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Sample records for carbon nanofibers cnfs

  1. Growth of bridging carbon nanofibers in cracks formed by heat-treating iron oxide thin sheets in acetylene gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Hikata

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We produced novel carbon nanofibers (CNFs by oxidizing high-purity iron foil and then carburizing it in acetylene gas flow. This formed cracks in the heat-treated iron foil with CNFs bridging the two walls of each crack. The CNFs were drawn out from the walls as the crack opened during heat treatment. This will be a new method to grow and arrange carbon nanotubes and nanosheets without using metal nanoparticles or template substrates.

  2. Fabrication of Uniform Au–Carbon Nanofiber by Two-Step Low Temperature Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Myeongsoon; Hong Seong-Cheol; Kim Don

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents a facile and efficient way to prepare carbon nanofibers ornamented with Au nanoparticles (Au/CNFs). Gold nanoparticles were first deposited in the channels of an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane by thermal decomposition of HAuCl4and then carbon nanofibers were produced in the same channels loaded with the Au nanoparticles by decomposition of sucrose at 230 °C. An electron microscopy study revealed that the carbon nanofibers, ~10 nm thick and 6 ?m l...

  3. Catalytic growth of carbon nanofibers on Cr nanoparticles on a carbon substrate: adsorbents for organic dyes in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have produced carbon nanofibers (CNFs) using leather waste that had been tanned with a chromium bath, and when dried contained Cr2O3. Suitable reduction processing produced a carbon substrate with supported nanoparticles of chromium metal. Powder X-ray diffraction showed that the Cr2O3 is reduced on the carbon surface to produce CrC and metal Cr, which is the effective catalyst for the CNFs growth. The CNF arrays were confirmed by TEM images. Raman data revealed that the synthesized CNFs have a poor-quality graphite structure which favors their use in adsorption processes. These CNFs presented higher affinity to adsorb anionic dyes, whereas the cationic dyes are better adsorbed on the carbon substrate. The low-cost and availability of the carbon precursor makes their potential use to produce CNFs of interest.

  4. Carbon nanofibers, precious commodities from sunlight & CO2 to ameliorate global warming

    CERN Document Server

    Licht, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces the high yield, electrolytic synthesis of carbon nanofibers, CNFs, directly from carbon dioxide. Production of a precious commodity such as CNFs from atmospheric carbon dioxide provides impetus to limit this greenhouse gas and mitigate the rate of climate change. CNFs are formed at high rate using inexpensive nickel and steel electrodes in molten electrolytes. The process is demonstrated as a scaled-up stand-alone electrolytic cell, and is also shown compatible with the STEP, solar thermal electrochemical process, using concentrated sunlight at high solar to electric efficiency to provide the heat and electrical energy to drive the CNF production.

  5. In?S?/carbon nanofibers/Au ternary synergetic system: hierarchical assembly and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Shao, Changlu; Li, Xinghua; Lu, Na; Wang, Kexin; Miao, Fujun; Liu, Yichun

    2015-02-11

    In this paper, carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were successfully synthesized by electrospinning technique. Next, Au nanoparticles (NPs) were assembled on the electrospun CNFs through in situ reduction method. By using the obtained Au NPs modified CNFs (CNFs/Au) as hard template, the In2S3/CNFs/Au composites were synthesized through hydrothermal technique. The results showed that the super long one-dimensional (1D) CNFs (about 306 nm in average diameter) were well connected to form a nanofibrous network; and, the Au NPs with 18 nm in average diameter and In2S3 nanosheets with 5-10nm in thickness were uniformly grown onto the surface of CNFs. Photocatalytic studies revealed that the In2S3/CNFs/Au composites exhibited highest visible-light photocatalytic activities for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RB) compared with pure In2S3 and In2S3/CNFs. The enhanced photocatalytic activity might arise from the high separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs based on the positive synergetic effect between In2S3, CNFs and Au components in this ternary photocatalytic system. Meanwhile, the In2S3/CNFs/Au composites with hierarchical structure possess a strong adsorption ability towards organic dyes, which also contributed to the enhancement of photocatalytic activity. Moreover, the In2S3/CNFs/Au composites could be recycled easily by sedimentation due to their nanofibrous network structure. PMID:25464301

  6. Adsorption of ciprofloxacin, bisphenol and 2-chlorophenol on electrospun carbon nanofibers: in comparison with powder activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaona; Chen, Shuo; Fan, Xinfei; Quan, Xie; Tan, Feng; Zhang, Yaobin; Gao, Jinsuo

    2015-06-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer solutions followed by thermal treatment. For the first time, the influence of stabilization procedure on the structure properties of CNFs was explored to improve the adsorption capacity of CNFs towards the environmental pollutants from aqueous solution. The adsorption of three organic chemicals including ciprofloxacin (CIP), bisphenol (BPA) and 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) on electrospun CNFs with high surface area of 2326m(2)/g and micro/mesoporous structure characteristics were investigated. The adsorption affinities were compared with that of the commercial powder activated carbon (PAC). The adsorption kinetics and isotherms showed that the maximum adsorption capacities (qm) of CNFs towards the three pollutants are sequenced in the order of CIP>BPA>2-CP, which are 2.6-fold (CIP), 1.6-fold (BPA) and 1.1-fold (2-CP) increase respectively in comparison with that of PAC adsorption. It was assumed that the micro/mesoporous structure of CNFs, molecular size of the pollutants and the ? electron interaction play important roles on the high adsorption capacity exhibited by CNFs. In addition, electrostatic interaction and hydrophobic interaction also contribute to the adsorption of CNFs. This study demonstrates that the electrospun CNFs are promising adsorbents for the removal of pollutants from aqueous solutions. PMID:25702869

  7. Electrical properties of carbon nanofiber reinforced multiscale polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF) reinforced epoxy matrix nanocomposites and CNF reinforced glass hollow particle filled syntactic foams are studied for electrical properties. The effect of CNF weight fraction, hollow particle volume fraction, and hollow particle wall thickness on impedance and dielectric constant are characterized. The results show that the impedance decreases and the dielectric constant increases with increasing CNF content in the composites. Nanocomposites containing 10 wt.% CNFs showed significantly higher dielectric constant because of the presence of a continuous network of CNFs in the composite. CNF reinforced syntactic foams showed higher dielectric constant than the neat resin. The CNF content had a more prominent effect on the dielectric constant than the glass hollow particle volume fraction and wall thickness. The Maxwell–Garnett and the Jayasundere–Smith models are modified to include the effect of hollow particle wall thickness and obtain predictions of dielectric constants of syntactic foams. The semi-empirical predictions obtained from Maxwell–Garnett models are closer to the experimental values. Lightweight syntactic foams, tailored for electrical properties, can be useful in electronic packaging applications. - Highlights: • Using carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and glass hollow particles in multiphase composites. • The dielectric constant (?) of composites increases with CNF content. • Interconnected network of CNFs at high volume fraction exponentially increases ?. • Two theoretical models accurately predicted data trends of CNF/syntactic foams

  8. Chlorine effect on the formation of carbon nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wang-Hua; Takahashi, Yusuke; Li, Yuan-Yao; Sakoda, Akiyoshi

    2012-12-01

    Platelet graphite nanofibers (GNFs) and turbostratic carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are synthesized by the thermal evaporation and decomposition of a polymer-based mixture at 700 degrees C using Ni as a catalyst. The mixture consists of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), serving as the carbon source, and hydrochloric acid solution (HCl(aq)), serving as the promoter/additive for the growth of CNFs. High-purity zigzag-shaped platelet GNFs form with 10 wt% HCl(aq) as an additive in the PEG. The diameters of the platelet GNFs are in the range of 40-60 nm, with lengths of a few micrometers. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images indicate a high degree of graphitization and well ordered graphene layers along the fiber axis. In contrast, high-purity turbostratic CNFs form with 20 wt% HCl(aq) in the PEG. The diameter and length of the turbostratic CNFs are 20-40 nm and a few micrometers, respectively. The participation of HCl in the thermal process leads to the formation of Ni-Cl compounds. The amount of chlorine affects the shape of the Ni catalyst, which determines the type of CNF formed. PMID:23447943

  9. Multi-scale carbon micro/nanofibers-based adsorbents for protein immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, different proteins, namely, bovine serum albumin (BSA), glucose oxidase (GOx) and the laboratory purified YqeH were immobilized in the phenolic resin precursor-based multi-scale web of activated carbon microfibers (ACFs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs). These biomolecules are characteristically different from each other, having different structure, number of parent amino acid molecules and isoelectric point. CNF was grown on ACF substrate by chemical vapor deposition, using Ni nanoparticles (Nps) as the catalyst. The ultra-sonication of the CNFs was carried out in acidic medium to remove Ni Nps from the tip of the CNFs to provide additional active sites for adsorption. The prepared material was directly used as an adsorbent for proteins, without requiring any additional treatment. Several analytical techniques were used to characterize the prepared materials, including scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, BET surface area, pore-size distribution, and UV–vis spectroscopy. The adsorption capacities of prepared ACFs/CNFs in this study were determined to be approximately 191, 39 and 70 mg/g for BSA, GOx and YqeH, respectively, revealing that the carbon micro-nanofibers forming synthesized multi-scale web are efficient materials for the immobilization of protein molecules. - Highlights: • Ni metal Np-dispersed carbon micro-nanofibers (ACFs/CNFs) are prepared. • ACFs/CNFs are mesoporous. • Significant adsorption of BSA, GOx and YqeH is observed on ACFs/CNFs. • Multi-scale web of ACFs/CNFs is effective for protein immobilization

  10. Effects of carbon nanofiber on physiology of Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Shin-Hae Lee,1,* Hye-Yeon Lee,1,* Eun-Ji Lee,1,* Dongwoo Khang,2 Kyung-Jin Min11Department of Biological Sciences, Inha University, Incheon, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Molecular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: As nanomaterials are now widely utilized in a wide range of fields for both medical and industrial applications, concerns over their potential toxicity to human health and the environment have increased. To evaluate the toxicity of long-term exposure to carbon nanofibers (CNFs in an in vivo system, we selected Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. Oral administration of CNFs at a concentration of 1,000 µg/mL had adverse effects on fly physiology. Long-term administration of a high dose of CNFs (1,000 µg/mL reduced larval viability based on the pupa:egg ratio, adult fly lifespan, reproductive activity, climbing activity, and survival rate in response to starvation stress. However, CNFs at a low concentration (100 µg/mL did not show any significant deleterious effect on developmental rate or fecundity. Furthermore, long-term administration of a low dose of CNFs (100 µg/mL increased lifespan and climbing ability, coincident with mild reactive oxygen species generation and stimulation of the antioxidant system. Taken together, our data suggest that a high dose of CNFs has obvious physiological toxicity, whereas low-dose chronic exposure to CNFs can actually have beneficial effects via stimulation of the antioxidant defense system.Keywords: toxicity, Drosophila melanogaster, lifespan, reactive oxygen species

  11. Structure, mechanical properties and friction behavior of UHMWPE/HDPE/carbon nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of untreated and pretreated carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on the crystallization behavior, friction behavior, and mechanical properties of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)/high density polyethylene (HDPE) nanocomposites prepared by a twin-screw extrusion were studied. The differential scanning calorimetry and wide angle X-ray diffraction measurements indicated that the addition of CNFs impacted the temperature of crystallization, but had no significant effects on the crystalline structure of the UHMWPE/HDPE blend. The degree of crystallinity, and the tensile strength and modulus of the UHMWPE/HDPE systems exhibited an increasing trend initially with addition of CNFs, followed by a decrease at higher contents. With the increase of untreated CNF content, the friction coefficient of UHMWPE/HDPE was decreasing and displayed less change in the process of friction. The microstructure features on the fracture surfaces and friction surfaces of the polymer blend and the nanocomposites were analyzed in detail by scanning electron microscope observations. The degree of crystallinity of the nanocomposites with the pretreated CNFs exhibited a decrease due to the better interface adhesion compared to that in the nanocomposites with the same loading untreated CNFs. The enhancement in tensile strength of nanocomposites containing 0.5 wt% treated CNFs was four times higher (32%) than that of the nanocomposites containing untreated CNFs (8%) over that of the pure potreated CNFs (8%) over that of the pure polymer

  12. In situ encapsulation of germanium clusters in carbon nanofibers: high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xiao, Ying; Wang, Xia; Liu, Bing; Cao, Minhua

    2014-10-01

    Alloyed anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) usually suffer from considerable capacity losses during charge-discharge process. Herein, in?situ-grown germanium clusters are homogeneously encapsulated into porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (N-CNFs) to form Ge/N-CNFs hybrids, using a facile electrospinning method followed by thermal treatment. When used as anode in LIBs, the Ge/N-CNFs hybrids exhibit excellent lithium storage performance in terms of specific capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability. The excellent electrochemical properties can be attributed to the unique structural features: the distribution of the germanium clusters, porous carbon nanofibers, and Ge?N chemical bonds all contribute to alleviating the large volume changes of germanium during the discharge-charge process, while at same time the unique porous N-CNFs not only increase the contact area between the electrode and the electrolyte, but also the conductivity of the hybrid. PMID:25154731

  13. Preparation of a new adsorbent from activated carbon and carbon nanofiber (AC/CNF) for manufacturing organic-vacbpour respirator cartridge

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Jahangiri; Javad Adl; Seyyed Jamaleddin Shahtaheri; Alimorad Rashidi; Amir Ghorbanali; Hossein Kakooe; Abbas Rahimi Forushani; Mohammad Reza Ganjali

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this study a composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofiber (AC/CNF) was prepared to improve the performance of activated carbon (AC) for adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and its utilization for respirator cartridges. Activated carbon was impregnated with a nickel nitrate catalyst precursor and carbon nanofibers (CNF) were deposited directly on the AC surface using catalytic chemical vapor deposition. Deposited CNFs on catalyst particles in AC micropores, were a...

  14. Fabrication of ultrafine metal-oxide-decorated carbon nanofibers for DMMP sensor application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Seop; Kwon, Oh Seok; Park, Seon Joo; Park, Eun Yu; You, Sun Ah; Yoon, Hyeonseok; Jang, Jyongsik

    2011-10-25

    Ultrafine metal-oxide-decorated hybrid carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were fabricated by a single-nozzle co-electrospinning process using a phase-separated mixed polymer composite solution and heat treatment. To decorate metal oxides on the CNF surface, core (PAN) and shell (PVP) structured nanofibers (NFs) were fabricated as starting materials. The core-shell NF structure was prepared by single-nozzle co-electrospinning because of the incompatibility of the two polymers. Ultrafine hybrid CNFs were then formed by decomposing the PVP phase, converting the metal precursors to metal oxide nanonodules, and transforming the PAN to CNFs of ca. 40 nm diameter during heat treatment. The decoration morphology of the metal oxide nanonodules could be controlled by precursor concentration in the PVP solution. These ultrafine hybrid CNFs were applied to a dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) chemical sensor at room temperature with excellent sensitivity. The minimum detectable level (MDL) of hybrid CNFs was as low as 0.1 ppb, which is 10-100 times higher than for a chemical sensor based on carbon nanotubes. This is because the metal oxide nanonodules of hybrid CNFs increase the surface area and affinity to DMMP vapor. Our new synthetic methodology promises to be an effective approach to fabricating hybrid CNF/inorganic nanostructures for future sensing technologies. PMID:21905727

  15. Urea-treated carbon nanofibers as efficient catalytic materials for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Xueping; You, Tianyan

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (NCNFs) are prepared by the thermal treatment of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) using urea as nitrogen source. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been employed to characterize the morphology and composition of CNFs and NCNFs. Compared with CNFs, NCNFs display thinner diameter, rougher surface and higher content of pyrrolic-N. As a metal-free catalyst for ORR, NCNFs exhibit comparable catalytic activity, significantly enhanced long-time stability and selectivity in comparison with commercial available Pt/C catalyst. Importantly, the self-supported NCNFs films could be conveniently utilized for electrode modification which is attractive in fuel cells. This work offers a promising metal-free catalyst as an alternative for Pt/C catalyst.

  16. A laser ultrasound transducer using carbon nanofibers-polydimethylsiloxane composite thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Bao-Yu; Kim, Jinwook; Zhu, Jiadeng; Li, Sibo; Zhang, Xiangwu; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2015-01-01

    The photoacoustic effect has been broadly applied to generate high frequency and broadband acoustic waves using lasers. However, the efficient conversion from laser energy to acoustic power is required to generate acoustic waves with high intensity acoustic pressure (>10 MPa). In this study, we demonstrated laser generated high intensity acoustic waves using carbon nanofibers-polydimethylsiloxane (CNFs-PDMS) thin films. The average diameter of the CNFs is 132.7 ± 11.2 nm. The thickness of the CNFs film and the CNFs-PDMS composite film is 24.4 ± 1.43 ?m and 57.9 ± 2.80 ?m, respectively. The maximum acoustic pressure is 12.15 ± 1.35 MPa using a 4.2 mJ, 532 nm Nd:YAG pulsed laser. The maximum acoustic pressure using the CNFs-PDMS composite was found to be 7.6-fold (17.62 dB) higher than using carbon black PDMS films. Furthermore, the calculated optoacoustic energy conversion efficiency K of the prepared CNFs-PDMS composite thin films is 15.6 × 10-3 Pa/(W/m2), which is significantly higher than carbon black-PDMS thin films and other reported carbon nanomaterials, carbon nanostructures, and metal thin films. The demonstrated laser generated high intensity ultrasound source can be useful in ultrasound imaging and therapy.

  17. Flexible one-dimensional carbon-selenium composite nanofibers with superior electrochemical performance for Li-Se/Na-Se batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Linchao; Wei, Xiang; Wang, Jiaqing; Jiang, Yu; Li, Weihan; Yu, Yan

    2015-05-01

    A facile strategy is developed to synthesis selenium/carbon composites (Se@CNFs-CNT) by co-heating Se powder and electrospun Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-CNT nanofibers at 600°Cin a sealed vessel. The Se molecules are chemically bonded and physical encapsulated by carbonized PAN-CNT composite (CNFs-CNT), which leads to prevent the dissolution of polyselenide intermediates in carbonate based electrolyte. When directly used as flexible free-standing cathode material for Li-Se batteries in low cost carbonate-based electrolyte, the Se@CNFs-CNT electrode exhibits improved cyclability (517 mAh g-1 after 500 cycles at 0.5 A g-1) and rate capability (485 mAh g-1 at 1 A g-1). Moreover, when tested as sodium batteries, it maintains a reversible capacity of 410 mAh g-1 after 240 cycles at 0.5 A g-1. The superior electrochemical performance (especially at high rates) of Se@CNFs-CNT is attributed to synergistic effect of the additive of CNT, the well confine of Se in the CNFs-CNT matrix through chemical bonding and the 3D interconnected carbon nanofibers (CNFs). This simple yet efficient process thus provides a promising route towards fabrication of a variety of high performance flexible Li-Se and Na-Se batteries.

  18. Occupational nanosafety considerations for carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castranova, Vincent; Schulte, Paul A; Zumwalde, Ralph D

    2013-03-19

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are carbon atoms arranged in a crystalline graphene lattice with a tubular morphology. CNTs exhibit high tensile strength, possess unique electrical properties, are durable, and can be functionalized. These properties allow applications as structural materials, in electronics, as heating elements, in batteries, in the production of stain-resistant fabric, for bone grafting and dental implants, and for targeted drug delivery. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are strong, flexible fibers that are currently used to produce composite materials. Agitation can lead to aerosolized CNTs and CNFs, and peak airborne particulate concentrations are associated with workplace activities such as weighing, transferring, mixing, blending, or sonication. Most airborne CNTs or CNFs found in workplaces are loose agglomerates of micrometer diameter. However, due to their low density, they linger in workplace air for a considerable time, and a large fraction of these structures are respirable. In rat and mouse models, pulmonary exposure to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), or CNFs causes the following pulmonary reactions: acute pulmonary inflammation and injury, rapid and persistent formation of granulomatous lesions at deposition sites of large CNT agglomerates, and rapid and progressive alveolar interstitial fibrosis at deposition sites of more dispersed CNT or CNF structures. Pulmonary exposure to SWCNTs can induce oxidant stress in aortic tissue and increases plaque formation in an atherosclerotic mouse model. Pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs depresses the ability of coronary arterioles to respond to dilators. These cardiovascular effects may result from neurogenic signals from sensory irritant receptors in the lung. Pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs also upregulates mRNA for inflammatory mediators in selected brain regions, and pulmonary exposure to SWCNTs upregulates the baroreceptor reflex. In addition, pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs may induce levels of inflammatory mediators in the blood, which may affect the cardiovascular system. Intraperitoneal instillation of MWCNTs in mice has been associated with abdominal mesothelioma. MWCNTs deposited in the distal alveoli can migrate to the intrapleural space, and MWCNTs injected in the intrapleural space can cause lesions at the parietal pleura. However, further studies are required to determine whether pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs can induce pleural lesions or mesothelioma. In light of the anticipated growth in the production and use of CNTs and CNFs, worker exposure is possible. Because pulmonary exposure to CNTs and CNFs causes inflammatory and fibrotic reactions in the rodent lung, adverse health effects in workers represent a concern. NIOSH has conducted a risk assessment using available animal exposure-response data and is developing a recommended exposure limit for CNTs and CNFs. Evidence indicates that engineering controls and personal protective equipment can significantly decrease workplace exposure to CNTs and CNFs. Considering the available data on health risks, it appears prudent to develop prevention strategies to minimize workplace exposure. These strategies would include engineering controls (enclosure, exhaust ventilation), worker training, administrative controls, implementation of good handling practices, and the use of personal protective equipment (such as respirators) when necessary. NIOSH has published a document containing recommendations for the safe handling of nanomaterials. PMID:23210709

  19. Enhancement of electrosorption capacity of activated carbon fibers by grafting with carbon nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The composite films of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are prepared via chemical vapor deposition of CNFs onto ACFs in different times from 0.5 to 2 h and their electrosorption behaviors in NaCl solution are investigated. The morphology, structure, porous and electrochemical properties are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, N2 adsorption at 77 K, contact angle goniometer and electrochemical workstation, respectively. The results show that CNFs have been hierarchically grown on the surface of ACFs and the as grown ACF/CNF composite films have less defects, higher specific capacitances, more suitable mesoporous structure and more hydrophilic surface than the pristine ACFs, which is beneficial to their electrosorption performance. The ACFs/CNFs with CNFs deposited in 1 h exhibit an optimized NaCl removal ratio of 80%, 55% higher than that of ACFs and the NaCl electrosorption follows a Langmuir isotherm with a maximum electrosorption capacity of 17.19 mg/g.

  20. Enhancement of electrosorption capacity of activated carbon fibers by grafting with carbon nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan Yankun; Nie Chunyang; Li Haibo [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Pan Likun, E-mail: lkpan@phy.ecnu.edu.c [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Sun Zhuo [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2011-03-30

    The composite films of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are prepared via chemical vapor deposition of CNFs onto ACFs in different times from 0.5 to 2 h and their electrosorption behaviors in NaCl solution are investigated. The morphology, structure, porous and electrochemical properties are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption at 77 K, contact angle goniometer and electrochemical workstation, respectively. The results show that CNFs have been hierarchically grown on the surface of ACFs and the as grown ACF/CNF composite films have less defects, higher specific capacitances, more suitable mesoporous structure and more hydrophilic surface than the pristine ACFs, which is beneficial to their electrosorption performance. The ACFs/CNFs with CNFs deposited in 1 h exhibit an optimized NaCl removal ratio of 80%, 55% higher than that of ACFs and the NaCl electrosorption follows a Langmuir isotherm with a maximum electrosorption capacity of 17.19 mg/g.

  1. Novel phenolic biosensor based on a magnetic polydopamine-laccase-nickel nanoparticle loaded carbon nanofiber composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dawei; Luo, Lei; Pang, Zengyuan; Ding, Lei; Wang, Qingqing; Ke, Huizhen; Huang, Fenglin; Wei, Qufu

    2014-04-01

    A novel phenolic biosensor was prepared on the basis of a composite of polydopamine (PDA)-laccase (Lac)-nickel nanoparticle loaded carbon nanofibers (NiCNFs). First, NiCNFs were fabricated by a combination of electrospinning and a high temperature carbonization technique. Subsequently, the magnetic composite was obtained through one-pot Lac-catalyzed oxidation of dopamine (DA) in an aqueous suspension containing Lac, NiCNFs, and DA. Finally, a magnetic glass carbon electrode (MGCE) was employed to separate and immobilize the composite; the modified electrode was then denoted as PDA-Lac-NiCNFs/MGCE. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra and cyclic voltammetry (CV) analyses revealed the NiCNFs had good biocompatibility for Lac immobilization and greatly facilitated the direct electron transfer between Lac and electrode surface. The immobilized Lac showed a pair of stable and well-defined redox peaks, and the electrochemical behavior of Lac was a surface-controlled process in pH 5.5 acetate buffer solution. The PDA-Lac-NiCNFs/MGCE for biosensing of catechol exhibited a sensitivity of 25 ?A mM(-1) cm(-2), a detection limit of 0.69 ?M (S/N = 3), and a linear range from 1 ?M to 9.1 mM, as well as good selectivity and stability. Meanwhile, this novel biosensor demonstrated its promising application in detecting catechol in real water samples. PMID:24606719

  2. Catalytic Growth of Macroscopic Carbon Nanofibers Bodies with Activated Carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-carbon composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofibers have been synthesized by growing Carbon nanofiber (CNF) on Palm shell-based Activated carbon (AC) with Ni catalyst. The composites are in an agglomerated shape due to the entanglement of the defective CNF between the AC particles forming a macroscopic body. The macroscopic size will allow the composite to be used as a stabile catalyst support and liquid adsorbent. The preparation of CNT/AC nanocarbon was initiated by pre-treating the activated carbon with nitric acid, followed by impregnation of 1 wt% loading of nickel (II) nitrate solutions in acetone. The catalyst precursor was calcined and reduced at 300 deg. C for an hour in each step. The catalytic growth of nanocarbon in C2H4/H2 was carried out at temperature of 550 deg. C for 2 hrs with different rotating angle in the fluidization system. SEM and N2 isotherms show the level of agglomeration which is a function of growth density and fluidization of the system. The effect of fluidization by rotating the reactor during growth with different speed give a significant impact on the agglomeration of the final CNF/AC composite and thus the amount of CNFs produced. The macrostructure body produced in this work of CNF/AC composite will have advantages in the adsorbent and catalyst support application, due to the mechanical and chemical properties of the material.

  3. Processing and Structure of Carbon Nanofiber Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A unique concept of making nanocomposites from carbon nanofiber paper was explored in this study. The essential element of this method was to design and manufacture carbon nanofiber paper with well-controlled and optimized network structure of carbon nanofibers. In this study, carbon nanofiber paper was prepared under various processing conditions, including different types of carbon nanofibers, solvents, dispersants, and acid treatment. The morphologies of carbon nanofibers within the nanofiber paper were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. In addition, the bulk densities of carbon nanofiber papers were measured. It was found that the densities and network structures of carbon nanofiber paper correlated to the dispersion quality of carbon nanofibers within the paper, which was significantly affected by papermaking process conditions.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of carbon nanofiber (CNF) based epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, S.; Saha, S.

    2015-02-01

    The behaviour of epoxy based nanocomposites containing 1.5, 2 and 2.5 wt.% of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have been analysed through mechanical and viscoelastic characterizations. The nanocomposites thus fabricated were allowed to cure at two different temperature conditions- one was at room temperature (27 °C) and other was at low temperature (4 °C). Among all the room temperature cured (RTC) and low temperature cured (LTC) composites, maximum improvement in flexural modulus (83% & 128%), storage modulus (34% & 21%) and glass transition temperature (34% & 35%) were found in case of 2 wt.% CNF loaded samples (CNF2). In addition, LTC composites at 2 wt.% were showing enhanced flexural and thermal properties in comparison to the RTC composites. However at relatively higher concentration less increment in flexural modulus was noticed for both RTC and LTC composites. Microscopical investigation supported the above results by showing the interfacial arrangement between carbon nanofibers and epoxy matrix.

  5. Voltammetry at carbon nanofiber electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Marken, F.; Gerrard, Ml; Mellor, Im; Mortimer, Rj; Madden, Ce; Fletcher, S.; Holt, K.; Foord, Js; Dahm, Rh; Page, F.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers with diameters in the range 10-500 nm have been evaluated as novel electrode materials for electrochemical applications. Compared with other forms of nanostructured carbons, such as aerogels or activated charcoal, carbon nanofibers exhibit low BET surface areas, 50 vs. 500 m 2 g -1, because their surfaces are not readily penetrated by gaseous nitrogen. But somewhat surprisingly, they exhibit higher electrochemical capacit...

  6. Structure Control of V2O5/CNFs/Cordierite Monolith Catalyst and Its Catalytic Performance on NO Removal from Flue Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yan-Li, WANG Xu-Jian, ZHAN Liang, QIAO Wen-Ming, LIANG Xiao-Yi, LING Li-Cheng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanofibers (CNFs were grown on Al2O3-coated cordierite monolith by chemical vapor deposition. The microstructure of V2O5 catalyst supported on cordierite monolith with CNFs layer was investigated by using scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS techniques, as well as its activity for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR of NO by NH3. The compressive strength of prepared CNFs/cordierite monolith composite was 34.46 MPa and the thickness of CNFs layer was 0.74 ?m. The V2O5/CNFs/cordierite monolith catalysts had high NO removal activity in the temperature range of 150-250¡?When the CNFs yield and V2O5 loading were 12.5% and 1%, respectively, the NO conversion of the catalyst could reach 95% at 250¡?

  7. Adsorption behavior of perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomer on highly graphitized carbon nanofibers and their thermal stabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Borghei, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    A systematic adsorption study of perfluorinated sulfonic acid Nafion® ionomer on ribbon type highly graphitized carbon nanofibers (CNFs) was carried out using 19 fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Based on the values obtained for the equilibrium constant (Keq., derived from Langmuir isotherm), the ionomer has varying affinities for CNFs (Keq. = between 5 and 22) as compared to Vulcan (Keq. = 18), depending on surface treatments. However, the interactions are most likely governed by different adsorption mechanisms depending on hydrophilicity / hydrophobicity of the adsorbent carbon. The ionomer is probably adsorbed via the polar sulfonic group on hydrophilic Vulcan, whereas, it is adsorbed primarily via hydrophobic -CF2- backbone on the highly hydrophobic pristine CNFs. Ionomer adsorption behavior is gradually altered from apolar to polar group adsorption for the acid modified CNFs of decreasing hydrophobicity. This is indicated by the initial decrease and then increase in the value of Keq. withthe increasing strength of the acid treatment. The corresponding carbon - ionomer composite also showed varying thermal stability depending on Nafion orientation. The specific maximum surface coverage (?Smax) of the CNFs is one order of magnitude higher than the one of Vulcan. The large discrepancy is due to the fact that the ionomers are inaccessible to the internal surface area of Vulcan with high micro porosity.

  8. Sensitivity of Dielectric Properties to Wear Process on Carbon Nanofiber/High-Density Polyethylene Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Tian; Wood Weston; Zhong Wei-Hong

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We examined the correlation of wear effects with dielectric properties of carbon nanofibers (CNFs; untreated and organosilane-treated)-reinforced high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. Wear testing for the nanocomposites over up to 120 h was carried out, and then, dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss factor of the polymer composites with the increased wear time were studied. Scanning electron microscope and optical microscope observations were made to analyze the microst...

  9. Processing and properties of carbon nanofibers reinforced epoxy powder composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercially available CNFs (diameter 30–300 nm) have been used to develop both bulk and coating epoxy nanocomposites by using a solvent-free epoxy matrix powder. Processing of both types of materials has been carried out by a double-step process consisting in an initial physical premix of all components followed by three consecutive extrusions. The extruded pellets were grinded into powder and sieved. Carbon nanofibers powder coatings were obtained by electrostatic painting of the extruded powder followed by a curing process based in a thermal treatment at 200 °C for 25 min. On the other hand, for obtaining bulk carbon nanofibers epoxy composites, a thermal curing process involving several steps was needed. Gloss and mechanical properties of both nanocomposite coatings and bulk nanocomposites were improved as a result of the processing process. FE-SEM fracture surface microphotographs corroborate these results. It has been assessed the key role played by the dispersion of CNFs in the matrix, and the highly important step that is the processing and curing of the nanocomposites. A processing stage consisted in three consecutive extrusions has reached to nanocomposites free of entanglements neither agglomerates. This process leads to nanocomposite coatings of enhanced properties, as it has been evidenced through gloss and mechanical properties. A dispersion limit of 1% has been determined for the studied system in which a given dispersion has been achieved, as the bedispersion has been achieved, as the bending mechanical properties have been increased around 25% compared with the pristine epoxy resin. It has been also demonstrated the importance of the thickness in the nanocomposite, as it involves the curing stage. The complex curing treatment carried out in the case of bulk nanocomposites has reached to reagglomeration of CNFs.

  10. Controlled growth of carbon nanofibers using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition: Effect of catalyst thickness and gas ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown, using direct current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system reactor under various acetylene to ammonia gas ratios and different catalyst thicknesses were studied. Nickel/Chromium-glass (Ni/Cr-glass) thin film catalyst was employed for the growth of CNF. The grown CNFs were then characterized using Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman spectroscopy showed that the Ni/Cr-glass with thickness of 15 nm and gas ratio acetylene to ammonia of 1:3 produced CNFs with the lowest ID/IG value (the relative intensity of D-band to G-band). This indicated that this catalyst thickness and gas ratio value is the optimum combination for the synthesis of CNFs under the conditions studied. TEM observation pointed out that the CNFs produced have 104 concentric walls and the residual catalyst particles were located inside the tubes of CNFs. It was also observed that structural morphology of the grown CNFs was influenced by acetylene to ammonia gas ratio and catalyst thickness.

  11. Nondestructive evaluation of ±45° flat-braided carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers with carbon nanofibers using HTS-SQUID gradiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Tensile load was applied to braided CFRPs with and without CNFs and cutting edges. ? Visualization method using SQUID gradiometer was also applied to the braided CFRPs. ? Different destructive mechanisms and current distributions were obtained. ? Dispersed CNFs enhanced mechanical and electrical properties of the braided CFRPs. -- Abstract: Step-by-step tensile tests were applied to flat-braided carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers with and without added dispersions of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and with and without sample sides cut off to study their mechanical properties and destructive mechanisms by means of in situ observation and stress–strain measurements. An ex situ nondestructive evaluation technique, using a high-temperature superconductor superconducting quantum interference device gradiometer, was also applied to the samples to study their electrical properties; the relationships between the mechanical and electrical properties by visualizing current maps in the samples during ac current injection was also studied. Clear differences were observed in the mechanical and electrical properties and the destructive mechanisms between the samples with and without CNFs and with and without cut off sides. These differences were mainly attributed to the addition of CNFs, which enhanced the mechanical and electrical connections between the carbon fiber bundles

  12. Synthesis and characterisation of epoxy resins reinforced with carbon nanotubes and nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prolongo, S G; Gude, M R; Ureña, A

    2009-10-01

    Epoxy nanocomposites were fabricated using two kinds of nanofiller, amino-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and non-treated long carbon nanofibers (CNFs). The non-cured mixtures were analysed through viscosity measurements. The effect of the nanoreinforcement on the curing process was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Finally, the characterisation of cured nanocomposites was carried out studying their thermo-mechanical and electrical behaviour. At room temperature, the addition of CNTs causes a viscosity increase of epoxy monomer much more marked than the introduction of CNFs due to their higher specific area. It was probed that in that case exists chemical reaction between amino-functionalized CNTs and the oxirane rings of epoxy monomer. The presence of nanoreinforcement induces a decrease of curing reaction rate and modifies the epoxy conversion reached. The glass transition temperature of the nanocomposites decreases with the contents of CNTs and CNFs added, which could be related to plasticization phenomena of the nanoreinforcements. The storage modulus of epoxy resin significantly increases with the addition of CNTs and CNFs. This augment is higher with amino-functionalized CNTs due, between other reasons, to the stronger interaction with the epoxy matrix. The electrical conductivity is greatly increased with the addition of CNTs and CNFs. In fact, the percolation threshold is lower than 0.25 wt% due to the high aspect ratio of the used nanoreinforcements. PMID:19908513

  13. Thermal Expansion of Carbon Nanofiber-Reinforced Multiscale Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Ronald L.; Achar, Sriniket; Gupta, Nikhil

    2012-10-01

    Improved dimensional stability of composites is desired in applications where they are exposed to varying temperature conditions. The current study aims at analyzing the effect of vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on the thermal expansion behavior of epoxy matrix composites and hollow particle-filled composites (syntactic foams). CNFs have a lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) than epoxy resin, which results in composites with increased dimensional stability as the CNF content is increased. The experimental measurements show that with 10 wt.% CNF, the composite has about 11.6% lower CTE than the matrix resin. In CNF-reinforced syntactic foams, the CTE of the composite decreases with increasing wall thickness and volume fraction of hollow particle inclusions. With respect to neat epoxy resin, a maximum decrease of 38.4% is also observed in the CNF/syntactic foams with microballoon inclusions that range from 15 vol.% to 50 vol.% in all composite mixtures. The experimental results for CNF/syntactic foam are in agreement with a modified version of Kerner's model. A combination of hollow microparticles and nanofibers has resulted in the ability to tailor the thermal expansion of the composite over a wide range.

  14. Control of nitrogen insertion during the growth of nitrogen-containing carbon nanofibers on cordierite monolith walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Laura; Armenise, Sabino; Marco, Yanila; García-Bordejé, Enrique

    2012-03-14

    A well attached coating of nitrogen-functionalised carbon nanofibers (N-CNFs) has been prepared on the walls of cordierite monolith channels. It is formed via concurrent decomposition of ethane and ammonia catalysed by nickel nanoparticles dispersed on alumina coated cordierite monolith. N-CNF/monoliths synthesis employing several growth temperatures and NH(3) compositions was exhaustively characterised by Raman, XPS, elemental analysis and TEM. Synthesis conditions affected profoundly content and type of nitrogen functionality, enabling its fine tuning. N-CNFs surface chemistry and microstructure differed remarkably from its N-free counterparts. PMID:22307412

  15. Low temperature and cost-effective growth of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers using spin-coated polymer-stabilized palladium nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Amin M.; Shafiee, Sareh; Krasia-Christoforou, Theodora; Savva, Ioanna; Göransson, Gert; Desmaris, Vincent; Enoksson, Peter

    2015-02-01

    We describe a fast and cost-effective process for the growth of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) at a temperature compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology, using highly stable polymer–Pd nanohybrid colloidal solutions of palladium catalyst nanoparticles (NPs). Two polymer–Pd nanohybrids, namely poly(lauryl methacrylate)-block-poly((2-acetoacetoxy)ethyl methacrylate)/Pd (LauMAx-b-AEMAy/Pd) and polyvinylpyrrolidone/Pd were prepared in organic solvents and spin-coated onto silicon substrates. Subsequently, vertically aligned CNFs were grown on these NPs by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at different temperatures. The electrical properties of the grown CNFs were evaluated using an electrochemical method, commonly used for the characterization of supercapacitors. The results show that the polymer–Pd nanohybrid solutions offer the optimum size range of palladium catalyst NPs enabling the growth of CNFs at temperatures as low as 350 °C. Furthermore, the CNFs grown at such a low temperature are vertically aligned similar to the CNFs grown at 550 °C. Finally the capacitive behavior of these CNFs was similar to that of the CNFs grown at high temperature assuring the same electrical properties thus enabling their usage in different applications such as on-chip capacitors, interconnects, thermal heat sink and energy storage solutions.

  16. Fabrication of Uniform Au–Carbon Nanofiber by Two-Step Low Temperature Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Myeongsoon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a facile and efficient way to prepare carbon nanofibers ornamented with Au nanoparticles (Au/CNFs. Gold nanoparticles were first deposited in the channels of an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO membrane by thermal decomposition of HAuCl4and then carbon nanofibers were produced in the same channels loaded with the Au nanoparticles by decomposition of sucrose at 230 °C. An electron microscopy study revealed that the carbon nanofibers, ~10 nm thick and 6 ?m long, were decorated with Au nanoparticles with a diameter of 10 nm. This synthetic route can produce uniform Au nanoparticles on CNF surfaces without using any additional chemicals to modify the AAO channels or the CNF surfaces.

  17. Fabrication of Uniform Au-Carbon Nanofiber by Two-Step Low Temperature Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeongsoon; Hong, Seong-Cheol; Kim, Don

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a facile and efficient way to prepare carbon nanofibers ornamented with Au nanoparticles (Au/CNFs). Gold nanoparticles were first deposited in the channels of an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane by thermal decomposition of HAuCl4 and then carbon nanofibers were produced in the same channels loaded with the Au nanoparticles by decomposition of sucrose at 230 °C. An electron microscopy study revealed that the carbon nanofibers, ~10 nm thick and 6 ?m long, were decorated with Au nanoparticles with a diameter of 10 nm. This synthetic route can produce uniform Au nanoparticles on CNF surfaces without using any additional chemicals to modify the AAO channels or the CNF surfaces.

  18. Room-temperature growth of carbon nanofibers induced by Ar+-ion bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanemura, M.; Okita, T.; Tanaka, J.; Yamauchi, H.; Miao, L.; Tanemura, S.; Morishima, R.

    2005-07-01

    Glassy carbon plates, a Ni mesh coated with a carbon film and mechanically polished graphite plates were Ar+ ion-bombarded with and without a simultaneous Mo supply at room temperature. Conical protrusions were formed on the sputtered surfaces, and in some cases carbon nanofibers (CNFs) 0.2 10 ? m in length and 10 50 nm in diameter grew on the tips. The growth of CNF-tipped-cones was optimized in terms of the ion-incidence angle and the rate-ratio of sputtering and seeding. Oblique sputtering was proved to be quite effective to grow the CNF-tipped-cones. Thus, the redeposited massive carbon atoms onto cones were thought to diffuse toward the cone tips, resulting in CNF formation. This growth mechanism was confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation disclosing the boundary-less structure between conical bases and CNFs. TEM observation of CNF-tipped-cones also revealed no-hollow structure and an amorphous nature of CNFs. Since this sputtering method is a room-temperature process and quite straightforward, ion-induced CNFs promise to have myriad applications, such as field emission sources for flat panel displays.

  19. Deposition of vertically oriented carbon nanofibers in atmospheric pressure radio frequency discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deposition of vertically oriented carbon nanofibers (CNFs) has been studied in an atmospheric pressure radio frequency discharge without dielectric barrier covering the metallic electrodes. When the frequency is sufficiently high so that ions reside in the gap for more than one rf cycle ('trapped ions'), the operating voltage decreases remarkably and the transition from a uniform glow discharge to an arc discharge is suppressed even without dielectric barriers. More importantly, the trapped ions are able to build up a cathodic ion sheath. A large potential drop is created in the sheath between the bulk plasma and the electrode, which is essential for aligning growing CNFs. At the same time, the damage to CNFs due to ion bombardment can be minimized at atmospheric pressure. The primary interest of the present work is in identifying the cathodic ion sheath and investigating how it influences the alignment of growing CNFs in atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition. Spectral emission profiles of He (706 nm), H? (656 nm), and CH (432 nm) clearly showed that a dark space is formed between the cathode layer and the heated bottom electrode. However, increasing the rf power induced the transition to a nonuniform ?-mode discharge which creates intense plasma spots in the dark space. Aligned CNFs can be grown at moderate input power during the initial stage of the deposition process. Catalyst particles were heavily contaminated by precipitated carbon in contaminated by precipitated carbon in less than 5 min. Alignment deteriorates as CNFs grow and deposition was virtually terminated by the deactivation of catalyst particles

  20. Effect of carbon nanofibers on the infiltration and thermal conductivity of carbon/carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The CNFs improve the infiltration rate and thermal properties of carbon/carbon composites. ? The densification rate increases with the CNF content increasing at the beginning of infiltration. ? The values of the thermal conductivity of the composite obtain their maximum values at 5 wt.%. -- Abstract: Preforms containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt.% carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were fabricated by spreading layers of carbon cloth, and infiltrated using the electrified preform heating chemical vapor infiltration method (ECVI) under atmospheric pressure. Initial thermal gradients were determined. Resistivity and density evolutions with infiltration time have been recorded. Scanning electron microscopy, polarized light micrograph and X-ray diffraction technique were used to analyze the experiment results. The results showed that the infiltration rate increased with the rising of CNF content, and after 120 h of infiltration, the density was the highest when the CNF content was 5 wt.%, but the composite could not be densified efficiently as the CNF content ranged from 10 wt.% to 20 wt.%. CNF-reinforced C/C composites have enhanced thermal conductivity, the values at 5 wt.% were increased by nearly 5.5-24.1% in the X-Y direction and 153.8-251.3% in the Z direction compared to those with no CNFs. When the additive content was increased to 20 wt.%, due to the holes and cavities in the CNF web and between carbon cloth and matrix, the thermal conductivities in the X-Y and Z directions decreased from their maximum values at 5 wt.%.

  1. Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibers Based on Resol Type Phenol Resin and Fe(III) Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carbon nanofibers (CNFs) used in this study were synthesized with an iron catalyst and ethylene as a carbon source. A concentration of 30 wt % iron(III) acetylacetonate was dissolved in resol type phenol resin and polyurethane foam was put into the solution. The sample was calendered after being cured at 80 .deg. C in air for 24 h. Stabilization and carbonization of the resol type phenol resin and reduction of the Fe3+ were completed in a high-temperature furnace by the following steps: heating to 600 .deg. C at a rate of 10 .deg. C/min with a mixture of H2/N2 for 4 h to reduce the Fe3+ to Fe; heating to 1000 .deg. C in N2 at a rate 10 .deg. C/min for 30 minutes for pyrolysis; synthesizing CNFs in a mixture of 20.1% ethylene and H2/N2 at 700 .deg. C for 2 h using a CVD process. Finally, the structural characterization of the CNFs was performed by scanning electron microscopy and a synthesis analysis was carried out using energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Specific surface area analysis of the CNFs was also performed by N2-sorption

  2. In situ growth cupric oxide nanoparticles on carbon nanofibers for sensitive nonenzymatic sensing of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CuO nanoparticles were directly and homogeneously grown on carbon nanofibers. • The obtained nanocomposite showed high electrooxidize activity to glucose. • A nonenzymatic glucose sensor was constructed based on the functional nanocomposite. • This sensor showed good performance to glucose. • The proposed sensor was successfully applied in detection of glucose in blood serum. -- Abstract: A novel method was employed to directly and homogeneously attaching cupric oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) for sensitive amperometric nonenzymatic sensing of glucose. The obtained CuONPs-CNFs nanocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The CuONPs-CNFs nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode showed high electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of glucose in alkaline media and a nonenzymatic glucose sensor was constructed based on the functional nanocomposite modified electrode. Under optimal experimental conditions, the designed sensor exhibited a wide linear response to glucose ranging from 5.0 × 10?7 to 1.1 × 10?2 M with a high sensitivity of 2739 ?A mM?1 cm?2 and a low detection limit down to 0.2 ?M at the signal to noise ratio of 3. This sensor showed good accuracy, acceptable precision and reproducibility. Moreover, the proposed sensor was successfully applied in the detection of glucose in human blood serum indicating its possibility in practical application

  3. Carbon-Nanofiber-Reinforced Syntactic Foams: Compressive Properties and Strain Rate Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Ronald L.; Gupta, Nikhil

    2014-01-01

    The current study is focused on exploring the possibility of reinforcing syntactic foams with carbon nanofibers (CNFs). Syntactic foams are hollow, particle-filled composites that are widely used in marine structures and are now finding applications in other modes of transportation due to their high stiffness-to-weight ratio. The compressive properties of syntactic foams reinforced with CNFs are characterized over the strain rate range of 10-4 to 3,000 s-1, which covers seven orders of magnitude. The results show that despite lower density with respect to neat epoxy, CNF/syntactic foams can have up to 7.3% and 15.5% higher quasi-static compressive strength and modulus, respectively, for the compositions that were characterized in the current study. In addition, these properties can be tailored over a wide range by means of hollow particle wall thickness and volume fraction, and CNF volume fraction. The compressive strength of CNF/syntactic foams is also shown to generally increase by up to a factor of 3.41 with increasing strain rate when quasi-static and high-strain-rate testing data are compared. Extensive microscopy of the CNF/syntactic foams is conducted to understand the failure and energy absorption mechanisms. Crack bridging by CNFs is observed in the specimens, which can delay final failure and increase the energy absorption capacity of the specimens. Deformation of CNFs is also noticed in the material microstructure. The deformation and failure mechanisms of nanofibers are related to the test strain rate and the structure of CNFs.

  4. Effect of Sulfur Concentration on the Morphology of Carbon Nanofibers Produced from a Botanical Hydrocarbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Kaushik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCarbon nanofibers (CNF with diameters of 20–130 nm with different morphologies were obtained from a botanical hydrocarbon: Turpentine oil, using ferrocene as catalyst source and sulfur as a promoter by simple spray pyrolysis method at 1,000 °C. The influence of sulfur concentration on the morphology of the carbon nanofibers was investigated. SEM, TEM, Raman, TGA/DTA, and BET surface area were employed to characterize the as-prepared samples. TEM analysis confirms that as-prepared CNFs have a very sharp tip, bamboo shape, open end, hemispherical cap, pipe like morphology, and metal particle trapped inside the wide hollow core. It is observed that sulfur plays an important role to promote or inhibit the CNF growth. Addition of sulfur to the solution of ferrocene and turpentine oil mixture was found to be very effective in promoting the growth of CNF. Without addition of sulfur, carbonaceous product was very less and mainly soot was formed. At high concentration of sulfur inhibit the growth of CNFs. Hence the yield of CNFs was optimized for a given sulfur concentration.

  5. Control of nitrogen insertion during the growth of nitrogen-containing carbon nanofibers on cordierite monolith walls

    OpenAIRE

    Roldán, Laura; Armenise, Sabino; Marco, Yanila; García Bordejé, E.

    2012-01-01

    A well attached coating of nitrogen-functionalised carbon nanofibers (N-CNFs) has been prepared on the walls of cordierite monolith channels. It is formed via concurrent decomposition of ethane and ammonia catalysed by nickel nanoparticles dispersed on alumina coated cordierite monolith. N-CNF/monoliths synthesis employing several growth temperatures and NH 3 compositions was exhaustively characterised by Raman, XPS, elemental analysis and TEM. Synthesis conditions affected profoundly content...

  6. A new way to synthesize carbon nanofiber film on bulk titanium via hybrid surface mechanical attrition treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X. F.; Lu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanofiber film was formed on bulk pure titanium via hybrid surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). The microstructure of the sample was investigated by SEM, TEM, and RAMAN characterization. The CNFs are extremely long and uniform, exhibiting a high degree of uniformity of size of about 20 nm. The possible growth mechanism was discussed. SMAT Ti played the role of catalyst and substrate during synthesizing process.

  7. Structure and electrochemical applications of boron-doped graphitized carbon nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jae-Seong; Jang, Sang-Min; Miyawaki, Jin; An, Bai; Mochida, Isao; Rhee, Choong Kyun; Yoon, Seong-Ho

    2012-08-01

    Boron-doped graphitized carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by optimizing CNFs preparation, surface treatment, graphitization and boron-added graphitization. The interlayer spacing (d002) of the boron-doped graphitized CNFs reached 3.356 Å, similar to that of single-crystal graphite. Special platelet CNFs (PCNFs), for which d002 is less than 3.400 Å, were selected for further heat treatment. The first heat treatment of PCNFs at 2800?°C yielded a d002 between 3.357 and 3.365 Å. Successive nitric acid treatment and a second heat treatment with boric acid reduced d002 to 3.356 Å. The resulting boron-doped PCNFs exhibited a high discharge capacity of 338 mAh g-1 between 0 and 0.5 V versus Li/Li+ and 368 mAh g-1 between 0 and 1.5 V versus Li/Li+. The first-cycle Coulombic efficiency was also enhanced to 71-80%. Such capacity is comparable to that of natural graphite under the same charge/discharge conditions. The boron-doped PCNFs also exhibited improved rate performance with twice the capacity of boron-doped natural graphite at a discharge rate of 5 C.

  8. Structure and electrochemical applications of boron-doped graphitized carbon nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron-doped graphitized carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by optimizing CNFs preparation, surface treatment, graphitization and boron-added graphitization. The interlayer spacing (d002) of the boron-doped graphitized CNFs reached 3.356 ?, similar to that of single-crystal graphite. Special platelet CNFs (PCNFs), for which d002 is less than 3.400 ?, were selected for further heat treatment. The first heat treatment of PCNFs at 2800?°C yielded a d002 between 3.357 and 3.365 ?. Successive nitric acid treatment and a second heat treatment with boric acid reduced d002 to 3.356 ?. The resulting boron-doped PCNFs exhibited a high discharge capacity of 338 mAh g?1 between 0 and 0.5 V versus Li/Li+ and 368 mAh g?1 between 0 and 1.5 V versus Li/Li+. The first-cycle Coulombic efficiency was also enhanced to 71–80%. Such capacity is comparable to that of natural graphite under the same charge/discharge conditions. The boron-doped PCNFs also exhibited improved rate performance with twice the capacity of boron-doped natural graphite at a discharge rate of 5 C. (paper)

  9. CMOS compatible on-chip decoupling capacitor based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, A. M.; Göransson, G.; Desmaris, V.; Enoksson, P.

    2015-05-01

    On-chip decoupling capacitor of specific capacitance 55 pF/?m2 (footprint area) which is 10 times higher than the commercially available discrete and on-chip (65 nm technology node) decoupling capacitors is presented. The electrodes of the capacitor are based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) capable of being integrated directly on CMOS chips. The carbon nanofibers employed in this study were grown on CMOS chips using direct current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (DC-PECVD) technique at CMOS compatible temperature. The carbon nanofibers were grown at temperature from 390 °C to 550 °C. The capacitance of the carbon nanofibers was measured by cyclic voltammetry and thus compared. Futhermore the capacitance of decoupling capacitor was measured using different voltage scan rate to show their high charge storage capability and finally the cyclic voltammetry is run for 1000 cycles to assess their suitability as electrode material for decoupling capacitor. Our results show the high specific capacitance and long-term reliability of performance of the on-chip decoupling capacitors. Moreover, the specific capacitance shown is larger for carbon nanofibers grown at higher temperature.

  10. Effect of thermal interface on heat flow in carbon nanofiber composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardea, F; Naraghi, M; Lagoudas, D

    2014-01-22

    The thermal transport process in carbon nanofiber (CNF)/epoxy composites is addressed through combined micromechanics and finite element modeling, guided by experiments. The heat exchange between CNF constituents and matrix is studied by explicitly accounting for interface thermal resistance between the CNFs and the epoxy matrix. The effects of nanofiber orientation and discontinuity on heat flow and thermal conductivity of nanocomposites are investigated through simulation of the laser flash experiment technique and Fourier's model of heat conduction. Our results indicate that when continuous CNFs are misoriented with respect to the average temperature gradient, the presence of interfacial resistance does not affect the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposites, as most of the heat flow will be through CNFs; however, interface thermal resistance can significantly alter the patterns of heat flow within the nanocomposite. It was found that very high interface resistance leads to heat entrapment at the interface near to the heat source, which can promote interface thermal degradation. The magnitude of heat entrapment, quantified via the peak transient temperature rise at the interface, in the case of high thermal resistance interfaces becomes an order of magnitude more intense as compared to the case of low thermal resistance interfaces. Moreover, high interface thermal resistance in the case of discontinuous fibers leads to a nearly complete thermal isolation of the fibers from the matrix, which will marginalize the contribution of the CNF thermal conductivity to the heat transfer in the composite. PMID:24344861

  11. Fabrication and Properties of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate-Carbon Nanofiber Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George JinuJacob

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon nanofiber (CNF is one of the stiffest materials produced commercially, having excellent mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. The reinforcement of rubbery matrices by CNFs was studied in the case of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA. The tensile strength was greatly (61% increased, even for very low fiber content (i.e., 1.0 wt.%. The surface modification of the fiber by high energy electron beam and gamma irradiation led to better dispersion in the rubber matrix. This in turn gave rise to further improvements in mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of EVA. The thermal conductivity also exhibited improvements from that of the neat elastomer, although thermal stability of the nanocomposites was not significantly altered by the functionalization of CNFs. Various results were well supported by the morphological analysis of the nanocomposites.

  12. Synthesis of carbon nano-fibers on p-Si having improved temperature sensing capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Synthesis of carbon nanofibers on p-Si. ? RBM in Raman spectra. ? Superior temperature sensing capability. - Abstract: Synthesis of an innovative material for temperature sensor based on carbon nano-fibers (CNFs) on p-Si substrates has been demonstrated. The CNF films were characterized by SEM, Raman and FTIR studies. First order Raman spectra indicated a G band at ?1597 cm?1 corresponding to the E2g tangential stretching mode of an ordered graphitic structure with sp2 hybridization and a D band located ?1350 cm?1 originated from disordered carbon. Gold fingers were deposited on the p-Si/CNF surface for resistance measurement. Temperature sensing properties were also investigated critically. Resistance changes with temperature (?R/R) in p-Si/CNF films are found to be significantly large 30–60% Very stable, reproducible and improved temperature sensing properties would make this material superior to commonly available temperature sensors.

  13. Phosphorus-doped tin oxides/carbon nanofibers webs as lithium-ion battery anodes with enhanced reversible capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowei; Teng, Donghua; Li, Ting; Yu, Yunhua; Shao, Xiaohong; Yang, Xiaoping

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus-doped tin oxides/carbon nanofibers (P-SnOx/CNFs) composite materials are prepared via electrospinning of a mixed solution composed of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF), tin tetrachloride, ethylene glycol and phosphoric acid as well as subsequent thermal treatments. The P-SnOx/CNFs samples with tunable P-doping contents are directly used as anodes for lithium-ion batteries without any binders and conductors, exhibiting enhanced reversible capacities and cycling stabilities in comparison with pristine undoped SnOx/CNFs (0P-SnOx/CNFs). In a controlled experiment, the 0.25P-SnOx/CNFs anode with the atomic ratio of P:Sn = 0.25:1 shows the highest specific reversible capacity of 676 mA h g-1 at 200 mA g-1 after 100 cycles. Even at a higher current density of 2000 mA g-1, it still maintains a superior specific reversible capacity of 288 mA h g-1. The improved electrochemical performances are attributed to the P-doping effects such as inducement of a stable structural protection for tin particles, and enhancement of lithium ion diffusion coefficient and electron kinetics of electrode materials.

  14. Interweaved Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: In summary, a serious of high-energy wet ball milling, closed spray drying and subsequent chemical vapor deposition methods were introduced successfully to fabricated novel Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites with carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibres interweaved with carbon coated silicon spherical composites as superior anodes in lithium-ion batteries. The core-shell structure of Si@C composites can accommodate the volume change of electrode during charge and discharge. Meanwhile, the citric acid pyrolyzed carbon was coated on the surface of the silicon perfectly and constructs the connection network of nano silicon particles. Moreover, the carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibres, which is interweaved with nano-silicon, also allows high electrical conductivity, improved solid–electrolyte interface formation and structural integrity. Compared with pure silicon and Si@C composites, the novel Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites had the best combination of reversible capacity and cycleablity, and this anode materials exhibited excellent electrochemical performance. The Si/C composite had a fairly high initial discharge capacity of 2168.7 mA h g?1 with an efficiency of 73%, and the discharge capacity of the 50th cycle maintained surprisingly of 1194.9 mA h g?1. Meanwhile, spray drying and chemical vapor deposition are environmentally friendly, economical, and relatively high-yield method for the production of the Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites in large quantities. Consequently, the novel Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composite electrodes may be a potential alternative to graphite for high energy density lithium ion batteries. Highlights: • The core/shell structured silicon/carbon composites were prepared by a facile way. • The as-prepared Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites shows excellent electrochemical performance. • The preparation method has mild experiment conditions and high production rate. • The structure benefited electronic transfer and accommodated volume expansion. -- Abstract: Novel silicon@ carbon/carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibres (Si@C/CNTs and CNFs) composites have been successfully synthesized by a serious of high-energy wet ball milling, closed spray drying and subsequently chemical vapor deposition methods, in which carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers are interweaved with carbon coated silicon (Si@C) spherical composites. As anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites demonstrate a high first discharge capacity and excellent cycle ability. The high initial specific discharge capacity is approximately 2169 mA h g?1 and a reversible specific capacity approached 1195 mA h g?1 after 50 cycles at a high current density of 300 mA g?1

  15. Graphene wrapping as a protective clamping layer anchored to carbon nanofibers encapsulating Si nanoparticles for a Li-ion battery anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jungwoo; Park, Kyusung; Ryu, Won-Hee; Jung, Ji-Won; Kim, Il-Doo

    2014-10-01

    Carbon nanofibers encapsulating Si nanoparticles (CNFs/SiNPs) were prepared via an electrospinning method and chemically functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) to be grafted onto graphene oxide (GO). As a result, the thin and flexible GO, which exhibits a negative charge in aqueous solution, fully wrapped around the APS-functionalized CNFs with a positive surface charge via electrostatic self-assembly. After the formation of chemical bonds between the epoxy groups on GO and the amine groups in APS via an epoxy ring opening reaction, the GO was chemically reduced to a reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Electrochemical and morphological characterizations showed that capacity loss by structural degradation and electrolyte decomposition on Si surface were significantly suppressed in the rGO-wrapped CNFs/SiNPs (CNFs/SiNPs@rGO). Superior capacities were consequently maintained for up to 200 cycles at a high current density (1048 mA h g-1 at 890 mA g-1) compared to CNFs/SiNPs without the rGO wrapping (304 mA h g-1 at 890 mA g-1). Moreover, the resistance of the SEI layer and charge transfer resistance were also considerably reduced by 24% and 88%, respectively. The described graphene wrapping offers a versatile way to enhance the mechanical integrity and electrochemical stability of Si composite anode materials.Carbon nanofibers encapsulating Si nanoparticles (CNFs/SiNPs) were prepared via an electrospinning method and chemically functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) to be grafted onto graphene oxide (GO). As a result, the thin and flexible GO, which exhibits a negative charge in aqueous solution, fully wrapped around the APS-functionalized CNFs with a positive surface charge via electrostatic self-assembly. After the formation of chemical bonds between the epoxy groups on GO and the amine groups in APS via an epoxy ring opening reaction, the GO was chemically reduced to a reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Electrochemical and morphological characterizations showed that capacity loss by structural degradation and electrolyte decomposition on Si surface were significantly suppressed in the rGO-wrapped CNFs/SiNPs (CNFs/SiNPs@rGO). Superior capacities were consequently maintained for up to 200 cycles at a high current density (1048 mA h g-1 at 890 mA g-1) compared to CNFs/SiNPs without the rGO wrapping (304 mA h g-1 at 890 mA g-1). Moreover, the resistance of the SEI layer and charge transfer resistance were also considerably reduced by 24% and 88%, respectively. The described graphene wrapping offers a versatile way to enhance the mechanical integrity and electrochemical stability of Si composite anode materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images and XRD pattern of CNFs/SiNPs; photographs of CNFs/SiNPs@rGO solutions; SEM images of CNFs/SiNPs@rGO at different graphene concentrations; SEM images of CNFs@SiNPs@rGO without APS functionalization; Electrochemical cell performance of CNFs@SiNPs@rGO with different wrapping concentrations; and electrochemical impendence spectroscopy data for CNFs@SiNPs and CNFs@SiNPs@rGO after the first discharge. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03173c

  16. How do vapor grown carbon nanofibers nucleate and grow from deoiled asphalt?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? A modified growth mechanism of carbon nanofibers was proposed. ? Growth process includes (1) pyrolysis and aggregation, (2) nucleation, coalescence and self-assembly and (3) deveplopment and maturation. ? The nucleation and rearrangement of graphitic layers depend on the crystal orientation of the metal nanoparticles. - Abstract: During the experiments aimed at understanding the evolution mechanism by which vapor grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNFs) nucleate and grow, a series of carbon nanomaterials were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using deoiled asphalt (DOA) as carbon source and ferrocene as catalyst precursor with an experimental strategy developed to quench the CVD at different deposition times (3-30 min). The morphology and microstructure of the products were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope, high resolution transmission electron microscope and X-ray powder diffractometer. The formation of hollow/metal-encapsulating carbon nanoparticles at short deposition time (3 min) of CVD and the subsequent evolution of these nanoparticles into carbon nanotubes/nanofibers at longer deposition time suggest a multi-step growth model for VGCNFs, which includes the stages of (1) pyrolysis and aggregation, (2) nucleation, coalescence and self-assembly, and (3) development and maturation. At first, C, Fe and Fe/C clusters are produced by decomposition and agglomeration of C and Fe species from the pyrolysis of Dd Fe species from the pyrolysis of DOA and ferrocene; second, the carbon nanoparticles are self-assembled into nanowires with dispersive metal nanoparticles, which are further developed into nanotubes for structural stability and minimum surface energy, meanwhile fishbone-like CNFs might be formed by rearranging carbon layers at an angle against the tube axis under the nucleation of small graphitic layers on certain crystal orientation of the metal particles; finally, CNFs are formed by the synergistic action of metal catalysis and continuous rearrangement of graphitic layers.

  17. Immobilization of WO3 or MoO3 on macroscopic silica fiber via CNFs template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Uniform immobilization of tungsten trioxide (WO3) or molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) on silica fiber was successfully achieved by using carbon nanofibers (CNFs) as template. FE-SEM coupled with XRD analysis confirmed the template effect and the existence of WO3 or MoO3 immobilized on silica fiber. It is expected that such materials with direct macroscopic shapes would hold promise as highly functionalized materials for potential practical applications, especially in photocatalysis. - Highlights: • WO3 or MoO3 with macroscopic shapes were successfully obtained. • WO3 and MoO3 immobilization depended on CNFs templates. • FE-SEM and XRD confirmed the structure and phase composition. - Abstract: Uniform immobilization of tungsten trioxide (WO3) or molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) on silica fiber was successfully achieved by using carbon nanofibers (CNFs) as template. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), coupled with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the template effect and the existence of WO3 or MoO3 immobilized on silica fiber. It is expected that such materials with direct macroscopic shapes would hold promise as highly functionalized materials for potential practical applications, especially in photocatalysis

  18. In situ formation of hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres in electrospun amorphous carbon nanofibers for high-performance Li-based batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuming; Lu, Zhouguang; Zhou, Limin; Mai, Yiu-Wing; Huang, Haitao

    2012-11-01

    We report on in situ formation of hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres (HGCNs) in amorphous carbon nanofibers (ACNFs) by a combination of electrospinning, calcination and acid treatment. The prepared carbon nanofibers contain many HGCNs on which defects such as discontinuous graphene sheets with a large d-spacing in their wall exist and provide extra sites for Li(+) storage and serve as buffers for withstanding large volume expansion and shrinkage during the Li insertion and extraction procedure. Furthermore, some exposed HGCNs on the surface of the ACNFs as well as hollow structures are favorable for lithium ion diffusion from different orientations and sufficient contact between active material and electrolyte. In addition, the high conductivity architectures facilitate collection and transport of electrons during the cycling process. As a result, the ACNFs/HGCNs display a high reversible specific gravimetric capacity of ?750 mA h g(-1) and volumetric capacity of ?1.1 A h cm(-3) with outstanding rate capability and good cycling stability, which is superior to those of carbon nanofibers (CNFs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), porous ACNFs, graphene nanosheets (GNSs), GNSs/CNFs, hollow carbon nanospheres and graphite. The synthesis process is simple, low-cost and environmentally friendly, providing new avenues for the rational engineering of high-energy carbon-based anode materials. PMID:23000946

  19. Activated carbon nanofibers (ACNF) as cathode for single chamber microbial fuel cells (SCMFCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Carlo; Stadlhofer, Astrid; Hacker, Viktor; Squadrito, Gaetano; Schröder, Uwe; Li, Baikun

    2013-12-01

    The suitability of carbon nanofibers (CNF) based cathodes as alternative to the platinum (Pt)-based cathode in single chamber microbial fuel cells (SCMFCs) were extensively studied over 3-month operational period. MFCs were fed with two solutions: synthetic wastewater (phosphate buffer (PBS) plus sodium acetate) and real wastewater (mixed liquor suspendedsolid (MLSS) solution). CNFs were chemically activated using HNO3 and then hot pressed on a carbon cloth support to increase surface area. The cathode polarization showed a better behavior of the clean Pt-based cathode in abiotic conditions. The activation of the nanofibers (ACNFs) gave an advantage to the cathode performances compared to the raw CNFs. The SCMFCs fed with PBS showed four times higher power generation compared to MLSS solution. All the cathodes showed a decrease in performances over time, and the advantage of the Pt over CNF/ACNF disappeared. CNF/ACNF cathodes showed more stability in performances in long time operations. Biofilm formation, salt precipitations on the cathode, and the presence of hydrogen sulfide decreased the activity of Pt cathodes. A degradation and Pt detachment were noticed on Pt cathodes over time. In contrast, CNF/ACNF cathodes exhibited less deterioration throughout the operational period, which demonstrated a great potential as cost-effective cathodes for long-term operation.

  20. Lithium aluminosilicate reinforced with carbon nanofiber and alumina for controlled-thermal-expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials with a very low or tailored thermal expansion have many applications ranging from cookware to the aerospace industry. Among others, lithium aluminosilicates (LAS) are the most studied family with low and negative thermal expansion coefficients. However, LAS materials are electrical insulators and have poor mechanical properties. Nanocomposites using LAS as a matrix are promising in many applications where special properties are achieved by the addition of one or two more phases. The main scope of this work is to study the sinterability of carbon nanofiber (CNFs)/LAS and CNFs/alumina/LAS nanocomposites, and to adjust the ratio among components for obtaining a near-zero or tailored thermal expansion. Spark plasma sintering of nanocomposites, consisting of commercial CNFs and alumina powders and an ad hoc synthesized ?-eucryptite phase, is proposed as a solution to improving mechanical and electrical properties compared with the LAS ceramics obtained under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction results on phase compositions and microstructure are discussed together with dilatometry data obtained in a wide temperature range (?150 to 450 °C). The use of a ceramic LAS phase makes it possible to design a nanocomposite with a very low or tailored thermal expansion coefficient and exceptional electrical and mechanical properties.

  1. Lithium aluminosilicate reinforced with carbon nanofiber and alumina for controlled-thermal-expansion materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Borrell, Olga García-Moreno, Ramón Torrecillas, Victoria García-Rocha and Adolfo Fernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials with a very low or tailored thermal expansion have many applications ranging from cookware to the aerospace industry. Among others, lithium aluminosilicates (LAS are the most studied family with low and negative thermal expansion coefficients. However, LAS materials are electrical insulators and have poor mechanical properties. Nanocomposites using LAS as a matrix are promising in many applications where special properties are achieved by the addition of one or two more phases. The main scope of this work is to study the sinterability of carbon nanofiber (CNFs/LAS and CNFs/alumina/LAS nanocomposites, and to adjust the ratio among components for obtaining a near-zero or tailored thermal expansion. Spark plasma sintering of nanocomposites, consisting of commercial CNFs and alumina powders and an ad hoc synthesized ?-eucryptite phase, is proposed as a solution to improving mechanical and electrical properties compared with the LAS ceramics obtained under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction results on phase compositions and microstructure are discussed together with dilatometry data obtained in a wide temperature range (?150 to 450 °C. The use of a ceramic LAS phase makes it possible to design a nanocomposite with a very low or tailored thermal expansion coefficient and exceptional electrical and mechanical properties.

  2. Immobilization of nanofibrous A- or B-site substituted LaMnO3 perovskite-type oxides on macroscopic fiber with carbon nanofibers templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immobilization of nanofibrous A- or B-site substituted LaMnO3 perovskite-type oxides on macroscopic silica fiber via a unique and facile carbon nanofibers (CNFs) template-based method was reported. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), coupled with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the template effect and the existence of nanofibrous materials immobilized on silica fiber.

  3. Immobilization of nanofibrous A- or B-site substituted LaMnO{sub 3} perovskite-type oxides on macroscopic fiber with carbon nanofibers templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qiang; Sadakane, Masahiro; Ogihara, Hitoshi [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, N21-W10 Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Ueda, Wataru, E-mail: Ueda@cat.hokudai.ac.jp [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, N21-W10 Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    The immobilization of nanofibrous A- or B-site substituted LaMnO{sub 3} perovskite-type oxides on macroscopic silica fiber via a unique and facile carbon nanofibers (CNFs) template-based method was reported. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), coupled with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the template effect and the existence of nanofibrous materials immobilized on silica fiber.

  4. Direct Electrochemistry of Glucose Oxidase on Novel Free-Standing Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanospheres@Carbon Nanofibers Composite Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueping; Liu, Dong; Li, Libo; You, Tianyan

    2015-05-01

    We have proposed a novel free-standing nitrogen-doped carbon nanospheres@carbon nanofibers (NCNSs@CNFs) composite film with high processability for the investigation of the direct electron transfer (DET) of glucose oxidase (GOx) and the DET-based glucose biosensing. The composites were simply prepared by controlled thermal treatment of electrospun polypyrrole nanospheres doped polyacrylonitrile nanofibers (PPyNSs@PAN NFs). Without any pretreatment, the as-prepared material can directly serve as a platform for GOx immobilization. The cyclic voltammetry of immobilized GOx showed a pair of well-defined redox peaks in O2-free solution, indicating the DET of GOx. With the addition of glucose, the anodic peak current increased, while the cathodic peak current decreased, which demonstrated the DET-based bioelectrocatalysis. The detection of glucose based on the DET of GOx was achieved, which displayed high sensitivity, stability and selectivity, with a low detection limit of 2??M and wide linear range of 12–1000??M. These results demonstrate that the as-obtained NCNSs@CNFs can serve as an ideal platform for the construction of the third-generation glucose biosensor.

  5. Direct Electrochemistry of Glucose Oxidase on Novel Free-Standing Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanospheres@Carbon Nanofibers Composite Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueping; Liu, Dong; Li, Libo; You, Tianyan

    2015-01-01

    We have proposed a novel free-standing nitrogen-doped carbon nanospheres@carbon nanofibers (NCNSs@CNFs) composite film with high processability for the investigation of the direct electron transfer (DET) of glucose oxidase (GOx) and the DET-based glucose biosensing. The composites were simply prepared by controlled thermal treatment of electrospun polypyrrole nanospheres doped polyacrylonitrile nanofibers (PPyNSs@PAN NFs). Without any pretreatment, the as-prepared material can directly serve as a platform for GOx immobilization. The cyclic voltammetry of immobilized GOx showed a pair of well-defined redox peaks in O2-free solution, indicating the DET of GOx. With the addition of glucose, the anodic peak current increased, while the cathodic peak current decreased, which demonstrated the DET-based bioelectrocatalysis. The detection of glucose based on the DET of GOx was achieved, which displayed high sensitivity, stability and selectivity, with a low detection limit of 2??M and wide linear range of 12–1000??M. These results demonstrate that the as-obtained NCNSs@CNFs can serve as an ideal platform for the construction of the third-generation glucose biosensor. PMID:25943704

  6. Using Converter Dust to Produce Low Cost Cementitious Composites by in situ Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Ludvig

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs and nanofibers (CNFs were synthesized on clinker and silica fume particles in order to create a low cost cementitious nanostructured material. The synthesis was carried out by an in situ chemical vapor deposition (CVD process using converter dust, an industrial byproduct, as iron precursor. The use of these materials reduces the cost, with the objective of application in large-scale nanostructured cement production. The resulting products were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and were found to be polydisperse in size and to have defective microstructure. Some enhancement in the mechanical behavior of cement mortars was observed due to the addition of these nano-size materials. The contribution of these CNTs/CNFs to the mechanical strength of mortar specimens is similar to that of high quality CNTs incorporated in mortars by physical mixture.

  7. Label-Free Detection of Cardiac Troponin-I Using Carbon Nanofiber Based Nanoelectrode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyakaruppan, Adaikkappan; Koehne, Jessica Erin; Gandhiraman, Ram P.; Meyyappan, M.

    2013-01-01

    A sensor platform based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) has been developed. Their inherent nanometer scale, high conductivity, wide potential window, good biocompatibility and well-defined surface chemistry make them ideal candidates as biosensor electrodes. A carbon nanofiber (CNF) multiplexed array has been fabricated with 9 sensing pads, each containing 40,000 carbon nanofibers as nanoelectrodes. Here, we report the use of vertically aligned CNF nanoelectrodes for the detection of cardiac Troponin-I for the early diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Antibody, antitroponin, probe immobilization and subsequent binding to human cardiac troponin-I were characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry techniques. Each step of the modification process resulted in changes in electrical capacitance or resistance to charge transfer due to the changes at the electrode surface upon antibody immobilization and binding to the specific antigen. This sensor demonstrates high sensitivity, down to 0.2 ng/mL, and good selectivity making this platform a good candidate for early stage diagnosis of myocardial infarction.

  8. Evaluation of carbon fiber composites modified by in situ incorporation of carbon nanofibers

    OpenAIRE

    André Navarro de Miranda; Luiz Claudio Pardini; Carlos Alberto Moreira dos Santos; Ricardo Vieira

    2011-01-01

    Nano-carbon materials, such as carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers, are being thought to be used as multifunctional reinforcement in composites. The growing of carbon nanofiber at the carbon fiber/epoxy interface results in composites having better electrical properties than conventional carbon fiber/epoxy composites. In this work, carbon nanofibers were grown in situ over the surface of a carbon fiber fabric by chemical vapor deposition. Specimens of carbon fiber/nanofiber/epoxy (CF/CNF/e...

  9. Raman spectroscopy of polystyrene nanofibers—Multiwalled carbon nanotubes composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipara, Dorina M.; Macossay, Javier; Ybarra, Ana V. R.; Chipara, A. C.; Eubanks, Thomas M.; Chipara, Mircea

    2013-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy investigations of nanofibers of polystyrene loaded with various amounts of multiwalled carbon nanotubes are reported. The modifications of the main Raman bands (D and G) of multiwalled carbon nanotubes due to their dispersion in polystyrene demonstrates and quantifies the stress transfer from the polymeric nanofiber matrix (polystyrene) to multiwalled carbon nanotubes. TGA data show an increase of the thermal stability of polystyrene nanofibers upon the loading with multiwalled carbon nanotubes, conforming Raman data.

  10. Carbon nanofibers decorated with platinum nanoparticles: a novel three-dimensional platform for non-enzymatic sensing of hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a 3-dimensional (3-D) electrochemical sensor for highly sensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Porous 3-D carbon nanofibers (CNFs), prepared by electrospinning, served as scaffold on a glassy carbon electrode. The 3-D CNFs were functionalized with platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs) by in-situ gas-phase decomposition of platinum salts at high temperature. The Pt-NPs act as an electrocatalyst for the decomposition of H2O2. TEM revealed that large amounts of Pt-NPs are deposited in the electrospun CNFs electrode even without using any stabilizer or reducing reagent. The sensor was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry and displays a good response to H2O2 with a linear range between 10 ?M and 15 mM (R?=?0.9994), a low detection limit (3.4 ?M at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3), and a response time of 3 s. The sensor shows excellent stability and selectivity. (author)

  11. One-step preparation of hydrophilic carbon nanofiber containing magnetic Ni nanoparticles materials and their application in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Jen; Chen, Tse-Ching; Lin, Jarrn-Horng; Huang, Pei-Rong; Tsai, Hsing-Jui; Chen, Ching-Shiun

    2015-02-15

    A one-step process for the synthesis of hydrophilic carbon nanofibers (CNFs) through CO2 hydrogenation on NiNa/Al2O3 was developed for the loading and targeted delivery of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). CNFs that were synthesized on NiNa/Al2O3 for 9 h at 500 °C exhibited an adequate magnetic response and a large content of hydrophilic oxygen-containing functional groups on the carbon surface, resulting in excellent colloidal solution. The CNF material exhibited a highly efficient capacity for DOX adsorption, particularly at pH 9.0. The loading and release of DOX was strongly pH dependent, possibly due to electrostatic and ?-? stacking interactions between DOX and CNF sample. The Langmuir isotherm and pseudo second-order kinetics of DOX-loaded CNFs were well-modeled for the process of DOX adsorption. DOX-loaded CNF targeted cancer cells more selectively and effectively than free DOX and exhibited a marked tendency to kill HeLa cancer cells and reduced toxicity to normal human primary fibroblast (HPF) cells. PMID:25460704

  12. Enhanced electrical capacitance of porous carbon nanofibers derived from polyacrylonitrile and boron trioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) containing boron and nitrogen are prepared from polyacrylonitrile and boron trioxide (B2O3) by using simple electrospinning. The B2O3 introduction into a PAN solution causes a porous structure with stabilized [O]BN functional groups to develop in the processes of stabilization and carbonization. The pore structure and the functional groups such as B atoms and [O]BN introduce synergistic effects by not only increasing the power density but also the energy density, as shown by the results. The energy storage capabilities of the electrode prepared from 20 wt% B2O3 added to the PAN solution are as follows: a capacitance of 184.0 F g?1 and an energy density of 18.7–25.2 Wh kg?1 in the respective power density range of 400–10,000 W kg?1 in 6 M KOH electrolyte. Hence, these CNFs exhibit a very promising potential as electrode materials for electrical double-layer capacitors due to their unique microstructure and proper proportion of heteroatoms

  13. Carbon nanofibers: a versatile catalytic support

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nelize Maria de Almeida, Coelho; Jomar Livramento Barros, Furtado; Cuong, Pham-Huu; Ricardo, Vieira.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is present an overview of the promising results obtained while using carbon nanofibers based composites as catalyst support for different practical applications: hydrazine decomposition, styrene synthesis, direct oxidation of H2S into elementary sulfur and as fuel-cell electr [...] odes. We have also discussed some prospects of the use of these new materials in total combustion of methane and in ammonia decomposition. The macroscopic carbon nanofibers based composites were prepared by the CVD method (Carbon Vapor Deposition) employing a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and ethane. The results showed a high catalytic activity and selectivity in comparison to the traditional catalysts employed in these reactions. The fact was attributed, mainly, to the morphology and the high external surface of the catalyst support.

  14. Carbon nanofiber/polyethylene nanocomposite: Processing behavior, microstructure and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Electrically conductive CNF/HDPE nanocomposite were prepared by melt compounding. • The effect of processing on the nanocomposites macro and micro structures was analyzed. • 1.4 vol% CNF were required to construct a conductive network within the HDPE matrix. • An EMI SE of 42 dB was reported for 15 vol% CNF/HDPE nanocomposite. • An empirical model was developed to estimate the EMI SE. - Abstract: Electrically conductive polymer nanocomposite of high density polyethylene (HDPE) filled with carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by melt compounding in a batch mixer. The nanocomposite processing behavior was studied by monitoring the mixing torque vs. time as function of filler content. Scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy were used to investigate the nanocomposite dispersion of nanofiller and the adhesion between the nanofiller and polymer matrix. The electrical and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding behaviors of the nanocomposite were reported as function of nanofibers concentration, and an empirical correlation related the EMI SE to the nanocomposite’s electrical resistivity was developed. Good level of CNF dispersion was evident despite the poor adhesion exhibited between the nanofibers and the HDPE matrix. At 1.5 vol% CNF loading, the nanocomposite exhibited an electrical volume resistivity of 105 ?·cm. EMI shielding effectiveness was found to increase with increase in nanofiller concentration. In the 0.1–1.5 GHz frequency range, 2 mm thick plate made of 5 vol% CNF/HDPE nanocomposite exhibits an EMI shielding effectiveness of 20 dB

  15. Damping Augmentation of Nanocomposites Using Carbon Nanofiber Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangbing Song

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM process was used to fabricate the nanocomposites through integrating carbon nanofiber paper into traditional glass fiber reinforced composites. The carbon nanofiber paper had a porous structure with highly entangled carbon nanofibers and short glass fibers. In this study, the carbon nanofiber paper was employed as an interlayer and surface layer of composite laminates to enhance the damping properties. Experiments conducted using the nanocomposite beam indicated up to 200–700% increase of the damping ratios at higher frequencies. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM characterization of the carbon nanofiber paper and the nanocomposites was also conducted to investigate the impregnation of carbon nanofiber paper by the resin during the VARTM process and the mechanics of damping augmentation. The study showed a complete penetration of the resin through the carbon nanofiber paper. The connectivities between carbon nanofibers and short glass fibers within the carbon nanofiber paper were responsible for the significant energy dissipation in the nanocomposites during the damping tests.

  16. A Novel Carbon Nanofibers Grown on Glass Microballoons Immunosensor: A Tool for Early Diagnosis of Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Gikunoo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for direct detection of Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein-2 (PfHRP-2 antigen using carbon nanofiber (CNF forests grown on glass microballoons (NMBs. Secondary antibodies specific to PfHRP-2 densely attached to the CNFs exhibit extraordinary ability for the detection of minute concentrations of Plasmodium species. A sandwich immunoassay protocol was employed, where a glass substrate was used to immobilize primary antibodies at designated capture zones. High signal amplification was obtained in both colorimetric and electrical measurements due to the CNFs through specific binding. As a result, it was possible to detect PfHRP-2 levels as low as 0.025 ng/mL concentration in phosphate buffered saline (PBS using a visual signal within only 1 min of test duration. Lower limits of 0.01 ng/mL was obtained by measuring the electrical resistivity of the capture zone. This method is also highly selective and specific in identifying PfHRP-2 and other Plasmodium species from the same solution. In addition, the stability of the labeling mechanism eliminates the false signals generated by the use of dyes in current malaria rapid diagnostic test kits (MRDTs. Thus, the rapid, sensitive and high signal amplification capabilities of NMBs is a promising tool for early diagnosis of malaria and other infectious diseases.

  17. Interweaved Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Miao [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hou, Xianhua, E-mail: houxh@scnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Jie; Li, Min [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu, Shejun [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Shao, Zongping [Nanjing University of Technology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing 210009 (China); Liu, Xiang [Institute of Advanced Materials, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-03-05

    Graphical abstract: In summary, a serious of high-energy wet ball milling, closed spray drying and subsequent chemical vapor deposition methods were introduced successfully to fabricated novel Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites with carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibres interweaved with carbon coated silicon spherical composites as superior anodes in lithium-ion batteries. The core-shell structure of Si@C composites can accommodate the volume change of electrode during charge and discharge. Meanwhile, the citric acid pyrolyzed carbon was coated on the surface of the silicon perfectly and constructs the connection network of nano silicon particles. Moreover, the carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibres, which is interweaved with nano-silicon, also allows high electrical conductivity, improved solid–electrolyte interface formation and structural integrity. Compared with pure silicon and Si@C composites, the novel Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites had the best combination of reversible capacity and cycleablity, and this anode materials exhibited excellent electrochemical performance. The Si/C composite had a fairly high initial discharge capacity of 2168.7 mA h g{sup ?1} with an efficiency of 73%, and the discharge capacity of the 50th cycle maintained surprisingly of 1194.9 mA h g{sup ?1}. Meanwhile, spray drying and chemical vapor deposition are environmentally friendly, economical, and relatively high-yield method for the production of the Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites in large quantities. Consequently, the novel Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composite electrodes may be a potential alternative to graphite for high energy density lithium ion batteries. Highlights: • The core/shell structured silicon/carbon composites were prepared by a facile way. • The as-prepared Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites shows excellent electrochemical performance. • The preparation method has mild experiment conditions and high production rate. • The structure benefited electronic transfer and accommodated volume expansion. -- Abstract: Novel silicon@ carbon/carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibres (Si@C/CNTs and CNFs) composites have been successfully synthesized by a serious of high-energy wet ball milling, closed spray drying and subsequently chemical vapor deposition methods, in which carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers are interweaved with carbon coated silicon (Si@C) spherical composites. As anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites demonstrate a high first discharge capacity and excellent cycle ability. The high initial specific discharge capacity is approximately 2169 mA h g{sup ?1} and a reversible specific capacity approached 1195 mA h g{sup ?1} after 50 cycles at a high current density of 300 mA g{sup ?1}.

  18. Copper-doped Li4Ti5O12/carbon nanofiber composites as anode for high-performance sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yeqian; Jiang, Han; Fu, Kun; Zhang, Changhuan; Zhu, Jiadeng; Chen, Chen; Lu, Yao; Qiu, Yiping; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2014-12-01

    Lithium titanium oxide (Li4Ti5O12) is a promising anode material, owing to its superior safety and reliability. However, the main challenge of Li4Ti5O12 is the low material conductivity which restricts its electrochemical performance. In order to use Li4Ti5O12 in practical sodium-ion batteries, copper-doped Li4Ti5O12 (Li4-xCuxTi5O12, x = 0, 0.05, 0.1) nanoparticles were prepared to enhance the electronic conductivity. Copper-doped Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles were then embedded in continuous carbon nanofibers (CNFs), which gave rise to fast electron transfer along the fiber direction. After copper-doping and CNF embedding, the resultant copper-doped Li4Ti5O12/CNFs achieved excellent reversible capacity (158.1 mAh g-1) at 30 mA g-1, high coulombic efficiency (99.87%), and good capacity retention (91%) after 150 cycles. In addition, copper-doped Li4Ti5O12/CNFs also exhibited good rate capability. It is, therefore, demonstrated that copper-doped Li4Ti5O12/CNFs are promising anode candidate.

  19. Improving the cyclability and rate capability of carbon nanofiber anodes through in-site generation of SiOx-rich overlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SiOx-rich overlayed carbon nanofibers (SiOx-CNFs) are facilely fabricated through the electrospinning of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) solution and subsequent hydrolyzation and heat treatments. The SiOx-rich overlayer is apparently observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), which is also identified using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The SiOx-CNF electrode shows greatly improved cycle stability and rate capability, remaining 84.2% of its initial discharge capacity in contrast to only 61.4% for pure CNFs and exhibiting a reversible capacity of 288 mAh g?1 at 2 A g?1 compared with that (218 mAh g?1) of pure CNFs. This result is ascribed to the formation of a dense and stable SEI film and the highly improved ionic conductivity of SiOx-CNFs during the Li+ insertion/extraction processes. These results suggest that the introduction of SiOx-rich overlayer onto electrodes is an effective strategy to enhance the stability of SEI film and facilitate the surface Li-ion transfer of electrodes, and thus to improve their cycle stability and rate capability

  20. Effect of carbon nanofiber surface groups on oxygen reduction reaction of supported Pt electrocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We studied the effect of oxygen-groups on the particle size and deposition of Pt particles. ? Pt/CNF-OH exhibits smaller Pt mean particle size compared with Pt/CNF-OX. ? Pt/CNF-OH/GC electrode exhibits a better ORR activity than Pt/CNF-OX/GC electrode. -- Abstract: Pt nanoparticles supported on the acid-treated carbon nanofiber (CNF-OX) and LiAlH4-treated carbon nanofiber (CNF-OH) are synthesized via ethylene glycol reduction method. The nature of oxygen-containing surface groups on the CNF-OX and CNF-OH is investigated by potentiometric titration and XPS characterization. Titration of the support materials shows that LiAlH4 can effectively convert the carboxylic acid groups (from 0.21 mmol g?1 to 0.06 mmol g?1) to hydroxyl groups (from 0.09 mmol g?1 to 0.17 mmol g?1), which is agreed well with the results of XPS characterization. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) characterization shows that the Pt nanoparticles are highly dispersed on the two modified CNFs, and the Pt nanoparticles supported on the CNF-OH have a smaller particle size and a more uniform particle size distribution. Rotating disk electrode (RDE) analysis reveals that Pt/CNF-OH exhibits a better activity for ORR than Pt/CNF-OX, and this may be associated with the smaller particle size and better dispersion of Pt nanoparticles on the CNF-OH

  1. Sandwich-lithiation and longitudinal crack in amorphous silicon coated on carbon nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiang Wei; Liu, Xiao Hua; Zhao, Kejie; Palmer, Andrew; Patten, Erin; Burton, David; Mao, Scott X; Suo, Zhigang; Huang, Jian Yu

    2012-10-23

    Silicon-carbon nanofibers coaxial sponge, with strong mechanical integrity and improved electronic conductivity, is a promising anode structure to apply into commercial high-capacity lithium ion batteries. We characterized the electrochemical and mechanical behaviors of amorphous silicon-coated carbon nanofibers (a-Si/CNFs) with in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that lithiation of the a-Si coating layer occurred from the surface and the a-Si/CNF interface concurrently, and propagated toward the center of the a-Si layer. Such a process leads to a sandwiched Li(x)Si/Si/Li(x)Si structure, indicating fast Li transport through the a-Si/CNF interface. Nanocracks and sponge-like structures developed in the a-Si layer during the lithiation-delithiation cycles. Lithiation of the a-Si layer sealed in the hollow CNF was also observed, but at a much lower speed than the counterpart of the a-Si layer coated on the CNF surface. An analytical solution of the stress field was formulated based on the continuum theory of finite deformation, explaining the experimental observation of longitudinal crack formation and general mechanical degradation mechanism in a-Si/CNF electrode. PMID:22984869

  2. The role of carbon nanofiber defects on the electrical and mechanical properties of CNF-based resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagno, Liberata; Raimondo, Marialuigia; Vittoria, Vittoria; Vertuccio, Luigi; Lafdi, Khalid; De Vivo, Biagio; Lamberti, Patrizia; Spinelli, Giovanni; Tucci, Vincenzo

    2013-08-01

    Heat treatment of carbon nanofibers has proven to be an effective method in removing defects from carbon nanofibers, causing a strong increase in their structural perfection and thermal stability. It affects the bonding states of carbon atoms in the nanofiber structure and causes a significant transformation in the hybridization state of the bonded carbon atoms. Nanofilled resins made of heat-treated CNF show significant increases in their electrical conductivity even at low concentrations. This confirms that enhancement in the perfection of the fiber structure with consequent change in the morphological features plays a prominent role in affecting the electrical properties. Indeed heat-treated CNFs display a stiff structure and a smooth surface which tends to lower the thickness of the unavoidable insulating epoxy layer formed around the CNF which, in turn, plays a fundamental role in the electrical transport properties along the conducting clusters. This might be very beneficial in terms of electrical conductivity but might have negligible effect on the mechanical properties.

  3. The role of carbon nanofiber defects on the electrical and mechanical properties of CNF-based resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat treatment of carbon nanofibers has proven to be an effective method in removing defects from carbon nanofibers, causing a strong increase in their structural perfection and thermal stability. It affects the bonding states of carbon atoms in the nanofiber structure and causes a significant transformation in the hybridization state of the bonded carbon atoms. Nanofilled resins made of heat-treated CNF show significant increases in their electrical conductivity even at low concentrations. This confirms that enhancement in the perfection of the fiber structure with consequent change in the morphological features plays a prominent role in affecting the electrical properties. Indeed heat-treated CNFs display a stiff structure and a smooth surface which tends to lower the thickness of the unavoidable insulating epoxy layer formed around the CNF which, in turn, plays a fundamental role in the electrical transport properties along the conducting clusters. This might be very beneficial in terms of electrical conductivity but might have negligible effect on the mechanical properties. (paper)

  4. Development of bimetal-grown multi-scale carbon micro-nanofibers as an immobilizing matrix for enzymes in biosensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, Amit R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India); Saurakhiya, Neelam; Deva, Dinesh [DST Unit on Nanosciences, Kanpur, 208016 (India); Sharma, Ashutosh [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India); DST Unit on Nanosciences, Kanpur, 208016 (India); Verma, Nishith, E-mail: nishith@iitk.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India); Center for Environmental Science and Engineering, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2013-10-15

    This study describes the development of a novel bimetal (Fe and Cu)-grown hierarchical web of carbon micro-nanofiber-based electrode for biosensor applications, in particular to detect glucose in liquids. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are grown on activated carbon microfibers (ACFs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using Cu and Fe as the metal catalysts. The transition metal-fiber composite is used as the working electrode of a biosensor applied to detect glucose in liquids. In such a bi-nanometal-grown multi-scale web of ACF/CNF, Cu nanoparticles adhere to the ACF-surface, whereas Fe nanoparticles used to catalyze the growth of nanofibers attach to the CNF tips. By ultrasonication, Fe nanoparticles are dislodged from the tips of the CNFs. Glucose oxidase (GOx) is subsequently immobilized on the tips by adsorption. The dispersion of Cu nanoparticles at the substrate surface results in increased conductivity, facilitating electron transfer from the glucose solution to the ACF surface during the enzymatic reaction with glucose. The prepared Cu-ACF/CNF/GOx electrode is characterized for various surface and physicochemical properties by different analytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), BET surface area analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical tests show that the prepared electrode has fast response current, electrochemical stability, and high electron transfer rate, corroborated by CV and calibration curves. The prepared transition metal-based carbon electrode in this study is cost-effective, simple to develop, and has a stable immobilization matrix for enzymes. - Graphical abstract: A novel bimetal (Fe and Cu)-grown hierarchical web of carbon micro-nanofiber-based electrode is synthesized for biosensor applications, in particular to detect glucose in liquids. Carbon nanofibers are grown on activated carbon microfibers by chemical vapor deposition using Cu and Fe as the metal catalysts. In such a bi-nanometal-grown multi-scale web of ACF/CNF, Cu nanoparticles adhere to the ACF-surface, whereas Fe nanoparticles used to catalyze the growth of nanofibers attach to the CNF tips. Following ultrasonication, Fe nanoparticles are dislodged and replaced with glucose oxidase. The electrochemical tests show that the prepared electrode has fast response current, electrochemical stability, and high electron transfer rate, corroborated by its CV and calibration curves. Highlights: • Fe–Cu-grown web of carbon micro-nanofiber-based electrode was prepared. • The carbon electrode was applied to detect glucose in liquids. • It has electrochemical stability and high electron transfer rate. • The electrode is cost-effective and simple to develop. • It has a stable immobilization matrix for enzymes.

  5. Development of bimetal-grown multi-scale carbon micro-nanofibers as an immobilizing matrix for enzymes in biosensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the development of a novel bimetal (Fe and Cu)-grown hierarchical web of carbon micro-nanofiber-based electrode for biosensor applications, in particular to detect glucose in liquids. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are grown on activated carbon microfibers (ACFs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using Cu and Fe as the metal catalysts. The transition metal-fiber composite is used as the working electrode of a biosensor applied to detect glucose in liquids. In such a bi-nanometal-grown multi-scale web of ACF/CNF, Cu nanoparticles adhere to the ACF-surface, whereas Fe nanoparticles used to catalyze the growth of nanofibers attach to the CNF tips. By ultrasonication, Fe nanoparticles are dislodged from the tips of the CNFs. Glucose oxidase (GOx) is subsequently immobilized on the tips by adsorption. The dispersion of Cu nanoparticles at the substrate surface results in increased conductivity, facilitating electron transfer from the glucose solution to the ACF surface during the enzymatic reaction with glucose. The prepared Cu-ACF/CNF/GOx electrode is characterized for various surface and physicochemical properties by different analytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), BET surface area analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical tests show that the prepared electrode has fast response current, electrochemical stability, and high electron transfer rate, corroborated by CV and calibration curves. The prepared transition metal-based carbon electrode in this study is cost-effective, simple to develop, and has a stable immobilization matrix for enzymes. - Graphical abstract: A novel bimetal (Fe and Cu)-grown hierarchical web of carbon micro-nanofiber-based electrode is synthesized for biosensor applications, in particular to detect glucose in liquids. Carbon nanofibers are grown on activated carbon microfibers by chemical vapor deposition using Cu and Fe as the metal catalysts. In such a bi-nanometal-grown multi-scale web of ACF/CNF, Cu nanoparticles adhere to the ACF-surface, whereas Fe nanoparticles used to catalyze the growth of nanofibers attach to the CNF tips. Following ultrasonication, Fe nanoparticles are dislodged and replaced with glucose oxidase. The electrochemical tests show that the prepared electrode has fast response current, electrochemical stability, and high electron transfer rate, corroborated by its CV and calibration curves. Highlights: • Fe–Cu-grown web of carbon micro-nanofiber-based electrode was prepared. • The carbon electrode was applied to detect glucose in liquids. • It has electrochemical stability and high electron transfer rate. • The electrode is cost-effective and simple to develop. • It has a stable immobilization matrix for enzymes

  6. ADSORPTION OF MULTIWALLED CARBON NANOTUBES ON ELECTROSPUN POLYCAPROLACTON NANOFIBERS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    KHALID, SAEED; PARK, SOO-YOUNG; MOHAMMAD, ISHAQ.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycaprolacton (PCL) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes/PCL (P-MWNT/PCL) were prepared by electrospinning technique. The average diameter of the nanofibers was below 400 nm. The mechanical properties of the P-MWNT/PCL nanofibers were higher than that of neat PCL nanofibers. It was also found that the [...] mechanical properties of the composite nanofibers were decreased as increased the amount of P-MWNTs, which were due to the poor dispersion of the P-MWNTs in the PCL matrix or agglomeration of MWNTs at high concentration. The thermal stability of the P-MWNT/PCL nanofibers was higher than PCL nanofibers. The conductivity of the adsorbed P-MWNT on PCL (

  7. Potential applications of nanofiber textile covered by carbon coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ro?ek

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nanospider technology is modified electrospinning method for production nanofiber textile from polymer solutions. This material can be used as wound dressing and filter materials for example. Carbon coatings deposited onto surface of polymer nanofiber textiles are predicted to improve filtration effectivity of filters and bioactivity of wound dressings. Carbon coatings have been produced by Microwave Radio Frequency Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MW/RF PACVD method.Design/methodology/approach: Carbon coatings were deposited on polymer nanofiber textile by MW/RF PACVD method. Nanocomposite obtained in this way was characterized by the contact angle studies and by scanning electron microscope (SEM.Findings: Carbon coatings can be deposited on the polymer nanofibers by MW/RF PACVD method. Content of diamond phase in produced carbon coatings has been confirmed by wetability test. A SEM microscopic images have shown that the spaces between the nanofibers have not been closed by the material of the film.Research limitations/implications: MW/RF PACVD makes carbon coating synthesis possible in lower temperature, what is essential in case of applying the polymer substrate. Use of any other method than MW/RF PACVD for deposition of carbon coatings onto polymer nanofiber textile is not covered in this paper.Practical implications: Nanofiber textile produced by Nanospider is very good mechanical filter. Carbon onto surface of nanofibers can cause from this material active filter. Since this nanocomposite enables the transport of oxygen and exudate, simultaneously is impenetrable for bacteria or even viruses, it can be used for wound dressing.Originality/value: It is our belief that we are first to have deposited carbon coatings on nanofiber textile. We hope that in this way we have prepared very good material for filtration of air and for wound dressing.

  8. Enhancing the rate performance of graphite anodes through addition of natural graphite/carbon nanofibers in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Internal pores of graphite increased the rate property of anode in Li-ion battery. ? Added NG/CNFs into graphite successfully increased the internal pores. ? Introduced internal pores suppressed the anodic volume change in charge–discharge. - Abstract: Mesophase pitch-derived synthetic graphite was hybridized with natural graphite/carbon nanofiber (NG/CNF) composites prepared by mechanical mixing, carbonization, and graphitization processes. Addition of the NG/CNF composites introduced effective internal pores inside the synthetic graphite matrix, thereby improving the rate performance, 1st cycle coulombic efficiency, and cyclability. Hybridized graphite with 10 wt% of added NG/CNF composite exhibited the best rate performance, with a discharge capacity retention rate of over 90% after a 5 C discharge test

  9. Evaluation of carbon fiber composites modified by in situ incorporation of carbon nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Navarro de Miranda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nano-carbon materials, such as carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers, are being thought to be used as multifunctional reinforcement in composites. The growing of carbon nanofiber at the carbon fiber/epoxy interface results in composites having better electrical properties than conventional carbon fiber/epoxy composites. In this work, carbon nanofibers were grown in situ over the surface of a carbon fiber fabric by chemical vapor deposition. Specimens of carbon fiber/nanofiber/epoxy (CF/CNF/epoxy composites were molded and electrical conductivity was measured. Also, the CF/CNF/epoxy composites were tested under flexure and interlaminar shear. The results showed an overall reduction in mechanical properties as a function of added nanofiber, although electrical conductivity increased up to 74% with the addition of nanofibers. Thus CF/CNF/epoxy composites can be used as electrical dissipation discharge materials.

  10. Evaluation of carbon fiber composites modified by in situ incorporation of carbon nanofibers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Navarro de, Miranda; Luiz Claudio, Pardini; Carlos Alberto Moreira dos, Santos; Ricardo, Vieira.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nano-carbon materials, such as carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers, are being thought to be used as multifunctional reinforcement in composites. The growing of carbon nanofiber at the carbon fiber/epoxy interface results in composites having better electrical properties than conventional carbon f [...] iber/epoxy composites. In this work, carbon nanofibers were grown in situ over the surface of a carbon fiber fabric by chemical vapor deposition. Specimens of carbon fiber/nanofiber/epoxy (CF/CNF/epoxy) composites were molded and electrical conductivity was measured. Also, the CF/CNF/epoxy composites were tested under flexure and interlaminar shear. The results showed an overall reduction in mechanical properties as a function of added nanofiber, although electrical conductivity increased up to 74% with the addition of nanofibers. Thus CF/CNF/epoxy composites can be used as electrical dissipation discharge materials.

  11. Au@Ag nanorods based electrochemical immunoassay for immunoglobulin G with signal enhancement using carbon nanofibers-polyamidoamine dendrimer nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lina; Ning, Danlei; Zhang, Hongfang; Zheng, Jianbin

    2015-06-15

    Au@Ag nanorods (Au@AgNRs) was utilized to construct a novel sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG). The sensor was prepared by immoblizing capture antibodies on the amine-terminated nanocomposite of carbon nanofibers-polyamidoamine dendrimer (CNFs-PAMAM), whilst the trace tag was prepared by loading anti-human IgG on Au@AgNRs. The "built-in" Ag layer on Au nanorods was characterized by UV-vis extinction spectra, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results of cyclic voltammetry indicated that modifying CNFs-PAMAM nanocomposite on glassy carbon electrode enabled 177 times of peak current increase of Ag in the bimetallic nanorods. The peak current was quantitatively related with the concentration of the target protein IgG via the formation of immunocomplex. After the parameter optimization, the oxidative peak current of silver was proportional to the concentration of IgG in a wide linear range of six orders of magnitude with a low detection limit of 0.5 fg mL(-1). Besides, this sensor showed acceptable reproducibility and stability, and thus the strategy reported here has great promise for extension to the other disease biomarkers. PMID:25569874

  12. Silicon Whisker and Carbon Nanofiber Composite Anode Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has successfully developed a silicon whisker and carbon nanofiber composite anode for lithium ion batteries on a Phase I program. PSI...

  13. Silicon Whisker and Carbon Nanofiber Composite Anode Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a silicon whisker and carbon nanofiber composite anode for lithium ion batteries on a Phase I program. This anode...

  14. Carbon nanofiber reinforced epoxy matrix composites and syntactic foams - mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Ronald Leonel

    The tailorability of composite materials is crucial for use in a wide array of real-world applications, which range from heat-sensitive computer components to fuselage reinforcement on commercial aircraft. The mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties of composites are highly dependent on their material composition, method of fabrication, inclusion orientation, and constituent percentages. The focus of this work is to explore carbon nanofibers (CNFs) as potential nanoscale reinforcement for hollow particle filled polymer composites referred to as syntactic foams. In the present study, polymer composites with high weight fractions of CNFs, ranging from 1-10 wt.%, are used for quasi-static and high strain rate compression analysis, as well as for evaluation and characterization of thermal and electrical properties. It is shown that during compressive characterization of vapor grown carbon nanofiber (CNF)/epoxy composites in the strain rate range of 10-4-2800 s-1, a difference in the fiber failure mechanism is identified based on the strain rate. Results from compression analyses show that the addition of fractions of CNFs and glass microballoons varies the compressive strength and elastic modulus of epoxy composites by as much as 53.6% and 39.9%. The compressive strength and modulus of the syntactic foams is also shown to generally increase by a factor of 3.41 and 2.96, respectively, with increasing strain rate when quasi-static and high strain rate testing data are compared, proving strain rate sensitivity of these reinforced composites. Exposure to moisture over a 6 month period of time is found to reduce the quasi-static and high strain rate strength and modulus, with a maximum of 7% weight gain with select grades of CNF/syntactic foam. The degradation of glass microballoons due to dealkalization is found to be the primary mechanism for reduced mechanical properties, as well as moisture diffusion and weight gain. In terms of thermal analysis results, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of CNF/epoxy and CNF/syntactic foam composites reinforced with glass microballoons decrease by as much as 11.6% and 38.4%. The experimental CTE values for all of the composites also fit within the bounds of established analytical models predicting the CTE of fiber and particle-reinforced composites. Further thermal studies through dynamic mechanical analysis demonstrated increased thermal stability and damping capability, where the maximum use and glass transition temperatures increase as much as 27.1% and 25.0%, respectively. The electrical properties of CNF reinforced composites are evaluated as well, where the electrical impedance decreases and the dielectric constant increases with addition of CNFs. Such behavior occurs despite the presence of epoxy and glass microballoons, which serve as insulative phases. Such results are useful in design considerations of lightweight composite materials used in weight saving, compressive strength, and damage tolerance applications, such as lightweight aircraft structure reinforcement, automobile components, and buoyancy control with marine submersibles. The results of the analyses have also evaluated certain factors for environmental exposure and temperature extremes, as well as considerations for electronics packaging, all of which have also played a role in shaping avant-garde composite structure designs for efficient, versatile, and long-life service use.

  15. Potential applications of nanofiber textile covered by carbon coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Roz?ek, Z.; Kaczorowski, W.; Luka?s?, D.; Louda, P.; Mitura, S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Nanospider technology is modified electrospinning method for production nanofiber textile from polymer solutions. This material can be used as wound dressing and filter materials for example. Carbon coatings deposited onto surface of polymer nanofiber textiles are predicted to improve filtration effectivity of filters and bioactivity of wound dressings. Carbon coatings have been produced by Microwave Radio Frequency Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MW/RF PACVD) method.Desig...

  16. Synergistic effect of carbon nanofiber and sub-micro filamentary nickel nanostrand on the shape memory polymer nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work studies the synergistic effect of carbon nanofiber (CNF) and sub-micro filamentary nickel nanostrand on the thermal and electrical properties, as well as the electro-active shape memory behavior, of a shape memory polymer (SMP) nanocomposite. The combination of electrical CNF and electromagnetic nickel nanostrand is used to render insulating thermo-responsive SMPs conductive. Subsequently, the shape memory behavior of the SMP can be activated by the electrical resistive heating. It is shown that sub-micro filamentary nickel-coated nanostrands significantly improved the electrical conductivity to facilitate the actuation of the SMP nanocomposite despite the low nanostrand volume content and low electrical voltage. Also the CNFs are blended with the SMP resin to facilitate the dispersion of nanostrands and improve the thermal conductivity to accelerate the electro- and thermo-active responses

  17. Improved fire retardancy of thermoset composites modified with carbon nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Zhao and Jan Gou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multifunctional thermoset composites were made from polyester resin, glass fiber mats and carbon nanofiber sheets (CNS. Their flaming behavior was investigated with cone calorimeter under well-controlled combustion conditions. The heat release rate was lowered by pre-planting carbon nanofiber sheets on the sample surface with the total fiber content of only 0.38 wt.%. Electron microscopy showed that carbon nanofiber sheet was partly burned and charred materials were formed on the combusting surface. Both the nanofibers and charred materials acted as an excellent insulator and/or mass transport barrier, improving the fire retardancy of the composite. This behavior agrees well with the general mechanism of fire retardancy in various nanoparticle-thermoplastic composites.

  18. Direct synthesis of novel vanadium oxide embedded porous carbon nanofiber decorated with iron nanoparticles as a low-cost and highly efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ahmed Aboueloyoun; Hriez, Amir A; Wu, Yi-nan; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Fengting

    2014-03-01

    Template-free porous carbon nanofibers embedded by vanadium oxide and decorated with iron nanoparticles (Fe@V-CNF) were prepared in a time and cost-saving manner by combining electrospinning and heat treatment processes. Cost-saving ammonium metavanadate was used as a semiconductor precursor of vanadium oxide (VOx) as well as porogen. The generated pores in the carbon nanofiber (CNFs) matrix formed pathways between the embedded VOx and the surface of CNFs and Fe NPs, thus, facilitate photo-generated electron transfer. The characterization results revealed that Fe@V-CNF comprised graphitic fibers with well-dispersed distribution of nanosized Fe NPs (~7 nm) along the surface of CNF. Thereby, it enhanced the visible-light harvesting. The prepared Fe@V-CNF had remarkable light absorption in the visible region. It demonstrated much higher photocatalytic efficiency of photodegradation of organic dyes compared with the pure CNF and vanadium oxide embedded CNF (V-CNF). Notably, Fe@V-CNF achieved 99.9% dye degradation within 15-20 min. And, it could be conveniently recycled due to its one-dimensional nanostructural property. PMID:24407677

  19. Alumina-carbon nanofibers nanocomposites obtained by spark plasma sintering for proton exchange membrane fuel cell bipolar plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrell, A.; Torrecillas, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN) Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad de Oviedo, Principado de Asturias, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, Llanera Asturias (Spain); Rocha, V.G.; Fernandez, A. [ITMA Materials Technology, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, Llanera Asturias (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    There is an increasing demand of multifunctional materials for a wide variety of technological developments. Bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells are an example of complex functionality components that must show among other properties high mechanical strength, electrical, and thermal conductivity. The present research explored the possibility of using alumina-carbon nanofibers (CNFs) nanocomposites for this purpose. In this study, it was studied for the first time the whole range of powder compositions in this system. Homogeneous powders mixtures were prepared and subsequently sintered by spark plasma sintering. The materials obtained were thoroughly characterized and compared in terms of properties required to be used as bipolar plates. The control on material microstructure and composition allows designing materials where mechanical or electrical performances are enhanced. A 50/50 vol.% alumina-CNFs composite appears to be a very promising material for this kind of application. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Hierarchically mesoporous carbon nanofiber/Mn3O4 coaxial nanocables as anodes in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seok-Hwan; Lee, Wan-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Carbon nanofiber/Mn3O4 (CNF/Mn3O4) coaxial nanocables with a three-dimensional (3D) structure are prepared for lithium ion batteries by electrophoretic deposition on an electrospun CNF cathode followed by heat treatment in air. The bark-like Mn3O4 shell with a thickness of 30 nm surrounds the CNFs with a diameter of 200 nm; this hierarchically mesoporous Mn3O4 shell consisted of interconnected nanoparticles grows radially toward the CNF core when viewed from the cross-section of the coaxial cables. The charge transfer resistance of the CNF/Mn3O4 is much smaller than that of the Mn3O4 powder, because of (i) the abundant inner spaces provided via the formation of the 3D coaxial core/shell nanocables, (ii) the high electric pathway for the Mn3O4 nanoparticles attained with the 1D CNFs, and (iii) the structural stability obtained through the cushioning effect created by the CNF/Mn3O4 coaxial morphology. These unique characteristics contribute to achieving a high capacity, excellent cyclic stability, and good rate capability. The CNF/Mn3O4 nanocables deliver an initial capacity of 1690 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 and maintain a high reversible capacity of 760 mAh g-1 even after 50 charge-discharge cycles without showing any obvious decay.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and activity pattern of carbon nanofibers based copper/zirconia catalysts for carbon dioxide hydrogenation to methanol: Influence of calcination temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ud Din, Israf; Shaharun, Maizatul S.; Subbarao, Duvvuri; Naeem, A.

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel carbon nanofibers (CNFs) supported bimetallic copper/zirconia catalysts are synthesized by deposition precipitation method and calcined at different temperatures. Calcined catalysts are characterized by various techniques like X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption, N2O chemisorption, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, temperature programmed reduction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption (CO2 & NH3). The structure-activity correlation is discussed in details. The results demonstrate 450 °C as optimum calcination temperature for methanol synthesis rate with CO2/H2 feed volume ratio of 1:3. CO2 conversion is found to be directly proportional to copper metallic surface area (SCu), while a linear relationship is observed between methanol synthesis rate and fraction of dispersed Cu.

  2. Branched carbon nanofiber network synthesis at room temperature using radio frequency supported microwave plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Boskovic, BO; Stolojan, V; Zeze, DA; Forrest, RD; SILVA, SRP; Haq, S

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers have been grown at room temperature using a combination of radio frequency and microwave assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The nanofibers were grown, using Ni powder catalyst, onto substrates kept at room temperature by using a purposely designed water-cooled sample holder. Branched carbon nanofiber growth was obtained without using a template resulting in interconnected carbon nanofiber network formation on substrates held at room temperatur...

  3. Preparation of Electrically Conductive Polystyrene/Carbon Nanofiber Nanocomposite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Luyi; O'Reilly, Jonathan Y.; Tien, Chi-Wei; Sue, Hung-Jue

    2008-01-01

    A simple and effective approach to prepare conductive polystyrene/carbon nanofiber (PS/CNF) nanocomposite films via a solution dispersion method is presented. Inexpensive CNF, which has a structure similar to multi-walled carbon nanotubes, is chosen as a nanofiller in this experiment to achieve conductivity in PS films. A good dispersion is…

  4. Reactor design considerations in the hot filament/direct current plasma synthesis of carbon nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combined hot filament/direct current (dc) plasma approach to chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) using an acetylene/ammonia feedstock has been explored. As a part of the study, the impact of filament usage and substrate holder design has been examined by scanning electron microscopy imaging of deposition products and monitoring of downstream products by residual gas analysis (RGA). It is demonstrated that the filament wire is important primarily in the pretreatment of the substrate, improving CNF growth quality. However, the filament has a more minor impact when combined with the dc plasma, increasing growth rate but reducing growth quality. The substrate holder is modified by introducing a graphite spacer into the electrode. By varying the size of the spacer, the effective surface area of the cathode is modified, allowing control over the power input to the reactor while holding the voltage constant. This allows for some independent control of physicochemical processes that are typically inseparable in plasma processing, including gas phase chemistry, substrate heating and etching by ion bombardment, and growth alignment effects due to the electric field. This work demonstrates how separating these processes allows for better control over the desired growth product

  5. Health effects of exposure to carbon nanofibers: Systematic review, critical appraisal, meta analysis and research to practice perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Literature reviews examining the relationship between exposure to carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and health consequences are qualitative in nature and do not employ an evidence-based assessment. Objective: This research deals with a systematic review, critical appraisal, and meta-analysis designed to examine the potential health effects associated with exposure to CNFs. The utilization of research findings into practice is also explored. Methods: Published articles were obtained from a search of electronic databases and bibliographies of identified articles. A critical appraisal was conducted using an 'Experimental Appraisal Instrument' developed in this study. The meta-analysis was established using statistical techniques with/without the incorporation of overall study quality. The likelihood of utilizing research findings into practice (i.e., from research to practice) was computed using a four-step algorithm based on the criteria of: strength of association, consistency among studies, temporality, biological gradient, type of experimental unit, type of CNF (single- and multi-wall nanotubes), CNF grade (commercial or altered), exposure dose, exposure duration, and support by analogy from the published literature. Results: Twenty-one experimental studies satisfied the inclusion criteria and were performed on human cells, experimental animal models and animal cells as experimental units. The methodological qualities of published studies ranged from 'very poor' tublished studies ranged from 'very poor' to 'excellent', with 'overall study description' scoring 'good' and 'study execution' equal to 'moderate'. The random-effects model was applied in the meta-analysis calculations as heterogeneity was significant at the 10% for all outcomes reported. The mean standardized meta-estimates for the experimental groups were significantly lower than those for the control groups for cell viability and cell death, respectively. Incorporating the effect of overall study quality score widened the gap between the experimental and control groups. Assessment of research findings on the basis of the four-step algorithm revealed that the likelihood of the results to occur in practice is 'somewhat possible' at this time. That is, if exposure conditions to CNF in the reported studies are similar to those in nano-manufacturing plants, it is somewhat possible that CNFs alter the function of human cells resulting in loss of cell viability and cell death. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that it is 'somewhat possible' for the CNF to penetrate the human cells in the targeted organs and to cause cellular damage. Although the weight of evidence is not sufficient, it is advisable that actions be taken to ensure the protection of workers exposed to CNFs, that is, (a) engineering controls should be established to contain exposure to CNF, and (b) simultaneously rigorous personnel protective equipment should be planned to further minimize the risk of CNF exposure.

  6. Co3O4 nanoparticles decorated carbon nanofiber mat as binder-free air-cathode for high performance rechargeable zinc-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Ge, Xiaoming; Goh, F. W. Thomas; Hor, T. S. Andy; Geng, Dongsheng; Du, Guojun; Liu, Zhaolin; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Xiaogang; Zong, Yun

    2015-01-01

    An efficient, durable and low cost air-cathode is essential for a high performance metal-air battery for practical applications. Herein, we report a composite bifunctional catalyst, Co3O4 nanoparticles-decorated carbon nanofibers (CNFs), working as an efficient air-cathode in high performance rechargeable Zn-air batteries (ZnABs). The particles-on-fibers nanohybrid materials were derived from electrospun metal-ion containing polymer fibers followed by thermal carbonization and a post annealing process in air at a moderate temperature. Electrochemical studies suggest that the nanohybrid material effectively catalyzes oxygen reduction reaction via an ideal 4-electron transfer process and outperforms Pt/C in catalyzing oxygen evolution reactions. Accordingly, the prototype ZnABs exhibit a low discharge-charge voltage gap (e.g. 0.7 V, discharge-charge at 2 mA cm-2) with higher stability and longer cycle life compared to their counterparts constructed using Pt/C in air-cathode. Importantly, the hybrid nanofiber mat readily serves as an integrated air-cathode without the need of any further modification. Benefitting from its efficient catalytic activities and structural advantages, particularly the 3D architecture of highly conductive CNFs and the high loading density of strongly attached Co3O4 NPs on their surfaces, the resultant ZnABs show significantly improved performance with respect to the rate capability, cycling stability and current density, promising good potential in practical applications.An efficient, durable and low cost air-cathode is essential for a high performance metal-air battery for practical applications. Herein, we report a composite bifunctional catalyst, Co3O4 nanoparticles-decorated carbon nanofibers (CNFs), working as an efficient air-cathode in high performance rechargeable Zn-air batteries (ZnABs). The particles-on-fibers nanohybrid materials were derived from electrospun metal-ion containing polymer fibers followed by thermal carbonization and a post annealing process in air at a moderate temperature. Electrochemical studies suggest that the nanohybrid material effectively catalyzes oxygen reduction reaction via an ideal 4-electron transfer process and outperforms Pt/C in catalyzing oxygen evolution reactions. Accordingly, the prototype ZnABs exhibit a low discharge-charge voltage gap (e.g. 0.7 V, discharge-charge at 2 mA cm-2) with higher stability and longer cycle life compared to their counterparts constructed using Pt/C in air-cathode. Importantly, the hybrid nanofiber mat readily serves as an integrated air-cathode without the need of any further modification. Benefitting from its efficient catalytic activities and structural advantages, particularly the 3D architecture of highly conductive CNFs and the high loading density of strongly attached Co3O4 NPs on their surfaces, the resultant ZnABs show significantly improved performance with respect to the rate capability, cycling stability and current density, promising good potential in practical applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TGA curves of as electrospun Co(ii)-PAN fiber and C-CoPAN900 EDX and XPS spectra of the C-CoPAN900 photo of a home-built Zn-air cell and the preparation method of conventional catalyst electrode; polarization curves and corresponding power density plots of the battery using conventional type cathode of C-CoPN900 and commercial Pt/C catalyst; the electrocatalytic properties of hybrid CNFs obtained from varied weight ratios of PAN to cobalt acetate, e.g. 16 : 1 and 8 : 1, and their corresponding TGA curves; a comparison of the Zn-air battery performance of this work with recent literatures. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05988c

  7. Mass-transport-controlled, large-area, uniform deposition of carbon nanofibers and their application in gas diffusion layers of fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xian; Xie, Zhiyong; Huang, Qizhong; Chen, Guofen; Hou, Ming; Yi, Baolian

    2015-04-24

    The effect of mass transport on the growth characteristics of large-area vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) was investigated by adjusting the substrate deposition angle (?). The catalyst precursor solution was coated onto one side of a 2D porous carbon paper substrate via a decal printing method. The results showed that the CNFs were grown on only one side of the substrate and ? was found to significantly affect the growth uniformity. At ? = 0°, the growth thickness, the density, the microstructure and the yield of the CNF film were uniform across the substrate surface, whereas the growth uniformity decreased with increasing ?, suggesting that the large-area CNF deposition processes were mass-transport-controlled. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of the gas diffusion processes revealed the homogeneous distributions of the carbon-source-gas concentration, pressure, and velocity near the substrate surface at ? = 0°, which were the important factors in achieving the mass-transport-limited uniform CNF growth. The homogeneity of the field distributions decreased with increasing ?, in accordance with the variation in the growth uniformity with ?. When used as a micro-porous layer, the uniform CNF film enabled higher proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance in comparison with commercial carbon black by virtue of its improved electronic and mass-transport properties confirmed by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results. PMID:25865711

  8. Carbon–ceramic composites for enzyme immobilization

    OpenAIRE

    Lathouder, Karen de; Lozano Castelló, Dolores; Linares Solano, Ángel; Wallin, Sten A.; Kapteijn, Freek; Moulijn, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    Tunable carbon nanofiber-coated monoliths as carriers for enzyme adsorption are presented. Carbon-nanofibers (CNFs) were grown on monoliths with different microstructure. ‘‘Classical’’ cordierite monoliths were compared to novel acicular mullite (ACM) monoliths, with a more open wall structure. This open structure allows for a higher CNF-loading without affecting the open structure of the monoliths. The composites were used as a carrier for lactase from Aspergillus oryzae. AC...

  9. Preparation of a New Adsorbent from Activated Carbon and Carbon Nanofiber (AC/CNF for Manufacturing Organic-Vacbpour Respirator Cartridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Jahangiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study a composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofiber (AC/CNF was prepared to improve the performance of activated carbon (AC for adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and its utilization for respirator cartridges. Activated carbon was impregnated with a nickel nitrate catalyst precursor and carbonnanofibers (CNF were deposited directly on the AC surface using catalytic chemical vapor deposition. Deposited CNFs on catalyst particles in AC micropores, were activated by CO2 to recover the surface area and micropores.Surface and textural characterizations of the prepared composites were investigated using Brunauer, Emmett andTeller’s (BET technique and electron microscopy respectively. Prepared composite adsorbent was tested forbenzene, toluene and xylene (BTX adsorption and then employed in an organic respirator cartridge in granularform. Adsorption studies were conducted by passing air samples through the adsorbents in a glass column at an adjustable flow rate. Finally, any adsorbed species not retained by the adsorbents in the column were trapped in a charcoal sorbent tube and analyzed by gas chromatography. CNFs with a very thin diameter of about 10-20 nmwere formed uniformly on the AC/CNF. The breakthrough time for cartridges prepared with CO2 activated AC/CNF was 117 minutes which are significantly longer than for those cartridges prepared with walnut shell- based activated carbon with the same weight of adsorbents. This study showed that a granular form CO2 activated AC/CNF composite could be a very effective alternate adsorbent for respirator cartridges due to its larger adsorption capacities and lower weight.

  10. Activated Carbon, Carbon Nanofiber and Carbon Nanotube Supported Molybdenum Carbide Catalysts for the Hydrodeoxygenation of Guaiacol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Santillan-Jimenez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum carbide was supported on three types of carbon support—activated carbon; multi-walled carbon nanotubes; and carbon nanofibers—using ammonium molybdate and molybdic acid as Mo precursors. The use of activated carbon as support afforded an X-ray amorphous Mo phase, whereas crystalline molybdenum carbide phases were obtained on carbon nanofibers and, in some cases, on carbon nanotubes. When the resulting catalysts were tested in the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO of guaiacol in dodecane, catechol and phenol were obtained as the main products, although in some instances significant amounts of cyclohexane were produced. The observation of catechol in all reaction mixtures suggests that guaiacol was converted into phenol via sequential demethylation and HDO, although the simultaneous occurrence of a direct demethoxylation pathway cannot be discounted. Catalysts based on carbon nanofibers generally afforded the highest yields of phenol; notably, the only crystalline phase detected in these samples was Mo2C or Mo2C-?, suggesting that crystalline Mo2C is particularly selective to phenol. At 350 °C, carbon nanofiber supported Mo2C afforded near quantitative guaiacol conversion, the selectivity to phenol approaching 50%. When guaiacol HDO was performed in the presence of acetic acid and furfural, guaiacol conversion decreased, although the selectivity to both catechol and phenol was increased.

  11. Surface functionalization of carbon nanofibers by sol-gel coating of zinc oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the functional carbon nanofibers were prepared by the carbonization of ZnO coated PAN nanofibers to expand the potential applications of carbon nanofibers. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers were obtained by electrospinning. The electrospun PAN nanofibers were then used as substrates for depositing the functional layer of zinc oxide (ZnO) on the PAN nanofiber surfaces by sol-gel technique. The effects of coating, pre-oxidation and carbonization on the surface morphology and structures of the nanofibers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results of SEM showed a significant increase of the size of ZnO nanograins on the surface of nanofibers after the treatments of coating, pre-oxidation and carbonization. The observations by SEM also revealed that ZnO nanoclusters were firmly and clearly distributed on the surface of the carbon nanofibers. FTIR examination also confirmed the deposition of ZnO on the surface of carbon nanofibers. The XRD analysis indicated that the crystal structure of ZnO nanograins on the surface of carbon nanofibers

  12. Bromate catalytic reduction in continuous mode using metal catalysts supported on monoliths coated with carbon nonofibers

    OpenAIRE

    Marco, Yanila; García-Bordejé, Enrique; Franch Martí, Cristina; Palomares Gimeno, Antonio Eduardo; Yuranova, Tatiana; Kiwi-Minsker, Liouba

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped and un-doped carbon nanofibers layers, denoted as N-CNFs and CNFs respectively, coating the walls of cordierite monoliths have been used as support for Pd and Ru catalyst. They have been tested in bromate reduction in batch and continuous operation employing different reactor configurations. The CNF/monolith catalysts were benchmarked with Pd catalyst on CNF coated on another structured support, namely sintered metal fibers. CNF/monolith is a robust, active and stable catalyst ...

  13. Morphology and internal structure of polymeric and carbon nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhenxin

    Evaporation and the associated solidification are important factors that affect the diameter of electrospun nanofibers. The evaporation and solidification of a charged jet were controlled by varying the partial pressure of water vapor during electrospinning of poly(ethylene oxide) from aqueous solution. As the partial pressure of water vapor increases, the solidification process of the charged jet becomes slower, allowing elongation of the charged jet to continue longer and thereby to form thinner fibers. The morphology and internal structure of electrospun poly(vinylidene fluorides) nanofibers were investigated. Low voltage high resolution scanning electron microscopy was used to study the surface of electrospun nanofibers. Control of electrospinning process produced fibers with various morphological forms. Fibers that were beaded, branched, or split were obtained when different instabilities dominated in the electrospinning process. The high ratio of stretching during electrospinning aligns the polymer molecules along the fiber axis. A rapid evaporation of solvent during electrospinning gives fibers with small and imperfect crystallites. These can be perfected by thermal annealing. Fibers annealed at elevated temperature form plate-like lamellar crystals tightly linked by tie molecules. Electrospinning can provide ultrafine nanofibers with cross-sections that contain only a few polymer molecules. Ultrafine polymer nanofibers are extremely stable in transmission electron microscope. Electrospun nanofibers suspended on a holey carbon film showed features of individual polymer molecules. Carbon fibers with diameters ranging from 100 nm to several microns were produced from mesophase pitch by a low cost gas jet process. The structure of mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers was investigated as a function of heat treatment temperatures. Submicron-sized graphene oxide flakes were prepared by a combination of oxidative treatment and ultrasonic radiation. Because pitch is a cheap raw material, graphitic fibers appear to be another useful starting material for mass production of graphene sheets.

  14. Structure and properties of carbon nanofibers. application as electrocatalyst support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. del Rio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to gain an insight into the physical-chemical properties of carbon nanofibers and the relationship between those properties and the electrocatalytic behavior when used as catalyst support for their application in fuel cells.

  15. Highly active carbonaceous nanofibers: a versatile scaffold for constructing multifunctional free-standing membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hai-Wei; Zhang, Wen-Jun; Ma, Yi-Ni; Cao, Xiang; Guan, Qing-Fang; Xu, Wei-Ping; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2011-10-25

    Translating the unique characteristics of individual nanoscale components into macroscopic materials such as membranes or sheets still remains a challenge, as the engineering of these structures often compromises their intrinsic properties. Here, we demonstrate that the highly active carbonaceous nanofibers (CNFs), which are prepared through a template-directed hydrothermal carbonization process, can be used as a versatile nanoscale scaffold for constructing macroscopic multifunctional membranes. In order to demonstrate the broad applicability of the CNF scaffold, we fabricate a variety of CNF-based composite nanofibers, including CNFs-Fe(3)O(4), CNFs-TiO(2), CNFs-Ag, and CNFs-Au through various chemical routes. Importantly, all of them inherit unique dimensionality (high aspect ratio) and mechanical properties (flexibility) of the original CNF scaffolds and thus can be assembled into macroscopic free-standing membranes through a simple casting process. We also demonstrate the wide application potentials of these multifunctional composite membranes in magnetic actuation, antibiofouling filtration, and continuous-flow catalysis. PMID:21932782

  16. Silver-functionalized carbon nanofiber composite electrodes for ibuprofen detection

    OpenAIRE

    Manea, F.; Motoc, S.; Pop, A.; Remes, A.; Schoonman, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare and characterize two types of silver-functionalized carbon nanofiber (CNF) composite electrodes, i.e., silver-decorated CNF-epoxy and silver-modified natural zeolite-CNF-epoxy composite electrodes suitable for ibuprofen detection in aqueous solution. Ag carbon nanotube composite electrode exhibited the best electroanalytical parameters through applying preconcentration/differential-pulsed voltammetry scheme.

  17. Silver-functionalized carbon nanofiber composite electrodes for ibuprofen detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Florica; Motoc, Sorina; Pop, Aniela; Remes, Adriana; Schoonman, Joop

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare and characterize two types of silver-functionalized carbon nanofiber (CNF) composite electrodes, i.e., silver-decorated CNF-epoxy and silver-modified natural zeolite-CNF-epoxy composite electrodes suitable for ibuprofen detection in aqueous solution. Ag carbon nanotube composite electrode exhibited the best electroanalytical parameters through applying preconcentration/differential-pulsed voltammetry scheme.

  18. Mass-transport-controlled, large-area, uniform deposition of carbon nanofibers and their application in gas diffusion layers of fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xian; Xie, Zhiyong; Huang, Qizhong; Chen, Guofen; Hou, Ming; Yi, Baolian

    2015-04-01

    The effect of mass transport on the growth characteristics of large-area vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) was investigated by adjusting the substrate deposition angle (?). The catalyst precursor solution was coated onto one side of a 2D porous carbon paper substrate via a decal printing method. The results showed that the CNFs were grown on only one side of the substrate and ? was found to significantly affect the growth uniformity. At ? = 0°, the growth thickness, the density, the microstructure and the yield of the CNF film were uniform across the substrate surface, whereas the growth uniformity decreased with increasing ?, suggesting that the large-area CNF deposition processes were mass-transport-controlled. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of the gas diffusion processes revealed the homogeneous distributions of the carbon-source-gas concentration, pressure, and velocity near the substrate surface at ? = 0°, which were the important factors in achieving the mass-transport-limited uniform CNF growth. The homogeneity of the field distributions decreased with increasing ?, in accordance with the variation in the growth uniformity with ?. When used as a micro-porous layer, the uniform CNF film enabled higher proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance in comparison with commercial carbon black by virtue of its improved electronic and mass-transport properties confirmed by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results.The effect of mass transport on the growth characteristics of large-area vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) was investigated by adjusting the substrate deposition angle (?). The catalyst precursor solution was coated onto one side of a 2D porous carbon paper substrate via a decal printing method. The results showed that the CNFs were grown on only one side of the substrate and ? was found to significantly affect the growth uniformity. At ? = 0°, the growth thickness, the density, the microstructure and the yield of the CNF film were uniform across the substrate surface, whereas the growth uniformity decreased with increasing ?, suggesting that the large-area CNF deposition processes were mass-transport-controlled. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of the gas diffusion processes revealed the homogeneous distributions of the carbon-source-gas concentration, pressure, and velocity near the substrate surface at ? = 0°, which were the important factors in achieving the mass-transport-limited uniform CNF growth. The homogeneity of the field distributions decreased with increasing ?, in accordance with the variation in the growth uniformity with ?. When used as a micro-porous layer, the uniform CNF film enabled higher proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance in comparison with commercial carbon black by virtue of its improved electronic and mass-transport properties confirmed by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Descriptions of fabrication and characterization of CP and CFD methods; optical images of CNFs; field distributions; fitted impedance parameters; Nyquist plots of PEMFCs. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00022j

  19. Foamed mesoporous carbon/silicon composite nanofiber anode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxin; Wen, Xiufang; Chen, Juan; Wang, Shengnian

    2015-05-01

    A new porous composite nanofiber manufacturing route, combining electrospinning and foaming processes, was developed. In this process, aluminum acetylacetonate (AACA) was introduced as the foaming agent in nanofibers made of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/silicon (Si) nanoparticles. PAN/Si composite nanofibers were first produced through an electrospinning process and mesopores were then generated by foaming nanofibers via AACA sublimation. After further carbonization, the obtained mesoporous carbon/silicon composite nanofiber mats were tested as the anode material for lithium ion batteries. Within this composite anode, mesopores provide needed buffering space to accommodate the large volume expansion and consequent stress induced inside silicon during lithiation. This effectively mitigates silicon pulverization issue and helps achieve higher reversible capacity and better capacity retention in later battery tests when compared with anodes made of nonporous composites nanofibers and carbon nanofibers alone.

  20. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber Based Biosensor Platform for Glucose Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamun, Khandaker Abdullah Al [ORNL; Tulip, Fahmida S [ORNL; Macarthur, Kimberly C [ORNL; McFarlane, Nicole M [ORNL; Islam, Syed K [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) have recently become an important tool for biosensor design. Carbon nanofibers (CNF) have excellent conductive and structural properties with many irregularities and defect sites in addition to exposed carboxyl groups throughout their surfaces. These properties allow a better immobilization matrix compared to carbon nanotubes and offer better resolution when compared with the FET-based biosensors. VACNFs can be deterministically grown on silicon substrates allowing optimization of the structures for various biosensor applications. Two VACNF electrode architectures have been employed in this study and a comparison of their performances has been made in terms of sensitivity, sensing limitations, dynamic range, and response time. The usage of VACNF platform as a glucose sensor has been verified in this study by selecting an optimum architecture based on the VACNF forest density. Read More: http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0129156414500062

  1. Lightweight Structures Utilizing CNFs Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AxNano proposes a novel method for producing robust, high-volume, cost-effective carbon fibers in support of next-generation materials for structural composite...

  2. Carbon nanotube/nanofiber embedded nanoporous anodized aluminium oxide surface and its tribological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, M K; Sil, Anjan; Ray, S

    2008-08-01

    Nanoporous alumina has been prepared by anodization of pure aluminium using phosphoric acid electrolyte. Carbon nanotubes/nanofibres (CNTs/CNFs) are grown within the pores by chemical vapour deposition technique, using acetylene gas as carbon precursor. Such synthesis of nanostructured carbonaceous materials within the nanoporous oxide template has high potential for many applications (e.g., electronics, magnetic, etc.) in nanotechnology. Possibility of using such material combination for engineering systems where abrasion resistance coupled with self-lubrication (at comparatively higher loads) are the key requirements, has been explored through the present work. Pore structure has been characterized by SEM/FE-SEM in this study and CNTs/CNFs have been examined by TEM, FE-SEM and Raman spectroscopy. While the pore diameters are found to lie in the range of 180-220 nm, the CNTs/CNFs diameter are observed to be in the range of 50 to 220 nm. The CNTs/CNFs growing from bottom of the pores are found to replicate the pore diameter, while those grown above the surface are varying significantly in diameter and probably matching the diameter of the catalyst, which remains adsorbed on the top surface and inner walls of the pores. On comparing friction and wear properties of both materials (viz. anodized alumina and CNTs/CNFs embedded anodized alumina) as determined by pin-on-disc machine using hardened steel disc as counterface, it is found that wear rate and coefficient of friction of CNTs embedded composite surface is significantly lower which is attributed to formation of transfer layer of hard wear resistant alumina mechanically mixed with graphitic CNTs/CNFs. PMID:19049193

  3. Template Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibers Containing Linear Mesocage Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongwen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon nanofibers containing linear mesocage arrays were prepared via evaporation induced self-assembly method within AAO template with an average channel diameter of about 25 nm. The TEM results show that the mesocages have an elongated shape in the transversal direction. The results of N2 adsorption–desorption analysis indicate that the sample possesses a cage-like mesoporous structure and the average mesopore size of the sample is about 18 nm.

  4. CVD synthesis of carbon nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Mudimela, Prasantha Reddy

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of methods for the controlled synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on flat substrates and on micron sized particles. The carbon nanomaterials were synthesized using three different types of CVD reactors at atmospheric pressure. The vertical CVD reactor was used to study CNT formation on thermally oxidized silicon wafers and to synthesize individual single-walled CNTs on Si3N4 substrates. By using CO as the carbon source a...

  5. Nanowire-directed templating synthesis of metal-organic framework nanofibers and their derived porous doped carbon nanofibers for enhanced electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wang; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Jiang, Hai-Long; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2014-10-15

    A nanowire-directed templating synthesis of metal-organic framework (MOF) nanofibers has been demonstrated, where ultrathin tellurium nanowires (TeNWs) with excellent dispersivity can act as templates for directed growth and assembly of ZIF-8 nanocrystals (one typical MOF), resulting in the formation of uniform ZIF-8 nanofibers. The as-obtained ZIF-8 nanofibers can be conveniently converted into highly porous doped carbon nanofibers by calcination. Compared with bulk porous carbon by direct carbonization of MOF crystals, these doped carbon nanofibers exhibit complex network structure, hierarchical pores, and high surface area. Further doped by phosphorus species, the co-doped carbon nanofibers exhibit excellent electrocatalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction, even better than the benchmark Pt/C catalyst. PMID:25244060

  6. Relationship between Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes Individual Dispersion Behavior and Properties of Electrospun Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The dispersion stability behavior of single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT has important effects on morphological and mechanical properties of SWCNT/polymer composite nanofibers. The relationship of the dispersion conditions with morphological and mechanical characteristics for SWCNT / polyacrylonitrile (PAN / polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP composite nanofibers have been examined. The SEM and TEM analyses of the nanofibers revealed that the deformation in the nanofiber structures increases with increasing SWCNT concentration. Our data indicate that with increasing the amount of SWCNT (from 0 to 2 wt %, the average nanofiber diameter was increased from 163±19 nm to 307±34 nm. Tensile results showed that only 2 wt % SWCNT loading to the electrospun composite nanofibers gave rise to 10-fold and 3-fold increase in the tensile modulus and tenacity of nanofiber layers, respectively. Essentially, high mechanical properties and uniform morphology of the composite naofibers were found at SWCNT concentration of ~2 wt % due to their stable and individual dispersion.

  7. Designing an ultrathin silica layer for highly durable carbon nanofibers as the carbon support in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sun-Mi; Park, Jae-Hyun; Lim, Seongyop; Jung, Doo-Hwan; Guim, Hwanuk; Yoon, Young-Gi; Yim, Sung-Dae; Kim, Tae-Young

    2014-09-01

    A critical issue for maintaining long-term applications of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is the development of an innovative technique for the functionalization of a carbon support that preserves their exceptional electrical conductivity and robustly enriches their durability. Here, we report for the first time how the formation of a partially coated, ultrathin, hydrophobic silica layer around the surfaces of the carbon nanofiber (CNF) helps improve the durability of the CNF without decreasing the significant electrical conductivity of the virgin CNF. The synthesis involved the adsorption of polycarbomethylsilane (PS) on the CNF's sidewalls, followed by high temperature pyrolysis of PS, resulting in a highly durable, conductive carbon support in PEFCs. The Pt nanoparticles are in direct contact with the surface of the carbon in the empty spaces between unevenly coated silica layers, which are not deposited directly onto the silica layer. The presence of a Pt nanoparticle layer that was thicker than the silica layer would be a quite advantageous circumstance that provides contact with other neighboring CNFs without having a significant adverse effect that deeply damages the electrical conductivity of the neighboring CNF composites with the silica layer. Furthermore, the ultrathin, hydrophobic silica layer around the surfaces of the CNF provides great potential to reduce the presence of water molecules in the vicinity of the carbon supports and the &z.rad;OH radicals formed on the surface of the Pt catalyst. As a result, the CNF with a 5 wt% silica layer that we prepared has had extremely high initial performance and durability under severe carbon corrosion conditions, starting up with 974 mA cm-2 at 0.6 V and ending up with more than 58% of the initial performance (i.e., 569 mA cm-2 at 0.6 V) after a 1.6 V holding test for 6 h. The beginning-of-life and end-of-life performances based on the virgin CNF without the silica layer were 981 and 340 mA cm-2 at 0.6 V, respectively. The CNF having a silica layer had long-term durability which was superior to that of the virgin CNF.

  8. CoSn/carbon composite nanofibers for applications as anode in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CoSn/carbon composite nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning followed by heat treatment. Uniform morphologies and microstructures were observed by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results demonstrated that well-dispersed nanoparticles of CoSn intermetallic compound and Sn with diameter of about 30–50 nm embedded in carbon nanofibers were prepared after carbonization at 850 °C. Compared with pure carbon nanofibers without the nanoparticles, CoSn/carbon composite nanofibers showed a high reversible capacity and excellent cycling performance, resulting from the formation of CoSn intermetallic nanoparticles and buffering by the carbon nanofiber matrix. The nanofiber mats with good flexibility were utilized as anodes in lithium-ion batteries, and the CoSn/carbon composite nanofibers exhibited a good fibrous morphology after the discharge/charge processes. Results indicated that electrospinning could be a feasible method to prepare Co–Sn–C composite nanofibers as anodes in lithium-ion batteries

  9. Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... engineered nanoparticles, such as metal oxides, nanotubes, nanowires, quantum dots, and carbon fullerenes (buckyballs), among others. Early ... the potential hazards of CNT and CNF. Current Intelligence Bulletin 65: Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and ...

  10. EFFECT OF CELLULOSE NANOFIBERS ISOLATED FROM BAMBOO PULP RESIDUE ON VULCANIZED NATURAL RUBBER

    OpenAIRE

    P. M. Visakh,; Sabu Thomas,; Kristiina Oksman; Mathew, Aji P.

    2012-01-01

    Nanocomposites were prepared using two bioresources, viz., cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) extracted from bamboo paper-pulp waste as the reinforcing phase and natural rubber (NR) as the matrix phase. CNFs with diameters up to 50 nm were isolated from bamboo pulp waste, and nanocomposites with 5 and 10% CNFs were obtained via two-roll mill mixing of solid natural rubber with a master batch containing 20 wt% CNFs. The NR phase was cross-linked using sulphur vulcanization. The morphology studies sho...

  11. Soft-templated synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanospheres and hollow carbon nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Youliang; Li, Tiehu; Fang, Changqing; Zhang, Maorong; Liu, Xiaolong; Yu, Ruien; Hu, Jingbo

    2013-10-01

    Using coal tar pitch based amphiphilic carbonaceous materials (ACMs) as the precursor and amphiphilic triblock copolymer Plutonic P123 as the only soft template, carbon nanospheres with partially ordered mesopores and hollow carbon nanofibers were synthesized. The concentration of P123, cp, and the mass ratio of P123 to ACM, r, are the key parameters of controlling the shape of the as-prepared products. Mesoporous carbon nanospheres with diameter of 30-150 nm were prepared under the condition of cp = 13.3 g/L and r = 1.2. When cp = 26.7 g/L and r = 2, hollow carbon nanofibers with diameters of 50-200 nm and mesopores/macropores were obtained. Carbon nanospheres and hollow carbon fibers were amorphous materials. The mesoporous carbon nanospheres show good stability in the cyclic voltammograms and their specific capacitance at 10 mV s-1 is 172.1 F/g.

  12. Experimental study of mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanofiber/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epoxy nanocomposites of different content of carbon nanofibers up to 1 wt.% have been fabricated under room temperature and refrigerated curing conditions. The composites were studied in terms of mechanical and electrical properties. Flexural modulus and hardness were found to increase significantly in refrigerated samples due to prevention of aggregates of nanofibers during cure condition. Increase and shifting in G-band by Raman spectra of these samples confirmed stress transfer and reinforcement between epoxy matrix and carbon nanofiber. Electrical conductivity improved by 3-6 orders after infusing carbon nanofibers in insulating epoxy. Room temperature samples acquired higher conductivity that was attributed to network formation by aggregates of nanofibers along the fiber alignment direction as revealed by electron microscopic studies.

  13. Branched carbon nanofiber network synthesis at room temperature using radio frequency supported microwave plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanofibers have been grown at room temperature using a combination of radio frequency and microwave assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The nanofibers were grown, using Ni powder catalyst, onto substrates kept at room temperature by using a purposely designed water-cooled sample holder. Branched carbon nanofiber growth was obtained without using a template resulting in interconnected carbon nanofiber network formation on substrates held at room temperature. This method would allow room-temperature direct synthesized nanofiber networks over relatively large areas, for a range of temperature sensitive substrates, such as organic materials, plastics, and other polymers of interest for nanoelectronic two-dimensional networks, nanoelectromechanical devices, nanoactuators, and composite materials

  14. Pt/carbon nanofibers electrocatalysts for fuel cells: effect of the support oxidizing treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zaragoza Marti?n, Francisco; Sopen?a Escario, Daniel; Morallo?n Nu?n?ez, Emilia; Salinas Marti?nez Lecea, Concepcio?n

    2007-01-01

    Different Pt-based electrocatalysts supported on carbon nanofibers and carbon black (Vulcan XC-72R) have been prepared using a polymermediated synthesis. The electrocatalysts have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cyclic voltammetry. The effect of carbon nanofibers treatment with HNO3 solution on Pt particle size and electroactive area has been analyzed. Highly dispersed Pt with homogeneous particle size and an electroactive area arou...

  15. Activated carbon nanofiber webs made by electrospinning for capacitive deionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activated carbon fiber (ACF) webs with a non-woven multi-scale texture were fabricated from polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and their electrosorption performance in capacitive deionization for desalination was investigated. PAN nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning, followed by oxidative stabilization and activation with carbon dioxide at 750–900 °C, resulting in the ACF webs that were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption. The results show that the as-made ACFs have a specific surface area of 335–712 m2/g and an average nanofiber diameter of 285–800 nm, which can be tuned by varying the activation temperature. With the ACF webs as an electrode, an electrosorption capacity as high as 4.64 mg/g was achieved on a batch-type electrosorptive setup operated at 1.6 V. The ACF webs made by electrospinning are of potential as an excellent electrode material for capacitive deionization for desalination.

  16. Carbon Nanofibers Synthesized on Selective Substrates for Nonvolatile Memory and 3D Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Khan, Abdur R.

    2011-01-01

    A plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) growth technique has been developed where the choice of starting substrate was found to influence the electrical characteristics of the resulting carbon nanofiber (CNF) tubes. It has been determined that, if the tubes are grown on refractory metallic nitride substrates, then the resulting tubes formed with dc PECVD are also electrically conducting. Individual CNFs were formed by first patterning Ni catalyst islands using ebeam evaporation and liftoff. The CNFs were then synthesized using dc PECVD with C2H2:NH3 = [1:4] at 5 Torr and 700 C, and approximately equal to 200-W plasma power. Tubes were grown directly on degenerately doped silicon substrates with resistivity rho approximately equal to 1-5 meterohm-centimeter, as well as NbTiN. The approximately equal to 200-nanometer thick refractory NbTiN deposited using magnetron sputtering had rho approximately equal to 113 microohm-centimeter and was also chemically compatible with CNF synthesis. The sample was then mounted on a 45 beveled Al holder, and placed inside a SEM (scanning electron microscope). A nanomanipulator probe stage was placed inside the SEM equipped with an electrical feed-through, where tungsten probes were used to make two-terminal electrical measurements with an HP 4156C parameter analyzer. The positive terminal nanoprobe was mechanically manipulated to physically contact an individual CNF grown directly on NbTiN as shown by the SEM image in the inset of figure (a), while the negative terminal was grounded to the substrate. This revealed the tube was electrically conductive, although measureable currents could not be detected until approximately equal to 6 V, after which point current increased sharply until compliance (approximately equal to 50 nA) was reached at approximately equal to 9.5 V. A native oxide on the tungsten probe tips may contribute to a tunnel barrier, which could be the reason for the suppressed transport at low biases. Currents up to approximately 100 nA could be cycled, which are likely to propagate via the tube surface, or sidewalls, rather than the body, which is shown by the I-V in figure (a). Electrical conduction via the sidewalls is a necessity for dc NEMS (nanoelectromechanical system) applications, more so than for the field emission applications of such tubes. During the tests, high conductivity was expected, because both probes were shorted to the substrate, as shown by curve 1 in the I-V characteristic in figure (b). When a tube grown on NbTiN was probed, the response was similar to the approximately equal to 100 nA and is represented by curve 2 in figure (b), which could be cycled and propagated via the tube surface or the sidewalls. However, no measureable currents for the tube grown directly on Si were observed as shown by curve 3 in figure (b), even after testing over a range of samples. This could arise from a dielectric coating on the sidewalls for tubes on Si. As a result of the directional nature of ion bombardment during dc PECVD, Si from the substrate is likely re-sputtered and possibly coats the sidewalls.

  17. A simple method to synthesize carbon nanofibers with a parallel growth mode and their capacitive properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Qiuxiang; Tian, Meijuan; Yu, Jianhua; Sui, Jing; Dong, Lifeng

    2014-09-01

    Carbon nanofibers with a parallel growth mode were synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method using a nickel catalyst precursor and acetylene carbon source gas at 550 °C, the growth mechanism and growth model of which were discussed and established, respectively. In the case of no pretreatment, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and total pore volume of the as-synthesized carbon nanofibers were 214 m2·g-1 and 0.36 cm3·g-1, respectively. The maximum specific capacitance of the carbon nanofibers was 205.8 F·g-1, examined at a 0.20 V·s-1 sweep rate. The structure and morphology of the carbon nanofibers were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD).

  18. Binder-free Si nanoparticles@carbon nanofiber fabric as energy storage material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nonwoven nanofiber fabric with paper-like qualities composed of Si nanoparticles and carbon as binder-free anode electrode is reported. The nanofiber fabrics are prepared by convenient electrospinning technique, in which, the Si nanoparticles are uniformly confined in the carbon nanofibers. The high strength and flexibility of the nanofiber fabrics are beneficial for alleviating the structural deformation and facilitating ion transports throughout the whole composited electrodes. Due to the absence of binder, the less weight, higher energy density, and excellent electrical conductivity anodes can be attained. These traits make the composited nanofiber fabrics excellent used as a binder-free, mechanically flexible, high energy storage anode material in the next generation of rechargeable lithium ions batteries

  19. Imaging, spectroscopy, mechanical, alignment and biocompatibility studies of electrospun medical grade polyurethane (Carbothane™ 3575A) nanofibers and composite nanofibers containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Faheem A; Macossay, Javier; Cantu, Travis; Zhang, Xujun; Shamshi Hassan, M; Esther Salinas, M; Farhangi, Chakavak S; Ahmad, Hassan; Kim, Hern; Bowlin, Gary L

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we discuss the electrospinning of medical grade polyurethane (Carbothane™ 3575A) nanofibers containing multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes (MWCNTs). A simple method that does not depend on additional foreign chemicals has been employed to disperse MWCNTs through high intensity sonication. Typically, a polymer solution consisting of polymer/MWCNTs has been electrospun to form nanofibers. Physiochemical aspects of prepared nanofibers were evaluated by SEM, TEM, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, confirming nanofibers containing MWCNTs. The biocompatibility and cell attachment of the produced nanofiber mats were investigated while culturing them in the presence of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. The results from these tests indicated non-toxic behavior of the prepared nanofiber mats and had a significant attachment of cells towards nanofibers. The incorporation of MWCNTs into polymeric nanofibers led to an improvement in tensile stress from 11.40 ± 0.9 to 51.25 ± 5.5 MPa. Furthermore, complete alignment of the nanofibers resulted in an enhancement on tensile stress to 72.78 ± 5.5 MPa. Displaying these attributes of high mechanical properties and non-toxic nature of nanofibers are recommended for an ideal candidate for future tendon and ligament grafts. PMID:25460415

  20. Electromagnetic Properties of Novel Carbon Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Gai-Hua, DAI Bo, MA Yong-Jun, REN Yong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbonized bacterial cellulose (CBC with a three dimensional net-linked framework were synthesized from carbonized bacterial cellulose and investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum and Transmission electron microscopy. The complex permittivity and permeability of CBC/paraffin wax composite with certain ratio of the composite were measured by vector network analysis in the frequency range of 0.1–18 GHz. It is found that the composite has high permittivity and dielectric loss, especially at the low frequency. The electromagnetic characteristics of the CBC/Fe3O4 complex absorbers synthesized by mixing a small quantity of CBC with Fe3O4 were also studied, aiming at improving the microwave absorbing properties of Fe3O4/Wax composite. When the sample’s thickness was 1.2 mm, the reflection loss reached a minimal value of –21 dB for CBC - Fe3O4/Wax and of –2 dB for Fe3O4/Wax as well.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON NANOFIBERS/ ZrO 2 CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITE.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duszová, A.; Morgiel, J.; Bastl, Zden?k; Mihály, J.; Dusza, J.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 58, ?. 2 (2013), s. 459-463. ISSN 1733-3490 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : carbon nanofibers * nanocomposites * transmission electron microscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.763, year: 2013

  2. One-step facile construction of high aspect ratio Fe3O4 decorated CNFs with distinctive porous morphology: potential multiuse expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshi Hassan, M; Amna, Touseef; Hwang, I H; Khil, Myung-Seob

    2013-06-01

    The objective of our study was to develop a new class of Fe3O4 nanocrystals decorated CNFs with characteristic porous morphology by straightforward approach. The utilized CNFs-Fe3O4 hybrid was prepared by sol-gel electrospinning employing polyacrylonitrile and iron (III) nitrate nonahydrate as precursors. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were employed to characterize novel CNFs-Fe3O4 composite. Nanofibers are having porous morphology, diameter size in the range of ~260±20 nm. In order to demonstrate the broad applicability of CNFs-Fe3O4 scaffold, we performed different analysis. The antibacterial activity was tested using Escherichia coli as model organism. With NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts, cytotoxicity of prepared high aspect ratio CNFs-Fe3O4 composite was evaluated by thiazoyl blue tetrazolium-bromide (MTT) assay, and fibroblast cell growth behavior with electrospun porous scaffolds was also examined. Interestingly, the prepared nanofibers exhibited enhanced bactericidal performance (minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) from 5 ?g/mL to 80 ?g/mL) and CNFs-Fe3O4 composite as scaffolds indicated favorable enhancement in cell proliferation. Results from this study suggest that CNFs-Fe3O4 scaffold with small diameters coincidence with unique porous configuration can mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) well and provide potential promises for applications in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Our findings clearly suggest wide application potentials of this (CNFs-Fe3O4) multifunctional composite and the nanofiberous mat can be a very good candidate as a filter for water purification, antibiofouling filtration and ECM for tissue engineering. PMID:23434708

  3. Effect of Sulfur Concentration on the Morphology of Carbon Nanofibers Produced from a Botanical Hydrocarbon

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh Kaushik; Ando Yoshinori; Katoh Ryoji; Sumiyama Kenji; Ghosh Pradip; Soga Tetsuo; Jimbo Takashi

    2008-01-01

    AbstractCarbon nanofibers (CNF) with diameters of 20–130 nm with different morphologies were obtained from a botanical hydrocarbon: Turpentine oil, using ferrocene as catalyst source and sulfur as a promoter by simple spray pyrolysis method at 1,000 °C. The influence of sulfur concentration on the morphology of the carbon nanofibers was investigated. SEM, TEM, Raman, TGA/DTA, and BET surface area were employed to characterize the as-prepared samples. TEM analysis confirms that as-p...

  4. Plasma coating of carbon nanofibers for enhanced dispersion and interfacial bonding in polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrathin films of polystyrene were deposited on the surfaces of carbon nanofibers using a plasma polymerization treatment. A small percent by weight of these surface-coated nanofibers were incorporated into polystyrene to form a polymer nanocomposite. The plasma coating greatly enhanced the dispersion of the nanofibers in the polymer matrix. High-resolution transmission-electron-microscopy (HRTEM) images revealed an extremely thin film of the polymer layer (?3 nm) at the interface between the nanofiber and matrix. Tensile test results showed considerably increased strength in the coated nanofiber composite while an adverse effect was observed in the uncoated composites; the former exhibited shear yielding due to enhanced interfacial bonding while the latter fractured in a brittle fashion

  5. Physicochemical investigations of carbon nanofiber supported Cu/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Din, Israf Ud, E-mail: drisraf@yahoo.com, E-mail: maizats@petronas.com.my; Shaharun, Maizatul S., E-mail: drisraf@yahoo.com, E-mail: maizats@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (Malaysia); Subbarao, Duvvuri, E-mail: duvvuri-subbarao@petronas.com.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (Malaysia); Naeem, A., E-mail: naeeem64@yahoo.com [National Centre of Excellence in Physical Chemistry, University of Peshawar (Pakistan)

    2014-10-24

    Zirconia-promoted copper/carbon nanofiber catalysts (Cu?ZrO{sub 2}/CNF) were prepared by the sequential deposition precipitation method. The Herringbone type of carbon nanofiber GNF-100 (Graphite nanofiber) was used as a catalyst support. Carbon nanofiber was oxidized to (CNF-O) with 5% and 65 % concentration of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). The CNF activated with 5% HNO{sub 3} produced higher surface area which is 155 m{sup 2}/g. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption. The results showed that increase of HNO{sub 3} concentration reduced the surface area and porosity of the catalyst.

  6. Ultrasound-assisted preparation of electrospun carbon nanofiber/graphene composite electrode for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiang; Wang, Gang; Hu, Han; Yang, Juan; Qian, Bingqing; Ling, Zheng; Qiu, Jieshan

    2013-12-01

    Electrospun carbon nanofiber/graphene (CNF/G) composites are prepared by in situ electrospinning polymeric nanofibers with simultaneous spraying graphene oxide, followed by heat treatment. The freestanding carbon nanofiber web acts as a framework for sustaining graphene, which helps to prevent the agglomeration of graphene and to provide a high conductivity for the efficient charge transfer to the pores. The as-obtained CNF/G composite exhibits a specific capacitance of 183 F g-1, which is approximately 1.6 times higher than that of the pristine CNF. The results have demonstrated that the high performance of the CNF/G composite is due to the novel structure and the synergic effect of graphene and the carbon nanofibers.

  7. Platinum nanocluster growth on vertically aligned carbon nanofiber arrays: Sputtering experiments and molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brault, Pascal, E-mail: Pascal.Brault@univ-orleans.fr [GREMI, UMR7344 CNRS-Universite d' Orleans BP 6744, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Caillard, Amaeel [GREMI, UMR7344 CNRS-Universite d' Orleans BP 6744, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Graves, David B. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, 201 Gilman Hall 1462, University of California Berkeley, CA 94720-1462 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molecular dynamics simulation of platinum cluster growth on model carbon nanofibers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compare modeled and experimental cluster growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We determine sticking coefficient evolution among deposition time and type of nanofibers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We determine cluster size distribution on various model nanofibers. - Abstract: Sputtered platinum nanocluster growth on previously plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition - PECVD - grown vertically aligned carbon nanofiber arrays is presented. Experimental cluster size distribution is shown to decrease from the CNF top to bottom, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out for understanding early stages of Pt growth on model CNF arrays. Especially, sticking coefficients, concentration profiles along CNF wall, cluster size distributions are calculated. Simulated cluster size distribution are consistent with experimental finding. Sticking coefficient decreases against deposition time. The shape of the sticking curve reflects the nanocluster growth process.

  8. Hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur cathodes for high specific capacity rechargeable lithium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guangyuan; Yang, Yuan; Cha, Judy J; Hong, Seung Sae; Cui, Yi

    2011-10-12

    Sulfur has a high specific capacity of 1673 mAh/g as lithium battery cathodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to polysulfides dissolution presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur cathode for effective trapping of polysulfides and demonstrate experimentally high specific capacity and excellent electrochemical cycling of the cells. The hollow carbon nanofiber arrays were fabricated using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, through thermal carbonization of polystyrene. The AAO template also facilitates sulfur infusion into the hollow fibers and prevents sulfur from coating onto the exterior carbon wall. The high aspect ratio of the carbon nanofibers provides an ideal structure for trapping polysulfides, and the thin carbon wall allows rapid transport of lithium ions. The small dimension of these nanofibers provides a large surface area per unit mass for Li(2)S deposition during cycling and reduces pulverization of electrode materials due to volumetric expansion. A high specific capacity of about 730 mAh/g was observed at C/5 rate after 150 cycles of charge/discharge. The introduction of LiNO(3) additive to the electrolyte was shown to improve the Coulombic efficiency to over 99% at C/5. The results show that the hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur structure could be a promising cathode design for rechargeable Li/S batteries with high specific energy. PMID:21916442

  9. Development of radiation processing to functionalize carbon nanofiber to use in nanocomposite for industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation can be used to modify and improve the properties of materials. Electron beam and gamma ray irradiation has potential application in modifying the structure of carbon fibers in order to produce useful defects in the graphite structure and create reactive sites. In this study was investigated a methodology for radiation grafting processing to modify carbon nanofiber surfaces by grafting acrylic acid. The samples were submitted to direct radiation process. Several parameters were changed such as acrylic acid concentration, radiation dose and percentage of inhibitor to achieve functionalization with higher percentage of oxygen functional groups on carbon nanofiber surface and better dispersion. The samples were characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and the dispersion stability upon storage was visually investigated. Carbon nanofiber directed irradiated with electron beam and gamma ray in a solution of acrylic acid with 6% of inhibitor (FeSO4.7H2O) and irradiated at 100 kGy had an increase of 20% of oxygen content onto carbon nanofiber surface. The Auger D-parameter for the samples direct irradiated grafted ranged between 17.0-17.7 compared to 21.1-18.9 of the unirradiated ones. This indicated that these samples had less sp2 and more sp3 bonding characteristics than unirradiated samples. This can be an indication of C=C bond breaking leading to the formation of new sp3 carbon atoms on carbon nanofiber surface with oxygen functional groups grafted. The samples grafted presented a good and stable dispersion. (author)

  10. Orientation of Carbon Nano-fiber in Carbon/Silica Composite Prepared under High Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, N.; Fukumi, K.; Takahashi, K.; Mogi, I.; Awaji, S.; Watanabe, K.

    2011-02-01

    Carbon/silica composite films were prepared from colloidal silica aqueous solution in which vapour grown carbon nano-fibers dispersed. The orientation of nano-fibers was attempted by dip-coating substrates under high magnetic field up to 10 T. The fibers started to align along the direction of magnetic field below 1 T. The degree of orientation was saturated at about 6 T. The anisotropic susceptibility, ?? = ?//-??, was estimated to be (3.05±1.10)×10-7 cm3/mol from the fitting of numerical simulation. It was smaller than that reported in previous studies. It was deduced that perturbation of fiber orientation in the sol during drawing and drying, and the existence of coupled fibers in the starting materials suppressed the orientation of fibers.

  11. High quality fluorescent cellulose nanofibers from endemic rice husk: Isolation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, E; Nath, B K; Deb, P; Agan, F; Islam, Md R; Saikia, K

    2015-05-20

    Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) with high crystallinity and purity were isolated from two endemic rice husk varieties using a hydrothermal approach followed by acid-alkali treatments and mechanical disruption. The CNFs isolated had a mean diameter of ?35nm. The TGA and DTG profiles showed good thermostability of the CNFs. The CNFs also showed a prominent photoluminescence peak at 404nm with high quantum yield (?58%). This is the first report on the native fluorescence property of nanocellulose in absence of any conjugated fluorescence molecule/dye. The CNFs further demonstrated appreciable hemocompatibility in the hemolysis test, exhibiting its potential for biomedical applications. PMID:25817673

  12. Electrospun aligned poly(propylene carbonate) microfibers with chitosan nanofibers as tissue engineering scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xin; Mi, Hao-Yang; Peng, Jun; Peng, Xiang-Fang; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    In this study, parallel-aligned poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) microfibers with a fiber diameter of 1.48±0.42 ?m were prepared by electrospinning and modified by oxygen plasma treatment. Next, chitosan nanofibers with a fiber diameter size of 278±98 nm were introduced into the PPC fiber mats by freeze drying. Morphological analyses showed that the PPC scaffolds treated with 0.05 mg/ml chitosan solution provided the best micro and nanofiber structure with abundant chitosan nanofibers but without the formation of films. Surface chemical properties were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The initial water contact angle of the scaffolds decreased from 122.3±0.4° for neat PPC scaffolds to 53.8±1.6° for scaffolds with plasma treatment and chitosan nanofibers. The mechanical properties of the scaffolds were affected by plasma treatment with Young's modulus experiencing a reduction of 63%. Meanwhile, Young's modulus experienced a 26% improvement after the introduction of chitosan nanofibers. Fibroblast cells were cultured on the scaffolds to study the effects of both the plasma treatment and the introduction of chitosan nanofibers on cell adhesion, proliferation, and morphology. The scaffolds with PPC microfibers and chitosan nanofibers showed a superior cell response in terms of cell attachment, cell proliferation, and cell-scaffold interactions over the other scaffolds. PMID:25498720

  13. Experimental study and modeling of swelling and bubble growth in carbon nanofiber filled mesophase pitch during carbonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calebrese, Christopher

    Graphite and all carbon bipolar plates show corrosion resistance in fuel cells and provide good electrical conductivity. These materials typically need to be individually machined, a time consuming and costly process. Mesophase pitch is used to manufacture carbon fibers and carbon-carbon composites. This material provides a good starting point for the production of a moldable, all carbon bipolar plate. However, processing of mesophase pitch to produce all carbon materials requires a time intensive oxidation step to prevent swelling during carbonization. In this work, carbon nanofibers were used to reduce swelling in mesophase pitch. It was found that the increase in viscosity with the addition of carbon nanofibers was responsible for the reduction in swelling. The influence of the filler became apparent above the percolation threshold. At loadings below the percolation threshold, the swelling of the mesophase pitch was not reduced after carbonization. The swelling of the mesophase pitch at a given carbon nanofiber loading was also dependent on the length of the carbon nanofibers. Longer carbon nanofibers led to greater increases in the viscosity of the melt and thus led to greater reduction in swelling. The final carbon product was evaluated for use as a low temperature fuel cell bipolar plate material. Constraining the mesophase pitch during carbonization led to a final product with strength and electrical conductivity comparable to current composite bipolar plate materials. The addition of micron size chopped glass fibers with a softening point near 850°C and carbon nanofibers led to a final product with air permeability less than that of graphite. A spherically symmetric, single bubble growth model was also developed. The model included temperature dependence, liquid to bubble mass transfer and reactions in the system. Results from simulations showed that that the increase in viscosity due to the addition of carbon nanofibers slows the growth of bubbles, but that the time scale of single bubble growth is much shorter than the time over which the foam grows. The single bubble growth model was deemed to be applicable to low loadings of carbon nanofiber, where the bubble size distribution in the final foam is narrow.

  14. Carbonized Micro- and Nanostructures: Can Downsizing Really Help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naraghi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, we discuss relationships between morphology and mechanical strength of carbonized structures, obtained via pyrolysis of polymeric precursors, across multiple length scales, from carbon fibers (CFs with diameters of 5–10 µm to submicron thick carbon nanofibers (CNFs. Our research points to radial inhomogeneity, skin–core structure, as a size-dependent feature of polyacrylonitrile-based CFs. This inhomogeneity is a surface effect, caused by suppressed diffusion of oxygen and stabilization byproducts during stabilization through skin. Hence, reducing the precursor diameters from tens of microns to submicron appears as an effective strategy to develop homogeneous carbonized structures. Our research establishes the significance of this downsizing in developing lightweight structural materials by comparing intrinsic strength of radially inhomogeneous CFs with that of radially homogeneous CNF. While experimental studies on the strength of CNFs have targeted randomly oriented turbostratic domains, via continuum modeling, we have estimated that strength of CNFs can reach 14 GPa, when the basal planes of graphitic domains are parallel to nanofiber axis. The CNFs in our model are treated as composites of amorphous carbon (matrix, reinforced with turbostratic domains, and their strength is predicted using Tsai–Hill criterion. The model was calibrated with existing experimental data.

  15. Preparation and Application of Carbon Nanofibers-supported Palladium Nanoparticles Catalysts Based on Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Li-Ping, BAI Jie, LIANG Hai-Ou, LI Chun-Ping, SUN Wei-Yan, MENG Qing-Run

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanofibers-supported palladium nanoparticle catalysts were prepared by electrospinning, chemical reduction and the subsequent high temperature carbonization methods. The experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of different reducing agents (sodium borohydride, hydrazine hydrate and hydrogen gas on morphology of palladium nanoparticles and carbon nanofibers in detail. Catalysts were characterized by UV-Vis spectra, X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectrum, scanning electron microscope, field emission transmission electron microscope. Results show that the palladium nanoparticles are distributed uniformly on the carbon nanofibers with dimension of about 7 nm, and the catalyst is relatively flexible by using hydrogen gas as reducing agent. Then it was applied to the Heck coupling reaction to test catalytic properties and recyclability. Results indicate that the catalyst possesses excellent stability and recyclability.

  16. A novel nano-nonwoven fabric with three-dimensionally dispersed nanofibers: entrapment of carbon nanofibers within nonwovens using the wet-lay process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study demonstrates, for the first time, the manufacturing of novel nano-nonwovens that are comprised of three-dimensionally distributed carbon nanofibers within the matrices of traditional wet-laid nonwovens. The preparation of these nano-nonwovens involves dispersing and flocking carbon nanofibers, and optimizing colloidal chemistry during wet-lay formation. The distribution of nanofibers within the nano-nonwoven was verified using polydispersed aerosol filtration testing, air permeability, low surface tension liquid capillary porometry, SEM and cyclic voltammetry. All these characterization techniques indicated that nanofiber flocks did not behave as large solid clumps, but retained the ‘nanoporous’ structure expected from nanofibers. These nano-nonwovens showed significant enhancements in aerosol filtration performance. The reduction–oxidation reactions of the functional groups on nanofibers and the linear variation of electric double-layer capacitance with nanofiber loading were measured using cyclic voltammetry. More than 65 m2 (700 ft2) of the composite were made during the demonstration of process scalability using a Fourdrinier-type continuous pilot papermaking machine. The scalability of the process with the control over pore size distribution makes these composites very promising for filtration and other nonwoven applications. (paper)

  17. Electrochemical stability of carbon nanofibers in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fundamental study deals with the electrochemical stability of several non-conventional carbon based catalyst supports, intended for low temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathodes. Electrochemical surface oxidation of raw and functionalized carbon nanofibers, and carbon black for comparison, was studied following a potential step treatment at 25.0 deg. C in acid electrolyte, which mimics the operating conditions of low temperature PEMFCs. Surface oxidation was characterized using cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact angle measurements. Cyclic voltammograms clearly showed the presence of the hydroquinone/quinone couple. Furthermore, identification of carbonyl, ether, hydroxyl and carboxyl surface functional groups were made by deconvolution of the XPS spectra. The relative increase in surface oxides on carbon nanofibers during the electrochemical oxidation treatment is significantly smaller than that on carbon black. This suggests that carbon nanofibers are more resistant to the electrochemical corrosion than carbon black under the experimental conditions used in this work. This behaviour could be attributed to the differences found in the microstructure of both kinds of carbons. According to these results, carbon nanofibers possess a high potential as catalyst support to increase the durability of catalysts used in low temperature PEMFC applications.

  18. Single-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in oriented polymeric nanofibers by electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salalha, Wael; Dror, Yael; Khalfin, Rafail L; Cohen, Yachin; Yarin, Alexander L; Zussman, Eyal

    2004-10-26

    The electrospinning process was used successfully to embed single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) matrix, forming composite nanofibers. Initial dispersion of SWCNTs in water was achieved by the use of an amphiphilic alternating copolymer of styrene and sodium maleate. The resulting dispersions were stable, having a dark, smooth, ink-like appearance. For electrospinning, the dispersions were mixed with PEO solution in an ethanol/water mixture. The distribution and conformation of the nanotubes in the nanofibers were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Oxygen plasma etching was used to expose the nanotubes within the nanofibers to facilitate direct observation. Nanotube alignment within the nanofibers was shown to depend strongly on the quality of the initial dispersions. Well-dispersed and separated nanotubes were embedded in a straight and aligned form, while entangled nonseparated nanotubes were incorporated as dense aggregates. X-ray diffraction demonstrated a high degree of orientation of the PEO crystals in the electrospun nanofibers with embedded SWCNTs. This result is in pronounced distinction to the detrimental effect of incorporation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes on polymer orientation in electrospun nanofibers, as reported previously. PMID:15491224

  19. Towards Scalable Binderless Electrodes: Carbon Coated Silicon Nanofiber Paper via Mg Reduction of Electrospun SiO2 Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favors, Zachary; Bay, Hamed Hosseini; Mutlu, Zafer; Ahmed, Kazi; Ionescu, Robert; Ye, Rachel; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.

    2015-02-01

    The need for more energy dense and scalable Li-ion battery electrodes has become increasingly pressing with the ushering in of more powerful portable electronics and electric vehicles (EVs) requiring substantially longer range capabilities. Herein, we report on the first synthesis of nano-silicon paper electrodes synthesized via magnesiothermic reduction of electrospun SiO2 nanofiber paper produced by an in situ acid catalyzed polymerization of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in-flight. Free-standing carbon-coated Si nanofiber binderless electrodes produce a capacity of 802 mAh g-1 after 659 cycles with a Coulombic efficiency of 99.9%, which outperforms conventionally used slurry-prepared graphite anodes by over two times on an active material basis. Silicon nanofiber paper anodes offer a completely binder-free and Cu current collector-free approach to electrode fabrication with a silicon weight percent in excess of 80%. The absence of conductive powder additives, metallic current collectors, and polymer binders in addition to the high weight percent silicon all contribute to significantly increasing capacity at the cell level.

  20. Investigating the plasma chemistry for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes/nanofibres in an inductively coupled plasma enhanced CVD system: the effect of different gas mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, M.; Bogaerts, A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A hybrid model, called the Hybrid Plasma Equipment Model (HPEM) was used to study an inductively coupled plasma in gas mixtures of H 2 or NH 3 with CH 4 or C 2 H 2 used for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes or carbon nanofibers (CNTs/CNFs). The plasma properties are discussed for the different gas mixture at low and moderate pressure, and the growth precursors for CNTs/CNFs are analyzed. It is found that C 2 H 2, C 2 H 4, and C 2 H 6 are the predominant molecules in CH 4 containin...

  1. Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers and related structures: Controlled synthesis and directed assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The controlled synthesis of materials by methods that permit their assembly into functional nanoscale structures lies at the crux of the emerging field of nanotechnology. Although only one of several materials families is of interest, carbon-based nanostructured materials continue to attract a disproportionate share of research effort, in part because of their wide-ranging properties. Additionally, developments of the past decade in the controlled synthesis of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers have opened additional possibilities for their use as functional elements in numerous applications. Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) are a subclass of carbon nanostructured materials that can be produced with a high degree of control using catalytic plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition (C-PECVD). Using C-PECVD the location, diameter, length, shape, chemical composition, and orientation can be controlled during VACNF synthesis. Here we review the CVD and PECVD systems, growth control mechanisms, catalyst preparation, resultant carbon nanostructures, and VACNF properties. This is followed by a review of many of the application areas for carbon nanotubes and nanofibers including electron field-emission sources, electrochemical probes, functionalized sensor elements, scanning probe microscopy tips, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), hydrogen and charge storage, and catalyst support. We end by noting gaps in the understanding of VACNF growth mechanisms and the chalng of VACNF growth mechanisms and the challenges remaining in the development of methods for an even more comprehensive control of the carbon nanofiber synthesis process

  2. Effect of filler dispersion on the electromechanical response of epoxy/vapor-grown carbon nanofiber composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The piezoresistive response of epoxy/vapor-grown carbon nanofiber composites prepared by four different dispersion methods achieving different dispersion levels has been investigated. The composite response was measured as a function of carbon nanofiber loading for the different dispersion methods. Strain sensing by variation of the electrical resistance was tested through four-point bending experiments, and the dependence of the gauge factor as a function of the deformation and velocity of deformation was calculated as well as the stability of the electrical response. The composites demonstrated an appropriate response for being used as a piezoresistive sensor. Specific findings were that the intrinsic piezoresistive response was only effective around the percolation threshold and that good cluster dispersion was more appropriate for a good piezoresistive response than a uniform dispersion of individual nanofibers. The application limits of these materials for sensor applications are also addressed. (paper)

  3. Self-heating function of carbon nanofiber cement pastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galao, O.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The viability of carbon nanofiber (CNF composites incement matrices as a self-heating material is reported in this paper. This functional application would allow the use of CNF cement composites as a heating element in buildings, or for deicing pavements of civil engineering transport infrastructures, such as highways or airport runways. Cement pastes with the addition of different CNF dosages (from 0 to 5% by cement mass have been prepared. Afterwards, tests were run at different fixed voltages (50, 100 and 150V, and the temperature of the specimens was registered. Also the possibility of using a casting method like shotcrete, instead of just pouring the fresh mix into the mild (with no system’s efficiency loss expected was studied. Temperatures up to 138 °C were registered during shotcrete-5% CNF cement paste tests (showing initial 10 °C/min heating rates. However a minimum voltage was required in order to achieve a proper system functioning.En este artículo se estudia la viabilidad del uso de matrices cementicias con adición de nanofibras de carbono (NFC como elementos calefactores. Esto permitiría aumentar la temperatura de estancias en edificación o el deshielo de pavimentos en obras civiles. Se han fabricado pastas de cemento con distintas dosificaciones de NFC (0, 1, 2 y 5% respecto masa del cemento y sometidas al paso de corriente continua a distintos potenciales fijos (50, 100 y 150 V, mientras se controlaba la temperatura en distintos puntos. Se ha estudiado la viabilidad de utilizar la proyección de la pasta fresca como método de puesta en obra, sin perjudicar la eficiencia del sistema. Se consiguieron temperaturas de hasta 138 °C (con velocidades iniciales de 10 °C/min para pasta proyectada con 5% NFC. Además se ha detectado la necesidad de un potencial mínimo para que la densidad de corriente resultante sea suficiente para producir el efecto esperado.

  4. Strong and stiff aramid nanofiber/carbon nanotube nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiaqi; Cao, Wenxin; Yue, Mingli; Hou, Ying; Han, Jiecai; Yang, Ming

    2015-03-24

    Small but strong carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are fillers of choice for composite reinforcement owing to their extraordinary modulus and strength. However, the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites are still much below those for mechanical parameters of individual nanotubes. The gap between the expectation and experimental results arises not only from imperfect dispersion and poor load transfer but also from the unavailability of strong polymers that can be effectively utilized within the composites of nanotubes. Aramid nanofibers (ANFs) with analogous morphological features to nanotubes represent a potential choice to complement nanotubes given their intrinsic high mechanical performance and the dispersible nature, which enables solvent-based processing methods. In this work, we showed that composite films made from ANFs and multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) by vacuum-assisted flocculation and vacuum-assisted layer-by-layer assembly exhibited high ultimate strength of up to 383 MPa and Young's modulus (stiffness) of up to 35 GPa, which represent the highest values among all the reported random CNT nanocomposites. Detailed studies using different imaging and spectroscopic characterizations suggested that the multiple interfacial interactions between nanotubes and ANFs including hydrogen bonding and ?-? stacking are likely the key parameters responsible for the observed mechanical improvement. Importantly, our studies further revealed the attractive thermomechanical characteristics of these nanocomposites with high thermal stability (up to 520 °C) and ultralow coefficients of thermal expansion (2-6 ppm·K(-1)). Our results indicated that ANFs are promising nanoscale building blocks for functional ultrastrong and stiff materials potentially extendable to nanocomposites based on other nanoscale fillers. PMID:25712334

  5. Carbon functionalized TiO2 nanofibers for high efficiency photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghava Reddy, Kakarla; Gomes, Vincent G.; Hassan, Mahbub

    2014-03-01

    TiO2 nanofibers (30-50 nm diameter), fabricated by the electro-spinning process, were modified with organo-silane agents via a coupling reaction and were grafted with carbohydrate molecules. The mixture was carbonized to produce a uniform coating of amorphous carbon on the surface of the TiO2 nanofibers. The TiO2@C nanofibers were characterized by high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic property of the functional TiO2 and carbon nanocomposite was tested via the decomposition of an organic pollutant. The catalytic activity of the covalently functionalized nanocomposite was found to be significantly enhanced in comparison to unfunctionalized composite and pristine TiO2 due to the synergistic effect of nanostructured TiO2 and amorphous carbon bound via covalent bonds. The improvement in performance is due to bandgap modification in the 1D co-axial nanostructure where the anatase phase is bound by nano-carbon, providing a large surface to volume ratio within a confined space. The superior photocatalytic performance and recyclability of 1D TiO2@C nanofiber composites for water purification were established through dye degradation experiments.

  6. High-performance lithium storage in nitrogen-enriched carbon nanofiber webs derived from polypyrrole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • N-enriched carbon nanofiber webs are prepared via direct carbonization route with polyporrole as template. • The pyrolysis time plays an important role in N doping level and existing type. • Effect of N-doping on performance of the carbon anode material is investigated. • High reversible capacity of 238 mAh g?1 at 5 A g?1 is attained. -- Abstract: Nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber webs (N-CNFWs) are prepared by direct pyrolyzation of polypyrrole (PPy) nanofiber webs at 600 °C. The structure and morphology of N-CNFWs are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectra and elemental analysis. Both the doped N content and the N existing type in carbon, change with the pyrolysis time. As anode material for lithium-ion battery, the N-CNFWs show high capacity and good rate capability. The reversible capacity is up to 668 mAh g?1 at a current density of 0.1 A g?1 and 238 mAh g?1 at 5 A g?1, which can be ascribed to the nanofiber structure and high nitrogen content

  7. Electrospun carbon nanofibers for improved electrical conductivity of fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarifi, Ibrahim M.; Alharbi, Abdulaziz; Khan, Waseem S.; Asmatulu, Ramazan

    2015-04-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was dissolved in dimethylformamide (DMF), and then electrospun to generate nanofibers using various electrospinning conditions, such as pump speeds, DC voltages and tip-to-collector distances. The produced nanofibers were oxidized at 270 °C for 1 hr, and then carbonized at 850 °C in an argon gas for additional 1 hr. The resultant carbonized PAN nanofibers were placed on top of the pre-preg carbon fiber composites as top layers prior to the vacuum oven curing following the pre-preg composite curing procedures. The major purpose of this study is to determine if the carbonized nanofibers on the fiber reinforced composites can detect the structural defects on the composite, which may be useful for the structural health monitoring (SHM) of the composites. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the electrospun PAN fibers were well integrated on the pre-preg composites. Electrical conductivity studies under various tensile loads revealed that nanoscale carbon fibers on the fiber reinforced composites detected small changes of loads by changing the resistance values. Electrically conductive composite manufacturing can have huge benefits over the conventional composites primarily used for the military and civilian aircraft and wind turbine blades.

  8. Electrochemical behavior of TiO2/carbon dual nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charge transfer processes are favored in dual nanofibers composed by TiO2Rutile-Csemigraphitic/Csemigraphitic over other systems such as TiO2Anatase and Rutile-Camorphous/Camorphous and TiO2Rutile-Camorphous, dual and single nanofibers respectively. The study of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) shows that the net of nanofibers presented a charge transfer resistance value (Rct) of 3.15 ?. The increased ability of these materials to favor the diffusion of electroactive species in individual nanofibers is that the junction between the n-type semiconductor TiO2 and the semigraphitic material can be of the ohmic kind. Moreover, this observation was supported by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrical conductivity studies by two-probe method. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) confirmed the continuity and duality in the morphology of these materials. The effect of heat treatment on crystallinity was evident in the results obtained from the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED) studies. Due to the electrochemical performance and morphological features of TiO2Rutile-Csemigraphitic/Csemigraphitic dual nanofibers; this novel nanostructured material can be regarded as an excellent candidate for applications such as a base material for electronic devices, photocatalysis, among other similar technologies

  9. Decomposition of Fe5C2 catalyst particles in carbon nanofibers during TEM observation

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir D Blank, Boris A Kulnitskiy, Igor A Perezhogin, Yuriy L Alshevskiy and Nikita V Kazennov

    2009-01-01

    The effect of an electron beam on nanoparticles of two Fe carbide catalysts inside a carbon nanofiber was investigated in a transmission electron microscope. Electron beam exposure does not result in significant changes for cementite (?-Fe3C). However, for Hägg carbide nanoparticles (?-Fe5C2), explosive decay is observed after exposure for 5–10 s. This produces small particles of cementite and ?-Fe, each covered with a multilayer carbon shell, and significantly modifies the carbon-fiber...

  10. Characterization of carbon nanofibers by SEM, TEM, ESCA and raman spectroscopy.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tatarko, P.; Puchý, V.; Dusza, J.; Morgiel, J.; Bastl, Zden?k; Mihály, J.

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 48, ?. 6 (2010), s. 379-385. ISSN 0023-432X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : carbon micro/nanofiber * cylindrical fiber * bambo-shaped fiber Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.471, year: 2010

  11. The importance of interfacial resistance on the thermal behavior of carbon nanofiber/epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardea, Frank; Naraghi, Mohammad; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    2014-04-01

    This research addresses the thermal transport in carbon nanofiber (CNF)/epoxy composites via finite element modeling. The effects of nanofiber orientation on thermal transport are investigated through Fourier's Law of heat conduction and through simulation of a high magnitude, short heat pulse. The effect of interface thermal resistance on the effective composite thermal conductivity is also quantified. In addition, a simplified lightning strike simulation is modeled in order to analyze the effect of interfacial thermal resistance on composite behavior when subjected to multiple short heat pulses.

  12. Polyaniline nanofiber/large mesoporous carbon composites as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Xu, Bin; Jia, Mengqiu; Zhang, Mei; Cao, Bin; Zhao, Xiaonan; Wang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    A composite of polyaniline nanofiber/large mesoporous carbon (PANI-F/LMC) hybrid was prepared by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer with nano-CaCO3 templated LMC as host matrix for supercapacitors. The morphology, composition and electronic structure of the composites (PANI-F/LMC) together with pure PANI nanofibers and the LMC were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the PANI nanofibers were incorporated into the large mesochannels of LMC with interpenetrating framework formed. Such unique structure endows the PANI-F/LMC composite with a high capacitance of 473 F g-1 at a current load of 0.1 A g-1 with good rate performance and cycling stability, suggesting its potential application in the electrode material for supercapacitors.

  13. DC Plasma Synthesis of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers for Biointerfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Ryan Christopher

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) are a class of materials whose nanoscale dimensions and physical properties makes them uniquely suitable as functional elements in many applications for biodetection and biointerfacing on a cellular level. Control of VACNF synthesis by catalytic plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) presents many challenges in integration into devices and structures designed for biointerfacing, such as transparent or flexible substrates. This dissertation addresses ways to overcome many of these issues in addition to deepening the fundamental understanding of nano-synthesis in catalytic PECVD. First, a survey of the field of VACNF synthesis and biointerfacing is presented, identifying the present challenges and greatest experimental applications. It is followed by experimental observations that elucidate the underlying mechanism to fiber alignment during synthesis, a critical step for deterministic control of fiber growth. Using a grid of electrodes patterned by photolithography on an insulating substrate, it was found that the alignment of the fibers is controlled by the anisotropic etching provided by ions during dc-PECVD synthesis. The VACNFs that have been utilized for many cellular interfacing experiments have unique mechanical and fluorescent properties due to a SiNx coating. The mechanism for SiNx deposition to VACNF sidewalls during synthesis is explored in addition to a detailed study of the optical properties of the coating. To explain the optical properties of this coating it is proposed that the source of photoluminescence for the SiNx coated VACNFs is quantum confinement effects due to the presence of silicon nanoclusters embedded in a Si3N4 matrix. These luminescent fibers have proven useful as registry markers in cell impalefection studies. To realize VACNF arrays used as an inflatable angioplasty balloon with embedded fibers to deliver drugs across the blood-brain barrier, a method for transferring fibers to flexible polydimethylesiloxane (PDMS) is presented. A process has been developed that involves synthesizing fibers on aluminum, followed by spin coating a thin layer of PDMS and then dissolving the underlying aluminum with KOH. Finally, a method of fiber synthesis using just air and acetone as the process gases is presented, enabling the possibility of inatmosphere, large scale VACNF synthesis. It is envisioned that these advancements should assist the viability of large scale VACNF related technologies and will help to bridge the gap between experimental applications and industrial adoption.

  14. Decomposition of Fe5C2 catalyst particles in carbon nanofibers during TEM observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir D Blank, Boris A Kulnitskiy, Igor A Perezhogin, Yuriy L Alshevskiy and Nikita V Kazennov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an electron beam on nanoparticles of two Fe carbide catalysts inside a carbon nanofiber was investigated in a transmission electron microscope. Electron beam exposure does not result in significant changes for cementite (?-Fe3C. However, for Hägg carbide nanoparticles (?-Fe5C2, explosive decay is observed after exposure for 5–10 s. This produces small particles of cementite and ?-Fe, each covered with a multilayer carbon shell, and significantly modifies the carbon-fiber structure. It is considered that the decomposition of Hägg carbide is mostly due to the damage induced by high-energy electron collisions with the crystal lattice, accompanied by the heating of the particle and by mechanical stress provided by the carbon layers of the nanofiber.

  15. Decomposition of Fe5C2 catalyst particles in carbon nanofibers during TEM observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Vladimir D.; Kulnitskiy, Boris A.; Perezhogin, Igor A.; Alshevskiy, Yuriy L.; Kazennov, Nikita V.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of an electron beam on nanoparticles of two Fe carbide catalysts inside a carbon nanofiber was investigated in a transmission electron microscope. Electron beam exposure does not result in significant changes for cementite (?-Fe3C). However, for Hägg carbide nanoparticles (?-Fe5C2), explosive decay is observed after exposure for 5-10 s. This produces small particles of cementite and ?-Fe, each covered with a multilayer carbon shell, and significantly modifies the carbon-fiber structure. It is considered that the decomposition of Hägg carbide is mostly due to the damage induced by high-energy electron collisions with the crystal lattice, accompanied by the heating of the particle and by mechanical stress provided by the carbon layers of the nanofiber.

  16. Durability of Carbon Nanofiber (CNF) & Carbon Nanotube (CNT) as Catalyst Support for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Borghei, Maryam; Lund, Peter; Elina, Yli-Rantala; Pasanen, Antti; Kauppinen, Esko; Ruiz, Virginia; Kauranen, Pertti; Skou, Eivind Morten

    2013-01-01

    Durability issues have recently been given much attention in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) research. It gives fundamental definition for cell life time, capital cost, system stability and technique reliability. Loss of catalyst surface area due to corrosion of supporting material (normally carbon black) is one of the essential degradation mechanisms during cell operation. In this work, durability of Carbon Nanofibers (CNF) & Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) as alternative platinum catalyst...

  17. Enhancing capacitive deionization performance of electrospun activated carbon nanofibers by coupling with carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiang; Wang, Gang; Wu, Tingting; Peng, Senpei; Qiu, Jieshan

    2015-05-15

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an alternative, effective and environmentally friendly technology for desalination of brackish water. The performance of the CDI device is highly determined by the electrode materials. In this paper, a composite of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) embedded in activated carbon nanofiber (ACF) was prepared by a direct co-electrospinning way and subsequent CO2 activation. The introduction of CNTs can greatly improve the conductivity while the CO2-mediated activation can render the final product with high porosity. As such, the hybrid structure can provide an excellent storage space and pathways for ion adsorption and conduction. When evaluated as electrode materials for CDI, the as-prepared CNT/ACF composites with higher electrical conductivity and mesopore ratios exhibited higher electrosorption capacity and good regeneration performance in comparison with the pure ACF. PMID:25595622

  18. Microwave absorption properties of helical carbon nanofibers-coated carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Helical carbon nanofibers (HCNFs coated-carbon fibers (CFs were fabricated by catalytic chemical vapor deposition method. TEM and Raman spectroscopy characterizations indicate that the graphitic layers of the HCNFs changed from disorder to order after high temperature annealing. The electromagnetic parameters and microwave absorption properties were measured at 2–18 GHz. The maximum reflection loss is 32 dB at 9 GHz and the widest bandwidth under ?10 dB is 9.8 GHz from 8.2 to 18 GHz for the unannealed HCNFs coated-CFs composite with 2.5 mm in thickness, suggesting that HCNFs coated-CFs should have potential applications in high performance microwave absorption materials.

  19. Increased response/recovery lifetimes and reinforcement of Polyaniline Nanofiber Films using Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Jonathan Nesbit; Blighe, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    We have prepared high surface area, conductive, mechanically robust, responsive polyaniline-carbon nanotune composite films. These were produced by filtration from dilute dispersions of polyaniline nanofibers and single-walled carbon nanotubes. Unlike polyaniline alone, these composites are mechanically stable, maintain large intractable surfaces and exhibit greatly enhanced response/recovery behavior to changes in their local environment. This is illustrated by exposing the films to ammonia.

  20. The interfacial strength of carbon nanofiber epoxy composite using single fiber pullout experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers are extensively researched as reinforcing agents in nanocomposites for their multifunctionality, light weight and high strength. However, it is the interface between the nanofiber and the matrix that dictates the overall properties of the nanocomposite. The current trend is to measure elastic properties of the bulk nanocomposite and then compare them with theoretical models to extract the information on the interfacial strength. The ideal experiment is single fiber pullout from the matrix because it directly measures the interfacial strength. However, the technique is difficult to apply to nanocomposites because of the small size of the fibers and the requirement for high resolution force and displacement sensing. We present an experimental technique for measuring the interfacial strength of nanofiber-reinforced composites using the single fiber pullout technique and demonstrate the technique for a carbon nanofiber-reinforced epoxy composite. The experiment is performed in situ in a scanning electron microscope and the interfacial strength for the epoxy composite was measured to be 170 MPa.

  1. LiCoPO4—3D carbon nanofiber composites as possible cathode materials for high voltage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrospun and carbonized 3D nanofiber mats coated with olivine structured lithium cobalt phosphate (LiCoPO4) were formed by a Pechini-assisted sol–gel process as cathode material for lithium ion batteries. 3D nonwoven nanofibers were soaked in aqueous solution containing lithium, cobalt salts and phosphates at 80 °C for 2 h. Then, the composites were dried and annealed at 730 °C for 2 to 12 h in nitrogen atmosphere. Crystalline deposits were uniformly distributed on the carbon nanofiber surface. The “loading” of the cathode material on the 3D carbon nanofiber composites reached 300 wt%. The electrochemical measurements revealed the discharge specific capacity (measured at a discharge rate of 0.1 C and room temperature) reaching a maximum value of 46 mAh g?1 after annealing time t = 5 h

  2. Cyclability study of silicon-carbon composite anodes for lithium-ion batteries using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? Silicon-carbon anode materials for Li-ion batteries were synthesized. ? Carbonization and annealing processes were used in electrode preparation. ? Capacity fading mechanism was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. ? Impedance evolution revealed better stability of the carbonized anode material. - Abstract: The effects of carbonization process and carbon nanofiber/nanotube additives on the cycling stability of silicon-carbon composite anodes were investigated by monitoring the impedance evolution during charge/discharge cycles with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Three types of Si-C anodes were investigated: the first type consisted of Si nanoparticles incorporated into a network of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), with annealed polymer binder. The second type of Si-C anodes was prepared by further heat treatment of the first Si-C anodes to carbonize the polymer binder. The third Si-C anode was as same as the second one except no CNFs and MWNTs being added. Impedance analysis revealed that the carbonization process stabilized the Si-C anode structure and decreased the charge transfer resistance, thus improving the cycling stability. On the other hand, although the MWNTs/CNFs additives could enhance the electronic conductivity of the Si-C anodes, the induced inhomogeneous structure decreased the integrity of the electrode, resulting in a poor long term cycling stability.poor long term cycling stability.

  3. Silicon nanoparticles encapsulated in hollow graphitized carbon nanofibers for lithium ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Junhua; Yee, Wu Aik; Wei, Yuefan; Yang, Liping; Ang, Jia Ming; Phua, Si Lei; Wong, Siew Yee; Zhou, Rui; Dong, Yuliang; Li, Xu; Lu, Xuehong

    2013-03-01

    Silicon (Si) is a promising material for lithium ion battery (LIB) anodes due to its high specific capacity. To overcome its shortcomings such as insulation property and large volume change during the charge-discharge process, a novel hybrid system, Si nanoparticles encapsulated in hollow graphitized carbon nanofibers, is studied. First, electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-Si hybrid nanofibers were obtained using water as the collector. The loose nanofiber lumps suspended in water have large inter-fiber distance, allowing in situ coating of a thin layer of polydopamine (PDA), the source for graphitized carbon, uniformly throughout the system. The designed morphology and structure were then realized by etching and calcination, and the morphology and structure were subsequently verified by various analytical techniques. Electrochemical measurements show that the resulting hollow hybrid nanofibers (C-PDA-Si NFs) exhibit much better cycling stability and rate capacity than conventional C/Si nanofibers derived by electrospinning of PAN-Si followed by calcination. For instance, the capacity of C-PDA-Si NFs is as high as 72.6% of the theoretical capacity after 50 cycles, and a high capacity of 500 mA h g-1 can be delivered at a current density of 5 A g-1. The significantly improved electrochemical properties of C-PDA-Si NFs are due to the excellent electrical conductivity of the carbonized PDA (C-PDA) shell that compensates for the insulation property of Si, the high electrochemical activity of C-PDA, which has a layered structure and is N-doped, the hollow nature of the nanofibers and small size of Si nanoparticles that ensure smooth insertion-extraction of lithium ions and more complete alloying with them, as well as the buffering effect of the remaining PAN-derived carbon around the Si nanoparticles, which stabilizes the structure.Silicon (Si) is a promising material for lithium ion battery (LIB) anodes due to its high specific capacity. To overcome its shortcomings such as insulation property and large volume change during the charge-discharge process, a novel hybrid system, Si nanoparticles encapsulated in hollow graphitized carbon nanofibers, is studied. First, electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-Si hybrid nanofibers were obtained using water as the collector. The loose nanofiber lumps suspended in water have large inter-fiber distance, allowing in situ coating of a thin layer of polydopamine (PDA), the source for graphitized carbon, uniformly throughout the system. The designed morphology and structure were then realized by etching and calcination, and the morphology and structure were subsequently verified by various analytical techniques. Electrochemical measurements show that the resulting hollow hybrid nanofibers (C-PDA-Si NFs) exhibit much better cycling stability and rate capacity than conventional C/Si nanofibers derived by electrospinning of PAN-Si followed by calcination. For instance, the capacity of C-PDA-Si NFs is as high as 72.6% of the theoretical capacity after 50 cycles, and a high capacity of 500 mA h g-1 can be delivered at a current density of 5 A g-1. The significantly improved electrochemical properties of C-PDA-Si NFs are due to the excellent electrical conductivity of the carbonized PDA (C-PDA) shell that compensates for the insulation property of Si, the high electrochemical activity of C-PDA, which has a layered structure and is N-doped, the hollow nature of the nanofibers and small size of Si nanoparticles that ensure smooth insertion-extraction of lithium ions and more complete alloying with them, as well as the buffering effect of the remaining PAN-derived carbon around the Si nanoparticles, which stabilizes the structure. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The photo of an electrospinning setup with a liquid collector, the photos of a compact electrospun PAN mat and that with PDA coating, the XRD pattern and TGA profile of carbonized PAN-Si hybrid nanofibers, SEM images, FTIR and Raman spectra of hollow PDA nanofibers, the cycling capacity of C-PDA-Si NFs which are prepared

  4. Vertically aligned carbon nanofiber as nano-neuron interface for monitoring neural function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson, Milton Nance [ORNL; McKnight, Timothy E [ORNL; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich [ORNL; Simpson, Michael L [ORNL; Morrison, Barclay [ORNL; Yu, Zhe [Columbia University

    2012-01-01

    Neural chips, which are capable of simultaneous, multi-site neural recording and stimulation, have been used to detect and modulate neural activity for almost 30 years. As a neural interface, neural chips provide dynamic functional information for neural decoding and neural control. By improving sensitivity and spatial resolution, nano-scale electrodes may revolutionize neural detection and modulation at cellular and molecular levels as nano-neuron interfaces. We developed a carbon-nanofiber neural chip with lithographically defined arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanofiber electrodes and demonstrated its capability of both stimulating and monitoring electrophysiological signals from brain tissues in vitro and monitoring dynamic information of neuroplasticity. This novel nano-neuron interface can potentially serve as a precise, informative, biocompatible, and dual-mode neural interface for monitoring of both neuroelectrical and neurochemical activity at the single cell level and even inside the cell.

  5. Novel catalytic applications of carbon nanofibers on sintered metal fibers filters as structured supports

    OpenAIRE

    Ruta, Marina

    2008-01-01

    Supported metal catalysts are important from both an industrial and a scientific point of view. They are used, amongst others, in large-scale processes such as catalytic reforming, hydrotreating, polymerization reactions and hydrogenations. Often, these catalysts consist of nanosized metal particles deposited on a suitable support, which acts as an anchor for the active phase and, in several cases, contributes to improve the overall catalyst performances. The growth of carbon nanofibers on si...

  6. Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced and PU-toughened POM Ternary Composites: Friction, Wear and Creep Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Suchart Siengchin

    2011-01-01

    Composites composed of polyoxymethylene (POM), polyurethane (PU) and carbon nanofiber (CNF) were produced by water-mediated melt compounding. PU latex and/or aqueous CNF dispersion were introduced into the molten POM in laboratory kneader to prepare toughened and/or nanoreinforced POM composites. The dispersion of the CNF was inspected using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties (friction, wear and creep strain) of the composites were determined by roller (steel)-on-pl...

  7. A New Strategy to Pretreat Carbon Nanofiber and Its Application in Determination of Dopamine

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Liu; Yang Liu; Haoqing Hou; Tianyan You

    2010-01-01

    A novel sonochemical process, using hydrogen peroxide in a laboratory ultrasonic bath, was employed to pretreat the carbon nanofiber (CNF) for creating oxygen-rich groups on the surface of CNF. After the sonochemical process, the CNF showed good hydrophilicity and high electrochemical activity. Compared to normal pretreatment process, this sonochemical process is timesaving and effective for dispersion and functionalization of CNF. The resulting CNF showed high catalytic activity toward the o...

  8. Carbon nanofiber aerogels for emergent cleanup of oil spillage and chemical leakage under harsh conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen-Yu Wu; Chao Li; Hai-Wei Liang; Yu-Ning Zhang; Xin Wang; Jia-Fu Chen; Shu-Hong Yu

    2014-01-01

    To address oil spillage and chemical leakage accidents, the development of efficient sorbent materials is of global importance for environment and water source protection. Here we report on a new type of carbon nanofiber (CNF) aerogels as efficient sorbents for oil uptake with high sorption capacity and excellent recyclability. Importantly, the oil uptake ability of the CNF aerogels can be maintained over a wide temperature range, from liquid nitrogen temperature up to ca. 400°C, making them...

  9. Carbon Nanofibers enhance the Fracture toughness and Fatigue Performance of a Structural Epoxy system

    OpenAIRE

    Bortz, Daniel R.; Merino, Ce?sar; Martin-gullon, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This study investigates the monotonic and dynamic fracture characteristics of a discontinuous fiber reinforced polymer matrix. Specifically, small amounts (0-1 wt%) of a helical-ribbon carbon nanofiber (CNF) were added to an amine cured epoxy system. The resulting nanocomposites were tested to failure in two modes of testing; Mode I fracture toughness and constant amplitude of stress tension-tension fatigue. Fracture toughness testing revealed that adding 0.5 and 1.0 wt% C...

  10. The effect of carbon nano?ber properties as support for PtRu nanoparticles on the electrooxidation of alcohols

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastián del Río, David; Suelves Laiglesia, Isabel; Moliner Álvarez, Rafael; Lázaro Elorri, María Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) characterized by different mean diameter, BET surface area, pore volume and crystallinity were prepared and studied as supports for PtRu nanoparticles to investigate the influence of the support characteristics on the performance for the electrooxidation of alcohols. A modified microemulsion procedure was used to deposit the metal nanoparticles minimizing the effect of the support on the catalyst particle size. PtRu nanoparticles of ca. 2 nm size wer...

  11. Electrochemical properties of oxygenated cup-stacked carbon nanofiber-modified electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seongjae; Tatsuma, Tetsu; Sakoda, Akiyoshi; Sakai, Yasuyuki; Komori, Kikuo

    2014-06-28

    Oxygenated cup-stacked carbon nanofibers (CSCNFs), the surface of which provides highly ordered graphene edges and oxygen-containing functional groups, were investigated as electrode materials by using typical redox species in electrochemistry, Fe(2+/3+), [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-), and dopamine. The electron transfer rates for these redox species at oxygenated CSCNF electrodes were higher than those at edge-oriented pyrolytic graphite and glassy carbon electrodes. In addition, the oxygen-containing functional groups also contributed to the electron transfer kinetics at the oxygenated CSCNF surface. The electron transfer rate of Fe(2+/3+) was accelerated and that of [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) was decelerated by the oxygen-containing groups, mainly due to the electrostatic attraction and repulsion, respectively. The electrochemical reaction selectivities at the oxygenated CSCNF surface were tunable by controlling the amount of nanofibers and the oxygen/carbon atomic ratio at the nanofiber surface. Thus, the oxygenated CSCNFs would be useful electrode materials for energy-conversion, biosensing, and other electrochemical devices. PMID:24817367

  12. The influence of the dispersion method on the electrical properties of vapor-grown carbon nanofiber/epoxy composites

    OpenAIRE

    Covas José; van Hattum Ferrie; Simoes Ricardo; Klosterman Donald; Cardoso Paulo; Silva Jaime; Lanceros-Mendez Senentxu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The influence of the dispersion of vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNF) on the electrical properties of VGCNF/Epoxy composites has been studied. A homogenous dispersion of the VGCNF does not imply better electrical properties. In fact, it is demonstrated that the most simple of the tested dispersion methods results in higher conductivity, since the presence of well-distributed nanofiber clusters appears to be a key factor for increasing composite conductivity. PACS: 72.80.Tm; 73.63....

  13. Synthesis of carbon nanofibers by catalytic pyrolysis of ethylene and methane at hydrides of lanthanum-nickel intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanofibers were synthesized by pyrolysis of ethylene and methane on hydrides of LaNinHx (n=2, 3, 5; x=0.1-4) intermetallic compounds. Effect of parameters of the synthesis: temperature and relation of gases in the Ar:H2:C2H4 (CH4) mixture on the structure of formed nanofibers is studied. Used hydrides of nickel intermetallic compounds are more appropriate catalytic systems than metallic nickel

  14. Simple synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanofibers with hierarchical nanostructure for ultrahigh lithium storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yalan; Wang, Yanjie; Zhou, Chungen; Zhang, Shichao; Fang, Baizeng

    2014-02-26

    In this study, a simple and reproducible synthesis strategy was developed to fabricate mesoporous carbon nanofibers (MCNFs) by using dual hard templates, a porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, and colloidal silica (Ludox TM-40). By using commercial templates, and removing AAO and the silica simultaneously, the synthesis procedures for MCNFs are greatly simplified without the need for separate preparation or the removal of templates in sequence. With phenol resin as a carbon precursor, the as-prepared MCNFs material reveals not only high surface area and mesoporous volume but also hierarchical nanostructure composed of hollow macrochannels derived from the AAO template, large mesopores (ca. 22 nm) from the removal of silica particles and micropores from the carbonization of phenol resin. Such unique surface and structural characteristics could provide a large quantity of active sites for Li storage and facilitate fast mass transport. Moreover, a one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanofiber (CNF) nanostructure favors fast electron transfer. The as-prepared MCNF anode demonstrates ultrahigh lithium storage capacity particularly at high rates, which is much higher than that reported for the commercial graphite and also significantly higher than other nanostructured carbon materials, such as ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-3 and ordered multimodal porous carbon (OMPC). PMID:24490802

  15. Preparation of asymmetrically distributed bimetal ceria (CeO?) and copper (Cu) nanoparticles in nitrogen-doped activated carbon micro/nanofibers for the removal of nitric oxide (NO) by reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, Bhaskar; Verma, Nishith

    2014-12-15

    A novel multi-scale web of carbon micro/nanofibers (ACF/CNF) was prepared by the catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD), in which CeO2 and Cu nanoparticles (NPs) were in-situ incorporated during a synthesis step. The CVD temperature was adjusted such that the prepared material had asymmetric distribution of the bimetals, with the Cu NPs located at the tips of the CNFs and the CeO2 particles adhered to the surface of the ACF substrate. The prepared bimetals-dispersed web of ACF/CNF was treated with pyridine and the surface functionalized material was applied for the removal of NO by reduction. The complete reduction of NO was achieved at 500°C and for 400ppm NO concentration. Whereas the Cu NPs acted as the catalyst for the reduction, CeO2 facilitated the incorporation of nitrogen from the pyridine source into the ACF/CNF surface. The produced nitrogen containing surface functional groups enhanced the reactivity of the material toward the NO. The bimetals CeO2 and Cu nanoparticles (NPs)-dispersed ACF/CNF produced in this study is a potential candidate for effectively removing NO by reduction, without requiring urea or ammonia used in conventional abatement methods. PMID:25278359

  16. Hydrazine decomposition over iridium supported on carbon nanofibers composite for space applications: near actual flight conditions tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Ricardo; Ledoux, Marc-Jacques; Pham-Huu, Cuong [Laboratoire des Materiaux, Surfaces et Procedes pour la Catalyse LMSPC, UMR 7515 du CNRS, ECPM-ULP, 25 rue Becquerel, F-67087 Cedex 2, Strasbourg (France); Bastos-Netto, Demetrio [Laboratorio de Combustao e Propulsao, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, rodovia Presidente Dutra Km 40, 12630-000, Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2005-01-28

    Hydrazine-type monopropellant propulsion is well suited to attitude and orbit control systems on satellites. These systems are powered by micro thrusters with 30-40wt.% iridium supported on alumina as catalyst for hydrazine decomposition. Carbon nanofibers with macroscopic shaping can be used as an alternative to the traditional support. This new material is prepared by chemical vapor deposition of ethane on nickel particles dispersed upon the surface of the graphite felt. The carbon nanofiber-based composite was impregnated with 30wt.% of iridium. The overall performances of these catalysts have been evaluated for the hydrazine catalytic decomposition reaction in a 2N micro thruster into a vacuum chamber, i.e., under near actual flight conditions. The results obtained were compared with those of a commercial catalyst (Shell 405). The carbon nanofibers-based catalysts showed far better performance than the commercial catalyst from a standpoint of activity due to its texture and its high thermal conductivity.

  17. Immobilization and release strategies for DNA delivery using carbon nanofiber arrays and self-assembled monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckys, Diana B; Melechko, Anatoli V; Simpson, Michael L; McKnight, Timothy E

    2009-04-01

    We report a strategy for immobilizing dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) onto vertically aligned carbon nanofibers and subsequently releasing this dsDNA following penetration and residence of these high aspect ratio structures within cells. Gold-coated nanofiber arrays were modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAM) to which reporter dsDNA was covalently and end-specifically bound with or without a cleavable linker. The DNA-modified nanofiber arrays were then used to impale, and thereby transfect, Chinese hamster lung epithelial cells. This mechanical approach enables the transport of bound ligands directly into the cell nucleus and consequently bypasses extracellular and cytosolic degradation. Statistically significant differences were observed between the expression levels from immobilized and releasable DNA, and these are discussed in relation to the distinct accessibility and mode of action of glutathione, an intracellular reducing agent responsible for releasing the bound dsDNA. These results prove for the first time that an end-specifically and covalently SAM-bound DNA can be expressed in cells. They further demonstrate how the choice of immobilization and release methods can impact expression of nanoparticle delivered DNA. PMID:19420523

  18. Immobilization and release strategies for DNA delivery using carbon nanofiber arrays and self-assembled monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckys, Diana B.; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Simpson, Michael L.; McKnight, Timothy E.

    2009-04-01

    We report a strategy for immobilizing dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) onto vertically aligned carbon nanofibers and subsequently releasing this dsDNA following penetration and residence of these high aspect ratio structures within cells. Gold-coated nanofiber arrays were modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAM) to which reporter dsDNA was covalently and end-specifically bound with or without a cleavable linker. The DNA-modified nanofiber arrays were then used to impale, and thereby transfect, Chinese hamster lung epithelial cells. This mechanical approach enables the transport of bound ligands directly into the cell nucleus and consequently bypasses extracellular and cytosolic degradation. Statistically significant differences were observed between the expression levels from immobilized and releasable DNA, and these are discussed in relation to the distinct accessibility and mode of action of glutathione, an intracellular reducing agent responsible for releasing the bound dsDNA. These results prove for the first time that an end-specifically and covalently SAM-bound DNA can be expressed in cells. They further demonstrate how the choice of immobilization and release methods can impact expression of nanoparticle delivered DNA.

  19. Immobilization and release strategies for DNA delivery using carbon nanofiber arrays and self-assembled monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a strategy for immobilizing dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) onto vertically aligned carbon nanofibers and subsequently releasing this dsDNA following penetration and residence of these high aspect ratio structures within cells. Gold-coated nanofiber arrays were modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAM) to which reporter dsDNA was covalently and end-specifically bound with or without a cleavable linker. The DNA-modified nanofiber arrays were then used to impale, and thereby transfect, Chinese hamster lung epithelial cells. This mechanical approach enables the transport of bound ligands directly into the cell nucleus and consequently bypasses extracellular and cytosolic degradation. Statistically significant differences were observed between the expression levels from immobilized and releasable DNA, and these are discussed in relation to the distinct accessibility and mode of action of glutathione, an intracellular reducing agent responsible for releasing the bound dsDNA. These results prove for the first time that an end-specifically and covalently SAM-bound DNA can be expressed in cells. They further demonstrate how the choice of immobilization and release methods can impact expression of nanoparticle delivered DNA.

  20. Fabrication of Homogeneous Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube/ Poly (vinyl alcohol Composite Nanofibers for Microwave Absorption Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoushtari A.M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Poly (vinyl alcohol (PVA / sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS / multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT camposite nanofibers with various MWCNT contents (up to 10 wt% were fabricated by electrospinning process and their microwave absorption properties were evaluated by a vector network analyzer in the frequency range of 8-12 GHz (X-band at room temperature. The uniform, stable dispersion and well oriented MWCNT within the PVA matrix were achieved through using SDS as dispersing agent. The SEM analysis of the nanofibers samples revealed that the deformation of the nanofibers increases with increasing MWCNT concentration. Very smooth surface of the composite electrospun nanofibers even for the nanofibers with concentration of 10 wt% MWCNT have been successfully prepared because of the high stability dispersion of MWCNT. It was observed that absorption microwave properties improved with increasing in the loading levels of MWCNT. Finally, the PVA/SDS/MWCNT composite nanofibers sample with the 10 wt% content of MWCNT has shown the reflection loss of 15 dB at the frequency of 8 GHz.

  1. Residual gas analysis of a dc plasma for carbon nanofiber growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the analysis of a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process for carbon nanofiber growth. A direct current (dc) plasma is employed with a mixture of acetylene and ammonia. Residual gas analysis is performed on the downstream plasma effluent to determine degrees of precursor dissociation and high molecular weight species formation. Results are correlated to growth quality obtained in the plasma as a function of dc voltage/power, gas mixture, and pressure. Behaviors in plasma chemistry are understood through application of a zero-dimensional model

  2. Carbon nanofiber aerogels for emergent cleanup of oil spillage and chemical leakage under harsh conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Yu; Li, Chao; Liang, Hai-Wei; Zhang, Yu-Ning; Wang, Xin; Chen, Jia-Fu; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2014-02-01

    To address oil spillage and chemical leakage accidents, the development of efficient sorbent materials is of global importance for environment and water source protection. Here we report on a new type of carbon nanofiber (CNF) aerogels as efficient sorbents for oil uptake with high sorption capacity and excellent recyclability. Importantly, the oil uptake ability of the CNF aerogels can be maintained over a wide temperature range, from liquid nitrogen temperature up to ca. 400°C, making them suitable for oil cleanup under harsh conditions. The outstanding sorption performance of CNF aerogels is associated with their unique physical properties, such as low density, high porosity, excellent mechanical stability, high hydrophobicity and superoleophilicity.

  3. Carbon nanofiber aerogels for emergent cleanup of oil spillage and chemical leakage under harsh conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Yu; Li, Chao; Liang, Hai-Wei; Zhang, Yu-Ning; Wang, Xin; Chen, Jia-Fu; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2014-01-01

    To address oil spillage and chemical leakage accidents, the development of efficient sorbent materials is of global importance for environment and water source protection. Here we report on a new type of carbon nanofiber (CNF) aerogels as efficient sorbents for oil uptake with high sorption capacity and excellent recyclability. Importantly, the oil uptake ability of the CNF aerogels can be maintained over a wide temperature range, from liquid nitrogen temperature up to ca. 400°C, making them suitable for oil cleanup under harsh conditions. The outstanding sorption performance of CNF aerogels is associated with their unique physical properties, such as low density, high porosity, excellent mechanical stability, high hydrophobicity and superoleophilicity. PMID:24518262

  4. Interrogating vertically oriented carbon nanofibers with nanomanipulation for nanoelectromechanical switching applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have demonstrated electrostatic switching in vertically oriented carbon nanofibers synthesized on refractory metallic nitride substrates, where pull-in voltages Vpi ranged from 10 to 40 V. A nanoprobe was used as the actuating electrode inside a scanning-electron microscope and van der Waals interactions at these length scales appeared significant, suggesting such structures are promising for nonvolatile memory applications. A finite element model was also developed to determine a theoretical Vpi and results were compared to experiment. Nanomanipulation tests also revealed tubes synthesized directly on Si by dc plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition with ammonia and acetylene were electrically unsuitable for dc nanoelectromechanical switching applications.

  5. A carbon nanofiber-based label free immunosensor for high sensitive detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Syazana Abdullah; Ahmed, Minhaz Uddin

    2015-08-15

    A carbon nanofiber-based label free electrochemical immunosensor for sensitive detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) was developed. In this immunosensor design, a mild site-directed antibody immobilization via interaction of boronic acid and oligosaccharide moiety found on Fc region of an antibody was performed to preserve the biological activity of antibody and improve the sensor's sensitivity. Electrochemical characterization of the immunosensor fabrication was carried out by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in Fe(CN)6(3-)/Fe(CN)6(4-) probe. A comparison study between different transducer platforms showed carbon nanofiber gave higher current signal response than single-walled carbon nanotube. In this work, calibration curve was obtained from the decrease of DPV peak current of Fe(CN)6(3-)/Fe(CN)6(4-) after immunocomplexed was formed. A linear relationship between DPV current change signal response and rbST concentrations from 1pg/mL to 10ng/mL (correlation coefficient of 0.9721) was achieved with detection limit of 1pg/mL. Our developed immunosensor demonstrated high selectivity in cross-reactivity studies and a good percentage recovery in spiked bovine serum sample. PMID:25794957

  6. Electrically conductive carbon nanofiber/paraffin wax composites for electric thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Carbon nanofiber (CNF)/paraffin wax composite is found to be a promising electric thermal storage material. ? The thermal storage capacity of CNF/paraffin wax composite is five times of traditional electric thermal storage material. ? CNF is shown to be an effective conductive filler for the composite. - Abstract: The research of electric thermal storage (ETS) has attracted a lot of attention recently, which converts off-peak electrical energy into thermal energy and release it later at peak hours. In this study, new electric thermal storage composites are developed by employing paraffin wax as thermal storage media and carbon nanofiber (CNF) as conductive fillers. Electric heating and thermal energy release performances of the CNF/paraffin wax composites are experimentally investigated. Experimental results show that, when the composites are heated to about 70 °C, the developed electrically conductive CNF/paraffin wax composites present a thermal storage capacity of about 280 kJ/kg, which is five times of that of traditional thermal storage medium such as ceramic bricks (54 kJ/kg). The CNF/paraffin wax composites can also effectively store the thermal energy and release the thermal energy in later hours.

  7. Superhydrophobic and conductive carbon nanofiber/PTFE composite coatings for EMI shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arindam; Hayvaci, Harun T; Tiwari, Manish K; Bayer, Ilker S; Erricolo, Danilo; Megaridis, Constantine M

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a solvent-based, mild method to prepare superhydrophobic, carbon nanofiber/PTFE-filled polymer composite coatings with high electrical conductivity and reports the first data on the effectiveness of such coatings as electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials. The coatings are fabricated by spraying dispersions of carbon nanofibers and sub-micron PTFE particles in a polymer blend solution of poly(vinyledene fluoride) and poly(methyl methacrylate) on cellulosic substrates. Upon drying, coatings display static water contact angles as high as 158° (superhydrophobic) and droplet roll-off angles of 10° indicating self-cleaning ability along with high electrical conductivities (up to 309 S/m). 100 ?m-thick coatings are characterized in terms of their EMI shielding effectiveness in the X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz). Results show up to 25 dB of shielding effectiveness, which changed little with frequency at a fixed composition, thus indicating the potential of these coatings for EMI shielding applications and other technologies requiring both extreme liquid repellency and high electrical conductivity. PMID:20889160

  8. Morphological characterization of carbon-nanofiber-reinforced epoxy nanocomposites using ultra-small angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the properties of nanocomposites reinforced with vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (VGCFs) can be found throughout the literature. Electrical, mechanical, viscoelastic, and rheological properties are just a few of the characteristics that have been well discussed. Although these properties depend on morphology, morphological characterization is rare. Due to its 2-dimensional nature, microscopy is of limited value when analyzing network morphologies. This work will show how the characterization of the three-dimensional geometry and network formation of VGCFs can be determined using ultra-small angle scattering techniques. Ultra-small angle x-ray and neutron scattering (USAXS and USANS) were used to characterize the morphology of carbon nanofibers suspended in epoxy. Using a simplified tube model, we estimate the dimensions of suspended fibers. The assumption of tubular fibers accounts for the increased surface area observed with USAXS that is not accounted for using a solid rod model. Furthermore, USANS was used to search for a structural signature associated with the electrical percolation threshold. USANS extends to longer dimensional scales than USAXS, which measures a smaller range of momentum transfer. To determine the electrical percolation threshold, AC impedance spectroscopy was employed to verify that an electrically conductive, percolated network forms at VGCNF loadings of 0.8% < CNF wt% < 1.2%. These values correlate with the USANS data, where a morphrrelate with the USANS data, where a morphological transition is seen at ?1.2% loading.

  9. Improving Microstructure of Silicon/Carbon Nanofiber Composites as A Li Battery Anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; Burton, David J. [Applied Sciences, Inc.; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Nazri, Maryam [Applied Sciences, Inc.; Nazri, G. Abbas [General Motors Corporation-R& D; Palmer, Andrew C. [Applied Sciences, Inc.; Lake, Patrick D. [Applied Sciences, Inc.

    2013-01-01

    We report the interfacial study of a silicon/carbon nanofiber (Si/CNF) nanocomposite material as a potentially high performance anode for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The carbon nanofiber is hollow, with a graphitic interior and turbostratic exterior. Amorphous silicon layers were uniformly coated via chemical vapor deposition on both the exterior and interior surfaces of the CNF. The resulting Si/CNF composites were tested as anodes for Li ion batteries and exhibited capacities near 800 mAh g{sup -1} for 100 cycles. After cycling, we found that more Si had fallen off from the outer wall than from the inner wall of CNF. Theoretical calculations confirmed that this is due to a higher interfacial strength at the Si/C-edge interface at the inner wall than that of the Si/C-basal interface at the outer wall. Based upon the experimental analysis and theoretical calculation, we have proposed several interfacial engineering approaches to improve the performance of the electrodes by optimizing the microstructure of this nanocomposite.

  10. Improving microstructure of silicon/carbon nanofiber composites as a Li battery anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Burton, David J. [Applied Sciences, Inc.; Qi, Dr. Yue [General Motors Corporation; Nazri, Maryam [Applied Sciences, Inc.; Nazri, G. Abbas [General Motors Corporation-R& D; Palmer, Andrew C. [Applied Sciences, Inc.; Lake, Patrick D. [Applied Sciences, Inc.

    2013-01-01

    We report the interfacial study of a silicon/carbon nanofiber (Si/CNF) nanocomposite material as a potentially high performance anode for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The carbon nanofiber is hollow, with a graphitic interior and turbostratic exterior. Amorphous silicon layers were uniformly coated via chemical vapor deposition on both the exterior and interior surfaces of the CNF. The resulting Si/CNF composites were tested as anodes for Li ion batteries and exhibited capacities near 800 mAh g1 for 100 cycles. After cycling, we found that more Si had fallen off from the outer wall than from the innerwall of CNF. Theoretical calculations confirmed that this is due to a higher interfacial strength at the Si/Cedge interface at the inner wall than that of the Si/C-basal interface at the outer wall. Based upon the experimental analysis and theoretical calculation, we have proposed several interfacial engineering approaches to improve the performance of the electrodes by optimizing the microstructure of this nanocomposite.

  11. Thermoplastic polybutadiene-based polyurethane/carbon nanofiber composites.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špírková, Milena; Duszová, A.; Poreba, Rafal; Kredatusová, Jana; Bureš, R.; Fáberová, M.; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 67, December (2014), s. 434-440. ISSN 1359-8368 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA13-06700S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : carbon fibre * polymer–matrix composites (PMCs) * mechanical properties Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.602, year: 2013

  12. Investigation of Lithium-Air Battery Discharge Product Formed on Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Robert Revell, III

    Carbon nanotubes have been actively investigated for integration in a wide variety of applications since their discovery over 20 years ago. Their myriad desirable material properties including exceptional mechanical strength, high thermal conductivities, large surface-to-volume ratios, and considerable electrical conductivities, which are attributable to a quantum mechanical ability to conduct electrons ballistically, have continued to motivate interest in this material system. While a variety of synthesis techniques exist, carbon nanotubes and nanofibers are most often conveniently synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), which involves their catalyzed growth from transition metal nanoparticles. Vertically-aligned nanotube and nanofiber carpets produced using CVD have been utilized in a variety of applications including those related to energy storage. Li-air (Li-O2) batteries have received much interest recently because of their very high theoretical energy densities (3200 Wh/kgLi2O2 ). which make them ideal candidates for energy storage devices for future fully-electric vehicles. During operation of a Li-air battery O2 is reduced on the surface a porous air cathode, reacting with Li-ions to form lithium peroxide (Li-O2). Unlike the intercalation reactions of Li-ion batteries, discharge in a Li-air cell is analogous to an electrodeposition process involving the nucleation and growth of the depositing species on a foreign substrate. Carbon nanofiber electrodes were synthesized on porous substrates using a chemical vapor deposition process and then assembled into Li-O2 cells. The large surface to volume ratio and low density of carbon nanofiber electrodes were found to yield a very high gravimetric energy density in Li-O 2 cells, approaching 75% of the theoretical energy density for Li 2O2. Further, the carbon nanofiber electrodes were found to be excellent platforms for conducting ex situ electron microscopy investigations of the deposition Li2O2 phase, which was found to have unique disc and toroid morphologies. Subsequent studies were conducted using freestanding carpets of multi-walled CNT arrays, which were synthesized using a modified CVD process. The freestanding CNT arrays were used as a platform for studying the morphological evolution of Li2O2 discharge product as a function of rate and electrode capacity. SEM imaging investigations found that the Li2O 2 particles underwent a shape evolution from discs to toroids as their size increased. TEM imaging and diffraction studies showed that the microscale Li2O2 particles are composed of stacks of thin Li 2O2 crystallites and that splaying of the stacked crystallite array drives the observed disc to toroid transition. Modeling was performed to gain insights into the nucleation and growth processes involved during discharge in Li-O2 cells. The modeling study suggests that poor electronic conductivity of the depositing phase limits the rate capability obtainable in Li-O2 cells. Modeling can provide substantial insights into paths toward electrode optimization. Understanding the size and shape evolution of Li2O2 particles and engineering improved electrode architectures is critical to efficiently filling the electrode void volume during discharge thereby improving the volumetric energy density of Li-O2 batteries. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs mit.edu)

  13. Radiation grafting of methacrylate onto carbon nanofiber surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation can be used to modify and improve the properties of materials. Electron beam irradiation has potential application in modifying the structure of carbon fibers in order to produce useful defects in the graphite structure and create reactive sites. In this study, vapor grown carbon nano fibers (VGCF) were irradiated with a high energy (3 MeV) electron beam in air to dose of 1000 kGy to create active sites and added to methyl methacrylate (MMA) dissolved in water/methanol (50% V). The irradiated samples were analyzed by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy to assess the impact on surface and bulk properties. Oxygen was readily incorporated enhancing the dispersion of VGCF. Raman spectroscopy analyses indicated that the sample irradiated and preirradiated grafted sample with MMA had the intensity ratio increased. (author)

  14. Carbon nanotube-templated polyaniline nanofibers: synthesis, flash welding and ultrafiltration membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yaozu; Yu, Deng-Guang; Wang, Xia; Chain, Wei; Li, Xin-Gui; Hoek, Eric M. V.; Kaner, Richard B.

    2013-04-01

    Electro-active switchable ultrafiltration membranes are of great interest due to the possibility of external control over permeability, selectivity, anti-fouling and cleaning. Here, we report on hybrid single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-polyaniline (PANi) nanofibers synthesized by in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of oxidized SWCNTs. The composite nanofibers exhibit unique morphology of core-shell (SWCNT-PANi) structures with average total diameters of 60 nm with 10 to 30 nm thick PANi coatings. The composite nanofibers are easily dispersed in polar aprotic solvents and cast into asymmetric membranes via a nonsolvent induced phase separation. The hybrid SWCNT-PANi membranes are electrically conductive at neutral pH and exhibit ultrafiltration-like permeability and selectivity when filtering aqueous suspensions of 6 nm diameter bovine serum albumin and 48 nm diameter silica particles. A novel flash welding technique is utilized to tune the morphology, porosity, conductivity, permeability and nanoparticle rejection of the SWCNT-PANi composite ultrafiltration membranes. Upon flash welding, both conductivity and pure water permeability of the membranes improves by nearly a factor of 10, while maintaining silica nanoparticle rejection levels above 90%. Flash welding of SWCNT-PANi composite membranes holds promise for formation of electrochemically tunable membranes.Electro-active switchable ultrafiltration membranes are of great interest due to the possibility of external control over permeability, selectivity, anti-fouling and cleaning. Here, we report on hybrid single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-polyaniline (PANi) nanofibers synthesized by in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of oxidized SWCNTs. The composite nanofibers exhibit unique morphology of core-shell (SWCNT-PANi) structures with average total diameters of 60 nm with 10 to 30 nm thick PANi coatings. The composite nanofibers are easily dispersed in polar aprotic solvents and cast into asymmetric membranes via a nonsolvent induced phase separation. The hybrid SWCNT-PANi membranes are electrically conductive at neutral pH and exhibit ultrafiltration-like permeability and selectivity when filtering aqueous suspensions of 6 nm diameter bovine serum albumin and 48 nm diameter silica particles. A novel flash welding technique is utilized to tune the morphology, porosity, conductivity, permeability and nanoparticle rejection of the SWCNT-PANi composite ultrafiltration membranes. Upon flash welding, both conductivity and pure water permeability of the membranes improves by nearly a factor of 10, while maintaining silica nanoparticle rejection levels above 90%. Flash welding of SWCNT-PANi composite membranes holds promise for formation of electrochemically tunable membranes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Characteristic chemical shifts/transmittances of ATR/FT-IR spectral bands for SWCNT-PANi EB composite membranes under different numbers of flash welds at full power can be seen in Table S1. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00441d

  15. Grafting of vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNF) with a hyperbranched poly(ether-ketone)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in-situ polymerization of an A2B monomer, 5-phenoxyisophthalic acid, in the presence of various amounts (5, 10 and 20 wt%) of vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNF) was carried out in poly(phosphoric acid)/phosphorus pentoxide (PPA/P2O5; 1:4, w/w) medium. 5-Phenoxyisophthalic acid polymerizes via Friedel-Crafts acylation in PPA to form a CO2H-terminated hyperbranched poly(ether-ketone) or HPB-PEK. The resulting (HPB-PEK)-g-VGCNF composites were not soluble in dichlorobenzene or toluene, but also showed significant solubility in polar solvents such as NMP, DMF, DMAC, ethanol, and significantly higher solubility in ethanol/triethylamine mixture or in aqueous ammonia solution, apparently stemming from the ionization of the numerous surface CO2H groups. This is in contrast to the nanocomposites derived from VGCNF grafted with a linear meta-poly(ether-ketone), mPEK, with 1-10 wt% VGCNF content that have much lower solubility in these polar solvents but are more soluble in methanesulfonic acid [J.-B. Baek, C.B. Lyons, L.-S. Tan, Macromolecules 37 (2004) 8278]. The overall evidence based on the data from elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) as well as scanning electron microscopy of the resulting materials implicates that under our reaction conditions, HPB-PEK was grafted to the surfaces of VGCNF resulting in the formation of highly coated nanofibers. TGAformation of highly coated nanofibers. TGA data also support that VGCNF has remained more or less structurally intact under the mildly acidic, relatively high-shearing and hot polymerization conditions

  16. A New Strategy to Pretreat Carbon Nanofiber and Its Application in Determination of Dopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel sonochemical process, using hydrogen peroxide in a laboratory ultrasonic bath, was employed to pretreat the carbon nanofiber (CNF for creating oxygen-rich groups on the surface of CNF. After the sonochemical process, the CNF showed good hydrophilicity and high electrochemical activity. Compared to normal pretreatment process, this sonochemical process is timesaving and effective for dispersion and functionalization of CNF. The resulting CNF showed high catalytic activity toward the oxidation of DA. A carbon paste electrode modified by CNF (CPE-CNF was used to determine the dopamine (DA in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA. The detection limit is 0.05??M, with the linear range from 0.05??M to 6.4??M.

  17. Nanographene derived from carbon nanofiber and its application to electric double-layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fascinating properties of graphene are attracting considerable attention in engineering fields such as electronics, optics, and energy engineering. These properties can be controlled by controlling graphene's structure, e.g., the number of layers and the sheet size. In this study, we synthesized nanosized graphene from a platelet-type carbon nanofiber. The thickness and size of nanographene oxide are around 1 nm and 60 nm and we obtained nanographene by hydrazine reduction of nanographene oxide. We applied the nanographene to an ionic-liquid electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC), which exhibited a much larger capacitance per specific surface area than an EDLC using conventional activated carbon. Furthermore, the capacitance increased significantly with increasing cycle time. After 30th cycle, the capacitance was achieved 130 F g?1, though the surface area was only 240 m2 g?1. These results suggest that nanographene structure induce the capacitance enhancement.

  18. EFFECT OF CELLULOSE NANOFIBERS ISOLATED FROM BAMBOO PULP RESIDUE ON VULCANIZED NATURAL RUBBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Visakh,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites were prepared using two bioresources, viz., cellulose nanofibers (CNFs extracted from bamboo paper-pulp waste as the reinforcing phase and natural rubber (NR as the matrix phase. CNFs with diameters up to 50 nm were isolated from bamboo pulp waste, and nanocomposites with 5 and 10% CNFs were obtained via two-roll mill mixing of solid natural rubber with a master batch containing 20 wt% CNFs. The NR phase was cross-linked using sulphur vulcanization. The morphology studies showed that the dispersion of CNF in NR matrix was not optimal, and some aggregates were visible on the fracture surface. The tensile strength and modulus at 50% elongation increased for the nanocomposites with the addition of CNFs, accompanied by a moderate decrease in elongation at break. The storage modulus of the natural rubber significantly increased above its glass-rubber transition temperature upon nanofiber addition. The addition of CNFs also had a synergistic impact on the thermal stability of natural rubber. The susceptibility to organic solvents decreased significantly for the nanocomposites compared to crosslinked NR, which indicated restriction of polymer chain mobility in the vicinity of the nanosized CNFs in the NR matrix.

  19. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analyses of Ni species trapped in graphene sheet of carbon nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal impurities in the carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers play an important role in understanding their physical and chemical properties. We apply the Ni K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure analyses to the local electronic and geometric structures around embedded Ni impurities used as catalysts in a carbon nanofiber in combination with multiple scattering analyses. We find almost Ni catalysts as metal particles are removed by the purification treatment. Even after the purification, residual 100 ppm Ni species are still absorbed; most of them are in monomer structure with Ni-C bond length 1.83 A, and each of them is substituted for a carbon atom in a graphene sheet

  20. Oriented carbon nanostructures grown by hot-filament plasma-enhanced CVD from self-assembled Co-based catalyst on Si substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleaca, Claudiu Teodor; Morjan, Ion; Rodica, Alexandrescu; Dumitrache, Florian; Soare, Iuliana; Gavrila-Florescu, Lavinia; Sandu, Ion; Dutu, Elena; Le Normand, François; Faerber, Jacques

    2012-03-01

    We report the synthesis of coral- and caterpillar-like carbon nanostructures assemblies starting from cobalt nitrate ethanol solutions deposited by drop-casting onto blank or carbon nanoparticles film covered Si(1 0 0) substrates. The seeded films were pre-treated with glow discharge hydrogen plasma aided by hot-filaments at 550 °C followed by introduction of acetylene at 700 °C. The resultant carbon nanostructure assemblies contain a high density of aligned carbon nanotubes/nanofibers (CNTs/CNFs). The influence of the forces that act during liquid-mediated self-assembly of Co catalyst precursor is discussed.

  1. Manufacturing of Nanocomposite Carbon Fibers and Composite Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Seng; Zhou, Jian-guo

    2013-01-01

    Pitch-based nanocomposite carbon fibers were prepared with various percentages of carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and the fibers were used for manufacturing composite structures. Experimental results show that these nanocomposite carbon fibers exhibit improved structural and electrical conductivity properties as compared to unreinforced carbon fibers. Composite panels fabricated from these nanocomposite carbon fibers and an epoxy system also show the same properties transformed from the fibers. Single-fiber testing per ASTM C1557 standard indicates that the nanocomposite carbon fiber has a tensile modulus of 110% higher, and a tensile strength 17.7% times higher, than the conventional carbon fiber manufactured from pitch. Also, the electrical resistance of the carbon fiber carbonized at 900 C was reduced from 4.8 to 2.2 ohm/cm. The manufacturing of the nanocomposite carbon fiber was based on an extrusion, non-solvent process. The precursor fibers were then carbonized and graphitized. The resultant fibers are continuous.

  2. Electrosorptive desalination by carbon nanotubes and nanofibres electrodes and ion-exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibo; Gao, Yang; Pan, Likun; Zhang, Yanping; Chen, Yiwei; Sun, Zhuo

    2008-12-01

    A novel membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) device, integrating both the advantages of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers (CNTs-CNFs) composite film and ion-exchange membrane, was proposed with high removal efficiency, low energy consumption and low cost. The CNTs-CNFs film was synthesized by low pressure and low temperature thermal chemical vapor deposition. Several experiments were conducted to compare desalination performance of MCDI with capacitive deionization (CDI), showing that salt removal of the MCDI system was 49.2% higher than that of the CDI system. The electrosorption isotherms of MCDI and CDI show both of them follow Langmuir adsorption, indicating no change in adsorption behavior when ion-exchange membranes are introduced into CDI system. The better desalination performance of MCDI than that of CDI is due to the minimized ion desorption during electrosorption. PMID:18929385

  3. High power direct methanol fuel cell with a porous carbon nanofiber anode layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This study demonstrates a novel porous carbon nanofiber anode (PNCF) layer. • PNFC anode layer DMFC presents power density of 23.0 mW cm?2. • This unit operates at room temperature and consumes low concentration of methanol. - Abstract: Three anode electrodes containing Pt–Ru Black as a catalyst were fabricated with a porous layer made with different carbon materials: carbon black (CB), carbon nanofiber (CNF) and a combination of both carbon materials (CB + CNF). The carbon-based porous layer was coated onto a carbon cloth with PTFE pre-treatment for delivering hydrophobic properties and applied in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Characterisation of electrochemical properties for three different anode electrodes was performed with cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) at room temperature in a half-cell configuration. The evolution of the surface morphology of diffusion layer and electrodes was characterised by using variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). The electrochemical results indicate that electrode with CNF layer showed the highest current densities compared to CB and CB + CNF with the same catalyst loading. VP-SEM measurements show the network formation within the structure, which could facilitate the methanol mass transfer and improve the catalyst efficiency. The electrodes were applied to a single-cell DMFC, and the cell performance was experimentally investigated under passive operating mode and room temperature. A maximum power density of 23.0 mW cm?2 at a current density of 88.0 mA cm?2 with a 3 M dilute methanol solution was achieved. The results show that the electrodes with a CNF layer could improve the performance of DMFC as compared with commercially used CB and prove it’s potentially application in DMFC technology especially for portable power source applications due to several advantages as followings: operating at low concentration of methanol, operating at room temperature, low catalyst loading in anode and cathode, cheaper, less hazardous and no parasitic load

  4. A co-confined carbonization approach to aligned nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon nanofibers and its application as an adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aibing; Liu, Chao; Yu, Yifeng; Hu, Yongqi; Lv, Haijun; Zhang, Yue; Shen, Shufeng; Zhang, Jian

    2014-07-15

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (MCNFs) with an aligned mesoporous structure were synthesized by a co-confined carbonization method using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as co-confined templates and ionic liquids as the precursor. The as-synthesized MCNFs with the diameter of 80-120nm possessed a bulk nitrogen content of 5.3wt% and bimodal mesoporous structure. The nitrogen atoms were mostly bound to the graphitic network in two forms, i.e. pyridinic and pyrrolic nitrogen, providing adsorption sites for acidic gases like SO2 and CO2. Cyclic experiments revealed a considerable stability of MCNFs over 20 runs of SO2 adsorption and 15 runs for CO2 adsorption. The MCNFs also have a preferable adsorption performance for Cd(2+). PMID:24887121

  5. The strain sensing property of carbon nanofiber/glass microballoon epoxy nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports the strain sensing property of a nanocomposite made from a free standing multi-scale structure that consisted of glass microballoons and carbon nanofibers. An epoxy system was infiltrated into the structure in order to fabricate a nanocomposite sensor. The electrical resistance of the sensor when subjected to a tensile strain was investigated. The change in electrical resistance of the sensor versus the applied strain was found to have linear and non-linear regions. In the linear region, the sensor exhibited a similar sensitivity to conventional resistance-type strain gages. A single equation that relates the change in electrical resistance to the applied strain for the linear and non-linear regions was developed. (paper)

  6. Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced and PU-toughened POM Ternary Composites: Friction, Wear and Creep Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchart Siengchin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Composites composed of polyoxymethylene (POM, polyurethane (PU and carbon nanofiber (CNF were produced by water-mediated melt compounding. PU latex and/or aqueous CNF dispersion were introduced into the molten POM in laboratory kneader to prepare toughened and/or nanoreinforced POM composites. The dispersion of the CNF was inspected using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The mechanical properties (friction, wear and creep strain of the composites were determined by roller (steel-on-plate (ROP and creep tensile tests. It was found that CNF worked as a reinforcement and improved the coefficient of friction (COF and wear. It was also found that, the creep resistance decreases with increasing time, temperature and addition of CNF.

  7. Damage detection and conductivity evolution in carbon nanofiber epoxy via electrical impedance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, T. N.; Gungor, S.; Wang, K. W.; Bakis, C. E.

    2014-04-01

    Utilizing electrically conductive nanocomposites for integrated self-sensing and health monitoring is a promising area of structural health monitoring (SHM) research wherein local changes in conductivity coincide with damage. In this research we conduct proof of concept investigations using electrical impedance tomography (EIT) for damage detection by identifying conductivity changes and by imaging conductivity evolution in a carbon nanofiber (CNF) filled epoxy composite. CNF/epoxy is examined because fibrous composites can be manufactured with a CNF/epoxy matrix thereby enabling the entire matrix to become self-sensing. We also study the mechanisms of conductivity evolution in CNF/epoxy through electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) testing. The results of these tests indicate that thermal expansion is responsible for conductivity evolution in a CNF/epoxy composite.

  8. Electrochemical behavior of activated carbon nanofiber-vanadium pentoxide composites for double-layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesopore-enriched activated carbon nanofiber (ACNF) mats are produced by incorporating vanadium(V) oxide (V2O5) into polyacrylonitrile (PAN) via electrospinning, and their electrochemical properties are investigated as an electrode in supercapacitors. The microstructures of the ACNFs (e.g., nanometer-size diameter, high specific surface area, narrow pore size distribution, and tunable porosity) are changed, and the textural parameters are found to affect the electrochemical properties significantly through the different V2O5 loadings and activation process. The V2O5/PAN-based ACNF electrodes with well-balanced micro/mesoporosity having an optimal pore range for effective double layer formation in an organic medium are expected to be useful electrode materials for supercapacitor applications

  9. Self-sensing of carbon nanofiber concrete columns subjected to reversed cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civil infrastructures are generally a country's most expensive investment, and concrete is the most widely used material in the construction of civil infrastructures. During a structure's service life, concrete ages and deteriorates, leading to substantial loss of structural integrity and potentially resulting in catastrophic disasters such as highway bridge collapses. A solution for preventing such occurrences is the use of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for concrete structures containing carbon nanofibers (CNF). CNF concrete has many structural benefits. CNF restricts the growth of nanocracks in addition to yielding higher strength and ductility. Additionally, test results indicate a relationship between electrical resistance and concrete strain, which can be well utilized for SHM. A series of reinforced concrete (RC) columns were built and tested under a reversed cyclic loading using CNF as a SHM device. The SHM device detected and assessed the level of damage in the RC columns, providing a real-time health monitoring system for the structure's overall integrity

  10. Supercapacitors based on 3D network of activated carbon nanowhiskers wrapped-on graphitized electrospun nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuijian; Chen, Linlin; Xie, Chencheng; Hu, Huan; Chen, Shuiliang; Hanif, Muddasir; Hou, Haoqing

    2013-12-01

    Due to their cycling stability and high power density, the supercapacitors bridge the power/energy gap between traditional dielectric capacitors and batteries/fuel cells. Electrode materials are key components for making high performance supercapacitors. An activated carbon nanowhiskers (ACNWs) wrapped-on graphitized electrospun nanofiber (GENF) network (ACNWs/GENFN) with 3D porous structure is prepared as a new type of binder-free electrode material for supercapacitors. The supercapacitor based on the ACNWs/GENFN composite material displays an excellent performance with a specific capacitance of 176.5 F g-1 at current density of 0.5 A g-1, an ultrahigh power density of 252.8 kW kg-1 at current density of 800 A g-1 and an outstanding cycling stability of no capacitance loss after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles.

  11. Mechanisms for catalytic carbon nanofiber growth studied by ab initio density functional theory calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abild-Pedersen, Frank; NØrskov, Jens Kehlet

    2006-01-01

    Mechanisms and energetics of graphene growth catalyzed by nickel nanoclusters were studied using ab initio density functional theory calculations. It is demonstrated that nickel step-edge sites act as the preferential growth centers for graphene layers on the nickel surface. Carbon is transported from the deposition site at the free nickel surface to the perimeter of the growing graphene layer via surface or subsurface diffusion. Three different processes are identified to govern the growth of graphene layers, depending on the termination of the graphene perimeter at the nickel surface, and it is argued how these processes may lead to different nanofiber structures. The proposed growth model is found to be in good agreement with previous findings.

  12. Durability of Carbon Nanofiber (CNF) & Carbon Nanotube (CNT) as Catalyst Support for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Borghei, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Durability issues have recently been given much attention in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) research. It gives fundamental definition for cell life time, capital cost, system stability and technique reliability. Loss of catalyst surface area due to corrosion of supporting material (normally carbon black) is one of the essential degradation mechanisms during cell operation. In this work, durability of Carbon Nanofibers (CNF) & Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) as alternative platinum catalyst supports for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) was assessed. Platinized CNF and CNT using a standard polyol method were prepared and fabricated as cathodes of Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEA) for PEMFC. Both the catalysts as such and the MEAs made out of them were evaluated regarding to thermal and electrochemical stability using traditional carbon black (Vulcan XC72) as a reference. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), cyclic voltammetry (CV), polarization curve and impedance spectroscopy were applied on the samples under accelerated stress conditions. The carbon nano-materials demonstrated better stability as support for nano-sized platinum catalyst under PEMFC related operating conditions. Due to different morphology of the nano carbons compared to Vulcan XC 72 the electrode structures may still need optimization to improve overall cell performance.

  13. Nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanofiber webs/sulfur composites as cathode materials for lithium-sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanofiber webs-sulfur composites (N-CNFWs/S) were synthesized for the first time with sulfur (S) encapsulated into nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanofiber webs (N-CNFWs) via a modified oxidative template route, carbonization-activation and thermal treatment. The composites were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetry (TG) measurements. The results show that sulfur is well dispersed and immobilized homogeneously in the micropores of nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanofiber webs (N-CNFWs) with high electrical conductivity, surface area and large pore volume. The electrochemical tests show that the N-CNFWs/S composites with 60 wt. % of S have a high initial discharge capacity of 1564 mA h g?1, a good cycling stability at the current density of 175 mA g?1, and excellent rate capability (reversible discharging capacity of above 400 mA h g?1 at 1600 mA g?1)

  14. Temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity of vapor grown carbon nanofiber/epoxy composites with different filler dispersion levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the dispersion of vapor grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNF) on the electrical properties of VGCNF/epoxy composites has been studied. A homogeneous dispersion of the VGCNF does not imply better electrical properties. The presence of well distributed clusters appears to be a key factor for increasing composite conductivity. It is also shown that the main conduction mechanism has an ionic nature for concentrations below the percolation threshold, while above the percolation threshold it is dominated by hopping between the fillers. Finally, using the granular system theory it is possible to explain the origin of conduction at low temperatures. -- Highlights: ? The influence of dispersion of carbon nanofibers on epoxy is investigated. ? A homogeneous dispersion does not imply better electrical properties. ? The conduction mechanism has an ionic nature below the percolation threshold. ? Above the percolation threshold it is dominated by hopping between the fillers. ? The granular system theory allows explaining conduction at low temperatures.

  15. Synthesis and properties of SiNx coatings as stable fluorescent markers on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Pearce; Timothy McKnight; Klein, Kate L.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Dale Hensley; Iii, Harry Meyer; Anatoli Melechko

    2014-01-01

    The growth of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) in a catalytic dc ammonia/acetylene plasma process on silicon substrates is often accompanied by sidewall deposition of material that contains predominantly Si and N. In fluorescent microscopy experiments, whereby VACNFs are interfaced to cell and tissue cultures for a variety of applications, it was observed that this material is broadly fluorescent. In this paper, we provide insight into nature of these silicon/nitro...

  16. Fabrication, structure, and magnetic properties of electrospun carbon/cobalt ferrite (C/CoFe2O4) composite nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilmoung, S.; Kidkhunthod, P.; Pinitsoontorn, S.; Rujirawat, S.; Yimnirun, R.; Maensiri, S.

    2015-04-01

    This work reports the fabrication and properties of carbon/cobalt ferrite (C/CoFe2O4) composite nanofibers by using electrospinning technique followed by carbonization process under mixed air and argon atmosphere. The as-prepared samples were characterized by means of thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. It was found that the structure of CoFe2O4 was cubic spinel with the variation of crystallite size between 22 and 54 nm depending on the magnetic source content. X-ray absorption near-edge spectra at the Fe (7,112 eV) and Co (7,709 eV) absorption K-edge were used to confirm the Fe3+ and Co2+ oxidation states of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. The X-ray absorption fine structure analysis indicated that CoFe2O4 nanoparticles had a structure analogous to bulk-inverted spinel structure. All composite nanofibers exhibited ferromagnetic behavior related to the distribution of cations over tetrahedral and octahedral sites, whereas diamagnetic behavior was observed in pure carbon nanofibers. The magnetization was clearly enhanced with respect to the increase of magnetic source content, whereas the coercivity and the squareness ( M r/ M s) were dependent of crystallite size.

  17. Mechanical, thermal and morphological characterization of polycarbonate/oxidized carbon nanofiber composites produced with a lean 2-step manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lively, Brooks; Kumar, Sandeep; Tian, Liu; Li, Bin; Zhong, Wei-Hong

    2011-05-01

    In this study we report the advantages of a 2-step method that incorporates an additional process pre-conditioning step for rapid and precise blending of the constituents prior to the commonly used melt compounding method for preparing polycarbonate/oxidized carbon nanofiber composites. This additional step (equivalent to a manufacturing cell) involves the formation of a highly concentrated solid nano-nectar of polycarbonate/carbon nanofiber composite using a solution mixing process followed by melt mixing with pure polycarbonate. This combined method yields excellent dispersion and improved mechanical and thermal properties as compared to the 1-step melt mixing method. The test results indicated that inclusion of carbon nanofibers into composites via the 2-step method resulted in dramatically reduced ( 48% lower) coefficient of thermal expansion compared to that of pure polycarbonate and 30% lower than that from the 1-step processing, at the same loading of 1.0 wt%. Improvements were also found in dynamic mechanical analysis and flexural mechanical properties. The 2-step approach is more precise and leads to better dispersion, higher quality, consistency, and improved performance in critical application areas. It is also consistent with Lean Manufacturing principles in which manufacturing cells are linked together using less of the key resources and creates a smoother production flow. Therefore, this 2-step process can be more attractive for industry. PMID:21780388

  18. Localized surface grafting reactions on carbon nanofibers induced by gamma and e-beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evora, M. C.; Araujo, J. R.; Ferreira, E. H. M.; Strohmeier, B. R.; Silva, L. G. A.; Achete, C. A.

    2015-04-01

    Electron beam and gamma-ray irradiation have potential application to modify the carbon fiber nanostructures in order to produce useful defects in the graphitic structure and create reactive sites. In this study, the methodology to functionalize carbon nanofiber (CNF), via a radiation process and using acrylic acid as a source of oxygen functional groups, was investigated. The samples were submitted to a direct grafting radiation process with electron beam and gamma-ray source. Several parameters were changed such as: acrylic acid concentration, radiation dose and percentage of inhibitor necessary to achieve functionalization, with higher percentage of oxygen functional groups on CNF surface, and better dispersion. The better results achieved were when mixing CNF in a solution of acrylic acid with 6% of inhibitor (FeSO4·7H2O) and irradiated at 100 kGy. The samples were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the surface composition (atomic%) showed a significant increase of oxygen content for the samples after irradiation. Also, the dispersion of the functionalized CNF in water was stable during months which may be a good indication that the functionalization process of CNF via ionizing radiation was successful.

  19. Electrospun carbon nanofibers/electrocatalyst hybrids as asymmetric electrodes for vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guanjie; Fan, Xinzhuang; Liu, Jianguo; Yan, Chuanwei

    2015-05-01

    To improve the electrochemical activity of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based electrospun carbon nanofibers (ECNFs) toward vanadium redox couples, the multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and Bi-based compound as electrocatalyst have been embedded in the ECNFs to make composite electrode, respectively. The morphology and electrochemical properties of pristine ECNFs, CNTs/ECNFs and Bi/ECNFs have been characterized. Among the three kinds of electrodes, the CNTs/ECNFs show best electrochemical activity toward VO2+/VO2+ redox couple, while the Bi/ECNFs present the best electrochemical activity toward V2+/V3+ redox couple. Furthermore, the high overpotential of hydrogen evolution on Bi/ECNFs makes the side-reaction suppressed. Because of the large property difference between the two composite electrodes, the CNTs/ECNFs and Bi/ECNFs are designed to act as positive and negative electrode for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB), respectively. It not only does improve the kinetics of two electrode reactions at the same time, but also reduce the kinetics difference between them. Due to the application of asymmetric electrodes, performance of the cell is improved greatly.

  20. Effect of carbon nanofiber addition in the mechanical properties and durability of cementitious materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galao, O.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on recent work that is directed at studying the changes in the mechanical properties of Portland cement based mortars due to the addition of carbon nanofiber (CNF. Both flexural and compression strength has been determined and related to the CNF addition to the mix, to the curing time and to the porosity and density of the matrix. Also, corrosion of embedded steel rebars in CNF cement pastes exposed to carbonation and chloride attacks has been investigated. The increase in CNF addition implies higher corrosion intensity and higher levels of mechanical properties.En este artículo se han estudiado los cambios en las propiedades mecánicas de los morteros de cemento Portland debido a la adición de nanofibras de carbono (NFC. Se han determinado las resistencias a flexotracción y a compresión de los morteros en relación a la cantidad de NFC añadidas a la mezcla, al tiempo de curado y a la porosidad y densidad de los mismos. Además se han investigado los niveles de corrosión de barras de acero embebidas en pastas de cemento con NFC expuestos al ataque por carbonatación y por ingreso de cloruros. El aumento en el porcentaje de NFC añadido se traduce en un aumento la intensidad de corrosión registrada y una mejora de las propiedades mecánicas.

  1. Nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with electrospun PdO-NiO composite nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A glassy carbon electrode was modified with PdO-NiO composite nanofibers (PdO-NiO-NFs) and applied to the electrocatalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The PdO-NiO-NFs were synthesized by electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment, and then characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Factors such as the composition and fraction of nanofibers, and of the applied potential were also studied. The sensor exhibits high sensitivity for H2O2 (583.43 ?A?·?mM?1?·?cm?2), a wide linear range (from 5.0 ?M to 19 mM), a low detection limit (2.94 ?M at an SNR of 3), good long term stability, and is resistant to fouling. (author)

  2. Novel interlayer made from Fe3C/carbon nanofiber webs for high performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Qiu; Zhang, Biao; Xu, Zheng-Long; Abouali, Sara; Akbari Garakani, Mohammad; Huang, Jiaqiang; Kim, Jang-Kyo

    2015-07-01

    A new freestanding Fe3C/carbon nanofiber (CNF) film is developed using a facile one-pot electrospinning method as an interlayer for high performance lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The interlayer placed between the separator and the sulfur cathode plays many synergistic roles, offering (i) a number of macropores within the nanofiber web to facilitate ion transport and electrolyte penetration, (ii) nitrogen-containing functional groups that entrap soluble polysulfides by strong interatomic attraction, and (iii) much enhanced electron/ion transfer due to the high electrical conductivity of the CNF web. The battery delivers an excellent specific discharge capacity of 893 mA h/g after 100 cycles, maintaining 76% of its initial capacity of 1177 mA h/g. These values are among the highest for those reported recently with similar nanocarbon-based interlayers in terms of rate capability and cyclic stability.

  3. Effect of Carbon Nanofiber Heat Treatment on Physical Properties of Polymeric Nanocomposites—Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Yildiz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The definition of a nanocomposite material has broadened significantly to encompass a large variety of systems made of dissimilar components and mixed at the nanometer scale. The properties of nanocomposite materials also depend on the morphology, crystallinity, and interfacial characteristics of the individual constituents. In the current work, vapor-grown carbon nanofibers were subjected to varying heat-treatment temperatures. The strength of adhesion between the nanofiber and an epoxy (thermoset matrix was characterized by the flexural strength and modulus. Heat treatment to 1800C∘ demonstrated maximum improvement in mechanical properties over that of the neat resin, while heat-treatment to higher temperatures demonstrated a slight decrease in mechanical properties likely due to the elimination of potential bonding sites caused by the elimination of the truncated edges of the graphene layers. Both the electrical and thermal properties of the resulting nanocomposites increased in conjunction with the increasing heat-treatment temperature.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of polylactic acid and polylactic acid/multi-walled carbon nanotube nanofibers through centrifugal spinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlan, Richard

    Biocompatible polymer nanofibers hold great potential in the biomedical engineering field. Their biodegradable nature and enhanced properties could help solve a wide array of health related problems, particularly in the areas of tissue regeneration, drug delivery, and biosensor design. The novel Forcespinning™ method allows the production of submicron fibers without many of the drawbacks found in electrospinning, while also providing a substantial increase in fiber production. The aim of the study was to utilize this method to fabricate non-woven nanofibrous mats composed of polylactic acid (PLA) and polylactic acid/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite fibers. The morphology, thermal properties, and crystalline structure of the resulting nanofibers were then characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD).

  5. Thermoelectric properties of carbon nanotube and nanofiber based ethylene-octene copolymer composites for thermoelectric devices, Journal of Nanomaterials.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slobodian, P.; ?íha, Pavel; Olejník, J.; Ková?, M.; Svoboda, P.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 2013, August (2013). ISSN 1687-4110 Grant ostatní: TBU Zlin(CZ) iga/ft/2013/018; GA MŠk(CZ) EE.2.3.20.0104; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : CNF * carbon nanotubes * carbon nanofibers * power-factor * nanocomposites * behavior * network Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.611, year: 2013 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2013/792875/

  6. Preparation of Surface Adsorbed and Impregnated Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube/Nylon-6 Nanofiber Composites and Investigation of their Gas Sensing Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmurugan Thavasi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We have prepared electrospun Nylon-6 nanofibers via electrospinning, and adsorbed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs onto the surface of Nylon-6 fibers using Triton® X-100 to form a MWCNTs/Nylon-6 nanofiber composite. The dispersed MWCNTs have been found to be stable in hexafluoroisopropanol for several months without precipitation. A MWCNTs/Nylon-6 nanofiber composite based chemical sensor has demonstrated its responsiveness towards a wide range of solvent vapours at room temperature and only mg quantities of MWCNTs were expended. The large surface area and porous nature of the electrospun Nylon-6/MWCNT nanofibers facilitates greater analyte permeability. The experimental analysis has indicated that the dipole moment, functional group and vapour pressure of the analytes determine the magnitude of the responsiveness.

  7. Preparation of novel carbon microfiber/carbon nanofiber-dispersed polyvinyl alcohol-based nanocomposite material for lithium-ion electrolyte battery separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel nanocomposite polyvinyl alcohol precursor-based material dispersed with the web of carbon microfibers and carbon nanofibers is developed as lithium (Li)-ion electrolyte battery separator. The primary synthesis steps of the separator material consist of esterification of polyvinyl acetate to produce polyvinyl alcohol gel, ball-milling of the surfactant dispersed carbon micro-nanofibers, mixing of the milled micron size (? 500 nm) fibers to the reactant mixture at the incipience of the polyvinyl alcohol gel formation, and the mixing of hydrophobic reagents along with polyethylene glycol as a plasticizer, to produce a thin film of ? 25 ?m. The produced film, uniformly dispersed with carbon micro-nanofibers, has dramatically improved performance as a battery separator, with the ion conductivity of the electrolytes (LiPF6) saturated film measured as 0.119 S-cm?1, approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that of polyvinyl alcohol. The other primary characteristics of the produced film, such as tensile strength, contact angle, and thermal stability, are also found to be superior to the materials made of other precursors, including polypropylene and polyethylene, discussed in the literature. The method of producing the films in this study is novel, simple, environmentally benign, and economically viable. Highlights: ? A novel material as a potential Li-ion electrolyte battery separator is synthesized. ? Synthesis steps include esterification of polyvinyl acetate to produce PVA-gel. ? The film is in-situ incorporated (dispersed) with carbon micro and nanofibers. ? The produced film has improved performance as a battery separator

  8. One-dimensionality of phonon transport in cup-stacked carbon nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We treat the ballistic heat conduction of cup-stacked carbon nanofibers (CSCNF) by a nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. The CSCNF consist of numerous tiny graphene cups linked in line by weak intermolecular forces. The simulation results show that the thermal conductivity varies with the fiber length in a power law fashion with an exponent as large as 0.7. The calculated phonon density of states revealed that a low frequency oscillation in the radial and axial directions dominates the heat conduction in CSCNF. The atomic motions indicate that these low frequency oscillations are quasi-one-dimensional (1D) where each cup moves axially like a rigid body and radially with a breathing motion. This quasi-1D oscillation occurs due to the unique structure of a CSCNF that resembles a 1D harmonic chain. Our investigations show that treating a CSCNF as a 1D chain with three-dimensional oscillations explains why this material has the highest ballistic phonon transport ever observed.

  9. Hierarchically mesoporous CuO/carbon nanofiber coaxial shell-core nanowires for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seok-Hwan; Lee, Wan-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Hierarchically mesoporous CuO/carbon nanofiber coaxial shell-core nanowires (CuO/CNF) as anodes for lithium ion batteries were prepared by coating the Cu2(NO3)(OH)3 on the surface of conductive and elastic CNF via electrophoretic deposition (EPD), followed by thermal treatment in air. The CuO shell stacked with nanoparticles grows radially toward the CNF core, which forms hierarchically mesoporous three-dimensional (3D) coaxial shell-core structure with abundant inner spaces in nanoparticle-stacked CuO shell. The CuO shells with abundant inner spaces on the surface of CNF and high conductivity of 1D CNF increase mainly electrochemical rate capability. The CNF core with elasticity plays an important role in strongly suppressing radial volume expansion by inelastic CuO shell by offering the buffering effect. The CuO/CNF nanowires deliver an initial capacity of 1150?mAh?g?1 at 100?mA?g?1 and maintain a high reversible capacity of 772?mAh?g?1 without showing obvious decay after 50?cycles.

  10. Three-Dimensional Force Sensing Device Using Carbon Nanofiber Polymer Composites: Design and Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fuh-Yu; Liu, Chia-Ming; Chen, Tse-Min; Chen, Chia-Ming; Lin, Yu-Hsien; Huang, Shu-Jiuan

    2012-06-01

    We propose an innovative three-dimensional force sensing device fabricated with carbon nanofiber (CNF) polymer composites. The device has four piezoresistive strain sensors made onto a polyimide substrate using surface patterning treatment and tilted-drop process with CNF polymer solutions. The proposed design and fabrication process is simpler than that of other three-dimensional force sensors and the device is suitable for mass production. The fabricated strain sensor properties using CNF polymer solutions with different composition ratios were investigated. An equation was derived using simple percolation theory to predict the conductivity of CNF polymer composites. The measured gauge factors were in the 4.84 to 17.68 range for CNF polymer composites with CNF 8.85-45.2 wt %. A programmable system on chip (PSoC) with built-in operational (OP) amplifier, analog-to-digital (AD) converter and multiplexer was used to develop a scanning and analyzing circuit for the three-dimensional force sensing device. The proposed integrated system was successfully applied to control a computer screen cursor.

  11. Size-selectivity and anomalous subdiffusion of nanoparticles through carbon nanofiber-based membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simulation is presented here that serves the dual functions of generating a nanoporous membrane replica and executing the Brownian motion of nanoparticles through the virtual membrane. Specifically, the concentration profile of a dilute solution of fluorescent particles in a stochastic and SiO2-coated carbon nanofiber (oxCNF), nanoporous membrane was simulated. The quality of the simulated profile was determined by comparing the results with experimental concentration profiles. The experimental concentration profiles were collected adjacent to the oxCNF membrane surface from time-lapse fluorescence microscopy images. The simulation proved ideal as an accurate predictor of particle diffusion-the simulated concentration profile merged with the experimental profiles at the inlet/exit surfaces of the oxCNF membrane. In particular, the oxCNF barrier was found to hinder the transport of 50 and 100 nm particles and transmembrane trajectories were indicative of anomalous subdiffusion; the diffusion coefficient was found to be a function of time and space

  12. Dielectric properties and conductivity of carbon nanofiber/semi-crystalline polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of semi-crystalline polymer nanocomposites are affected by the nanofillers directly and indirectly, as two phases, i.e., crystalline and amorphous, exist in the polymer. The effects of nanofillers on the two phases could be competitive. The dielectric properties and conductivity of carbon nanofibers (CNF)/semi-crystalline polymer nanocomposites are studied in this paper. CNF/polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites are prepared in experiment by melt blending. The resulting morphology and crystalline structure are characterized by means of differential scanning calorimetry, wide angle X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The PP nanocomposite containing 5 wt.% CNF exhibits a surprisingly high dielectric constant under wide sweep frequencies attended by low dielectric loss. Its dielectric constant is >600 under lower frequency, and remains >200 at a frequency of 4000 Hz. The electrical and thermal conductivities of the nanocomposites are studied, and enhancements are seen with increased CNF content. Theoretical analyses on the physical properties are carried out by applying the existing models. Research results indicate that a common commercial plastic with good comprehensive performance, which exhibited the potential for applications in advanced electronics, was obtained by a simple industry benign technique

  13. Hierarchically mesoporous CuO/carbon nanofiber coaxial shell-core nanowires for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seok-Hwan; Lee, Wan-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchically mesoporous CuO/carbon nanofiber coaxial shell-core nanowires (CuO/CNF) as anodes for lithium ion batteries were prepared by coating the Cu2(NO3)(OH)3 on the surface of conductive and elastic CNF via electrophoretic deposition (EPD), followed by thermal treatment in air. The CuO shell stacked with nanoparticles grows radially toward the CNF core, which forms hierarchically mesoporous three-dimensional (3D) coaxial shell-core structure with abundant inner spaces in nanoparticle-stacked CuO shell. The CuO shells with abundant inner spaces on the surface of CNF and high conductivity of 1D CNF increase mainly electrochemical rate capability. The CNF core with elasticity plays an important role in strongly suppressing radial volume expansion by inelastic CuO shell by offering the buffering effect. The CuO/CNF nanowires deliver an initial capacity of 1150?mAh?g(-1) at 100?mA?g(-1) and maintain a high reversible capacity of 772?mAh?g(-1) without showing obvious decay after 50?cycles. PMID:25944615

  14. Hierarchically mesoporous CuO/carbon nanofiber coaxial shell-core nanowires for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seok-Hwan; Lee, Wan-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchically mesoporous CuO/carbon nanofiber coaxial shell-core nanowires (CuO/CNF) as anodes for lithium ion batteries were prepared by coating the Cu2(NO3)(OH)3 on the surface of conductive and elastic CNF via electrophoretic deposition (EPD), followed by thermal treatment in air. The CuO shell stacked with nanoparticles grows radially toward the CNF core, which forms hierarchically mesoporous three-dimensional (3D) coaxial shell-core structure with abundant inner spaces in nanoparticle-stacked CuO shell. The CuO shells with abundant inner spaces on the surface of CNF and high conductivity of 1D CNF increase mainly electrochemical rate capability. The CNF core with elasticity plays an important role in strongly suppressing radial volume expansion by inelastic CuO shell by offering the buffering effect. The CuO/CNF nanowires deliver an initial capacity of 1150?mAh?g?1 at 100?mA?g?1 and maintain a high reversible capacity of 772?mAh?g?1 without showing obvious decay after 50?cycles. PMID:25944615

  15. Vertically aligned carbon nanofiber architecture as a multifunctional 3-D neural electrical interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Vu, T D Barbara; Chen, Hua; Cassell, Alan M; Andrews, Russell J; Meyyappan, M; Li, Jun

    2007-06-01

    Developing biomaterial constructs that closely mimic the natural tissue microenvironment with its complex chemical and physical cues is essential for improving the function and reliability of implantable devices, especially those that require direct neural-electrical interfaces. Here we demonstrate that free-standing vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (VACNF) arrays can be used as a multifunctional 3-D brush-like nanoengineered matrix that interpenetrates the neuronal network of PC12 cells. We found that PC12 neuron cells cultured on VACNF substrates can form extended neural network upon proper chemical and biochemical modifications. The soft 3-D VACNF architecture provides a new platform to fine-tune the topographical, mechanical, chemical, and electrical cues at subcellular nanoscale. This new biomaterial platform can be used for both fundamental studies of material-cell interactions and the development of chronically stable implantable neural devices. Micropatterned multiplex VACNF arrays can be selectively controlled by electrical and electrochemical methods to provide localized stimulation with extraordinary spatiotemporal resolution. Further development of this technology may potentially result in a highly multiplex closed-loop system with multifunctions for neuromodulation and neuroprostheses. PMID:17554831

  16. Monolithically Integrated, Mechanically Resilient Carbon-Based Probes for Scanning Probe Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Megerian, Krikor G.; Jennings, Andrew T.; Greer, Julia R.

    2010-01-01

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is an important tool for performing measurements at the nanoscale in imaging bacteria or proteins in biology, as well as in the electronics industry. An essential element of SPM is a sharp, stable tip that possesses a small radius of curvature to enhance spatial resolution. Existing techniques for forming such tips are not ideal. High-aspect-ratio, monolithically integrated, as-grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have been formed that show promise for SPM applications by overcoming the limitations present in wet chemical and separate substrate etching processes.

  17. Synthesis of ruthenium oxide coated ordered mesoporous carbon nanofiber arrays as a catalyst for lithium oxygen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ziyang; Zhou, Dandan; Liu, Haijing; Dong, Xiaoli; Yuan, Shouyi; Yu, Aishui; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2015-02-01

    Li-O2 batteries with super-high theoretical energy density are attracting extensive attention. However, the sluggish oxygen reduction/evolution reaction, the huge volume change from O2/Li2O2 conversion and the undesired electrolyte decomposition in cathode limit their performance. Herein we show design and synthesis of RuO2-coated ordered mesoporous carbon nanofiber arrays by using a natural crab shell template as a catalyst for Li-O2 battery, exhibiting several advantage features. First, the ordered mesopores in nanofibers facilitate electrolyte penetration and electron/ion transfer. In addition, the macro-sized voids between the nanofibers provide efficient buffer space for O2/Li2O2 accommodation and improve O2 diffusion. Furthermore, the uniform RuO2-coating layer alleviates undesired electrolyte decomposition and enhances the surface electronic conductivity. As a result, the battery displays high performance, including high capacity (20600 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1), high rate (9750 mAh g-1 at a current density of 1000 mA g-1) and long-life (300 cycles at a fixed capacity of 1000 mAh g-1).

  18. Optimized electrospinning synthesis of iron–nitrogen–carbon nanofibers for high electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction in alkaline medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xingxu; Liu, Kexi; Wang, Xiangqing; Wang, Tuo; Luo, Jun; Zhu, Jing

    2015-04-01

    To achieve iron–nitrogen–carbon (Fe–N–C) nanofibers with excellent electrocatalysis for replacing high-cost Pt-based catalysts in the cathodes of fuel cells and metal-air batteries, we have investigated and evaluated the effects of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) concentration and the proportion of iron to PAN, along with voltage and flow rate during the electrospinning process, and thus proposed three criteria to optimize these parameters for ideal nanofiber catalysts. The best half-wave potential of an optimized catalysts is 0.82 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode in an alkaline medium, which reaches the best range of the non-precious-metal catalysts reported and is very close to that of commercial Pt/C catalysts. Furthermore, the electron-transfer number of our catalysts is superior to that of the Pt/C, indicating the catalysts undergo a four-electron process. The durability of the optimized Fe–N–C nanofibers is also better than that of the Pt/C, which is attributed to the homogeneous distribution of the active sites in our catalysts.

  19. Optimized electrospinning synthesis of iron-nitrogen-carbon nanofibers for high electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction in alkaline medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xingxu; Liu, Kexi; Wang, Xiangqing; Wang, Tuo; Luo, Jun; Zhu, Jing

    2015-04-24

    To achieve iron-nitrogen-carbon (Fe-N-C) nanofibers with excellent electrocatalysis for replacing high-cost Pt-based catalysts in the cathodes of fuel cells and metal-air batteries, we have investigated and evaluated the effects of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) concentration and the proportion of iron to PAN, along with voltage and flow rate during the electrospinning process, and thus proposed three criteria to optimize these parameters for ideal nanofiber catalysts. The best half-wave potential of an optimized catalysts is 0.82 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode in an alkaline medium, which reaches the best range of the non-precious-metal catalysts reported and is very close to that of commercial Pt/C catalysts. Furthermore, the electron-transfer number of our catalysts is superior to that of the Pt/C, indicating the catalysts undergo a four-electron process. The durability of the optimized Fe-N-C nanofibers is also better than that of the Pt/C, which is attributed to the homogeneous distribution of the active sites in our catalysts. PMID:25815586

  20. Li2MnSiO4/Carbon Composite Nanofibers as a High-Capacity Cathode Material for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwu Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Li2MnSiO4 has an extremely high theoretical capacity of 332 mAh?g?1. However, only around half of this capacity has been realized in practice and the capacity retention during cycling is also low. In this study, Li2MnSiO4/carbon composite nanofibers were prepared by a combination of electrospinning and heat treatment. The one-dimensional continuous carbon nanofiber matrix serves as long-distance conductive pathways for both electrons and ions. The composite nanofiber structure avoids the aggregation of Li2MnSiO4 particles, which in turn enhances the electrode conductivity and promotes the reaction kinetics. The resultant Li2MnSiO4/carbon composite nanofibers were used as the cathode material for Li-ion batteries, and they delivered high charge and discharge capacities of 218 and 185 mAh?g?1, respectively, at the second cycle. In addition, the capacity retention of Li2MnSiO4 at the first 20th cycles increased from 37% to 54% in composite nanofibers.

  1. Higher-power supercapacitor electrodes based on mesoporous manganese oxide coating on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klankowski, Steven A.; Pandey, Gaind P.; Malek, Gary; Thomas, Conor R.; Bernasek, Steven L.; Wu, Judy; Li, Jun

    2015-04-01

    A study on the development of high-power supercapacitor materials based on formation of thick mesoporous MnO2 shells on a highly conductive 3D template using vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs). Coaxial manganese shells of 100 to 600 nm nominal thicknesses are sputter-coated on VACNFs and then electrochemically oxidized into rose-petal-like mesoporous MnO2 structure. Such a 3D MnO2/VACNF hybrid architecture provides enhanced ion diffusion throughout the whole MnO2 shell and yields excellent current collection capability through the VACNF electrode. These two effects collectively enable faster electrochemical reactions during charge-discharge of MnO2 in 1 M Na2SO4. Thick MnO2 shells (up to 200 nm in radial thickness) can be employed, giving a specific capacitance up to 437 F g-1. More importantly, supercapacitors employing such a 3D MnO2/VACNF hybrid electrode illustrate more than one order of magnitude higher specific power than the state-of-the-art ones based on other MnO2 structures, reaching ~240 kW kg-1, while maintaining a comparable specific energy in the range of 1 to 10 Wh kg-1. This hybrid approach demonstrates the potential of 3D core-shell architectures for high-power energy storage devices.A study on the development of high-power supercapacitor materials based on formation of thick mesoporous MnO2 shells on a highly conductive 3D template using vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs). Coaxial manganese shells of 100 to 600 nm nominal thicknesses are sputter-coated on VACNFs and then electrochemically oxidized into rose-petal-like mesoporous MnO2 structure. Such a 3D MnO2/VACNF hybrid architecture provides enhanced ion diffusion throughout the whole MnO2 shell and yields excellent current collection capability through the VACNF electrode. These two effects collectively enable faster electrochemical reactions during charge-discharge of MnO2 in 1 M Na2SO4. Thick MnO2 shells (up to 200 nm in radial thickness) can be employed, giving a specific capacitance up to 437 F g-1. More importantly, supercapacitors employing such a 3D MnO2/VACNF hybrid electrode illustrate more than one order of magnitude higher specific power than the state-of-the-art ones based on other MnO2 structures, reaching ~240 kW kg-1, while maintaining a comparable specific energy in the range of 1 to 10 Wh kg-1. This hybrid approach demonstrates the potential of 3D core-shell architectures for high-power energy storage devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01198a

  2. High-yield harvest of nanofibers/mesoporous carbon composite by pyrolysis of waste biomass and its application for high durability electrochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; He, Yan-Rong; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-12-01

    Disposal and recycling of the large scale biomass waste is of great concern. Themochemically converting the waste biomass to functional carbon nanomaterials and bio-oil is an environmentally friendly apporach by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by open burning. In this work, we reported a scalable, "green" method for the synthesis of the nanofibers/mesoporous carbon composites through pyrolysis of the Fe(III)-preloaded biomass, which is controllable by adjustment of temperature and additive of catalyst. It is found that the coupled catalytic action of both Fe and Cl species is able to effectively catalyze the growth of the carbon nanofibers on the mesoporous carbon and form magnetic nanofibers/mesoporous carbon composites (M-NMCCs). The mechanism for the growth of the nanofibers is proposed as an in situ vapor deposition process, and confirmed by the XRD and SEM results. M-NMCCs can be directly used as electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage without further separation, and exhibit favorable energy storage performance with high EDLC capacitance, good retention capability, and excellent stability and durability (more than 98% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles). Considering that biomass is a naturally abundant and renewable resource (over billions tons biomass produced every year globally) and pyrolysis is a proven technique, M-NMCCs can be easily produced at large scale and become a sustainable and reliable resource for clean energy storage. PMID:25372400

  3. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on anatase TiO2/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite nanofibers photoanode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? TiO2/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) hybrid nanofibers are prepared via electrospinning. ? Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are assembled using TiO2/MWCNTs nanofibers film as photoanode. ? Energy conversion efficiency of DSSCs is greatly dependent on the content of MWCNTs. ? Moderate MWCNTs incorporation can substantially enhance the performance of DSSCs. - Abstract: Anatase TiO2/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (TiO2/MWCNTs) hybrid nanofibers (NFs) film was prepared via a facile electrospinning method. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on TiO2/MWCNTs composite NFs photoanodes with different contents of MWCNTs (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1 wt.%) were assembled using N719 dye as sensitizer. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Raman spectrometer were used to characterize the TiO2/MWCNTs electrode films. The photocurrent–voltage (I–V) characteristic, incident photo-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) spectrum, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were carried out to evaluate the photoelectric properties of the DSSCs. The results reveal that the energy conversion efficiency is greatly dependent on the content of MWCNTs in the composite NFs film, and a moderate incorporation of MWCNTs can substantially enhance the performance of DSSCs. When the electrode containss. When the electrode contains 0.3 wt.% MWCNTs, the corresponding solar cell yield the highest efficiency of 5.63%. This efficiency value is approximately 26% larger than that of the unmodified counterpart.

  4. Flexible copper-stabilized sulfur-carbon nanofibers with excellent electrochemical performance for Li-S batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Linchao; Jiang, Yu; Xu, Jun; Wang, Min; Li, Weihan; Yu, Yan

    2015-06-01

    By rational design, we fabricated a flexible and free-standing copper-immobilized sulfur-porous carbon nanofiber (denoted as S@PCNFs-Cu) electrode by simply impregnating sulfur into electrospun derived Cu embedded porous carbon nanofibers (PCNFs-Cu). The PCNF film with a 3D interconnected structure is used as a conducting matrix to encapsulate sulfur. In addition, the introduction of Cu leads to the formation of a chemical bond between Cu and S, preventing the dissolution of polysulfide during cycling. The micropores and mesopores of PCNF hosts provide free space to accommodate the volume change of S and polysulfide. When used as a cathode material for Li-S batteries, the S@PCNFs-Cu (S content: 52 wt%) exhibits much better electrochemical performance compared to the Cu-free S@PCNF electrode. The S@PCNFs-Cu displays high reversible capacity (680 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at 50 mA g-1), excellent rate capability (415 mA h g-1 at 1 A g-1) and super Coulombic efficiency of 100%. This strategy of stabilizing S with a small amount of copper nanoparticles can be a very promising method to prepare free-standing cathode material for high-performance Li-S batteries.

  5. Processing, wear, and mechanical properties of polyethylene composites prepared with pristine and organosilane-treated carbon nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Weston

    Polymers and nanocomposites have been increasingly used for tribological applications over the last few decades. In particular, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a high performance polymer with excellent strength, toughness, and wear resistance. Because of these properties, UHMWPE is an ideal material for a variety of applications including body armor, components of sporting goods such as skies and snowboards, and liners in total joint replacement. Though the toughness and wear resistance far exceed that of most other polymeric materials, there is a high demand for improving the tribological and mechanical properties of UHMWPE for many applications. The approach used in this work for improving such properties is through nanocomposite technology, specifically via the incorporation of carbon nanofibers. In order to obtain the full potential of nanocomposite technology, two critical issues need to be addressed: appropriate interactions between the filler and matrix and proper dispersion of the nano-reinforcement. These critical issues are particularly important for UHMWPE nanocomposites in that UHMWPE is an extremely viscous polymer and thus cannot be processed conventionally, typically resulting in dispersion issues far worse than that of other composite systems. Furthermore, UHMWPE is non-polar, so interactions between filler and matrix will be limited to Van der Waals forces for untreated nanofillers. Therefore, the research presented aims at solving these issues by using a paraffin-assisted processing method and applying appropriate surface treatment to the carbon nanofibers. Under optimized processing conditions, wear and mechanical properties of UHMWPE composites can be substantially improved.

  6. N-doped amorphous carbon coated Fe3O4/SnO2 coaxial nanofibers as a binder-free self-supported electrode for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenhe; Li, Suyuan; Wang, Suiyan; Xue, Song; Liu, Zhengjiao; Jiang, Xinyu; He, Deyan

    2014-11-26

    N-doped amorphous carbon coated Fe3O4/SnO2 coaxial nanofibers were prepared via a facile approach. The core composite nanofibers were first made by electrospinning technology, then the shells were conformally coated using the chemical bath deposition and subsequent carbonization with polydopamine as a carbon source. When applied as a binder-free self-supported anode for lithium ion batteries, the coaxial nanofibers displayed an enhanced electrochemical storage capacity and excellent rate performance. The morphology of the interwoven nanofibers was maintained even after the rate cycle test. The superior electrochemical performance originates in the structural stability of the N-doped amorphous carbon shells formed by carbonizing polydopamine. PMID:25379677

  7. Antimony nanoparticles anchored on interconnected carbon nanofibers networks as advanced anode material for sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hongshuai; Jing, Mingjun; Yang, Yingchang; Zhang, Yan; Song, Weixin; Yang, Xuming; Chen, Jun; Chen, Qiyuan; Ji, Xiaobo

    2015-06-01

    Interconnected carbon nanofibers networks (ICNNs) prepared through the carbonization of polypyrrole (PPy) precursor are utilized as conductive pathways and buffer to improve the Na storage performance of antimony (Sb) as anode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). The as-obtained Sb/ICNNs composite exhibits excellent cycle stability. The reversible capacity can remain 542.5 mAh g-1 with a high capacity retention of 96.7% after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1. And the superior rate performance is also observed, the reversible capacity can still reach 325 mAh g-1 at a high current density of 3200 mA g-1. These great electrochemical performances observed above suggest that this type of composite can be a nice option for advanced SIBs anode materials and may be extended to other active materials/ICNNs composite electrode.

  8. Effects of feed gas composition and catalyst thickness on carbon nanotube and nanofiber synthesis by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R K; Kim, S S; Hash, D B; Gore, J P; Fisher, T S

    2008-06-01

    Many engineering applications require carbon nanotubes with specific characteristics such as wall structure, chirality and alignment. However, precise control of nanotube properties grown to application specifications remains a significant challenge. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) offers a variety of advantages in the synthesis of carbon nanotubes in that several important synthesis parameters can be controlled independently. This paper reports an experimental study of the effects of reacting gas composition (percentage methane in hydrogen) and catalyst film thickness on carbon nanotube (CNT) growth and a computational study of gas-phase composition for the inlet conditions of experimentally observed carbon nanotube growth using different chemical reaction mechanisms. The simulations seek to explain the observed effects of reacting gas composition and to identify the precursors for CNT formation. The experimental results indicate that gas-phase composition significantly affects the synthesized material, which is shown to be randomly aligned nanotube and nanofiber mats for relatively methane-rich inlet gas mixtures and non-tubular carbon for methane-lean incoming mixtures. The simulation results suggest that inlet methane-hydrogen mixture coverts to an acetylene-methane-hydrogen mixture with minor amounts of ethylene, hydrogen atom, and methyl radical. Acetylene appears to be the indicator species for solid carbon formation. The simulations also show that inlet methane-hydrogen mixture does not produce enough gas-phase precursors needed to form quality CNTs below 5% CH4 concentrations in the inlet stream. PMID:18681048

  9. Si-Carbon Composite Nanofibers with Good scalability and Favorable Architecture for Highly Reversible Lithium Storage and Superb Kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate a simple electrospinning for preparing Si-carbon composite Nanofiber (NF) in which aciniform aggregates of Si particles are well encased by amorphous carbon. The Si-carbon composite NF exhibit a significantly improved electrochemical performance with a high specific capacity of 1250 mAh·g?1 and a superior cycling performance during 50 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. More importantly, Si-carbon composite NF maintain about 70% of initial capacity at 0.2 C and an excellent cycling stability even at 25 times higher current density compared to the initial condition, proving that it has superb kinetics compared to ever reported Si or SiOx materials. The electrochemical superiority of Si-carbon composite NF can be attributed to amorphous carbon framework accommodating the inherent volume expansion of Si during lithiation as well as the enlarged contact area between active materials and conducting agent attributed to the morphological characteristics of its one dimensional (1D) nanostructure

  10. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of heme-proteins immobilized in porous carbon nanofiber/room-temperature ionic liquid composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Qinglin [Institute of Analytical Science/Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Northwest University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Zheng Jianbin, E-mail: zhengjb@nwu.edu.c [Institute of Analytical Science/Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Northwest University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Shangguan Xiaodong [Institute of Analytical Science/Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Northwest University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Lin Wanghua; Li Yuanyao [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 62102, Taiwan (China); Liu Ruixiao [Institute of Analytical Science/Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Northwest University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710069 (China)

    2010-03-30

    The combination of porous carbon nanofiber (PCNF) and room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) provided a suitable microenvironment for heme-proteins to transfer electron directly. Hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochrome c incorporated in PCNF/RTIL films exhibited a pair of well-defined, quasi-reversible cyclic voltammetric peaks at about -0.28 V vs. SCE in pH 7.0 buffers, respectively, characteristic of the protein heme Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couples. The cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to characterize the modified electrode. The heme/PCNF/RTIL/CHIT films were also characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, indicating that heme-proteins in the composite film could retain its native structure. Oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and nitrite were catalytically reduced at the heme/PCNF/RTIL/CHIT film modified electrodes, showing the potential applicability of the films as the new type of biosensors or bioreactors based on direct electrochemistry of the redox proteins.

  11. Direct current conductivity of carbon nanofiber-based conductive polymer composites: effects of temperature and electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lin Xiang; Tjong, Sie Chin

    2011-05-01

    Polymer composites based on high density polyethylene (HDPE) and carbon nanofiber (CNF) were fabricated by melt compounding. The dependences of electrical conductivity of HDPE-CNF composites on filler concentration, temperature, and applied electric field were investigated. The results showed that the conductivity of the HDPE-CNF composites follows the scaling law of percolation theory. Increasing temperature caused a sharp increase in the resistivity of HDPE-CNF composites near the melting temperature of HDPE, yielding a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect of resistance. The potential mechanisms involved in the PTC effect of such composites were analyzed. An investigation of the effect of electric field on the conductivity of HDPE-CNF composites revealed the presence of tunneling conduction. The tunneling conductivity increased with increasing filler content because of high tunneling frequency, and decreased with rising temperature as a result of gap widening between conducting CNF fillers. PMID:21780386

  12. Lignin-derived electrospun carbon nanofiber mats with supercritically deposited Ag nanoparticles for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Electrospun carbon nanofiber mats were prepared from a natural product of lignin. • The freestanding mats were flexible with BET specific surface area of ?583 m2/g. • The mats were surface-deposited with Ag nanoparticles via the scCO2 method. • Novel electrocatalytic systems of Ag/ECNFs exhibited high activities towards ORR. - Abstract: Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) (11, 15, and 25 wt.%) were deposited on the surface of the freestanding and mechanically flexible mats consisting of lignin-derived electrospun carbon nanofibers (ECNFs) by the supercritical CO2 method followed by the thermal treated at 180 °C. The electrochemical activity of Ag/ECNFs electrocatalyst systems towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was studied in 0.1 M KOH aqueous solution using the rotating disk/rotating ring disk electrode (RDE/RRDE) technique. The SEM, TEM, and XRD results indicated that, the spherical AgNPs were uniformly distributed on the ECNF surface with sizes in the range of 2-10 nm. The electrocatalytic results revealed that, all of the Ag/ECNFs systems exhibited high activity in ORR and demonstrated close-to-theoretical four-electron pathway. In particular, the mass activity of 15 wt.% Ag/ECNFs system was the highest (119 mA mg?1), exceeding that of HiSPEC 4100™ commercial Pt/C catalyst (98 mA mg?1). This study suggested that the lignin-derived ECNF mats surface-deposited with AgNPs would be promising as cost-effective and highly efficient electrocatalyst for ORR in alkaline fuel cells

  13. Towards the control of the diameter of individualized single walled carbon nanotubes in CVD process at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current work, we show that it is possible to favor the selective growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with a narrow diameter distribution on supported catalyst particles with a broad size distribution. Carbon nanotubes were grown at 600 C on silicon substrates. The structure of carbon deposits was controlled by managing the carbon feedstock for adjusting the rate of carbon nanostructures formation on the surface of catalyst particles. Either carbon nanofibers (CNFs) carpets or isolated SWCNTs were obtained. With the fine tune of carbon feedstock, small isolated SWCNTs with a narrow diameter distribution were obtained by limiting the catalytic activity of the largest catalyst particles. HRTEM observations of nanotube embryos have suggested a possible mechanism of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) formation that can explain why the growth of MWCNTs with parallel walls seems to be more difficult than SWCNTs or CNFs at low temperature. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Towards the control of the diameter of individualized single walled carbon nanotubes in CVD process at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsareva, Svetlana [Institut Jean Lamour UMR 7819, CNRS - Universite de Lorraine, Parc de Saurupt, 54011 Nancy (France); Structure et Reactivite des Systemes Moleculaires Complexes UMR 7565, CNRS - Universite de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Devaux, Xavier [Institut Jean Lamour UMR 7819, CNRS - Universite de Lorraine, Parc de Saurupt, 54011 Nancy (France); Dossot, Manuel [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement UMR 7564, CNRS - Universite de Lorraine, 54602 Villers les Nancy (France)

    2012-12-15

    In the current work, we show that it is possible to favor the selective growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with a narrow diameter distribution on supported catalyst particles with a broad size distribution. Carbon nanotubes were grown at 600 C on silicon substrates. The structure of carbon deposits was controlled by managing the carbon feedstock for adjusting the rate of carbon nanostructures formation on the surface of catalyst particles. Either carbon nanofibers (CNFs) carpets or isolated SWCNTs were obtained. With the fine tune of carbon feedstock, small isolated SWCNTs with a narrow diameter distribution were obtained by limiting the catalytic activity of the largest catalyst particles. HRTEM observations of nanotube embryos have suggested a possible mechanism of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) formation that can explain why the growth of MWCNTs with parallel walls seems to be more difficult than SWCNTs or CNFs at low temperature. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Growth of La2CuO4 nanofibers under a mild condition by using single walled carbon nanotubes as templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La2CuO4 nanofibers (ca. 30 nm in diameter and 3 ?m in length) have been grown in situ by using single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs; ca. 2 nm in inner diameter; made via cracking CH4 over the catalyst of Mg0.8Mo0.05Ni0.10Co0.05O x at 800 deg. C) as templates under mild hydrothermal conditions and a temperature around 60 deg. C. During synthesis, the surfactant poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) and H2O2 were added to disperse SWNTs and oxidize the reactants, respectively. The structure of La2CuO4 nanofibers was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and their morphologies were observed with field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) at the hydrothermal synthesis lasting for 5, 20 and 40 h, respectively. The La2CuO4 crystals grew from needle-like (5 h) through stick-like (20 h) and finally to plate-like (40 h) fibers. Twenty hours is an optimum reaction time to obtain regular crystal fibers. The La2CuO4 nanofibers are probably cubic rather than round and may capsulate SWNTs. - Graphical abstract: La2CuO4 nanofibers have been grown in situ by using single walled carbon nanotubes as templates under mild hydrothermal conditions and a temperature around 60 deg. C. The La2CuO4 crystals grew from neeub>CuO4 crystals grew from needle-like (5 h) through stick-like (20 h) and finally to plate-like (40 h) fibers. The La2CuO4 nanofibers are probably cubic rather than round and may capsulate SWNTs

  16. Simple preparation of carbon nanofibers with graphene layers perpendicular to the length direction and the excellent li-ion storage performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Wei, Cheng; Wu, Yi-Min; Han, Fu-Dong; Qi, Yong-Xin; Zhu, Hui-Ling; Lun, Ning; Bai, Yu-Jun

    2015-03-11

    Sulfur-containing carbon nanofibers with the graphene layers approximately vertical to the fiber axis were prepared by a simple reaction between thiophene and sulfur at 550 °C in stainless steel autoclaves without using any templates. The formation mechanism was discussed briefly, and the potential application as anode material for lithium-ion batteries was tentatively investigated. The carbon nanofibers exhibit a stable reversible capacity of 676.8 mAh/g after cycling 50 times at 0.1 C, as well as the capacities of 623.5, 463.2, and 365.8 mAh/g at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 C, respectively. The excellent electrochemical performance could be attributed to the effect of sulfur. On one hand, sulfur could improve the reversible capacity of carbon materials due to its high theoretical capacity; on the other hand, sulfur could promote the formation of the unique carbon nanofibers with the graphene layers perpendicular to the axis direction, favorable to shortening the Li-ion diffusion path. PMID:25706088

  17. Effects of potassium on Ni-K/Al2O3 catalysts in the synthesis of carbon nanofibers by catalytic hydrogenation of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching S; Lin, Jarrn H; You, Jiann H; Yang, Kuo H

    2010-03-25

    Commercially available Ni/Al(2)O(3) samples containing various concentrations of potassium were used to achieve carbon deposition from CO(2) via catalytic hydrogenation. Experimental results show that K additives can induce the formation of carbon nanofibers or carbon deposition on Ni/Al(2)O(3) during the reverse water-gas shift reaction. This work proposes that the formation rate of carbon deposition depends closely on ensemble control, suggesting that the ensemble size necessary to form carbon may be approximately 0.5 potassium atoms. The results of CO(2) temperature-programmed desorption provide strong evidence that the new adsorption sites for CO(2) created on Ni-K/Al(2)O(3) closely depend upon the synthesis of carbon nanofibers. It is found that some potassium-related active phases obtained by calcination and reduction pretreatments can participate in the carbon deposition reaction. The formation pathway for carbon deposition suggests that the main source of carbon deposition is CO(2) and that the pathway is independent of the reaction products CO and CH(4) in the reverse water-gas shift reaction. PMID:19655780

  18. A novel nonenzymatic sensor based on CuO nanoneedle/graphene/carbon nanofiber modified electrode for probing glucose in saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Daixin; Liang, Guohai; Li, Huixiang; Luo, Juan; Zhang, Song; Chen, Hui; Kong, Jilie

    2013-11-15

    Here, we report on a novel nonenzymatic amperometric glucose sensor based on CuO nanoneedle/graphene/carbon nanofiber modified electrode. The results of the scanning electron microscopy indicate that electronic network was formed through their direct binding with the graphene/carbon nanofiber, which leads to larger active surface areas and faster electron transfer for the glucose sensor. High electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of glucose was observed with a rapid response (dopamine and so forth did not cause obvious interference. The sensor can also be used for quantification of glucose concentration in real saliva samples. Therefore, this work has demonstrated a simple and effective sensing platform for nonenzymatic detection of glucose. PMID:24148397

  19. Carbon nanofiber growth optimization for their use as electrocatalyst support in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, M J; Sebastián, D; Suelves, I; Moliner, R

    2009-07-01

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF) growth by catalytic decomposition of methane in a fixed-bed reactor was studied out to elucidate the influence of some important reaction conditions: temperature, space velocity and reactant partial pressure, in the morphological properties of the carbonaceous material obtained. The main objective is to synthesize a suitable carbonaceous nanomaterial to be used as support in platinum based electrocatalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) which improves current carbon blacks. High specific surface area is required in an electrocatalyst support since platinum dispersion is enhanced and so a cost-effective usage and high catalytic activity. Good electrical conductivity of carbon support is also required since the fuel cell power density is improved. With this proposal, characterization was carried out by nitrogen physisorption, XRD, SEM and TPO. The results were analysed by a factorial design and analysis of variance (ANOVA) in order to find an empirical correlation between operating conditions and CNF characteristics. It was found that the highest specific surface area and pore volume were found at 823 K and at a space velocity of 10 L gcat(-1) h(-1). The graphitic character of CNF, which is known to influence the electrical conductivity, presented a maximum value at temperatures between 923 K and 973 K. SEM images showed a narrow size distribution of CNF diameter between 40 and 90 nm and homogeneous appearance. PMID:19916456

  20. Preparation and electrochemical performance of hyper-networked Li4Ti5O12/carbon hybrid nanofiber sheets for a battery-supercapacitor hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyper-networked Li4Ti5O12/carbon hybrid nanofiber sheets that contain both a faradaically rechargeable battery-type component, namely Li4Ti5O12, and a non-faradaically rechargeable supercapacitor-type component, namely N-enriched carbon, are prepared by electrospinning and their dual function as a negative electrode of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and a capacitor is tested for a new class of hybrid energy storage (denoted BatCap). An aqueous solution composed of polyvinylpyrrolidone, lithium hydroxide, titanium(IV) bis(ammonium-lactato)dihydroxide and ammonium persulfate is electrospun to obtain hyper-networked nanofiber sheets. Next, the sheets are exposed to pyrrole monomer vapor to prepare the polypyrrole-coated nanofiber sheets (PPy-HNS). The hyper-networked Li4Ti5O12/N-enriched carbon hybrid nanofiber sheets (LTO/C-HNS) are then obtained by a stepwise heat treatment of the PPy-HNS. The LTO/C-HNS deliver a specific capacity of 135 mAh g-1 at 4000 mA g-1 as a negative electrode for LIBs. In addition, potentiodynamic experiments are performed using a full cell with activated carbon (AC) as the positive electrode and LTO/C-HNS as the negative electrode to estimate the capacitance properties. This new asymmetric electrode system exhibits a high energy density of 91 W kg-1 and 22 W kg-1 at power densities of 50 W kg-1at power densities of 50 W kg-1 and 4000 W kg-1, respectively, which are superior to the values observed for the AC||AC symmetric electrode system.

  1. Carbon-Based Nano-Electro-Mechanical-Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, A. B.; Khan, A. R.; Megerian, K. G.; Epp, L.; LeDuc, G.; Bagge, L.; Jennings, A. T.; Jang, D.; Greer, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    We provide an overview of our work where carbon-based nanostructures have been applied to two-dimensional (2D) planar and three-dimensional (3D) vertically-oriented nano-electro-mechanical (NEM) switches. In the first configuration, laterally oriented single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were implemented for forming bridge-type 2D NEMS switches, where switching voltages were on the order of a few volts. In the second configuration, vertically oriented carbon nanofibers (CNFs) synthesized using plasma-enhanced (PE) CVD have been explored for their potential application in 3D NEMS. We have performed nanomechanical measurements on such vertically oriented tubes using nanoindentation to determine the mechanical properties of the CNFs. Electrostatic switching was demonstrated in the CNFs synthesized on refractory metallic nitride substrates, where a nanoprobe was used as the actuating electrode inside a scanning-electron-microscope. The switching voltages were determined to be in the tens of volts range and van der Waals interactions at these length scales appeared significant, suggesting such structures are promising for nonvolatile memory applications. A finite element model was also developed to determine a theoretical pull-in voltage which was compared to experimental results. XXXX The Complementary-Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) industry faces major obstacles to further miniaturization beyond the 22 nm integrated-circuit (IC) lithography node. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are among the materials being considered as viable candidates for overcoming some of the issues that arise from the downscaling of IC dimensions, which include electromigration encountered with Copper (Cu) interconnects, or high leakage currents that arise from gate dielectrics just a few nanometers (nm) in thickness. While CNTs are showing promise as interconnects due to their high current carrying ability, 1 as well as efficient heat transporting assemblies, 2 another area that is receiving intense interest is the application of CNTs in nano-electro-mechanical-systems (NEMS), as indicated by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).3 The physical isolation of conducting paths in NEMS reduces leakage currents and power dissipation, which are parameters difficult to constrain with increasingly miniaturized Si transistors with their short source-drain channel lengths or ultra-thin gate oxides. In addition, Si reverts to intrinsic behavior at low- and high-temperatures due to Fermi level shifting, which makes solid-state transistors in general more susceptible to thermal extremes. The underlying mechanical operation of NEMS structures is also suggestive of their inherent tolerance toward harsh thermal, as well as high radiation environments, which potentially enhances their ruggedness over solid-state transistors. In particular, carbon based nanostructures offer advantages due to their exceptional elasticity compared to inorganic nanowires4 for example, for extending their mechanical cycling longevity for NEMS applications. Such exceptional mechanical properties arise from the sp2 bonding character inherent to graphene from which many carbon-based nanostructures are derived, such as single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs), multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs) or CNFs. The success of CNT based NEMS has already been validated in a variety of app 11. cat1. 0ns rangm. g fr om nanotweezers, 5 memory d ev1. ces, 6 nanore 1a ys, 7 ·8 an d resonators. 9 In th.I S paper, we provide an overview of our work in forming NEMS switches which are comprised of laterally oriented SWNTs suspended over pre-fabricated trenches based on two-dimensional (2D) planar technology, as well as vertically oriented CNFs which are under consideration for three-dimensional (3D) NEMS. 2. NEMS

  2. In situ fabrication of Ni(OH)2 nanofibers on polypyrrole-based carbon nanotubes for high-capacitance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Facile surface decoration approach to highly porous Ni(OH)2/CNT composites. ? Polypyrrole-based CNTs form three-dimensional electron-transport channels. ? A high capacitance of 1118 F g?1 at 50 mA cm?2 is delivered. ? Ni(OH)2/CNT composites exhibit high discharge capability. - Abstract: Large-scale nickel hydroxide–carbon [Ni(OH)2/CNT] networks with three-dimensional electron-transport channels are synthesized via a facile and general surface-decoration approach, using polypyrrole-derived CNTs as the support. Flexible Ni(OH)2 nanofibers with a diameter of 5–10 nm and a length of 50–120 nm are intertwined and wrapped homogenously on carbon networks, leading to the formation of more complex networks. When used as supercapacitor electrodes, this designed architecture with large surface area, abundant pores and good electrical conductivity is very important in technology. It can promote the bulk accessibility of electrolyte OH? and diffusion rate within the redox phase. Consequently, an unusual specific capacitance of 1745 F g?1 can be obtained for Ni(OH)2/CNT composite at 30 mA cm?2. Even at a high rate (50 mA cm?2), the composite can also deliver a specific capacitance as high as 1118 F g?1, exhibiting the potential application for supercapacitors

  3. Photoelectrochemical properties of hierarchical nanocomposite structure: Carbon nanofibers/TiO2/ZnO thin films.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kment, Št?pán; Hubi?ka, Zden?k; Kmentová, Hana; Kluso?, Petr; Krýsa, Josef; Gregora, Ivan; Morozová, Magdalena; ?ada, Martin; Petráš, D.; Dytrych, Pavel; Slater, M.; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 161, ?. 1 (2011), s. 8-14. ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KAN301370701; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002; GA AV ?R KAN400720701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522; CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : thin layers * hollow cathode * TiO 2 * ZnO * CNFs * IPCE * photocatalysis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2011

  4. Mechanical properties of cellulose nanofiber (CNF) reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) prepared by twin screw extrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Jonoobi, Mehdi; Harun, Jalaluddin; Aji P. Mathew; Oksman, Kristiina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to develop cellulose nanofiber (CNF) reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) by twin screw extrusion. Nanocomposites were prepared by premixing a master batch with high concentration of CNFs in PLA and diluting to final concentrations (1, 3, 5 wt%) during the extrusion. Morphology, mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties (DMA) were studied theoretically and experimentally to see how different CNF concentrations affected the composites’ properties. T...

  5. Investigation of compaction and permeability during the out-of-autoclave and vacuum-bag-only manufacturing of a laminate composite with aligned carbon nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Erin

    Both industry and commercial entities are in the process of using more lightweight composites. Fillers, such as fibers, nanofibers and other nanoconstituents in polymer matrix composites have been proven to enhance the properties of composites and are still being studied in order to optimize the benefits. Further optimization can be studied during the manufacturing process. The air permeability during the out-of-autoclave-vacuum-bag-only (OOA-VBO) cure method is an important property to understand during the optimization of manufacturing processes. Changes in the manufacturing process can improve or decrease composite quality depending on the ability of the composite to evacuate gases such as air and moisture during curing. Therefore, in this study, the axial permeability of a prepreg stack was experimentally studied. Three types of samples were studied: control (no carbon nanofiber (CNF) modification), unaligned CNF modified and aligned CNF modified samples.

  6. Factoring-in agglomeration of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers for better prediction of their toxicity versus asbestos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Ashley R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon nanotubes (CNT and carbon nanofibers (CNF are allotropes of carbon featuring fibrous morphology. The dimensions and high aspect ratio of CNT and CNF have prompted the comparison with naturally occurring asbestos fibers which are known to be extremely pathogenic. While the toxicity and hazardous outcomes elicited by airborne exposure to single-walled CNT or asbestos have been widely reported, very limited data are currently available describing adverse effects of respirable CNF. Results Here, we assessed pulmonary inflammation, fibrosis, oxidative stress markers and systemic immune responses to respirable CNF in comparison to single-walled CNT (SWCNT and asbestos. Pulmonary inflammatory and fibrogenic responses to CNF, SWCNT and asbestos varied depending upon the agglomeration state of the particles/fibers. Foci of granulomatous lesions and collagen deposition were associated with dense particle-like SWCNT agglomerates, while no granuloma formation was found following exposure to fiber-like CNF or asbestos. The average thickness of the alveolar connective tissue - a marker of interstitial fibrosis - was increased 28 days post SWCNT, CNF or asbestos exposure. Exposure to SWCNT, CNF or asbestos resulted in oxidative stress evidenced by accumulations of 4-HNE and carbonylated proteins in the lung tissues. Additionally, local inflammatory and fibrogenic responses were accompanied by modified systemic immunity, as documented by decreased proliferation of splenic T cells ex vivo on day 28 post exposure. The accuracies of assessments of effective surface area for asbestos, SWCNT and CNF (based on geometrical analysis of their agglomeration versus estimates of mass dose and number of particles were compared as predictors of toxicological outcomes. Conclusions We provide evidence that effective surface area along with mass dose rather than specific surface area or particle number are significantly correlated with toxicological responses to carbonaceous fibrous nanoparticles. Therefore, they could be useful dose metrics for risk assessment and management.

  7. Magnetic amphiphilic composites based on carbon nanotubes and nanofibers grown on an inorganic matrix: effect on water-oil interfaces

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline A. S., Oliveira; Ivo F., Teixeira; Leandro P., Ribeiro; Juliana C., Tristão; Anderson, Dias; Rochel M., Lago.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Novos compósitos magnéticos anfifílicos foram preparados pelo crescimento de nanotubos e nanofibras de carbono contendo partículas magnéticas através de deposição química de vapor (CVD), utilizando etanol como fonte de carbono e lama vermelha (RM, subproduto do processo Bayer de produção de alumina) [...] como suporte e catalisador. Monitoramento da reação CVD à temperatura programada (TPCVD), difração de raios X (XRD), espectroscopia Mössbauer, espectroscopia de energia dispersiva (EDS), espectroscopia Raman, termogravimetria (TG/DTA), análise elementar (CHN), determinação de área superficial (BET), microscopia eletrônica de varredura (SEM) e de transmissão (TEM) e medidas magnéticas mostraram que etanol reduz íons de ferro na RM para formar fases magnéticas, por exemplo Fe3O4 e Fe0, e depósitos de carbono (5-42 wt.%) na forma de nanotubos e nanofibras. A combinação de nanoestruturas hidrofóbicas de carbono com óxidos hidrofílicos de Al, Si e Ti presentes na lama vermelha produziu materiais anfifílicos com excelente interação com a interface água-óleo. Misturas de óleo de soja ou de decalina com água (completamente imiscíveis) foram emulsificadas facilmente na presença dos compósitos anfifílicos. Quando os compósitos foram adicionados a uma emulsão água-biodiesel estável, as partículas anfifílicas difundiram-se para a interface água- óleo. As partículas do compósito foram atraídas por ímãs e carregaram com elas as gotas de óleo, levando à completa desemulsificação e separação entre biodiesel e água. Abstract in english New magnetic amphiphilic composites were prepared by the catalytic carbon vapor deposition (CVD) growth of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers using ethanol as carbon source and red mud waste (RM, a by-product of the Bayer process of alumina production) as catalyst and support. Temperature-programmed CV [...] D (TPCVD), analyses by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG/DTA), elemental analysis (CHN), superficial area determination (BET), scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopies and magnetic measurements showed that ethanol reduces the iron ions in the red mud to form magnetic phases, e.g., Fe3O4 and Fe0, and carbon deposits (5-42 wt.%), particularly nanotubes and nanofibers. The combination of the hydrophobic carbon nanostructures with the hydrophilic Al, Si and Ti oxides present in the RM produced amphiphilic materials with excellent interaction with the water-oil interface. Soybean oil or decalin mixtures with water (completely immiscible) were easily emulsified in the presence of the amphiphilic composites. When the composites were added to stable biodiesel-water emulsions, the amphiphilic particles diffused to the interface oil-water. These composite particles were attracted by a magnet, carrying the oil droplets with them and leading to the complete demulsification and separation of the biodiesel from the water.

  8. Synthesis and properties of SiNx coatings as stable fluorescent markers on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Pearce

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs in a catalytic dc ammonia/acetylene plasma process on silicon substrates is often accompanied by sidewall deposition of material that contains predominantly Si and N. In fluorescent microscopy experiments, whereby VACNFs are interfaced to cell and tissue cultures for a variety of applications, it was observed that this material is broadly fluorescent. In this paper, we provide insight into nature of these silicon/nitrogen in-situ coatings. We propose a potential mechanism for deposition of SiNx coating on the sidewalls of VACNFs during PECVD synthesis and explore the origin of the coating’s fluorescence. It is most likely that the substrate reacts with process gases similar to reactive sputtering and chemical vapor deposition (CVD, forming silane and other silicon bearing compounds prior to isotropic deposition as a SiNx coating onto the VACNFs. The formation of Sinanoclusters (NCs is also implicated due to a combination of strong fluorescence and elemental analysis of the samples. These broadly luminescent fibers can prove useful as registry markers in fluorescent cellular studies and for tagging and tracing applications.

  9. A hierarchical nanostructured carbon nanofiber-In2S3 photocatalyst with high photodegradation and disinfection abilities under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Li, An Ran; Tai, Ming Hang; Liu, Zhao Yang; Sun, Darren Delai

    2014-06-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of pollutants under visible light provides a new door to solve the water contamination problem by utilizing free and renewable sunlight. The search for highly efficient photocatalysts with hierarchical nanostructures remains crucial for accessing this new door. In this work, a new hierarchical nanostructured photocatalyst is designed and synthesized, for the first time, by anchoring In2S3 flower-like nanostructures on non-woven carbon nanofiber (CNF). The nanostructures of these CNF-In2S3 composites were fine-tuned, with the aim of achieving the highest photocatalytic activity under visible light. The formation mechanism of the hierarchical nanostructure is also investigated. The results indicate that the optimized hierarchical CNF-In2S3 photocatalyst is superior in photodegradation and disinfection efficiency to that of pure In2S3 under visible-light irradiation. The prominent photocatalytic activities of these hierarchical CNF-In2S3 photocatalysts can be attributed to the excellent properties of enhanced light absorption, large surface area, and efficient charge separation, which are all derived from the special three-dimensional hierarchical nanostructures. Therefore, this work presents the great potential of this hierarchical nanostructured CNF-In2S3 photocatalyst in practical environmental remediation fields. PMID:24771718

  10. PdCo alloy nanoparticle-embedded carbon nanofiber for ultrasensitive nonenzymatic detection of hydrogen peroxide and nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Guo, Qiaohui; Zhang, Xueping; Hou, Haoqing; You, Tianyan

    2015-07-15

    PdCo alloy nanoparticle-embedded carbon nanofiber (PdCo/CNF) prepared by electrospinning and thermal treatment was employed as a high-performance platform for the determination of hydrogen peroxide and nitrite. The as-obtained PdCo/CNF were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry were employed to investigate the electrochemical behaviors of the resultant biosensor. The proposed PdCo/CNF-based biosensor showed excellent analytical performances toward hydrogen peroxide (detection limit: 0.1?M; linear range: 0.2?M-23.5mM) and nitrite (detection limit: 0.2?M; linear range: 0.4-30?M and 30-400?M). The superior analytical properties could be attributed to the synergic effect and firmly embedment of well-dispersed PdCo alloy nanoparticles. These attractive electrochemical properties make this robust electrode material promising for the development of effective electrochemical sensors. PMID:25818356

  11. Early Combination of Material Characteristics and Toxicology Is Useful in the Design of Low Toxicity Carbon Nanofiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore Syversen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach for the early combination of material characterization and toxicology testing in order to design carbon nanofiber (CNF with low toxicity. The aim was to investigate how the adjustment of production parameters and purification procedures can result in a CNF product with low toxicity. Different CNF batches from a pilot plant were characterized with respect to physical properties (chemical composition, specific surface area, morphology, surface chemistry as well as toxicity by in vitro and in vivo tests. A description of a test battery for both material characterization and toxicity is given. The results illustrate how the adjustment of production parameters and purification, thermal treatment in particular, influence the material characterization as well as the outcome of the toxic tests. The combination of the tests early during product development is a useful and efficient approach when aiming at designing CNF with low toxicity. Early quality and safety characterization, preferably in an iterative process, is expected to be efficient and promising for this purpose. The toxicity tests applied are preliminary tests of low cost and rapid execution. For further studies, effects such as lung inflammation, fibrosis and respiratory cancer are recommended for the more in-depth studies of the mature CNF product.

  12. A novel electrochemical sensor of bisphenol A based on stacked graphene nanofibers/gold nanoparticles composite modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a novel and convenient electrochemical sensor based on stacked graphene nanofibers (SGNF) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) composite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was developed for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA). The AuNPs/SGNF modified electrode showed an efficient electrocatalytic role for the oxidation of BPA, and the oxidation overpotentials of BPA were decreased significantly and the peak current increased greatly compared with bare GCE and other modified electrode. The transfer electron number (n) and the charge transfer coefficient (?) were calculated with the result as n = 4, ? = 0.52 for BPA, which indicated the electrochemical oxidation of BPA on AuNPs/SGNF modified electrode was a four-electron and four-proton process. The effective surface areas of AuNPs/SGNF/GCE increased for about 1.7-fold larger than that of the bare GCE. In addition, the kinetic parameters of the modified electrode were calculated and the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks) was 0.51 s?1. Linear sweep voltammetry was applied as a sensitive analytical method for the determination of BPA and a good linear relationship between the peak current and BPA concentration was obtained in the range from 0.08 to 250 ?M with a detection limit of 3.5 × 10?8 M. The modified electrode exhibited a high sensitivity, long-term stability and remarkable reproducible analytical performance and was successfully applied for the determination of BPA in baby bottles with satisfying results

  13. Growth of La 2CuO 4 nanofibers under a mild condition by using single walled carbon nanotubes as templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lizhen; Wang, Xiaolin; Tong Chua, Hui; Kawi, Sibudjing

    2006-07-01

    La 2CuO 4 nanofibers (ca. 30 nm in diameter and 3 ?m in length) have been grown in situ by using single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs; ca. 2 nm in inner diameter; made via cracking CH 4 over the catalyst of Mg 0.8Mo 0.05Ni 0.10Co 0.05O x at 800 °C) as templates under mild hydrothermal conditions and a temperature around 60 °C. During synthesis, the surfactant poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) and H 2O 2 were added to disperse SWNTs and oxidize the reactants, respectively. The structure of La 2CuO 4 nanofibers was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and their morphologies were observed with field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) at the hydrothermal synthesis lasting for 5, 20 and 40 h, respectively. The La 2CuO 4 crystals grew from needle-like (5 h) through stick-like (20 h) and finally to plate-like (40 h) fibers. Twenty hours is an optimum reaction time to obtain regular crystal fibers. The La 2CuO 4 nanofibers are probably cubic rather than round and may capsulate SWNTs.

  14. Fabrication of carbon nanowires by pyrolysis of aqueous solution of sugar within asbestos nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butko, V. Yu.; Fokin, A. V.; Nevedomskii, V. N.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.

    2015-05-01

    Carbon nanowires have been fabricated by pyrolysis of an aqueous solution of sugar in nanochannels of asbestos fibers. Electron microscopy demonstrates that the diameter of these nanochannels corresponds to the diameter of the thinnest of the carbon nanowires obtained. Some of these nanowires have a graphite crystal lattice and internal pores. After asbestos is etched out, the carbon nanowires can retain the original shape of the asbestos fibers. Heating in an inert atmosphere reduces the electrical resistivity of the carbon nanowires to ˜0.035 ? cm.

  15. Development of Radiation Processing to Functionalize Carbon Nanofiber to Use in Nanocomposites for Industrial Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of ionizing radiation on carbon materials have been thoroughly investigated because of its importance in the fields of nuclear, medical, and materials science. Basically, the effect of ionizing radiation on carbon materials takes place as a displacement of carbon atoms from their amorphous or graphitic structures. For nanocarbon materials, only destructive effects were observed in early experiments involving bombardment of carbon nanotubes and fullerenes with ions. However, recent work reveals that radiation can exploit defect creation for novel materials development especially in electronic nanotechnology (Krasheninnikov et al., 2007)

  16. Integrated fast assembly of free-standing lithium titanate/carbon nanotube/cellulose nanofiber hybrid network film as flexible paper-electrode for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shaomei; Feng, Xin; Song, Yuanyuan; Xue, Xin; Liu, Hongjiang; Miao, Miao; Fang, Jianhui; Shi, Liyi

    2015-05-27

    A free-standing lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12)/carbon nanotube/cellulose nanofiber hybrid network film is successfully assembled by using a pressure-controlled aqueous extrusion process, which is highly efficient and easily to scale up from the perspective of disposable and recyclable device production. This hybrid network film used as a lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrode has a dual-layer structure consisting of Li4Ti5O12/carbon nanotube/cellulose nanofiber composites (hereinafter referred to as LTO/CNT/CNF), and carbon nanotube/cellulose nanofiber composites (hereinafter referred to as CNT/CNF). In the heterogeneous fibrous network of the hybrid film, CNF serves simultaneously as building skeleton and a biosourced binder, which substitutes traditional toxic solvents and synthetic polymer binders. Of importance here is that the CNT/CNF layer is used as a lightweight current collector to replace traditional heavy metal foils, which therefore reduces the total mass of the electrode while keeping the same areal loading of active materials. The free-standing network film with high flexibility is easy to handle, and has extremely good conductivity, up to 15.0 S cm(-1). The flexible paper-electrode for LIBs shows very good high rate cycling performance, and the specific charge/discharge capacity values are up to 142 mAh g(-1) even at a current rate of 10 C. On the basis of the mild condition and fast assembly process, a CNF template fulfills multiple functions in the fabrication of paper-electrode for LIBs, which would offer an ever increasing potential for high energy density, low cost, and environmentally friendly flexible electronics. PMID:25938940

  17. Thermal Conductivity of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer/Carbon Nanofiller Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, S.; Watson, K. A.; Working, D. C.; Connell, J. W.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Lin, Y.; Sun, Y. P.

    2007-01-01

    To reduce weight and increase the mobility, comfort, and performance of future spacesuits, flexible, thermally conductive fabrics and plastic tubes are needed for the Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment. Such improvements would allow astronauts to operate more efficiently and safely for extended extravehicular activities. As an approach to raise the thermal conductivity (TC) of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (Elvax 260), it was compounded with three types of carbon based nanofillers: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), vapor grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and expanded graphite (EG). In addition, other nanofillers including metallized CNFs, nickel nanostrands, boron nitride, and powdered aluminum were also compounded with Elvax 260 in the melt at various loading levels. In an attempt to improve compatibility between Elvax 260 and the nanofillers, MWCNTs and EG were modified by surface coating and through noncovalent and covalent attachment of organic molecules containing alkyl groups. Ribbons of the nanocomposites were extruded to form samples in which the nanofillers were aligned in the direction of flow. Samples were also fabricated by compression molding to yield nanocomposites in which the nanofillers were randomly oriented. Mechanical properties of the aligned samples were determined by tensile testing while the degree of dispersion and alignment of nanoparticles were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. TC measurements were performed using a laser flash (Nanoflash ) technique. TC of the samples was measured in the direction of, and perpendicular to, the alignment direction. Additionally, tubing was also extruded from select nanocomposite compositions and the TC and mechanical flexibility measured.

  18. Electrospinning of ceramic nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Benjamin M.

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) nanofibers of diameters as low as 20 nm are fabricated. The fibers were produced through the electrostatic spinning of the preceramic poly(carbomethylsilane) with pyrolysis to ceramic. A new technique was used where the preceramic was blended with polystyrene (PS) and, subsequent to electrospinning, was exposed to UV to crosslink the PS and prevent fibers flowing during pyrolysis. Electrospun SiC fibers were characterized by FTIR, TGA-DTA, SEM, TEM, XRD, and SAED. Fibers were shown to be polycrystalline and nanograined with alpha-SiC 15R polytype being dominant, where commercial fiber production methods form beta-SiC 3C. Pyrolysis of the bulk polymer blend to SiC produced alpha-SiC 15R as the dominant polytype with larger grains showing that electrospinning nanofibers affects resultant crystallinity. Fibers produced were shown to have a core-shell structure of an oxide scale that was variable by pyrolysis conditions. Metal oxide powders (chromium oxide, cobalt oxide, iron oxide, silicon oxide, tantalum oxide, titanium oxide, tungsten oxide, vanadium oxide, and zirconium oxide), were converted to metal carbide powders and metal nitride powders by the process of carbothermal reduction (CTR). Synthetic pitch was explored as an alternative to graphite which is a common carbon source for CTR. It was shown via characterization with XRD that pitch performs as well and in some cases better than graphite and is therefore a viable alternative in CTR. Conversion of metal oxide powders with pitch led to conversion of sol-gel based metal oxide nanofibers produced by electrospinning. Pitch was soluble in the solutions xv that were electrospun allowing for intimate contact between the sol-gel and the carbon source for CTR. This method became a two step processing method to produce metal carbide and nitride nanofibers: first electrospin sol-gel based metal oxide nanofibers and subsequently pyrolize them in the manner of CTR to transform them. Results indicate that this method was capable of transforming hafnium, niobium, tantalum, titanium, vanadium, and zirconium sol-gel nanofibers to metal carbides and nitrides.

  19. The effect of catalysts and underlayer metals on the properties of PECVD-grown carbon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth behaviors and contact resistances of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown on different underlayer metals are investigated. The average diameter, diameter distribution, density, growth rate and contact resistance exhibit strong correlation with the choice of catalyst/underlayer combination. These observations are analyzed in terms of interactions between the catalyst and the underlayer metal. The CNT via test structure has been designed and fabricated to make current-voltage measurements on single CNTs using a nanomanipulator under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging. By analyzing the dependence of measured resistance on CNT diameter, the CNT-metal contact resistance can be extracted. The contact resistances between as-grown CNTs and different underlayer metals are determined. Relationships between contact resistances and various combinations of catalysts and underlayer metals are investigated.

  20. Strain dependent visco-elastic response of CNFs' reinforced epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varischetti, Joshua; Jang, Jae-Soon; Suhr, Jonghwan

    2011-04-01

    Recent advances in the production and availability of nanoscale materials has led to a significant interest in the use of nanoscale fillers in order to augment and tailor material performance in nanostructured composites. A specific area of interest is the use of high aspect ratio fillers, such as carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanofibers (CNF) to augment the damping capacity of nanostructured composites. Previous work has shown the use of high aspect ratio fillers to significantly enhance the damping capacity at low frequency by more than 100%; however, the enhancement achieved has been predicated on strain levels in the composite. Our previous studies have indicated a strong strain dependent response in the nanostructured composites utilizing CNF to augment damping capacity. This is due, in part, to the random distribution of fiber orientations seen in the nanostructured composites. The random distribution of filler orientations is thereby relative to the load applied to the composite that results in a critical shear stress thresholds being surpassed at the nano scale, allowing the filler to slip relative to the matrix, resulting in frictional energy dissipation as heat and thereby inducing damping to the high aspect ratio filler nanostructured composite. In light of the promise this technology holds for use in engineered applications requiring specific damping performance, there remains a fundamental lack in understanding of the precise mechanisms and thereby a lack of ability to accurately predict material performance, which is limiting application of the technology. This study looks at the effect of the random filler orientation of CNF included composites and examines the viscoelastic response of the composite specifically investigating the effect of filler orientation relative to the loading direction and the effect of filler waviness. Furthermore, this study looks at the strain dependent nature of the viscoelastic response and develops an analytical modeling tool to look at the effect of the strain dependent viscoelastic response seen in previous studies with the aim of achieving a better fundamental understanding of the effect of filler orientation and the associated strain dependent nature of the viscoelastic response seen in high aspect ratio nano- filled composites.

  1. Simple fabrication of flexible electrodes with high metal-oxide content: electrospun reduced tungsten oxide/carbon nanofibers for lithium ion battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehyuk; Jo, Changshin; Park, Bangrock; Hwang, Woonbong; Lee, Hyung Ik; Yoon, Songhun; Lee, Jinwoo

    2014-09-01

    A one-step and mass-production synthetic route for a flexible reduced tungsten oxide-carbon composite nanofiber (WO(x)-C-NF) film is demonstrated via an electrospinning technique. The WO(x)-C-NF film exhibits unprecedented high content of metal-oxides (? 80 wt%) and good flexibility (the tensile strength of the specimen was 6.13 MPa) without the use of flexible support materials like CNTs or graphene. The WO(x)-C-NF film is directly used as an anode in a lithium ion battery (LIB). Compared with previously reported tungsten oxide electrodes, the WO(x)-C-NF film exhibits high reversible capacity (481 mA h g(-1)total electrode), stable cycle, and improved rate performance, without the use of additive carbon, a polymeric binder and a current collector. Moreover, control electrodes fabricated by conventional processes support the positive effects of both the freestanding electrode and metal-oxide embedded carbon 1-D nanofiber structure. PMID:25042206

  2. Amphiphilic surface modification of hollow carbon nanofibers for improved cycle life of lithium sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guangyuan; Zhang, Qianfan; Cha, Judy J; Yang, Yuan; Li, Weiyang; Seh, Zhi Wei; Cui, Yi

    2013-03-13

    Tremendous effort has been put into developing viable lithium sulfur batteries, due to their high specific energy and relatively low cost. Despite recent progress in addressing the various problems of sulfur cathodes, lithium sulfur batteries still exhibit significant capacity decay over cycling. Herein, we identify a new capacity fading mechanism of the sulfur cathodes, relating to Li(x)S detachment from the carbon surface during the discharge process. This observation is confirmed by ex-situ transmission electron microscopy study and first-principles calculations. We demonstrate that this capacity fading mechanism can be overcome by introducing amphiphilic polymers to modify the carbon surface, rendering strong interactions between the nonpolar carbon and the polar Li(x)S clusters. The modified sulfur cathode show excellent cycling performance with specific capacity close to 1180 mAh/g at C/5 current rate. Capacity retention of 80% is achieved over 300 cycles at C/2. PMID:23394300

  3. Flexible, ultralight, porous superconducting yarns containing shell-core magnesium diboride-carbon nanotube nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, Julia S; Lima, Márcio Dias; Haines, Carter S; Tolly, Derrick; Salamon, M B; Baughman, Ray H; Zakhidov, Anvar A

    2014-11-26

    Magnesium-diboride-coated carbon nanotube arrays are synthesized by templating carbon-nanotube aerogel sheets with boron and then converting the boron to MgB2. The resultant MgB2-CNT sheets are twisted into flexible, light-weight yarns that have a superconducting transition around 37.8 K and critical current and critical field comparable with those of existing MgB2 wires, but have about 20 times lower density than bulk MgB2. PMID:25319360

  4. Introduction of aldehyde vs. carboxylic groups to cellulose nanofibers using laccase/TEMPO mediated oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaušovec, Darja; Vogrin?i?, Robert; Kokol, Vanja

    2015-02-13

    The chemo-enzymatic modification of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) using laccase as biocatalysts and TEMPO or 4-Amino-TEMPO as mediators under mild aqueous conditions (pH 5, 30 °C) has been investigated to introduce surface active aldehyde groups. 4-Amino TEMPO turned out to be kinetically 0.5-times (50%) more active mediator, resulting to oxoammonium cation intermediacy generated and its in situ regeneration during the modification of CNFs. Accordingly, beside of around 750 mmol/kg terminally-located aldehydes, originated during CNFs isolation, the reaction resulted to about 140% increase of C6-located aldehydes at optimal conditions, without reducing CNFs crystallinity. While only the C6-aldehydes were wholly transformed into the carboxyls after additional post-treatment using NaOH according to the Cannizzaro reaction, the post-oxidation with air-oxygen in EtOH/water medium or NaClO2 resulted to no- or very small amounts of carboxyls created, respectively, at a simultaneous loss of all C6- and some terminal-aldehydes in the latter due to the formation of highly-resistant hemiacetal covalent linkages with available cellulose hydroxyls. The results indicated a new way of preparing and stabilizing highly reactive C6-aldehydes on cellulose, and their exploitation in the development of new nanocellulose-based materials. PMID:25458275

  5. Synthesis and Electrochemical Characterization of Li2FeSiO4/Carbon Nanofiber Composite Cathode Material for Li Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Nazri, Gholam Abbas; Naik, Ratna; Naik, Vaman M.

    2014-03-01

    Lithium transition metal silicates (Li2MSiO4) , where, M =Ni, Mn, Fe, and Co with a theoretical capacity of ~ 330 mAh/g have attracted great interest as possible replacements for cathode material in rechargeable batteries. However, this class of materials exhibit very low electronic conductivity and low lithium diffusivity. In order to enhance the electronic conductivity and reduce the diffusion length for lithium ion, we have synthesized Li2FeSiO4/carbon nanofiber (15 % wt) composites by sol-gel method. The composite materials were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The XRD data confirmed the formation of Li2FeSiO4 crystallites with size ~ 25 nm for composites annealed at 600 °C under argon atmosphere. The composite material was used as positive electrode in a coin cell configuration and the cells were characterized by AC impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling. The cells showed a discharge capacity of ~ 230 mAh/g in the initial cycles, which suggests that more than one Li ion is extracted from the electrode. The effect of annealing at higher temperature on the electrochemical performance of Li2FeSiO4/carbon nanofiber composites will be presented.

  6. The production of carbon nanofibers and thin films on palladium catalysts from ethylene oxygen mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Doorn, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Atwater, Mark [UNM MECH.ENG.; Leseman, Zayd [UNM MECH.ENG.; Luhrs, Claudia C [UNM ENG.MECH; Diez, Yolanda F [SPAIN; Diaz, Angel M [SPAIN

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of carbonaceous materials deposited in fuel rich ethylene-oxygen mixtures on three types of palladium: foil, sputtered film, and nanopowder, are reported. It was found that the form of palladium has a dramatic influence on the morphology of the deposited carbon. In particular, on sputtered film and powder, tight 'weaves' of sub-micron filaments formed quickly. In contrast, on foils under identical conditions, the dominant morphology is carbon thin films with basal planes oriented parallel to the substrate surface. Temperature, gas flow rate, reactant flow ratio (C2H4:02), and residence time (position) were found to influence both growth rate and type for all three forms of Pd. X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, temperature-programmed oxidation, and Raman spectroscopy were used to assess the crystallinity of the as-deposited carbon, and it was determined that transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were the most reliable methods for determining crystallinity. The dependence of growth on reactor position, and the fact that no growth was observed in the absence of oxygen support the postulate that the carbon deposition proceeds by combustion generated radical species.

  7. The electronic transport properties and microstructure of carbon nanofiber/epoxy composites

    OpenAIRE

    Allaoui, Ai?ssa; V Hoa, Suong; D Pugh, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanofibres (CNF) were dispersed into an epoxy resin using a combination of ultrasonication and mechanical mixing. The electronic transport properties of the resulting composites were investigated by means of impedance spectroscopy. It was found that a very low critical weight fraction (pc = 0.064 wt %) which may be taken to correspond to the formation of a tunneling conductive network inside the matrix. The insulator-to-conductor transition region spanned about one or...

  8. Controlling the Dimensions of Carbon Nanofiber Structures through the Electropolymerization of Pyrrole

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, Benjamin L.; Mcknight, Timothy E.; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Allison, David P.; Simpson, Michael L.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.

    2007-01-01

    Electrically conductive polymers, such as polypyrrole (PPy), show promise for modifying the dimensions and properties of micro- and nanoscale structures. Mechanisms for controlling the formation of PPy films of nanoscale thickness were evaluated by electrochemically synthesizing and examining PPy films on planar gold electrodes under a variety of growth conditions. Tunable PPy coatings were then deposited by electropolymerization on the sidewalls of individual, electrically addressable carbon...

  9. Electrical, Mechanical, and Morphological Characterization of Carbon Nanotube filled Polymeric Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorga, Russell; Clarke, Laura; McCullen, Seth; Ojha, Satyajeet; Roberts, Wesley

    2006-03-01

    This work focuses on the inclusion of conductive nanotubes into polymeric matrices with the end goal of creating conductive nanocomposites. This investigation has been carried out by uniform dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyethylene oxide (PEO), which are inherently nonconductive polymers. To fabricate these structures we are using the electrospinning process encompassing an array of collection methods including parallel bars and a static plate. Carbon nanotubes are known to have excellent electrical conductivity and mechanical properties. This investigation shows that the inclusion of carbon nanotubes increases the electronic conduction in these polymers and enhances the mechanical properties of the composites. Dispersion of these nanotubes is the key factor in this process; gum Arabic and surfactants have been utilized for the dispersion of these nanotubes. Conductivity measurements have been carried out by two point probe method and by performing sensitive current and conductance measurements with a femtoammeter. Further morphological characterization has been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).^1 Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry, and Science ^2 Department of Physics

  10. Polymethylsilsesquioxane-cellulose nanofiber biocomposite aerogels with high thermal insulation, bendability, and superhydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayase, Gen; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi; Abe, Kentaro; Yano, Hiroyuki; Maeno, Ayaka; Kaji, Hironori; Nakanishi, Kazuki

    2014-06-25

    Polymethylsilsesquioxane-cellulose nanofiber (PMSQ-CNF) composite aerogels have been prepared through sol-gel in a solvent containing a small amount of CNFs as suspension. Since these composite aerogels do not show excessive aggregation of PMSQ and CNF, the original PMSQ networks are not disturbed. Composite aerogels with low density (0.020 g cm(-3) at lowest), low thermal conductivity (15 mW m(-1) K(-1)), visible light translucency, bending flexibility, and superhydrophobicity thus have been successfully obtained. In particular, the lowest density and bending flexibility have been achieved with the aid of the physical supporting effect of CNFs, and the lowest thermal conductivity is comparable with the original PMSQ aerogels and standard silica aerogels. The PMSQ-CNF composite aerogels would be a candidate to practical high-performance thermal insulating materials. PMID:24865571

  11. Rheological and physical properties of gelatin suspensions containing cellulose nanofibers for potential coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ricardo D; Skurtys, Olivier; Osorio, Fernando; Zuluaga, Robin; Gañán, Piedad; Castro, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    Rheological and physical properties of edible coating formulations containing gelatin, cellulose nanofibers (CNFs), and glycerol are characterized. Measured properties are analyzed in order to optimize edible coating thickness. Results show that coating formulations density increases linearly with gelatin concentration in presence of CNFs. Surface tension decreases with either gelatin or CNF concentration increases. Power law model well described the rheological behavior of edible coating formulations since determination coefficient was high (R(2?)>?0.98) and standard error was low (SE?

  12. Synthesis of carbon nano fiber using carbon black as precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper record our attempt to convert carbon black to carbon nanofiber. The carbon nanofiber was synthesized by mixing carbon black with catalyst solution of FeMo. The mixture was heated under N2 flow at 1000 degree C for 5 minutes. The resultants carbon powder is characterised using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Only a very very small amount of carbon nanofiber is produced with major products of graphitic and amorphous carbon. Carbon nanofiber was found like patches of grass on amorphous carbon. The catalyst was solidified into clusters. The carbon nanofiber observed is believed to grow on Fe catalyst cluster on Mo-carbide surface. (Authors)

  13. Modeling and in-situ observation of mechanical resonances in single, vertically-oriented carbon nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagge, Leif; Epp, Larry; Kaul, Abdur R; Kaul, Anupama B

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed mechanical resonances in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) based on single, vertically-oriented tubes for their potential application in high-frequency, high-Q, miniaturized resonators. The nano-electro-mechanical (NEM) resonators were modeled using a commercially available finite-element-simulator, where the electro-mechanical coupling of the CNT to an incoming AC signal on a probe in close proximity was examined. The modeling results confirmed that the mechanical resonance was maximized when the frequency of the input signal was equal to the first order harmonic of the CNT. An investigation of the resonance frequency was also performed for various geometrical parameters of our unique three-dimensional (3D) NEMS architecture. Finally, in-situ observations of mechanical resonance in single, vertically oriented tubes is also reported, where such measurements were conducted inside a scanning-electron-microscope. This work suggests that our vertically oriented tubes are potentially well-suited for resonator applications, such as filter banks in communication systems or for mass sensing applications. PMID:21137735

  14. Decomposição catalítica da hidrazina sobre irídio suportado em compósitos à base de nanofibras de carbono para propulsão espacial: testes em condições reais Catalytic decomposition of hydrazine over iridium supported on carbon nanofiber composites for propulsion in space: tests under real-life conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Vieira; Demétrio Bastos Netto; Pierre Bernhardt; Marc-Jacques Ledoux; Cuong Pham-Huu

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present the catalytic performance of iridium supported on carbon nanofibers with macroscopic shaping in a 2 N hydrazine microthruster placed inside a vacuum chamber in order to reproduce real-life conditions. The performances obtained are compared to those of the commercial catalyst Shell 405. The carbon-nanofiber based catalyst showed better performance than the commercial catalyst from the standpoint of activity due to its texture and its thermal conductivity.

  15. A self-assembled superhydrophobic electrospun carbon-silica nanofiber sponge for selective removal and recovery of oils and organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Ming Hang; Tan, Benny Yong Liang; Juay, Jermyn; Sun, Darren D; Leckie, James O

    2015-03-27

    An oil spill needs timely cleanup before it spreads and poses serious environmental threat to the polluted area. This always requires the cleanup techniques to be efficient and cost-effective. In this work, a lightweight and compressible sponge made of carbon-silica nanofibers is derived from electrospinning nanotechnology that is low-cost, versatile, and readily scalable. The fabricated sponge has high porosity (>99?%) and displays ultra-hydrophobicity and superoleophilicity, thus making it a suitable material as an oil adsorbent. Owing to its high porosity and low density, the sponge is capable of adsorbing oil up to 140?times its own weight with its sorption rate showing solution viscosity dependence. Furthermore, sponge regeneration and oil recovery are feasible by using either cyclic distillation or mechanical squeezing. PMID:25597480

  16. Preparation, characterization and electrochemical properties of a graphene-like carbon nano-fragment material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The spent graphite material is utilized to prepare carbon nano-fragments (CNFs). • The preparation procedure is based on chemical oxidation and ultrasonic crushing. • The as-prepared graphene-like CNFs are systemically characterized. • The CNFs exhibit high electrocatalytic and electrochemical energy-storage properties. - Abstract: A graphene-like nanomaterial, carbon nano-fragments (CNFs), is obtained using the graphite anodes of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) as carbon source, and its morphology, structure, functional groups, and reactivity are characterized to evaluate the properties and potential applications. The interlayer space increase, layer distortion, and remnant lithium of the waste lithium-intercalated graphite are utilized to prepare the oxidized CNFs (ox-CNFs) through a chemical oxidation and ultrasonic crushing process. These ox-CNFs exhibit a size distribution of 15 nm to 2 ?m and excellent hydrophilicity, and disperse well in an aqueous suspension. Under the hydrothermal condition at 180 °C for 12 h, the ox-CNFs are converted into a suspension of reduced CNFs (re-CNFs), or a cylindrical aggregate when the concentration exceeds 2 mg·mL?1. The spectroscopic results demonstrate that there are abundant edges, defects, and functional groups existing on the CNFs, which affect their reactive, electronic, and electrochemical properties. Thereinto, the vacuum-dried ox-CNFs film can be converted from an insulator to a conductor after a chemical reduction by hydroiodic acid. And the re-CNFs modified glass carbon electrode (re-CNFs/GCE) exhibits enhanced electrocatalytic activity of about 8 times than the GCE to the oxidation reaction of dopamine. Furthermore, with the addition of the carboxylic ox-CNFs in aniline, the CNFs/polyaniline composite discharges a capacitance of 356.4 F·g?1 at 2 mV·s?1, an increase of 80.5% compared to the polyaniline. This preparation entails not only novel carbon nanomaterials but also an excellent disposal method of spent graphite, showing special significance in materials innovation and environmental science

  17. Low-temperature self-assembled vertically aligned carbon nanofibers as counter-electrode material for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-temperature AC–DC PECVD is employed for direct growth of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) on ordinary transparent conductive glass as counter-electrode material for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on utilization of VACNFs grown directly on ordinary FTO-coated glass as a cost-effective catalyst material in DSSCs. According to the FESEM images, the as-grown arrays are well aligned and dense, and offer uniform coverage on the surface of the substrate. In-plane and out-of-plane conductivity measurements reveal their good electrical conductivity, and Raman spectroscopy suggests a high number of electrocatalytic active sites, favoring charge transport at the electrolyte/electrode interface. Hybrid VACNF/Pt electrodes are also fabricated for performance comparison with Pt and VACNF electrodes. X-ray diffraction results verify the crystallization of Pt in hybrid electrodes and further confirm the vertical alignment of carbon nanofibers. Electrochemical characterization indicates that VACNFs provide both high catalytic and good charge transfer capability, which can be attributed to their high surface area, defect-rich and one-dimensional structure, vertical alignment and low contact resistance. As a result, VACNF cells can achieve a comparable performance (?5.6%) to that of the reference Pt cells (?6.5%). Moreover, by combination of the excellent charge transport and catalytic ability of VACNFs and the high conductivity of Pt nanoparticles, hybrid VACNF/Pt cells can deliver a performance superior to that of the Pt cells (?7.2%), despite having a much smaller amount of Pt loading, which raises hopes for low-cost large-scale production of DSSCs in the future. (paper)

  18. Electrospun porous carbon nanofiber@MoS2 core/sheath fiber membranes as highly flexible and binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yue-E.; Huang, Yunpeng; Zhang, Longsheng; Fan, Wei; Lai, Feili; Liu, Tianxi

    2015-06-01

    Self-standing membranes of porous carbon nanofiber (PCNF)@MoS2 core/sheath fibers have been facilely obtained through a combination of electrospinning, high-temperature carbonization and the solvothermal reaction. PCNF fibers with porous channels are used as building blocks for the construction of hierarchical PCNF@MoS2 composites where thin MoS2 nanosheets are uniformly distributed on the PCNF surface. Thus, a three-dimensional open structure is formed, which provides a highly conductive pathway for rapid charge-transfer reactions, as well as greatly improving the surface active sites of MoS2 for fast lithiation/delithiation of Li+ ions. The highly flexible PCNF@MoS2 composite membrane electrode exhibits synergistically improved electrochemical performance with a high specific capacity of 954 mA h g-1 upon the initial discharge, a high rate capability of 475 mA h g-1 even at a high current density of 1 A g-1, and good cycling stability with almost 100% retention after 50 cycles, indicating its potential application as a binder-free anode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.Self-standing membranes of porous carbon nanofiber (PCNF)@MoS2 core/sheath fibers have been facilely obtained through a combination of electrospinning, high-temperature carbonization and the solvothermal reaction. PCNF fibers with porous channels are used as building blocks for the construction of hierarchical PCNF@MoS2 composites where thin MoS2 nanosheets are uniformly distributed on the PCNF surface. Thus, a three-dimensional open structure is formed, which provides a highly conductive pathway for rapid charge-transfer reactions, as well as greatly improving the surface active sites of MoS2 for fast lithiation/delithiation of Li+ ions. The highly flexible PCNF@MoS2 composite membrane electrode exhibits synergistically improved electrochemical performance with a high specific capacity of 954 mA h g-1 upon the initial discharge, a high rate capability of 475 mA h g-1 even at a high current density of 1 A g-1, and good cycling stability with almost 100% retention after 50 cycles, indicating its potential application as a binder-free anode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02711j

  19. A carbon fiber-ZnS nanocomposite for dual application as an efficient cold cathode as well as a luminescent anode for display technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Arunava; Sarkar, Sudipta Kumar; Sen, Dipayan; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the current work we present a simple technique to develop a carbon nanofiber (CNF)/zinc sulfide (ZnS) composite material for excellent FED application. CNFs and ZnS microspheres were synthesized by following a simple thermal chemical vapor deposition and hydrothermal procedure, respectively. A rigorous chemical mixture of CNF and ZnS was prepared to produce the CNF-ZnS composite material. The cathodo-luminescence intensity of the composite improved immensely compared to pure ZnS, also the composite material showed better field emission than pure CNFs. For pure CNF the turn-on field was found to be 2.1 V ?m-1 whereas for the CNF-ZnS composite it reduced to a value of 1.72 V ?m-1. Altogether the composite happened to be an ideal element for both the anode and cathode of a FED system. Furthermore, simulation of our CNF-ZnS composite system using the finite element modeling method also ensured the betterment of field emission from CNF after surface attachment of ZnS nanoclusters.

  20. A carbon fiber-ZnS nanocomposite for dual application as an efficient cold cathode as well as a luminescent anode for display technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Arunava; Sarkar, Sudipta Kumar; Sen, Dipayan; Chattopadhyay, K K

    2015-02-14

    In the current work we present a simple technique to develop a carbon nanofiber (CNF)/zinc sulfide (ZnS) composite material for excellent FED application. CNFs and ZnS microspheres were synthesized by following a simple thermal chemical vapor deposition and hydrothermal procedure, respectively. A rigorous chemical mixture of CNF and ZnS was prepared to produce the CNF-ZnS composite material. The cathodo-luminescence intensity of the composite improved immensely compared to pure ZnS, also the composite material showed better field emission than pure CNFs. For pure CNF the turn-on field was found to be 2.1 V ?m(-1) whereas for the CNF-ZnS composite it reduced to a value of 1.72 V ?m(-1). Altogether the composite happened to be an ideal element for both the anode and cathode of a FED system. Furthermore, simulation of our CNF-ZnS composite system using the finite element modeling method also ensured the betterment of field emission from CNF after surface attachment of ZnS nanoclusters. PMID:25572257

  1. Enhanced electrochemical performance of template-free carbon-coated iron(II, III) oxide hollow nanofibers as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Mi Eun; Pham-Cong, De; Kim, Ji Yoon; Choi, Hun Seok; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jong Pil; Kim, Jinwoo; Jeong, Se Young; Cho, Chae Ryong

    2015-06-01

    Carbon-coated Fe3O4 hollow nanofibers (Fe3O4/C hNFs) as a lithium ion battery anode material are prepared through electrospinning, annealing, and hydrothermal processing. At a high current density of 1000 mAg-1, the template-free Fe3O4/C hNFs exhibit high 1st- and 150th-cycle specific capacities of ?963 and 978 mAhg-1, respectively. Moreover, Fe3O4/C hNFs have excellent and stable rate capability, compared to that of the Fe3O4 hNFs, and a capacity of 704 mAhg-1 at a current density of 2000 mAg-1. Owing to the carbon layer, the Li-ion diffusion coefficient of the Fe3O4/C hNFs, 8.10 × 10-14 cm2 s-1, is 60 times higher than that (1.33 × 10-15 cm2 s-1) of the Fe3O4 hNFs. These results indicate that Fe3O4/C hNFs may have important implications for developing high performance anodes for next-generation lithium ion batteries.

  2. Manufacturing and Shear Response Characterization of Carbon Nanofiber Modified CFRP Using the Out-of-Autoclave-Vacuum-Bag-Only Cure Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Erin E.; Wallace, Landon F.; Hickman, Gregory J. S.; Hsiao, Kuang-Ting

    2014-01-01

    The interlaminar shear response is studied for carbon nanofiber (CNF) modified out-of-autoclave-vacuum-bag-only (OOA-VBO) carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Commercial OOA-VBO prepregs were coated with a CNF modified epoxy solution and a control epoxy solution without CNF to make CNF modified samples and control samples, respectively. Tensile testingwas used to study the in-plane shear performance of [±45°]4s composite laminates. Significant difference in failure modes between the control and CNF modified CFRPs was identified. The control samples experienced half-plane interlaminar delamination, whereas the CNF modified samples experienced a localized failure in the intralaminar region. Digital image correlation (DIC) surface strain results of the control sample showed no further surface strain increase along the delaminated section when the sample was further elongated prior to sample failure. On the other hand, the DIC results of the CNF modified sample showed that the surface strain increased relatively and uniformly across the CFRP as the sample was further elongated until sample failure. The failure mode evidence along with microscope pictures indicated that the CNF modification acted as a beneficial reinforcement inhibiting interlaminar delamination. PMID:24688435

  3. Preparation of a novel PAN/cellulose acetate-Ag based activated carbon nanofiber and its adsorption performance for low-concentration SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-bo; Bi, Jun; Lou, Ting; Song, Tie-ben; Yu, Hong-quan

    2015-04-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN), PAN/cellulose acetate (CA), and PAN/CA-Ag based activated carbon nanofiber (ACNF) were prepared using electrostatic spinning and further heat treatment. Thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) analysis indicated that the addition of CA or Ag did not have a significant impact on the thermal decomposition of PAN materials but the yields of fibers could be improved. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the micromorphologies of produced fibers were greatly influenced by the viscosity and conductivity of precursor solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis proved that a cyclized or trapezoidal structure could form and the carbon scaffold composed of C=C bonds appeared in the PAN-based ACNFs. The characteristic diffraction peaks in X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra were the evidence of a turbostratic structure and silver existed in the PAN/CA-Ag based ACNF. Brunner-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis showed that the doping of CA and Ag increased surface area and micropore volume of fibers; particularly, PAN/CA-Ag based ACNF exhibited the best porosity feature. Furthermore, SO2 adsorption experiments indicated that all the three fibers had good adsorption effects on lower concentrations of SO2 at room temperature; especially, the PAN/CA-Ag based ACNF showed the best adsorption performance, and it may be one of the most promising adsorbents used in the fields of chemical industry and environment protection.

  4. Novos materiais à base de nanofibras de carbono como suporte de catalisador na decomposição da hidrazina / Carbon nanofibers a new catalyst support for hydrazine decomposition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Vieira; Cuong, Pham-Huu; Nicolas, Keller; Marc J., Ledoux.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Today satellites propulsion is based on the use of monopropellant and/or bipropellant chemical systems. The maneuvering of satellite is based on the hydrazine decomposition micropropulsors catalyzed by metallic iridium supported on g-alumina. This reaction is a surface reaction and is strongly exoth [...] ermic and implies that the operation of the micropropulsor is controlled by the mass and heat diffusions. For this reason and for the fact that the propulsor operation is frequently in pulsed regime, the catalyst should support high pressure and temperature variations within a short time period. The performance and the durability of the commercial catalyst are jeopardized by the low thermal conductivity of the alumina. The low thermal conductivity of the alumina support restricts the heat diffusion and leads to the formation of hot spots on the catalyst surface causing the metal sintering and/or fractures of the support, resulting in loss of the activity and catalyst destruction. This work presents the synthesis and characterization of new carbon composite support for the active element iridium, in substitution of the commercial catalysts alumina based support. These supports are constituted of carbon nanofibers (30 to 40 nm diameter) supported on a macroscopic carbon felt. These materials present high thermal conductivity and mechanical resistance, as well as the easiness to be shaped with different macroscopic shapes. The mechanical stability and the performance of the iridium supported on the carbon composite support, evaluated in a laboratory scale test in hydrazine decomposition reaction, are superior compared to the commercial catalyst.

  5. Layered Perovskite Nanofibers via Electrospinning for Overall Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Nils C; Soldat, Julia; Marschall, Roland

    2015-05-01

    The (111)-layered perovskite materials Ba5 Ta4 O15 , Ba5 Ta2 Nb2 O15 and Ba5 Nb4 O15 are prepared with nanofiber morphology via electrospinning for the first time. The nanofibers are built up from small single crystals, with up to several micrometers length even after calcination. The formation mechanism is investigated in detail, revealing an intermediate formation of amorphous barium carbonate strengthening the nanofiber morphology for high temperature treatment. All nanofiber compounds are able to generate hydrogen without any co-catalyst in photocatalytic reformation of methanol. After photodeposition of Rh-Cr2 O3 co-catalysts, the nanofibers show better activity in overall water splitting compared to sol-gel-derived powders. PMID:25504210

  6. Kinetics of methane decomposition to CO{sub x}-free hydrogen and carbon nanofiber over Ni-Cu/MgO catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghei, Maryam; Karimzadeh, Ramin [Chemical Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran); Rashidi, Alimorad; Izadi, Nosrat [Research Center of Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-09-15

    Kinetic modeling of methane decomposition to CO{sub x}-free hydrogen and carbon nanofiber has been carried out in the temperature range 550-650 C over Ni-Cu/MgO catalyst from CH{sub 4}-H{sub 2} mixtures at atmospheric pressure. Assuming the different mechanisms of the reaction, several kinetic models were derived based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood type. The optimum value of kinetic parameters has been obtained by Genetic Algorithm and statistical analysis has been used for the model discrimination. The suggested kinetic model relates to the mechanism when the dissociative adsorption of methane molecule is the rate-determining stage and the estimated activation energy is 50.4 kJ/mol in agreement with the literature. The catalyst deactivation was found to be dependent on the time, reaction temperature, and partial pressures of methane and hydrogen. Inspection of the behavior of the catalyst activity in relation to time, led to a model of second order for catalyst deactivation. (author)

  7. Anomalous capacity increase at high-rates in lithium-ion battery anodes based on silicon-coated vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klankowski, Steven A.; Pandey, Gaind P.; Cruden, Brett A.; Liu, Jianwei; Wu, Judy; Rojeski, Ronald A.; Li, Jun

    2015-02-01

    This study reports of a multi-scale hierarchical lithium-ion battery (LIB) anode that shows a surprising increase in storage capacity at higher current rates from ?3C to ?8C. The anode, composed of forest-like vertically aligned carbon nanofibers coaxially coated with Si shells, is shown to obtain a storage capacity of 3000-3500 mAh (gSi)-1 and greater than 99% coulombic efficiency at a 1C (or C/1) rate, leading to remarkable stability over 500 charge-discharge cycles. In contrast to other studies, this hierarchical LIB anode shows superior high-rate capability where the capacity decreased by less than 7% from ?C/8 to ?3C rates and, more importantly, increased by a few percent from ?3C to ?8C rates, displaying a new phenomenon that becomes more evident after going through long cycles. Electron microscopy, Raman, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveal that the electrode structure remains stable during long cycling and that this enhanced property is likely associated with the combination of the unique nanocolumnar microstructure of the Si coating and the vertical core-shell architecture. It reveals an exciting potential to develop high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Optimizing strength and toughness of nanofiber-reinforced CMCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavia, F.; Curtin, W. A.

    2012-09-01

    Nanofibers used in current ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are usually wavy and of finite length. Here, a shear-lag model for predicting the tensile strength and work of fracture of a composite containing a "single matrix crack", as a function of all the material parameters including constant plus Coulomb interfacial friction, is presented for a CMC containing wavy, finite-length nanofibers having a statistical distribution of strengths. Literature results are recovered for straight infinite fibers, with strength and toughness depending on a characteristic strength ?c and a characteristic length ?c. For nanofibers of finite length L, radius of curvature R, and with Coulomb friction coefficient ?, the strength and toughness are found to depend only on ?c, ?c, and two new dimensionless parameters ??c/R and L/?c. Parametric results for a typical carbon nanotube CMC show an optimal region of morphology (L and R) that maximizes composite strength and toughness, exceeding the properties of composites with straight (R=?) and/or long (L=?) reinforcements. Therefore, while factors such as the nanofiber strength distribution and the nanofiber-matrix interface sliding resistance may not be easily controlled, the tuning, via processing, of purely geometrical properties of the nanofibers (L and R) alone can aid in maximizing composite properties. These results have important application in hybrid CMCs such as "fuzzy fiber" CMCs, where micron-scale fibers are covered with a forest of nanofibers such that the nanofiber array can bridge longitudinal cracks and thus improve delamination resistance.

  9. Curvature, Hybridization and Contamination of Carbon Nanostructures Analysis Using Electron Microscopy and XANES Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolant Eba Medjo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to control the nanoscale shape of carbon nanostructures during wide-scale synthesis process is an essential goal in research for Nanotechnology applications. This paper reports a significant progress toward that goal. Variant CVD has been used for the synthesis of the samples studied. Curvature, hybridization and contamination are analyzed using Electron Microscopies and XANES spectroscopy. The investigations of the results show that four types of samples are obtained. They are carbon nanotubes (CNTs, carbon nanofibers (CNFs, carbon nanowalls (CNWs and carbon nanoparticles (CNPs. Almost all of them have catalyst nanoparticles (metal on top in top growth model or on base in base growth model and encapsulated or adsorbed in sidewalls. The orientation of tubular carbon nanomaterials depends on operating parameters. They are classified in three groups: the poorly oriented, the medium oriented and the highly oriented. Their contamination (radicals, atoms and molecules and hybridization are intrinsically related to the curvature of their graphene layers. XANES spectroscopy allows quantitative characterization of nanomaterials.

  10. Application of high-temperature shock compression method for synthesis of diamond nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond nanofibers up to 200 nm in diameter have been manufactured by high-temperature shock compression of carbon nanofibers of the graphite-like structure at pressure of 30 GPa and a temperature of 3500 K. Besides diamond, the purified end product contained 20 to 50 vol.% of the amorphous carbon phase having density intermediate between those of graphite and diamond.

  11. Decomposição catalítica da hidrazina sobre irídio suportado em compósitos à base de nanofibras de carbono para propulsão espacial: testes em condições reais / Catalytic decomposition of hydrazine over iridium supported on carbon nanofiber composites for propulsion in space: tests under real-life conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Vieira; Demétrio Bastos, Netto; Pierre, Bernhardt; Marc-Jacques, Ledoux; Cuong, Pham-Huu.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The aim of this work is to present the catalytic performance of iridium supported on carbon nanofibers with macroscopic shaping in a 2 N hydrazine microthruster placed inside a vacuum chamber in order to reproduce real-life conditions. The performances obtained are compared to those of the commercia [...] l catalyst Shell 405. The carbon-nanofiber based catalyst showed better performance than the commercial catalyst from the standpoint of activity due to its texture and its thermal conductivity.

  12. Study of the fire resistant behavior of unfilled and carbon nanofibers reinforced polybenzimidazole coating for structural applications:

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, H.M.S.; Stec, A.A.; Patel, P.; Bhowmik, S; Benedictus, R.

    2013-01-01

    With increasing interest in epoxy-based carbon fiber composites for structural applications, it is important to improve the fire resistant properties of these materials. The fire resistant performance of these materials can be improved either by using high performance epoxy resin for manufacturing carbon fiber composite or by protecting the previously used epoxy-based composite with some fire resistant coating. In this context, work is carried out to evaluate the fire resistance performance o...

  13. Formation of isolated carbon nanofibers with hot-wire CVD using nanosphere lithography as catalyst patterning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houweling, Z.S., E-mail: Z.S.Houweling@uu.n [Utrecht University, Faculty of Science, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Nanophotonics-Physics of Devices, P.O. Box 80.000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Verlaan, V.; Grotenhuis, G.T. ten; Schropp, R.E.I. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Science, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Nanophotonics-Physics of Devices, P.O. Box 80.000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-04-30

    Recently the site-density control of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has attracted much attention as this has become critical for its many applications. To obtain an ordered array of catalyst nanoparticles with good monodispersity nanosphere lithography (NSL) is used. These nanoparticles are tested as catalyst sites in hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) of carbon nanostructures. Aside from using NSL also nickel (Ni) nano-islands are made by thermal annealing of a thin Ni film and tested as catalyst sites. Multiwall CNTs, isolated carbon nanofibres, and other nanostructures have been deposited using HWCVD. Tungsten filaments held at {approx} 2000 {sup o}C are used to decompose a mixture of ammonia, methane and hydrogen. The structures have been characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy.

  14. Formation of isolated carbon nanofibers with hot-wire CVD using nanosphere lithography as catalyst patterning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the site-density control of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has attracted much attention as this has become critical for its many applications. To obtain an ordered array of catalyst nanoparticles with good monodispersity nanosphere lithography (NSL) is used. These nanoparticles are tested as catalyst sites in hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) of carbon nanostructures. Aside from using NSL also nickel (Ni) nano-islands are made by thermal annealing of a thin Ni film and tested as catalyst sites. Multiwall CNTs, isolated carbon nanofibres, and other nanostructures have been deposited using HWCVD. Tungsten filaments held at ? 2000 oC are used to decompose a mixture of ammonia, methane and hydrogen. The structures have been characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy.

  15. Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2-Encapsulated Carbon Nanofiber Network Cathodes with Improved Stability and Rate Capability for Li-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dingtao; Zhang, Peixin; Li, Yongliang; Ren, Xiangzhong

    2015-01-01

    Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2-encapsulated carbon nanofiber network cathode materials were synthesized by a facile electrospinning method. The microstructures, morphologies and electrochemical properties are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), galvonostatic charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), etc. The nanofiber decorated Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 electrode demonstrated higher coulombic efficiency of 83.5%, and discharge capacity of 263.7?mAh g?1 at 1 C as well as higher stability compared to the pristine particle counterpart. The superior electrochemical performance results from the novel network structure which provides fast transport channels for electrons and lithium ions and the outer carbon acts a protection layer which prevents the inner oxides from reacting with HF in the electrolyte during charge-discharge cycling. PMID:26053003

  16. Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2-Encapsulated Carbon Nanofiber Network Cathodes with Improved Stability and Rate Capability for Li-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dingtao; Zhang, Peixin; Li, Yongliang; Ren, Xiangzhong

    2015-01-01

    Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2-encapsulated carbon nanofiber network cathode materials were synthesized by a facile electrospinning method. The microstructures, morphologies and electrochemical properties are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), galvonostatic charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), etc. The nanofiber decorated Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 electrode demonstrated higher coulombic efficiency of 83.5%, and discharge capacity of 263.7?mAh g(-1) at 1 C as well as higher stability compared to the pristine particle counterpart. The superior electrochemical performance results from the novel network structure which provides fast transport channels for electrons and lithium ions and the outer carbon acts a protection layer which prevents the inner oxides from reacting with HF in the electrolyte during charge-discharge cycling. PMID:26053003

  17. High-performance hybrid (electrostatic double-layer and faradaic capacitor-based) polymer actuators incorporating nickel oxide and vapor-grown carbon nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, Naohiro; Asaka, Kinji

    2014-12-01

    The electrochemical and electromechanical properties of polymeric actuators prepared using nickel peroxide hydrate (NiO2·xH2O) or nickel peroxide anhydride (NiO2)/vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (VGCF)/ionic liquid (IL) electrodes were compared with actuators prepared using solely VGCFs or single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and an IL. The electrode in these actuator systems is equivalent to an electrochemical capacitor (EC) exhibiting both electrostatic double-layer capacitor (EDLC)- and faradaic capacitor (FC)-like behaviors. The capacitance of the metal oxide (NiO2·xH2O or NiO2)/VGCF/IL electrode is primarily attributable to the EDLC mechanism such that, at low frequencies, the strains exhibited by the NiO2·xH2O/VGCF/IL and NiO2/VGCF/IL actuators primarily result from the FC mechanism. The VGCFs in the NiO2·xH2O/VGCF/IL and NiO2/VGCF/IL actuators strengthen the EDLC mechanism and increase the electroconductivity of the devices. The mechanism underlying the functioning of the NiO2·xH2O/VGCF/IL actuator in which NiO2·xH2O/VGCF = 1.0 was found to be different from that of the devices produced using solely VGCFs or SWCNTs, which exhibited only the EDLC mechanism. In addition, it was found that both NiO2 and VGCFs are essential with regard to producing actuators that are capable of exhibiting strain levels greater than those of SWCNT-based polymer actuators and are thus suitable for practical applications. Furthermore, the frequency dependence of the displacement responses of the NiO2·xH2O/VGCF and NiO2/VGCF polymer actuators were successfully simulated using a double-layer charging kinetic model. This model, which accounted for the oxidization and reduction reactions of the metal oxide, can also be applied to SWCNT-based actuators. The results of electromechanical response simulations for the NiO2·xH2O/VGCF and NiO2/VGCF actuators predicted the strains at low frequencies as well as the time constants of the devices, confirming that the model is applicable not only to EDLC-based actuator systems but also to the fabricated EDLC/FC system. PMID:25354668

  18. Superhydrophobic terpolymer nanofibers containing perfluoroethyl alkyl methacrylate by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new statistical terpolymer containing perfluoroethyl alkyl methacrylate (Zonyl-TM), methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate, poly(Zonyl-TM-ran-MMA-ran-BA) was synthesized in supercritical carbon dioxide at 200 bar and 80 °C using AIBN as an initiator by heterogeneous free radical copolymerization. Nanofibers of this terpolymer were produced by electrospinning from its DMF solution. The structural and thermal properties of terpolymers and electrospun poly(Zonyl-TM-MMA-BA) nanofibers were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Nanofiber morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Electrospun nanofiber layer was found to be superhydrophobic with a water contact angle of 172 ± 1° and highly oleophobic with hexadecane, glycerol and ethylene glycol contact angles of 70 ± 1°, 167 ± 1° and 163 ± 1° respectively. The change of the contact angle results on the electrospun fiber layer and flat terpolymer surfaces by varying feed monomer composition were compared and discussed in the text.

  19. Capillography of Mats of Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noca, Flavio; Sansom, Elijah; Zhou, Jijie; Gharib, Mory

    2008-01-01

    Capillography (from the Latin capillus, 'hair', and the Greek graphein, to write ) is a recently conceived technique for forming mats of nanofibers into useful patterns. The concept was inspired by experiments on carpetlike mats of multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Capillography may have the potential to be a less-expensive, less-time-consuming alternative to electron-beam lithography as a means of nanoscale patterning for the fabrication of small devices and instruments. In capillography, one exploits the lateral capillary forces exerted on small objects that pierce the surface of a liquid. If the small objects are identical, then the forces are always attractive. Two examples of the effects of such forces are the agglomeration of small particles floating on the surface of a pond and the drawing together of hairs of a wet paintbrush upon removal of the brush from water. Because nanoscale objects brought into contact remain stuck together indefinitely due to Van der Waals forces, patterns formed by capillography remain even upon removal of the liquid. For the experiments on the mats of carbon nanotubes, a surfactant solution capable of wetting carbon nanotubes (which are ultra-hydrophobic) was prepared. The mats were wetted with the solution, then dried. Once the mats were dry, it was found that the nanotubes had become ordered into various patterns, including nestlike indentations, trenches, and various combinations thereof. It may be possible to exploit such ordering effects through controlled wetting and drying of designated portions of mats of carbon nanotubes (and, perhaps, mats of nanofibers of other materials) to obtain patterns similar to those heretofore formed by use of electron-beam lithography. For making patterns that include nestlike indentations, it has been conjectured that it could be possible to control the nesting processes by use of electrostatic fields. Further research is needed to understand the physics of the patterning processes in order to develop capabilities to control patterns formed in capillography.

  20. Formation and Structure of Calcium Carbonate Thin Films and Nanofibers Precipitated in the Presence of Poly(Allylamine Hydrochloride) and Magnesium Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantaert, Bram; Verch, Andreas; Kim, Yi-Yeoun; Ludwig, Henning; Paunov, Vesselin N; Kröger, Roland; Meldrum, Fiona C

    2013-12-23

    That the cationic polyelectrolyte poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) exerts a significant influence on CaCO3 precipitation challenges the idea that only anionic additives have this effect. Here, we show that in common with anionic polyelectrolytes such as poly(aspartic acid), PAH supports the growth of calcite thin films and abundant nanofibers. While investigating the formation of these structures, we also perform the first detailed structural analysis of the nanofibers by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction. The nanofibers are shown to be principally single crystal, with isolated domains of polycrystallinity, and the single crystal structure is even preserved in regions where the nanofibers dramatically change direction. The formation mechanism of the fibers, which are often hundreds of micrometers long, has been the subject of intense speculation. Our results suggest that they form by aggregation of amorphous particles, which are incorporated into the fibers uniquely at their tips, before crystallizing. Extrusion of polymer during crystallization may inhibit particle addition at the fiber walls and result in local variations in the fiber nanostructure. Finally, we investigate the influence of Mg(2+) on CaCO3 precipitation in the presence of PAH, which gives thinner and smoother films, together with fibers with more polycrystalline, granular structures. PMID:24489438

  1. Optics of Nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, Vladimir

    During the last decade, fabrication and investigation of submicron-sized optical fibers have been received growing attention. Such nanofibers or nanowires can be grown from both inorganic and organic semiconductor materials being arranged in mutually parallel nanoaggregates. Also, selected nanofibers can be placed on a substrate or immersed in a liquid that allows one to study them individually. It has been demonstated that such structures possess promising waveguiding and photoluminescence properties. Under pumping conditions, they operate as a nanolaser. This remarkable progress dictates the necessity of fundamental understanding of underlying optical processes which occur in nanofibers. In the present talk, we give a brief overview of recent experimental results in this field. Different theoretical models which can be used for the description of waveguiding and light scattering in nanofibers are considered. Emphasis has been put at rigorous approaches which allow analytical analysis. Besides the conventional model of infinitely long cylindrical dielectric waveguide we discuss also diffraction of waveguide modes at the end of a semi-infinite cylinder. The extension of this approach to a cylindrical nanofiber terminated at both ends gives an idea how to determine Fabry-Perot modes of a nanolaser resonator.

  2. Electrochemical determination of dopamine based on electrospun CeO2/Au composite nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrochemical method for the detection of dopamine based on a glass carbon electrode modified with electrospun CeO2/Au composite nanofibers was investigated in this article. The CeO2/Au composite nanofibers were prepared by the electrospinning technique and then annealed in air. The CeO2/Au composite nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) showed that the electrospun CeO2/Au composite nanofibers modified carbon glass electrode exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic response to the dopamine (DA). The detection limit (S/N = 3) was as low as 0.056 ?M and the sensitivity could reach 127 ?A mM?1 cm?2. All these demonstrated that the electrospun CeO2/Au composite nanofibers were good electrocatalyst for the oxidation of dopamine

  3. Free-standing LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/carbon nanofiber network film as lightweight and high-power cathode for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Ge, Mingyuan; Rong, Jiepeng; Zhou, Chongwu

    2014-05-27

    Lightweight and high-power LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/carbon nanofiber (CNF) network electrodes are developed as a high-voltage cathode for lithium ion batteries. The LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/CNF network electrodes are free-standing and can be used as a cathode without using any binder, carbon black, or metal current collector, and hence the total weight of the electrode is highly reduced while keeping the same areal loading of active materials. Compared with conventional electrodes, the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/CNF network electrodes can yield up to 55% reduction in total weight and 2.2 times enhancement in the weight percentage of active material in the whole electrode. Moreover, the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/carbon nanofiber (CNF) network electrodes showed excellent current rate capability in the large-current test up to 20C (1C = 140 mAh/g), when the conventional electrodes showed almost no capacity at the same condition. Further analysis of polarization resistance confirmed the favorable conductivity from the CNF network compared with the conventional electrode structure. By reducing the weight, increasing the working voltage, and improving the large-current rate capability simultaneously, the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/CNF electrode structure can highly enhance the energy/power density of lithium ion batteries and thus holds great potential to be used with ultrathin, ultralight electronic devices as well as electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. PMID:24773079

  4. Controlling the drug release rate from electrospun phospholipid polymer nanofibers with micro-patterned diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Soki; Hasebe, Terumitsu; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Hotta, Atsushi

    2013-03-01

    An effective way of controlling drug release from polymer fibers coated with thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) film was introduced. It is highly expected that electrospinning will produce polymer fiber and useful for drug delivery systems. The drug release rate should be rather precisely controlled in order to prevent side effects due to the burst drug-release from polymers. Our previous research has already revealed that the micro-patterned DLC could control the drug release rate from biocompatible polymer films. In this study, the drug release profile of the polymer fibers with DLC was investigated. Hydrophilic 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) was selected as a typical biocompatible polymer. It is well known that the MPC polymers show good hemocompatibility and that both MPC and DLC are excellent biocompatible materials with antithrombogenicity. The DLC/MPC composites could therefore be extensively utilized for blood-contacting medical devices. The percentile covered area with patterned DLC on MPC fibers containing drug was varied from 0% (without DLC) to 100% (fully covered). It was found that the drug eluting profiles could be effectively controlled by changing the covered area of micro-patterned DLC coatings on MPC.

  5. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell interaction with phospholipid polymer nanofibers coated by micro-patterned diamond-like carbon (DLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Soki; Hasebe, Terumitsu; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Hotta, Atsushi

    2013-03-01

    Blood-contacting medical devices should possess the surface properties with the following two important characteristics: The first is the anti-thrombogenicity of the material surface and the second is the re-endothelialization over the device surface after long-term implantation, because endothelial cells have excellent anticoagulant properties in blood vessels. To develop highly hemocompatible materials that could promote surface endothelialization, we investigated biocompatible polymers coated with thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) film. In this research, we examined the viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) for hydrophilic 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) fibers with DLC coatings, both of which were known to be anti-thrombogenic. DLC was synthesized on MPC by varying the ratio of covered area by patterned DLC. HUVECs were seeded on DLC-coated MPC for 6 days. The results indicated that the MPC surface with DLC did not disturb HUVEC proliferation in 6 days of culture. Additionally, we are currently making strong efforts to fabricate MPC fibers with bFGF which is an important growth factor involved in cell proliferation. MPC containing bFGF with DLC coatings could be extensively utilized for blood-contacting medical devices.

  6. Characterization of nanocarbons (nanotubes and nanofibers) by Inverse Gas Chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption of different alkanes (linear and cyclic), aromatics and chlorohydrocarbons on non-microporous carbons-carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibres (CNFs)- was studied in this work by inverse gas chromatography (IGC). Capacity of adsorption was derived from the isotherms of adsorption, whereas thermodynamic properties (enthalpy of adsorption, surface free energy characteristics) have been determined from chromatographic retention data. CNTs present the highest adsorption capacity. From surface free energy data, enthalpies of adsorption of polar compounds were divided into dispersive and specific contributions. The interactions of cyclic (benzene and cyclohexane) and chlorinated compounds (trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and chloroform) with the surfaces are mainly dispersive over all the carbons tested, being CNTs the material with the highest dispersive contribution. Adsorption parameters were correlated with morphological and chemical properties of the materials

  7. Bio-based polyurethane reinforced with cellulose nanofibers: a comprehensive investigation on the effect of interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhamou, Karima; Kaddami, Hamid; Magnin, Albert; Dufresne, Alain; Ahmad, Azizan

    2015-05-20

    Novel bio-based polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites composed of cellulose nanofiller extracted from the rachis of date palm tree and polycaprolactone (PCL) diol based PU were prepared by casting/evaporation. Two types of nanofiber were used: cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). The mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposite films were studied by DMA, DSC, and tensile tests and the morphology was investigated by SEM. Bionanocomposites presented good mechanical properties in comparison to neat PU. While comparing both nanofillers, the improvement in mechanical and thermal properties was more pronounced for the nanocomposites based on CNF which could be explained, not only by the higher aspect ratio of CNF, but also by their better dispersion in the PU matrix. Calculation of the solubility parameters of the nanofiller surface polymers and of the PU segments portend a better interfacial adhesion for CNF based nanocomposites compared to CNC. PMID:25817660

  8. Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.

  9. Uniform and Conformal Carbon Nanofilms Produced Based on Molecular Layer Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Yang; Guizhen Wang; Zhe Gao; He Chen; Yong Wang; Yong Qin

    2013-01-01

    Continuous and uniform carbon nanofilms (CNFs) are prepared by pyrolysis of polyimide films which are produced by molecular layer deposition (MLD). The film thickness can be easily controlled at nanometer scale by altering the cycle numbers. During the annealing process at 600 °C, the polyimide film is subject to shrinkage of 70% in thickness. The obtained CNFs do not exhibit a well-graphitized structure due to the low calcination temperature. No clear pore structures are observed in the prod...

  10. Electrostatic deposition of nanofibers for sensor application

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Neilde Rodrigues da, Silva; Rogerio, Furlan; Idalia, Ramos; Jorge Juan, Santiago-Avilés.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the formation of nanofibers (with hundred of nanometers) by using electrospinning (electrostatic deposition) aiming at applications as sensors. Different quantities of a colloidal dispersion of graphite particles were blended with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and N,N dimethylformamide [...] (DMF), resulting in a series of solutions with carbon concentrations ranging from 0 to 25%. Precipitation was observed depending on the concentration of carbon added to the precursor blend. As a consequence, the relative viscosity decreases, due to PAN molecules removal from the solution by carbon particles adsorption, forming precipitates. The resulting fibers show an irregular shape, as observed by SEM and the diameters decrease with the increase of the carbon concentration in the precursor blend. The incorporation of carbon particles in the fibers was confirmed by FTIRS and Raman spectroscopy.

  11. Tailored surface structure of LiFePO4/C nanofibers by phosphidation and their electrochemical superiority for lithium rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Cheol; Han, Dong-Wook; Park, Mihui; Jo, Mi Ru; Kang, Seung Ho; Lee, Ju Kyung; Kang, Yong-Mook

    2014-06-25

    We offer a brand new strategy for enhancing Li ion transport at the surface of LiFePO4/C nanofibers through noble Li ion conducting pathways built along reduced carbon webs by phosphorus. Pristine LiFePO4/C nanofibers composed of 1-dimensional (1D) LiFePO4 nanofibers with thick carbon coating layers on the surfaces of the nanofibers were prepared by the electrospinning technique. These dense and thick carbon layers prevented not only electrolyte penetration into the inner LiFePO4 nanofibers but also facile Li ion transport at the electrode/electrolyte interface. In contrast, the existing strong interactions between the carbon and oxygen atoms on the surface of the pristine LiFePO4/C nanofibers were weakened or partly broken by the adhesion of phosphorus, thereby improving Li ion migration through the thick carbon layers on the surfaces of the LiFePO4 nanofibers. As a result, the phosphidated LiFePO4/C nanofibers have a higher initial discharge capacity and a greatly improved rate capability when compared with pristine LiFePO4/C nanofibers. Our findings of high Li ion transport induced by phosphidation can be widely applied to other carbon-coated electrode materials. PMID:24786736

  12. Structure and Nanomechanical Properties of Well-aligned Electrospun PS/MWCNT Composite Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuan; Ge, Shouren; Koo, Jaseung; Li, Bingquan; Herzberg, Batya; Klein, Toby; Sokolov, Jonathan; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2006-03-01

    Carboxyl-functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were incorporated into polystyrene/DMF solutions and electrospun to form PS/MWCNT composite nanofibers. The nanofibers were spun onto a high speed rotator where they became well aligned. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the surface morphology and interior structure of the electrospun nanofibers. A three-point bending test, using atomic force microscopy (AFM), was utilized to measure the Young's moduli of the nanofibers as a function of fiber diameter and MWCNT concentration. Shear modulation force microscopy (SMFM) was employed to measure the surface glass transition temperature of the composite nanofiber. The existence of MWCNT enhanced the Young's moduli of fibers and increased the glass transition temperature by nearly 10 degrees. Supported by NSF-MRSEC.

  13. One-dimensional SiOC/C composite nanofibers as binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Hu, Yi; Lu, Yao; Zhang, Shu; Xu, Guanjie; Fu, Kun; Li, Shuli; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Lan; Xia, Xin; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2014-05-01

    One-dimensional silicon oxycarbide (SiOC)/C composite nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning and subsequent heat treatment. Introducing carbon matrix to SiOC anode material is an efficient way to accommodate the large volume changes during cycling and also increase the amount of free carbon, which is beneficial for improving the reversible capacity. These SiOC/C composite nanofibers form free-standing conductive membranes that can be used directly as battery electrodes without adding carbon black or polymer binder. Results show that after 80 cycles, the discharge capacity of SiOC/C composite nanofiber anodes is 70% higher than that of Si/C nanofiber anodes and more than 1.5 times larger than those of commercial anodes made from graphite. It is, therefore, demonstrated that one-dimensional SiOC/C nanofibers are promising anode material with large capacities and good cycling stability.

  14. Engineered Polymer Composites Through Electrospun Nanofiber Coating of Fiber Tows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlman, Lee W.; Bakis, Charles; Williams, Tiffany S.; Johnston, James C.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Composite materials offer significant weight savings in many aerospace applications. The toughness of the interface of fibers crossing at different angles often determines failure of composite components. A method for toughening the interface in fabric and filament wound components using directly electrospun thermoplastic nanofiber on carbon fiber tow is presented. The method was first demonstrated with limited trials, and then was scaled up to a continuous lab scale process. Filament wound tubes were fabricated and tested using unmodified baseline towpreg material and nanofiber coated towpreg.

  15. Application of Nanofiber Technology to Nonwoven Thermal Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip W. Gibson, Ph.D

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanofiber technology (fiber diameter less than 1 micrometer is under development for future Army lightweight protective clothing systems. Nanofiber applications for ballistic and chemical/biological protection are being actively investigated, but the thermal properties of nanofibers and their potential protection against cold environments are relatively unknown. Previous studies have shown that radiative heat transfer in fibrous battings is minimized at fiber diameters between 5 and 10 micrometers. However, the radiative heat transfer mechanism of extremely small diameter fibers of less than 1 micrometer diameter is not well known. Previous studies were limited to glass fibers, which have a unique set of thermal radiation properties governed by the thermal emissivity properties of glass. We are investigating the thermal transfer properties of high loft nanofiber battings composed of carbon fiber and various polymeric fibers such as polyacrylonitrile, nylon, and polyurethane. Thermal insulation battings incorporating nanofibers could decrease the weight and bulk of current thermal protective clothing, and increase mobility for soldiers in the battlefield.

  16. Preparation of MnO nanofibers by novel hydrothermal treatment of manganese acetate/PVA electrospun nanofiber mats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, manganese monoxide (MnO) which is hard to prepare because of the chemical activity of the manganese metal has been synthesized in nanofibrous form. An electrospun manganese acetate/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofiber mats have been hydrothermally treated by novel strategy. The treatment process was based on producing of water gas (Co and H2) to eliminate the polymer and reduced the manganese acetate to manganese monoxide. The process was carried out by heating the dried nanofiber mates at 400 deg. C for 3 h in an especial designed reactor in which a stream of water vapor was passing through a bed of an activated carbon. The obtained physiochemical characterization results indicated that the proposed hydrothermal treatment process does have the ability to produce pure MnO nanofibers with good crystallinity.

  17. Structural characterization of cup-stacked-type nanofibers with an entirely hollow core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, M.; Kim, Y. A.; Hayashi, T.; Fukai, Y.; Oshida, K.; Terrones, M.; Yanagisawa, T.; Higaki, S.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    2002-02-01

    Straight long carbon nanofibers with a large hollow core obtained by a floating reactant method show a stacking morphology of truncated conical graphene layers, which in turn exhibit a large portion of open edges on the outer surface and also in the inner channels. Through a judicious choice of oxidation conditions, nanofibers with increased active edge sites are obtained without disrupting the fiber's morphology. A graphitization process induces a morphological change from a tubular type to a reversing saw-toothed type and the formation of loops along the inner channel of the nanofibers, accompanied by a decrease in interlayer spacing.

  18. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiangwu; Fedkiw, Peter; Khan, Saad; Huang, Alex; Fan, Jiang

    2013-11-15

    The overall goal of the proposed work was to use electrospinning technology to integrate dissimilar materials (lithium alloy and carbon) into novel composite nanofiber anodes, which simultaneously had high energy density, reduced cost, and improved abuse tolerance. The nanofiber structure allowed the anodes to withstand repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. These composite nanofibers were electrospun into nonwoven fabrics with thickness of 50 ?m or more, and then directly used as anodes in a lithium-ion battery. This eliminated the presence of non-active materials (e.g., conducting carbon black and polymer binder) and resulted in high energy and power densities. The nonwoven anode structure also provided a large electrode-electrolyte interface and, hence, high rate capacity and good lowtemperature performance capability. Following are detailed objectives for three proposed project periods. • During the first six months: Obtain anodes capable of initial specific capacities of 650 mAh/g and achieve ~50 full charge/discharge cycles in small laboratory scale cells (50 to 100 mAh) at the 1C rate with less than 20 percent capacity fade; • In the middle of project period: Assemble, cycle, and evaluate 18650 cells using proposed anode materials, and demonstrate practical and useful cycle life (750 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade) in 18650 cells with at least twice improvement in the specific capacity than that of conventional graphite electrodes; • At the end of project period: Deliver 18650 cells containing proposed anode materials, and achieve specific capacities greater than 1200 mAh/g and cycle life longer than 5000 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade.

  19. Quasi one dimensional transport in individual electrospun composite nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avnon, A.; Wang, B.; Zhou, S.; Datsyuk, V.; Trotsenko, S.; Grabbert, N.; Ngo, H.-D.

    2014-01-01

    We present results of transport measurements of individual suspended electrospun nanofibers Poly(methyl methacrylate)-multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The nanofiber is comprised of highly aligned consecutive multiwalled carbon nanotubes. We have confirmed that at the range temperature from room temperature down to ˜60 K, the conductance behaves as power-law of temperature with an exponent of ? ˜ 2.9-10.2. The current also behaves as power law of voltage with an exponent of ? ˜ 2.3-8.6. The power-law behavior is a footprint for one dimensional transport. The possible models of this confined system are discussed. Using the model of Luttinger liquid states in series, we calculated the exponent for tunneling into the bulk of a single multiwalled carbon nanotube ?bulk ˜ 0.06 which agrees with theoretical predictions.

  20. Quasi one dimensional transport in individual electrospun composite nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Avnon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present results of transport measurements of individual suspended electrospun nanofibers Poly(methyl methacrylate-multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The nanofiber is comprised of highly aligned consecutive multiwalled carbon nanotubes. We have confirmed that at the range temperature from room temperature down to ?60 K, the conductance behaves as power-law of temperature with an exponent of ? ? 2.9?10.2. The current also behaves as power law of voltage with an exponent of ? ? 2.3?8.6. The power-law behavior is a footprint for one dimensional transport. The possible models of this confined system are discussed. Using the model of Luttinger liquid states in series, we calculated the exponent for tunneling into the bulk of a single multiwalled carbon nanotube ?bulk ? 0.06 which agrees with theoretical predictions.

  1. Quasi one dimensional transport in individual electrospun composite nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avnon, A., E-mail: avnon@phys.fu-berlin.de; Datsyuk, V.; Trotsenko, S. [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wang, B.; Zhou, S. [Research Center of Microperipheric Technologies, Technische Universität Berlin, TiB4/2-1, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, 13355 Berlin (Germany); Grabbert, N.; Ngo, H.-D. [Microsystem Engineering (FB I), University of Applied Sciences, Wilhelminenhofstr. 74 (C 525), 12459 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    We present results of transport measurements of individual suspended electrospun nanofibers Poly(methyl methacrylate)-multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The nanofiber is comprised of highly aligned consecutive multiwalled carbon nanotubes. We have confirmed that at the range temperature from room temperature down to ?60 K, the conductance behaves as power-law of temperature with an exponent of ? ? 2.9?10.2. The current also behaves as power law of voltage with an exponent of ? ? 2.3?8.6. The power-law behavior is a footprint for one dimensional transport. The possible models of this confined system are discussed. Using the model of Luttinger liquid states in series, we calculated the exponent for tunneling into the bulk of a single multiwalled carbon nanotube ?{sub bulk} ? 0.06 which agrees with theoretical predictions.

  2. Mechanism of nanofiber crimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Rou-Xi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of crimped fibers has been caught much attention recently due to remarkable improvement surface-to-volume ratio. The precise mechanism of the fiber crimp is, however, rare and preliminary. This paper finds that pulsation of fibers is the key factor for fiber crimp, and its configuration (wave formation corresponds to its nature frequency after solidification. Crimping performance can be improved by temperature control of the uncrimped fibers. In the paper, polylactide/ dimethylfomamide solution is fabricated into crimped nanofibers by the bubble electrospinning, an approximate period- amplitude relationship of the wave formation is obtained.

  3. PMMA nanofibers production by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrospinning is a process by which polymer nanofibers (with submicron scale diameters) can be formed when a droplet of viscoelastic polymer solution is subjected to high voltage electrostatic field. As this droplet travels in air, the solvent evaporates leaving behind a charge fiber that can be electrically deflected on a substrate. A series of nanofibers with various wt.% of PMMA (poly-methyl-methacrylate) to acetone were produced and characterized regarding their morphology and chemical composition. The nanofibers were characterized by Secondary Electron Microscopy, Atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

  4. Hydrogen storage in graphite nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C.; Tan, C.D.; Hidalgo, R.; Baker, R.T.K.; Rodriguez, N.M. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Chemistry Dept.

    1998-08-01

    Graphite nanofibers (GNF) are a type of material that is produced by the decomposition of carbon containing gases over metal catalyst particles at temperatures around 600 C. These molecularly engineered structures consist of graphene sheets perfectly arranged in a parallel, perpendicular or at angle orientation with respect to the fiber axis. The most important feature of the material is that only edges are exposed. Such an arrangement imparts the material with unique properties for gas adsorption because the evenly separated layers constitute the most ordered set of nanopores that can accommodate an adsorbate in the most efficient manner. In addition, the non-rigid pore walls can also expand so as to accommodate hydrogen in a multilayer conformation. Of the many varieties of structures that can be produced the authors have discovered that when gram quantities of a selected number of GNF are exposed to hydrogen at pressures of {approximately} 2,000 psi, they are capable of adsorbing and storing up to 40 wt% of hydrogen. It is believed that a strong interaction is established between hydrogen and the delocalized p-electrons present in the graphite layers and therefore a new type of chemistry is occurring within these confined structures.

  5. Oxolane-2,5-dione modified electrospun cellulose nanofibers for heavy metals adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Electrospun and modified cellulose nanofibers have high surface area. ? Modified nanofibers showed improved adsorption of Cd and Pb from water. ? Regenerated modified nanofibers had high adsorption capacity hence recyclable. - Abstract: Functionalized cellulose nanofibers have been obtained through electrospinning and modification with oxolane-2,5-dione. The application of the nanofibers for adsorption of cadmium and lead ions from model wastewater samples is presented for the first time. Physical and chemical properties of the nanofibers were characterized. Surface chemistry during preparation and functionalization was monitored using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, carbon-13 solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Brunauer Emmett and Teller. Enhanced surface area of 13.68 m2 g-1 was recorded for the nanofibers as compared to the cellulose fibers with a surface area of 3.22 m2 g-1. Freundlich isotherm was found to describe the interactions better than Langmuir: Kf = 1.0 and 2.91 mmol g-1 (r2 = 0.997 and 0.988) for lead and cadmium, respectively. Regenerability of the fiber mats was investigated and the results obtained indicate sustainability in adsorption efficacy of the material.

  6. Development of transmucosal patch using nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Harleen; Dhakate, Sanjay R; Goyal, Amit K; Markandeywar, Tanmay S; Malik, Basant; Rath, Goutam

    2012-02-01

    In the present work we have attempted to develop a novel transmucosal patch of diclofenac sodium using electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers. PCL nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning techniques using different polymer concentrations. Nanofibers formulations were characterized by SEM, FTIR, drug loading, and in-vitro release study using Franz diffusion cell. Studies revealed the nanofibers fabricated from 13% PCL were fracture-free, non-beaded, and ultrafine with 120 nm diameter. Release studies demonstrated the sustained release behavior of PCL nanofibers. Nanofibers can be exploited for transmucosal drug delivery of NSAID with improved therapeutic efficacy. PMID:22192072

  7. Mechanical properties of organic nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Hansen, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Intrinsic elastic and inelastic mechanical Properties of individual, self-assembled, quasi-single-crystalline para-hexaphenylene nanofibers supported on substrates with different hydrophobicities are investigated as well as the interplay between the fibers and the underlying substrates. We find from atomic-force-microscopy-based rupture experiments a rupture shear stress of about 2 x 10(7) Pa for an individual fiber. Deflecting a nanofiber suspended across a gap results in a Young's modulus of 0.65 GPa. Translational motion of intact nanofibers across the surface is demonstrated for fibers on a silicon substrate with a low-adhesion coating, whereas such motion on a noncoated substrate is limited to very short (sub-micrometer) nanofiber pieces due to strong adhesive forces.

  8. Nanofiber materials fotogenerating singlet oxygen.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mosinger, J.; Lang, Kamil; Kubát, Pavel

    Cancún : European Materials Research Society, 2013. [International Materials Research Congress (IMRC) 2013. Cancún (MX), 11.08.2013-15.08.2013] Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : singlet oxygen * nanofiber * photosensitizer * photooxidation * antibacterial Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  9. Binary CuO/Co3O4 nanofibers for ultrafast and amplified electrochemical sensing of fructose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Binary CuO/Co3O4 nanofiber as active electrode material. ? Dramatically enhanced catalytic activity and direct fructose detection. ? Significantly lowered overpotential, ultrafast (1 s) and sensitive (18.988 ?A mM-1) response. - Abstract: Cobalt oxide-doped copper oxide composite nanofibers (CCNFs) were successfully achieved via electrospinning followed by thermal treatment processes and then exploited as active electrode material for direct enzyme-free fructose detection. The morphology and the structure of as-prepared samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction spectrum (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrocatalytic activity of CCNFs films towards fructose oxidation and sensing performances were evaluated by conventional electrochemical techniques. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (I-t) revealed the distinctly enhanced sensing properties towards fructose compared to pure copper oxide nanofibers (CNFs), i.e., showing significantly lowered overpotential of 0.30 V, ultrafast (1 s) and ultrasensitive (18.988 ?A mM-1) current response in a wide linear range of 1.0 x 10-5 M to 6.0 x 10-3 M with satisfied reproducibility and stability, which could be ascribed to the synergic catalytic effect of the binary CuO/Co3O4 composite nanofibers and the highly porous three-dimensional network films structure of the CCNFs. In addition, a gore of the CCNFs. In addition, a good selectivity for fructose detection was achieved. Results in this work demonstrated that CCNFs is one of the promising catalytic electrode materials for enzymeless fructose sensor fabrication.

  10. Procedure for Fabricating Biofunctional Nanofibers

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, Jereme; Olubi, Omotunde; Sannigrahi, Biswajit; Williams, M. D.; Gadi, Deepti; Baird, Barbara; Khan, Ishrat

    2012-01-01

    Electrospinning is an effective processing method for preparing nanofibers decorated with functional groups. Nanofibers decorated with functional groups may be utilized to study material-biomarker interactions i.e. act as biosensors with potential as single molecule detectors. We have developed an effective approach for preparing functional polymers where the functionality has the capacity of specifically binding with a model protein. In our model system, the functional group is 2,4-dinitroph...

  11. The formation of titanium dioxide crystallite nanoparticles during activation of PAN nanofibers containing titanium isopropoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activated carbon (AC) can act as an important carrier for TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 nanoparticle can be fabricated by the hydrolysis and condensation of titanium alkoxides like titanium isopropoxide. This study showed that the formation of titanium dioxide crystallite nanoparticle during activation of PAN nanofibers containing titanium isopropoxide leads to the formation of mainly anatase crystal TiO2 nanoparticle in AC nanofibers, with a good dispersion in both the longitude and cross section of nanofibers. The TiO2 crystallite size lies in the range of 7.3–11.3 nm. The dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles in the matrix of AC nanofibers is far superior to the direct mixing of TiO2 nanoparticles in the original electrospinning solution.

  12. Preparation of Chitin Nanofibers from Mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroyuki Saimoto; Minoru Morimoto; Ryoki Nomura; Shinsuke Ifuku

    2011-01-01

    Chitin nanofibers were isolated from the cell walls of five different types of mushrooms by the removal of glucans, minerals, and proteins, followed by a simple grinding treatment under acidic conditions. The Chitin nanofibers thus obtained have a uniform structure and a long fiber length. The width of the nanofibers depended on the type of mushrooms and varied in the range 20 to 28 nm. The Chitin nanofibers were characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR spectra, and X-ray diffraction profil...

  13. Characterization and Biocompatibility of Biopolyester Nanofibers

    OpenAIRE

    Tang Hui Ying; Tetsuji Yamaoka; Tadahisa Iwata; Daisuke Ishii

    2009-01-01

    Biodegradable nanofibers are expected to be promising scaffold materials for biomedical engineering, however, biomedical applications require control of the degradation behavior and tissue response of nanofiber scaffolds in vivo. For this purpose, electrospun nanofibers of poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s (PHAs) and poly(lactide)s (PLAs) were subjected to degradation tests in vitro and in vivo. In this review, characterization and biocompatibility of nanofibers derived from PHAs and PLAs are described...

  14. Templates for integrated nanofiber growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina de

    2011-01-01

    Para-hexaphenylene (p6P) molecules have the ability to self-assemble into organic nanofibers. These nanofibers hold unique optoelectronic properties, which make them interesting candidates as elements in electronic and optoelectronic devices. Typically these nanofibers are grown on specific single-crystalline substrates, such as muscovite mica, on which long, mutually parallel nanofibers are self-assembled upon vapor deposition of the organic material under high vacuum conditions. However, the lack of ability to further process these substrates and for integration of such fragile nanostructures with the necessary interface circuitry such as metal electrodes for electrical connection continues to be a significant hindrance toward their large-scale implementation. In-situ growth constitutes a very promising strategy for integrating functional nanostructures into device platforms due to the possibility of parallel, high-volume integration. Besides such single-crystalline templates, the nanofibers can also be grown on non-crystalline gold surfaces, on which the orientation of the nanofibers can be manipulated by structuring the gold surface prior to p6P deposition. In this work, a novel method for in-situ growth of p6P nanofibers on nano-structured gold surfaces is presented. The substrates are prepared by conventional nanofabrication techniques such as e-beam lithography and metal deposition, which increase their potential as device platforms. Some of the results presented here demonstrate, that both the growth direction and the nanofiber length and position can be controlled by placement of nano-structured lines on the substrate. These lines can be used to guide the surface diffusion and thereby steer the self-assembly process of the organic molecules leading to morphologically well-defined molecular nanofibers with preferred growth directions. It is shown that the preferred growth direction of the nanofibers is perpendicular to these structures whereas their length scales are limited by the size and placement ofthe structures. This work therefore demonstrates a new technique, which can be useful within future organic nanofiber based applications. We also demonstrated how gold gratings fabricated on an insulating substrate can enable electrical contact to in-situ grown p6P nanofibers. In a further development of this method, in-situ directed growth of such organic nanostructures were performed between pre-fabricated contacts, which are source–drain gold electrodes on a transistor platform (containing bottom- or top-gate) on silicon dioxide. The substrates were patterned by a combination of optical lithography and electron beam lithography. The dimensions of the gold electrodes strongly influence the morphology of the resulting structures leading to notably different electrical properties. The transistor design influences its electrical characteristics, and the top-gate configuration shows to have the stronger gate effect. In addition, platforms for light-emitting devices were fabricated, and the nanofibers did emit light when an AC voltage was applied to the gate. Platforms for 4-point measurements were fabricated to eliminate contact resistances and determine the nanofibers intrinsic resistance and resistivity. The large-scale fabrication of such small device platforms was demonstrated by using nano-imprint lithography (NIL). The ability to achieve in-situ growth of p6P nanostructures on device platforms opens a wide range of possible applications including fabrication of organic LEDs and other optoelectronic devices.

  15. Dispersions of Aramid Nanofibers: A New Nanoscale Building Block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming; Cao, Keqin; Sui, Lang; Qi, Ying; Zhu, Jian; Waas, Anthony; Arruda, Ellen; Kieffer, John; Thouless, M. D.; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2011-09-27

    Stable dispersions of nanofibers are virtually unknown for synthetic polymers. They can complement analogous dispersions of inorganic components, such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanosheets, etc. as a fundamental component of a toolset for design of nanostructures and metamaterials via numerous solvent-based processing methods. As such, strong flexible polymeric nanofibers are very desirable for the effective utilization within composites of nanoscale inorganic components such as nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and others. Here stable dispersions of uniform high-aspect-ratio aramid nanofibers (ANFs) with diameters between 3 and 30 nm and up to 10 ?m in length were successfully obtained. Unlike the traditional approaches based on polymerization of monomers, they are made by controlled dissolution of standard macroscale form of the aramid polymer, that is, well-known Kevlar threads, and revealed distinct morphological features similar to carbon nanotubes. ANFs are successfully processed into films using layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly as one of the potential methods of preparation of composites from ANFs. The resultant films are transparent and highly temperature resilient. They also display enhanced mechanical characteristics making ANF films highly desirable as protective coatings, ultrastrong membranes, as well as building blocks of other high performance materials in place of or in combination with carbon nanotubes.

  16. Large Scale Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibres on Sodium Chloride Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Rajarao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Large scale synthesis of carbon nanofibres (CNFs on a sodium chloride support has been achieved. CNFs have been synthesized using metal oxalate (Ni, Co and Fe as catalyst precursors at 680 ?C by chemical vapour deposition method. Upon pyrolysis, this catalyst precursors yield catalyst nanoparticles directly. The sodium chloride was used as a catalyst support, it was chosen because of its non?toxic and water soluble nature. Problems, such as the detrimental effect of CNFs, the detrimental effects on the environment and even cost, have been avoided by using a water soluble support. The structure of products was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The purity of the grown products and purified products were determined by the thermal analysis and X?ray diffraction method. Here we report the 7600, 7000 and 6500 wt% yield of CNFs synthesized over nickel, cobalt and iron oxalate. The long, curved and worm shaped CNFs were obtained on Ni, Co and Fe catalysts respectively. The lengthy process of calcination and reduction for the preparation of catalysts is avoided in this method. This synthesis route is simple and economical, hence, it can be used for CNF synthesis in industries.

  17. Aligned Layers of Silver Nano-Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii B. Golovin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new dichroic polarizers made by ordering silver nano-fibers to aligned layers. The aligned layers consist of nano-fibers and self-assembled molecular aggregates of lyotropic liquid crystals. Unidirectional alignment of the layers is achieved by means of mechanical shearing. Aligned layers of silver nano-fibers are partially transparent to a linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation. The unidirectional alignment and density of the silver nano-fibers determine degree of polarization of transmitted light. The aligned layers of silver nano-fibers might be used in optics, microwave applications, and organic electronics.

  18. Graphitised Carbon Nanofibres as Catalyst Support for PEMFC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yli-Rantala, E.; Pasanen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Graphitised carbon nanofibres (G-CNFs) show superior thermal stability and corrosion resistance in PEM fuel cell environment over traditional carbon black (CB) and carbon nanotube catalyst supports. However, G-CNFs have an inert surface with only very limited amount of surface defects for the anchorage of Pt catalyst nanoparticles. Modification of the fibre surface is therefore needed. In this study Pt nanoparticles have been deposited onto as-received and surface-modified G-CNFs. The surface modifications of the fibres comprise acid treatment and nitrogen doping by pyrolysis of a polyaniline (PANI) precursor. The modified surfaces were studied by FTIR and XPS and the electrochemical characterization, including long-term Pt stability tests, was performed using a low-temperature PEMFC single cell. The performance and stability of the G-CNF supported catalysts were compared with a CB supported catalyst and the effects of the different surface treatments were discussed. On the basis of these results, new membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were manufactured and tested also for carbon corrosion by in situ FTIR analysis of the cathode exhaust gases. It was observed that the G-CNFs showed 5?times lower carbon corrosion compared to CB based catalyst when potential reached 1.5?V versus RHE in simulated start/stop cycling.

  19. Graphitised carbon nanofibres as catalyst support for PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yli-Rantala, E.; Pasanen, A.; Kauranen, P. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P. O. Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Ruiz, V.; Borghei, M.; Kauppinen, E. [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, P. O. Box 15100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Oyarce, A.; Lindbergh, G.; Lagergren, C. [Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 42, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Darab, M.; Sunde, S. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Sem Saelands vei 12, NO-7495 Trondheim (Norway); Thomassen, M. [SINTEF, Strindveien 4, NO-7465 Trondheim (Norway); Ma-Andersen, S.; Skou., E. [University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense (Denmark)

    2011-12-15

    Graphitised carbon nanofibres (G-CNFs) show superior thermal stability and corrosion resistance in PEM fuel cell environment over traditional carbon black (CB) and carbon nanotube catalyst supports. However, G-CNFs have an inert surface with only very limited amount of surface defects for the anchorage of Pt catalyst nanoparticles. Modification of the fibre surface is therefore needed. In this study Pt nanoparticles have been deposited onto as-received and surface-modified G-CNFs. The surface modifications of the fibres comprise acid treatment and nitrogen doping by pyrolysis of a polyaniline (PANI) precursor. The modified surfaces were studied by FTIR and XPS and the electrochemical characterization, including long-term Pt stability tests, was performed using a low-temperature PEMFC single cell. The performance and stability of the G-CNF supported catalysts were compared with a CB supported catalyst and the effects of the different surface treatments were discussed. On the basis of these results, new membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were manufactured and tested also for carbon corrosion by in situ FTIR analysis of the cathode exhaust gases. It was observed that the G-CNFs showed 5 times lower carbon corrosion compared to CB based catalyst when potential reached 1.5 V versus RHE in simulated start/stop cycling. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Oriented nanofibers embedded in a polymer matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Enrique V. (Inventor); Rodriguez-Macias, Fernando J. (Inventor); Lozano, Karen (Inventor); Chibante, Luis Paulo Felipe (Inventor); Stewart, David Harris (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method of forming a composite of embedded nanofibers in a polymer matrix is disclosed. The method includes incorporating nanofibers in a plastic matrix forming agglomerates, and uniformly distributing the nanofibers by exposing the agglomerates to hydrodynamic stresses. The hydrodynamic said stresses force the agglomerates to break apart. In combination or additionally elongational flow is used to achieve small diameters and alignment. A nanofiber reinforced polymer composite system is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of nanofibers that are embedded in polymer matrices in micron size fibers. A method for producing nanotube continuous fibers is disclosed. Nanofibers are fibrils with diameters of 100 nm, multiwall nanotubes, single wall nanotubes and their various functionalized and derivatized forms. The method includes mixing a nanofiber in a polymer; and inducing an orientation of the nanofibers that enables the nanofibers to be used to enhance mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Orientation is induced by high shear mixing and elongational flow, singly or in combination. The polymer may be removed from said nanofibers, leaving micron size fibers of aligned nanofibers.

  1. Catalytic ozonation of oxalic acid using carbon nanofibres on macrostructured supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restivo, J; Órfão, J J M; Pereira, M F R; Vanhaecke, E; Rönning, M; Iouranova, T; Kiwi-Minsker, L; Armenise, S; Garcia-Bordejé, E

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanofibres (CNFs) were grown on different macrostructured supports such as cordierite monoliths, carbon felts and sintered metal fibres. The resulting composites exhibited excellent resistance to attrition/corrosion and its porosity is mainly due to mesoporous structures. The CNF/structured materials were tested in the ozonation of oxalic acid in a conventional semi-batch reactor after being crushed to powder form, and in a newly designed reactor that may operate in semi-batch or continuous operation. The CNFs supported on the different structured materials exhibited high catalytic activity in the mineralization of oxalic acid. PMID:22546802

  2. Self-Assembled Peptide Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Nobuyuki; Koga, Tomoyuki

    Molecular self-assembly is a powerful approach being explored for novel supramolecular nanostructures and bio-inspired nanomaterials. In this article, we focus on recent research concerning the self-assembly of de novo designed artificial peptides and peptidomimetics into nanofiber structures, specifically towards developing a new class of soft-materials. These nanofiber architectures have potential use not only in biomedical applications, such as 3D-matrix scaffolds for tissue engineering and biomineralization, but also in nanotechnology such as nano-templates and dimension-regulated functional nano-objects.

  3. Uniform and Conformal Carbon Nanofilms Produced Based on Molecular Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous and uniform carbon nanofilms (CNFs are prepared by pyrolysis of polyimide films which are produced by molecular layer deposition (MLD. The film thickness can be easily controlled at nanometer scale by altering the cycle numbers. During the annealing process at 600 °C, the polyimide film is subject to shrinkage of 70% in thickness. The obtained CNFs do not exhibit a well-graphitized structure due to the low calcination temperature. No clear pore structures are observed in the produced films. CNFs grown on a glass substrate with a thickness of about 1.4 nm shows almost 98% optical transmittance in the visible spectrum range. Au nanoparticles coated with CNFs are produced by this method. Carbon nanotubes with uniform wall thickness are obtained using anodic aluminum oxide as a template by depositing polyimide films into its pores. Our results demonstrate that this method is very effective to coat conformal and uniform CNFs on various substrates, such as nanoparticles and porous templates, to produce functional composite nanomaterials.

  4. Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene nanofibers prepared by CO2 laser supersonic drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suzuki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE nanofibers were prepared by carbon dioxide (CO2 laser irradiation of asspun ETFE fibers with four different melt flow rates (MFRs in a supersonic jet that was generated by blowing air into a vacuum chamber through the fiber injection orifice. The drawability and superstructure of fibers produced by CO2 laser supersonic drawing depend on the laser power, the chamber pressure, the fiber injection speed, and the MFR. Nanofibers obtained using a laser power of 20 W, a chamber pressure of 20 kPa, and an MFR of 308 g•10 min–1 had an average diameter of 0.303 µm and a degree of crystallinity of 54%.

  5. Use of Nanofibers to Strengthen Hydrogels of Silica, Other Oxides, and Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Capadona, Lynn A.; Hurwitz, Frances; Vivod, Stephanie L.; Lake, Max

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that including up to 5 percent w/w carbon nanofibers in a silica backbone of polymer crosslinked aerogels improves its strength, tripling compressive modulus and increasing tensile stress-at-break five-fold with no increase in density or decrease in porosity. In addition, the initial silica hydrogels, which are produced as a first step in manufacturing the aerogels, can be quite fragile and difficult to handle before cross-linking. The addition of the carbon nanofiber also improves the strength of the initial hydrogels before cross-linking, improving the manufacturing process. This can also be extended to other oxide aerogels, such as alumina or aluminosilicates, and other nanofiber types, such as silicon carbide.

  6. End-specific strategies of attachment of long double stranded DNA onto gold-coated nanofiber arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckys, Diana B.; de Jonge, Niels; Simpson, Michael L.; McKnight, Timothy E.

    2008-10-01

    We report the effective and site-specific binding of long double stranded (ds)DNA to high aspect ratio carbon nanofiber arrays. The carbon nanofibers were first coated with a thin gold layer to provide anchorage for two controllable binding methods. One method was based on the direct binding of thiol end-labeled dsDNA. The second and enhanced method used amine end-labeled dsDNA bound with crosslinkers to a carboxyl-terminated self-assembled monolayer. The bound dsDNA was first visualized with a fluorescent, dsDNA-intercalating dye. The specific binding onto the carbon nanofiber was verified by a high resolution detection method using scanning electron microscopy in combination with the binding of neutravidin-coated fluorescent microspheres to the immobilized and biotinylated dsDNA. Functional activity of thiol end-labeled dsDNA on gold-coated nanofiber arrays was verified with a transcriptional assay, whereby Chinese hamster lung cells (V79) were impaled upon the DNA-modified nanofibers and scored for transgene expression of the tethered template. Thiol end-labeled dsDNA demonstrated significantly higher expression levels than nanofibers prepared with control dsDNA that lacked a gold-binding end-label. Employing these site-specific and robust techniques of immobilization of dsDNA onto nanodevices can be of advantage for the study of DNA/protein interactions and for gene delivery applications.

  7. End-specific strategies of attachment of long double stranded DNA onto gold-coated nanofiber arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the effective and site-specific binding of long double stranded (ds)DNA to high aspect ratio carbon nanofiber arrays. The carbon nanofibers were first coated with a thin gold layer to provide anchorage for two controllable binding methods. One method was based on the direct binding of thiol end-labeled dsDNA. The second and enhanced method used amine end-labeled dsDNA bound with crosslinkers to a carboxyl-terminated self-assembled monolayer. The bound dsDNA was first visualized with a fluorescent, dsDNA-intercalating dye. The specific binding onto the carbon nanofiber was verified by a high resolution detection method using scanning electron microscopy in combination with the binding of neutravidin-coated fluorescent microspheres to the immobilized and biotinylated dsDNA. Functional activity of thiol end-labeled dsDNA on gold-coated nanofiber arrays was verified with a transcriptional assay, whereby Chinese hamster lung cells (V79) were impaled upon the DNA-modified nanofibers and scored for transgene expression of the tethered template. Thiol end-labeled dsDNA demonstrated significantly higher expression levels than nanofibers prepared with control dsDNA that lacked a gold-binding end-label. Employing these site-specific and robust techniques of immobilization of dsDNA onto nanodevices can be of advantage for the study of DNA/protein interactions and for gene delivery applications.

  8. Effects of freeze drying and silver staining on carbonization of cellulose: carbon nano-materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the effects of sulfuric acid and silver particles on the carbonization of natural cellulose from Halocynthia. We carried out thermogravimetry and used transmission electron microscopy measurements to study the yield of carbon and the structure of the carbonized nano-fiber. We found that the addition of sulfuric acid and silver particles to the cellulose fiber enhanced the yield of carbon while keeping the original structure of the carbon nano-fiber.

  9. Optical microfibers and nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoqin; Tong, Limin

    2013-12-01

    As a combination of fiber optics and nanotechnology, optical microfibers and nanofibers (MNFs) have been emerging as a novel platform for exploring fiber-optic technology on the micro/nanoscale. Typically, MNFs taper drawn from glass optical fibers or bulk glasses show excellent surface smoothness, high homogeneity in diameter and integrity, which bestows these tiny optical fibers with low waveguiding losses and outstanding mechanical properties. Benefitting from their wavelength- or sub-wavelength-scale transverse dimensions, waveguiding MNFs exhibit a number of interesting properties, including tight optical confinement, strong evanescent fields, evident surface field enhancement and large and abnormal waveguide dispersion, which makes them ideal nanowaveguides for coherently manipulating light, and connecting fiber optics with near-field optics, nonlinear optics, plasmonics, quantum optics and optomechanics on the wavelength- or sub-wavelength scale. Based on optical MNFs, a variety of technological applications, ranging from passive micro-couplers and resonators, to active devices such as lasers and optical sensors, have been reported in recent years. This review is intended to provide an up-to-date introduction to the fabrication, characterization and applications of optical MNFs, with emphasis on recent progress in our research group. Starting from a brief introduction of fabrication techniques for physical drawing glass MNFs in Section 2, we summarize MNF optics including waveguiding modes, evanescent coupling, and bending loss of MNFs in Section 3. In Section 4, starting from a "MNF tree" that summarizes the applications of MNFs into 5 categories (waveguide & near field optics, nonlinear optics, plasmonics, quantum & atom optics, optomechanics), we go to details of typical technological applications of MNFs, including optical couplers, interferometers, gratings, resonators, lasers and sensors. Finally in Section 5 we present a brief summary of optical MNFs regarding their current challenges and future opportunities.

  10. Multifunctional Nanofibers towards Active Biomedical Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaishri Sharma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional (1-D nanostructures have attracted enormous research interest due to their unique physicochemical properties and wide application potential. These 1-D nanofibers are being increasingly applied to biomedical fields owing to their high surface area-to-volume ratio, high porosity, and the ease of tuning their structures, functionalities, and properties. Many biomedical nanofiber reviews have focused on tissue engineering and drug delivery applications but have very rarely discussed their use as wound dressings. However, nanofibers have enormous potential as wound dressings and other clinical applications that could have wide impacts on the treatment of wounds. Herein, the authors review the main fabrication methods of nanofibers as well as requirements, strategies, and recent applications of nanofibers, and provide perspectives of the challenges and opportunities that face multifunctional nanofibers for active therapeutic applications.

  11. Nickel nanofibers synthesized by the electrospinning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The nickel nanofibers have been obtained by electrospinning method. ? The nickel nanofibers had rough surface which was consisted of mass nanoparticles. ? The average diameter of nickel nanofibers is about 135 nm and high degree of crystallization. ? The Hc, Ms, and Mr were estimated to be 185 Oe, 51.9 and 16.9 emu/g respectively. - Abstract: In this paper, nickel nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning polyvinyl alcohol/nickel nitrate precursor solution followed by high temperature calcination in air and deoxidation in hydrogen atmosphere. The thermal stability of the as-electrospun PVA/Ni(NO3)2 composite nanofibers were characterized by TG–DSC. The morphologies and structures of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field-emission scanning electronmicroscope (FE-SEM) and field-emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM). The hysteresis loops (M–H loops) were measured by Physical Property Measurement System (PPMS). The results indicate that: the PVA and the nickel nitrate were almost completely decomposed at 460 °C and the products were pure nickel nanofibers with face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. Furthermore, the as-prepared nickel nanofibers had a continuous structure with rough surface and high degree of crystallization. The average diameter of nickel nanofibers was about 135 nm. The nanofibers showed a stronger coercivity of 185 Oe than value of bulk nickel

  12. Nanofibers from functionalized para-phenylene molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiek, M.; Lützen, A.; Koch, R.; Al-Shamery, K.; Balzer, F.; Frese, R.; Rubahn, H.-G.

    2005-04-01

    Tens to hundreds of micrometers long organic nanofibers have been generated from methoxy functionalized quaterphenylene molecules. The mutual alignment of the fibers is similar to that of previously reported nanofibers from para-hexaphenylene, and they emit intense, blue light centered at 400 nm with well resolved higher order vibronic peaks. The morphology is slightly different from that of para-hexaphenylene nanofibers, reflecting the different molecular structure. This study demonstrates that it is possible to generate organic nanofibers from artificially functionalized molecules and thus opens up the route to dedicated applications in new microdevices.

  13. Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds: engineering soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrospinning has emerged to be a simple, elegant and scalable technique to fabricate polymeric nanofibers. Pure polymers as well as blends and composites of both natural and synthetics have been successfully electrospun into nanofiber matrices. Physiochemical properties of nanofiber matrices can be controlled by manipulating electrospinning parameters to meet the requirements of a specific application. Such efforts include the fabrication of fiber matrices containing nanofibers, microfibers, combination of nano-microfibers and also different fiber orientation/alignments. Polymeric nanofiber matrices have been extensively investigated for diversified uses such as filtration, barrier fabrics, wipes, personal care, biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Recently electrospun nanofiber matrices have gained a lot of attention, and are being explored as scaffolds in tissue engineering due to their properties that can modulate cellular behavior. Electrospun nanofiber matrices show morphological similarities to the natural extra-cellular matrix (ECM), characterized by ultrafine continuous fibers, high surface-to-volume ratio, high porosity and variable pore-size distribution. Efforts have been made to modify nanofiber surfaces with several bioactive molecules to provide cells with the necessary chemical cues and a more in vivo like environment. The current paper provides an overlook on such efforts in designing nanofiber matrices as scaffolds in the regeneration of vares as scaffolds in the regeneration of various soft tissues including skin, blood vessel, tendon/ligament, cardiac patch, nerve and skeletal muscle

  14. Gas diffusion electrode based on electrospun Pani/CNF nanofibers hybrid for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezarjaribi, M.; Jahanshahi, M.; Rahimpour, A.; Yaldagard, M.

    2014-03-01

    A novel hybrid system has been investigated based on polyaniline/carbon nanofiber (Pani/CNF) electrospun nanofibers for modification of gas diffusion electrode (GDE) in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Pani/CNF hybrid nanofibers were synthesized directly on carbon paper by electrospinning method. For preparation of catalyst ink, 20 wt.% Pt/C electrocatalyst with a platinum loading of 0.4 mg cm-2 was prepared by polyol technique. SEM studies applied for morphological study of the modified GDE with hybrid nanofibers. This technique indicated that the electrospun nanofibers had a diameter of roughly 100 nm. XRD patterns also showed that the average size of Pt nanoparticles was about 2 nm. Subsequently, comparison of the hybrid electrode electrochemical behavior and 20 wt.% Pt/C commercial one was studied by cyclic voltammetry experiment. The electrochemical data indicated that the hybrid electrode exhibited higher current density (about 15 mA cm-2) and ESA (160 m2 gr-1) than commercial Pt/C with amount of about 10 mA cm-2 and 114 m2 gr-1, respectively. The results herein demonstrate that Pani/CNF nanofibers can be used as a good alternative electrode material for PEMFCs.

  15. Gas diffusion electrode based on electrospun Pani/CNF nanofibers hybrid for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel hybrid system has been investigated based on polyaniline/carbon nanofiber (Pani/CNF) electrospun nanofibers for modification of gas diffusion electrode (GDE) in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Pani/CNF hybrid nanofibers were synthesized directly on carbon paper by electrospinning method. For preparation of catalyst ink, 20 wt.% Pt/C electrocatalyst with a platinum loading of 0.4 mg cm?2 was prepared by polyol technique. SEM studies applied for morphological study of the modified GDE with hybrid nanofibers. This technique indicated that the electrospun nanofibers had a diameter of roughly 100 nm. XRD patterns also showed that the average size of Pt nanoparticles was about 2 nm. Subsequently, comparison of the hybrid electrode electrochemical behavior and 20 wt.% Pt/C commercial one was studied by cyclic voltammetry experiment. The electrochemical data indicated that the hybrid electrode exhibited higher current density (about 15 mA cm?2) and ESA (160 m2 gr?1) than commercial Pt/C with amount of about 10 mA cm?2 and 114 m2 gr?1, respectively. The results herein demonstrate that Pani/CNF nanofibers can be used as a good alternative electrode material for PEMFCs

  16. Gas diffusion electrode based on electrospun Pani/CNF nanofibers hybrid for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hezarjaribi, M.; Jahanshahi, M., E-mail: mjahan@nit.ac.ir; Rahimpour, A.; Yaldagard, M.

    2014-03-01

    A novel hybrid system has been investigated based on polyaniline/carbon nanofiber (Pani/CNF) electrospun nanofibers for modification of gas diffusion electrode (GDE) in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Pani/CNF hybrid nanofibers were synthesized directly on carbon paper by electrospinning method. For preparation of catalyst ink, 20 wt.% Pt/C electrocatalyst with a platinum loading of 0.4 mg cm{sup ?2} was prepared by polyol technique. SEM studies applied for morphological study of the modified GDE with hybrid nanofibers. This technique indicated that the electrospun nanofibers had a diameter of roughly 100 nm. XRD patterns also showed that the average size of Pt nanoparticles was about 2 nm. Subsequently, comparison of the hybrid electrode electrochemical behavior and 20 wt.% Pt/C commercial one was studied by cyclic voltammetry experiment. The electrochemical data indicated that the hybrid electrode exhibited higher current density (about 15 mA cm{sup ?2}) and ESA (160 m{sup 2} gr{sup ?1}) than commercial Pt/C with amount of about 10 mA cm{sup ?2} and 114 m{sup 2} gr{sup ?1}, respectively. The results herein demonstrate that Pani/CNF nanofibers can be used as a good alternative electrode material for PEMFCs.

  17. Surface modified carbon nanoparticle papers and applications on polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Xilian

    Free-standing paper like materials are usually employed as protective layers, chemical filters, components of electrical batteries or supercapacitors, adhesive layers, and electronic or optoelectric components. Free-standing papers made from carbon nanoparticles have drawn increased interest because they have a variety of superior chemical and physical characteristics, such as light weight, high intrinsic mechanical properties, and extraordinary high electrical conductivity. Nanopapers fabricated from 1- D shape carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising reinforcing materials for polymer composites, because the highly porous CNF and CNT nanopapers (porosity ˜80% and ˜70% respectively) can be impregnated with matrix polymers. In the first part of this work, polyaniline (PANI) was used to functionalize the surface of CNFs, and the resultant carbon nanopapers presented impressive mechanical strength and electrical conductivity that it could be used in the in-mold coating (IMC)/ injection molding process to achieve high electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness. Aniline modified (AF) CNT nanopapers were used as a 3D network in gas separation membranes. The resultant composite membranes demonstrated better and stable CO2 permeance and CO 2/H2 selectivity in a high temperature (107°C) and high pressure (15-30 atm) gas separation process, not achievable by conventional polymer membranes. In the second part, we demonstrated that 2-D graphene (GP) or graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets could be tightly packed into a film which was impermeable to most gases and liquids. GP or GO nanopapers could be coated on polymer composites. In order to achieve well-dispersed single-layer graphene in aqueous medium, we developed a facile approach to synthesize functional GP bearing benzenesulfonic acid groups which allow the preparation of nanopapers by water based assembly. With the optimized processing conditions, our best GP nanopapers could reach a tensile strength of 360 MPa and an electrical conductivity of 4.45x104 S/m, much better than any similar materials reported in the literature. However, they didn't show good gas barrier properties. Since the GO paper presented zero gas permeability for both CO2 and H2, a hybrid paper fabrication approach was proposed to combine the advantages of individual GP and GO papers. This was done by filtering GP and GO layer by layer with GO sandwiched in between two layers of GP. The resulting hybrid papers showed high mechanical tensile strength and EMI shielding effectiveness that are close to GP nanopapers, and excellent gas barrier properties that comparable to GO nanopapers. The GP, GO and GP-Go-GP hybrid nanopapers have been successfully coated onto the thermoplastic surface by thermal lamination and injection molding. In the third part, the effect of PANI-CNF nanopapers and a chelating agent, 2, 4- Pentanedione (2, 4-P) on kinetics of an in-mold coating (IMC) resin was investigated. The results showed that the presence of amine functionalized carbon nanoparticles tended to retard the resin reaction, while 2, 4-P was capable of promoting the redox based free radical polymerization by forming a complex with the cobalt promoter in the initiation step. In order to understand the chemical and physical changes during the resin curing process, kinetics study on two major resin components, i.e. hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) and styrene (St), were carried out using an integrated analysis design: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for overall reaction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for individual component reactions, and rheometry for liquid-solid transition during the reaction. The gel point of this radical polymerization resin system was found to be <2% which implied that most curing was conducted in the solid phase. The results showed that the double bonds in acrylates and St followed an azeotropic polymerization pattern.

  18. Carbon nanotube reinforced polyacrylonitrile and poly(etherketone) fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rahul

    The graphitic nature, continuous structure, and high mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) make them good candidate for reinforcing polymer fiber. The different types of CNTs including single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), few-wall carbon nanotubes (FWNTs), and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) differ in terms of their diameter and number of graphitic walls. The desire has been to increase the concentration of CNTs as much as possible to make next generation multi-functional materials. The work in this thesis is mainly focused on MWNT and CNF reinforced polyacrylonitrile (PAN) composite fibers, and SWNT, FWNT, and MWNT reinforced poly(etherketone) (PEK) composite fibers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the spinning of 20% MWNT or 30% CNF reinforced polymer fiber spun using conventional fiber spinning. Also, this is the first study to report the PEK/CNT composite fibers. The fibers were characterized for their thermal, tensile, mechanical, and dynamic mechanical properties. The fiber structure and morphology was studied using WAXD and SEM. The effect of two-stage heat drawing, sonication time for CNF dispersion, fiber drying temperature, and molecular weight of PAN was also studied. Other challenges associated with processing high concentrations of solutions for making composite fibers have been identified and reported. The effect of CNT diameter and concentration on fiber spinnability and electrical conductivity of composite fiber have also been studied. This work suggests that CNT diameter controls the maximum possible concentration of CNTs in a composite fiber. The results show that by properly choosing the type of CNT, length of CNTs, dispersion of CNTs, fiber spinning method, fiber draw ratio, and type of polymer, one can get electrically conducting fibers with wide range of conductivities for different applications. The PEK based control and composite fibers possess high thermal stability with almost no weight loss up to 500°C and negligible thermal shrinkage up to 200°C. The PEK based fibers showed high toughness which surpassed many of the high-performance fibers like KevlarRTM and Zylon RTM. The 10% FWNT containing fiber is unique in terms of high electrical conductivity and high toughness. The CNT based fibers may be used as structural material, fire-barrier/protection textile, electrode for electrochemical capacitor or fuel cells, and as a template for directional growth of tissues.

  19. Optimisation of Arsenic Adsorption from Water by Carbon Nanofibres Grown on Powdered Activated Carbon Impregnated with Nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Mamun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of water due to arsenic (As is increasing in many parts of the world. The removal of As from aqueous solution by using impregnated carbon nanofibres (CNFs as the adsorbent is reported in this paper. The effects of pH, CNFs dosage, contact time and initial concentration of arsenic were studied at room temperature (±25°C. The interactions among the parameters were also investigated. The data obtained from the adsorption experiment were analysed using statistical software in order to develop a regression equation to represent the optimum operating conditions. The interactions of each parameters were considered during this analysis and the result indicated that the highest removal (97.25% of As can be attained at pH 6, initial concentration of arsenic of 0.08 mg L-1, contact time of 60 min and CNF dosage of 200 mg L-1. Comparison between impregnated CNF and Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC were also done and it is determined that impregnated CNF has better removal compared to PAC alone. The final concentration of As after the treatment using CNFs was about 8 ~ 10 times less than that of using PAC. Therefore, it can be concluded that CNFs are highly potential for the adsorption of As from water.

  20. Antibacterial properties of laser spinning glass nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echezarreta-López, M M; De Miguel, T; Quintero, F; Pou, J; Landin, M

    2014-12-30

    A laser-spinning technique has been used to produce amorphous, dense and flexible glass nanofibers of two different compositions with potential utility as reinforcement materials in composites, fillers in bone defects or scaffolds (3D structures) for tissue engineering. Morphological and microstructural analyses have been carried out using SEM-EDX, ATR-FTIR and TEM. Bioactivity studies allow the nanofibers with high proportion in SiO2 (S18/12) to be classified as a bioinert glass and the nanofibers with high proportion of calcium (ICIE16) as a bioactive glass. The cell viability tests (MTT) show high biocompatibility of the laser spinning glass nanofibers. Results from the antibacterial activity study carried out using dynamic conditions revealed that the bioactive glass nanofibers show a dose-dependent bactericidal effect on Sthaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) while the bioinert glass nanofibers show a bacteriostatic effect also dose-dependent. The antibacterial activity has been related to the release of alkaline ions, the increase of pH of the medium and also the formation of needle-like aggregates of calcium phosphate at the surface of the bioactive glass nanofibers which act as a physical mechanism against bacteria. The antibacterial properties give an additional value to the laser-spinning glass nanofibers for different biomedical applications, such as treating or preventing surgery-associated infections. PMID:25447823

  1. Chitin Nanofiber Membranes for Chiral Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Yuuki Sueyoshi; Takeshi Hashimoto; Masakazu Yoshikawa; Shinsuke Ifuku

    2012-01-01

    Nanofiber membranes for chiral separation were prepared from chitin, which is the most abundant natural amino polysaccharide. The membrane showed chiral separation ability by adopting concentration gradient as a driving force for membrane transport. In other words, the chitin nanofiber membrane selectively transported the D-isomer of glutamic acid (Glu), phenylalanine (Phe), and lysine (Lys) from the corresponding racemic amino acid mixtures.

  2. Mg2+/Na+-doped rutile TiO2 nanofiber mats for high-speed and anti-fogged humidity sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongnan; Li, Zhenyu; Liu, Li; Wang, Ce; Wei, Yen; MacDiarmid, Alan G

    2009-08-15

    Mg(2+) and Na(+) doped rutile TiO2 nanofibers have been prepared through in situ electrospinning technique and calcination with poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) nanofibers as sacrificed template. The as-prepared composite nanofibers are spin-coated onto a ceramic substrate with three pairs of carbon interdigital electrodes to measure its humidity sensing behaviors. The product exhibits high-speed response (2s) and recovery (1s) for detecting moisture. Additionally, under UV irradiation, a water contact angle (theta) of nearly 0 degrees has been observed based on the product, providing our humidity sensor with the anti-fogged properties. PMID:19576470

  3. Biofunctionalized nanofibers using Arthrospira (Spirulina) biomass and biopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Michele Greque; Stillings, Christopher; Dersch, Roland; Rudisile, Markus; Pranke, Patrícia; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; Wendorff, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun nanofibers composed of polymers have been extensively researched because of their scientific and technical applications. Commercially available polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHB-HV) copolymers are good choices for such nanofibers. We used a highly integrated method, by adjusting the properties of the spinning solutions, where the cyanophyte Arthrospira (formally Spirulina) was the single source for nanofiber biofunctionalization. We investigated nanofibers using PHB extracted from Spirulina and the bacteria Cupriavidus necator and compared the nanofibers to those made from commercially available PHB and PHB-HV. Our study assessed nanofiber formation and their selected thermal, mechanical, and optical properties. We found that nanofibers produced from Spirulina PHB and biofunctionalized with Spirulina biomass exhibited properties which were equal to or better than nanofibers made with commercially available PHB or PHB-HV. Our methodology is highly promising for nanofiber production and biofunctionalization and can be used in many industrial and life science applications. PMID:25667931

  4. Functional Self-Assembled Nanofibers by Electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, A.; Wendorff, J. H.

    Electrospinning constitutes a unique technique for the production of nanofibers with diameters down to the range of a few nanometers. In strong contrast to conventional fiber producing techniques, it relies on self-assembly processes driven by the Coulomb interactions between charged elements of the fluids to be spun to nanofibers. The transition from a macroscopic fluid object such as a droplet emerging from a die to solid nanofibers is controlled by a set of complex physical instability processes. They give rise to extremely high extensional deformations and strain rates during fiber formation causing among others a high orientational order in the nanofibers as well as enhanced mechanical properties. Electrospinning is predominantly applied to polymer based materials including natural and synthetic polymers, but, more recently, its use has been extended towards the production of metal, ceramic and glass nanofibers exploiting precursor routes. The nanofibers can be functionalized during electrospinning by introducing pores, fractal surfaces, by incorporating functional elements such as catalysts, quantum dots, drugs, enzymes or even bacteria. The production of individual fibers, random nonwovens, or orientationally highly ordered nonwovens is achieved by an appropriate selection of electrode configurations. Broad areas of application exist in Material and Life Sciences for such nanofibers, including not only optoelectronics, sensorics, catalysis, textiles, high efficiency filters, fiber reinforcement but also tissue engineering, drug delivery, and wound healing. The basic electrospinning process has more recently been extended towards compound co-electrospinning and precision deposition electrospinning to further broaden accessible fiber architectures and potential areas of application.

  5. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of cellulose nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Lima R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Renata de Lima,1 Leandro Oliveira Feitosa,1 Cintia Rodrigues Maruyama,1 Mariana Abreu Barga,1 Patrícia Cristina Yamawaki,1 Isolda Jesus Vieira,1 Eliangela M Teixeira,2 Ana Carolina Corrêa,2 Luiz Henrique Caparelli Mattoso,2 Leonardo Fernandes Fraceto31Department of Biotechnology, University of Sorocaba, Sorocaba, 2Embrapa Instrumentation (CNPDIA, National Nanotechnology Laboratory for Agriculture (LNNA, São Carlos, 3Department of Environmental Engineering, State University of São Paulo (UNESP, Sorocaba, SP, BrazilBackground: Agricultural products and by products provide the primary materials for a variety of technological applications in diverse industrial sectors. Agro-industrial wastes, such as cotton and curaua fibers, are used to prepare nanofibers for use in thermoplastic films, where they are combined with polymeric matrices, and in biomedical applications such as tissue engineering, amongst other applications. The development of products containing nanofibers offers a promising alternative for the use of agricultural products, adding value to the chains of production. However, the emergence of new nanotechnological products demands that their risks to human health and the environment be evaluated. This has resulted in the creation of the new area of nanotoxicology, which addresses the toxicological aspects of these materials.Purpose and methods: Contributing to these developments, the present work involved a genotoxicological study of different nanofibers, employing chromosomal aberration and comet assays, as well as cytogenetic and molecular analyses, to obtain preliminary information concerning nanofiber safety. The methodology consisted of exposure of Allium cepa roots, and animal cell cultures (lymphocytes and fibroblasts, to different types of nanofibers. Negative controls, without nanofibers present in the medium, were used for comparison.Results: The nanofibers induced different responses according to the cell type used. In plant cells, the most genotoxic nanofibers were those derived from green, white, and brown cotton, and curaua, while genotoxicity in animal cells was observed using nanofibers from brown cotton and curaua. An important finding was that ruby cotton nanofibers did not cause any significant DNA breaks in the cell types employed.Conclusion: This work demonstrates the feasibility of determining the genotoxic potential of nanofibers derived from plant cellulose to obtain information vital both for the future usage of these materials in agribusiness and for an understanding of their environmental impacts.Keywords: cotton, curaua, nanotoxicology, environmental nanotechnology

  6. Photonic crystal nanofiber using an external grating

    OpenAIRE

    Sadgrove, M.; Yalla, R.; Nayak, K. P.; Hakuta, K.

    2013-01-01

    We implement a photonic crystal nanofiber device by reversibly combining an optical nanofiber and a nanofabricated grating. Using the finite-difference time-domain method, we design the system for minimal optical loss while tailoring the resonant wavelength and bandwidth of the device. Experimentally we demonstrate that the combined system shows a strong photonic stop-band in good agreement with numerical predictions. The resulting device may be used to realize strong light-...

  7. Nanofibers and their applications in tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Vasita, Rajesh; Katti, Dhirendra S.

    2006-01-01

    Developing scaffolds that mimic the architecture of tissue at the nanoscale is one of the major challenges in the field of tissue engineering. The development of nanofibers has greatly enhanced the scope for fabricating scaffolds that can potentially meet this challenge. Currently, there are three techniques available for the synthesis of nanofibers: electrospinning, self-assembly, and phase separation. Of these techniques, electrospinning is the most widely studied technique and has also dem...

  8. Bubbfil spinning for mass-production of nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Rou-Xi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bubbfil spinning is a generalized bubble electrospinning, including bubble spinning, blown-bubble spinning, and membrane spinning, for mass production of nanofiber. This paper shows small bubbles in liquid membrane are the best candidate for uniform nanofibers.

  9. Processing and characterization of powdered silk micro- and nanofibers by ultrasonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Yan; Chen, Yun-Yun; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2015-03-01

    Silk derived from Bombyx mori silkworm cocoons was degummed in an aqueous sodium carbonate solution, and the resulting silk fibroin fibers were placed in an acidic aqueous solution and were treated with ultrasonication to obtain powdered micro- and nanofibers. The morphologies and spectral characteristics of these powdered silk fibers were investigated in detail. The shape, surface and structural features of the powdered fibers were affected by the ultrasonic power and media. Increasing the acidity of the ultrasonic solution and increasing the ultrasonic power increased the fiber breakage speed, resulting in shorter fiber lengths. Powdered microfibers could not be obtained in a formic acid solution, while powdered nanofibers whose diameter below 1?m were obtained in a combined formic acid and hydrochloric acid ultrasonication solution. Observation via SEM and optical microscopy revealed that the microfiber diameters were approximately 5-10?m, and those of the nanofibers were approximately 30-120nm. The analysis of laser sizer showed that the microfiber sizes ranged mainly from 20 to 100?m. FT-IR and XRD spectra demonstrated that the relative amount of ?-sheets increased after the ultrasonic treatment. The ?-amino group content on the surface of the micro- and nanofibers increased significantly. These studies provide reliable methods for the preparation of nano-scale silk fibroin fibers by ultrasonication and open new avenues for the development of powdered silk fibers as advanced functional biomaterials. PMID:25579945

  10. Methanol electro-oxidation on Pt/C modified by polyaniline nanofibers for DMFC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhiani, Mohammad; Rezaei, Behzad; Jalili, Jalal [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran)

    2010-09-15

    In the present study, in order to achieve an inexpensive tolerable anode catalyst for direct methanol fuel cell applications, a composite of polyaniline nanofibers and Pt/C nano-particles, identified by PANI/Pt/C, was prepared by in-situ electropolymerization of aniline and trifluoromethane sulfonic acid on glassy carbon. The effect of synthesized PANI nanofibers in methanol electrooxidation reaction was compared by bare Pt/C by different electrochemical methods such as; cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronoamperometry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also employed to morphological study of the modified catalyst layer. The test results reveal that introduction of PANI nanofibers within catalyst layer improves the catalyst activity in methanol oxidation, hinders and prevents catalyst from more poisoning by intermediate products of methanol oxidation and improves the mechanical properties of the catalyst layer. SEM images also indicate that PANI nanofibers placed between platinum particles and anchor platinum particles and alleviate the Pt migration during methanol electrooxidation. (author)

  11. Enhanced H2 sensing by substituting polyaniline nanoparticles with nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have synthesized Polyaniline nanoparticles and nanofibers using chemical oxidation method and tested them for their Hydrogen sensing properties. PANI nanoparticles and nanofibers have demonstrated sensor response of 1.38 and 1.52, respectively. Reaction kinetics has also enhanced in case of PANI nanofibers with response and recovery times of 170 and 95 s, respectively. The increased conductivity, sensor response and reaction kinetics in case of the nanofibers as compared to nanoparticles is attributed to the 1-D conductive channel provided by the nanofibers for faster and better electron transfer

  12. Electrospun nanofiber-based drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Branford-White

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning is a very simple and versatile process by which polymer nanofibers with di-ameters ranging from a few nanometers to sev-eral micrometers can be produced using an electrostatically driven jet of polymer solution or polymer melt. Significant progress has been made in this process throughout the past few years and electrospinning has advanced its ap-plications in many fields, including pharmaceu-tics. Electrospun nanofibers show great prom-ise for developing many types of novel drug delivery systems (DDS due to their special characteristics and the simple but useful and effective top-down fabricating process. The current state of electrospun nanofiber-based DDS is focused on drug-loaded nanofiber preparation from pharmaceutical and biode-gradable polymers and different types of DDS. However, there are more opportunities to be exploited from the electrospinning process and the corresponding drug-loaded nanofibers for drug delivery. Additionally, some other related challenges and the possible resolutions are outlined in this review.

  13. Preparation and characterization of kefiran electrospun nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnaashari, Seyedeh Sara; Rezaei, Sasan; Mirzaei, Esmaeil; Afshari, Hamed; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi; Faridi-Majidi, Reza

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we report the first successful production of kefiran nanofibers through electrospinning process using distilled water as solvent. For this purpose, kefiran was extracted from cultured kefir grains, and homogenous kefiran solutions with different concentrations were prepared and then electrospun to obtain uniform nanofibers. The effect of main process parameters, including applied voltage, tip-to-collector distance, and feeding rate, on diameter and morphology of produced nanofibers, was studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize electrospun mats. Rheological behavior of the kefiran solution was evaluated via a cone and plate rheometer too. The results exhibited that diameter of kefiran nanofibers increased with increasing polymer concentration, applied voltage, and polymer feeding rate, while tip-to-collector distance did not have significant effect on nanofiber diameter. ATR-FTIR spectra showed that kefiran has maintained its molecular structure during electrospinning process. Flow curves also demonstrated shear thinning behavior for kefiran solutions. PMID:24954269

  14. Nanofiber diameter as a critical parameter affecting skin cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelipenko, Jan; Kocbek, Petra; Kristl, Julijana

    2014-10-01

    Electrospun polymer nanofibers have opened new opportunities in the rapidly evolving field of tissue engineering, particularly due to their topography and variability of available biomaterials. In order to better understand nanofiber influence on cell growth, the impact of their diameter was systematically examined. In this study homogenous, randomly oriented poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibers with five different average diameters, ranging from 70nm to 1120nm, were produced, characterized and their impact on morphology, proliferation and mobility of keratinocytes and skin fibroblasts was evaluated. The results have shown that nanofiber diameter affects cell response and that this response is cell line specific. Nanofiber thickness affected size, morphology and actine organization of keratinocytes much more than fibroblasts. Specifically, the keratinocyte grown on nanofibers were more spherical and smaller compared to the control cells, while the fibroblasts were much less affect. They stayed almost unchanged and spread across growth surface. The cell proliferation determined based on their metabolic activity was the highest, when keratinocytes were grown on 305nm thick nanofibers, whereas proliferation of fibroblasts grown similar nanofibers was decreased. Finally, fibroblasts exerted higher mobility than keratinocytes. Both tested cell lines on nanofiber diameters of 300nm resulted in decreased cell mobility. These findings suggest that the control over nanofiber diameter offers promising possibility to better design the tissue scaffolds, since cells distinguish between differently sized nanofibers and respond accordingly. PMID:25301202

  15. Nano-Fiber Reinforced Enhancements in Composite Polymer Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    2009-01-01

    Nano-fibers are used to reinforce polymer matrices to enhance the matrix dependent properties that are subsequently used in conventional structural composites. A quasi isotropic configuration is used in arranging like nano-fibers through the thickness to ascertain equiaxial enhanced matrix behavior. The nano-fiber volume ratios are used to obtain the enhanced matrix strength properties for 0.01,0.03, and 0.05 nano-fiber volume rates. These enhanced nano-fiber matrices are used with conventional fiber volume ratios of 0.3 and 0.5 to obtain the composite properties. Results show that nano-fiber enhanced matrices of higher than 0.3 nano-fiber volume ratio are degrading the composite properties.

  16. Biomedical Applications of Magnetically Functionalized Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Jeong Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanofibers are one-dimensional nanomaterial in fiber form with diameter less than 1 µm and an aspect ratio (length/diameter larger than 100:1. Among the different types of nanoparticle-loaded nanofiber systems, nanofibers loaded with magnetic nanoparticles have gained much attention from biomedical scientists due to a synergistic effect obtained from the unique properties of both the nanofibers and magnetic nanoparticles. These magnetic nanoparticle-encapsulated or -embedded nanofiber systems can be used not only for imaging purposes but also for therapy. In this review, we focused on recent advances in nanofibers loaded with magnetic nanoparticles, their biomedical applications, and future trends in the application of these nanofibers.

  17. Fabrication of nanofiber mats from electrospinning of functionalized polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Burcu; Kayaman-Apohan, Nilhan; Erdem-Kuruca, Serap

    2014-08-01

    Electrospinning technique enabled us to prepare nanofibers from synthetic and natural polymers. In this study, it was aimed to fabricate electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) based nanofibers by reactive electrospinning process. To improve endurance of fiber toward to many solvents, PVA was functionalized with photo-crosslinkable groups before spinning. Afterward PVA was crosslinked by UV radiation during electrospinning process. The nanofiber mats were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that homogenous, uniform and crosslinked PVA nanofibers in diameters of about 200 nm were obtained. Thermal stability of the nanofiber mat was investigated with thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Also the potential use of this nanofiber mats for tissue engineering was examined. Osteosarcoma (Saos) cells were cultured on the nanofiber mats.

  18. High concentration honey chitosan electrospun nanofibers: Biocompatibility and antibacterial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhan, Wessam A; Azzazy, Hassan M E

    2015-05-20

    Honey nanofibers represent an attractive formulation with unique medicinal and wound healing advantages. Nanofibers with honey concentrations of chitosan and honey (H) were cospun with polyvinyl alcohol (P) allowing the fabrication of nanofibers with high honey concentrations up to 40% and high chitosan concentrations up to 5.5% of the total weight of the fibers using biocompatible solvents (1% acetic acid). The fabricated nanofibers were further chemically crosslinked, by exposure to glutaraldehyde vapor, and physically crosslinked by heating and freezing/thawing. The new HP-chitosan nanofibers showed pronounced antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus but weak antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. The developed HP-chitosan nanofibers revealed no cytotoxicity effects on cultured fibroblasts. In conclusion, biocompatible, antimicrobial crosslinked honey/polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan nanofibers were developed which hold potential as effective wound dressing. PMID:25817652

  19. Budding willow branches shaped Na3V2(PO4)3/C nanofibers synthesized via an electrospinning technique and used as cathode material for sodium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Bai, Ying; Wu, Feng; Li, Yu; Wu, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Budding willow branches shaped Na3V2(PO4)3/C nanofibers were successfully synthesized by a simple electrospinning technique with Poly(vinyl pyrrilidone) (PVP). The Na3V2(PO4)3/C nanoparticles that anchored on the nanofibers surface seemed like the willow buds; the inner core of the nanofibers, which composed Na3V2(PO4)3, looked like willow twig and the uniform carbon layer was same with willow bark. Such special morphology played a vital role in improving cycle stability and rate capability of the electrode due to the conductive network built up by nanofibers. The Na3V2(PO4)3/C nanofibers cathode exhibited an initial specific capacity of 106.8 mAh g-1 at a current density of 0.2C, still stabling at 107.2 mAh g-1 after 125 cycles with excellent cycle stability. Moreover, a capacity retention of 95.7% was obtained when Na3V2(PO4)3/C nanofibers cycled stepwise from 0.2 to 2C. Good electrochemical performance should be ascribed to both the special morphology and preferential growth of the (113) plane. The simple synthesis technique and good electrochemical performance suggests that this material with the special shape of budding willow branches is a promising cathode for sodium ion batteries.

  20. Electrospinning of nanofibers from non-polymeric systems: polymer-free nanofibers from cyclodextrin derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebioglu, Asli; Uyar, Tamer

    2012-01-01

    High molecular weight polymers and high polymer concentrations are desirable for the electrospinning of nanofibers since polymer chain entanglements and overlapping are important for uniform fiber formation. Hence, the electrospinning of nanofibers from non-polymeric systems such as cyclodextrins (CDs) is quite a challenge since CDs are cyclic oligosaccharides. Nevertheless, in this study, we have successfully achieved the electrospinning of nanofibers from chemically modified CDs without using a carrier polymer matrix. Polymer-free nanofibers were electrospun from three different CD derivatives, hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD), hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) and methyl-?-cyclodextrin (M?CD) in three different solvent systems, water, dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethylacetamide (DMAc). We observed that the electrospinning of these CDs is quite similar to polymeric systems in which the solvent type, the solution concentration and the solution conductivity are some of the key factors for obtaining uniform nanofibers. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements indicated that the presence of considerable CD aggregates and the very high solution viscosity were playing a key role for attaining nanofibers from CD derivatives without the use of any polymeric carrier. The electrospinning of CD solutions containing urea yielded no fibers but only beads or splashes since urea caused a notable destruction of the self-associated CD aggregates in their concentrated solutions. The structural, thermal and mechanical characteristics of the CD nanofibers were also investigated. Although the CD derivatives are amorphous small molecules, interestingly, we observed that these electrospun CD nanofibers/nanowebs have shown some mechanical integrity by which they can be easily handled and folded as a free standing material.

  1. Electrospinning Preparation of LaFeO3 Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxian Wang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol(PVA/[La(NO33+Fe(NO33] composite nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning, and polycrystalline LaFeO3 nanofibers were prepared by calcination of the PVA/[La(NO33+Fe(NO33] composite nanofibers at 600ºC for 10h. The samples were characterized by using X-ray diffraction spectrometry(XRD, scanning electron microscopy(SEM, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis(TG-DTA, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry(FTIR. The results show that PVA/[La(NO33+Fe(NO33] composite nanofibers are amorphous in structure, and pure phase LaFeO3 nanofibers are orthorhombic with space group Pn*a. The surface of as-prepared composite nanofibers is smooth, and the diameter is ca. 180nm. The diameter of LaFeO3 nanofibers is smaller than that of the relevant composite fibers. The surface of the LaFeO3 nanofibers becomes coarse with the increase of calcination temperatures. The diameter of LaFeO3 nanofibers is about 80nm, and the length is greater than 100?m. The mass of the sample remains constant when the temperature is above 500ºC, and the total mass loss percentage is 90%. Possible formation mechanism of LaFeO3 nanofibers is preliminarily advanced.

  2. Production of silk sericin/silk fibroin blend nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xianhua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Silk sericin (SS/silk fibroin (SF blend nanofibers have been produced by electrospinning in a binary SS/SF trifluoroacetic acid (TFA solution system, which was prepared by mixing 20 wt.% SS TFA solution and 10 wt.% SF TFA solution to give different compositions. The diameters of the SS/SF nanofibers ranged from 33 to 837 nm, and they showed a round cross section. The surface of the SS/SF nanofibers was smooth, and the fibers possessed a bead-free structure. The average diameters of the SS/SF (75/25, 50/50, and 25/75 blend nanofibers were much thicker than that of SS and SF nanofibers. The SS/SF (100/0, 75/25, and 50/50 blend nanofibers were easily dissolved in water, while the SS/SF (25/75 and 0/100 blend nanofibers could not be completely dissolved in water. The SS/SF blend nanofibers could not be completely dissolved in methanol. The SS/SF blend nanofibers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and differential thermal analysis. FTIR showed that the SS/SF blend nanofibers possessed a random coil conformation and ß-sheet structure.

  3. A novel electrospun silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite hybrid nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel electrospinning of silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite hybrid nanofibers with different composition ratios was performed with methanoic acid as a spinning solvent. The silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite hybrids containing up to 30% hydroxyapatite nanoparticles could be electrospun into the continuous fibrous structure. The electrospun silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite hybrid nanofibers showed bigger diameter and wider diameter distribution than pure silk fibroin nanofibers, and the average diameter gradually increased from 95 to 582 nm. At the same time, the secondary structure of silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite nanofibers was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared analysis, and DSC measurement. Comparing with the pure silk fibroin nanofibers, the crystal structure of silk fibroin was mainly amorphous structure in the hybrid nanofibers. X-ray diffraction results demonstrated the hydroxyapatite crystalline nature remained as evidenced from the diffraction planes (002), (211), (300), and (202) of the hydroxyapatite crystallites, which was also confirmed by Fourier transform infrared analysis. The thermal behavior of hybrid nanofibers exhibited the endothermic peak of moisture evaporation ranging from 86 to 113 °C, and the degradation peak at 286 °C appeared. The SF/HAp nanofibers mats containing 30% HAp nanoparticles showed higher breaking tenacity and extension at break for 1.1688 ± 0.0398 MPa and 6.55 ± 1.95%, respectively. Therefore, the electrospun silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite hybrid nanofibers should be provided potentially useful options for the fabrication of biomaterial scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. -- Highlights: ? The novel SF/HAp nanofibers were directly prepared by electrospinning method. ? The nanofiber diameter had significant related to the content of HAp. ? The crystal structure of silk fibroin was mainly amorphous structure in the hybrid nanofibers. ? The HAp crystals existing in the hybrid nanofibers were characterized using XRD and FTIR.

  4. “An Introduction to Electrospinning and Nanofibers

    OpenAIRE

    Seeram Ramakrishna; Kazutoshi Fujihara; Wee-Eong Teo; Teik-Cheng Lim; Zuwei Ma

    2008-01-01

    This book by Ramakrishna et al. on electrospinning deals with different aspects of the highly topical processing technique electrospinning and other issues related to nanofibers, which is an emerging field of nanotechnology. The book consists of 7 main chapters, an appendix for glossary terms and useful websites, a bibliography, and an index.

  5. “An Introduction to Electrospinning and Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seeram Ramakrishna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This book by Ramakrishna et al. on electrospinning deals with different aspects of the highly topical processing technique electrospinning and other issues related to nanofibers, which is an emerging field of nanotechnology. The book consists of 7 main chapters, an appendix for glossary terms and useful websites, a bibliography, and an index.

  6. Construction of a Polyaniline Nanofiber Gas Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virji, Shabnam; Weiller, Bruce H.; Huang, Jiaxing; Blair, Richard; Shepherd, Heather; Faltens, Tanya; Haussmann, Philip C.; Kaner, Richard B.; Tolbert, Sarah H.

    2008-01-01

    The electrical properties of polyaniline changes by orders of magnitude upon exposure to analytes such as acids or bases, making it a useful material for detection of these analytes in the gas phase. The objectives of this lab are to synthesize different diameter polyaniline nanofibers and compare them as sensor materials. In this experiment…

  7. Nanofibers as suitable scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    P?ádný, Martin; Rampichová, M.; Martinová, L.; Koš?áková, E.; Filová, E.; Kolá?ná, L.; Michálek, Ji?í; Lukáš, D.; Amler, E.

    Kota Kinabalu : SIRIM Berhad, 2011. s. 155. [International Conference on Nanotechnology - Research and Commercialisation (ICONT2011) "Nanotechnology for Sustainability and Growth". 06.06.2011-09.06.2011, Kota Kinabalu] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KAN200520804; GA MŠk 1M0538 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : nanofibers * scafold * electrospinning Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  8. Advancement in organic nanofiber based transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Baunegaard With; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob

    The focus of this project is to study the light emission from nanofiber based organic light-emitting transistors (OLETs) with the overall aim of developing efficient, nanoscale light sources with different colors integrated on-chip. The research performed here regards the fabrication and characterization of OLETs using the organic semiconductors para-hexaphenylene (p6P), 5,5´-Di-4-biphenyl-2,2´-bithiophene (PPTTPP) and 5,5'-bis(naphth-2-yl)-2,2'-bithiophene (NaT2). These molecules can self-assemble forming molecular crystalline nanofibers. Organic nanofibers can form the basis for light-emitters for future nanophotonic applications, due to their many interesting optoelectronic properties, such as polarized photo- and electroluminescence, waveguiding and emission color tunability. A simple roll printing technique1 has allowed us to implement these nanofibers in different types of devices. Multicolor device is obtained by printing two different types of fibers onto the same device2. Improvement of charge injection in these devices and thereby a lower driving voltage amplitude has been obtained by implementing a self-assembled monolayer (SAM).

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Potassium Titanate Nanofiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Xiao-Dong,JIN Zhen-Sheng,ZHANG Jing-Wei,YANG Jian-Jun,ZHANG Zhi-Jun

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Potassium titanate nanofibers ( K1.34H0.66Ti2O4(OH2 were prepared by using ion-exchange reaction between KOH solution and titanic acid nanotube (H2Ti2O4(OH2. TEM and XRD results show that the nanotubes change into nanofibers and the crystalline structure alters. K/Ti atomic ratio, chemical state of K and Ti elements for the product were determined by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry, colorimetric method, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicate that the empirical formula of the product is K1.34H0.66Ti2O4(OH2. Compared with H2Ti2O4(OH2 nanotubes, the thermal-stability of potassium titanate nanofibers is higher. At T>700¡?the crystalline structure of this material changes into monoclinic phase K2Ti4O9. High temperature treatment results in nanofibers¡¯ sizes increasing, but the aspect ratio is still high. The BET surface area of the material is 104m 2¡¤g-1.

  10. Electrospun nanofibers for energy and environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong (eds.) [Donghua Univ., Shanghai (China). State Key Lab. for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials; Donghua Univ., Shanghai (China). Nanomaterials Research Center

    2014-10-01

    This book offers a comprehensive review of the latest advances in developing functional electrospun nanofibers for energy and environmental applications, which include fuel cells, lithium-ion batteries, solar cells, supercapacitors, energy storage materials, sensors, filtration materials, protective clothing, catalysis, structurally-colored fibers, oil spill cleanup, self-cleaning materials, adsorbents, and electromagnetic shielding.

  11. Biodegradable cellulose acetate nanofiber fabrication via electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforou, Theopisti; Doumanidis, Charalabos

    2010-09-01

    Nanofiber manufacturing is one of the key advancements in nanotechnology today. Over the past few years, there has been a tremendous growth of research activities to explore electrospinning for nanofiber formation from a rich variety of materials. This quite simple and cost effective process operates on the principle that the solution is extracted under the action of a high electric field. Once the voltage is sufficiently high, a charged jet is ejected following a complicated looping trajectory. During its travel, the solvent evaporates leaving behind randomly oriented nanofibers accumulated on the collector. The combination of their nanoscale dimensionality, high surface area, porosity, flexibility and superior strength makes the electrospun fibers suitable for several value-added applications, such as filters, protecting clothes, high performance structures and biomedical devices. In this study biodegradable cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibrous membranes were produced using electrospinning. The device utilized consisted of a syringe equipped with a metal needle, a microdialysis pump, a high voltage supply and a collector. The morphology of the yielded fibers was determined using SEM. The effect of various parameters, including electric field strength, tip-to-collector distance, solution feed rate and composition on the morphological features of the electrospun fibers was examined. The optimum operating conditions for the production of uniform, non-beaded fibers with submicron diameter were also explored. The biodegradable CA nanofiber membranes are suitable as tissue engineering scaffolds and as reinforcements of biopolymer matrix composites in foils by ultrasonic welding methods. PMID:21133179

  12. Diamond structures grown from polymer composite nanofibers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potocký, Št?pán; Kromka, Alexander; Babchenko, Oleg; Rezek, Bohuslav; Martinová, L.; Pokorný, P.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 5, ?. 6 (2013), s. 519-521. ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP108/12/0910; GA ?R GAP205/12/0908 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : chemical vapour deposition * composite polymer * nanocrystalline diamond * nanofiber sheet * SEM Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  13. Antibacterial nanofiber materials activated by light.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jesenská, S.; Plištil, L.; Kubát, Pavel; Lang, Kamil; Brožová, Libuše; Popelka, Št?pán; Szatmáry, Lórant; Mosinger, Ji?í

    99A, ?. 4 (2011), s. 676-683. ISSN 1549-3296 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP208/10/1678 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : antibacterial nanofiber materials * photoactive * singlet oxygen Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.625, year: 2011

  14. Coordination Polymer Nanofibers Generated by Microfluidic Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio-marti?nez, Marta; Imaz, Inhar; Maspoch, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    One-dimensional coordination polymer nanostructures are an emerging class of nanoscale materials with many potential applications. Here, we report the first case of coordination polymer nanofibers assembled using microfluidic technologies. Unlike common synthetic procedures, this approach enables parallel synthesis with an unprecedented level of control over the coordination pathway and facilitates the formation of 1D coordination polymer assemblies at the nanometer le...

  15. Development and characterization of highly oriented PAN nanofiber

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Sadrjahani; S. A., Hoseini; V., Mottaghitalab; A. K., Haghi.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple and non-conventional electrospinning technique was employed for producing highly oriented Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers. The PAN nanofibers were electrospun from 14 wt% solution of PAN in dimethylformamid (DMF) at 11 kv on a rotating drum with various linear speeds from 22.5 m/min to 6 [...] 7.7 m/min. The influence of take up velocity was investigated on the degree of alignment, internal structure and mechanical properties of collected PAN nanofibers. Using an image processing technique, the best degree of alignment was obtained for those nanofibers collected at a take up velocity of 59.5 m/min. Moreover, Raman spectroscopy was used for measuring molecular orientation of PAN nanofibers. Similarly, a maximum chain orientation parameter of 0.25 was determined for nanofibers collected at a take up velocity of 59.5 m/min.

  16. Antitumor Activity of Peptide Amphiphile Nanofiber-Encapsulated Camptothecin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soukasene, Stephen; Toft, Daniel J.; Moyer, Tyson J.; Lu, Hsuming; Lee, Hyung-Kun; Standley, Stephany M.; Cryns, Vincent L.; Stupp, Samuel I. (NWU)

    2012-04-02

    Self-assembling peptide amphiphile (PA) nanofibers were used to encapsulate camptothecin (CPT), a naturally occurring hydrophobic chemotherapy agent, using a solvent evaporation technique. Encapsulation by PA nanofibers was found to improve the aqueous solubility of the CPT molecule by more than 50-fold. PAs self-assembled into nanofibers in the presence of CPT as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy. Small-angle X-ray scattering results suggest a slight increase in diameter of the nanofiber to accommodate the hydrophobic cargo. In vitro studies using human breast cancer cells show an enhancement in antitumor activity of the CPT when encapsulated by the PA nanofibers. In addition, using a mouse orthotopic model of human breast cancer, treatment with PA nanofiber-encapsulated CPT inhibited tumor growth. These results highlight the potential of this model PA system to be adapted for delivery of hydrophobic therapies to treat a variety of diseases including cancer.

  17. Nano-effects, quantum-like properties in electrospun nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrospun nanofiber technology bridges the gap between deterministic laws (Newton mechanics) and probabilistic laws (quantum mechanics). Our research reveals that fascinating phenomena arise when the diameter of the electrospun nanofibers is less than 100 nm. The nano-effect has been demonstrated for unusual strength, high surface energy, surface reactivity, high thermal and electric conductivity. Dragline silk is made of many nano-fibers with diameter of about 20 nm, thus it can make full use of nano-effects. It is a challenge to developing technologies capable of preparing for nanofibers within 100 nm. Vibration-melt-electrospinning is uniquely qualified to address this challenge. The flexibility and adaptation provided by the method have made the method a strong candidate for producing nanofibers on such a scale. The application of Sirofil technology to strengthen nanofibers is also addressed, E-infinity theory is emphasized as a challenging theory for nano-scale technology and science

  18. Carbon Nanotube Based Nanotechnology for NASA Mission Needs and Societal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Meyyappan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) exhibit extraordinary mechanical properties and unique electronic properties and therefore, have received much attention for more than a decade now for a variety of applications ranging from nanoelectronics, composites to meeting needs in energy, environmental and other sectors. In this talk, we focus on some near term potential of CNT applications for both NASA and other Agency/societal needs. The most promising and successful application to date is a nano chem sensor at TRL 6 that uses a 16-256 sensor array in the construction of an electronic nose. Pristine, doped, functionalized and metal-loaded SWCNTs are used as conducting materials to provide chemical variation across the individual elements of the sensor array. This miniaturized sensor has been incorporated in an iPhone for homeland security applications. Gases and vapors relevant to leak detection in crew vehicles, biomedical, mining, chemical threats, industrial spills and others have been demonstrated. SWCNTs also respond to radiation exposure via a change in conductivity and therefore, a similar strategy is being pursued to construct a radiation nose to identify radiation sources (gamma, protons, neutrons, X-ray, etc.) with their energy levels. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown using plasma enhanced CVD typically are vertical, individual, freestanding structures and therefore, are ideal for construction of nanoelectrodes. A nanoelectrode array (NEA) can be the basis for an affinity-based biosensor to meet the needs in applications such as lab-on-a-chip, environmental monitoring, cancer diagnostics, biothreat monitoring, water and food safety and others. A couple of demonstrations including detection of e-coli and ricin will be discussed. The NEA is also useful for implantation in the brain for deep brain stimulation and neuroengineering applications. Miniaturization of payload such as science instrumentation and power sources is critical to reduce launch costs. High current density (greater than 100 mA/per square centimeters) field emission capabilities of CNTs can be exploited for construction of electron gun for electron microscopy and X-ray tubes for spectrometers and baggage screening. A CNT pillar array configuration has been demonstrated, not only meeting the high current density needs but more importantly providing long term emitter stability. Finally, supercapacitors hold the promise to combine the high energy density of a battery with the high power density of capacitors. Traditional graphite electrodes have not delivered this promise yet. A novel design and processing approach using MWCNTs has shown a record 550 F/g capacitance along with significant device endurance. This supercapacitor is suitable for railgun launch application for NASA, powering rovers and robots, consumer electronics and future hybrid vehicles.

  19. Surface structure enhanced second harmonic generation in organic nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiutowski, Jacek; Maibohm, Christian

    Second-harmonic generation upon femto-second laser irradiation of nonlinearly optically active nanofibers grown from nonsymmetrically functionalized para-quarterphenylene (CNHP4) molecules is investigated. Following growth on mica templates, the nanofibers have been transferred onto lithography-defined regular arrays of gold square nanostructures. These nanostructure arrays induce local field enhancement, which significantly lowers the threshold for second harmonic generation in the nanofibers.

  20. NiO Nanofibers as a Candidate for a Nanophotocathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Macdonald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available p-type NiO nanofibers have been synthesized from a simple electrospinning and sintering procedure. For the first time, p-type nanofibers have been electrospun onto a conductive fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO surface. The properties of the NiO nanofibers have been directly compared to that of bulk NiO nanopowder. We have observed a p-type photocurrent for a NiO photocathode fabricated on an FTO substrate.

  1. Physical and mass transfer properties of electrospun ?-polycaprolactone nanofiber membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Artur J.; Bourbon, A. I.; Vicente, A. A.; Pinto, Susana; Lopes da Silva, J. A.; Rocha, C. M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Determination of material properties and functions is a crucial step towards optimization of fabrication methods as well as the development of electrospun nanofibers for use in e.g. food engineering applications. This work focused in evaluating physical and mass transfer properties of simple poly -caprolactone nanofibers (PCL membrane), and poly ?-caprolactone nanofibers with encapsulated trypsin (E-PCL membrane), in view of their future use in a catalytic filter reactor. PCL membranes r...

  2. NiO Nanofibers as a Candidate for a Nanophotocathode

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas J. Macdonald; Jie Xu; Sait Elmas; Yatin J. Mange; William M. Skinner; Haolan Xu; Thomas Nann

    2014-01-01

    p-type NiO nanofibers have been synthesized from a simple electrospinning and sintering procedure. For the first time, p-type nanofibers have been electrospun onto a conductive fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) surface. The properties of the NiO nanofibers have been directly compared to that of bulk NiO nanopowder. We have observed a p-type photocurrent for a NiO photocathode fabricated on an FTO substrate.

  3. Glass Nanofibers from Fragile Melts Produced by Laser Spinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieste, O.; Penide, J.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Comesaña, R.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    Laser Spinning is a new technique enabling the production of large quantity of very long amorphous ceramic nanofibers. This technique has been successfully tested with different material compositions, probing its capability to produce fibers of inorganic oxides that cannot be produced by any other technique. Precise control of the process allows for the production of amorphous nanofibers of non-ready glass former materials and the unprecedented synthesis of glass nanofibers from very fragile melts. This outcome demonstrates the capability for the synthesis of glass nanofibers with applications in the field of fire retardant fabrics, catalysis or high refractory materials.

  4. Electrospun nanofiber-based thermite textiles and their reactive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shi; Jian, Guoqiang; Zachariah, Michael R

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we present a first time fabrication of thermite-based nanofiber mats with a nitrocellulose composite energetic binder to create a new class of energetic 1D nanocomposite. The as prepared thermite based nanofibrous mats were characterized and tested for their burning behavior, and compared with the pure nitrocellulose and nanoaluminum incorporated nanofibers for their combustion performances. Thermite-based nanofibers show enhanced burning rates in combustion tests, which correlate to the mass loading of nanothermite relative to binder in nanofibers. The electrospinning method demonstrates the possibility of avoiding some of the problems associated with melt casting nanometalized propellants. PMID:23157316

  5. Titanium dioxide-coated nanofibers for advanced filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reports on titanium dioxide (TiO2)-coated nanofibers deposited on a filter surface by the electrospinning process. After depositing a micrometer-thick film of polyamide 11 nanofibers on polypropylene fabric, TiO2 nanoparticles can be directly electrosprayed onto the nanofibers. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy showed minimal change in the phase composition (anatase and rutile) and no change in the particle size of nanocrystalline TiO2 after coating. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that nanofibers were uniformly coated by titanium dioxide nanoparticles without agglomeration. TiO2-coated filters showed excellent photocatalytic-bactericidal activity and photo-induced hydrophilicity.

  6. Novel single step electrochemical route to {gamma}-MnO{sub 2} nanoparticle-coated polyaniline nanofibers: Thermal stability and formic acid oxidation on the resulting nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, G.K. Surya; Suresh, Palale; Viva, Federico; Olah, George A. [Loker Hydrocarbon Research Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, 837 Bloom Walk, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1661 (United States)

    2008-06-15

    {gamma}-MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles-coated polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers on carbon electrode were prepared by potentiodynamic electrochemical deposition of PANI and MnO{sub 2} from a single pot. Higher thermal stability of the resulting nanocomposites and their activity for formic acid oxidation permits the realization of a platinum-free anode for formic acid fuel cells. (author)

  7. Formation of inorganic nanofibers by heat-treatment of poly(vinyl alcohol-zirconium compound hybrid nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakane K.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinyl alcohol-zirconium compound hybrid nanofibers (precursors were formed by electrospinning employing water as a solvent for the spinning solution. The precursors were converted into oxide (ZrO2, carbide (ZrC or nitride (ZrN nanofibers by heating them in air, Ar or N2 atmospheres. Monoclinic ZrO2 nanofibers with high-specific surface area were obtained by heat-treatment of the precursors in air. ZrC and ZrN nanofibers could be obtained below theoretical temperatures calculated from thermodynamics data.

  8. Electrospun Nanofibers of Guar Galactomannan for Targeted Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsiao Mei Annie

    2011-12-01

    Guar galactomannan is a biodegradable polysaccharide used widely in the food industry but also in the cosmetics, pharmaceutical, oil drilling, textile and paper industries. Guar consists of a mannose backbone and galactose side groups that are both susceptible to enzyme degradation, a unique property that can be explored for targeted drug delivery especially since those enzymes are naturally secreted by the microflora in human colon. The present study can be divided into three parts. In the first part, we discuss ways to modify guar to produce nanofibers by electrospinning, a process that involves the application of an electric field to a polymer solution or melt to facilitate production of fibers in the sub-micron range. Nanofibers are currently being explored as the next generation of drug carriers due to its many advantages, none more important than the fact that nanofibers are on a size scale that is a fraction of a hair's width and have large surface-to-volume ratio. The incorporation and controlled release of nano-sized drugs is one way in which nanofibers are being utilized in drug delivery. In the second part of the study, we explore various methods to crosslink guar nanofibers as a means to promote water-resistance in a potential drug carrier. The scope and utility of water-resistant guar nanofibers can only be fully appreciated when subsequent drug release studies are carried out. To that end, the third part of our study focuses on understanding the kinetics and diffusion mechanisms of a model drug, Rhodamine B, through moderately-swelling (crosslinked) hydrogel nanofibers in comparison to rapidly-swelling (non-crosslinked) nanofibers. Along the way, our investigations led us to a novel electrospinning set-up that has a unique collector designed to capture aligned nanofibers. These aligned nanofiber bundles can then be twisted to hold them together like yarn. From a practical standpoint, these yarns are advantageous because they come freely suspended and without any attached support. As composites of aligned nanofibers, yarns potentially combine the inherent advantages of nanofibers with the strength and pliability of larger sized fibers. As such, we became interested in exploring the potential of nanofiber yarns as drug carriers. Our study evolved to accommodate comparative studies between the behavior of traditional nonwoven mats and nanofiber yarns. Throughout the process, we sought to answer the bigger question: Can guar galactomannan nanofibers be used as a new biodegradable platform for drug delivery?

  9. The effects of electrospinning parameters on coaxial Sn/C nanofibers: Morphology and lithium storage performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For tin-based anode materials that suffer from poor cycling stability due to severe volume changes upon lithiation/delithiation processes, the morphology control method might provide a solution. Today, coaxial core-shell structure has attracted wide attention due to its ability to accommodate the volume changes of tin (core), which is well encapsulated in the carbon matrix (shell). Coaxial electrospinning is a simple and effective method to prepare this kind of material. In this work, tin was dispersed in the carbon core and then coated a carbon shell to form Sn@C/C nanofibers by coaxial electrospinning. Flow ratio and tin content were investigated as two main critical factors for controlling the core/shell structure, so as to improve the cycling preference of tin anodes. When tested as a lithium-ion battery anode, the material not only showed higher reversible specific capacity (626 mAh g?1) than pure carbon nanofibers, but also exhibited better cycling performance (50 cycles with 73% capacity retention), indicating that the volume change problem of tin anodes has been well resolved by this morphology control

  10. Transformation of polymer composite nanofibers to diamond fibers and layers by linear antenna microwave plasma CVD process.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potocký, Št?pán; Ižák, Tibor; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav; Tesárek, P.; Demo, Pavel

    Munich, 2011. s. 5-5. ISBN N. [European Conference on Diamond, Diamond-Like Materials, Carbon Nanotubes and Nitrides /22./. 04.09.2011-08.09.2011, Garmisch-Partenkirchen] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * chemical vapour deposition * polymer * nanofibers * needleless electrospinning * composite materials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism http://www.nanowerk.com/nanotechnology-event.php?eventid=3220

  11. Optical Micro- and Nanofiber Pulling Rig

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, J M; Le, Vu H; Chormaic, S Nic

    2014-01-01

    We review the method of producing adiabatic optical micro- and nanofibers using a hydrogen/oxygen flame brushing technique. The flame is scanned along the fiber, which is being simultaneously stretched by two translation stages. The tapered fiber fabrication is reproducible and yields highly adiabatic tapers with either exponential or linear profiles. Details regarding the setup of the flame brushing rig and the various parameters used are presented. Information available from the literature is compiled and further details that are necessary to have a functioning pulling rig are included. This should enable the reader to fabricate various taper profiles, while achieving adiabatic transmission of ~ 99% for fundamental mode propagation. Using this rig, transmissions greater than 90% for higher order modes in an optical nanofiber have been obtained.

  12. Photopatterned conjugated polymer electrochromic nanofibers on paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A; Asemota, C; Invernale, M; Sotzing, G A [Department of Chemistry and the Polymer Program, 97, N. Eagleville Road, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT-06269-3136 (United States); Padilla, J; Otero, T F [Center for Electrochemistry and Intelligent Materials C/Carlos III s/n, Campus Alfonso XIII, Polytechnic University of Cartagena, 30203 (Spain)], E-mail: sotzing@ims.uconn.edu

    2008-08-15

    Electrochromic nanofibers of conducting polymer (terthiophene) have been deposited over a conventional paper sheet by means of the electrospinning technique, and subsequently photopatterned by means of UV radiation. The synthesis of a processable precursor copolymer with a norbornylene matrix and pendant units of terthiophene makes the electrospinning process available, and allows for chemical or electrochemical crosslinking of the precursor copolymer to obtain a conducting polymer. The inclusion of photocrosslinkable units (methacrylate) in the precursor copolymer also allows for photopatterning of the material. This was applied to obtain patterns on the paper which can be chemically oxidized or reduced resulting in electrochromic characters. SEM images of the conducting polymer nanofibers together with the cellulose fibers show how these materials can be attached to textile fibers, adding new functionalities that are reminiscent of the chameleonic abilities of some living creatures.

  13. Photopatterned conjugated polymer electrochromic nanofibers on paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochromic nanofibers of conducting polymer (terthiophene) have been deposited over a conventional paper sheet by means of the electrospinning technique, and subsequently photopatterned by means of UV radiation. The synthesis of a processable precursor copolymer with a norbornylene matrix and pendant units of terthiophene makes the electrospinning process available, and allows for chemical or electrochemical crosslinking of the precursor copolymer to obtain a conducting polymer. The inclusion of photocrosslinkable units (methacrylate) in the precursor copolymer also allows for photopatterning of the material. This was applied to obtain patterns on the paper which can be chemically oxidized or reduced resulting in electrochromic characters. SEM images of the conducting polymer nanofibers together with the cellulose fibers show how these materials can be attached to textile fibers, adding new functionalities that are reminiscent of the chameleonic abilities of some living creatures.

  14. Electrospun nanofibers in oral drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatious, Francis; Sun, Linghong; Lee, Chao-Pin; Baldoni, John

    2010-04-01

    In order to enhance the delivery of drugs with limited absorption due to poor solubility/dissolution, approaches are being developed to improve the dissolution rates and solubility of drug molecules. These approaches include identification of water-soluble salts of parent drugs, preparation of stable amorphous drug formulations, inclusion of solubility-enhancing agents in the dosage form, and particle size reduction. Technologies to reduce drug particle size to sub-micrometer range are being applied to product development more frequently. Electrospinning is being considered as one of the technologies which can produce nanosized drugs incorporated in polymeric nanofibers. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that the release rates of drugs from these nanofiber formulations are enhanced compared to those from original drug substance. This technology has the potential to be used for enhancing the oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs. PMID:20143253

  15. Environmental remediation and superhydrophilicity of ultrafine antibacterial tungsten oxide-based nanofibers under visible light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Nanosilver-decorated WO3 photocatalytic nanofibers are antibacterial and superhydrophilic under a visible light source. Highlights: ? Deposition of nanosilver onto electrospun WO3 nanofibers’ surface was done exploiting visible or UV light driven photoreduction of silver ion. ? Nanofibers showed antibacterial characteristics. ? Nanofibers degraded a model toxin effectively. ? Nanofibers showed superhydrophilicity under a visible light source. - Abstract: Fabrication of nanosilver-decorated WO3 nanofibers was successfully performed. First, deposition of nanosilver onto electrospun WO3 nanofibers’ surface was done via photoreduction of silver ion under visible or UV light. The resulting hybrid nanofibers not only revealed antibacterial characteristics but also maintained their photocatalytic performance towards methylene blue decomposition. Unexpectedly, the nanofibrous layers prepared from these nanofibers showed superhydrophilicity under a visible light source. The nanofibers might be advantageous in environmental and hygienic nanofiltration under natural light sources, where the self-cleaning characteristics could be valuable in maintenance processes.

  16. Development of multilayered chitosan-based nanofibers

    OpenAIRE

    Croisier, Florence; Aqil, Abdelhafid; Detrembleur, Christophe; Je?ro?me, Christine

    2009-01-01

    By combining electrospinning and layer-by-layer deposition techniques, new porous material scaffolds of multilayered, chitosan-based nanofibers were produced. Layer-by-layer (LBL) is a well-known method for surface coating, based on electrostatic interactions. It enables the controllable deposition of a variety of polyelectrolytes including synthetic and natural materials, with designable layer structure, defined layer thickness and size. Electrospinning (ESP) allows the fabrication of po...

  17. Nucleation on strongly curved surfaces of nanofibers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Demo, Pavel; Sveshnikov, Alexey; Kožíšek, Zden?k

    London : Springer, 2013 - (Šesták, J.; Šimon, P.), s. 419- 428 ISBN 978-90-481-3149-5. - (Hot Topics in Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. 9) R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP108/12/0891; GA AV ?R IAA100100806 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nucleation * nanodiamond * nanofibers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism http://www.springer.com/materials/special+types/book/978-90-481-3149-5

  18. Magnetic field effect for cellulose nanofiber alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Chen, Yi; Kang, Kwang-Sun; Park, Young-Bin; Schwartz, Mark

    2008-11-01

    Regenerated cellulose formed into cellulose nanofibers under strong magnetic field and aligned perpendicularly to the magnetic field. Well-aligned microfibrils were found as the exposure time of the magnetic field increased. Better alignment and more crystalline structure of the cellulose resulted in the increased decomposition temperature of the material. X-ray crystallograms showed that crystallinity index of the cellulose increased as the exposure time of the magnetic field increased.

  19. Diamond structures grown from polymer composite nanofibers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potocký, Št?pán; Kromka, Alexander; Babchenko, Oleg; Rezek, Bohuslav; Martinová, L.; Pokorný, P.

    Praha : Czechoslovak Association for Crystal Growth (CSACG), 2012 - (Kožíšek, Z.; Nitsch, K.). s. 57-57 ISBN 978-80-260-2357-9. [Joint Seminar – Development of materials science in research and education /22./. 03.09.2012-07.09.2012, Lednice] R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP205/12/0908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * chemical vapour deposition * composite polymer * nanofiber sheet * SEM Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  20. Nanofiber Based Optical Sensors for Oxygen Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ruipeng

    Oxygen sensors based on luminescent quenching of nanofibers were developed for measurement of both gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations. Electrospinning was used to fabricate "core-shell" fiber configurations in which oxygen-sensitive transition metal complexes are embedded into a polymer 'core' while a synthetic biocompatible polymer provides a protective 'shell.' Various matrix polymers and luminescent probes were studied in terms of their sensitivity, linear calibration, reversibility, response time, stability and probe-matrix interactions. Due to the small size and high surface area of these nanofibers, all samples showed rapid response and a highly linear response to oxygen. The sensitivity and photostability of the sensors were controlled by the identity of both the probe molecule and the polymer matrix. Such nanofiber sensor forms are particularly suitable in biological applications due to the fact that they do not consume oxygen, are biocompatible and biomimetic and can be easily incorporated into cell culture. Applications of these fibers in cancer cell research, wound healing, breath analysis and waste water treatment were explored.

  1. Polyurethane nanofibers containing copper nanoparticles as future materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheikh, Faheem A.; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to represent a novel approach to fabricate polyurethane nanofibers containing copper nanoparticles (NPs) by simple electrospinning process. A simple method, not depending on additional foreign chemicals, has been employed to utilize prepared copper NPs in polyurethane nanofibers. Typically, a colloidal gel consisting of copper NPs and polyurethane has been electrospun. SEM-EDX and TEM results confirmed well oriented nanofibers and good dispersion of pure copper NPs. Copper NPs have diameter in the range of 5–10nm. The thermal stability of the synthesized nanofibers was examined for identifying the proper settlement of copper NPs among the nanofibers, according to the concentrations used in original solutions. Furthermore, XRD results well demonstrated crystalline feature of copper NPs. Model microorganisms Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtillus had been used to check the antimicrobial efficacy of these nanofiber mats. Subsequently, antimicrobial tests have indicated that the prepared nanofibers do posses good bactericidal effect. Accordingly, it is noted that the obtained nanofiber mats can be used as future filter membranes with good antimicrobial activities.

  2. Drop impact, spreading, splashing, and penetration into electrospun nanofiber mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembach, Andreas N; Tan, Hung-Bing; Roisman, Ilia V; Gambaryan-Roisman, Tatiana; Zhang, Yiyun; Tropea, Cameron; Yarin, Alexander L

    2010-06-15

    Experiments were conducted to study peculiarities of drop impact onto electrospun polymer nanofiber mats. The nanofiber cross-sectional diameters were of the order of several hundred nanometers, the pore sizes in the mats of about several micrometers, and the mat thicknesses of the order of 200 microm. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN), a polymer which is partially wettable by water, was used to electrospin nanofiber mats. The experiments revealed that drop impact onto nanotextured surfaces of nanofiber mats produce spreading similar to that on the impermeable surfaces. However, at the end of the spreading stage, the contact line is pinned and drop receding is prevented. At higher impact velocities, prompt splashing events with formation of tiny drops were observed. It was shown that the splash parameter K(d) = We(1/2) Re(1/4) (with We and Re being the Weber and Reynolds numbers, respectively) previously used to characterize the experiments with drop impact onto smooth impermeable dry substrates can be also used to describe the onset of splash on substrates coated by nanofiber mats. However its threshold value K(ds) (in particular, corresponding to the minimal impact velocity leading to generation of secondary droplets) for the nanotextured surfaces is higher than that for dry flat substrates. In addition, water penetration and spreading inside wettable nanofiber mats after drop impact was elucidated and quantified. The hydrodynamics of drop impact onto nanofiber mats is important for understanding effective spray cooling through nanofiber mats, recently introduced by the same group of authors. PMID:20205398

  3. Development of braided drug-loaded nanofiber sutures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this work are twofold. Firstly, while most work on electrospinning is limited to the development of only functional materials, a structural application of electrospun nanofibers is explored. Secondly, a drug-loaded tissue suture is fabricated and its various properties are characterized. Braided drug-loaded nanofiber sutures are obtained by combining an electrospinning process with a braiding technique followed by a coating procedure. Two different electrospinning techniques, i.e. blend and coaxial electrospinning, to incorporate a model drug cefotaxime sodium (CFX-Na) into poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofibers have been applied and compared with each other. Properties of the braided drug-loaded sutures are characterized through a variety of methods including SEM, TEM and tensile testing. The results show that the nanofibers had a preferable micromorphology. The drug was incorporated into the polymer nanofibers homogeneously, with no cross-linking. The nanofibers maintained their fibrous structures. An in vitro release study indicates that the drug-loaded nanofibers fabricated by blend electrospinning and coaxial electrospinning had a different drug release behavior. An inhibition zone experiment shows that both sutures obtained from the nanofibers of the different electrospinning techniques had favorable antibacterial properties. The drug-loaded sutures had preferable histological compatibility performance compared with commercial silk sutures in anompared with commercial silk sutures in an in vivo comparative study.

  4. Development of braided drug-loaded nanofiber sutures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Wen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Huang Zhengming [School of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Liu Xiangyang, E-mail: huangzm@tongji.edu.cn [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117542 (Singapore)

    2010-08-06

    The objectives of this work are twofold. Firstly, while most work on electrospinning is limited to the development of only functional materials, a structural application of electrospun nanofibers is explored. Secondly, a drug-loaded tissue suture is fabricated and its various properties are characterized. Braided drug-loaded nanofiber sutures are obtained by combining an electrospinning process with a braiding technique followed by a coating procedure. Two different electrospinning techniques, i.e. blend and coaxial electrospinning, to incorporate a model drug cefotaxime sodium (CFX-Na) into poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofibers have been applied and compared with each other. Properties of the braided drug-loaded sutures are characterized through a variety of methods including SEM, TEM and tensile testing. The results show that the nanofibers had a preferable micromorphology. The drug was incorporated into the polymer nanofibers homogeneously, with no cross-linking. The nanofibers maintained their fibrous structures. An in vitro release study indicates that the drug-loaded nanofibers fabricated by blend electrospinning and coaxial electrospinning had a different drug release behavior. An inhibition zone experiment shows that both sutures obtained from the nanofibers of the different electrospinning techniques had favorable antibacterial properties. The drug-loaded sutures had preferable histological compatibility performance compared with commercial silk sutures in an in vivo comparative study.

  5. Electrospun Manganese Oxides Nanofibers Electrode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Ke,LU Hai-Wei,LI Da,ZENG Wei,LI Yue-Sheng,FU Zheng-Wen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Manganese oxides nanofibers were successfully fabricated by an electrospinning method and its electrochemical behavior was investigated as three-dimensional (3D architecture of cathodic materials. Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and the discharge/charge curves were used to characterize their structures and electrochemical properties. Manganese oxides nanofibers are achieved after calcination at 450¡?The high reversible discharge capacity reaches 160mAh/g and the discharge capacity is about 132.5mAh/g with capacity loss less than 1.0% per cycle in 50 cycling. SEM observations show that the structure of manganese oxides nanofibers is stable without the mechanical destruction of nanofibers during the Li+ ion intercalation and deintercalation. The results demonstrate that manganese oxides nanofibers are promising cathodic materials for 3D lithium batteries.

  6. Optically transparent composites reinforced with plant fiber-based nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, S.; Nakagaito, A. N.; Yano, H.; Nogi, M.

    2005-11-01

    The fibrillation of pulp fiber was attempted by two methods, a high-pressure homogenizer treatment and a grinder treatment. The grinder treatment resulted in the successful fibrillation of wood pulp fibers into nanofibers. The nanofibers demonstrate promising characteristics as reinforcement material for optically transparent composites. Due to the size effect, the nanofiber-reinforced composite retains the transparency of the matrix resin even at high fiber content such as 70 wt %. Since the nanofiber is an aggregate of semi-crystalline extended cellulose chains, its addition also contributes to a significant improvement in the thermal expansion properties of plastics while maintaining its ease of bending. Cellulose nanofibers have tremendous potential as a future resource since they are produced in a sustainable manner by plants, one of the most abundant organic resources on earth.

  7. In vitro hydroxyapatite forming ability and dissolution of tobermorite nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kaili; Chang, Jiang; Cheng, Rongming

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, fiber-like and dispersible tobermorite (Ca(5)(Si(6)O(16))(OH)(2).4H(2)O), 80-120 nm in diameter and up to tens of micrometers in length was prepared by a hydrothermal microemulsion method. In vitro bioactivity of the nanofibers were evaluated by examing the hydroxyapatite (HAp) forming ability on the surface after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various periods. After soaking in SBF, the nanofibers were completely covered by bonelike hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) layers, and the nanofibers after soaking still kept stability in fibrous morphology. The dissolution of the nanofibers reached about 24.5% after soaking in SBF for 14 days. The results suggested that the tobermorite nanofibers exhibited certain desirable characteristics, including bioactivity, degradability and stability in morphology, and are a potential candidate for a reinforcement material in the development of novel bioactive and degradable composites for biomedical applications. PMID:17234465

  8. Biologically Inspired Nanofibers for Use in Translational Bioanalytical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlock-Colangelo, Lauren; Baeumner, Antje J.

    2014-06-01

    Electrospun nanofiber mats are characterized by large surface-area-to-volume ratios, high porosities, and a diverse range of chemical functionalities. Although electrospun nanofibers have been used successfully to increase the immobilization efficiency of biorecognition elements and improve the sensitivity of biosensors, the full potential of nanofiber-based biosensing has not yet been realized. Therefore, this review presents novel electrospun nanofiber chemistries developed in fields such as tissue engineering and drug delivery that have direct application within the field of biosensing. Specifically, this review focuses on fibers that directly encapsulate biological additives that serve as immobilization matrices for biological species and that are used to create biomimetic scaffolds. Biosensors that incorporate these nanofibers are presented, along with potential future biosensing applications such as the development of cell culture and in vivo sensors.

  9. Investigating the plasma chemistry for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes/nanofibres in an inductively coupled plasma enhanced CVD system: the effect of different gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid model, called the hybrid plasma equipment model (HPEM), was used to study an inductively coupled plasma in gas mixtures of H2 or NH3 with CH4 or C2H2 used for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes or carbon nanofibres (CNTs/CNFs). The plasma properties are discussed for different gas mixtures at low and moderate pressures, and the growth precursors for CNTs/CNFs are analysed. It is found that C2H2, C2H4 and C2H6 are the predominant molecules in CH4 containing plasmas besides the feedstock gas, and serve as carbon sources for CNT/CNF formation. On the other hand, long-chain hydrocarbons are observed in C2H2-containing plasmas. Furthermore, the background gases CH4 and C2H2 show a different decomposition rate with H2 or NH3 addition at moderate pressures.

  10. Fabrication of ion-induced carbon-cobalt nanocomposite fibers: effect of cobalt supply rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Yusop, Mohd Zamri Mohd; Hihara, Takehiko; Ghosh, Pradip; Hayashi, Akari; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Tanemura, Masaki

    2011-12-01

    Graphite surfaces were irradiated by argon (Ar+) ions at 1 keV with a simultaneous cobalt (Co) supply at room temperature. Various kinds of carbon nanocomposites, such as nanocones with and without single nanofibers on their tops, nanorods and fish-scale-like nanoprotrusions, were formed depending on Co supply rates. It has been observed that with increasing the Co supply rate the formation of nanoprotrusions without nanofibers became prominent. Both nanofibers and nanoprotrusions were surely composed of carbon and Co, as confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The cobalt carbon nanocomposite fibers (CCNFs), -1.5 microm in average length, were grown on the top of the nanocones at the Co supply rate of 1.0 nm/min. The field electron emission characteristics of CCNFs thus grown indicated that there is an optimum parameter for the CCNF growth to achieve the better emission performance than that of pristine Ar(+)-induced carbon nanofibers. PMID:22408972

  11. Regeneration of Bombyx mori silk nanofibers and nanocomposite fibrils by the electrospinning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayutsede, Jonathan Eyitouyo

    In recent years, there has been significant interest in the utilization of natural materials for novel nanoproducts such as tissue engineered scaffolds. Silkworm silk fibers represent one of the strongest natural fibers known. Silkworm silk, a protein-based natural biopolymer, has received renewed interest in recent years due to its unique properties (strength, toughness) and potential applications such as smart textiles, protective clothing and tissue engineering. The traditional 10--20 mum diameter, triangular-shaped Bombyx mori fibers have remained unchanged over the years. However, in our study, we examine the scientific implication and potential applications of reducing the diameter to the nanoscale, changing the triangular shape of the fiber and adding nanofillers in the form of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) by the electrospinning process. The electrospinning process preserves the natural conformation of the silk (random and beta-sheet). The feasibility of changing the properties of the electrospun nanofibers by post processing treatments (annealing and chemical treatment) was investigated. B. mori silk fibroin solution (formic acid) was successfully electrospun to produce uniform nanofibers (as small as 12 nm). Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied for the first time to experimental results of electrospinning, to develop a processing window that can reproduce regenerated silk nanofibers of a predictable size (d < 100nm). SWNT-silk multifunctional nanocomposite fibers were fabricated for the first time with anticipated properties (mechanical, thermal and electrically conductive) that may have scientific applications (nerve regeneration, stimulation of cell-scaffold interaction). In order to realize these applications, the following areas need to be addressed: a systematic investigation of the dispersion of the nanotubes in the silk matrix, a determination of new methodologies for characterizing the nanofiber properties and establishing the nature of the silk-SWNT interactions. A new visualization system was developed to characterize the transport properties of the nanofibrous assemblies. The morphological, chemical, structural and mechanical properties of the nanofibers were determined by field emission environmental scanning microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy, wide angle x-ray diffraction and microtensile tester respectively.

  12. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of cuprous oxide/carbon nanofibres composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuanqian; Liu, Lin; Cai, Yurong; Chen, Jianjun [The Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Materials and Textiles, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Xiasha Higher Education Park, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Yao, Juming, E-mail: yaoj@zstu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Materials and Textiles, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Xiasha Higher Education Park, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2013-04-01

    Cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) nanocrystals have been successfully synthesized using copper acetate as precursors via a polyol process. The as-synthesized products were easily deposited on the surface of carbon nanofibres (CNFs) and then were characterized through XRD, FESEM, TEM and FTIR, etc. The photocatalytic performance of these composite films was evaluated using methyl orange as a model organic compound under visible light irradiation. Results showed that the shape of Cu{sub 2}O nanparticles could be changed from irregular nanoparticle to cubic, flower-like particle assembled by Cu{sub 2}O nanocubes with the change of the reaction conditions. All of these Cu{sub 2}O/CNFs composite films showed the satisfied photocatalytic activity to methyl orange even after 3 cycles of degradation experiment due to the protectable function of carbon fibre films to the Cu{sub 2}O nanocrystals. The Cu{sub 2}O/CNFs composite films may offer a feasible method for the potential application of Cu{sub 2}O nanocrystals in the treatment of organic contamination.

  13. Delivery of carboplatin by carbon-based nanocontainers mediates increased cancer cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the activity of several conventional anticancer drugs is restricted by resistance mechanisms and dose-limiting side-effects, the design of nanocarriers seems to be an efficient and promising approach for drug delivery. Their chemical and mechanical stability and their possible multifunctionality render tubular nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibres (CNFs), promising delivery agents for anticancer drugs. The goal of the present study was to investigate CNTs and CNFs in order to deliver carboplatin in vitro. No significant intrinsic toxicity of unloaded materials was found, confirming their biocompatibility. Carboplatin was loaded onto CNTs and CNFs, revealing a loading yield of 0.20 mg (CNT-CP) and 0.13 mg (CNF-CP) platinum per milligram of material. The platinum release depended on the carrier material. Whereas CNF-CP marginally released the drug, CNT-CP functioned as a drug depot, constantly releasing up to 68% within 14 days. The cytotoxicity of CNT-CP and CNF-CP in urological tumour cell lines was dependent on the drug release. CNT-CP was identified to be more effective than CNF-CP concerning the impairment of proliferation and clonogenic survival of tumour cells. Moreover, carboplatin, which was delivered by CNT-CP, exhibited a higher anticancer activity than free carboplatin.

  14. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of cuprous oxide/carbon nanofibres composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanocrystals have been successfully synthesized using copper acetate as precursors via a polyol process. The as-synthesized products were easily deposited on the surface of carbon nanofibres (CNFs) and then were characterized through XRD, FESEM, TEM and FTIR, etc. The photocatalytic performance of these composite films was evaluated using methyl orange as a model organic compound under visible light irradiation. Results showed that the shape of Cu2O nanparticles could be changed from irregular nanoparticle to cubic, flower-like particle assembled by Cu2O nanocubes with the change of the reaction conditions. All of these Cu2O/CNFs composite films showed the satisfied photocatalytic activity to methyl orange even after 3 cycles of degradation experiment due to the protectable function of carbon fibre films to the Cu2O nanocrystals. The Cu2O/CNFs composite films may offer a feasible method for the potential application of Cu2O nanocrystals in the treatment of organic contamination.

  15. Electrochemical fabrication and electronic behavior of polypyrrole nano-fiber array devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Ling [Department of Chemistry, and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhao Yaomin [Department of Chemistry, and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Jia Nengqin [Department of Chemistry, and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhou Qin [Department of Chemistry, and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhao Chongjun [Photon Craft Project, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Japan Science and Technology Agency, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yan Manming [Department of Chemistry, and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Jiang Zhiyu [Department of Chemistry, and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: zyjiang@fudan.ac.cn

    2006-05-01

    Electrochemically active Polypyrrole (PPy) nano-fiber array device was fabricated via electrochemical deposition method using aluminum anodic oxide (AAO) membrane as template. After alkaline treatment electrochemically active PPy nano-fiber lost electrochemical activity, and became electrochemically inactive PPy. The electronic properties of PPy nano-fiber array devices were measured by means of a simple method. It was found that for an indium-tin oxide/electrochemically inactive PPy nano-fiber device, the conductivity of nano-fiber increased with the increase of voltage applied on the two terminals of nano-fiber. The electrochemical inactive PPy nano-fiber might be used as a nano-fiber switching diode. Both Au/electrochemically active PPy and Au/electrochemically inactive PPy nano-fiber devices demonstrate rectifying behavior, and might have been used for further application as nano-rectifiers.

  16. Electrochemical fabrication and electronic behavior of polypyrrole nano-fiber array devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemically active Polypyrrole (PPy) nano-fiber array device was fabricated via electrochemical deposition method using aluminum anodic oxide (AAO) membrane as template. After alkaline treatment electrochemically active PPy nano-fiber lost electrochemical activity, and became electrochemically inactive PPy. The electronic properties of PPy nano-fiber array devices were measured by means of a simple method. It was found that for an indium-tin oxide/electrochemically inactive PPy nano-fiber device, the conductivity of nano-fiber increased with the increase of voltage applied on the two terminals of nano-fiber. The electrochemical inactive PPy nano-fiber might be used as a nano-fiber switching diode. Both Au/electrochemically active PPy and Au/electrochemically inactive PPy nano-fiber devices demonstrate rectifying behavior, and might have been used for further application as nano-rectifiers

  17. Magnetorheology of dimorphic magnetorheological fluids based on nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Antonio J. F.; Gonçalves, Flavia R.; Morillas, Jose R.; de Vicente, Juan

    2014-12-01

    We report a systematic experimental investigation on the use of nanofibers to enhance the magnetorheological (MR) effect in conventional (microsphere-based) MR fluids formulated in polyalphaolefin oil/1-octanol. Two kinds of nanofibers are employed that have very similar morphology but very different magnetic properties. On the one hand we use non-magnetic goethite nanofibers. On the other hand we employ magnetic chromium dioxide nanofibers. For appropriate concentrations the on-state relative yield stress increases up to 80% when incorporating the nanofibers in the formulation. A similar yield stress enhancement is found for both nanofibers investigated (magnetic and non-magnetic) suggesting that the main factor behind this MR enhancement is the particle shape anisotropy. The relative yield stresses obtained by partial substitution of carbonyl iron particles with nanofibers are significantly larger than those measured in previous works on MR fluids formulated by partial substitution with non-magnetic micronsized spherical particles. We also demonstrate that these dimorphic MR fluids also exhibit remarkably larger long-term sedimentation stability while keeping the same penetration and redispersibility characteristics.

  18. Lignin-based electrospun carbon nanofibrous webs as free-standing and binder-free electrodes for sodium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Juan; Yu, Bao-jun; Shi, Zhi-qiang; Wang, Cheng-yang; Chong, Chuan-bin

    2014-12-01

    Low-cost and bio-based carbon nanofibrous webs (PL-CNFs) are fabricated from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) - refined lignin (RL) which is extracted from hardwood lignosulfonate via simple eletrospinning followed by stabilization and carbonization. The effects of the PAN/RL mass ratios varying from 9/1,7/3 to 5/5 and heat-treatment temperatures (HTTs) in the range from 800, 1000 to 1300 °C on morphology and structure of PL-CNFs are systematically studied. Due to unique morphology and weakly ordered turbostratic microstructure of the 3-D conductive composite networks, the PL-CNFs anode obtained at 1300 °C with a mass ratio of 5/5 exhibits a high reversible capacity of 292.6 mA h g-1 with an initial efficiency of 70.5% at a constant current density of 0.02 A g-1 when used as free-standing and binder-free anodes for sodium ion batteries (SIBs). The anode also presents high rate capability (210 and 80 mA h g-1 at 0.4 and 1 A g-1, respectively) and excellent cycle stability (247 mA h g-1 reversible capacity with 90.2% capacity retention ratio at 0.1 A g-1 over 200 cycles). It is demonstrated that biomass waste lignin can be applied as a promising precursor to fabricate low-cost-high performance carbon electrode materials for SIBs.

  19. Charge Injection and Transport in Organic Nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the carrier injection and transport in individual para-hexaphenylene nanofibers by electrical transport measurements at different temperatures. The injected current shows much weaker temperature dependence than what would be anticipated from a simplistic model that considers the injection barrier height equal to the difference between the metal electrode work function and the HOMO energy level of the organic semiconductor. Semiquantitative modeling suggests that the weak temperature dependence is due to injection into a distribution of states rather than into a single energy level. This disorder induced energy level broadening could be caused by the electrode deposition process

  20. Production of silk sericin/silk fibroin blend nanofibers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Xianhua; Tsukada Masuhiro; Morikawa Hideaki; Aojima Kazuki; Zhang Guangyu; Miura Mikihiko

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Silk sericin (SS)/silk fibroin (SF) blend nanofibers have been produced by electrospinning in a binary SS/SF trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) solution system, which was prepared by mixing 20 wt.% SS TFA solution and 10 wt.% SF TFA solution to give different compositions. The diameters of the SS/SF nanofibers ranged from 33 to 837 nm, and they showed a round cross section. The surface of the SS/SF nanofibers was smooth, and the fibers possessed a bead-free structure. The average diameters o...

  1. Remotely actuated shape memory effect of electrospun composite nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Li, Wenbing; Chen, Hongmei; Wang, Lin; Shao, Shijun; Zhou, Shaobing

    2012-03-01

    One class of biodegradable polymer composite nanofibers was fabricated with an electrospinning process using chemically cross-linked poly(?-caprolactone) (c-PCL) as the matrix and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) as the reinforced filler coated with Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles as a magnetism responsive source. The composite fibers showed an excellent shape memory effect, triggered both by hot water and by an alternating magnetic field. The heat in the PCL matrix generated from magnetic nanoparticles via hysteresis loss in the magnetic field was also determined quantitatively. The Fe(3)O(4)-loaded MWNT composite nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)@CD-M) were synthesized through two steps: (1) the raw MWNTs were firstly functionalized by grafting maleic anhydride (MA) on their surface through a free radical reaction and later covalently modified by ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) through an esterification reaction; (2) Fe(3)O(4)@CD-M composite nanoparticles were prepared by chemical co-precipitation of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) ions on the surface of the ?-CD functionalized MWNTs with an electrostatic self-assembly approach using ?-CD as the depositional locus. Alamar blue assay was also performed from culturing osteoblast populations to evaluate the cytotoxicity. The result showed that the electrospun composite fibers possessed good biocompatibility and could be applied in biomedical fields. PMID:22186162

  2. Mechanical properties and tribological behaviour of silicon carbide/carbon nano fibers nano composites; Propiedades mecanicas y tribologicas de materiales nanoestructurados de carburo de silicio/nanofibras de carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrell, A.; Torrecillas, R.; Rocha, V. G.; Fernandez, A.; Bonache, V.; Salvador, M. D.

    2011-07-01

    The development of new ceramic/carbon nano structured materials is a very interesting option from the point of view of the automotive and aerospace industries. Its low density, high mechanical strength, high oxidation resistance and excellent friction behavior allows the use of these composites as functional materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of carbon nano fibers (CNFs) on the mechanical and tribological behavior of silicon carbide/CNFs nano composite obtained by spark plasma sintering technique. The tribological study was carried out in a ball-on-disk apparatus under dry sliding conditions (dry friction) and a fixed load of 15 N. The friction coefficient and wear rate were measured for each composite. Scanning electron microscope was used to analyze wear surface formed. The results show simultaneous improvement of wear behavior and mechanical properties of ceramic materials by incorporating of carbon nano fibers. (Author) 23 refs.

  3. Functional Nanofibers via Electospinning: New Materials and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasco, Joshua Lee

    Cyclodextrins are fascinating, amphiphilic molecules that are of considerable interest due to their ability to be used in a variety of applications ranging from pharmaceuticals and cosmetics to foods and agriculture. These are ring-shaped sugar molecules possess a hydrophobic cavity and a hydrophilic exterior which imparts them water solubility. There are three main types of naturally occurring cyclodextrins namely alpha-, beta- and gamma- CD which have 6, 7 and 8 member rings, respectively. Owing to their hydrophobic interior, cyclodextrin molecules encapsulate hydrophobic guest molecules (from small to macromolecules) to form host-guest supermolecular structures. Chemically modified CDs are often preferred to the natural forms, particularly methylated (MbetaCD) and hydroxypropylated (HPbetaCD) cyclodextrins, for their enhanced solubility and chemical stability. Electrostatic spinning (electrospinning) of nanofibers has drawn significant research attention in recent decades. This technique involves the stretching of a polymer solution or melt in a high electric field to produce fibers on the nanoscale. These 1-Dimensional nanostructures possess extraordinary surface-to-weight ratio and find applications that vary from filtration membranes and tissue scaffolding materials to drug delivery and many others. The scope of this research attempts to leverage the unique features of CDs with the high aspect ratio of nanofibers to create functional nanomaterials. The present study can be divided into three sections. In the first part, we establish that CDs can be electrospun without the need for a "carrier" polymer. This discovery may serve to extend the horizon of what is currently considered "electrospinnable" from macromolecules now to small molecules. The ability to electrospin CDs led to their incorporation of other polymers to create bicomponent fibers with poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN). In the case of PVA we demonstrate the ability to not only to control the fiber properties based on PVA/CD ratio, but also crosslink these fibers to create water resistant fiber mats. Furthermore, the use of these fibers as rapid dissolving membranes for drug delivery is explored. Additionally, CDs are investigated for use as a porogen for PAN and carbon fibers. We find that CDs are particularly good candidates for us as porogens due to their amorphous nature and versatility to be dissolved in various solvent system. By nature, solution electrospinning is a low-throughput, solvent intensive process. In the last part we attempt to alleviate this issue by designing an extrusion based melt electrospinning device. We show that submicron fibers of polycaprolactone are possible through this technique without the use of organic solvents.

  4. Thermal Conductivity of Ultem(TradeMark)/Carbon Nanofiller Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, S.; Watson, K. A.; Delozier, D. M.; Working, D. C.; Connell, J. W.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Sun, Y. P.; Lin, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to improve polymer thermal conductivity (TC), Ultem(TradeMark) 1000 was compounded with nano-fillers of carbon allotropes. Ultem(TradeMark) 1000 was selected since it is both solution and melt processable. As-received and modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), vapor grown carbon nanofibers (CNF) and expanded graphite (EG) were investigated. MWCNTs were modified by functionalizing the surface through oxidization with concentrated acids, mixing with an alkyl bromide, and addition of alkyl and phosphorus compounds after initial treatment with n-butyl lithium. Functionalization was performed to improve the TC compatibility between the resin and MWCNTs. It was postulated that this may provide an improved interface between the MWCNT and the polymer which would result in enhanced TC. The nano-fillers were mixed with Ultem(TradeMark) 1000 in the melt and in solution at concentrations ranging from 5 to 40 wt%. Ribbons were extruded from the blends to form samples where the nano-fillers were aligned to some degree in the extrusion direction. Samples were also fabricated by compression molding resulting in random orientation of the nano-fillers. Thermal properties of the samples were evaluated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA). Tensile properties of aligned samples were determined at room temperature. The specimens were cut from the ribbons in the extrusion direction; hence the nano-fillers are somewhat aligned in the direction of stress. Typically it was observed that melt mixed samples exhibited superior mechanical properties compared to solution mixed samples. As expected, increased filler loading led to increased modulus and decreased elongation with respect to the neat polymer. The degree of dispersion and alignment of the nano-fillers was determined by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM). HRSEM of the ribbons revealed that the MWCNTs and CNFs were predominantly aligned in the flow direction. The TC of the samples was measured using a Nanoflash(TradeMark) instrument. Since the MWCNTs and CNF are anisotropic, the TC was expected to be different in the longitudinal (parallel to the nanotube and fiber axis) and transverse (perpendicular to the nanotube and fiber axis) directions. The extruded ribbons provided samples for transverse TC measurements. However, to determine the TC in the longitudinal direction, the ribbons needed to be stacked and molded under 1.7 MPa and 270 C. Samples were then obtained by cutting the molded block with a diamond saw. The largest TC improvement was achieved for aligned samples when the measurement was performed in the direction of MWCNT and CNF alignment (i.e. longitudinal axis). Unaligned samples also showed a significant improvement in TC and may be potentially useful in applications when it is not possible to align the nano-filler. The results of this study will be presented.

  5. Waveguiding properties of individual electrospun polymer nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Yuya; Kaminose, Ryohei; Fukuda, Mitsuo

    2013-09-01

    Optical circuits are needed to achieve high-speed, high-capacity information processing. An optical waveguide is an essential element in optical circuits. Electrospun polymer fibers have diameters in the nanometer range and high aspect ratios, so they are prime candidates for small waveguides. In this work, we fabricate uniform electrospun polymer nanofibers and characterize their optical waveguiding properties. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) solutions of different concentration that contain a small amount of Nile Blue A perchlorate (NBA) are electrospun. Uniform PMMA/NBA nanofibers are obtained from the 10 wt% solution. The fibers are covered with transparent cladding and their ends cut vertically. A laser beam with a wavelength of 533 nm is irradiated onto the fiber from the direction vertical to the fiber axis so that it scans along the fiber. Photoluminescence (PL) at the end face of individual fibers is then measured. The PL intensity decreases with increasing distance (d) between the end face of a fiber and irradiating point of the laser beam as ~exp(-?d) with a loss coefficient (?). Measurements of five individual fibers reveal ? is in the range of 17-75 cm-1.

  6. Advanced Nanofiber-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprakci, Ozan

    Among various energy storage technologies, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have been considered as effective solution to the increasing need for high-energy density electrochemical power sources. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries offer energy densities 2 - 3 times and power densities 5 - 6 times higher than conventional Ni-Cd and Ni-MH batteries, and as a result, they weigh less and take less space for a given energy delivery. However, the use of lithium-ion batteries in many large applications such as electric vehicles and storage devices for future power grids is hindered by the poor thermal stability, relatively high toxicity, and high cost of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) powders, which are currently used as the cathode material in commercial lithium-ion batteries. Recently, lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4) powders have become a favorable cathode material for lithium-ion batteries because of their low cost, high discharge potential (around 3.4 V versus Li/Li+), large specific capacity (170 mAh g -1), good thermal stability, and high abundance with the environmentally benign and safe nature. As a result, there is a huge demand for the production of high-performance LiFePO4. However, LiFePO4 also has its own limitation such as low conductivity (˜10-9 S cm -1), which results in poor rate capability. To address this problem, various approaches can be used such as decreasing particle size of LiFePO 4, doping LiFePO4 with metal ions or coating LiFePO 4 surface with carboneous materials. Formation of conductive layer on LiFePO4 and decreasing particle size are promising approaches due to their superior contribution to electrical conductivity and electrochemical performance of LiFePO4. Although different approaches can be used for surface coating and particle size decrement, electrospinning can be potentially considered as an efficient, simple and inexpensive way. In this study, LiFePO 4/carbon and carbon nanotube- and graphene-loaded electrospun LiFePO 4/carbon composite nanofibers were synthesized by using a combination of sol-gel and electrospinning. During the material preparation, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was used as an electrospinning media and a carbon source. LiFePO 4 precursor materials and/or conductive materials (carbon nanotubes and graphene) and PAN were dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide separately and they were mixed before electrospinning. LiFePO4 precursor/PAN fibers were heat treated, during which LiFePO4 precursor transformed to energy-storage LiFePO4 material and PAN was converted to carbon. The surface morphology, microstructure and electrochemical performance of the materials were analyzed. Compared with conventional powder based positive electrodes, the novel LiFePO4/C composite nanofiber cathodes possess better electrochemical performance. Furthermore, the newly developed LiFePO 4/C composite nanofibers are easy to fabricate, highly controllable, and can be used in practical Lithium-ion battery applications. In addition to LiFePO4, more recent efforts have been directed to mixed form of layered lithiummetal oxides (Li-Ni-Mn-Co). Nickel and manganese are of importance because of their lower cost, safety and higher abundance in nature. These new cathodes offer noticeable improvement in the capacity and cycling behavior. In these cathodes, LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn 1/3O2 attracted significant interest because of its good electrochemical properties such as high capacity, prolonged cycling life, and so on. On the other hand, it has some disadvantages such as instability at high voltages and high current densities. To overcome these problems, synthesis of layered Li-rich composite materials such as xLi2MnO3?(1-x)LiCo 1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 can be a promising approach. In this study, various xLi2MnO3?(1-x)LiCo 1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 (x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) composite cathode materials were prepared by a one-step sol-gel route. Morphology, microstructure and electrochemical behavior of these cathode materials were evaluated. The resultant cathode material shows good electrochemical performance. Relatively low cost and simpl

  7. A nanofiber functionalized with dithizone by co-electrospinning for lead (II) adsorption from aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We fabricated a composite electrospun nanofiber as a selective sorbent for lead (II) in PFSPE. ? The composite nanofiber was functionalized with the dithizone by co-electrospinning of the PS solution containing unbonded dithizone. ? The nanofiber was characterized by scanning electron microscope and IR spectra. ? We applied the nanofiber by packing in a cartridge. ? The nanofiber performed well in the absorption of lead (II) and was applied successfully in aqueous samples. - Abstract: An electrospun nanofiber was utilized as a sorbent in packed fiber solid phase extraction (PFSPE) for selective separation and preconcentration of lead (II). The nanofiber had a polystyrene (PS) backbone, which was functionalized with dithizone (DZ) by co-electrospinning of a PS solution containing DZ. The nanofiber exhibited its performance in a cartridge prepared by packing 5 mg of nanofiber. The nanofiber was characterized by a scanning electron microscope and IR spectra. The diameter of the nanofiber was less than 400 nm. After being activated by 2.0 mol L?1 NaOH aqueous solution, the nanofiber quantitatively sorbed lead (II) at pH 8.5, and the metal ion could be desorbed from it by three times of elution with a small volume of 0.1 mol L?1 HNO3 aqueous solution. The breakthrough capacity was 16 ?g mg?1. The nanofiber could be used for concentration of lead (II) from water and other aqueous media, such as plasmeous media, such as plasma with stable recovery in a simple and convenient manner.

  8. Multicolored Nanofiber Based Organic Light-Emitting Transistor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    With Jensen, Per Baunegaard; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob

    For optoelectronic applications, organic semiconductors have several advantages over their inorganic counterparts such as facile synthesis, tunability via synthetic chemistry, and low temperature processing. Self-assembled, molecular crystalline nanofibers are of particular interest as they could form ultra-small light-emitters in future nanophotonic applications. Such organic nanofibers exhibit many interesting optical properties including polarized photo- and electroluminescence, waveguiding, and emission color tunability. We here present a first step towards a multicolored, electrically driven device by combining nanofibers made from two different molecules, parahexaphenylene (p6P) and 5,5´-Di-4-biphenyl-2,2´-bithiophene (PPTTPP), which emits blue and green light, respectively. The organic nanofibers are implemented on a bottom gate/bottom contact field-effect transistor platform using a simple roll-printing technique[1]. We compare both electrical transport and electrolu minescence (EL) properties and observe a correlation between the onset voltage for transport and EL emission.

  9. Nanofibers for medicinal applications - investigation of morphology in practice.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Širc, Jakub; Hampejsová, Z.

    Prague : Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry AS CR, 2015. ML1. ISBN 978-80-85009-83-5. [Workshop "Career in Polymers " /7./. 03.07.2015, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : medicinal applications * nanofibers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  10. Nanocomposite Edible Films from Mango Puree Reinforced with Cellulose Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellulose nanoreinforcements have been used to improve mechanical and barrier properties of biopolymers, whose performance is usually poor when compared to those of synthetic polymers. Nanocomposite edible films have been developed by adding cellulose nanofibers (CNF) in different concentrations (u...

  11. Nanofibers from Melt Blown Fiber-in-Fiber Polymer Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zaifei; Zuo, Feng; Tan, Dawud; Jeung, Soondeuk; Macosko, Christopher; Bates, Frank; Cummins Filtration Collaboration; Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota Twin Cities Team

    2014-03-01

    Nanofibers were generated by melt blowing three sets of polymer blends each comprised of pairs of immiscible components. Blends containing minority phases of poly(ethylene-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene) (PECTFE) in poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), PECTFE in poly(styrene) (PS), and PBT in PS, were melt blown into long (>100 microns) fibers with average diameters of several microns. Electron microscope revealed that melt blowing transformed the initial spherical dispersions into a nanofibers-in-fiber morphology. Macroscopic mats of nonwoven PBT and PECTFE nanofibers, with average diameters as small as 70 nm, were isolated by selectively removing the majority phase with a solvent. This method provides a potentially inexpensive, high throughput, one step route to scalable quantities of polymeric nanofibers. Cummins Filtration

  12. Proceedings of the Seventh Applied Diamond Conference/Third Frontier Carbon Technology Joint Conference (ADC/FCT 2003). Supplement 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakawa, M. (Editor); Miyoshi, K. (Editor); Koga, Y. (Editor); Schaefer, L. (Editor); Tzeng, Y. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This document contains 2 reports which were presented at the Seventh Applied Diamond Conference/Third Frontier Carbon Technology Joint Conference. The topics discuss the formation of C-N nanofibers as well as the characterization of diamond thin films.

  13. On the Effect of Non-Carbon Nanostructured Supports on the Stability of Pt Nanoparticles during Voltage Cycling: a Study of TiO2 Nanofibres

    OpenAIRE

    Savych, Iuliia; Bernard D'Arbigny, Julien; Subianto, Surya; Cavaliere, Sara; Jones, Deborah; Rozière, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Electrospun carbon and Nb-doped TiO2 nanofibres (CNFs, TNFs) have been investigated as electrocatalyst supports for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). The optimal Nb doping amount has been identified for TNFs, and thermal treatment of titanium oxide fibres optimised to balance the surface area and electronic conductivity requirements. The most highly conducting material is characterised by a high concentration of surface Ti3+ and Nb4+ (and oxygen vacancies). Pt nanoparticles of ...

  14. Polymer Nanofibers and Nanotubes: Charge Transport and Device Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Aleshin, Andrey N.

    2007-01-01

    A critical analysis of recent advances in synthesis and electrical characterization of nanofibers and nanotubes made of different conjugated polymers is presented. The applicability of various theoretical models is considered in order to explain results on transport in conducting polymer nanofibers and nanotubes. The relationship between these results and the one-dimensional (1D) nature of the conjugated polymers is discussed in light of theories for tunneling in 1D conducto...

  15. Spray-Dried Cellulose Nanofibers as Novel Tablet Excipient

    OpenAIRE

    Kolakovic, Ruzica; Peltonen, Leena; Laaksonen, Timo; Putkisto, Kaisa; Laukkanen, Antti; Hirvonen, Jouni

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of cellulose nanofibers (also referred as microfibrillated cellulose, nanocellulose, nanofibrillated, or nanofibrillar cellulose) as novel tabletting material. For this purpose, physical and mechanical properties of spray-dried cellulose nanofibers (CNF) were examined, and results were compared to those of two commercial grades of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), Avicel PH101 and Avicel PH102, which are the most commonly and widely used...

  16. Fracture of advanced polymer composites with nanofiber reinforced interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang-Fa

    An experimental and theoretical study is performed to explore the novel delamination suppression concept based on nanofiber reinforcement of interfaces between plies in advanced polymer composites (Dzenis and Reneker: US patents awarded and pending). Edge delamination was studied on graphite/epoxy composites reinforced by continuous electrospun polymer nanofibers with the diameter around 300 nm. Statistically significant improvements in both edge delamination onset stress and ultimate tensile strength in the composites with nanoreinforced interfaces were demonstrated. A simple FEM model was developed to evaluate the toughening mechanisms. Effects of loading rate and temperature on interlaminar fracture were evaluated using the double cantilever beam (DCB) and end notched flexure (ENF) tests. A thermal activation fracture model was developed for the rate-dependent fracture. Substantial improvements in interlaminar fracture toughness were recorded as a result of nanoreinforcement in the whole range of loading rates. Laminate specimens with nanofiber-reinforced interfaces were developed for dynamic Mode I and II fracture tests using Hopkinson pressure bar (HPB). Crack initiation was captured by crack detection gage. Dynamic stress intensity factors (SIFs) were extracted using a FEA code based on the recorded testing data. Results showed that nanofibers substantially increased the dynamic fracture toughness. SEM fractography was conducted to explore the nanofiber toughening micro and nanomechanisms, which directly related to the specific properties of nanofibers, such as high aspect ratio, high tensile strength, and the nanofiber geometric