Sample records for carcinoma msds diminished

  1. Multicenter study differentiated thyroid carcinoma (MSDS). Diminished acceptance of adjuvant external beam radiotherapy

    Biermann, M.; Pixberg, M.K.; Schober, O. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Schuck, A.; Willich, N. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiooncology; Heinecke, A.; Koepke, W. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Medical Informatics and Biomathematics; Schmid, K.W. [Essen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Pathology; Dralle, H. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Dept. of Surgery


    Aim: The Multicenter Study Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma (MSDS) is an ongoing study in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland on the clinical benefit of adjuvant external beam radiotherapy (RTx) for locally invasive differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in TNM stages pT4 pNO/1/xMO/x (5th ed. 1997). Methods: MSDS was designed as a prospective randomized trial. Patients receive thyroidectomy, radioiodine therapy (RIT) to ablate the thyroid remnant, and TSH-suppressive L-thyroxine therapy with or without RTx after documented elimination of cervical iodine-131 uptake ( Results: 311 patients were enrolled between January 2000 and March 2003. 279 patients met the trial's inclusion criteria. 45 consented to randomization, of whom 17 were randomized into treatment arm A (RTx) and 18 into arm B (no RTx). Advised by the trial's independent Data Monitoring and Safety Committee, the MSDS steering committee decided to terminate randomization in April 2003 and continue MSDS as a prospective cohort study. 23 of the 234 patients in the observation arm of the trial were prescribed RTx by their physicians. Thus, 14% of the trial cohort were randomized or assigned to receive RTx (intention-to-treat analysis). In contrast, at least 44% of all patients with pT4 papillary DTC in Germany in the nationwide PCES study underwent RTx in 1996 (p<0.001, {chi}{sup 2}-test). Conclusions: Acceptance of external beam RTx as a treatment modality for DTC has receded to a degree that accrual of a sufficient number of patients for a randomized trial has been impossible. Observation of the trial cohort is continued in order to assess clinical event rates with and without RTx and chronic RTx toxicity. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Die Multizentrische Studie Differenziertes Schilddruesenkarzinom (MSDS) ist eine laufende Studie in Deutschland, Oesterreich und der Schweiz zum klinischen Nutzen der adjuvanten perkutanen Strahlentherapie (RTx) bei lokal invasivem

  2. Elevated cyclooxygenase-2 expression correlates with diminished survival in carcinoma of the cervix treated with radiotherapy

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between overall survival and prognostic factors in carcinoma of the cervix treated with radiation therapy. A clinicopathologic study was performed on 24 patients. Methods and Materials: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor biopsies were stained for Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Topoisomerase I, Topoisomerase II, and p53. Clinical factors such as stage, grade, tumor size, pre- and post-treatment hemoglobin level, and radiotherapy dose were also evaluated. Results: Median follow-up was 75 months for living patients. The only immunohistochemical or clinical factor that was associated with improved survival was decreased COX-2 distribution staining. High COX-2 distribution staining was associated with decreased overall survival (p=0.021) and decreased disease-free survival (p=0.015) by log-rank comparison of Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The 5-year overall survival rates for tumors with low vs. high COX-2 distribution values were 75% and 35%, respectively. COX-2 staining intensity was found to correlate positively with tumor size (p=0.022). Conclusion: These findings indicate that increased expression of COX-2 portends a diminished survival in patients with invasive carcinoma of the cervix treated with radiotherapy. Because COX-2 is an early-response gene involved in angiogenesis and inducible by different stimuli, these data may indicate opportunity to intervene with specific inhibitors of COX-2 in carcinoma of the cervix

  3. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)

    Lalley, J

    About 250.000 Material Safety Data sheets from the U.S. Government Department of Defense MSDS database, a mirror of data from, MSDS sheets maintained by Cornell University Environmental Health and Safety and other Cornell departments.

  4. 30 CFR 47.52 - MSDS contents.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false MSDS contents. 47.52 Section 47.52 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) § 47.52 MSDS contents. When an operator must prepare an MSDS for a hazardous chemical produced...

  5. 30 CFR 47.55 - Retaining an MSDS.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retaining an MSDS. 47.55 Section 47.55 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) § 47.55 Retaining an MSDS. The operator must— (a) Retain its MSDS for as long as...

  6. 30 CFR 47.51 - Requirement for an MSDS.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement for an MSDS. 47.51 Section 47.51 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) § 47.51 Requirement for an MSDS. Operators must have an MSDS for each...

  7. 30 CFR 47.54 - Availability of an MSDS.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of an MSDS. 47.54 Section 47.54 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) § 47.54 Availability of an MSDS. The operator must make MSDSs accessible to...

  8. MSDS sky reference and preamplifier study

    Larsen, L.; Stewart, S.; Lambeck, P.


    The major goals in re-designing the Multispectral Scanner and Data System (MSDS) sky reference are: (1) to remove the sun-elevation angle and aircraft-attitude angle dependence from the solar-sky illumination measurement, and (2) to obtain data on the optical state of the atmosphere. The present sky reference is dependent on solar elevation and provides essentially no information on important atmospheric parameters. Two sky reference designs were tested. One system is built around a hyperbolic mirror and the reflection approach. A second approach to a sky reference utilizes a fish-eye lens to obtain a 180 deg field of view. A detailed re-design of the present sky reference around the fish-eye approach, even with its limitations, is recommended for the MSDS system. A preamplifier study was undertaken to find ways of improving the noise-equivalent reflectance by reducing the noise level for silicon detector channels on the MSDS.

  9. Psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)

    Heuvel, S. van den


    It has been known for some time that risk factors in the workplace can have a negative effect on health. Ramazzini was one of the first scientists to identify occupational health hazards. He wrote about diseases of the musculoskeletal system caused by sudden and irregular movements and the adoption of awkward postures. Another category of work-related risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) includes psychosocial work characteristics, such as work demands, job control and social supp...

  10. Economic impact of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) on work in Europe.

    Bevan, Stephen


    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the leading cause of work disability, sickness absence from work, 'presenteeism' and loss of productivity across all the European Union (EU) member states. It is estimated that the total cost of lost productivity attributable to MSDs among people of working age in the EU could be as high as 2% of gross domestic product (GDP). This paper examines the available evidence on the economic burden of MSDs on work across Europe and highlights areas of policy, clinical and employment practice which might improve work outcomes for individuals and families and reduce the economic and social costs of MSDs. PMID:26612235


    Neeraja, Telaprolu; Lal, Bhanwar I A S; Swarochish, Chekuri


    Evidence regarding possible risk factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can guide the selection of possible intervention measures and the work towards developing appropriate ergonomic and safety measures. The intention of the study was to explore the factors associated with developing MSDs among construction workers. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire was used to measure the severity, duration, frequency and prevalence of symptoms of MSDs in nine anatomical body regions. Physical fitness was assessed based on the workers' answers regarding the perception of their own physical fitness. Psychosocial work demands were measured in terms of job control, psychological demands, social support and job dissatisfaction. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify the factors related to upper back, neck and upper limb MSDs. Results from multiple logistic regression showed that distal upper limb MSDs were related to manual handling, work repetitiveness, psychosocial demands, job dissatisfaction and gender. Neck, shoulder or upper back MSDs were related to manual handling, work repetitiveness, psychosocial demands, job dissatisfaction and physical unfitness. The findings suggest that reducing neck, shoulder upper back and distal upper limb MSDs in the workplace requires appropriate measures aimed at making the physical environment more suitable with regard to equipment, machinery, tools and furniture, in order to reduce repetitiveness, the use of force and manual handling. PMID:26182667

  12. MSDS and TDG - intranet software for an electric utility

    Fernihough, W.J.; Wilson, K. [British Columbia Hydro, Vancouver, BC (Canada)


    In the last decade, employers faced many challenges in complying with the elements of WHMIS (Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System). One of the biggest challenges for BC Hydro with WHMIS compliance was the management of the Materials Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). This challenge led to the development of BC Hydro`s current data base system which provides employees with intranet access not only to MSDS and workplace labels but also to transportation of dangerous goods (TDG) fact sheets and sample shipping documents. The intranet capability allows the MSDS program to be accessed from multiple locations and provides a consistent service throughout the province. Some of the features of the service are instantaneous updating and feedback to the users. A search conducted on the INTRANET produces an MSDS in a matter of seconds.

  13. Risk stratification of patients with locally aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer. Results of the MSDS trial

    Riemann, B.; Kraemer, J.A.; Schober, O. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Muenster (Germany); Schmid, K.W. [Inst. of Pathology and Neuropathology, Univ. Hospital of Essen, Univ. of Duisburg-Essen (Germany); Dralle, H. [Dept. of General Surgery, Univ. Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Cologne (Germany); Sauerland, C. [Dept. of Medical Informatics and Biomathematics, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Frankewitsch, T. [IT-Center - Research and Education, Univ. Muenster (Germany)


    The Multicentre Study Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (MSDS) collective represents a well defined group of patients with locally aggressive thyroid carcinomas (pT4; AJCC/UICC 1997). The aim of the present study was to compare the survival of patients with minimum and extensive extrathyroidal growth according to the new AJCC/UICC TNM staging system 2009. Patients, methods: The follow-up data of 347 patients were analysed. Patients were reclassified according to the current AJCC/UICC 2009 classification. The event-free and overall survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. In addition, postoperative complications and status of disease were documented. Results: 327 patients were assigned to stage pT3 and 20 patients to stage pT4a, respectively. Median follow-up was 6.1 years (range 0.04-9.8 years). 92.5% of patients reached complete remission. There were 7.8% recurrences in the thyroid bed, in locoregional lymph nodes and/or in distant sites. The overall survival was >98% both in pT3 and pT4a patients (p = n. s.). In contrast, the event-free survival was significantly less favourable in pT4a patients (p < 0.001). Using multivariate analysis the following parameters were significant predictors of event-free survival: histological tumour type, degree of extrathyroidal extension and nodal metastasis (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The MSDS patients with locally aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer showed an excellent overall survival during a median follow-up of 6.1 years. According to the current AJCC/UICC 2009 classification, pT3 patients with minimal extrathyroidal extension revealed a significantly better event-free survival than pT4a patients with extensive extrathyroidal growth. (orig.)

  14. [Important points and references for the description of hazard information in MSDS].

    Yamamoto, M; Kaminuma, T


    The preparation of MSDS (material safety data sheets) began in Japan in April 1993 with the notice of three Ministries, the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry and the Ministry of Labor. MSDS are designed to provide chemical information to protect human health and the environment from chemical hazards. Important points in describing hazard information in MSDS are explained as well as references which are useful for preparation of MSDS. Problems for further discussion are also pointed out. PMID:8854916

  15. Disorders of diminished motivation.

    Marin, Robert S; Wilkosz, Patricia A


    Disorders of diminished motivation occur frequently in individuals with traumatic brain injury. Motivation is an ever-present, essential determinant of behavior and adaptation. The major syndromes of diminished motivation are apathy, abulia, and akinetic mutism. Depending on their etiology, disorders of diminished motivation may be a primary clinical disturbance, a symptom of another disorder, or a coexisting second disorder. This article presents a biopsychosocial approach to the assessment and management of motivational impairments in patients with traumatic brain injury. The recognition and differential diagnosis of disorders of diminished motivation, as well as the mechanism and clinical pathogenesis, are discussed. PMID:16030444


    Nyoman Virna Uginiari; I Dewa Ayu Inten Dwi Primayanti


    Setiap pekerjaan memiliki risikonya tersendiri yang berkaitan dengan jenis pekerjaandan lingkungan tempat kerja. Salah satu risiko kesehatan yang paling sering dikeluhkanoleh para pekerja adalah musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Tukang suun merupakansalah satu jenis pekerjaan yang berisiko tinggi untuk mengalami MSDs. Hal inidikarenakan postur tubuhnya yang tidak ergonomis saat bekerja. Penelitian inimenggunakan studi desktiptif cross sectional untuk mengetahui gambaran distribusikeluhan terk...

  17. A toolkit for MSDs prevention--WHO and IEA context.

    Caple, David C


    Many simple MSD risk management tools have been developed by ergonomists for use by workers and employers with little or no training to undertake injury prevention programs in their workplace. However, currently there is no "toolkit" which places such tools within an holistic, participative ergonomics framework and provides guidance on how best to use individual tools. It is proposed that such an holistic approach should entail initial analysis and evaluation of underlying systems of work and related health and performance indicators, prior to focusing in assessment of MSD risks stemming from particular hazards. Depending on the context, more narrowly focused tools might then be selected to assess risk associated with jobs or tasks identified as problematic. This approach ensures that biomechanical risk factors are considered within a broad context of organizational and psychosocial risk factors. This is consistent with current research evidence on work- related causes of MSDs. PMID:22317323


    Nyoman Virna Uginiari


    Full Text Available Setiap pekerjaan memiliki risikonya tersendiri yang berkaitan dengan jenis pekerjaandan lingkungan tempat kerja. Salah satu risiko kesehatan yang paling sering dikeluhkanoleh para pekerja adalah musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs. Tukang suun merupakansalah satu jenis pekerjaan yang berisiko tinggi untuk mengalami MSDs. Hal inidikarenakan postur tubuhnya yang tidak ergonomis saat bekerja. Penelitian inimenggunakan studi desktiptif cross sectional untuk mengetahui gambaran distribusikeluhan terkait musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs pada tukang suun di Pasar AnyarBuleleng tahun 2013. Penelitian ini menggunakan kuisioner Nordic Body Map (NBMyang menggunakan dua skala likert yang telah dimodifikasi untuk mengetahui distribusikeluhan muskuloskeletal pada tukang suun. Dari 43 responden yang telah memenuhikriteria, semua responden mengeluh mengalami MSDs setelah bekerja namun distribusikeluhannya berbeda-beda. Keluhan muskuloskeletal yang paling dikeluhkan oleh tukangsuun adalah lutut kanan sebanyak 46,5%, lalu diikuti keluhan pada bahu kiri sebanyak41,8% dan keluhan pada leher bagian atas sebanyak 37,2%.


    Sang, Asni; Djajakusli, Rafael; Russeng, Syamsiar S.


    Aktivitas pemanenan kelapa sawit di PT. Sinergi Perkebunan Nusantara yang masih dilakukann secara manual berisiko untuk menyebabkan gangguan otot dan rangka atau musculoskeletal disirders (MSDs). MSDs merupakan sekumpulan gejala yang berkaitan dengan jaringan otot, tendon, ligamen, kartilago, sistem saraf, struktur tulang, dan pembuluh darah. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui hubungan antara postur kerja, umur, kebiasaan merokok dan masa kerja dengan keluhan MSDs pada pemanen kelapa sawit di...

  20. [The Multiple Sclerosis Documentation System MSDS. Discussion of a documentation standard for multiple sclerosis].

    Pette, M; Eulitz, M


    The MSDS (multiple sclerosis documentation system) has been developed at the Department of Neurology, Technical University of Dresden, Germany, during the last 4 years. The first version of this database application has been in use since October 2000. The MSDS manages information on MS patients, their treating physicians, patient history (symptoms, other diseases, biographical history, family history, habits, medication), clinical signs, results of laboratory examinations (blood chemistry, autoantibodies, borrelia serology, evoked potentials, cranial and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging), clinical scores relevant for MS, and biosamples. In principle, MSDS allows online data input and semiautomatically generates reports to all general practitioners and neurologists treating the respective patient. Patient information sheets and internal treatment guidelines are part of the system. During a 3-month evaluation, the first version of MSDS was tested at eight university multiple sclerosis ambulatory care units and one general neurology hospital. The overall judgement was favorable. Suggestions for changes and improvements, as well as practical experiences, were considered when developing MSDS 2.0, which will be available by the end of 2001. PMID:11975090

  1. [Hazard information for the preparation of material safety data sheets (MSDS). Ethylenethiourea].

    Yamamoto, M; Aida, Y


    Information on ethylenethiourea (ETU) was collected to estimate the amount of actual intake into the body. Useful information such as physical properties, toxicological data and environmental data was selected and described for the preparation of material safety data sheets (MSDS). PMID:8854918

  2. 40 CFR 370.60 - How does a person obtain MSDS information about a specific facility?


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does a person obtain MSDS information about a specific facility? 370.60 Section 370.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL REPORTING: COMMUNITY...

  3. Multiple sclerosis documentation system (MSDS): moving from documentation to management of MS patients.

    Ziemssen, Tjalf; Kempcke, Raimar; Eulitz, Marco; Großmann, Lars; Suhrbier, Alexander; Thomas, Katja; Schultheiss, Thorsten


    The long disease duration of multiple sclerosis and the increasing therapeutic options require a individualized therapeutic approach which should be carefully documented over years of observation. To switch from MS documentation to an innovative MS management, new computer- and internet-based tools could be implemented as we could demonstrate with the novel computer-based patient management system "multiple sclerosis management system 3D" (MSDS 3D). MSDS 3D allows documentation and management of visit schedules and mandatory examinations via defined study modules by integration of data input from various sources (patients, attending physicians and MS nurses). It provides forms for the documentation of patient visits as well as clinical and diagnostic findings. Information can be collected via interactive touch screens. Specific modules allow the management of highly efficacious treatments as natalizumab or fingolimod. MSDS can be used to transfer the documented data to databases as, e.g. the registry of the German MS society or REGIMS. MSDS has already been implemented successfully in clinical practice and is currently being evaluated in a multicenter setting. High-quality management and documentation are crucial for improvements in clinical practice and research work. PMID:23728704

  4. Costs of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in developing countries: Colombia case.

    Piedrahita, Hugo


    The real burden of occupational diseases, specifically work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), and its impact on workers' productivity is not known. The situation is critical in developing countries where only cases that cause workers' disability are recorded. In this study, the incidence of MSDs in Colombia was estimated by using the age and gender specific double incidence rate of repetitive strain injuries diseases in Finland for 2002. The results showed that the estimated number of MSDs recorded in Colombia during 2005 was 23,477 cases at the rate of 11.6 cases per 10,000 workers. The estimated total cost of these MSD cases relative to workers' productivity was 171.7 million US Dollars, representing around 0.2% of Colombia's Gross Domestic Product for 2005. The systematic appraisal of the incidence of MSDs and their associated cost on workers' productivity are necessary in developing countries to reduce the costly impact on productivity and to increase workers' well-being. PMID:17156613

  5. [MSDs and job security of employees aged 50 years and over: a challenge for occupational health and public health].

    Chiron, Elise; Roquelaure, Yves; Ha, Catherine; Touranchet, Annie; Chotard, Anne; Bidron, Patrick; Ledenvic, Béatrice; Leroux, François; Mazoyer, Annick; Goldberg, Marcel; Imbernon, Ellen


    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limbs (MSDs) are the first cause of occupational illness in France, as in Europe. A pilot network for epidemiological surveillance system of MSDs has been implemented in France's Loire Valley region to assess the prevalence of MSDs and their risk factors in the working population, namely the ageing workforce. The surveillance was based on a network of occupational physicians and used the recommendations of a group of European experts ('Saltsa Criteria document' consensus). Between 2002 and 2004, 3710 men and women (aged 20-59) representative of the regional workforce were randomly selected. Exposure to risk factors of MSDs was evaluated by the use of a self-administered questionnaire which aimed to assess bio-mechanical and psychosocial risk factors. With at least one of the six primary MSDs of the upper limbs having been clinically diagnosed using a rigorous protocol, the prevalence of clinically-diagnosed MSDs was high: about 11% of male and 15% of female workers suffered from at least one of the MSDs studied. After age fifty, about 19% of male and 27% of female workers suffered from at least one MSD and 4% of male and 6% of female workers from at least two disorders. Blue-collar workers were the most affected, regardless of age or gender, followed by office employees. Exposure to MSD risk factors of remained high after age fifty: 77% of male and 72% of female blue-collar workers were exposed to at least two MSD risk factors. The implications for the prevention of MSDs and job security of workers are discussed. The high prevalence of specific MSDs of the upper limb combined with a high exposure to risk factors of MSDs in ageing workers emphasizes the need to implement comprehensive prevention programs in most sectors to reduce the exposure to risk, the prevalence of MSDs and ensure the capacity to keep employees suffering from MSDs working, or at least to quickly return to work after recovery. PMID:18773826

  6. [A survey of utilization of and problems with the MSDS in chemical substances management at workplaces in Kanagawa Prefecture].

    Koshi, Kimiko; Mouri, Tetuo; Sugimori, Hiroki; Numano, Takashi; Ashida, Toshifumi; Hiro, Hisanori; Miyake, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Michiko; Ishiwata, Kouichi


    Kanagawa Occupational Health Promotion Center conducted a survey on how the MSDS is utilized at workplaces with more than 50 employees handling chemical substances, and what measures are taken to help employees to thoroughly understand information in the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Questionnaires were sent out to 265 enterprises in Kanagawa prefecture, putting questions to industrial physicians and industrial hygiene supervisors. The objective of the survey was to find out how MSDS is adopted in the system to manage occupational health, what improvements the survey respondents want in MSDS and what expectations the respondents have of our center. 193 enterprises (72.8%) returned answers to the questionnaire. The major findings are as follows. (1) In many companies, information on hazardous/toxic materials is "controlled by a division using such materials", and roughly half of the companies have compiled a common list shared throughout the company. (2) For the most part suppliers submit to the MSDS. Larger companies have a higher rate of posting up or filing the MSDS at their workplaces. Only 25.8% of the companies "rewrite the MSDS so that workers can understand it." (3) Companies that carry out a hazard/toxicity assessment before introducing a new chemical substance account for 72.1%, which is higher than we expected. It indicates that even though the companies don't manage the MSDS adequately, they are highly concerned about hazard control of chemical substances. (4) The rate of answering that "the current MSDS is not easy to understand" is higher among large-sized enterprises and lower among enterprises with fewer than 300 employees. (5) Asked what improvement needs to be made on the MSDS, the industrial physicians and industrial hygiene supervisors gave same answers such as "Workers find the terminology difficult to understand." and "Levels of toxicity can't be clearly identified." (6) The respondents expect our center to provide information for the MSDS

  7. Clinical outcomes of adjuvant external-beam radiotherapy for differentiated thyroid cancer. Results after 874 patient-years of follow-up in the MSDS-trial

    Biermann, M. [Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Radiology; Pixberg, M.K.; Riemann, B.; Schober, O. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Schuck, A.; Willich, N. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiooncology; Heinecke, A. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Biometrics; Schmid, K.W. [University Hospital of Essen, West German Cancer Center (Germany). Inst. of Pathology and Neuropathology; Dralle, H. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of General Surgery


    Evaluate the clinical benefit of external beam radiotherapy (RTx) for locally invasive thyroid carcinoma with follicular cell differentiation (DTC). The Multicentre Study on Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (MSDS) was planned as a prospective multicenter trial on the benefit of adjuvant RTx in locally invasive DTC (pT4; UICC 1997) with or without lymph node metastases and no known distant metastases. All patients were treated with thyroidectomy, {sup 131}I-therapy, and TSH-suppression and were randomized to receive additional RTx or not. In 4/2003 the trial became a prospective cohort study after only 45 of then 311 patients had consented to randomization. 351 of 422 patients met the trial's inclusion criteria. Age was 48 {+-} 12 years (mean {+-} SD). 25% were men. Tumours were papillary in 90% and follicular in 10%. Of 47 patients randomized or allocated to RTx, 26 actually received RTx. Mean follow-up was 930 days. In an actual treatment analysis, 96% (25/26) of the RTx-patients reached complete remission (CR) vs. 86% in the non-RTx patients. Recurrences occurred in 0 vs. 3 % of patients: 6 reoperated for regional lymph node metastases, 1 tracheal invasion treated with tracheoplasty, 1 local invasion necessitating laryngectomy, 2 distant metastases (1 lung, 1 lung + bone). Serious chronic RTx toxicity occurred in 1/26 patients. The MSDS trial showed low mortality and recurrence rates and a weak benefit of RTx in terms of local control that did however not reach statistical significance. Routine RTx in locally invasive DTC can no longer be recommended. (orig.)

  8. Searching multi-source MSDS on Internet%Internet上多来源MSDS的统一检索方法

    李海波; 李晓霞; 袁小龙; 郭力


    国际上称之为材料安全数据表的MSDS是一份关于化合物安全信息的综合性法律文件.随着人们安全意识的提高以及对职业健康、环境保护等认识的不断深入,MSDS作为一个安全信息文件越来越受重视.由于制作MSDS需要一定的成本,充分利用网络上免费的MSDS数据对于了解化合物的安全信息具有重要的参考价值.已有针对MSDS的搜索工具,一般只能检索单一来源的MSDS数据库,所以建立一个能通过一个查询同时榆索多个来源数据库的MSDS搜索引擎,将为使用MSDS的人员提供极大方便.本文提出建立MSDS统一搜索引擎的框架,通过链接分析技术和深层网数据检索技术获取MSDS文件,然后缓存各数据源检索结果,并建立化合物索引以提高MSDS搜索引擎的响应速度.其实现过程包括发现与自动构造检索式模式、自动获取检索结果页面、利用数据提取的方法获取化合物标识信息以建立MSDS的化合物索引等多个方面,为建立一个可用的MSDS统一搜索引擎奠定坚实基础.%The Material Safety Data Sheet internationally known as MSDS is a comprehensive legal document about compound's safety information. With better safety awareness and understanding of occupational health and environmental protection, MSDS as a safety information document is receiving increasing attention. Due to the costs for producing MSDS documents, the free MSDS documents on Internet are valuable references both for chemists and chemical suppliers. At present, the MSDS searching tools usually can only search single-source MSDS database. So to establish a MSDS search engine which could search in multiple-source MSDS databases through only one query at a time will facilitate MSDS searching on Internet. This article progresses a framework to establish a MSDS unified search engine, retrieves MSDS documents by link analysis and searching in deep web, then caches the searching results and

  9. Diminished-Dimensional Political Economy

    Ronald M. Harstad; Reinhard Selten


    Economists' policy advice is based on models of responses by a variety of economic entities to policy adoptions. There is compelling evidence that these entities do not optimize in at all the fashion that mainstream economics assumes. Rather, they limit decision-making to solving problems of much smaller dimensionality. We consider how political economy goes awry when ignoring diminished dimensionality, and some research avenues opened up by this realization.

  10. Thermal vacuum accelerated life test of the unit qualification model msds 3 marconi low speed mechanism

    Appleton, D.A.


    The thermal vacuum accelerated life test of a solar array unit qualification mechanism (MSDS 3) is described. Most of the test was conducted with the shaft of the mechanism rotating at one revolution per hour, which is 24 times normal speed. The test was conducted at two different temperature conditions, and included additional thermal cycling of the shaft temperature to simulate conditions of earth eclipse of a satellite in a geostationary orbit. Throughout the test there was no change in the motor power required to drive the shaft, and the electrical noise levels on the slip rings showed no significant deterioration.

  11. Elements to diminish radioactive accidents

    In this work it is presented an application of the cause-effect diagram method or Ichikawa method identifying the elements that allow to diminish accidents when the radioactive materials are transported. It is considered the transport of hazardous materials which include radioactive materials in the period: December 1996 until March 1997. Among the identified elements by this method it is possible to mention: the road type, the radioactive source protection, the grade driver responsibility and the preparation that the OEP has in the radioactive material management. It is showed the differences found between the country inner roads and the Mexico City area. (Author)

  12. Diminishing Marginal Utility in Economics Textbooks

    Dittmer, Timothy


    Many introductory microeconomics textbook authors derive the law of demand from the assumption of diminishing marginal utility. Authors of intermediate and graduate textbooks derive demand from diminishing marginal rate of substitution and ordinal preferences. These approaches are not interchangeable; diminishing marginal utility for all goods is…

  13. Factors affecting the risk of developing lower back musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in experienced and inexperienced rodworkers.

    Salas, Elizabeth A; Vi, Peter; Reider, Vanesa L; Moore, Anne E


    Injury and dropout rates during rodwork training appear to reflect difficulties encountered by apprentices adapting to increased physical demands of tying on slab, one of the rodworking tasks with the highest injury risk. Because experience influences work strategies, and consequently the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), this study aimed to identify differences in work practices associated with tying rebar on slab, potentially relevant to back MSD development, in experienced and inexperienced rodworkers. Fourteen male rodworkers were recruited from either experienced (>2 years experience post apprenticeship), or inexperienced (<6 months experience) groups. Both tied an area with rebar laid on the ground. Trunk flexion/extension angles were measured. L4/L5 moments were estimated from T9 Erector Spinae EMG. Experienced workers were found to spend longer periods of time in trunk flexed postures, with lower peak L4/L5 moments. Our findings revealed practices associated with each group might have different implications on back health. PMID:26360195

  14. Searching for needles in a haystack: identifying innovations to prevent MSDs in the construction sector.

    Kramer, Desre M; Bigelow, Philip L; Carlan, Niki; Wells, Richard P; Garritano, Enzo; Vi, Peter; Plawinski, Marek


    This study identified innovations that could potentially reduce the risk of MSDs in the construction sector. The action research approach was based on a collaborative model of researchers working with workplace representatives. We searched for innovations being used by construction companies. From a potential database of 125 innovations, the study focused on 20 innovations that varied in their penetration into worksites in the geographical area, represented a variety of trades, and were a cross-section of tools and work organizational processes. It examined the attributes of the innovations, and the barriers to their adoption. The analysis was based on observations of workers, surveys of workers and construction-safety consultants, and company interviews. The study found that innovations were adopted by companies for multiple advantages including productivity and quality, but not necessarily ability to reduce MSD risks, their non-complexity, and cost. The major barriers for adoption were the traditional culture of the construction sector rather than financial ones. PMID:20170903

  15. Prevention of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in office work: a case study.

    Lima, Tânia M; Coelho, Denis A


    Twelve recently built office work stations, where jobs imply continued use of information and communication technologies, were analyzed for ergonomic risk factors. Based on a literature review of ergonomic recommendations for computer and general office work, a checklist was devised for assistance in identifying inadequate ergonomic situations, a process that was informed by pain complaints information. RULA (Rapid Upper Limb Assessment) was selected to estimate the risk of MSDs, considering the criteria of applicability and appropriateness to the case studied. This method was applied by an occupational health and safety technician to the most critical job observed in the workplace. Criticality was estimated through observations aided by the systematic use of a checklist tailored to the specific office scenario. Recommendations for change were provided for implementation in all workplaces in the office, in order to improve work conditions, and guide the setup of a MSD prevention training program. PMID:21811030

  16. Faktor-Faktor yang Berhubungan Dengan Terjadinya Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) Pada Pekerja Pembuatan Dodol di Tanjung Pura Kabupaten Langkat Tahun 2016

    Akbar, Muhammad Gifhari


    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the complaint in the skeletal muscles that one feels complaint ranging from mild to very severe. If this condition occurs in a long time can cause permanent pain in muscles, joints and ligaments and reduce productivity and work efficiency. This research aims to identify many factors that correlated the complaint musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in dodol making workers on Tanjung Pura regency of Langkat in 2016. This research is a quantitative research with...


    Cindyastira, Dimi; S. Russeng, Syamsiar; Wahyuni, Andi


    Getaran merupakan faktor fisik di tempat kerja yang berasal dari peralatan kerja yang digunakan. Getaran yang dihasilkan oleh mesin apabila terpapar oleh manusia atau pekerja dapat menimbulkan efek yang merugikan bagi kesehatan. MSDs merupakan sekumpulan gejala yang berkaitan dengan jaringan otot, kartilago, struktur tulang, dan pembuluh darah. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui hubungan intensitas getaran, umur, masa kerja, lama kerja, kebiasaan olahraga dan sikap kerja dengan keluhan muscul...

  18. The qualification of the vibration diagnostics on turbomachines by the use of microcomputers. The MSDS 40 system for vibration monitoring and diagnosis. Die Qualifizierung der Schwingungsdiagnostik an Turbomaschinen ueber den Einsatz von Mikrorechnern. Das Schwingungsueberwachungs- und Diagnosesystem MSDS 40

    Weigel, M. (Institut fuer Energieversorgung, Dresden (Germany)); Heymann, G. (Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Sektion Energieumwandlung)


    A mobile system for vibration monitoring in turbomachinery was developed in a joint effort of the Institute of Power Supply, Dresden, and Dresden technical university. The system is based on the efficient microprocessor system K 1520 and reflects the latest state of the art in terms of signal acquisition and processing. The system, referred to as MSDS 40, permits both cyclic and continuous (steady-state) vibration monitoring in turbomachines, as well as in all other rotary machines with a rotational speed up to 12,000 rpm and with suitable operating conditions. (orig./GL).

  19. Musculoskeletal disorders (Msds) and dental practice. part 1. General information-terminology, aetiology, work-relatedness, magnitude of the problem, and prevention.

    Nermin, Yamalik


    Occupational health hazards are common in many sectors and are on the increase. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), which are problems of musculoskeletal system, are significant and costly workplace problems affecting occupational health, productivity and the careers of the working population. Although there is a lack of uniform medical information and a clear understanding of the nature of MSDs, and significant difficulties in diagnosis which generate an ongoing debate regarding many aspects of these conditions, various risk factors are identified and preventive measures are available. As safety and health at work is a realistic target and prevention is clearly the best approach, the preventive philosophy deserves particular attention. This review aims to provide background information on general features of MSDs, identified risk factors and the basic philosophy of prevention. PMID:17243470

  20. Incidence of MSDs and neck and back pain among logging machine operators in the southern U.S.

    Lynch, S M; Smidt, M F; Merrill, P D; Sesek, R F


    There are limited data about the incidence and prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among loggers in the southern U.S. despite the risk factors associated with these occupations. Risk factors are both personal (age, body mass index, etc.) and job-related (awkward postures, repetitive hand and foot movements, vibration, etc.). A survey was conducted to estimate the incidence of self-reported pain and diagnosed MSDs and to study the relationship with known risk factors. Respondents were loggers attending training and continuing education classes. Respondents were asked to identify personal attributes, machine use, awkward postures, repetitive movements, and recent incidence of pain and medical diagnoses. All were male with an average age of 44 (range of 19-67) and an average body mass index of 31.3. Most were machine operators (97%) who have worked in the logging industry for an average of 22.9 years. Most machines identified were manufactured within the past ten years (average machine age 6.7 years). For machine operators, 10.5% (16) reported an MSD diagnosis, 74.3% (113) reported at least mild back pain, and 71.7% (109) reported at least mild neck pain over the past year. Further analysis attempted to identify an association between personal attributes, machine use, posture, and pain. Risk factors related to machine use may be biased since most survey respondents had considerable choice or control in working conditions, as they were firm owners and/or supervisors. PMID:25174152

  1. Does Public Employee Unionism Diminish Democracy?

    Cohen, Sanford


    The author considers charges that public sector unionism diminishes democracy by requiring a sharing of public authority with private bodies that too often exerts disproportionate influence on government decisions. He questions these charges in view of declining public unionism and unrealistic assumptions about the nature of local government…

  2. Improving the management of biological laboratory by the MSDS%引入MSDS加强生物实验室管理



    论述了MSDS的含义、作用以及将其引入生物实验室管理中的必要性,有必要将MSDS应用于生物实验室的管理中。可通过加强药品的采购,重视药品的储存管理,正确使用化学药品,科学处理废弃药品,严格MSDS培训等措施来提高生物实验室的管理水平。%The signification and function of MSDS and the necessity of inducting MSDS in biological laboratory was expounded.It is very important that apply the MSDS to biological laboratory management was thought and a series of biological laboratory management measures were put forward,including to regard chemical drugs purchase,to strengthen storage management,to standardize use-method,to strengthen the waste treatment,to put up training of MSDS and others.

  3. Usulan Perancangan Fasilitas Kerja Untuk Mereduksi Level Risiko Musculoskeletas Disorders (MsDs) Pada Bagian Pengepakan Pakaian di CV. Raya Sport



    CV. Raya Sport merupakan usaha kecil dan menengah yang bergerak di bidang konveksi, khususnya membuat pakaian olahraga, baik untuk kalangan sekolah (TK, SD, SLTP dan SLTA), maupun kalangan instansi (pemerintah dan swasta). Proses produksi konveksi ini meliputi pemotongan pola, penjahitan, peyetingan film, pembuatan film, penyablonan, penyeterikaan dan bagian pengepakan. Secara pengamatan langsung terlihat bahwasannya terdapat faktor penyebab terjadinya keluhan Musculoskeletal Disorders (MsDs)...

  4. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and dental practice Part 2. Risk factors for dentistry, magnitude of the problem, prevention, and dental ergonomics.

    Yamalik, Nermin


    As a consequence of occupational stresses placed on their bodies, oral health care providers (OHP) are vulnerable to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Muscular imbalance, neuromuscular inhibition, and pain and dysfunction may frequently be observed among OHP. Repeated unnatural, deviated or inadequate working postures, forceful hand movements, inadequate equipment or workplace designs and inappropriate work patterns are likely to be the particular risk factors. However, WMSDs are not an avoidable part of OHPs' professional lives. Paying the necessary attention to occupational and individual risk factors, prevalence, symptoms and consequences of WMSDs, and implementing the recommended health and safety measures can enable a long and healthy career. This review essentially aims to provide background information for OHP regarding the magnitude of the problem, particular risk factors and the available recommendations for prevention. PMID:17378349

  5. Design and development of MSDS inquiry software based on VB and Access%基于VB与Access的MSDS查询软件的开发与设计

    李东进; 曹国建; 姚干兵


    化学品生产或销售企业通过MSDS向客户提供有关化学品详细的安全数据说明,为危险化学品的安全使用、毒性评估、职业健康、生态环境等问题提供技术参考.为使危险化学品企业用户方便、灵活的掌握危险化学品MSDS信息,以Visual Basic 6.0为编程平台,Access2003为后台数据库,开发了MSDS查询软件,实现对化学品的MSDS信息的检索.该软件使用方便、检索快捷,具有很强的实用性和推广价值.%Chemical manufacturers or salers by means of the MSDS to provide information about the chemical safety data sheet for details,dangerous chemicals safety,toxicity assessment of occupation,health,ecological environmental problems and provide technical reference.In order to make the dangerous chemicals enterprise users convenient,flexible control of dangerous chemicals MSDS information,taking Visual Basic 6.0 as programming platform,Access 2003 as the background database,design the MSDS inquiry software and realizes to the chemical MSDS information retrieval.The software is easy to use and fast inquiry,it has a strong practicability and popularization value.

  6. Approaching MSDS%走近MSDS




  7. Brief analysis on the MSDS of imported crude oil%浅析进口原油安全技术说明书

    陈春光; 周宏琛; 赵国身


    In this paper, crude oils with the properties of dangerous goods was choosen as research object, and the MSDS registration status for crude oil around the world was analyzed . A variety of crude oils' MSDS were classified and summarized. The progresses of dangerous goods classification, environmental health, occupational protection and other aspects in different countries were introduced and compared with domestic regulations and standard systems, so as to offer some help for the preparation of MSDS in our country. The harmful substance in cifude oils were classified and defined, to realize fast identifications according to occupational health standards. Some relevant suggestions for further implementation of the GHS system in China were proposed, and the advices were provided for hazardous chemicals management system from the field of the MSDS.%以原油这一具有危险品属性的战略物资作为研究对象,分析各国对原油进行MSDS登记的现状,对多种进口原油安全技术说明书进行分类归纳.介绍各国在危险品分类、健康环保、职业防护等多方面开展的工作,对照比较国内相应法规和标准体系,以期对我国石油产品安全技术说明书的编写工作有所助益.对进口原油中的有害物质组分依照职业卫生标准,进行了归纳,实现健康危险限值的快速核定.为我国进一步推行GHS制度,完善构建合理的危险化学品管理、法规、执行体系,在安全技术说观书这一领域提出相关建议.

  8. Customers Attitude towards Diminishing Partnership Home Financing in Islamic Banking

    Dzuljastri A. Razak


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Diminishing partnership or musharakah mutanaqisah contract in home financing is recently introduced by the Islamic banking industry as an alternative of the bay bithaman ajil contract which has received many criticism from shariah scholars as mimicking conventional loan. This study aims to examine customers attitude upon diminishing partnership home financing and their intention to subscribe into the financing scheme. Approach: This study gauges customers perception on the salient features of diminishing partnership home financing from Islamic banks through a survey of 504 respondents comprise officers, managers and academician in Kuala Lumpur. The structural equation modeling was utilized to find out factors that influence customers intention for diminishing partnership home financing under the framework of the theory of reasoned action. Results: The main finding indicates that customers perceived the equity sharing features in diminishing partnership home financing mode differ from the conventional loan and other existing Islamic home financing modes. The result from structural equation modeling shows that customers intention for diminishing partnership is more influenced by their subjective norms compared to their attitude toward diminishing partnership home financing. Conclusion: The customers have perceived diminishing partnership as more shariah compliant than bay bithaman ajil. Afterwards, opinions from people perceived important by customers are giving more influence towards their decision making process.

  9. The Law of Demand Versus Diminishing Marginal Utility

    Beattie, Bruce R.; LaFrance, Jeffrey T.


    Diminishing marginal utility(DMU)is neither necessary nor sufficient for downward sloping demand. Yet upper-division undergraduate and beginning graduate students often presume otherwise. This paper provides two simple counter examples that can be used to help students understand that the Law of Demand does not depend on diminishing marginal utility. The examples are accompanied with the geometry and basic mathematics of the utility functions and the implied ordinary/Marshallian demands.

  10. Global smoothness preservation and the variation-diminishing property

    Gavrea Ioan


    Full Text Available In the center of our paper are two counterexamples showing the independence of the concepts of global smoothness preservation and variation diminution for sequences of approximation operators. Under certain additional assumptions it is shown that the variation-diminishing property is the stronger one. It is also demonstrated, however, that there are positive linear operators giving an optimal pointwise degree of approximation, and which preserve global smoothness, monotonicity and convexity, but are not variation-diminishing.

  11. Papillary renal cell carcinoma

    Between 1976 and 1987, 395 patients with kidney tumors were studied with radiological techniques and sonography. In 37 cases (9.4%) histopathology diagnosed pure papillary renal cell carcinoma. Analyzing the radiographic patterns of these neoplasms, the authors observed constantly diminished vascularity (100%) frequent calcifications (35.1%) and necrotic areas (51.3%). Such X-ray features are not specific: nevertheless, their coexistence is strongly suggestive of papillary renal cell cancer. No consistent US pattern was found; however, necrotic areas were easily demonstrated in most cases. It must be stressed how patients with papillary carcinoma experienced a longer post-operative survival; it has not yet been established whether such favorable behavior is due to low biological aggressiveness or to earlier diagnosis

  12. Who seeks primary care for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs with physicians prescribing homeopathic and other complementary medicine? Results from the EPI3-LASER survey in France

    Magnier Anne-Marie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a paucity of information describing patients with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs using complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs and almost none distinguishing homeopathy from other CAMs. The objective of this study was to describe and compare patients with MSDs who consulted primary care physicians, either certified homeopaths (Ho or regular prescribers of CAMs in a mixed practice (Mx, to those consulting physicians who strictly practice conventional medicine (CM, with regard to the severity of their MSD expressed as chronicity, co-morbidity and quality of life (QOL. Methods The EPI3-LASER study was a nationwide observational survey of a representative sample of general practitioners and their patients in France. The sampling strategy ensured a sufficient number of GPs in each of the three groups to allow comparison of their patients. Patients completed a questionnaire on socio-demographics, lifestyle and QOL using the Short Form 12 (SF-12 questionnaire. Chronicity of MSDs was defined as more than twelve weeks duration of the current episode. Diagnoses and co-morbidities were recorded by the physician. Results A total of 825 GPs included 1,692 MSD patients (predominantly back pain and osteoarthritis were included, 21.6% in the CM group, 32.4% Ho and 45.9% Mx. Patients in the Ho group had more often a chronic MSD (62.1% than the CM (48.6% or Mx (50.3% groups, a result that was statistically significant after controlling for patients' characteristics (Odds ratio = 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.07 - 1.89. Patients seen by homeopaths or mixed practice physicians who were not the regular treating physician, had more often a chronic MSD than those seen in conventional medicine (Odds ratios were1.75; 95% CI: 1.22 - 2.50 and 1.48; 95% CI: 1.06 - 2.12, respectively. Otherwise patients in the three groups did not differ for co-morbidities and QOL. Conclusion MSD patients consulting primary care physicians who

  13. Is proprioception diminished in patients with patellar tendinopathy?

    Groot, H E; van der Worp, H; Nijenbanning, L; Diercks, R L; Zwerver, J; van den Akker-Scheek, I


    PURPOSE: Patellar tendinopathy is a highly prevalent overuse injury, and most treatments are only effective to some extent. This persistence of complaints could be linked to changed proprioception. One study showed diminished proprioception in athletes with lateral epicondylitis. Aim of this study w

  14. Is proprioception diminished in patients with patellar tendinopathy?

    Groot, H. E.; van der Worp, H.; Nijenbanning, L.; Diercks, R. L.; Zwerver, J.; van den Akker-Scheek, I.


    Purpose: Patellar tendinopathy is a highly prevalent overuse injury, and most treatments are only effective to some extent. This persistence of complaints could be linked to changed proprioception. One study showed diminished proprioception in athletes with lateral epicondylitis. Aim of this study w

  15. A Case of Protruding Eyeballs and Diminishing Vision

    Biswas, Rakesh; Gupta, Saroj; Dahiya, Sumit; Kiran, Shashi; Girish, B.V.; Kasthuri, A.S.


    This case report discusses issues related to a 56-year-old man from Bangalore who presented with complaints of a gradual protrusion of his eyeballs along with diminishing vision for the previous month. The approach to diagnosis and management issues around this unusual presentation is dicussed.

  16. Parotid carcinoma

    Sørensen, Kristine Bjørndal; Godballe, Christian; de Stricker, Karin;


    OBJECTIVES: Our aim is to investigate the expression of kit protein (KIT) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in parotid carcinomas in order to correlate the expression to histology and prognosis. Further we want to perform mutation analysis of KIT-positive adenoid cystic carcinomas....... PATIENTS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections from 73 patients with parotid gland carcinomas were used for the study. The sections were stained with both KIT and EGFR polyclonal antibodies. Twelve KIT-positive adenoid cystic carcinomas were examined for c-kit mutation in codon 816....... RESULTS: Of all carcinomas 25% were KIT-positive and 79% were EGFR-positive. Ninety-two percentage of the adenoid cystic carcinomas were KIT-positive. None of the adenoid cystic carcinomas had mutations in codon 816 of the c-kit gene. CONCLUSION: Neither KIT- nor EGFR-expression seem to harbour...

  17. Studies on Improving the Management of Laboratory in Colleges and Universities by the MSDS%利用MSDS加强高校实验室安全管理的探讨



    建介绍了MSDS的含义及功能,阐述了实验室引入MSDS的必要性,认为利用MSDS可从重视药品采购工作、强化药品储存管理、规范药品使用方法、加强废弃药品的处理、进行MSDS培训等方面加强实验室的管理。MSDS应用于实验室的管理中非常必要。%The signification and function of MSDS was introduced. The necessity of inducting MSDS in colleges and universities’ laboratory was expounded and a series of laboratory management measures were put forward, including to regard chemical drugs purchase, to


    Andronicus TORP


    Full Text Available Mindfulness is increasingly being applied in companies as a means to increase, among others, employee wellbeing and energy, and in the same time to diminish stress. This paper argues that there seems to be scientific evidence showing that certain mindfulness techniques may diminish stress and increase energy, yet it seems that there is a period in the beginning of the mindfulness practice where the techniques have the opposite effects. These findings seem to be contradictory to past findings, which indicated that only two thirds of people practicing mindfulness techniques have positive effects from that practice. It may be that everybody can have positive effects from the practice of the mentioned techniques, just that some need to practice for a longer period before obtaining these positive effects. Further scientific studies seem to be needed in order to clarify the full spectrum of effects and consequences of practicing different mindfulness techniques, and just as important, if these effects are valid for everybody.

  19. Diminishing balance model for Islamic home finance: Final version

    Hasan, Zubair


    This brief note supplements the argument of an earlier paper Islamic Home Financing: Current Models and a Proposal from Social Perspective”; it explains that the Diminishing Balance Model for Islamic home financing is operable in a Shari’ah compliant way even without the Islamic Banking laws accommodating the notion of constructive ownership as envisaged earlier. It further clarifies how the new model scores over the models currently being used for the purpose.

  20. Diminished creatinine clearance in anorexia nervosa: reversal with weight gain.

    Boag, F.; Weerakoon, J; Ginsburg, J; Havard, C W; Dandona, P


    To assess whether patients with anorexia nervosa have abnormalities in creatinine clearance, we measured plasma creatinine concentration, urinary creatinine excretion, and creatinine clearance in 10 patients with anorexia nervosa before and during treatment. Urinary creatinine excretion and creatinine clearance were diminished in all patients. Nine patients had significant decreases in their plasma creatinine and creatinine clearance was increased even when corrected for body weight and body ...

  1. Diminished Reality Based on Image Inpainting Considering Background Geometry.

    Kawai, Norihiko; Sato, Tomokazu; Yokoya, Naokazu


    Diminished reality aims to remove real objects from video images and fill in the missing regions with plausible background textures in real time. Most conventional methods based on image inpainting achieve diminished reality by assuming that the background around a target object is almost planar. This paper proposes a new diminished reality method that considers background geometries with less constraints than the conventional ones. In this study, we approximate the background geometry by combining local planes, and improve the quality of image inpainting by correcting the perspective distortion of texture and limiting the search area for finding similar textures as exemplars. The temporal coherence of texture is preserved using the geometries and camera pose estimated by visual-simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). The mask region that includes a target object is robustly set in each frame by projecting a 3D region, rather than tracking the object in 2D image space. The effectiveness of the proposed method is successfully demonstrated using several experimental environments. PMID:26829239

  2. Basisquamous Carcinoma

    Yesudian Devakar P


    Full Text Available A 50 year old woman presented with an ulceroproliferative mass in the value of 4 month duration. Biopsy of the lesion showed features of a basisquamous cell carcinoma. This is a rare tumour showing histopathological features of both basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. The clinical, histopathological and histogenetic status of this tumour are discussed.

  3. Managing laboratory Risk in University Chemical Laboratories Through Use of MSDS%MSDS对高校化学实验室管理的意义及作用

    何蕾; 叶欣欣; 李羽让; 车剑飞


    材料安全数据表(Material Salty Data Sheets,MSDS)是用来阐明化学品的理化特性以及对使用者的健康可能产生的危害的一份文件,提供了有关化学品的基础知识、防护措施和应急行动等重要信息.由于市场国际化的需要,MSDS制度在企业界已经得到广泛认同,但高校化学实验室对MSDS制度存在明显的冷漠和后知后觉.因而从高校实验室管理中面临的新挑战出发,讨论了实验室化学品事故与MSDS管理体制缺失的关系,提出了以MSDS为基础,建立相应的实验室危险化学品管理和安全教育的体系和方法.高校化学实验室MSDS制度的建立,将会有效地减少实验室事故的发生.

  4. Elements to diminish radioactive accidents; Elementos para disminuir accidentes radiactivos

    Cortes I, M.E.; Ramirez G, F.P. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, C.P. 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    In this work it is presented an application of the cause-effect diagram method or Ichikawa method identifying the elements that allow to diminish accidents when the radioactive materials are transported. It is considered the transport of hazardous materials which include radioactive materials in the period: December 1996 until March 1997. Among the identified elements by this method it is possible to mention: the road type, the radioactive source protection, the grade driver responsibility and the preparation that the OEP has in the radioactive material management. It is showed the differences found between the country inner roads and the Mexico City area. (Author)

  5. Staghorn calculi and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis associated with transitional cell carcinoma

    Chao-Wei Tseng


    Full Text Available Untreated staghorn calculi can cause xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP, diminished renal function, and renal malignancy. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the upper urinary tract is associated with kidney stones and chronic infection, but their association with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC has not been proven and has rarely been reported in literature. We present a rare case of staghorn calculi and XGP associated with TCC.

  6. Targeting heparanase overcomes chemoresistance and diminishes relapse in myeloma.

    Ramani, Vishnu C; Zhan, Fenghuang; He, Jianbo; Barbieri, Paola; Noseda, Alessandro; Tricot, Guido; Sanderson, Ralph D


    In most myeloma patients, even after several rounds of intensive therapy, drug resistant tumor cells survive and proliferate aggressively leading to relapse. In the present study, gene expression profiling of tumor cells isolated from myeloma patients after sequential rounds of chemotherapy, revealed for the first time that heparanase, a potent promoter of myeloma growth and progression, was elevated in myeloma cells that survived therapy. Based on this clinical data, we hypothesized that heparanase was involved in myeloma resistance to drug therapy. In several survival and viability assays, elevated heparanase expression promoted resistance of myeloma tumor cells to chemotherapy. Mechanistically, this enhanced survival was due to heparanase-mediated ERK signaling. Importantly, use of the heparanase inhibitor Roneparstat in combination with chemotherapy clearly diminished the growth of disseminated myeloma tumors in vivo. Moreover, use of Roneparstat either during or after chemotherapy diminished regrowth of myeloma tumors in vivo following therapy. These results provide compelling evidence that heparanase is a promising, novel target for overcoming myeloma resistance to therapy and that targeting heparanase has the potential to prevent relapse in myeloma and possibly other cancers. PMID:26624982

  7. Social Presence Diminishes Contagious Yawning in the Laboratory.

    Gallup, Andrew; Church, Allyson M; Miller, Heather; Risko, Evan F; Kingstone, Alan


    Contagious yawning may be a useful measure of social psychological functioning, and thus it is important to evaluate the variables influencing its expression in laboratory settings. Previous research has documented that humans yawn less frequently in crowded environments and when under direct observation, but the impact of social presence on contagious yawning remains unknown. Here we present the first study to systematically alter the degree of social presence experienced by participants in the laboratory to determine its effect on contagious yawning frequency. Our results demonstrate that both implied and actual social presence significantly diminish yawn contagion in comparison to a control condition, indicating a key social component to contagious yawning. These findings provide a framework for pursuing additional research investigating the social factors influencing contagious yawning, while also offering applications for measuring this response in laboratory settings. PMID:27112374

  8. Pushing the complexity barrier: diminishing returns in the sciences

    Gros, Claudius


    Are the sciences not advancing at an ever increasing speed? We contrast this popular perspective with the view that science funding may actually see diminishing returns, at least regarding established fields. In order to stimulate a larger discussion, we investigate two exemplary cases, the linear increase in human life expectancy over the last 170 years and the advances in the reliability of numerical short and medium term weather predictions during the last 50 years. We argue that the outcome of science and technology (S&T) funding in terms of measurable results is a highly sub-linear function of the amount of resources committed. Supporting a range of small to medium size research projects, instead of a few large ones, will be, as a corollary, a more efficient use of resources for science funding agencies.

  9. Sebaceous Carcinoma

    ... of the Year Award Arnold P. Gold Foundation Humanism in Medicine Award Diversity Mentorship Program Eugene Van ... What causes sebaceous carcinoma? SC is rare, so scientists still have much to learn, including what causes ...

  10. Overexpression of Catalase Diminishes Oxidative Cysteine Modifications of Cardiac Proteins.

    Chunxiang Yao

    Full Text Available Reactive protein cysteine thiolates are instrumental in redox regulation. Oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, react with thiolates to form oxidative post-translational modifications, enabling physiological redox signaling. Cardiac disease and aging are associated with oxidative stress which can impair redox signaling by altering essential cysteine thiolates. We previously found that cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase (Cat, an enzyme that detoxifies excess H2O2, protected from oxidative stress and delayed cardiac aging in mice. Using redox proteomics and systems biology, we sought to identify the cysteines that could play a key role in cardiac disease and aging. With a 'Tandem Mass Tag' (TMT labeling strategy and mass spectrometry, we investigated differential reversible cysteine oxidation in the cardiac proteome of wild type and Cat transgenic (Tg mice. Reversible cysteine oxidation was measured as thiol occupancy, the ratio of total available versus reversibly oxidized cysteine thiols. Catalase overexpression globally decreased thiol occupancy by ≥1.3 fold in 82 proteins, including numerous mitochondrial and contractile proteins. Systems biology analysis assigned the majority of proteins with differentially modified thiols in Cat Tg mice to pathways of aging and cardiac disease, including cellular stress response, proteostasis, and apoptosis. In addition, Cat Tg mice exhibited diminished protein glutathione adducts and decreased H2O2 production from mitochondrial complex I and II, suggesting improved function of cardiac mitochondria. In conclusion, our data suggest that catalase may alleviate cardiac disease and aging by moderating global protein cysteine thiol oxidation.

  11. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA supplementation in diminished ovarian reserve (DOR

    Gleicher Norbert


    Full Text Available Abstract Background With infertility populations in the developed world rapidly aging, treatment of diminished ovarian reserve (DOR assumes increasing clinical importance. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA has been reported to improve pregnancy chances with DOR, and is now utilized by approximately one third of all IVF centers world-wide. Increasing DHEA utilization and publication of a first prospectively randomized trial now warrants a systematic review. Methods PubMed, Cochrane and Ovid Medline were searched between 1995 and 2010 under the following strategy: [ and ]. Bibliographies of relevant publications were further explored for additional relevant citations. Since only one randomized study has been published, publications, independent of evidence levels and quality assessment, were reviewed. Results Current best available evidence suggests that DHEA improves ovarian function, increases pregnancy chances and, by reducing aneuploidy, lowers miscarriage rates. DHEA over time also appears to objectively improve ovarian reserve. Recent animal data support androgens in promoting preantral follicle growth and reduction in follicle atresia. Discussion Improvement of oocyte/embryo quality with DHEA supplementation potentially suggests a new concept of ovarian aging, where ovarian environments, but not oocytes themselves, age. DHEA may, thus, represent a first agent beneficially affecting aging ovarian environments. Others can be expected to follow.

  12. Carcinoma multiplex

    Multiple primaries in a single patient are uncommon, though not very rare. The existence of such cancers in two un-related, non-paired organs is even more un-common. Here, we present a case of 55 years old male who presented to us with a mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland and was operated. Later on, he presented with a large cystic swelling in the pelvis which turned out to be pseudomyxoma peritonei. A review of slides and immunohistochemistry indicated it to be adenocarcinoma colon. He presented again with recurrent mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid which was operated successfully with the use of myocutaneous flap for wound closure. He is currently undergoing chemotherapy. In order to establish a separate mono-clonal etiology of both tumours, immunohistochemistry was performed. To the best of our knowledge, carcinoma multiplex in the colon and the parotid has never been reported before. (author)

  13. Parotid carcinoma

    Godballe, Christian; Schultz, Joyce H; Krogdahl, Annelise;


    OBJECTIVE: To analyze clinical data and possible prognostic factors of patients with primary carcinoma of the parotid gland. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study was made of 85 patients with suspected parotid cancer who were admitted to the Center of Head and Neck Oncology at Odense University...... guidelines from the World Health Organization. Five tumors (6%) did not fulfill the criteria of malignancy and were reclassified as benign. In another five cases the assumed primary parotid carcinomas were found to be metastatic disease from cancers of the breast, prostate, skin, and lungs. Ten patients (12...... significant influence on survival. CONCLUSIONS: A thorough histological revision is pivotal in retrospective parotid carcinoma studies, and tumor size; histological appearance; T, N, and M status; stage; facial nerve dysfunction; and pain from the face and/or neck seem to be significant prognostic indicators...

  14. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the 1,2-alpha-D-mannosidase gene, msdS, from Aspergillus saitoi and expression of the gene in yeast cells.

    Inoue, T; Yoshida, T; Ichishima, E


    A full-length cDNA encoding 1,2-alpha-D-mannosidase (EC from Aspergillus saitoi was cloned. Analysis of the 1718 bp nucleotide sequence of the cDNA revealed a single open reading frame with 1539 nucleotides of 1,2-alpha-D-mannosidase gene, msdS. The predicted amino-acid sequence of 1,2-alpha-D-mannosidase consists of 513 residues with a molecular mass of 55,767 and is 70%, 26% and 35% identity with those of Penicillium citrinum 1,2-alpha-D-mannosidase, yeast alpha-mannosidase, and mouse alpha-mannosidase. The cDNA of the msdS gene has been cloned and expressed in yeast cells. To identify the activity of expression product methyl-2-O-alpha-mannopyranosyl-alpha-mannopyranoside (Man alpha 1-->2Man-OMe) was used as a substrate at pH 5.0. PMID:8519794


    Song, Juquan; Wolf, Steven E.; Wu, Xiao-Wu; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Herndon, David N.; Jeschke, Marc G.


    Background Starvation induces small bowel atrophy with increased intestinal epithelial apoptosis and decreased proliferation. Here, we examined these parameters after starvation in aged animals. Methods Sixty-four 6 week-old and 26 month-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to either an ad libitum fed or fasted group. The small bowel was harvested at 12, 48, and 72 hours following starvation. Proximal gut mucosal height was measured and epithelial cells counted. Apoptosis was identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Proliferation was determined by immunohistochemical staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Comparison of fed vs. fasted and adult vs. old groups was done by one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s test and unpaired t-test. Significance was accepted at p<0.05. Results Aged mice had higher proximal gut weights, mucosal heights and cell numbers at baseline compared with the adult group (p<0.05). The rate of apoptosis was lower in the aged (p<0.05) while proliferation was not different between groups before starvation. After starvation, proximal gut wet weight decreased only in adult mice (p<0.05); Gut mucosal height and mucosal cell number decreased greater in adult than in aged mice (p<0.05). This was related to decreased proliferation only in the adult group (p<0.05). The fold of epithelial apoptosis increased was higher in the aged group than in the adult after starvation (p<0.05). Conclusions Gut mucosal kinetics change with age had lower rates of apoptosis and greater mucosal mass; the character of starvation-induced atrophy is diminished with aging. PMID:19126762

  16. Carcinoma vulvar

    Yamit Peñas Zayas


    Full Text Available El carcinoma de la vulva tiene una incidencia de aproximadamente un 3-5% dentro de todas las enfermedades ginecológicas malignas. El 90% de los tumores malignos de la vulva está constituido por carcinoma epidermoide, el resto son adenocarcinomas, carcinomas de células basales y melanomas. Se realiza la presentación de un caso de una paciente femenina de 25 años de edad con antecedentes  de Diabetes Mellitus tipo II y trombopatia, que ingresa en el servicio de ginecología con un cuadro cutáneo polimorfo, localizado en labios mayores y menores, dado por lesiones eritematoerosivas y vegetante, sospechándose clínicamente el diagnóstico  de un carcinoma epidermoide, corroborándose el mismo histológicamente al realizarse biopsia de piel. Se indicó tratamiento con quimioterapia. Por la edad de la paciente y ser menos frecuente en mucosa que en la piel,  motivo la presentación del caso.

  17. Parathyroid carcinoma

    Qvist, N; Krøll, L; Ladefoged, C;


    Parathyroid carcinoma is a slow growing tumor, and the patients most often die from complications to the hypercalcemia. Therefore, any attempt should be made to remove local recurrence and metastasis surgically, as medical treatment is disappointing. A case treated with extensive vascular surgery...

  18. Diminished Baroreflex Control of Forearm Vascular Resistance Following Training

    Mack, G. W.; Thompson, C. A.; Doerr, D. F.; Nadel, E. R.; Convertino, V. A.


    The stimulus-response characteristics of cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of forearm vascular resistance (FVR units in mm Hg x min x I00 ml/ml) were studied in 14 volunteers before and after 10 wk of endurance training. We assessed the relationship betaleen reflex stimulus (changes in central venous pressure, CVP) and response (FVR) during unloading of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors with lower body negative pressure (LBNP, 0 to - 2O mm Hg). Changes in CVP during LBNP were estimated from pressure changes in a large peripheral vein in the dependent arm of the subject in the right lateral decubitus position. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(sub 2max)) and total blood volume increased with endurance training from 37.8 +/- 1.4 ml/min x kg and 63.6 +/- 2.1 ml/kg to 45.3 +/- 1.4 ml/ min x kg and 69.3 +/- 2.8 ml/kg respectively (P less than 0.05). Reflex forearm vasoconstriction occurred in response to a reduction in estimated CVP, and the absolute change in FVR per unit of CVP was reduced from -5.96 +/- 0.79 to -4.06 +/- 0.52 units x mm/ Hg (P less than 0.05) following exercise training but was unchanged from -6.10 to 0.57 to -6.22 +/- 0.94 units x mm/ Hg for the time control group (N = 7). Resting values for FVR were similar before and after exercise training; however, resting estimated CVP was elevated from 9.5 +/- 0.5 mm x Hg before training to 11.3 +/- 0.6 mm x Hg after training. The reduction in sensitivity of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of FVR was linearly related to the increase in blood volume (r = 0.65, P less than 0.05). suggesting that diminished cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of FVR in physically fit individuals is related, in part, to a training-induced blood volume expansion.

  19. Diminished Mercury Emission From Water Surfaces by Duckweed (Lemna minor)

    Wollenberg, J. L.; Peters, S. C.


    Aquatic plants of the family Lemnaceae (generally referred to as duckweeds) are a widely distributed type of floating vegetation in freshwater systems. Under suitable conditions, duckweeds form a dense vegetative mat on the water surface, which reduces light penetration into the water column and decreases the amount of exposed water surface. These two factors would be expected to reduce mercury emission by limiting a) direct photoreduction of Hg(II), b) indirect reduction via coupled DOC photooxidation-Hg(II) reduction, and c) gas diffusion across the water-air interface. Conversely, previous studies have demonstrated transpiration of Hg(0) by plants, so it is therefore possible that the floating vegetative mat would enhance emission via transpiration of mercury vapor. The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether duckweed limits mercury flux to the atmosphere by shading and the formation of a physical barrier to diffusion, or whether it enhances emission from aquatic systems via transpiration of Hg(0). Deionized water was amended with mercury to achieve a final concentration of approximately 35 ng/L and allowed to equilibrate prior to the experiment. Experiments were conducted in rectangular polystyrene flux chambers with measured UV-B transmittance greater than 60% (spectral cutoff approximately 290 nm). Light was able to penetrate the flux chamber from the sides as well as the top throughout the experiment, limiting the effect of shading by duckweed on the water surface. Flux chambers contained 8L of water with varying percent duckweed cover, and perforated plastic sheeting was used as an abiotic control. Exposures were conducted outside on days with little to no cloud cover. Real time mercury flux was measured using atomic absorption (Mercury Instruments UT-3000). Total solar and ultraviolet radiation, as well as a suite of meteorological parameters, were also measured. Results indicate that duckweed diminishes mercury emission from the water surface

  20. How to diminish calcium loss and muscle atrophy in space

    Gorgolewski, S.

    perfect relaxation when asleep or awake. We have to check in space if we can thus diminish the use of medicaments or even eliminate them. Slow Yoga exercises decrease also the amount on food required because life is not so energy demanding in space as it is here under the earth's gravitation. We can stay lean and healthy with such static yet most effective physical exercises. In addition it gives us for free a vegetarian life style, just another benefit so useful in space travel.

  1. The diminishing of crystal structure of Sn9Zn alloy due to electrical current stressing

    He, Jian-Yang [Department of Material Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Kwang-Lung, E-mail: [Department of Material Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Albert T. [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan, ROC (China)


    Highlights: • Electrical current stressing will diminish the XRD diffraction peaks of Sn9Zn alloy rapidly. • The kinetics of the diminishing of the crystalline peak follows a logarithmic law with respect to current density. • The diminishing of the XRD diffraction is believed to be a result of disruption of the crystal structure. - Abstract: The variations in the crystal structure of Sn9Zn alloy due to electrical current stressing were investigated with in situ synchrotron XRD analysis. The XRD (X-ray Diffraction) orientation peaks of both Sn and Zn crystals diminished rapidly upon current stressing. The behavior of peak diminishing indicated the electrodisruption of the crystal structure. The electrodisruption was correlated logarithmically to the strain, estimated from the XRD peak shift, as induced by current stressing. The peak diminishing of the Zn crystal was also ascribed to the electrodissolution of Zn in the Sn matrix as revealed by SEM image.

  2. Medullary carcinoma of thyroid

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by radiation therapy to the neck given ...

  3. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    ... epithelioma, is the most common form of skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma usually occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially ... other health issues. Infiltrating or morpheaform basal cell carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive ...

  4. Mine Safety Detection System (MSDS)

    Ballard, B.; Degnan, T.; Kipp, M.; Johnson, J; Miller, D.; Minto, M.


    Systems Engineering Project Report Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The search, detection, identification and assessment components of the U.S. Navys organic modular in-stride Mine Countermeasure (MCM) Concept of Operations (CONOPS) have been evaluated for their effectiveness as part of a hypothetical exercise in response to the existence of sea mines placed in the sea lanes of the Strait of Hormuz. The current MCM CONOPS has been shown to be capable of supporting the...

  5. Guidelines on radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Impact on clinical practice

    Aim: For the examination of the impact on clinical practice of the guidelines for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), treatment data from the ongoing multicenter study differentiated thyroid carcinoma (MSDS) were analyzed. Patients, methods: patients were randomized to adjuvant external beam radiotherapy (RTx) or no RTx in addition to standard therapy in TNM stages pT4 pNO/1/x MO/x (UICC, 5th ed. 1997). All patients were to receive the same treatment regimen consisting of thyroidectomy, ablative radioiodine therapy (RIT), and a diagnostic 131I whole-body scintigraphy (WBS) 3-4 months after RIT. Results: Of 339 eligible patients enrolled between January 2000 and March 2004, 273 could be analyzed. Guideline recommendations by the German Society for Nuclear Medicine from 1999 and 1992 were complied with within 28% and 82% with regard to the interval between surgery and RIT (4 vs. 4-6 weeks), in 33% and 84% with regard to 131I activity for RIT (1-3 vs. 1-4 GBq; ±10%), and in 16% and 60% with regard to 131I activity for WBS (100-300 vs. 100-400 MBq; ±10%). Conclusions: the 1999 guideline revision appears to have had little impact on clinical practice. Further follow-up will reveal if guideline compliance had an effect on outcomes. (orig.)

  6. Thyroid carcinoma

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma was studied with regard to mode of presentation, initial findings, treatment and survival. The classic signs, symptoms, physical and scan findings were found to be present in approximately 70% of the patients. Prognosis was found to be dependent on age of presentation more than any other factor. Patients with prior exposure to radiation were found to have more extensive disease and require more extensive surgery but ultimately had the same prognosis for 15-year cure. Treatment for distant metastatic disease by surgery, radioactive iodine and external radiation all resulted in long-term survival in certain cases

  7. Carcinoma verrugoso

    Esteban Quesada Jiménez


    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 76 años, vecino de Turrialba, agricultor, que consultó por una lesión de 3 años de evolución, localizada en la palma de la mano derecha a nivel palmar y compromiso de los dedos de la misma mano, caracterizada como una neoformación exofítica verrugosa de 5 por 11 cm. aproximadamente, con material caseoso entre sus crestas. La lesión ha estado creciendo de forma acelerada en los últimos 3 meses, causándole dolor y que le imposibilita ellaborar. Se le realizaron exámenes y se descartaron varias causas infecciosas, y concluyendo luego de varias biopsias con el diagnóstico de un carcinoma verrugoso. El paciente fue tratado mediante una amputación parcial de la mano. Este tumor es una variante del carcinoma epidermoide y presentamos su clasificación, patogénesis, histopatología, manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes y diagnóstico diferencial.

  8. Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Jyotsna Vijaykumar Wader; Sujata S Kumbhar; Huddedar AD; Wasim GM Khatib


    Renal cell carcinoma is the most common neoplasm of the kidney comprised of different histological variants. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) mainly diagnosed in the sixth decade of life. It is important to identify this entity because it has significantly better prognosis than the clear cell (conventional) and papillary renal cell carcinomas. The chromophobe renal cell carcinoma should be differentiated from oncocytoma and clear cell ca...

  9. The Law of Diminishing Elasticity of Demand in Harrod’s Trade Cycle (1936)

    Michaël Assous; Olivier Bruno; Muriel Dal-Pont Legrand


    In The Trade Cycle, Roy Harrod [1936a] propounded the Law of Diminishing Elasticity of Demand. The present paper tries to clarify the precise role Harrod assigned to this law in order to understand his trade cycle theory. We discuss the micro and macro foundations of the Law of Diminishing Elasticity of Demand and how, according to Harrod, it explains one of the main mechanisms that stabilize the economy during the trade cycle. In addition, we show how the Law of Diminishing Elasticity of Dem...

  10. Lhe law of diminishing elasticity of demand in Harrod’s trade cycle

    Michaël Assous; Olivier Bruno; Muriel Dal-Pont


    In The Trade Cycle, Roy Harrod [1936a] propounded the Law of Diminishing Elasticity of Demand. The present paper tries to clarify the precise role Harrod assigned to this law in his The Trade Cycle Theory. We discuss the micro and macro foundations of the Law of Diminishing Elasticity of Demand and argue that it explains one of the main mechanisms that stabilize the economy during the trade cycle. In addition, we highlight how the Law of Diminishing Elasticity of Demand allowed Harrod to micr...

  11. FIR Filter Implementation Based on the RNS with Diminished-1 Encoded Channel

    Dragana Uros Zivaljevic


    Full Text Available A technique, based on the residue number system (RNS with diminished-1 encoded channel, has being used for implementing a finite impulse response (FIR digital filter. The proposed RNS architecture of the filter consists of three main blocks: forward and reverse converter and arithmetic processor for each channel. Architecture for residue to binary (reverse convertor with diminished-1 encoded channel has been proposed. Besides, for all RNS channels, the systolic design is used for the efficient  realization of FIR filter. A numerical example illustrates the principles of diminished-1 residue arithmetic, signal processing, and decoding for FIR filters.

  12. Vulvar carcinoma

    Purpose: Controversies exist regarding the use of radiation therapy in the treatment of vulvar carcinoma. A retrospective review was performed to evaluate our institution's experience with surgery and radiation for this disease. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 47 patients treated for squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva at our institution (1974-1992) were reviewed for TNM stage (AJCC criteria), treatment modality, and associated 5-year local control and survival based on Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Twenty-eight patients (60%) presented with Stage I and II disease and their 5-year survival was 69%. Stage III patients accounted for 12 (25%) of the patients and their 5-year survival was 73%. Seven patients presented with Stage IV disease and five died within 13 months of diagnosis after predominantly palliative therapy. The 40 patients with Stages I, II, and III disease were treated aggressively and were further evaluated for treatment-modality-associated survival and local control. Radiation therapy was used as primary treatment in nine patients, of whom seven were treated with radiation alone and two were treated postoperatively after wide excision. Surgery alone was performed in 31 patients consisting of either radical vulvectomy (20 patients) or wide excision (11 patients). When comparing outcomes of radical vulvectomy vs. radiation therapy, we noted that the 5-year actuarial survivals were comparable (74% for either modality), despite the presence of more favorable prognostic factors in the group treated with radical vulvectomy. Patients treated with wide excision alone had a trend for a poorer 5-year actuarial survival (51%) and local control (50%). Conclusions: Radical vulvectomy offers good locoregional control and survival. This retrospective review further supports the use of radiation therapy with conservative surgery as an alternative treatment option for patients with vulvar carcinoma treated with curative intent. In contrast, the use of

  13. Endometrial carcinoma in elderly women.

    Hoffman, K; Nekhlyudov, L; Deligdisch, L


    Endometrial carcinoma remains the most common invasive gynecologic malignancy. Increased longevity is associated with an increased incidence of endometrial carcinoma (EC) in elderly women. While recent studies have looked at aging and its relation to ovarian, breast, and cervical cancer, few have focused on EC in the growing elderly population. This study analyzed 35 histologic specimens of EC in women 75-92 years of age. Findings revealed that only 23% of the tumors were Stage I, G1. The majority (77%) were deeply invasive or of advanced stage (IC-IV). These were G2, G3, or "virulent" types of nonendometrioid EC (undifferentiated, clear cell, uterine serous papillary, and squamous cell carcinoma). Fifty-seven percent of tumors were endometrioid, of which 9% were mixed, including a rare case of nongestational choriocarcinoma. The nonendometrioid tumors, compared to the endometrioid types, were more often high-stage tumors with vascular invasion. They were also more often associated with atrophic (vs hyperplastic) uninvolved endometrium. Clinical risk factors (nulliparity, obesity, estrogen replacement therapy) were assessed and correlated with the histologic findings. It was shown that tumors in the elderly were less likely to be estrogen-related. It was concluded that EC in this age group is more aggressive, histologically less differentiated, and often nonendometrioid compared with EC in the general population. The increased virulence of EC in the elderly may be related to the tumor's independence from hormonal factors, to the poorly understood but well-known diminished immunologic defense against cancer in general in elderly patients, and/or to the belated diagnosis of the disease in this population. PMID:7622105

  14. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Nilton Nasser


    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  15. Prostata carcinomas

    Pre-operative staging, using transrectal prostatic sonography and CT, was carried out in 30 patients with cytologically confirmed carcinomas of the prostate and the results compared with the clinical findings. All patients underwent radical prostatectomy and the pre-operative findings could be verified histologically. Transrectal prostatic sonography is better than CT or clinical examination for determining local tumour spread or penetration of the capsule. A high proportion of enlarged pelvic lymphnodes shown by CT had non-specific changes; failure to demonstrate enlarged nodes excludes lymph node metastases with considerable certainty. Transrectal prostatic sonography provides a higher degree of information regarding local tumour spread, whereas CT indicates the presence or absence of lymph node metastases. (orig.)

  16. Diminished nitroprusside-induced relaxation of inflamed colonic smooth muscle in mice

    J. D. van Bergeijk


    mouse colonic smooth muscle preparations caused regional differences in relaxation, the highest relaxation seen in normal proximal colonic tissue. However, this relaxation was markedly reduced in inflamed proximal preparations , associated with a diminished cGMP contents .

  17. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome

    ... Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Request Permissions Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/2016 What is Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome? Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is ...

  18. Boundary Variation Diminishing (BVD) reconstruction: a new approach to improve Godunov scheme

    Sun, Ziyao; Inaba, Satoshi; XIAO, FENG


    This paper presents a new approach, so-called boundary variation diminishing (BVD), for reconstructions that minimize the discontinuities (jumps) at cell interfaces in Godunov type schemes. It is motivated by the observation that diminishing the jump at the cell boundary might effectively reduce the dissipation in numerical flux. Different from the existing practices which seek high-order polynomials within mesh cells while assuming discontinuities being always at the cell interfaces, we prop...

  19. 职业因素对汽车制造业工人肌肉骨骼疾患影响的研究%Affect of occupational factors to automobile manufacturing workers with MSDs

    吴琳; 周浩; 肖吕武; 刘移民; 杜伟佳; 黄灿东; 周静东


    目的 了解作业场所职业病危害因素与工效学危险因素等对工人几个主要身体部位肌肉骨骼疾患(MSDs)的影响.方法 选取南方3家汽车生产制造企业,采用分层、整群抽样的方法,随机从冲压、焊装、涂装、总装、树脂、质检等生产部门中抽取1个班组的生产工人作为调查对象,对其进行问卷调查,收集个人一般情况、职业病危害因素接触情况、典型不良劳动姿势与活动的暴露情况及肩臂部、手部、下背部的阳性症状.影响肌肉骨骼症状发生的单因素分析采用x2检验,多因素分析采用logistic回归.结果 共调查794名工人,其中男性765人,女性29人,平均年龄为(23.34±4.52)岁,工龄中位数2年,其文化程度以中专及以上为主(97.8%).车企工人总体的MSDs年患率分别为下背部47.0%、肩臂部42.9%、手腕/手掌41.3%.不同工种间不同身体部位MSDs的年患率的差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.01),其中肩臂部、手腕/手掌的年患率以焊装工的最高,下背部的年患率以总装工的最高.多因素分析结果显示,背前屈> 30°的工作(OR=1.691)等2项与下背部阳性症状年患率有关,手部高力量大角度屈伸的上肢重复活动(OR=1.685)等3项与肩臂阳性症状年患率有关,手部高力量高度重复活动(OR=1.956)等4项与手腕/手掌的阳性症状年患率有关.结论 被调查的汽车制造企业工人下背部、肩臂部、手部3个身体部位MSDs的患病情况较突出,各部位的MSDs年患率主要与不良的工作姿势、活动及搬举负荷强度等工效学不良因素有关,需针对其采取有效的控制措施.%Objective To study factors of occupational hazard, and ergonomic risk factors of manufacturing workers suffering from musculoskeletal disorders ( MSDs) in automotive industry. Methods Samples were randomly selected from workers engaging in stamping, welding, painting and assembling production lines of three

  20. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Nilton Nasser; Nilton Nasser Filho; Bruno Trauczynski Neto; Lissandra Melati da Silva


    The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no s...

  1. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or ...

  2. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or older. ...

  3. Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas

    Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.; Jakel, K.T.;


    Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas may be divided into small cell and large cell types. Among large cell undifferentiated carcinomas, lymphoepithelial carcinomas have to be distinguished, the latter of which are endemic in the Arctic regions and southern China where virtually all cases of...... these tumors are associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Association with EBV may also be observed in sporadic cases, and detection of EBV gene products may aid their diagnosis. Immunohistology may be employed to resolve the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas......, comprising malignant lymphomas, amelanotic melanomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas, in particular in small biopsy materials. Because of the rarity of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, the differential diagnosis should always include metastases of undifferentiated carcinomas...

  4. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Llovet, Josep M; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Pikarsky, Eli; Sangro, Bruno; Schwartz, Myron; Sherman, Morris; Gores, Gregory


    Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally and has an incidence of approximately 850,000 new cases per year. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents approximately 90% of all cases of primary liver cancer. The main risk factors for developing HCC are well known and include hepatitis B and C virus infection, alcohol intake and ingestion of the fungal metabolite aflatoxin B1. Additional risk factors such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are also emerging. Advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of HCC have led to identification of critical driver mutations; however, the most prevalent of these are not yet druggable targets. The molecular classification of HCC is not established, and the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging classification is the main clinical algorithm for the stratification of patients according to prognosis and treatment allocation. Surveillance programmes enable the detection of early-stage tumours that are amenable to curative therapies - resection, liver transplantation or local ablation. At more developed stages, only chemoembolization (for intermediate HCC) and sorafenib (for advanced HCC) have shown survival benefits. There are major unmet needs in HCC management that might be addressed through the discovery of new therapies and their combinations for use in the adjuvant setting and for intermediate- and advanced-stage disease. Moreover, biomarkers for therapy stratification, patient-tailored strategies targeting driver mutations and/or activating signalling cascades, and validated measurements of quality of life are needed. Recent failures in the testing of systemic drugs for intermediate and advanced stages have indicated a need to refine trial designs and to define novel approaches. PMID:27158749

  5. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Edwards, J T; Macdonald, G A


    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) appears to be declining in Taiwan and potentially in other high-prevalence areas as a consequence of vaccination for hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, there is evidence that the incidence of HCC is increasing in North America and Europe. This appears to be related to the increasing prevalence and duration of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in these countries. There is also growing evidence to support an increase in the risk of HCC in patients with HCV who are coinfected with occult HBV (patients who have lost HBV surface antigen but still have detectable HBV DNA either in blood or liver). Occult HBV infection in patients with HCV may be more common than previously thought, and HCC that occurs in this setting appears to have a worse prognosis. There is continuing interest in the effect of interferon therapy on the incidence of HCC in patients with HCV. Several studies from Japan have shown a benefit in patients without cirrhosis, although there are a number of potentially confounding variables that may partly explain these results. Prospective randomized studies are needed to investigate this important question. The molecular biology of HCC and the events of malignant transformation in the liver continue to be areas of intense study. Recently, there has been considerable interest in telomeres, the repeat units on the ends of chromosomes, and the enzyme that maintains these, telomerase. Telomeres shorten with each cell division and can be used to determine the number of divisions a cell has undergone. Eventually they reach a critical length, with further loss resulting in cellular senescence. Telomerase restores telomere length and may help malignant cells escape senescence. Nearly all HCCs have telomerase activity and assessments of telomeres and telomerase may be clinically useful. PMID:17023886

  6. Cell-phone use diminishes self-awareness of impaired driving.

    Sanbonmatsu, David M; Strayer, David L; Biondi, Francesco; Behrends, Arwen A; Moore, Shannon M


    Multitasking diminishes the self-awareness of performance that is often essential for self-regulation and self-knowledge. Participants drove in a simulator while either talking or not talking on a hands-free cell phone. Following previous research, participants who talked on a cell phone made more serious driving errors than control participants who did not use a phone while driving. Control participants' assessments of the safeness of their driving and general ability to drive safely while distracted were negatively correlated with the actual number of errors made when they were driving. By contrast, cell-phone participants' assessments of the safeness of their driving and confidence in their driving abilities were uncorrelated with their actual errors. Thus, talking on a cell phone not only diminished the safeness of participants' driving, it diminished their awareness of the safeness of their driving. PMID:26282831

  7. Gait Variability in Chronic Back Pain Sufferers With Experimentally Diminished Visual Feedback: A Pilot Study.

    Hamacher, Dennis; Hamacher, Daniel; Krowicki, Martin; Schega, Lutz


    Increased gait variability is common in chronic low back pain patients, which is a sign of their diminished proprioceptive feedback. When proprioceptive information is reduced, vision partly takes over the role of proprioception. Therefore, a loss of visual feedback would have a more negative effect in individuals with diminished proprioception. To test this hypothesis, 14 healthy individuals and 14 chronic low back pain patients walked with and without impairment goggles manipulating visual feedback. The variability of stride time, stride length, and minimum foot clearance was evaluated. The authors observed an interaction effect regarding minimum foot clearance variability indicating that pain patients showed higher gait variability with manipulated visual feedback. Reduced vision may cause exceeded tripping risk in individuals with diminished proprioception. PMID:26339981

  8. Cryotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Awad, Tahany; Thorlund, Kristian; Gluud, Christian


    BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary malignant cancer of the liver. Evidence for the role of cryotherapy in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma is controversial. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to evaluate the potential benefits and harms of cryotherapy for...... the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS until June 2009. We identified further studies by...... hepatocellular carcinoma. Randomised clinical trials with low-risk of bias may help in defining the role of cryotherapy in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma....

  9. Division of Work and Fragmented Information: An Explanation for the Diminishing Marginal Product of Labor

    Harashima, Taiji


    In this paper, an explanation for the diminishing marginal product of labor is demonstrated in a model that incorporates the concept of entropy from information theory. First, I introduce the concept of “division of work” and argue that the division of work (i.e., the allocation of tasks in the production process) and not the division of labor (i.e., worker specialization) is the source of the diminishing marginal product of labor. Division of work results in a fragmentation of the informatio...

  10. The Effectiveness of MSDS/CdTe QDS for Developing Latent Fingerprints%巯基丁二酸包覆的CdTe量子点溶液显现潜指纹影响因素研究

    蔡铠阳; 杨瑞琴; 王彦吉


    提出了巯基丁二酸包覆的CdTe量子点溶液显现潜指纹的新方法,在溶液pH值等于10.5、显现温度为25℃的条件下得到了优异的显现效果.显现时间仅需1~3s,比文献报道的同类方法快,并可应用喷显法显现指纹,从而可以拓展客体的显现范围.%A new method of developing latent fingerprints by MSDS/CdTe QDS was explored. Excellent results were obtained in the conditions of pH=10. 5 and 25℃ developing temperature. One to three seconds of developing time is much shorter than the similar method which was reported in the literature. Moreover, successful application of spraying development expands its range of development.

  11. 生物实验室基于CAS Rn和MSDS的试剂卡片式管理%A method of reagent cards management based on CAS Rn and MSDS in biological laboratory

    马亢; 周庆峰; 裴冬丽


    At present,there are many sorts of reagents in the biological laboratory but the knowledge level of the laboratory assistants is different,which brings about much trouble,especially managing reagents.In order to cope with the sedifficulties ,the method of reagent cards management based on CAS Rn and MSDS has been developed.The method of how to make reagent cards being stated in detail so as to emphasize the method of reagent cards management is practical and feasible.At the same time,the advantages and shortcomings of the method of reagent cards management will be analyzed and some proj ects about how to make up for these shortcomings will also be expounded on.%为了应对生物实验室试剂种类繁多、实验人员水平参差不齐带来的试剂管理困难等问题,开发了一种基于CAS Rn和 MSDS的试剂卡片式定位管理方法,详细讨论了试剂卡片的制作细节,突出了试剂卡片式定位管理的实用性及可行性,分析了试剂卡片式定位管理的优势及不足,并提出了解决方案。

  12. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin with areas of squamous cell carcinoma: a basosquamous cell carcinoma?

    Faria, J.


    The diagnosis of basosquamous cell carcinoma is controversial. A review of cases of basal cell carcinoma showed 23 cases that had conspicuous areas of squamous cell carcinoma. This was distinguished from squamous differentiation and keratotic basal cell carcinoma by a comparative study of 40 cases of compact lobular and 40 cases of keratotic basal cell carcinoma. Areas of intermediate tumour differentiation between basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma were found. Basal cell carcinomas with ...

  13. Nonsuicidal self-injury and diminished pain perception: the role of emotion dysregulation

    Franklin, J.C.; Aaron, R.V.; Arthur, M.S.; Shorkey, S.P.; Prinstein, M.J.


    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is the deliberate destruction of one's own body tissue in the absence of suicidal intent (e.g., cutting or burning the skin). Previous studies have found that people with a history of NSSI display diminished pain perception. However, it remains unclear why this effect

  14. Respiratory and hemodynamic effects of diminished expiratory flow during artificial ventilation

    W. van Rooyen (Willem)


    textabstractThe supposition, that a diminished expiratory flow (DEF) during artificial ventilation will improve blood-gas exchange. especially in obstructive pulmonary disease and that DEF improves blood-gas exchange better than a comparable positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP. producing the same

  15. Can Using Human Examples Diminish the Number of Misconceptions Held Concerning Mendelian Genetics Concepts?

    Moore, John M.


    Explores high school biology and the teaching of genetics. The question is asked, Can the use of relevant, meaningful human genetics concepts diminish the number of misconceptions formed between new and existing concepts? Can the application of the Ausubelian learning theory also decrease the acquisition of misconceptions? (SAH)

  16. Rehearsal Strategies Can Enlarge or Diminish the Spacing Effect: Pure versus Mixed Lists and Encoding Strategy

    Delaney, Peter F.; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L.


    Using 5 experiments, the authors explored the dependency of spacing effects on rehearsal patterns. Encouraging rehearsal borrowing produced opposing effects on mixed lists (containing both spaced and massed repetitions) and pure lists (containing only one or the other), magnifying spacing effects on mixed lists but diminishing spacing effects on…


    Калашников, Константин Алексеевич


    It’s offered the method of diminishing of power losses in a contact lines due to optimization of distance between trains, the choice. The autors gave the mathematical method of optimization of distances between trains on the criterion of a minimum of losses of power in a contact lines.

  18. Synchronous gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Ewertsen, Caroline; Henriksen, Birthe Merete; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs;


    UNLABELLED: Gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are rare tumours that are divided into four subtypes depending on tumour characteristics. Patients with NECs are known to have an increased risk of synchronous and metachronous cancers mainly located in the gastrointestinal tract. A case of...... synchronous gastric NEC and hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with several other precancerous lesions is presented. The patient had anaemia, and a gastric tumour and two duodenal polyps were identified on upper endoscopy. A CT scan of the abdomen revealed several lesions in the liver. The lesions were...... invisible on B-mode sonography and real-time sonography fused with CT was used to identify and biopsy one of the lesions. Histology showed hepatocellular carcinoma. A literature search showed that only one case of a hepatocellular carcinoma synchronous with a gastric NEC has been reported previously. TRIAL...

  19. Metachronous colorectal carcinoma

    Bülow, Steffen; Svendsen, L B; Mellemgaard, A


    During the period 1943-67, 903 Danish patients aged less than 40 years had colorectal carcinoma. The patients were followed up for up to 41 years and during this period 44 of 501 (9 per cent) operated on for cure developed a metachronous colorectal carcinoma. The cumulative risk of a metachronous...... colorectal carcinoma was 30 per cent after up to 41 years of observation. The occurrence of a metachronous colorectal carcinoma was evenly distributed in the observation period. The cumulative survival rate after operation for a metachronous colorectal carcinoma was 41 per cent after 20 years of observation....... We propose a lifelong follow-up programme after resection of colorectal carcinoma for cure in this age group, including annual Hemoccult test and colonoscopy at 3-year intervals....


    薛丽燕; 吕宁; 何祖根; 林冬梅; 刘秀云


    Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic features and diagnostic criteria of urachal carcinoma in the bladder.Methods: Seven cases of urachal carcinoma in the bladder were analyzed retrospectively. Results: All the tumors were found locating in the dome of bladder. Of them, 4 were mucinous adenocarcinoma, one was well differentiated papillary enteric adenocarcinoma, one was well differentiated squamous carcinoma, and one was neuroendocrine carcinoma. Cystomorphous urachal remnants were found in 4 cases. The main complaint was hematuria and all patients underwent partial excision of bladder and urachus. Conclusion: Mucinous adenocarcinoma is the main histo-pathological type, and cystomorphous urachal remnants are often accompanied with urachal carcinoma in the bladder. The key diagnostic criteria of urachal carcinoma in bladder are site and histopathology. And to examine the specimens carefully to find the urachal remnants is important.

  1. Boundary Variation Diminishing (BVD) reconstruction: a new approach to improve Godunov scheme

    Sun, Ziyao; Xiao, Feng


    This note presents a new approach, so-called boundary variation diminishing (BVD), for reconstruction that minimizes the discontinuities (jumps) at cell interfaces in the Godunov type schemes. It is motivated by the observation that diminishing the jump at the cell boundary might effectively reduce the dissipation in numerical flux. Different from the existing practices which seek high-order polynomials within mesh cells while assuming discontinuities being always at the cell interfaces, we proposed a new strategy that combines a high-order polynomial-based interpolation and a jump-like reconstruction that allows a jump being partly represented within the mesh cell rather than at the interface. It is shown that new schemes of high fidelity for both continuous and discontinuous solutions can be devised by the BVD guideline with properly-chosen candidate reconstruction schemes. Excellent numerical results have been obtained for both scalar and Euler conservation laws with substantial improvement in solution qua...

  2. Decreased serum triiodothyronine in starving rats is due primarily to diminished thyroidal secretion of thyroxine.

    Kinlaw, W B; Schwartz, H L; Oppenheimer, J. H.


    Although thyroxine (T4) 5'-deiodinase activity is diminished in liver homogenates of starved rats, no information is available regarding the effect of starvation on net T4 to triiodothyronine (T3) conversion in the intact rat. It appeared important to clarify this relationship since rat liver homogenates are widely used as a model for the study of the factors responsible for reduced circulating T3 in chronically ill and calorically deprived patients. In contrast to the expected selective decr...

  3. Can PLAY Diminish ADHD and Facilitate the Construction of the Social Brain?

    Panksepp, Jaak


    The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) has been increasing at an alarming rate, paralleled by the prescription of highly effective psychostimulants whose developmental effects on growing brains remain inadequately characterized. One reason for the increasing incidence of ADHD may be the diminishing availability of opportunities for pre-school children to engage in natural self-generated social play. Pre-clinical work indicates that play can facilitate behavioral inh...

  4. Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns: Considering Data Skewness as a Psychometric Confound

    Dixon, Hayley


    Spearman’s “Law of Diminishing Returns” (SLODR) states that the inter-correlations between subtests in a cognitive ability battery are higher in lower ability groups than in higher ability groups. A plethora of previous research has focused on the influence of test design upon the overall confirmation of SLODR, yet the relation between the skew of the data collected and the magnitude of SLODR found has been given little consideration. The present study investigates this relation in a dataset...

  5. Information flow in a network model and the law of diminishing marginal returns

    Marinazzo, Daniele; Wu, Guorong; Angelini, Leonardo; Stramaglia, Sebastiano


    We analyze a simple dynamical network model which describes the limited capacity of nodes to process the input information. For a suitable choice of the parameters, the information flow pattern is characterized by exponential distribution of the incoming information and a fat-tailed distribution of the outgoing information, as a signature of the law of diminishing marginal returns. The analysis of a real EEG data-set shows that similar phenomena may be relevant for brain signals.

  6. Repeated Exposure to Media Violence Is Associated with Diminished Response in an Inhibitory Frontolimbic Network

    Kelly, Christopher R.; Jack Grinband; Joy Hirsch


    BACKGROUND: Media depictions of violence, although often claimed to induce viewer aggression, have not been shown to affect the cortical networks that regulate behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that repeated exposure to violent media, but not to other equally arousing media, led to both diminished response in right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (right ltOFC) and a decrease in right ltOFC-amygdala interaction. Reduced function...

  7. Ventral striatal hypoactivation is associated with apathy but not diminished expression in patients with schizophrenia

    Kirschner, Matthias; Hager, Oliver M.; Bischof, Martin; Hartmann, Matthias N.; Kluge, Agne; Seifritz, Erich; Tobler, Philippe N.; Kaiser, Stefan


    Background Negative symptoms of schizophrenia can be grouped in 2 dimensions: apathy and diminished expression. Increasing evidence suggests that negative symptoms are associated with altered neural activity of subcortical and cortical regions in the brain reward system. However, the neurobiological basis of the distinct symptom dimensions within negative symptoms is still poorly understood. The primary aim of our study was to examine the neural correlates of the negative symptom dimensions apathy and diminished expression during a reward processing task. Methods Patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls underwent event-related fMRI while performing a variant of the Monetary Incentive Delay Task. We assessed negative symptom dimensions using the Brief Negative Symptom Scale. Results We included 27 patients and 25 controls in our study. Both groups showed neural activation indicated by blood oxygen–level dependent signal in the ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Ventral striatal activation during reward anticipation showed a strong negative correlation with apathy. Importantly, this effect was not driven by cognitive ability, medication, depressive or positive symptoms. In contrast, no significant correlation with the diminished expression dimension was observed. Limitations Although the results remain significant when controlling for chlorpromazine equivalents, we cannot fully exclude potential confounding effects of medication with atypical antipsychotics. Conclusion The specific correlation of ventral striatal hypoactivation during reward anticipation with apathy demonstrates a differentiation of apathy and diminished expression on a neurobiological level and provides strong evidence for different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these 2 negative symptom dimensions. Our findings contribute to a multilevel framework in which apathy and motivational impairment in patients with schizophrenia can be described on psychopathological

  8. Do Open Access Electronic Theses and Dissertations Diminish Publishing Opportunities in the Social Sciences and Humanities?

    Ramirez, Marisa; Dalton, Joan T.; McMillan, Gail; Read, Max; Seamans, Nancy H.


    An increasing number of higher education institutions worldwide are requiring submission of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) by graduate students and are subsequently providing open access to these works in online repositories. Faculty advisors and graduate students are concerned that such unfiltered access to their work could diminish future publishing opportunities. This study investigated social sciences, arts and humanities journal editors' and university press direc...

  9. Respiratory and hemodynamic effects of diminished expiratory flow during artificial ventilation

    Rooyen, Willem


    textabstractThe supposition, that a diminished expiratory flow (DEF) during artificial ventilation will improve blood-gas exchange. especially in obstructive pulmonary disease and that DEF improves blood-gas exchange better than a comparable positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP. producing the same rise in mean tracheal pressure) was explored in experiments using Yorkshire piglets, without altering respiratory rate, tidal volume, inspiratory time~ inspiratory hold or expiratory time. During ...

  10. Increasing quasiconcave production and utility functions with diminishing returns to scale

    Martínez-Legaz, Juan Enrique; Rubinov, Alexander M.; Schaible, Siegfried


    In microeconomic analysis functions with diminishing returns to scale (DRS) have frequently been employed. Various properties of increasing quasiconcave aggregator functions with DRS are derived. Furthermore duality in the classical sense as well as of a new type is studied for such aggregator functions in production and consumer theory. In particular representation theorems for direct and indirect aggregator functions are obtained. These involve only small sets of generator functions. The st...

  11. Were medicine quality and pharmaceutical management contributing factors in diminishing artemisinin efficacy in Guyana and Suriname?

    Pribluda, Victor S; Evans, Lawrence; Barillas, Edgar; Marmion, John; Lukulay, Patrick; Chang, Jaime


    Background Recent studies in Guyana and Suriname unveiled diminished efficacy of artemisinin derivatives based on day-3 parasitaemia. The migrant characteristics of the population at risk and the potential development of resistance pose a serious health threat in the region. Assessment of factors that may have contributed to this situation is warranted, and analysis of the data generated in those countries on quality and pharmaceutical managements of anti-malarials may contribute to a better ...

  12. Prediction of Driving Ability with Neuropsychological Tests: Demographic Adjustments Diminish Accuracy

    Barrash, Joseph; Stillman, Ashley; Anderson, Steven W; UC, Ergun Y; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Rizzo, Matthew


    Demographically-adjusted norms are used to enhance accuracy of inferences based on neuropsychological assessment. However, we hypothesized that predictive accuracy regarding complex real-world activities is diminished by demographic corrections. Driving performance was assessed with a standardized on-road test in participants aged 65+ (24 healthy elderly, 26 Alzheimer’s disease, 33 Parkinson’s disease). Neuropsychological measures included Trailmaking A and B, Complex Figure, Benton Visual Re...

  13. Can we diminish the psychosomatic effects of exposure to nuclear fallout?

    Whitehead, Neil; Hoshi, Masaharu


    Radiation in large doses has bad effects on human tissues. The effects have been traced by organisations such as RERF for many decades, and will be further traced following the Fukushima incidents. Those exposed to much smaller amounts, may enter a profoundly negative downwards psychological spiral, and attribute all their problems to such exposure. We propose these effects could be diminished by (1) Indirect education about radiation effects (2) education about the repair mechanisms in the h...

  14. Multiple primary bronchogenic carcinomas.

    Yang, X; Ji, H; Paljarvi, L; Soimakallio, S


    Multiple primary bronchogenic carcinomas (MPBCa) are extremely rare. The differentiation of a MPBCa from a pulmonary metastasis due to an extrathoracic neoplasm is sometimes difficult. We reviewed 324 pathologically proved primary pulmonary carcinomas and found six cases of MPBCa (1.9%). We herewith present the series and discuss the diagnosis of MPBCa. PMID:21594435

  15. Primary cutaneous myoepithelial carcinoma

    Frost, Markus Winther; Steiniche, Torben; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg;


    This study describes a case of primary myoepithelial carcinoma of the skin and reviews the available literature on this topic. Myoepitheliomas and carcinomas arise most frequently from myoepithelial cells within the salivary glands but are found in many anatomical locations. We documented a case of...... an 80-year-old man with a 2 × 2 × 1 cm tumour located on the scalp. This tumour emerged over a period of 2 months. The tumour was radically excised, and histological examination revealed a cutaneous myoepithelial carcinoma. At an 18-month follow-up, no recurrence of the tumour was found. A systematic...... literature search identified 23 papers that reported 58 cases of cutaneous myoepitheliomas and myoepithelial carcinomas. All cases are reviewed in the presented paper. This case report and literature review serves to increase awareness regarding myoepithelial carcinomas. These tumours exhibit high metastatic...

  16. The sexual function following irradiation for carcinoma of the cervix

    Following irradiation of a carcinoma of the cervix, the vagina is frequently narrowed or sometimes obliterated. This article considers the sexual functioning of women following such treatment. They noticed changes in their emotions and felt alterations in their function as a woman. They were less happy with cohabitation and found it more difficult to experience an orgasm. Their frequency of lovemaking diminished as did the occurrence of sexual dreams. A treatment scheme for helping such women with their sexual problems is outlined. (C.F.)

  17. Cystic adenoid carcinoma of the external auditory meatus with mastoid involvement

    Tinoco, Paulo


    Full Text Available Introduction: The cystic adenoid carcinoma (CAC in the external auditory meatus is rare and was originated in the ceruminous glands. It is manifested by otalgia in about 90% of the patients. Case Report: In this article we report the case of a patient with Cystic Adenoid Carcinoma of the external auditory meatus with mastoid involvement that presented peripheral facial paralysis. The treatment is essentially surgical, combined or not with postoperative radiotherapy. The factors of bad prognosis are the tumor expansion, facial nerve and middle ear invasion and lymph node affection, which diminish the survival in five years from 59% to 23%.

  18. The TP73 gene polymorphism (rs4648551, A>G is associated with diminished ovarian reserve.

    Laura Diniz Vagnini

    Full Text Available It's known that the members of the TP53 family are involved in the regulation of female reproduction. Studies in mice showed that the TP73 gene (member of this family plays a role in the size of follicular pool, ovulation rate and maintenance of genomic stability. In the present study we analyzed data from 605 patients with ≤ 37 years attending their first intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. The association between the TP73 polymorphism (rs4648551, A>G and the following parameters related to ovarian reserve, like age, antral follicular count (AFC, anti-Mullerian hormone levels (AMH and ovarian response prediction index (ORPI was evaluated. Our results showed an association of the AA genotype with diminished ovarian reserve (AMH <1, AFC ≤9. Women presenting the AA genotype had a 2.0-fold increased risk for having AMH <1 and AFC ≤9 (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.23-3.31, P = 0.005. Patients presenting AA genotype had the lowest levels of AMH (P = 0.02, the lowest number of antral follicles (P = 0.01 and the lowest ORPI (P = 0.007. Analyzing the alleles, we can see an enrichment of the A allele in the group of diminished ovarian reserve (OR 1.4, 95%CI 1.02-1.83, P = 0.04. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to analyze this polymorphism in humans for assessing the numbers of ovarian follicles and AMH levels and, therefore, the ovarian reserve. Our findings can contribute to the use of this polymorphism as a potential marker of diminished ovarian reserve.

  19. Self-focused cognitive emotion regulation style as associated with widespread diminished EEG fractal dimension.

    Bornas, Xavier; Tortella-Feliu, Miquel; Balle, Maria; Llabrés, Jordi


    The cognitive regulation of emotions is important for human adaptation. Self-focused emotion regulation (ER) strategies have been linked to the development and persistence of anxiety and depression. A vast array of research has provided valuable knowledge about the neural correlates of the use of specific self-focused ER strategies; however, the resting neural correlates of cognitive ER styles, which reflect an individual's disposition to engage in different forms of ER in order to manage distress, are largely unknown. In this study, associations between theoretically negative ER style (self-focused or not) and the complexity (fractal dimension, FD) of the resting EEG at frontal, central, parietal, and occipital regions were investigated in 58 healthy volunteers. The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire was used as the self-report measure of ER style. Results showed that a diminished FD over the scalp significantly correlated with self-focused ER style scores, even after controlling for negative affect, which has been also considered to influence the use of ER strategies. The lower the EEG FD, the higher were the self-focused ER style scores. Correlational analyses of specific self-focused ER strategies showed that self-blaming and rumination were negatively associated with diminished FD of the EEG, but catastrophizing and blaming others were not. No significant correlations were found for ER strategies more focused on situation or others. Results are discussed within the self-organized criticality theory of brain dynamics: The diminished FD of the EEG may reflect a disposition to engage in self-focused ER strategies as people prone to ruminate and self-blame show a less complex resting EEG activity, which may make it more difficult for them to exit their negative emotional state. PMID:22519470

  20. Primary subglottic carcinoma

    Primary subglottic carcinoma is rare with a uniformly poor prognosis. We present our experience of eight such cases treated over a period of ten years. One patient had a mucoepidermoid carcinoma while the rest has a squamous cell carcinoma. A combination of surgery and radiotherapy was employed in five cases, while one case underwent radiotherapy only, surgery only and salvage surgery following radical irradiation. Three cases died of locoregional failure within a year. The remaining five patients have been disease-free for six months to 3.5 years. (author). 15 refs., 1 tab

  1. Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma

    Kafil Akhtar; Ahmad Shamshad; Zaheer Sufian; Mansoor Tariq


    Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (SRCC) is an aggressive tumor variant thought to arise predominantly from differentiation of clear cell carcinoma. A few reports of SRCC asso-ciated with non-clear cell tumors led to the presumption that SRCC may arise from any renal cell carcinoma, although direct evidence of this is lacking. We report a case of a 70-year-old male patient, who presented with acute left upper quadrant abdominal pain and was diagnosed to have SRCC after pathological examination...

  2. Salivary gland carcinomas

    Therkildsen, M H; Andersen, L J; Christensen, M;


    The prognosis of salivary gland carcinomas is difficult to assess. Simple mucin-type carbohydrates (T and sialosyl-T antigens, Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigens) have been shown to be of value in predicting prognosis for carcinomas in other locations. We studied the prognostic significance of the...... expression of these structures in a retrospective study of 133 patients with salivary gland carcinomas, using immunohistochemistry and a panel of well-defined monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Sialosyl-Tn, T and sialosyl-T antigens were not correlated with prognosis...

  3. Diminishing Marginal Returns From Genomic Selection As More Selection Candidates Are Phenotyped

    Okeno, Tobias O; Henryon, Mark; Sørensen, Anders Christian

    as more candidates are phenotyped in genomic breeding programs. Three phenotyping criteria, namely, random (RS), EBV and true breeding value (TBV) were investigated under two schemes (across-population and within-litter) using traditional-BLUP and genomic-BLUP models. The EBV ranked above RS and realized...... maximum achievable gains in the breeding program at 80% phenotyping. There was diminishing return to selection as more candidates were phenotyped; indicating that information content is not so large in the last candidate compared to the first candidate phenotyped. These findings demonstrate the need...

  4. Low Power Modulo 2n+1 Adder Based on Carry Save Diminished-One Number System

    Somayeh Timarchi


    Full Text Available Modulo 2n+1 adders find great applicability in several applications including RNS implementations. This paper presents a new number system called Carry Save Diminished-one for modulo 2n+1 addition and a novel addition algorithm for its operands. In this paper, we also present a novel architectures for designing modulo 2n+1 adders, based on parallel-prefix carry computation units. CMOS implementations reveal the superiority of the resulting adders against previously reported solutions in terms of implementation area and delay.

  5. Costs of water treatment due to diminished water quality: A case study in Texas

    Dearmont, David; McCarl, Bruce A.; Tolman, Deborah A.


    The cost of municipal water treatment due to diminished water quality represents an important component of the societal costs of water pollution. Here the chemical costs of municipal water treatment are expressed as a function of raw surface water quality. Data are used for a 3-year period for 12 water treatment plants in Texas. Results show that when regional raw water contamination is present, the chemical cost of water treatment is increased by 95 per million gallons (per 3785 m3) from a base of 75. A 1% increase in turbidity is shown to increase chemical costs by 0.25%.

  6. A new class of high accuracy TVD schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws. [Total Variation Diminishing

    Chakravarthy, S. R.; Osher, S.


    A new family of high accuracy Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) schemes has been developed. Members of the family include the conventional second-order TVD upwind scheme, various other second-order accurate TVD schemes with lower truncation error, and even a third-order accurate TVD approximation. All the schemes are defined with a five-point grid bandwidth. In this paper, the new algorithms are described for scalar equations, systems, and arbitrary coordinates. Selected numerical results are provided to illustrate the new algorithms and their properties.


    M I Kogan; Gusev, A. A.; S. V. Evseyev


    There is an increase in the number of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) every year. At the same time radical nephrectomy (RN) remains the standard treatment of renal malignancies and the most common surgical procedure for this pathology. A considerable number of patients with kidney cancer have diminished renal function that worsens after removal of functioning kidney tissue together with a tumor. This promotes retained low overall survival rates in patients with RCC, by improving canc...

  8. Carcinoma of the thyroid

    The natural history and the clinical findings in 227 patients with thyroid carcinoma are described and the etiology discussed. The need for uniform pathologic classification and staging is emphasized. (Auth.)

  9. Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    ... of the Year Award Arnold P. Gold Foundation Humanism in Medicine Award Diversity Mentorship Program Eugene Van ... 300 PUVA treatments. What causes Merkel cell carcinoma? Scientists are still studying what causes this skin cancer. ...


    V S Medvedev; P. A. Isayev; Ilyin, A. A.; D. Yu. Semin; V. V. Polkin; D. N. Derbugov; S. V. Vasilkov


    Medullary thyroid carcinoma belongs to orphan diseases affecting a small part of the population. Multicenter trials are required to elaborate a diagnostic algorithm, to define treatment policy, and to predict an outcome.


    V. S. Medvedev


    Full Text Available Medullary thyroid carcinoma belongs to orphan diseases affecting a small part of the population. Multicenter trials are required to elaborate a diagnostic algorithm, to define treatment policy, and to predict an outcome.

  12. Renal cell carcinoma

    Renal cell carcinoma is a type of kidney cancer that starts in the lining of very small tubes (tubules) in the kidney. ... cancer; Kidney cancer; Hypernephroma; Adenocarcinoma of renal cells; Cancer - kidney

  13. Diminished Auditory Responses during NREM Sleep Correlate with the Hierarchy of Language Processing

    Furman-Haran, Edna; Arzi, Anat; Levkovitz, Yechiel; Malach, Rafael


    Natural sleep provides a powerful model system for studying the neuronal correlates of awareness and state changes in the human brain. To quantitatively map the nature of sleep-induced modulations in sensory responses we presented participants with auditory stimuli possessing different levels of linguistic complexity. Ten participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the waking state and after falling asleep. Sleep staging was based on heart rate measures validated independently on 20 participants using concurrent EEG and heart rate measurements and the results were confirmed using permutation analysis. Participants were exposed to three types of auditory stimuli: scrambled sounds, meaningless word sentences and comprehensible sentences. During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, we found diminishing brain activation along the hierarchy of language processing, more pronounced in higher processing regions. Specifically, the auditory thalamus showed similar activation levels during sleep and waking states, primary auditory cortex remained activated but showed a significant reduction in auditory responses during sleep, and the high order language-related representation in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) cortex showed a complete abolishment of responses during NREM sleep. In addition to an overall activation decrease in language processing regions in superior temporal gyrus and IFG, those areas manifested a loss of semantic selectivity during NREM sleep. Our results suggest that the decreased awareness to linguistic auditory stimuli during NREM sleep is linked to diminished activity in high order processing stations. PMID:27310812

  14. When is diminishment a form of enhancement? Rethinking the enhancement debate in biomedical ethics

    Brian D. Earp


    Full Text Available The enhancement debate in neuroscience and biomedical ethics tends to focus on the augmentation of certain capacities or functions: memory, learning, attention, and the like. Typically, the point of contention is whether these augmentative enhancements are permissible for individuals with no particular ‘medical’ disadvantage along any of the dimensions of interest. Less frequently addressed in the literature, however, is the fact that sometimes the diminishment of a capacity or function, under the right set of circumstances, could plausibly contribute to an individual’s overall well-being: more is not always better, and sometimes less is more. Such cases may be especially likely, we suggest, when trade-offs in our modern environment have shifted since the environment of evolutionary adaptation. In this article, we introduce the notion of “diminishment as enhancement” and go on to defend a welfarist conception of enhancement. We show how this conception resolves a number of definitional ambiguities in the enhancement literature, and we suggest that it can provide a useful framework for thinking about the use of emerging neurotechnologies to promote human flourishing.

  15. Diminishing-returns epistasis among random beneficial mutations in a multicellular fungus.

    Schoustra, Sijmen; Hwang, Sungmin; Krug, Joachim; de Visser, J Arjan G M


    Adaptive evolution ultimately is fuelled by mutations generating novel genetic variation. Non-additivity of fitness effects of mutations (called epistasis) may affect the dynamics and repeatability of adaptation. However, understanding the importance and implications of epistasis is hampered by the observation of substantial variation in patterns of epistasis across empirical studies. Interestingly, some recent studies report increasingly smaller benefits of beneficial mutations once genotypes become better adapted (called diminishing-returns epistasis) in unicellular microbes and single genes. Here, we use Fisher's geometric model (FGM) to generate analytical predictions about the relationship between the effect size of mutations and the extent of epistasis. We then test these predictions using the multicellular fungus Aspergillus nidulans by generating a collection of 108 strains in either a poor or a rich nutrient environment that each carry a beneficial mutation and constructing pairwise combinations using sexual crosses. Our results support the predictions from FGM and indicate negative epistasis among beneficial mutations in both environments, which scale with mutational effect size. Hence, our findings show the importance of diminishing-returns epistasis among beneficial mutations also for a multicellular organism, and suggest that this pattern reflects a generic constraint operating at diverse levels of biological organization. PMID:27559062

  16. Diminished Auditory Responses during NREM Sleep Correlate with the Hierarchy of Language Processing.

    Meytal Wilf

    Full Text Available Natural sleep provides a powerful model system for studying the neuronal correlates of awareness and state changes in the human brain. To quantitatively map the nature of sleep-induced modulations in sensory responses we presented participants with auditory stimuli possessing different levels of linguistic complexity. Ten participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during the waking state and after falling asleep. Sleep staging was based on heart rate measures validated independently on 20 participants using concurrent EEG and heart rate measurements and the results were confirmed using permutation analysis. Participants were exposed to three types of auditory stimuli: scrambled sounds, meaningless word sentences and comprehensible sentences. During non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, we found diminishing brain activation along the hierarchy of language processing, more pronounced in higher processing regions. Specifically, the auditory thalamus showed similar activation levels during sleep and waking states, primary auditory cortex remained activated but showed a significant reduction in auditory responses during sleep, and the high order language-related representation in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG cortex showed a complete abolishment of responses during NREM sleep. In addition to an overall activation decrease in language processing regions in superior temporal gyrus and IFG, those areas manifested a loss of semantic selectivity during NREM sleep. Our results suggest that the decreased awareness to linguistic auditory stimuli during NREM sleep is linked to diminished activity in high order processing stations.

  17. Repeated exposure to media violence is associated with diminished response in an inhibitory frontolimbic network.

    Christopher R Kelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Media depictions of violence, although often claimed to induce viewer aggression, have not been shown to affect the cortical networks that regulate behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we found that repeated exposure to violent media, but not to other equally arousing media, led to both diminished response in right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (right ltOFC and a decrease in right ltOFC-amygdala interaction. Reduced function in this network has been previously associated with decreased control over a variety of behaviors, including reactive aggression. Indeed, we found reduced right ltOFC responses to be characteristic of those subjects that reported greater tendencies toward reactive aggression. Furthermore, the violence-induced reduction in right ltOFC response coincided with increased throughput to behavior planning regions. CONCLUSIONS: These novel findings establish that even short-term exposure to violent media can result in diminished responsiveness of a network associated with behaviors such as reactive aggression.

  18. Application of Ground Phosphate Rock to Diminish the Effects of Simulated Acid Rain of Soil Properties



    The effects of simulated acid rain retained in soil on the properties of acid soil and its diminishing by application of ground phosphate rock were investigated by using the sorption method.Results show as follows:(1)For yellow brown soil,the effect of simulated acid rain on the properties of soil with a pH value of 5.9 was relatively small,except a great quantity of acid rain deposited on it.(2) for red soil,the effect of simulated acid rain on the properties of soil was significant.With the increase of the amount of acid deposition,the pH value of soil was declined,but the contents of exchangeable H+,Al3+ and Mn2+ and the amount of SO41- retention were increased.(3) Many properties of acid soils could be improved by applying ground phosphate rock.For example,pH value of soils and the amounts of available P and exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ were increased,and the amounts of exchangeable H+ and Al3+ and SO42- retained was reduced.The application of ground posphate rock could effctively diminish the pollution of acid rain to soil.

  19. Radiotherapy of anal carcinomas

    Report is given on radiotherapy of anal carcinomas. Own experiences and a review of the recent literature are presented. Prior to surgery radiotherapy with high energy electrons in combination with chemotherapy is in the foreground. Especially in cloacogenous carcinoma no residual tumor was found after preliminary irradiation. Our recommended conception of post-operative radiotherapy of the regional lymphatic draining vessels is outlined. (orig./MG)

  20. Papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Godballe, C; Asschenfeldt, P; Sørensen, J A;


    The age influence on the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma was analyzed in a group of 67 patients. A marked decline in cause-specific survival was found for patients older than 60 years of age at the time of diagnosis. In order to find a tumor-biological explanation of the prognostic...... invasion and distant metastases. The results indicate that 60 years of age the time of diagnosis may be the "prognostic break-point" for papillary thyroid carcinoma....

  1. [Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma].

    Antoine, Martine; Vieira, Thibault; Fallet, Vincent; Hamard, Cécile; Duruisseaux, Michael; Cadranel, Jacques; Wislez, Marie


    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas are a rare group of tumors accounting for about one percent of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In 2015, the World Health Organization classification united under this name all the carcinomas with sarcomatous-like component with spindle cell or giant cell appearance, or associated with a sarcomatous component sometimes heterologous. There are five subtypes: pleomorphic carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma and pulmonary blastoma. Clinical characteristics are not specific from the other subtypes of NSCLC. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway may play a key role. Patients, usually tobacco smokers, are frequently symptomatic. Tumors are voluminous more often peripherical than central, with strong fixation on FDG TEP CT. Distant metastases are frequent with atypical visceral locations. These tumors have poorer prognosis than the other NSCLC subtypes because of great aggressivity, and frequent chemoresistance. Here we present pathological description and a review of literature with molecular features in order to better describe these tumors and perhaps introduce new therapeutics. PMID:26778815

  2. Simultaneous Development of Renal Cell Carcinoma and Multifocal Urothelial Carcinoma

    Cheng-Keng Chuang; Heng-Chang Chuang; Kwai-Fong Ng


    Simultaneous occurrence of multifocal urothelial carcinoma (UC) and ipsilateral renalcell carcinoma (RCC) is rare. We report a 67-year-old woman with multifocal, infiltratingurothelial carcinoma and unilateral renal cell carcinoma. She was referred to our departmentbecause of painless gross hematuria. Cystoscopy, computed tomography and retrogradepyelography studies revealed bladder, bilateral renal and ureter UC. She was treated withtransurethral resection of the bladder tumor followed by bi...

  3. Early onset sebaceous carcinoma

    Kaltreider Sara A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ocular sebaceous carcinoma can masquerade as benign lesions resulting in delay of diagnosis. Early recognition is even more difficult in young patients where the disease rarely occurs. Here, we provide a clinicopathological correlation of ocular sebaceous carcinoma in a young individual lacking history of hereditary cancer or immunosuppression. Findings A detailed histopathological study including p53 DNA sequencing was performed on an aggressive sebaceous carcinoma presenting in a healthy 32 year-old Caucasian woman. She had no history of retinoblastoma, evidence for a hereditary cancer syndrome, or radiation therapy. However, she potentially was at risk for excessive UV light exposure. A detailed review of the literature is also provided. A moderately well differentiated sebaceous carcinoma was established histopathologically arising from the meibomian gland of the upper eyelid. In most areas, the cytoplasm contained small but distinct Oil-red-O positive vacuoles. Direct sequencing of p53 identified a G:C→A:T mutation at a dipyrimidine site. The mutation results in substitution of arginine for the highly conserved glycine at residue 199 located at the p53 dimer-dimer interface. Energy minimization structural modeling predicts that G199R will neutralize negative charges contributed by nearby inter- and intramonomeric glutamate residues. Discussion This study points to the importance of recognizing that sebaceous carcinoma can occur in young patients with no evidence for hereditary cancer risk or radiation therapy. The G199R substitution is anticipated to alter the stability of the p53 tetrameric complex. The role of UV light in the etiology of sebaceous carcinoma deserves further study. Our findings, taken together with those of others, suggest that different environmental factors could lead to the development of sebaceous carcinoma in different patients.

  4. Acute hyperinsulinemia decreases plasma osteoprotegerin with diminished effect in type 2 diabetes and obesity

    Jørgensen, Gitte Maria; Vind, Birgitte; Nybo, Mads; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Højlund, Kurt


    the acute effects of insulin on plasma OPG concentrations in individuals with type 2 diabetes and obese individuals compared with lean controls. DESIGN: The study population consisted of ten type 2 diabetic, ten obese subjects, and ten lean subjects with no family history of diabetes. METHODS: All....... Insulin infusion decreased plasma OPG concentrations in all groups (P<0.01); however, the fall in OPG was 50% less in obese and type 2 diabetic individuals (P=0.007). Baseline OPG correlated with fasting insulin, baseline lactate, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the diabetic group, and with...... baseline FFA in the lean group. The relative change of OPG in response to insulin correlated inversely with HbA1c and baseline FFA in the lean group. CONCLUSIONS: Acute hyperinsulinemia decreases plasma OPG, but with diminished effect in individuals with type 2 diabetes and obesity. Increased levels of OPG...

  5. Utilization of some corrosion inhibitors to diminish the corrosive effects of CAN-DECON solution

    The aim of this paper is the investigation of some corrosion inhibitors able to diminish the corrosivity of CAN-DECON solution during the decontamination of some Iy-800 components from the primary circuit of Steam Generator of Nuclear Power Station. To prepare this paper, we determined the decontamination efficiency of filmed Iy-800, using at the same time non-inhibited and inhibited CAN-DECON solutions, respectively, the latter containing several inhibitors of different concentrations. The removal by decontamination of superficial successive oxide layers was done by using the gravimetric method and the metallographic microscopy. The influence of several concentrations of different inhibitors added in the CAN-DECON solution was closely followed qualitatively and comparatively, using a rapid investigating method - the potentiodynamic method. (authors)

  6. Diminished Schwann cell repair responses underlie age-associated impaired axonal regeneration.

    Painter, Michio W; Brosius Lutz, Amanda; Cheng, Yung-Chih; Latremoliere, Alban; Duong, Kelly; Miller, Christine M; Posada, Sean; Cobos, Enrique J; Zhang, Alice X; Wagers, Amy J; Havton, Leif A; Barres, Ben; Omura, Takao; Woolf, Clifford J


    The regenerative capacity of the peripheral nervous system declines with age. Why this occurs, however, is unknown. We demonstrate that 24-month-old mice exhibit an impairment of functional recovery after nerve injury compared to 2-month-old animals. We find no difference in the intrinsic growth capacity between aged and young sensory neurons in vitro or in their ability to activate growth-associated transcriptional programs after injury. Instead, using age-mismatched nerve transplants in vivo, we show that the extent of functional recovery depends on the age of the nerve graft, and not the age of the host. Molecular interrogation of the sciatic nerve reveals that aged Schwann cells (SCs) fail to rapidly activate a transcriptional repair program after injury. Functionally, aged SCs exhibit impaired dedifferentiation, myelin clearance, and macrophage recruitment. These results suggest that the age-associated decline in axonal regeneration results from diminished Schwann cell plasticity, leading to slower myelin clearance. PMID:25033179

  7. Market value of asteroidal precious metals in an age of diminishing terrestrial resources

    Kargel, Jeffrey S.


    In the next century Mankind may have to choose from two options for our supply and usage of some nonrenewable natural resources, such as gold, platinum metals, and fossil fuels: learn to live with diminishing supplies of these materials obtained at ever increasing economic and environmental cost, or reach into difficult places and develop new technologies to give us what we need to sustain economic growth. Either prospect faces formidable technological and economic challenges. Exploitation of asteroids for precious and strategic metals is a possible environmentally friendly remedy for impending shortages of some resources. Certain types of asteroids could completely replace terrestrial sources of platinum metals. Asteroid metal mining may become a 21st-century space industry worth ten to fifty billion dollars annually (1995 dollars). Asteroids could make the United States and other countries self sufficient in many strategic metals, and it could usher new technologies and increase our applications of existing technologies that depend on these metals.

  8. Use of the radio mutagenesis gamma to diminish the germinative periods of the seeds

    Among the nuclear techniques that have been used in Cuba in to feasible way for their it lives it uses in the agriculture it dog think about that the radio mutagenesis is that of advance it lives. In this address the fundamental problem consists in that to the being to casuistically method forces to uses to great initial population. The Fruit Bomb Net Maradol was studied and it was obtained to diminish its germination period in 12 days without affecting the quality of the cultivation. The seeds were irradiated with an irradiator with source of Co-60, originator of radiations a (gamma) with to power of dose of 2,76 kGy/h and to half energy of 1,25 MeV. The dose range applied to the seeds was among 50 - 250 Gy

  9. SAT predicts GPA better for high ability subjects: Implications for Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns.

    Coyle, Thomas; Snyder, Anissa; Pillow, David; Kochunov, Peter


    This research examined the predictive validity of the SAT (formerly, the Scholastic Aptitude Test) for high and low ability groups. SAT scores and college GPAs were obtained from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Subjects were classified as high or low ability by g factor scores from the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. SAT correlations with GPA were higher for high than low ability subjects. SAT g loadings (i.e., SAT correlations with g) were equivalent for both groups. This is the first study to show that the predictive validity of the SAT varies for ability groups that differ in g. The results contradict a presumption, based on Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns, that a test's predictive validity should be lower for high ability subjects. Further research is needed to identify factors that contribute to the predictive validity of the SAT for groups that differ in g. PMID:21562615

  10. Online Interaction in Higher Education: Is There Evidence of Diminishing Returns?

    Jonatan Castaño-Muñoz


    Full Text Available Online interaction is considered to be a key aspect of effective e-learning and improved academic achievement. However, few studies have examined how effectiveness varies with the degree of interaction intensity. Using data for 17,090 students from three Catalan universities, in this paper we study the productivity associated with five different levels of interaction intensity in learning. We also compare the results obtained for fully online education with those for face-to-face learning. The analyses show that interaction in online education has diminishing returns, while in face-to-face learning it does not do so in a pure way. These results have implications for determining the optimum level of interaction that should be sought when designing courses and educational policies.

  11. Age at menarche as a predictor of diminished ovarian reserve: a new approach

    Ramona Perhar


    Methods: Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Gayatri Hospital, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. Patient(s: One hundred fifty one. Intervention(s: None. Results: The mean age of the patients was 38.9 +/- 4.9 years, and their mean level of AMH was 1.4 +/- 2.0 ng/ml and of FSH was 10.7 +/- 6.1 mIU/ml. Their current age-specific Diminished Functional Ovarian Reserve (DFOR was statistically significantly associated with early menarche, defined as age 75th percentile. Conclusions: The study demonstrates a statistically significant impact of menarche on DFOR risk later in life among infertile women. The occurrence of menarche may relate to follicular pool size and/or speed of follicle recruitment, which in turn, is predictive of occurrence of DFOR later in life. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(1.000: 235-238

  12. Diminishing Risk for Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Nutrition: A Current View

    Allen Taylor


    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in one third of the elderly in industrialized countries. Preventative interventions through dietary modification are attractive strategies, because they are more affordable than clinical therapies, do not require specialists for administration and many studies suggest a benefit of micro- and macro-nutrients with respect to AMD with few, if any, adverse effects. The goal of this review is to provide information from recent literature on the value of various nutrients, particularly omega-3 fatty acids, lower glycemic index diets and, perhaps, some carotenoids, with regard to diminishing risk for onset or progression of AMD. Results from the upcoming Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS II intervention trial should be particularly informative.

  13. Metacognitive monitoring and control processes in children with autism spectrum disorder: Diminished judgement of confidence accuracy.

    Grainger, Catherine; Williams, David M; Lind, Sophie E


    Metacognition consists of monitoring processes (the ability to accurately represent one's own mental states) and control processes (the ability to control one's cognitive processes effectively). Both processes play vital roles in self-regulated learning. However, currently it is unclear whether these processes are impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This study aimed to assess metacognition in thirty-two children with ASD, and 30 IQ-/age-matched neurotypical children, using a judgment of confidence task. It was found that children with ASD showed diminished accuracy in their judgments of confidence, indicating metacognitive monitoring impairments in ASD. Children with ASD also used monitoring to influence control processes significantly less than neurotypical children, despite little evidence of impairments in overall control ability. PMID:26985883

  14. Diminished exercise capacity and mitochondrial bc1 complex deficiency in tafazzin-knockdown mice.

    Corey ePowers


    Full Text Available The phospholipid, cardiolipin, is essential for maintaining mitochondrial structure and optimal function. Cardiolipin-deficiency in humans, Barth syndrome, is characterized by exercise intolerance, dilated cardiomyopathy, neutropenia and 3-methyl-glutaconic aciduria. The causative gene is the mitochondrial acyl-transferase, tafazzin that is essential for remodeling acyl chains of cardiolipin. We sought to determine metabolic rates in tafazzin-deficient mice during resting and exercise, and investigate the impact of cardiolipin deficiency on mitochondrial respiratory chain activities. Tafazzin knockdown in mice markedly impaired oxygen consumption rates during an exercise, without any significant effect on resting metabolic rates. CL-deficiency resulted in significant reduction of mitochondrial respiratory reserve capacity in neonatal cardiomyocytes that is likely to be caused by diminished activity of complex-III, which requires CL for its assembly and optimal activity. Our results may provide mechanistic insights of Barth syndrome pathogenesis.

  15. Selfishness and altruism can coexist when help is subject to diminishing returns.

    Sibly, R M; Curnow, R N


    Altruism and selfishness are 30-50% heritable in man in both Western and non-Western populations. This genetically based variation in altruism and selfishness requires explanation. In non-human animals, altruism is generally directed towards relatives, and satisfies the condition known as Hamilton's rule. This nepotistic altruism evolves under natural selection only if the ratio of the benefit of receiving help to the cost of giving it exceeds a value that depends on the relatedness of the individuals involved. Standard analyses assume that the benefit provided by each individual is the same but it is plausible in some cases that as more individuals contribute, help is subject to diminishing returns. We analyse this situation using a single-locus two-allele model of selection in a diploid population with the altruistic allele dominant to the selfish allele. The analysis requires calculation of the relationship between the fitnesses of the genotypes and the frequencies of the genes. The fitnesses vary not only with the genotype of the individual but also with the distribution of phenotypes amongst the sibs of the individual and this depends on the genotypes of his parents. These calculations are not possible by direct fitness or ESS methods but are possible using population genetics. Our analysis shows that diminishing returns change the operation of natural selection and the outcome can now be a stable equilibrium between altruistic and selfish alleles rather than the elimination of one allele or the other. We thus provide a plausible genetic model of kin selection that leads to the stable coexistence in the same population of both altruistic and selfish individuals. This may explain reported genetic variation in altruism in man. PMID:21343946

  16. Weathering by tree root-associating fungi diminishes under simulated Cenozoic atmospheric CO2 decline

    J. Quirk


    Full Text Available Trees dominate terrestrial biotic weathering of silicate minerals by converting solar energy into chemical energy that fuels roots and their ubiquitous nutrient-mobilising fungal symbionts. These biological activities regulate atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]a over geologic timescales by driving calcium and magnesium fluvial ion export and marine carbonate formation, but the important stabilising feedbacks between [CO2]a and biotic weathering anticipated by geochemical carbon cycle models remain untested. We report experimental evidence for a negative feedback across a declining Cenozoic [CO2]a range from 1500 ppm to 200 ppm, whereby low [CO2]a curtails mineral surface alteration via trenching and etch pitting by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM and ectomycorrhizal (EM fungal partners of tree roots. Optical profile imaging using vertical scanning interferometry reveals changes in nanoscale surface topography consistent with a dual mode of attack involving delamination and trenching by AM and EM fungal hyphae on phyllosilicate mineral flakes. This is consistent with field observations of micropores in feldspar, hornblende and basalt, purportedly caused by EM fungi, but with little confirmatory evidence. Integrating these findings into a process-based biotic weathering model revealed that low [CO2]a effectively acts as a "carbon starvation" brake, causing a three-fold drop in tree-driven fungal weathering fluxes of calcium and magnesium from silicate rock grains as [CO2]a falls from 1500 ppm to 200 ppm. The feedback is regulated through the action of low [CO2]a on host tree productivity and provides empirical evidence for the role of [CO2]a starvation in diminishing the contribution of trees and mycorrhizal fungi to rates of biological weathering. More broadly, diminished tree-driven weathering under declining [CO2]a may provide an important contributory mechanism stabilising Earth's [CO2]a minimum over the past 24 million years.

  17. Fibroblast growth factor 23 contributes to diminished bone mineral density in childhood inflammatory bowel disease

    El-Hodhod Mostafa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diminished bone mineral density (BMD is of significant concern in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Exact etiology is debatable. The recognition of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23, a phosphaturic hormone related to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α makes it plausible to hypothesize its possible relation to this pathology. Methods In this follow up case control study, BMD as well as serum levels of FGF23, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, parathyroid hormone, 25 hydroxy vitamin D3 and 1, 25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 were measured in 47 children with IBD during flare and reassessed in the next remission. Results Low BMD was frequent during IBD flare (87.2% with significant improvement after remission (44.7%. During disease flare, only 21.3% of patients had vitamin D deficiency, which was severe in 12.8%. During remission, all patients had normal vitamin D except for two patients with Crohn’s disease (CD who remained vitamin D deficient. Mean value of serum FGF23 was significantly higher among patients with IBD during flare compared to controls. It showed significant improvement during remission but not to the control values. 1, 25 dihydroxy vitamin D3, FGF23, serum calcium and urinary phosphorus were significant determinants of BMD in IBD patients. Conclusions We can conclude that diminished BMD in childhood IBD is a common multifactorial problem. Elevated FGF23 would be a novel addition to the list of factors affecting bone mineral density in this context. Further molecular studies are warranted to display the exact interplay of these factors.




    Full Text Available : Invasive cervical cancer during pregnancy is rare, but is a dilemma for women and their physicians. Pregnancy provides a good opportunity to the obstetrician to screen the patient for cervical neoplasia. We report a case of pregnancy with carcinoma cervix. A 40 years old lady G5P3+1 presented in casualty at 38 weeks 2 days with bleeding per vaginum. On examination she was stage III b Carcinoma Cervix with term pregnancy. She underwent classical cesarean section followed by EBRT and brachytherapy. The main objective of this case report is to highlight the need of doing cervical screening routinely in pregnancy in a low resource setting also to decrease the burden of carcinoma cervix in society

  19. Psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)

    Heuvel, S. van den


    It has been known for some time that risk factors in the workplace can have a negative effect on health. Ramazzini was one of the first scientists to identify occupational health hazards. He wrote about diseases of the musculoskeletal system caused by sudden and irregular movements and the adoption

  20. Simultaneous Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Bighan Khademi


    Full Text Available The association of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx with thyroid papillary carcinoma is an unusual finding. From 2004 to 2011, approximately 250 patients underwent laryngectomies due to squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx at the Otolaryngology Department of Khalili Hospital, affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. In three patients, synchronous occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma and thyroid papillary carcinoma was found. Histopathologic study of the lymph nodes revealed metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in one case. We report three cases of thyroid papillary carcinoma incidentally found on histological examinations of resected thyroid lobes, as a procedure required for treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In comparison, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma needs more aggressive treatment than well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The prevalence of thyroid papillary carcinoma, as an incidental finding in our study was 0.01%. Therefore, preoperative evaluation of the thyroid gland by ultrasonography and fine needle aspiration biopsy of suspicious lesions is recommended in patients who are candidates for open laryngectomy.

  1. Primary fallopian tube carcinoma

    Mladenović-Segedi Ljiljana


    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary fallopian tube carcinoma is extremely rare, making 0.3-1.6% of all female genital tract malignancies. Although the etymology of this tumor is unknown, it is suggested to be associated with chronic tubal inflammation, infertility, tuberculous salpingitis and tubal endometriosis. High parity is considered to be protective. Cytogenetic studies show the disease to be associated with over expression of p53, HER2/neu and c-myb. There is also some evidence that BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations have a role in umorogeneis. Clinical features. The most prevailing symptoms with fallopian tube carcinoma are abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal discharge/bleeding and the most common finding is an adnexal mass. In many patients, fallopian tube carcinoma is asymptomatic. Diagnosis. Due to its rarity, preoperative diagnosis of primary fallopian tube carcinoma is rarely made. It is usually misdiagnosed as ovarian carcinoma, tuboovarian abscess or ectopic pregnancy. Sonographic features of the tumor are non-specific and include the presence of a fluid-filled adnexal structure with a significant solid component, a sausage-shaped mass, a cystic mass with papillary projections within, a cystic mass with cog wheel appearance and an ovoid-shaped structure containing an incomplete separation and a highly vascular solid nodule. More than 80% of patients have elevated pretreatment serum CA-125 levels, which is useful in follow-up after the definite treatment. Treatment. The treatment approach is similar to that of ovarian carcinoma, and includes total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Staging is followed with chemotherapy.

  2. Carcinoma suprarrenal gigante Giant suprarenal carcinoma

    Ariel Núñez Roca


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: presentar un caso de carcinoma suprarrenal de gran tamaño, su diagnóstico y tratamiento. DESCRIPSIÓN: se presenta un paciente del sexo masculino, de 69 años de edad, con antecedentes de diabetes mellitus tipo II que refería palparse un tumor abdominal. Al examen físico tenía un tumor palpable en la fosa lumbar y flanco izquierdos de aproximadamente 15 a 16 cm de diámetro. El tumor se corroboró en el ultrasonido, por lo que fue necesario realizar la tomografía axial computadorizada simple y contrastada para establecer el origen suprarrenal de este. Se comprobaron niveles elevados de cortisol en plasma. INTERVENSIÓN: se realizó la suprarrenalectomía más la nefrectomía izquierdas. La evolución posoperatoria resultó satisfactoria. El informe histopatológico de la pieza quirúrgica fue carcinoma suprarrenal con infiltración renal. Se indicó tratamiento de quimioterapia con mitotano con posterioridad a la cirugía. En los controles semestral y anual realizados, el paciente se encontró asintomático y con niveles de cortisol sanguíneo normales. El ultrasonido, la tomografía axial computadorizada del abdomen y la radiografía del tórax no mostraron recidiva tumoral ni metástasis. CONCLUSIONES: los carcinomas suprarrenales pueden evolucionar de forma asintomática hasta alcanzar grandes dimensiones. El tratamiento combinado, quirúrgico y con quimioterapia, mejora el pronóstico de estos pacientes.OBJECTIVE: this is the presentation of a case of a very large suprarenal carcinoma. DESCRIPTION: a male patient aged 69 with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus mentioning the palpation of a abdominal tumor. At physical examination we noted the presence of a palpable tumor in lumbar fossa and left flanks of approximately 15 to 16 cm diameter. Ultrasound corroborated the tumor being necessary to perform a single and contrasted computed tomography to establish its suprarenal origin. There were high levels of cortisol in plasma

  3. Maxillary sinus carcinoma

    Primary site control, anatomical site of failure, survival, and complications of treatment were determined in a retrospective review of primary maxillary sinus carcinoma. Sixty-one patients were treated by radiation followed by surgery and 35 by radiation alone. Primary tumor control was achieved in 69% of patients receiving combined treatment, 14% of patients treated with radiation alone, and 49% of all patients. Local control did not differ with histological type. Virtually all epidermoid and undifferentiated carcinoma recurrences occurred within 2 years, but 27% of adenocarcinomas recurred after 2 years

  4. Primary adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma

    Aftab S. Shaikh


    Full Text Available Adrenal sarcomatoid carcinomas are extremely rare tumors presenting with extensive locoregional spread at the time of diagnosis. Patients succumb to metastases within a couple of months. As a result, very few cases are reported in the literature until now. We present a case of a 62-year old female with non-functional sarcomatoid carcinoma of the right adrenal gland. There was no radiological evidence of locoregional metastases. Patient underwent right adrenalectomy. Follow up after 3 months showed para-aortic lymphadenopathy and similar left adrenal mass on computed tomography. Patient refused further treatment and succumbed to the disease. A brief case report with review of literature is presented.

  5. Nonfunctioning adrenocortical carcinoma.

    Lele S


    Full Text Available The rarity of adrenocortical carcinoma prompted us to report a case who came with a history of swelling in the left flank associated with pain, weakness and loss of appetite. Ultrasonography revealed a left retroperitoneal mass which was removed by radical surgery along with the left kidney and spleen. On histopathological examination, a diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma was made. (Hough criteria score 2.97. The cells of the tumor were arranged in closely packed columns and cords supported by fibrovascular stroma. There was no evidence of metastasis.

  6. La dimension de genre dans la reconnaissance des TMS comme maladies professionnelles The gender dimension in the recognition of MSDs as occupational diseases La dimensión de género en el reconocimiento de las lesiones músculo esqueléticas (LMS como enfermedades profesionales.

    Isabelle Probst


    Full Text Available En Suisse, les troubles musculo-squelettiques (TMS sont rarement reconnus comme maladies professionnelles et leur prévention est peu développée. L’analyse des statistiques d’indemnisation concernant les TMS montre que les troubles affectant les travailleuses sont encore moins souvent déclarés et reconnus que ceux des travailleurs. La reconnaissance des TMS comme maladies professionnelles est donc marquée par une dimension de genre. Cette situation peut s’expliquer par divers facteurs, comme l’état des connaissances scientifiques, mais aussi le cadre légal, la jurisprudence, les critères appliqués par les assurances et les pratiques de déclaration. Au niveau des décisions des assurances, deux processus semblent jouer un rôle dans la sous-estimation des TMS d’origine professionnelle chez les travailleuses : d’une part, l’incidence plus élevée de certains TMS chez les femmes est interprétée comme résultant de prédispositions liées au sexe féminin et d’autre part, le travail des femmes est considéré comme moins sollicitant que celui des hommes.In Switzerland, musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are seldom recognized as occupational diseases, and their prevention has not been extensively developed. The analysis of MSD compensation statistics shows that disorders affecting female workers are still reported and recognized less often than those affecting male workers. The recognition of MSDs as occupational diseases therefore has a gendered dimension. This situation can be explained by various factors, such as the state of scientific knowledge, but also the legal framework, jurisprudence, criteria applied by insurance companies, and reporting practices. Regarding insurance decisions, two processes seem to play a role in underestimating work-related MSDs in female workers: on the one hand, the higher incidence of certain types of MSDs in women is interpreted as being the result of predispositions linked to the female

  7. Prolonged hypothermia exposure diminishes neuroprotection for severe ischemic-hypoxic primary neurons.

    Gao, Xiao-Ya; Zhu, Shu-Zhen; Xiang, Wei; Huang, Kai-Bin; Hu, Ya-Fang; Gu, Yong; Pan, Su-Yue


    This study aimed to identify optimal mild hypothermic (MH) condition that would provide the best protection for neuronal cells undergoing severe ischemia and hypoxia. We also sought to determine if longer exposure to mild hypothermia would confer greater protection to severe ischemia and hypoxia in these cells. We designed a primary neuronal cell model for severe glucose and oxygen deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) to simulate the hypoxic-ischemic condition of patients with severe stroke, trauma, or hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. We evaluated the viability of these neurons following 3 h of OGD/R and variable MH conditions including different temperatures and durations of OGD/R exposure. We further explored the effects of the optimal MH condition on several parts which are associated with mitochondrial apoptosis pathway: intracellular calcium, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). The results of this study showed that the apoptosis proportion (AP) and cell viability proportion (CVP) after OGD/R significantly varied depending on which MH condition cells were exposed to (p MTP. These findings indicate that there is an optimal MH treatment strategy for severely hypoxia-ischemic neurons, prolonged duration might diminish the neuroprotection, and that MH treatment likely initiates neuroprotection by inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. PMID:26802735

  8. Application of the Diminishing Returns Concept in the Hydroecologic Restoration of Riverscapes

    Principles for optimizing the number and placement of ecological restoration actions on rivers and coasts would be useful in project engineering design and program planning. This study demonstrated that the yield of inundated floodplain habitat area from dike breaching conforms to a diminishing returns model. The aggregate effects of establishing hydrologic connections between a tidally influenced main stem river and the floodplain were experimentally examined using a hydrodynamic model. Restoration clusters of size 1, 4, 8, and more, replicated and randomized within the landscape, yielded average wetted floodplain area conforming with an exponential rise to maximum curve2(0.99)r=. Analysis of the average incremental change in floodplain inundation produced per breach showed that opening 25 % of the channels crossing the dike provided the maximum return on investment as measured by wetted area. Midstream breaches yielded 60 % and upstream breaches 2 % of the wetted area produced by downstream breaches. Dike-breach restoration programs therefore can be optimized by strategic determination of the spatial configuration and number of demolitions, though biological factors such as the accessibility of floodplain habitat and total length of channels connected also need to be considered. These findings have implications for cost-benefit analyses in restoration program planning.

  9. Inhibition of the Pim1 oncogene results in diminished visual function.

    Jun Yin

    Full Text Available Our objective was to profile genetic pathways whose differential expression correlates with maturation of visual function in zebrafish. Bioinformatic analysis of transcriptomic data revealed Jak-Stat signalling as the pathway most enriched in the eye, as visual function develops. Real-time PCR, western blotting, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization data confirm that multiple Jak-Stat pathway genes are up-regulated in the zebrafish eye between 3-5 days post-fertilisation, times associated with significant maturation of vision. One of the most up-regulated Jak-Stat genes is the proto-oncogene Pim1 kinase, previously associated with haematological malignancies and cancer. Loss of function experiments using Pim1 morpholinos or Pim1 inhibitors result in significant diminishment of visual behaviour and function. In summary, we have identified that enhanced expression of Jak-Stat pathway genes correlates with maturation of visual function and that the Pim1 oncogene is required for normal visual function.

  10. Diminished neural responses predict enhanced intrinsic motivation and sensitivity to external incentive.

    Marsden, Karen E; Ma, Wei Ji; Deci, Edward L; Ryan, Richard M; Chiu, Pearl H


    The duration and quality of human performance depend on both intrinsic motivation and external incentives. However, little is known about the neuroscientific basis of this interplay between internal and external motivators. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural substrates of intrinsic motivation, operationalized as the free-choice time spent on a task when this was not required, and tested the neural and behavioral effects of external reward on intrinsic motivation. We found that increased duration of free-choice time was predicted by generally diminished neural responses in regions associated with cognitive and affective regulation. By comparison, the possibility of additional reward improved task accuracy, and specifically increased neural and behavioral responses following errors. Those individuals with the smallest neural responses associated with intrinsic motivation exhibited the greatest error-related neural enhancement under the external contingency of possible reward. Together, these data suggest that human performance is guided by a "tonic" and "phasic" relationship between the neural substrates of intrinsic motivation (tonic) and the impact of external incentives (phasic). PMID:25348668

  11. Diminished facial emotion expression and associated clinical characteristics in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Lang, Katie; Larsson, Emma E C; Mavromara, Liza; Simic, Mima; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate


    This study aimed to investigate emotion expression in a large group of children, adolescents and adults with Anorexia Nervosa (AN), and investigate the associated clinical correlates. One hundred and forty-one participants (AN=66, HC= 75) were recruited and positive and negative film clips were used to elicit emotion expressions. The Facial Activation Coding system (FACES) was used to code emotion expression. Subjective ratings of emotion were collected. Individuals with AN displayed less positive emotions during the positive film clip compared to healthy controls (HC). There was no significant difference between the groups on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS). The AN group displayed emotional incongruence (reporting a different emotion to what would be expected given the stimuli, with limited facial affect to signal the emotion experienced), whereby they reported feeling significantly higher rates of negative emotion during the positive clip. There were no differences in emotion expression between the groups during the negative film clip. Despite this individuals with AN reported feeling significantly higher levels of negative emotions during the negative clip. Diminished positive emotion expression was associated with more severe clinical symptoms, which could suggest that these individuals represent a group with serious social difficulties, which may require specific attention in treatment. PMID:26778369

  12. Diminishing willingness to pay per quality-adjusted life year: valuing acute foodborne illness.

    Haninger, Kevin; Hammitt, James K


    We design and conduct a stated-preference survey to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) to reduce foodborne risk of acute illness and to test whether WTP is proportional to the corresponding gain in expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). If QALYs measure utility for health, then economic theory requires WTP to be nearly proportional to changes in both health quality and duration of illness and WTP could be estimated by multiplying the expected change in QALYs by an appropriate monetary value. WTP is elicited using double-bounded, dichotomous-choice questions in which respondents (randomly selected from the U.S. general adult population, n = 2,858) decide whether to purchase a more expensive food to reduce the risk of foodborne illness. Health risks vary by baseline probability of illness, reduction in probability, duration and severity of illness, and conditional probability of mortality. The expected gain in QALYs is calculated using respondent-assessed decrements in health-related quality of life if ill combined with the duration of illness and reduction in probability specified in the survey. We find sharply diminishing marginal WTP for severity and duration of illness prevented. Our results suggest that individuals do not have a constant rate of WTP per QALY, which implies that WTP cannot be accurately estimated by multiplying the change in QALYs by an appropriate monetary value. PMID:21488924

  13. Effects of integrative medicine treatment on 48 infertile patients with diminished ovarian reserve

    YU Jin; PAN Fang


    Objective:To observe the effect of integrative medicine treatment on infertile patients with diminished ovarian reserve(DOR).Methods:Forty-eight infertile patients with DOR were treated with integrative medicine from May 2004 to December 2006 in our center.Patients were divided into 3 groups:failed IVF-ET in 16 cases(IVF group),prema-ture ovarian failure in 9 cases(POF group)and DOR due to other causes in 23.cases(OV ↓ group).Yu's Follicle Replenishing Recipe(YFRR)was administered daily in all cases,and usually different dosages of estrogen were dia-lectically added according to the view of life network regulation.Symptoms,BBT,ovulation rate,pregnancy rate and serum sex hormones measuring on cycle Day 3(or day 3 after withdrawal bleeding)were observed before and af-ter treatment.Results:During the treatment,symptoms were gratefully relieved in all 48 patients,and the pregnancy rate was 40%.Ovulation rate significantly increased from 17%(8/48 before treatment)to 56 %(27/48 after treatment)(P0.05).Conclusion:The integrative medicine treatment not only increases ovulation rate and pregnancy rate in infertile patients with DOR,but also calms down their symptoms.

  14. Swimming Behaviour and Otolith Characteristics of wildtype and mutant Zebrafish (AIE) under diminished Gravity Conditions

    Weigele, J.; Anken, R.; Hilbig, R.

    During microgravity humans often suffer from sensorimotor disorders e g motion sickness a kinetosis Using fish as vertebrate model systems we could previously provide ample evidence that the individually different susceptibility to such disorders is based on an individually differently pronounced asymmetric mineralisation calcification of inner ear stones otoliths In the course of a preliminary study we subjected mutant zebrafish Danio rerio due to malformation of the inner ear - see below - this mutant was termed Asymmetric Inner Ear AIE to diminished gravity conditions during parabolic aircraft flight PF As compared to wildtype WT animals the mutants showed a pronounced kinetotic behaviour The gross-morphology of the inner ears of AIE and WT animals strikingly differed In WT specimens the saccular otoliths were located at the periphery of the inner ear whereas the utricular stones were positioned mediad as it is usually the case in teleosts in most AIE animals dissected however the respective otoliths were positioned in an opposite arrangement Moreover the mutants sported transparent otoliths whereas the otoliths of WT specimens had an opaque appearance This finding clearly indicates that mutant otoliths differed from wildtype ones in their lattice structure i e the calcium carbonate polymorph and thus the compostion of the proteinacious matrix which is a template for calcium carbonate deposition In the course of the present study the PF experiment is scheduled to be carried out in March 2006 we intend to statistically verify

  15. Mediastinal vacuum phenomenon: atypical pneumomediastinum caused by gas replacement of diminished fat

    Hagiwara H


    Full Text Available Hiroaki Hagiwara,1 Ikuo Torii2 1Department of Radiology, Yokohama Minamikyosai Hospital, 2Department of Radiology, Yokohama Municipal Citizen's Hospital, Yokohama, Japan Abstract: We report a case involving an 83-year-old man with interstitial lung disease who developed atypical pneumomediastinum caused by gas replacement of diminished fat. The patient presented with a complaint of worsening symptoms of respiratory difficulty since a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia 5 months back. He had been under observation with no particular treatment for 5 months. Computed tomography performed on admission revealed pneumomediastinum. When the current scan was compared with that obtained 5 months ago, it was evident that the fat surrounding the mediastinum had been replaced by gas density. There was no mediastinal enlargement, pneumothorax, or pneumopericardium. Because the patient was elderly, home oxygen therapy was initiated for the interstitial pneumonia with no steroid therapy. Computed tomography performed 10 months after discharge showed the reappearance of mediastinal fat and no evidence of gas density. This case is unique because the pneumomediastinum was distinct from spontaneous pneumomediastinum caused by alveolar air leaks and resembled the vacuum phenomenon caused by intervertebral disc degeneration. Keywords: spontaneous pneumomediastinum, vacuum phenomenon, interstitial lung disease, anorexia nervosa

  16. Amygdalin Blocks Bladder Cancer Cell Growth In Vitro by Diminishing Cyclin A and cdk2

    Makarević, Jasmina; Rutz, Jochen; Juengel, Eva; Kaulfuss, Silke; Reiter, Michael; Tsaur, Igor; Bartsch, Georg; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A.


    Amygdalin, a natural compound, has been used by many cancer patients as an alternative approach to treat their illness. However, whether or not this substance truly exerts an anti-tumor effect has never been settled. An in vitro study was initiated to investigate the influence of amygdalin (1.25–10 mg/ml) on the growth of a panel of bladder cancer cell lines (UMUC-3, RT112 and TCCSUP). Tumor growth, proliferation, clonal growth and cell cycle progression were investigated. The cell cycle regulating proteins cdk1, cdk2, cdk4, cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1, p19, p27 as well as the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) related signals phosphoAkt, phosphoRaptor and phosphoRictor were examined. Amygdalin dose-dependently reduced growth and proliferation in all three bladder cancer cell lines, reflected in a significant delay in cell cycle progression and G0/G1 arrest. Molecular evaluation revealed diminished phosphoAkt, phosphoRictor and loss of Cdk and cyclin components. Since the most outstanding effects of amygdalin were observed on the cdk2-cyclin A axis, siRNA knock down studies were carried out, revealing a positive correlation between cdk2/cyclin A expression level and tumor growth. Amygdalin, therefore, may block tumor growth by down-modulating cdk2 and cyclin A. In vivo investigation must follow to assess amygdalin's practical value as an anti-tumor drug. PMID:25136960

  17. Amygdalin blocks bladder cancer cell growth in vitro by diminishing cyclin A and cdk2.

    Jasmina Makarević

    Full Text Available Amygdalin, a natural compound, has been used by many cancer patients as an alternative approach to treat their illness. However, whether or not this substance truly exerts an anti-tumor effect has never been settled. An in vitro study was initiated to investigate the influence of amygdalin (1.25-10 mg/ml on the growth of a panel of bladder cancer cell lines (UMUC-3, RT112 and TCCSUP. Tumor growth, proliferation, clonal growth and cell cycle progression were investigated. The cell cycle regulating proteins cdk1, cdk2, cdk4, cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1, p19, p27 as well as the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR related signals phosphoAkt, phosphoRaptor and phosphoRictor were examined. Amygdalin dose-dependently reduced growth and proliferation in all three bladder cancer cell lines, reflected in a significant delay in cell cycle progression and G0/G1 arrest. Molecular evaluation revealed diminished phosphoAkt, phosphoRictor and loss of Cdk and cyclin components. Since the most outstanding effects of amygdalin were observed on the cdk2-cyclin A axis, siRNA knock down studies were carried out, revealing a positive correlation between cdk2/cyclin A expression level and tumor growth. Amygdalin, therefore, may block tumor growth by down-modulating cdk2 and cyclin A. In vivo investigation must follow to assess amygdalin's practical value as an anti-tumor drug.

  18. Cp/Heph mutant mice have iron-induced neurodegeneration diminished by deferiprone.

    Zhao, Liangliang; Hadziahmetovic, Majda; Wang, Chenguang; Xu, Xueying; Song, Ying; Jinnah, H A; Wodzinska, Jolanta; Iacovelli, Jared; Wolkow, Natalie; Krajacic, Predrag; Weissberger, Alyssa Cwanger; Connelly, John; Spino, Michael; Lee, Michael K; Connor, James; Giasson, Benoit; Harris, Z Leah; Dunaief, Joshua L


    Brain iron accumulates in several neurodegenerative diseases and can cause oxidative damage, but mechanisms of brain iron homeostasis are incompletely understood. Patients with mutations in the cellular iron-exporting ferroxidase ceruloplasmin (Cp) have brain iron accumulation causing neurodegeneration. Here, we assessed the brains of mice with combined mutation of Cp and its homolog hephaestin. Compared to single mutants, brain iron accumulation was accelerated in double mutants in the cerebellum, substantia nigra, and hippocampus. Iron accumulated within glia, while neurons were iron deficient. There was loss of both neurons and glia. Mice developed ataxia and tremor, and most died by 9 months. Treatment with the oral iron chelator deferiprone diminished brain iron levels, protected against neuron loss, and extended lifespan. Ferroxidases play important, partially overlapping roles in brain iron homeostasis by facilitating iron export from glia, making iron available to neurons. Above: Iron (Fe) normally moves from capillaries to glia to neurons. It is exported from the glia by ferroportin (Fpn) with ferroxidases ceruloplasmin (Cp) and/or Hephaestin (Heph). Below: In mice with mutation of Cp and Heph, iron accumulates in glia, while neurons have low iron levels. Both neurons and glia degenerate and mice become ataxic unless given an iron chelator. PMID:26303407

  19. Air pollution particles diminish bacterial clearance in the primed lungs of mice

    Epidemiological studies reveal increased incidence of lung infection when air pollution particle levels are increased. We postulate that one risk factor for bacterial pneumonia, prior viral infection, can prime the lung for greater deleterious effects of particles via the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) characteristic of successful host anti-viral responses. To test this postulate, we developed a mouse model in which mice were treated with γ-interferon aerosol, followed by exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) collected from urban air. The mice were then infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae and the effect of these treatments on the lung's innate immune response was evaluated. The combination of IFN-γ priming and CAPs exposure enhanced lung inflammation, manifest as increased polymorphonuclear granulocyte (PMN) recruitment to the lung, and elevated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs. Combined priming and CAPs exposure resulted in impaired pulmonary bacterial clearance, as well as increased oxidant production and diminished bacterial uptake by alveolar macrophages (AMs) and PMNs. The data suggest that priming and CAPs exposure lead to an inflamed alveolar milieu where oxidant stress causes loss of antibacterial functions in AMs and recruited PMNs. The model reported here will allow further analysis of priming and CAPs exposure on lung sensitivity to infection

  20. Diminished serum repetin levels in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Wang, Shuai; Ren, Huixun; Xu, Jie; Yu, Yanjun; Han, Shuiping; Qiao, Hui; Cheng, Shaoli; Xu, Chang; An, Shucheng; Ju, Bomiao; Yu, Chengyuan; Wang, Chanyuan; Wang, Tao; Yang, Zhenjun; Taylor, Ethan Will; Zhao, Lijun


    Repetin (RPTN) protein is a member of S100 family and is known to be expressed in the normal epidermis. Here we show that RPTN is ubiquitously expressed in both mouse and human brain, with relatively high levels in choroid plexus, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. To investigate the expression of RPTN in neuropsychiatric disorders, we determined serum levels of RPTN in patients with schizophrenia (n = 88) or bipolar disorder (n = 34) and in chronic psychostimulant users (n = 91). We also studied its expression in a mouse model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). The results showed that serum RPTN levels were significantly diminished in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder or in psychostimulant users, compared with healthy subjects (n = 115) or age-matched controls (n = 92) (p model for depression and methamphetamine (METH) abuse induced psychosis recapitulates many of the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia, the results from this study may imply that RPTN plays a potential role in emotional and cognitive processing; its decrease in serum may indicate its involvement in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. PMID:25613293

  1. Failure to demonstrate that playing violent video games diminishes prosocial behavior.

    Morgan J Tear

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Past research has found that playing a classic prosocial video game resulted in heightened prosocial behavior when compared to a control group, whereas playing a classic violent video game had no effect. Given purported links between violent video games and poor social behavior, this result is surprising. Here our aim was to assess whether this finding may be due to the specific games used. That is, modern games are experienced differently from classic games (more immersion in virtual environments, more connection with characters, etc. and it may be that playing violent video games impacts prosocial behavior only when contemporary versions are used. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Experiments 1 and 2 explored the effects of playing contemporary violent, non-violent, and prosocial video games on prosocial behavior, as measured by the pen-drop task. We found that slight contextual changes in the delivery of the pen-drop task led to different rates of helping but that the type of game played had little effect. Experiment 3 explored this further by using classic games. Again, we found no effect. CONCLUSIONS: We failed to find evidence that playing video games affects prosocial behavior. Research on the effects of video game play is of significant public interest. It is therefore important that speculation be rigorously tested and findings replicated. Here we fail to substantiate conjecture that playing contemporary violent video games will lead to diminished prosocial behavior.

  2. Diminished Gastric Resection Preserves Better Quality of Life in Patients with Early Gastric Cancer.

    Isozaki, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Sasau; Murakami, Shigeki; Takama, Takehiro; Sho, Tatsuo; Ishihara, Kiyohiro; Sakai, Kunihiko; Takeda, Masanori; Nakada, Koji; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi


    Using the Postgastrectomy Syndrome Assessment Scale (PGSAS)-45, we compared the surgical outcomes and the quality of life (QOL) between patients undergoing limited gastrectomies and those undergoing conventional gastrectomies. In Oomoto Hospital between January 2004 and December 2013, a total of 124 patients who met the eligibility criteria were enrolled. Using the main outcome measures of PGSAS-45, we compared 4 types of limited gastrectomy procedures (1/2 distal gastrectomy [1/2DG] in 21 patients; pylorus-preserving gastrectomy [PPG] in 15 patients; segmental gastrectomy [SG] in 26 patients; and local resection [LR] in 13 patients) with conventional gastrectomy (total gastrectomy [TG] in 24 patients and 2/3 or more distal gastrectomy [WDG] in 25 patients). The TG group showed the worst QOL in almost all items of the main outcome measures. The 1/2DG, PPG, and SG groups showed better QOL than the WDG group in many of the main outcome measures, including the body weight ratio, total symptom score, ingested amount of food per meal, and the dissatisfaction for daily life subscale. The LR group showed a better intake of food than the 1/2DG, PPG, and SG groups. The body weight ratio of the LR group was better than that of the SG group. Diminished gastric resection preserved better QOL in patients with early gastric cancer. PMID:27094837

  3. Reducing the Polluting Emissions. A Source for Diminishing the Climate Changes

    Emilian M. DOBRESCU


    Full Text Available The USA and the Western Europe are responsible for 2/3 of the CO2 emissions accumulated until today. On the other hand, Africa has produced only 3% of polluting emission since 1900 until today, by burning mineral fuels. Since 1992, the most industrialized countries have promised to help ôthe most vulnerable nations face the adverse consequences of climate changesö by supporting the costs of adaptation. The commitment was included in the convention frame that gave birth to the Kyoto Treaty, which was rejected by the George W. Bush Administration, even though the initial document, issued in 1992, had been signed by George Bush. The industrialized countries that signed the Kyoto Treaty have decided to create a special fund for ôclimate adaptationö. Hundreds of millions of dollars had to be used in order to diminish the impact of the global warming in the most exposed areas.Lately, maybe because the CO2 emissions increase due to human activities, the planet climate has changed for worse. 2007 was a key year in evaluating the reply the planet would give to the global overheating, mainly caused by the green-house effect and worsen by El Nino oceanic stream. This superposition of climate factors made 2007 to be one of the warmest years ever registered.

  4. Intraluminal injection of short chain fatty acids diminishes intestinal mucosa injury in experimental ischemia-reperfusion

    Aguilar-Nascimento José Eduardo de


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Investigated the effect of intraluminal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA on the intestinal mucosa in the presence of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI. METHODS: Six blind sacs of the small bowel (3at the jejunum and 3 at the ileum were created in ten Wistar rats. The lateral sacs of both bowel regions were subjected to IRI (15/15 minutes while the medial sacs were let free to receive blood supply. In the lateral sacs, it was injected either a solution containing SCFA (butyrate, propionate and acetate or pure saline at the bowel lumen. No fluid was injected in the medial sacs. RESULTS: Both at the jejunum and at the ileum the score of the mucosal injury was higher in saline than in control sacs. SCFA treated sacs showed lesser score at the ileum (p=0.03 but were not significantly different at the jejunum (p=0.83 when compared with saline sacs. It was found a significant greater number of neutrophils (p < 0.01 in the sacs treated with saline than in the other two sacs in both regions. CONCLUSION: SCFA protect the distal small bowel mucosa and diminishes infiltration of neutrophils to the gut lamina propria in IRI.

  5. The diminished expression of proangiogenic growth factors and their receptors in gastric ulcers of cirrhotic patients.

    Jiing-Chyuan Luo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The pathogenesis of the higher occurrence of peptic ulcer disease in cirrhotic patients is complex. Platelets can stimulate angiogenesis and promote gastric ulcer healing. We compared the expressions of proangiogenic growth factors and their receptors in the gastric ulcer margin between cirrhotic patients with thrombocytopenia and those of non-cirrhotic patients to elucidate possible mechanisms. METHODS: Eligible cirrhotic patients (n = 55 and non-cirrhotic patients (n = 55 who had gastric ulcers were enrolled. Mucosa from the gastric ulcer margin and non-ulcer areas were sampled and the mRNA expressions of the proangiogenic growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], platelet derived growth factor [PDGF], basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF] and their receptors (VEGFR1, VEGFR2, PDGFRA, PDGFRB, FGFR1, FGFR2 were measured and compared. Platelet count and the expressions of these growth factors and their receptors were correlated with each other. RESULTS: The two groups were comparable in terms of gender, ulcer size and infection rate of Helicobacter pylori. However, the cirrhotic group were younger in age, had a lower platelet count than those in the non-cirrhotic group (p0.5, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings implied that diminished activity of proangiogenic factors and their receptors may contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers in cirrhotic patients.

  6. A change will do us good: threats diminish typical preferences for male leaders.

    Brown, Elizabeth R; Diekman, Amanda B; Schneider, Monica C


    The current research explores role congruity processes from a new vantage point by investigating how the need for change might shift gender-based leadership preferences. According to role congruity theory, favorability toward leaders results from alignment between what is desired in a leadership role and the characteristics stereotypically ascribed to the leader. Generally speaking, these processes lead to baseline preferences for male over female leaders. In this research, the authors propose that a shift in gender-based leadership preferences will emerge under conditions of threat. Because the psychological experience of threat signals a need for change, individuals will favor candidates who represent new directions in leadership rather than consistency with past directions in leadership. Specifically, they find that threat evokes an implicit preference for change over stability (Experiment 1) and gender stereotypes align women with change but men with stability (Experiments 2a and 2b). Consequently, the typical preference for male leaders is diminished, or even reversed, under threat (Experiments 3 and 4). Moreover, the shift away from typical gender-based leadership preferences occurs especially among individuals who highly legitimize the sociopolitical system (Experiment 4), suggesting that these preference shifts might serve to protect the underlying system. PMID:21467539

  7. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ... cell carcinoma public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ...

  8. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ... cell carcinoma public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ...

  9. Bronchogenic Carcinoma in Khartoum

    The prospective study was conducted in the period between April 1996 and April 1997, and included 26 with bronchogenic carcinoma. The diagnosis was proved histologically in 24 patients, and it was based on the clinico-radiological picture in the remainder two patients. The mean age was 49 years,SD ±16.5. The male:female ratio was 2.2:1.0. All five patients under thirty years were females. 13 patients(50%) were smokers. The mean duration of smoking was 28 years, SD±8. The mean number of cigarettes per day was 24, SD±11.8. Chest symptoms and signs were observed in 92% and 48% of patients respectively, and 10 patients(38%) showed evidence of metastases at diagnosis. Bronchioscopic was done in 11 patients and transthorasic needle biopsy in 6. The diagnosis in the remainder of patients was confirmed by operative biopsy, or pleural cytology, or pleural biopsy or by biopsy from secondaries. The histology revealed squamous cell carcinoma in 14 patients, small cell carcinoma in 5, adenocarcinoma in 3, large cell carcinoma in 2, and the histology was not obtained in two patients. Radiotherapy alone was given to 9 patients. Ten patients underwent surgery followed by radiotherapy in 5 patients and chemotherapy in 4. Only 10 patients survived for more than 3 months. One patient survived for more than one year after diagnosis.(Author)

  10. Chronic Pelvic Inflammation Diminished Ovarian Reserve as Indicated by Serum Anti Mulerrian Hormone.

    Linlin Cui

    Full Text Available To explore the potential damaging effect of chronic pelvic inflammation on ovarian reserve.Case-control study.A total of 122 women with bilateral tubal occlusion, diagnosed by hysterosalipingography (HSG and 217 women with normal fallopians were recruited.Serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH, basic follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteining hormone (LH, estradiol (E2, and testosterone (T were measured; and antral follicle counts (AFCs were recorded.Significantly lower level of AMH was observed in women with bilateral tubal occlusion compared to control group [2.62 (2.95 ng/ml vs. 3.37 (3.11 ng/ml, P = 0.03], and the difference remained after adjustment of BMI (Padjust = 0.04. However, no statistical difference was found in the levels of FSH [7.00 (2.16 IU/L vs. 6.74 (2.30 IU/L], LH [4.18 (1.52 IU/L vs. 4.63 (2.52 IU/L], E2 [35.95 (20.40 pg/ml vs. 34.90 (17.85 pg/ml], T [25.07±11.46 ng/dl vs. 24.84±12.75 ng/dl], and AFC [6.00 (4.00 vs. 7.00 (4.00] between two groups (p>0.05.Women with bilateral tubal occlusion showed decreased AMH level, suggesting that chronic pelvic inflammation may diminish ovarian reserve. More caution should be paid when evaluating the detriment of PID on female fertility.

  11. Dexrazoxane Diminishes Doxorubicin-Induced Acute Ovarian Damage and Preserves Ovarian Function and Fecundity in Mice.

    Jenna Kropp

    Full Text Available Advances in cancer treatment utilizing multiple chemotherapies have dramatically increased cancer survivorship. Female cancer survivors treated with doxorubicin (DXR chemotherapy often suffer from an acute impairment of ovarian function, which can persist as long-term, permanent ovarian insufficiency. Dexrazoxane (Dexra pretreatment reduces DXR-induced insult in the heart, and protects in vitro cultured murine and non-human primate ovaries, demonstrating a drug-based shield to prevent DXR insult. The present study tested the ability of Dexra pretreatment to mitigate acute DXR chemotherapy ovarian toxicity in mice through the first 24 hours post-treatment, and improve subsequent long-term fertility throughout the reproductive lifespan. Adolescent CD-1 mice were treated with Dexra 1 hour prior to DXR treatment in a 1:1 mg or 10:1 mg Dexra:DXR ratio. During the acute injury period (2-24 hours post-injection, Dexra pretreatment at a 1:1 mg ratio decreased the extent of double strand DNA breaks, diminished γH2FAX activation, and reduced subsequent follicular cellular demise caused by DXR. In fertility and fecundity studies, dams pretreated with either Dexra:DXR dose ratio exhibited litter sizes larger than DXR-treated dams, and mice treated with a 1:1 mg Dexra:DXR ratio delivered pups with birth weights greater than DXR-treated females. While DXR significantly increased the "infertility index" (quantifying the percentage of dams failing to achieve pregnancy through 6 gestations following treatment, Dexra pretreatment significantly reduced the infertility index following DXR treatment, improving fecundity. Low dose Dexra not only protected the ovaries, but also bestowed a considerable survival advantage following exposure to DXR chemotherapy. Mouse survivorship increased from 25% post-DXR treatment to over 80% with Dexra pretreatment. These data demonstrate that Dexra provides acute ovarian protection from DXR toxicity, improving reproductive health

  12. Diminished medial prefrontal activity behind autistic social judgments of incongruent information.

    Takamitsu Watanabe

    Full Text Available Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD tend to make inadequate social judgments, particularly when the nonverbal and verbal emotional expressions of other people are incongruent. Although previous behavioral studies have suggested that ASD individuals have difficulty in using nonverbal cues when presented with incongruent verbal-nonverbal information, the neural mechanisms underlying this symptom of ASD remain unclear. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we compared brain activity in 15 non-medicated adult males with high-functioning ASD to that of 17 age-, parental-background-, socioeconomic-, and intelligence-quotient-matched typically-developed (TD male participants. Brain activity was measured while each participant made friend or foe judgments of realistic movies in which professional actors spoke with conflicting nonverbal facial expressions and voice prosody. We found that the ASD group made significantly less judgments primarily based on the nonverbal information than the TD group, and they exhibited significantly less brain activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex/ventral medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/vmPFC, and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC than the TD group. Among these five regions, the ACC/vmPFC and dmPFC were most involved in nonverbal-information-biased judgments in the TD group. Furthermore, the degree of decrease of the brain activity in these two brain regions predicted the severity of autistic communication deficits. The findings indicate that diminished activity in the ACC/vmPFC and dmPFC underlies the impaired abilities of individuals with ASD to use nonverbal content when making judgments regarding other people based on incongruent social information.

  13. Diminished telomeric 3' overhangs are associated with telomere dysfunction in Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome.

    Noa Lamm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic chromosomes end with telomeres, which in most organisms are composed of tandem DNA repeats associated with telomeric proteins. These DNA repeats are synthesized by the enzyme telomerase, whose activity in most human tissues is tightly regulated, leading to gradual telomere shortening with cell divisions. Shortening beyond a critical length causes telomere uncapping, manifested by the activation of a DNA damage response (DDR and consequently cell cycle arrest. Thus, telomere length limits the number of cell divisions and provides a tumor-suppressing mechanism. However, not only telomere shortening, but also damaged telomere structure, can cause telomere uncapping. Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC and its severe form Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson Syndrome (HHS are genetic disorders mainly characterized by telomerase deficiency, accelerated telomere shortening, impaired cell proliferation, bone marrow failure, and immunodeficiency. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the telomere phenotypes in a family affected with HHS, in which the genes implicated in other cases of DC and HHS have been excluded, and telomerase expression and activity appears to be normal. Telomeres in blood leukocytes derived from the patients were severely short, but in primary fibroblasts they were normal in length. Nevertheless, a significant fraction of telomeres in these fibroblasts activated DDR, an indication of their uncapped state. In addition, the telomeric 3' overhangs are diminished in blood cells and fibroblasts derived from the patients, consistent with a defect in telomere structure common to both cell types. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether, these results suggest that the primary defect in these patients lies in the telomere structure, rather than length. We postulate that this defect hinders the access of telomerase to telomeres, thus causing accelerated telomere shortening in blood cells that rely on telomerase to replenish their telomeres

  14. Diminished Wastewater Treatment: Evaluation of Septic System Performance Under a Climate Change Scenario

    Cooper, J.; Loomis, G.; Kalen, D.; Boving, T. B.; Morales, I.; Amador, J.


    The effects of climate change are expected to reduce the ability of soil-based onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS), to treat domestic wastewater. In the northeastern U.S., the projected increase in atmospheric temperature, elevation of water tables from rising sea levels, and heightened precipitation will reduce the volume of unsaturated soil and oxygen available for treatment. Incomplete removal of contaminants may lead to transport of pathogens, nutrients, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to groundwater, increasing the risk to public health and likelihood of eutrophying aquatic ecosystems. Advanced OWTS, which include pre-treatment steps and provide unsaturated drainfields of greater volume relative to conventional OWTS, are expected to be more resilient to climate change. We used intact soil mesocosms to quantify water quality functions for two advanced shallow narrow drainfield types and a conventional drainfield under a current climate scenario and a moderate climate change scenario of 30 cm rise in water table and 5°C increase in soil temperature. While no fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) was released under the current climate scenario, up to 109 CFU FCB/mL (conventional) and up to 20 CFU FCB/mL (shallow narrow) were released under the climate change scenario. Total P removal rates dropped from 100% to 54% (conventional) and 71% (shallow narrow) under the climate change scenario. Total N removal averaged 17% under both climate scenarios in the conventional, but dropped from 5.4% to 0% in the shallow narrow under the climate change scenario, with additional leaching of N in excess of inputs indicating release of previously held N. No significant difference was observed between scenarios for BOD removal. The initial data indicate that while advanced OWTS retain more function under the climate change scenario, all three drainfield types experience some diminished treatment capacity.

  15. Achievement of the charge exchange work diminishing of an internal combustion engine in part load



    Full Text Available Internal combustion engines, used for driving of different cars, occurs not only at full load, but mostly at the part load. The relative load exchange work at the full (nominal engine load is significantly low. At the part load of the IC engine its energy efficiency ηe is significantly lower than in the optimal (nominal field range of the performance parameters. One of the numerous reasons of this effect is regular growing of the relative load exchange work of the IC engine. It is directly connected with the quantitative regulation method commonly used in the IC engines. From the thermodynamic point of view - the main reason of this effect is the throttling process (causing exergy losses occurring in the inlet and outlet channels. The known proposals for solving of this problem are based on applying of the fully electronic control of the motion of inlet, outlet valves and new reference cycles.The idea presented in the paper leads to diminishing the charge exchange work of the IC engines. The problem can be solved using presented in the paper a new concept of the reference cycle (called as eco-cycle of IC engine. The work of the engine basing on the eco-cycle occurs in two 3-stroke stages; the fresh air is delivered only once for both stages, but in range of each stage a new portion of fuel is burned. Normally the charge exchange occurs once during each engine cycle realized. Elaborated proposition bases on the elimination of chosen charge exchange processes and through this the dropping of the charge exchange work can be achieved.

  16. Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) diminishes lipid droplet-coating proteins leading to lipolysis in adipocytes

    Highlights: ► AIM induces lipolysis in a distinct manner from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis. ► AIM ablates activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor in adipocytes. ► AIM reduces mRNA levels of lipid-droplet coating proteins leading to lipolysis. -- Abstract: Under fasting conditions, triacylglycerol in adipose tissue undergoes lipolysis to supply fatty acids as energy substrates. Such lipolysis is regulated by hormones, which activate lipases via stimulation of specific signalling cascades. We previously showed that macrophage-derived soluble protein, AIM induces obesity-associated lipolysis, triggering chronic inflammation in fat tissue which causes insulin resistance. However, the mechanism of how AIM mediates lipolysis remains unknown. Here we show that AIM induces lipolysis in a manner distinct from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis, without activation or augmentation of lipases. In vivo and in vitro, AIM did not enhance phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in adipocytes, a hallmark of hormone-dependent lipolysis activation. Similarly, adipose tissue from obese AIM-deficient and wild-type mice showed comparable HSL phosphorylation. Consistent with the suppressive effect of AIM on fatty acid synthase activity, the amount of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids was reduced in adipocytes treated with AIM. This response ablated transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ), leading to diminished gene expression of lipid-droplet coating proteins including fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27) and Perilipin, which are indispensable for triacylglycerol storage in adipocytes. Accordingly, the lipolytic effect of AIM was overcome by a PPARγ-agonist or forced expression of FSP27, while it was synergized by a PPARγ-antagonist. Overall, distinct modes of lipolysis appear to take place in different physiological situations; one is a supportive response against nutritional deprivation achieved by

  17. Diminished glucose transport and phosphorylation in Alzheimer`s disease determined by dynamic FDG-PET

    Piert, M.; Koeppe, R.A.; Giordani, B.; Berent, S.; Kuhl, D.E. [Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    Using dynamic [{sup 18}F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and PET, kinetic rate constants that describe influx (K{sub 1}) and efflux (k{sub 2}) of FDG as well s phosphorylation (k{sub 3}) and dephosphorylation (k{sub 4}) were determined in patients with probable Alzheimer`s disease and similarly aged normal controls. The regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMR{sub glu}) was calculated from individually fitted rate constants in frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cerebral cortex, caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus and cerebellar cortex. Dynamic PET scans were obtained in normal controls (n = 10, mean age = 67) and Alzheimer`s disease patients (n = 8, mean age = 67) for 60 min following injection of 10 mCi of FDG. The Alzheimer`s disease group was characterized by decreases of the CMR{sub glu} ranging from 13.3% in the frontal to 40.9% in the parietal cortex, which achieved significance in all regions except the thalamus. K{sub 1} was significantly reduced in the parietal (p < 0.01) and temporal cortices (p < 0.005), temporal and occipital cortex, and in the putamen and cerebellum (p < 0.05). The rate constants k{sub 2} and k{sub 4} were unchanged in the Alzheimer`s disease group. These data suggest that hypometabolism in Alzheimer`s disease is related to reduced glucose phosphorylation activity as well as diminished glucose transport, particularly in the most metabolically affected areas of the brain, the parietal and temporal cortex. 60 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Diminished medial prefrontal activity behind autistic social judgments of incongruent information.

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Yahata, Noriaki; Abe, Osamu; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Inoue, Hideyuki; Takano, Yosuke; Iwashiro, Norichika; Natsubori, Tatsunobu; Aoki, Yuta; Takao, Hidemasa; Sasaki, Hiroki; Gonoi, Wataru; Murakami, Mizuho; Katsura, Masaki; Kunimatsu, Akira; Kawakubo, Yuki; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Tsuchiya, Kenji J; Kato, Nobumasa; Kano, Yukiko; Miyashita, Yasushi; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori


    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) tend to make inadequate social judgments, particularly when the nonverbal and verbal emotional expressions of other people are incongruent. Although previous behavioral studies have suggested that ASD individuals have difficulty in using nonverbal cues when presented with incongruent verbal-nonverbal information, the neural mechanisms underlying this symptom of ASD remain unclear. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we compared brain activity in 15 non-medicated adult males with high-functioning ASD to that of 17 age-, parental-background-, socioeconomic-, and intelligence-quotient-matched typically-developed (TD) male participants. Brain activity was measured while each participant made friend or foe judgments of realistic movies in which professional actors spoke with conflicting nonverbal facial expressions and voice prosody. We found that the ASD group made significantly less judgments primarily based on the nonverbal information than the TD group, and they exhibited significantly less brain activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex/ventral medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/vmPFC), and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) than the TD group. Among these five regions, the ACC/vmPFC and dmPFC were most involved in nonverbal-information-biased judgments in the TD group. Furthermore, the degree of decrease of the brain activity in these two brain regions predicted the severity of autistic communication deficits. The findings indicate that diminished activity in the ACC/vmPFC and dmPFC underlies the impaired abilities of individuals with ASD to use nonverbal content when making judgments regarding other people based on incongruent social information. PMID:22745788

  19. PRMT6 diminishes HIV-1 Rev binding to and export of viral RNA

    Wainberg Mark A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV-1 Rev protein mediates nuclear export of unspliced and partially spliced viral RNA through interaction with the Rev response element (RRE by means of an arginine rich motif that is similar to the one found in Tat. Since Tat is known to be asymmetrically arginine dimethylated by protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6 in its arginine rich motif, we investigated whether the Rev protein could act as a substrate for this enzyme. Results Here, we report the methylation of Rev due to a single arginine dimethylation in the N-terminal portion of its arginine rich motif and the association of Rev with PRMT6 in vivo. Further analysis demonstrated that the presence of increasing amounts of wild-type PRMT6, as well as a methylation-inactive mutant PRMT6, dramatically down-regulated Rev protein levels in concentration-dependent fashion, which was not dependent on the methyltransferase activity of PRMT6. Quantification of Rev mRNA revealed that attenuation of Rev protein levels was due to a posttranslational event, carried out by a not yet defined activity of PRMT6. However, no relevant protein attenuation was observed in subsequent chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT expression experiments that screened for RNA export and interaction with the RRE. Binding of the Rev arginine rich motif to the RRE was reduced in the presence of wild-type PRMT6, whereas mutant PRMT6 did not exert this negative effect. In addition, diminished interactions between viral RNA and mutant Rev proteins were observed, due to the introduction of single arginine to lysine substitutions in the Rev arginine rich motif. More importantly, wild-type PRMT6, but not mutant methyltransferase, significantly decreased Rev-mediated viral RNA export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion These findings indicate that PRMT6 severely impairs the function of HIV-1 Rev.

  20. 12 Years of NPK Addition Diminishes Carbon Sink Potential of a Nutrient Limited Peatland

    Larmola, T.; Bubier, J. L.; Juutinen, S.; Moore, T. R.


    Peatlands store about a third of global soil carbon. Our aim was to study whether the vegetation feedbacks of nitrogen (N) deposition lead to stronger carbon sink or source in a nutrient limited peatland ecosystem. We investigated vegetation structure and ecosystem CO2 exchange at Mer Bleue Bog, Canada, that has been fertilized for 7-12 years. We have applied 5 and 20 times ambient annual wet N deposition (0.8 g N m-2) with or without phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Gross photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration and net CO2 exchange (NEE) were measured weekly during the growing season using chamber technique. Under the highest N(PK) treatments, the light saturated photosynthesis (PSmax) was reduced by 20-30% compared to the control treatment, whereas under moderate N and PK additions PSmax slightly increased or was similar to the control. The ecosystem respiration showed similar trends among the treatments, but changes in the rates were less pronounced. High nutrient additions led to up to 65% lower net CO2 uptake than that in the control: In the NPK plots with cumulative N additions of 70, 19, and 0 g N m-2, the daytime NEE in May-July 2011 averaged 0.8 (se. 0.3), 2.0 (se. 0.4), and 2.4 (se. 0.3) μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. In the N only plots with cumulative N additions of 45, 19, and 0 g N m-2, the daytime NEE in May-July 2011 averaged 0.8 (se. 0.2), 2.6 (se. 0.4), and 1.8 (se. 0.3) μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. The reduced plant photosynthetic capacity and diminished carbon sink potential in the highest nutrient treatments correlated with the loss of peat mosses and were not compensated for by the increased vascular plant biomass that has mainly been allocated to woody shrub stems.

  1. Diminished metal accumulation in riverine fishes exposed to acid mine drainage over five decades.

    Jeffree, Ross A; Markich, Scott J; Twining, John R


    Bony bream (Nematalosa erebi) and black catfish (Neosilurus ater) were sampled from the fresh surface waters of the Finniss River in tropical northern Australia, along a metal pollution gradient draining the Rum Jungle copper/uranium mine, a contaminant source for over five decades. Paradoxically, populations of both fish species exposed to the highest concentrations of mine-related metals (cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, uranium and zinc) in surface water and sediment had the lowest tissue (bone, liver and muscle) concentrations of these metals. The degree of reduction in tissue concentrations of exposed populations was also specific to each metal and inversely related to its degree of environmental increase above background. Several explanations for diminished metal bioaccumulation in fishes from the contaminated region were evaluated. Geochemical speciation modeling of metal bioavailability in surface water showed no differences between the contaminated region and the control sites. Also, the macro-nutrient (calcium, magnesium and sodium) water concentrations, that may competitively inhibit metal uptake, were not elevated with trace metal contamination. Reduced exposure to contaminants due to avoidance behavior was unlikely due to the absence of refugial water bodies with the requisite metal concentrations lower than the control sites and very reduced connectivity at time of sampling. The most plausible interpretation of these results is that populations of both fish species have modified kinetics within their metal bioaccumulation physiology, via adaptation or tolerance responses, to reduce their body burdens of metals. This hypothesis is consistent with (i) reduced tissue concentrations of calcium, magnesium and sodium (macro-nutrients), in exposed populations of both species, (ii) experimental findings for other fish species from the Finniss River and other contaminated regions, and (iii) the number of generations exposed to likely selection pressure

  2. Upper gastrointestinal dysmotility after spinal cord injury: Is diminished vagal sensory processing one culprit?

    Gregory M Holmes


    Full Text Available Despite the widely recognized prevalence of gastric, colonic and anorectal dysfunction after SCI, significant knowledge gaps persist regarding the mechanisms leading to post-SCI gastrointestinal (GI impairments. Briefly, the regulation of GI function is governed by a mix of parasympathetic, sympathetic and enteric neurocircuitry. Unlike the intestines, the stomach is dominated by parasympathetic (vagal control whereby gastric sensory information is transmitted via the afferent vagus nerve to neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS. The NTS integrates this sensory information with signals from throughout the CNS. Glutamatergic and GABAergic NTS neurons project to other nuclei, including the preganglionic parasympathetic neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV. Finally, axons from the DMV project to gastric myenteric neurons, again, through the efferent vagus nerve. SCI interrupts descending input to the lumbosacral spinal cord neurons that modulate colonic motility and evacuation reflexes. In contrast, vagal neurocircuitry remains anatomically intact after injury. This review presents evidence that unlike the post-SCI loss of supraspinal control which leads to colonic and anorectal dysfunction, gastric dysmotility occurs as an indirect or secondary pathology following SCI. Specifically, emerging data points toward diminished sensitivity of vagal afferents to GI neuroactive peptides, neurotransmitters and, possibly, macronutrients. The neurophysiological properties of rat vagal afferent neurons are highly plastic and can be altered by injury or energy balance. A reduction of vagal afferent signaling to NTS neurons may ultimately bias NTS output toward unregulated GABAergic transmission onto gastric-projecting DMV neurons. The resulting gastroinhibitory signal may be one mechanism leading to upper GI dysmotility following SCI.

  3. Diminished metal accumulation in riverine fishes exposed to acid mine drainage over five decades.

    Ross A Jeffree

    Full Text Available Bony bream (Nematalosa erebi and black catfish (Neosilurus ater were sampled from the fresh surface waters of the Finniss River in tropical northern Australia, along a metal pollution gradient draining the Rum Jungle copper/uranium mine, a contaminant source for over five decades. Paradoxically, populations of both fish species exposed to the highest concentrations of mine-related metals (cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, uranium and zinc in surface water and sediment had the lowest tissue (bone, liver and muscle concentrations of these metals. The degree of reduction in tissue concentrations of exposed populations was also specific to each metal and inversely related to its degree of environmental increase above background. Several explanations for diminished metal bioaccumulation in fishes from the contaminated region were evaluated. Geochemical speciation modeling of metal bioavailability in surface water showed no differences between the contaminated region and the control sites. Also, the macro-nutrient (calcium, magnesium and sodium water concentrations, that may competitively inhibit metal uptake, were not elevated with trace metal contamination. Reduced exposure to contaminants due to avoidance behavior was unlikely due to the absence of refugial water bodies with the requisite metal concentrations lower than the control sites and very reduced connectivity at time of sampling. The most plausible interpretation of these results is that populations of both fish species have modified kinetics within their metal bioaccumulation physiology, via adaptation or tolerance responses, to reduce their body burdens of metals. This hypothesis is consistent with (i reduced tissue concentrations of calcium, magnesium and sodium (macro-nutrients, in exposed populations of both species, (ii experimental findings for other fish species from the Finniss River and other contaminated regions, and (iii the number of generations exposed to likely

  4. Carnosine and taurine treatments diminished brain oxidative stress and apoptosis in D-galactose aging model.

    Aydın, A Fatih; Çoban, Jale; Doğan-Ekici, Işın; Betül-Kalaz, Esra; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Uysal, Müjdat


    D-galactose (GAL) has been used as an animal model for brain aging and antiaging studies. GAL stimulates oxidative stress in several tissues including brain. Carnosine (CAR; β-alanil-L-histidine) and taurine (TAU; 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) exhibit antioxidant properties. CAR and TAU have anti-aging and neuroprotective effects. We investigated the effect of CAR and TAU supplementations on oxidative stress and brain damage in GAL-treated rats. Rats received GAL (300 mg/kg; s.c.; 5 days per week) alone or together with CAR (250 mg/kg/daily; i.p.; 5 days per week) or TAU (2.5% w/w; in rat chow) for 2 months. Brain malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were determined. Expressions of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bax and caspase-3 were also evaluated in the brains by immunohistochemistry. GAL treatment increased brain MDA and PC levels and AChE activities. It decreased significantly brain GSH levels, SOD and GSH-Px but not GST activities. GAL treatment caused histopathological changes and increased apoptosis. CAR and TAU significantly reduced brain AChE activities, MDA and PC levels and elevated GSH levels in GAL-treated rats. CAR, but not TAU, significantly increased low activities of SOD and GSH-Px. Both CAR and TAU diminished apoptosis and ameliorated histopathological findings in the brain of GAL-treated rats. Our results indicate that CAR and TAU may be effective to prevent the development of oxidative stress, apoptosis and histopathological deterioration in the brain of GAL-treated rats. PMID:26518192

  5. Ipsilateral synchronous renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma.

    Lee, J. W.; Kim, M. J.; Song, J H; Kim, J H; Kim, J. M.


    The simultaneous occurrence of renal cell carcinoma(RCC) and transitional cell carcinoma(TCC) in the same kidney is unusual. We report a 53-year-old man with ipsilateral synchronous renal adenocarcinoma and renal pelvic transitional cell carcinoma with severe hypercalcemia and a huge staghorn calculus in the opposite kidney. The patient was admitted to the hospital because of left flank pain and intermittent fever which he had had for 2 months. Computerized tomography revealed a huge stone in...

  6. Carcinoma mucoepidermóide Mucoepidermoid carcinoma



    Full Text Available O carcinoma mucoepidermóide é uma neoplasia infreqüente da árvore traqueobrônquica e de etiologia ainda indeterminada. Sua localização endobrônquica preferencial freqüentemente causa sintomas respiratórios obstrutivos e pneumopatias de resolução lenta. Normalmente, são tumores de crescimento lento, mas que podem apresentar comportamento agressivo, com invasão local e metástases para linfonodos, dependendo das suas características histopatológicas. O tratamento de eleição é o cirúrgico, com ressecção completa, seja através de lobectomia ou broncotomia e broncoplastia. O prognóstico dependerá do grau de diferenciação celular desses tumores. Relata-se um caso dessa rara neoplasia descrevendo suas características clínicas, radiológicas e o tratamento cirúrgico.Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm of the tracheobronchial tree, of unknown etiology. Its preferred endobronchial location often results in respiratory symptoms such as obstruction of the airways and lung diseases of slow recovery. They usually are slow growing tumors although they may present an aggressive behavior with local invasion and lymph node metastases depending on their histopathologic characteristics. The mainstay therapy is complete surgical resection either by means of lobectomy or by lung sparing procedures such as bronchotomy and bronchoplasty. Prognosis depends upon the degree of cellular differentiation of the tumors. The authors report a case of this rare neoplasia and describe the clinical and radiographic characteristics, and the surgical treatment.

  7. Team practice for laryngeal carcinoma. Glottic carcinoma

    To compare the results of treatment performed with and without team practice in glottic laryngeal cancer patients, including local control rate and preservation of voice. Since April 1991, radiation oncologists, radiologists and otolaryngologists have worked in close collaboration to treat head and neck cancer patients in the Kurume University Hospital. Treatment results of a total of 419 patients with glottic cancer were compared with or without team practice. In group A (period, Jan 1978 to Mar 1991), 237 glottic laryngeal cancer patients were treated before team practice. In group B (period, Apr 1991 to Mar 1997), 182 patients were treated with team practice. All patients had histologically proven invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Follow-up period was at least 2 years. In group A, a laser was preferentially used for T1 lesions (T1a: 41 lesions, 52.6%, T1b: 7 lesions, 15.6%), and partial laryngectomy or total laryngectomy was preferentially used for T2 lesions (partial laryngectomy: 21 lesions, 30.9% and total laryngectomy: 10 lesions, 14.7%). On the other hand, in group B, 126 (81.8%) T1 and T2 lesions were treated with radical radiation with or without laser. Local control rate of T1 and T2 cancer improved significantly from 78.3% for group A patients to 91.2% for group B patients (p<0.01). Larynx preservation rate improved slightly from 88.6% to 95.0%. Five year cause-specific survival rate for all stage I to IV patients improved from 94.8% to 96.5%, but was not significant. Relapse-free survival rate improved significantly from group A to group B: from 75.1% to 87.4% (p<0.01). Team practice has effective results in improved local control and preservation of natural voice for patients with glottic carcinoma. (author)

  8. Carcinoma triquilemal: relato de caso Trichilemmal carcinoma: case report

    Miguel Roismann; Rosyane Rena de Freitas; Leandro Carvalho Ribeiro; Marcos Flávio Montenegro; Luciano José Biasi; Juliana Elizabeth Jung


    O carcinoma triquilemal é um tumor raro, que ocorre, geralmente, na pele exposta ao sol, principalmente face, couro cabeludo, pescoço e dorso das mãos, em indivíduos idosos, entre a 4ª e 9ª décadas de vida, sem predilação por sexo. O presente estudo mostra um caso de carcinoma triquilemal, recidivado, de difícil tratamento, em mesma topografia de um carcinoma basocelular tratado previamente com cirurgia e radioterapia.The trichilemmal carcinoma is a rare tumor that usually occurs on sun-expos...

  9. Interpreting the "g" Loadings of Intelligence Test Composite Scores in Light of Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns

    Reynolds, Matthew R.


    The linear loadings of intelligence test composite scores on a general factor ("g") have been investigated recently in factor analytic studies. Spearman's law of diminishing returns (SLODR), however, implies that the "g" loadings of test scores likely decrease in magnitude as g increases, or they are nonlinear. The purpose of this study was to (a)…

  10. Tumor suppressor and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Juliette Martin; Jean-Frangois Dufour


    A few signaling pathways are driving the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. Each of these pathways possesses negative regulators. These enzymes, which normally suppress unchecked cell proliferation, are circumvented in the oncogenic process, either the over-activity of oncogenes is sufficient to annihilate the activity of tumor suppressors or tumor suppressors have been rendered ineffective. The loss of several key tumor suppressors has been described in hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we systematically review the evidence implicating tumor suppressors in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  11. Biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Behne, Tara; Copur, M Sitki


    The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors and carries a poor survival rate. The management of patients at risk for developing HCC remains challenging. Increased understanding of cancer biology and technological advances have enabled identification of a multitude of pathological, genetic, and molecular events that drive hepatocarcinogenesis leading to discovery of numerous potential biomarkers in this disease. They are currently being aggressively evaluated to establish their value in early diagnosis, optimization of therapy, reducing the emergence of new tumors, and preventing the recurrence after surgical resection or liver transplantation. These markers not only help in prediction of prognosis or recurrence but may also assist in deciding appropriate modality of therapy and may represent novel potential targets for therapeutic interventions. In this paper, a summary of most relevant available data from published papers reporting various tissue and serum biomarkers involved in hepatocellular carcinoma was presented. PMID:22655201

  12. Soft tissue myoepithelial carcinoma

    Stojšić Zorica; Brašanac Dimitrije; Bacetić Dragoljub; Janković Radmila; Drndarević Neda


    Background. Myoepitheliomas are tumors composed predominantly or exclusively of myoepithelial cells, usually arising in salivary glands. Cutaneous/soft tissue localization is very rare, especially for the malignant myoepitheliomas. Case report. We presented a case of myoepithelial carcinoma involving subcutaneous adipose tissue of the left forearm in a woman aged 62 years. The tumor was composed of epithelioid and hyaline cell types, arranged in diffuse sheets, nests and loose clusters within...

  13. Immunology of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Sachdeva, Meenakshi; Chawla, Yogesh K.; Arora, Sunil K


    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is primarily a malignancy of the liver, advancing from a damaged, cirrhotic liver to HCC. Globally, HCC is the sixth most prevalent cancer and the third-most prevalent reason for neoplastic disease-related deaths. A diverse array of infiltrating immunocytes regulates the development and progression of HCC, as is the case in many other cancers. An understanding of the various immune components during HCC becomes necessary so that novel therapeutic strategies can ...

  14. Uterine papillary serous carcinoma.

    Moore, Kathleen N; Fader, Amanda Nickles


    Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) is a histologic variant of endometrial cancer that accounts for only 10% of new cases of uterine cancer but is responsible for 40% of deaths from the disease. UPSC is an aggressive tumor with a predilection for early spread beyond the uterus. Treatment for UPSC typically entails surgery and in most women is followed by multimodality adjuvant therapy. In this review, we describe the epidemiology, natural history, treatment, and outcome of UPSC. PMID:21508697

  15. Penis squamous cell carcinoma

    Leonor Hernández Piñero; José Luis Rodríguez López; María de Lourdes Menéndez Villa


    Cancer has become a first order health problem worldwide, despite the great diagnostic and therapeutic programs achieved during the last years. This is a clinical case of an 81- year-old patient with personal and social history of promiscuous and unprotected sexual behavior that shows a vegetative lesion in his gland and numerous inguinal adenopathies. Biopsy confirms the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating the penis, which is a relatively rare pathology which is generally diagn...

  16. Carcinoma-associated antigens

    This invention relates to novel antigens associated with breast carcinoma, anti-sera specific to said antigens, 125I-labeled forms of said antigens and methods of detecting said antigens in serum or plasma. The invention also relates to a diagnostic kit containing standardised antigens or antisera or marked forms thereof for the detection of said antigens in human blood, serum or plasma. (author)

  17. Primary urethral carcinoma

    The casuistry of the Urologic Service of A.C. Camargo Hospital - Antonio Prudente Foundation - Sao Paulo (Brazil) is presented. Fourteen patients with primary urethral carcinoma are studied from 1954 to 1980. The treatment used is reported: surgery,radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. The modalities of radiation therapy included brachitherapy alone and combination with external radiation with total doses of 60 to 80 Gy. (M.A.C)

  18. Thermoradiotherapy for colorectal carcinoma

    The Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology conducted a survey of the present state of thermoradiotherapy for colorectal carcinomas in Japan. In this survey, 105 cases at the 9 institutions were registered which had been treated from January 1981 to December 1992. From this data, we analyzed the trend of hyperthermia for the colorectal carcinoma and the treatment parameters which might have an influence on the treatment results. Ninety-four of 105 cases were recurrent or metastatic lesions. Mainly, the RF capacitive heating equipment was applied for the colorectal carcinoma. The number of cases in which hyperthermia were given once or twice a week were almost equal, and there was no significant difference in the treatment response rate. The mean duration of hyperthermia at therapeutic temperature was 42 min. Measurements of temperature in lesions were performed in 86% of sessions, and the mean tumor temperature was 43.1degC. Higher maximum tumor temperature and longer treatment time have brought significantly better response. Responder groups have shown better survival than non-responder groups. Acute reactions associated with hyperthermia were as follows: pain in 35 cases, burn and/or skin erosion in 12 cases, abscess formation in 3 cases and others in 3 cases. Late effects of treatment were ileus in 9 cases, ulcer of intestinal tract in 5 cases, subcutaneous fibrosis in 3 and others in 6. In conclusion, the application of thermoradiotherapy for reflactory colorectal carcinoma may contribute to the improvement of prognosis and quality of life of patients. (author)

  19. Carcinoma in a fibroadenoma.

    Sarela A


    Full Text Available A carcinoma arising within a fibroadenoma is an unusual occurrence, with only a little over 100 reported cases. The purpose of this report is to increase the awareness of this entity and to discourage the practice of rendering a diagnosis on gross examination of the tumor. We are reporting a case with two distinct primary tumors within the same breast, one of which was arising within the fibroadenoma. Only two such cases have been previously reported.

  20. Differentiated nasosinusal epidermoid carcinoma

    Two case reports of young patients, who were treated in the Otolaryngology Department from 'Dr. Joaquin Castillo Duany' Teaching Clinical Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba are presented. One of the cases presented nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea and facial pain, for 7 months; the other one presented an increase of volume in the right ocular globe. In both, the results of the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of differentiated nasosinusal epidermoid carcinoma

  1. Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Kew, Michael C


    Because of its frequency and grave prognosis, preventing hepatocellular carcinoma is an urgent priority. Prevention should be possible because environmental carcinogens-chronic hepatitis B and C virus infections, dietary exposure to aflatoxins, and iron overload-cause the great majority of these tumors. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection accounts for 55% of global hepatocellular carcinomas and 80% of those in the high-incidence Asia Pacific and sub-Saharan African regions. In these regions the infection that becomes chronic is predominantly acquired very early in life. A safe and effective vaccine against this virus is available and its universal inclusion in the immunization of infants has already resulted in a marked reduction of chronic infection and a 70% decrease in the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in those immunized. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in industrialized countries. The infection is mainly acquired in adulthood and, until a vaccine becomes available, prevention will consist mainly of identifying, counselling, and treating chronically infected individuals, preventing spread of the virus by the use of safe injection practices (particularly in intravenous drug abusers), and screening all donated blood for the presence of the virus. 4.5 billion of the world.s population are exposed to dietary aflatoxins. Prevention involves treating susceptible crops to prevent fungal contamination, and handling the foodstuffs in such a way as to prevent contamination during storage. Iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis can be prevented by repeated venesection and in African dietary iron overload by fermenting the home-brewed beer in iron-free containers. PMID:20526004

  2. Pathobiology of ovarian carcinomas

    Mojgan Devouassoux-Shisheboran; Catherine Genestie


    Ovarian tumors comprise a heterogeneous group of lesions, displaying distinct tumor pathology and oncogenic potentiel. These tumors are subdivided into three main categories: epithelial, germ cell, and sex-cord stromal tumors. We report herein the newly described molecular abnormalities in epithelial ovarian cancers (carcinomas). Immunohistochemistry and molecular testing help pathologists to decipher the significant heterogeneity of this disease. Our better understanding of the molecular bas...

  3. Emerging therapies for thyroid carcinoma.

    Walsh, S


    Thyroid carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed endocrine malignancy. Its incidence is currently rising worldwide. The discovery of genetic mutations associated with the development of thyroid cancer, such as BRAF and RET, has lead to the development of new drugs which target the pathways which they influence. Despite recent advances, the prognosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is still unfavourable. In this review we look at emerging novel therapies for the treatment of well-differentiated and medullary thyroid carcinoma, and advances and future directions in the management of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  4. Mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy

    The book on mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy covers the following issues: development, anatomy and physiology of the mammary glands, pathology of benign and malign mammary gland changes, non-imaging diagnostics; mammography; ultrasonic mammography; magnetic resonance tomography of the mammary glands; imaging diagnostics findings; mammary interventions; examination concepts; operative therapy of the mammary carcinoma; chemotherapy of the mammary carcinoma; radio-oncological therapy of the mammary carcinoma; logistics in a medical center for mammary gland diseases; logistics in an interdisciplinary center for mammary diseases; dialogue conduction and psycho-social attendance.

  5. Clinical parotid carcinoma analysis

    We clinically analyzed 48 consecutive retrospective cases of parotid carcinoma initially treated between 1988 and 2007. Subjects were 30 males and 18 females ranging from 5 to 85 years old (average: 57.9 years). Of the 12 histological types seen, the most common was mucoepidermoid carcinoma, seen in 12 subjects (25.0%). We studied their survival based on 5 potential prognostic factors-stage, T stage, neck metastasis, facial nerve palsy, and malignancy grade-together with features of mortality and recurrence. Overall 5-year disease-specific survival was 71.2% and 10-year survival 54.9%. Survival rates were significantly lower in stage IV and high-grade malignancy groups than in stage I-III and low-grade malignancy groups. T stage, neck metastasis, and facial nerve palsy tended to compromise survival. Recurrence developed in 2 subjects, in whom significant recurrence risk factors were stage III-IV (particularly, stage IV), T3-4, and high-grade malignancy. Of 18 deaths, causes were distant failure in 11 and local failure in 5. None died of nodal failure. Analysis of these prognostic factors is important in selecting appropriate surgery and in determining indications for postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy, leading to better treatment outcome in those with parotid carcinoma. (author)

  6. Glottic ansd supraglottic carcinoma

    From 1971 through 1982, 442 patients with laryngeal carcinoma were seen at the Leiden University Hospital. They were treated either with radiotherapy alone, sandwich therapy (pre- and postoperative radiotherapy) or by surgery followed by postoperative irradiation. Three hundred and sixty-six patients with glottic or supraglottic tumours could be analysed with respect to two different treatments, complications of treatment and some prognostic factors. Two endpoints of analysis were used: disease-free interval and survival to cfancer death. In patients with glottic or supraglottic carcinoma, the survival of patients with advanced disease, treated with radiotherapy only, was worse as compared to the survival of the same category of patients who were treated with sandwich therapy (p<0.005). In small supraglottic tumours, the survival with both therapy policies was equal. There was no influence on prognosis of histological differentiation of the tumour. It appeared that interruption of radiotherapy for more tah two days had an adverse effect on survival in patients with glottic carcinoma (p=0.0001). (author). 16 refs.; 4 figs.;

  7. Diminished forearm vasomotor response to central hypervolemic loading in aerobically fit individuals

    Shi, X.; Gallagher, K. M.; SMith, S. A.; Bryant, K. H.; Raven, P. B.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)


    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of forearm vascular resistance (FVR) during central hypervolemic loading was less sensitive in exercise trained high fit individuals (HF) compared to untrained average fit individuals (AF). Eight AF (age: 24 +/- 1 yr and weight: 78.9 +/- 1.7 kg) and eight HF (22 +/- 1 yr 79.5 +/- 2.4 kg) voluntarily participated in the investigation. Maximal aerobic power (determined on a treadmill), plasma volume and blood volume (Evans blue dilution method) were significantly greater in the HF than AF (60.8 +/- 0.7 vs. 41.2 +/- 1.9, 3.96 +/- 0.17 vs 3.36 +/- 0.08 1, and 6.33 +/- 0.23 vs 5.28 +/- 0.13 1). Baseline heart rate (HR), central venous pressure (CVP), mean arterial pressure (MAP, measured by an intraradial catheter or a Finapres finger cuff), forearm blood flow (FBF, plethysmography), and FVR, calculated from the ratio (MAP-CVP)/FBF, were not different between the HF and the AF. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP, -5, -10, -15, and -20 torr) and passive leg elevation (LE, 50 cm) combined with lower body positive pressure (LBPP, +5, +10, and +20 torr) were utilized to elicit central hypovolemia and hypervolemia, respectively. Range of CVP (from LBNP to LE+LBPP) was similar in the AF (from -3.9 to +1.9 mm Hg) and HF (from -4.0 to +2.2 mm Hg). However, FVR/CVP was significantly less in the HF (-1.8 +/- 0.1 Hg-1) than AF (-34 +/- 0.1 Hg-1). The FVR decrease in response to increase in CVP was significantly diminished in the HF (-1.46 +/- 0.45 Hg-1) compared to the AF (-4.40 +/- 0.97 Hg-1), and during LBNP induced unloading the FVR/CVP of the HF (-2.01 +/- 0.49 Hg-1) was less (P < 0.08) than the AF (-3.28 +/- 0.69 Hg-1). We concluded that the cardiopulmonary baroreceptor mediated FVR reflex response was significantly less sensitive to changes in CVP in individuals who practice exercise training.

  8. Perivascular Stem Cells Diminish Muscle Atrophy and Retain Viability in a Rotator Cuff Tear Model

    Eliasberg, Claire; Jensen, Andrew; Dar, Ayelet; Kowalski, Tomasz J.; Murray, Iain; Khan, Adam Z.; Natsuhara, Kyle; Garagozlo, Cameron; McAllister, David R.; Petrigliano, Frank A.


    Objectives: Rotator cuff tears (RCTs) are a common cause of shoulder pain and often necessitate surgical repair. Muscle changes including atrophy, fibrosis, and fatty degeneration can develop after RCTs, which may compromise surgical repair and clinical outcomes. Lipoaspirate-derived human perivascular stem cells (PSCs) have demonstrated myogenic and angiogenic potential in other small animal models of muscle injury. We hypothesized that the administration of PSCs following massive RCTs may help to diminish these muscle changes in a small animal model. Methods: A total of 90 immunodeficient mice were used (15 groups, N=6). Each was assigned to one of three surgical groups: i) sham, ii) supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendon transection (TT), or iii) TT and suprascapular nerve denervation (TT+DN). PSCs were harvested from human lipoaspirate and sorted using fluorescence-activated cell sorting into small blood vessel residing pericytes (CD146+ CD34- CD45- CD31-) and large blood perivascular adventitial cells (CD146- CD34+ CD45- CD31-). Mice received either a) no injection, b) saline injection, c) pericyte injection, or d) adventitial cell injection at the time of the index procedure or at two weeks following index surgery. The supraspinatus muscles were harvested six weeks after the index procedure. Muscle atrophy was assessed by measuring percent wet muscle weight change for each sample. Muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), fibrosis, and fatty degeneration were analyzed using Image J™. Additionally, pericytes and adventitial cells were transduced with a luciferase-containing construct. Animals were given injections of luciferin and imaged using IVIS to track in vivo bioluminescence following injections to assess cell viability. Results: Treatment with PSC injection after TT resulted in less wet weight loss and greater muscle fiber CSA than control groups (PBioluminescence imaging demonstrated viability of the injected cells at three weeks following injections

  9. Furosemide diminishes {sup 18}F-fluoroethylcholine uptake in prostate cancer in vivo

    Rischke, H.C. [University of Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); University of Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Beck, Teresa; Wieser, Gesche; Meyer, Philipp T. [University of Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Vach, Werner [University of Freiburg, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, Freiburg (Germany); Grosu, Anca L. [University of Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Schultze-Seemann, Wolfgang; Jilg, Cordula A. [University of Freiburg, Department of Urology, Freiburg (Germany)


    choline uptake in tumour lesions, especially significant in pelvic lymph node metastases. Although furosemide administration improved image quality, optimal image quality may also be obtained by adequate hydration without the risk of diminishing choline uptake in PCa lesions. Therefore a controlled hydration protocol seems more appropriate than administration of furosemide. (orig.)

  10. Clamming up: environmental forces diminish the perceptive ability of bivalve prey.

    Smee, Delbert L; Weissburg, Marc J


    The lethal and nonlethal impacts of predators in marine systems are often mediated via reciprocal detection of waterborne chemical signals between consumers and prey. Local flow environments can enhance or impair the chemoreception ability of consumers, but the effect of hydrodynamics on detection of predation risk by prey has not been investigated. Using clams as our model organism, we investigated two specific questions: (1) Can clams decrease their mortality by responding to predators? (2) Do fluid forces affect the ability of clams to detect approaching predators? Previous research has documented a decrease in clam feeding (pumping) in response to a neighboring predator. We determined the benefits of this behavior to survivorship by placing clams in the field with knobbed whelk or blue crab predators caged nearby and compared mortality between these clams and clams near a cage-only control. Significantly more clams survived in areas containing a caged predator, suggesting that predator-induced alterations in feeding reduce clam mortality in the field. We ascertained the effect of fluid forces on clam perception of predators in a laboratory flume by comparing the feeding (pumping) behavior of clams in response to crabs and whelks in flows of 3 and 11 cm/s. Clams pumped significantly less in the presence of predators, but their reaction to blue crabs diminished in the higher velocity flow, while their response to whelks remained constant in both flows. Thus, clam reactive distance to blue crabs was affected by fluid forces, but hydrodynamic effects on clam perceptive distance was predator specific. After predators were removed, clams exposed to whelks took significantly longer to resume feeding than those exposed to blue crabs. Our results suggest that prey perception of predators can be altered by physical forces. Prey detection of predators is the underlying mechanism for trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMIIs), and recent research has documented the