nmol·g-1 , respectively. Then the MAD values became 280. 52 and 92. 25 μg·L -1 for Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix using the normalized LA50 . Finally by searching toxicity data in literature, the MAD values on Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix were 252. 37 and 50. 26 μg·L-1 , successively. This result verified that the toxicity prediction based on biotic ligand model was practical.%试验配置不同胡敏酸浓度( DOC浓度为0.05、0.5、1、2、4 mg·L-1)下,分别对草鱼及花鲢进行铜的一系列96 h生物急性毒性试验,结果表明 DOC 浓度与 LC50呈正相关关系,此与生物配体模型描述一致.利用两鱼种( Fathead minnow、Rainbow trout)的生物配体模型预测草鱼及花鲢的LC50,得出平均绝对偏差分别为591.2、157.14μg·L-1及728.18、91.24μg·L-1.在生物配体模型( biotic ligand model, BLM)铜形态分布平台下,得到草鱼及花鲢的 LA50(以湿重计)依次为10.960 nmol·g-1和3.978 nmol·g-1.通过校正草鱼及花鲢的LA50,得出平均绝对偏差依次为280.52μg·L-1和92.25μg·L-1,预测性能显著提高.基于所确立的 LA50,通过搜集草鱼及花鲢的毒性数据,预测其 LC50,

  15. Characterization of interleukin-1β as a proinflammatory cytokine in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Bo, Yun-Xuan; Song, Xue-Hong; Wu, Kang; Hu, Bo; Sun, Bing-Yao; Liu, Zhao-Jun; Fu, Jian-Gui


    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a well-characterized cytokine that plays key roles in cellular responses to infection, inflammation, and immunological challenges in mammals. In this study, we identified and analyzed a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) ortholog of IL-1β (gcIL-1β), examined its expression patterns in various tissues in both healthy and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated specimens, and evaluated its proinflammatory activities. The gcIL-1β gene consists of seven exons and six introns. The full-length cDNA sequence contains an open reading frame of 813 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibits a characteristic IL-1 signature but lacks the typical IL-1β converting enzyme cleavage site that is conserved in mammals. In the phylogenetic tree, IL-1βs from grass carp and other members of the Cyprinidae family clustered into a single group. Expression pattern analysis revealed that gcIL-1β is constitutively expressed in all 11 tissues examined, and LPS stimulation leads to significant up-regulation in muscle, liver, intestine, skin, trunk kidney, head kidney, and gill. Recombinant grass carp IL-1β (rgcIL-1β) was generated prokaryotically as a fusion protein of Trx-rgcIL-1β. An anti-rgcIL-1β polyclonal antibody (rgcIL-1β pAb) was raised in mice against the purified Trx-rgcIL-1β. Western blot analysis confirmed that rgcIL-1β pAb reacted specifically with gcIL-1β in C. idella kidney (CIK) cells. Quantitative real-time PCR data indicated that intestinal mRNA expression levels of endogenous IL-1β, IL-1R2, and TNF-α were significantly up-regulated following Trx-rgcIL-1β exposure. The inhibitory activities of rgcIL-1β pAb against the inflammatory response were confirmed in a model of Aeromonas hydrophila-induced intestinal inflammation. Our immunohistochemical study revealed that the degree and intensity of inflammatory cell infiltration are fully consistent with the observed mRNA expression patterns of these key inflammatory genes

  16. Immunomodulatory Effects of a Bioactive Compound Isolated from Dryopteris crassirhizoma on the Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Cheng Chi


    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated effects of compound kaempferol 3-a-L-(4-O-acetylrhamnopyranoside-7-a-L-rhamnopyranoside (SA isolated from Dryopteris crassirhizoma during immune-related gene expression in Ctenopharyngodon idella head kidney macrophages (CIHKM. The expression of immune-related genes (IL-1β, TNF-α, MyD88, and Mx1 were investigated using real-time PCR at 2 h, 8 h, 12 h, and 24 h after incubation with 1, 10, and 50 μg mL−1 of SA. Furthermore, fish were injected intraperitoneally with 100 μL of SA, and immune parameters such as lysozyme activity, complement C3, SOD, phagocytic activity, and IgM level were examined at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after injection. The differential expression of cytokines was observed after exposure to SA. IL-1β genes displayed significant expression at 2 and 8 h after exposure to 1–10 μg mL−1 of SA. SA also induced gene expression of cytokines such as MyD88, Mx1, and TNF-α. Furthermore, enhanced immune parameters in grass carp confirmed the immunomodulatory activity of SA. Interestingly, this compound has no toxic effect on CIHKM cells as tested by MTT assay. In addition, fish immunised with 10 μg mL−1 of SA exhibited maximum resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. These results suggest that SA has the potential to stimulate immune responses in grass carp.

  17. Determination of LC50 of Copper Sulfate and Lead(II Nitrate and Behavioral Responses of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Hamed NEKOUBIN


    Full Text Available In the present study, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella were exposed to copper and lead for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Experimental fishes which measured an average length of 8.2 ± 0.44 cm and weighed 4.3 ± 0.5 g. Seven groups (with three replicates of experimental fish were exposed to seven concentrations of each metal. The grass carps were kept in 21 tanks each stocked with 30 fishes were used in our experiments for each metal. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of copper to grass carp for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 2.422 mg/L, 2.222 mg/L, 2.006 mg/L, and 1.717 mg/L respectively. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of lead to grass carp for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 293.747 mg/L, 278.019 mg/L, 260.324 mg/L, and 246.455 mg/L, respectively. In addition, the behavioral changes of grass carp at different metal concentrations were determined. LC50 increased as mean exposure times decreased for both metals. Physiological responses like rapid opercular movement and frequent gulping of air was observed during the initial stages of exposure after which it became occasional. All these observations can be considered to monitor the quality of aquatic ecosystem and severity of pollution. In conclusion, copper is more toxic than lead for grass carp.

  18. Ontogeny and kinetics of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in hepatopancreas and skeletal muscle of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Hu, Wei; Luo, Zhi; Mai, Kang-Sen; Liu, Cai-Xia; Zheng, Jia-Lang


    The ontogeny and kinetics of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) were investigated in hepatopancreas and muscle throughout four developmental stages (newly hatched larvae, 1-month-old juvenile, 3-month-old, and 6-month-old, respectively) of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. In hepatopancreas, the maximal velocity (Vmax) significantly increased from hatching to 1-month-old grass carp and then gradually declined at 6-month-old grass carp. In muscle, CPT I activity was the highest at 1-month-old grass carp, nearly twofold higher than that at hatching (P < 0.05). The Michaelis constant (Km) value was also the highest for 1-month-old in both tested tissues. Carnitine concentrations (FC, AC and TC) were the lowest for 3-month-old grass carp and remained relatively constant in both tissues from fish under the other developmental stages. The FC concentration in hepatopancreas and muscle at four developmental stages were less than the respective Km, indicating that grass carp required supplemental carnitine in their food to ensure that CPT I activity was not constrained by carnitine availability. PMID:26170093

  19. Moroxydine hydrochloride inhibits grass carp reovirus replication and suppresses apoptosis in Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney cells.

    Yu, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Xiao-Hui; Ling, Fei; Hao, Kai; Wang, Gao-Xue; Zhu, Bin


    Moroxydine hydrochloride (Mor) is known to have multi-antiviral activities against DNA and RNA viruses but very little information exists on its pharmacology. The paper was undertaken to explore the antiviral response and antiapoptotic mechanism of Mor against grass carp reovirus (GCRV) in Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells. The results showed that exposing GCRV-infected cell to 6.3 μg mL(-1) of Mor for 96 h avoid ca. 50% apoptosis. Meanwhile, Mor had lower cytotoxicity than ribavirin (Rib) as the value of safe concentration was threefold higher than effective concentration and the compound could ensure sufficient into and out of cells within 4 h when tested at the maximal safe concentration. Mor blocked the GCRV-induced cytopathic effects and eliminated nucleocapsids in CIK cells to keep the normal morphological structure. Moreover, the expressions of viral protein genes were significantly inhibited especially the guanylyl transferase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase related expression. Furthermore, GCRV caused Bcl-2 down-regulation and Bax mitochondrial translocation was prevented by treatment of CIK cells with Mor. The downstream effector, caspase activity was also significantly inhibited in Mor treated cells. The potential mechanism might be that mitochondrial apoptotic signals were not activated by the intervention of Mor for targeting viral gene expression. Taken together, Mor showed high anti-GCRV activity and had been proved as a secure and promising agent in viral controlling in aquaculture industry. PMID:27188236

  20. Embryonic and larval development and early behavior in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella: implications for recruitment in rivers

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.


    With recent findings of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in tributaries of the Great Lakes, information on developmental rate and larval behavior is critical to efforts to assess the potential for establishment within the tributaries of that region. In laboratory experiments, grass carp were spawned and eggs and larvae reared at two temperature treatments, one "cold" and one "warm", and tracked for developmental rate, egg size, and behavior. Developmental rate was quantified using Yi's (1988) developmental stages and the cumulative thermal units method. Grass carp had a thermal minimum of 13.5°C for embryonic stages and 13.3°C for larval stages. Egg size was related to temperature and maternal size, with the largest eggs coming from the largest females, and eggs were generally larger in warmer treatments. Young grass carp larvae exhibited upward and downward swimming interspersed with long periods of lying on the bottom. Swimming capacity increased with ontogeny, and larvae were capable of horizontal swimming and position holding with gas bladder emergence. Developmental rates, behavior, and egg attributes can be used in combination with physical parameters of a river to assess the risk that grass carp are capable of reproduction and recruitment in rivers.

  1. 木糖-草鱼肽美拉德反应产物的抗氧化性%Antioxidant activity of Maillard reaction products derived from xylose and ctenopharyngodon idellus peptide

    赵谋明; 刘洋; 张佳男; 吴长平; 苏国万


    Oxidative deterioration of oil and protein is a common problem in the food industry, which led to trending studies of safe antioxidants with strong antioxidant activity. Ctenopharyngodon Idellus is a commercial fish, which is rich in proteins and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and is widely distributed in fresh-water throughout China,. In recent years, the Ctenopharyngodon Idellus was prepared as condiment or nourishment, however, further studies are limited. In this study, Ctenopharyngodon Idellus was hydrolyzed by three proteases (papain, PTN6.0, and Alcalase2.4 L), and the hydrolysate was isolated at two fractions of molecular weight above and below 5 kD by ultrafiltration. The fraction below 5 kD (Ctenopharyngodon Idellus peptide) was heated with or without xylose at 100℃for different times (30 min to 240 min). Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), reducing power, UV absorption, and volatile components of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) and thermal degradation products (TDPs) with different reaction times were evaluated, respectively. This study focuses on the effects of Maillard reaction on the antioxidant activity and the volatile components from Ctenopharyngodon Idellus peptide and its derivatives. The correlation between reaction products, volatile components, and their antioxidant activity were also analyzed. Results revealed that the browning intensity and UV absorption of the intermediate products of MRPs were much higher than those of TDPs. Antioxidant activity of MRPs increased with increasing heat time, while TDPs had no obvious change. In addition, MRPs showed better antioxidant activity. Reducing power and oxygen radical absorbance capacity of MRPs for 240 min was 17.77 and 3.32 times than those untreated. 51 kinds of volatile compounds were separated and identified from MRPs; among them, pyrazines, furans, pyrroles, aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols had relatively high concentration. Whereas, aldehydes were the largest content of volatile

  2. Bioinformatics analysis of organizational and expressional characterizations of the IFNs, IRFs and CRFBs in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Liao, Zhiwei; Wan, Quanyuan; Su, Jianguo


    Interferons (IFNs) play crucial roles in the immune response of defense against viral infection and bacteria invasion. In the present study, we systematically identified and characterized the IFNs, their regulatory factors (Interferon Regulatory Factors, IRFs) and receptors (Cytokine Receptor Family B, CRFBs) in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Grass carp IFNs can be classified into type I IFN (IFN-I) and type II IFN (IFN-II) like other teleosts. IFN-I consist of two groups with two (group I) or four (group II) cysteines in the mature peptide and can be further divided into three subgroups (IFN-a, -c and -d), containing four members: IFN1, IFN2, IFN3, IFN4 in grass carp. IFN-II contain two members, IFNγ2 with the similarity to mammalian IFNγ and a cyprinid specific IFNγ1 (IFNγ-rel) molecule. mRNA expression analyses of IFNs discovered that IFN1 and IFN-II were sustainably expressed in many tissues, while other IFN members were transiently expressed in specific tissues and time points. In the immune response, IFN transcriptions are primarily regulated through multiple IRFs after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) challenge. IRF family possess thirteen members in grass carp, which can be further divided into four subfamilies (IRF-1, -3, -4 and -5 subfamily), each of them plays different roles in the innate and adaptive immunity via various signaling pathways to interact with IFNs (mainly IFN-I). IFNs have to bind receptors (CRFBs) to perform their functions. CRFBs as IFN receptors contain six members in grass carp. The structure and expression characterizations of IFNs, IRFs and CRFBs were analyzed using bioinformatics tools. These results might provide basic data for the further functional research of IFN system, and deeply understand fish immune mechanisms against virus infection. PMID:27012995

  3. Effects of endosulfan on activities of acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant enzyme of Ctenopharyngodon idellus%硫丹对草鱼乙酰胆碱酯酶及抗氧化酶活性的影响

    武焕阳; OSCAR Ortegon; 许莉佳; 靳涛; 彭开琴; 丁诗华; 李云


    The effects of endosulfan exposure on the induction of oxidative stress and the alteration of AChE activities were studied in liver, muscle and brain samples from Ctenophatyngodon idellus. The results showed that the AChE activities of brain in Ctenopharyngodon idellus was stimulated after 24 h exposure. However, The activities of AChE were restrained when the exposure time and concentration was increased, and the inhibition rate was 41.8% and 56.2% in higher concentration groups after 120 h exposure, it showed a good linear correlation between the inhibition rate and the exposure time. The activities of SOD and GSH-Px in liver and muscle of Ctenopharyngodon idellus were significantly affected after 24 h exposure, showing a slow decrease after induction, then the SOD activities was significantly lower than the controls level, while the GSH-Px activities with no significant differences between the controls. The LPO level was rising when the antioxidant enzymes are affected in the same time, the MDA contents were increased, and reached the highest value after 96 h exposure. In conclusion, endosulfan impacts AChE and antioxidant enzyme activities on Ctenopharyngodon idellus, the adverse effects are sensitive parameters to use as the biomarker to assess the chemical pollutants on the biological effects of aquatic animals.%研究了硫丹暴露对草鱼肝脏、肌肉抗氧化酶及脑乙酰胆碱酯酶活性的影响.结果表明,硫丹24 h暴露可诱导草鱼脑AChE活性,当暴露时间延长或质量浓度升高时,AChE活性表现为受抑制,120h较高质量浓度组抑制率为41.8%和56.2%,抑制率与暴露时间呈良好的线性相关.硫丹暴露24 h后,草鱼肝脏及肌肉SOD、GSH-Px活性受到显著影响,表现出先诱导后缓慢降低的趋势,120 h后SOD活性显著低于对照组水平,GSH-Px活性与对照组无显著差异.在抗氧化酶受到影响的同时,鱼体脂质过氧化LPO程度不断上升,组织MDA含量逐渐增大,96 h达到

  4. 汞暴露对草鱼氧化损伤及抗氧化能力的影响%Effect of mercury on oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity of Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    刘占才; 牛景彦; 郭彦玲; 孔祥会


    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of Hg 2+on oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) .The experimental fish were divided into control and treatment groups .The control group fish was raised in cultivated water , while the treatment group fish was exposed to 0.5 mg· L-1 Hg2+for 24 hours first, and then transferred in cultivated water .Afterwards, they were sampled at 0 (24 h Hg2+exposure), 5, 12, 21 d to test the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathion and peroxidase (GPx) activities as well as glutathione ( GSH) and malondialdehyde ( MDA) contents in their gill , hepatopancreas , spleen and kid-ney.It was shown that compared with the control group , the SOD, GPx activities (0, 5 d), CAT activity (0, 5, 12 d) and GSH (5 d), MDA (5, 12, 21 d) contents in gill in treatment group increased significantly (P0.05).While, the GSH content (0 d) was lowered significantly(P<0.01),and the GSH (12 d) and MDA(0 d) contents were elevated remarkably (P<0.05).The SOD (0, 5,12 d), GPx(0 d) activities and GSH (12 d), MDA (0 d) contents in kidney in treatment group were increased significantly (P<0.05).Nevertheless,CAT (0,5,12 d) activity and GSH(0,5 d) content were decreased remarkably ( P<0.05 ) .This test indicated that for grass carp , the SOD and CAT activities of organ tissues were recovered to the normal level .In hepatopancreas , GSH content exceeded the control group level ( P<0.01 ) , and MDA content was significantly lower than that of control group ( P<0.05 ) , but the GPx activity and MDA content in gill seemed unable to recover to the level of control group in the experimental period .%将草鱼分为对照组和处理组,对照组试验期内置于正常养殖用水中饲养,处理组先暴露在Hg2+浓度为0.5 mg· L-1水体中,24 h后置于正常养殖用水中进行恢复饲养。各组分别于恢复饲养0(即Hg2+暴露24 h)、5、12、21 d取样,测定鳃、肝胰脏、

  5. Effect of cypermethrin on histology of four tissues of Ctenopharyngodon idellus%氯氰菊酯暴露对草鱼4种器官组织结构的影响

    皇甫加清; 张耀光; 周传江; 金丽; 黄林; 蒲德永


    Acute toxic effect of cypermethrin on Ctenopharyngodon idellus and the alteration in histopathology of gill, liver, kidney and spleen were studied. The 48 h-LC5o and 96 h-LC50 of cypermethrin on C. idellus were 55.21 μg/L and 25.00 μ.g/L. Epithelial hyperplasia, epithelial lifting, degeneration of the epithelial cells at the base of the secondary lamellae, necrosis, desquamation, fusion, shortening and curling of secondary lamellae were observed in gill tissues exposed to cypermethrin. Hepatic lesions in fish exposed to cypermethrin were characterized by hypertrophy of hepatocytes,vacuolar degeneration, nuclear pycnosis, focal necrosis, congestion and cloudy degeneration of hepatocyte. Tubular degenerations, congestion, cloudy degeneration, hypertrophy of nucleus in the tubular epithelial cells, glomerular atrophy were observed in the kidney tissues of fish after exposure. The spleen lesions included erythrophagia in mononuclear cells,an increased abundance of melano-macrophage aggregates, and swollen erythrocyte. The tolerance of gill, kidney, liver and spleen to the cypermethrin increased in order. The pathological damage was dose and time dependent, and reinforced progressively with the increased amour or the length of dealing time.%通过氯氰菊酯对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)幼鱼(9.30±0.48)g的急性毒性实验及对鳃、肝、肾、脾的组织学研究,探讨了随着氯氰菊酯浓度的增加以及暴露时间的延长草鱼组织结构损伤的变化趋势.结果显示:氯氰菊酯对草鱼种的48 h-LC50和96 h-LC50分别为55.21μg/L和25.00μg/L.其组织病理学损伤表现为鳃小片萎缩、卷曲、坏死、脱落和融合,上皮细胞增生、空泡化,上皮组织变厚;肝细胞肥大,空泡化,结构不清晰,细胞核固缩,肝组织局部坏死;肾小管退化变性,上皮细胞核肥大,肾小球萎缩,肾间组织充血;脾脏中红细胞肥大,黑色素巨噬细胞集聚,有吞噬红细胞现象.四种组织对氯氰菊

  6. Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella Fibulin-4 as a potential interacting partner for grass carp reovirus outer capsid proteins.

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Hao; Liu, Weisha; Lu, Liqun


    Mammalian EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 2 (Fibulin-4/EFEMP2), an extracellular matrix(ECM) protein and a member of the fibulin family, is involved in elastic fiber formation, connective tissue development and some human diseases. In a yeast-two hybrid screening of host proteins interacting with outer capsid protein of grass carp reovirus (GCRV), a grass carp homologue of Fibulin-4 (designated as GcFibulin-4) is suggested to hold the potential to bind VP7, VP56 and VP55, the outer capsid protein encoded by type I, II, III GCRV, respectively. GcFibulin-4 gene of grass carp was cloned and sequenced from the cDNA library constructed for the yeast two-hybrid screening. Full-length cDNA of GcFibulin-4 contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1323 bp encoding a putative protein of 440 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of GcFibulin-4 indicated that it shared a high homology with zebra fish Fibulin-4 protein. Transcriptional distribution analysis of GcFibulin-4 in various tissues of healthy grass carp showed that GcFibulin-4 was highly expressed in muscle, moderately expressed in the intestine and brain, and slightly expressed in other examined tissues; the expression pattern is consistent with tissue tropism of GCRV resulting in hemorrhage symptom in the corresponding tissues. Our results suggested that Fibulin-4 might enable free GCRV particles, the pathogen for grass carp hemorrhagic disease, to target fish tissues more efficiently by interacting with viral outer capsid proteins. PMID:26626583

  7. Efeito do gelo clorado sobre parâmetros químicos e microbiológicos da carne de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella Effect of chlorinated ice on chemical and microbiological features of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella flesh

    Rodrigo Scherer


    Full Text Available A rápida perecibilidade dos peixes provoca perdas na industrialização e comercialização desse alimento. No presente trabalho, avaliou-se a eficiência da utilização de gelo clorado para ampliar a vida-de-prateleira de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella. Foram realizadas contagens de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos e psicrotróficos na carne, e determinada a concentração de bases voláteis totais e o pH da carne de carpas armazenadas inteiras, sob refrigeração (3±1ºC, cobertas com gelo sem cloro ou clorado (5ppm, ao longo de 20 dias. O cloro reduziu significativamente (pThe rapid spoilage of fishes causes economical losses in the processing and marketing of these products. In the present study, the efficiency of chlorinated ice to increase grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella shelf life was evaluated. Mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria count, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN and pH were evaluated in the flesh of grass carp stored refrigerated (3±1ºC for 20 days, covered with chlorinated (5ppm or non-chlorinated ice. Chlorine significantly reduced (p<0,05 mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria count in the flesh, as well as pH and the initial values of TVBN. TVBN values were low and did not exhibit great changes over the storage time. Results showed that grass carp shelf life could be extended around 3 days by using chlorinated ice. Besides, pH and TVBN values were considered unsuitable to assess grass carp spoilage.

  8. Lipolytic enzymes involving lipolysis in Teleost: Synteny, structure, tissue distribution, and expression in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Sun, Jian; Ji, Hong; Li, Xue-Xian; Shi, Xiao-Chen; Du, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Li-Qiao


    Lipolysis is the biochemical pathway responsible for the sequential hydrolysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) stored in cellular lipid droplets. Three enzymes are known to participate in TAGs hydrolysis, including adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and monoglyceride lipase (MGL), and each is present in mammals as only one isoform. Here we show that the genome of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and other teleosts codes for one ATGL, two HSLs, and one MGL isoforms. Two isoforms of HSL gene, HSLa and HSLb, derived from paralogous genes that could be originated from teleost-specific genome duplication (TSGD) event. The genes encoding for fish ATGL and MGL were conserved and contained nine and seven coding exons, respectively. However, two isoforms of HSL gene had a remarkable variation in gene structure, such as HSLa gene contained ten and HSLb contained thirteen exons. All three enzymes, including two isoforms of HSL, were expressed in a wide range of tissues, but the abundance of each gene mRNA showed the tissue-dependent expression patterns. During fasting, only ATGL and HSLa showed a significant increase in adipose tissue and adipocyte, indicating that ATGL and HSLa may be the main rate-limiting enzymes controlling the hydrolysis of TAGs in fasting-induced lipolysis. Different expression of HSLa and HSLb suggests that they might serve different roles in fasting-induced lipolysis. These results provide evidence about the conservation and divergence of genes of fish lipolytic enzymes. PMID:27131420

  9. Attractive effects of different light intensities on Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ctenopharyngodon idellus%不同光照强度对鲢、草鱼的诱集效果研究

    秦孝辉; 王从锋; 刘德富; 熊锋; 汪玲珑


    为研究船闸中灯光诱驱鱼技术,观察了不同强度光源对鲢(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)、草鱼(Ctenopha-ryngodon idellus)的诱集效果。结果表明,与对照组(无光源)相比,有光组的草鱼在暗区的平均相对时间聚集率[R(t)]均明显升高。随着光源强度的增加,各组中暗区的 R(t)变大,鱼的群体重心位置与光源的距离也随之变大,草鱼总体上表现出一定的负趋光性。所有组次中,鲢在2组弱光源下表现出对光照强度没有明显的选择性(P >0.05),与对照组相比无明显的诱集或驱赶效果,而在强光源条件下表现出远离光源的特性。因此,可利用草鱼的负趋光性,在闸室下游部分布置灯光将其驱赶至上游,而利用光源诱集或驱赶鲢的方案不可行。%We studied the attractive effects of the light source located in lock model on Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ctenopharyng-odon idellus at different light intensities. The results show that the mean relative time aggregation rate[R(t)]in the dark area with light source was higher than the control group(no source). R(t)in the dark area in all light-source groups increased with increasing light intensity,and so did the distance between central location of fish group and location of light source. As for the H. molitrix,there was no obvious aggregation phenomenon(P > 0. 05)in all groups. Therefore,negative phototaxis of C. idellus could be used in driving the fish to the upstream by arranging light in the downstream of the chamber,but use of light trapping or driving H. molitrix are not fea-sible.

  10. 直接进样电喷雾串联质谱法测定草鱼肌肉组织中磷脂%Determination of Phospholipids from Ctenopharyngodon Idellus Muscle by Direct-injection Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    王友谊; 张虹; 戴志远


    A method was developed for the determination of phospholipids from Ctenopharyngodon idellus muscle by direct-injection electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with modified Bligh Dyer method and the crude extracts were taken directly into the electrospray ionization source by syringe pump. Under the precursor ion scan and neutral loss scan) intrasource separation and identification of six classes of phospholipids including phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidyl inositoU phosphatidyl serine, phos-phatidyl glycerol and phosphatidic acid were achieved. The intensity of quasi-molecular ion of the phospholipids and concentration showed good linear relation in a certain range. The recoveries (67.1% -96.6%) and precision meet the requirements for analyzing biological samples. This method has been applied to analyze the molecular species and content of four class phospholipids from Cteno-pharyngodon idellus muscle. The method is simple, fast accurate, and reproducibility with excellent stability, and suitable to analyze phospholipids from various biological samples for lipidomics research.%建立了直接进样电喷雾串联质谱测定草鱼肌肉组织中磷脂的方法.以Bligh Dyer法提取总脂质,采用流动注射泵直接进样的方式将样品导人电喷雾离子源,利用串联三重四级杆质谱的母离子扫描和中性丢失扫描功能,通过扫描磷脂的特征性子离子或中性质量丢失实现对磷脂酰胆碱、磷脂酰乙醇胺、磷脂酰肌醇、磷脂酰丝氨酸、磷脂酰甘油和磷脂酸六类磷脂的源内分离和鉴定.结果显示,在-定的浓度范围内,磷脂的浓度与磷脂直接进样电喷雾电离后形成准分子离子的响应值呈现良好的线性关系,回收率(67.1%~96.6%)和精密度可以满足生物样品分析的要求.采用本方法测定了草鱼肌肉组织中磷脂酰胆碱、磷脂酰乙醇胺、磷脂

  11. 盐酸小檗碱对草鱼补体系统及补体 c3作用的研究%The effects of berberine hydrochloride on complement system and complement c3 in Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    彭耀宗; 周霞; 韩冰; 黄涛; 黄利挂; 李学刚


    To explore the effect of berberine hydrochloride on the complement c 3 of Ctenopharyngodon idellus, the level of complement c3 in serum were studied for 7 day and 14 day, the mRNA expression of c3 in the liver and resistance against acute Aeromonas hydrophila infection in C.idellus were evaluated after 14 days of feeding with berberine hydrochloride at the rate of 0, 0.06%, 0.12%, 0.24%, respectively.The pharmacokinetics in vivo and complement consumption test in vitro of berberine hydrochloride were further studied .The results showed that the complement c3 levels in serum and the mRNA expression of c3 in the liver of fish fed with berberine hydrochloride increased significantly when compared with the control (P <0.05 /P <0.01).The survival rate was significantly higher in groups fed with berberine hydrochloride than the control (P <0.01).In addition, complement consumption showed significant difference only when the concentration of ber -berine hydrochloride was higher than 5 mg/L.Berberine hydrochloride combined with complement molecules directly and the complement system was activated at this time.The pharmacokinetics experiment found that bimodal phenomena appeared after taking berberine hydrochloride and the value of two peaks was 0.243 mg/L and 0.117 mg/L, respectively, which was much lower than 5 mg/L.The results suggested that the berberine hydrochloride could enhance the immunity of C.idellus and the effect of berberine hydrochloride on the complement c 3 in C.idellus might not be by combining with com-plement molecules directly, but through up -regulating the mRNA expression of c3 to increase the quantity of c3 protein.%为了探究盐酸小檗碱(berberine hydrochloride )对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)补体 c3的作用机理,用含0、0.06%、0.12%、0.24%盐酸小檗碱饲料投喂草鱼,在第7 d、14 d 检测血清中补体 c3含量,在第14 d 检测肝脏中补体 c3 mRNA 表达量及急性

  12. Nutritional lipid liver disease of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idullus (C. et V.)

    Lin, Ding; Mao, Yongqing; Cai, Fasheng


    The inadequate nutrient content of pellet feeds widely used in recent years in China for grass carp farming led to lipid liver degeneration in the fish. The present studies show that the pathological features of lipid liver disease are anaemia and hepatic ceroidosis. Other clinical features are; the ratio of liver to body weight exceeds 3% and lipid content exceeds 5%. Extreme infiltration of hepaiocytes by lipid results in the following deteriorative effects: swelling of the liver cells, increase of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm and dislocation of the nucleus, loss of cytoplasm staining affinity, and increased activities of GOT and GPT in serum. Lipid liver degeneration of grass carp can be divided into three stages: 1) deposition of liver lipid; 2) lipid infiltration of hepatic parenchyma; 3) atrophy of liver nucleus. The causes of lipid liver degeneration are complicated, but the main cause is assumed to be an imbalance of nutrients in daily feed and the lock of some lipotropic substances.

  13. Natural recruitment contributes to high densities of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844) in Western Europe

    Milardi, Marco; Lanzoni, Mattia; Kiljunen, Mikko; Torniainen, Jyrki; Castaldelli, Giuseppe


    Introductions of grass carp, well known for their potentially negative ecosystem effects, have been performed in several countries around the world. As the species was considered unable to reproduce naturally under non-native environmental conditions, little attention was initially given to its invasive potential. We studied an area in northern-Italy where, contrary to expectations, introductions that were performed in the early 80s still exert a considerable pressure on aquatic macr...


    Andrea Kolak; Yu Lou; Tomislav Treer; Ivica Aničić; Roman Safner


    In this paper the short review of fish gynogenesis, as one of the importani fields of research in ichtiogenetics, is presented. Two methods of own research are described. One of them is mitotic gynogenesis of common carp by 1,1 τ0 Another one is meiotic gynogenesis of grasscarp by 0,2-0,3 τ0. The scientific importance of gynogenetic researches is stated, but also the value of classical genetic methods, which are still more important in practical work.

  15. Effect of waterborne zinc exposure on lipid deposition and metabolism in hepatopancreas and muscle of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Hu, Wei; Mai, Kang-Sen; Luo, Zhi; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Huang, Chao; Pan, Ya-Xiong


    The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of waterborne zinc (control, 0.85, 2.20, 3.10 mg/l, respectively) exposure on lipid deposition and metabolism in the hepatopancreas and muscle of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. The lipid content, Zn accumulation, and the activities and expression levels of several enzymes involved in lipid metabolism were determined in hepatopancreas and muscle. Waterborne Zn exposure reduced growth performance and increased Zn accumulation in both tested tissues. In hepatopancreas, Zn exposure increased lipid content, the activities of lipogenic enzymes, such as 6PGD, G6PD, ME, ICDH and FAS, as well as the mRNA expression level of G6PD, 6PGD, ICDH, FAS and SREBP-1. But the activity of CPT I and the mRNA expression of HSL, CPT Iα1a, CPT Iα2a and PPARα were down-regulated by Zn exposure. In contrast, in muscle, waterborne Zn exposure decreased lipid deposition, activities of 6GPD, ICDH and ME, as well as the mRNA expression level of G6PD, ICDH, ME, FAS and SREBP-1. However, the activity of CPT I as well as the mRNA expression level of PPARα, HSL, CPT Iα2a, CPT Iα1b and CPT Iβ were up-regulated by Zn exposure. Our results indicate that waterborne Zn increases lipid content by up-regulating lipogenesis and down-regulating lipolysis in hepatopancreas. But, in muscle, waterborne Zn reduces lipid accumulation by up-regulating lipolysis and down-regulating lipogenesis. Differential patterns of lipid deposition, enzymatic activities and genes' expression indicate the tissue-specific regulatory mechanism in fish. PMID:26820140

  16. Immunogenicity and protective role of antigenic regions from five outer membrane proteins of Flavobacterium columnare in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Luo, Zhang; Liu, Zhixin; Fu, Jianping; Zhang, Qiusheng; Huang, Bei; Nie, Pin


    Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease in freshwater fish. In the present study, the antigenic regions of five outer membrane proteins (OMPs), including zinc metalloprotease, prolyl oligopeptidase, thermolysin, collagenase and chondroitin AC lyase, were bioinformatically analyzed, fused together, and then expressed as a recombinant fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein of 95.6 kDa, as estimated by 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was consistent with the molecular weight deduced from the amino acid sequence. The purified recombinant protein was used to vaccinate the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Following vaccination of the fish their IgM antibody levels were examined, as was the expression of IgM, IgD and IgZ immunoglobulin genes and other genes such as MHC Iα and MHC IIβ, which are also involved in adaptive immunity. Interleukin genes (IL), including IL-1β, IL-8 and IL-10, and type I and type II interferon (IFN) genes were also examined. At 3 and 4 weeks post-vaccination (wpv), significant increases in IgM antibody levels were observed in the fish vaccinated with the recombinant fusion protein, and an increase in the expression levels of IgM, IgD and IgZ genes was also detected following the vaccinations, thus indicating that an adaptive immune response was induced by the vaccinations. Early increases in the expression levels of IL and IFN genes were also observed in the vaccinated fish. At four wpv, the fish were challenged with F. columnare, and the vaccinated fish showed a good level of protection against this pathogen, with 39% relative percent survival (RPS) compared with the control group. It can be concluded, therefore, that the five OMPs, in the form of a recombinant fusion protein vaccine, induced an immune response in fish and protection against F. columnare.

  17. Integrated biological control of water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes by a novel combination of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844), and the weevil, Neochetina spp.

    Gopalakrishnan, Ayyaru; Rajkumar, Mayalagu; Sun, Jun; Parida, Ajay; Venmathi Maran, Balu Alagar


    The efficacy of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cyprinidae) and weevils Neochetina spp. (Curculionidae) to control the aquatic weed, water hyacinth, is investigated in a square net cage (happas) setting at a farm in Cuddalore District, South India. This novel combination of insects and fish is found to be superior to individual treatments for controlling the weed growth within 110 d. The biomass of the weed, number of plants, percentage of flowered plants and chlorophyll contents were studied. The weed biomass is reduced from 5 kg (day 1) to 0.33 kg (day 110) when exposed to grass carp and weevils. The number of plants is reduced to 0.75 in grass carp and weevil exposed happas, while it is 741.5 in the control. The mean number of leaves per plant is also reduced. In addition, the chlorophyll a and b are significantly reduced in happas exposed to the combination of fish and insects when compared to the other treatments. Based on the results of this study, we consider the combined use of grass carp and weevils to be more efficient and sustainable for managing water hyacinths than the use of these organisms individually.

  18. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) from fast skeletal muscle of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Chu, Wuying; Fu, Guihong; Bing, Shiyu; Meng, Tao; Zhou, Ruixue; Cheng, Jia; Zhao, Falan; Zhang, Hongfang; Zhang, Jianshe


    The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) is one of the major structural and contracting proteins of muscle. We have isolated the cDNA clone encoding MyHC of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. The sequence comprises 5 934 bp, including a 5 814 bp open reading frame encoding an amino acid sequence of 1 937 residues. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 69% homology to rabbit fast skeletal MyHC and 73%-76% homology to the MyHCs from the mandarin fish, walleye pollack, white croaker, chum salmon, and carp. The putative sequences of subfragment-1 and the light meromyosin region showed 61.4%-80% homology to the corresponding regions of other fish MyHCs. The tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific expressions of the MyHC gene were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The MyHC gene showed the highest expression in the muscles compared with the kidney, spleen and intestine. Developmentally, there was a gradual increase in MyHC mRNA expression from the neural formation stage to the tail bud stage. The highest expression was detected in hatching larva. Our work on the MyHC gene from the grass carp has provided useful information for fish molecular biology and fish genomics.

  19. Identification and characterization of Bacillus subtilis from grass carp (Ctenopharynodon idellus) for use as probiotic additives in aquatic feed.

    Guo, Xia; Chen, Dan-Dan; Peng, Kai-Song; Cui, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Xu-Jie; Li, Shun; Zhang, Yong-An


    Bacillus subtilis is widely used as probiotic species in aquaculture for water quality control, growth promoting, or immunity enhancing. The aim of this study is to find novel B. subtilis strains from fish as potential probiotics for aquaculture. Eleven B. subtilis isolates derived from the intestinal tract of grass carp were identified by gene sequencing and biochemical tests. These isolates were classified into 4 groups, and the representatives (GC-5, GC-6, GC-21 and GC-22) of each group were further investigated for antibiotic susceptibility, sporulation rate, biofilm formation, activity against pathogenic bacteria, resistance to stress conditions of intestinal tract (high percentage of bile and low pH) and high temperature, which are important for probiotics to be used as feed additives. Additionally, the adhesion properties of the 4 characterized strains were assessed using Caco-2 cell and gut mucus models. The results showed that the 4 strains differed in their capacities to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and mucus. Furthermore, the strains GC-21 and GC-22 up-regulated the expression levels of IL-10 and TGF-β but down-regulated IL-1β, suggesting their potential anti-inflammatory abilities. Based on physiological properties of the 4 characterized B. subtilis strains, one or more strains may have potential to be used as probiotics in aquaculture. PMID:26988285

  20. Modulation of immune response, physical barrier and related signaling factors in the gills of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed supplemented diet with phospholipids.

    Feng, Lin; Chen, Yong-Po; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu


    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary phospholipids (PL) on the gill immune response and physical barrier of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 1080 juvenile grass carp with an average initial weight of 9.34 ± 0.03 g were fed six semi-purified diets containing 0.40% (unsupplemented control group), 1.43%, 2.38%, 3.29%, 4.37% and 5.42% PL for 2 months. Compared with the control group, optimal PL supplementation increased (P component 3 (C3) content, liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 1 (LEAP-1) and LEAP-2 mRNA expression; (2) the relative mRNA expression of interleukin 10, transforming growth factor β1, inhibitor factor κBα (IκBα) and target of rapamycin (TOR); (3) the activities of anti-superoxide anion (ASA), anti-hydroxyl radical (AHR), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione content and mRNA levels of SOD1, CAT, GPx, GR and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) genes; (4) the transcription abundance of occludin, claudin b, claudin c, claudin 12 and zonula occludens 1 genes. At the same time, appropriate PL supplementation decreased (P C3 content, PC content and ASA activity in the gills, the optimal dietary PL level for juvenile grass carp (9.34-87.50 g) was estimated to be 3.62%, 4.30%, 3.91% and 3.86%, respectively. PMID:26584756

  1. Impact of exogenous lipase supplementation on growth, intestinal function, mucosal immune and physical barrier, and related signaling molecules mRNA expression of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Liu, Sen; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zeng, Yun-Yun; Xu, Shu-De; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu


    This study investigated the effects of exogenous lipase supplementation on the growth performance, intestinal growth and function, immune response and physical barrier function, and related signaling molecules mRNA expression of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 450 grass carp (255.02 ± 0.34 g) were fed five diets for 60 days. There were 5 dietary treatments that included a normal protein and lipid diet containing 30% crude protein (CP) with 5% ether extract (EE), and the low-protein and high-lipid diets (28% CP, 6% EE) supplemented with graded levels of exogenous lipase supplementation activity at 0, 1193, 2560 and 3730 U/kg diet. The results indicated that compared with a normal protein and lipid diet (30% CP, 5% EE), a low-protein and high-lipid diet (28% CP, 6% EE) (un-supplemented lipase) improved lysozyme activities and complement component 3 contents in the distal intestine (DI), interleukin 10 mRNA expression in the proximal intestine (PI), and glutathione S-transferases activity and glutathione content in the intestine of young grass carp. In addition, in low-protein and high-lipid diets, optimal exogenous lipase supplementation significantly increased acid phosphatase (ACP) activities and complement component 3 (C3) contents (P < 0.05), up-regulated the relative mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides (liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 and hepcidin) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor β1) and signaling molecules inhibitor protein-κBα (IκBα) and target of rapamycin (TOR) (P < 0.05), down-regulated the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 8, interferon γ2, and interleukin 1β), and signaling molecules (nuclear factor kappa B p65, IκB kinase β, IκB kinase γ) (P < 0.05) in the intestine of young grass carp. Moreover, optimal exogenous lipase supplementation significantly decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde

  2. Upgrading food wastes by means of bromelain and papain to enhance growth and immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Choi, W M; Lam, C L; Mo, W Y; Wong, M H


    The fast growing of global aquaculture industry accompanied with increasing pressure on the supply and price of traditional feed materials (e.g., fish meal and soy bean meal). This circumstance has urged the need to search alternative sources of feed stuff. Food waste was used as feed stuff in rearing fish which possess substantial protein and lipid. Grass carp are major species reared in Hong Kong with lower nutritional requirements; it is also an ideal species for investigating the feasibility of using food waste as fish feeds for local aquaculture industry. The growth and immunity, reflected by total protein, total immunologlobulin (IgI), and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity of grass carp blood, were depressed when feeding with food waste feeds without enzymes. However, the supplementation of bromelain and papain in fish feed enhanced the efficient use of food waste by grass carp, which in turn improved the fish immunity. The present results indicated that the addition of those enzymes could enhance the feed utilization by fish and hematological parameters of grass carp, and the improvement on growth and immunity superior to the control (commercial feed) was observed with the addition of bromelain and papain supplement. Addition of 1 and 2 % mixture of bromelain and papain could significantly enhance the lipid utilization in grass carp. PMID:26092357

  3. Dietary choline regulates antibacterial activity, inflammatory response and barrier function in the gills of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Zhao, Hua-Fu; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin


    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of graded levels of choline (197-1795 mg/kg) on antibacterial properties, inflammatory status and barrier function in the gills of grass carp. The results showed that optimal dietary choline supplementation significantly improved lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, complement component 3 (C3) content, and the liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 and Hepcidin mRNA levels in the gills of fish (P C3 content and AHR activity, the dietary choline requirements for young grass carp (266.5-787.1 g) were estimated to be 1191.0 and 1555.0 mg/kg diet, respectively. PMID:26988287

  4. Dietary vitamin C deficiency depresses the growth, head kidney and spleen immunity and structural integrity by regulating NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2, apoptosis and MLCK signaling in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Xu, Hui-Jun; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Feng, Lin; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu


    This study investigated the effects of dietary vitamin C on the growth, and head kidney, spleen and skin immunity, structural integrity and related signaling molecules mRNA expression levels of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 grass carp (264.37 ± 0.66 g) were fed six diets with graded levels of vitamin C (2.9, 44.2, 89.1, 133.8, 179.4 and 224.5 mg/kg diet) for 10 weeks. Subsequently, a challenge test was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila and the survival rate recorded for 14 days. The results indicated that compared with optimal vitamin C supplementation, vitamin C deficiency (2.9 mg/kg diet) decreased lysozyme (LA) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, and complement 3 and complement 4 (C4) contents (P peptides [liver expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP) 2A, LEAP-2B, hepcidin, β-defensin] and anti-inflammatory cytokines-related factors, interleukin (IL) 4/13A, IL-4/13B (only in head kidney), IL-10, IL-11, transforming growth factor (TGF) β1, TGF-β2, inhibitor of κBα and eIF4E-binding protein 1 (P copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferases and glutathione reductase (P skin immunity and structural integrity other indicators model are similar under infection of A. hydrophila. Finally, the vitamin C requirement for the growth performance (PWG) of young grass carp was estimated to be 92.8 mg/kg diet. Meanwhile, the vitamin C requirement for against skin lesion morbidity of young grass carp was estimated to be 122.9 mg/kg diet. In addition, based on the biochemical indices [immune indices (LA activity in the head kidney and C4 content in the spleen) and antioxidant indices (MDA content in the head kidney and ROS content in the spleen)] the vitamin C requirements for young grass carp were estimated to be 131.2, 137.5, 135.8 and 129.8 mg/kg diet, respectively. PMID:26944716

  5. Detection of EST -SSRs markers in Ctenopharyngodon idellus and its association with growth traits%草鱼EST - SSRs标记的筛选及其与生长性状相关分析

    王解香; 白俊杰; 于凌云


    利用草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idella)EST( expressed sequence tags)数据库开发的18个EST - SSR标记,对草鱼群体进行基因型与生长性状关联分析和群体遗传多样性分析,结果表明:关联分析得到6个微卫星位点(13118、13305、24017、25085、35939和40698)与体重,体长和体高显著或极显著相关(P <0.05或P<0.01).对其进行多重比较获得有利基因型分别为13118位点的BB、13305位点的AD、24017位点的AC、25085位点的BE、35939位点的BB和40698位点的BB.将6个微卫星位点上的EST序列与GenBank数据库进行BLAST比对,其中24017序列与鲤鱼自然杀伤细胞增强因子(NCEF)同源性水平高达86%,25085序列与草鱼反应元件结合蛋白(CREB)的基因同源性水平达到80%.应用这18个微卫星位点对草鱼养殖群体进行遗传多样性分析,共检测到82个等位基因,平均等位基因4.556个,每个位点检测到的等位基因数为2~9个,群体的平均观测杂合度为0.452 9,平均期望杂合度和平均多态信息含量分别为0.457 1和0.401 7,表明该群体遗传多样性处于低水平.%Eighteen pairs of EST - SSRs primers selected from EST base of Ctenopharyngodon idella were employed to examine the associations between their genotypes and growth traits and detect the genetic diversity of the cultured C. Idella populations from. Microsatellite loci of 13118, 13305, 24017, 25085, 35939 and 40698 were significantly associated with body weight, body length. And body height ( P < 0. 05 or P < 0. 01) . The most favorable genotypes for growth traits were AA at 13118, AD at 13305, AC at 24017, BE at 25085, BB at 35939 and BB at 40698. The homology identity of the 6 correlative ESTs was determined by GenBank of NCBI blast programmer on the amino acid levels. It was found that 2 ESTs with significant similarity to the known functional sequences in GenBank. 24017 was highly homologous to the known natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF) with an identity

  6. Molecular cloning of type I collagen cDNA and nutritional regulation of type I collagen mRNA expression in grass carp.

    Yu, E M; Liu, B H; Wang, G J; Yu, D G; Xie, J; Xia, Y; Gong, W B; Wang, H H; Li, Z F; Wei, N


    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) are important Chinese freshwater fish, and in China, the faba bean has been used as the sole food source for grass carp to transform them into crisp grass carp. Because of this, crisp grass carp has become an economically important fish because of its increased muscle hardness. To study the nutritional regulation of type I collagen in faba bean-fed grass carp, we isolated type I collagen alpha 2 (COL1A2) on the basis of our isolation of COL1A1. The COL1A2 cDNA was found to be 4899 bp in length and included a 4059-bp coding sequence (CDS) and encoded a polypeptide of 1352 AA. The protein peptide molecular weight was 127.39 kD, and the theoretical isoelectric point was 9.37. The COL1A2 protein possessed five α-helixes, eight β-sheets, 16 regions of triple helical repeats, 21 low-complexity regions, 10 function domains and two zinc-binding sites; however, no calcium-binding sites were observed. The mRNA expression of COL1A1 and COL1A2 was assessed in eight tissues (muscle, hepatopancreas, intestine, gills, skin, fin, kidney and spleen) from grass carp and crisp grass carp by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Expression of COL1A1 in the muscle, intestines and skin of crisp grass carp was higher than that in grass carp, and expression of COL1A2 in the muscle, gills, fin and skin of crisp grass carp was higher than that in grass carp. In the muscle of crisp grass carp, expression of COL1A1 and COL1A2 was higher than that in grass carp, which was further confirmed by real-time PCR, and collagen content also was enhanced. These results demonstrated that type I collagen was closely related to the increased muscle hardness of faba bean-fed grass carp. PMID:24127725

  7. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of grass carp β2-microglobulin

    Grass carp β2-microglobulin was expressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with PEG 2K as precipitant. The crystals obtained belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.72, b = 40.65, c = 71.12 Å. β2-Microglobulin (β2m) is an essential subunit of MHC I molecules; it stabilizes the structure of MHC I and plays a pivotal role in coreceptor recognition. To date, structures of β2m have been solved for three different mammals: human, mouse and cattle. In order to illuminate the molecular evolutionary origin of β2m, an understanding of its structure in lower vertebrates becomes important. Here, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) β2m (Ctid-β2m) was expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.5 Å. The crystal belongs to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.72, b = 40.65, c = 71.12 Å. The Matthews coefficient and the solvent content were calculated to be 2.56 Å Da−1 and 52.07%, respectively, for one molecule per asymmetric unit. The structure has been solved by molecular replacement using monomeric human β2m as a model

  8. Study on Toxicity Effect of Abamectin and Chlorpyrifos on Grass Carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idllus )%阿维菌素·毒死蜱对草鱼的毒性效应研究

    李常健; 骆鹰; 杨锦兀; 陈龙; 蒋琼凤


    [目的]探讨阿维菌素、毒死蜱2种药物对草鱼的毒性效应及相互关系.[方法]以健康活泼的草鱼为试验对象,用阿维菌素、毒死蜱分别对其进行单一药物的急性毒性和2种药物组合和联合毒性试验.[结果]阿维菌素、毒死蜱、2种药物混合对草鱼24、48、72、96h的LC分别为:阿维菌素0.54、0.49、0.17、0.10 mg/L;毒死蜱0.29、0.21、0.12、0.05 mg/L;阿维菌素与毒死蜱混合药1.22、1.08、0.99、0.86 mg/L;其对草鱼的安全浓度(SC)分别为:0.010、0.005、0.086 mg/L.药物的毒性大小依次为:毒死蜱>阿维菌素>混合药.[结论]阿维菌素和毒死蜱混合药的不同浓度对草鱼的生长有显著影响,浓度越高毒性作用越大,低毒性强度的阿维菌素对毒死蜱具缓解作用.%[ Objective ] The study aimed to discuss the toxicity effect of Abamectin and Chlorpyrifos on grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idllus) and their interrelations. [ Method ] Taking healthy and active gass carp as the object, the acute toxicity test of single pesticide and the joint toxicity test of two pesticides on grass carp were carried out. [ Result ] The LC50 of Abamectin and Chlorpyrifos and the mixture of two pesticides against grass carp at 24,48,72 and 96 h were as follows, Abamectin :0. 54,0.49,0. 17 and 0. 10 mg/L; Chlorpyrifos :0. 29,0. 21,0. 12 and 0.05 mg/L; the mixture of two pesticides:l.22,1.08,0.99 and0. 86 mg/L. The safe concentration (SC) of Abamectin,Chlorpyrifos and the mixture of two pesticides were 0.010,0. 005 and 0. 086 mg/L,respectively. The toxicity of the pesticides in sequence was Chlorpyrifos > Abamectin > the mixture of two pesticides. [ Conclusion] Different concentrations of Abamectin,Chlorpyrifos and the mixture of two pesticides had remarkable effect on the growth of grass carp,the higher the concentration was,the greater the toxicity effect was. Abamectin at low toxicity intensity had antagonistic effects on Chlorpyrifos.


    王微微; 吴山功; 邹红; 郑英珍; 程莹寅; 王桂堂


    The microbiota in the animal digestive tracts plays an important role in the nutrition and metabolism of their host. Many cellulose-ingesting animals need the microorganisms in their digestive tracts for degrading cellulose and therefore providing the energy. For example, cellulose-decomposing bacterial population has been frequently found in the intestine of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an herbivore fish species. However, knowledge about this type of bacteria remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the species of the cellulose-decomposing microbiota in the content and mucosa in the intestine of grass carp. We isolated and cultured the cellulolytic bacteria in the foregut, mid-gut and hindgut of the intestine using the medium with carboxymethycellulose (1%) as its sole carbon source. Entero-bacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR fingerprint was utilized to identify different genotypes of the iso-lated bacteria. The cellulose-degrading activity of each strain was indicated by the ratio of the diameter of the clear zone to the diameter of the colony. We identified the genotypes of these bacteria by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. Forty strains of cellulose-decomposing bacteria from intestinal content and mucosa of grass carp were identified. Two geno-types of the cellulose-decomposing bacteria were discovered in the content of foregut and hindgut, and in the mucosa of midgut and hindgut. Only one genotype of the cellulose-decomposing bacteria was discovered in the mucosa of foregut and midgut. The 16S rRNA sequencing analysis showed that the majority of the cellulolytic bacteria was Aeromonas which accounted for 85%of the total bacterial isolates. Enterobacter accounted for 7.5%and the“uncultured bacterium”accounted for 5%. The ability of degrading cellulose varied remarkably among different bacterial strains. High enzy-matic activity was observed in some isolates of the cellulose-degrading bacteria. The bacterial isolates with a

  10. Cinética de deterioração apresentada por filés de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella embalados a vácuo sob diferentes condições de refrigeração Kinetics of deterioration presented bt vacuum packaged grass carp (Ctenopharryngodon idella fillets under different refrigeration conditions

    Carlos Prentice


    Full Text Available A diversificação da oferta de produtos pesqueiros e, as práticas de aquicultura poderão incrementar o consumo destes produtos, desde que a exigência cada vez maior dos consumidores por alimentos de melhor qualidade, frescos e naturais, seja levada em consideração. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um estudo tecnológico visando à obtenção de um alimento minimamente processado à base de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella, estudando os fatores que influenciam na qualidade dos filés de carpa sob embalagem com atmosfera modificada a vácuo, armazenadas a temperatura de refrigeração. Em resumo, o processamento mínimo aplicado às amostras, aliado à embalagem a vácuo permitiu aumentar a vida-útil dos filés de carpa-capim.The offer of fishery products and the Aquaculture practices will can increase consume if the exigency for fresh and high quality products would be attend. The objective of this work was obtain a MPR product with grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, studying the factors that was important in the quality and in the deterioration of the products with modified atmosphere packaging at vacuum, stored at refrigeration temperature. In short, the MPR practices applied in the products and the vacuum packaging, allowed to increase the storage time of the grass carp fillets.

  11. Changes of biogenic amines and quality indicators of grass carp (Ctenpharyngodon idellus) during chilled storage and effect on biogenic amines during thermal processing%草鱼冷藏过程鱼肉品质与生物胺的变化及热处理对生物胺的影响

    张月美; 包玉龙; 罗永康; 王航


    We investigated the changes in biogenic amines and other quality indicators during chilled storage(4 ℃) and effect of thermal processing on biogenic amines (85 ℃,15 min) of grass carp (Ctenpharyngodon idellus) by observing the drip loss,sensory assessment,total volatile basic nitrogen(TVB-N),total viable counts and content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine,2-phenylethyl-amine,putrescine,cadaverine,histamine,tyramine,spermidine and spermine).The correlation was analyzed between biogenic amines and quality indicators of grass carp.The resuhs showed that drip loss,TVB-N and total viable counts increased with storage time,which accorded with the changes of sensory scores.The preservation life of grass carp at 4 ℃ was 9 days.During the storage,putrescine and cadaverine changed most significantly that putrescine content reached (17.12 ± 4.40) mg·kg-1 and cadaverine content reached (237.47 ±3.96) mg·kg-1 at 15th day.Besides,cadaverine and putrescine had good correlation with drip loss,sensory assessment,TVB-N and total viable counts.After thermal processing,contents of putrescine,cadaverine,histamine and spermine decreased slightly,saying that thermal processing could not remove the biogenic amines of grass carp effectively.%文章研究了草鱼(Ctenpharyngodon idellus)冷藏过程鱼肉品质与生物胺的变化及热处理对生物胺的影响.将经过前处理的草鱼鱼片于4℃条件下贮藏,对其感官品质、挥发性盐基氮(TVB-N)、菌落总数、汁液流失率以及生物胺等指标进行测定,另外经过85℃、15 min的热处理后对草鱼鱼片的生物胺进行测定,探求其变化规律及草鱼的生物胺与其品质指标的相关性.结果表明,随着贮藏时间的延长,草鱼的汁液流失率、TVB-N、菌落总数均呈现明显的上升趋势,与感官分值的变化趋势相符,草鱼的感官接受极限为9d.草鱼鱼片在冷藏加工过程中变化最显著的生物胺是腐胺和尸胺,第15

  12. Effects of dietary magnesium on the growth, body index, liver function and glucose metabolism of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella%镁对草鱼生长、形体、肝功能和糖代谢的影响

    汪福保; 罗莉; 文华; 高开进; 陈任孝; 郭玉阳; 朱根廷


    A 10-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary magnesium on the growth, body index, liver function and glucose metabolism of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Purified casein-gelatin-based diets (containing 76. 9 mg mg/kg) supplemented with six levels of Mg (0, 150, 300, 600, 1200 and 2400 mg/kg, respectively) were fed to juvenile grass carps (initial weight: 10. 68 ±0. 14 g). The results showed that: the highest specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein retention ( PR), weight/length (W/L) and lowest feed conversion rate (FCR) were observed for fish fed the diet containing 692. 0 mg mg/kg ( P < 0. 05 ). The optimal dietary level of magnesium significantly improved the liver function of the grass carp ( P < 0. 05 ), but the liver function was mildly impaired, and the spleen index was significantly improved in fish fed the high-Mg diets ( i. e. 1200 and 2400 mg mg/kg supplemented). With the increase of dietary magnesium, liver aspartate alanine transaminase ( GOT and GPT) showed a downward trend, while the GOT/GPT ratio was first increased and then decreased. But the liver glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity was in the opposite trend. The GOT/GPT ratio reached the maximum at 692.0 mg/kg magnesiun level (P < 0. 05 ), while GDH activity reached the minimum. The optimal dietary level of magnesium significantly improved liver malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity and promoted hepatic glycogen deposition ( P < 0. 05 ). High-Mg diets ( = 1200 mg/kg supplemented) significantly reduced blood glucose levels of the grass carp ( P < 0. 05 ), and the other groups showed no significant difference ( P > 0. 05 ).%在以酪蛋白和明胶为蛋白源的纯化日粮(镁含量76.9 mg/kg)中添加不同水平的镁(0、150、300、600、1200和2400 mg/kg),研究镁对体重为(10.68±0.14)g的草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idella)生长、形体、肝功能和糖代谢的影响,时间为10周.结果显示:日粮中适

  13. 网箱养殖患病草鱼细菌分离鉴定与回复感染研究%A Preliminary Study of Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria from Net Cage-Cultured Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Retrieved Infection

    杨秀荣; 曾燕玲; 魏志琴


    In the present experiment, the traditional microbiology method was used to isolate the endophyt-ic bacteria from Lateolabrax japonicus of net cage culture in the Wujiang River. A total of 7 strains were isolated. Their 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplificated by PCR. and 600 bp fragments were obtained. These 600 bp fragments were successfully sequenced and entered into the NCBI (http: //www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov /). Alignment analysis was made by BLAST tool to analyse the homology. The results showed that the 7 stains were Serratia proteamaculans (homology of 95%) . Staphylococcus saprophyticus (homology of 99%), Pseudomonas fluorescens (homology of 97%) , Providencia alcalifaciens (homology of 99%) , Aeromonas hydrophila (homology of 99%) , Aeromonas salmonicida (homology of 97%) , and Acinetobacter (homology of 97%). The bacteria were used for retrieved infection of the healthy C. idellus. S. proteamaculans, S saprophyticus, P. fluorescens, P. alcalifaciens and A. hydro phila were shown to have comparatively large hazard to grass carp, while A. salmonicida, and Acinetobacter induced no obvious infection.%利用常用细菌分离纯化方法从患病草鱼中分离出7株菌株,分别编号为Ⅰ~Ⅶ;对7株菌株的16 S rRNA 基因序列进行PCR扩增,均得到长约600 bp的片段;将扩增结果进行测序,测序结果输入到美国国立生物技术信息中心(NCBI,,用BLAST工具对序列进行同源性比对分析.结果表明:Ⅰ为沙雷氏菌,同源性达95%; Ⅱ为腐生葡萄球菌,同源性达99%;Ⅲ为荧光假单孢菌,同源性达97%;Ⅳ为产碱普罗威登斯菌,同源性达99%;Ⅴ为嗜水气单孢菌,同源性达99%; Ⅵ为杀鲑气单孢菌,同源性达97%;Ⅶ为不动菌属,同源性达97%.将Ⅰ~Ⅶ号菌株回复感染健康草鱼,结果沙雷氏菌、腐生葡萄球菌、荧光假单孢菌、产碱普罗威登斯菌和嗜水气单孢菌对草鱼的危害较大,而杀鲑气单孢菌和不

  14. Growth and feed utilization by juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella feed with Azolla filiculoides with low lipid diet/ Desempenho e conversão alimentar de juvenis de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella alimentadas com Azolla filiculoides e ração com baixo teor lipídico

    Karina Dufech Esteves


    Full Text Available The total supply of fish available for human consumption will depend more of the expansion of low trophy level fish farming than of wild-caught fish. Aquatic plants used at treatment of aquaculture wastewater have been showed like an alternative to exclusive diet feed. The aquatic fern, Azolla filiculoides is an example with high level of protein. Consequently, more research on feed requirements of herbivorous fish is required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella fed with three different diets using low lipid feed and water fern (Azolla filiculoides. The experiment was carried out in nine (9 tanks of 300 L capacity with three fish per tank (initial body weight = 55,43g. Feeding rate was 2.5% Fish were fed on two times a day with three treatments (R= Diet/Azolla on dry weight R= 2.5; R = 5 and R= 10. The specific growth rate (SGR = 1.39%, daily growth gain (DGG = 1.06 g / day and were significantly (p A oferta de pescado para o consumo humano dependerá mais da expansão do cultivo de peixes que se alimentam dos primeiros níveis tróficos do que daqueles oriundos da pesca extrativa. Plantas aquáticas usadas em fitotratamento de efluentes de aquacultura vêm sendo referidas como uma alternativa alimentar ao uso exclusivo de rações. A Azolla filiculoides é uma pteridófita que apresenta alto nível protéico. Assim, pesquisas sobre as exigências nutricionais de espécies herbívoras são necessárias. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi avaliar o crescimento e eficiência alimentar de juvenis de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella alimentadas com três relações (R entre ração com baixo teor lipídico e a planta aquática in natura (Azolla filiculoides. O experimento foi conduzido em nove reservatórios com capacidade de 300L e três indivíduos por unidade (Peso Inicial = 53,43g. A taxa alimentar diária foi de 2,5%, dividida em duas refei

  15. 复合益生菌对草鱼养殖水体水质和菌群结构的影响%Effects of complex probiotics on water quality and microbial communities in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) culture

    郑佳佳; 彭丽莎; 张小平; 孙健栋; 傅罗琴; 王一冰; 胡彩虹; 李卫芬


    为研究草鱼养殖水体中添加复合益生菌水质调节剂对水体水质和菌群的调节作用,实验采用氮磷等指标监测水质,采用454焦磷酸盐测序方法分析菌群结构,结果显示,处理组的氨氮、亚硝酸盐氮和总氮浓度一直低于对照组,但差异不显著;处理组硝酸盐氮浓度低于对照组,且在18d下降了56.59%;处理组的总无机氮含量低于对照组,且在15d下降了28.75%.处理组正磷酸盐和总磷浓度略低于对照组,无显著差异.15 d水样的454焦磷酸盐测序结果与对照组相比,处理组菌群多样性更高,厚壁菌门和变形菌门分别减少了91.21%和21.75%,拟杆菌、放线菌和蓝细菌分别增加了288%、435%和848%.在变形菌门中,α-变形杆菌和β-变形杆菌分别比对照组提高了318%和18%,γ-变形杆菌比对照组降低了78.82%.研究表明,该复合益生菌具有一定水质调控功能,且能显著改变菌群结构.

  16. Farelo de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crants em substituição ao milho (Zea mays L. em rações para alevinos de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1228 Replacement of corn Zea mays L. by cassava Manihot esculenta crants meal in grass-carp Ctenopharyngodon idella fingerlings diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1228

    Wilson Rogério Boscolo


    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a substituição do milho pelo farelo de mandioca em rações para alevinos de Carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella. Foram utilizados 120 alevinos de Carpa-capim, com peso vivo inicial de 2,51+ 0,05 g, distribuídos em 24 tanques-rede, em um delineamento em blocos casualizados com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições, cada bloco correspondendo a uma caixa de fibrocimento com 1.000 L de capacidade, com seis tanques-rede (120 L em seu interior. Cada tanque-rede com cinco alevinos foi considerado uma unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiam em rações (32% de proteína bruta e 3000 kcal/kg de energia digestível com diferentes níveis de inclusão de farelo de mandioca (0.00; 5.99; 11.98; 17.97; 23.95; 29.94, correspondendo a substituição de 0.0%; 20.0%; 40.0%; 60.0%; 80.0% e 100.0% do milho na ração. Não foram observados efeitos dos níveis de inclusão do farelo de mandioca sobre o peso final, comprimento final, conversão alimentar, fator de condição e sobrevivência dos alevinos. Os parâmetros físico-químicos médios da água foram 22,92oC, 24,54oC, 6,38 mg/L, 7,47; 0,16 mS/cm, respectivamente para temperatura matutina, temperatura vespertina, oxigênio dissolvido, pH e condutividade. Conclui-se que e farelo de varredura de mandioca pode substituir o milho em até 100% nas rações para alevinos de carpa-capimThe experiment was carried out aiming to evaluate different substitution levels of corn by cassava meal in grass carp ctenopharyngodon idella fingerlings diets. It was used 120 fingerlings with initial live weigh of 2.51+0.05 g, distributed in 24 net ponds at a randomized blocks design with six treatments and four replications, each block corresponding to a fiber-ciment 1000 L tank with six net ponds (120 L inside. Each net ponds with five fingerlings was considered an experimental unit. The treatments consisted in rations (32% crude protein and 3000 kcal

  17. Substituição do milho Zea mays por milheto Pennisetum americanum em rações para alevinos de carpa-capim Ctenopharyngodon idella - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i1.1365 Replacement of corn Zea mays by millet Pennisetum americanum in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella fingerlings diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i1.1365

    Carlos Henrique Figueiredo Lacerda


    Full Text Available O presente experimento com duração de 45 dias foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho Zea mays (0,00%; 33,00%; 66,67% e 100,00% pelo milheto Pennisetum americanum, em rações sobre o desempenho de alevinos de carpa-capim Ctenopharyngodon idella. Foram utilizados 112 alevinos de carpa-capim (0,75 g, distribuídos em 16 tanques-rede (160 L, em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com 4 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Cada bloco correspondeu a uma caixa de fibrocimento (1.000 L com 4 tanques-rede, onde cada um deles contendo 7 alevinos foi considerado uma unidade experimental. As variáveis avaliadas foram peso final médio, ganho de peso, comprimento final médio, conversão alimentar aparente, fator de condição e taxa de sobrevivência. Não foram observados efeitos da utilização do milheto sobre os parâmetros de desempenho produtivo analisados (p > 0,01. Os valores médios de temperatura, pH, condutividade elétrica e oxigênio dissolvido durante o período experimental foram de 24,5 ± 1,39ºC; 7,51 ± 0,32; 0,16 ± 0,01 µS/cm e 6,04 ± 1,28 mg/L, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o milheto pode ser incluído na ração para alevinos de C. idella em até 33,7%, substituindo totalmente o milho sem afetar o desempenho dos animaisThe present experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of the replacement of corn Zea. Mays (0.00%; 33.00%; 66.67% e 100.00% by millet P. americanum in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella fingerlings diets, during a 45 days period. One hundred and twelve carp grass fingerlings (0.75 g were used, distributed in 16 net ponds (160 L, in randomized blocks with four treatments and four replicates. Each block corresponded to one fiber cement tank (1000 L with four net ponds. Each net pond containing seven grass carp fingerlings was considered one experimental unit. The variables evaluated were: mean weight, mean weight gain, mean length, outward feed conversion, condition

  18. Utilisation of vegetable leaves for carp production

    Roy, A. K.; Rai, S.P.; Datta, A.K.; Das, C. R.; Ghosh, J. K.


    The results of two sets of experiments on mono-culture of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and mixed culture of carps (grass carp 50 : catla 20 : rohu 15 : mrigal 15) fed exclusively with vegetable leaves are reported. The experiments were conducted with two replicates each in 0.02 ha ponds of Wastewater Aquaculture Division of the Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Rahara during 1991-93. Monoculture of grass carp stocked at 1000/ha demonstrated an average net production of 21.0...

  19. Determination of the acute toxicity of isoniazid to three invasive carp species and rainbow trout in static exposures

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Hubert, Terrance D.


    Three invasive fishes of considerable concern to aquatic resource managers are the Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp),Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp), and Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp), collectively known as Asian carps. There is a need for an effective chemical control agent for Asian carps. Isoniazid was identified as a potential toxicant for grass carp. The selective toxicity of isoniazid to grass carp was verified as a response to an anecdotal report received in 2013. In addition, the toxicity of isoniazid to bighead carp, silver carp, and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) was evaluated. Isoniazid was not toxic to grass carp at the reported anecdotal concentration, which was 13 milligrams per liter. Isoniazid (130 milligrams per liter) was not selectively toxic to bighead carp, silver carp, or grass carp when compared to rainbow trout.

  20. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of grass carp β{sub 2}-microglobulin

    Chen, Weihong [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Chu, Fuliang [Center for Molecular Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Peng, Hao [Center for Molecular Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100080 (China); Zhang, Jianhua [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Qi, Jianxun; Jiang, Fan [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Xia, Chun, E-mail: [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Gao, Feng, E-mail: [Center for Molecular Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100080 (China); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China)


    Grass carp β{sub 2}-microglobulin was expressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with PEG 2K as precipitant. The crystals obtained belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.72, b = 40.65, c = 71.12 Å. β{sub 2}-Microglobulin (β{sub 2}m) is an essential subunit of MHC I molecules; it stabilizes the structure of MHC I and plays a pivotal role in coreceptor recognition. To date, structures of β{sub 2}m have been solved for three different mammals: human, mouse and cattle. In order to illuminate the molecular evolutionary origin of β2m, an understanding of its structure in lower vertebrates becomes important. Here, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) β{sub 2}m (Ctid-β{sub 2}m) was expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.5 Å. The crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.72, b = 40.65, c = 71.12 Å. The Matthews coefficient and the solvent content were calculated to be 2.56 Å Da{sup −1} and 52.07%, respectively, for one molecule per asymmetric unit. The structure has been solved by molecular replacement using monomeric human β{sub 2}m as a model.

  1. Generation of Biotechnology-Derived Flavobacterium columnare Ghosts by PhiX174 Gene E-Mediated Inactivation and the Potential as Vaccine Candidates against Infection in Grass Carp

    Wenxing Zhu


    Full Text Available Flavobacterium columnare is a bacterial pathogen causing high mortality rates for many freshwater fish species. Fish vaccination with a safe and effective vaccine is a potential approach for prevention and control of fish disease. Here, in order to produce bacterial ghost vaccine, a specific Flavobacterium lysis plasmid pBV-E-cat was constructed by cloning PhiX174 lysis gene E and the cat gene with the promoter of F. columnare into the prokaryotic expression vector pBV220. The plasmid was successfully electroporated into the strain F. columnare G4cpN22 after curing of its endogenous plasmid. F. columnare G4cpN22 ghosts (FCGs were generated for the first time by gene E-mediated lysis, and the vaccine potential of FCG was investigated in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus by intraperitoneal route. Fish immunized with FCG showed significantly higher serum agglutination titers and bactericidal activity than fish immunized with FKC or PBS. Most importantly, after challenge with the parent strain G4, the relative percent survival (RPS of fish in FCG group (70.9% was significantly higher than FKC group (41.9%. These results showed that FCG could confer immune protection against F. columnare infection. As a nonliving whole cell envelope preparation, FCG may provide an ideal alternative to pathogen-based vaccines against columnaris in aquaculture.

  2. SEM study of ultrastructural changes in branchial architecture of Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cuvier & Valenciennes) exposed to chlorpyrifos

    Kaur Mandeep; Jindal Rajinder


    We evaluated structural modifications in the branchial architecture of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, chronically exposed to chlorpyrifos (an organophosphate) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Static renewal tests were conducted for 96 h to determine the LC50 of chlorpyrifos to the fish. Physicochemical analysis of water was done using standard methods. To assess the effect of chronic toxicity, fish were exposed to two sublethal concentrations...

  3. Enhanced muscle nutrient content and flesh quality, resulting from tryptophan, is associated with anti-oxidative damage referred to the Nrf2 and TOR signalling factors in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella): Avoid tryptophan deficiency or excess.

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wen, Hai-Lang; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin


    Flesh quality, muscle antioxidant status and related signalling molecule expressions were investigated in young grass carp fed six levels of tryptophan (Trp) for 8 weeks. The results indicated that fish fed 0.7 (deficiency) and 6.1g Trp g/kg (excess) diets exhibited lower muscle water-holding capacity, tenderness, cathepsin activity, protein levels, lipids and collagen contents. Optimal Trp reversed these negative effects, which were related to enhanced glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities regulated at gene transcription levels, rather than to superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase (CAT). The expression of signalling molecules [Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1] involved in the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway revealed a potential method of Trp-enhanced antioxidant defence. Collectively, the present study indicated that appropriate Trp levels improved flesh quality partly related to the enhancement of antioxidant ability through Nrf2 and TOR signalling. PMID:26775963

  4. Ctenopharyngodon idella NF-κB subunit p65 modulates the transcription of IκBα in CIK cells.

    Wang, Haizhou; Zhu, Youlin; Xu, Xiaowen; Wang, Xiangqin; Hou, Qunhao; Xu, Qun; Sun, Zhicheng; Mi, Yichuan; Hu, Chengyu


    NF-κB is an important transcription factor for regulating the multiple inflammatory and immune related gene transcription. It can bind with the nuclear factor κB site within the promoter of target genes to regulate their transcriptions. p65, the all-important subunit of NF-κB, is ubiquitously expressed in cells. In the present study, we cloned and identified the p65 subunit from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) (named Cip65) by homologous cloning and RACE technique. The full length of Cip65 cDNA is 2481 bp along with 9 bp 5' UTR, 639 bp 3' UTR and the largest open reading frame (1833 bp) encoding a polypeptide of 610 amino acids with a well conserved Rel-homology domain (RHD) in N-terminal and a putative transcription activation domain (TAD) in C-terminal. Cip65 gathers with other teleost p65 proteins to form a fish-specific clade clearly distinct from those of mammalian and amphibian counterparts on the phylogenetic tree. In CIK (C. idellus kidney) cells, the expression of Cip65 was significantly up-regulated under the stimulation with Poly I:C. As one member of the NF-κB inhibitor protein (IκB) family, IκBα can dominate the activity of NF-κB by interacting with it. To study the molecular mechanisms of negative feedback loop of NF-κB signaling in fish, we cloned grass carp IκBα (CiIκBα) promoter sequence. CiIκBα promoter is 414 bp in length containing two RelA binding sites and a putative atypical TATA-box. Meanwhile, Cip65 and its mutant proteins including C-terminus deletion mutant of Cip65 (Cip65-ΔC) and N-terminus deletion mutant of Cip65 (Cip65-ΔN) were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and purified by affinity chromatography with the Ni-NTA His-Bind resin. In vitro, Cip65 rather than Cip65-ΔC and Cip65-ΔN showed high affinity with CiIκBα promoter sequence by gel mobility shift assays. In vivo, the cotransfection of pcDNA3.1-Cip65 (or pcDNA3.1-Cip65-ΔC, pcDNA3.1-Cip65-ΔN respectively) with pGL3-CiIκBα and pRL-TK renilla

  5. Cinética de deterioração apresentada por filés de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella) embalados a vácuo sob diferentes condições de refrigeração Kinetics of deterioration presented bt vacuum packaged grass carp (Ctenopharryngodon idella) fillets under different refrigeration conditions

    Carlos Prentice; Ricardo Lemos Sainz


    A diversificação da oferta de produtos pesqueiros e, as práticas de aquicultura poderão incrementar o consumo destes produtos, desde que a exigência cada vez maior dos consumidores por alimentos de melhor qualidade, frescos e naturais, seja levada em consideração. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um estudo tecnológico visando à obtenção de um alimento minimamente processado à base de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella), estudando os fatores que influenciam na qualidade dos filés de...

  6. Assessing impacts of introduced aquatic species: Grass carp in large systems

    Bain, Mark B.


    Introduced species have created environmental benefits and unanticipated disasters so a priori assessments of species introductions are needed for environmental management. A checklist for assessing impacts of introduced species was developed from studies of introduced species and recommendations for planning introductions. Sterile, triploid grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) are just beginning to be used as a biocontrol agent for the management of aquatic vegetation in open waterways. Potential impacts of grass carp in open systems were identified by reviewing grass carp biology relative to the impact assessment checklist. The potential consequences of introduced grass carp were reviewed for one case study. The case study demonstrated that conclusions about potential impacts and monitoring needs can be made despite incomplete information and uncertainty. Indicators of environmental impact and vulnerability of host systems were grouped into six categories: population control, hybridization, diseases and parasites, habitat alterations, biological effects, and management issues. Triploid grass carp can significantly alter habitat and biological resources through the secondary effects of reductions in aquatic vegetation. Potential impacts and significant uncertainties involve fish dispersions from plant control areas, inability to control vegetation loss, loss of diverse plant communities and their dependent species, and conflicts with human use of the water resource. Adequate knowledge existed to assess most potential consequences of releasing large numbers of triploid grass carp in Guntersville Reservoir, Alabama. However, the assessment of potential impacts indicated that moderate, incremental stockings combined with monitoring of vegetation and biological resources are necessary to control the effects of grass carp and achieve desirable, intermediate plant densities.

  7. Porovnání přežití, růstu a celkové efektivity chovu u juvenilních ryb amura bílého (Ctenopharyngodon idella) v průběhu přezimování v rybnících a RAS.

    PECHER, Petr


    The study compared survival and growth rate in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) juveniles in pond and recirculation aquaculture system (RAS) during winter time. The juveniles of grass carp were stocked to 5 tanks and three ponds during 2013 and 2014. In the RAS, the fish were fed by dry pellets and rearing was in constant temperature. In the pond, the temperature and feeding were only natural. In the RAS, the survival rate was significantly higher 97.79 % 0.52 % compared to 10.94 % 11.42 ...

  8. 草鱼呼肠孤病毒JX-0902株的分离和鉴定%Isolation and identification of grass carp reovirus strain JX-0902

    刘永奎; 王庆; 曾伟伟; 石存斌; 张超; 陈道印; 吴淑勤


    We identified a new strain of reovirus in grass carp from Nanchang city, Jiangxi Province. We collected diseased yearling grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus exhibiting typical hemorrhage symptoms from Nanchang city and observed large numbers of viral cells in ultra-thin sections of the spleen and kidney. The virus had a non-enveloped structure with a diameter of approximately 70 nm, very similar to the characteristics of the grass carp reovirus (GCRV). We isolated samples of the vims by homogenizing the tissue, centrifuging the homogenate, then conducting sterilizing filtration. We were able to replicate the hemorrhaging by artificially infecting grass carp with the purified sample. Artificial infection of grass carp kidney cell line (CIK) revealed no obvious cyto-pathic effects (CPE) after six passages. However, observations under the electron microscope revealed that the virus was propagated in the cytoplasm, and had the same shape as the virus observed in the tissue sections. The newly isolated virus (temporarily named GCRV JX-0902) consisted of 11 segments of dsRNA, a typical characteristic of aquareovirus. There were significant differences in the genome banding pattern of GCRV873 and JX-0902, but no difference between HZ08 and JX-0902. We designed PCR primers based on sequence segment 6 (GQ896337) of GCRV in GenBank to amplify specific bands using JX-0902 cDNA as the template. The amino acid sequence of JX-0902 S6 had 98% and 99% identity with GCRV-HZ08 and GDI08, respectively. Thus, we conclude that the new isolate is a member of the genus of aquareovirus.%收集江西南昌地区患典型草鱼出血病的病鱼组织,进行超薄切片电镜观察,结果显示,在脾、肾样品中发现大量病毒颗粒,病毒无囊膜,近球形,直径约70 nm,形态与已报道的草鱼呼肠孤病毒(grass carp reovirus,GCRV)相似.取病鱼肌肉、内脏研磨,组织液经离心、过滤除菌后进行鱼体人工感染试验和细胞感染实验,结果发现,人

  9. Replacing fish meal by food waste to produce lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Health risk assessments.

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Lam, Cheung-Lung; Choi, Wai-Ming; Wong, Ming-Hung


    This study aimed at using different types of food wastes (mainly containing cereal [food waste A] and meat meal [food waste B]) as major sources of protein to replace the fish meal used in fish feeds to produce quality fish. The traditional fish farming model used to culture low trophic level fish included: bighead, (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), grass carp, (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp, (Cirrhinus molitorella) of omnivorous chain. The results indicated that grass carp and bighead carp fed with food waste feeds were relatively free of PAHs. The results of health risk assessment showed that the fish fed with food waste feeds were safe for consumption from the PAHs perspective. PMID:25880597

  10. Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents

    Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian; Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa


    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

  11. Establishment of a model of grass carp hepatocyte steatosis and analysis of lipid metabolism gene expression%草鱼肝细胞脂变模型的建立及脂代谢基因表达分析

    卢荣华; 梁旭方; 孙君君; 杨峰; 王敏; 李玺洋; 白小丽


    为了筛选草鱼肝细胞脂肪变性的最佳诱导剂及浓度,并初步分析脂肪乳剂(lipid emulsions, LE)引起草鱼肝细胞脂肪变性的作用机理,以草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)正常肝细胞为研究对象,建立草鱼脂肪变性肝细胞模型,以含10%胎牛血清的基础培养液为对照组,处理组为含20%脂肪乳剂0.5~2 mL/L和含20%、50%胎牛血清的诱导培养液,孵育草鱼肝细胞48 h 后,定量分析肝细胞内的甘油三酯(TG)含量,观察脂滴积聚情况及肝细胞超微结构的变化,检测细胞培养上清中谷丙转氨酶(alanine transaminase, ALT)、谷草转氨酶(aspartate transaminase, AST)的活性, qRT-PCR技术检测脂代谢关键基因(PPARa、PPARg、SREBP-1c、LPL、Lep和UCP2)的转录水平变化,蛋白质印迹技术检测PPARg、SREBP-1c的蛋白水平变化。结果发现,含1~2 mL/L LE的诱导液组和含20%、50%FBS的诱导液组与对照组相比TG含量均显著上升(P0.05),表明含1~2 mL/L LE的诱导液和含20% FBS的诱导液均可建立草鱼营养性脂肪肝细胞模型。在肝细胞脂变模型中, PPARγ和 LPL 等脂代谢基因的表达量显著升高(P0.05). In the model of grass carp hepatocyte steatosis, expres-sion of PPARgand LPL genes significantly increased(P<0.05), while Lep gene expression decreased sharply (P<0.05). In conclusion, our grass carp hepatocyte steatosis model was established over a short time using 1–2 mL/L LE or 20% FBS. Lipid accumulation in hepatocytes was closely related to the expression of lipid metabolism genes (PPARs, SREBP-1c, LPL and Lep). This study provides the foundations for developing an animal model to explore nutrient metabolism in fish liver, and also provides an alternative way to uncover the mechanism(s) un-derlying metabolic diseases involving lipids.

  12. Potted Silver Carp


    Ingredients: 4 silver carp of about 200 grams each, mushrooms, winter bamboo shoots, minced ginger root and scallions, cooking wine, broth, salt and MSG (optional). Method: 1. After cleaning the carp place them in a pot; add in all other ingredients and some broth, Seal the opening of the pot with kraft paper

  13. SEM study of ultrastructural changes in branchial architecture of Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cuvier & Valenciennes exposed to chlorpyrifos

    Kaur Mandeep


    Full Text Available We evaluated structural modifications in the branchial architecture of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, chronically exposed to chlorpyrifos (an organophosphate using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Static renewal tests were conducted for 96 h to determine the LC50 of chlorpyrifos to the fish. Physicochemical analysis of water was done using standard methods. To assess the effect of chronic toxicity, fish were exposed to two sublethal concentrations (1.44 μg/L and 2.41 μg/L of chlorpyrifos for 15, 30 and 60 days, after which gills were examined by SEM, which revealed changes in gill ultrastructure. Branchial alterations included distorted secondary lamellae in the form of curling and shortening, erosion in a few primary filaments and a wrinkled and denuded epithelial surface. Excessive mucosal openings (mucoid hyperplasia on the surface were observed in the gills of fish exposed to both concentrations of chlorpyrifos. Alteration in the microridge pattern of pavement cells and cracks on the gill rakers were also observed, and the intensity of the damage was found to be directly related to the toxicant concentration and exposure period. The present study revealed that the assessment of surface morphology can serve as a novel bioindicator of pollution, disease and toxicity.

  14. Effects of farm and commercial inputs on carp polyculture performance: participatory trial in an experimental field station

    Martha Hernández


    Full Text Available The carp polyculture production system is the most widely used system by small-scale fish farmers in southern Brazil (States of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. The aim of this study was to compare biotechnical and economic parameters between a farm system (FS using farm inputs (chicken manure, maize and grass and a commercial system (CS using commercial inputs (triple super phosphate, ammonium nitrate and balanced food feeding to apparent satiation. The experiment was carried out for 196 days in earthen ponds of 500 m², with three replicates per system. The stocking density was 2,000 fish ha-1, consisting of 35% grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, 30% of mirror common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis, 20% of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis and 15% silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. In both systems, a low level of total phosphorus in water (0.06 mg L-1 and in the sediment (4 mg L-1 was observed. Production was significantly increased in the CS (76 kg 500 m(-2196 days-1 than in the FS (43 kg 500 m-2 196 days-1. Costs and revenues were higher in the CS and profits were similar in the two systems. Similar profits do not mean that CS is necessarily more convenient. Advantages and drawbacks for small-scale farmers considering labor, land and availability of money are discussed.

  15. Grass carp in the Great Lakes region: establishment potential, expert perceptions, and re-evaluation of experimental evidence of ecological impact

    Wittmann, Marion E.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Howeth, Jennifer G.; Maher, Sean P.; Deines, Andrew M.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Whitledge, Gregory W.; Burbank, Sarah B.; Chadderton, William L.; Mahon, Andrew R.; Tyson, Jeffrey T.; Gantz, Crysta A.; Keller, Reuben P.; Drake, John M.; Lodge, David M.


    Intentional introductions of nonindigenous fishes are increasing globally. While benefits of these introductions are easily quantified, assessments to understand the negative impacts to ecosystems are often difficult, incomplete, or absent. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was originally introduced to the United States as a biocontrol agent, and recent observations of wild, diploid individuals in the Great Lakes basin have spurred interest in re-evaluating its ecological risk. Here, we evaluate the ecological impact of grass carp using expert opinion and a suite of the most up-to-date analytical tools and data (ploidy assessment, eDNA surveillance, species distribution models (SDMs), and meta-analysis). The perceived ecological impact of grass carp by fisheries experts was variable, ranging from unknown to very high. Wild-caught triploid and diploid individuals occurred in multiple Great Lakes waterways, and eDNA surveillance suggests that grass carp are abundant in a major tributary of Lake Michigan. SDMs predicted suitable grass carp climate occurs in all Great Lakes. Meta-analysis showed that grass carp introductions impact both water quality and biota. Novel findings based on updated ecological impact assessment tools indicate that iterative risk assessment of introduced fishes may be warranted.

  16. Limnological changes in a pond ecosystem caused by grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) low stocking density

    Pípalová, I.; Květ, Jan; Adámek, Z.


    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2009), s. 31-45. ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : aquatic macrophytes * water and sediment chemistry * phytoplankton Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.008, year: 2009


    N. Kharkavlyuk


    Washington and Missouri states in 2004 and in Upper Mississippi in 2007. A SVC-like virus was found in cultivated shrimps in Hawaii. Natural outbreaks of a SVC infection were registered in following cyprinids: common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi, Crucian carp (Carassius carassius, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Prussian carp (Carassius auratus, ide (Leuciscus idus, tench (Tinca tinca and bream (Abramis brama. SVCV transmission is horizontal but vertical transmission from the ovarial liquid of carp has been established as well. Among virus transmission vectors are invertebrate parasites Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea, Branchiura and Piscicola geometra (Annelida, Hirudinea. There is also mechanical transmission of the virus with the aid of fishing gears. The virus can persist in water and silt for a long period of time. Originality. Measures for the prevention of infection of specialized fish farms have been proposed based on the performed analysis. Practical value. The analysis allows developing modern methods of diagnostics and control of the virus spread.

  18. Impact of the Three Gorges Dam on reproduction of four major Chinese carps species in the middle reaches of the Changjiang River

    Li, Mingzheng; Duan, Zhonghua; Gao, Xin; Cao, Wenxuan; Liu, Huanzhang


    Silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp ( Aristichthys nobilis), grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella), and black carp ( Mylopharyngodon piceus) are the four major Chinese carps and are commercially important aquaculture species in China. Reproduction of these carp has declined since the construction of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) due to an altered water flow and thermal regime in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River. However, details of the changes in reproduction of the four species are not well understood. To assess the impact of the TGD on reproduction of the four carp, we investigated their eggs and larvae at Yidu City, which is 80 km below the TGD, during 2005-2012. We examined diff erences in larval abundance of the four species in the Jianli section (350 km downstream of the TGD) before (1997-2002) and after (2003-2012) construction of the TGD. Based on these observations, the first spawning date of the four species was delayed a mean of about 25 days after the dam was constructed. Mean egg abundance in the Yidu section of the river was 249 million and mean larval abundance was 464 million, which were significant decreases since the 1980s. Moreover, larval abundance in the Jianli section after the dam was constructed was significantly lower than that before construction (ANCOVA, Priver are very similar to those described in the 1980s, and some spawning grounds exist upstream of the TGD. Large free-flowing stretches upstream of the TGD and the creation of artificially flooded downstream reaches are needed to stimulate spawning and eff ectively conserve these four major Chinese carps species.


    Yu. Volichenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the hematological characteristics of blood young-of-the-year carps reared using fish ranching technology in the southern Ukraine and to establish certain correlations between the main fish technical features of the studied groups of the young-of-the-year fish. Methodology. The studies were based on field and experimental methods adopted for fisheries, biochemical and statistical studies. Findings. The paper contains the data on mean fish weight, hematological and biochemical parameters of serum of young-of-the-year carps reared using fish ranching technology. Based on a comparative analysis of the obtained data, we detected significant peculiarities and qualitative difference in the absence of foam cells and basophils, which distinguish carp from the group of herbivorous fish, established significant correlations between mean fish weight and hematologic indices of blood. Marked by fish-breeding relationships with signs like weight and some parameters of blood components in all studied fish: hemoglobin in the range from 0.7858 to 0.9943, number of erythrocytes from 0.7843 to 0.9942, lymphocytes from 0.7848 to 0.9949, сholеsterol from 0.7640 to 0.9616 and triglycerides of 0.7499 in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and 0.9616 in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio. To show these relationships graphically, we used regression analysis and the obtained regression equations can give an accurate assessment of the quality of fish seeds through hematological blood parameters and mean weight. Originality. The analysis of hematological parameters of blood of young-of-the-year carps: common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella reared using fish ranching technology in the south of Ukraine was performed for the first time. Practical value. The obtained data allow scientifically recommending them as a component of

  20. Malheur - Common Carp Movement Control

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio were introduced into the Harney Basin in the 1920’s and were recognized as a problem in Malheur Lake in 1952. The common carp...

  1. Triploid grass carp susceptibility and potential for disease transfer when used to control aquatic vegetation in reservoirs with avian vacuolar myelinopathy.

    Haynie, Rebecca S; Bowerman, William W; Williams, Sarah K; Morrison, John R; Grizzle, John M; Fischer, John M; Wilde, Susan B


    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is an often-lethal neurologic disease that affects waterbirds and their avian predators (i.e., bald eagles Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the southern United States. Feeding trials and field surveys provided evidence that AVM is caused by a toxin-producing, undescribed cyanobacterium (UCB), which grows as an epiphyte on the leaves of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Reservoirs with documented AVM epornitics support dense growth of nonnative SAV. Waterbirds ingest the toxin when feeding on aquatic plants with the epiphytic UCB, and secondary intoxication occurs when raptors consume these birds. Vegetation management has been proposed as a means to reduce waterbird exposure to the putative toxin. We fed aquatic vegetation with and without the UCB to triploid Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in laboratory and field trials. Only Grass Carp that ingested aquatic vegetation with the UCB developed lesions in the central nervous system. The lesions (viewed using light microscopy) appeared similar to those in birds diagnosed with AVM. Grass Carp that received aquatic vegetation without the UCB were unaffected. Grass Carp tissues from each treatment were fed to domestic chickens Gallus domesticus (an appropriate laboratory model for AVM) in a laboratory trial; the chickens displayed no neurologic signs, and histology revealed a lack of the diagnostic lesions in brain tissues. Results from our trials suggest that (1) triploid Grass Carp are susceptible to the AVM toxin, although no fish mortalities were documented; and (2) the toxin was not accumulated in Grass Carp tissues, and the risk to piscivorous avifauna is likely low. However, a longer exposure time and analysis of sublethal effects may be prudent to further evaluate the efficacy and risk of using triploid Grass Carp to manage aquatic vegetation in a system with frequent AVM outbreaks. PMID:24341766

  2. Effect of Tributyltin, Cadmium, and Their Combination on Physiological Responses in Juvenile Grass Carp.

    Mu, Wei-Na; Li, Zhi-Hua; Zhong, Li-Qiao; Wu, Yan-Hua


    Tributyltin (TBT) and cadmium (Cd) are two common pollutants in aquatic environments. This study was designed to examine the physiological responses of juvenile Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella to TBT, Cd, and their combination. Fish were apportioned into a control group, a TBT group (7.5 μg/L), a Cd group (2.97 mg/L), and a TBT-Cd group (7.5 μg/L TBT, 2.97 mg/L Cd(2+)) for 7 d. The following activities were measured: Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in gill tissues; nitric oxide synthase (NOS), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and monoamine oxidase (MAO) in brain tissues; and lipid peroxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), and glutathione (GSH) in liver tissues. Cadmium-induced stress was suggested by alterations in antioxidant responses (MDA, LPO, and T-AOC) and neurological parameters (AChE, MAO, and NOS). Cadmium also induced Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and GSH activity. Compared with the responses among the Cd group, the combination of TBT and Cd not only decreased the level of GSH and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase but also increased the levels of MDA, LPO, AChE, MAO, and NOS. These results suggest that a combination of TBT and Cd could reduce the adverse effects of Cd on Grass Carp. However, the exact mechanisms for the combined effects TBT and Cd on these biomarkers require further investigation. Received September 28, 2015; accepted April 17, 2016. PMID:27484920

  3. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of changes in serum levels of growth hormone (cGH) in common carps (Cyprinus carpio)


    The aim of the present study was to purify the common native carp growth hormone (ncGH), produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to common native carp growth hormone (ncGH), and further enhance the sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for ncGH. Additionally, we investigated changes in serum ncGH levels in carps raised in different environmental conditions. The recombinant grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) growth hormone was purified and used as antigen to immunize the rabbit. The natural ncGH was isolated from the pituitaries of common carp. SDS-PAGE and Western blot utilizing the polyclonal anti-rgcGH antibody confirmed the purification of ncGH from pituitaries. Purified ncGH was then used as an immunogen in the B lymphocyte hybridoma technique. A total of 14 hybridoma cell lines (FMU-cGH 1-14) were established that were able to stably secrete mAbs against ncGH. Among them, eight clones (FMU-cGH1-6, 12 and 13) were successfully used for Western blot while nine clones (FMU-cGH 1-7, 9 and 10) were used in fluorescent staining and immunohistochemistry. Epitope mapping by competitive ELISA demonstrated that these mAbs recognized five different epitopes. A sensitive sandwich ELISA for detection of ncGH was developed using FMU-cGH12 as the coating mAb and FMU-cGH6 as the enzyme labeled mAb. This detection system was found to be highly stable and sensitive, with detection levels of 70 pg/mL. Additionally, we found that serum ncGH levels in restricted food group and in the net cage group increased 6.9-and 5.8-fold, respectively, when compared to controls, demonstrating differences in the GH stress response in common carp under different living conditions.

  4. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of changes in serum levels of growth hormone (cGH) in common carps (Cyprinus carpio)

    WU Gang; CHEN LiHua; ZHONG Shan; LI Qi; SONG ChaoJun; JIN BoQuan; ZHU ZuoYan


    The aim of the present study was to purify the common native carp growth hormon.e (ncGH), produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to common native carp growth hormone (ncGH), and further enhance the sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for ncGH. Additionally, we investigated changes in serum ncGH levels in carps raised in different environmental conditions. The recombinant grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) growth hormone was purified and used as antigen to immunize the rabbit. The natural ncGH was isolated from the pituitaries of common carp. SDS-PAGE and Western blot utilizing the polyclonal anti-rgcGH antibody confirmed the purification of ncGH from pituitaries.Purified ncGH was then used as an immunogen in the B lymphocyte hybridoma technique. A total of 14 hybridoma cell lines (FMU-cGH 1-14) were established that were able to stably secrete mAbs against ncGH. Among them, eight clones (FMU-cGH1-6, 12 and 13) were successfully used for Western blot while nine clones (FMU-cGH 1 -7, 9 and 10) were used in fluorescent staining and immunohistochemIstry. Epitope mapping by competitive ELISA demonstrated that these mAbs recognized five different epitopes. A sensitive sandwich ELISA for detection of ncGH was developed using FMU-cGH12 as the coating mAb and FMU-cGH6 as the enzyme labeled mAb. This detection system was found to be highly stable and sensitive, with detection levels of 70 pg/mL. Additionally, we found that serum ncGH levels in restricted food group and in the net cage group increased 6.9- and 5.8-fold, respectively, when compared to controls, demonstrating differences in the GH stress response in common carp under different living conditions.

  5. Transcriptome Analysis of the Innate Immunity-Related Complement System in Spleen Tissue of Ctenopharyngodon idella Infected with Aeromonas hydrophila

    Dang, Yunfei; Xu, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yubang; Hu, Moyan; Zhang, Meng; Li, Lisen; Lv, Liqun; Li, Jiale


    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an important commercial farmed herbivorous fish species in China, but is susceptible to Aeromonas hydrophila infections. In the present study, we performed de novo RNA-Seq sequencing of spleen tissue from specimens of a disease-resistant family, which were given intra-peritoneal injections containing PBS with or without a dose of A. hydrophila. The fish were sampled from the control group at 0 h, and from the experimental group at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. 122.18 million clean reads were obtained from the normalized cDNA libraries; these were assembled into 425,260 contigs and then 191,795 transcripts. Of those, 52,668 transcripts were annotated with the NCBI Nr database, and 41,347 of the annotated transcripts were assigned into 90 functional groups. 20,569 unigenes were classified into six main categories, including 38 secondary KEGG pathways. 2,992 unigenes were used in the analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). 89 of the putative DEGs were related to the immune system and 41 of them were involved in the complement and coagulation cascades pathway. This study provides insights into the complement and complement-related pathways involved in innate immunity, through expression profile analysis of the genomic resources in C. idella. We conclude that complement and complement-related genes play important roles during defense against A. hydrophila infection. The immune response is activated at 4 h after the bacterial injections, indicating that the complement pathways are activated at the early stage of bacterial infection. The study has improved our understanding of the immune response mechanisms in C. idella to bacterial pathogens. PMID:27383749

  6. Transcriptome Analysis of the Innate Immunity-Related Complement System in Spleen Tissue of Ctenopharyngodon idella Infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Yunfei Dang

    Full Text Available The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella is an important commercial farmed herbivorous fish species in China, but is susceptible to Aeromonas hydrophila infections. In the present study, we performed de novo RNA-Seq sequencing of spleen tissue from specimens of a disease-resistant family, which were given intra-peritoneal injections containing PBS with or without a dose of A. hydrophila. The fish were sampled from the control group at 0 h, and from the experimental group at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. 122.18 million clean reads were obtained from the normalized cDNA libraries; these were assembled into 425,260 contigs and then 191,795 transcripts. Of those, 52,668 transcripts were annotated with the NCBI Nr database, and 41,347 of the annotated transcripts were assigned into 90 functional groups. 20,569 unigenes were classified into six main categories, including 38 secondary KEGG pathways. 2,992 unigenes were used in the analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs. 89 of the putative DEGs were related to the immune system and 41 of them were involved in the complement and coagulation cascades pathway. This study provides insights into the complement and complement-related pathways involved in innate immunity, through expression profile analysis of the genomic resources in C. idella. We conclude that complement and complement-related genes play important roles during defense against A. hydrophila infection. The immune response is activated at 4 h after the bacterial injections, indicating that the complement pathways are activated at the early stage of bacterial infection. The study has improved our understanding of the immune response mechanisms in C. idella to bacterial pathogens.


    罗琳; 陈孝煊; 蔡雪峰


    Nomal phagocytic actvity in vitro in grass carp( C tenopharyngodon idellus ) was detemined in test tubes when the fish were fed with feed stuff enriched with the water extract of creat ( Andrographis paniculata). No signific ant difference was noticed between the tested group and the control group in the normal phagocvtic activity of their phagocytes.%利用体外试管法测定摄食穿心莲药饵的草鱼在不同时刻血液吞噬细胞的正常吞噬活性。结果表明,穿心莲水煎剂对草鱼血液吞噬细胞的吞噬活性没有显著性影响(P>0.05)。

  8. Ctenopharyngodon idella IRF2 plays an antagonistic role to IRF1 in transcriptional regulation of IFN and ISG genes.

    Gu, Meihui; Lin, Gang; Lai, Qinan; Zhong, Bin; Liu, Yong; Mi, Yichuan; Chen, Huarong; Wang, Binhua; Fan, Lihua; Hu, Chengyu


    Interferon Regulatory Factors (IRFs) make up a family of transcription factors involved in transcriptional regulation of type I IFN and IFN-stimulated genes (ISG) in cells. In the present study, an IRF2 gene (termed CiIRF2, JX628585) was cloned and characterized from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The full-length cDNA of CiIRF2 is 1809 bp in length, with the largest open reading frame (ORF) of 981 bp encoding a putative protein of 326 amino acids. CiIRF2 contains a conserved DNA-binding domain (DBD) in N-terminal and a non-conserved C-terminal region. Protein sequence analysis revealed that CiIRF2 shares significant homology to the known IRF2 counterparts. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed its closer evolutionary relationship with other fish counterparts, especially with zebra fish IRF2. CiIRF2 was ubiquitously expressed at low level in all tested grass carp tissues and significantly up-regulated except in brain following poly I:C 6-12 h post stimulation. In order to understand fish innate immune and resistance to virus diseases, recombinant CiIRF2 with His-tag was over-expressed in BL21 Escherichia coli, and the expressed protein was purified by affinity chromatography with Ni-NTA His-Bind Resin. Promoter sequences of grass carp type I IFN gene (CiIFN) and two ISG genes (CiPKR and CiPKZ) were amplified and cloned. In vitro, gel mobility shift assays were employed to analyze the interaction of CiIRF2 protein with promoters of CiIFN, CiPKR and CiPKZ respectively. The results showed that CiIRF2 bound to these promoters with high affinity by means of its DBD. Afterwards, recombinant plasmids of pGL3-CiIFN, pGL3-CiPKR and pGL3-CiPKZ were constructed and transiently co-transfected with pcDNA3.1-CiIRF2 or pcDNA3.1-CiIRF1 respectively into C. idella kidney (CIK) cells. Dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that CiIRF2 down-regulates the transcription activity of CiIFN, CiPKR and CiPKZ genes in CIK cells. To further understand the function of fish

  9. Replacing fish meal by food waste in feed pellets to culture lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of organochlorine pesticides: health risk assessments.

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Man, Yu-Bon; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Li, Kai-Bing; Wong, Ming-Hung


    The present study used food waste (collected from local hotels and restaurants) feed pellets in polyculture of low-trophic level fish [bighead (Aristichtys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp (Cirrhina molitorella)] aiming at producing safe and quality products for local consumption. The results indicated that grass carp (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) chains within the ponds. The raw concentrations of OCPs extracted from the fish were not in the bioavailable form, which would ultimately reach bloodstream and exert adverse effects on human body. Health risk assessments based on digestible concentrations are commonly regarded as a more accurate method. The results of health risk assessments based on raw and digestible concentrations showed that the fish fed with food waste feed pellets were safe for consumption from the OCP perspective. PMID:25080070

  10. Identification and characterization of a constitutively expressed Ctenopharyngodon idella ADAR1 splicing isoform (CiADAR1a).

    Liu, Xiancheng; Huang, Keyi; Hou, Qunhao; Sun, Zhicheng; Wang, Binhua; Lin, Gang; Li, Dongming; Liu, Yong; Xu, Xiaowen; Hu, Chengyu


    As one member of ADAR family, ADAR1 (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1) can convert adenosine to inosine within dsRNA. There are many ADAR1 splicing isoforms in mammals, including an interferon (IFN) inducible ∼150 kD protein (ADAR1-p150) and a constitutively expressed ∼110 kD protein (ADAR1-p110). The structural diversity of ADAR1 splicing isoforms may reflect their multiple functions. ADAR1 splicing isoforms were also found in fish. In our previous study, we have cloned and identified two different grass carp ADAR1 splicing isoforms, i.e. CiADAR1 and CiADAR1-like, both of them are IFN-inducible proteins. In this paper, we identified a novel CiADAR1 splicing isoform gene (named CiADAR1a). CiADAR1a gene contains 15 exons and 14 introns. Its full-length cDNA is comprised of a 5' UTR (359 bp), a 3' UTR (229 bp) and a 2952 bp ORF encoding a polypeptide of 983 amino acids with one Z-DNA binding domain, three dsRNA binding motifs and a highly conserved hydrolytic deamination domain. CiADAR1a was constitutively expressed in Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells regardless of Poly I:C stimulation by Western blot assay. In normal condition, CiADAR1a was found to be present mainly in the nucleus. After treatment with Poly I:C, it gradually shifted to cytoplasm. To further investigate the mechanism of transcriptional regulation of CiADAR1a, we cloned and identified its promoter sequence. The transcriptional start site of CiADAR1a is mapped within the truncated exon 2. CiADAR1a promoter is 1303 bp in length containing 4 IRF-Es. In the present study, we constructed pcDNA3.1 eukaryotic expression vectors with IRF1 and IRF3 and co-transfected them with pGL3-CiADAR1a promoter into CIK cells. The results showed that neither the over-expression of IRF1 or IRF3 nor Poly I:C stimulation significantly impacted CiADAR1a promoter activity in CIK cells. Together, according to the molecular and expression characteristics, subcellular localization and transcriptional

  11. Malheur - Telemetry Targeted Carp Movement and Removal

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio were introduced into the Harney Basin in the 1920’s and were recognized as a problem in Malheur Lake in 1952. The common carp...


    D. Syrovatka


    Full Text Available Purpose. To increase the percent of the output of the alive spermatozoids of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella with the use of modified cryoprotective media. Methodology. Researches are based on theoretical, experimental and laboratory methods. Implementation of them came true inaccordance with the generally accepted methodologies of cryobiology and selection. Findings. On results undertaken studies negative influence is set on the vital indexes of thawing sperm. At application of standard environment that is made with the use of ethylene glycol middle index to the percent of living unfrozen sperm goes down in 1,8 times, in comparing to native sperm and presents 51,87±4,820. To increase the percentage of live sperm output, after cryopreservation procedures we modified the "basic" kioprotektor coenzyme B12 and gibel carp plasma (Carassius auratus gibelio L.. The vitamin B12 coenzyme was used as a stimulator of vital parameters defrosted sperm. Plasma of blood the gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio L. which was subjected to low temperatures, was used as low-toxic connection that is cryoprotective characteristics. At comparison of different cryoprotectants environments preparation with the use of ethylene glycol, coferment of vitamin of В12 and plasma of blood of the Carassius auratus gibelio L., the best result was shown by an environment modified by the coferment of vitamin of В12. Application of this environment diminishes the percent of living spermatozoa in 1,3 times as compared to native sperm. The percent of living sperm in this variant of experiment presented 66,00±7,111. A cryoprotectants environment appeared ineffective plasma of blood of the European carp entered in the complement of that, the middle index of percent of living spermatozoa in this variant presented 58,67±3,721. Thus found that the use cryoprotective solution modified coenzyme B12 to get the optimal result. Originality. Conducted analysis of influence of

  13. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.


    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

  14. Carp Control on Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the past few years the two pools at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge have become heavily infested with Carp. These fish enter the pools over the tops of...

  15. Acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity in carp brain and muscle after acute exposure to diafuran Atividade da enzima acetilcolinesterase em cérebro e músculo de carpas após exposição aguda ao diafuran

    Jaqueline Ineu Golombieski


    Full Text Available Sublethal adverse effects may result from exposure of aquatic organisms to insecticides at environmentally relevant concentrations. Fingerlings of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Valenciennes, 1844, and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, Richardson, 1845 were exposed to diafuran, an insecticide widely used during rice cultivation in Southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between the lethal concentration (LC50 of diafuran and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity in brain and muscle tissues of these species as a possible early biomarker of exposure to this insecticide. LC50 was determined for fish exposed to diafuran concentrations during 96 h (short term: common carp: control, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mg L-1; grass carp: control, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 3.5 mg L-1 and, bighead carp: control, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mg L-1, as well as the determination of AChE at concentrations near LC50 for these species. LC50 values (nominal concentrations were 1.81 mg L-1 for the common carp, 2.71 mg L-1 for the grass carp and, 2.37 mg L-1 for the bighead carp. All carps exposed to diafuran were lethargic (lower concentrations or immobile. Diafuran inhibited the acetylcholinesterase activity in brain (~38% and muscle (~50% of all species. Muscle of bighead carp under control treatment showed higher specific AChE activity than brain (14.44 against 5.94 µmol min-1 g protein-1, respectively. Concentrations of diafuran used for rice cropping may affect Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Aristichthys nobilis behaviors and the AChE activities in brain and muscle of these species may be an early biomarker of toxicity of this insecticide.Exposição a inseticidas em concentrações elevadas no ambiente podem ocasionar efeitos adversos subletais em organismos aquáticos. Alevinos de carpa húngara (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758, carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon

  16. Rapid establishment of pure lines of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molirix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis)

    WANG Zhongwei; YE Yuzhen; ZHOU Jianfeng; WU Qingjiang


    The diversity of gynogenetic, artificial sex reversal and natural silver carp and bighead carp is examined using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method.All of the 187 bands are obtained and 19 (10.16%) of them are polymorphic in gynogenetic silver carp.Meanwhile 32 (15.61%) out of 205 bands are polymorphic in control group.In gynogenetic bighead carp a total of 232 bands are identified and 11 (4.74%) out of them are polymorphic, while 25 (10.37%) out of 241 bands are polymorphic in control group.The genetic distance of four populations is calculated and it is 0.102 and 0.023 for gynogenetic silver carp and gynogenetic bighead carp respectively.The values of natural silver carp and bighead carp are 0.161 and 0.104.From the UPGMA trees constructed based on genetic distance, the sex reversal individuals that match with the gynogenetic female individuals are picked out.A new breeding process of establishing a pure line is developed.

  17. Carp Control on Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1954

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Carp Control in refuge pools has been an important project during the last three years on Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge. The necessity for curtailing the carp...


    龙勇; 罗莉; 幺相姝; 王颖; 刁晓明


    采用灌喂方法研究牛磺酸对草鱼肠道和肝胰脏消化酶活性的影响,包括时间梯度试验和浓度梯度试验2部分.结果表明:(1)肠道蛋白酶、脂肪酶和淀粉酶活性均在灌喂后2 h达到峰值,肝胰脏蛋白酶、淀粉酶活性分别在2 h和5h达到峰值而脂肪酶活性则随时间延长一直升高;(2)肠道蛋白酶、脂肪酶和淀粉酶活性分别在灌喂浓度为0.8,0.8和1.0 mg/mL时达到峰值,肝胰脏3种消化酶的活性则分别在灌喂浓度为0.2,0.6和0.8 mg/mL时达到峰值.

  19. Establishment of the diploid gynogenetic hybrid clonal line of red crucian carp × common carp

    LIU ShaoJun; DUAN Wei; TAO Min; ZHANG Chun; SUN YuanDong; SHEN JiaMin; WANG Jing; LUO KaiKun; LIU Yun


    This study investigated the gynogenetic cytobiological behavior of the third gynogenetic generation (G3), which was generated from the diploid eggs produced by the second gynogenetic generation (G2)of red crucian carp × common carp, and determined the chromosomal numbers of G3, G2×scatter scale carp and G2×allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp. The results showed that the diploid eggs of G2 with 100 chromosomes, activated by UV-irradiated sperm from scatter scale carp and without the treatment for doubling the chromosomes, could develop into G3 with 100 chromosomes.Similar to the first and second gynogenetic generations (G1 and G2), G3 was also diploid (2n=100) and presented the hybrid traits. The triploids (3n=150) and tetraploids (4n=200) were produced by crossing G2 with scatter scale carp, and crossing G2 with allotetraploids, respectively. The extrusion of the second polar body in the eggs of G2 ruled out the possibility that the retention of the second polar body led to the formation of the diploid eggs. In addition, we discussed the mechanism of the formation of the diploid eggs generated by G2. The establishment of the diploid gynogenesis clonal line (G1, G2 and G3) provided the evidence that the diploid eggs were able to develop into a new diploid hybrid clonal line by gynogenesis. By producing the diploid eggs as a unique reproductive way, the diploid gynogenetic progeny of allotetrapioid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp had important significances in both biological evolution and production application.


    Ljubica Debeljak


    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative components of macrozoobenthos was investigated on six fish farms with 8-10 ha-1 each at "Donji Miholjac". The ponds were stocked with 200,000 individuals per ha! of three-day-old carp larvae. The fry were fed with animal protein throughout the culturing season. The qualitative and quabtitative macrozoobenthos components formed mainly due to systematic groups of Oligochaeta and Chironomidae. The average size of Oligohaeta varied in each pond from 119 to 944 individuals per m-2 and from 2.18 to 14.09 g per m-2, and the larvae of Chironomidae from 174 to 1086 ind. per m-2 and from 2.66 to 14.09 g per m-2. Variation s of the total macrozoobenthos was within the amplitude of from 28 to 5805 ind. per m-2 and from 0.11 to 73.72 g. per m-2. In mid summer it was determined that there was a fall in the amount of macrozoobenthos in all fish ponds (Table 6.

  1. Probiotics in carp fish nutrition

    Ljubojević Dragana


    Full Text Available Uncontrolled use of antibiotics in aquaculture caused the appearance and spreading of pathogens resistance to antibiotics, what consequently drove up to the necesity of finding new technologies for protecting aquatic organisms from pathogens. Probiotics are aimed to reduce antibiotics application, and furthermore they have an important role not only in disease prevention but also in efficiency of food utilization and improvement of production parameters. Carp fish species are economically most significant in Republic of Serbia, therefore this work summarizes the results of previous studies of antibiotics application in this kind in particular. There is also pointed out to numerous harmful side effects of antibiotics use in aquaculture, and described the previous results of investigations on mechanism of probiotics effects and specificity of their use in this field as well. Beside this, there are summarized the results that show positive influence of probiotics in cyprinides nutrition on production performance, haematological parameters, course of experimental infection, activity of digestive enzymes. Special attention is paid to criteria for proper selection of probiotics in cyprinides production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31011: Uticaj kvaliteta komponenata u ishrani ciprinida na kvalitet mesa, gubitke i ekonomičnost proizvodnje

  2. Spring viraemia of carp virus: recent advances.

    Ashraf, Usama; Lu, Yuanan; Lin, Li; Yuan, Junfa; Wang, Min; Liu, Xueqin


    Spring viraemia of carp is an environmentally and economically important disease affecting cyprinids, primarily common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The causative agent of this disease is Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) - a member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. The disease is presently endemic in Europe, America and several Asian countries, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality in affected fish. SVCV infection is generally associated with exophthalmia; abdominal distension; petechial haemorrhage of the skin, gills, eyes and internal organs; degeneration of the gill lamellae; a swollen and coarse-textured spleen; hepatic necrosis; enteritis; and pericarditis. The SVCV genome is composed of linear, negative-sense, ssRNA containing five genes in the order 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5', encoding a nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. Fully sequenced SVCV strains exhibit distinct amino acid substitutions at unique positions, which may contribute to as-yet unknown strain-specific characteristics. To advance the study of SVCV and the control of spring viraemia of carp disease in the future, this review summarizes our current understanding of SVCV in terms of its genomic characteristics, genetic diversity and pathogenesis, and provides insights into antiviral immunity against SVCV, diagnosis of SVCV and vaccination strategies to combat SVCV. PMID:26905065

  3. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.


    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance

  4. Innate immune receptors in carp: recognition of protozoan parasites

    Ribeiro, C.M.S.


    This PhD thesis reports on pattern recognition receptors involved in the immune responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to two protozoan parasites Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii. The immune responses of carp are fundamentally different when comparing these two extracellular blood

  5. Bigheaded carps : a biological synopsis and environmental risk assessment

    Kolar, Cindy S.; Chapman, Duane C.; Courtenay, Walter R., Jr.; Housel, Christine M.; Williams, James D.; Jennings, Dawn P.


    The book is a detailed risk assessment and biological synopsis of the bigheaded carps of the genus Hypophthalmichthys, which includes the bighead, silver, and largescale silver carps. It summarizes the scientific literature describing their biology, ecology, uses, ecological effects, and risks to the environment.

  6. A Study of the Carpe Diem in Two Literary Poems



    Carpe diem expresses a philosophy of recognizing the brevity of life and seizing an opportunity in time.Poems then breathe wit and wisdom with the carpe diem theme running through,on the basis of which many distinguished Cavalier poets have created a numb

  7. Carp's Tongue Swords in Spain, France and Italy

    Hugh O'Neill HENCKEN


    Professor Almagro in his article on the Huelva hoard has compared swords with carp's tongue points from that find to the well-known sword from Veii. In this connection some comment on carp's tongue points in Italy and their possible connection with the west may be of interest.

  8. Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing

    Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.


    The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

  9. Efficacy of 6-, 12-, and 24-h bath treatments against Bothriocephalus acheilognathi infection in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and the toxicity of praziquantel to C. idella

    Bothriocephalus acheilognathi is an intestinal tapeworm found in freshwater fish (usually cyprinids) throughout the world and has been in the USA since 1974. It affects the health of fish by slowing growth, lowering the fish’s ability to withstand harvesting procedures, shortening life span, and oc...

  10. Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone

    Amberg, Jon J.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Gaikowski, Mark P.


    Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL-1 g-1) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone.

  11. Common Carp Abundance, Biomass, and Removal from Dewey and Clear Lakes on the Valentine National Wildlife Refuge: Does Trapping and Removing Carp Payoff?

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a nonnative invasive nuisance species to North America. Many authors have documented the detrimental affects of common carp invasions...

  12. Teores de proteína bruta em dietas práticas para juvenis de carpa capim Crude protein levels in practical diets for grass carp juveniles

    C.A. Veiverberg


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resposta de juvenis de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella à inclusão de proteína bruta (PB em dietas práticas, em um experimento com 120 juvenis e 80 dias de duração. As dietas eram compostas por farinha de carne suína, farelo de soja, milho e farelo de trigo com 22, 30, 36 ou 44% de PB. Dez juvenis (153,0±1,5g por tanque (850L foram alimentados duas vezes ao dia (3% da biomassa. Foi observado efeito linear positivo da PB para peso final, ganho em peso, taxa de crescimento específico, rendimento de carcaça e filé, coeficiente de retenção proteica, taxa de eficiência proteica, deposição de gordura e proteína e hematócrito. O mesmo efeito também foi observado para triglicerídeos e colesterol total no sangue, indicando que a proteína da dieta foi utilizada como fonte energética. Conversão alimentar aparente e gordura no peixe inteiro apresentaram efeito quadrático, com pontos de máxima em 40,6 e 37,1% de PB, respectivamente. Pode-se concluir que a porcentagem mínima de PB para a carpa capim na fase de recria foi de 44% e que a variação da proteína da dieta promoveu alterações no metabolismo dos juvenis de carpa capim, refletidos nos parâmetros sanguíneos e de carcaça.The response of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella juveniles to crude protein (CP levels in practical diets was evaluated in an experiment with 120 juveniles and 80 days of feeding. The diets containing porcine meat meal, soybean meal, corn and wheat meal, with 22, 30, 36, or 44% CP. Ten juveniles (153.0±1.5 g per tank (850L were fed twice daily with pelleted feed (3% of biomass. Linear effect of CP on final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, carcass and fillet yield, coefficient of protein retention, protein efficiency rate, deposition of fat and protein, and hematocrit were observed. It was also observed effect on triglycerides and total cholesterol in blood, indicating that dietary protein was being used as energy source

  13. Triple focussing recoil separator CARP at RCNP

    A reaction product mass separator (CARP) which is now being constructed for use with the AVF cyclotron at RCNP is described. This device is intended to separate unslowed recoiling products in nuclear reactions from the primary beam and to analyze them according to their charge-to-mass ratio. The use as a mass-spectrograph or as a mass-separator is available according to the experimental requirements. The solid angle and the energy range of acceptance will be 10 msr and 20%, respectively. (orig.)

  14. Body color development and genetic analysis of hybrid transparent crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    Xu, W; Tong, G X; Geng, L W; Jiang, H F


    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanism of the transparent trait in transparent crucian carp. We observed body color development in transparent crucian carp larvae and analyzed heredity of color in hybrids produced with red crucian carp, ornamental carp, and red purse carp. The results showed that the body color of the newly hatched larvae matured into the adult pattern at approximately 54 days post-hatching. Two inter-species reciprocal crosses between transparent crucian carp and red crucian carp, and self-cross F1 of transparent crucian carp and self-cross F1 of red marking transparent crucian carp were conducted, and results indicated that the transparent-scaled trait is dominant over the normal-scaled trait. Furthermore, the transparent trait is a quantitative trait. All offspring in the four inter-genera reciprocal crosses of transparent crucian carp with ornamental carp and red purse carp were hybrids of common carp and crucian carp, and had a relatively low survival rate of 10-20%. Moreover, the transparent-scaled trait was observed to be dominant over the normal-scaled trait in the hybrid fish. In conclusion, our results suggest that the genetic mechanism underlying the color of goldfish is complex and requires further investigation. PMID:25966213

  15. Malheur - Efficacy of Electrofishing to Reduce Recruitment of Common Carp

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Our goal is to investigate the efficacy of using a portable electrofishingsystem to help control common carp by killing their eggs and embryos at Malheur...

  16. Preliminary Study on Biological Control of Cyclops of Zooplankton in Drinking Water Source

    刘冬梅; 崔福义; 林涛; 张立秋


    An ecological project called fish biomanipulation, other than the conventional fishery culture technique, was put forward in this paper for the excess propagation control of Cyclops. The control effects on Cyclops of four species of fish were investigated experimentally at stocking density of 30 g per cubic meter of water. The experimental results showed that the food habit of the fish had significant influence on the biological control of Cyclops. The propagation of Cyclops could be controlled effectively and also the water quality was improved simultaneously by stocking the filter-feeding fishes, such as silver carp and bighead carp. Whereas, herbivorous Ctenopharyngodon idellus and omnivorous Cyprinus carpio had no obvious biological effects on controlling the growth of Cyclops and restoring water quality. The results further proved that under condition of proper poly-culture density of silver carp and bighead carp, the number of Cyclops might be controlled at very low level and the eutrophication might be abated by removing the nutrients from water body.

  17. Time to let go of CARP? Not so fast

    Toby C. Monsod; Sharon A. Piza


    The following note seeks to clarify the appreciation of data pertaining to agrarian reform as used in the discussion paper "CARP: time to let go" (henceforth Fabella (2014)). Fabella (2014) has three parts: the first part argues that "the cumulative weight of evidence suggests that the hypothesis that in economic terms CARP is a government failure has not been rejected." The second part offers possible reasons for that failure. The third part concludes, saying it is time to let go.

  18. Predator-induced morphology enhances escape locomotion in crucian carp

    Domenici, Paolo; Turesson, Håkan; Brodersen, Jakob; Brönmark, Christer


    Fishes show a remarkable diversity of shapes which have been associated with their swimming abilities and anti-predator adaptations. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) provides an extreme example of phenotypic plasticity in body shape which makes it a unique model organism for evaluating the relationship between body form and function in fishes. In crucian carp, a deep body is induced by the presence of pike (Esox lucius), and this results in lower vulnerability to gape-limited predators,...

  19. Carp Control Project in the Main Pool at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Over the past several years carp have become an increasing problem in the management of the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge for Waterfowl. Carp compete directly...

  20. Genetic diversity and selective breeding of red common carps in China

    Li, S. F.; C. H. Wang


    China has a very rich genetic diversity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and the red common carp plays an important role in Chinese aquaculture and genetic studies. Selective breeding, particularly crossbreeding has been applied successfully to red common carps in China, and the products of these efforts have been in commercial use since the 1970s. However, knowledge of the quantitative and molecular genetics of these carps is limited. Studies were therefore undertaken to: (1) understand the ...


    Todor Marković


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the yield carcass of all categories of cyprinid fish reared in ponds in Serbia. Samples of two and three-year old carp, two-year old silver carp and grass carp were taken in the winter from a pond where the production is organized in a semi­intensive system. The three­year old carp was sampled from two ponds. In one case, it fed on barley, maize and wheat in the following proportions 40:30:30, while in the second case it fed on complete diet mixtures. Also, the samples of two­year old carp were taken from ponds where they fed on complete feed mixture. Dressing percentage was the most favourable in common carp (67%, followed by silver carp (62%, and it was the least in grass carp (60% (p<0.01. The best yield (66% was obtained in two-year old carp, followed by one-year old carp (64%, and the worst yield was determined in three-year old carp (58% (p<0.01. Carcasses yield was better in two-year old carp fed on pelleted feed (68% than in carp of the same age fed on grains (66% (p<0.01. The values of dressing percentage measured in three-year old carp reared in the semi-intensive system was 56%, and 59% in three-year old carp fed on pelleted complete feed mixture. Fish species, age, system of husbandry and diet showed a significant effect on carcasses yield. The highest dressing percentage and weight of fillets was noted in two-year old carp fed on complete feed, and it was a result of lower weight of internal organs and associated fat. The obtained results may be helpful in creating the best strategy for the selection of raw fish for fish manufacturing.


    Rita Choudhury; Puranjit Das; Umesh C.Goswami


    The present study was carried out to find out the abundance of four exotic fish namely, common carp, grass carp, silver carp and bighead carp in the Urpod beel of Goalpara district of Assam. The Urpod beel has a rich ichthyofaunal diversity and available almost all native fish species of Assam. During last few years the beel become habitat of some exotic fish species and their numberhas been increasing day by day, causes disturbances to the native fish species. The rate of exotic fish infesta...

  3. 草鱼过氧化氢酶全长cDNA的克隆、序列同源分析与组织表达%Full-length cDNA Cloning,Sequence Homology Analysis and Tissue Expression of a Catalase Gene from Grass Carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    郑清梅; 韩春艳; 温茹淑; 钟艳梅; 姚琼凤; 侯雨文


    过氧化氢酶(catalase,CAT)是生物体内抗氧化防御系统的关键酶之一,在清除过氧化氢而避免机体产生氧化应激的过程中起重要作用。本研究从草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肝胰脏中克隆了CAT完整编码序列(complete coding sequence,CDS)。该CAT序列(GenBank登陆号:FJ560431)全长2263bp,包括完全开放阅读框(ORF)1575bp、5'非编码区(UTR)118bp和3'UTR570bp。其ORF编码525个氨基酸残基,理论分子量为59.59kD,等电点为7.02。在草鱼CAT cDNA的终止密码子附近,其3'UTR具有长且完整的AC重复序列,与斑马鱼、鲢鱼及啮齿类动物CAT的3'UTR AC重复序列相似。序列比较表明,草鱼CAT的核苷酸及推测氨基酸序列与其它多种物种的一致性均较高,其一致性分别为93.4%~43.0%和98.1%~63.3%。同时,草鱼CAT cDNA的推测氨基酸序列具有与其它动物高度保守的特征性基序,包括亚铁血红素结合信号序列"RLFSYPDTH"、酶活性中心序列"FDRERIPERVVHAKGA"及3个催化位点残基His74、Asn147和Tyr357。此外,草鱼CAT还具有保守的亚铁血红素结合口袋与NADPH结合位点。根据草鱼CAT基因的上述特征,推测其属于CAT基因家族中的单功能或典型CAT基因亚群。采用实时荧光定量PCR(Q-PCR)检测草鱼CAT的组织表达特征。结果显示,草鱼CATmRNA在所检测的11种组织器官中均有表达,其中在肝中表达水平量较高,在红肌、白肌和脂肪中表达量较低。本研究结果将有助于进一步探讨鱼类CAT基因的结构与功能,并为研究其抗氧化分子机理奠定基础。%Catalase is a key enzyme in the antioxidant systems of living organisms that plays an important role in the against oxidative stress by eliminating hydrogen peroxide.The full-length catalase cDNA was cloned from hepatopancreas of grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus).The gene CAT(GenBank Accession No.FJ560431) was 2 263 base

  4. Detection of grass carp reovirus (GCRV) with monoclonal antibodies.

    Hongli, Jing; Lifeng, Zhang; Zhenzhen, Fang; Lipu, Xu; Min, Zhang; Na, Wang; Yulin, Jiang; Xiangmei, Lin


    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is a pathogen that causes hemorrhagic disease of grass carp. It is the most serious infectious disease of carp and causes serious losses of fingerlings of grass carp and black carp. In this study, a recombinant VP4, one of the viral core proteins, was constructed with a histidine tag and expressed at a high level in E. coli, and the expressed protein was mainly found in the form of inclusion bodies. The expressed VP4 protein was recognized by an anti-His-tag monoclonal antibody and goat anti-GCRV serum. Four monoclonal antibodies (16B7, 39E12, 13C3 and 14D1) against the recombinant VP4 protein were produced. These MAbs did not react with any of the tested viruses or fish cells lines in the ELISA tests except GCRV. In western blotting analysis, a protein band was observed when the recombinant VP4 protein of GCRV was used as an antigen, but a 68-kDa band was observed when natural capsid proteins of GCRV were used as antigens. Furthermore, a sandwich ELISA was developed for detection of GCRV. The detection limit of the test was 105 TCID50 of GCRV per mL. PMID:24122108

  5. Culture potential of Amblypharyngodon mola with carps in polyculture in farmers' pond of northern regions of Bangladesh

    Kunda, M.; Nahid, S.A.A.; Wahab, M. A.; Thilsted, S.H.; Roos, N.


    To assess the culture potential of mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) along with carps in polyculture systems, an experiment consisted of three treatments each with five replications was conducted for 4 months in two villages of Parbatipur upazilla under Dinajpur district. In the first treatment (SS), catla, rohu, mrigal, grass carp, Thai punti, common carp and a higher density of silver carp (8 per 40m²) were stocked. In the second treatment (SM), stocking density of silver carp was reduced to ...

  6. Sterile 'Judas' carp--Surgical sterilisation does not impair growth, endocrine and behavioural responses of male carp.

    Patil, Jawahar G; Purser, G J; Nicholson, A M


    Use of 'Judas' fish to betray the locations of conspecifics is a powerful tool in management of invasive pest fish but poses a risk of contributing to recruitment. Our aim therefore was to generate surgically sterilised male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and test whether they readily assimilate into wild populations, retain sexual behaviour and successfully betray the locations of feral carp. Male common carp were surgically sterilised (n=44) adopting a two-point nip technique, using either a haemoclip, suture or electro cautery to tie each of the testicular ducts about 2.5 cm cranial to urogenital sinus-retaining all of the glandular testis tissue. Observed survival (95%) and success (>70%) rates were relatively high. Plasma steroids (11-keto testosterone and 17β-estradiol) were quantified by immunoassay. A subset of sterile and control male fish (n=7 each) were implanted with radio-transmitters and released into Lake Sorell (50 km(2)) and their ability to betray the location of feral carp was assessed by radio tracking and targeted fishing. There was a statistically significant difference in 11-keto testosterone and 17β-estradiol levels over time (P0.05), implying that surgery did not compromise the animals physiologically. The sterile Judas fish integrated well into the population-behaving similarly to control Judas males and assisted in the capture of feral carp. The study marks a significant breakthrough in the management of this pest fish with potential adoption to the management of other pest fish globally. PMID:25776462

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Glycophorin from Carp Red Blood Cell Membranes

    Takahiko Aoki


    Full Text Available We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2 using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth.

  8. Environmental mercury concentrations in cultured low-trophic-level fish using food waste-based diets.

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing Yin; Man, Yu Bon; Lam, Cheung Lung; Choi, Wai Ming; Nie, Xiang Ping; Liu, Yi Hui; Wong, Ming Hung


    In this study, different types of food wastes were used as the major source of protein to replace the fish meal in fish feeds to produce quality fish (polyculture of different freshwater fish). During October 2011-April 2012, the concentrations of Hg in water, suspended particulate matter, and sediment of the three experimental fish ponds located in Sha Tau Kok Organic Farm were monitored, and the results were similar to or lower than those detected in commercial fish ponds around the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region (by comparing data of previous and present studies). Health risk assessments indicated that human consumption of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), a herbivore which fed food waste feed pellets would be safer than other fish species: mud carp (Cirrhina molitorella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), and largemouth bass (Lepomis macrochirus). Due to the lower species diversity and substantially shorter food chains of the polyculture system consisting of only three fish species, the extent of Hg biomagnification was significantly lower than other polyculture ponds around PRD. Furthermore, the use of food waste instead of fish meal (mainly consisted of contaminated trash fish) further reduced the mercury accumulation in the cultured fish. PMID:25087497

  9. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Sibbing, F.A.


    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some

  10. Functional morphology of durophagy in black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus.

    Gidmark, Nicholas J; Taylor, Chantel; LoPresti, Eric; Brainerd, Elizabeth


    The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus (Osteichthyes: Cyprinidae), crushes its snail and other molluscan prey with robust pharyngeal jaws and strong bite forces. Using gross morphology, histological sectioning, and X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), we investigated structural, behavioral, and mechanical aspects of pharyngeal jaw function in black carp. Strut-like trabeculae in their pharyngeal jaws support large, molariform teeth. The teeth occlude with a hypertrophied basioccipital process that is also reinforced with stout trabeculae. A keratinous chewing pad is firmly connected to the basioccipital process by a series of small bony projections from the base of the pedestal. The pharyngeal jaws have no bony articulations with the skull, and their position is controlled by five paired muscles and one unpaired median muscle. Black carp can crush large molluscs, so we used XROMM to compare pharyngeal jaw postures as fish crushed ceramic tubes of increasing sizes. We found that black carp increase pharyngeal jaw gape primarily by ventral translation of the jaws, with ventral rotation and lateral flaring of the jaws also increasing the space available to accommodate large prey items. A stout, robust ligament connects left and right jaws together firmly, but allows some rotation of the jaws relative to each other. Contrasting with the pharyngeal jaw mechanism of durophagous perciforms with fused left and right lower pharyngeal jaws, we hypothesize that this ligamentous connection may serve to decouple tensile and compressive forces, with the tensile forces borne by the ligament and the compressive forces transferred to the prey. PMID:26289832

  11. Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.


    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

  12. Biological characteristics of an improved triploid crucian carp


    An improved triploid crucian carp(ITCC) was produced by crossing improved tetraploids(G1×AT,) with improved red crucian carp(IRCC,),which were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis.The biological characteristics of ITCC,including the number and karyotype of chromosomes,gonadad and pituitary structures,phenotype,and growth rate are reported.ITCC possessed 150 chromosomes with the karyotype 33m+51sm+33st+33t.In the breeding season,both ovary-like and testis-like gonads of ITCC were unable to produce normal mature gametes.The ultrastructure of the pituitary of ITCC showed that most of the endocrine granules in gonadotrophic hormone(GTH) cells had not been released,providing endocrinological evidence for the sterility of ITCC.Compared with triploid crucian carp(TCC) produced by mating Japanese crucian carp with allotetraploid hybrids,ITCC not only retained the excellent traits of fast growth rate and sterility,but also acquired improved morphological characteristics,including higher body,shorter tail and smaller head.

  13. Studies on the suitability of producing value-added products from silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Alam, A.K.M.N.


    Silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix is contributing significantly to the total production of fish through aquaculture in Bangladesh. However, its low market price has become a serious concern to the fish farmers. The suitability of silver carp mince for the production of various value-added products (VAPs) - surimi, fish sausage, fish burger and fish stick was studied during April-September 2000 to ensure more appropriate and profitable utilization of silver carp. Surimi/frozen mince blo...

  14. Development of supplemental diets for carp in Vietnamese upland ponds based on locally available resources

    Nguyen Ngoc, Tuan


    Cyprinids play very important role in aquaculture, especially in Asia and Pacific regions. Vietnam is not an exception. Although aquaculture in Vietnam increased dramatically recently, its high value products such as catfish, tiger prawn seem to be unaffordable for the people in rural areas, especially for the mountainous ethnic minority in the North who are more independent to herbivorous and omnivorous fish such as grass carp, Indians carp, and common carp. Yen Chau is a district of Cypr...

  15. CARP Institutional Assessment in a Post-2008 Transition Scenario : Implications for Land Administration and Management

    Marife Ballesteros; Felino Cortez


    The objective of this paper is to present the land administration and management (LAM) issues on CARP and determine the necessary institutional reforms on LAM in view of CARP expiration in 2008. The paper discussed the adverse effects brought about by weak land policy and poor land administration on attaining the objectives of CARP. The poor land records, the lack of information sharing among government land agencies, the tedious land titling and registration process, the unclear land policie...

  16. CARP Institutional Assessment in a Post-2008 Transition Scenario: Implications for Land Administration and Management (LAM)

    Cortez, Felino; Ballesteros, Marife M.


    The objective of this paper is to present the land administration and management (LAM) issues on CARP and determine the necessary institutional reforms on LAM in view of CARP expiration in 2008. The paper discussed the adverse effects brought about by weak land policy and poor land administration on attaining the objectives of CARP. The poor land records, the lack of information sharing among government land agencies, the tedious land titling and registration process, the unclear land policie...


    G. STEFAN; Cristea, V.; A. MIHALACHE; Grecu, I.; I. VASILEAN; L. SFETCU; Gheorghe, D.; A. DOCAN


    The techniques of carp culture are highly diversified, ranging from the extensive production in pond or open water with no fertilization or supplemental feeding to highly intensive systems in concrete tanks or cages. Among the different carp species, common carp is the best species reared in intensive monoculture, the others (Chinese and Indian carps) being usually cultivated in polyculture (P. Kestemont, 1995). An experiment was conducted in inside recirculation system conditions to identify...

  18. Determination of Heavy Metal (Cu, Pb And Zn Concentrations in Muscle Tissue of Hypophthalmichthys Molitrix, Cyprinus Carpio and Ctenopharyngodon Idella Caught From Zarivar Wetland, Western Iran

    Seyed Milad Jafari


    Full Text Available The present research report the heavy metal (Cu, Pb and Zn contamination in muscle tissue of three species of fish (silver carp, common carp and grass carp caught from Zarivar international wetland. Heavy metal concentrations (μg g−1, wet weight; means±S.D. in silver carp, common carp and grass carp muscle tissue were: Cu- 0.006 ±0.005, 0.01±0.008 and 0.013.91±0.011, Pb- 0.008±0.006, 0.006±0.003 and 0.011±0.007, Zn- 0.013±0.009, 0.017±0.014 and 0.009±0.008, respectively. Comparative evaluation of these metals in different fish species showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn of all species is significantly lower than adverse level for the species themselves and for human consumption when compared with FAO/WHO permissible limits. Therefore, their contribution to the total body burden of these heavy metals can be considered as negligibly small.

  19. Determination of some heavy metals levels in common carp fingerlings

    N.M. Abdulrahman


    Full Text Available This study was carried out at fish laboratory of Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimaniya using commercial dry yeast in three concentration (0%, 3%, and 5% for 12 weeks to study their effects on concentration of some heavy metals (namely Cr, Cd, Co, Pb, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mg of common carp fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio. The experiment was included three treatments each in three replicates (plastic tanks in which 10 fingerlings common carp of the same size and average weight (3.5 gram were stocked in each aquarium. The actual experimental feeding trials lasted three months. Results indicated that the concentrations of heavy metals differ among the treatments.

  20. Mucosal immune response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja

    of the biological impact of two commercially available ß-glucan enriched products on the wound healing process in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in sterile, controlled conditions; 2. investigation of potential impact of intravenously injected ß-glucan on mucosal immune response and immunoglobulin......-glucans. Further work showed that bath in two commercially available ß-glucan enriched products, specifically MacroGard and 6.3 kDa oat fiber, had a direct positive effects on the wound closure in common carp and promoted faster wound healing compared to non-treated fish. We showed the immunological and......Control of fish diseases is a great concern in aquaculture because of losses in the production. Drug choices for the treatment of common infectious diseases are becoming increasingly limited and expensive and, in some cases, unavailable due to the emergence of drug resistance in bacteria and fungi...


    G. Dobrjanska


    Full Text Available Purpose. Definition fish productivity of the experimental ponds, fixed set of chemical parameters, that are specific to the environmental condition of water, which is the process of growing fish in a certain relation to it, and the level of accumulation of heavy metals in different organs and tissues of carp. Methodology. The ponds was three breed groups one-years carp average weight 39,7 g (hybrid of carp and wild carp, crossbreed frames carp, lyubin scaly carp with planting density 1000 ind./ha. Control group of carp was fed extruded feed containing 20 % protein, and research group ― the same feed, which was added in the manufacturing process, chopped dried Echinacea purpurea in the amount of 1 %. The duration of the experiment was 86 days. Definition of hydro-chemical parameters was performed by standard methods in analytical chemistry. Quantitative determination of the concentration of heavy metals in water and the organs and tissues of fish was performed by direct absorption solution in propane-butane air flames using absorption spectrophotometer C-115-M1. Findings. It was reviewed ecological status of water bodies. Found that when used in feeding carp Echinacea purpurea increased fish productivity, reduced cost of feed for growing. Chemical composition of experimental ponds water, while virtually unchanged. The comparative characteristics of heavy metals in organs and tissues carp in this part of the diet. Originality. At first time investigated the influence of Echinacea purpurea by adding it to feed on fish productivity, accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in organs and tissues of carp. Practical value. Fish productivity in the experimental ponds was higher by 20,4 % relative to control. Costs of feed per pound of gain decreased by 13,3 % when was used in fish feeding chopped dried Echinacea purpurea. Almost all metals accumulated in the organs and tissues of experimental groups of carp in a somewhat lesser extent.

  2. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix

    Ghosal, Ratna; Xiong, Peter X.; Sorensen, Peter W.


    Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups) and shoal (form tight social groups), this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND) as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate) strongly (P0.05) on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2–3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed. PMID:27276024

  3. Genetic improvement of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Vandeputte, Marc


    Common carp was the first domesticated fish species and is now a major species in worldwide aquaculture. Although research has generated a considerable body of knowledge about its genetics, genetic improvement programmes are virtually non-existent in this species and only crossbreeding is used in practice. The main reasons are the inefficiency of methods usually effective in other aquaculture species (monosexing, triploidy), and the bad image of selective breeding which is difficult to implem...

  4. The Utilization of Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Flesh as Fish Ball

    YANAR, Yasemen


    In this study, the sensory properties and shelf life of fish balls prepared from carp flesh were investigated. Four study groups were prepared with different combinations of ingredients: garlic, garlic-sunflower oil, onion and onion-sunflower oil. A control group was also prepared. At the end of the sensory evaluation, the groups received between 7.4 and 9.07 points from the panelists regarding appearance, texture, succulence, odour and flavour and general acceptance. The onion and garlic ...

  5. Comparative Histomorphological Studies on Oesophagus of Catfish and Grass Carp

    Enas A. Abd El Hafez; Doaa M. Mokhtar; Alaa Sayed Abou-Elhamd; Ahmed Hassan S. Hassan


    The present work was carried out on 40 specimens of oesophaguses of both sexes of catfish (carnivorous fish) and grass carp (herbivorous fish) in order to observe the morphological and histological differences between the two species. Oesophagus of catfish was divided into 2 parts: anterior and posterior ones. The anterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by the presence of numerous mucosal folds. It was lined by stratified epithelium with goblet cells. In addition to club ...

  6. Electrical coupling between bipolar cells in carp retina

    Kujiraoka, Toru; Saito, Takehiko


    Intracellular recordings were made simultaneously from pairs of neighboring bipolar cells by advancing two independent microelectrodes into retinas of carp (Cyprinus carpio). Bipolar cells were identified by their response properties and in several samples were verified by intracellular injection of Lucifer yellow. Current of either polarity injected into one member of the bipolar cell pair elicited a signconserving, sustained potential change in the other bipolar cell without any significant...

  7. Transforming Future Teaching through ‘Carpe Diem’ Learning Design

    Gilly Salmon; Phemie Wright


    Academic staff in Higher Education (HE) need to transform their teaching practices to support more future-orientated, digital, student-centered learning. Promoting, enabling and implementing these changes urgently requires acceptable, meaningful and effective staff development for academics. We identify four key areas that are presenting as barriers to the implementation of successful staff development. We illuminate the Carpe Diem learning design workshop process and illustrate its impact on...

  8. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Sibbing, F.A.


    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some food types and the consequent restrictions for others. Such information improves our understanding of the trophic interrelations between different fish species living together in one community.- Cy...

  9. Genotoxicity monitoring of freshwater environments using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Klobucar, Göran I V; Stambuk, Anamaria; Pavlica, Mirjana; Sertić Perić, Mirela; Kutuzović Hackenberger, Branimir; Hylland, Ketil


    The present study deals with genotoxicity assessment of freshwaters using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio). Carps were transplanted from a fish-farm to three differently polluted sites in eastern Croatia. Two polluted sites were situated in the river Drava, downstream from the cities of Belisće and Osijek, while the reference site was in the Nature Park Kopacki rit, a preserved wetland area with limited anthropogenic influence. Exposure lasted for 3 weeks and was repeated for 3 years (2002-2004). DNA damage was assessed in erythrocytes of the exposed animals by the Comet assay and micronucleus test (MNT). In order to evaluate possible differences in stress responses to polluted water in situ and in aquaria a laboratory exposure was performed with water from the studied location in the second year of the study. Carp from the sites with high anthropogenic influence (Belisće and Osijek) had higher average DNA damage as expressed in both the MNT and Comet assay. Of the two, the Comet assay appeared to be more sensitive following both caging and aquaria exposures. The results from this study suggest that 3 weeks caging exposure of C. carpio may be a useful strategy to monitor for genotoxic agents in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:19626438

  10. Comparative Histomorphological Studies on Oesophagus of Catfish and Grass Carp

    Enas A. Abd El Hafez


    Full Text Available The present work was carried out on 40 specimens of oesophaguses of both sexes of catfish (carnivorous fish and grass carp (herbivorous fish in order to observe the morphological and histological differences between the two species. Oesophagus of catfish was divided into 2 parts: anterior and posterior ones. The anterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by the presence of numerous mucosal folds. It was lined by stratified epithelium with goblet cells. In addition to club cells were observed in between the stratified epithelium. Scanning electron examination of the oesophageal epithelium of catfish demonstrated the presence of microvilli and fingerprint-like microridges in the superficial cell layer. The posterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by simple columnar mucus-secreting epithelium. The oesophagus of grass carp had shown the same structure along its entire length. It consisted of less folded mucosa than that observed in the oesophagus of catfish. The epithelium was characterized by the presence of taste buds. In conclusion, the present work revealed some differences in the structure of catfish oesophagus and grass carp oesophagus. These differences are related to type of food and feeding habits of each species.

  11. Hierarchical structure of the otolith of adult wild carp

    The otolith of adult wild carp contains a pair of asterisci, a pair of lappilli and a pair of sagittae. Current research works are mainly restricted to the field of the daily ring structure. The purpose of this work is to explore the structural characteristics of carp's otolith in terms of hierarchy from nanometer to millimeter scale by transmission election microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on the observation, carp's lapillus is composed of ordered aragonite crystals. Seven hierarchical levels of the microstructure were proposed and described with the scheme representing a complete organization in detail. SEM studies show not only the clear daily growth increment, but also the morphology within the single daily increment. The domain structure of crystal orientation in otolith was observed for the first time. Furthermore, TEM investigation displays that the lapillus is composed of aragonite crystals with nanometer scale. Four hierarchical levels of the microstructure of the sagitta are also proposed. The asteriscus which is composed of nanometer scale vaterite crystals is considered to have a uniform structure.


    Melita Mihaljević


    Full Text Available The massive development of bluegreen algae (Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria, the so--called water bloom, is a frequent phenomenon in fishpond ecosystems. This study analyses water bloom development in three carp fishponds owned by a fishbreeding company at Donji Miholjac (Croatia, where one-year-old carps (Cyprinus carpio , were bred in defferent fishstock densities. Analyses of physicallychemical properties of water and phytoplankton biomass were per- formed in fortnight intervals from May till October, 1992. In all there investigated fishponds the water bloom of bluegreen algae developed, but at a different time and showing a different qualitative composition. In the fishpond with fishstock density of 250 kg/ha water bloom consisted of the species Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, and the biggest biomass (131.92 mg/I was found in August. In the fishpond with fishstock density of 437 kg/ha a water bloom consisting of species from the genues Anabaena and species Aphanizomenon flos-aquae developed at the end of July. In the fishpond with the so--called intensive breeding (fishstock density of 750 kg/ha water bloom of the species Microcystis aeruginosa developed as late as September. The beginning of water bloom development was caused by the low value (lower than 7 of the ratio between the quantities of total phosphorus and total nitrogen. However, the qualitative composition of water bloom was influenced by one-year-old carp fingerlings density.

  13. More than Carpe Diem On the Theme of To his Coy Mistress



    Andrew Marvell's famous poem To his Coy Mistress is commonly considered a seduction poem with the theme of carpe diem.The poet's massive dependence on the sexual imagery,the images of time,eternity,and the decomposition,however,transcends the tradition of the usual carpe diem theme of seduction poem,unfolding the pessimism clad in the erotic overcoat.

  14. An analysis of inputs cost for carp farming sector in 2001 in Iran.

    Salehi, Hassan


    Carp is widely sold and used in its fresh in Iran, however, recently a range of value additions may also be observed. It is essential to the sustainable development of a carp farm to know the production costs and their contribution. Warm-water fish farming is mainly based on common, silver, grass and bighead carp and the common carp and the three Chinese species are often reared in poly culture in Iran. Since, the 1970s carp farming has spread around the Caspian coast and farmed production reached a peak in 2006 with production of more than 73,400 tons. A study of production, costs and profitability of carp farming sector was carried out to help clarify carp production costs and their difference with location in 2001. A total of 101 farms from the three main carp farming provinces, Guilan, Mazandaran and Khuzestan were randomly selected, classified and studied. The results of the survey showed that the various producer provinces have different cost structures. Overall, feed and fertilizer with the highest level of variation accounted for 23% of total costs, followed by seed and labor and salary with 23 and 17%, respectively. On average, benefit-cost ratio and the rate of farm income were closely related to location. This result suggests that farmers practice more efficiently and have better conditions in Mazandaran, followed by Guilan province. PMID:19090234

  15. Effects of phorbol esters in carp (Cyprinus carpio L).

    Becker, K; Makkar, H P


    Carp (Cyprinus carpio L) were fed diets containing phorbol esters at concentrations of 0, 3.75, 7.5, 15, 31, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 micrograms/g feed. Phorbol esters were from Jatropha curcas nuts. Jatropha curcas toxicity has been reported in humans, rodents and livestock, and phorbol esters have been identified as the main toxic agent. The adverse effects observed in carp at phorbol esters concentrations of 31 micrograms/g or higher were lower average metabolic growth rate, fecal mucus production and rejection of feed. Average metabolic growth rates (g/kg 0.8/d) in a 7-d experimental period during which diets containing phorbol esters were fed to carp (values with different letters being significantly different) were 15.4a, 14.4a, 12.5ab, 12.4ab, 10.9b, 3.4c, 0.2c, -3.8d, -4.9d and -5.6d, respectively, at the above mentioned concentrations. The values for the recovery phase of 9-d during which phorbol esters were not included in the diet were 16.0a, 15.6a, 14.9a, 15.6a, 5.3b, 1.6b, 4.6bc, 6.3bc, 7.8c and 8.2c, respectively. The adverse effects of phorbol esters were reversible since withdrawal of the esters from the diets led to gain in body mass. None of the fish died at any of the concentrations studied. Incorporation of vitamin C, an antioxidant, at levels of 0.4 and 2% in the feed did not prevent occurrence of the adverse effects of the phorbol esters. The threshold level at which phorbol esters appeared to cause adverse effects in carp was 15 micrograms/g feed or 15 ppm in the diet. Carp were highly sensitive to phorbol esters, thus making them a useful species for bioassay of these compounds. This bioassay together with other analytic procedures could be of immense use in the development of detoxification processes for agro-industrial products containing phorbol esters, such as jatropha meal or jatropha oil, and as a quality control method to monitor successive stages in industrial detoxification processes. PMID:9554059

  16. Formation and biological characterization of three new types of improved crucian carp


    The improved tetraploids (G1×AT) were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis and the high-body individuals accounted for 2% among G1×AT. After mating with each other, the high-body in- dividuals produced three kinds of bisexual fertile diploid fishes: high-body red crucian carp, high-body fork-like-tails goldfish and gray common carp. The high-body red crucian carp mating with each other formed three types of improved crucian carp (ICC) including improved red crucian carp (IRCC), im- proved color crucian carp (ICCC) and improved gray crucian carp (IGCC). The phenotypes, chromo- some numbers, gonadal structure and fertility of the three kinds of ICC and their offspring were observed. All the three kinds of ICC possessed some improved phenotypes such as higher body, smaller head and shorter tail. The ratios of the body height to body length of IRCC, ICCC and IGCC were 0.54, 0.51 and 0.54, respectively. All of them were obviously higher than that of red crucian carp 0.41 (P<0.01). Three kinds of ICC had the same chromosome number as red crucian carp with 100 chromosomes. All the ICC possessed normal gonads producing mature eggs or sperm, which was important for the production of an improved diploid population. Compared with red crucian carp, all the ICC had stronger fertility such as higher gametes production, higher fertilization rate and higher hatchery rate. Three types of improved diploid fish population were generated from the three kinds of ICC by self-crossing, respectively. The ICC can serve as ornamental fish and edible fish. They are also ideal parents to produce triploids by mating with tetraploids. The new ICC plays an important role in biological evolution and fish genetic breeding.

  17. Formation and biological characterization of three new types of improved curcian carp

    WANG Jing; LIU Yun; QIN QinBo; CHEN Song; LIU ShaoJun; DUAN Wei; LIU JinHui; ZHANG Chun; LUO KaiKun; XIAO Jun


    The improved tetraploids (G1×AT) were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis and the high-body individuals accounted for 2% among G1×AT. After mating with each other, the high-body in-dividuals produced three kinds of bisexual fertile diploid fishes: high-body red crucian carp, high-body fork-like-tails goldfish and gray common carp. The high-body red crucian carp mating with each other formed three types of improved crucian carp (ICC) including improved red crucian carp (IRCC), im-proved color crucian carp (ICCC) and improved gray crucian carp (IGCC). The phenotypes, chromo-some numbers, gonadal structure and fertility of the three kinds of ICC and their offspring were observed. All the three kinds of ICC possessed some improved phenotypes such as higher body, smaller head and shorter tail. The ratios of the body height to body length of IRCC, ICCC and IGCC were 0.54, 0.51 and 0.54, respectively. All of them were obviously higher than that of red crucian carp 0.41 (P<0.01). Three kinds of ICC had the same chromosome number as red crucian carp with 100 chromosomes. All the ICC possessed normal gonads producing mature eggs or sperm, which was important for the production of an improved diploid population. Compared with red crucian carp, all the ICC had stronger fertility such as higher gametes production, higher fertilization rate and higher hatchery rate. Three types of improved diploid fish population were generated from the three kinds of ICC by self-crossing, respectively. The ICC can serve as ornamental fish and edible fish. They are also ideal parents to produce triploids by mating with tetraploids. The new ICC plays an important role in biological evolution and fish genetic breeding.

  18. The identification of additional zebrafish DICP genes reveals haplotype variation and linkage to MHC class I genes.

    Rodriguez-Nunez, Ivan; Wcisel, Dustin J; Litman, Ronda T; Litman, Gary W; Yoder, Jeffrey A


    Bony fish encode multiple multi-gene families of membrane receptors that are comprised of immunoglobulin (Ig) domains and are predicted to function in innate immunity. One of these families, the diverse immunoglobulin (Ig) domain-containing protein (DICP) genes, maps to three chromosomal loci in zebrafish. Most DICPs possess one or two Ig ectodomains and include membrane-bound and secreted forms. Membrane-bound DICPs include putative inhibitory and activating receptors. Recombinant DICP Ig domains bind lipids with varying specificity, a characteristic shared with mammalian CD300 and TREM family members. Numerous DICP transcripts amplified from different lines of zebrafish did not match the zebrafish reference genome sequence suggesting polymorphic and haplotypic variation. The expression of DICPs in three different lines of zebrafish has been characterized employing PCR-based strategies. Certain DICPs exhibit restricted expression in adult tissues whereas others are expressed ubiquitously. Transcripts of a subset of DICPs can be detected during embryonic development suggesting roles in embryonic immunity or other developmental processes. Transcripts representing 11 previously uncharacterized DICP sequences were identified. The assignment of two of these sequences to an unplaced genomic scaffold resulted in the identification of an alternative DICP haplotype that is linked to a MHC class I Z lineage haplotype on zebrafish chromosome 3. The linkage of DICP and MHC class I genes also is observable in the genomes of the related grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) suggesting that this is a shared character with the last common Cyprinidae ancestor. PMID:26801775


    Rita Choudhury


    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to find out the abundance of four exotic fish namely, common carp, grass carp, silver carp and bighead carp in the Urpod beel of Goalpara district of Assam. The Urpod beel has a rich ichthyofaunal diversity and available almost all native fish species of Assam. During last few years the beel become habitat of some exotic fish species and their numberhas been increasing day by day, causes disturbances to the native fish species. The rate of exotic fish infestation in the beel was determined through field investigation and catch record from January 2011 to December 2011 in the fish landing centres of the beel. Abundance Index was calculated for the four exotic species from each catch data. A marked seasonal variation of the fish catch of native and exotic fishes was noticed. Among the four exotic species common carp recorded highest catch (4.99% of total catch and bighead recorded lowest (2.84% of total catch.

  20. Carbon dioxide as a tool to deter the movement of invasive bigheaded carps

    Michael R. Donaldson; Amberg, Jon; Shivani Adhikari; Cupp, Aaron R.; Jensen, Nathan; Romine, Jason G.; Adam Wright; Gaikowski, Mark; Cory D. Suski


    Nonnative bigheaded carps are established in the Mississippi River and there is substantial concern about their potential entry into the interconnected Laurentian Great Lakes. While electrical barriers currently exist as a preventative measure, there is need for additional control mechanisms to promote barrier security through redundancy. We tested the effectiveness of infused carbon dioxide gas (CO2) as a tool to influence the movement and behavior invasive bigheaded carps, namely Bighead CarpHypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix, as well as native Bigmouth BuffaloIctiobus cyprinellus, Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus, Paddlefish Polyodon spathula, and Yellow Perch Perca flavescens in an experimental pond. Individuals were monitored with acoustic telemetry before, during, and after CO2 addition to the pond. We noted distinct changes in fish behavior following CO2 addition. Each species except Paddlefish maintained farther distances from the CO2 infusion manifold relative to controls. Both bigheaded carp species had slower persistence velocities (persistence of a movement in a given direction) following CO2 infusion and Bighead Carp used a smaller area of the pond immediately after CO2 addition. Pond pH progressively decreased up to 1.5 units following CO2 infusion. This work provides evidence that could inform future research to enhance existing control measures used to deter high-risk invasive fishes, such as bigheaded carps.

  1. Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP): Time to let go

    Fabella, Raul V.


    This paper revisits the record of CARP over the quarter century of its existence. By 2014, 5.05 million of the 5.37m hectares of the targeted agricultural land shall have been distributed. As a program for land asset equity, it shall have accomplished 99% of its target, whopper of a success for a government program. As a program to advance the economic welfare of farmers, it has accomplished the opposite of its stated goals. Productivity has fallen drastically in coconut and sugar and poverty...




    Full Text Available The present paper investigates some morphological characters (total length, standard bodily length, head length, maxim height and bodily circumference in representatives of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis occurring in their first growing summer. Biometric analyses were performed on 100 individuals, in the end the morphological characters under investigations being statistically processed. Explanation of the experimental results evidences low values of the standard error of the mean, which is indicative of a grouping of all external bodily variables under investigation close to the average value.


    N. Kolisnyk


    Full Text Available Purpose. To reproduce Amur carp population using cryopreserved sperm and analyze some biological and fish culture peculiarities of the reproduced fish stock. Methodology. Generally accepted methods for fish culture [1]. Experimental reproduction was carried out in pond conditions of «Carpathian vodogray» LTD (Lisnevychi village, Pustomytivsky district, Lviv region. Hydrochemical analysis was carried out classically by O. Alуokin (1970 [2], hydrobiological studies in the fatting ponds according to V. Zhadin (1956, 1960 [3, 4]. Haemoglobin concentration was determined by hemocyanin method of G. Dervis, A. Vorobiov [5]. Blood for this method was collected from fish heart with the use of Pasteur pipettes in Eppendorf tubes with heparin. Following exterior morphometric parameters were analysed: body weight (m, g, standard fish body length (l, cm, largest body height (H, cm and body circumference (O cm. Following exterior indices were calculated based on these parameters: body depth index (l/H, body circumference index (l/O and Fulton’s condition factor (Kv. The study was carried out using two groups of carp: control and experimental. The first group was reproduced from the native sperm, the second from the cryopreserved sperm. Findings. Carp reproduction and growing was carried out using native and cryopreserved sperm. This work contains the results of growing 1+ Amur carp of experimental and control groups. Hydrochemical and hydrobiological parameters of the fattening ponds were studied. Peculiarities of the exterior and some hematological parameters of the carp of different origin were characterized. Originality. For the first time we performed a comparison of some biological parameters of Amur carp reproduced using native and cryopreserved sperm. Practical Value. Considering the economic importance of Amur carp due to its use in hybridization, reproduction of its population plays an important role in the development of the stocks of the pure

  4. Effect of Cadmium Chloride on Metallothionein Levels in Carp

    Jana Kovarova


    Full Text Available Due to anthropogenic activities, heavy metals still represent a threat for various trophic levels. If aquatic animals are exposed to heavy metals, we can obviously observe considerable toxicity. It is well known that organisms treated with heavy metals synthesize low molecular mass compounds rich in cysteine. In this work the effects of cadmium chloride (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 mg/L on common carp (Cyprinus carpio was investigated. We determined cadmium content in tissue of muscle, liver and kidney by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization and content of metallothionein (MT in the same tissues by the Brdicka reaction. Electrochemical methods can be considered as suitable and sensitive tools for MT determination in carp tissues. Results of our study showed a gradually enhancing of cadmium content in muscle with time and dose of cadmium chloride in water. MT levels in liver reached both high levels (above 130 ng/g in fish exposed to 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/L and low level (to 50 ng/g in fish exposed to 10 and 12.5 mg/L of cadmium chloride. This finding confirms that the synthesis of metallothioneins and binding capacity of these proteins is restricted.

  5. Genomic insight into the common carp (Cyprinus carpio genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences

    Wang Jintu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development, linkage map and physical map integration, and whole genome sequence assembling and scaffolding. Result To develop such valuable resources in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, a total of 40,224 BAC clones were sequenced on both ends, generating 65,720 clean BES with an average read length of 647 bp after sequence processing, representing 42,522,168 bp or 2.5% of common carp genome. The first survey of common carp genome was conducted with various bioinformatics tools. The common carp genome contains over 17.3% of repetitive elements with GC content of 36.8% and 518 transposon ORFs. To identify and develop BAC-anchored microsatellite markers, a total of 13,581 microsatellites were detected from 10,355 BES. The coding region of 7,127 genes were recognized from 9,443 BES on 7,453 BACs, with 1,990 BACs have genes on both ends. To evaluate the similarity to the genome of closely related zebrafish, BES of common carp were aligned against zebrafish genome. A total of 39,335 BES of common carp have conserved homologs on zebrafish genome which demonstrated the high similarity between zebrafish and common carp genomes, indicating the feasibility of comparative mapping between zebrafish and common carp once we have physical map of common carp. Conclusion BAC end sequences are great resources for the first genome wide survey of common carp. The repetitive DNA was estimated to be approximate 28% of common carp genome, indicating the higher complexity of the genome. Comparative analysis had mapped around 40,000 BES to zebrafish genome and established over 3

  6. Downstream movement of recently transformed sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, in Carp Lake River, Michigan

    Applegate, Vernon C.; Brynildson, Clifford L.


    In order to obtain more precise information concerning the downstream movement of recently transformed sea lampreys, a trapping device was operated in the Carp Lake River, Emmet County, Michigan, from October, 1948, to July, 1951.

  7. Radio Telemetry Study of Common Carp in Clear Lake, Iowa, To Guide Future Management

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a highly competitive freshwater fish capable of rapidly establishing populations in new, unexploited and disturbed habitats...

  8. Antioxidant activity and functional properties of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg).

    Chalamaiah, M; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Dinesh Kumar, B


    Previously, we have reported the composition, molecular mass distribution and in vivo immunomodulatory effects of common carp roe protein hydrolysates. In the current study, antioxidative activity and functional properties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg) protein hydrolysates, prepared by pepsin, trypsin and Alcalase, were evaluated. The three hydrolysates showed excellent antioxidant activities in a dose dependent manner in various in vitro models such as 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6)-sulfonic acid (ABTS(+)) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) chelating ability. Enzymatic hydrolysis significantly increased protein solubility of the hydrolysates to above 62 % over a wide pH range (2-12). Carp roe hydrolysates exhibited good foaming and emulsification properties. The results suggest that bioactive carp roe protein hydrolysates (CRPHs) with good functional properties could be useful in health food/nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industry for various applications. PMID:26344996

  9. CARP: a computer code and albedo data library for use by BREESE, the MORSE albedo package

    The CARP computer code was written to allow processing of DOT angular flux tapes to produce albedo data for use in the MORSE computer code. An albedo data library was produced containing several materials. 3 tables


    Roman Safner


    Full Text Available The morphometric traits were determined on the sample of 459 marketable size common carp from the four Croatian fish farms. There traits were analyzed by the classical methods in order to determine the influence of population, scaliness, age and sex on the dressing percentage. The obtained results show the existence of different phenotypes of common carps at Croatian farms, primarily, morphometric differences. However, the sygnificant diferences of dressing percentage among the populations were not registered (p>0.05. The significant difference between the dressing percentages of scaled and mirror carps was not detected (p>0.05, what leads to the conclusion that the scaliness does not influence dressing percentage significantly. The age and sex also, dit not show significant influence on dressing percentage. As the carps were sampled in winter the differences in dressing percentage caused by the different maturation of males and females were excluded.

  11. Carp Control Study - Control Methods and Their Application to Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study grew out of a need for information regarding alternative solutions to chemical control of carp in Malheur Lake. Of particular concern has been the...

  12. Radio Telemetry Study of Common Carp in Clear Lake, Iowa, To Guide Future Management

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The common carp Cyprinus carpio is a highly competitive freshwater fish capable of rapidly establishing populations in new, unexploited and disturbed habitats Panek...

  13. The effect of replacing fishmeal with Spirulina on microbial load in common carp Cyprinus carpio L

    N.M. Abdulrahman; and H.J.H. Ameen


    The use of blue green algae Spirulina in aquaculture has several potential advantages over the production of fish. This study was designed to investigate the effect of different replacement levels of fishmeal with Spirulina on microbial load of common carp Cyprinus carpio L., the trail was conducted for 105 days and for this purpose 200 fingerlings common carp. Mean initial weight was (32.7 g). The fish were acclimated to laboratory conditions and fed with control pellets (32% protein) prior ...

  14. Interactions between predator- and diet-induced phenotypic changes in body shape of crucian carp

    Andersson, Jens; Johansson, Frank; Söderlund, Tony


    Predator cues and diet, when studied separately, have been shown to affect body shape of organisms. Previous studies show that the morphological responses to predator absence/presence and diet may be similar, and hence could confound the interpretation of the causes of morphological differences found between groups of individuals. In this study, we simultaneously examined the effect of these two factors on body shape and performance in crucian carp in a laboratory experiment. Crucian carp (Ca...

  15. Invasive SIlver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Protein Hydrolysates- A Potential Source of Natural Antioxidant

    Malaypally, Sravanthi Priya


    Invasive silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), continue to spread over the Mississippi River causing a great concern for the river ecosystem due to their impact on native fish species. To minimize the negative effects of silver carp, many strategies were implemented including using it for animal feed, as fertilizers or simply discarding them into waste. However, these fish are high in protein content, making them excellent starting material for protein-derived by-products. One alternativ...

  16. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN) on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Constanze Pietsch; Susanne Kersten; Hana Valenta; Sven Dänicke; Carsten Schulz; Patricia Burkhardt-Holm; Ranka Junge


    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively) was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the u...

  17. Culture of mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) in polyculture with carps: experience from a field trial in Bangladesh

    Roos, N.; Islam, M. M.; Thilsted, S.H.; Ashrafuddin, M.; Mursheduzzaman, M.; Mohsin, D.M.; Shamsuddin, A.B.M.


    Studies were carried out during May 1997 to January 1998 in Kishoregani district in Bangladesh to investigate the production potential of carp polyculture in combination with Amblypharyngodon mola in seasonal ponds. The preliminary results indicate that A. mola can be successfully cultured in small seasonal ponds in polyculture with carp. This practice can result in an increase in the households' consumption of small fish which have a very high content of calcium, iron and vitamin A. In addit...

  18. Effect of mola (Amblypharyngodon mola Ham.) on the growth and production of carps in polyculture

    Kohinoor, A.H.M.; Islam, M.L; Wahab, M. A.; Thilsted, S.H.


    The effect of introduction of mola (Amblypharyngodon mala) in polyculture with rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla) and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis) was studied in semi-intensive culture system in the pond complex of the Fisheries Faculty, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. Mala, a small indigenous fish was found to exert a negative impact on growth and production of carps. After four months' rearing, significant difference (P

  19. Minor effect of depletion of resident macrophages from peritoneal cavioty on resistance of common carp Cyprinus carpio to blood flagellates

    Saeij, J.P.J.; Groeneveld, A.; Rooijen, van, J.; Haenen, O. L. M.; Wiegertjes, G. F.


    Carp Cyprinus carpio macrophages were depleted by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of clodronate-liposomes for the in vivo study of the effect of macrophage depletion on the resistance of carp to infection with blood flagellate parasites. Clodronate released inside the cell induces apoptosis of (murine) macrophages. Following i.p. injection of carp with liposomes alone, but not with Trypanoplasma borreli, neutrophilic granulocytes rapidly migrated from the head kidney to the peritoneal cavity...

  20. Isozyme Analysis of Jin Silver Carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Var Jin)

    Qiang YANG; Jun HAO; Di BAO; Aijun LIANG; Wankun JIN; Chongwen LI; Xinghua ZHANG; Shi DONG


    Abstract [Objective] The aim was to carry out isozyme analysis of jin silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys mofitrix Var Jing). [Method] The isozyme of AAT, EST, cc-GPD, GPI, IDH, LDH, MDH, ME, PGM and PROT of muscles and liver in two populations of the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix): Jin silver carp (a breed through se- lective breeding) and artificially propagated population bought from Jingzhou city, Hubei Province were examined by horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. [Result] Eigh- teen loci were observed in two populations. Two loci of GPI and PGM in Jing sil- ver carp population and the locus of GPI in Jingzhou population were polymorphic. The proportions of polymorphic loci (maximum allele frequency-〈0.99) of Jing silver carp and Jingzhou populations were 11.11% and 5.56% respectively, expected het- erozygosity were 0.015 0 and 0.001 1 respectively. The Nei's genetic distances were 0.000 59 between two populations. The result of chi-square test of the GPI gene in two populations showed that their genetic structure has very significant dif- ference. [Conclusion] This study provided a theoretical basis for large-scale extension of Jing silver carp.

  1. Development and sterilization of instant flavor grass carp

    An instant food of flavor grass carp was developed by curing, drying, flavoring, packaging in vacuum, and sterilizing. The influences of high temperature and high pressure sterilization and irradiation sterilization on texture, color, contents of hydrolyzed amino acid, and microorganism counts of product were studied The quality of fish fillets that were cured by 2% (weight fraction) salt for 3 h, and then dried at 50℃ for 24 h, turned to be the best. Compared with those sterilized by high temperature and high pressure, products by irradiation possessed higher L* value and Hunter whiteness. but lower a* and b* value. The products sterilized by irradiation were preferable in hardness and chewiness After sterilization, the contents of hydrolyzed amino acid increase, but the difference is not significant, and the microorganism counts are less than 10 cfu·g-1. (authors)

  2. The effect of Rosmarinus officinalis and Zataria multiflora extracts on the stability of poly unsaturated fatty acids in frozen silver carp minced

    Fahim Dezhban, Yasaman


    The purpose of this study, Evaluation the effect of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris extracts on the stability of poly unsaturated fatty acids in frozen Silver carp minced. Treatments include: Treatment 1 - Control: frozen meat packaged in conventional Treatment 2: Frozen Silver carp minced+Thyme 300 mg/kg in normal packaging Treatment 3: Frozen Silver carp minced+Rosemary 200 mg/kg in normal packaging Treatment 4: Frozen Silver carp minced+Rosemary compound (100...


    O. Oleksiyenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. To perform an analysis the fish breeding, biological, productive, exterior indicators of Antoninsko-Zozulenetskiy carps of Ukrainian scaly and Ukrainian framed breeds, their genetic characteristics as well as to provide the methods of the creation of these carps as a selective achievement. Methodology. The works were carried out in accordance with conventional techniques in fish farming and breeding. Carp breeding was conducted by the method of mass continuously improving selection of fish the aim of which is that a complex of fish breeding and management activities create conditions contributing to the development of productive qualities in the selected carp, while selection and breeding activities form and reproduce the leading pedigree group of the stock. Findings. In the conditions of the development of fisheries industry, especially important are the problems of selection and breeding works aimed at improving the biological and economic features of fish farming objects by improving the existing and developing new breeds, inbreeding, zonal types, lines, etc., creating a progressive heterotic structure of breeds and forming highly productive pedigree stocks of fish breeding objects. The main object of commercial fish farming in Ukraine, as in many countries, is carp, so his selection is given much attention. The starting material for producing the Antoninsko-Zozulenetskiy Ukrainian scaly and Ukrainian framed breeds was carp population of Antoninskiy State fish hatchery (Khmelnytsky region, which was a cross between native carp with mirror Galician carp. The principal method of carp breeding was a massive, continuously improving selection with high intensity among younger age groups. An importance during the selection was given to the growth rate of the fish, their exterior and constitutional "strength." For the brood, individuals with the highest body weight, scaly cover of which corresponded to accepted standards, beautiful high

  4. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed inOsteoblasts and Regulated by PTH

    Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D.; Das, Varsha [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Jamal, Shazia [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Levi, Edi [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Rishi, Arun K. [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); VA Medical Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Datta, Nabanita S., E-mail: [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Cardiovascular Research Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)


    Highlights: •CARP-1 is identified for the first time in bone cells. •PTH downregulates CARP-1 expression in differentiated osteoblasts. •PTH displaces CARP-1 from nucleus to the cytoplasm in differentiated osteoblasts. •Downregulation of CARP-1 by PTH involves PKA, PKC and P-p38 MAPK pathways. -- Abstract: Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1

  5. A tale of four "carp": invasion potential and ecological niche modeling.

    Shannon C DeVaney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasive species are a serious problem in ecosystems, but are difficult to eradicate once established. Predictive methods can be key in determining which areas are of concern regarding invasion by such species to prevent establishment [1]. We assessed the geographic potential of four Eurasian cyprinid fishes (common carp, tench, grass carp, black carp as invaders in North America via ecological niche modeling (ENM. These "carp" represent four stages of invasion of the continent (a long-established invader with a wide distribution, a long-established invader with a limited distribution, a spreading invader whose distribution is expanding, and a newly introduced potential invader that is not yet established, and as such illustrate the progressive reduction of distributional disequilibrium over the history of species' invasions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used ENM to estimate the potential distributional area for each species in North America using models based on native range distribution data. Environmental data layers for native and introduced ranges were imported from state, national, and international climate and environmental databases. Models were evaluated using independent validation data on native and invaded areas. We calculated omission error for the independent validation data for each species: all native range tests were highly successful (all omission values <7%; invaded-range predictions were predictive for common and grass carp (omission values 8.8 and 19.8%, respectively. Model omission was high for introduced tench populations (54.7%, but the model correctly identified some areas where the species has been successful; distributional predictions for black carp show that large portions of eastern North America are at risk. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ENMs predicted potential ranges of carp species accurately even in regions where the species have not been present until recently. ENM can forecast species' potential

  6. Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in north Croatia after the Chernobyl accident

    Franic, Z


    Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carps decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs in carps was estimated to be about 1 year for 1987-2002 period and 5 years for 1993-2005 period. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carps has been found to be similar to the ratio that has been observed in other environmental samples. Concentration factor for carps (wet weight) was roughly estimated to be 128 +/- 74 Lkg-1, which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K+ concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective doses received by 134Cs and 137Cs intake due to consumption of carps for an adult member of Croatian population are small, per caput dose for the 1987 - 2005 estimated to be 0.5 +/- 0.2 microSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps, it can be concluded that carps consumption was no...

  7. Demasculinisation of sexually mature male common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4-tert-pentylphenol during spermatogenesis

    Gimeno, S.; Komen, H.; Jobling, S.; Sumpter, J.; Bowmer, T.


    Sexually mature male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed for a 3-month period to sublethal concentrations of 4-tert-pentylphenol (TPP) and to 17β-estradiol (E2) during spermatogenesis. This was part of a broad research programme investigating the effects of TPP on the life stages of the carp

  8. Comparative genomics in cyprinids: common carp ESTs help the annotation of the zebrafish genome

    Srinivasan Hamsa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automatic annotation of sequenced eukaryotic genomes integrates a combination of methodologies such as ab-initio methods and alignment of homologous genes and/or proteins. For example, annotation of the zebrafish genome within Ensembl relies heavily on available cDNA and protein sequences from two distantly related fish species and other vertebrates that have diverged several hundred million years ago. The scarcity of genomic information from other cyprinids provides the impetus to leverage EST collections to understand gene structures in this diverse teleost group. Results We have generated 6,050 ESTs from the differentiating testis of common carp (Cyprinus carpio and clustered them with 9,303 non-gonadal ESTs from CarpBase as well as 1,317 ESTs and 652 common carp mRNAs from GenBank. Over 28% of the resulting 8,663 unique transcripts are exclusively testis-derived ESTs. Moreover, 974 of these transcripts did not match any sequence in the zebrafish or fathead minnow EST collection. A total of 1,843 unique common carp sequences could be stringently mapped to the zebrafish genome (version 5, of which 1,752 matched coding sequences of zebrafish genes with or without potential splice variants. We show that 91 common carp transcripts map to intergenic and intronic regions on the zebrafish genome assembly and regions annotated with non-teleost sequences. Interestingly, an additional 42 common carp transcripts indicate the potential presence of new splicing variants not found in zebrafish databases so far. The fact that common carp transcripts help the identification or confirmation of these coding regions in zebrafish exemplifies the usefulness of sequences from closely related species for the annotation of model genomes. We also demonstrate that 5' UTR sequences of common carp and zebrafish orthologs share a significant level of similarity based on preservation of motif arrangements for as many as 10 ab-initio motifs. Conclusion

  9. The residual dynamic of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides in fishponds of the Pearl River delta, South China.

    Kong, K Y; Cheung, K C; Wong, C K C; Wong, M H


    Hong Kong and South China are the most developed regions within China. The industrialization in these areas has resulted in severe environmental problems. Sediment and biotic samples including tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), crucian carp (Carassius auratus) and mandarin fish/fresh water grouper (Siniperca chuatsi) were collected from different fishponds in the Pearl River Delta (Tanzhou, Sanjiao, Guangzhou, Shipai, Changan and Mai Po) for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides. Mandarin fish, which belongs to the highest trophic level, accumulated the highest concentrations of PAHs and DDTs among all fish species. The levels of DDTs in fish samples ranged from 1.5 to 62ng g-1 (wet wt.), with more than 30% of the fish samples exceeding the limit of 14.4ng g-1 (wet wt.) for human consumption recommended by US EPA (2000). Levels of PAHs in fish samples ranged from 1.91 to 224.03ng g-1 (wet wt.), but the potency-weighted total concentrations of PAHs in all muscle tissues were below the guideline value of 0.67ng g-1 (wet wt.) for human consumption set by US EPA (2000). The guideline value calculated was based on a tissue consumption rate of 142.2g day-1 (4-5 meals per week), which is a more protective rate for populations with a high consumption of fish, like Chinese and Asians. The effect of lipid content in PAHs and DDTs accumulation in fish tissue was not significant in general. PMID:15899281


    Ivan Bogut


    Full Text Available Chemical composition and contents of amino acids and fatty acids in the planktonic cladoceran Daphnia magna were investigated, aiming to evaluate its value for feeding of young carp. Crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash and moisture contents were analyzed according to standard laboratory procedures. Amino acids content was determined by LKB 4101 automatic analyzer and that of fatty acids by Chrompack CP 9000 chromatograph, using a flame ionizing detector. Protein contents amounted to 1.18 and 39.24% of fresh and dry mass, respectively. These amounts of proteins completely meet nutritional requirements both of carp fry and its older categories and other omnivorous fishes. Raw fat and fibre contents in dry weight were 4.98 and 4.32%, respectively, which is suitable for the commercial carp breeding. Methionine and phenylalanine are partially in deficit, whereas other essential amino acids identified in dry mass of Daphnia magna were present in amounts adequate for all carp categories. The proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in lipids of Daphnia magna were 18.70 and 66.20%, respectively. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, the omega–3 group was present with 27.30%. The omega–3 : omega–6 fatty acids ratio was 5.68:1, which fully meets the carp nutrition requirements.

  11. Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions.

    Duran, Ayhan; Talas, Zeliha Selamoglu


    In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance. Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed that the temperature varied between 9 and 12 degrees C in sale conditions. In addition, we assumed the arrival time of the fish at the fish market to be 0 (zero) h. Biochemical analyses [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase activity] of carp tissues (muscle, liver, heart, spleen, brain) were carried out on fish which were held for 24 and 48 h, as well as on fresh fish (0 h). In addition, sensory analysis was conducted by a panel consisting of experienced judges of sensory evaluation. Statistically significant (P 0.05) increase in MDA level in heart tissue of carp after 24 h. There was a statistically significant (P deals with the effects of post-slaughter time and storage temperature on carp tissues. It is concluded that by considering the storage temperature (9-12 degrees C) and storage time (post-slaughter) the product maintained acceptable quality up to 24 h. There was significant deterioration of sensory quality, as a result of changes in chemical constituents. PMID:19533401

  12. A review of introduction of common carp Cyprinus carpio in Pakistan: origin, purpose, impact and management

    Khan Muhammd Naeem


    Full Text Available Common carp Cyprinus carpio was introduced from Thailand to Pakistan in 1964 for the purpose of aquaculture. Due to its high tolerance to temperature and turbidity, and prolific pond breeding habit, it was established promptly in most of natural inland waters, including rivers, lakes, streams, canals, wetlands and even village ponds of the country. Although common carp became one of the most abundant cyprinid species in inland waters and important food fish in Pakistan, its impact is not well documented. Fish farming of common carp has been carried out in Pakistan since 1970; initially it grew slowly but now it is playing an important role in the economy of the country by employing more than 400,000 people. Nowadays, farming of freshwater carps is present throughout Pakistan, especially in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh. There is a huge potential in common carp farming and it could help increase the livelihood of people and gross domestic product (GDP of the country as well. Still, there is a need to improve the fish farming practice to meet the world-class demands that could only be possible by the keen interest of policy makers and stake holders with better management.

  13. Action spectra and adaptation properties of carp photoreceptors.

    Witkovsky, P; Nelson, J; Ripps, H


    The mass photoreceptor response of the isolated carp retina was studied after immersing the tissue in aspartate-Ringer solution. Two electro-retinogram components were isolated by differential depth recording: a fast cornea-negative wave, arising in the receptor layer, and a slow, cornea-negative wave arising at some level proximal to the photoreceptors. Only the fast component was investigated further. In complete dark adaptation, its action spectrum peaked near 540 nm and indicated input from both porphyropsin-containing rods (lambda(max) approximately 525 nm) and cones with longer wavelength sensitivity. Under photopic conditions a broad action spectrum, lambda(max) approximately 580 nm was seen. In the presence of chromatic backgrounds, the photopic curve could be fractionated into three components whose action spectra agreed reasonably well with the spectral characteristics of blue, green, and red cone pigments of the goldfish. In parallel studies, the carp rod pigment was studied in situ by transmission densitometry. The reduction in optical density after a full bleach averaged 0.28 at its lambda(max) 525 nm. In the isolated retina no regeneration of rod pigment occurred within 2 h after bleaching. The bleaching power of background fields used in adaptation experiments was determined directly. Both rods and cones generated increment threshold functions with slopes of +1 on log-log coordinates over a 3-4 log range of background intensities. Background fields which bleached less than 0.5% rod pigment nevertheless diminished photoreceptor sensitivity. The degree and rate of recovery of receptor sensitivity after exposure to a background field was a function of the total flux (I x t) of the field. Rod saturation, i.e. the abolition of rod voltages, occurred after approximately 12% of rod pigment was bleached. In light-adapted retinas bathed in normal Ringer solution, a small test flash elicited a larger response in the presence of an annular background field than


    Anđelko Opačak


    Full Text Available Postembryonic rearing of carp larvae in closed recirculatory system was conducted in 2009 at the fish farm Ribnjak LLC, Donji Miholjac, Croatia. The research was conducted in two test groups (A and B with three iterations in each with a control group (C. Test group A (3 tanks x 250 l consisted of 150 000 larvae (density of 200 larvae•l-1, test group B (3 tanks x 500 l consisted of 600 000 larvae (density of 400 larvae•l-1, and the control group (C was a mud fish pond T-6 which was stocked by 800 000 larvae•ha-1 under standard production conditions. In this research, basic physical and chemical water parameters were controlled (temperature, oxygen, pH, total ammonia and nitrites. Initial measuring of carp larvae total length (TL was conducted prior to their placement into tanks (N=120. On the fourth, sixth, eighth and tenth day of research 20 larvae (N=140 were taken out of every tank as well as out of control group and measured. Feeding with live feed began on the third day after hatching (larval TL 6.00±0.36 mm. Ten minutes after feeding live feed to larvae for the first time, 20 larvae (N=120 were taken out of every tank and a high portion of larvae that accepted live feed (89.17±3.76% was determined by a magnifying glass. Feeding artificial feed began on the seventh day after the hatching. After ten minutes, a high portion of larvae who accepted artificial feed (96.67±2.58% was determined. Since the end of the research, the determined length increment (ITL per day was 0.41±0.04 mm, a very high survival rate was established (group A: 96%, group B: 93%. Feeding frequency was four times a day in five-hour intervals (at 06:00, 11:00,16:00 and 21:00 hours. The research was terminated after ten feeding days due to deteriorating condition of zoohygienic filter. The total of 3807 g of live feed and 1080 g of artificial feed was used.


    龚望宝; 余德光; 王广军; 谢骏; 张敬旺; 李志斐; 郁二蒙; 王海英


    To increase the efficiency of dissolved oxygen (DO) management in high density ponds mainly stocked with grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), the present research aimed to characterize the budget of dissolved oxygen in nine fish ponds in Zhongshan, Guangdong province, China. The water depth was 1.5-2.0 m. Photosynthesis of phytoplank-ton and water respiration rate (WR) were determined by the clear and dark bottles method. The sediment respiration rate (SR) was measured by in situ respirometry. The fish respiration rate was determined by the respiratory chamber method. The mechanical aeration was calculated by predicting models. Atmosphere diffusion was estimated by the subtraction method. The results showed the gross oxygen production (GOP) of photosynthesis showed a decreasing trend as the water depth increased, and the value in the bottom was negative, which was the common oxygen debt phenomenon. There was no significant difference between the WR under the surface, middle layer and bottom (P>0.05). The GOP of photosynthesis in the surface was significantly higher than the WR (PO.05), but the GOP of photosynthesis was significantly lower than the WR both in the middle layer and in the bottom (PO.05). The photosynthesis of phytoplankton and the mechanical aeration were the main contributors to the total oxygen production in high density ponds mainly stocked with C. idella, which accounted for 44.7% and 42.3% of the total oxygen production, respectively, but the contribution of atmosphere diffusion was the lowest and accounted for 13.0%. Among the oxygen consuming factors, the WR was the largest oxygen consumer, which accounted for 45.9% of the total oxygen consumption of water column, followed by fish respiration rate which accounted for 45.0% of the total oxygen consumption, and the proportion of SR was the lowest which accounted for 9.1%.%采用原位生态学的方法测定广东省中山市9口主养草鱼高密度池塘中浮游植物光合作用产氧量、

  16. Research concerning the feed digestibility and the digestive utilization coefficient in grass carp (Ctenopharingodon idella)

    Valerica Gîlcă


    The experiment was organized to investigate the recovery of additional food (fodder andterrestrial vegetation) given to fish, Ctenopharyngodon idella, in particular through the study of nutrientdigestibility. Studied forage digestibility was determined through laboratory experiments, conductedbetween June 20 to 30, 2009, using 10 individuals of the species Ctenopharygodon idella from fish farmMovileni, Iași. There were formed two experimental groups, each of five individuals per group,differ...

  17. Assessment of synthetic organic compounds, and endocrinology and histology of carp in Lake Mead

    Bevans, H.; Goodbred, S.; Miesner, J.


    This study investigated the presence and biologic effects of synthetic organic compounds transported by Las Vegas Wash to Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Water, bottom sediment, and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were analyzed for synthetic organic compounds. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to sample the water column. Blood samples were collected from Carp for analysis of sex steroid hormones and vitellogenin. Samples of external abnormalities and organs (liver, gill, kidney, small intestine, and gonad) were collected for histologic analysis. Compounds known to affect endocrine systems (PAHs, phthalate esters, PCBs, dioxins and furans) were detected in SPMD, bottom-sediment, and/or carp samples. The number and concentrations of compounds generally were greater in samples from Las Vegas Wash and Bay, than in samples from Callville Bay, a reference site in Lake Mead. High levels of PAHs detected in SPMDs from Callville Bay could indicate the existence of contaminant sources other than Las Vegas Wash.

  18. The effect of replacing fishmeal with Spirulina on microbial load in common carp Cyprinus carpio L

    N.M. Abdulrahman


    Full Text Available The use of blue green algae Spirulina in aquaculture has several potential advantages over the production of fish. This study was designed to investigate the effect of different replacement levels of fishmeal with Spirulina on microbial load of common carp Cyprinus carpio L., the trail was conducted for 105 days and for this purpose 200 fingerlings common carp. Mean initial weight was (32.7 g. The fish were acclimated to laboratory conditions and fed with control pellets (32% protein prior to the feeding trials for 21 days. Five experimental diets were used and Spirulina replaced fishmeal protein from the standard diet at 0% (T1, 5% (T2, 10% (T3, 15% (T4 and 20% (T5 levels. Bacterial total account in rearing water and the bacterial total count in carp intestine for the third treatment was higher significantly as compared to other treatments, which is the conclusion of this study.

  19. Ontogeny of the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune system: Gene expression and experimental limitations

    Schmidt, Jacob; Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht


    carp were brought to the facilities at DTU and kept in aquaria at 25°C. They were initially fed Artemia nauplii, and later switched to commercial dry granulate feed. Carp were anaesthetised and then experimentally wounded at days 10, 16, 24, 47 and 94 days post-hatch. Sampling was carried out at day 1......, 3 and 7 post-wounding and samples were stored in RNA later for isolation of RNA. The physical tissue damage was performed using a sterile needle, which penetrated the skin and the underlying musculature in an area above the lateral line of the left side of fish. Carps at the age of 10, 16 and 24...




    Full Text Available Common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. of 8 months older, rearing in recirculation system during 107 days period - he has been analysed from the point of view of feeding efficiency and nutritional quality of carp carcass. The stocking of breeding ponds has been made at 12.17 kg/m3 density, the initial average weight of fishes has been 82.2 g/ex., biochemical composition of carp carcass has been following: protein 14.35%, fat 1.10%, ash 1.67% and moisture 82.22%. Weekly, there has been analysed biochemical composition of meat and protein efficiency coefficient (PER, protein using efficiency (PUE, retained protein (RP. The nutritional quality of fish meat and appreciation coefficients of fish rearing they indicate a good capitalization of delivered food.

  1. G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) inhibits final oocyte maturation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Majumder, Suravi; Das, Sumana; Moulik, Sujata Roy; Mallick, Buddhadev; Pal, Puja; Mukherjee, Dilip


    GPR-30, now named as GPER (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor) was first identified as an orphan receptor and subsequently shown to be required for estrogen-mediated signaling in certain cancer cells. Later studies demonstrated that GPER has the characteristics of a high affinity estrogen membrane receptor on Atlantic croaker and zebra fish oocytes and mediates estrogen inhibition of oocyte maturation in these two distantly related teleost. To determine the broad application of these findings to other teleost, expression of GPER mRNA and its involvement in 17β-estradiol mediated inhibition of oocyte maturation in other cyprinid, Cyprinus carpio was investigated. Carp oocytes at pre-vitellogenic, late-vitellogenic and post-vitellogenic stages of development contained GPER mRNA and its transcribed protein with a maximum at late-vitellogenic oocytes. Ovarian follicular cells did not express GPER mRNA. Carp oocytes GPER mRNA was essentially identical to that found in other perciformes and cyprinid fish oocytes. Both spontaneous and 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20β-P)-induced oocyte maturation in carp was significantly decreased when they were incubated with either E2, or GPER agonist G-1. On the other hand spontaneous oocyte maturation was significantly increased when carp ovarian follicles were incubated with an aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, GPER antagonist, G-15 and enzymatic removal of the ovarian follicle cell layers. This increase in oocyte maturation was partially reversed by co-treatment with E2. Consistent with previous findings with human and fish GPR30, E2 treatment in carp oocytes caused increase in cAMP production and simultaneously decrease in oocyte maturation, which was inhibited by the addition of 17,20β-P. The results suggest that E2 and GPER play a critical role in regulating re-entry in to meiotic cell cycle in carp oocytes. PMID:25485460

  2. Genome-wide identification, phylogeny, and expression of fibroblast growth genes in common carp.

    Jiang, Likun; Zhang, Songhao; Dong, Chuanju; Chen, Baohua; Feng, Jingyan; Peng, Wenzhu; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Xu, Peng


    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a large family of polypeptide growth factors, which are found in organisms ranging from nematodes to humans. In vertebrates, a number of FGFs have been shown to play important roles in developing embryos and adult organisms. Among the vertebrate species, FGFs are highly conserved in both gene structure and amino-acid sequence. However, studies on teleost FGFs are mainly limited to model species, hence we investigated FGFs in the common carp genome. We identified 35 FGFs in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the FGFs are highly conserved, though recent gene duplication and gene losses do exist. By examining the copy number of FGFs in several vertebrate genomes, we found that eight FGFs in common carp have undergone gene duplications, including FGF6a, FGF6b, FGF7, FGF8b, FGF10a, FGF11b, FGF13a, and FGF18b. The expression patterns of all FGFs were examined in various tissues, including the blood, brain, gill, heart, intestine, muscle, skin, spleen and kidney, showing that most of the FGFs were ubiquitously expressed, indicating their critical role in common carp. To some extent, examination of gene families with detailed phylogenetic or orthology analysis verified the authenticity and accuracy of assembly and annotation of the recently published common carp whole genome sequences. Gene families are also considered as a unique source for evolutionary studies. Moreover, the whole set of common carp FGF gene family provides an important genomic resource for future biochemical, physiological, and phylogenetic studies on FGFs in teleosts. PMID:26691502

  3. Binational ecological risk assessment of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) for the Great Lakes Basin.

    Cudmore, B.; Mandrak, N.E.; Dettmers, J.; Chapman, D.C.; Kolar, C.S.


    Bigheaded carps (Bighead and Silver carps) are considered a potential threat to the Great Lakes basin. A binational ecological risk assessment was conducted to provide scientifically defensible advice for managers and decision-makers in Canada and the United States. This risk assessment looked at the likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment, and spread of bigheaded carps to obtain an overall probability of introduction. Arrival routes assessed were physical connections and human-mediated releases. The risk assessment ranked physical connections (specifically the Chicago Area Waterway System) as the most likely route for arrival into the Great Lakes basin. Results of the risk assessment show that there is enough food and habitat for bigheaded carp survival in the Great Lakes, especially in Lake Erie and productive embayments in the other lakes. Analyses of tributaries around the Canadian Great Lakes and the American waters of Lake Erie indicate that there are many suitable tributaries for bigheaded carp spawning. Should bigheaded carps establish in the Great Lakes, their spread would not likely be limited and several ecological consequences can be expected to occur. These consequences include competition for planktonic food leading to reduced growth rates, recruitment and abundance of planktivores. Subsequently this would lead to reduced stocks of piscivores and abundance of fishes with pelagic, early life stages. Overall risk is highest for lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, followed by Lake Ontario then Lake Superior. To avoid the trajectory of the invasion process and prevent or minimize anticipated consequences, it is important to continue to focus efforts on reducing the probability of introduction of these species at either the arrival, survival, establishment, or spread stage (depending on location).

  4. Effects of 35S-dimehypo pesticide on agricultural environment and ecosystem

    Dimehypo is a nereistoxin derivative, which was developed and manufactured in China. In order of appraise its environmeatal safety comprehensively, the radioisotopic tracer technique and other methods were applied to investigate on the effects of 35S-labelled dimehypo (35S-dimehypo) on agricultural environment and ecosystem. The results revealed its low adsorptivity and high mobility, especially water-carrying mobility in soil, fair stability in soil and water, and slowness in degradation. Its main product of degradation, nereistoxin, was of lower mobility than its material compound in soil. 35S-dimehypo could enter the bodies of grass carps Ctenopharyngodon idellus along with bails or via the respiratory tracts, and could be excreted fast after the fish were removed from the contaminated source. Liquid and granulated 35S-dimehypo were fed to quail and fowls respectively, and could also be excreted rapidly in excretion and urine. Its much less distribution coefficient in caprylalcoholwater system suggested no accumulation in the adipose tissue of organism. The release of its effective composition in the granules prepared with porcelain clay or clay soil is prompt and complete

  5. Toxicity of phthalate esters exposure to carp (Cyprinus carpio) and antioxidant response by biomarker

    Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Gao, Ying; Qi, Mingliang


    To study the toxic effects of phthalate esters on the aquatic creatures, carps were exposed to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) of six different concentrations for 96 h-LC50 measurements. It shows that the 96 h-LC50 is 16.30 and 37.95 mg L−1, thus the safe concentration (1/10LC50) is 1.63 mg L−1. The activities of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured in liver to carp exposure for single or combinations of DBP and DEHP. The quantity of malonic dia...

  6. Correlation between chemical composition of seminal plasma and sperm motility characteristics of Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio

    M. Mehdi Taati


    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to determine the relationships between chemicalscompositions of seminal plasma with sperm motility traits in Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio (Bloch,1782. There were significant positive correlations between sperm movment duration and Ca+2 of semen.Also, a significant positive relationship was found between percentage of motile spermatozoa and Ca+2 ofsemen. On the other hand, Na+, Cl- and pH correlated negatively with sperm movment duration.Understanding of such correlations can be useful to evaluation of sperm quality and make media(extender for dilution of semen and improving sperm motility parameters of Prussian carp.


    I. Hrytsyniak


    Full Text Available Purpose. To explore effect of environmental conditions, the level of development of natural food base and feeding of cultivated fodder zooplankton on tribal fingerlings Lyubinsky scaly carp growth. Methodology. The development of natural food base of nursery ponds stimulated bymaking compost from cattle at 4 t/ha and the introduction of the mother culture of Daphnia magna at 2 kg/ha. In the experimental pond in July was introduced of 60 kg/ha of zooplankton caught in the pond-cultivator which is based on daphnia magna, also in this pond Daphnia magna cultured in corf of nylon sieve, allowing fingerlings carp in July – August, was suckled by 5 kg/ha of water fleas. the growth of carp fingerlings were determined by regular check-caughting and analyzed, taking into account environmental conditions, availability of natural food and feeding characteristics. Findings. Prior to the beginning feeding carp fingerlings of average daily increments were higher by 10 % under the best of natural food base pond. In July, when feeding carp fry feed cereal, the introduction of zooplankton contributed to their highest intensity on 46,8 – 88,4 % growth, while the average daily growth rates ranged between 0,4 – 1,0 g. In August, average daily growth decreased from 0,44 – 0,57 g in the first decade to 0,17 g in the third decade. For unstable oxygen regime, which was observed when the temperature of the water and the accumulation of organic matter, the rate of growth of fingerlings decreased. Originality. First studied the growth rate of breeding fingerlings carp provided they are feeding zooplankton, as well as, the influence of environmental factors, the state of development of natural food base and feed composition on the growth of of fingerlings. Found that under favorable environmental conditions, feeding carp fingerlings on zooplankton in the amount of 2 kg/ha/day when feeding grain feed increases the absolute daily gain on 46,8 – 88,4 %, and the

  8. Effect of Nitrobenzene on the Embryo Development of Bighead and Silver Carp

    FANG Jingjie; GUAN Qingzhi; CHEN Weixing; ZHU Lei; FAN Zhaoting


    The effect of various concentrations of nitrobenzene on the mortality and abnormality rate of bighead and silver carp embryos were studied to provide reference for the evaluation of the effect of nitrobenzene to aquatic organisms and aquatic environment.The results showed that the development of bighead and silver carp embryos was delayed, the mortality and abnormality rates were raised when the embryos were treated with ≥0.010 mg·L-1 nitrobenzene,and with ≥0.085 mg·L-1 nitrobenzene,the mortality rates showed 100%.

  9. High-pressure treatment with silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) protein and its allergic analysis

    Liu, Rong; Xue, Wentong


    The allergenicity and structural changes of silver carp allergens influenced by high-pressure treatment were studied. We treated the allergens at 100, 200 and 300 MPa for 10, 30 and 60 min at 20° C, used SDS-PAGE to separate the proteins and recognized the allergens by western blotting. Circular dichroism analysis was performed to characterize the structural change. From our study, we can determine that high-pressure treatment did not change the subunit composition, molecular weight or the allergenicity of silver carp allergens, but it did change the structure of the allergens.

  10. Investigation of the Selectivity Parameters for Carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) in Seyhan Dam Lake

    Özyurt, Caner Enver; Avşar, Dursun


    Selectivity studies are very important for sustainable fisheries. Therefore, in this study, selectivity parameters for the carp in Seyhan Dam Lake were estimated using gill nets having a mesh size of 28, 32, 40 and 45 mm. Gill nets used in pikeperch fishing of mesh size of 28, 30 and 32 mm could cause growth in the overfishing of carp. Therefore, it is recommended that longline fishing should be commonly used instead of gill nets on pikeperch fishing. Consequently gill nets having minimum 50 ...

  11. Purification of Sardine Oil Using Adsorbent (Active Filter) of Scallop Shells, Carp Scales and Attapulgite

    Sugeng Heri Suseno; Yosephina M.J. Batafor; Nurjanah; Ayu Fitri Izaki


    Fish oil especially from sardine has contain great omega 3, but it needs purification because has poor quality. Fish oil purification can be done by using various types of adsorbents. One of them are scallop shells and carp scales. The purpose of this study is to choose the best type of active filter (adsorbent) to improve the quality of fish oil. Sardine oil is purified using an active filter (adsorbent) of carp scales, scallop shells and attapulgite. The result this study show that the best...

  12. Study on the Technologic Optimization for Hydrolysis of Silver carp By-products

    ZHAO Yu-hong; KONG Bao-hua; ZHANG Li-gang


    The hydrolysis process for Silver carp by-products was studied. Protein hydrolysate was prepared with proteolytic enzyme, Alcalase. Hydrolysis conditions were optimized by the regression model of three factors five levels quadratic rotation perpendicular regressive design. The optimum hydrolysis conditions of hydrolyzing the protein of Silver carp by-products were determined to be concentration of enzyme (E/S) 3.33%, pH 8.54, hydrolyzing temperature 58 ℃, reaction time 90 min, concentration of substrate 8%. Nitrogen recovery was more than 75%.

  13. Preliminary Study Regard Histopathological Tissue Changes Associated to EDTA Experimental Exposure in Prussian Carp (Carassius Gibelio)

    Marioara Nicula; Gabi Dumitrescu; Constantin Adrian Stancu; Ioan Bănăţean-Dunea; Adela Marcu; Ioan Tăpălagă; Mihai Lunca; Georgeta Petrovici


    The aim of the current study was to describe possible histopathological lesions induced by EDTA using as chelating agent in prussian carp (Carassius Gibelio) species. 80 healthy prussian carp specimens were collected from a local pond and acclimated for two weeks in laboratory conditions. Acclimated fish were housed in a 60 l capacity glass aquariums (20 fishes/aquarium) and divided into four groups: control group was maintained in EDTA-free freshwater, EDTA1 group receiving 0.05 g EDTA/l in ...


    Lysak O. O.


    Full Text Available Japanese carp or carp koi ( Cyprinus carpio koi – is a freshwater, partially saltwater fish which is a decorative subspecies of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L. namely a primary black form of carp koi that has its domestic name Magoi. Constant complex activity of abiotic and biotic factors together with husbandry and selectional activity of human caused significant changes in water ecosystems that impacted on the biology of carp koi subspecies (Cyprinus carpio koi and as a result caused the species-specific morphological adaptations in fish. Collection of materials was conducted from ornamental water ponds at the territory of Nemishaievo state agrotechnical college in the spring 2012. Author selected 3000 units of this year fish offsprings of carp koi with different colors. All the studied fish was divided into groups according to external indexes ( among them color in the following way: group I (sample – grey and white form (Hikarimuji which is the most similar to Magoi, group II – black and white form (Kumonryu, group III – black and yellow form ( Utsurimono, group IV – red and white form (Kohaku. For further researches scientists selected 25 exemplars of carp koi for each group. It is necessary to have a starting point (sample for statistical research of differences in carp koi forms. Sample or optimal form was determined by distances of deviations of scalar sums of form vectors of carp koi from nyvkivskyi carp. Morphometric study of carp koi was conducted according to 30 plastic attributes, in accordance with method proposed by I. F. Pravdin. In contrast with generally accepted relative magnitudes of indexes of plastic attributes of carp koi body were calculated from zoological (not standard length of the body of the fish that is connected with using koi as an object of decorative aquaculture. Statistic processing was conducted with using of average arithmetical discrepancy, root-mean-square error and variability index. Actuality of




    Full Text Available The techniques of carp culture are highly diversified, ranging from the extensive production in pond or open water with no fertilization or supplemental feeding to highly intensive systems in concrete tanks or cages. Among the different carp species, common carp is the best species reared in intensive monoculture, the others (Chinese and Indian carps being usually cultivated in polyculture (P. Kestemont, 1995. An experiment was conducted in inside recirculation system conditions to identify the technological performances on carp growth and survival at the Fishing and Aquaculture Department, Galati, during winter period (February, 2007 – March, 2007. The 1-year-old carp (Cyprinus carpio 4792g; 4594 g; 4561 g and 4525 g (total weight grew to 7384g; 7017g; 6924g and 7125 g in 44 days in aquarium 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. In all aquariums, the fish appeared healthy and no mortality was observed. Feed conversion efficiencies (FCE had similar values among all aquariums, the highest FCE being found in B4 aquarium with 1, 57 value. Water quality parameters were acceptable range for fish culture. Results show that the carp rearing during winter period in the inside recirculation system is a very good economic solution.

  16. Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in North Croatia after the Chernobyl accident

    Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carp decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs was estimated to be about 1 year during 1987-2002 and 5 years during 1993-2005. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carp was found to be similar to the ratio observed in other environmental samples. The concentration factor for carp (wet weight) was estimated to be 128 ± 74 L kg-1, which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K+ concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective dose received by adult members of the Croatian population due to consumption of carp contaminated with 134Cs and 137Cs are small: per capita dose from this source during 1987-2005 was estimated to be 0.5 ± 0.2 μSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp, it can be concluded that carp consumption was not a critical pathway for the transfer of radiocaesium from fallout to humans after the Chernobyl accident

  17. A dense genetic linkage map for common carp and its integration with a BAC-based physical map.

    Lan Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is one of the most important aquaculture species with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons. It is also an important ornamental species as well as an important model species for aquaculture research. To improve the economically important traits of this fish, a number of genomic resources and genetic tools have been developed, including several genetic maps and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-based physical map. However, integrated genetic and physical maps are not available to study quantitative trait loci (QTL and assist with fine mapping, positional cloning and whole genome sequencing and assembly. The objective of this study was to integrate the currently available BAC-based physical and genetic maps. RESULTS: The genetic map was updated with 592 novel markers, including 312 BAC-anchored microsatellites and 130 SNP markers, and contained 1,209 genetic markers on 50 linkage groups, spanning 3,565.9 cM in the common carp genome. An integrated genetic and physical map of the common carp genome was then constructed, which was composed of 463 physical map contigs and 88 single BACs. Combined lengths of the contigs and single BACs covered a physical length of 498.75 Mb, or around 30% of the common carp genome. Comparative analysis between common carp and zebrafish genomes was performed based on the integrated map, providing more insights into the common carp specific whole genome duplication and segmental rearrangements in the genome. CONCLUSION: We integrated a BAC-based physical map to a genetic linkage map of common carp by anchoring BAC-associated genetic markers. The density of the genetic linkage map was significantly increased. The integrated map provides a tool for both genetic and genomic studies of common carp, which will help us to understand the genomic architecture of common carp and facilitate fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits for

  18. Draining and liming of ponds as an effective measure for containment of CyHV-3 in carp farms.

    Flamm, Agnes; Fabian, Marc; Runge, Martin; Böttcher, Kerstin; Bräuer, Grit; Füllner, Gert; Steinhagen, Dieter


    Infections of common carp Cyprinus carpio and koi, its coloured morphotypes, with the cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) can induce severe clinical signs and increased mortality in affected stocks. This may significantly challenge the economic basis of carp farming in Central Europe. To limit virus spread in carp farms, effective disinfection measures for ponds stocked with infected populations are required. In the traditional European pond aquaculture of carp, draining and liming of ponds with quicklime (CaO) up to pH 12 is a well-established disinfection measure against various pathogens. The present field study investigated whether these measures are sufficient for the inactivation of CyHV-3 infectivity in carp ponds. After draining and liming, the ponds were stocked with carp fry from a CyHV-3-negative stock, and 2 ponds were examined for the presence of CyHV-3-specific DNA sequences during the growth period of the carp and in the harvested stock. Wild fish (from the ponds, and feeder and drainage canals) and water samples (from the ponds) were also examined for CyHV-3-specific DNA sequences; and naïve carp were cohabited with wild fish, or exposed to the pondwater samples, to test for the presence of infectious virus. All examined samples remained negative for CyHV-3 throughout the study. This indicates that draining and liming with quicklime can be a suitable disinfection measure for ponds after a CyHV-3 outbreak in carp aquaculture. PMID:27503923

  19. Effects of cytochrome P450 1A substrate (difloxacin) on enzyme gene expression and pharmacokinetics in crucian carp (hybridized Prussian carp).

    Fu, Gui Hong; Yang, Xian Le; Zhang, Hai Xin; Yu, Wen Juan; Hu, Kun


    Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) play a prominent role in drug metabolism and biotransformation which are distributed in liver of aquatic animals. However, limited information is available about CYP genes involved in drug metabolism in fish. In the present study, we explore CYP1A characterization for DIF metabolism. Firstly, we cloned and characterized the full-length cDNA sequence of a CYP1A gene from crucian carp (hybridized Prussian carp), the predicted protein sequence for CYP1A comprise 496 amino acids. The heme-binding region of the CYP1A, encompassing the amino acid sequence GLGKRRCIG, which is identical to the same region of other homologues. Secondly, we studied the difloxacin (DIF) kinetics and the effects of DIF on their corresponding CYP1A mRNA levels in liver of crucian carp. CYP1A1 mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR, and DIF concentration was determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Results showed that the concentration of DIF in liver reached its peak (67.70 mg kg(-1)) at 0.5h, while the CYP1A1 gene expression was at the lowest point. CYP1A mRNA was down-regulated by 6.5 mg ml(-1) DIF in the liver of crucian carp. Thus, our work confirmed that DIF is both the substrate and inhibitor of CYP1A. The information provided a model for the potential utility of gene expression analysis and drug metabolization in fish. PMID:21787699

  20. Chlorinated paraffins: disposition of a polychloro-[l-14C]hexadecane in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and bleak (Alburnus alburnus)

    The disposition of polychloro-[l-14C]hexadecane was studied in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and bleak (Alburnus alburnus). After intra-arterial injection in carp about 6% of dose was excreted as 14CO2 in 96 h. The autoradiographic distribution pattern after administration of PCHD to carp and bleak was characterized by a strong labelling in the bile/intestinal contents. High radioactivity also appeared in the kidney, liver, gills and, particularly in bleak, in the nasal cavity, lens and skin. (Auth.)

  1. Dramatic increase of nitrite levels in hearts of anoxia-exposed crucian carp supporting a role in cardioprotection

    Sandvik, Guro K.; Nilsson, Göran E.; Jensen, Frank Bo


    anoxia-tolerance of this fish by measuring NO metabolites in normoxic, anoxic and reoxygenated crucian carp. We also cloned and sequenced crucian carp NO synthase variants and quantified their mRNA levels in several tissues in normoxia and anoxia. Despite falling levels of blood plasma nitrite, the....... We conclude that nitrite is shifted into the tissues where it acts as NO donor during anoxia, inducing cytoprotection under anoxia/reoxygenation. This can be especially important in the crucian carp heart, which maintains output in anoxia. Nitrite is currently tested as a therapeutic drug against...

  2. Alimentação de juvenis de carpa capim com dietas à base de farelos vegetais e forragem = Feeding grass carp juveniles with plant-protein diets and forage

    Cátia Aline Veiverberg


    Full Text Available Para avaliar o potencial dos ingredientes de origem vegetal como substitutos da farinha de carne suína em dietas para Ctenopharyngodon idella Valenciennes, (1844 (carpa capim, 180 juvenis (15 por tanque foram criados durante 60 dias em sistema de recirculação de água. Foi avaliada a substituição da farinha de carne suína (FCS por farelo de canola (FC, farelo de girassol (FG e a mistura dos farelos de canola e girassol (FCG. As dietas também continham farelo de soja como fonte proteica. O consumo diário de forragem (1,24 a 2,11% do peso vivo não diferiu entre os tratamentos. Peso final, ganho em peso, taxa de crescimento específico e conversão alimentar aparente não diferiram estatisticamente entre as dietas. O rendimento de filé foi maior nos tratamentos FC e FCG, enquanto o índice digestivossomático foi maior nos tratamentos FG e FCG. Maior teor degordura e menores teores de proteína no peixe inteiro e de cinzas no filé foram obtidos no tratamento FCG. Os filés dos tratamentos FCS e FCG apresentaram maior valor de luminosidade. Os peixes da dieta FCS apresentaram maiores valores de proteínas, triglicerídeos e colesterol total no soro. Conclui-se que os farelos de canola e girassol podem ser utilizados em dietas para recria da carpa capim.To evaluate the potential of plant-protein sources to replace porcine meat meal in diets for grass carp juveniles, 180 fish (15 per tank were reared for 60 days in a re-use water system. We evaluated the replacement of porcine meat meal (FCS for canola meal (FC, sunflowermeal (FG or a mixture of canola and sunflower meal (FCG. The diets were also composed of soybean meal as a protein source. Daily forage intake ranged from 1.24 to 2.11% body weight and did not differ among treatments. Final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion rate did not differ statistically among diets. The fillet yield was higher in FC and FCG diets, while the digestive-somatic index was higher

  3. Candidate gene markers for selective breeding of CyHV-3-resistant common carp

    Common carp and koi producers around the world have suffered financial losses for a disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) also known as koi herpes virus (KHV). This disease is highly contagious and causes massive mortality to infected fish. Efforts to identify genetic resistance to the ...

  4. Seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of common carp in Clear Lake, Iowa

    Penne, C.R.; Pierce, C.L.


    The common carp Cyprinus carpio is widely distributed and frequently considered a nuisance species outside its native range. Common carp are abundant in Clear Lake, Iowa, where their presence is both a symptom of degradation and an impediment to improving water quality and the sport fishery. We used radiotelemetry to quantify seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of adult and subadult common carp in Clear Lake during 2005-2006 in an effort to guide future control strategies. Over a 22-month period, we recorded 1,951 locations of 54 adults and 60 subadults implanted with radio transmitters. Adults demonstrated a clear tendency to aggregate in an offshore area during the late fall and winter and in shallow, vegetated areas before and during spring spawning. Late-fall and winter aggregations were estimated to include a larger percentage of the tracked adults than spring aggregations. Subadults aggregated in shallow, vegetated areas during the spring and early summer. Our study, when considered in combination with previous research, suggests repeatable patterns of distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection that should facilitate common carp reduction programs in Clear Lake and similar systems. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  5. Mouth and fin deformities in common carp: is there a genetic basis?

    Kocour, Martin; Linhart, Otomar; Vandeputte, M.


    Roč. 37, 4 (2006), s. 419-422. ISSN 1355-557X R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QF4117 Grant ostatní: BARRANDE 03218RF; BARRANDE 07508SA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : common carp Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.051, year: 2006

  6. Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune factors are present before hatching

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Grou, C.P.O.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Taverne, N.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.


    Expression of the innate immune factors, complement factor 3 (C3), ¿2-macroglobulin (¿2M), serum amyloid A (SAA) and a complement factor 1 r/s ¿ mannose binding lectin associated serine protease-like molecule (C1/MASP2), was determined with Real Time Quantitative-PCR in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) ont

  7. Haematological and biochemical profiles of carp blood following nitrite exposure at different concentrations of chloride

    Svobodová, Z.; Máchová, J.; Drastichová, J.; Groch, L.; Lusková, Věra; Poleszczuk, G.; Velíšek, J.; Kroupová, H.


    Roč. 36, č. 12 (2005), s. 1177-1184. ISSN 1355-557X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : common carp * acute toxicity * gill histopathology Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.746, year: 2005

  8. The invasive fish tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis (Cestoda), a parasite of carp, colonises Africa

    Scholz, Tomáš; Tavakol, S.; Halajlan, A.; Luus-Powell, W.J.


    Roč. 114, č. 9 (2015), s. 3521-3524. ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Biological invasions * Helminth parasites * Fish * Common carp * Cyprinus carpio * Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2014

  9. Development and application of genetically uniform strains of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Bongers, A.B.J.


    In this thesis, the development of genetically uniform strains of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. is described. As in research on mammals, the use of genetically uniform fish could increase the quality (replicability, reproducability and repeatability) of experiments. Inbreeding was done by gynogene

  10. Characterization of the stress response in 17a-hydroxylase deficient common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Nematollahi, M.A.


    In this thesis we describe interrenal hyperplasia in a teleost fish, the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L, caused by 17α-hydroxylase deficiency. Two homozygous, XX male inbred strains, “E5” and “E7”, consistently show 5-10 fold less plasma cortisol in response to net confinement compared to normal mal