Sample records for caricatures


    Bahadir UCAN


    Full Text Available Years of 2000’s can be defined as “the digiral century”. In this digital century, it is seen that digitalllization creates new concepts and approaches and it even affects our daily lifes. Digitalization will be analyzed with the relationship between art and technology. Changes have seen on different areas of art both on style and contentment with digitalisation. In this study, it is aimed to underline digitalization, to investigate its effects on caricature, humor and the magazines in Turkey and to comment on what digitalization brings. Online books, online articles, online humor magazines are becoming popular. Internet makes caricature achievable freely and with the aid of social networking sites, digital caricatures can reach more people than the published ones.

  2. Contortionist, caricature and the grotesque body

    Winter, Tomáš


    Roč. 55, č. 5 (2007), s. 400-408. ISSN 0049-5123. [Cubism, Surrealism and Tradition. Praha, 16.06.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : František Tichý * caricature * Czech art of 20th century Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage,3,3;journal,1,5;linkingpublicationresults,1:120508,1

  3. Manifold Constrained Transfer of Facial Geometric Knowledge for 3D Caricature Reconstruction

    Jun-Fa Liu; Wen-Jing He; Tao Chen; Yi-Qiang Chen


    3D caricatures are important attractive elements of the interface in virtual environment such as online game.However,very limited 3D caricatures exist in the real world.Meanwhile,creating 3D caricatures manually is rather costly,and even professional skills are needed.This paper proposes a novel and effective manifold transfer algorithm to reconstruct 3D caricatures according to their original 2D caricatures.We first manually create a small dataset with only 100 3D caricature models and use them to initialize the whole 3D dataset.After that,manifold transfer algorithm is carried out to refine the dataset.The algorithm comprises of two steps.The first is to perform manifold alignment between 2D and 3D caricatures to get a "standard" manifold map; the second is to reconstruct all the 3D caricatures based on the manifold map.The proposed approach utilizes and transfers knowledge of 2D caricatures to the target 3D caricatures well.Comparative experiments show that the approach reconstructs 3D caricatures more effectively and the results conform more to the styles of the original 2D caricatures than the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) based method.

  4. Jane Austen ou la caricature littéraire domestique

    Camus, Marianne


    Loin de la caricature politique courante dans l'Angleterre du dix-huitième siècle, loin de celle, tout aussi courante pratiquée entre eux par les frères ennemis de la littérature, Jane Austen élabora ce qu'on pourrait appeler une caricature domestique. Elle vise les donneurs de leçons et les pédants mais aussi les têtes creuses et les bavards impénitents qu'il est traditionnellement du devoir d'une femme bien élevée de supporter, un sourire figé accroché aux lèvres. Cet article s'attachera à ...

  5. Effect of Use of Caricatures on Teaching Vocabulary in Teaching Turkish as Foreign Language

    Topal, Yakup


    Teaching vocabulary in teaching Turkish as Foreign language is important. Different methods are employed in teaching vocabulary. In this study the pre- and post-test results of experimental group where caricatures were used to teach vocabulary and control group where vocabulary items were taught without use of caricatures when teaching Turkish…

  6. Image Based Hair Segmentation Algorithm for the Application of Automatic Facial Caricature Synthesis


    Hair is a salient feature in human face region and are one of the important cues for face analysis. Accurate detection and presentation of hair region is one of the key components for automatic synthesis of human facial caricature. In this paper, an automatic hair detection algorithm for the application of automatic synthesis of facial caricature based on a single image is proposed. Firstly, hair regions in training images are labeled manually and then the hair position prior distributions an...

  7. Does the degree of image likeness affect the caricature and prototype effects in facial recognition?

    Campbell, Heather


    Background: Psychological research has largely overlooked that there is variability between photographs of the same person and as a result facial recognition studies have used randomly selected images to represent individuals. Thesis aim: This study therefore aimed to investigate if the variations between images are significant and if these differences influence the caricature and prototype effects. Method: Experiment 1 was designed to investigate image likeness and it found that variations b...

  8. An Index to the Caricatures in the "New York Review of Books" from Its Inception Through the Fifteenth Anniversary Issue (1963-1978).

    Drazan, Joseph Gerald; Sanguine, Phyllis

    This index identifies caricatures drawn by David Levine which are found in the "New York Review of Books" from its first issue in 1963 through the special fifteenth anniversary issue dated October 12, 1978. The index is arranged alphabetically by surname for each personality caricatured, with some cross references. The numbering system used refers…

  9. Scientific Caricatures in the Earth Science Classroom: An Alternative Assessment for Meaningful Science Learning

    Clary, Renee M.; Wandersee, James H.


    Archive-based, historical research of materials produced during the Golden Age of Geology (1788-1840) uncovered scientific caricatures (SCs) which may serve as a unique form of knowledge representation for students today. SCs played important roles in the past, stimulating critical inquiry among early geologists and fueling debates that addressed key theoretical issues. When historical SCs were utilized in a large-enrollment college Earth History course, student response was positive. Therefore, we offered SCs as an optional assessment tool. Paired t-tests that compared individual students’ performances with the SC option, as well as without the SC option, showed a significant positive difference favoring scientific caricatures ( α = 0.05). Content analysis of anonymous student survey responses revealed three consistent findings: (a) students enjoyed expressing science content correctly but creatively through SCs, (b) development of SCs required deeper knowledge integration and understanding of the content than conventional test items, and (c) students appreciated having SC item options on their examinations, whether or not they took advantage of them. We think that incorporation of SCs during assessment may effectively expand the variety of methods for probing understanding, thereby increasing the mode validity of current geoscience tests.

  10. Information Censorship: A Comparative Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of the "Jyllands-Posten" Editorial Caricatures in Cross-Cultural Settings

    Thomas, Julie George


    The identification and examination of cultural information strategies and censorship patterns used to propagate the controversial issue of the caricatures in two separate cultural contexts was the aim of this dissertation. It explored discourse used for the coverage of this topic by one newspaper in a restrictive information context and two…

  11. Pilot studying about the role of anti-drug addiction documentary movies and caricature in changing the views of Tehran’s 7th disrict high school male/female students toward drug addiction as well as comparing them


    In this research, the effect of movie and caricature on students’ attitude toward drug addiction is measured.124 students(61 male and 63 female) from Tehran’s 7th district high schools were selected by using muli-stage cluster sampling method. The samples were randomly distibuted in three 21-member groups including control group, caricature group and documentary movie. All groups were pre-tested by using addiction attitude measuring scale (Form A). Then, the test goups were represented with d...

  12. Claims-making of Danish Muslims during the Muhammad Caricatures Controversy: A Challenge to the Principles of the Secular Public Sphere?

    LINDEKILDE, Lasse E.


    During the Danish public debate following the publication of the twelve Muhammad caricatures in September 2005, many commentators stated that the (re)actions/claims of Danish Muslims showed lack of familiarity with the basic principles of democracy and Danish traditions of political debate. The article offers an empirical test to several such public accusations through a systematic analysis of the content and justification of Muslim claims throughout the controversy. Thus, the paper raises th...

  13. Pilot studying about the role of anti-drug addiction documentary movies and caricature in changing the views of Tehran’s 7th disrict high school male/female students toward drug addiction as well as comparing them


    Full Text Available In this research, the effect of movie and caricature on students’ attitude toward drug addiction is measured.124 students(61 male and 63 female from Tehran’s 7th district high schools were selected by using muli-stage cluster sampling method. The samples were randomly distibuted in three 21-member groups including control group, caricature group and documentary movie. All groups were pre-tested by using addiction attitude measuring scale (Form A. Then, the test goups were represented with dependent variables of movie and caricature but the control group received no variable. After two weeks, all groups were post-tesed by using addiction attitude measuring scale (Form B. The assumptions were analyzed by applying correlated t-tests , two-way variance analysis and Tucki’s pursuance test The results indicated that movie and caricature are effective in changing students’ attitudes toward addiction, the effects of movie differed from the effects of caricature but there was no difference between them in changing the attitude of male and female students.

  14. Research on the Application of Motion Perception in Caricature and Animation Creation%论运动知觉在动漫创作中的应用



    在动漫创作中,创作者如果忽视对“运动知觉”的一些基本原理的应用,必然会影响动画片制作的效率和质量。文章结合电影心理学的相关理论,通过实例比较和分析,探讨“运动知觉”这一原理在漫画、二维动画片及三维动画片创作中的应用及其意义。%The neglect of some basic principles of "motion perception" will influence the efficiency and quality of the creators" caricature and animation creation. Based on the related theories of film psychol- ogy, and by means of case comparison and analysis, this paper discusses the application of the "motion perception" in the creation of caricature, two-dimensional and three-dimensional animations and its significance.

  15. La ‘Negra Nieves’ ou le racisme à fleur de peau. Regards croisés sur une caricature


    Full Text Available Nieves, célèbre caricature colombienne d’une jeune femme ‘noire’, est l’occasion de mener une réflexion autour de trois questions théoriques : signification des catégories raciales, permanence des stéréotypes et rôle social des apparences physiques. Le personnage, en effet, a une longue histoire : occupant les pages du quotidien de Cali, El País, depuis 1968, il a d’abord été représenté sous forme d’employée domestique avant de devenir, suite à une action de tutelle dénonçant le racisme de la caricature, étudiante en philosophie à l’université. Nieves permet ainsi d’analyser les mécanismes de construction et de gestion de la relation à l’autre : infériorisation paternaliste émanant de l’élite, incorporation populaire de normes sociales racialisantes, ruptures et continuités liées à l’introduction du multiculturalisme, revendications et impasses du mouvement ethnique ‘noir’, vision culturaliste de l’anthropologie colombienne. Nieves, famosa caricatura colombiana de una mujer ‘negra’, nos permite hacer una reflexión alrededor de tres cuestiones teóricas: significación de las categorías raciales, permanencia de los estereotipos y papel social de las apariencias físicas. De hecho, el personaje tiene una larga historia: en las páginas del diario de Cali, El País, desde 1968, fue primero representado bajo los rasgos de una empleada doméstica antes de convertirse -en razón de una acción de tutela- en estudiante universitaria de filosofía. Intentaremos así analizar los mecanismos de construcción y manejo de la relación con el otro: inferiorización paternalista por parte de la elite, incorporación popular de las normas raciales, rupturas y continuidades ligadas a la introducción del multiculturalismo, reivindicaciones y dificultades del movimiento étnico ‘negro��, visión culturalista de la antropología colombiana. In this paper, the use and meaning of Nieves, a famous Colombian

  16. De l’usure au pouvoir de l’argent : les métamorphoses d’un mythe antijuif à travers la caricature en Angleterre From Usury to High Finance: The Metamorphosis of an AntiJewish Myth viewed through English Caricatures

    Lucienne Germain


    Full Text Available “Jewish Money Power”, the “Wandering Jew” and the “Blood Libel” (ritual murder myths are the three pillars of the anti-Semitic iconography which developed during the Middle Ages. Throughout the centuries, their evolution has continuously reflected the beliefs and tastes of the various societies which have used them to stereotype Jewish otherness. Far from being exhaustive, the intent of this article, based on a limited number of caricatures, is to stress the changes which took place over the centuries in numerous and varied portrayals of the “Jewish Money Power”: from the Jew in his capacity as money lender to the Jew as stockbroker, to more contemporary images of the Jewish banker and international financier, monopolising high finance, insinuating himself in all fields and plotting to dominate and destroy the Christian world. Having explained the various transformations in context, this analysis of selected Jewish graphic portrayals will also highlight the constant use of physical features and characteristics that have contributed to creating a misleading image of the Jews and encouraged anti-Semitism.

  17. Crony Capitalism: Caricature or Category?

    Mazumdar, Surajit


    This paper, part of a series on Crony Capitalism and Contemporary India, examines the conceptual meaning of the term crony capitalism, which has acquired considerable popularity since it was used as an explanation for the East Asian crisis. The paper argues that the conception of crony capitalism as a description of a distinct kind of capitalism associated with the State playing a key role in the allocation process suffers from serious deficiencies and therefore does not provide a suitable fr...

  18. Du coq à l’âne : la question sarroise au prisme de la métaphore animalière dans la caricature allemande (1945-1956)

    Schneider, Marie-Alexandra


    Dans le contexte du « conflit sarrois » (1945-1956), partisans et adversaires du détachement de la Sarre se livrèrent à une bataille d’images où la caricature devint une arme. Sous la plume des dessinateurs de presse allemands et sarrois opposés à l’union économique du territoire à la France, l’animalisation fut ainsi mise au service de la dévalorisation de l’ennemi politique : la France, et en premier lieu son représentant à Sarrebruck Gilbert Grandval, et le Ministerpräsident sarrois Johann...

  19. 反拿破仑之“冷战”在文学和漫画中的表现%The Manifestation of the "Cold War" against Napoleon in Literature and Caricature

    越野刚; 米慧


    " Cold" is not only a term in meteorology, but it also obtains its "national" identity and cuhural connotation in Russian folk literature and caricature. This paper offers an analysis of the "cold" image based on the war cartoons and essays about war printed during the Russian Patriotic War of 1812.%"严寒"不仅是一个气候学词汇,在俄罗斯民间文学和漫画中同样也可获得"民族"身份和文化内涵。本文依据1812年俄国卫国战争时期印发的战争漫画和关于战争的散文作品,对"严寒"形象予以分析。

  20. Darwin and Religion: Correcting the Caricatures

    Brooke, John Hedley


    Much has been written on the subject of Darwinism and religion, but rather less on the development of Darwin's own thinking on religious matters and how it changed over time. What were his religious, or anti-religious, beliefs? Did he believe that his theory of evolution by natural selection was incompatible with belief in a Creator? Was it his…

  1. Representing Uncertain Geographical Information with Algorithmic Map Caricatures

    Brunsdon, Chris


    A great deal of geographical information - including the results ion data analysis - is imprecise in some way. For example the the results of geostatistical interpolation should consist not only of point estimates of the value of some quantity at points in space, but also of confidence intervals or standard errors of these estimators. Similarly, mappings of contour lines derived form such interpolations will also be characterised by uncertainty. However, most computerized cartography tools are designed to provide 'crisp' representations of geographical information, such as sharply drawn lines, or clearly delineated areas. In this talk, the use of 'fuzzy' or 'sketchy' cartographic tools will be demonstrated - where maps have a hand-drawn appearance and the degree of 'roughness' and other related characteristics can be used to convey the degree of uncertainty associated with estimated quantities being mapped. The tools used to do this are available as an R package, which will be described in the talk.

  2. On "White Supremacy" and Caricaturing, Misrepresenting and Dismissing Marx and Marxism: A Response to David Gillborn's "Who's Afraid of Critical Race Theory in Education".

    Cole, Mike


    In this journal in 2007, the author and Alpesh Maisuria critiqued two central tenets of Critical Race Theory (CRT) from a Marxist perspective (Cole and Maisuria, 2007). These are its primacy of "race" over class, and its concept of "white supremacy". Part of the critique focused on the work of leading UK Critical Race Theorist, David Gillborn. A…

  3. Computer-enhanced emotion in facial expressions.

    Calder, A J; Young, A W; Rowland, D.; Perrett, D.I


    Benson & Perrett's (1991 b) computer-based caricature procedure was used to alter the positions of anatomical landmarks in photographs of emotional facial expressions with respect to their locations in a reference norm face (e.g. a neutral expression). Exaggerating the differences between an expression and its norm produces caricatured images, whereas reducing the differences produces 'anti-caricatures'. Experiment 1 showed that caricatured (+50% different from neutral) expressions were recog...

  4. Exotika

    Winter, Tomáš

    Praha: Gallery, 2004 - (Srp, K.), s. 168-175 ISBN 80-86010-85-6 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK8015116 Keywords : Adolf Hoffmeister * ethnic art * caricature Subject RIV: AL - Art , Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  5. Rediscovering our Catholicism: the Wood and the Trees

    O'Connell, Seamus


    Cliches and caricatures are part of our way of coping with reality. The summary and perspective they offer can provide a handle for new situations and experiences we encounter. They work precisely because they capture a key dimension of a reality. As a consequence, they are reductive and of necessity are both true and untrue. In the crisis in which the Catholic Church in Ireland finds itself, we risk taking refuge in cliches and in caricatures of our faith. When we lose t...


    Katie Dray


    Full Text Available How individuals respond to adversity is one component of mental toughness and athletes may manage the adversity of a defeat in very different ways. In this article we focus on four types of cognition (appraisal, attribution, counterfactual thinking, and rumination that athletes may exhibit in the immediate aftermath of a competitive defeat. In particular we define each of these terms and present a "caricature" of each of the respective literatures, focussing on the prevailing trends and substantive findings. These caricatures assist in the identification of several areas in which literature on athletes' retrospective cognition about defeat may be advanced. We use combat sports as a vehicle to illustrate our propositions

  7. This is Not About Sex?

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg


    This article engages the understanding of love and grace in Bernard's and Luther's theologies. Taking as a point of departure Anders Nygren's dichotomy of love in agape and eros, Wiberg Pedersen outlines some of the issues raised by Nygren's thesis. Arguing against Nygren's caricature of Bernard'...

  8. Beware the 'Loughborough School' of Social Psychology? Interaction and the politics of intervention.

    Stokoe, Elizabeth; Hepburn, Alexa; Antaki, Charles


    The authors explain the attractions of applying discursive psychology (DP) and conversation analysis (CA) by reporting three different examples of their engagement with practitioners and clients. Along the way, a case is made for separating DP/CA from other kinds of qualitative analysis in social psychology, and for deconstructing some commonly held misunderstandings and caricatures of DP/CA. PMID:22404636

  9. Education, Enlightenment and Positivism: The Vienna Circle's Scientific World-Conception Revisited

    Uebel, Thomas E.


    The scientific world-conception is properly understood as an enlightenment philosophy only if the current reassessment of the historical Vienna Circle(as opposed to the caricature still prevalent in the popular philosophical imagination) is once more extended to comprehend not only its thorough-going epistemological anti-foundationalism, but also…

  10. Creating Conversations: Finding Ways to Promote Humanities in Large Medical School Courses

    Holleman, Warren


    Since the publication of Samuel Shem's "House of God," medical students and residents have been famous for their cynical conversations about patients and life on the wards. This image is largely a caricature, yet peer pressure, medical machismo, stressful working conditions, and house staff subculture do foster negative attitudes and…

  11. Some history and histories of Calvin in the context of the Reformation

    Hazlett, Ian


    In a major article, Ian Hazlitt re-examines historical interpretations and caricatures of Calvin from a variety of perspectives regarding: predestination; l'affaire Servetus; anti-Calvin sentiment; Calvin's influence in England and Scotland; and, finally, Calvin as kill-joy. What emerges from this study is not, of course, the Calvin of contemporary media portrayal, but Calvin the man.

  12. The Sage for the Ages

    O'Connell, Mike


    In this article, the author discusses two approaches to teaching: "a guide on the side" and "a sage on the stage." He juxtaposes Alison King's heavy-handed characterization of the traditional college lecturer, and offers his own characterization of self-styled stage-hog professors to offset King's caricature. He also presents a composite picture…

  13. František Kupka - malíř mezi kanóny

    Pravdová, A.; Winter, Tomáš


    Roč. 34, č. 10 (2012), s. 32-35. ISSN 0418-5129 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : Czech fine art of 20th century * caricature * propaganda Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  14. Preface

    Mindaugas Briedis


    Full Text Available The contributors to this volume, who practice phenomenology in six countries in Europe and North America, all agree that these questions are to be answered with a clear and resounding No. The readers of this volume are bound to find out that this common critique of phenomenology is more of a caricature than its accurate description.

  15. 1895-1930

    Winter, Tomáš

    Praha : Národní galerie, 2015 - (Pravdová, A.; Winter, T.), s. 17-79 ISBN 978-80-7035-573-2 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP409/12/0133 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : Antonín Pelc * Czech caricature * satirical illustration Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  16. Bibliografie

    Mladičová, I.; Pravdová, A.; Winter, Tomáš

    Praha : Národní galerie, 2015 - (Pravdová, A.; Winter, T.), s. 419-427 ISBN 978-80-7035-573-2 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP409/12/0133 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : Antonín Pelc * Czech caricature * satirical illustration Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  17. Umělec, kterého nelze odpárat od epochy

    Pravdová, A.; Winter, Tomáš

    Praha : Národní galerie, 2015 - (Pravdová, A.; Winter, T.), s. 11-15 ISBN 978-80-7035-573-2 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP409/12/0133 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : Antonín Pelc * Czech caricature * satirical illustration Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  18. 1952-1967

    Winter, Tomáš

    Praha : Národní galerie, 2015 - (Pravdová, A.; Winter, T.), 287-295, 305-349 ISBN 978-80-7035-573-2 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP409/12/0133 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : Antonín Pelc * Czech caricature * satirical illustration Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  19. Chronologie

    Hylmar, T.; Pravdová, A.; Winter, Tomáš

    Praha : Národní galerie, 2015 - (Pravdová, A.; Winter, T.), s. 386-405 ISBN 978-80-7035-573-2 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP409/12/0133 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : Antonín Pelc * Czech caricature * satirical illustration Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  20. Drawing (Past, Present, and Future) Together: A (Graphic) Look at the Reconceptualization of Art Education

    Carpenter, B. Stephen, II; Tavin, Kevin M.


    In this graphic representation, two characters/caricatures discuss, contemplate, and fantasize the history of the field of art education, its current state, and future manifestations. The conversation is illustrated around the possible reconceptualization of art education. Through text and visual metaphors, the philosophical beliefs, theoretical…

  1. The Old Lady of Threadneedle Street

    Keyworth, John


    The popular nickname for the Bank of England dates back to a caricature of the institution from the 1790s. An exhibition in the Bank’s Museum celebrates two centuries of visual comment, some of which is discussed in this short article.

  2. A Cartoon in One Dimension of the Hydrogen Molecular Ion

    Dutta, Sourav; Ganguly, Shreemoyee; Dutta-Roy, Binayak


    To illustrate the basic methodology involved in the quantum mechanics of molecules, a one-dimensional caricature of the hydrogen molecular ion (H[superscript +][subscript 2]) is presented, which is exactly solvable, in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, in terms of elementary functions. The purpose of the exercise is to elucidate in a simple…

  3. A Non-oedipal Psychoanalysis? Clinical Anthropology of Hysteria in the works of Freud and Lacan

    Haute, P.I.M.M. van; Geyskens, T.A.L.


    The different psychopathologic syndromes show in an exaggerated and caricatural manner the basic structures of human existence. These structures not only characterize psychopathology, but they also determine the highest forms of culture. This is the credo of Freud's anthropology. This anthropology i

  4. Josef Lada a Bruno Paul

    Winter, Tomáš

    Praha: Národní galerie, 2015 - (Volrábová, A.), 116-118, 172-173 ISBN 978-80-7035-587-9 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : car * caricature * poster Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  5. Capitalization and Punctuation.

    Lewis, Teresa Marie

    An elementary school unit on punctuation skills is divided into nine sections. Section 1 contains a pretest which is repeated in section 9 as a posttest. Section 2 consists of a series of punctuation mark caricatures to put on the classroom bulletin board. Sections 3 through 7 contain material on the following topics: end of sentence punctuation,…

  6. Exoticism

    Winter, Tomáš

    Prague: Gallery, 2004 - (Srp, K.), 168-175, 369-370 ISBN 80-86010-86-4 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK8015116 Keywords : Adolf Hoffmeister * ethnic art * caricature Subject RIV: AL - Art , Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  7. I Show You How I Like You: Emotional Human-Robot Interaction through Facial Expression and Tactile Stimulation

    Fredslund, Jakob; Cañamero, Lola D.


    , emotional states need to be clearly conveyed. We have drawn inspira- tion from theories of human basic emotions with associated universal facial expressions, which we have implemented in a caricaturized face. We have conducted experiments on both children and adults to assess the recogniz- ability...

  8. Chapitre XI. Activismes : les Maisons d’une autre culture ?

    Besse, Laurent


    Aucun autre lieu aujourd’hui n’évoque, sans doute, autant les années post-68 que les MJC, à tel point qu’il est difficile de faire admettre que leur histoire ne se limite pas à cette période, ni à quelques interminables débats, inévitablement enfumés et fumeux… « Pétards », fromage de chèvre, tissage et pulls tricotés main… parachèvent habituellement la caricature. Celle-ci reflète une part de vérité, mais la réalité valait mieux que la caricature. Suivre, pendant une décennie, ce qu’une Mais...

  9. Charles Darwin as a Celebrity

    Browne, Janet E


    Several recent works in sociology examine the manufacture of public identities through the notion of celebrity. This paper explores the imagery of Charles Darwin as a nineteenth-century scientific celebrity by comparing the public character deliberately manufactured by Darwin and his friends with images constructed by the public as represented here by caricatures in humorous magazines of the era. It is argued that Darwin’s outward persona drew on a subtle tension between public and private. T...

  10. Creating Conversations: Finding Ways to Promote Humanities in Large Medical School Courses

    Holleman, Warren


    Since the publication of Samuel Shem’s House of God, medical students and residents have been famous for their cynical conversations about patients and life on the wards. This image is largely a caricature, yet peer pressure, medical machismo, stressful working conditions, and house staff subculture do foster negative attitudes and images. A challenge for medical faculty is to facilitate conversations that help students work through their fears and insecurities in ways that promote positiv...

  11. Cognitive Dimensions of Predator Responses to Imperfect Mimicry

    Lars Chittka; Daniel Osorio


    Many palatable animals, for example hoverflies, deter predators by mimicking well-defended insects such as wasps. However, for human observers, these flies often seem to be little better than caricatures of wasps—their visual appearance and behaviour are easily distinguishable from those which they are attempting to mimic. This imperfect mimicry baffles evolutionary biologists, because one might expect natural selection to do a more thorough job. Here we discuss two types of cognitive process...

  12. Comparison of ICM with TPF-LEP to Prevent MAC Spoof DoS Attack in Wireless Local Area Infrastructure Network

    Durairaj, M; A. Persia


    A Comparison of Integrated Central Manager (ICM) and Traffic Pattern Filtering with Letter Envelop Protocol (TPF-LEP) is done. Denial of Service (DoS) attack is a biggest peril in wireless local area infrastructure network. It makes the resources unavailable for intended users which transpired through spoofing legitimate Client/AP's Medium Access Control (MAC) address. MAC address are easily caricatured by the adversary clients, subsequently they are not encrypted. Since, the adversary sends ...

  13. From urban political economy to the cultural political economy : rethinking culture and economy in and beyond the urban

    Ribera Fumaz, Ramon


    Discussions about the culture-economy articulation have occurred largely within the confines of economic geography. In addition, much attention has been diverted into caricaturized discussions over the demise of political economy or the invalidity of culturalist arguments. Moving the argument from the inquiry on the ¿nature¿ of the economy itself to the transformation of the role of culture and economy in understanding the production of the urban form from an urban political ec...

  14. Re-Examining Mead: G. H. Mead on the Material Reproduction of Society

    Silva, Filipe Carreira da


    Despite decades of scholarship on G.H. Mead (1863—1931), we are still far from an adequate estimate of the full scope of his contributions. In this article, I examine the standard caricature that portraits Mead as an essentially idealist thinker, without much to say on the `material conditions of reproduction' of modern industrialized societies. Focusing on Habermas's version of this interpretation, I try to show that if `science and democracy' is a common theme amongst classical pragmatists,...

  15. International Justice for Atrocity in Africa?The International Criminal Court,African Governments and Sustainable Peace

    Matignon, Emilie


    No The action of the International Criminal Court (ICC) in Africa is often criticized for its partiality and as being a tool in the handsof a hegemonic neocolonialism. Despite those critics, which are sometimes caricatural, the analysis of the intervention ofthe first permanent institution for international criminal justice is crucial to understand the dilemma and contradictions arisingbetween the theory and the practice of transitional justice. This paper will discuss the role of the Inte...

  16. The Flintstones Fallacy

    Sleutels, J.J.M.


    A leading idea in evolutionary psychology and philosophy of mind is that the basic architecture and dynamics of the mind are very old, presumably dating back to the Stone Age. Theories based on this idea are liable to paint a caricature of our ancestors by projecting our modern self-conception onto earlier minds. I argue that this ‘Flintstones Fallacy’ is an underrated risk, relieved neither by standard biological arguments nor by arguments from psychology and philosophy. Indeed, each of thes...

  17. I Show You How I Like You: Emotional Human-Robot Interaction through Facial Expression and Tactile Stimulation

    Canamero, Dolores; Fredslund, Jacob


    We report work on a LEGO robot that displays different emotional expressions in response to physical stimulation, for the purpose of social interaction with humans. This is a first step toward our longer-term goal of exploring believable emotional exchanges to achieve plausible interaction with a...... simple robot. Drawing inspiration from theories of human basic emotions, we implemented several prototypical expressions in the robot's caricatured face and conducted experiments to assess the recognizability of these expressions...

  18. Carriages, coffee-cups and dynamometers :representing French technical cultures in the London Mechanics’ Magazine,1823-1848

    Marsden, Ben


    British discussions of French technical culture have often assumed, if not explicitly stated, contrasting ‘national styles’ : centralized, state-oriented, theoretically driven, and institutionally supported work in France ; dispersed, individualistic, empirically driven, school-shy practice in Britain. In this paper I examine a spectrum of French-British technical interactions during the second quarter of the nineteenth century and ask whether such caricatures have any power. To make this stu...

  19. A defence of Tesman: historiography in Hedda Gabler

    Irina Ruppo Malone


    Full Text Available The article investigates the subject of history and historiography in Hedda Gabler through a revision of the prevalent view that intended Tesman to be a caricature on the historical profession. Tesman’s research area is innovative; it foreshadows later developments in historical thinking and is therefore linked to Ibsen’s modernism.

  20. Urbanism beyond Architecture : African cities as Infrastructure

    Rao, Vyjayanthi; De Boeck, Filip; Simone, Abdou Maliq


    About African Cities Reader(A creation of the African Centre for Cities & Chimurenga Magazine ) In many senses African cities are amongst the most generative and vibrant places on the planet. Yet, we know next to nothing about what goes on in the places. Not that there is any shortage of caricature, hyperbole or opinion about what makes African cities such quintessential spaces of dystopia and atrophy. We believe that a range of interventions that seek to engage the shape-shifting essenc...

  1. Television's Mature Women: A Changing Media Archetype: From Bewitched to the Sopranos

    Hant, Myrna


    Despite almost a half century of change and growth for women spurred by the Second Wave of the Women’s Movement, older women continue to be depicted on television as caricatures informed by ageist ideologies. A feminist textual analysis of mature women on television reveals a surprisingly consistent media archetype and helps to elucidate the politics of representation of older women. It is only very recently that counter hegemonic portrayals are acting as “filtering devices” (Cohen, 2002, p...

  2. We are not Charlie: Muslims' differentiated reactions to the Paris Attacks, and the dangers of indiscriminate finger-pointing

    Grimm, Jannis


    "After the January 2015 attacks in Paris, Muslims from all over the world showed impressive solidarity with the victims. This was the more surprising given that the victims included cartoonists working for the satirical magazine "Charlie Hebdo", whose caricatures of Mohammed had previously caused mass protests in predominantly Muslim states. However, European media took more notice of the protests against the new edition of the satirical magazine than of the declarations of solidarity. This s...

  3. Penal modernism: an American tragedy

    Farmer, Lindsay


    This paper discusses Whitman’s analysis of penal modernism. While I am in agreement with the central claim that penal modernism has been ignored and caricatured, I argue here that Whitman’s account of the penal modernist theory of judging must be understood in the context of a wider reframing of the social functions of the criminal law in penal modernism. This is explored by considering the unusual connection that the novel An American Tragedy (1925) has to the history of American criminal la...

  4. Carská dynastie z pohledu bolševické ideologie. Romanovci v karikatuře

    Jančárková, Julie

    Praha: Slovanský ústav AV ČR, v. v. i., 2015 - (Ulbrechtová, H.), s. 111-131. (Práce Slovanského ústavu. Nová řada. 41). ISBN 978-80-86420-53-0 Grant ostatní: Regionální spolupráce mezi AV ČR a Královéhradeckým krajem(CZ) R300921401 Institutional support: RVO:68378017 Keywords : caricatures * Romanov dynasty * Melnikov, D. I. Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  5. The stereotype as a mechanism of the national identity desintegration. The case of My big fat Greek wedding



    Full Text Available The cultural industry takes advantage of the evocative power of the stereotype to construct discourses easily identified with the public. The audiovisual machinery, especially Hollywood, employs this narrative mechanism to disintegrate the cultural features that shape the identity of a social group. Positive ethnic characteristics are quickly integrated into its culture; however, negative aspects are converted into stereotypes that serve to caricature the donor nation. This affront to the peripheral cultures tries at the same time to reinforce and consolidate the weak North American identity.

  6. Political Cartoons in the EFL and American Studies Classroom

    Christianna Stavroudis


    Full Text Available Political cartoons are anything but innocent caricatures. They have been described as “a confrontational art form” (Oliphant 25, as “purposefully designed to elicit strong emotions and reactions from readers” (Long, Bunch, and Lloyd 651, and as “among the more extreme forms of expression” (Long, Bunch, and Lloyd 651. Stories abound with the harsh punishments endured by political cartoonists under oppressive regimes. One might even say that what allows liberal and conservative American cartoonists to feel any sense of solidarity with one another is their bond through the First Amendment and their belief in the democratic enterprise that is criticizing government.

  7. Karikatur Karya G.M. Sudarta di Surat Kabar Kompas Kajian Pragmatik

    Slamet Supriyadi


    Full Text Available Caricatures are used mainly to put forward constructive ideas on prevailing issues and to put forward humorous function. The types of speech act practiced are commisive, expressive, verdictive, assertive, directive, and performative. The dominating speech act found is directive. Based on the forms of speech act used, types of speech act practiced by the caricaturist are direct type of speech act. In the practice of cooperative principles, the caricaturist violates the maxims of quantity, quality, relevance, and manner. Politeness principles practiced by the caricaturist are tact, agreement, sympathy, and modesty maxims. Linguistic aspects utilized are phonological aspects, phrases, words, sentences, and discourse which coherence with the pictures.

  8. Clausewitz’s “Wondrous Trinity” as a Coordinate System of War and Violent Conflict

    Herberg-Rothe, Andreas


    Rather than discarding Clausewitz’s theory of war in response to the revolutionary changes in modern warfare, this article articulates a broader theory of war based on his concept of the “wondrous trinity,” identifying it as his true legacy. The author shows that the concept of trinitarian war attributed to Clausewitz by his critics, which seems to be applicable only to wars between states, is a caricature of Clausewitz’s theory. He goes on to develop Clause- witz’s theory that war is compose...

  9. Globalization and democracy



    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe gathering momentum of globalization in the world economy has coincided with the spread of political democracy across countries. Economies have become global. But politics remains national. This essay explores the relationship between globalization and democracy, which is neither linear nor characterized by structural rigidities. It seeks to analyze how globalization might constrain degrees of freedom for nation states and space for democratic politics, and how political democracy within countries might exercise some checks and balances on markets and globalization. The essential argument is that the relationship between globalization and democracy is dialectical and does not conform to ideological caricatures.

  10. La France mesurée

    Monique PELLETIER


    Full Text Available À la cartographie de cabinet se substitua à la fin du XVIIe et au XVIIIe siècle une cartographie de terrain dont la précision et la cohésion sont la conséquence de l'établissement d'un canevas géométrique couvrant tout le territoire français. La première carte de France, celle de Cassini, plus géométrique que topographique, est l'illustration, voire la caricature, des nouvelles méthodes.

  11. Re-inventare una comunità locale. La luxury sophistication di Campione del Garda e la memoria dimenticata

    Visentin, Chiara


    Ci sono luoghi in cui la geografia provoca la storia. Nella nostra stretta contemporaneità ci sono consumi e comportamenti che possono reinventare completamente i luoghi. Conseguentemente cancellare la memoria di ciò che sono stati o ancor peggio trasfigurarla in caricature che del passato portano solo alcuni segni, trasformati in esagerazioni demodé. Ormai la cultura dello “shopping mall”, “in stile”, dei parchi a tema è entrata nel nostro quotidiano, studiata ed analizzata a fondo da sociol...

  12. Dense granular media as athermal glasses



    I briefly describe how mean-field glass models can be extended to the case in which the bath and friction are non-thermal, thus promoting them to granular matter mean-field caricatures. Solving their dynamics one discovers a temperature with a thermodynamic meaning associated with the slow rearrangements, even though there is no thermodynamic temperature at level of fast dynamics. This temperature can be shown to match the one defined on the basis of a flat measure over blocked (jammed) confi...

  13. Persistence of vision – Blind Spots after ten years’

    Ian Verstegen


    Full Text Available Frederic Schwartz’s important book, Blind Spots, is revisited after ten years and an inadequate reception within art history. Its pioneering discussion is summarized and then, taking into account the passage of a decade and the emergence of new priorities in the intellectual landscape (and particularly the overall ‘return to Marx’, its major points are assessed. Arguing that its deconstruction of Frankfurt school figures risks conflating its project with a common sense view of history, the review urges a reconsideration of the category of “physiognomy” and the consequent oppositions that a caricature of it produces.

  14. Iodine nutrition and risk of thyroid irradiation from nuclear accidents

    The objectives of this paper are to discuss the following aspects of physiopathology of iodine nutrition related to thyroid irradiation by nuclear accidents: (1) The cycle of iodine in nature, the dietary sources of iodine and the recommended dietary allowances for iodine. (2) The anomalies of thyroid metabolism induced by iodine deficiency. The caricatural situation as seen in endemic goitre will be used as mode. (3) The specific paediatric aspects of adaptation to iodine deficiency. (4) The present status of iodine nutrition in Europe. (author)

  15. La libertà di espressione e il rispetto dei sentimenti religios

    Juan Carlos Suárez Villega


    Full Text Available Freedom of speech ought to be interpreted as a value linked with different aims of a democratic society. It is not admissible to accept a freedom of speech which conceals harmful intentions against a single person or a social community. The historical defence of freedom of speech is based on the enlargement the debated of ideas, rather than on a subjective exercise of personal extravagance. To respect religious feelings and another personal aspects is an absolute limitation of freedom of speech. Because of that, we do not agree with the identification of Muslim religion with terrorism that has been published, trough Mahoma’s caricatures, in some European newspapers.

  16. L'idéaltype : Une démarche ancienne. Essai de modernisation (The idealtype: an old thought processes)

    Jean Lin CHaix; Chrystelle Gaujard


    L’idéaltype, outil heuristique créé par Max Weber est populaire, mais peu usité dans la recherche en Management. Epistémologiquement, en sciences humaines, il est impossible de déterminer des lois exactes, comme pour les sciences dites « dures » car l’irrationalité et l’inconscience des acteurs fait varier les phénomènes. C’est ici que se trouve la pertinence de l’idéaltype : il caricature les régularités observées et permet ainsi de fixer un point crédible dans la complexité de la réalité po...


    M.Sc. María Elena Del Valle de Villalba


    Full Text Available This article aims to describe the use that can be given to caricature as a teaching tool in addressing the First World War as historical fact. In the sameaccuratel y describes the application of this tool as input toe transdisciplinary approach to teaching world historyandas an approach to understanding historical moment as sensitive from a less orthodox.El presente artículo pretende describir el uso que puede dársele a la caricatura como herramienta didáctica en el abordaje de la Primera Guerra Mundial como hecho histórico. En el mismo se describe de manera precisa la aplicación de esta herramienta como aporte a un abordaje transdisciplinario de la enseñanza de la Historia Universal y como una aproximación a la comprensión de un momento histórico tan sensible desde una perspectiva menos ortodoxa.

  18. Hermeneutics and Science Education: The role of history of science

    Bevilacqua, Fabio; Giannetto, Enrico


    Eger's contribution towards a reapprochment of Hermeneutics, Science and Science Education is very welcome. His focus on the problem of misconceptions is relevant. All the same in our opinion some not minor points need a clarification. We will try to argue that: a) Hermeneutics cannot be reduced to a semantical interpretation of science texts; its phenomenological aspects have to be taken in account. b) Science has an unavoidable historical dimension; original papers and advanced textbooks are the real depositaries of scientific research. Standard textbooks are a caricature not worth it of a hermeneutical analysis. c) A parallelism can be traced between two dicothomies: the lifeworld of hermeneutics and the scienceworld of epistemology on one side and the extraordinary and the normal science on the other. d) For an overcoming of the misconceptions' problem we propose that the previous dicothomies be bridged through a hermeneutical phenomenological approach to science education that stresses the alternative, historical interpretations of natural phenomena.

  19. Detection of coarse-grained unstable states of microscopic/stochastic systems: a timestepper-based iterative protocol

    Tsoumanis, A C


    We address an iterative procedure that can be used to detect coarse-grained hyperbolic unstable equilibria (saddle points) of microscopic simulators when no equations at the macroscopic level are available. The scheme is based on the concept of coarse timestepping [Kevrekidis et al., 2003] incorporating an adaptive mechanism based on the chord method allowing the location of coarse-grained saddle points directly. Ultimately, it can be used in a consecutive manner to trace the coarse-grained open-loop saddle-node bifurcation diagrams. We illustrate the procedure through two indicatively examples including (i) a kinetic Monte Carlo simulation (kMC) of simple surface catalytic reactions and (ii) a simple agent-based model, a financial caricature which is used to simulate the dynamics of buying and selling of a large population of interacting individuals in the presence of mimesis. Both models exhibit coarse-grained regular turning points which give rise to branches of saddle points.

  20. Feminism as Islamophobia: A review of misogyny charges against Islam

    Md. Mahmudul Hasan


    Full Text Available One important feature of Islamophobia is to caricaturize Islam as misogynistic and oppressive to women and thus to advance imperialist hegemony. This “gendered Islamophobia” stigmatizes the religion even though, compared to other world religions, its treatment of women is arguably preferable and more enlightened. Historically, one treasonous use of feminism has been to misappropriate it in order to serve colonial interests and support imperialist wars of occupation that repress subjugated people including women and children. This article argues that ignorance about, and prejudice against, Islam contribute to portraying it as a misogynistic creed. Wrong notions of Islam lead many feminists in Muslim societies to denigrate Islamic teachings and borrow Western ideas to advance women’s causes. Lampooning Islam and replicating Western feminist ideas in Muslim lands have served neither women nor feminism. Such feminist tendencies rather give a bad name to the women’s rights movement and fuel controversy, anger and resentment among Muslims.

  1. La France inchangée -Soumission de Houellebecq : roman de continuité

    Clément Courteau


    Full Text Available Michel Houellebecq’s latest novel, Soumission, tells the story of a muslim’s party’s victory at the presidential elections in France. In the midst of the fear-laden solidarity that followed the events at Charlie Hebdo, the novel could be read as a confirmation of the danger Islam represents for the French republic. But in the story narrated by its hero François, the state’s, and later his, conversion to Islam are seen as positive events, that set up a social structure where their repressed desires can be openly pursued. By showing that the imagined, reified Islam which France fears, turns out to be a way of affirming and legitimizing its deepest desires, Houellebecq shows that far from being the radical alterity it is often depicted to be when seen through the lens of terrorism, Islam, as caricatured by islamophobia, is the next step in France’s civilisational development.

  2. La France inchangée -Soumission de Houellebecq : roman de continuité

    Clément Courteau


    Full Text Available Michel Houellebecq’s latest novel, Soumission, tells the story of a muslim’s party’s victory at the presidential elections in France. In the midst of the fear-laden solidarity that followed the events at Charlie Hebdo, the novel could be read as a confirmation of the danger Islam represents for the French republic. But in the story narrated by its hero François, the state’s, and later his, conversion to Islam are seen as positive events, that set up a social structure where their repressed desires can be openly pursued. By showing that the imagined, reified Islam which France fears, turns out to be a way of affirming and legitimizing its deepest desires, Houellebecq shows that far from being the radical alterity it is often depicted to be when seen through the lens of terrorism, Islam, as caricatured by islamophobia, is the next step in France’s civilisational development.

  3. Comparison of ICM with TPF-LEP to Prevent MAC Spoof DoS Attack in Wireless Local Area Infrastructure Network

    M. Durairaj


    Full Text Available A Comparison of Integrated Central Manager (ICM and Traffic Pattern Filtering with Letter Envelop Protocol (TPF-LEP is done. Denial of Service (DoS attack is a biggest peril in wireless local area infrastructure network. It makes the resources unavailable for intended users which transpired through spoofing legitimate Client/AP's Medium Access Control (MAC address. MAC address are easily caricatured by the adversary clients, subsequently they are not encrypted. Since, the adversary sends the management frame, which is unencrypted, to the victim using spoofed MAC address. This study compares the performance of Integrated Central Manager (ICM and Traffic Pattern Filtering with Letter Envelop Protocol (TPF-LEP and evaluated the result using NS2. The attack scenario is simulated and effectiveness of the solutions is validated after the instigation of solutions in the attack consequences. Throughput, Packet Delivery Ratio and Packet Loss are measured and taken to endorse the performance of ICM and TPF-LEP.

  4. Post Civil War African American History: Brief Periods of Triumph, and Then Despair.

    Graff, Gilda


    During Reconstruction, which is often called the most progressive period in American history, African Americans made great strides. By 1868 African American men constituted a majority of registered voters in South Carolina and Mississippi, and by 1870 eighty-five percent of Mississippi's black jurors could read and write. However, Reconstruction was followed by approximately one hundred years of Jim Crow laws, lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, unequal educational resources, terrorism, racial caricatures, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Revolution finally ended that period of despair, but the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a reaction to the Civil Rights Movement. This article attempts to understand the persistence of racism in the United States from slavery's end until the present. PMID:27108470

  5. La CGT dans les années 1950

    Andolfatto, Dominique; Barberis, Raymond; Besse, Jean-Pierre; Bickard, Robert; Bidouze, Réné; Blondeau, Achille; Bouche, Bernard; Bressol, Élyane; Brun, Jean; Calvetti, Oswald; Crom, Jean-Pierre Le; Dereymez, Jean-William; Desseigne, Maurice; Dreyfus, Michel; Frajerman, Laurent


    Propices aux polémiques et à la caricature, les années 1950 sont au nombre des périodes encore mal connues de l’histoire de la CGT. Le Centre d’histoire sociale du XXe siècle et l’Institut CGT d’histoire sociale ont uni leurs compétences afin de mieux comprendre ce que fut la Confédération en ces temps difficiles. Tel était l’objet du colloque tenu en novembre 2003 dont rend compte le présent ouvrage. Durant la guerre froide, le poids du parti communiste a très fortement pesé sur la vie de la...

  6. Personality and dementia.

    Cipriani, Gabriele; Borin, Gemma; Del Debbio, Alessandro; Di Fiorino, Mario


    Personality describes persistent human behavioral responses to broad classes of environmental stimuli. Change in personality may be an early sign of dementia. Our goal was to review scientific literature on the association between personality and dementia. Medline and Google Scholar searches were conducted for relevant articles, chapters, and books published since 1980. Search terms used included personality, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies. People with dementia commonly exhibit changes in personality that sometimes precede the other early clinical manifestations of the condition, such as cognitive impairment. Premorbid personality might be a determining factor so that caricature or exaggeration of original personality emerges as dementia progresses. Although it is generally accepted that these personality changes reflect the impact of progressive brain damage, there are several possible patterns of personality alterations with dementia. Early identification of personality modifications might assist with the timely diagnosis of dementia. PMID:25714255

  7. Nothing in the History of Spanish Anís Makes Sense, Except in the Light of Evolution

    Delgado, Juan Antonio; Palma, Ricardo Luis


    We describe, discuss and illustrate a metaphoric parallel between the history of the most famous Spanish liqueur, " Anís del Mono" ( Anís of the Monkey), and the evolution of living organisms in the light of Darwinian theory and other biological hypotheses published subsequent to Charles Darwin's Origin of Species. Also, we report the use of a caricature of a simian Darwin with a positive connotation, perhaps the only one ever produced. We conclude that, like some species in the natural world, Anís of the Monkey has evolved, adapted, survived and become the fittest and most successful anís in the Spanish market and possibly the world. We hope this paper will contribute a new useful metaphor for the teaching of biological evolution.

  8. The Margins of Medieval Manuscripts

    Nataša Kavčič


    Full Text Available Shortly after the mid-thirteenth century, various images began to fill the margins in both religious and secular texts. Many factors influenced the emergence of this type of manuscript decoration, but it has generally been attributed to the revived interest in nature and the Gothic inclination for humorous and anecdotic detail. After highlighting other possible reasons for the occurrence of marginal illumination, this paper introduces two manuscripts from the Archiepiscopal Archives in Ljubljana. The manuscripts show numerous facial drawings affixed to some of the letters. This article addresses how to interpret such drawings and stresses that they do not necessarily function as symbolic images or images with any specific didactic value. Quite the opposite, these drawings seem not to have any meaning and are oft en merely indications of an illuminator’s sense of humor. Because of their exaggerated facial expressions, these drawings could be perceived as the true predecessors of modern caricature.

  9. Clausewitz’s “Wondrous Trinity” as a Coordinate System of War and Violent Conflict

    Andreas Herberg-Rothe


    Full Text Available Rather than discarding Clausewitz’s theory of war in response to the revolutionary changes in modern warfare, this article articulates a broader theory of war based on his concept of the “wondrous trinity,” identifying it as his true legacy. The author shows that the concept of trinitarian war attributed to Clausewitz by his critics, which seems to be applicable only to wars between states, is a caricature of Clausewitz’s theory. He goes on to develop Clause- witz’s theory that war is composed of the three tendencies of violence/force, fighting, and the affiliation of the combatants to a warring community. Each war can be analyzed as being composed of these three tendencies and their opposites.

  10. Lie integrable cases of the simplified multistrain/two-stream model for tuberculosis and dengue fever

    Nucci, M. C.; Leach, P. G. L.


    We apply the techniques of Lie's symmetry analysis to a caricature of the simplified multistrain model of Castillo-Chavez and Feng [C. Castillo-Chavez, Z. Feng, To treat or not to treat: The case of tuberculosis, J. Math. Biol. 35 (1997) 629-656] for the transmission of tuberculosis and the coupled two-stream vector-based model of Feng and Velasco-Hernandez [Z. Feng, J.X. Velasco-Hernandez, Competitive exclusion in a vector-host model for the dengue fever, J. Math. Biol. 35 (1997) 523-544] to identify the combinations of parameters which lead to the existence of nontrivial symmetries. In particular we identify those combinations which lead to the possibility of the linearization of the system and provide the corresponding solutions. Many instances of additional symmetry are analyzed.

  11. The relationship between the state and humanistic sciences in Serbia at the beginning of the 21st century. Citation metrics as an attempted murder of Serbian anthropology

    Ivan Kovačević


    Full Text Available In Serbia, the influence of the society on humanistic sciences is mainly perpetrated through state funding of scientific projects. Such funding currently involves valuation of the results of a scientific work by applying citation metrics methods, which are not acknowledged in Europe. Citation metrics in the USA, where it was created, lead to caricature forms of scientific products, composed of several pages of text and a great number of cited (quoted titles. Citation metrical-citation manic procedure can lead to the elimination of the domestic humanistic sciences and the implementation of third rate quoteres, who, along with hollow articles filled with mutually intertwined citations, fulfill requirements, unconsciously(? set by the authorized Ministry and University.

  12. La désignation des personnages dans le Tartuffe de Molière

    Muller, Pierre; Sarrazin, Michèle


    Dans le cadre de la recherche que nous menons à l'INRP sur le thème "Informatique et étude de textes", nous nous proposons non pas de réaliser des exercices informatisés, mais de concevoir des méthodes d'approche nouvelles à partir des résultats fournis par l'ordinateur. Nous pensons en effet - et nous l'avons plus d'une fois constaté - que, dans ce domaine, le questionnement sur ordinateur aboutit très souvent à une caricature de l'enseignement le plus traditionnel et le plus stéréotypé. Aus...

  13. Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder and Risk of Suicide.

    Brodrick, Joy; Mitchell, Brian G


    A 30-year-old male patient developed a hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) after smoking cannabis laced with phencyclidine (PCP) or lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) 10 years prior to hospital admission. Clinically, he reported seeing vivid, saturated colors and caricature-like objects. The patient described perceiving objects or people in motion as moving faster than normal. He reported living in a dream-like state and feeling numb and detached from other people and his surroundings. Upon pharmacotherapy initiation, facility transfer, and subsequent discharge from an acute psychiatry unit, he ultimately committed suicide. Although hallucinogen abuse is common in the United States, this case suggests that HPPD maybe significantly underdiagnosed and undertreated. In some cases, this oversight may perpetuate years of unnecessary patient suffering and can ultimately lead to severe depression and suicide. PMID:25631475

  14. Le Canard en ciné, série satirique

    Carou, Alain


    Le Canard en ciné de l’atelier Lortac (1921-1923) s’impose comme la première série d’animation du cinéma français dont la durée de vie ait dépassé quelques épisodes. Sur le modèle du dessin de presse, elle passe en revue l’actualité et, plus largement, les faits et mœurs contemporains. Si elle représente une forme datée de caricature en cette époque commençante du « dessinateur-journaliste » (Delporte), elle tire profit de l’animation notamment pour figurer une brutalité du monde moderne à l’...

  15. Empiricist Interventions

    Munk, Anders Kristian; Abrahamsson, Sebastian


    Recent papers by prominent scholars in science and technology studies (notably JohnLaw and Bruno Latour) have crystallized a fundamental disagreement about the scope and purpose of intervention in actor-network theory or what we here choose to bracket as empirical philosophy. While the precept of...... crafting of an adequate account). A key point here is to challenge the impermeability of such a division and show how the strategic dispute, if to be taken seriously, invariably spills over to swamp the level of tactics. To illustrate this point, we draw upon materials from our recent doctoral research...... projects and to facilitate the discussion we make two deliberate caricatures: Firstly, we operate with a simplifi ed history of actor-network theory in which a strategy of epistemological critique has been replaced by two contending agendas for ontological intervention. Secondly, we address these two...

  16. Fashion pictures and women pictures in French women magazine. Normatives parades or strategic masquerade?



    Full Text Available This article proposes to study the fashion pictures within a representative sample of French women magazines. Based on the method of “sémiologie des indices”, used to analyze a corpus of woman’s body and fashion staged, this paper addresses the issue of new functions granted to the stereotyping process. Starting to the assumption of a contract between audience and media, this analysis shows that the gender stereotype may be prescribed, up to a caricature of the womanhood, to the female readers identified as co-producers of the media discourse. Demonstrating both the co-existence of a plurality of gender representations in its pictures and their variability, this work proposes the concept of strategic masquerade to apprehend the possible new functions for the process of gender stereotyping in media.

  17. Vicarious Collecting: A Review of Some Notable Books about Books - and where to acquire them!

    Koester, Jack

    Reviews on Milestones of Science, Ruth A. Sparrow, Buffalo Museum of Science, 1972, The Face of the Moon, from the Linda Hall Library, Out of this World - The Golden Age of the Celestial Atlas, Linda Hall Library, including Bayer's Uranometria, Schiller's Coelum Christianum, Hevelius' Firmamentum, Flamsteed's Atlas Coelestis, and Bode's Uranographia, as well as Argelander, Bode, Cellarius, Coronelli, Doppelmaier, Kepler, La Caille, Messier, Piccolomini, and Wollaston, Heavenly Library, Angus MacDonald and A.D. Morrison-Low from Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Library, 1994, Catalogue of the Rare Astronomical Books in the San Diego State University Library, Louis A. Kenney, 1988, and Vanity Fair, from 1869 to 1914, including caricatures of famous astronomers and scientists, such as Airy, Ball, Huggins, and Proctor.

  18. “Cooking with Gordon”: Food, Health, and the Elasticity of Evangelical Gender Roles (and Belt Sizes on The 700 Club

    Travis Warren Cooper


    Full Text Available This article examines evangelical gender paradigms as expressed through a 700 Club cooking segment facilitated by Gordon Robertson, the son of Pat Robertson—founder of the Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN, The 700 Club, Christian Coalition, and one-time presidential candidate. Several themes converge within this cooking show, including health and nutrition, family ritual, and gender roles. Using the cooking segment as data, I draw on scholarship on body, gender, family and ritual to argue that evangelical discourses are labile in their responses to recent socio-cultural shifts and suggest that “Sunday Dinners: Cooking with Gordon” defies caricatures of evangelical gender formation and signals a possible shift to soft-patriarchy and quasi-egalitarianism, at least within public, visual discourse. “Sunday Dinners” underscores the centrality of the family in evangelical discourse—even as conceptions of gender are in flux—as it seeks to facilitate everyday rituals via cooking and eating together.

  19. Mad, Bad, and Dangerous to Know? The Strange Allure and Elusive Reality of North Korea

    John Lie


    Full Text Available Sandra Fahy, Marching Through Suffering: Loss and Survival in North Korea. New York: Columbia University Press, 2015. 272 pp. $40 (cloth/e-book. Hazel Smith, North Korea: Markets and Military Rule. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. 394 pp. $90 (cloth, $33 (paper, $26 (e-book. Lady Caroline Lamb famously called Lord Byron “mad, bad, and dangerous to know.” In describing North Korea, Hazel Smith replaces “dangerous to know” with “sad,” but she, like Sandra Fahy, seeks to recuperate the ultimate humanity of North Koreans. Both Smith and Fahy have spent considerable time in North Korea or with North Koreans, and they convey the contemporary dynamics of North Korea without relying on the ready-made caricatures and stereotypes that dominate in the West (and the rest...

  20. The influence of cartoons on attitudes to science and to being a scientist - doi: 10.4025/actascilangcult.v35i2.17551

    Paula Cavalcante Monteiro


    Full Text Available Television is a powerful vehicle of mass communication and several cartoons, specifically made for children and adolescents, have ‘scientific’ themes. Preteens and teens devote many hours in front of TV, attracted by cartoons, some of which portray, in a caricature manner, scientists at work. Current paper investigates the effect the concepts of science transmitted by the cartoon ‘Jimmy Neutron’ have on adolescents. A group of 31 adolescents of the 9th grade of the junior school were invited to watch three episodes of the ‘Jimmy Neutron’ cartoon. After the sessions, they answered a questionnaire and were interviewed on their perceptions of Science and scientists. Their answers were analyzed by Discourse Textual Analysis. Results show that they most have misconceptions on Science and on scientists and they presume that scientists have a very solitary and uninterested life solely dedicated in investing new devises.

  1. Cartoon America

    Jean-Paul Gabilliet


    Full Text Available On est bien en peine de trouver un terme français recouvrant avec précision le sens du mot cartoon. Il désigne en effet un large éventail de formes, a fortiori dans son composé « cartoon art » : dessin de presse au sens strict français — toujours humoristique, très souvent politique —, mais aussi bande dessinée, illustration, caricature, dessin animé, chacun de ces types d’image dessinée s’incarnant en de multiples avatars et sous-espèces. Le terme lui-même a connu un cheminement sémantique s...

  2. V. Le défi américain

    Schoenborn, Benedikt


    Sans titre.Au moment de la visite du président Kennedy en République fédérale, ce dessin montre l’Allemagne convoitée à la fois par la France et par les États-Unis.Caricature de Baringou dans France Observateur, 4 juillet 1963, p. 4. © Paul Baringou, Le Mans. La fin de l’ère Adenauer : l’affrontement franco-américain (1963) Kennedy impose un choix à Bonn Le traité de l’Élysée exaspère les Américains. Le président Kennedy voit menacée l’alliance transatlantique par la politique indépendantiste...

  3. Fashioning Anti-Semitism: Virginia’s Woolf’ “The Duchess and The Jeweller” and the readers of Harper’s Bazaar

    Krueger Henderson, Kate


    Depuis sa parution dans le Harper’s Bazaar en 1938, “The Duchess and the Jeweller” a été dénoncée comme étant ouvertement raciste. Pourtant, si l'agent littéraire, Jacques Chambrun, a au départ rejeté “The Duchess and the Jeweller”, c'est à cause de l'anti-sémitisme du lectorat américain. Woolf révisa la nouvelle et enleva toutes les allusions directes à la judéité d' Oliver Bacon qui, malgré tout, ressort encore dans la caricature. En fait, ce que la description d'une rencontre subversive de...

  4. The importance of being Ernst: a reassessment of E. H. Gombrich’s relationship with psychoanalysis

    Rachel Dedman


    Full Text Available This study aims to explore and counter the assumption that Prof. Ernst Gombrich was wary, and even dismissive, of psychoanalysis as a discipline. Though renowned for his interest in the psychology of viewing, new research suggests that, from his earliest career, Gombrich’s work was also crucially psychoanalytically-inflected. An unpublished dialogue from the 1980s, between Gombrich and Dr Joseph Sandler, a distinguished psychoanalyst, is considered here. Archival research reveals that Gombrich was for many years a member of the Imago Group – a monthly conference of psychoanalysts. Furthermore, Gombrich’s relationship with Ernst Kris, and the unpublished manuscript on caricature and regression they developed together, is reviewed alongside later works tracing a sustained interest in psychoanalytic issues. Ultimately, the article is an attempt to rehabilitate psychoanalysis into Gombrich’s reputation and prove that, though his engagement with psychoanalysis was not universally positive, it was sensitive, nuanced, consistent and, ultimately, underestimated.

  5. El fin de la sencillez: sobre el pasaje del humor visual impreso al de la imagen móvil

    Oscar Steimberg


    Full Text Available Ligado inicialmente ao desenho humorí­stico e a ilustração infantil, o desenho animado se desenvolveu durante os primeiros oitenta anos de cinema, especialmente em seu segundo perí­odo, o disneyano, dentro da vertente de um esquematismo herdado da caricatura, como foi observado por Gombrich. A partir dos anos sessenta, e sobretudo, desde os oitenta, o desenho animado cresce em complexidade, variedade visual e narrativa, privilegia o componente hipertextual e metadiscursivo e elege o público infantil como alvo por causa da ausência de restrições estáveis, semânticas ou sintáticas que definam essa orientação. Palavras-chave desenho animado, caricatura, estilo de época, esquematismo, complexidade, metadiscurso Abstract Linked initially to the comic strip and children’s illustration, the animated cartoon was developed during the first eighty years of cinema, specially in its second period, the Disney era, primarily inside a schematism inherited from the caricature, according to Gombrich. From the 60’s on and specially since the 80’s, we notice a growth in complexity, visual variety and narrative, emphasis on the hypertextual component and on metadiscourse and a choice for the child public as the cartoon’s target group because of the lack of stable, semantical or syntactic restrictions that define this orientation. Key words animated cartoon, caricature, epoch style, schematism, complexity and metadiscourse

  6. Unpopular, overweight, and socially inept: reconsidering the stereotype of online gamers.

    Kowert, Rachel; Festl, Ruth; Quandt, Thorsten


    Online gaming has become an activity associated with a highly specific, caricatured, and often negative image. This "stereotype" has permeated the collective consciousness, as online gamers have become common caricatures in popular media. A lack of comprehensive demographic inquiries into the online gaming population has made it difficult to dispute these stereotypical characteristics and led to rising concerns about the validity of these stereotypes. The current study aims to clarify the basis of these negative characterizations, and determine whether online video game players display the social, physical, and psychological shortcomings stereotypically attributed them. Sampling and recruiting was conducted using a two-stage approach. First, a representative sample of 50,000 individuals aged 14 and older who were asked about their gaming behavior in an omnibus telephone survey. From this sample, 4,500 video game players were called for a second telephone interview, from which the current data were collected. Only those participants who completed all of the questions relating to video game play were retained for the current analysis (n=2,550). Between- and within-group analyses were enlisted to uncover differences between online, offline, and nongame playing communities across varying degrees of involvement. The results indicate that the stereotype of online gamers is not fully supported empirically. However, a majority of the stereotypical attributes was found to hold a stronger relationship with more involved online players than video game players as a whole, indicating an empirical foundation for the unique stereotypes that have emerged for this particular subgroup of video game players. PMID:24053382

  7. Modeling and numerical study of two phase flow

    This thesis describes the modelization and the simulation of two-phase systems composed of droplets moving in a gas. The two phases interact with each other and the type of model to consider directly depends on the type of simulations targeted. In the first part, the two phases are considered as fluid and are described using a mixture model with a drift relation (to be able to follow the relative velocity between the two phases and take into account two velocities), the two-phase flows are assumed at the equilibrium in temperature and pressure. This part of the manuscript consists of the derivation of the equations, writing a numerical scheme associated with this set of equations, a study of this scheme and simulations. A mathematical study of this model (hyperbolicity in a simplified framework, linear stability analysis of the system around a steady state) was conducted in a frame where the gas is assumed baro-tropic. The second part is devoted to the modelization of the effect of inelastic collisions on the particles when the time of the simulation is shorter and the droplets can no longer be seen as a fluid. We introduce a model of inelastic collisions for droplets in a spray, leading to a specific Boltzmann kernel. Then, we build caricatures of this kernel of BGK type, in which the behavior of the first moments of the solution of the Boltzmann equation (that is mass, momentum, directional temperatures, variance of the internal energy) are mimicked. The quality of these caricatures is tested numerically at the end. (author)

  8. Marcianos, melanesios, mormones y murcianos. Apuntes de antropohistoria galáctica

    Antonio Javier Izquierdo Martín


    Full Text Available Swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961, higher priest of all things apocalyptic and titanic that remain in our present time, and his Mediterranean nemesis, the Spanish cinematographer Luis García Berlanga (Valencia, 1921, ultimate practitioner of the lost baroque-Spanish art of the courtesan jester, are gathered together in this paper for the good cause of revisiting the most absurd and funny of all anthropological research topics: cargo cults. These are Millenium movements whose believers invest enormous amounts of ritual work to invocate of embodied ancestral Gods. They ask their gods to land their cargo spaceships loaded with high-tech mana at their bamboo airports. The craziest avatar of this spiritual saga, so-called UFO religions have begun the theoretical exploration and practical exploitation of the fundamental cargoist -i.e. economic-analogy between ordinary visits (of conquerors, missioners, ethnographers or tourists to anonymous places and extraordinary visits (of Gods or extraterrestrials to spiritual centers. The fast global-cinematic diffusion of the modern myth of the flying saucer reveals a close anthropo-historical connection between the rise of this specifically post-industrial variety of cargo cult and the tourists' validation of the megalomaniac techno-economic dreams of aboriginal tribes living in the Stone Age. We conclude sketching an analytical caricature of one of the most stupid cargonomical ‘pilot' in galactic anthropohistory: the so-called ‘Spanish economic miracle'.

  9. On two models for charged particle systems: the cometary flow equation and the Burgers-Poisson system

    Two models for charged particle systems are considered. The first chapter treats a kinetic equation with a relaxation time model for wave-particle collisions in cometary flows. Similarly to the BGK-model of gas dynamics, it involves a projection onto the set of equilibrium distributions, nonlinearly dependent on moments of the distribution function. An earlier existence result is extended to bounded domains with reflecting boundaries and to initial conditions permitting vacuum regions. The long time behavior is investigated. Convergence on compact time intervals (shifted to infinity) to the set of equilibrium solutions is proven. All smooth equilibrium solutions are computed and classified according to their geometry. The subset of smooth equilibria satisfying boundary conditions is investigated. Finally, explicit solutions of the Euler equations for ideal gases are constructed as moments of equilibrium solutions. In the second chapter, a dispersive model equation is considered, which has been proposed by Whitham as a shallow water model, and which can also be seen as a caricature of two species Euler-Poisson problems. A number of formal properties as well as similarities to other dispersive equations is derived. A travelling wave analysis and some numerical tests are carried out. The equation features wave breaking in finite time. A local existence result for smooth solutions and a global existence result for weak entropy solutions is proved. Finally a small dispersion limit is carried out for situations where the solution of the limiting equation is smooth. (author)

  10. road-map for smart grids and electricity systems integrating renewable energy sources

    The vision of smart grids and electricity systems elaborated in this road-map was drawn up on the basis of consultation and talks with a group of experts from industry (EDF, AREVA, GDF-Suez), public research bodies (SUPELEC, Ecole des Mines, INES, universities), grid operators (ERDF, RTE), local authorities' groups (FNCCR) and ADEME. In the course of these working sessions the experts expressed their opinions intuitu personae. The views outlined in this road-map are not to be assimilated with the official positions of the corporations or research organisations to which the members of the group belong. The visions of smart electricity grids and systems integrating renewable energies in 2020 and in 2050 are in sharp contrast. This contrast was deliberately sought out, for two reasons: - to offer the most exhaustive panorama possible of imaginable futures; - to avoid neglecting a critical technological, organisational or socioeconomic bottleneck that might be associated with a possible scenario left out of the discussion. Accordingly, in seeking contrasting visions the group arrived at extreme representations and even caricatures of the future, which nonetheless help define the outer limit of possibilities, and the scope within which the actual situation will most likely be situated in 2020 and in 2050

  11. Een wankel vertoog. Over ontzuiling als karikatuur

    Peter van Dam


    Full Text Available A Shaky Exposition: On De-pillarisation as a CaricatureDutch twentieth-century history is regularly constructed on the basis of the antithesis of verzuiling (pillarisation and ontzuiling (de-pillarisation. The popular discourse of de-pillarisation suggests the dismissal, around the 1960s, of three societal characteristics: segregated religious and ideological communities (pillars; the societal dominance of such communities; and pacifying cooperation among social elites. De-pillarisation thus connects to the discourses of individualisation, secularisation and politicisation. Conversely, this article proposes seeing a shift in the way citizens have organised themselves – a shift from heavy to light communities – as the essential transformation in Dutch post-war history. From this perspective, the discourse of discontinuity is replaced by a panorama of gradual change. Individuals became more independent and organised themselves more loosely; religious traditions were only admitted to public life as long as they proved to be bonding elements; and politicians legitimized their policies by means of a dialogue among experts whilst, by and large, maintaining their pacifying style.

  12. Electric and magnetic microfields inside and outside space-limited configurations of ions and ionic currents

    The problem of electric and magnetic microfields inside finite spherical systems of stochastically moving ions and outside them is studied. The first possible field of applications is high temperature ion clusters created by laser fields [1]. Other possible applications are nearly spherical liquid systems at room-temperature containing electrolytes. Looking for biological applications we may also think about a cell which is a complicated electrolytic system or even a brain which is a still more complicated system of electrolytic currents. The essential model assumption is the random character of charges motion. We assume in our basic model that we have a finite nearly spherical system of randomly moving charges. Even taking into account that this is at best a caricature of any real system, it might be of interest as a limiting case, which admits a full theoretical treatment. For symmetry reasons, a random configuration of moving charges cannot generate a macroscopic magnetic field, but there will be microscopic fluctuating magnetic fields. Distributions for electric and magnetic microfields inside and outside such space- limited systems are calculated. Spherical systems of randomly distributed moving charges are investigated. Starting from earlier results for infinitely large systems, which lead to Holtsmark- type distributions, we show that the fluctuations in finite charge distributions are larger (in comparison to infinite systems of the same charge density)

  13. The effects of paradigmatic orientations of education research and discourse

    Smithson, John Lawrence

    This essay presents an examination of contemporary disputes over methodological and epistemological foundations underlying inquiry within the field of education research; investigating the obstacles to communication and understanding found in scholarly exchanges occurring across competing paradigmatic orientations. Terminological challenges to cross-paradigmatic communication are examined, identifying three specific terminological difficulties, referred to as homonym, contextual, and onti-stemic problems. Nicholas Burbules' model of dialogue, based upon characteristics of convergence, divergence, inclusive and critical traits, is adopted and applied to a sample of cross-paradigmatic exchanges found in recent educational research journals. Examination of those exchanges reveals certain strategies associated with cross-paradigmatic communication. These strategies, labeled as trivialization, caricaturization, and re-direction, are shown to be detrimental to the mutual understanding of the interlocutors. The model is then extended to address examples of paradigmatic orientations within methodological and epistemological contexts in order to consider the relationship between the various orientations represented in the literature of interest. Methodological and epistemological orientations are shown to be loosely coupled, with unexpected shifts in paradigmatic values found among researchers' methodological and epistemological commitments. Finally, the nature of the relationship between competing paradigmatic orientations is examined, with particular attention given to four types of incommensurability (ontological, linguistic, epistemological, and values incommensurability). I conclude that, though difficult, cross-paradigmatic communication is necessary in order to provide a multi-paradigmatic perspective that takes us beyond the fractured picture of educational phenomena available from current research approaches.

  14. Die boek Job as bron van intertekste vir ‘Wie weet?' (Die waarheid gelieg, 1984

    E. Botha


    Full Text Available The Book of Job as a source of intertexts for T.T. Cloete’s short story ‘Wie weet?’ (Die waarheid gelieg, 1984 T.T. Cloete’s account of a woman's physical and spiritual agony in the short story “Wie weet?” ffrom Die waarheid gelieg, 1984, read within the South African/Afrikaans cultural context, presents several indicators that the Book of Job is its intertext, the most explicit pointer being the role of the sufferer’s sister-in-law. Intertextuality in Cloete’s oeuvre often takes the form of a creative reworking or rereading of texts (cf Scholtz, 1984; Botha, 1984; Roos, 1986. Roos comments on the caricatural treatment of theme in Cloete’s “Veg om te verloor” (Cloete, 1984, highlighted by the rereading imposed on the reader of Van Melle’s well-known story "Die joiner”, creating distrust in the implicit author of the Cloete text. The argument in this essay is that the explicit engagement of the intertext, as in "Wie weet?”, also serves as an affirmative complement to the negative incompleteness of the rereading. Thus the desperate questioning of "Wie weet?” becomes an integral part of a reading of Cloete’s oeuvre as a hymn to God’s omnipotence and mercy, epitomized in the poem "Van Horn en my” (Jukstaposisie, 1982.

  15. [Neurobiology of endocannabinoids and central effects of tetrahydrocannabinol contained in indian hemp].

    Costentin, Jean


    Tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychotropic component of Cannabis indica, is an addictive drug with multiple effects including both peripheral and central damages. All these effects are due to interference with endocannabinoidergic transmission. This endocannabinoid system subtly regulates many physiologicalfunctions. This regulation involves various ligands derived from arachidonic acid (anandamide, di-arachidonoylglycerol, virodhamin, noladin ether, N arachidonoyl dopamine, etc.) which stimulate two main types of receptor CB1 in the central nervous system and CB2 in the periphery. CB1 receptors are very numerous and ubiquitous in the brain. They influence various important functions (awakening, attention, delirium, hallucinations, memory, cognition, anxiety, humor stability, motor coordination, brain maturation, etc.). Far from mimicking endocannabinoids, THC caricatures their effects. It affects all brain structures, simultaneously, intensely and durably, inducing down-regulation of CB1 receptors and thereby reducing the effects of their physiological ligands. On account of its exceptional lipophilia, THC accumulates for days and even weeks in the brain. It is not a soft drug but rather a slow drug: its abuse induces long-lasting modifications and deterioration of brain function, potentially leading to various mental and psychiatric disorders. PMID:26427295


    Tsatsenko L. V.


    Full Text Available The article discusses issues related to humorous, ironic, satirical figure, which is one of the kinds of fine art. Forms, styles and genres graphs of this type were reviewed. The classical method of analysis has been used in the article, only the subject of the analysis was images of various phenomena in agronomic practice. Basic definitions of humorous illustration, showing the history of its creation are presented. In the example of drawn short stories by Dutch artist Herluf Bidstrup we show possibilities of using a humorous picture as a good example of observation of the development of plants. We have marked characteristic features of modern cartoons - the ability to largely reflect the concerns associated with the development and application of new technologies in the agricultural sector and economy. Towards a new form of comic drawing we can consider a meme as a unit of cultural information. The caricature is as follows-known work is presented in an entirely different semantic perspective, it is like tracing paper for lighting any problems. The emphasis is on the possibility of using intelligent and ironic drawings in the teaching discipline of "History and methodology of scientific agriculture" for better learning, remembering and propaganda agronomic knowledge

  17. "Fat is your fault". Gatekeepers to health, attributions of responsibility and the portrayal of gender in the Irish media representation of obesity.

    De Brún, Aoife; McCarthy, Mary; McKenzie, Kenneth; McGloin, Aileen


    We investigated the representation of obesity in the Irish media by conducting an inductive thematic analysis on newspaper articles (n=346) published in 2005, 2007 and 2009 sampled from six major publications. The study analysed the media's construction of gender in discussions of obesity and associated attributions of blame. Three dominant themes are discussed: the caricatured portrayal of gender, women as caregivers for others, and emotive parent-blaming for childhood obesity. Men were portrayed as a homogenous group; unaware and unconcerned about weight and health issues. Dieting and engaging in preventative health behaviours were portrayed as activities exclusively within the female domain and women were depicted as responsible for encouraging men to be healthy. Parents, specifically mothers, attracted much blame for childhood obesity and media messages aimed to shame and disgrace parents of obese children through use of emotive and evocative language. This portrayal was broadly consistent across media types and served to reinforce traditional gender roles by positioning women as primarily responsible for health. This analysis offers the first qualitative investigation into the Irish media discourse on obesity and indicates a rather traditional take on gender roles in diet and nutrition. PMID:23186694

  18. YouTubers as satirists: Humour and remix in online video

    Patrícia Dias da Silva


    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the role humour plays in politics, particularly in a media environment overflowing with user-generated video. We start with a genealogy of political satire, from classical to Internet times, followed by a general description of “the Hitler meme,” a series of videos on YouTube featuring footage from the film Der Untergang and nonsensical subtitles. Amid video-games, celebrities, and the Internet itself, politicians and politics are the target of twenty-first century caricatures. By analysing these videos we hope to elucidate how the manipulation of images is  embedded in everyday practices and may be of political consequence, namely by deflating politicians' constructed media image. The realm of image, at the centre of the Internet's technological culture, is connected with decisive aspects of today's social structure of knowledge and play. It is timely to understand which part of “playing” is in fact an expressive practice with political significance.

  19. Face and facial parts tracking and its applications to nonverbal communication interface

    Funahashi, Takuma; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Tominaga, Masafumi; Koshimizu, Hiroyasu


    Since, at our laboratory, the basic configuration of the facial caricaturing system PICASSO has been constructed, it is strongly expected to get sufficient input image from a person who is naturally performing in front of the PICASSO camera system. From this viewpoint, we developed a face tracking PC system for capturing sufficient facial image especially in size by means of PTZ (Pan-Tilt-Zoom) camera collaborated with a fixed CCD camera. Irises are successfully recognized from the motion images captured from PTZ camera. These irises can be utilized to provide a key feature for realizing an automated facial recognizing system. In this system, a person performing naturally in pose and in facial expression within the scope of the fixed CCD camera can be stably tracked and the sufficient images in resolution of PTZ camera were successfully analyzed for iris recognition and facial parts extractions. This face tracking and face recognition system was characterized by a novel template replacement scheme among the successive image frames. Experimental results were also demonstrated in this paper. This system works well in a practical speed 6-9fps on a usual PC connected to these cameras.

  20. Discussing the Literary Thoughts of Dong Xi' s Novels%论东西小说的文学思想



    Dong Xi is a famous late born generation writer.Under the guidance of unique literature thoughts, he has written repositories of thought-provoking literary works, making him the leader of the contempo-rary literature of Guangxi.In the creation, he advocated to expose the reality, look straight into the inner world of people, without forgetting innovation at the same time.Behind his ridiculous and funny words, he never forgets to display the power of tragedy.In addition, he prefers to writing of caricature style, always trying to use the most ex-aggerated strokes to reach readers' mind.%晚生代作家东西在独特文学思想的指引下,写出了一部部令人深思的作品,使其成为当代广西文坛的领军人物. 在创作中,他主张揭露现实,直视人的内心世界,同时又不忘创新. 在他荒诞、滑稽的文字背后,却总不忘张扬悲剧的力量,而他偏向于漫画式的写作方式,总是试图用最夸张的笔法来触及读者的心灵.

  1. Phenomenological Skillful Coping: Another Counter-Argument to Daniel Dennett’s

    Jethro Masís


    Full Text Available This paper deals with Daniel Dennett’s well-known charges against phenomenological philosophy as an endevour to restore the rights of introspection: that is, the attempt, albeit doomed to failure, to contribute to the science of the mind from a purported incorrigible, ineffable and ‘subjective’ (interpreted as ‘private’ first-person perspective. According to Dennett’s heterophenomenology, only a strict third-person method is possible when it comes to the scientific study of the mind. I will dispute Dennett’s method in order to do both: correct Dennett’s caricaturization of phenomenological philosophy as naïve introspection and offer not only a clarification of phenomenology’s true aims and scope, but also a case in which phenomenology will stand as a crucial option in the new studies of the mind, under the sigh of fresh air that can be found in the new approaches to cognitive science (the so-called 4EA approaches: embodied, embedded, extended, enacted, affective. By way of introducing the concept of ‘phenomenological skillful-coping,’ an affirmative respond to Dennett’s own question shall be given: “Is there anything about experience that is not explorable by heterophenomenology? I’d like to know what.” The answer to Dennett should be firm: Yes there is! No less than the most basic non-theoretical, non-representational, embodied and embedded, human experience or coping.

  2. Jean-Martin Charcot and art: relationship of the "founder of neurology" with various aspects of art.

    Bogousslavsky, Julien; Boller, François


    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893), the "father of neurology" in France and much beyond, was also the man who established academic psychiatry in Paris, differentiating it from clinical alienism. In his teaching, he used artistic representations from previous centuries to illustrate the historical developments of hysteria, mainly with the help of his pupil Paul Richer. Charcot liked to draw portraits (in particular, sketches of colleagues during boring faculty meetings and students' examinations), caricatures of himself and others, church sculptures, landscapes, soldiers, etc. He also used this skill in his clinical and scientific work; he drew histological or anatomic specimens, as well as patients' features and demeanor. His most daring artistic experiments were drawing under the influence of hashish. Charcot's tastes in art were conservative; he displayed no affinity for the avant-gardes of his time, including impressionism, or for contemporary musicians, such as César Franck or Hector Berlioz. Léon Daudet, son of Charcot's former friend and famous writer Alphonse Daudet, described Charcot's home as a pseudo-gothic kitsch accumulation of heteroclite pieces of furniture and materials. However, as Henry Meige wrote a few years after his mentor's death, Charcot the artist remains "inseparable from Charcot the physician." PMID:24041281

  3. Oliver Twist and Inklings of ‘Grotesque’

    Ehsan Hafezi Kermani


    Full Text Available Oliver Twist is a novel in which the society of pilfers and felons were reconnoitered uninvited by a young boy whose name is Oliver in the Victorian period. He as an orphan faces with dissimilar circumstances that are concealed to the eyes of the conventional people. Dickens, as the narrator of the story, has logged those absurdities and clumsiness in his novel. Dickens uses the idea of grotesque to display the conditions and the scenes to alert people in forms of comic and tragic. Dearth, poverty, lives of thieves, and whatever ensued in his time are dexterously exhibited in this novel by using grotesquery which its function is ‘mixing emotions, tragicomic, abnormality’. He uses melodramatic techniques with grotesque and humorous characterization. He exchanges tragic and comic scenes to balance one against another. Grotesque in Oliver Twist mainly can be debated in three formulas that are comprised as caricature-like characters, Gothic-like environment, and a means of satirizing situations.




    Full Text Available The analysis of the ethical implications concerning the use of irony is not an easy task. Even though there are notable differences between the various ironical expressions, it looks like irony in general plays with people’s emotions. Ironically, it seems that it gets them together and pulls them apart at the same time. Thus, whether we refer to philosophical or rhetorical irony, it is hard to say when is it morally right to turn into ridicule. Therefore, in this paper, considering Linda Hutcheon`s view on the edge of irony and Richard Rorty`s neo-pragmatist philosophy, we analyze the moral limits of ironization. We emphasize that, in some cases, the difference between the use and the abuse of irony is cancelled, the limit between innocent irony and real offence being almost inexistent. For this reason, we claim that irony is acceptable only in a culture that is opened to all ironic modalities, such as satire, parody, caricature, pamphlet and even humor.

  5. A sM*A*S*Hing CERN visit

    Amy Elizabeth Dusto


    Alan Alda, the actor best known for playing medic Hawkeye Pierce on yesteryear’s TV series M*A*S*H, really likes science. Moreover, the Scientific American Frontiers TV program inspired his passion for science communication. Since then, he has become an advocate for increased public literacy in science. He visited CERN and the ATLAS experiment last week.   Alan Alda enjoying his visit to the ATLAS cavern.  “I’d been reading about it so much, I just wanted to see it,” he said. He does in fact have a connection with one of the LHC experiments. A few years ago, a fan of his from ATLAS asked if he would draw an Einstein cartoon to go on their fundraising T-shirts. Alda said he spent weeks on the caricature, and he joked that, “there would be no ATLAS project without that T-shirt,” which was a hit. Indeed, his favourite moment was underground when he was standing on the platform and looking at the giant detector. Alda helped c...

  6. From the Revolution to Embodiment: 25 Years of Cognitive Psychology.

    Glenberg, Arthur M; Witt, Jessica K; Metcalfe, Janet


    In 1988, the cognitive revolution had become institutionalized: Cognition was the manipulation of abstract symbols by rules. But, much like institutionalized political parties, some of the ideas were becoming stale. Where was action? Where was the self? How could cognition be smoothly integrated with emotions, with social psychology, with development, with clinical analyses? Around that time, thinkers in linguistics, philosophy, artificial intelligence, biology, and psychology were formulating the idea that just as overt behavior depends on the specifics of the body in action, so might cognition depend on the body. Here we characterize (some would say caricature) the strengths and weaknesses of cognitive psychology of that era, and then we describe what has come to be called embodied cognition: how cognition arises through the dynamic interplay of brain controlling bodily action controlling perception, which changes the brain. We focus on the importance of action and how action shapes perception, the self, and language. Having the body in action as a central consideration for theories of cognition promises, we believe, to help unify psychology. PMID:26173215

  7. Phase transition in matrix model with logarithmic action: toy-model for gluons in baryons

    We study the competing effects of gluon self-coupling and their interactions with quarks in a baryon, using the very simple setting of a hermitian 1-matrix model with action trA4-log det (ν+A2). The logarithmic term comes from integrating out N quarks. The model is a caricature of 2d QCD coupled to adjoint scalars, which are the transversely polarized gluons in a dimensional reduction. ν is a dimensionless ratio of quark mass to coupling constant. The model interpolates between gluons in the vacuum (ν = ∞), gluons weakly coupled to heavy quarks (large ν) and strongly coupled to light quarks in a baryon (ν→0). Its solution in the large-N limit exhibits a phase transition from a weakly coupled 1-cut phase to a strongly coupled 2-cut phase as ν is decreased below νc = 0.27. Free energy and correlation functions are discontinuous in their third and second derivatives at νc. The transition to a two-cut phase forces eigenvalues of A away from zero, making glue-ring correlations grow as ν is decreased. In particular, they are enhanced in a baryon compared to the vacuum. This investigation is motivated by a desire to understand why half the proton's momentum is contributed by gluons

  8. Is the Diversity of Shifting Cultivation Held in High Enough Esteem in Lao PDR?

    Olivier Ducourtieux


    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation is often described as “traditional”, inflexible and outdated, in contrast with “modern”, mechanised and chemical agriculture. This belief leads to overlooking farmer know-how, accumulated over generations to exploit natural resources while adapting itself to the mutations of the physical, social and economic environment.Research conducted in Phongsaly provides an idea about how complex and consistent a shifting cultivation system can be and how farmers optimise family labour but also limit their risks. External interventions—policies, projects, etc.—are aimed at improving the farmers’ livelihood by converting their farming practices. When these interventions overlook how diversified slash-and-burn agriculture is, they often lead to oversimplifying the farming systems, impoverishing people and exposing them to natural and economic risks. These actions are then counterproductive. In the interest of the Lao nation, as a community, the policies and their implementation should be rethought so as to hold highland farmers of ethnic minorities in higher esteem and to widen the viewpoint, currently limited to a caricature of the mountains and forest, upheld by the culturally and politically dominant lowland inhabitants.

  9. Amygdala and fusiform gyrus temporal dynamics: Responses to negative facial expressions

    Rauch Scott L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amygdala habituates in response to repeated human facial expressions; however, it is unclear whether this brain region habituates to schematic faces (i.e., simple line drawings or caricatures of faces. Using an fMRI block design, 16 healthy participants passively viewed repeated presentations of schematic and human neutral and negative facial expressions. Percent signal changes within anatomic regions-of-interest (amygdala and fusiform gyrus were calculated to examine the temporal dynamics of neural response and any response differences based on face type. Results The amygdala and fusiform gyrus had a within-run "U" response pattern of activity to facial expression blocks. The initial block within each run elicited the greatest activation (relative to baseline and the final block elicited greater activation than the preceding block. No significant differences between schematic and human faces were detected in the amygdala or fusiform gyrus. Conclusion The "U" pattern of response in the amygdala and fusiform gyrus to facial expressions suggests an initial orienting, habituation, and activation recovery in these regions. Furthermore, this study is the first to directly compare brain responses to schematic and human facial expressions, and the similarity in brain responses suggest that schematic faces may be useful in studying amygdala activation.

  10. Undiscovered Bat Hosts of Filoviruses

    Schmidt, John Paul; Alexander, Laura W.; Bowden, Sarah E.; Hayman, David T. S.; Drake, John M.


    Ebola and other filoviruses pose significant public health and conservation threats by causing high mortality in primates, including humans. Preventing future outbreaks of ebolavirus depends on identifying wildlife reservoirs, but extraordinarily high biodiversity of potential hosts in temporally dynamic environments of equatorial Africa contributes to sporadic, unpredictable outbreaks that have hampered efforts to identify wild reservoirs for nearly 40 years. Using a machine learning algorithm, generalized boosted regression, we characterize potential filovirus-positive bat species with estimated 87% accuracy. Our model produces two specific outputs with immediate utility for guiding filovirus surveillance in the wild. First, we report a profile of intrinsic traits that discriminates hosts from non-hosts, providing a biological caricature of a filovirus-positive bat species. This profile emphasizes traits describing adult and neonate body sizes and rates of reproductive fitness, as well as species’ geographic range overlap with regions of high mammalian diversity. Second, we identify several bat species ranked most likely to be filovirus-positive on the basis of intrinsic trait similarity with known filovirus-positive bats. New bat species predicted to be positive for filoviruses are widely distributed outside of equatorial Africa, with a majority of species overlapping in Southeast Asia. Taken together, these results spotlight several potential host species and geographical regions as high-probability targets for future filovirus surveillance. PMID:27414412

  11. Qu’est-ce que problématiser? Genèses d'un paradigme

    Michel Fabre


    Full Text Available Nowadays, the idea of the problem invades the school and training. How to avoid that this idea does not dilute and caricaturizes itself? It seems necessary to go back to the root question: What is problematization? The genesis of the paradigm of problematization is studied here departing from 4 problem philosophies from John Dewey, Gaston Bachelard, Gilles Deleuze and Michel Meyer. While these philosophies come up from different intuitions and develop their own theories, they largely converge on the idea of problematization which allows a precise definition of concepts (the problematization, the problem, the issue. These philosophies also allow to highlight the intellectual demands of an attitude that seems to take its normal course of the common thought and even - according to some of our authors - of philosophical thought,marked precisely by the forgetfulness of the problem. There is no problematization if self-control of thought is not present, a dialectic between data and conditions of the problem, which needs to conceive a logic of research, centered in the building of the problem and not just on its corresponding resolution. It is possible to outline the pedagogical implications of the four sketches, studied in relation to knowledge and problem. Their differences reveal themselves pedagogically over determined: they send back to the problems of a pedagogy of the problems.

  12. What Mary Toft Felt: Women’s Voices, Pain, Power and the Body


    In autumn 1726, Mary Toft began to deliver rabbits in Godalming, Surrey. The case became a sensation and was reported widely in newspapers, popular pamphlets, poems and caricatures. Toft was attended by at least six different doctors, some members of the Royal College of Physicians or attached to the Royal Court, but no doctor declared the affair a hoax until Toft herself confessed on 7 December 1726. This article focuses on Toft’s three surviving confessions in order to explore not the doctors or even wider representations of the affair but instead the person of Mary Toft herself. These rare sources give rare insight into one woman’s experiences of reproduction in the early eighteenth century. The essay engages with recent work on recovering women’s voices in the past, reconstructing Mary Toft’s words and her embodied and affective experience of the affair. These documents suggest a revision to our understanding of the hoax of 1726, one that situates the affair not in the context of the scientific revolution and Enlightenment or the assumption of men’s control over midwifery, but instead in the context of power dynamics amongst women in the practices of early-modern reproduction and birth. PMID:27019607

  13. Workers moving the industry forward

    The Power Workers' Union represents workers at Ontario Hydro's nuclear stations and AECL operators at Chalk River. Although labour relations are far from perfect, the union does its best to protect the industry. Avoiding confrontation as much as possible, this union is happy to be regarded as a partner in the business. The union is impressed by the consultants' report on Ontario Hydro's nuclear operations. Whatever the future may bring, the present is not really pleasant for nuclear workers generally, in that the work itself is very demanding technically, and must be performed with great diligence because the responsibility for safety is enormous. Considering the actual safety record, some caricatures or ''cheap shots'' from antinuclear politicians and special interest groups seem quite offensive. As a partner in public relations, the union has produced draft fact sheets on topics such as: transporting radioactive material; the burning of plutonium from dismantled weaponry; deep geological storage of nuclear waste; the sale of Candu reactors to China. The author closes with some advice on how to improve industrial relations, based on the union's experience

  14. Discrete Neural Correlates for the Recognition of Negative Emotions: Insights from Frontotemporal Dementia.

    Kumfor, Fiona; Irish, Muireann; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier


    Patients with frontotemporal dementia have pervasive changes in emotion recognition and social cognition, yet the neural changes underlying these emotion processing deficits remain unclear. The multimodal system model of emotion proposes that basic emotions are dependent on distinct brain regions, which undergo significant pathological changes in frontotemporal dementia. As such, this syndrome may provide important insight into the impact of neural network degeneration upon the innate ability to recognise emotions. This study used voxel-based morphometry to identify discrete neural correlates involved in the recognition of basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise and happiness) in frontotemporal dementia. Forty frontotemporal dementia patients (18 behavioural-variant, 11 semantic dementia, 11 progressive nonfluent aphasia) and 27 healthy controls were tested on two facial emotion recognition tasks: The Ekman 60 and Ekman Caricatures. Although each frontotemporal dementia group showed impaired recognition of negative emotions, distinct associations between emotion-specific task performance and changes in grey matter intensity emerged. Fear recognition was associated with the right amygdala; disgust recognition with the left insula; anger recognition with the left middle and superior temporal gyrus; and sadness recognition with the left subcallosal cingulate, indicating that discrete neural substrates are necessary for emotion recognition in frontotemporal dementia. The erosion of emotion-specific neural networks in neurodegenerative disorders may produce distinct profiles of performance that are relevant to understanding the neurobiological basis of emotion processing. PMID:23805313

  15. 概念整合:概念隐喻的继承和发展%Southeastern local dialect of the Yi language; Arza dialect; assessment for the vitality of language; definitely endangered;



    As one of the new linguistic schools,Cognitive Linguistics includes Conceptual Metaphor and Blending Theory in order to explain the correlation between conceptualizing processes in our mind.Although some scholars have made comparative studies on them,there has not yet been a clear statement for the relationship between the two theories.After exploring the philosophical basis,fundamental concepts,primary operation,this paper maintains that Blending Theory inherits and develops Conceptual Metaphor.This statement is further demonstrated by an analysis of a caricature.%在认知语言学内部,概念隐喻和概念整合以认知中的思维过程为研究对象。目前,对两者之间的关系仍然缺乏统一的认识。从哲学基础、基本概念、操作过程等方面,论文分析了二者之间的同质性;认为概念整合是对概念隐喻的继承和发展。为论证此观点,论文分析一幅环境保护漫画,旨在说明概念整合更加详细地描述了概念认知过程,是对概念隐喻的继承和发展。

  16. Return of the living dead: Re-reading Pierre Flourens' contributions to neurophysiology and literature.

    Levinson, Sharman


    Historians of neurophysiology remember Marie Jean Pierre Flourens (1794-1867) for his experimental approach to nineteenth-century debates on cortical localization and, in particular, for his successful attacks on Frantz Joseph Gall's (1758-1828) phrenology (Gall and Spurzheim, 1810-19). Whereas Gall and his colleague, Johann Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832), posited correlations between features of the skull and brain development and claimed to have localized character traits, competencies and temperaments in specific cortical regions, Flourens advocated cerebral equipotentiality and provided empirical as well as philosophical grounds for his theories. Flourens has also been recognized for his contributions to the understanding of the cerebellum's role in the coordination of movement, the localization of a respiratory center in the medulla oblongata, the relationship between the semicircular canals and balance, the role of the periosteum in bone growth and regeneration, and finally, the anesthetic properties of chloroform. Less known to historians of neuroscience is the fact that Pierre Flourens was not only a neurophysiologist and Secrétaire Perpetuel of the French Académie des Sciences, he was also a member of the Académie Française, France's most prestigious literary academy. Examining Flourens' contributions as a writer and, at the same time, a prime target for criticism and caricature from journalists, yields a particularly interesting example of the problematic relations between different genres of science writing and their respective publics in mid-nineteenth-century France. PMID:24290264

  17. Il Selvaggio 1926–1942: Architectural Polemics and Invective Imagery

    Michela Rosso


    Full Text Available Within the framework of a special collection dedicated to the study of image-word relations in the press and their impact upon the dissemination of architecture within the public realm, the story of 'Il Selvaggio', the magazine published from July 13, 1924, until five weeks before the fall of Mussolini in 1943, assumes a significant relevance. Since its inception, and increasingly from 1926, 'Il Selvaggio' hosts, alongside articles and polemic essays, a varied range of graphic materials in different genres and forms of artistic expression. This heterogeneous visual catalogue, an expression of the versatile and eclectic culture of its founder, the artist, writer and illustrator Mino Maccari, includes an equally varied ensemble of literary registers ranging from rhymes and aphorisms to brief polemic writings, ironic manipulation of proverbs, word plays and puns. The interest of a study about the representations of architecture within 'Il Selvaggio' lies in the non-specialist nature of a periodical whose cultural stances were predominantly elaborated outside the professional circles of the architectural work and its well-known authors. This article examines the rhetorical strategies and linguistic devices of the magazine, where caricatures and landscape scenes, still lives and urban views, photographs and mottoes, are intertwined in a set of varying relationships. It also elucidates the historical context in which the contemporary architectural debate unfolds and which constitutes the constant reference for Maccari and his collaborators, providing the source materials for the journal’s polemics.

  18. 论《我们这一伙》的讽刺艺术%On the Satirical Art inOur Gang



    In Our Gang, Philip Roth employs such figures of speech as parody, irony, hyperbole, caricature and parody of genre for his satirical skills to expose the hypocrisy of American politicians, the ugliness of politics, and the role of accomplice played by media for the government; to express standpoint of anti-war and try to deconstruct the authority of discourse that was maintained making use of media by American president.%在《我们这一伙》中,菲利普·罗斯利用戏拟、反讽、夸张、漫画式刻画、文类仿拟等修辞格作为其讽刺手法,揭露了美国政客的虚伪、政治的丑恶和媒体充当政府帮凶的角色,表达了其强烈的反战立场,同时力图解构美国总统利用媒体所建立的话语权威。

  19. On Particles and Primes

    Knill, Oliver


    Primes in the two complete associative normed division algebras C and H have affinities with structures seen in the standard model of particle physics. On the integers in the two algebras, there are two equivalence relations: a strong one, related to a U(1) and SU(3) symmetry allowing to permute and switch signs of the coordinates of the integers, as well as a weak relation with origins from units U(1),SU(2) in the algebra. Weak equivalence classes within the strong equivalence classes of odd primes in C case relate to leptons, the inert ones being neutrino like, and the split ones resembling electron-positron pairs. In the H case, for odd primes, the equivalence classes come in groups of two or three, leading to a caricature of hadrons featuring either mesons built by a quark pair or then baryons obtained by quark triplets. We can now list for every rational prime p all these particles and attach fractional charges to its constituents.

  20. Self-stabilization of the biosphere under global change: a tutorial geophysiological approach

    von Bloh, W.; Block, A.; Schellnhuber, H. J.


    A 2-dimensional extension of the simple Lovelock-Watson model for geosphere-biosphere feedback is introduced and discussed. Our enriched version also takes into account various pertinent physical, biological, and civilisatory processes like lateral heat transport, species competition, mutation, germination, and habitat fragmentation. The model is used as a caricature of the Earth System, which allows potential response mechanisms of the biosphere to environmental stress (as generated, e.g., by global warming or anthropogenic land-cover change) to be investigated qualitatively. Based on a cellular automaton representation of the system, extensive calculations are performed. They reveal a number of remarkable and, partially, counter-intuitive phenomena: our model biosphere is able to control almost perfectly the geophysical conditions for its own existence. If the environmental stress exceeds certain thresholds, however, life breaks down on the artificial planet via a first-order phase transition, i.e., in a non-reversible way. There is a close connection between self-stabilizing capacity, biodiversity and geometry of habitat fragmentation. It turns out, in particular, that unrestricted Darwinian competition, which reduces the number of co-existing species, is the best guarantee for survival of the artificial ecosphere as a whole.

  1. The Combination of Inconsistent Feelings in Satire or Humor on Persian Language (A Case study: Parviz e Shapoor s Caricalamatures

    Fatemeh Taslim Jahromi


    Full Text Available Abstract Grotesque is a concept and style in art and literature in which artist or belletrist tries to induce two inconsistent senses of fear (anxiety or repulsion or laugh (satire or humor to second person simultaneously. Grotesque, today, describes and manifests distressed and alienation world. It means observing familiar world of strange perspective that shows off it fearful and ridiculous. The most prominent features that make a Grotesque work are as fallow: disharmony, extravagance and exaggeration, abnormality and comic and terrifying. But one of the most important art and literature branches that Grotesque enters in it, is satire and humor that one of its kind is Caricalamatur.   Caricalamatur is a kind of short, simple and satire prose that paid attention to around to phenomenon and world by different attitude with aim of foregrounding and based on some people opinion, also, it is defined as a caricature that is expressed by worlds.   Grotesque in Caricalamaturs has special appearance particularly in Caricalamatur of Parviz e Shapoor, the pioneer of this style.Grotesque in Caricalamaturs is more the result of two technics of abnormality (paradox, and extravagance and exaggeration and present to it strange and comic and terrifying picture quality.   The most important of Grotesque technics in Caricalamaturs are disorder, levels integration, exaggeration, movement, metamorphosis and uses of antithetical and twin.This research has performed by descriptive- analytical method to recognize and investigate Grotesque concepts, how it occurs and its contents in Caricalamatur by evidence representation.

  2. Strongly coupled non-Abelian plasmas in a magnetic field

    Critelli, Renato


    In this dissertation we use the gauge/gravity duality approach to study the dynamics of strongly coupled non-Abelian plasmas. Ultimately, we want to understand the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), whose scientifc interest by the scientific community escalated exponentially after its discovery in the 2000's through the collision of ultrarelativistic heavy ions. One can enrich the dynamics of the QGP by adding an external field, such as the baryon chemical potential (needed to study the QCD phase diagram), or a magnetic field. In this dissertation, we choose to investigate the magnetic effects. Indeed, there are compelling evidences that strong magnetic fields of the order $eB\\sim 10 m_\\pi^2$ are created in the early stages of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. The chosen observable to scan possible effects of the magnetic field on the QGP was the viscosity, due to the famous result $\\eta/s=1/4\\pi$ obtained via holography. In a first approach we use a caricature of the QGP, the $\\mathcal{N}=4$ s...

  3. El estereotipo como mecanismo de desintegración de la identidad nacional. El caso de Mi gran boda griega

    González Sánchez, José Félix


    Full Text Available En español: La industria cultural se aprovecha del poder evocador del estereotipo para construir discursos de fácil identificación con el público. La maquinaria audiovisual, en especial Hollywood, utiliza este mecanismo narrativo para desintegrar los rasgos culturales que conforman la identidad de un grupo social. Los elementos étnicos positivos los integra rápidamente a su cultura, los negativos los convierte en estereotipos que sirven para caricaturizar a la nación donante. Esta afrenta hacia las “culturas periféricas” intenta, a su vez, reforzar y consolidar la débil identidad estadounidense.In english: The cultural industry takes advantage of the evocative power of the stereotype to construct discourses easily identified with the public. The audiovisual machinery, especially Hollywood, employs this narrative mechanism to disintegrate the cultural features that shape the identity of a social group. Positive ethnic characteristics are quickly integrated into its culture; however, negative aspects are converted into stereotypes that serve to caricature the donor nation. This affront to the peripheral cultures tries at the same time to reinforce and consolidate the weak North American identity.

  4. Marcus Recht: Der sympathische Vampir. Visualisierungen von Männlichkeiten in der TV-Serie Buffy. Frankfurt am Main u.a.: Campus Verlag 2011.

    Hannah Bölling


    Full Text Available Marcus Recht leistet als einer der ersten deutschsprachigen Autoren eine ausführliche Analyse der besonderen Darstellung alternativer Geschlechtlichkeit in der TV-Serie Buffy. Mit Hilfe ausführlicher wissenschaftlicher Methodik zeigt Recht auf, dass die Serie sowohl soziale Konstrukte analysiert, widerspiegelt und karikiert als auch eine alternative Geschlechtlichkeit etabliert, welche die männlichen Vampire in einen zur Zeit der Serienausstrahlung gänzlich neuen Gender-Kontext stellt. Viele weitere klassische filmsoziologische Theorien zu Gender-Konstruktion und -Darstellung werden kritisch aufgegriffen und in die Analyse einbezogen. Eine gute Grundlage für Einsteiger/-innen als auch für Kenner/-innen des Feldes, um sich mit dem wissenschaftlichen Potential des popkulturellen Feldes auseinanderzusetzen.As one of the first German-language authors, Marcus Recht presents an elaborate analysis of the extraordinary depiction of alternative sexuality in the TV show Buffy. Using extensive scientific methodology, Recht demonstrates that the show both analyzes, reflects, and caricatures social constructs and establishes an alternative sexuality, which puts the male vampires into a gender context that was completely new at the time when the show was broadcast. Furthermore, the author addresses many other classic film-sociological theories on gender construction and representation and incorporates them into the analysis. A good foundational work for beginners as well as for experts in the field, who want to examine the scientific potential of the pop-cultural field.

  5. Britannia : Grandeur et infortune d’une allégorie nationale dans l’univers du cartoon britannique 1842-1999 Britannia: Greatness and Misfortune of a National Symbol in the World of British Cartoons 1842-1999

    Gilbert Millat


    Full Text Available Britannia, sometimes accompanied by the emblematic British Lion, has long been personifying justice, liberty, and the British Empire on coins and stamps as well as in graphic satire. Originally of Roman origin, she became the visual representation of Britain after being revived in the sixteenth century. This article is based on the analysis of over four hundred cartoons featuring this symbol. It argues that between 1860 and the 1950s, Britannia striking a solemn pose, that of the Græco-Roman goddess created by Tenniel, exalted Victorian greatness and the early twentieth century great power twice victorious in the World Wars. On the other hand, since the inter-war years, Low and his followers had been challenging this supposedly immutable image. They turned her into a definitely helpless and obsolete symbol whose identity was sometimes usurped by such anti-heroes as Colonel Blimp. Finally, from the 1960s, in a context of continuous British decline and growing permissiveness, cartoonists increasingly followed the example of the old masters of 18th century caricature and early Punch cartoonists, even though aggressiveness and vulgarity have remained much less explicit.

  6. Holistic Darwinism: the new evolutionary paradigm and some implications for political science.

    Corning, Peter A


    Holistic Darwinism is a candidate name for a major paradigm shift that is currently underway in evolutionary biology and related disciplines. Important developments include (1) a growing appreciation for the fact that evolution is a multilevel process, from genes to ecosystems, and that interdependent coevolution is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature; (2) a revitalization of group selection theory, which was banned (prematurely) from evolutionary biology over 30 years ago (groups may in fact be important evolutionary units); (3) a growing respect for the fact that the genome is not a "bean bag" (in biologist Ernst Mayr's caricature), much less a gladiatorial arena for competing selfish genes, but a complex, interdependent, cooperating system; (4) an increased recognition that symbiosis is an important phenomenon in nature and that symbiogenesis is a major source of innovation in evolution; (5) an array of new, more advanced game theory models, which support the growing evidence that cooperation is commonplace in nature and not a rare exception; (6) new research and theoretical work that stresses the role of nurture in evolution, including developmental processes, phenotypic plasticity, social information transfer (culture), and especially the role of behavioral innovations as pacemakers of evolutionary change (e.g., niche construction theory, which is concerned with the active role of organisms in shaping the evolutionary process, and gene-culture coevolution theory, which relates especially to the dynamics of human evolution); (7) and, not least, a broad effort to account for the evolution of biological complexity--from major transition theory to the "Synergism Hypothesis." Here I will briefly review these developments and will present a case for the proposition that this paradigm shift has profound implications for the social sciences, including specifically political theory, economic theory, and political science as a discipline. Interdependent superorganisms, it

  7. Stealing the Gold

    Stealing the Gold presents a survey of some of the most exciting topics in condensed matter physics today, from the perspective of the pioneering work of Sam Edwards. Original articles from leaders in the field, including several Nobel laureates, highlight the historical development as well as new and emerging areas. This book would be of interest to graduate students and researchers in condensed matter physics, statistical physics and theoretical physics. Over the course of nearly half a century, Sam Edwards has led the field of condensed matter physics in new directions, ranging from the electronic and statistical properties of disordered materials to the mechanical properties of granular materials. Along the way he has provided seminal contributions to fluid mechanics, polymer science, surface science and statistical mechanics. This volume celebrates the immense scope of his influence by presenting a collection of original articles by recognized leaders in theoretical physics, including two Nobel laureates and a Fields medalist, which describe the genesis, evolution and future prospects of the various sub-fields of condensed matter theory, along with reprints of a selection of Edwards' seminal papers that helped give birth to the subject. Stealing the Gold, Edwards' favourite caricature of the relationship between theoretical physicists and nature, will be of singular interest to graduate students looking for an overview of some of the most exciting areas of theoretical physics, as well as to researchers in condensed matter physics looking for a comprehensive, broad and uniquely incisive snapshot of their subject at the dawn of the 21st century. (book review)

  8. The Literary Representation of Children in the 19th Century: from Demons to Angels and Rebels La représentation de l’enfant au XIXe siècle : de la démonisation à l’angélisation et à la subversion

    Françoise Dupeyron-Lafay


    Full Text Available Cet article évoque la tradition religieuse (biblique et celle d’Augustin qui influença la perception de l’enfance (entachée par le péché originel jusque dans les années 1830 au moins, notamment dans les écrits évangéliques pour la jeunesse (The History of the Fairchild Family (1818 de Mary Sherwood. Mais la philosophie des Lumières (Rousseau et les Romantiques anglais (Wordsworth et sa célèbre Ode, Thomas De Quincey marquent le début d’une nouvelle approche de l’enfance, considérée comme innocente, voire visionnaire. En témoigne la fiction de Dickens, qui abonde en personnages d’enfants occupant un rôle de premier plan, qui permit de dénoncer les mauvais traitements qui leur étaient infligés et d’y remédier. Dans certains de ses romans, l’enfant est cependant « angélisé » au point de frôler la caricature mais mon propos est surtout de mettre en lumière une veine plus subversive chez Dickens (comme chez Elizabeth Gaskell dans Wives and Daughters, 1866 qui fait de l’enfant, à travers une utilisation novatrice du concept de nature, l’instrument d’une contestation de l’autorité parentale inconditionnelle (et donc de certains préceptes religieux et qui, pour la première fois, met en avant les devoirs et obligations envers les enfants.

  9. Why did so many German doctors join the Nazi Party early?

    Haque, Omar S; De Freitas, Julian; Viani, Ivana; Niederschulte, Bradley; Bursztajn, Harold J


    During the Weimar Republic in the mid-twentieth century, more than half of all German physicians became early joiners of the Nazi Party, surpassing the party enrollments of all other professions. From early on, the German Medical Society played the most instrumental role in the Nazi medical program, beginning with the marginalization of Jewish physicians, proceeding to coerced "experimentation," "euthanization," and sterilization, and culminating in genocide via the medicalization of mass murder of Jews and others caricatured and demonized by Nazi ideology. Given the medical oath to "do no harm," many postwar ethical analyses have strained to make sense of these seemingly paradoxical atrocities. Why did physicians act in such a manner? Yet few have tried to explain the self-selected Nazi enrollment of such an overwhelming proportion of the German Medical Society in the first place. This article lends insight into this paradox by exploring some major vulnerabilities, motives, and rationalizations that may have predisposed German physicians to Nazi membership-professional vulnerabilities among physicians in general (valuing conformity and obedience to authority, valuing the prevention of contamination and fighting against mortality, and possessing a basic interest in biomedical knowledge and research), economic factors and motives (related to physician economic insecurity and incentives for economic advancement), and Nazi ideological and historical rationalizations (beliefs about Social Darwinism, eugenics, and the social organism as sacred). Of particular significance for future research and education is the manner in which the persecution of Jewish physician colleagues was rationalized in the name of medical ethics itself. Giving proper consideration to the forces that fueled "Nazi Medicine" is of great importance, as it can highlight the conditions and motivations that make physicians susceptible to misapplications of medicine, and guide us toward prevention of

  10. Monsters and Clowns Incorporated: the Representations of Adolf Hitler in British and American WWII Propaganda Posters Monstres, clowns et compagnie : les représentations d’Hitler dans les affiches de propagande britanniques et américaines pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale

    Cécile Vallée


    Full Text Available Dans les affiches de propagande britanniques et américaines de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, les représentations d’Adolf Hitler font de lui soit un monstre effrayant, sanguinaire et diabolique, soit un clown grotesque, un pantin ridicule et risible, une cible qu’il faut frapper, écraser, ou détruire d’une façon ou d’une autre. S’adressant au sens de l’humour du spectateur, à ses peurs ou à son aversion, les artistes de propagande des deux côtés de l’Atlantique utilisent des leviers émotionnels et des tons très variés pour faire du dictateur nazi un des ressorts principaux de la participation à l’effort de guerre. Ces caricatures d’Hitler, dont l’objectif final était d’encourager la production et les économies ou de lutter contre les bavardages intempestifs, révèlent une condamnation morale ou politique et font partie de la propagande de soutien au moral, qui vise à galvaniser les Troupes de l’Intérieur en présentant la victoire comme quelque chose de vital ou d’inéluctable. Qu’il soit monstre ou clown, on fait tomber le dictateur déshumanisé de son piédestal, un piédestal si soigneusement construit pour lui par la propagande nazie.

  11. A repertoire of comic figures of the antique theatre in miniatures of Byzantine Psalters with marginal

    Bemabò Massimo


    Full Text Available Recent investigations on ninth-century Byzantine Psalters have focused mostly on the impact of the iconoclast controversy on the iconography of the marginal illustrations in these manuscripts. In fact this impact has been greatly exaggerated and the Psalter illustrations that can be connected to the debates on icon are less than a dozen out of a total of a few hundreds. The present article focuses on the iconography of figures illustrating social and moral types in the psalms. These figures cannot be considered as novel inventions of the ninth-century artists who painted our manuscripts. Their origin must be drawn back to late antique prototypes; in particular it is inferred that most of these figures represent characters that were originally modeled after the moral and social types acted on stage in late antique theater, mime and pantomime. A number of examples out of the miniatures in the Carolingian manuscripts of Terence and other media provides parallels to gestures, postures and features of the figures in the Psalter illustrations. The iconographical invention of these characters for the psalms must date from fourth to sixth century, a period during which theater was still very popular, notwithstanding the strong opposition of the Christian Fathers. Chroricius of Gaza' Apologia memoriam and other late antique writings witness the popularity of mime up to the middle sixth century and the ample variety of types that were acted on stage. The figures scissor out of marginal illustrations in the Byzantine Psalters are arranged in five plates collecting examples of, respectively, moral types, emotions caricatures, social types and professions, gods and devils.

  12. Winning at Pocker and Games of Chance Winning at Pocker and Games of Chance

    Anita Flanders Rebelo


    Full Text Available It's the modern consumer mind - compete to eat, save to the grave, throw to the wind to win! Never the game that's im portant - it's the beer , the fag. . . and if you're broke it's just the "odds" to turn you on. "Socrates didn't play dice games. He drank a lot. And when he was drunk he would go watch the game and give advice. It was because of bad advice that he was eventually sentenced to death. . . Back then it was more fun. Nobody knew anything about odds. It was just put down your money, you toss the dice, you laugh, you take another drink." - to Cassidy,it's knowing the odds that's put everybody on pot. Rack Cassidy's Winning at Poker and Games of Chance lampoons the illogic logic of modern "instructed" man. It is a disturbingly funny caricature of a nonsensical consumer's mind trying to ratio nalize the game of life, and what comes out is "hash" - not meat and potatoes. The book is high philosophical slapstick comedy ila Charlie Chaplin on paper in today's scene. To Cassidy, consumer thinking has made intellectual nitwits of us. We're always ex plaining in detail about what we don't have the slightest real understanding of, but we go on and on like automats spitting out words and words which in the long run make no sense to our__ selves and much less to the other poor broken down human calculat ing machines - especially when we try to give logic to our il/logical vices and fears.

  13. Dynamic optimization of a linear-quadratic model with incomplete repair and volume-dependent sensitivity and repopulation

    Purpose: The linear-quadratic model typically assumes that tumor sensitivity and repopulation are constant over the time course of radiotherapy. However, evidence suggests that the growth fraction increases and the cell-loss factor decreases as the tumor shrinks. We investigate whether this evolution in tumor geometry, as well as the irregular time intervals between fractions in conventional hyperfractionation schemes, can be exploited by fractionation schedules that employ time-varying fraction sizes. Methods: We construct a mathematical model of a spherical tumor with a hypoxic core and a viable rim, which is most appropriate for a prevascular tumor, and is only a caricature of a vascularized tumor. This model is embedded into the traditional linear-quadratic model by assuming instantaneous reoxygenation. Dynamic programming is used to numerically compute the fractionation regimen that maximizes the tumor-control probability (TCP) subject to constraints on the biologically effective dose of the early and late tissues. Results: In several numerical examples that employ five or 10 fractions per week on a 1-cm or 5-cm diameter tumor, optimally varying the fraction sizes increases the TCP significantly. The optimal regimen incorporates large Friday (afternoon, if 10 fractions per week) fractions that are escalated throughout the course of treatment, and larger afternoon fractions than morning fractions. Conclusion: Numerical results suggest that a significant increase in tumor cure can be achieved by allowing the fraction sizes to vary throughout the course of treatment. Several strategies deserve further investigation: using larger fractions before overnight and weekend breaks, and escalating the dose (particularly on Friday afternoons) throughout the course of treatment

  14. Analysis on Works of Art and Music in Anti-Japanese War:Using WenXian as an Example%抗战文艺之美术与音乐作品管窥--以《文献》为窗口



    There are rich varieties of Anti-Japanese War literature and art .WenXian seeks many of those channels including art and music to support the Anti-Japanese war .There are many kinds of paintings about Anti-Japanese War , including traditional Chinese painting , mural painting , New Year painting , modern car-icature , new woodcut and so on , which echo with the requirements of the times , expose the Japanese atroci-ties, depict the battle scenes , satirize the international politics .Folk music and local songs all work together to inspire the Chinese people with various vivid and vigorous forms .The art and music works of WenXian in-terpret and mark that period of time , and record the endeavor of the literature field in protecting their homes and defending their country .%抗战文艺丰富多彩,孤岛《文献》广泛搜求抗战资料,其中,绘画、音乐同属宣传战的生力军。抗战画作涵盖国画、壁画、年画、现代漫画和新兴木刻等,它们呼应时代要求揭露日寇暴行、刻画战斗场面和讽刺国际政治;民间曲艺、地方歌谣同样致力抗战宣传。《文献》之美术、音乐作品以多彩的形式诠释抗战标记历史,记录当时文艺人士保家卫国进行的种种努力。

  15. Raising voices: How sixth graders construct authority and knowledge in argumentative essays

    Monahan, Mary Elizabeth

    This qualitative classroom-based study documents one teacher-researcher's response to the "voice" debate in composition studies and to the opposing views expressed by Elbow and Bartholomae. The author uses Bakhtin's principle of dialogism, Hymes's theory of communicative competence, as well as Ivanic's discussion of discoursally constructed identities to reconceptualize voice and to redesign writing instruction in her sixth grade classroom. This study shows how students, by redefining and then acting on that voice pedagogy in terms that made sense to them, shaped the author's understanding of what counts as "voiced" writing in non-narrative discourse. Based on a grounded-theory analysis of the twenty-six sixth graders' argumentative essays in science, the author explains voice, not as a property of writers or of texts, but as a process of "knowing together"---a collaborative, but not entirely congenial, exercise of establishing one's authority by talking with, against, and through other voices on the issue. As the results of this study show, the students' "I-Ness" or authorial presence within their texts, was born in a nexus of relationships with "rivals," "allies" and "readers." Given their teacher's injunctions to project confidence and authority in argumentative writing, the students assumed fairly adversarial stances toward these conversational partners throughout their essays. Exaggerating the terms for voiced writing built into the curriculum, the sixth graders produced essays that read more like caricatures than examples of argumentation. Their displays of rhetorical bravado and intellectual aggressiveness, however offsetting to the reader, still enabled these sixth graders to composed voiced essays. This study raises doubts about the value of urging students to sound like their "true selves" or to adopt the formal registers of academe. Students, it seems clear, stand to gain by experimenting with a range of textual identities. The author suggests that voice

  16. Dichotomy of major genes and polygenes

    In order to facilitate domestication and breeding of new or underexploited crop species, the genetic basis of many traits must be critically investigated, and both naturally occurring and induced mutations should be utilized. Classically, most breeding procedures have invoked the dichotomy of major genes versus polygenes (or discrete versus continuously varying traits) which is briefly reviewed here from several viewpoints. Clearly, the evidence for two distinct classes of genes (or gene effects on phenotype) and traits is largely a product of different forms of genetic analyses and their primary objectives as well as of researchers' expectations. Superimposed on the simplest Mendelian ratios and genome maps are numerous sources of molecular variation and gene expression at many levels of phenotypic description. Many attempts to delineate developmental pathways and to identify genes controlling discrete vs. quantitative phenotypic variation have resulted in emphasis on multigenic models with specific gene effects at mappable loci but nonetheless modified by small effects. Thus, quantitative genetic variation may arise from multi-genic and multi-allelic systems of both structural and regulatory gene action and gene interactions which, from an empirical breeding perspective, might be adequately described by the biometrical and evolutionary models. Polygenic analyses were conceptually based on genetic parameters in these models (as caricatures of reality) but efforts to modify or reject them by identifying and mapping sources of phenotypic variation through newer genetic methods are likely to enrich and not displace biometrical methods. Domestication programmes, in particular, should employ the entire array of genetic discoveries and methodologies. (author). 71 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab


    С. Ю. Боєва


    Full Text Available In the article a special attention is paid to issues of state support to free development of all styles and genres of Ukrainian fine arts, its broad popularization through all-Ukrainian regional, group or personal exhibitions in the post Soviet period. The activity of galleries has became an important factor for development of arts. They contribute to conservation of invaluable relics of the Ukrainian art; control the process of flow of cultural values from Ukraine, which at the present time acquires a mass and perilous character. The prominent tendencies of contemporary Ukrainian fine arts — neofolklorism (the folklore’s influence on the art, postmodernism and others have also been analyzed in the article. The development of Ukrainian art of sculpture, engraving and caricature is in focus of the article, as well as new styles of the Ukrainian fine arts — installation, video art, performance, street-art, etc. The author concludes: economic difficulties experienced by Ukraine make the problem of social protection of arts especially urgent. This can be seen in the current state in purchases of works of arts by the state. For the Ukrainian fine arts the way of going out of the crisis is a formation of cultural infrastructure, ensuring the conditions of functioning of a real self-regulated art market. Despite all difficulties the Ukrainian art is developing and mastering its strength. There is quite a number of gifted Ukrainian artists who work in Ukraine or abroad and are known in the world and who respectfully represent the art of their people.

  18. Filipinas, fin de siglo: imágenes y realidad

    Elizalde, María Dolores


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present an image of the Philippines at the end of the 19th century, different to the picture of underveloped islands, inhabitated by savages unable to selfgovernment, transmited by the historiography and caricatures of that time. With this purpose, they are studied the process of redefinition of the Spanish colonial goverment, the strengthening of a new filipino society, the development of the economy and commerce, and the strong international interests in the islands.

    El presente artículo pretende ofrecer una imagen de las Filipinas de fin de siglo, diferente de la transmitida por la historiografía tradicional y por la viñetas y caricaturas de la época. Frente a los estereotipos de unas islas atrasadas, incapaces del autogobierno, habitadas por salvajes a los que había que civilizar, se impone una realidad definida por el gobierno colonial de España, en pleno proceso de redefinición; por el afianzamiento de una burguesía ilustrada filipina, la pujanza de una clase campesina y obrera, la fuerza de un movimiento de afirmación nacional, y el desarrollo de una economía agroexportadora en pleno crecimiento; y por la presencia de fuertes intereses internacionales que hay que entender insertos en la marea de expansión colonial y reparto de mercados y territorios ultramarinos; intereses internacionales de los que se da cuenta a través de un análisis de comercio, inversiones y presencia diplomática de las grandes potencias en las Filipinas de fin de siglo.


    Ngu Teck Hua


    Full Text Available Reporting on issues like race and religion in a multi-racial and multi-religious society is not an easy media responsibility. In a country like Malaysia where racial and religious sensitivities abound, the media have to constantly tread on precarious ground, balancing between what to write and how to write it. Much of the concern over the reporting of sensitive issues stems from the belief that a wrong move may have dire consequences, as seen in the recent controversy and furore over the Prophet Muhammad caricature published in the Danish newspaper, Jyllands-Posten.This study analyses two recent racial/religious issues – M. Moorthy and Nyonya Tahir cases – as reported in the New Straits Times (NST, Utusan Malaysia (UM, Malaysia Nanban (MN and Sin Chew Daily (SCD. The former case caused a stir when there was a tussle between Moorthy’s Indian/Hindu family and the Federal Territory Islamic Affairs Council which argued that Moorthy had converted to Islam when he was alive without the family’s knowledge. The latter was a case of a Malay/Muslim woman who, while alive, had denounced Islam and lived as a Chinese practising Buddhism.This study analyses how the two race and religion-related controversial issues were treated in the various language newspapers in Malaysia. A preliminary finding showed that, true to the communal nature of the Malaysian press, there was an apparent slant in how the ethnic press covered these two issues. For instance, in terms of prominence given to the stories, SCD, while downplaying the Moorthy story, dedicated more space to the Nyonya Tahir case. Similarly, MN highlighted the Moorthy story and downplayed the Nyonya Tahir case. The different newspapers were also seen to ''favour'' the subject they covered according to the ethnicity.

  20. The Hoopla Over the Higgs Boson: A Window into the State of Science Journalism

    Cho, Adrian


    On July 4, experimenters at the European particle physics laboratory, CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland, held a special seminar in which they reported that they had at last discovered something resembling the Higgs boson, the last missing piece in particle physicists' standard model. The event drew more than 100 journalists, including myself, and the days leading up to the seminar evolved in almost a caricature of a media circus. Rumors coursed across the internet, bloggers prognosticated about what would be reported, anonymous sources whispered confidence levels to eager reporters, and on the very eve of the seminar CERN's own press office inadvertently leaked a video explaining many of the details. At a post-seminar press conference, dozens of photographers and videographers swarmed Peter Higgs, the eponymous theorist from the University of Edinburgh. Higgs even had his own handler to help him fend off the press onslaught. It was all great fun, but for a traditional journalist the event highlighted the many open questions we journalists now face. In the age of blogs and Twitter, does anybody really care that journalists try to put together fair, balanced, and accessible accounts of events? Or are people just as happy to get their information directly from researchers through their blogs or the lab through its press office? Is being first out with the story the only measure of success these days, or is there still a market for deeper analysis? I'll use the Higgs hoopla as a lens to lay out the questions as I see them. I am hoping to get the answers of the members of the audience in a discussion.

  1. O que é problematizar? Géneses de um paradigma

    Michel Fabre


    Full Text Available A ideia de problema invade, atualmente, a escola e a formação. Como evitar que esta ideia não se dilua e se caricature? Parece ser necessário voltar à questão de raiz: o que é problematizar? Estuda-se, aqui, a génese do paradigma da problematização a partir de 4 filosofias do problema: John Dewey, Gaston Bachelard, Gilles Deleuze e Michel Meyer. Ainda que estas filosofias se manifestem a partir de intuições diferentes e desenvolvam teses próprias, elas convergem largamente sobre a ideia de problematização o que permite uma definição rigorosa de conceitos (a problematização, o problemático, a problemática. Estas filosofias permitem, igualmente, evidenciar as exigências intelectuais de uma atitude que parece ter de fazer o percurso normal do pensamento comum e até - segundo alguns dos nossos autores - do pensamento filosófico, marcado precisamente pelo esquecimento do problema. Não há problematização se não for instaurado um autocontrole do pensamento, uma dialética entre dados e condições do problema, o que necessita conceber uma lógica da pesquisa, centrada na construção do problema e não apenas sobre a respetiva resolução. É possível delinear as incidências pedagógicas dos quatro esboços estudados quanto à relação entre saber e problema. As suas próprias divergências revelam-se pedagogicamente sobre determinadas: reenviam para os problemas de uma pedagogia dos problemas.Nowadays, the idea of the problem invades the school and training. How to avoid that this idea does not dilute and caricaturizes itself? It seems necessary to go back to the root question: What is problematization? The genesis of the paradigm of problematization is studied here departing from 4 problem philosophies from John Dewey, Gaston Bachelard, Gilles Deleuze and Michel Meyer. While these philosophies come up from different intuitions and develop their own theories, they largely converge on the idea of problematization which

  2. La sphinx décadente: topos et poetique de la transgression

    Lise Revol-Marzouk


    Full Text Available During the last decades of the 19th century, the Sphinx, in its Egyptian representation, seems to be on the decline. This figure, which traditionally embodies the universal mystery, is particularly threatened in a world beset by materialistic disillusion. Texts and pictures portray a myth in agony, with such tediousness that it has become a cliché. Decadent imagination then seizes upon another myth which is particularly suitable, both in its form and its history, to regenerate the old Sphinx: the Greek Sphinx. As the riddle teller of the Theban legend, it shares with its Egyptian ancestor, in addition to its homonymy and hybridism, a strong taste for secret; but it also has shown, since the very beginning, its multifaceted behaviour of transgression - ontological, religious, social and, above all, sexual. Replacing esotericism by eroticism and the metaphysical quest by the physical conquest restores mystery to its libidinal aspect. It reminds us that all knowledge, be it carnal or spiritual, comes from an original transgression which, driven by the libido sciendi, exceeds the acceptable limits. This approach is not without pitfalls. An overly caricatured and systematic metamorphosis of the legendary monster into a femme fatale risks condemning theSphinx to topos and the reader to fatigue. It would, however, omit the ultimate transgression committed by the Hellenic Sphinx: transgression of language, of course, by its riddles, obscure and ambivalent, violating the norms of logic and rhetoric. The decadent Sphinx's sexual provocation is thus accompanied by a textual innovation at all levels, leading the reader in a constant game of poetic transgressions that are as destabilizing as they are seductive. Behind the erotic revival of mystery, a new and unexpected type of language develops that is capable of re-enchanting reality, and with it, all literature.

  3. Modelos de mundo y tópicos literarios: la construcción ficcional al servicio de la ideología del poder

    Pérez Parejo, Ramón


    Full Text Available To sum up, by world views we understand the cultural perception of the world we belong to. This concept of world views, that comes from the Semiotic of Culture developed by the School of Tartu-Moscow in the seventies, reaches an interesting scope in Literature as it offers information about cultural and ideological components that are part of any fictional trasformation. In this article we have shown the relationships and disagreements established between real world and the cultural and literary /artistic view of the world. This cultural / literary / artistic views are shaped from a recreation of reality based on different interests. Fictional transformation can be a small one or can reach a high level of idealization, caricature or complete alteration. This fictional distortion must be analysed together with its scope, how it is produced, who has decided to produce it and why. We will find out that there are both cultural and ideological reasons and those who produce these transformations have often something to do with the ruling classes. By building these virtual worlds they are just trying to preserve their power, their privileges and their possessions.En síntesis, por modelos de mundo se entiende la percepción cultural que el sujeto tiene del mundo al que pertenece. El concepto, que procede de la Semiótica de la Cultura desarrollada por la Escuela de Tartu-Moscú en los años setenta, adquiere una interesante proyección en Literatura porque informa sobre el componente cultural e ideológico que comporta todo desvío ficcional. Hemos señalado las relaciones y desajustes que se establecen entre mundo real, modelo de mundo cultural y modelo de mundo literario/artístico. Estos últimos se forjan a partir de la transformación interesada de la realidad. Esa distorsión ficcional puede resultar mínima o llegar a alcanzar cotas de idealismo, caricatura o absoluta desfiguración. Se debe analizar ese desvío ficcional, cuál es su medida, en

  4. « Jules Crevaux, l’explorateur aux pieds nus ». Un mythe géographique amazonien

    Emmanuel Lézy


    Full Text Available Le rejet par Claude Lévi Strauss du personnage de l’explorateur organise son exploration de l’Amazonie autant que sa quête de l’Indien. Le scientifique, entre les deux, est situé dans une position équidistante entre la clairvoyance et l’aveuglement. Le « voyage » frappé de la même opprobre est présenté, de façon similaire comme un travestissement du nomadisme indigène. L’exploration des régions du totémisme ou de l’animisme est décrite comme une activité cérébrale, intellectuelle, passant par  l’identification des structures fondamentales de mythes chargés d’organiser la connaissance du monde et ne devant pas grand chose au nécessaire mouvement des pieds. Pourtant, en observant attentivement la polarité doublement négative des pieds d’un explorateur de l’Amazonie, Jules Crevaux, on découvre des structures communes au territoire parcouru et au mythe moderne qui confirment de façon paradoxale la pertinence des analyses de l’anthropologue.The rejection by Lévi Strauss of the explorer organise his own exploration of Amazonia as much as his quest for the Indian. The scientist, between those two characters, holds a medium position between blindness and foresight. The « voyage », stuck by the same despise, is presented as a caricature of indigenous nomadism. The exploration of the countries of totemism and animism is described as a mental, intelectual activity based on the identification of the fundamental structures of the myths organising the knowledge of the world which has nothing to do with the necessary movement of the feet. Nevertheless, the carefull observation of the feet of an amazonian explorer, Jules Crevaux (1847-1882, reveals structures which are common to the covered territory and to a modern mythology. This structures give an unexpected confirmation of the efficiency of the anthropologist’s analyses.

  5. Multidimensional representations: The knowledge domain of germs held by students, teachers and medical professionals

    Rua, Melissa Jo

    The present study examined the understandings held by 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students, their teachers and medical professionals about germs. Specifically, this study describes the content and structure of students' and adults' conceptions in the areas of germ contraction, transmission, and treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases caused by microorganisms. Naturalistic and empirical research methods were used to investigate participants' conceptions. Between and within group similarities were found using data from concept maps on the topic "flu," drawings of germs, a 20 word card sort related to germs and illness, and a semi-structured interview. Concept maps were coded according to techniques by Novak and Gowan (1984). Drawings of germs were coded into four main categories (bacteria, viruses, animal cell, other) and five subcategories (disease, caricature, insect, protozoa, unclassified). Cluster patterns for the card sorts of each group were found using multidimensional scaling techniques. Six coding categories emerged from the interview transcripts: (a) transmission, (b) treatment, (c) effect of weather on illness, (d) immune response, (e) location of germs, and (f) similarities and differences between bacteria and viruses. The findings showed students, teachers and medical professionals have different understandings about bacteria and viruses and the structures of those understandings vary. Gaps or holes in the participants knowledge were found in areas such as: (a) how germs are transmitted, (b) where germs are found, (c) how the body transports and uses medicine, (d) how the immune system functions, (e) the difference between vaccines and non-prescription medicines, (f) differences that exist between bacteria and viruses, and (g) bacterial resistance to medication. The youngest students relied heavily upon personal experiences with germs rather than formal instruction when explaining their conceptions. As a result, the influence of media was

  6. Les Turcs dans Ţiganiada de Ion Budai-Deleanu Turcs in Ţiganiada of Ion Budai-Deleanu

    Silviu Petcu


    Full Text Available La Ţiganiada d’Ion Budai-Deleanu, un des pères de la langue roumaine moderne, est une épopée placée dans la Munténie du XVe siècle et structurée sur deux plans : d'une part, un plan comique créé par le pittoresque du campement des « Tsiganes », mobilisés pour combattre les Turcs par le prince Vlad l'Empaleur, surnommé Dracula, et, d'autre part, un plan héroïque constitué par les actions de ce prince et son armée. La promesse d’émancipation des Rroms esclaves, avec attribution d'un territoire, en échange de leur alliance au combat est une pure fiction et même un anachronisme pour le XVe siècle. Mais à travers cette idée, Budai-Deleanu se révèle visionnaire et partisan du mouvement d’abolition de l'esclavage des Rroms qui n'arrivera à ses fins que le 20 février 1856. En raison de son insoumission entêtée au sultan Mahomet II, son courage et ses capacités stratégiques, Vlad l'Empaleur devait rester dans l'histoire roumaine comme un patriote qui voulait protéger son pays contre l'expansion ottomane – même s'il est plus connu à l'étranger sous la caricature d'un vampire. La Ţiganiada doit être appréciée avant tout comme une allégorie où le plan de la fiction remplace souvent le plan réel. Mais l'auteur, chargé d’un idéal patriotique, nous présente aussi le plan réel avec ses particularités historiques et nationales. La lutte opiniâtre de la petite armée roumaine formée de paysans et de boyards permet de retarder l'avancée des Turcs vers l'Europe centrale. Elle laisse ainsi le temps nécessaire à l'Europe de se préparer et de livrer des batailles dans des périodes plus favorables, avec des armes plus puissantes et plus efficaces que celles des Turcs. L'image des Turcs y est en tous points conforme à leur réputation, largement répandue dans les Balkans. Cruauté, perfidie, corruption et absence de compassion les caractérisent d'un bout à l'autre de l'œuvre, l’auteur montre

  7. Apresentação

    Os Editores


    Full Text Available Este número da Significação segue os parâmetros já definidos pela revista, isto é, integra um conjunto de trabalhos de pesquisadores de diferentes Programas de Pós-Graduação do País e ensaios de investigadores estrangeiros que se publicam pela primeira vez, dois deles na língua original e um terceiro traduzido para o português. Quanto à temática, os textos aqui reunidos lidam com assuntos que nos parecem de interesse considerando as tendências atuais dos estudos da comunicação e, ainda, a relevância da epistemologia para a análise e interpretação das metáforas visuais, assim como das mudanças porque vem passando o conceito de sujeito nas ciências humanas. Isso fica claro se, por exemplo, nos adentramos na leitura e discussão dos fundamentos narratológicos, no equacionamento da metodologia posta em prática nas abordagens de discursos fílmicos ou da apropriação caricatural e grotesca da crise do sujeito que se manifesta no espetáculo midiático. Somem-se a isso os esforços destinados a nos dar, de um lado, um panorama diacrônico dos aspectos fundamentais do cinema mexicano moderno e, de outro, uma visão predominantemente sincrônica de um tema que funciona como entremeio no cinema espanhol contemporâneo. Em seu conjunto, a diversidade de tópicos abordados define, como não poderia deixar de ser, eixos comuns em torno dos quais giram pontos de vista cujas diferenças não impedem o diálogo, traço característico que orienta as particularidades deste periódico. É de se ressaltar, também, a preocupação com o estudo da imagem a partir das peculiaridades das etimologias iconográficas, pressuposto que, a nosso ver, abre novas perspectivas para a crítica das mensagens visuais. Mas este número, levando em conta a já longa trajetória da revista, se toma, sobretudo, singular pelo fato de publicar, pela primeira vez e em português, um texto pouco conhecido de Algirdas Julien Greimas, traduzido diretamente do

  8. L’extravagance gasconne dans Le Gascon extravagant : un déguisement « pour parler librement de tout »

    Jean-Pierre Cavaillé


    reputation for intrepidness which went beyond the sole bounds of arms and which came to invest just as surely the field of language and culture. From this point of view, Clairville’s novel confirms the typical depiction of the Gascon, in the sense that it restitutes and exploits ambivalence and structural complexity, and only rejects the most monolithic and caricatural version thereof. This takes nothing away from the originality of the enterprise, which resides in the unabashed usage of the figure of the Gascon as a mask or disguise for tackling issues subject to strict censorship, most notably, the still burning question, in the aftermath of the Loudun Affair, of demoniac possession.

  9. Antikinių dramų pastatymai Lietuvoje | Performances of Antique Dramas in Lithuania

    Jovita Dikmonienė


    present-day realia were revealed: women emancipation was revealed in “Medea” and politician’s caricature – in “Oedipus the King”. Antique chorus role was retained in both performances, while masks – in Koršunovas’ performance. Scenography was abstract in “Oedipus the King” by Tuminas, neither representing antiquity nor nowadays.A conclusion is drawn that most Lithuanian directors trended into creation of jug-handled, idealized character (B. Dauguvietis, J. Miltinis, I. Kriauzaitė, B. Marcinkevičiūtė, melodramaticallity (I. Kriauzaitė, L. M. Zaikauskas or tragicomedy (R. Tuminas. None of directors managed to show universality of antique tragedy so that both past and present would be reflected in it. They, using texts of antique tragedy, created modern picture of distinctive, idealized and psychologized, alone, reserved, depending on destiny human being.

  10. Structogram: A new approach to characterize and interpolate spatio-temporal data sets based on the Ramer-Douglas-Peucker algorithm

    Ehret, Uwe


    approximation error than for an unstructured data set such as white noise. Knowledge of this Pareto optimum can be useful for the design of sampling strategies. It is also interesting to analyze the spatio-temporal distribution of the most relevant nodes of the data set (those with the largest information gain): Homogeneously spaced nodes indicate a data set of constant predictability throughout its extent, or low complexity, while heterogeneously spaced nodes indicate shifting patterns of local predictability, which is an attribute of higher complex data sets (if 'complexity' is defined as 'high overall uncertainty about local uncertainty'). Interpolation of data sets The structogram can also be used for interpolation, i.e. estimation at nodes where no observations are available. The idea of structogram-based interpolation is that, just as for Kriging, the estimation is a weighted linear combination of the observations, but here the weights are not determined based on the Variogram and the intrinsic hypothesis, but on the relevance of the nodes: Highly relevant nodes are given higher weights than lesser relevant nodes. Testing many different data sets revealed that for 'smooth' data sets, where proximity means similarity, classical Kriging-based interpolation outperforms structogram-based approaches, while for intermittent data sets such as rainfall time-series, where proximity does not always mean similarity, structogram-based interpolation performs better. References Ramer, U.: An iterative procedure for the polygonal approximation of plane curves, Computer Graphics and Image Processing, 1, 244-256,, 1972. Douglas, D., Peucker, T.: Algorithms for the reduction of the number of points required to represent a digitized line or its caricature. In: The Canadian Cartographer. Bd. 10, Nr. 2, 1973, ISSN 0008-3127, S. 112-122, 1973.

  11. Diversité des styles et unité de la sociologie

    François Dubet


    Full Text Available La sociologie et plus largement les sciences sociales font maintenant partie du dispositif symbolique des sociétés modernes et démocratiques. L’article part des trois manières habituelles de définir l’utilité de la sociologie : l’expertise, la critique et enfin l’ambition interventionniste. Ces registres sont très largement caricaturaux. Pour l’auteur, le rôle de la sociologie tient moins aux intentions des sociologues qu’à la nature des vecteurs et des « marchés » qui établissent des liens entre la sociologie est ses usagers. Il y aurait intérêt à étudier sociologiquement les mécanismes de l’entrée de la sociologie dans le débat public. La sociologie en effet ne va pas très bien. La capacité d’auto-organisation de notre monde professionnel est très faible. Or la diversité des styles professionnels et des manières de faire de la sociologie est une richesse pour essayer de définir ce que pourrait être un embryon de professionnalisme.Diversity of styles and unity of sociologySociology and more broadly social sciences are now part of a symbolic system of modern and democratic societies. This article starts from three usual ways to define sociology’s utility: expertise, criticism, and finally interventionist’s ambition. These categories are largely caricatural. For the author, the role of sociology is less about the sociologists’ intentions but more about the nature of the vectors and of the “markets” that establishes links between sociology and its users. There would be interest in studying sociologically the mechanisms of the entry of sociology in the public debate. In fact, sociology is not going really well. The ability to self-organize of our professional world is weak. Yet the diversity of professional styles and ways of doing sociology is an asset in trying to define what could be an embryo of professionalism.Diversidad de estilos y unidad de la sociologíaLa sociología y el conjunto de

  12. El discurso musical como arma política en la obra de Alejo Carpentier

    Villanueva Abelairas, Carlos


    Full Text Available Alejo Carpentier became known as Art and Music critic: first from his early works in La Havana newspapers and magazines, being an active member of the “Minorista” group; and later, in Paris (1928, in his voluntary exile of Caracas (1945, or already incorporated to the Cuban revolution (1959, he starts to change the chronicle, the historical essay or the fiction stories into an authentic musical curtain of the life he portrays, as if it was a soundtrack, always with clear and didactic political premeditation. The shades and tools of his discourse will depend on the genre he manipulates: pure musicology for the deconstruction of the musical space (La Música en Cuba; the ethnic narration for the foundation of Afrocubanism (¡Écue-yam - bao!; the counterpoint of “revolutionary” musics (La consagración de la primavera; the chronicle of primitive worlds (Los pasos perdidos or the pure humor to caricature a dictatorship (El recurso del método. Always through daily chronicles, he uses the example, the quote or the musical variation as a teacher, trying to transform Life, Society, Aesthetics and the people.

    Alejo Carpentier se dio a conocer como crítico de arte y de música: desde sus trabajos en periódicos y revistas habaneras, siendo miembro activo del grupo ”Minorista”; posteriormente, desde París (1928, en su exilio voluntario de Caracas (1945, o ya incorporado a la revolución castrista (1959, va convirtiendo la crónica, el ensayo histórico o el relato de ficción en un auténtico telón musical de la vida que retrata, como si de una banda sonora se tratara, siempre con clara y didáctica intencionalidad política. Los matices y herramientas de su discurso dependerán del género que manipula: la pura musicología para la deconstrucción del espacio musical (La Música en Cuba; el relato étnico para la fundamentación del afrocubanismo (¡Écue-yamba-o!; el contrapunto de músicas “revolucionarias” (

  13. Marcianos, melanesios, mormones y murcianos. Apuntes de antropohistoria galáctica Martians, Melanesians, Mormons and 'Murcianos'. Notes on Anthropogalactic History

    Antonio Javier Izquierdo Martín


    Full Text Available

    Swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961, higher priest of all things apocalyptic and titanic that remain in our present time, and his Mediterranean nemesis, the Spanish cinematographer Luis García Berlanga (Valencia, 1921, ultimate practitioner of the lost baroque-Spanish art of the courtesan jester, are gathered together in this paper for the good cause of revisiting the most absurd and funny of all anthropological research topics: cargo cults. These are Millenium movements whose believers invest enormous amounts of ritual work to invocate of embodied ancestral Gods. They ask their gods to land their cargo spaceships loaded with high-tech mana at their bamboo airports. The craziest avatar of this spiritual saga, so-called UFO religions have begun the theoretical exploration and practical exploitation of the fundamental cargoist -i.e. economic-analogy between ordinary visits (of conquerors, missioners, ethnographers or tourists to anonymous places and extraordinary visits (of Gods or extraterrestrials to spiritual centers. The fast global-cinematic diffusion of the modern myth of the flying saucer reveals a close anthropo-historical connection between the rise of this specifically post-industrial variety of cargo cult and the tourists' validation of the megalomaniac techno-economic dreams of aboriginal tribes living in the Stone Age. We conclude sketching an analytical caricature of one of the most stupid cargonomical ‘pilot' in galactic anthropohistory: the so-called ‘Spanish economic miracle'.

    El sumo sacerdote de todo lo que de titánico y apocalíptico pervive aún en el mundo contemporáneo, el psiquiatra suizo Carlos Gustavo Jung (1875-1961, y su némesis castizoide, el cineasta español Luís García Berlanga (Valencia, 1921, restaurador para Madrid y provincias del decadente espíritu barroco de los clásicos de la burla cortesana, se juntan aquí por vez primera para contribuir a una buena causa. Se

  14. Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of the Chemical Sciences (by Mary Ellen Bowden)

    Kauffman, George B.


    (formal and informal, familiar and unfamiliar), caricatures, apparatus, patent drawings, models, manuscripts, memoranda, laboratories, and plants and buildings are featured. The book presents many images of chemists in the work settings where they actually made their discoveries. The quaint pictures of Chandler with his wash bottle, William H. Walker with his slide rule, Carl Djerassi peering at a flask without goggle protection, and Edward Goodrich Acheson with his omnipresent cigar evoke a bygone era that will induce nostalgia in instructors and curiosity or disbelief in students. Many of the 80 featured chemists are minority scientists; 10 are women (Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, Marie Curie, Iréne Joliot-Curie, Mme. Lavoisier, Rosalind Franklin, Stephanie L. Kwolek, Ellen Swallow Richards, Alice Hamilton, Rachel Carson, and Julia Brainerd Hall, whose role in her brother Charles Martin Hall's development of the electrolytic production of metal is underappreciated), and three are African-Americans (Percy Lavon Julian, Walter Lincoln Hawkins, and Henry Aaron Hill). The book's 11 sections, each prefaced with a short, helpful summary, and the number of scientists profiled in each are Forerunners, 4; Theory and Production of Gases, 4; Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Industries, 12; The Path to the Periodic Table, 9; Atomic and Nuclear Structure, 9; Chemical Synthesis, Structure, and Bonding, 9; Pharmaceuticals and the Path to Biomolecules, 10; Petroleum and Petrochemicals, 4; Plastics and Other Polymers, 6; Chemical Engineering (most of whose practitioners were unfamiliar to me), 6; and Human and Natural Environmental Concerns, 7. An extensive bibliography (five double-column pages), arranged according to these sections, includes books, articles, dissertations, collections, and oral histories. Items as recent as 1997 and even a 1998 book in press are cited. An index (three triple-column pages) facilitates location of material. Chemical Achievers is to some extent similar

  15. L'idée d'universalité de la sciencie et sa critique philosophique et historique

    Paty, Michel


    Full Text Available The question of the universality of science is considered, in contemporary debates, under the most varied and opposed positions depending whether one is sharing the point of view of an "ideal science" or that of a "social production of science". In the first case, science is conceived as the "hard core" of its statements and results at the period under consideration, and its supposed universality ignores factors that relativize its contents of knowledge, and which can be of a conceptual as well as a social nature. Conversely, an exclusive focalization on the social aspects of the production of scientific knowledge ignores the objective character of these knowledge contents, be they either thought objects such as mathematical ones, or phenomena of the real, physico-biological as well as human and social, world. These two extreme positions, although caricatural, are shared by many. They illustrate the absence or ignorance of interdisciplinar analyse between philosophy, the various sciences, history of sciences and general history. We first evoke some elements of the critique set against the universality of science as it stands nowadays from inquiries of philosophy of knowledge, sociology of knowledge, history of science, history and anthropology. Then we shall try to set philosophically the problem of the universality of science as a philosophical idea, strongly linked to science and to philosophy since their genesis. We shall see, by following the idea at various stages of the history of thought, that the philosophical statement of universality of science has to be confronted with the historical reality of the production, diffusion and assimilation or appropriation of scientific knowledge, always specifying the various dimensions of that one (which include its applications and its links to techniques and to technology.

    [fr] Nous nous proposons de réfléchir sur quelques aspects épistémologiques et philosophiques de problèmes reli

  16. Reklamlarda Karikatür Kullanımı: Piyale Örneği

    Ayşe Binay Kurultay


    önemsellik gözetilerek gösterge bilimsel olarak değerlendirilmiştir.Anahtar Sözcükler: Karikatür, Reklam, Piyale                                          Use of Cartoons in Advertising: The Case of PiyaleAbstract            As a satirical art form with a mission to make the audience think, to teach something and to persuade, cartoons have become attractive visuals for advertisers. Cartoons express an idea in a simple yet effective manner which is the reason for being the choice of brands for their of advertisements that aim to create a behavioral change in the consumer and sell their products as well as increasing brand awareness. Advertisements using cartoons achieve this as all other advertisements do, sometimes through a slogan and other times through creating a position, a character and an identity for the brand. Cartoons have been used in advertisements for major brands in the 1960’s in Turkey, primarily for the banking industry and spaghetti.            In this study the advertisements for Piyale Spaghetti, known as “the brand that introduced spaghetti to Turkey” that use cartoons as visuals in the 1960’s were investigated. The relationship of cartoons as a form of communication and advertisements as a form of marketing was evaluated using semiotic analysis.As cartoons are woven with messages based on drawings and visuals, post-structuralist semiotic analysis was chosen as the methodology. As it is necessary for this methodology, cartoons’ symbolic universe as well as the textual universe was investigated for the importance historical period has over meaning making of signs. In this direction, in the years advertisements including cartoons, themes such as women, family, health, trust have been semiotically evaluated with periodicity in mind.Keywords: Caricature, Cartoon, Advertising, Piyale 

  17. Yalanlamalı Destanlar İle Gelin-Kaynana Manilerinin Mizah Yönünden Benzerlikleri Comparison Of Legends With Denial And Bride-Mother-İn-Law Turkish Poems İn View Of Humor

    Bülent ARI


    Full Text Available In our study, it has been revealed that why literary productsinteract with each other is the fact that the main material in almost allof them is human being and his happiness, unhappiness, belief,suffering.Firstly; bride - mother-in-law Turkish poems and legends withdenial, studied in our research, have been defined comprehensively inorder to show their similarities.Then, in order to reveal the similarities of the two kinds in view ofhumor, a classification has been made, and these similarities has beentried to be revealed in categories such as exaggeration, caricaturization,using word games, slang and bad words, humoring by spats.The final part has been ended with conclusion and bibliographyby stating the fact that art strength of legends with spats and mutualTurkish poems is much more than the others, because all strength ofart is put forward for being dominant in these kinds of humors.Although, it both species there is a social problem on the basis of brideand mother-in-law to increase wits, to apply to various inventions forovercoming the rival side, by doing this it focuses on amusing thosewho are there. Cultural products such as this, maket hem think, holdthem a mirror, help them to see themselves.As a result, it is emphasized that someone who says poem(mani and “epic” uses the folk as a material. Çalışmamızda edebi ürünlerin birbirleriyle etkileşiminin temelinde, hemen hemen hepsinin ana malzemesinin insan olması; insanın sevincinin, hüznünün, özleminin, inancının, acısının, çilesinin vb. bu edebi ürünlerin ana konusu olmasının yattığı ortaya konulmuştur.Çalışmamıza konu olan gelin-kaynana manileri ve yalanlamalı türlerin benzerliklerini daha iyi ortaya koyabilme kaygısıyla, makalenin ilk bölümünde mani ve Güldürücü Destanlar üzerine genişçe bir açıklama yapılmıştır.Sonrasında her iki türün mizah yönünden benzerliklerini ortaya koyabilmek amacıyla bir sınıflandırma yapma


    Mundy, C; Kuo, I W


    The field of atmospheric science is very rich in problems ranging from the molecular to the regional and global scale. These problems are often extremely complex, and although the statement of a particular atmospheric science question may be clear, finding a single, concise computational approach to address this question can be daunting. As a result, the broad scope of scientific problems that lie within the umbrella of atmospheric science require a multi-discipline approach. Of particular interest to atmospheric chemists is the role that heterogeneous chemistry plays in the important processes that take place throughout the atmosphere. The definition of heterogeneous is: consisting of dissimilar elements or parts. The chemical environment induced by the presence of the interface can be dramatically different than the corresponding gas- or condensed phase homogeneous environment and can give rise to novel chemistry. Although the importance of heterogeneous chemistry in the atmosphere has been known for decades, a challenge to both experimentalists and theorists in provide simplified models and experiments that can yield insight into the field measurements of the atmospheric process. The use of molecular modeling has been widely used to provide a particle-based picture of atmospherically relevant interfaces to deduce the novel chemistry that is taking place. Unfortunately, even with the most computationally efficient particle-based approach, it is still impossible to model the full ice-crystal in the stratosphere or the sea-salt aerosol in the troposphere. Figure 1 depicts a caricature of the actual system of interest, and highlights the region where efficient molecular modeling can be employed. Although there is seemingly a large disconnect between reality and the model, we hope to convince the reader that there is still much insight to be gained from a particle-based picture. There is a myriad of different approaches to molecular modeling that have been

  19. Assédio moral no trabalho e suas representações na mídia jornalística Acoso moral en el trabajo y sus representaciones en el medio periodístico Representations of workplace psychological harassment in print news media

    Andréia De Conto Garbin


    reflect the phenomenon of psychological harassment in today's society, explanations for its occurrence and impact on workers' health. RESULT ANALYSIS: This theme emerged in the media through the dissemination of books, academic research production and laws. It was initially published in general news then in jobs and/or business sections. Discourses on compensation and precautionary business practices and coping strategies are widespread. Health-related aspects are foregone under the prevailing money-based rationale. Corporate cultures are permissive regarding psychological harassment and conflicts are escalated while working to achieve goals and results. Indifference, embarrassment, ridicule and demean were common in the news stories analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: The causal explanations of workplace harassment tend to have a psychological interpretation with emphasis on individual and behavioral characteristics, and minimizing a collective approach. The discourses analyzed trivialized harassment by creating caricatures of the actors involved. People apprehend its psychological content and stigmatization which contributes to making workplace harassment an accepted practice and trivializing work-related violence.

  20. Conflicten over Haagse stadsbeelden. Van Willemspark tot Spuiforum

    Leo Oorschot


    the urban fabric might undergo in our minds. She distinguishes three categories: the image of the city, the imagined city, and the imaginary city. The image of the city is the idea that is composed by individuals or groups: a creation that is triggered from experience of the city in the mind or a concept based on the actual city itself. The imagined city is the virtual arena conceived by artists, architects, city planners, marketers, and others through art, film, literature, music, advertising, architecture, and urban designs. This idea is certainly related to the first category, but here the focus is on the representation of the city by specialists that are making the presentations to convince people of the value and significance of an urban composition or public building. In this sense, the producers of the images are crucial since, after all, who needs to be convinced of which statement? Using a caricature on Berlage’s Amsterdam South, Stieber demonstrated that the categories are inseparable and all three are about metaphors of the city. ‘The city between the ears’, as noted by the geographer and urban marketing specialist Gertjan Hosper (2010.The goal of this study is to discover and describe consecutive city images of The Hague and the conflicts associated with them between 1860 and 2010, as well as to determine for whom, with what motive and background these city images were developed, where, in how far, and if these consecutive city images were realized, what the conflicts were about, and why the often unfinished images disappeared again, which resulted in the current fragmented image of the city. The human activities that take place in the buildings and surroundings, no matter how significant, were left out of the study for practical reasons. Every case study is of a dominant city image from a certain period. The central context is the relation between ‘the city between the ears’, the actual built city, and the many conflicts pertaining to that image