Sample records for care telecommunications network

  1. Telecommunication networks

    Iannone, Eugenio


    Many argue that telecommunications network infrastructure is the most impressive and important technology ever developed. Analyzing the telecom market's constantly evolving trends, research directions, infrastructure, and vital needs, Telecommunication Networks responds with revolutionized engineering strategies to optimize network construction. Omnipresent in society, telecom networks integrate a wide range of technologies. These include quantum field theory for the study of optical amplifiers, software architectures for network control, abstract algebra required to design error correction co

  2. Telecommunication Networks

    Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Balachandran, Kartheepan; Hald, Sara Ligaard;


    In this chapter, we look into the role of telecommunication networks and their capability of supporting critical infrastructure systems and applications. The focus is on smart grids as the key driving example, bearing in mind that other such systems do exist, e.g., water management, traffic control......, etc. First, the role of basic communication is examined with a focus on critical infrastructures. We look at heterogenic networks and standards for smart grids, to give some insight into what has been done to ensure inter-operability in this direction. We then go to the physical network, and look...... at the deployment of the physical layout of the communication network and the related costs. This is an important aspect as one option to use existing networks is to deploy dedicated networks. Following this, we look at some generic models that describe reliability for accessing dynamic information. This part...

  3. Understanding telecommunications networks

    Valdar, Andy


    This book provides a broad introduction to all aspects of modern telecommunications networks, covering the principles of operation of the technology and the way that networks using this technology are structured. The main focus is on those technologies in use today in the majority of the public telecommunications networks. Discussion of new technology, in particular the move to the so-called next generation networks (NGN) is also included.

  4. Access to telecommunications networks

    Canoy, M.F.M.; de Bijl, P.W.J.; Kemp, R.


    Contributing to a convergence of legal and economic approaches, The Economics of Antitrust and Regulation in Telecommunications integrates economic theory into current EU antitrust policy within the sector. The book addresses the role of competition and regulatory policies on a number of key issues in telecommunications, such as market definition, collective dominance, access to networks, and allocation of scarce resources.

  5. Telecommunications Network Plan

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) must, among other things, be equipped to readily produce, file, store, access, retrieve, and transfer a wide variety of technical and institutional data and information. The data and information regularly produced by members of the OCRWM Program supports, and will continue to support, a wide range of program activities. Some of the more important of these information communication-related activities include: supporting the preparation, submittal, and review of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to authorize the construction of a geologic repository; responding to requests for information from parties affected by and/or interested in the program; and providing evidence of compliance with all relevant Federal, State, local, and Indian Tribe regulations, statutes, and/or treaties. The OCRWM Telecommunications Network Plan (TNP) is intended to identify, as well as to present the current strategy for satisfying, the telecommunications requirements of the civilian radioactive waste management program. The TNP will set forth the plan for integrating OCRWM's information resources among major program sites. Specifically, this plan will introduce a telecommunications network designed to establish communication linkages across the program's Washington, DC; Chicago, Illinois; and Las Vegas, Nevada, sites. The linkages across these and associated sites will comprise Phase I of the proposed OCRWM telecommunications network. The second phase will focus on the modification and expansion of the Phase I network to fully accommodate access to the OCRWM Licensing Support System (LSS). The primary components of the proposed OCRWM telecommunications network include local area networks; extended local area networks; and remote extended (wide) area networks. 10 refs., 6 figs

  6. Telecommunication Value Network in Malaysia

    Ong, Li Chien


    Business network is believed to offer a superior way of managing the challenges related to the uncertainty and complexity of the contemporary business environment in Malaysia telecommunication industry. This study strives to analyze the value business network in Malaysia telecommunication industry with emphasize on the market leader, Maxis Communication Bhd in its mobile content services. The business network represents the form of organization where the focal company focuses on certain key a...

  7. Calgary integrated telecommunications network (CITN)

    Introduction of a fibre optic telecommunications network,( Calgary Integrated Telecommunications Network (CITN)), to Calgary's infrastructure was discussed as a strategic means of encouraging tourism and business growth. The system would be installed in the electric system's right-of-way. Five area's for further in depth study were proposed. Ways and means of exploiting the potential for making the CITN profitable by leasing bandwidth to the private sector, were explored. A free market philosophy underlying the development of the CITN was described. Five slides accompanying the presenteation at the conference were also included in the record

  8. Topological analysis of telecommunications networks

    Milojko V. Jevtović


    Full Text Available A topological analysis of the structure of telecommunications networks is a very interesting topic in the network research, but also a key issue in their design and planning. Satisfying multiple criteria in terms of locations of switching nodes as well as their connectivity with respect to the requests for capacity, transmission speed, reliability, availability and cost are the main research objectives. There are three ways of presenting the topology of telecommunications networks: table, matrix or graph method. The table method is suitable for a network of a relatively small number of nodes in relation to the number of links. The matrix method involves the formation of a connection matrix in which its columns present source traffic nodes and its rows are the switching systems that belong to the destination. The method of the topology graph means that the network nodes are connected via directional or unidirectional links. We can thus easily analyze the structural parameters of telecommunications networks. This paper presents the mathematical analysis of the star-, ring-, fully connected loop- and grid (matrix-shaped topology as well as the topology based on the shortest path tree. For each of these topologies, the expressions for determining the number of branches, the middle level of reliability, the medium length and the average length of the link are given in tables. For the fully connected loop network with five nodes the values of all topological parameters are calculated. Based on the topological parameters, the relationships that represent integral and distributed indicators of reliability are given in this work as well as the values of the particular network. The main objectives of the topology optimization of telecommunications networks are: achieving the minimum complexity, maximum capacity, the shortest path message transfer, the maximum speed of communication and maximum economy. The performance of telecommunications networks is

  9. Synthesis of Reliable Telecommunication Networks

    Dusan Trstensky


    Full Text Available In many application, the network designer may to know to senthesise a reliable telecommunication network. Assume that a network, denoted Gm,e has the number of nodes n and the number of edges e, and the operational probability of each edge is known. The system reliability of the network is defined to be the reliability that every pair of nodes can communicate with each other. A network synthesis problem considered in this paper is to find a network G*n,e, that maximises system reliability over the class of all networks for the classes of networks Gn,n-1, Gn,m and Gn,n+1 respectively. In addition an upper bound of maximum reliability for the networks with n-node and e-edge (e>n+2 is derived in terms of node. Computational experiments for the reliability upper are also presented. the results show, that the proposed reliability upper bound is effective.

  10. Telecommunications network modelling, planning and design

    Evans, Sharon


    Telecommunication Network Modelling, Planning and Design addresses sophisticated modelling techniques from the perspective of the communications industry and covers some of the major issues facing telecommunications network engineers and managers today. Topics covered include network planning for transmission systems, modelling of SDH transport network structures and telecommunications network design and performance modelling, as well as network costs and ROI modelling and QoS in 3G networks.

  11. 47 CFR 54.519 - State telecommunications networks.


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State telecommunications networks. 54.519... telecommunications networks. (a) Telecommunications services. State telecommunications networks may secure discounts... include an eligible school or library. Such state telecommunications networks shall pass on such...

  12. Mobile telecommunication networks choice among Ghanaians

    Boateng Henry; Maapa Kwame Quansah


    The paper investigates the factors influencing customers choice of telecommunication network in Ghana. The survey design was employed to enable the researchers perform statistical analysis. Questionnaire consisting of Likert scale question was used to collect the primary data. Multiple regression analysis was performed to ascertain the factors influencing customers’ choice of telecommunication networks. The study found six factors that influence customers to choose a particular network. These...

  13. Mobile telecommunication networks choice among Ghanaians

    Boateng Henry


    Full Text Available The paper investigates the factors influencing customers choice of telecommunication network in Ghana. The survey design was employed to enable the researchers perform statistical analysis. Questionnaire consisting of Likert scale question was used to collect the primary data. Multiple regression analysis was performed to ascertain the factors influencing customers’ choice of telecommunication networks. The study found six factors that influence customers to choose a particular network. These factors include; brand awareness, brand image, perceived quality, price, convenience and brand loyalty. The study concludes that all the six factors contribute to the factors that drive consumer choice of telecommunications service in Ghana.

  14. Analyzing the robustness of telecommunication networks

    Eller, Karol Schaeffer


    This project report defines network robustness and discusses capability indicators that could be used to analyze network robustness. Growing dependence on telecommunication networks and recent network outages have focused attention on network robustness. The National Communications System (NCS), a confederation of 23 Federal departments and agencies, has been concerned with network robustness since its formation in 1963. The NCS is developing and implementing systems a...

  15. Neural network applications in telecommunications

    Alspector, Joshua


    Neural network capabilities include automatic and organized handling of complex information, quick adaptation to continuously changing environments, nonlinear modeling, and parallel implementation. This viewgraph presentation presents Bellcore work on applications, learning chip computational function, learning system block diagram, neural network equalization, broadband access control, calling-card fraud detection, software reliability prediction, and conclusions.

  16. Network Effects in Telecommunications: When Entrants are Welcome

    Heide Coenen


    This paper looks at the role of network effects in telecommunications markets. Network effects are said to exist when an existing user of a network benefits from any new user to the network. Even the expectation of a large network will positively influence users' willingness to pay. After the identification of network characteristics in telecommunications, the incentive to invite entry to an incumbent telecommunications firm is discussed. For the case of mobile tele-communications, the extens...

  17. Reputation-based Telecommunication Network Selection

    Seigneur, Jean-Marc


    Nowadays, mobile users can switch between different available networks, for example, nearby WiFi networks or their standard mobile operator network. Soon it will be extended to other operators. However, unless telecommunication operators can directly benefit from allowing a user to switch to another operator, operators have an incentive to keep their network quality of service confidential to avoid that their users decide to switch to another network. In contrast, in a user-centric way, the users should be allowed to share their observations regarding the networks that they have used. In this paper, we present our work in progress towards attack-resistant sharing of quality of service information and network provider reputation among mobile users.

  18. Queuing theory and telecommunications networks and applications

    Giambene, Giovanni


    This book provides a basic description of current networking technologies and protocols as well as important tools for network performance analysis based on queuing theory. The second edition adds selected contents in the first part of the book for what concerns: (i) the token bucket regulator and traffic shaping issues; (ii) the TCP protocol congestion control that has a significant part in current networking; (iii) basic satellite networking issues; (iv) adding details on QoS support in IP networks. The book is organized so that networking technologies and protocols (Part I) are first and are then followed by theory and exercises with applications to the different technologies and protocols (Part II). This book is intended as a textbook for master level courses in networking and telecommunications sectors.

  19. Optical fiber telecommunications systems and networks

    Kaminow, Ivan; Willner, Alan E


    Optical Fiber Telecommunications VI (A&B) is the sixth in a series that has chronicled the progress in the R&D of lightwave communications since the early 1970s. Written by active authorities from academia and industry, this edition brings a fresh look to many essential topics, including devices, subsystems, systems and networks. A central theme is the enabling of high-bandwidth communications in a cost-effective manner for the development of customer applications. These volumes are an ideal reference for R&D engineers and managers, optical systems implementers, university researchers and s

  20. Telecommunications networks and protocols for the USAVRE

    Martinez, Ralph; Bradford, Daniel Q.; Hatch, Jay


    The U.S. Army Medical Command, lead by the Brooke Army Medical Center, has embarked on a futuristic project that will revolutionize the practice of teleradiology in the DoD. The U.S. Army Virtual Radiology Environment (USAVRE) is a CONUS- based network that connects all the Army's major medical centers and Regional Medical Commands (RMC). The purpose of the USAVRE is to improve the quality, access, and cost of radiology services in the Army via the use of state-of-the-art medical imaging, computer, and networking technologies. The USAVRE contains multimedia-viewing workstations for static and dynamic modality cases. The storage and archiving systems are based on a distributed computing environment using Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) middleware protocols. Collaborations between archive centers and viewing workstations are managed by CORBA functions and multimedia object streams. The underlying telecommunications network is an ATM-based backbone network that connects to the RMC regional networks and PACS networks at medical centers and RMC clinics. The U.S. Army Information Systems Engineering Command (USAISEC) at Ft. Huachuca, AZ is responsible for the ATM backbone network to the RMC sites. This project is a collaborative effort between Army, university, and industry centers with expertise in teleradiology and Global PACS applications. This paper describes the telecommunications backbone network architecture for the Cable Bundling Initiative (CBI) being deployed by the Technology Integration Center. The U.S. Army U.S. Army Information Systems Engineering Command (USAISEC) at Ft. Huachuca, AZ has begun deployment of a 45 Mbps backbone network called the Cable Bundling Initiative (CBI). The CBI backbone is upgradable to OC-3 (155 Mbps) and OC-12 (622 Mbps) transmission links. A goal of CBI is to bundle the dedicated networks and support all MACOMs in the transition to a DISN ATM-based network in the future. The CBI is a candidate backbone for the

  1. A Review of Energy Efficiency in Telecommunication Networks

    G. Koutitas


    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of green telecommunication networks and provides information about the power consumption within fixed line and wireless communication networks. It outlines the significance of energy efficiency in modern and future telecommunication networks and suggests directions for optimizing network performance in terms of energy demands. Numerous examples and reviews are also discussed. The aim is to introduce the reader to current green technologies and outline the necessity for energy efficiency in information and communication technology.

  2. A Review of Energy Efficiency in Telecommunication Networks

    G. Koutitas; Demestichas, P


    This paper presents the concept of green telecommunication networks and provides information about the power consumption within fixed line and wireless communication networks. It outlines the significance of energy efficiency in modern and future telecommunication networks and suggests directions for optimizing network performance in terms of energy demands. Numerous examples and reviews are also discussed. The aim is to introduce the reader to current green technologies and outline the neces...

  3. BESTNET: Binational English & Spanish Telecommunications Network. Final FIPSE Report.

    Arias, Armando A., Jr.; Bellman, Beryl L.

    The final evaluation of BESTNET (the Binational English and Spanish Telecommunications Network) is described. Undertaken as a collaborative effort to experiment with new telecommunications media in distance education and to attract Hispanic students into the science and engineering fields, the project involved the development of a number of…

  4. Telecommunication Services’ Migration to the Cloud : Network Performance analysis

    Albarrán Munoz, Isaac; Parras Ruiz De Azúa, Manuel


    Nowadays, telecommunication services are commonly deployed in private networks, which are controlled and maintained by the telecommunication operators themselves, by co-location services providers, or, to some extent, by their hardware and software providers. However, with the present development of cloud computing resources, one might consider if these services could and should be implemented in the Cloud, thus taking advantage of cloud computing’s high availability, geographic distribution,...

  5. A Functional Complexity Framework for the Analysis of Telecommunication Networks

    Dzaferagic, Merim; Macaluso, Irene; Marchetti, Nicola


    The rapid evolution of network services demands new paradigms for studying and designing networks. In order to understand the underlying mechanisms that provide network functions, we propose a framework which enables the functional analysis of telecommunication networks. This framework allows us to isolate and analyse a network function as a complex system. We propose functional topologies to visualise the relationships between system entities and enable the systematic study of interactions between them. We also define a complexity metric $C_F$ (functional complexity) which quantifies the variety of structural patterns and roles of nodes in the topology. This complexity metric provides a wholly new approach to study the operation of telecommunication networks. We study the relationship between $C_F$ and different graph structures by analysing graph theory metrics in order to recognize complex organisations. $C_F$ is equal to zero for both a full mesh topology and a disconnected topology. We show that complexi...

  6. Telecommunication policies for broadband access networks

    Pereira, João Paulo


    The "triple play" services required (Internet, telephone and TV services) lead to a great increase in bandwidth demand. However, the existing access networks are not able to support this increase, and the capacity to delivery broadband services remain as a challenge ("last mile problem"). The access network remains a bottleneck in terms of the bandwidth and service quality it affords the end user. Besides the bandwidth, other great challenge to access networks is the mobility and the user nee...

  7. Ad hoc networks telecommunications and game theory

    Benslama, Malek; Batatia, Hadj


    Random SALOHA and CSMA protocols that are used to access MAC in ad hoc networks are very small compared to the multiple and spontaneous use of the transmission channel. So they have low immunity to the problems of packet collisions. Indeed, the transmission time is the critical factor in the operation of such networks. The simulations demonstrate the positive impact of erasure codes on the throughput of the transmission in ad hoc networks. However, the network still suffers from the intermittency and volatility of its efficiency throughout its operation, and it switches quickly to the satura

  8. Improvement in Energy Optimization in Telecommunication Network Service

    Kadiri Kamoru. O


    Full Text Available Energy-efficient operation is an important issue today in telecommunication networks and in the near future. Due to the fact that the energy consumption rises with the increased in demand for capacity and network speed, this arises a strategies for a sustainable network management. It is a well-known fact that traffic demands vary significantly over periods and areas, most notably in day/night- and in weekly cycles. This provides the main potential for energy-saving strategies. Here is the question of how much power is necessary to operate a network during peak or low-traffic times? How much energy is spent in the core and in metro regions of the network and how big are the savings in low-demand scenarios if we always assume the system power-minimum in these situations? The study respects realistic side constraints, such as protection requirements and routing schemes, and takes the special structure of an extensive nation-wide optical network, including backbone and regional sections, into account. This paper presents a comprehensive summary of recent work addressing energy efficient and low-power design within all layers of the telecommunication network


    Maria Augusta Soares Machado


    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical proposition for the application of the Linear Programming quantitative method in order to assist planning and control of customer circuit delivery activities in telecommunications companies working with the corporative market. Based upon data provided for by a telecom company operating in Brazil, the Linear Programming method was employed for one of the classical problems of determining the optimum mix of production quantities for a set of five products of that company: Private Telephone Network, Internet Network, Intranet Network, Low Speed Data Network, and High Speed Data Network, in face of several limitations of the productive resources, seeking to maximize the company’s monthly revenue. By fitting the production data available into a primary model, observation was made as to what number of monthly activations for each product would be mostly optimized in order to achieve maximum revenues in the company. The final delivery of a complete network was not observed but the delivery of the circuits that make it up, and this was a limiting factor for the study herein, which, however, brings an innovative proposition for the planning of private telecommunications network provisioning.

  10. Pricing of additional features in mobile telecommunication networks

    Reijonen, Antti


    In this Master's thesis are investigated different pricing strategies for additional features in Mobile Telecommunication Networks (MTN). Pricing is studied from three different perspectives (i) MTN equipment vendor costs (ii) MTN operator value from additional features and (iii) end user benefits from additional features. In the MTN industry value is formed from hundreds of different variables and the MTN operators are varying significantly on size and business concept. In this Master's thes...

  11. Photovoltaics for telecommunications networks in Libya, uses and experiences

    The use of photovoltaic systems as a stand-alone power supply in Libyan telecommunication networks has been in use since 1980. It was proved that PV generators are reliable and cost effective in this type of applications in comparison with diesel generators. In Libya about 100 photovoltaic systems were put into work to supply electricity for repeater stations instead of diesel generators, these PV systems proved to be reliable, very low or no communication stops, and and more economical in comparison with stations running by diesel generators, a wide knowledge of experience has been built of using photovoltaic systems in this applications. This paper is focusing on the role of stand-alone PV systems in communication networks of Libya, as a stand alone power source for telecommunication repeater stations. We will evaluate some of these systems after ten years of work, discuss the past experience, their reliability, and running cost, Stand-alone systems can be used in telecommunication networks, and in general the experienced advantages of using PV solar generators can be summarized as low running cost, high reliability, fewer services visits,, low maintenance cost, less number of thefts, no communication stops.(Author)

  12. Novel anomaly detection approach for telecommunication network proactive performance monitoring

    Yanhua YU; Jun WANG; Xiaosu ZHAN; Junde SONG


    The mode of telecommunication network management is changing from "network oriented" to "subscriber oriented". Aimed at enhancing subscribers'feeling, proactive performance monitoring (PPM) can enable a fast fault correction by detecting anomalies designating performance degradation. In this paper, a novel anomaly detection approach is the proposed taking advantage of time series prediction and the associated confidence interval based on multiplicative autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA). Furthermore, under the assumption that the training residual is a white noise process following a normal distribution, the associated confidence interval of prediction can be figured out under any given confidence degree 1-α by constructing random variables satisfying t distribution. Experimental results verify the method's effectiveness.

  13. US computer research networks: Domestic and international telecommunications capacity requirements

    Kratochvil, D.; Sood, D.


    The future telecommunications capacity and connectivity requirements of the United States (US) research and development (R&D) community raise two concerns. First, would there be adequate privately-owned communications capacity to meet the ever-increasing requirements of the US R&D community for domestic and international connectivity? Second, is the method of piecemeal implementation of communications facilities by individual researchers cost effective when viewed from an integrated perspective? To address the capacity issue, Contel recently completed a study for NASA identifying the current domestic R&D telecommunications capacity and connectivity requirements, and projecting the same to the years 1991, 1996, 2000, and 2010. The work reported here extends the scope of an earlier study by factoring in the impact of international connectivity requirements on capacity and connectivity forecasts. Most researchers in foreign countries, as is the case with US researchers, rely on regional, national or continent-wide networks to collaborate with each other, and their US counterparts. The US researchers' international connectivity requirements, therefore, stem from the need to link the US domestic research networks to foreign research networks. The number of links and, more importantly, the speeds of links are invariably determined by the characteristics of the networks being linked. The major thrust of this study, therefore, was to identify and characterize the foreign research networks, to quantify the current status of their connectivity to the US networks, and to project growth in the connectivity requirements to years 1991, 1996, 2000, and 2010 so that a composite picture of the US research networks in the same years could be forecasted. The current (1990) US integrated research network, and its connectivity to foreign research networks is shown. As an example of projections, the same for the year 2010 is shown.

  14. Optical ground wire for Hydro-Quebec`s telecommunication network

    Ghannoum, E.; Chouteau, J.P.; Miron, M.; Yaacoub, S. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Yoshida, K.


    An extensive telecommunication network of 6,000 km of Optical Ground Wire (OPGW) is currently planned by Hydro-Quebec for progressive installation from 1992 to 2004. By 1994, about 1,600 km of OPGW have already been purchased and installed mostly on new 735 kV lines. This document provides information relative to the OPGW selection, characteristics, design, fabrication, and testing. Other sections are devoted to the installation experience, description of current and future R and D OPGW projects, and Authors` biography.

  15. A Network Model for Integrated Telecommunication Management Activities

    SOIDRIDINE Moussa Moindze


    Full Text Available Technological developments in recent years have transformed the telecommunications environments in more complexes, distributed, heterogeneous and dynamic systems difficult to manage. Traditional management approaches show their limits to these new architectures. One possible approach to manage these environments is to develop novels models and open management systems. In this work, we proposed a new generic model with six layers for open systems development. We then proposed a flexible management system based on an open paradigm to the integrated management of next generation networks and services. We first studied the open source systems management to present out their strengths and weaknesses. The generic layered model that we propose allows integrating new management functions. And finally we have developed and implemented a system for remote configuration management of network devices

  16. Study and implementation of the network management agent of telecommunication application server in NGN

    Liu, Kun; He, Hui; Ni, Yuhua


    The telecommunication application server (AS) is an important part of the value-added service network in the next generation network(NGN) as the support platform. Remote, unified and secure management to a variety of services is implemented after the remote network management of the telecommunications application server. The network management system based on Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is decided to utilized to analyse and study the network managed objects in AS because of the integration of telecommunications networks and computer networks on the network management and convenient, economical and flexible features of SNMP protocol. The network management agent module of AS is designed and an example is illustrated the details of the model. Results indicate the good performance of the network management agent.

  17. Method and system for conserving power in a telecommunications network during emergency situations

    Conrad, Stephen H.; O'Reilly, Gerard P.


    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for conserving power in a telecommunications network during emergency situations. A permissible number list of emergency and/or priority numbers is stored in the telecommunications network. In the event of an emergency or power failure, input digits of a call to the telecommunications network are compared to the permissible number list. The call is processed in the telecommunications network and routed to its destination if the input digits match an entry in the permissible number list. The call is dropped without any further processing if the input digits do not match an entry in the permissible number list. Thus, power can be conserved in emergency situations by only allowing emergency and/or priority calls.

  18. Framework for Development of Advanced Telecommunication Services in Current and Future Converged Networks

    Soler-Lucas, José


    This thesis presents different experiences related to architectures and mechanisms for deployment of telephony services, understood as especial features complementing the basic voice service. The context for these experiences is the transition of telecommunication (telephony) networks from circui...

  19. Knowledge Discovery Using Bayesian Network Framework for Intelligent Telecommunication Network Management

    Bashar, Abul; Parr, Gerard; McClean, Sally; Scotney, Bryan; Nauck, Detlef

    The ever-evolving nature of telecommunication networks has put enormous pressure on contemporary Network Management Systems (NMSs) to come up with improved functionalities for efficient monitoring, control and management. In such a context, the rapid deployments of Next Generation Networks (NGN) and their management requires intelligent, autonomic and resilient mechanisms to guarantee Quality of Service (QoS) to the end users and at the same time to maximize revenue for the service/network providers. We present a framework for evaluating a Bayesian Networks (BN) based Decision Support System (DSS) for assisting and improving the performance of a Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) based NMS. More specifically, we describe our methodology through a case study which implements the function of Call Admission Control (CAC) in a multi-class video conferencing service scenario. Simulation results are presented for a proof of concept, followed by a critical analysis of our proposed approach and its application.

  20. Single period profit maximization problem for intermediaries in telecommunication networks under stochastic bandwidth demand

    Turan, Hasan Hüseyin; Turan, Hasan Huseyin; Kasap, Nihat; Seraslan, Mehmet Nahit


    During the last decade telecommunications has become very competitive environment with many vendors, carriers, and services. Intermediaries are one of the main players in the telecom network market and they may acquire network capacity from market of telecommunication backbone providers who offer different pricing and quality of service schemes and sell purchased capacity to end-users in order to earn some profit. Unfortunately, customers’ bandwidth demands are not known in advance. Therefore...

  1. Design Patterns in Action: Development of Java Applications for Configuration of Telecommunications Network Models

    Coghlan, Kevin


    During my work placement in a software development role at Ericsson, I have worked on a diverse range of software applications written in the Java pro- gramming language. These applications are utilised both within Ericsson, and by telecommunications network providers around the world, as part of a large software system responsible for the management of telecommunications network models. In this dissertation, I describe my work on two substantial software applications comprisin...


    Dr.S.S.Riaz Ahamed


    Full Text Available An intelligent network (IN is a service-independent telecommunications network. That is, intelligence is taken outof the switch and placed in computer nodes that are distributed throughout the network. This provides the network operator with the means to develop and control services more efficiently. New capabilities can be rapidly introduced into the network. Once introduced, services are easily customized to meet individual customer's needs. Wireless intelligent network (WIN is a concept being developed by the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIAStandards Committee TR45.2. The charter of this committee is to drive intelligent network (IN capabilities, based on interim standard (IS-41, into wireless networks. IS–41 is a standard currently being embraced by wireless providers because it facilitates roaming. Basing WIN standards on this protocol enables a graceful evolution to anIN without making current network infrastructure obsolete.

  3. Dimensioning of Telecommunication Network Based on Quality of Services Demand and Detailed Behaviour of Users

    Saranova, Emiliya


    The aim of this paper is to be determined the network capacity (number of necessary internal switching lines) based on detailed users’ behaviour and demanded quality of service parameters in an overall telecommunication system. We consider detailed conceptual and its corresponded analytical traffic model of telecommunication system with (virtual) circuit switching, in stationary state with generalized input flow, repeated calls, limited number of homogeneous terminals and losses d...

  4. 32 CFR 2001.50 - Telecommunications automated information systems and network security.


    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Telecommunications automated information systems and network security. 2001.50 Section 2001.50 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National... network security. Each agency head shall ensure that classified information electronically...

  5. Worldwide Intelligent Systems: Approaches to Telecommunications and Network Management. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, Volume 24.

    Liebowitz, Jay, Ed.; Prerau, David S., Ed.

    This is an international collection of 12 papers addressing artificial intelligence (AI) and knowledge technology applications in telecommunications and network management. It covers the latest and emerging AI technologies as applied to the telecommunications field. The papers are: "The Potential for Knowledge Technology in Telecommunications: A…

  6. Design of an interface between the smart grid control plane and the telecommunications network control plane / data center control plan

    Mugisa, Justine


    In an effort to reduce the energy costs and carbon foot print of the ICT industry, with focus on the Telecommunications Network and Data Center Networks we study the design of an interface between the Smart Grid control plane and the Telecommunications Network Control Plane/Data Center Control Plane

  7. Anonymous roaming in universal mobile telecommunication system mobile networks

    Fatemi, Mitra; SALAHI, Ahmad; Salimi, Somayeh


    A secure roaming protocol for mobile networks is proposed. Roaming has been analysed in some schemes from the security point of view; however, there are vulnerabilities in most of them and so the claimed security level is not achieved. The scheme offered by Wan et al. recently is based on hierarchical identity-based encryption, in which the roaming user and the foreign network mutually authenticate each other without the help of the home network. Although the idea behind this proposal is inte...

  8. Security management of next generation telecommunications networks and services

    Jacobs, Stuart


    This book will cover network management security issues and currently available security mechanisms by discussing how network architectures have evolved into the contemporary NGNs which support converged services (voice, video, TV, interactive information exchange, and classic data communications). It will also analyze existing security standards and their applicability to securing network management. This book will review 21st century security concepts of authentication, authorization, confidentiality, integrity, nonrepudiation, vulnerabilities, threats, risks, and effective approaches to enc

  9. Time and volume based optimal pricing strategies for telecommunication networks

    Kasap, Nihat


    In the recent past, there have been several initiatives by major network providers such as Turk Telekom lead the industry towards network capacity distribution in Turkey. In this study, we use a monopoly pricing model to examine the optimal pricing strategies for “pay-per-volume” and “pay-per-time” based leasing of data networks. Traditionally, network capacity distribution includes short/long term bandwidth and/or usage time leasing. Each consumer has a choice to select volume based pricing ...

  10. The impact of capacity growth in national telecommunications networks.

    Lord, Andrew; Soppera, Andrea; Jacquet, Arnaud


    This paper discusses both UK-based and global Internet data bandwidth growth, beginning with historical data for the BT network. We examine the time variations in consumer behaviour and how this is statistically aggregated into larger traffic loads on national core fibre communications networks. The random nature of consumer Internet behaviour, where very few consumers require maximum bandwidth simultaneously, provides the opportunity for a significant statistical gain. The paper looks at predictions for how this growth might continue over the next 10-20 years, giving estimates for the amount of bandwidth that networks should support in the future. The paper then explains how national networks are designed to accommodate these traffic levels, and the various network roles, including access, metro and core, are described. The physical layer network is put into the context of how the packet and service layers are designed and the applications and location of content are also included in an overall network overview. The specific role of content servers in alleviating core network traffic loads is highlighted. The status of the relevant transmission technologies in the access, metro and core is given, showing that these technologies, with adequate research, should be sufficient to provide bandwidth for consumers in the next 10-20 years. PMID:26809568

  11. How an existing telecommunications network can support the deployment of smart meters in a water utility?

    Samuel de Barros Moraes


    Full Text Available This case study, based on interviews and technical analysis of a Brazilian water utility with more than 10 million clients, aims to understand what kind of adjusts on a telecommunications network, developed for operational and corporate use, demands to support a smart metering system, identifying this synergies and challenges.

  12. 78 FR 59633 - Wireless Telecommunications Bureau Opens Docket To Seek Comment on DISH Network Corporation's...


    ... Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998). Electronic Filers: Comments may... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1 and 27 Wireless Telecommunications Bureau Opens Docket To Seek Comment on DISH Network Corporation's Petition for Waiver and Request for Extension of Time AGENCY: Federal...

  13. Reference model of future ubiquitous convergent network and context-aware telecommunication service platform

    QIAO Xiu-quan; LI Xiao-feng; LIANG Shou-qing


    A reference model for future ubiquitous convergent network is analyzed. To provide user-centric, intelligent,personalized service, this article presents a context-aware telecommunication service platform (CaTSP) to adapt to dynamically changing context. This article focuses on the new design method of context-aware telecommunication service platform and its architecture. Through the use of model-driven architecture (MDA) and semantic web technologies, CaTSP can enable context reasoning and service personalization adaption.This article explores a new approach for service intelligence,personalization, and adaptability in the semantic web service computing era.

  14. Detection of information security violations with the aid of information and telecommunication networks monitoring

    Author has studied the methods and algorithms used in the monitoring of information security (IS), the distribution law of the number of IS messages, has developed a method and an algorithm for detecting IS violations in the message flow, a technique for generating the consolidated evaluation of results of monitoring the data and telecommunications network information security. Practical recommendations for improving the IS monitoring have been elaborated

  15. Geodetic works in the process of planning and constructing telecommunication network

    Zorc, Maruša


    The thesis deals with surveying work during the planning and construction of telecommunication network and subsequent entry into the cadastre of public infrastructure. Surveyor starts to work in the planning stage, because the constructor needs the correct underlay for the planning. At the same time surveyor provides a geodetic survey of the existing situation of the terrain. Then construction designed lines and facilities have to be staked out in nature. After the completion of construction ...

  16. Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres

    Lopez, Olivier; Jiang, Haifeng; Haboucha, Adil; Bercy, Anthony; Stefani, Fabio; Chanteau, Bruno; Kanj, Amale; Rovera, Daniele; Achkar, Joseph; Chardonnet, Christian; Pottie, Paul-Eric; Amy-Klein, Anne; Santarelli, Giorgio


    The distribution and the comparison of an ultra-stable optical frequency and accurate time using optical fibres have been greatly improved in the last ten years. The frequency stability and accuracy of optical links surpass well-established methods using the global navigation satellite system and geostationary satellites. In this paper, we present a review of the methods and the results obtained. We show that public telecommunication network carrying Internet data can be used to compare and distribute ultra-stable metrological signals over long distances. This novel technique paves the way for the deployment of a national and continental ultra-stable metrological optical network.

  17. Summary of the 1st International Workshop on Networked Reality in Telecommunication

    Davis, T.


    s of workshop papers are presented. Networked reality refers to the array of technologies and services involved in collecting a representation of reality at one location and using it to reconstruct an artificial representation of that reality at a remote location. The term encompasses transmission of the required information between the sites, and also includes the psychological, cultural, and legal implications of introducing derived communication systems. Networked reality is clearly derived from the emerging virtual reality technology base but is intended to go beyond the latter to include its integration with the required telecommunication technologies. A noteworthy feature of the Networked Reality '94 technical program is the extent of emphasis on social (particularly medical) impacts of the technology.

  18. Open Source Telecommunication Companies

    Peter Liu


    Little is known about companies whose core business is selling telecommunications products that lever open source projects. Open source telecommunications (OST) companies operate in markets that are very different from typical software product markets. The telecommunications market is regulated, vertically integrated, and proprietary designs and special chips are widely used. For a telecommunications product to be useful, it must interact with both access network products and core network pro...

  19. Achieving QoS for Aeronautical Telecommunication Networks over Differentiated Services

    Bai, Haowei; Atiquzzaman, Mohammed; Ivancic, William


    Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN) has been developed by the International Civil Aviation Organization to integrate Air-Ground and Ground-Ground data communication for aeronautical applications into a single network serving Air Traffic Control and Aeronautical Operational Communications. To carry time critical information required for aeronautical applications, ATN provides different Quality of Services (QoS) to applications. ATN has therefore, been designed as a standalone network which implies building an expensive separate network for ATN. However, the cost of operating ATN can be reduced if it can be run over a public network such as the Internet. Although the current Internet does not provide QoS, the next generation Internet is expected to provide QoS to applications. The objective of this paper is to investigate the possibility of providing QoS to ATN applications when it is run over the next generation Internet. Differentiated Services (DiffServ), one of the protocols proposed for the next generation Internet, will allow network service providers to offer different QoS to customers. Our results show that it is possible to provide QoS to ATN applications when they run over a DiffServ backbone.

  20. An integrated service digital network (ISDN)-based international telecommunication between Samsung Medical Center and Hokkaido University using telecommunication helped radiotherapy planning and information system (THERAPIS)

    This study introduces the integrated service digital network (ISDN)-based international teleradiotherapy system (THERAPIS) in radiation oncology between hospitals in Seoul, South Korea and in Sapporo, Japan. THERAPIS has the following functions: (1) exchange of patient's image data, (2) real-time teleconference, and (3) communication of the treatment planning, dose calculation and distribution, and of portal verification images between the remote hospitals. Our preliminary results of applications on eight patients demonstrated that the international telecommunication using THERAPIS was clinically useful and satisfactory with sufficient bandwidth for the transfer of patient data for clinical use in radiation oncology. (author)

  1. Platform Competition in Telecommunications

    Church, Jeffrey; Gandal, Neil


    In this Paper we consider the economics of platform competition in telecommunications. Platform competition occurs when different, sometimes incompatible, technologies compete to provide telecommunications services to end-users. Battles between competing technologies have been an important feature of telecommunications in the last twenty or so years. Examples of platform competition in telecommunications include wireless vs. wireline networks, competing wireless options, such as satellite vs....

  2. Network effects, network structure and consumer interaction in mobile telecommunications in Europe and Asia

    Birke, Daniel


    This paper estimates the importance of (tariff-mediated) network effects and the impact of a consumer's social network on her choice of mobile phone provider. The study uses network data obtained from surveys of students in several European and Asian countries. We use the Quadratic Assignment Procedure, a non-parametric permutation test, to adjust for the particular error structure of network data. We find that respondents strongly coordinate their choice of mobile phone providers, but only i...

  3. Application of the ETOM framework for defining processes in the telecommunication systems management network of the Serbian Army

    Vladimir B. Suša


    Full Text Available This paper deals with management system requirements in telecommunications. A TMN (Telecommunication Management Network is necessary to be well designed and constantly upgraded. The  ETOM (Enhanced Telecommunication Operation Map framework, defined by the ITU-T Recommendation M.3050, is used to describe various processes that occur in the network for monitoring and control of military telecommunications systems. Their definition is an essential precondition for introducing management applications that would manage all of the processes in their end-to-end structure. Telecommunication networks are categorized in  accordance withg their functions. A set of relevant network processes important for supervision and management is explained for each described subsystem. This defining represents a prerequisite for the management application configuration which aims to automate management functions and services. eTOM frame and its implementation in telecommunication management networks ETOM is defined as a telecommunication conceptual frame which includes all the processes that exist in a telecommunication network. It does not represent a telecommunication model, but gives a basic frame for all the processes to be included within. It ranges throughout three basic areas: operation processes, planning and development processes and production management. ETOM supports two different process grouping perspectives: horizontal and vertical. The aim of this kind of grouping is to provide the complete overview in all the processes a telecommunication management network should include. Horizontal grouping includes functional processes within the same managed system. Vertical grouping includes all the processes within a TMN. Overlapped horizontal and vertical group constellations enable a connected matrix structure of the eTOM frame. Operational processes within a TMN can be divided into a few categories: user-network interaction, services management and

  4. The universal service in the future of network-type industries: telecommunications, electricity, postal services

    The notion of universal service emerged in the European regulation of the telecommunications sector, and can be applied to all network-type industries. Public monopolies have been put into question again. The introduction of deregulation and competitiveness were expected to improve the service provided to the end consumer, but this deregulation has been also put into question again for matters of universality and equity. Then the issue of financing of these services emerges. The aim of this research thesis is therefore to identify which funding modes can be optimal, and to identify a general methodology for all network-type industries. In the first part of this research thesis, the author studies the cost of universal service obligations. She explains the general methodology of calculation of this cost, and reports this calculation while taking indirect benefits of the operator into account. In a second part, she studies the modalities of financing thus calculated cost by describing the different possible modalities, their benefits and drawbacks, and by presenting a comparison between these methodologies according to three criteria: those set by the European Commission, welfare, and applicability. For these different topics, the author takes all experiments and recent developments into account. These experiments and developments are noticed in different countries: USA, Australia, UK, Sweden, Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, Italy, France

  5. Telecommunications is Dead, Long Live Networking : The Effect of the Information Revolution on the Telecom Industry

    Bond, James


    The author looks at how the drivers of the information revolution are transforming the structure of the telecommunications industry. The end of natural monopoly, the breakdown of the old pricing mechanisms, the increasing competition from new operators and new products, and the globalization of the industry are forcing radical change. This spells trouble for incumbent telecommunications op...

  6. Earth-Mars Telecommunications and Information Management System (TIMS): Antenna Visibility Determination, Network Simulation, and Management Models

    Odubiyi, Jide; Kocur, David; Pino, Nino; Chu, Don


    This report presents the results of our research on Earth-Mars Telecommunications and Information Management System (TIMS) network modeling and unattended network operations. The primary focus of our research is to investigate the feasibility of the TIMS architecture, which links the Earth-based Mars Operations Control Center, Science Data Processing Facility, Mars Network Management Center, and the Deep Space Network of antennae to the relay satellites and other communication network elements based in the Mars region. The investigation was enhanced by developing Build 3 of the TIMS network modeling and simulation model. The results of several 'what-if' scenarios are reported along with reports on upgraded antenna visibility determination software and unattended network management prototype.

  7. Telecommunication Platforms for Transmitting Sensor Data over Communication Networks-State of the Art and Challenges.

    Staniec, Kamil; Habrych, Marcin


    The importance of constructing wide-area sensor networks for holistic environmental state evaluation has been demonstrated. A general structure of such a network has been presented with distinction of three segments: local (based on ZigBee, Ethernet and ModBus techniques), core (base on cellular technologies) and the storage/application. The implementation of these techniques requires knowledge of their technical limitations and electromagnetic compatibility issues. The former refer to ZigBee performance degradation in multi-hop transmission, whereas the latter are associated with the common electromagnetic spectrum sharing with other existing technologies or with undesired radiated emissions generated by the radio modules of the sensor network. In many cases, it is also necessary to provide a measurement station with autonomous energy source, such as solar. As stems from measurements of the energetic efficiency of these sources, one should apply them with care and perform detailed power budget since their real performance may turn out to be far from expected. This, in turn, may negatively affect-in particular-the operation of chemical sensors implemented in the network as they often require additional heating. PMID:27447633

  8. Using heuristic algorithms for capacity leasing and task allocation issues in telecommunication networks under fuzzy quality of service constraints

    Huseyin Turan, Hasan; Kasap, Nihat; Savran, Huseyin


    Nowadays, every firm uses telecommunication networks in different amounts and ways in order to complete their daily operations. In this article, we investigate an optimisation problem that a firm faces when acquiring network capacity from a market in which there exist several network providers offering different pricing and quality of service (QoS) schemes. The QoS level guaranteed by network providers and the minimum quality level of service, which is needed for accomplishing the operations are denoted as fuzzy numbers in order to handle the non-deterministic nature of the telecommunication network environment. Interestingly, the mathematical formulation of the aforementioned problem leads to the special case of a well-known two-dimensional bin packing problem, which is famous for its computational complexity. We propose two different heuristic solution procedures that have the capability of solving the resulting nonlinear mixed integer programming model with fuzzy constraints. In conclusion, the efficiency of each algorithm is tested in several test instances to demonstrate the applicability of the methodology.

  9. Internationalization of health care services : Networking aspects

    Hreinsson, Julius; Woldearegay, Yonathan


    Principles of business management are increasingly being used to analyze health care systems. Conceptualizing health care as business networks offers the possibility to apply the ARA model of Actors, Resources and Activities to understand the functioning of the system. We have used this model to study the phenomenon of networking in cross-border care using Uppsala University Hospital as a research case. The aim of the study was to understand actor’s perceptions of networking activities and ho...

  10. Care transition and network activation in Portugal

    Santana, Silvina; M. Viana


    Purpose To report on the use of a user-centred model and methodology to assess the quality of care transition and network activation action, in light of an ongoing home supported discharge procedure for stroke patients in Portugal. Theory In Portugal, the health care system presents weaknesses resulting from a remarkable diversity of entry points, inadequate use of scarce and expensive resources and difficult information flow between institutions and professionals. The social care network is ...

  11. Systems contestability in electricity distribution networks. An analysis from the telecommunications models within the neoclassical economic paradigm

    The introduction of contestability conditions in the market of electricity distribution, following the dominant economic paradigm (Neoclassical or Marginalist) and solidary to the commercialization segment, it doesn't exhibit satisfactory solutions at the present time. This asseveration, of general character, have special incumbency for those countries of Latin America that, from regulatory schemes, try to define a deregulated market for certain kind of user (denominated eligible). A eligible user is characterized by to have demands equal or higher than a preset threshold value of electric power/ energy. In this work, considering the models implemented in the telecommunications networks, the problem of allocation of distribution costs, as the first step toward a contestable offer in the retail energy service, is discussed to establishing access prices in the distribution networks (non contestable markets). The analysis is focalized to definition of two market segments: one regulated and other competitive. Their methodological and instrumentation difficulties, are presented, concluding in the necessity of an alternative paradigm.

  12. Modelling some characteristics of electrical networks used as channels for providing telecommunications

    Henry Arturo Bastidas Mora


    Full Text Available This article describes the topology of the existent electric nets in different parts of the world, included the Colombian nets, and there performance when used as telecommunications channels. The transfer function is analyzed for low tension nets and radiation originated by PLC (Power Line Communications technology is also considered. Since the radiation originated by PLC cannot be avoided completely the effect electromagnetic interference will be described with radio frequency communications. Modeling of the PLC channel is proposed and at the end conclusions are presented.

  13. Telecommunications demystified

    Nassar, Carl R


    Carl R. Nassar, Ph.D., is professor of telecommunications at Colorado State University and director of the Research in Advanced Wireless Communications (RAWCom) laboratory there. He also consults for telecommunications firms and publishes extensively in the wireless literature.Balances a solid theoretical treatment of subjects with practical applications and examples.Covers both digital and analogue telecommunications systems, including digital modulation techniques.The CD accompanying the book includes MATLAB® tutorials that permit readers to model various telecommunications systems and an el

  14. Regulatory unbundling in telecommunications

    Knieps, Günter


    Due to its dynamic nature, and the increasing importance of competitive sub-parts, the telecommunications sector provides particularly interesting insights for studying regulatory unbundling. Based on the theory of monopolistic bottle-necks the fallacies of overregulation by undue unbundling obligations are indicated. Neither the promotion of infrastructure competition by mandatory un-bundling of competitive subparts of telecommunications infrastructure, nor regulatory induced network fragmen...

  15. Differentiated service delivery in cooperative IP-based broadcast and mobile telecommunications networks

    Centonza, A; Owens, TJ; Cosmas, J; Song, YH


    The evolution of wireless systems has led recently to the deployment of cooperative network infrastructures where networks based on different technologies cooperate together to offer innovative services which the networks individually could not offer. Cooperative network infrastructures are hybrid systems. Examples of hybrid systems are already in use in areas as diverse power systems and locomotion systems. It is very important to apply efficient system management techniques to hybrid system...



    A fuzzy requirement based strategy for QoS service in broadband networks was presented. With the analysis of QoS service in ATM networks and broadband IP networks, it gave a requirement-based strategy for QoS service application with Fuzzy language evaluation principles. The requirement parameters are chosen according to the WANT/COST rule, and a fuzzy set is constructed to realize the fuzzy determinant. The simulation results show that it is useful to evaluate the QoS service in broadband networks, and to effectively simplify the access protocols and solve the billing issues in broadband networks.

  17. Team networking in palliative care.

    Spruyt, Odette


    "If you want to travel quickly, go alone. But if you want to travel far, you must go together". African proverb. The delivery of palliative care is often complex and always involves a group of people, the team, gathered around the patient and those who are close to them. Effective communication and functional responsive systems of care are essential if palliative care is to be delivered in a timely and competent way. Creating and fostering an effective team is one of the greatest challenges for providers of palliative care. Teams are organic and can be life giving or life sapping for their members. PMID:21811361

  18. Team networking in palliative care

    Odette Spruyt


    Full Text Available "If you want to travel quickly, go alone. But if you want to travel far, you must go together". African proverb. The delivery of palliative care is often complex and always involves a group of people, the team, gathered around the patient and those who are close to them. Effective communication and functional responsive systems of care are essential if palliative care is to be delivered in a timely and competent way. Creating and fostering an effective team is one of the greatest challenges for providers of palliative care. Teams are organic and can be life giving or life sapping for their members.

  19. The productivity of primary care research networks.

    Griffiths, F; Wild, A; Harvey, J; Fenton, E


    Primary care research networks are being publicly funded in the United Kingdom to promote a culture of research and development in primary care. This paper discusses the organisational form of these networks and how their productivity can be evaluated, drawing on evidence from management science. An evaluation of a research network has to take account of the complexity of the organisation, the influence of its local context, and its stage of development. Output measures, such as number of research papers, and process measures, such as number of research meetings, may contribute to an evaluation. However, as networking relies on the development of informal, trust-based relationships, the quality of interactions within a network is of paramount importance for its success. Networks can audit and reflect on their success in promoting such relationships and a more formal qualitative evaluation by an independent observer can document their success to those responsible for funding. PMID:11141879

  20. Decision Support Systems: Diagnostics and Explanation methods : In the context of telecommunication networks

    Lindberg, Martin


    This thesis work, conducted at Ericsson Software Research, aims to recommend a system setup for a tool to help troubleshooting personal at network operation centres (NOC) who monitors the telecom network. This thesis examines several different artificial intelligence algorithms resulting in the conclusion that Bayesian networks are suitable for the aimed system. Since the system will act as a decision support system it needs to be able to explain how recommendations have been developed. Hence...

  1. Team Networking in Palliative Care

    Odette Spruyt


    "If you want to travel quickly, go alone. But if you want to travel far, you must go together". African proverb. The delivery of palliative care is often complex and always involves a group of people, the team, gathered around the patient and those who are close to them. Effective communication and functional responsive systems of care are essential if palliative care is to be delivered in a timely and competent way. Creating and fostering an effective team is one of the greatest challenges f...

  2. Telecommunications glossary of telecommunications terms


    This glossary contains more than 5,000 technical terms and definitions that were standardized by the federal government for use by international and U.S. government telecommunications specialists. It includes international and national terms drawn from the International Telecommunication Union, the International Organization for Standardization, the TIA, ANSI, and others.

  3. A new Mn-Zn ferrite for high-speed data transmission applications in telecommunication networks

    In DSL and ISDN telecommunication technologies, advanced modems are used to increase data transmission speed over regular UTP lines. The good operation of these modems requires a low signal distortion of the polycrystalline Mn-Zn ferrites used as transformer core components at low fields. Given that distortion is directly related to the non-linearity of the B-H loop, the purpose of this study was to determine the basic guidelines for the development of Mn-Zn ferrites with a linear B-H behaviour. It appears that retarding the Fe2+-Fe3+ electron exchange with appropriate dopants such as TiO2 leads to the manufacturing of Mn-Zn ferrite materials that exhibit high initial permeability (∼8500), low losses (tan δ/μ-6 at 25 deg. C, 10 kHz, 0.25 mT and tan δ/μ-6 at 25 deg. C, 100 kHz, 0.25 mT) and low hysteresis material constant (-3), that are suitable for DSL and ISDN transformer applications

  4. Telecommunication system engineering

    Freeman, Roger L


    From the review of the Third Edition:""A must for anyone in volved in the practical aspects of the telecommunications industry.""-CHOICE* Outlines the expertise essential to the successful operation and design of every type of telecommunications networks in use today* New edition is fully revised and expanded to present authoritative coverage of the important developments that have taken place since the previous edition was published* Includes new chapters on hot topics such as cellular radio, asynchronous transfer mode, broadband technologies, and network management

  5. Demand Modelling in Telecommunications

    M. Chvalina


    Full Text Available This article analyses the existing possibilities for using Standard Statistical Methods and Artificial Intelligence Methods for a short-term forecast and simulation of demand in the field of telecommunications. The most widespread methods are based on Time Series Analysis. Nowadays, approaches based on Artificial Intelligence Methods, including Neural Networks, are booming. Separate approaches will be used in the study of Demand Modelling in Telecommunications, and the results of these models will be compared with actual guaranteed values. Then we will examine the quality of Neural Network models. 

  6. A Spatial Decision Support System for Planning Broadband, Fixed Wireless Telecommunication Networks

    Scheibe, Kevin Paul


    Over the last two decades, wireless technology has become ubiquitous in the United States and other developed countries. Consumer devices such as AM/FM radios, cordless and cellular telephones, pagers, satellite televisions, garage door openers, and television channel changers are just some of the applications of wireless technology. More recently, wireless computer networking has seen increasing employment. A few reasons for this move toward wireless networking are improved electronics tr...

  7. Subcarrier Wave Quantum Key Distribution in Telecommunication Network with Bitrate 800 kbit/s

    Gleim, A. V.; Nazarov, Yu. V.; Egorov, V. I.; Smirnov, S. V.; Bannik, O. I.; Chistyakov, V. V.; Kynev, S. M.; Anisimov, A. A.; Kozlov, S. A.; Vasiliev, V. N.


    In the course of work on creating the first quantum communication network in Russia we demonstrated quantum key distribution in metropolitan optical network infrastructure. A single-pass subcarrier wave quantum cryptography scheme was used in the experiments. BB84 protocol with strong reference was chosen for performing key distribution. The registered sifted key rate in an optical cable with 1.5 dB loss was 800 Kbit/s. Signal visibility exceeded 98%, and quantum bit error rate value was 1%. The achieved result is a record for this type of systems.

  8. Optimal pricing strategies for capacity leasing based on time and volume usage in telecommunication networks

    Kasap, Nihat; Tektaş Sivrikaya, Berna; Tektas Sivrikaya, Berna; Delen, Dursun


    In this study, we use a monopoly pricing model to examine the optimal pricing strategies for “pay-per-time”, “pay-per-volume” and “pay-per both time and volume” based leasing of data networks. Traditionally, network capacity distribution includes short/long term bandwidth and/or usage time leasing. Each consumer has a choice to select volume based, connection-time based or both volume and connection-time based pricing. When customers choose connection-time based pricing, their optimal behavio...

  9. Subcarrier Wave Quantum Key Distribution in Telecommunication Network with Bitrate 800 kbit/s

    Gleim A.V.


    Full Text Available In the course of work on creating the first quantum communication network in Russia we demonstrated quantum key distribution in metropolitan optical network infrastructure. A single-pass subcarrier wave quantum cryptography scheme was used in the experiments. BB84 protocol with strong reference was chosen for performing key distribution. The registered sifted key rate in an optical cable with 1.5 dB loss was 800 Kbit/s. Signal visibility exceeded 98%, and quantum bit error rate value was 1%. The achieved result is a record for this type of systems.

  10. The Influence Of CSR Awareness On Consumer Purchase Decision Of A Telecommunication Network In Ghana A Case Of La Nkwantanag Madina Municipality

    Patrick Amfo Anim; Agbemabiese George Cudjoe


    Abstract The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate the influence of CSR awareness on consumer purchase intention of a telecommunication network in Ghana. A sample size of one hundred and fifty 150 network subscribers of MTN was selected for the study using the purposive and convenience sampling method. The data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS 20.0 software. From the study the researcher found out that customers are aware of the fact tha...

  11. Social networks in improvement of health care.

    Masic, Izet; Sivic, Suad; Toromanovic, Selim; Borojevic, Tea; Pandza, Haris


    Social network is a social structure made of individuals or organizations associated with one or more types of interdependence (friendship, common interests, work, knowledge, prestige, etc.) which are the "nodes" of the network. Networks can be organized to exchange information, knowledge or financial assistance under the various interest groups in universities, workplaces and associations of citizens. Today the most popular and widely used networks are based on application of the Internet as the main ICT. Depending on the method of connection, their field of activity and expertise of those who participate in certain networks, the network can be classified into the following groups: a) Social Networks with personal physical connectivity (the citizens' associations, transplant networks, etc.), b) Global social internet network (Facebook, Twitter, Skype), c) specific health internet social network (forums, Health Care Forums, Healthcare Industry Forum), d) The health community internet network of non professionals (DailyStrength, CaringBridge, CarePages, MyFamilyHealth), e) Scientific social internet network (BiomedExperts, ResearchGate, iMedExchange), f) Social internet network which supported professionals (HealthBoards, Spas and Hope Association of Disabled and diabetic Enurgi), g) Scientific medical internet network databases in the system of scientific and technical information (CC, Pubmed/Medline, Excerpta Medica/EMBASE, ISI Web Knowledge, EBSCO, Index Copernicus, Social Science Index, etc.). The information in the network are exchanged in real time and in a way that has until recently been impossible in real life of people in the community. Networks allow tens of thousands of specific groups of people performing a series of social, professional and educational activities in the place of living and housing, place of work or other locations where individuals are. Network provides access to information related to education, health, nutrition, drugs, procedures

  12. The Emergence Of The National Research And Education Network (NREN) And Its Implications For American Telecommunications

    Maloff, Joel H.


    "The nation which most completely assimilates high performance computing into its economy will very likely emerge as the dominant intellectual, economic, and technological force in the next century", Senator Albert Gore, Jr., May 18, 1989, while introducing Senate Bill 1067, "The National High Performance Computer Technology Act of 1989". A national network designed to link supercomputers, particle accelerators, researchers, educators, government, and industry is beginning to emerge. The degree to which the United States can mobilize the resources inherent within our academic, industrial and government sectors towards the establishment of such a network infrastructure will have direct bearing on the economic and political stature of this country in the next century. This program will have significant impact on all forms of information transfer, and peripheral benefits to all walks of life similar to those experienced from the moon landing program of the 1960's. The key to our success is the involvement of scientists, librarians, network designers, and bureaucrats in the planning stages. Collectively, the resources resident within the United States are awesome; individually, their impact is somewhat more limited. The engineers, technicians, business people, and educators participating in this conference have a vital role to play in the success of the National Research and Education Network (NREN).

  13. Deep Space Telecommunications

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Resch, G. M.


    The increasing load on NASA's deep Space Network, the new capabilities for deep space missions inherent in a next-generation radio telescope, and the potential of new telescope technology for reducing construction and operation costs suggest a natural marriage between radio astronomy and deep space telecommunications in developing advanced radio telescope concepts.

  14. A measurement-driven approach to assess power line telecommunication (PLT) network quality of service (QoS) performance parameters

    Power line telecommunication (PLT) technology offers cheap and fast ways for providing in-home broadband services and local area networking. Its main advantage is due to the possibility of using the pre-existing electrical grid as a communication channel. Nevertheless, technical challenges arise from the difficulty of operating on a hostile medium, not designed for communication purposes, characterized by complex channel modeling and by varying time response. These aspects put practical problems for designers and testers in the assessment of network quality of service performance parameters such as the throughput, the latency, the jitter, and the reliability. The measurement of these parameters has not yet been standardized so that there do not exist reference test set-ups and measurement methodologies (i.e. the type of isolation from the ac main, the observation time and the number of experiments, the measurement uncertainty and so on). Consequently, experiments executed by adopting different methods may lead to incompatible measurement results, thus making it also impossible to have reliable comparisons of different PLT modems. Really, the development of standard procedures is a very difficult task because the scenarios in which the PLT modems can work are very wide and then the application of an exhaustive approach (in which all the parameters influencing the PLT performance should be considered) would be very complex and time consuming, thus making the modem characterization very expensive. In this paper, the authors propose a methodological approach to develop an efficient measurement procedure able to reliably assess the performance of PLT modems (in terms of network quality of service parameters) with a minimum number of experiments. It is based on both creating a reconfigurable grid to which real disturbing loads are connected and implementing an original design of the experiment technique based on the effects of the uncertainty of the measurement results

  15. Communication security in open health care networks.

    Blobel, B; Pharow, P; Engel, K; Spiegel, V; Krohn, R


    Fulfilling the shared care paradigm, health care networks providing open systems' interoperability in health care are needed. Such communicating and co-operating health information systems, dealing with sensitive personal medical information across organisational, regional, national or even international boundaries, require appropriate security solutions. Based on the generic security model, within the European MEDSEC project an open approach for secure EDI like HL7, EDIFACT, XDT or XML has been developed. The consideration includes both securing the message in an unsecure network and the transport of the unprotected information via secure channels (SSL, TLS etc.). Regarding EDI, an open and widely usable security solution has been specified and practically implemented for the examples of secure mailing and secure file transfer (FTP) via wrapping the sensitive information expressed by the corresponding protocols. The results are currently prepared for standardisation. PMID:10724890

  16. The incentive regulation in the network management. A cross-sectorial investigation of the network managements energy, telecommunication and railway; Die Anreizregulierung in den Netzwirtschaften. Eine sektoruebergreifende Untersuchung der Netzwirtschaften Energie, Telekommunikation und Eisenbahn

    Berndt, Andrea


    The author of the book under consideration reports on a cross-sectoral analysis of network management of energy, telecommunications and railways with regard to incentive regulation. The cross-sectoral analysis of incentive regulation requires a systematization of the instrument of payment regulation. Using the example of the incentive regulation, the author provides a rather jurisprudential contribution to a network management dogma.

  17. A wireless telecommunications network for real-time monitoring of greenhouse microclimate

    Giuliano Vox


    Full Text Available An innovative wireless monitoring system for measuring greenhouse climatic parameters was developed to overcome the problems related to wires cabling such as presence of a dense net of wires hampering the cultivation practices, wires subjected to high temperature and relative humidity, rodents that can damage wires. The system exploits battery-powered environmental sensors, such as air temperature and relative humidity sensors, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation sensors, integrated in the contest of an 802.15.4-based wireless sensors network. Besides, a fruit diameter measurement sensor was integrated into the system. This approach guarantees flexibility, ease of deployment and low power consumption. Data collected from the greenhouse are then sent to a remote server via a general packet radio service link. The proposed solution has been implemented in a real environment. The test of the communication system showed that 0.3% of the sent data packed were lost; the climatic parameters measured with the wireless system were compared with data collected by the wired system showing a mean value of the absolute difference equal to 0.6°C for the value of the greenhouse air temperature. The wireless climate monitoring system showed a good reliability, while the sensor node batteries showed a lifetime of 530 days.

  18. Diakoptical Approach in Telecommunication Engineering

    Yevsyeyeva, Oksana


    A diakoptical approach to tensor methods of telecommunications networks engineering, including design, traffic control and maintenance of QoS, is offered. The using of it increases scalability of tensor methods.

  19. Social networking: applications for health care recruitment.

    Russell, Judith


    In today's competitive landscape for health care talent, nursing executives and human resource professionals need to assess and evaluate new avenues for recruitment. The strategy of filling positions by means of print advertising is becoming outmoded quickly. As an industry, health care typically lags behind other industries when it relates to technology. This is especially true in implementing any interactive strategies to target hard-to-fill positions. Social networking sites have appeared on the Internet landscape quickly and continue to flourish. Nurse leaders need to capitalize on this phenomenon. PMID:18080628

  20. Telecommunication. Special issue

    In 9 brief articles an overview is given of different aspects of the use of telecommunications in the energy sector in the Netherlands. The subjects are the problems (attenuation and non-Gaussian noise) of using the low-voltage network for digital communication (residential power line carriers or RPLC), fiberglass techniques in the telecommunication and distribution network, the interest of energy companies for the options of the electronic superhighway, the necessity of communication protocols in the energy sector for the information exchange in power systems control, the option of applying wireless wide-band signals instead of fiberglass cables, and the use of synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) as the standard in digital transmission systems

  1. The turbulent telecommunications

    Kuchar, Anton


    Roč. 5, 1/2 (2006), s. 9-14. ISSN 1336-1376. [ELEKTRO 2006 /5./. Žilina, 23.05.2006-24.05.2006] Grant ostatní: BReATH Consortium EU(XE) EC FP6 1ST Programme Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : optical communication * optical links * telecommunication networks Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  2. Methodology of the design of an integrated telecommunications and computer network in a control information system for artillery battalion fire support

    Slobodan M. Miletić


    Full Text Available A Command Information System (CIS in a broader sense can be defined as a set of hardware and software solutions by which one achieves real-time integration of organizational structures, doctrine, technical and technological systems and facilities, information flows and processes for efficient and rational decision-making and functioning. Time distribution and quality of information directly affect the implementation of the decision making process and criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of the system in which the achievement of the most important role is an integrated telecommunications and computer network (ITCN, dimensioned to the spatial distribution of tactical combat units connecting all the elements in a communications unit. The aim is to establish the design methodology as a way of the ITCN necessary to conduct analysis and extract all the necessary elements for modeling that are mapped to the elements of network infrastructure, and then analyzed from the perspective of telecommunications communication standards and parameters of the layers of the OSI network model. A relevant way to verify the designed model ITCN is the development of a simulation model with which adequate results can be obtained. Conclusions on the compliance with the requirements of tactical combat and tactical communication requirements are drawn on the basis of these results.

  3. Exposure to mobile telecommunication networks assessed using personal dosimetry and well-being in children and adolescents: the German MobilEe-study

    von Kries Rüdiger


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increase of mobile phone use in the last decade and the growing concern whether mobile telecommunication networks adversely affect health and well-being, only few studies have been published that focussed on children and adolescents. Especially children and adolescents are important in the discussion of adverse health effects because of their possibly higher vulnerability to radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Methods We investigated a possible association between exposure to mobile telecommunication networks and well-being in children and adolescents using personal dosimetry. A population-based sample of 1.498 children and 1.524 adolescents was assembled for the study (response 52%. Participants were randomly selected from the population registries of four Bavarian (South of Germany cities and towns with different population sizes. During a Computer Assisted Personal Interview data on participants' well-being, socio-demographic characteristics and potential confounder were collected. Acute symptoms were assessed three times during the study day (morning, noon, evening. Using a dosimeter (ESM-140 Maschek Electronics, we obtained an exposure profile over 24 hours for three mobile phone frequency ranges (measurement interval 1 second, limit of determination 0.05 V/m for each of the participants. Exposure levels over waking hours were summed up and expressed as mean percentage of the ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference level. Results In comparison to non-participants, parents and adolescents with a higher level of education who possessed a mobile phone and were interested in the topic of possible adverse health effects caused by mobile telecommunication network frequencies were more willing to participate in the study. The median exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields of children and adolescents was 0.18% and 0.19% of the ICNIRP reference level respectively

  4. Home Care Nursing via Computer Networks: Justification and Design Specifications

    Brennan, Patricia Flatley


    High-tech home care includes the use of information technologies, such as computer networks, to provide direct care to patients in the home. This paper presents the justification and design of a project using a free, public access computer network to deliver home care nursing. The intervention attempts to reduce isolation and improve problem solving among home care patients and their informal caregivers. Three modules comprise the intervention: a decision module, a communications module, and ...

  5. Network Structure of Industrial Chain and Competition in Telecommunication Industry%电信产业链网状化与电信市场竞争

    刘玉芹; 胡汉辉


    In the context of triple play, telecommunication industry shapes itself with new industrial chain features and market structure, which exert influences on competition strategies of telecom operators. This article holds that the vertical chain of telecommunication industry is undergoing decomposition and reintegrating, horizontal chain is deepening and expanding by triple play development, and side chain is forming with business model innovation of two-sided market. This three-dimensioned industrial chain structure combines into a network structure of industrial chain, in which industrial convergence strengthens contestable feature of telecommunication industry while network externality strengthens monopolistic feature. These opposite and complementary effects of competition and monopoly form a competitive monody structure of telecommunication industry. Accordingly, these network structure of industrial chain and competitive monopoly market structure demand telecom operators implement a comprehensive competitive strategy based on compound industrial chains.%“三网融合”发展背景下,电信产业呈现出新的产业链形态和市场结构特征,并影响了电信运营商的市场竞争策略。本文认为在电信纵向产业链分解与重组的基础上,“三网融合”深化和扩展了电信横向产业链,电信商业模式创新形成了基于双边市场的电信侧向产业链,纵向、横向和侧向三个维度的产业链相互交织形成了网状化产业链形态。这种变化一方面通过产业融合增强了电信产业的可竞争性,另一方面通过网络外部性机制增强了电信产业的可垄断性,两种相反相成的竞争效应共同形成了“三网融合”特有的竞争性垄断市场结构.网状化产业链形态和竞争性垄断市场结构促使电信运营商实行复合产业链竞争策略。

  6. Structuring networks for maximum performance under managed care.

    Miller, T R


    Healthcare providers interested in forming delivery networks to secure managed care contracts must decide how to structure their networks. Two basic structural models are available: the noncorporate model and the corporate model. The noncorporate model delivery network typically has a single governing body and management infrastructure to oversee only managed care contracting and related business. The corporate model delivery system has a unified governance management infrastructure that handles all of the network's business. While either structure can work, corporate model networks usually are better able to enforce provider behavior that is in the best interest of a network as a whole. PMID:10163003

  7. Evolution and convergence in telecommunications

    These lectures throw a spotlight on different aspects of the evolution of telecommunications networks, namely on the various facets of service and network convergence. The last years progress in data and telecommunications technologies, such as P-based networks, and the enormous potential of mobile communication systems and users' demands for comprehensive and network-independent have led to a convergence of data and telecommunications infrastructures in many aspects. In order to help the reader to an easier understanding of the phenomenon convergence, in the first two parts of this volume the evolution of the basic technologies is described one by one. This is done briefly and is focused on the principle topics, just to build a basis for the third part devoted to problems of convergence in telecommunications. These notes are addressed to those readers, who in a quick overview want to be informed on the future service and network landscape. The notes are equally suited for professionals with the desire to extend their horizon as well as for students looking for an introduction into telecommunications under more general aspects. The authors clearly understand the difficulties in writing a book devoted to the evolution in telecommunications. Today, telecom landscape varies at very high speed. Every few months new network technologies, new products and new services are developed. Attempts to present them in time can be accessible only for magazine publications or contributions to conferences. Therefore, in a number of areas, such as Voice over IP and new switching technologies not much more than the starting point of new paradigms is described. However, the content is up-to-date to a degree, that the phenomenon convergence can be fully understood. Partially, these notes are based on a number of lecture courses that were delivered during recent ICTP winter schools devoted to multimedia and digital communications

  8. Telecommunication Reform and WTO

    Henten, Anders


    An analysis of the negotiations on telecommunication liberalisation in the World Trade Organization.......An analysis of the negotiations on telecommunication liberalisation in the World Trade Organization....

  9. The impact of informal care-giving networks on adult children's care-giver burden

    Tolkacheva, N.; Broese van Groenou, M. I.; Boer; Tilburg, van, P.J.A.


    Previous research on the care-giver burden experienced by adult children has typically focused on the adult child and parent dyad. This study uses information on multiple informal care-givers and examines how characteristics of the informal care-giving network affect the adult child's care-giver burden. In 2007, 602 Dutch care-givers who were assisting their older parents reported on parental and personal characteristics, care activities, experienced burden and characteristics of other inform...

  10. Wireless telecommunication systems

    Terré, Michel; Vivier, Emmanuelle


    Wireless telecommunication systems generate a huge amount of interest. In the last two decades, these systems have experienced at least three major technological leaps, and it has become impossible to imagine how society was organized without them. In this book, we propose a macroscopic approach on wireless systems, and aim at answering key questions about power, data rates, multiple access, cellular engineering and access networks architectures.We present a series of solved problems, whose objective is to establish the main elements of a global link budget in several radiocommunicati

  11. International telecommunications market regulation

    Productivity Commission


    On 23 February 1999 the Assistant Treasurer referred international telecommunic-ations market regulation for inquiry and report within six months. The report focused on the reform of international telecommunications markets, in particular on the payment arrangements between providers of international telecommunications services.

  12. The Influence Of CSR Awareness On Consumer Purchase Decision Of A Telecommunication Network In Ghana A Case Of La Nkwantanag Madina Municipality

    Patrick Amfo Anim


    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate the influence of CSR awareness on consumer purchase intention of a telecommunication network in Ghana. A sample size of one hundred and fifty 150 network subscribers of MTN was selected for the study using the purposive and convenience sampling method. The data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS 20.0 software. From the study the researcher found out that customers are aware of the fact that MTN currently embarks on CSR activity such as hepatitis B Campaign project annual blood donation projects building of schools provision of text books school uniforms development of ICT centers MTN Ghana foundation and Heroes of Change project. However what remained unknown was whether it has an effect on customer purchasing decision of their network or not. The study also revealed that there were other factors that influenced consumer patronage of MTN services such as Brand name quality services reference groups promotions bonuses and products offered by MTN and the country of origin. However CSR activities performed by MTN were rated as a higher factor that influence consumers stay and repurchase of the network. Regulatory bodies should be firm in enforcing laws in corporate organizations and CSR should be viewed as part of the code of ethics of any corporate organization also there should be a national policy from government to set parameters for CSR in Ghana

  13. Collaborative Chronic Care Networks (C3Ns) to Transform Chronic Illness Care

    Margolis, Peter A; Peterson, Laura E.; Seid, Michael


    Despite significant gains by pediatric collaborative improvement networks, the overall US system of chronic illness care does not work well. A new paradigm is needed: a Collaborative Chronic Care Network (C3N). A C3N is a network-based production system that harnesses the collective intelligence of patients, clinicians, and researchers and distributes the production of knowledge, information, and know-how over large groups of people, dramatically accelerating the discovery process. A C3N is a...

  14. Single-chip MEMS 5 × 5 and 20 × 20 double-pole single-throw switch arrays for automating telecommunication networks

    This paper reports on microelectromechanical (MEMS) switch arrays with 5 × 5 and 20 × 20 double-pole single-throw (DPST) switches embedded and packaged on a single chip, which are intended for automating main distribution frames in copper-wire telecommunication networks. Whenever a customer requests a change in his telecommunication services, the copper-wire network has to be reconfigured which is currently done manually by a costly physical re-routing of the connections in the main distribution frames. To reduce the costs, new methods for automating the network reconfiguration are sought after by the network providers. The presented devices comprise 5 × 5 or 20 × 20 double switches, which allow us to interconnect any of the 5 or 20 input lines to any of the 5 or 20 output lines. The switches are based on an electrostatic S-shaped film actuator with the switch contact on a flexible membrane, moving between a top and a bottom electrode. The devices are fabricated in two parts which are designed to be assembled using selective adhesive wafer bonding, resulting in a wafer-scale package of the switch array. The on-chip routing network consists of thick metal lines for low resistance and is embedded in bencocyclobutene (BCB) polymer layers. The packaged 5 × 5 switch arrays have a size of 6.7 × 6.4 mm2 and the 20 × 20 arrays are 14 × 10 mm2 large. The switch actuation voltages for closing/opening the switches averaged over an array were measured to be 21.2 V/15.3 V for the 5 × 5 array and 93.2 V/37.3 V for the 20 × 20 array, respectively. The total signal line resistances vary depending on the switch position within the array between 0.13 Ω and 0.56 Ω for the 5 × 5 array and between 0.08 Ω to 2.33 Ω for the 20 × 20 array, respectively. The average resistance of the switch contacts was determined to be 0.22 Ω with a standard deviation of 0.05 Ω

  15. Social Networks in Improvement of Health Care

    Masic, Izet; Sivic, Suad; Toromanovic, Selim; Borojevic, Tea; Pandza, Haris


    Social network is a social structure made of individuals or organizations associated with one or more types of interdependence (friendship, common interests, work, knowledge, prestige, etc.) which are the “nodes” of the network. Networks can be organized to exchange information, knowledge or financial assistance under the various interest groups in universities, workplaces and associations of citizens. Today the most popular and widely used networks are based on application of the Internet as...

  16. How can Health Care Social networks increase user innovation in Health Care?

    Lochny, Jonas


    The health care industry has experienced a significant advancement in the usage of modern Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) that has allowed the different health care stakeholders an increasing access to health information and enables them to take health care decisions on their own behalf. In this thesis we evaluate this increasing usage of modern communication means and networking opportunities in health care online communities and which effects it can have on user innovation....

  17. CEE telecommunications investment and economic growth

    Madden, Gary G; Savage, Scott J


    The antiquated state of the telecommunications network in the transitional economies of Central and Eastern Europe has been identified by the OECD (1993) and the ITU (1994) as a significant impediment to regional productivity, international competitiveness and trade performance. This situation suggests that the upgrading and extension of the telecommunications network should be a priority objective for policy-makers in order to facilitate growth. This paper empirically examines the relatio...

  18. Development of Korea telecommunication technology

    It concentrates on development of Korea telecommunication technology, which is made up seven chapters. It gives description of manual central telephone exchange or private automatic telephone exchange, transmission technology on wire line and cable line technology and optical transmission, radio communication technology on mobile and natural satellite communication, network technology with intelligent network, broadband ISDN and packet switched Data Network, terminal technology with telephone and data communication terminal and development of Information Technology in Korea. It has an appendix about development of military communication system.

  19. Predication-Based Intelligence Routing on Telecommunications

    DONGJun; HEJifeng; PANYunhe


    The routingtelecommunication networksbeing one of key issues of management influences the switch rate and load balance directly, and becomes more and more important as the telecommunication traffic increases at full speed. It was said that raising one percent of switch rate of current Chinese telecommunication networks would result in revenue about one billion Yuan RMB. On the basis of demerit-analysis of routing scheme being used, a new intelligent routing strategy based on multi-agent systems and recurrent neural network predication is presented, including routing strategy, Calls generating and agent~ recurrent neural network computation, simulation software design, results and discussion. The results show that the new one is better by virtue of its upstanding distribution and intelligence characters, and provides excellent solution to increase network switch rate and balance network load. Meanwhile, its applications will go beyond the scope of telecommunication networks. But whether the strategy will be perfect depends on the cooperation among operator, manufacturer and researchers.

  20. Energy star compliant voice over internet protocol (VoIP) telecommunications network including energy star compliant VoIP devices

    Kouchri, Farrokh Mohammadzadeh


    A Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) communications system, a method of managing a communications network in such a system and a program product therefore. The system/network includes an ENERGY STAR (E-star) aware softswitch and E-star compliant communications devices at system endpoints. The E-star aware softswitch allows E-star compliant communications devices to enter and remain in power saving mode. The E-star aware softswitch spools messages and forwards only selected messages (e.g., calls) to the devices in power saving mode. When the E-star compliant communications devices exit power saving mode, the E-star aware softswitch forwards spooled messages.

  1. A CDMA Spotbeam Architecture for the Next Generation Satellite System (NGSS) for the Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN)

    Raghavan, Rajesh S.; Shamma, Mohammed A.


    This paper will present work being done to model and simulate a CDMA based Mobile Satellite System architecture for providing all or part of the future Air Traffic Management (ATM) services. Such a system, will help in relieving the dependence on ground based networks, if not eliminate it. Additionally such an architecture can be used in parallel or as a supplementary service along with ground based links to help alleviate any capacity bottlenecks, or in areas where such services are difficult to make available such as in oceanic, remote areas outside the jet highways, or in developing countries where ground services are less available.

  2. Using social networks to help patients self-care.

    Cooper, Anne

    Social networks are creating new ways for people with long-term conditions to seek support and offering new ways for health professionals to communicate with patients who have long-term conditions. There is evidence this may be helpful but nurses need to be skilled at operating in these new digital spaces to support patients effectively. This article discusses the growing use of social networks in long-term conditions, focusing on their use in diabetes care. PMID:23560343

  3. [Inpatient-ambulatory network of psychotherapy care].

    Studt, Hans Henning


    The development and state of the art is presented for inpatient psychotherapy in neurotic and psychosomatic patients. The question is then posed whether time-tested inpatient psychotherapy can survive the introduction of "diagnosis-related groups" (DRG) with its threat of flat-rate case billing. Thus, the development of an "in- and outpatient network" has been considered as a possible alternative, in which hospitals and private practices combine intervals of inpatient and outpatient psychotherapy. PMID:14733063

  4. Nanotechnology for telecommunications

    Anwar, Sohail; Qazi, Salahuddin; Ilyas, Mohammad


    With its unique promise to revolutionize science, engineering, technology, and other fields, nanotechnology continues to profoundly impact associated materials, components, and systems, particularly those used in telecommunications. These developments are leading to easier convergence of related technologies, massive storage data, compact storage devices, and higher-performance computing. Nanotechnology for Telecommunications presents vital technical scientific information to help readers grasp issues and challenges associated with nanoscale telecommunication system development and commerciali

  5. Optical fiber telecommunications IIIb

    Koch, Thomas L


    Updated to include the latest information on light wave technology, Optical Fiber Telecommunication III, Volumes A & B are invaluable for scientists, students, and engineers in the modern telecommunications industry. This two-volume set includes the most current research available in optical fiber telecommunications, light wave technology, and photonics/optoelectronics. The authors cover important background concepts such as SONET, coding device technology, andWOM components as well as projecting the trends in telecommunications for the 21st century.Key Features* One of the hottest subjects of

  6. Nursing Home Care Quality: Insights from a Bayesian Network Approach

    Goodson, Justin; Jang, Wooseung; Rantz, Marilyn


    Purpose: The purpose of this research is twofold. The first purpose is to utilize a new methodology (Bayesian networks) for aggregating various quality indicators to measure the overall quality of care in nursing homes. The second is to provide new insight into the relationships that exist among various measures of quality and how such measures…

  7. 基于模糊层次分析法的电信业务网项目后评价研究%Project post evaluation system for telecommunication services network items base on the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process



    Aiming at the defects of traditional project post evaluation methods of defects, this paper puts forward a method of using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to telecommunication service network projects for comprehensive evaluation. According to the characteristics of telecommunication service network project and project post evaluation analysis framework , it constructs telecommunication service network project investment evaluation index system. And through the analysis of examples, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted by using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process on the expansion project of the fixed Softswitch of Chongqing telecom in 2005 , The evaluation results show that the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process in a telecommunication service network project post evaluation has rationality and maneuverability.%针对传统的项目后评价方法的缺陷,提出了运用模糊层次分析法对电信业务网项目进行综合评价.根据电信业务网项目的特点和项目后评价分析框架,构建了电信业务网项目投资后评价指标体系.并通过实例分析,运用模糊层次分析法对重庆电信2005年固网软交换设备扩容工程进行了综合评价,评价结果证明,模糊层次分析法在电信业务网项目后评价中具有合理性和可操作性.

  8. System-level design methodologies for telecommunication

    Sklavos, Nicolas; Goehringer, Diana; Kitsos, Paris


    This book provides a comprehensive overview of modern networks design, from specifications and modeling to implementations and test procedures, including the design and implementation of modern networks on chip, in both wireless and mobile applications.  Topical coverage includes algorithms and methodologies, telecommunications, hardware (including networks on chip), security and privacy, wireless and mobile networks and a variety of modern applications, such as VoLTE and the internet of things.

  9. Bilingual Education and Telecommunications: A Perfect Fit.

    Sayers, Dennis; Brown, Kristin


    Describes Project Orillas, a telecommunications network designed to improve the writing skills of bilingual and foreign language students studying English and Spanish in Mexico, Puerto Rico, and the United States. The electronic bulletin board system used for communication is explained and guidelines for joining the network are included. (LRW)

  10. Mixed care networks of community-dwelling older adults with physical health impairments in the Netherlands.

    Broese van Groenou, Marjolein; Jacobs, Marianne; Zwart-Olde, Ilse; Deeg, Dorly J H


    As part of long-term care reforms, home-care organisations in the Netherlands are required to strengthen the linkage between formal and informal caregivers of home-dwelling older adults. Information on the variety in mixed care networks may help home-care organisations to develop network type-dependent strategies to connect with informal caregivers. This study first explores how structural (size, composition) and functional features (contact and task overlap between formal and informal caregivers) contribute to different types of mixed care networks. Second, it examines to what degree these network types are associated with the care recipients' characteristics. Through home-care organisations in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, we selected 74 frail home-dwelling clients who were receiving care in 2011-2012 from both informal and formal caregivers. The care networks of these older adults were identified by listing all persons providing help with five different types of tasks. This resulted in care networks comprising an average of 9.7 caregivers, of whom 67% were formal caregivers. On average, there was contact between caregivers within 34% of the formal-informal dyads, and both caregivers carried out at least one similar type of task in 29% of these dyads. A principal component analysis of size, composition, contact and task overlap showed two distinct network dimensions from which four network types were constructed: a small mixed care network, a small formal network, a large mixed network and a large formal network. Bivariate analyses showed that the care recipients' activities of daily living level, memory problems, social network, perceived control of care and level of mastery differed significantly between these four types. The results imply that different network types require different actions from formal home-care organisations, such as mobilising the social network in small formal networks, decreasing task differentiation in large formal networks and assigning

  11. Handbook of optimization in telecommunications

    Pardalos, Panos M


    Covers the field of optimization in telecommunications, and the optimization developments that are frequently applied to telecommunications. This book aims to provide a reference tool for scientists and engineers in telecommunications who depend upon optimization.

  12. Space weather & telecommunications

    Goodman, John M


    This book is both a survey of practical concepts for forecasting the performance of various telecommunication systems as well as a balanced treatment of space-weather phenomena that give rise to telecommunication impairment episodes. It bridges the gap in the relationship that exists between the following two disciplines: space weather and telecommunication system performance. There are a number of books that address one of the two disciplines in some detail, but only merely mention the other as an afterthought. In this book the author has married the two disciplines so that the readership can

  13. Study on Theory and Methods of Telecommunication Tariff


    The pricing of telecommunication services is quite important aswell as complicated. This paper strengthens the research of theories and implementation of telecommunication tariff in China. It is helpful for the government authorities and enterprises to unify and standardize the regulatory methods, to guide the deciding of the structure and level of telecommunication tariff by implementing scientific theories, to further develop and optimize the tariff system. This paper conducts a systematic, in-depth and creative research on some of the most popular and most difficult problems in the area of telecommunication tariff research, such as the regulation of telecommunication tariff, the theories of telecommunication tariff, the systematic pricing theory, the interconnection charge, the model cost evaluation theory, the long-run incremental cost theory, and the international telecommunication tariff. After studying the foreign methods on telecommunication tariff regulation, basing on the current situation of China's tariff regulation, the scope and methods for China's telecommunication tariff regulation are suggested. Aimed at the weakness of pricing theory for enterprises to set up telecommunication tariffs, an overall frame work of telecommunication tariff theories is proposed. The systematic pricing theory and model cost evaluation theory of telecommunication services are put forward from a brand new perspective. A front topic, the LRIC theory, is probed. In addition, the pricing practices of network interconnection charge and international telecommunication tariff, which are currently very attractive to the theorists, are discussed. Basing on these studies, this paper improves the structure of telecommunication tariff theory. It provides the Chinese government authorities with practical methods and helpful supports to regulate the telecommunication tariffs; in the mean time, it also provides the enterprises with scientific pricing theories and methods to set up

  14. Net one, net two: the primary care network income statement.

    Halley, M D; Little, A W


    Although hospital-owned primary care practices have been unprofitable for most hospitals, some hospitals are achieving competitive advantage and sustainable practice operations. A key to the success of some has been a net income reporting tool that separates practice operating expenses from the costs of creating and operating a network of practices to help healthcare organization managers, physicians, and staff to identify opportunities to improve the network's financial performance. This "Net One, Net Two" reporting allows operations leadership to be held accountable for Net One expenses and strategic leadership to be held accountable for Net Two expenses. PMID:11066669

  15. Market structures in international telecommunications

    Henten, Anders


    Paper dealing with the internationalisation of telecommunications and the developing market structures.......Paper dealing with the internationalisation of telecommunications and the developing market structures....

  16. Rural TeleHealth: Telemedicine, Distance Education and Informatics for Rural Health Care.

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO. Western Cooperative for Educational Communications.

    This document provides an overview of the various telecommunications and information technologies available for rural communities to use in their health care systems. The first section explains the principal technologies of telecommunications such as the telephone, computer networking, audiographics, and video. It describes transmission systems…

  17. Telecommunications system reliability engineering theory and practice

    Ayers, Mark L


    "Increasing system complexity require new, more sophisticated tools for system modeling and metric calculation. Bringing the field up to date, this book provides telecommunications engineers with practical tools for analyzing, calculating, and reporting availability, reliability, and maintainability metrics. It gives the background in system reliability theory and covers in-depth applications in fiber optic networks, microwave networks, satellite networks, power systems, and facilities management. Computer programming tools for simulating the approaches presented, using the Matlab software suite, are also provided"

  18. Integration and continuity of Care in health care network models for frail older adults

    Veras, Renato Peixoto; Caldas, Célia Pereira; da Motta, Luciana Branco; de Lima, Kenio Costa; Siqueira, Ricardo Carreño; Rodrigues, Renata Teixeira da Silva Vendas; Santos, Luciana Maria Alves Martins; Guerra, Ana Carolina Lima Cavaletti


    A detailed review was conducted of the literature on models evaluating the effectiveness of integrated and coordinated care networks for the older population. The search made use of the following bibliographic databases: Pubmed, The Cochrane Library, LILACS, Web of Science, Scopus and SciELO. Twelve articles on five different models were included for discussion. Analysis of the literature showed that the services provided were based on primary care, including services within the home. Service users relied on the integration of primary and hospital care, day centers and in-home and social services. Care plans and case management were key elements in care continuity. This approach was shown to be effective in the studies, reducing the need for hospital care, which resulted in savings for the system. There was reduced prevalence of functional loss and improved satisfaction and quality of life on the part of service users and their families. The analysis reinforced the need for change in the approach to health care for older adults and the integration and coordination of services is an efficient way of initiating this change. PMID:24897058

  19. The evolution of investments decision mode in China's telecommunication

    ZHANG Ai-hua; ZHAO Lian-qiang; SHU Hua-ying


    This essay analyzes the data of Chinese telecommunication market, telecommunication investments and investment benefits over the past 20 years. On the basis of these data, the essay reviews Chinese changing telecommunication policies and discusses the major events in the course of China's telecommunication development. It is argued that telecommunication policies, regime backgrounds and market demand characteristics have a significant impact on investment decision mode in telecommunication industry. The evolution of network investments decision mode in China's telecommunication has corresponded to the transformation of these key factors. Considering the special events in the development of Chinese telecommunication as divisions, the essay discusses three stages of the evolution of investments decision mode in China's telecommunication. With the firm environment and problems that Chinese telecommunication operators have been facing since 2000 analyzed. it is demonstrated that Chinese telecommunication operators should change their mode of investment decision into the "profit-oriented investment decision mode" in order to achieve a high growth performance in the capital market,. This investment decision mode will result in increase of the investment profit with limited investment capital. The main procedure of profit-oriented investment decision mode is set out, which is abstracted to a mathematical model eventually.

  20. Complementary and alternative medicine for children's asthma: satisfaction, care provider responsiveness, and networks of care.

    Freidin, Betina; Timmermans, Stefan


    We explain why some caretakers opt for alternative medicine for the treatment of children's asthma whereas others do not. In the past 15 years, asthma care has been standardized, with clinical practice guidelines centered on advanced pharmacological regimes. Clinicians argue that with proper biomedical treatment and environmental control, asthma should be a manageable chronic disease. Yet many patients forego available pharmacological treatments for alternative medicine or complement prescribed drugs with unconventional treatments. On the basis of open-ended, in-depth qualitative interviews with 50 mothers of children with asthma, we argue that the experience with biomedical treatments, social influence in mother's network of care, concerns about adverse and long-term effects, health care providers' responsiveness to such concerns, and familiarity with alternative treatments explain why some families rely on alternative medicine and others do not. PMID:18174534

  1. The Economics of Antitrust and Regulation in Telecommunications


    Contributing to a convergence of legal and economic approaches, The Economics of Antitrust and Regulation in Telecommunications integrates economic theory into current EU antitrust policy within the sector. The book addresses the role of competition and regulatory policies on a number of key issues in telecommunications, such as market definition, collective dominance, access to networks, and allocation of scarce resources.

  2. Engaging Faculty in Telecommunications-Based Instructional Delivery Systems.

    Swalec, John J.

    In the design and development of telecommunications-based instructional delivery systems, attention to faculty involvement and training is often overlooked until the system is operational. The Waubonsee Telecommunications Instructional Consortium (TIC), in Illinois, is one network that benefited from early faculty input. Even before the first…

  3. Los Angeles Free-Net: an experiment in interactive telecommunication between lay members of the Los Angeles community and health care experts.

    Bluming, A; Mittelman, P S


    The Los Angeles Free-Net, an interactive community information resource, was established in part to help community members become more effective consumers of health care services. By providing timely, expert answers to anonymously asked medical questions at no charge, we hope to decrease unnecessary physician-patient encounters, encourage effective preventive-health measures, and improve the overall results of health care in our community. Although it is too early to assess health care benefi...

  4. Broadband Telecommunications Benchmarking Study


    This report assesses Ireland's competitiveness relative to 21 countries, with particular focus on the broadband telecommunications requirements of the enterprise sector. The report outlines strengths and weaknesses that currently exist and progress that has already been made. It also makes a series of recommendations to further promote the development of the broadband market in Ireland.

  5. Telecommunication market research processing

    Dupont, J. F.


    The data processing in two telecommunication market investigations is described. One of the studies concerns the office applications of communication and the other the experiences with a videotex terminal. Statistical factorial analysis was performed on a large mass of data. A comparison between utilization intentions and effective utilization is made. Extensive rewriting of statistical analysis computer programs was required.

  6. Equivalent unit in telecommunications services

    Luiza Santangelo Reis


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between the “cost” and “production” variables in a telecommunications company, measuring the latter in the unit of measure termed Network Units (NU.  The study shows a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.55 -evaluated as moderate - over the course of a 24-month period and resulting from 177 trials.  Subsequently, only the work teams composed of the company´s standard structure were taken into consideration, which yielded 32 observations of interest and a derived correlation coefficient of 0.8.  Finally, the data pertaining to each individual work team over a determined length of time was analyzed, showing strong correlation coefficients in seven of the eleven, and in the remainder, a moderate linear relationship between the variables analyzed.  These results suggest the viability of applying the NU production measurement model in the telecommunications company in question


    Mariana Kaneva


    Full Text Available The relationship between telecommunications infrastructure and economic activity is under discussion in many scientific papers. Most of the authors use for research and analysis the Jipp curve. A lot of doubts about the correctness of the Jipp curve appear in terms of applying econometric models. The aim of this study is a review of the Jipp curve, refining the possibility of its application in modern conditions. The methodology used in the study is based on dynamic econometric models, including tests for nonstationarity and tests for causality. The focus of this study is directed to methodological problems in measuring the local density types of telecommunication networks. This study offers a specific methodology for assessing the Jipp law, through VAR-approach and Granger causality tests. It is proved that mechanical substitution of momentary aggregated variables (such as the number of subscribers of a telecommunication network at the end of the year and periodically aggregated variables (such as GDP per capita in the Jipp�s curve is methodologically wrong. Researchers have to reconsider the relationship set in the Jipp�s curve by including additional variables that characterize the Telecommunications sector and the economic activity in a particular country within a specified time period. GDP per capita should not be regarded as a single factor for the local density of telecommunications infrastructure. New econometric models studying the relationship between the investments in telecommunications infrastructure and economic development may be not only linear regression models, but also other econometric models. New econometric models should be proposed after testing and validating with sound economic theory and econometric methodology.

  8. Quality of service provision assessment in the healthcare information and telecommunications infrastructures.

    Babulak, Eduard


    The continuous increase in the complexity and the heterogeneity of corporate and healthcare telecommunications infrastructures will require new assessment methods of quality of service (QoS) provision that are capable of addressing all engineering and social issues with much faster speeds. Speed and accessibility to any information at any time from anywhere will create global communications infrastructures with great performance bottlenecks that may put in danger human lives, power supplies, national economy and security. Regardless of the technology supporting the information flows, the final verdict on the QoS is made by the end user. The users' perception of telecommunications' network infrastructure QoS provision is critical to the successful business management operation of any organization. As a result, it is essential to assess the QoS Provision in the light of user's perception. This article presents a cost effective methodology to assess the user's perception of quality of service provision utilizing the existing Staffordshire University Network (SUN) by adding a component of measurement to the existing model presented by Walker. This paper presents the real examples of CISCO Networking Solutions for Health Care givers and offers a cost effective approach to assess the QoS provision within the campus network, which could be easily adapted to any health care organization or campus network in the world. PMID:16137920

  9. Polarization Optics in Telecommunications

    Damask, Jay N


    The strong investments into optical telecommunications in the late 1990s resulted in a wealth of new research, techniques, component designs, and understanding of polarization effects in fiber. Polarization Optics in Telecommunications brings together recent advances in the field to create a standard, practical reference for component designers and optical fiber communication engineers. Beginning with a sound foundation in electromagnetism, the author offers a dissertation of the spin-vector formalism of polarization and the interaction of light with media. Applications discussed include optical isolators, optical circulators, fiber collimators, and a variety of applied waveplate and prism combinations. Also included in an extended discussion of polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) and polarization-dependent loss (PDL), their representation, behavior, statistical properties, and measurement. This book draws extensively from the technical and patent literature and is an up-to-date reference for researchers and c...

  10. NATO Telecommunications Symposium

    Lucas, William; Conrath, David


    This book contains the proceedings of the first international symposium devoted to research on the evaluation and planning of new person-to-person telecommunication systems. It was sponsored by NATO's Special Programme Panel on Systems Science and took place, in September 1977, at the University of Bergamo in the north of Italy. Telecommunication systems which provide for communication be­ tween people, rather than computers or other instruments, are of two kinds. There are mass communication systems (broadcast radio and television) and interpersonal systems (for example, the telephone and Telex) which join together individuals or small groups. Here we have included in the interpersonal category certain systems for re­ trieving information from computers, essentially those systems in which the role of the computer 1s primarily to act as a store and to identify that information which best fits a user's request. (This excludes management information systems in which the computer performs important transformat...

  11. Bundling in Telecommunications

    Begoña García-Mariñoso; Xavier Martinez-Giralt; Pau Olivella


    The paper offers an overview of the literature on bundling in the telecommunications sector and its application in the Spanish market. We argue that the use of bundling in the provision of services is associated to technological reasons. Therefore, there appears no need to regulate bundling activities. However, this is not to say that other related telecom markets should not be scrutinized and regulated, or that the regulator should not pay attention to other bundling-related anticompetitive ...

  12. Accelerating a Network Model of Care: Taking a Social Innovation to Scale

    Kerry Byrne


    Full Text Available Government-funded systems of health and social care are facing enormous fiscal and human-resource challenges. The space for innovation in care is wide open and new disruptive patterns are emerging. These include self-management and personal budgets, participatory and integrated care, supported decision making and a renewed focus on prevention. Taking these disruptive patterns to scale can be accelerated by a technologically enabled shift to a network model of care to co-create the best outcomes for individuals, family caregivers, and health and social care organizations. The connections, relationships, and activities within an individual’s personal network lay the foundation for care that health and social care systems/policy must simultaneously support and draw on for positive outcomes. Practical tools, adequate information, and tangible resources are required to coordinate and sustain care. Tyze Personal Networks is a social venture that uses technology to engage and inform the individual, their personal networks, and their care providers to co-create the best outcomes. In this article, we demonstrate how Tyze contributes to a shift to a network model of care by strengthening our networks and enhancing partnerships between care providers, individuals, and family and friends.

  13. Los Angeles Free-Net: an experiment in interactive telecommunication between lay members of the Los Angeles community and health care experts.

    Bluming, A; Mittelman, P S


    The Los Angeles Free-Net, an interactive community information resource, was established in part to help community members become more effective consumers of health care services. By providing timely, expert answers to anonymously asked medical questions at no charge, we hope to decrease unnecessary physician-patient encounters, encourage effective preventive-health measures, and improve the overall results of health care in our community. Although it is too early to assess health care benefits from this system, the following observations may help guide the development of similar systems around the nation: (1) A small annual registration fee generates both moral and financial public support. (2) Demographic information from registered users can help direct attempts at enfranchising all members of the community. (3) Toll-free access, free public-instruction sessions, moderated forums, extensive volunteer help, and encryption security are encouraged, while Internet censorship is difficult and counterproductive. (4) Access to Internet resources is important, but the strength of a community system lies primarily in the sharing of expertise and resources among members of the community. (5) A critical mass of available physicians to answer questions must be matched with a critical level of question input for this type of interactive medical information resource to function in a time-sensitive fashion. PMID:8826627

  14. Disruptive Innovations as a Driving Force for the Change of Wireless Telecommunication Infrastructures

    Kyoseva, Tsvetoslava; Poulkov, Vladimir; Mihaylov, Mihail Rumenov;


    Innovations are the driving force for fundamental changes and development of future generation telecommunication networks. When considering innovations as drivers for the development of next generation telecommunication networks an important question is whether an innovative emerging technology...... would cause a disruption requiring fundamental change of the infrastructure or will it will only catalyze its evolution. This paper describes the major characteristics of disruptive innovations as a driving force for fundamental changes in existing telecommunications infrastructures. By analyzing the...... the potential disruptiveness of a technology, we provide examples of some new emerging technologies in telecommunications that have the potentials to alter the telecommunication infrastructure landscape....

  15. Data Exchange Inventory System for Telecommunications and Systems Operations (DEXI-OTSO)

    Social Security Administration — This Data Exchange Inventory (DEXI) for the Office of Telecommunications and System Operations, (OTSO) Network Troubleshooting is a browser-based inventory database...


    Gheorghe Meghisan; Georgeta-Madalina Meghisan


    The purpose of this research paper is to identify the potential of mobile health devices with a positive impact on the public health care system from Romania. More people monitoring their health situation with the help of mobile health applications could lead to less money spent by the public health sector with treating more advanced diseases. Approach/ methodology. The analysis of the Romanian mobile telecommunications market and health situation of the population from Romania was based on s...

  17. ROCSAT-1 telecommunication experiments

    Chang, J. F.; Taur, R. R.; Chu, T. H.; Li, H. S.; Su, Y. T.; Kiang, Y. W.; Su, S. L.; Shih, M. P.; Lin, H. D.; Chung, C. D.

    This paper addresses a telecommunication payload project approved by the R.O.C. NSPO's ROCSAT-1 space program. This project will enable several innovative experiments via the low-earth-orbit satellite ROCSAT-1, including multipath fading channel characterization, ionospheric scintillation measurement, real-time voice communications, and CDMA data communications. A unified L/S-band transponder payload is proposed for conducting these experiments in an efficient way. The results of these experiments would provide the evolving mobile communication communities with fruitful information.

  18. The Bermuda Agreement on Telecommunications 1945

    Collins, R.


    The end of the Second World War saw global telecommunications governance renegotiated. The dominant British Imperial (later Commonwealth) network experienced multiple changes: the tightly integrated and collaborative imperial governance system fell away as the governing partners increasingly pursued their own, rather than a collective agendas and as the ‘imperial’ company, Cable and Wireless', dominance gave way to a competition and interconnection based regime as American firms and their net...

  19. Medical image telecommunication

    After years of waiting for Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) to become technologically mature and readily available at competitive costs, it appears that the ingredients are now available for producing at least the telecommunication component of the PACS. They are as follows: 1. A variety of pathways now exist for long-distance high-speed digital data transmission at acceptable costs. 2. Developments in computer technology and keen competition in the microcomputer and video display markets have markedly reduced to costs for components of digital data terminals. 3. The volume of native digitally acquired images is expanding yearly, whereas at the same time the pressure for converting images acquired in analog format to digital format is increasing. 4. The advantages of and potential for processing and storing imaging data in digital format are becoming more widely recognized. These factors, individually and collectively, favor the successful applications of image telecommunication to the field of diagnostic imaging. The authors have attempted to provide an overview of the subject and the basics of this emerging technology

  20. Social networks of nursing staff and organizational performance. A study in long-term care facilities

    Beek, A.P.A. van


    Over the years, there has been increasing attention for the role of social networks in explaining performance differences between organizations. Yet, research on social networks within healthcare organizations in general and long-term care facilities specifically has been rare, despite growing interest in explanations for differences in performance. In this thesis, we study informal social networks of nursing staff and organizational performance in different care settings for residents with d...

  1. Telecommunications dynamics, output and employment

    Jungmittag, Andre; Welfens, Paul J.J.


    In EU countries, opening up of telecommunications markets and regulations have helped to reduce the price of digital services which is an important quasi-input factor in all firms. Integrating the use of telecommunications in a macroeconomic production function is the analytical starting point for our interdependent analysis of output, use of telecommunications and employment. Based on unit root and co-integration analysis as well as an error correction three-equation model which are estimate...

  2. Danish companies administration of telecommunications

    Jensen, Martin; Ali, Ammar


    This project focuses on decision-making behavior within Danish companies in relation to the administration of their telecommunication. Surveys and industry-reports have found the telecommunication industry too complex and un-transparent, due to high competitiveness and convoluted product differentiation. According to several telecommunication-experts, Danish companies are missing out cost savings and quality improvements, which questions the rationality of neo-classical thinking. Therefore, w...

  3. CRC handbook of modern telecommunications

    Morreale, Patricia A


    This authoritative handbook, contributed to by a team of international experts, covers the most dynamic areas in the changing telecommunications landscape. Written for telecommunications specialists who implement the new technologies, The CRC Handbook of Modern Telecommunications is an excellent companion volume to the authors' The Telecommunications Handbook, but stands well on its own, as it extends the range of topics to include voice over Internet, traffic management, quality of service, and other dominant future trends. It is an indispensable reference for all professionals working in the

  4. Sensor network infrastructure for a home care monitoring system.

    Palumbo, Filippo; Ullberg, Jonas; Stimec, Ales; Furfari, Francesco; Karlsson, Lars; Coradeschi, Silvia


    This paper presents the sensor network infrastructure for a home care system that allows long-term monitoring of physiological data and everyday activities. The aim of the proposed system is to allow the elderly to live longer in their home without compromising safety and ensuring the detection of health problems. The system offers the possibility of a virtual visit via a teleoperated robot. During the visit, physiological data and activities occurring during a period of time can be discussed. These data are collected from physiological sensors (e.g., temperature, blood pressure, glucose) and environmental sensors (e.g., motion, bed/chair occupancy, electrical usage). The system can also give alarms if sudden problems occur, like a fall, and warnings based on more long-term trends, such as the deterioration of health being detected. It has been implemented and tested in a test environment and has been deployed in six real homes for a year-long evaluation. The key contribution of the paper is the presentation of an implemented system for ambient assisted living (AAL) tested in a real environment, combining the acquisition of sensor data, a flexible and adaptable middleware compliant with the OSGistandard and a context recognition application. The system has been developed in a European project called GiraffPlus. PMID:24573309

  5. Health care communication networks: disseminating employee information for hospital security.

    Sumner, Jennifer; Liberman, Aaron; Rotarius, Timothy; Wan, Thomas T H; Eaglin, Ronald


    Health care in the United States is a system that, organizationally speaking, is fragmented. Each hospital facility is independently operated and is responsible for the hiring of its own employees. Corrupt individuals can take advantage of this fragmentation and move from hospital to hospital, gaining employment while hiding previous employment history. However, the need to exchange pertinent information regarding employees will become necessary as hospitals seek to fill positions throughout their organizations. One way to promote this information exchange is to develop trusted information sharing networks among hospital units. This study examined the problems surrounding organizational information sharing and the cultural factors necessary to enhance the exchange of employee information. Surveys were disseminated to 2,603 hospital chief executive officers and chief information officers throughout the nation. A sample of 154 respondents provided data into their current hiring practices and on their willingness to engage in the sharing of employee information. Findings indicated that, although fear of defamation and privacy violations do hinder the exchange of information between hospitals during the hiring process, by increasing external trust, linking the sharing process with the organizational goals of the hospital, and developing a "sharing culture" among hospitals, the exchange of employee information could be enhanced. PMID:19910705

  6. Sensor Network Infrastructure for a Home Care Monitoring System

    Filippo Palumbo


    Full Text Available This paper presents the sensor network infrastructure for a home care system that allows long-term monitoring of physiological data and everyday activities. The aim of the proposed system is to allow the elderly to live longer in their home without compromising safety and ensuring the detection of health problems. The system offers the possibility of a virtual visit via a teleoperated robot. During the visit, physiological data and activities occurring during a period of time can be discussed. These data are collected from physiological sensors (e.g., temperature, blood pressure, glucose and environmental sensors (e.g., motion, bed/chair occupancy, electrical usage. The system can also give alarms if sudden problems occur, like a fall, and warnings based on more long-term trends, such as the deterioration of health being detected. It has been implemented and tested in a test environment and has been deployed in six real homes for a year-long evaluation. The key contribution of the paper is the presentation of an implemented system for ambient assisted living (AAL tested in a real environment, combining the acquisition of sensor data, a flexible and adaptable middleware compliant with the OSGistandard and a context recognition application. The system has been developed in a European project called GiraffPlus.

  7. Bezbednost i zaštita telekomunikacionih širokopojasnih ATM mreža / Security and protection in the broadband ATM telecommunication networks

    Milojko V. Jevtović


    Full Text Available U radu je prikazana analiza problema bezbednosti i zaštite telekomunikacionih širokopojasnih ATM mreža. Analizirane su brojne moguće pretnje i oblici ugrožavanja širokopojasnih mreža i navedeni zahtevi za bezbednost i zaštitu mreža. Obrađena je koncepcija bezbednosnih mehanizama. Analizirane su bezbednosne mrežne usluge i opisan bezbednosni model ATM mreža. Navedeni su problemi koji se javljaju pri realizaciji bezbednosnih mera i zaštite u komunikaciji preko ATM mreža. / Security of communications over broadband ATM networks is analyzed in this paper. Attacks on ATM networks (faber tapping, SONET (Synchronous Optical network drop/add multiplexor attacks, eavesdropping, spoofing, virtual channel stealing, service denial, traffic analysis, protocol weaknesses, ILMI (Integrated Local Management Interface attacks, PNNI (Private Network to Network Interface attacks, model of ATM and ATM security framework are described. Some problems occurring within security and protection realization in the communication over ATM networks are also specified.

  8. Cost-based access pricing in the brazilian telecommunications sector

    Sérgio Luís Franklin Jr.; Madiagne Diallo


    The opening of the fixed telephony, mobile and data communications markets to competition, in conjunction with the subsequent reduction and elimination of entry barriers have allowed new telecommunications operators to launch their operations and develop. While traditional telecommunications business models required large amounts of money to be raised up-front in order to finance huge investment in network infrastru...

  9. Social network approaches to recruitment, HIV prevention, medical care, and medication adherence

    Latkin, Carl A.; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A.; Knowlton, Amy R.; Alexander, Kamila A.; Williams, Chyvette T.; Boodram, Basmattee


    This article reviews current issues and advancements in social network approaches to HIV prevention and care. Social network analysis can provide a method to understand health disparities in HIV rates and treatment access and outcomes. Social network analysis is a value tool to link social structural factors to individual behaviors. Social networks provide an avenue for low cost and sustainable HIV prevention interventions that can be adapted and translated into diverse populations. Social ne...

  10. Customer service on the Czech mobile telecommunication market. Comparative Analysis

    Hanzlík, Radek


    The main goal of this thesis is to compare the quality of customer service between the Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) and Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNOs) on the Czech mobile telecommunication market. The mystery shopping method is used as the source of data for the comparative analysis.

  11. Temporal trends of system of care for STEMI: insights from the Jakarta Cardiovascular Care Unit Network System.

    Surya Dharma

    Full Text Available AIM: Guideline implementation programs are of paramount importance in optimizing acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI care. Assessment of performance indicators from a local STEMI network will provide knowledge of how to improve the system of care. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 2008-2011, 1505 STEMI patients were enrolled. We compared the performance indicators before (n = 869 and after implementation (n = 636 of a local STEMI network. In 2011 (after introduction of STEMI networking compared to 2008-2010, there were more inter-hospital referrals for STEMI patients (61% vs 56%, p12 hours after symptom onset were similar (53% vs 51%, NS. Moreover, the numbers of patients with door-to-balloon time ≤ 90 minutes were similar (49.1% vs 51.3%, NS, and in-hospital mortality rates were similar (8.3% vs 6.9%, NS in 2011 compared to 2008-2010. CONCLUSION: After a local network implementation for patients with STEMI, there were significantly more inter-hospital referral cases, primary PCI procedures, and patients with a door-to-needle time ≤ 30 minutes, compared to the period before implementation of this network. However, numbers of patients who presented very late, the targeted door-to-balloon time and in-hospital mortality rate were similar in both periods. To improve STEMI networking based on recent guidelines, existing pre-hospital and in-hospital protocols should be improved and managed more carefully, and should be accommodated whenever possible.

  12. A Survey on Telecommunication Technology Standards

    Sandeep Singh Sengar,


    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc Network is a self configurable routing protocol. Nodes in MANET can shift freely from one place to another place and each node in MANET can take action as a transmitter, receiver and router. WiMAX is a telecommunication technology standard which provides fixed and mobile Internet access. Access Server Network (ASN in WiMAX provides the layer 2 connectivity to the user equipments. HAAA server is used to offer security in the IEEE 802.16 standard. 3GPP LTE (Long Term Evolution is the latest standard in the mobile elecommunication technology which makes available fastest service to the user by using System Architecture Evolution (SAE and Mobility Management Entity (MME. In this paper we will analyze the architecture of MANET, WiMAX, LTE network, and handover as well as connection establishment mechanism between different networks.

  13. Care Networking: A Study of Technical Mediations in a Home Telecare Service

    Miquel Domènech


    Full Text Available This article examines the processes of technical mediation within familial care networks based on a study of home telecare targeted at older people. Supported by contributions from the actor—network theory as part of the social psychology of science and technology, these processes of technical mediation are analyzed using a qualitative approach. The data were gathered through six focus groups and four in-depth interviews; the participants in the study included users, relatives and formal carers. Thematic analysis techniques encompassing the information were used, revealing the effects on the patterns of caring relationships. The results show the interplay between presence-absence made possible by the devices; the two-way direction of care between the older people and the artifacts; and the process of sustaining care using the technology. We conclude that care should be seen as a socio-technical network where technology plays an active role in sustaining family relationships.

  14. Do social networks affect the use of residential aged care among older Australians?

    Glonek Gary FV


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older people's social networks with family and friends can affect residential aged care use. It remains unclear if there are differences in the effects of specific (with children, other relatives, friends and confidants and total social networks upon use of low-level residential care and nursing homes. Methods Data were drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Six waves of data from 1477 people aged ≥ 70 collected over nine years of follow-up were used. Multinomial logistic regressions of the effects of specific and total social networks on residential care use were carried out. Propensity scores were used in the analyses to adjust for differences in participant's health, demographic and lifestyle characteristics with respect to social networks. Results Higher scores for confidant networks were protective against nursing home use (odds ratio [OR] upper versus lower tertile of confidant networks = 0.50; 95%CI 0.33–0.75. Similarly, a significant effect of upper versus lower total network tertile on nursing home use was observed (OR = 0.62; 95%CI 0.43–0.90. Evidence of an effect of children networks on nursing home use was equivocal. Nursing home use was not predicted by other relatives or friends social networks. Use of lower-level residential care was unrelated to social networks of any type. Social networks of any type did not have a significant effect upon low-level residential care use. Discussion Better confidant and total social networks predict nursing home use in a large cohort of older Australians. Policy needs to reflect the importance of these particular relationships in considering where older people want to live in the later years of life.

  15. Telecommunications, politics, economics, and national sovereignty: A new game

    Bugliarello, G.


    The impact of telecommunications on politics, economics and national sovereignty is creating a new game. Political and economic power may operate over the same territory, as in the now-rare case of isolated economies, but, more often, their domains do not coincide. Increasingly, telecommunications create major challenges for countries preoccupied with issues of national sovereignty because the national state has only a limited ability to control these intrinsic and at times potentially destabilizing powers of telecommunications and the {open_quotes}telecommunities{close_quotes} they make possible. As many traditional aspects of sovereignty are becoming weakened by telecommunications, and as the intense dynamics of networks and the expansion of telecommunities revolutionize business and politics, there is a need to prevent the situation from becoming chaotic and uncontrollable, even while recognizing the possibilities of enhanced opportunities. This requires focusing on a more flexible conception of sovereignty which can enhance the state`s attractiveness for telecommunications infrastructure, while addressing issues of ethics and morality in the new telecommications environment. A new, broad socio-technological research agenda needs to be developed - with the ultimate purpose of providing society with the tools to play the new game and thrive. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Care Networking: A Study of Technical Mediations in a Home Telecare Service

    Miquel Domènech; Gonzalo Correa


    This article examines the processes of technical mediation within familial care networks based on a study of home telecare targeted at older people. upported by contributions from the actor—network theory as part of the social psychology of science and technology, these processes of technical mediation are analyzed using a qualitative approach. The data were gathered through six focus groups and four in-depth interviews; the participants in the study included users, relatives and formal care...

  17. Croatian Telecommunication Market: Concentration Trends in the Period from 2003 to 2008

    Mirjana Pejić Bach


    Full Text Available Telecommunication markets are a valuable factor that contributes to the economic growth and development. The development of the telecommunication markets and services was slower in the countries in transition than in developed European countries, altough after the fall of communism countries in transition implemented a big progress in spreading and modernizing of their telecommunication network.The paper analysis the level of concentration of telecommunication industry in Croatia from 2003 to 2008. The data used in the analysis consider 50 Croatian largest IT firms that are operating on telecommunication market and specific telecommunication sectors: producers of telecommunication equipment, distributers of telecommunication services and implementers of telecommunication solutions. The main two conclusions of this article are: (1 degree of concentration on the telecommunication market in Croatia changed differently in different market shares, (2 degree of concentration on the telecommunication market in Croatia is influenced by different barriers to enter the market.The analysis finds that Croatian telecommunication industry is in a good position even a few steps ahead of some other transition countries.

  18. [The network of mental health care from the family health strategy service].

    Wetzel, Christine; de Pinho, Leandro Barbosa; Olschowsky, Agnes; Guedes, Ariane da Cruz; Camatta, Marcio Wagner; Schneider, Jacó Fernando


    The Family Health Strategy Service (FHSS) is an important ally in the mental health system, contributing to the completeness and effectiveness of care. This study aimed to discuss the mental health care network as compared to the daily routine of an FHSS. It is an evaluative study with a qualitative methodological approach. It was developed in an FHSS in Porto Alegre-RS, Brazil. Data was collected between July and December of 2010 through interviews with 16 workers and ten relatives. We identified important resources in primary health care, such as partnerships with academia. However, the constitution of this care is still based on specialty, following the logic of patient referral. Our intention for this study was to contribute to the operationalization of the mental health care network, consolidating the partnership with the FHSS and developing activities in the territorial space, raising awareness, demystifying health care service in the area, and countering the perception that it is uniquely specialized. PMID:25158457

  19. Clustering analysis of telecommunication customers

    REN Hong; ZHENG Yan; WU Ye-rong


    In this article, a clustering method based on genetic algorithm (GA) for telecommunication customer subdivision is presented. First, the features of telecommunication customers (such as the calling behavior and consuming behavior) are extracted. Second, the similarities between the multidimensional feature vectors of telecommunication customers are computed and mapped as the distance between samples on a two-dimensional plane. Finally, the distances are adjusted to approximate the similarities gradually by GA. One advantage of this method is the independent distribution of the sample space. The experiments demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  20. Social networks of nursing staff and organizational performance. A study in long-term care facilities

    Beek, A.P.A van


    Over the years, there has been increasing attention for the role of social networks in explaining performance differences between organizations. Yet, research on social networks within healthcare organizations in general and long-term care facilities specifically has been rare, despite growing inter

  1. European primary care surveillance networks: an overview of structure and operation.

    Deckers, J.G.M.; Paget, W.J.; Schellevis, F.G.; Fleming, D.M.


    In many European countries, primary care networks have a important role in public health surveillance. The networks are organised and function differently in EU member states. Their information is a potential source for a European health information and monitoring system as envisaged in the European

  2. 数据仓库在电信本地网中的现状及改进%Data Warehouse Situation and Improve in the Local Telecommunications Network



    A local network data warehouse applications aim to support the local network at all levels of business analysis,marketing planning,statistics show the staff report,data extraction and diverse needs,to help the leadership of scientific decision-making,helping managers to understand the insight into the focus of the work development of the sector operators,as first-line account manager to provide guidance and effective targeted marketing support tools.%建立本地网数据仓库应用的目标在于支撑本地网各级的经营分析、营销策划、统计人员对报表展现、数据提取的多样需求,帮助领导层科学决策,帮助部门经理洞察工作的重点以了解本部门经营发展状况,为一线的客户经理提供针对性营销指导和有效的支撑工具等。

  3. Berlin radiology telecommunication project

    This paper is an evaluation of digital and analog image transfer and teleconferencing in radiology via a 140-Mbit forerunner broadband network (VBN). In the two locations of the Department of Radiology at our institution, 10 km apart, two Siemens picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) are installed. Image transfer from two MR and five CT units to PACS is organized in a Ethernet-based LAN. Communication between PACS is established via a 140-Mbit ISD network. A daily radiologic conference is performed with simultaneous telephone and video communication via an analog VBNet

  4. Implementing a Trauma-Informed Approach in Pediatric Health Care Networks.

    Marsac, Meghan L; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Hildenbrand, Aimee K; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Winston, Flaura K; Leff, Stephen S; Fein, Joel


    Pediatric health care networks serve millions of children each year. Pediatric illness and injury are among the most common potentially emotionally traumatic experiences for children and their families. In addition, millions of children who present for medical care (including well visits) have been exposed to prior traumatic events, such as violence or natural disasters. Given the daily challenges of working in pediatric health care networks, medical professionals and support staff can experience trauma symptoms related to their work. The application of a trauma-informed approach to medical care has the potential to mitigate these negative consequences. Trauma-informed care minimizes the potential for medical care to become traumatic or trigger trauma reactions, addresses distress, provides emotional support for the entire family, encourages positive coping, and provides anticipatory guidance regarding the recovery process. When used in conjunction with family-centered practices, trauma-informed approaches enhance the quality of care for patients and their families and the well-being of medical professionals and support staff. Barriers to routine integration of trauma-informed approaches into pediatric medicine include a lack of available training and unclear best-practice guidelines. This article highlights the importance of implementing a trauma-informed approach and offers a framework for training pediatric health care networks in trauma-informed care practices. PMID:26571032

  5. Telecommunications Technology and Service Changes Since the Telecommunications Act of 1996

    Simmons, Matthew R.


    The Telecom Act of 1996 was intended to address the lack of competition and reduce regulation in local telephone services and in other areas of the telecommunications sector. The competitive situation in telecommunications, particularly regarding local telephone services, has experienced a limited amount of positive change as a result of the Act. Local Telephone service consumers are still given little choice as the Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers (ILECs) continue to dominate coverage in the local loop. The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate the effects that the situation resulting from the Act had on the expansion of telecommunications options and the emergence of new technologies. This thesis also focuses on exploring to what degree competition in telecommunications has improved since 1996. Case studies of telecom companies are utilized to demonstrate how effective the regulations of the Act were in various telecom areas such as long-distance and local services. The convergence of technologies and applications is also identified as several providers combined to offer services such as Web hosting, Voice Over IP solutions, wireless, and long-distance. Problems such as the need for new networks in the local loop are identified and recommendations for potential solutions in the telecom industry are also given.

  6. Solidarity Networks: What Are They? And Why Should We Care?

    Smith, Janel


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the theoretical foundations of the solidarity network concept and its perceived utility as an enabling force for social organizations to influence change. The theoretical framework presented is intended to stimulate dialogue, interest and investigation on the subject of solidarity networks.…

  7. Optical fiber telecommunications components and subsystems

    Kaminow, Ivan; Willner, Alan E


    Optical Fiber Telecommunications VI (A&B) is the sixth in a series that has chronicled the progress in the R&D of lightwave communications since the early 1970s. Written by active authorities from academia and industry, this edition brings a fresh look to many essential topics, including devices, subsystems, systems and networks. A central theme is the enabling of high-bandwidth communications in a cost-effective manner for the development of customer applications. These volumes are an ideal reference for R&D engineers and managers, optical systems implementers, university researchers and s

  8. Social network approaches to recruitment, HIV prevention, medical care, and medication adherence.

    Latkin, Carl A; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A; Knowlton, Amy R; Alexander, Kamila A; Williams, Chyvette T; Boodram, Basmattee


    This article reviews the current issues and advancements in social network approaches to HIV prevention and care. Social network analysis can provide a method to understand health disparities in HIV rates, treatment access, and outcomes. Social network analysis is a valuable tool to link social structural factors to individual behaviors. Social networks provide an avenue for low-cost and sustainable HIV prevention interventions that can be adapted and translated into diverse populations. Social networks can be utilized as a viable approach to recruitment for HIV testing and counseling, HIV prevention interventions, optimizing HIV medical care, and medication adherence. Social network interventions may be face-to-face or through social media. Key issues in designing social network interventions are contamination due to social diffusion, network stability, density, and the choice and training of network members. There are also ethical issues involved in the development and implementation of social network interventions. Social network analyses can also be used to understand HIV transmission dynamics. PMID:23673888

  9. Internet Infrastructures and Health Care Systems: a Qualitative Comparative Analysis on Networks and Markets in the British National Health Service and Kaiser Permanente

    Séror, Ann C


    Background The Internet and emergent telecommunications infrastructures are transforming the future of health care management. The costs of health care delivery systems, products, and services continue to rise everywhere, but performance of health care delivery is associated with institutional and ideological considerations as well as availability of financial and technological resources. Objective To identify the effects of ideological differences on health care market infrastructures includ...

  10. Authentication and Data Security in ITS Telecommunications Solutions

    Tomas Zelinka


    Full Text Available Paper presents telecommunications security issues with dynamically changing networking. Paper also presents performance indicators of authentication as an integral part of the approach to non-public information. Expected level of security depend on relevant ITS services requirements, different solutions require different levels of quality. Data volumes transferred both in private data vehicle on board networks as well as between vehicles and infrastructure or other vehicles significantly and progressively grow. This trend leads to increase of the fatal problems if security of the wide area networks is not relevantly treated. Relevant communications security treatment becomes crucial part of the ITS telecommunications solution because probability of hazards appearances grow if vehicles networks are integrated in the dynamically organized wide area networks. Besides of available "off shelf" security tools solution based on non-public universal identifier with dynamical extension and data selection according to actor role or category is presented including performances indicators for the authentication process.

  11. Classification of Churn and non Churn Customers in Telecommunication Companies



    Full Text Available Telecommunication is very important as it serves various activities, services of electronic systems to transmit messages via physical cables, telephones, or cell phones. The two main factors that affect the growth of telecommunications are the rapid growth of modern technology and the market demand and its competition. These two factors in return, create new technologies and products, which open a series of options and offers to customers, in order to satisfy their needs and requirements. However, one crucial problem that commercial companies in general and telecommunication in particular, suffer from is a loss of valuable customers to competitors; this is called customer churn prediction. In this paper, the dynamic training technique is introduced. The dynamic training is used to improve the prediction of performance. This technique is based on two ANN network configurations to minimise the total error of the network to predict two different classes; names churn and non-customers.

  12. 36 CFR 1194.23 - Telecommunications products.


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Telecommunications products... Telecommunications products. (a) Telecommunications products or systems which provide a function allowing voice... intermix speech with TTY use. (b) Telecommunications products which include voice...

  13. Telecommunication Industry Development Prospects Based on Innovations

    Dmitriy S. Ageenko


    Full Text Available Telecommunication industry is one of the fastest growing industries. Telecommunications development is one of the major indicators of sustainable development of both states and the entire world economy. Any branch of the world economy (banking, transport, tourism, etc. depends on the speed and reliability of global telecommunications. Telecommunication technologies enable to create new markets and provide new services.

  14. Global Telecommunications Services: Strategies of Major Carriers

    Jerry Mccreary; William R. Boulton; Chetan Sankar


    The globalization of telecommunications markets is of primary concern for today’s large telecommunications carriers. International business telecommunications is growing at a rate twice that of domestic traffic. Multi-national customers with offices around the world are demanding integrated solutions to their telecommunications needs. As telecommunication carriers respond to these customers’ needs, the carriers are beginning to expand outside their national boundaries. This paper identifi...

  15. Family practices registration networks contributed to primary care research.

    Weel, C. van; Grauw, W.J.C. de


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Family physicians (FP) play a key role in the diagnosis and treatment of health problems in the community and for evidence-based guidance clinical research must be based on primary care data. This paper analyses the state-of-the-art approaches to collection of data and the

  16. Behavioral health referrals and treatment initiation rates in integrated primary care: a Collaborative Care Research Network study.

    Auxier, Andrea; Runyan, Christine; Mullin, Daniel; Mendenhall, Tai; Young, Jessica; Kessler, Rodger


    Although the benefits of integrating behavioral health (BH) services into primary care are well established (World Health Organization and World Organization of Family Doctors, 2012; Chiles et al. in Clin Psychol-Sci Pr 6:204-220, 1999; Cummings 1997; O'Donohue et al. 2003; Olfson et al. in Health Aff 18:79-93, 1999; Katon et al. in Ann Intern Med 124:917-925, 2001; Simon et al. in Arch Gen Psychiatry 52:850-856, 1995; Anderson et al. in Diabetes Care 24:1069-1078, 2001; Ciechanowski et al. in Arch Intern Med 160:3278-3285, 2000; Egede et al. in Diabetes Care 25:464-470, 2002), research has focused primarily on describing the types of interventions behavioral health providers (BHPs) employ rather than on reasons for referral, treatment initiation rates, or the patient characteristics that may impact them. This study presents the results of a multisite card study organized by The Collaborative Care Research Network, a subnetwork of the American Academy of Family Physicians' National Research Network devoted to conducting practice-based research focused on the provision of BH and health behavior services within primary care practices. The goals of the study included: (1) identifying the characteristics of patients referred for BH services; (2) codifying reasons for referral and whether patients were treated for the referral; (3) exploring any differences between patients who initiated BH contact and those who did not; and (4) assessing the types and frequency of BH services provided to patients who attended at least one appointment. Of the 200 patients referred to a BHP, 81 % had an initial contact, 71 % of which occurred on the same day. Men and women were equally likely to engage with a BHP although the time between appointments varied by gender. Depression and anxiety were the primary reasons for referral. Practice-based research is a viable strategy for advancing the knowledge about integrated primary care. PMID:24073133

  17. ICTEI-2015: International Conference on Telecommunications, Electronics and Informatics. Proceedings

    This book includes articles which cover a vast range of subjects, such as: telecommunications networks and technologies; electronic, optoelectronic, photonic and information systems and devices; materials, components and equipment in electronics and communications; informatics and computer science; software development and testing etc.

  18. Clinical and regulatory protocols for the management of impaired vision in the public health care network

    Jayter Silva Paula


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe the procedures used in developing Clinical and Regulatory Protocols for primary care teams to use in the management of the most common scenarios of impaired vision in Southern Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective review of 1.333 referral forms from all primary care practitioners was performed in Ribeirão Preto city, during a 30-day period. The major ophthalmic diagnostic categories were evaluated from those referrals forms. The Clinical and Regulatory Protocols development process was held afterwards and involved scientific cooperation between a university and the health care system, in the form of workshops attended by primary care practitioners and regulatory system team members composed of health care administrators, ophthalmologists, and professors of ophthalmology and social medicine. RESULTS: The management of impaired vision was chosen as the theme, since it accounted for 43.6% of the ophthalmology-related referrals from primary care providers of Ribeirão Preto. The Clinical and Regulatory Protocols developed involve distinctive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions that can be performed at the primary care level and in different health care settings. The most relevant clinical and regulatory interventions were expressed as algorithms in order to facilitate the use of the Clinical and Regulatory Protocols by health care practitioners. CONCLUSIONS: These Clinical and Regulatory Protocols could represent a useful tool for health systems with universal access, as well as for health care networks based on primary care and for regulatory system teams. Implementation of these Clinical and Regulatory Protocols can minimize the disparity between the needs of patients with impaired vision and the treatment modalities offered, resulting in a more cooperative health care network.

  19. SAT-Based Complete Don't-Care Computation for Network Optimization

    Mishchenko, Alan


    This paper describes an improved approach to Boolean network optimization using internal don't-cares. The improvements concern the type of don't-cares computed, their scope, and the computation method. Instead of the traditionally used compatible observability don't-cares (CODCs), we introduce and justify the use of complete don't-cares (CDC). To ensure the robustness of the don't-care computation for very large industrial networks, a optional windowing scheme is implemented that computes substantial subsets of the CDCs in reasonable time. Finally, we give a SAT-based don't-care computation algorithm that is more efficient than BDD-based algorithms. Experimental results confirm that these improvements work well in practice. Complete don't-cares allow for a reduction in the number of literals compared to the CODCs. Windowing guarantees robustness, even for very large benchmarks on which previous methods could not be applied. SAT reduces the runtime and enhances robustness, making don't-cares affordable for a v...

  20. Lou Qinjian:The telecommunications industry should accelerate expansion to the information service industry


    @@ Lou Qinjian, Vice-Minister of MII, pointed out recently, the telecommunications industry should comply with the development trend actively, strengthen technological innovation, foster the new point of growth, promote the technology, network, management transformation on the basis of service transformation, and accelerate expansion from the traditional telecommunications industry to the information service industry in all-round way.

  1. Articulation of Industrial R&D with Higher Education in the Telecommunications Sector in South Africa

    Paterson, Andrew


    This article shows how and why particular higher education?industry research and development networks articulate with the South African telecommunications sector. The range of competing and complementary data telecommunications technologies available in the South African market provide varying opportunities for enterprises to engage in R&D. Two…

  2. Care of burns in Scotland: 3-year data from the managed clinical network national registry

    Gilhooly, Charlotte; Kinsella, John


    Introduction The Managed Clinical Network for Care of Burns in Scotland (COBIS) was launched in April 2007. Primary aims included establishing and maintaining a registry of complex burn injury in Scotland and setting mechanisms to regularly audit outcome of burn treatment against nationally agreed standards of care. On behalf of COBIS, we present 3-year incidence and mortality data of Scottish patients admitted with a complex burn injury in this abstract. Methods From January 2010 o...

  3. Implementation of a primary care physician network obesity management program.

    Bowerman, S; Bellman, M; Saltsman, P; Garvey, D; Pimstone, K; Skootsky, S; Wang, H J; Elashoff, R; Heber, D


    Most primary care physicians do not treat obesity, citing lack of time, resources, insurance reimbursement, and knowledge of effective interventions as significant barriers. To address this need, a 10-minute intervention delivered by the primary care physician was coupled with individual dietary counseling sessions delivered by a registered dietitian via telephone with an automated calling system (House-Calls, Mobile, AL). Patients were seen for follow-up by their physician at weeks 4, 12, 24, 36 and 52. A total of 252 patients (202 women and 50 men) were referred by 18 primary care physicians to the program. The comorbid conditions reported for all patients at baseline included low back pain, 29% (n = 72); hypertension, 45% (n = 113); hypercholesterolemia, 41% (n = 104); type 2 diabetes, 10% (n = 26); and sleep apnea, 5% (n = 12). When offered a choice of meal plans based on foods or meal replacements, two-thirds of patients (n = 166) chose to use meal replacements (Ultra Slim-Fast; Slim-Fast Foods Co., West Palm Beach, FL) at least once daily. Baseline weights of subjects averaged 200 +/- 46 lb for women (n = 202) and 237 +/- 45 lb for men (n = 50). Patients completing 6 months in the program lost an average of 19.0 +/- 4.0 lb for women (n = 94) and 15.5 +/- 8.2 lb for men (n = 26). Physicians reported a high degree of satisfaction with the program, suggesting that a brief, effective physician-directed program with nutritionist support by telephone can be implemented in a busy primary care office. PMID:11707560

  4. Cooperation in Care: Integration of care in networks by steering, coordination and learning

    van Wijngaarden, Jeroen


    textabstractIntegration of care delivery is a central theme in many Western countries. This is stimulated through various developments in health care and expectations of policy makers, managers, practitioners and researchers. First of all healthcare needs are changing and costs are rising because of an ageing population. Until 2010 major increases (25-60%) are expected in different forms of cancer, cardio-vascular disease (for example stroke), chronic heart failure, diabetes, dementia, asthma...

  5. Partnerships in primary care in Australia: network structure, dynamics and sustainability.

    Lewis, Jenny M; Baeza, Juan I; Alexander, Damon


    Partnerships represent a prescriptive form of network governance, based on the idea of cooperation. This article has four aims. The first is to describe why network governance and partnerships are important now, and what one particular example - Primary Care Partnerships - is addressing. The second is to analyse the network structure of two of these partnerships, and the third is to examine network dynamics. The fourth aim is to explore relationships and sustainability over the longer term. Two government-funded and steered partnerships, which were established to increase coordination between primary care services in Victoria, Australia, were examined. Annual interviews at three points in time between 2002 and 2005 were used to explore relationships between organizations within these two partnerships. The structure of two different communication networks, based on contacts for work and contacts for strategic information, were examined using social network analysis. Tracing network structures over time highlighted partnership dynamics. The network structures changed over the three years of the study, but an important constant was the continuing centrality of the independent staff employed to manage the partnerships. Over the longer term, it seems to be more important to fund independent partnership staff, rather than people who connect partnerships to the funding agency. If partnerships are seen as valuable in improving service coordination and health outcomes, then long term rather than just start-up funding support is required. PMID:18472201

  6. Integration of suicide prevention program into primary health care network: a field clinical trial in Iran

    Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh; Ahmadkhaniha, Hamid Reza; Hosseini, Mohammad; Yekeh Fallah, Maryam; Mirzaei Khoshalani, Mosleh


    Background: Suicide prevention is one of the priorities in policies of Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MHME). The suicide prevention program had two main parts of identifying and treatment of the depressed and suicide high risk individuals by Primary Health Care (PHC) network. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the results of integration of the program into PHC network in two cities with moderate to high rate of suicide with diverse socio-cultural backgrounds. Method...

  7. Transitional care in clinical networks for young people with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: current situation and challenges.

    Cruikshank, Mary; Foster, Helen E; Stewart, Jane; Davidson, Joyce E; Rapley, Tim


    Clinical networks for paediatric and adolescent rheumatology are evolving, and their effect and role in the transition process between paediatric and adult services are unknown. We therefore explored the experiences of those involved to try and understand this further. Health professionals, young people with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and their families were recruited via five national health service paediatric and adolescent rheumatology specialist centres and networks across the UK. Seventy participants took part in focus groups and one-to-one interviews. Data was analysed using coding, memoing and mapping techniques to identify features of transitional services across the sector. Variation and inequities in transitional care exist. Although transition services in networks are evolving, development has lagged behind other areas with network establishment focusing more on access to paediatric rheumatology multidisciplinary teams. Challenges include workforce shortfalls, differences in service priorities, standards and healthcare infrastructures, and managing the legacy of historic encounters. Providing equitable high-quality clinically effective services for transition across the UK has a long way to go. There is a call from within the sector for more protected time, staff and resources to develop transition roles and services, as well as streamlining of local referral pathways between paediatric and adult healthcare services. In addition, there is a need to support professionals in developing their understanding of transitional care in clinical networks, particularly around service design, organisational change and the interpersonal skills required for collaborative working. Key messages • Transitional care in clinical networks requires collaborative working and an effective interface with paediatric and adult rheumatology.• Professional centrism and historic encounters may affect collaborative relationships within clinical networks.• Education

  8. Fuzzy bi-objective preventive health care network design.

    Davari, Soheil; Kilic, Kemal; Ertek, Gurdal


    Preventive health care is unlike health care for acute ailments, as people are less alert to their unknown medical problems. In order to motivate public and to attain desired participation levels for preventive programs, the attractiveness of the health care facility is a major concern. Health economics literature indicates that attractiveness of a facility is significantly influenced by proximity of the clients to it. Hence attractiveness is generally modelled as a function of distance. However, abundant empirical evidence suggests that other qualitative factors such as perceived quality, attractions nearby, amenities, etc. also influence attractiveness. Therefore, a realistic measure should incorporate the vagueness in the concept of attractiveness to the model. The public policy makers should also maintain the equity among various neighborhoods, which should be considered as a second objective. Finally, even though the general tendency in the literature is to focus on health benefits, the cost effectiveness is still a factor that should be considered. In this paper, a fuzzy bi-objective model with budget constraints is developed. Later, by modelling the attractiveness by means of fuzzy triangular numbers and treating the budget constraint as a soft constraint, a modified (and more realistic) version of the model is introduced. Two solution methodologies, namely fuzzy goal programming and fuzzy chance constrained optimization are proposed as solutions. Both the original and the modified models are solved within the framework of a case study in Istanbul, Turkey. In the case study, the Microsoft Bing Map is utilized in order to determine more accurate distance measures among the nodes. PMID:25171939

  9. Telecommunications for eBusiness


    This is the second edition of the Guide which was initiated in 1999 by Forfás and IBEC to provide a comprehensive mapping of Ireland's telecommunication infrastructures and to describe the strategic and operational opportunities which this advanced infrastructure presents for business

  10. The Hospital Medicine Reengineering Network (HOMERuN): A learning organization focused on improving hospital care

    Auerbach, Andrew D.; Patel, Mitesh S.; Metlay, Josh; Schnipper, Jeffrey; Williams, Mark V.; Robinson, Edmondo; Kripalani, Sunil; Lindenauer, Peter K.


    Converting the health care delivery system into a learning organization is a key strategy for improving health outcomes. While the learning organization approach has been successful in neonatal intensive care units and disease specific collaboratives there are few examples in general medicine and fewer still have leveraged the role of hospitalists to implement improvements. This paper describes the rationale for and early work of the Hospital Medicine Reengineering Network (HOMERuN), a collaborative of hospitals, hospitalists, and care teams whose overarching purpose is to use data to guide collaborative efforts aimed at improving the care of hospitalized patients. We review HOMERuN’s collaborative model, which focuses on a community-based participatory approach modified to include hospital-based as well as the larger community, and HOMERuN’s initial project focusing on care transition improvement using perspectives from the patient and caregiver. PMID:24448050

  11. Standby battery requirements for telecommunications power

    May, G. J.

    The requirements for standby power for telecommunications are changing as the network moves from conventional systems to Internet Protocol (IP) telephony. These new systems require higher power levels closer to the user but the level of availability and reliability cannot be compromised if the network is to provide service in the event of a failure of the public utility. Many parts of these new networks are ac rather than dc powered with UPS systems for back-up power. These generally have lower levels of reliability than dc systems and the network needs to be designed such that overall reliability is not reduced through appropriate levels of redundancy. Mobile networks have different power requirements. Where there is a high density of nodes, continuity of service can be reasonably assured with short autonomy times. Furthermore, there is generally no requirement that these networks are the provider of last resort and therefore, specifications for continuity of power are directed towards revenue protection and overall reliability targets. As a result of these changes, battery requirements for reserve power are evolving. Shorter autonomy times are specified for parts of the network although a large part will continue to need support for hours rather minutes. Operational temperatures are increasing and battery solutions that provide longer life in extreme conditions are becoming important. Different battery technologies will be discussed in the context of these requirements. Conventional large flooded lead/acid cells both with pasted and tubular plates are used in larger central office applications but the majority of requirements are met with valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) batteries. The different types of VRLA battery will be described and their suitability for various applications outlined. New developments in battery construction and battery materials have improved both performance and reliability in recent years. Alternative technologies are also being proposed

  12. A novel communications network for the provision of medical care in disaster and emergency situations.

    Dembeyiotis, S; Konnis, G; Koutsouris, D


    We have designed and developed a novel data communications network targeted at the provision of Emergency Medical Care in disaster situations over wide areas. The network nodes can transmit essential biosignals and in addition, support video and diagnostic quality sound (auscultation) broadcasting for teleconsultation purposes, by using a variety of wireless transports. The medical data acquisition stations are networked dynamically and on demand, with no requirement for an existing communications infrastructure at the disaster sites. The network design allows for limited transmitting station mobility and support for software-based Voice over IP during station roaming. Initial test results, following the hardware and software integration, indicate that the chosen network design meets specifications, and a full-scale field test, utilizing a large number of wireless stations operating under realistic conditions is to take place. PMID:17271008

  13. Support network and social support for children with special health care need

    Thaís Araújo Barbosa


    Full Text Available Objective: to understand and identify the support network and social support from the perspective of families of children with chronic conditions. Methods: a qualitative study, with content analysis of 134 records, followed by ten semi-structured interviews. Results: the analysis has revealed that the primary caregiver, the mother, participates in a network of limited support, only with the help of her husband, children, grandparents and the child´s godparents. They also have a social network through a multidisciplinary team, which in some cases is not effective. Conclusion: families have a deficient and limited support network and the demand for care rely only on the support of the husband, grandparents, children, and godparents. Social networking refers to the philanthropic institutions, while the aid of public service, basic health unit is basic.

  14. Current state of information technology use in a US primary care practice-based research network

    James Andrews


    Conclusion While interest in enabling information technologies was high in KAN, adoption was variable, with use of several key technologies reported as low.The results suggest that research in this network that would be dependent on or enhanced by IT might be impeded and, generally, greater attention should be given to enhancing the IT infrastructure in primary care.

  15. Healthcare PANs: Personal Area Networks for trauma care and home care

    Jones, V.M.; Bults, R.G.A.; Konstantas, D.; Vierhout, P.A.M.


    The first hour following the trauma is of crucial importance in trauma care. The sooner treatment begins, the better the ultimate outcome for the patient. Generally the initial treatment is handled by paramedical personnel arriving at the site of the accident with an ambulance. There is evidence to

  16. Patient referral patterns and the spread of hospital-acquired infections through national health care networks.

    Tjibbe Donker


    Full Text Available Rates of hospital-acquired infections, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, are increasingly used as quality indicators for hospital hygiene. Alternatively, these rates may vary between hospitals, because hospitals differ in admission and referral of potentially colonized patients. We assessed if different referral patterns between hospitals in health care networks can influence rates of hospital-acquired infections like MRSA. We used the Dutch medical registration of 2004 to measure the connectedness between hospitals. This allowed us to reconstruct the network of hospitals in the Netherlands. We used mathematical models to assess the effect of different patient referral patterns on the potential spread of hospital-acquired infections between hospitals, and between categories of hospitals (University medical centers, top clinical hospitals and general hospitals. University hospitals have a higher number of shared patients than teaching or general hospitals, and are therefore more likely to be among the first to receive colonized patients. Moreover, as the network is directional towards university hospitals, they have a higher prevalence, even when infection control measures are equally effective in all hospitals. Patient referral patterns have a profound effect on the spread of health care-associated infections like hospital-acquired MRSA. The MRSA prevalence therefore differs between hospitals with the position of each hospital within the health care network. Any comparison of MRSA rates between hospitals, as a benchmark for hospital hygiene, should therefore take the position of a hospital within the network into account.

  17. A Personal Health Network for Chemotherapy Care Coordination: Evaluation of Usability Among Patients.

    Kim, Katherine K; Bell, Janice F; Bold, Richard; Davis, Andra; Ngo, Victoria; Reed, Sarah C; Joseph, Jill G


    Cancer is a top concern globally. Cancer care suffers from lack of coordination, silos of information, and high cost. Interest is emerging in person-centered technology to assist with coordination to address these challenges. This study evaluates the usability of the "personal health network" (PHN), a novel solution leveraging social networking and mobile technologies, among individuals undergoing chemotherapy and receiving care coordination. Early results from interviews of 12 participants in a randomized pragmatic trial suggest that they feel more connected to the healthcare team using the PHN, find value in access to the patient education library, and are better equipped to organize the many activities that occur during chemotherapy. Improvements are needed in navigation, connectivity, and integration with electronic health records. Findings contribute to improvements in the PHN and informs a roadmap for potentially greater impact in technology-enabled cancer care coordination. PMID:27332197

  18. The network social support experience of people involved in home care

    Ingrid Meireles Gomes


    Full Text Available Objective: To build a theoretical model to configure the network social support experience of people involved in home care. Method: A quantitative approach research, utilizing the Grounded Theory method. The simultaneous data collection and analysis allowed the interpretation of the phenomenon meaning The network social support of people involved in home care. Results: The population passive posture in building their well-being was highlighted. The need of a shared responsibility between the involved parts, population and State is recognized. Conclusion: It is suggested for nurses to be stimulated to amplify home care to attend the demands of caregivers; and to elaborate new studies with different populations, to validate or complement the proposed theoretical model.

  19. The political economy of competition in telecommunication

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik


    Article dealing with the regulation of telecommunications and the establishment of a competitive regime.......Article dealing with the regulation of telecommunications and the establishment of a competitive regime....

  20. Expanding a Care Network for People with Dementia and their Carers Through Musicking: Participant Observation with

    Mariko Hara


    Full Text Available Normal 0 0 2 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Music use in dementia care often takes place within a music therapy context, where music therapy sessions aim to reduce agitated behaviour, access emotions or enhance inter-personal communication. Such sessions usually take place within care homes and their effect has been evaluated by a number of studies. However, there is little research on music use that takes place outside of care homes (e.g. in community centres for people with dementia who are cared for at home by their family. This paper discusses this type of music use, focusing on the meaning of weekly local music making activities in relation to every day dementia care. I use empirical data from a study of a community based music activity called "Singing for the Brain" (SFTB run by the Alzheimer's Society in the UK. The data was collected through extensive participant observation research and interviews with organisers, carers and care receivers. The preliminary findings from the data analysis are discussed: how SFTB can be seen as a ecological practice; its various “spin-off’ effects in the everyday care of the members with dementia; how SFTB, together with other local music groups, constitute the music and care world in the town; and how this develops into fluid support networks to support local people with dementia and their carers.

  1. Space Telecommunications Radio System STRS Cognitive Radio

    Briones, Janette C.; Handler, Louis M.


    Radios today are evolving from awareness toward cognition. A software defined radio (SDR) provides the most capability for integrating autonomic decision making ability and allows the incremental evolution toward a cognitive radio. This cognitive radio technology will impact NASA space communications in areas such as spectrum utilization, interoperability, network operations, and radio resource management over a wide range of operating conditions. NASAs cognitive radio will build upon the infrastructure being developed by Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS) SDR technology. This paper explores the feasibility of inserting cognitive capabilities in the NASA STRS architecture and the interfaces between the cognitive engine and the STRS radio. The STRS architecture defines methods that can inform the cognitive engine about the radio environment so that the cognitive engine can learn autonomously from experience, and take appropriate actions to adapt the radio operating characteristics and optimize performance.

  2. 7 CFR 1700.55 - Telecommunications Program.


    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Telecommunications Program. 1700.55 Section 1700.55... AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Loan and Grant Approval Authorities § 1700.55 Telecommunications Program. (a..., Telecommunications Program, has the authority to approve the following loans, loan guarantees, and...

  3. 7 CFR 1700.29 - Telecommunications Program.


    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Telecommunications Program. 1700.29 Section 1700.29... AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Agency Organization and Functions § 1700.29 Telecommunications Program. RUS and RTB, through the Telecommunications Program, make loans and loan guarantees to furnish and...

  4. 48 CFR 870.112 - Telecommunications equipment.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Telecommunications... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.112 Telecommunications... specifications for telecommunications equipment, as defined in VA manual MP-6, Part VIII (available at any...

  5. The Near Spacecraft Telecommunications System

    Bokulic, R.S.; Jensen, J R; McKnight, T.R.


    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission, first in NASA's Discovery series, is designed to gather scientific data about the near-Earth asteroid 433 Eros. Due to launch in February 1996, the spacecraft will rendezvous with and eventually orbit the asteroid. The telecommunications system is centered about two redundant X-band transponder systems that provide the command, telemetry, and tracking functions. Although the mission has a very tight development schedule, a significant amount ...

  6. Population distribution and telecommunication costs

    Peter Cribbett


    This paper examines the impact of population distribution on the costs of providing local telephone service. The study was undertaken to examine the extent to which price differences in international comparisons of telecommunications costs can be attributed to differences in the distribution of population, therefore providing insights into the importance of other factors such as industry and regulatory performance. The key points in the paper are: „h The average cost of providing local teleph...

  7. Piloting an advanced methodology to analyse health care policy networks: The example of Belgrade, Serbia

    Helmut Wenzel


    Full Text Available Aim: Political decisions usually emerge from the competing interests of politicians, voters, and special interest groups. We investigated the applicability of an advanced methodological concept to determine whether certain institutional positions in a cooperating network have influence on the decision-making procedures. To that end, we made use of the institutional network of relevant health care and health governance institutions, concentrated in Belgrade, Serbia. Methods: We used a Principal Component Analysis (PCA based on a combination of measures for centrality in order to evaluate the positions of 25 players in Belgrade‟s institutional network. Their directed links were determined by a simulated position approach employing the authors‟ long-term involvement. Software packages used consisted of Visone 2.9, UCINET 6, and KeyPlayer 1.44. Results: In our analysis, the network density score in Belgrade was 71%. The PCA revealed two dimensions: control and attractiveness. The Ministry of Health exerted the highest level of control but displayed a low attractiveness in terms of receiving links from important players. The National Health Insurance Fund had less control capacity but a high attractiveness. The National Institute of Public Health‟s position was characterized by a low control capacity and high attractiveness, whereas the National Drug Agency, the National Health Council, and Non-Governmental Organisations were no prominent players. Conclusions: The advanced methodologies used here to analyse the health care policy network in Belgrade provided consistent results indicating that the intended decentralization of the health care network in Belgrade may be incomplete, still with low participation of civil society representatives. With the present study we set the stage for a broad-range survey based data collection applying the methodology piloted in Belgrade.

  8. Two Essential Roles: Health Care Network Nurse Leaders and Local Nurse Leaders.

    Schneider, Maureen


    American health care organizations are experiencing increasing change driven by emerging partnerships, market demographics, population health initiatives, and merger and acquisition trends. The health care business environment necessitates alterations in how companies operate on a larger scale. New regional leadership roles are being created to provide leadership to systematize networks, build market share, and strengthen market needs. It is important and necessary to explore, review, and contrast the roles, skills, and behaviors of regional leader's roles and the solo organization leaders. It is also imperative to review the benefits of new affiliations for the community and hospital entity. PMID:27584890

  9. 31 CFR 538.512 - Transactions related to telecommunications authorized.


    ... telecommunications authorized. 538.512 Section 538.512 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... telecommunications authorized. All transactions with respect to the receipt and transmission of telecommunications... a person in Sudan of telecommunications equipment or technology....

  10. 76 FR 32980 - Telecommunications Service Priority (TSP) System


    ... SECURITY Telecommunications Service Priority (TSP) System AGENCY: National Protection and Programs... telecommunications vendors to provide priority provisioning and restoration of telecommunications services supporting..., National Communications System. Title: Telecommunications Service Priority System. OMB Number:...

  11. The new Australian Primary Health Networks: how will they integrate public health and primary care?

    Booth, Mark; Hill, Graham; Moore, Michael J; Dalla, Danielle; Moore, Michael G; Messenger, Anne


    On 1 July 2015, the Australian Government established 31 new Primary Health Networks (PHNs), following a review by its former Chief Medical Officer, John Horvath, of 61 Medicare Locals created under the previous Labor administration. The Horvath review recommended, among other things, that new, larger primary health organisations be established to reduce fragmentation of care by integrating and coordinating health services, supporting the role of general practice, and leveraging and administering health program funding. The two main objectives of the new PHNs, as stated on the Department of Health's website, are "increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of medical services for patients, particularly those at risk of poor health outcomes, and improving coordination of care to ensure patients receive the right care in the right place at the right time". Below are three viewpoints, commissioned for this primary health care themed issue of Public Health Research & Practice, from the Australian Government Department of Health, the Public Health Association of Australia and a Sydney-based PHN. We asked the authors to focus particularly on how the newly established networks might help to integrate public health within the primary health care landscape. Our authors have pointed out the huge overlap between public health and primary care and looked at evidence showing the great benefits for health systems of collaboration between the two. Challenges ahead include a possible government focus on delivery of 'frontline' medical services, which may come at the expense of population health, and the complexity of dealing with all primary health care stakeholders, including health professionals, Local Health Districts, nongovernment organisations, research institutions and local communities. PMID:26863166

  12. A Novel Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Body Area Network in Health Care Monitoring

    T. V.P. Sundararajan


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Health monitoring, telemedicine, military, interactive entertainment and portable audio/video systems were most promising applications where WBANs can be used. However, designers of such systems face a number of challenging tasks, as they need to address often quite conflicting requirements for size, operating time, precision and reliability. Network security is very important in Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN since the vital human life might be jeopardized, unless managed properly. Approach: This article presented security architecture of a wireless body area network for ambulatory health status monitoring. A novel Intrusion Detection System (IDS inspired by the biological immune system that use Negative Selection Algorithm (NSA was proposed to enhance the performance of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN to operate despite the presence of compromised (misbehaving nodes. Results: The proposed IDS scheme had been implemented using network simulator Qualnet v5.2. The performances of IDS scheme had been analyzed using AODV, DSR and DSDV routing protocols for parameters such as average detection rate and false alarm rate. These negative selection detectors are capable of distinguishing well behaving nodes from compromised nodes with good degree of accuracy. The high false positives rate is also minimized. Conclusion/Recommendations: Wireless Body Area Networks are an enabling technology for mobile health care. The IDS can be implemented on today’s devices as it only requires minimal and low-cost hardware changes. The authors strongly believe that adding sufficient security mechanisms to WBAN will study as a trigger in the acceptance of this technology for health care purposes. Simulation results indicate the non-degradability of network performance when these IDS is incorporated in the routing algorithm for security enhancements.

  13. Bundling telecommunications services : competitive strategies for converging markets.

    Krämer, Jan


    With the advent of digital convergence, incumbent telephone and cable companies have begun to offer their services, such as voice telephony, Internet and TV in so-called triple play packages. While carefully recognizing the technological, legal and economic framework of the fixed-line telecommunications industry, this book investigates whether bundling is indeed a profitable pricing strategy for the firms and if it can possibly facilitate the leverage of market power into neighboring markets.

  14. Distributed Storage Healthcare — The Basis of a Planet-Wide Public Health Care Network

    Kakouros, Nikolaos


    Background: As health providers move towards higher levels of information technology (IT) integration, they become increasingly dependent on the availability of the electronic health record (EHR). Current solutions of individually managed storage by each healthcare provider focus on efforts to ensure data security, availability and redundancy. Such models, however, scale poorly to a future of a planet-wide public health-care network (PWPHN). Our aim was to review the research literature on di...

  15. Ubiquitous HealthCare in Wireless Body Area Networks - A Survey

    Javaid, N.; Khan, N. A.; Shakir, M.; Khan, M.A.; Bouk, S. H.; Khan, Z. A.


    Advances in wireless communication, system on chip and low power sensor nodes allowed realization of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). WBAN comprised of tiny sensors, which collect information of patient's vital signs and provide a real time feedback. In addition, WBAN also supports many applications including Ubiquitous HealthCare (UHC), entertainment, gaming, military, etc. UHC is required by elderly people to facilitate them with instant monitoring anywhere they move around. In this paper...

  16. Nurses in emotional competence: exploratory study on population of continued care national network

    Lopes, Tânia; Veiga-Branco, Augusta; Baptista, Gorete


    The relevance of this study - the first empirical research (to our knowledge) in Continued Care National Network (RCNN) context - emerge to understand the role of emotions in workplace behaviour (Côté, 2005; Austin, Dore & Donovan, 2008; Liu et al. 2008; Barsade, Ramarajan, Burack, 2008), but here, with terminally ill people and great physical and psychological weakness. Recent scientific literature is exposing a significatly negative correlations between Emotional Intelligence...

  17. Nursing emotional competence profile: exploratory study in continued care national network

    Veiga-Branco, Augusta; Lopes, Tânia


    The relevance of this study—the first empirical research (to our knowledge) in Continued Care National Network (RCNN) context—emerge to understand the role of emotions in workplace behaviour (Coˆte´, 2005; Austin, Dore & Donovan, 2008; Liu et al. 2008; Barsade, Ramarajan, Burack, 2008), but here, with terminally ill people and great physical and psychological weakness. Recent scientific literature is exposing a significatly negative correlations between Emotional Intellig...

  18. Patient referral patterns and the spread of hospital-acquired infections through national health care networks.

    Tjibbe Donker; Jacco Wallinga; Hajo Grundmann


    Rates of hospital-acquired infections, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are increasingly used as quality indicators for hospital hygiene. Alternatively, these rates may vary between hospitals, because hospitals differ in admission and referral of potentially colonized patients. We assessed if different referral patterns between hospitals in health care networks can influence rates of hospital-acquired infections like MRSA. We used the Dutch medical registration of 2...

  19. Patient Referral Patterns and the Spread of Hospital-Acquired Infections through National Health Care Networks

    Donker, Tjibbe; Wallinga, Jacco; Grundmann, Hajo


    Rates of hospital-acquired infections, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are increasingly used as quality indicators for hospital hygiene. Alternatively, these rates may vary between hospitals, because hospitals differ in admission and referral of potentially colonized patients. We assessed if different referral patterns between hospitals in health care networks can influence rates of hospital-acquired infections like MRSA. We used the Dutch medical registration of 2...

  20. [ANMCO/SIC Consensus document: The heart failure network: organization of outpatient care].

    Aspromonte, Nadia; Gulizia, Michele Massimo; Di Lenarda, Andrea; Mortara, Andrea; Battistoni, Ilaria; De Maria, Renata; Gabriele, Michele; Iacoviello, Massimo; Navazio, Alessandro; Pini, Daniela; Di Tano, Giuseppe; Marini, Marco; Ricci, Renato Pietro; Alunni, Gianfranco; Radini, Donatella; Metra, Marco; Romeo, Francesco


    Changing demographics and an increasing burden of multiple chronic comorbidities in western countries dictate refocusing of heart failure (HF) services from acute in-hospital care to better support the long inter-critical out-of-hospital phases of HF. The needs of the HF population are not adequately addressed by current HF outpatient services, as documented by differences in age, gender, comorbidities and recommended therapies between patients discharged for hospitalized HF and those followed up at HF clinics.The Working Group on Heart Failure of the Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists (ANMCO) has drafted a consensus document for the organization of a national HF care network. The aims of this document are to describe tasks and requirements of the different health system points of contact for HF patients, and to define how diagnosis, management and care processes should be documented and shared among healthcare professionals. In this document, HF clinics are classified into three groups: 1) community HF clinics, devoted to the management of stable patients in strict liaison with primary care, regular re-evaluation of emerging clinical needs and prompt treatment of impending destabilizations, 2) hospital HF clinics, that target both new-onset and chronic HF patients for diagnostic assessment, treatment planning and early post-discharge follow-up. They act as main referral for medicine units and community clinics; 3) advanced HF clinics, directed at patients with severe disease or persistent clinical instability, candidates to advanced treatment options such as heart transplant or mechanical circulatory support. These different types of HF clinics are integrated in a dedicated network for the management of HF patients on a regional basis, according to geographic features. By sharing predefined protocols and communication systems, these HF networks integrate multiprofessional providers to ensure continuity of care. This consensus document is expected to

  1. Understanding and Preventing Tacit Collusion among Telecommunication Operators

    Maillé, Patrick; Naldi, Maurizio; Tuffin, Bruno

    Modeling the competition among telecommunication operators (or providers) as a repeated game may explain why tacit collusion to maintain high charging prices can be observed. Such outcomes clearly do not benefit the users, nor do they provide operators with incentives to improve the network quality of service to outperform their competitors. We propose a simple regulation based on price stability over time, to modify the game played by operators in a way that could prevent collusion.

  2. Voice-processing technologies--their application in telecommunications.

    Wilpon, J G


    As the telecommunications industry evolves over the next decade to provide the products and services that people will desire, several key technologies will become commonplace. Two of these, automatic speech recognition and text-to-speech synthesis, will provide users with more freedom on when, where, and how they access information. While these technologies are currently in their infancy, their capabilities are rapidly increasing and their deployment in today's telephone network is expanding....

  3. Naval record communications : demand reduction for the Naval Telecommunications System

    McClurg, Kathleen A.


    This thesis analyzes the economic causes for continued excess demand in the Naval Telecommunications System (NTS). It provides a framework for relating the NTS market to the market for all Naval record communications. Substitute systems for specific types of Naval messages are identified along with reasons why these systems are not used. In some cases, facsimile (FAX) or personal computer (PC) networking can substitute for the NTS. Unfortunately, most users do not have access to these systems...

  4. Evolving the Convergence of Telecommunication and TV Services over NGN

    Christian Riede; Jordi Jaen Pallares; Thomas Magedanz; Adel Al-Hezmi


    The convergence of telecommunication, cable TV, and broadcast networks towards the Internet technology will enable the provision of emerging multimedia services as well as the integration of rich communication capabilities with TV services. However, enabling efficient delivery of interactive personalized multimedia services with mobility support requires an advanced overlay control framework. The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) offers the basic functions to manage multimedia sessions over diffe...

  5. Towards Real-time Customer Experience Prediction for Telecommunication Operators

    Diaz-Aviles, Ernesto; Pinelli, Fabio; Lynch, Karol; Nabi, Zubair; Gkoufas, Yiannis; Bouillet, Eric; Calabrese, Francesco; Coughlan, Eoin; Holland, Peter; Salzwedel, Jason


    Telecommunications operators (telcos) traditional sources of income, voice and SMS, are shrinking due to customers using over-the-top (OTT) applications such as WhatsApp or Viber. In this challenging environment it is critical for telcos to maintain or grow their market share, by providing users with as good an experience as possible on their network. But the task of extracting customer insights from the vast amounts of data collected by telcos is growing in complexity and scale everey day. H...

  6. High temperature superconductors applications in telecommunications

    Kumar, A.A.; Li, J.; Zhang, M.F. [Prairie View A& M Univ., Texas (United States)


    The purpose of this paper is twofold: to discuss high temperature superconductors with specific reference to their employment in telecommunications applications; and to discuss a few of the limitations of the normally employed two-fluid model. While the debate on the actual usage of high temperature superconductors in the design of electronic and telecommunications devices-obvious advantages versus practical difficulties-needs to be settled in the near future, it is of great interest to investigate the parameters and the assumptions that will be employed in such designs. This paper deals with the issue of providing the microwave design engineer with performance data for such superconducting waveguides. The values of conductivity and surface resistance, which are the primary determining factors of a waveguide performance, are computed based on the two-fluid model. A comparison between two models-a theoretical one in terms of microscopic parameters (termed Model A) and an experimental fit in terms of macroscopic parameters (termed Model B)-shows the limitations and the resulting ambiguities of the two-fluid model at high frequencies and at temperatures close to the transition temperature. The validity of the two-fluid model is then discussed. Our preliminary results show that the electrical transport description in the normal and superconducting phases as they are formulated in the two-fluid model needs to be modified to incorporate the new and special features of high temperature superconductors. Parameters describing the waveguide performance-conductivity, surface resistance and attenuation constant-will be computed. Potential applications in communications networks and large scale integrated circuits will be discussed. Some of the ongoing work will be reported. In particular, a brief proposal is made to investigate of the effects of electromagnetic interference and the concomitant notion of electromagnetic compatibility (EMI/EMC) of high T{sub c} superconductors.

  7. Service Quality Management in the ITS Telecommunications Systems

    Tomas Zelinka


    Full Text Available Guaranteed selected quality of telecommunication service and wide area coverage are typical requirements of the ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems applications. Extensive range of wireless data services with reasonable coverage is provided by public wireless services operators, however, mostly no guaranteed relevant range of quality and security is available. ITS services require cost-effectively solution which can be resolved by combination of the "core" public solution with the other public as well as private services where and when it is needed. Such approach requires implementation of the relevant flexible system architecture supported by the efficient decision processes. ITS specific service security requirements would not underestimated, as well. Special situation is identified in case of the C2I (Car to Infrastructure and C2C (Car to Car communication namely if the vehicle on board unit is interconnected with the vehicle CAN (Controlled Area Network based network. Such configurations significantly increase potential of dangerous intruders´ attacks. Probability of the critical hazards appearances grows if the ITS data are accessible in the wide area networks. That is also the main reason why relevant telecommunications security support is understood as one of the crucial part of the ITS telecommunications solution.

  8. Prenatal care in the primary health care network in FortalezaCE: an assessment of the structure, process and results

    Rebeca Silveira Rocha


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prenatal care assistance in the primary health care network in Fortaleza-CE, considering the structure, process and results. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study, of quantitative approach, performed between October 2009 and February 2011, in 30 Health Units randomly selected, keeping the ratio for each Regional Executive Secretary. For analysis of the structure, the information obtained was scored and classified as: excellent, satisfactory, precarious or insufficient. The form used was submitted to four experts for validation. In evaluating the process and results, data was available by the Municipal Health Secretary of Fortaleza for obtainance of the indicators recommended by the Ministry of Health. Results: There was, in general, a satisfactory structure. As for the process and result, we obtained: pregnant women who had, at least, six prenatal visits (7.6%; pregnant women who received tetanus immunization (22.8%; newborns with congenital syphilis (1.4%; newborns with neonatal tetanus (0%; maternal mortality rate (78.5% in 2008 and 51% in 2009 and total neonatal mortality rate (10.1% in 2008 and 11.2% in 2009. Conclusions: Despite good results with regard to the structure, the reflections on the process and outcome indicators were not positive, with low rates compared to those expected by the World Health Organization or the Ministry of Health, or in comparison with other regions.

  9. Robustness and Optimization of Complex Networks: Reconstructability, Algorithms and Modeling

    Liu, D.


    The infrastructure networks, including the Internet, telecommunication networks, electrical power grids, transportation networks (road, railway, waterway, and airway networks), gas networks and water networks, are becoming more and more complex. The complex infrastructure networks are crucial to our

  10. Needs assessment for home-based care and the strengthening of social support networks: the role of community care workers in rural South Africa

    Mosa Moshabela


    Full Text Available Background: Community care workers (CCWs in rural South Africa provide medical, personal, household, educational, and social care services to their clients. However, little understanding exists on how provision of services is approached within a household, taking into account available social support networks. Objective: The aim of this study was to generate an understanding of the processes that underpin the provision of care by CCWs in rural households and their engagement with clients, primary caregivers (PCGs, and other members of the social support network. Design: We analysed in-depth interviews conducted in a triad of participants involved in a home-based care (HBC encounter – 32 clients, 32 PCGs, and 17 CCWs. For each triad, a purposefully selected CCW was linked with a purposefully selected client and the corresponding PCG using maximum variation sampling. Three coders used an inductive content analysis method to describe participants’ references to the nuances of processes followed by CCWs in servicing HBC clients. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Findings: The results suggest that, by intuition and prior knowledge, CCWs treated each household uniquely, depending on the clients’ care needs, cooperation, availability of a social network, and the reliability and resilience of the social support system for the client. Four distinct processes took place in rural households: needs assessment for care, rationing of care, appraisal of care, and reinforcement of a social support system. However, there was no particular order or sequence established for these processes, and caregivers followed no prescribed or shared standards. Conclusions: CCWs bring a basket of services to a household, but engage in a constant, dynamic, and cyclical process of weighing needs against services provided. The service package is uniquely crafted and tailored for each household, depending on the absorptive capacity of the social