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Sample records for carbon nanofibers cnfs

  1. Effect of carbon nano-fibers (CNFs) content on thermal and mechanical properties of CNFs/SiC nano-composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nano-fibers dispersed ?-SiC (CNFs/SiC) nano-composites were prepared by hot-pressing via a transient eutectic phase route at 1900 C for 1 h under 20 MPa in Ar. The effects of additional CNFs content between 1 and 10 wt.% were investigated, based on densification, microstructure, thermal and mechanical properties. The CNFs/SiC nano-composites by the CNFs contents below 5 wt.% exhibited excellent relative densities over 98% with well dispersed CNFs. However, the CNFs/SiC nano-composites containing the CNFs of 10 wt.% possessed a relative density of 92%, accompanying CNFs agglomerates and many pores located inside the agglomerates. The three point bending strength gradually decreased with the increase of CNFs content, but the indentation fracture toughness increased to 5.7 MPa m1/2 by the CNFs content of 5 wt.% The thermal conductivity was enhanced with the increase of CNFs content and represented a maximum value of 80 W/mK at the CNFs content of 5 wt.%. (authors)

  2. Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibers and Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zhixin

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted intense research efforts with the expectation that these materials may have many unique properties and potential applications. The most promising way for large-scale synthesis of CNFs and CNTs is chemical vapor deposition (CVD). CNFs were synthesized on a series of hydrotalcite (HT) derived 77 wt.% Ni-Fe/Al2O3 catalysts in order to achieve the optimization of productivity and quality. It was found that only the Fe catalyst w...

  3. Improved Electrical Conductivity of Carbon/Polyvinyl Alcohol Electrospun Nanofibers

    OpenAIRE

    Nader Shehata; Nabil Madi; Mariam Al-Maadeed; Ibrahim Hassounah; Abdullah Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) gained much interest in the last few years due to their promising electrical, chemical, and mechanical characteristics. This paper investigates a new nanocomposite composed of carbon nanofibers hosted by PVA and both are integrated in one electrospun nanofibers web. This technique shows a simple and cheap way to offer a host for CNFs using traditional deposition techniques. The results show that electrical conductivity of the formed nanofibers has been improved up to ...

  4. Silane coupling agent structures on carbon nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia, Cristina; Rubio, Juan; Rubio, Fausto; Fierro, José Luis G; Oteo, José Luis

    2011-05-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are considered ideal materials for reinforcing polymers due to their excellent mechanical properties, among others. In order to obtain composites of optimal properties the clue is to enhance the interaction between reinforcement (CNFs) and polymer matrix. Surface modification of CNFs with silane coupling agents (SCAs) has revealed as one of the most interesting methods. The silanization process has been carried out mixing at room temperature and for one minute the hydrolysed silane with CNFs. We have use four different SCAs: 3-aminopropyltriethoxyxilane (APS), 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AMMO), N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-(aminopropyltrimethoxysilane) (DAMO), and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GLYMO), in order to elucidate the SCA-CNFs interaction and the silane structures formed on CNFs surface. XPS and FTIR-ATR techniques have pointed out that each silane adsorbs on CNFs surface through chemical bonding, forming multilayers. Silane nature determines the structure taken on CNFs surface. APS and AMO silanes adsorb taking vertical structures on CNFs surface, while DMO and GMO adsorb on CNFs taking horizontal structures, stabilized by zwitterions formed through H-bonds with hydroxyl groups from CNFs surface. PMID:21780418

  5. A catechol biosensor based on electrospun carbon nanofibers

    OpenAIRE

    Dawei Li; Zengyuan Pang; Xiaodong Chen; Lei Luo; Yibing Cai; Qufu Wei

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by combining electrospinning with a high-temperature carbonization technique. And a polyphenol biosensor was fabricated by blending the obtained CNFs with laccase and Nafion. Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) were, respectively, employed to investigate the structures and morphologies of the CNFs and of the mixtures. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were empl...

  6. Strong Metal-Support Interaction: Growth of Individual Carbon Nanofibers from Amorphous Carbon Interacting with an Electron Beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Kuhn, Luise Theil

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses the growth behavior of carbon nanofibers (CNFs). It mentions that CNFs can be synthesized using methods such as arc-discharge, laser ablation and chemical vapor deposition. It further states that CNFs can be grown from a physical mixing of amorphous carbon and CGO...

  7. Controllable synthesis of helical, straight, hollow and nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers and their magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xun [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructure, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Xu, Zheng, E-mail: zhengxu@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructure, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The helical, straight and hollow carbon nanofibers can be selectively synthesized by adjusting either the reaction temperature or feed gas composition. Display Omitted Highlights: ? CNFs were synthesized via pyrolysis of acetylene on copper NPs. ? The helical, straight, hollow and N-doped CNFs can be selectively synthesized. ? The growth mechanism of different types of CNFs was proposed. -- Abstract: Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with various morphologies were synthesized by catalytic pyrolysis of acetylene on copper nanoparticles which were generated from the in situ decomposition of copper acetylacetonate. The morphology of the pristine and acid-washed CNFs was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. Helical, straight and hollow CNFs can be selectively synthesized by adjusting either the reaction temperature or feed gas composition. The growth mechanism for these three types of CNFs was proposed.

  8. Strong Metal-Support Interaction: Growth of Individual Carbon Nanofibers from Amorphous Carbon Interacting with an Electron Beam.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Kuhn, Luise Theil

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses the growth behavior of carbon nanofibers (CNFs). It mentions that CNFs can be synthesized using methods such as arc-discharge, laser ablation and chemical vapor deposition. It further states that CNFs can be grown from a physical mixing of amorphous carbon and CGO/Ni nanoparticles, devoid of any gaseous carbon source and external heating and stimulated by an electron beam in a 300 kilo volt transmission electron microscope.

  9. Cu grown carbon nanofibers - Variation of their chemical and physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoware, Shrikant; Maubane, Manoko S.; Phaahlamohlaka, Tumelo; Shaikjee, Ahmed; Coville, Neil J.

    2013-07-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by passing a mixture of acetylene/H2 or acetylene/N2 over different Cu catalysts. The Soxhlet extracted CNFs were characterized by TEM, TGA and IR spectroscopy and revealed that the morphology, diameter distribution and crystallinity of the CNFs varied with gas atmosphere and Cu particle size. TEM images revealed that coiled CNFs were only produced from Cu/SiO2 grown in the presence of H2. It is thus revealed that the CNFs produced by different Cu catalysts have different chemical and physical properties and that these properties correlate with catalyst particle size and the gas mixtures used.

  10. Carbon nanofibers grown on metallic filters as novel catalytic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Tribolet, Pascal; Kiwi-Minsker, Lioubov

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNF) were synthesized on sintered metal fibers (SMF) filters of nickel and Ni-containing alloys (Inconel, stainless steel (SS)) by thermal chemical vapor deposition of ethane in the presence of hydrogen at not, vert, similar660 °C. The CNFs were formed directly over the SMF filters without deposition of metal particles. The catalytic active sites leading to the CNF formation were attained by oxidation–reduction of the SMF filter. The CNFs present platelet morphology as dete...

  11. The effect of embedded carbon nanotubes on the morphological evolution during the carbonization of poly(acrylonitrile) nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prilutsky, Sabina; Cohen, Yachin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Zussman, Eyal [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)], E-mail: yachinc@techunix.technion.ac.il

    2008-04-23

    Hybrid nanofibers with different concentrations of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were fabricated using the electrospinning technique and subsequently carbonized. The morphology of the fabricated carbon nanofibers (CNFs) at different stages of the carbonization process was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The polycrystalline nature of the CNFs was shown, with increasing content of ordered crystalline regions having enhanced orientation with increasing content of MWCNTs. The results indicate that embedded MWCNTs in the PAN nanofibers nucleate the growth of carbon crystals during PAN carbonization.

  12. Ultrasensitive electrospun nickel-doped carbon nanofibers electrode for sensing paracetamol and glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long, uniform and smooth Ni(NO3)2-loaded polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers were prepared via electrospinning on a nonconductive quartz plate. The nanofibers were stabilized at 300 °C for 3 h in nitrogen atmosphere, and then the continuous heating to 800 °C at the rate of 2 °C min−1 keeping 3 h was used to prepare nickel-doped carbon nanofibers (Ni:CNFs). The composites were characterized with Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The Ni:CNFs were used as the working electrode to sense paracetamol (PCT) and glucose (GLU), respectively. When sensing PCT, the Ni:CNFs electrode showed an electrochemical behavior like on macroelectrode; but for GLU, it displayed an electrochemical behavior like on microelectrode. For both of the species, higher sensitivities on the Ni:CNFs electrodes were obtained than those on bulk glassy carbon and nickel electrodes

  13. Fabrication of Uniform Au–Carbon Nanofiber by Two-Step Low Temperature Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Myeongsoon; Hong Seong-Cheol; Kim Don

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents a facile and efficient way to prepare carbon nanofibers ornamented with Au nanoparticles (Au/CNFs). Gold nanoparticles were first deposited in the channels of an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane by thermal decomposition of HAuCl4and then carbon nanofibers were produced in the same channels loaded with the Au nanoparticles by decomposition of sucrose at 230 °C. An electron microscopy study revealed that the carbon nanofibers, ~10 nm thick and 6 ?m l...

  14. Carbon Precursor Dependence of Carbon Nanofibers Synthesized by Catalyst-Free Ultrasonic Spray-Pyrolysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jianfeng; Kishi, Naoki; Soga, Tetsuo

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we report the growth of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) by catalyst-free ultrasonic spray-pyrolysis of methanol, ethanol and 2-propanol. We found that the morphology of carbon deposition on the substrate strongly depended on the position of the substrate in the reaction tube and the carbon source species. When ethanol and 2-propanol were used as the carbon source, a slightly hollow structure CNFs were formed downstream in the reaction tube, whereas when the carbon source was methanol, an amorphous structure CNFs were formed at the center of the reaction tube. We consider the difference in CNFs growth between the alcohol types is presence of alkyl groups in alcohol.

  15. Performance of electrodes synthesized with polyacrylonitrile-based carbon nanofibers for application in electrochemical sensors and biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the performance of electrodes synthesized with Polyacrylonitrile-based carbon nanofibers (PAN-based CNFs). The homogenous PAN solutions with different concentrations were prepared and electrospun to acquire PAN nanofibers and then CNFs were fabricated by heat treatment. The effective parameters for the production of electrospun CNF electrode were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize electrospun nanofibers. Cyclic voltammetry was applied to investigate the changes of behavior of electrospun CNF electrodes with different diameters. The structure of CNFs was also evaluated via X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The results exhibited that diameter of nanofibers reduced with decreasing polymer concentration and applied voltage and increasing tip-to-collector distance, while feeding rate did not have significant effect on nanofiber diameter. The investigations of electrochemical behavior also demonstrated that cyclic voltammetric response improved as diameter of CNFs electrode decreased. - Highlights: • Electrospun CNFs can be directly used as working electrode. • Cyclic voltammetric response improved as diameter of CNFs electrode decreased. • The diameter of nanofibers reduced with decreasing polymer concentration. • The diameter of nanofibers reduced with decreasing applied voltage. • The diameter of nanofibers reduced with increasing tip-to-collector distance

  16. Control of carbon nanostructure: From nanofiber toward nanotube and back

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unique properties of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) make them attractive for numerous applications ranging from field emitters to biological probes. In particular, it is the deterministic synthesis of CNFs, which requires precise control over geometrical characteristics such as location, length, diameter, and alignment, that enables the diverse applications. Catalytic plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of vertically aligned CNFs is a growth method that offers substantial control over the nanofiber geometry. However, deterministic synthesis also implies control over the nanofiber's physical and chemical properties that are defined by internal structure. Until now, true deterministic synthesis has remained elusive due to the lack of control over internal graphitic structure. Here we demonstrate that the internal structure of CNFs can be influenced by catalyst preparation and ultimately defined by growth conditions. We have found that when the growth rate is increased by 100-fold, obtained through maximized pressure, plasma power, and temperature, the resulting nanofibers have an internal structure approaching that of multiwalled nanotubes. We further show that the deliberate modulation of growth parameters results in modulation of CNF internal structure, and this property has been used to control the CNF surface along its length for site specific chemistry and electrochemistry

  17. Carbon nanofibers, precious commodities from sunlight & CO2 to ameliorate global warming

    CERN Document Server

    Licht, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces the high yield, electrolytic synthesis of carbon nanofibers, CNFs, directly from carbon dioxide. Production of a precious commodity such as CNFs from atmospheric carbon dioxide provides impetus to limit this greenhouse gas and mitigate the rate of climate change. CNFs are formed at high rate using inexpensive nickel and steel electrodes in molten electrolytes. The process is demonstrated as a scaled-up stand-alone electrolytic cell, and is also shown compatible with the STEP, solar thermal electrochemical process, using concentrated sunlight at high solar to electric efficiency to provide the heat and electrical energy to drive the CNF production.

  18. Production of Carbon Nanofibers Using a CVD Method with Lithium Fluoride as a Supported Cobalt Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Manafi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanofibers (CNFs have been synthesized in high yield (>70% by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD on Co/LiF catalyst using acetylene as carbon source. A novel catalyst support (LiF is reported for the first time as an alternative for large-scale production of carbon nanofibers while purification process of nanofibers is easier. In our experiment, the sealed furnace was heated at 700∘C for 0.5 hour (the heating rate was 10∘C/min and then cooled to room temperature in the furnace naturally. Catalytic chemical vapor deposition is of interest for fundamental understanding and improvement of commercial synthesis of carbon nanofibers (CNFs. The obtained sample was sequentially washed with ethanol, dilutes acid, and distilled water to remove residual impurities, amorphous carbon materials, and remaining of catalyst, and then dried at 110∘C for 24 hours. The combined physical characterization through several techniques, such as high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM, scanning electron microscope (SEM, thermogarvimetric analysis (TGA, and zeta-sizer and Raman spectroscopy, allows determining the geometric characteristic and the microstructure of individual carbon nanofibers. Catalytic chemical vapor deposition is of interest for fundamental understanding and improvement of commercial synthesis of carbon nanofibers (CNFs. As a matter of fact, the method of CCVD guarantees the production of CNFs for different applications.

  19. Porous Carbon Nanofibers from Electrospun Biomass Tar/Polyacrylonitrile/Silver Hybrids as Antimicrobial Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kunlin; Wu, Qinglin; Zhang, Zhen; Ren, Suxia; Lei, Tingzhou; Negulescu, Ioan I; Zhang, Quanguo

    2015-07-15

    A novel route to fabricate low-cost porous carbon nanofibers (CNFs) using biomass tar, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and silver nanoparticles has been demonstrated through electrospinning and subsequent stabilization and carbonization processes. The continuous electrospun nanofibers had average diameters ranging from 392 to 903 nm. The addition of biomass tar resulted in increased fiber diameters, reduced thermal stabilities, and slowed cyclization reactions of PAN in the as-spun nanofibers. After stabilization and carbonization, the resultant CNFs showed more uniformly sized and reduced average diameters (226-507 nm) compared to as-spun nanofibers. The CNFs exhibited high specific surface area (>400 m(2)/g) and microporosity, attributed to the combined effects of phase separations of the tar and PAN and thermal decompositions of tar components. These pore characteristics increased the exposures and contacts of silver nanoparticles to the bacteria including Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli, leading to excellent antimicrobial performances of as-spun nanofibers and CNFs. A new strategy is thus provided for utilizing biomass tar as a low-cost precursor to prepare functional CNFs and reduce environmental pollutions associated with direct disposal of tar as an industrial waste. PMID:26110209

  20. A catechol biosensor based on electrospun carbon nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanofibers (CNFs were prepared by combining electrospinning with a high-temperature carbonization technique. And a polyphenol biosensor was fabricated by blending the obtained CNFs with laccase and Nafion. Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM were, respectively, employed to investigate the structures and morphologies of the CNFs and of the mixtures. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were employed to study the electrocatalysis of the catechol biosensor. The results indicated that the sensitivity of the biosensor was 41 µA·mM?1, the detection limit was 0.63 µM, the linear range was 1–1310 µM and the response time was within 2 seconds, which excelled most other laccase-based biosensor reported. Furthermore, the biosensor showed good repeatability, reproducibility, stability and tolerance to interferences. This novel biosensor also demonstrated its promising application in detecting catechol in real water samples.

  1. Electron gun using carbon-nanofiber field emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electron gun constructed using carbon-nanofiber (CNF) emitters and an electrostatic Einzel lens system has been characterized for the development of a high-resolution x-ray source. The CNFs used were grown on tungsten and palladium tips by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition. Electron beams with the energies of 10< E<20 keV were focused by the electrostatic lens and impinged on a W target for x-ray radiography. Analyzing the recorded x-ray radiographs, the focal spot size of the electron beam extracted from the CNFs was estimated to be D<50 ?m in diameter. Superior performance was realized by using CNFs with larger fiber radii (100-500 nm) grown sparsely on the metal tips, which were installed in a holder at the short length L=0.5 mm

  2. Fabrication and the enhanced emission uniformity of carbon nanofibers using a glass cap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Woo Yong; Ok, Jong Girl; Kim, Wal Jun; Lee, Seung-Min; Jang, Eui Yun; Kim, Yong Hyup [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-22

    Uniformity is one of the most important qualifications for reliable field emission devices based on carbon nanofibers (CNFs). We synthesized CNFs by thermal chemical vapor deposition at 600 deg. C on the glass substrate, promising practical large-area applications. A glass cap was introduced to enhance the uniformity of CNF emitters vertically grown under the guidance of micro-grooves, which provided passages for the diffusion of precursor gas to CNF growth sites. Our CNFs, vertically leveled by the glass cap with the support of the micro-grooves, and without any post-treatments, showed excellent uniformity in field emission as well as long-term stability.

  3. Fabrication of a carbon nanofiber sheet as a micro-porous layer for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Qiongjuan; Wang, Jiong; Lu, Yonggen [College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wang, Biao; Wang, Huaping [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2010-12-15

    A carbon nanofiber sheet (CNFS) has been prepared by electrospinning, stabilisation and subsequent carbonisation processes. Imaging with scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicates that the CNFS is formed by nonwoven nanofibers with diameters between 400 and 700 nm. The CNFS, with its three-dimensional pores, shows excellent electrical conductivity and hydrophobicity. In addition, it is found that the CNFS can be successfully applied as a micro-porous layer (MPL) in the cathode gas diffusion layer (GDL) of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The GDL with the CNFS as a MPL has higher gas permeability than a conventional GDL. Moreover, the resultant cathode GDL exhibits excellent fuel cell performance with a higher peak power density than that of a cathode GDL fabricated with a conventional MPL under the same test condition. (author)

  4. Electrical properties of carbon nanofiber reinforced multiscale polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF) reinforced epoxy matrix nanocomposites and CNF reinforced glass hollow particle filled syntactic foams are studied for electrical properties. The effect of CNF weight fraction, hollow particle volume fraction, and hollow particle wall thickness on impedance and dielectric constant are characterized. The results show that the impedance decreases and the dielectric constant increases with increasing CNF content in the composites. Nanocomposites containing 10 wt.% CNFs showed significantly higher dielectric constant because of the presence of a continuous network of CNFs in the composite. CNF reinforced syntactic foams showed higher dielectric constant than the neat resin. The CNF content had a more prominent effect on the dielectric constant than the glass hollow particle volume fraction and wall thickness. The Maxwell–Garnett and the Jayasundere–Smith models are modified to include the effect of hollow particle wall thickness and obtain predictions of dielectric constants of syntactic foams. The semi-empirical predictions obtained from Maxwell–Garnett models are closer to the experimental values. Lightweight syntactic foams, tailored for electrical properties, can be useful in electronic packaging applications. - Highlights: • Using carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and glass hollow particles in multiphase composites. • The dielectric constant (ε) of composites increases with CNF content. • Interconnected network of CNFs at high volume fraction exponentially increases ε. • Two theoretical models accurately predicted data trends of CNF/syntactic foams

  5. Multi-scale carbon micro/nanofibers-based adsorbents for protein immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Shiv; Singh, Abhinav [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Bais, Vaibhav Sushil Singh; Prakash, Balaji [Department of Biological Science and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Verma, Nishith, E-mail: nishith@iitk.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Center for Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, different proteins, namely, bovine serum albumin (BSA), glucose oxidase (GOx) and the laboratory purified YqeH were immobilized in the phenolic resin precursor-based multi-scale web of activated carbon microfibers (ACFs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs). These biomolecules are characteristically different from each other, having different structure, number of parent amino acid molecules and isoelectric point. CNF was grown on ACF substrate by chemical vapor deposition, using Ni nanoparticles (Nps) as the catalyst. The ultra-sonication of the CNFs was carried out in acidic medium to remove Ni Nps from the tip of the CNFs to provide additional active sites for adsorption. The prepared material was directly used as an adsorbent for proteins, without requiring any additional treatment. Several analytical techniques were used to characterize the prepared materials, including scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, BET surface area, pore-size distribution, and UV–vis spectroscopy. The adsorption capacities of prepared ACFs/CNFs in this study were determined to be approximately 191, 39 and 70 mg/g for BSA, GOx and YqeH, respectively, revealing that the carbon micro-nanofibers forming synthesized multi-scale web are efficient materials for the immobilization of protein molecules. - Highlights: • Ni metal Np-dispersed carbon micro-nanofibers (ACFs/CNFs) are prepared. • ACFs/CNFs are mesoporous. • Significant adsorption of BSA, GOx and YqeH is observed on ACFs/CNFs. • Multi-scale web of ACFs/CNFs is effective for protein immobilization.

  6. Multi-scale carbon micro/nanofibers-based adsorbents for protein immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, different proteins, namely, bovine serum albumin (BSA), glucose oxidase (GOx) and the laboratory purified YqeH were immobilized in the phenolic resin precursor-based multi-scale web of activated carbon microfibers (ACFs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs). These biomolecules are characteristically different from each other, having different structure, number of parent amino acid molecules and isoelectric point. CNF was grown on ACF substrate by chemical vapor deposition, using Ni nanoparticles (Nps) as the catalyst. The ultra-sonication of the CNFs was carried out in acidic medium to remove Ni Nps from the tip of the CNFs to provide additional active sites for adsorption. The prepared material was directly used as an adsorbent for proteins, without requiring any additional treatment. Several analytical techniques were used to characterize the prepared materials, including scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, BET surface area, pore-size distribution, and UV–vis spectroscopy. The adsorption capacities of prepared ACFs/CNFs in this study were determined to be approximately 191, 39 and 70 mg/g for BSA, GOx and YqeH, respectively, revealing that the carbon micro-nanofibers forming synthesized multi-scale web are efficient materials for the immobilization of protein molecules. - Highlights: • Ni metal Np-dispersed carbon micro-nanofibers (ACFs/CNFs) are prepared. • ACFs/CNFs are mesoporous. • Significant adsorption of BSA, GOx and YqeH is observed on ACFs/CNFs. • Multi-scale web of ACFs/CNFs is effective for protein immobilization

  7. Synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers-carbon nanowalls by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Atsuto; Tanaka, Kei; Yoshimura, Masamichi; Ueda, Kazuyuki; Ghosh, Pradip; Tanemura, Masaki

    2013-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VA-CNFs)-carbon nanowalls (CNWs) have been prepared on a silicon (Si) substrate by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The VA-CNFs-CNWs were formed at bias voltage of - 185 V, whereas conventional VA-CNFs were synthesized under conditions of high bias voltages. Degenerated CNWs with turbostratic graphite structure were created on amorphous carbon layer around CNFs like a flag attached to a pole, which is evidenced by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Electron field emission characteristics of VA-CNFs-CNWs with unique microstructure, fabricated on the Si substrate, were primarily investigated. As a result, the VA-CNFs-CNWs showed the turn-on and the threshold fields of 1.7 V x microm(-1) and 3.35 V x microm(-1) with current densities of 10 nA x cm(-2) and 1 microA x cm(-2), respectively. The field enhancement factor beta was estimated to be 1059 by using Fowler-Nordheim theory. PMID:23755628

  8. Fabrication and electron field-emission of carbon nanofibers grown on silicon nanoporous pillar array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Carbon nanofibers were grown on silicon nanoporous pillar array by a CVD method.? Low turn-on field, high density and stable FE current were obtained in CNTs/Si-NPA.? Defects in CNTs and Si array substrate contributes the excellent FE property. - Abstract: Random orientation carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were grown on silicon nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA) by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method with acetylene (C2H2) as carbon precursor and Ni as the catalyst. The synthesized CNFs were mainly composed of amorphous carbon and disordered graphite layers with a core–shell like structure. And, the tangled CNFs and the regular silicon-pillar array formed a nanometer-micron hierarchy structure. The electron field-emission (FE) property of CNFs/Si-NPA was measured and low turn-on field, high-density and stable FE current, high enhancement factor were obtained. The outstanding FE performance of the CNFs/Si-NPA emitters was attributed to the random orientation and defects of CNFs, the undulate surface of the Si-NPA substrate.

  9. In2S3/carbon nanofibers/Au ternary synergetic system: Hierarchical assembly and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: We describe a route to synthesize In2S3/CNFs/Au ternary synergetic system with high efficiency visible-light photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Synthesis of In2S3/CNFs/Au ternary synergetic system. • Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity. • Easy photocatalyst separation and reuse. - Abstract: In this paper, carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were successfully synthesized by electrospinning technique. Next, Au nanoparticles (NPs) were assembled on the electrospun CNFs through in situ reduction method. By using the obtained Au NPs modified CNFs (CNFs/Au) as hard template, the In2S3/CNFs/Au composites were synthesized through hydrothermal technique. The results showed that the super long one-dimensional (1D) CNFs (about 306 nm in average diameter) were well connected to form a nanofibrous network; and, the Au NPs with 18 nm in average diameter and In2S3 nanosheets with 5–10 nm in thickness were uniformly grown onto the surface of CNFs. Photocatalytic studies revealed that the In2S3/CNFs/Au composites exhibited highest visible-light photocatalytic activities for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RB) compared with pure In2S3 and In2S3/CNFs. The enhanced photocatalytic activity might arise from the high separation efficiency of photogenerated electron–hole pairs based on the positive synergetic effect between In2S3, CNFs and Au components in this ternary photocatalytic system. Meanwhile, the In2S3/CNFs/Au composites with hierarchical structure possess a strong adsorption ability towards organic dyes, which also contributed to the enhancement of photocatalytic activity. Moreover, the In2S3/CNFs/Au composites could be recycled easily by sedimentation due to their nanofibrous network structure

  10. Magnetic properties of NiFe2O4/carbon nanofibers from Venezuelan petcoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Sarah; Silva, Pedro; Molina, Wilmer; Brämer-Escamilla, Werner; Alcalá, Olgi; Cañizales, Edgard

    2015-05-01

    NiFe2O4/carbon nanofibers (NiFe2O4/CNFs) have been successfully synthesized by hydrotermal method using Venezuelan petroleum coke (petcoke) as carbon source and NiFe2O4 as catalyst. The morphology, structural and magnetic properties of nanocomposite products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). XRD analysis revealed a cubic spinel structure and ferrite phase with high crystallinity. HR-TEM reveals the presence of CNFs with diameters of 4±2 nm. At room temperature, NiFe2O4/CNFs show superparamagnetic behavior with a maximum magnetization of 15.35 emu/g. Our findings indicate that Venezuelan petroleum coke is suitable industrial carbon source for the growth of magnetic CNFs.

  11. Recent advancements in carbon nanofiber and carbon nanotube applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, David A

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery and synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) over a decade ago, researchers have envisioned and discovered new potential applications for these materials. CNTs and CNFs have rapidly become a platform technology for a variety of uses, including biomedical applications due to their mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical and structural properties. CNTs and CNFs are also advantageous due to their ability to be produced in many different shapes and sizes. Since their discovery, of the many imaginable applications, CNTs and CNFs have gained a significant amount of attention and therapeutic potential in tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. In recent years, CNTs and CNFs have made significant contributions in designing new strategies for, delivery of pharmaceuticals, genes and molecular probes into cells, stem cell therapies and assisting in tissue regeneration. Furthermore, it is widely expressed that these materials will significantly contribute to the next generation of health care technologies in treating diseases and contributing to tissue growth. Hence, this review seeks to explore the recent advancements, current status and limitations of CNTs and CNFs for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. PMID:25732658

  12. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on hierarchically structured cobalt nanoparticle/carbon nanofiber/carbon felt composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarubova, Sarka; Rane, Shreyas; Yang, Jia; Yu, Yingda; Zhu, Ye; Chen, De; Holmen, Anders

    2011-07-18

    The hierarchically structured carbon nanofibers (CNFs)/carbon felt composites, in which CNFs were directly grown on the surface of microfibers in carbon felt, forming a CNF layer on a micrometer range that completely covers the microfiber surfaces, were tested as a novel support material for cobalt nanoparticles in the highly exothermic Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis. A compact, fixed-bed reactor, made of disks of such composite materials, offered the advantages of improved heat and mass transfer, relatively low pressure drop, and safe handling of immobilized CNFs. An efficient 3-D thermal conductive network in the composite provided a relatively uniform temperature profile, whereas the open structure of the CNF layer afforded an almost 100 % effectiveness of Co nanoparticles in the F-T synthesis in the fixed bed. The greatly improved mass and heat transport makes the compact reactor attractive for applications in the conversion of biomass, coal, and natural gas to liquids. PMID:21563315

  13. Study on mechanical, morphological and electrical properties of carbon nanofiber/polyetherimide composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyetherimide (PEI) and carbon nanofiber (CNF) composites have been developed successfully by using a Sigma high temperature internal mixer and then compression molded. The amount of carbon nanofibers used was 1-3 phr (parts per hundred of polymer), respectively. Thermal properties were characterized by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Thermal conductivity was measured at temperatures between 50 and 180 oC. Thermal conductivity increased with the incorporation of CNFs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the state of dispersion of CNFs, in the entire volume of matrix. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) demonstrates that both the storage modulus (E') and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the PEI/CNF composites is increased. The storage modulus of the polymer is significantly increased by the incorporation of acid treated CNFs particularly at high temperatures, indicating there is some chemical bonding between PEI and CNFCOOH (acid treated CNFs). The study showed that acid treatment of carbon nanofibers enhanced the dispersion and interfacial bonding between fibers and the matrix, and hence improved the electrical conductivity properties. Modification results in a significant decrease in resistivity compared to as received CNFs composites. The electrical conductivity of the composites was measured as a function of temperature

  14. Adsorption behavior of perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomer on highly graphitized carbon nanofibers and their thermal stabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Borghei, Maryam; Dhiman, Rajnish; Ruiz, Virginia; Kauppinen, Esko; Skou, Eivind Morten

    2014-01-01

    A systematic adsorption study of perfluorinated sulfonic acid Nafion® ionomer on ribbon type highly graphitized carbon nanofibers (CNFs) was carried out using 19 fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Based on the values obtained for the equilibrium constant (Keq., derived from Langmui...

  15. Study of Pb Adsorption by Carbon Nanofibers Grown on Powdered Activated Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Ma`an Fahmi R. Al-Khatib; Muyibi, S. A.; Abdullah-Al- Mamun; Yehya M. Ahmed; A.T. Jameel; Mohammed A. AlSaadi

    2010-01-01

    The sorption of lead (Pb) from aqueous solutions by using carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown on nickel impregnated Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) was studied. In this study, we investigated the affection of the lead initial concentration on the sorption of the heavy metal from water. The isotherm of the sorption of the heavy metal onto the nanocomposite was also studied. Firstly, the optimum pH for the sorption of the lead ions was determined. The maximum sorption capacity of the heavy metal ont...

  16. Urea-treated carbon nanofibers as efficient catalytic materials for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Xueping; You, Tianyan

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (NCNFs) are prepared by the thermal treatment of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) using urea as nitrogen source. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been employed to characterize the morphology and composition of CNFs and NCNFs. Compared with CNFs, NCNFs display thinner diameter, rougher surface and higher content of pyrrolic-N. As a metal-free catalyst for ORR, NCNFs exhibit comparable catalytic activity, significantly enhanced long-time stability and selectivity in comparison with commercial available Pt/C catalyst. Importantly, the self-supported NCNFs films could be conveniently utilized for electrode modification which is attractive in fuel cells. This work offers a promising metal-free catalyst as an alternative for Pt/C catalyst.

  17. Preparation of a New Adsorbent from Activated Carbon and Carbon Nanofiber (AC/CNF) for Manufacturing Organic-Vacbpour Respirator Cartridge

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Jahangiri; Javad Adl; Seyyed Jamaleddin Shahtaheri; Alimorad Rashidi; Amir Ghorbanali; Hossein Kakooe; Abbas Rahimi Forushani; Mohammad Reza Ganjali

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this study a composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofiber (AC/CNF) was prepared to improve the performance of activated carbon (AC) for adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and its utilization for respirator cartridges. Activated carbon was impregnated with a nickel nitrate catalyst precursor and carbon nanofibers (CNF) were deposited directly on the AC surface using catalytic chemical vapor deposition. Deposited CNFs on catalyst particles in AC micropores, were a...

  18. Production of Carbon Nanofibers Using a CVD Method with Lithium Fluoride as a Supported Cobalt Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Manafi; S. H. Badiee

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have been synthesized in high yield (>70%) by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) on Co/LiF catalyst using acetylene as carbon source. A novel catalyst support (LiF) is reported for the first time as an alternative for large-scale production of carbon nanofibers while purification process of nanofibers is easier. In our experiment, the sealed furnace was heated at 700∘C for 0.5 hour (the heating rate was 10∘C/min) and then cooled to room temperature i...

  19. Carbon nanofiber supercapacitors with large areal capacitances

    KAUST Repository

    McDonough, James R.

    2009-01-01

    We develop supercapacitor (SC) devices with large per-area capacitances by utilizing three-dimensional (3D) porous substrates. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) functioning as active SC electrodes are grown on 3D nickel foam. The 3D porous substrates facilitate a mass loading of active electrodes and per-area capacitance as large as 60 mg/ cm2 and 1.2 F/ cm2, respectively. We optimize SC performance by developing an annealing-free CNF growth process that minimizes undesirable nickel carbide formation. Superior per-area capacitances described here suggest that 3D porous substrates are useful in various energy storage devices in which per-area performance is critical. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  20. Carbon nanofiber–sulfur composite cathode materials with different binders for secondary Li/S cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sulfur-coated carbon nanofiber (CNF–S) composite cathode material was prepared by a chemical deposition method in an aqueous solution. This CNF–S material was evaluated as the cathode material in lithium/sulfur cells with three different binders. The results of the SEM and TGA measurements reveal that CNF–S has a typical core–shell structure, containing 75.7 w/o sulfur coated uniformly on the surface of the CNFs. The effects of different binders on the potential profiles, electrode capacity and capacity retention with cycling were investigated. The electrode prepared with CMC + SBR binder has the best performance compared with PVdF and PEO binders, exhibiting a specific capacity of up to 1313 mAh g?1 S at the initial discharge and a specific capacity of 586 mAh g?1 S after 60 cycles.

  1. Structural transformation and field emission enhancement of carbon nanofibers by energetic argon plasma post-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) were transformed into cone-shaped nanostructures after treatment by argon (Ar) plasma. Significant enhancement of field emission characteristics of the post-treated CNFs has been achieved. Analysis by electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) suggests that the structural transformation is a result of a cosputtering/deposition process by energetic plasma ions. The enhancements can be attributed to the combining effects of an additional Si/C layer coverage, catalytic nanoparticles removal and the sharpening of CNFs tips. The argon plasma post-treatment processes developed here can be easily extended to in situ PECVD processes for fabricating CNFs based emitters

  2. Carbon Nanofiber Nanoelectrodes for Biosensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica Erin

    2014-01-01

    A sensor platform based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) has been developed. Their inherent nanometer scale, high conductivity, wide potential window, good biocompatibility and well-defined surface chemistry make them ideal candidates as biosensor electrodes. Here, we report two studies using vertically aligned CNF nanoelectrodes for biomedical applications. CNF arrays are investigated as neural stimulation and neurotransmitter recording electrodes for application in deep brain stimulation (DBS). Polypyrrole coated CNF nanoelectrodes have shown great promise as stimulating electrodes due to their large surface area, low impedance, biocompatibility and capacity for highly localized stimulation. CNFs embedded in SiO2 have been used as sensing electrodes for neurotransmitter detection. Our approach combines a multiplexed CNF electrode chip, developed at NASA Ames Research Center, with the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor (WINCS) system, developed at the Mayo Clinic. Preliminary results indicate that the CNF nanoelectrode arrays are easily integrated with WINCS for neurotransmitter detection in a multiplexed array format. In the future, combining CNF based stimulating and recording electrodes with WINCS may lay the foundation for an implantable smart therapeutic system that utilizes neurochemical feedback control while likely resulting in increased DBS application in various neuropsychiatric disorders. In total, our goal is to take advantage of the nanostructure of CNF arrays for biosensing studies requiring ultrahigh sensitivity, high-degree of miniaturization, and selective biofunctionalization.

  3. Structure, mechanical properties and friction behavior of UHMWPE/HDPE/carbon nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, G. [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhong, W.H. [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)], E-mail: katie_zhong@wsu.edu; Ren, X.; Wang, X.Q. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang, X.P. [Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2009-05-15

    Effects of untreated and pretreated carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on the crystallization behavior, friction behavior, and mechanical properties of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)/high density polyethylene (HDPE) nanocomposites prepared by a twin-screw extrusion were studied. The differential scanning calorimetry and wide angle X-ray diffraction measurements indicated that the addition of CNFs impacted the temperature of crystallization, but had no significant effects on the crystalline structure of the UHMWPE/HDPE blend. The degree of crystallinity, and the tensile strength and modulus of the UHMWPE/HDPE systems exhibited an increasing trend initially with addition of CNFs, followed by a decrease at higher contents. With the increase of untreated CNF content, the friction coefficient of UHMWPE/HDPE was decreasing and displayed less change in the process of friction. The microstructure features on the fracture surfaces and friction surfaces of the polymer blend and the nanocomposites were analyzed in detail by scanning electron microscope observations. The degree of crystallinity of the nanocomposites with the pretreated CNFs exhibited a decrease due to the better interface adhesion compared to that in the nanocomposites with the same loading untreated CNFs. The enhancement in tensile strength of nanocomposites containing 0.5 wt% treated CNFs was four times higher (32%) than that of the nanocomposites containing untreated CNFs (8%) over that of the pure polymer.

  4. Direct production of carbon nanofibers decorated with Cu2O by thermal chemical vapor deposition on Ni catalyst electroplated on a copper substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Vesaghi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available  Carbon nanofibers (CNFs decorated with Cu2O particles were grown on a Ni catalyst layer deposited on a Cu substrate by thermal. chemical vapor deposition from liquid petroleum gas. Ni catalyst nanoparticles with different sizes were produced in an electroplating system at 35?C. These nanoparticles provide the nucleation sites for CNF growth, removing the need for a buffer layer. High temperature surface segregation of the Cu substrate into the Ni catalyst layer and its exposition to O2 at atmospheric environment, during the CNFs growth, lead to the production of CNFs decorated with Cu2O particles. The surface morphology of the Ni catalyst films and grown CNFs over it was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy revealed the formation of CNFs. The selected area electron diffraction pattern and electron diffraction studies show that these CNFs were decorated with Cu2O nanoparticles.

  5. Flexible one-dimensional carbon-selenium composite nanofibers with superior electrochemical performance for Li-Se/Na-Se batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Linchao; Wei, Xiang; Wang, Jiaqing; Jiang, Yu; Li, Weihan; Yu, Yan

    2015-05-01

    A facile strategy is developed to synthesis selenium/carbon composites (Se@CNFs-CNT) by co-heating Se powder and electrospun Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-CNT nanofibers at 600°Cin a sealed vessel. The Se molecules are chemically bonded and physical encapsulated by carbonized PAN-CNT composite (CNFs-CNT), which leads to prevent the dissolution of polyselenide intermediates in carbonate based electrolyte. When directly used as flexible free-standing cathode material for Li-Se batteries in low cost carbonate-based electrolyte, the Se@CNFs-CNT electrode exhibits improved cyclability (517 mAh g-1 after 500 cycles at 0.5 A g-1) and rate capability (485 mAh g-1 at 1 A g-1). Moreover, when tested as sodium batteries, it maintains a reversible capacity of 410 mAh g-1 after 240 cycles at 0.5 A g-1. The superior electrochemical performance (especially at high rates) of Se@CNFs-CNT is attributed to synergistic effect of the additive of CNT, the well confine of Se in the CNFs-CNT matrix through chemical bonding and the 3D interconnected carbon nanofibers (CNFs). This simple yet efficient process thus provides a promising route towards fabrication of a variety of high performance flexible Li-Se and Na-Se batteries.

  6. Novel phenolic biosensor based on a magnetic polydopamine-laccase-nickel nanoparticle loaded carbon nanofiber composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dawei; Luo, Lei; Pang, Zengyuan; Ding, Lei; Wang, Qingqing; Ke, Huizhen; Huang, Fenglin; Wei, Qufu

    2014-04-01

    A novel phenolic biosensor was prepared on the basis of a composite of polydopamine (PDA)-laccase (Lac)-nickel nanoparticle loaded carbon nanofibers (NiCNFs). First, NiCNFs were fabricated by a combination of electrospinning and a high temperature carbonization technique. Subsequently, the magnetic composite was obtained through one-pot Lac-catalyzed oxidation of dopamine (DA) in an aqueous suspension containing Lac, NiCNFs, and DA. Finally, a magnetic glass carbon electrode (MGCE) was employed to separate and immobilize the composite; the modified electrode was then denoted as PDA-Lac-NiCNFs/MGCE. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra and cyclic voltammetry (CV) analyses revealed the NiCNFs had good biocompatibility for Lac immobilization and greatly facilitated the direct electron transfer between Lac and electrode surface. The immobilized Lac showed a pair of stable and well-defined redox peaks, and the electrochemical behavior of Lac was a surface-controlled process in pH 5.5 acetate buffer solution. The PDA-Lac-NiCNFs/MGCE for biosensing of catechol exhibited a sensitivity of 25 ?A mM(-1) cm(-2), a detection limit of 0.69 ?M (S/N = 3), and a linear range from 1 ?M to 9.1 mM, as well as good selectivity and stability. Meanwhile, this novel biosensor demonstrated its promising application in detecting catechol in real water samples. PMID:24606719

  7. Copper/zinc bimetal nanoparticles-dispersed carbon nanofibers: A novel potential antibiotic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Mohammad; Verma, Nishith; Khan, Suphiya

    2016-02-01

    Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) nanoparticles (NPs) were asymmetrically distributed in carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown on an activated carbon fiber (ACF) substrate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The CVD conditions were chosen such that the Cu NPs moved along with the CNFs during tip-growth, while the Zn NPs remained adhered at the ACF. The bimetal-ACF/CNF composite material was characterized by the metal NP release profiles, in-vitro hemolytic and antibacterial activities, and bacterial cellular disruption and adhesion assay. The synergetic effects of the bimetal NPs distributed in the ACFs/CNFs resulted from the relatively slower release of the Cu NPs located at the tip of the CNFs and faster release of the Zn NPs dispersed in the ACF. The Cu/Zn-grown ACFs/CNFs inhibited the growth of the Gram negative Escherichia coli, Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus, and Methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus bacterial strains, with superior efficiency (instant and prolonged inhibition) than the Cu or Zn single metal-grown ACFs/CNFs. The prepared bimetal-carbon composite material in this study has potential to be used in different biomedical applications such as wound healing and antibiotic wound dressing. PMID:26652451

  8. Fabrication of carbon nanofiber-reinforced aluminum matrix composites assisted by aluminum coating formed on nanofiber surface by in situ chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Fumio; Masuda, Chitoshi

    2015-01-01

    The van der Waals agglomeration of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and the weight difference and poor wettability between CNFs and aluminum hinder the fabrication of dense CNF-reinforced aluminum matrix composites with superior properties. In this study, to improve this situation, CNFs were coated with aluminum by a simple and low-cost in situ chemical vapor deposition (in situ CVD). Iodine was used to accelerate the transport of aluminum atoms. The coating layer formed by the in situ CVD was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results confirmed that the CNFs were successfully coated with aluminum. The composites were fabricated to investigate the effect of the aluminum coating formed on the CNFs. The dispersion of CNFs, density, Vickers micro-hardness and thermal conductivity of the composites fabricated by powder metallurgy were improved. Pressure-less infiltration experiments were conducted to fabricate composites by casting. The results demonstrated that the wettability and infiltration were dramatically improved by the aluminum coating layer on CNFs. The aluminum coating formed by the in situ CVD technique was proved to be effective for the fabrication of CNF-reinforced aluminum matrix composites.

  9. In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/carbon nanofibers/Au ternary synergetic system: Hierarchical assembly and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xin; Shao, Changlu, E-mail: clshao@nenu.edu.cn; Li, Xinghua, E-mail: lixh781@nenu.edu.cn; Lu, Na; Wang, Kexin; Miao, Fujun; Liu, Yichun

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: We describe a route to synthesize In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CNFs/Au ternary synergetic system with high efficiency visible-light photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Synthesis of In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CNFs/Au ternary synergetic system. • Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity. • Easy photocatalyst separation and reuse. - Abstract: In this paper, carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were successfully synthesized by electrospinning technique. Next, Au nanoparticles (NPs) were assembled on the electrospun CNFs through in situ reduction method. By using the obtained Au NPs modified CNFs (CNFs/Au) as hard template, the In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CNFs/Au composites were synthesized through hydrothermal technique. The results showed that the super long one-dimensional (1D) CNFs (about 306 nm in average diameter) were well connected to form a nanofibrous network; and, the Au NPs with 18 nm in average diameter and In{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanosheets with 5–10 nm in thickness were uniformly grown onto the surface of CNFs. Photocatalytic studies revealed that the In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CNFs/Au composites exhibited highest visible-light photocatalytic activities for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RB) compared with pure In{sub 2}S{sub 3} and In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CNFs. The enhanced photocatalytic activity might arise from the high separation efficiency of photogenerated electron–hole pairs based on the positive synergetic effect between In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, CNFs and Au components in this ternary photocatalytic system. Meanwhile, the In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CNFs/Au composites with hierarchical structure possess a strong adsorption ability towards organic dyes, which also contributed to the enhancement of photocatalytic activity. Moreover, the In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CNFs/Au composites could be recycled easily by sedimentation due to their nanofibrous network structure.

  10. Catalytic Growth of Macroscopic Carbon Nanofibers Bodies with Activated Carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-carbon composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofibers have been synthesized by growing Carbon nanofiber (CNF) on Palm shell-based Activated carbon (AC) with Ni catalyst. The composites are in an agglomerated shape due to the entanglement of the defective CNF between the AC particles forming a macroscopic body. The macroscopic size will allow the composite to be used as a stabile catalyst support and liquid adsorbent. The preparation of CNT/AC nanocarbon was initiated by pre-treating the activated carbon with nitric acid, followed by impregnation of 1 wt% loading of nickel (II) nitrate solutions in acetone. The catalyst precursor was calcined and reduced at 300 deg. C for an hour in each step. The catalytic growth of nanocarbon in C2H4/H2 was carried out at temperature of 550 deg. C for 2 hrs with different rotating angle in the fluidization system. SEM and N2 isotherms show the level of agglomeration which is a function of growth density and fluidization of the system. The effect of fluidization by rotating the reactor during growth with different speed give a significant impact on the agglomeration of the final CNF/AC composite and thus the amount of CNFs produced. The macrostructure body produced in this work of CNF/AC composite will have advantages in the adsorbent and catalyst support application, due to the mechanical and chemical properties of the material.

  11. Catalytic Growth of Macroscopic Carbon Nanofibers Bodies with Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, N.; Rinaldi, A.; Muhammad, I. S.; Hamid, S. B. Abd.; Su, D. S.; Schlogl, R.

    2009-06-01

    Carbon-carbon composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofibers have been synthesized by growing Carbon nanofiber (CNF) on Palm shell-based Activated carbon (AC) with Ni catalyst. The composites are in an agglomerated shape due to the entanglement of the defective CNF between the AC particles forming a macroscopic body. The macroscopic size will allow the composite to be used as a stabile catalyst support and liquid adsorbent. The preparation of CNT/AC nanocarbon was initiated by pre-treating the activated carbon with nitric acid, followed by impregnation of 1 wt% loading of nickel (II) nitrate solutions in acetone. The catalyst precursor was calcined and reduced at 300° C for an hour in each step. The catalytic growth of nanocarbon in C2H4/H2 was carried out at temperature of 550° C for 2 hrs with different rotating angle in the fluidization system. SEM and N2 isotherms show the level of agglomeration which is a function of growth density and fluidization of the system. The effect of fluidization by rotating the reactor during growth with different speed give a significant impact on the agglomeration of the final CNF/AC composite and thus the amount of CNFs produced. The macrostructure body produced in this work of CNF/AC composite will have advantages in the adsorbent and catalyst support application, due to the mechanical and chemical properties of the material.

  12. Understanding greater cardiomyocyte functions on aligned compared to random carbon nanofibers in PLGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiri AM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah M Asiri,1 Hadi M Marwani,1 Sher Bahadar Khan,1 Thomas J Webster1,2 1Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Previous studies have demonstrated greater cardiomyocyte density on carbon nanofibers (CNFs aligned (compared to randomly oriented in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA composites. Although such studies demonstrated a closer mimicking of anisotropic electrical and mechanical properties for such aligned (compared to randomly oriented CNFs in PLGA composites, the objective of the present in vitro study was to elucidate a deeper mechanistic understanding of how cardiomyocyte densities recognize such materials to respond more favorably. Results showed lower wettability (greater hydrophobicity of CNFs embedded in PLGA compared to pure PLGA, thus providing evidence of selectively lower wettability in aligned CNF regions. Furthermore, the results correlated these changes in hydrophobicity with increased adsorption of fibronectin, laminin, and vitronectin (all proteins known to increase cardiomyocyte adhesion and functions on CNFs in PLGA compared to pure PLGA, thus providing evidence of selective initial protein adsorption cues on such CNF regions to promote cardiomyocyte adhesion and growth. Lastly, results of the present in vitro study further confirmed increased cardiomyocyte functions by demonstrating greater expression of important cardiomyocyte biomarkers (such as Troponin-T, Connexin-43, and ?-sarcomeric actin when CNFs were aligned compared to randomly oriented in PLGA. In summary, this study provided evidence that cardiomyocyte functions are improved on CNFs aligned in PLGA compared to randomly oriented in PLGA since CNFs are more hydrophobic than PLGA and attract the adsorption of key proteins (fibronectin, laminin, and vironectin that are known to promote cardiomyocyte adhesion and expression of important cardiomyocyte functions. Thus, future studies should use this knowledge to further design improved CNF:PLGA composites for numerous cardiovascular applications. Keywords: cardiomyocytes, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, carbon nanofibers, aligned, nanotechnology, anisotropy, mechanism, vitronectin, fibronectin, laminin

  13. Reticular Sn nanoparticle-dispersed PAN-based carbon nanofibers for anode material in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yunhua; Yang, Qing; Teng, Donghua; Yang, Xiaoping [Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Ryu, Seungkon [Department of Chemical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305764 (Korea)

    2010-09-15

    Reticular tin nanoparticle-dispersed carbon (Sn/C) nanofibers (CNFs) were fabricated by stabilization of electrospun SnCl{sub 4}/PAN (PAN stands for nanoceria-polyacrylonitrile) composite fibers and subsequent carbonization at different temperatures. These Sn/C composite nanofibers used as anode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) show that the Sn/C nanofibers at 700 and 850 C present much higher charge (785.8 and 811 mA h g{sup -1}) and discharge (1211.7 and 993 mA h g{sup -1}) capacities than those at 550 and 1000 C and the as-received CNFs at 850 C, corresponding to coulombic efficiencies of 64.9% and 81.7%, respectively. The superior electrochemical properties of the intriguing Sn/C nanofibers indicate a promising application in high performance Li-ion batteries. (author)

  14. NiO nanowall-assisted growth of thick carbon nanofiber layers on metal wires for fiber supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guoyin; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Ziqiang; Kang, Qi; Feng, Xiaomiao; Li, Yi; Huang, Zhendong; Wang, Lianhui; Ma, Yanwen

    2016-02-01

    Thick carbon nanofiber (CNF) films were uniformly grown on metal wires with the assistance of pre-deposited NiO nanowalls. The as-prepared wire-shaped composites that integrate the capacitance of CNFs and Ni particles were directly used as electrodes to construct high capacitive fiber supercapacitors for micro-power supplies. PMID:26758814

  15. Carbon Nanotube/Nanofibers and Graphite Hybrids for Li-Ion Battery Application

    OpenAIRE

    Yosuke Nomura; Ilya V. Anoshkin; Chikaaki Okuda; Motoyuki Iijima; Yoshio Ukyo; Hidehiro Kamiya; Nasibulin, Albert G; Kauppinen, Esko I.

    2014-01-01

    To improve the electrical conductivity of negative electrodes of lithium ion batteries, we applied a direct CVD synthesis of carbon nanomaterials on the surface of graphite particles. To prepare a catalyst, two alternative approaches were utilized: colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) and metal (Ni and Co) nitrate salt precursors deposited on the graphite surface. Both colloidal and precursor systems allowed us to produce carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on the graphite surface with high coverage under the ...

  16. Room-temperature growth of a carbon nanofiber on the tip of conical carbon protrusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassy carbon was Ar+-ion bombarded with a simultaneous Mo supply under ultrahigh vacuum conditions using a microprotrusion fabrication system that consists of a differentially pumped ion gun and a seed-material supply source. Conical protrusions were formed by sputtering with a seed supply, and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grew on the tips even at room temperature. The length of CNFs reached up to ?10 ?m, and their diameter was almost uniform (50 nm) in the growth direction. The short CNFs aligned in the ion beam direction, whereas the long ones were non-aligned. The CNF growth on a glassy carbon surface was ascribed to the enhanced surface texturing and to the massive redeposition of C atoms onto cones, both of which are specific to the oblique ion bombardment: The former would lead to an increase in the number of possible nucleation sites for the CNF growth, and the C atoms arising from the latter process would migrate toward the conical tips, thus forming CNFs

  17. Strong magnetic field-assisted growth of carbon nanofibers and its microstructural transformation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chengzhi; Fu, Qiang; Pan, Chunxu

    2015-03-01

    It is well-known that electric and magnetic fields can control the growth direction, morphology and microstructure of one-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (1-DCNMs), which plays a key role for its potential applications in micro-nano-electrics and devices. In this paper, we introduce a novel process for controlling growth of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with assistance of a strong magnetic field (up to 0.5 T in the center) in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system. The results reveal that: 1) The CNFs get bundled when grown in the presence of a strong magnetic field and slightly get aligned parallel to the direction of the magnetic field; 2) The CNFs diameter become narrowed and homogenized with increase of the magnetic field; 3) With the increase of the magnetic field, the microstructure of CNFs is gradually changed, i.e., the strong magnetic field makes the disordered ``solid-cored'' CNFs transform into a kind of bamboo-liked carbon nanotubes; 4) We propose a mechanism that the reason for these variations and transformation is due to diamagnetic property of carbon atoms, so that it has direction selectivity in the precipitation process.

  18. One-step catalytic growth of carbon nanofiber arrays vertically aligned on carbon substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xun [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructure, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Xu, Zheng, E-mail: zhengxu@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructure, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ? Acetylene as carbon resource and copper foil as catalyst. ? Three carbon nanostructures are synthesized by modulating feeding gas compositions. ? NH{sub 3} is a key factor in the growth of VA-CNF arrays. -- Abstract: Vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (VA-CNF) arrays on carbon substrate have been synthesized via one-step chemical vapor deposition process on copper foil, by using acetylene as carbon resource. Three types of carbon nanostructures, viz. bare carbon films, CNFs and VA-CNFs grown on carbon substrate, could be selectively synthesized by only modulating the concentration of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} in the feeding gases. It was found that NH{sub 3} was a key factor in the growth of VA-CNF arrays, which could increase the diffusion capability of copper atoms in carbon materials, therefore promote forming larger spherical Cu NPs catalysts for the growth of VA-CNFs. Furthermore, a growth mechanism in different feeding gas compositions was proposed.

  19. Adsorption behavior of perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomer on highly graphitized carbon nanofibers and their thermal stabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Borghei, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    A systematic adsorption study of perfluorinated sulfonic acid Nafion® ionomer on ribbon type highly graphitized carbon nanofibers (CNFs) was carried out using 19 fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Based on the values obtained for the equilibrium constant (Keq., derived from Langmuir isotherm), the ionomer has varying affinities for CNFs (Keq. = between 5 and 22) as compared to Vulcan (Keq. = 18), depending on surface treatments. However, the interactions are most likely governed by different adsorption mechanisms depending on hydrophilicity / hydrophobicity of the adsorbent carbon. The ionomer is probably adsorbed via the polar sulfonic group on hydrophilic Vulcan, whereas, it is adsorbed primarily via hydrophobic -CF2- backbone on the highly hydrophobic pristine CNFs. Ionomer adsorption behavior is gradually altered from apolar to polar group adsorption for the acid modified CNFs of decreasing hydrophobicity. This is indicated by the initial decrease and then increase in the value of Keq. withthe increasing strength of the acid treatment. The corresponding carbon - ionomer composite also showed varying thermal stability depending on Nafion orientation. The specific maximum surface coverage (?Smax) of the CNFs is one order of magnitude higher than the one of Vulcan. The large discrepancy is due to the fact that the ionomers are inaccessible to the internal surface area of Vulcan with high micro porosity.

  20. Characterization of field emission from carbon nanofibers on a metal tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field electron emission from carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown on a tungsten tip has been characterized by measuring emission current-voltage (I-V) curves and observing emission patterns on a phosphor screen. CNFs were vertically grown on the tip by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Field emission from the CNFs over 100 ?A was strongly dependent on emitter-anode distance, and the dominant field electrons were emitted within an angular spread of ???25 deg., indicating the electron emission took place mainly from the emitter's apex area. By analyzing the I-V curves with the aid of the Fowler-Nordheim theory, the maximum current density was estimated to be about J=2x109 A/m2.

  1. Characterization of field emission from carbon nanofibers on a metal tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Y.; Tone, D.; Nagatsu, S.; Endo, T.; Kita, S.; Okuyama, F.

    2009-08-01

    Field electron emission from carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown on a tungsten tip has been characterized by measuring emission current-voltage (I-V) curves and observing emission patterns on a phosphor screen. CNFs were vertically grown on the tip by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Field emission from the CNFs over 100 ?A was strongly dependent on emitter-anode distance, and the dominant field electrons were emitted within an angular spread of ?? ˜25°, indicating the electron emission took place mainly from the emitter's apex area. By analyzing the I-V curves with the aid of the Fowler-Nordheim theory, the maximum current density was estimated to be about J =2×109 A/m2.

  2. Carbon bead-supported nitrogen-enriched and Cu-doped carbon nanofibers for the abatement of NO emissions by reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, Bhaskar; Verma, Nishith

    2015-11-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were grown over highly porous (?1750 m(2)/g-surface area) carbon beads (?0.8 mm), using catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The carbon beads were produced by the pre-oxidation, carbonization and activation of the phenolic beads that were synthesized using the suspension polymerization. The beads were doped in situ with copper (Cu) during the polymerization reaction. The carbon beads decorated with the CNFs were treated with pyridine to increase the nitrogen (N) contents of the material. The N-enriched CNFs and Cu nanoparticles (NPs)-doped carbon beads (N-Cu-CNF/CBs) were used for the removal of nitric oxide (NO) by reduction. In its dual role, Cu catalyzed the growth of the CNFs during CVD, and also, the reduction reaction. Approximately 86% of NO conversion was achieved for 400 ppm-NO concentration over 1 g of the prepared catalyst at 500 °C. The high catalytic activity was attributed to the combined roles of the Cu NPs, reactive CNFs and N-containing surface functional groups in the material. The prepared carbon bead-supported CNFs in this study are for the first time effectively used as the catalyst for the NO reduction without requiring ammonia or urea. PMID:26151568

  3. Controlled growth of carbon nanofibers using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition: Effect of catalyst thickness and gas ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown, using direct current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system reactor under various acetylene to ammonia gas ratios and different catalyst thicknesses were studied. Nickel/Chromium-glass (Ni/Cr-glass) thin film catalyst was employed for the growth of CNF. The grown CNFs were then characterized using Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman spectroscopy showed that the Ni/Cr-glass with thickness of 15 nm and gas ratio acetylene to ammonia of 1:3 produced CNFs with the lowest ID/IG value (the relative intensity of D-band to G-band). This indicated that this catalyst thickness and gas ratio value is the optimum combination for the synthesis of CNFs under the conditions studied. TEM observation pointed out that the CNFs produced have 104 concentric walls and the residual catalyst particles were located inside the tubes of CNFs. It was also observed that structural morphology of the grown CNFs was influenced by acetylene to ammonia gas ratio and catalyst thickness.

  4. Processing and properties of carbon nanofibers reinforced epoxy powder composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercially available CNFs (diameter 30–300 nm) have been used to develop both bulk and coating epoxy nanocomposites by using a solvent-free epoxy matrix powder. Processing of both types of materials has been carried out by a double-step process consisting in an initial physical premix of all components followed by three consecutive extrusions. The extruded pellets were grinded into powder and sieved. Carbon nanofibers powder coatings were obtained by electrostatic painting of the extruded powder followed by a curing process based in a thermal treatment at 200 °C for 25 min. On the other hand, for obtaining bulk carbon nanofibers epoxy composites, a thermal curing process involving several steps was needed. Gloss and mechanical properties of both nanocomposite coatings and bulk nanocomposites were improved as a result of the processing process. FE-SEM fracture surface microphotographs corroborate these results. It has been assessed the key role played by the dispersion of CNFs in the matrix, and the highly important step that is the processing and curing of the nanocomposites. A processing stage consisted in three consecutive extrusions has reached to nanocomposites free of entanglements neither agglomerates. This process leads to nanocomposite coatings of enhanced properties, as it has been evidenced through gloss and mechanical properties. A dispersion limit of 1% has been determined for the studied system in which a given dispersion has been achieved, as the bending mechanical properties have been increased around 25% compared with the pristine epoxy resin. It has been also demonstrated the importance of the thickness in the nanocomposite, as it involves the curing stage. The complex curing treatment carried out in the case of bulk nanocomposites has reached to reagglomeration of CNFs.

  5. Nondestructive evaluation of ±45° flat-braided carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers with carbon nanofibers using HTS-SQUID gradiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Tensile load was applied to braided CFRPs with and without CNFs and cutting edges. ? Visualization method using SQUID gradiometer was also applied to the braided CFRPs. ? Different destructive mechanisms and current distributions were obtained. ? Dispersed CNFs enhanced mechanical and electrical properties of the braided CFRPs. -- Abstract: Step-by-step tensile tests were applied to flat-braided carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers with and without added dispersions of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and with and without sample sides cut off to study their mechanical properties and destructive mechanisms by means of in situ observation and stress–strain measurements. An ex situ nondestructive evaluation technique, using a high-temperature superconductor superconducting quantum interference device gradiometer, was also applied to the samples to study their electrical properties; the relationships between the mechanical and electrical properties by visualizing current maps in the samples during ac current injection was also studied. Clear differences were observed in the mechanical and electrical properties and the destructive mechanisms between the samples with and without CNFs and with and without cut off sides. These differences were mainly attributed to the addition of CNFs, which enhanced the mechanical and electrical connections between the carbon fiber bundles

  6. Greater cardiomyocyte density on aligned compared with random carbon nanofibers in polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiri AM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah M Asiri,1 Hadi M Marwani,1 Sher Bahadar Khan,1 Thomas J Webster1,2 1Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Carbon nanofibers (CNFs randomly embedded in poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid (PLGA composites have recently been shown to promote cardiomyocyte growth when compared with conventional PLGA without CNFs. It was shown then that PLGA:CNF composites were conductive and that conductivity increased as greater amounts of CNFs were added to pure PLGA. Moreover, tensile tests showed that addition of CNFs increased the tensile strength of the PLGA composite to mimic that of natural heart tissue. Most importantly, throughout all cytocompatibility experiments, cardiomyocytes were viable and expressed important biomarkers that were greatest on 50:50 wt% CNF:PLGA composites. The increased selective adsorption of fibronectin and vitronectin (critical proteins that mediate cardiomyocyte function onto such composites proved to be the mechanism of action. However, the natural myocardium is anisotropic in terms of mechanical and electrical properties, which was not emulated in these prior PLGA:CNF composites. Thus, the aim of this in vitro study was to create and characterize CNFs aligned in PLGA composites (at 50:50 wt%, including their mechanical and electrical properties and cardiomyocyte density, comparing such results with randomly oriented CNFs in PLGA. Specifically, CNFs were added to soluble biodegradable PLGA (50:50 PGA:PLA weight ratio and aligned by applying a voltage and then allowing the polymer to cure. CNF surface micron patterns (20 µm wide on PLGA were then fabricated through a mold method to further mimic myocardium anisotropy. The results demonstrated anisotropic mechanical and electrical properties and significantly improved cardiomyocyte density for up to 5 days on CNFs aligned in PLGA compared with being randomly oriented in PLGA. These results indicate that CNFs aligned in PLGA should be further explored for improving cardiomyocyte density, which is necessary in numerous cardiovascular applications. Keywords: cardiomyocytes, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, carbon nanofibers, aligned, nanotechnology, anisotropy

  7. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of carbon nanofiber nucleation: the effect of carbon concentration in Ni carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xian; Xie, Zhiyong; Yin, Teng; Wang, Ji-Wei; Yang, Piaopiao; Huang, Qizhong

    2013-10-14

    The atomic-scale nucleation mechanism of vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) is investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulations with a developed parameterization. Carbon precipitation and graphene plane formation are simulated, taking into account the carbon concentration (CC) in Ni carbide. The simulated results show that the carbon atoms formed sp(2) networks or sp chains in the Ni nanocrystals and then precipitated onto the Ni surface with distinct precipitation dynamics and time intervals that are dependent on the CC. The lowest-energy configurations of the precipitated carbon atoms exhibit an irregular corrugated network, a defective graphene plane, and separate defective graphene planes under high, medium, and low CC, respectively. These observations are in good agreement with the microstructural characteristics of different types of CNFs from experiments. Pair correlation function calculations show that the precipitated carbon structures exhibit different graphite orderings. The study reveals the atomistic CNF nucleation mechanism and emphasizes the critical role of metal carbide CC in the microstructure formation of CNFs during synthesis. PMID:23999539

  8. Thermal Expansion of Carbon Nanofiber-Reinforced Multiscale Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Ronald L.; Achar, Sriniket; Gupta, Nikhil

    2012-10-01

    Improved dimensional stability of composites is desired in applications where they are exposed to varying temperature conditions. The current study aims at analyzing the effect of vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on the thermal expansion behavior of epoxy matrix composites and hollow particle-filled composites (syntactic foams). CNFs have a lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) than epoxy resin, which results in composites with increased dimensional stability as the CNF content is increased. The experimental measurements show that with 10 wt.% CNF, the composite has about 11.6% lower CTE than the matrix resin. In CNF-reinforced syntactic foams, the CTE of the composite decreases with increasing wall thickness and volume fraction of hollow particle inclusions. With respect to neat epoxy resin, a maximum decrease of 38.4% is also observed in the CNF/syntactic foams with microballoon inclusions that range from 15 vol.% to 50 vol.% in all composite mixtures. The experimental results for CNF/syntactic foam are in agreement with a modified version of Kerner's model. A combination of hollow microparticles and nanofibers has resulted in the ability to tailor the thermal expansion of the composite over a wide range.

  9. Silicon Whisker and Carbon Nanofiber Composite Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junqing (Inventor); Newman, Aron (Inventor); Lennhoff, John (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A carbon nanofiber can have a surface and include at least one crystalline whisker extending from the surface of the carbon nanofiber. A battery anode composition can be formed from a plurality of carbon nanofibers each including a plurality of crystalline whiskers.

  10. Nitrogen-Doped Titanium/Carbon Nanofibers Mats as Promising Oxygen Reduction Reac-tion Electrocatalysts in Acidic Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Safty S.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The numerous desire for higher density power supplies has forced the researchers to seek for alternative solutions. Nowadays, low-cost and scalable fuel cells receive a great attention because the commerciality of such kind of power resources will be difficult to realize if the expensive platinum-based electrocatalysts for Oxygen reduction reaction (ORRs cannot be replaced by other efficient, low-cost, and stable electrodes. An extensional rheology study is conducted to improve the catalytic activity of nitrogen-doped carbon (N-CNFs  towards ORR in acidic media. This paper reports that the activity of N-CNFs for ORR could be enhanced by using an organic semiconducting material such as titanium isopropoxide (Ti. To further corroborate our findings and develop high surface area nanofibers,  electrospinning process allows us to develop the co-continuous morphology of polyacrylonitrile (PAN and Ti within the nanofibers. N-Ti/CNFs were prepared by carbonizing the electrospun Ti/PAN. Interestingly, N- Ti/CNFs exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for ORR in acidic media, it act as a metal-free electrode with better electrocatalytic activity. The present work provides a feasible approach to promote the ORR activity of N-Ti/CNFs hold high promise in developing cheap and efficient cathodic electrocatalysts for fuel cells applications as a good alternative to Pt catalyst.

  11. Physical mixtures of Si nanoparticles and carbon nanofibers as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Jeong-Boon; Jang, Bo-Yun; Kim, Sung-Soo; Han, Kyoo-Seung; Jung, Doo-Hwan; Yoon, Seong-Ho

    2015-08-01

    Silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs) were simply mixed with carbon nanofibers (CNFs) without any chemical process at various weight ratios, and the electrochemical properties of these nanoparticles as anode materials were investigated in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). To study the effects of the physical incorporation of CNFs on the volumetric variations in Si NPs, the dilations of full cells were measured. The measured volumetric change of the anode using a mixture of Si NPs and CNFs was smaller than that calculated from the theoretical volumetric changes of Si and graphite. Although the reversible capacity of Si NPs faded sharply, the fading was mitigated by increasing the mixing ratio of CNFs. In particular, the Si NP/CNF mixture prepared at 50:50 weight ratio retained a reversible capacity of >800 mAh/g with a capacity retention of 53.2% even after 100 cycles. CNFs alleviated stress and strain during the charge-discharge process even though there was no tight chemical bonding with Si NPs.

  12. A nonlinear effective thermal conductivity model for carbon nanotube and nanofiber suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been experimentally demonstrated that suspensions of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nanofibers (CNFs) significantly increase the thermal conductivity of nanofluids; however, a physically sound theory of the underlying phenomenon is still missing. In this study, the nonlinear nature of the effective thermal conductivity enhancement with the particle concentration of CNT and CNF nanofluids is explained physically using the excluded volume concept. Specifically, the number of contacting CNTs and CNFs could be calculated by using the excluded volume concept, where the distance for heat to travel in a cylinder between the contacting cylinders in the thermal network of percolating CNTs and CNFs increased with the excluded volume. In contrast to the effective thermal conductivity model of Sastry et al (2008 Nanotechnology 19 055704) the present revised model could reproduce the nonlinear increase of the thermal conductivity with particle concentration, as well as the dependence on the diameter and aspect ratio of the CNTs and CNFs. It was found that the alignment of CNTs and CNFs due to the long range repulsion force decreases the excluded volume, leading to both the convex and concave nonlinear as well as linear increase of the thermal conductivity with particle concentration. The difference between various carrier fluids of the suspensions could be explained as the result of the change in the excluded volume in different base fluids

  13. Understanding greater cardiomyocyte functions on aligned compared to random carbon nanofibers in PLGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiri, Abdullah M; Marwani, Hadi M; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated greater cardiomyocyte density on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) aligned (compared to randomly oriented) in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composites. Although such studies demonstrated a closer mimicking of anisotropic electrical and mechanical properties for such aligned (compared to randomly oriented) CNFs in PLGA composites, the objective of the present in vitro study was to elucidate a deeper mechanistic understanding of how cardiomyocyte densities recognize such materials to respond more favorably. Results showed lower wettability (greater hydrophobicity) of CNFs embedded in PLGA compared to pure PLGA, thus providing evidence of selectively lower wettability in aligned CNF regions. Furthermore, the results correlated these changes in hydrophobicity with increased adsorption of fibronectin, laminin, and vitronectin (all proteins known to increase cardiomyocyte adhesion and functions) on CNFs in PLGA compared to pure PLGA, thus providing evidence of selective initial protein adsorption cues on such CNF regions to promote cardiomyocyte adhesion and growth. Lastly, results of the present in vitro study further confirmed increased cardiomyocyte functions by demonstrating greater expression of important cardiomyocyte biomarkers (such as Troponin-T, Connexin-43, and ?-sarcomeric actin) when CNFs were aligned compared to randomly oriented in PLGA. In summary, this study provided evidence that cardiomyocyte functions are improved on CNFs aligned in PLGA compared to randomly oriented in PLGA since CNFs are more hydrophobic than PLGA and attract the adsorption of key proteins (fibronectin, laminin, and vironectin) that are known to promote cardiomyocyte adhesion and expression of important cardiomyocyte functions. Thus, future studies should use this knowledge to further design improved CNF:PLGA composites for numerous cardiovascular applications. PMID:25565806

  14. Fabrication of Uniform Au–Carbon Nanofiber by Two-Step Low Temperature Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Myeongsoon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a facile and efficient way to prepare carbon nanofibers ornamented with Au nanoparticles (Au/CNFs. Gold nanoparticles were first deposited in the channels of an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO membrane by thermal decomposition of HAuCl4and then carbon nanofibers were produced in the same channels loaded with the Au nanoparticles by decomposition of sucrose at 230 °C. An electron microscopy study revealed that the carbon nanofibers, ~10 nm thick and 6 ?m long, were decorated with Au nanoparticles with a diameter of 10 nm. This synthetic route can produce uniform Au nanoparticles on CNF surfaces without using any additional chemicals to modify the AAO channels or the CNF surfaces.

  15. Large-scale and controllable synthesis of metal-free nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers and nanocoils over water-soluble Na2CO3

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Qian; Song, Xueyin; Yao, Xiujuan; Qi, Xiaosi; Au, Chak-Tong; ZHONG, WEI; Du, Youwei

    2013-01-01

    Using acetylene as carbon source, ammonia as nitrogen source, and Na2CO3 powder as catalyst, we synthesized nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (N-CNFs) and carbon nanocoils (N-CNCs) selectively at 450°C and 500°C, respectively. The water-soluble Na2CO3 is removed through simple washing with water and the nitrogen-doped carbon nanomaterials can be collected in high purity. The approach is simple, inexpensive, and environment-benign; it can be used for controlled production of N-CNFs or N-CNCs. W...

  16. In situ growth cupric oxide nanoparticles on carbon nanofibers for sensitive nonenzymatic sensing of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CuO nanoparticles were directly and homogeneously grown on carbon nanofibers. • The obtained nanocomposite showed high electrooxidize activity to glucose. • A nonenzymatic glucose sensor was constructed based on the functional nanocomposite. • This sensor showed good performance to glucose. • The proposed sensor was successfully applied in detection of glucose in blood serum. -- Abstract: A novel method was employed to directly and homogeneously attaching cupric oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) for sensitive amperometric nonenzymatic sensing of glucose. The obtained CuONPs-CNFs nanocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The CuONPs-CNFs nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode showed high electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of glucose in alkaline media and a nonenzymatic glucose sensor was constructed based on the functional nanocomposite modified electrode. Under optimal experimental conditions, the designed sensor exhibited a wide linear response to glucose ranging from 5.0 × 10?7 to 1.1 × 10?2 M with a high sensitivity of 2739 ?A mM?1 cm?2 and a low detection limit down to 0.2 ?M at the signal to noise ratio of 3. This sensor showed good accuracy, acceptable precision and reproducibility. Moreover, the proposed sensor was successfully applied in the detection of glucose in human blood serum indicating its possibility in practical application

  17. Highly Flexible Freestanding Porous Carbon Nanofibers for Electrodes Materials of High-Performance All-Carbon Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhou, Jinyuan; Chen, Lulu; Zhang, Peng; Fu, Wenbin; Zhao, Hao; Ma, Yufang; Pan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhenxing; Han, Weihua; Xie, Erqing

    2015-10-28

    Highly flexible porous carbon nanofibers (P-CNFs) were fabricated by electrospining technique combining with metal ion-assistant acid corrosion process. The resultant fibers display high conductivity and outstanding mechanical flexibility, whereas little change in their resistance can be observed under repeatedly bending, even to 180°. Further results indicate that the improved flexibility of P-CNFs can be due to the high graphitization degree caused by Co ions. In view of electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors, this type of porous nanostructure and high graphitization degree could synergistically facilitate the electrolyte ion diffusion and electron transportation. In the three electrodes testing system, the resultant P-CNFs electrodes can exhibit a specific capacitance of 104.5 F g(-1) (0.2 A g(-1)), high rate capability (remain 56.5% at 10 A g(-1)), and capacitance retention of ?94% after 2000 cycles. Furthermore, the assembled symmetric supercapacitors showed a high flexibility and can deliver an energy density of 3.22 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 600 W kg(-1). This work might open a way to improve the mechanical properties of carbon fibers and suggests that this type of freestanding P-CNFs be used as effective electrode materials for flexible all-carbon supercapacitors. PMID:26449440

  18. Carbon-Nanofiber-Reinforced Syntactic Foams: Compressive Properties and Strain Rate Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Ronald L.; Gupta, Nikhil

    2014-01-01

    The current study is focused on exploring the possibility of reinforcing syntactic foams with carbon nanofibers (CNFs). Syntactic foams are hollow, particle-filled composites that are widely used in marine structures and are now finding applications in other modes of transportation due to their high stiffness-to-weight ratio. The compressive properties of syntactic foams reinforced with CNFs are characterized over the strain rate range of 10-4 to 3,000 s-1, which covers seven orders of magnitude. The results show that despite lower density with respect to neat epoxy, CNF/syntactic foams can have up to 7.3% and 15.5% higher quasi-static compressive strength and modulus, respectively, for the compositions that were characterized in the current study. In addition, these properties can be tailored over a wide range by means of hollow particle wall thickness and volume fraction, and CNF volume fraction. The compressive strength of CNF/syntactic foams is also shown to generally increase by up to a factor of 3.41 with increasing strain rate when quasi-static and high-strain-rate testing data are compared. Extensive microscopy of the CNF/syntactic foams is conducted to understand the failure and energy absorption mechanisms. Crack bridging by CNFs is observed in the specimens, which can delay final failure and increase the energy absorption capacity of the specimens. Deformation of CNFs is also noticed in the material microstructure. The deformation and failure mechanisms of nanofibers are related to the test strain rate and the structure of CNFs.

  19. Hierarchical Graphene-Containing Carbon Nanofibers for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufficy, Martin K; Khan, Saad A; Fedkiw, Peter S

    2016-01-20

    We present a method to produce composite anodes consisting of thermally reduced graphene oxide-containing carbon nanofibers (TRGO/CNFs) via electrospinning a dispersion of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and graphene oxide (GO) sheets in dimethylformamide followed by heat treatment at 650 °C. A range of GO (1-20 wt % GO relative to polymer concentration) was added to the polymer solution, with each sample comprising similar polymer chain packing and subsequent CNF microstructure, as assessed by X-ray diffraction. An increase from 0 to 20 wt % GO in the fibers led to carbonized nonwovens with enhanced electronic conductivity, as TRGO sheets conductively connected the CNFs. Galvanostatic half-cell cycling revealed that TRGO addition enhanced the specific discharge capacity of the fibers. The optimal GO concentration of 5 wt % GO enhanced first-cycle discharge capacities at C/24 rates (15.6 mA g(-1)) 150% compared to CNFs, with a 400% capacity increase at 2-C rates (750 mA g(-1)). We attribute the capacity enhancement to a high degree of GO exfoliation. The TRGO/CNFs also experienced no capacity fade after 200 cycles at 2-C rates. Impedance spectroscopy of the composite anodes demonstrated that charge-transfer resistances decreased as GO content increased, implying that high GO loadings result in more electrochemically active material. PMID:26704705

  20. Effect of Sulfur Concentration on the Morphology of Carbon Nanofibers Produced from a Botanical Hydrocarbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Kaushik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCarbon nanofibers (CNF with diameters of 20–130 nm with different morphologies were obtained from a botanical hydrocarbon: Turpentine oil, using ferrocene as catalyst source and sulfur as a promoter by simple spray pyrolysis method at 1,000 °C. The influence of sulfur concentration on the morphology of the carbon nanofibers was investigated. SEM, TEM, Raman, TGA/DTA, and BET surface area were employed to characterize the as-prepared samples. TEM analysis confirms that as-prepared CNFs have a very sharp tip, bamboo shape, open end, hemispherical cap, pipe like morphology, and metal particle trapped inside the wide hollow core. It is observed that sulfur plays an important role to promote or inhibit the CNF growth. Addition of sulfur to the solution of ferrocene and turpentine oil mixture was found to be very effective in promoting the growth of CNF. Without addition of sulfur, carbonaceous product was very less and mainly soot was formed. At high concentration of sulfur inhibit the growth of CNFs. Hence the yield of CNFs was optimized for a given sulfur concentration.

  1. Fabrication and Characterization of High Temperature Resin/Carbon Nanofiber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Sayata; Watson, Kent A.; Working, Dennis C.; Criss, Jim M.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Connell, John W.

    2005-01-01

    Multifunctional composites present a route to structural weight reduction. Nanoparticles such as carbon nanofibers (CNF) provide a compromise as a lower cost nanosize reinforcement that yields a desirable combination of properties. Blends of PETI-330 and CNFs were prepared and characterized to investigate the potential of CNF composites as a high performance structural medium. Dry mixing techniques were employed and the effect of CNF loading level on melt viscosity was determined. The resulting powders were characterized for degree of mixing, thermal and rheological properties. Based on the characterization results, samples containing 30 and 40 wt% CNF were scaled up to approx.300 g and used to fabricate moldings 10.2 cm x 15.2 cm x 0.32 cm thick. The moldings were fabricated by injecting the mixtures at 260-280 C into a stainless steel tool followed by curing for 1 h at 371 C. The tool was designed to impart high shear during the process in an attempt to achieve some alignment of CNFs in the flow direction. Moldings were obtained that were subsequently characterized for thermal, mechanical and electrical properties. The degree of dispersion and alignment of CNFs were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. The preparation and preliminary characterization of PETI-330/CNF composites are discussed. Keywords: resins, carbon nanofibers, scanning electron microscopy, electrical properties, thermal conductivity,injection

  2. Anchoring Fe3O4 nanoparticles on three-dimensional carbon nanofibers toward flexible high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yizao; Yang, Zhiwei; Xiong, Guangyao; Guo, Ruisong; Liu, Ze; Luo, Honglin

    2015-10-01

    There is growing interest in flexible, cost-effective, and binder-free energy storage devices to meet the special needs of modern electronic systems. Herein we report a general, scalable, eco-friendly, and cost-effective approach for the fabrication of nano-Fe3O4-anchored three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanofiber (CNFs) aerogels (Fe3O4@BC-CNFs). The preparation processes include the anchoring of Fe2O3 nanoparticles on bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers with intrinsic 3D network structure and subsequent carbonization at different temperatures. The aerogel carbonized at 600 °C (Fe3O4@BC-CNFs-600) is highly flexible and was directly used as working electrodes in lithium-ion batteries without metal current collectors, conducting additives, or binders. The Fe3O4@BC-CNFs-600 demonstrates greatly improved electrochemical performance in comparison to the bare Fe3O4 nanoparticles. In addition to its excellent flexibility, a stable capacity of 755 mAh g-1 for up to 80 cycles is also higher than most of carbon-Fe3O4 hybrids. The high reversible capacity and excellent rate capability are attributed to its 3D porous network structure with well-dispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surfaces of CNFs.

  3. Effects of Thickness and Amount of Carbon Nanofiber Coated Carbon Fiber on Improving the Mechanical Properties of Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferial Ghaemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, carbon nanofibers (CNFs were grown on a carbon fiber (CF surface by using the chemical vapor deposition method (CVD and the influences of some parameters of the CVD method on improving the mechanical properties of a polypropylene (PP composite were investigated. To obtain an optimum surface area, thickness, and yield of the CNFs, the parameters of the chemical vapor deposition (CVD method, such as catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time, and hydrocarbon flow rate, were optimized. It was observed that the optimal surface area, thickness, and yield of the CNFs caused more adhesion of the fibers with the PP matrix, which enhanced the composite properties. Besides this, the effectiveness of reinforcement of fillers was fitted with a mathematical model obtaining good agreement between the experimental result and the theoretical prediction. By applying scanning electronic microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, and Raman spectroscopy, the surface morphology and structural information of the resultant CF-CNF were analyzed. Additionally, SEM images and a mechanical test of the composite with a proper layer of CNFs on the CF revealed not only a compactness effect but also the thickness and surface area roles of the CNF layers in improving the mechanical properties of the composites.

  4. Adsorbents based on carbon microfibers and carbon nanofibers for the removal of phenol and lead from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Anindita; Deva, Dinesh; Sharma, Ashutosh; Verma, Nishith

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the production, characteristics, and efficacy of carbon microfibers and carbon nanofibers for the removal of phenol and Pb(2+) from water by adsorption. The first adsorbent produced in the current investigation contained the ammonia (NH(3)) functionalized micron-sized activated carbon fibers (ACF). Alternatively, the second adsorbent consisted of a multiscale web of ACF/CNF, which was prepared by growing carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on activated ACFs via catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and sonication, which was conducted to remove catalytic particles from the CNF tips and open the pores of the CNFs. The two adsorbents prepared in the present study, ACF and ACF/CNF, were characterized by several analytical techniques, including SEM-EDX and FT-IR. Moreover, the chemical composition, BET surface area, and pore-size distribution of the materials were determined. The hierarchal web of carbon microfibers and nanofibers displayed a greater adsorption capacity for Pb(2+) than ACF. Interestingly, the adsorption capacity of ammonia (NH(3)) functionalized ACFs for phenol was somewhat larger than that of the multiscale ACF/CNF web. Difference in the adsorption capacity of the adsorbents was attributed to differences in the size of the solutes and their reactivity towards ACF and ACF/CNF. The results indicated that ACF-based materials were efficient adsorbents for the removal of inorganic and organic solutes from wastewater. PMID:21507421

  5. Interweaved Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: In summary, a serious of high-energy wet ball milling, closed spray drying and subsequent chemical vapor deposition methods were introduced successfully to fabricated novel Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites with carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibres interweaved with carbon coated silicon spherical composites as superior anodes in lithium-ion batteries. The core-shell structure of Si@C composites can accommodate the volume change of electrode during charge and discharge. Meanwhile, the citric acid pyrolyzed carbon was coated on the surface of the silicon perfectly and constructs the connection network of nano silicon particles. Moreover, the carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibres, which is interweaved with nano-silicon, also allows high electrical conductivity, improved solid–electrolyte interface formation and structural integrity. Compared with pure silicon and Si@C composites, the novel Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites had the best combination of reversible capacity and cycleablity, and this anode materials exhibited excellent electrochemical performance. The Si/C composite had a fairly high initial discharge capacity of 2168.7 mA h g?1 with an efficiency of 73%, and the discharge capacity of the 50th cycle maintained surprisingly of 1194.9 mA h g?1. Meanwhile, spray drying and chemical vapor deposition are environmentally friendly, economical, and relatively high-yield method for the production of the Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites in large quantities. Consequently, the novel Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composite electrodes may be a potential alternative to graphite for high energy density lithium ion batteries. Highlights: • The core/shell structured silicon/carbon composites were prepared by a facile way. • The as-prepared Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites shows excellent electrochemical performance. • The preparation method has mild experiment conditions and high production rate. • The structure benefited electronic transfer and accommodated volume expansion. -- Abstract: Novel silicon@ carbon/carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibres (Si@C/CNTs and CNFs) composites have been successfully synthesized by a serious of high-energy wet ball milling, closed spray drying and subsequently chemical vapor deposition methods, in which carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers are interweaved with carbon coated silicon (Si@C) spherical composites. As anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites demonstrate a high first discharge capacity and excellent cycle ability. The high initial specific discharge capacity is approximately 2169 mA h g?1 and a reversible specific capacity approached 1195 mA h g?1 after 50 cycles at a high current density of 300 mA g?1

  6. Effect of high-voltage sheath electric field and ion-enhanced etching on growth of carbon nanofibers in high-density plasma chemical-vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a parametric study on the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) by high-density inductively coupled plasma (ICP) chemical-vapor deposition are reported. We investigated the mechanisms that cause the detachment of CNFs during the growth process by high-density plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition with high substrate bias voltage and atomic hydrogen concentration. A simplified model, combining the Child law for sheath field, floating sphere model for field enhancement at the fiber tip and electric-field screening effect, was employed to estimate the detachment electrostatic force on individual CNFs induced by plasma sheath electric field. The force was found to increase with substrate bias voltage, bias current, and lengths of CNFs, consistent with the experimental observations that CNFs density decreases with ICP power, bias power, and growth time. However, the magnitude of the electrostatic force per se cannot explain the detachment phenomena. The other factor is believed to be the ion-assisted etch of CNFs by atomic hydrogen during the growth process since it was observed that the lower end of CNFs formed earlier in the synthesis process became thinner than the tip end

  7. A Review on Nanomaterial Dispersion, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Raul Fangueiro; Shama Parveen; Sohel Rana

    2013-01-01

    Excellent mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nanofibers (CNFs) have motivated the development of advanced nanocomposites with outstanding and multifunctional properties. After achieving a considerable success in utilizing these unique materials in various polymeric matrices, recently tremendous interest is also being noticed on developing CNT and CNF reinforced cement-based composites. However, the problems related to nanomaterial dispersion also exi...

  8. Characteristics and Electrochemical Performance of Si-Carbon Nanofibers Composite as Anode Material for Binder-Free Lithium Secondary Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Yura; Park, Heai-Ku; Park, Ho-Seon; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2015-11-01

    The carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and Si-CNFs composite were synthesized using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method with an iron-copper catalyst and silicon-covered Ni foam. Acetylene as a carbon source was flowed into the quartz reactor of a tubular furnace heated to 600 degrees C. This temperature was maintained for 10 min to synthesize the CNFs. The morphologies, compositions, and crystal quality of the prepared CNFs were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrochemical characteristics of the Si-CNFs composite as an anode of the Li secondary batteries were investigated using a three-electrode cell. The as-deposited Si-CNF composite on the Ni foam was directly employed as an working electrode without any binder, and lithium foil was used as the counter and reference electrode. A glass fiber separator was used as the separator membrane. Two kinds of electrolytes were employed; 1) 1 M LiPF6 was dissolved in a mixture of EC (ethylene carbonate): PC (propylene carbonate): EMC (Ethyl methyl carbonate) in a 1:1:1 volume ratio and 2) 1 M LiClO4 was dissolved in a mixture of propylene carbonate (PC): ethylene carbonate (EC) in a 1:1 volume ratio. The galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling and cyclic voltammetry measurements were carried out at room temperature by using a battery tester. The resulting Si-CNFs composite achieved the large discharge capacity of 613 mAh/g and much improved cycle-ability with the retention rate of 87% after 20 cycles. PMID:26726625

  9. Sensitivity of Dielectric Properties to Wear Process on Carbon Nanofiber/High-Density Polyethylene Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian; Wood, Weston; Zhong, Wei-Hong

    2011-12-01

    We examined the correlation of wear effects with dielectric properties of carbon nanofibers (CNFs; untreated and organosilane-treated)-reinforced high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. Wear testing for the nanocomposites over up to 120 h was carried out, and then, dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss factor of the polymer composites with the increased wear time were studied. Scanning electron microscope and optical microscope observations were made to analyze the microstructure features of the nanocomposites. The results reveal that there exist approximate linear relationships of permittivity with wear coefficient for the nanocomposites. Composites containing silanized CNFs with the sufficiently thick coating exhibited high wear resistance. The change in permittivity was more sensitive to the increased wear coefficient for the nanocomposites with lower wear resistance. This work provides potential for further research on the application of dielectric signals to detect the effects of wear process on lifetime of polymeric materials.

  10. A fine-focusing x-ray source using carbon-nanofiber field emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, W.; Sugita, S.; Sakai, Y.; Goto, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Ohga, Y.; Kita, S.; Ohara, T.

    2010-08-01

    A fine-focusing x-ray source has been constructed employing a field electron emitter prepared by growing carbon-nanofibers (CNFs) on a metal tip. The x-ray source is composed of a CNF field electron emitter, an electrostatic lens, two magnetic lenses, and a W-target for generating x-rays by electron impact. The CNFs provided field electrons with a current density of J ˜5×109 A/m2, which was evaluated with the aid of Fowler-Nordheim theory. The electron beam extracted from the CNF emitter was accelerated to the energies of E =10-25 keV, and then focused by the lenses. By recording the x-ray images of test charts, the optimum resolution of the x-ray source was estimated to be approximately Dx=0.5 ?m.

  11. A fine-focusing x-ray source using carbon-nanofiber field emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fine-focusing x-ray source has been constructed employing a field electron emitter prepared by growing carbon-nanofibers (CNFs) on a metal tip. The x-ray source is composed of a CNF field electron emitter, an electrostatic lens, two magnetic lenses, and a W-target for generating x-rays by electron impact. The CNFs provided field electrons with a current density of J?5x109 A/m2, which was evaluated with the aid of Fowler-Nordheim theory. The electron beam extracted from the CNF emitter was accelerated to the energies of E=10-25 keV, and then focused by the lenses. By recording the x-ray images of test charts, the optimum resolution of the x-ray source was estimated to be approximately Dx=0.5 ?m.

  12. CMOS compatible on-chip decoupling capacitor based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, A. M.; Göransson, G.; Desmaris, V.; Enoksson, P.

    2015-05-01

    On-chip decoupling capacitor of specific capacitance 55 pF/?m2 (footprint area) which is 10 times higher than the commercially available discrete and on-chip (65 nm technology node) decoupling capacitors is presented. The electrodes of the capacitor are based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) capable of being integrated directly on CMOS chips. The carbon nanofibers employed in this study were grown on CMOS chips using direct current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (DC-PECVD) technique at CMOS compatible temperature. The carbon nanofibers were grown at temperature from 390 °C to 550 °C. The capacitance of the carbon nanofibers was measured by cyclic voltammetry and thus compared. Futhermore the capacitance of decoupling capacitor was measured using different voltage scan rate to show their high charge storage capability and finally the cyclic voltammetry is run for 1000 cycles to assess their suitability as electrode material for decoupling capacitor. Our results show the high specific capacitance and long-term reliability of performance of the on-chip decoupling capacitors. Moreover, the specific capacitance shown is larger for carbon nanofibers grown at higher temperature.

  13. Large-scale and controllable synthesis of metal-free nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers and nanocoils over water-soluble Na2CO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qian; Song, Xueyin; Yao, Xiujuan; Qi, Xiaosi; Au, Chak-Tong; Zhong, Wei; Du, Youwei

    2013-12-01

    Using acetylene as carbon source, ammonia as nitrogen source, and Na2CO3 powder as catalyst, we synthesized nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (N-CNFs) and carbon nanocoils (N-CNCs) selectively at 450°C and 500°C, respectively. The water-soluble Na2CO3 is removed through simple washing with water and the nitrogen-doped carbon nanomaterials can be collected in high purity. The approach is simple, inexpensive, and environment-benign; it can be used for controlled production of N-CNFs or N-CNCs. We report the role of catalyst, the effect of pyrolysis temperature, and the photoluminescence properties of the as-harvested N-CNFs and N-CNCs.

  14. Immobilization of WO3 or MoO3 on macroscopic silica fiber via CNFs template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Uniform immobilization of tungsten trioxide (WO3) or molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) on silica fiber was successfully achieved by using carbon nanofibers (CNFs) as template. FE-SEM coupled with XRD analysis confirmed the template effect and the existence of WO3 or MoO3 immobilized on silica fiber. It is expected that such materials with direct macroscopic shapes would hold promise as highly functionalized materials for potential practical applications, especially in photocatalysis. - Highlights: • WO3 or MoO3 with macroscopic shapes were successfully obtained. • WO3 and MoO3 immobilization depended on CNFs templates. • FE-SEM and XRD confirmed the structure and phase composition. - Abstract: Uniform immobilization of tungsten trioxide (WO3) or molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) on silica fiber was successfully achieved by using carbon nanofibers (CNFs) as template. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), coupled with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the template effect and the existence of WO3 or MoO3 immobilized on silica fiber. It is expected that such materials with direct macroscopic shapes would hold promise as highly functionalized materials for potential practical applications, especially in photocatalysis

  15. In situ characterization of vertically oriented carbon nanofibers for three-dimensional nano-electro-mechanical device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed mechanical and electrical characterization of individual as-grown, vertically oriented carbon nanofibers (CNFs) using in situ techniques, where such high-aspect-ratio, nanoscale structures are of interest for three-dimensional (3D) electronics, in particular 3D nano-electro-mechanical-systems (NEMS). Nanoindentation and uniaxial compression tests conducted in an in situ nanomechanical instrument, SEMentor, suggest that the CNFs undergo severe bending prior to fracture, which always occurs close to the bottom rather than at the substrate-tube interface, suggesting that the CNFs are well adhered to the substrate. This is also consistent with bending tests on individual tubes which indicated that bending angles as large as ? 700 could be accommodated elastically. In situ electrical transport measurements revealed that the CNFs grown on refractory metallic nitride buffer layers were conducting via the sidewalls, whereas those synthesized directly on Si were electrically unsuitable for low-voltage dc NEMS applications. Electrostatic actuation was also demonstrated with a nanoprobe in close proximity to a single CNF and suggests that such structures are attractive for nonvolatile memory applications. Since the magnitude of the actuation voltage is intimately dictated by the physical characteristics of the CNFs, such as diameter and length, we also addressed the ability to tune these parameters, to some extent, by adjusting the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition growth parameters with this bottom-up synthesis approach.

  16. Suspensions of carbon nanofibers in organic medium: rheo-electrical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssry, Mohamed; Guyomard, Dominique; Lestriez, Bernard

    2015-12-01

    The nonaqueous suspensions of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) in 1 M lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonaimide) in propylene carbonate electrolyte reveal unique structural evolution and shear-induced transition due to the high aspect ratio. The rheo-electrical behavior elucidates a microstructural transition from entangled-to-aggregated networks above a distinct percolation threshold. Under shear flow, both networks show a three-regime flow curve and an inverted-bell-like conductivity curve as a consequence of shear-induced alignment (entangled network) and shear-induced breaking up (aggregated network). The different particle morphology of carbon nanofibers (anisometric) and carbon black (CB; isometric) causes different aggregation mechanisms (aggregate vs. particulate) and then varied microstructure for their suspensions in the same electrolyte. This fact explains the higher rigidity and lower electric conductivity of CNFs than CB suspensions. Interestingly, the suspension of hybrid carbons at the optimum mixing ratio merges the advantages of both carbons to operate efficiently as precursors in the formulation of electrodes for energy storage systems. PMID:26583805

  17. Synthesis of carbon nano-fibers on p-Si having improved temperature sensing capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Synthesis of carbon nanofibers on p-Si. ? RBM in Raman spectra. ? Superior temperature sensing capability. - Abstract: Synthesis of an innovative material for temperature sensor based on carbon nano-fibers (CNFs) on p-Si substrates has been demonstrated. The CNF films were characterized by SEM, Raman and FTIR studies. First order Raman spectra indicated a G band at ?1597 cm?1 corresponding to the E2g tangential stretching mode of an ordered graphitic structure with sp2 hybridization and a D band located ?1350 cm?1 originated from disordered carbon. Gold fingers were deposited on the p-Si/CNF surface for resistance measurement. Temperature sensing properties were also investigated critically. Resistance changes with temperature (?R/R) in p-Si/CNF films are found to be significantly large 30–60% Very stable, reproducible and improved temperature sensing properties would make this material superior to commonly available temperature sensors.

  18. Metal-Support Interactions of Platinum Nanoparticles Decorated N-Doped Carbon Nanofibers for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melke, Julia; Peter, Benedikt; Habereder, Anja; Ziegler, Juergen; Fasel, Claudia; Nefedov, Alexei; Sezen, Hikmet; Wöll, Christof; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Roth, Christina

    2016-01-13

    N-doped carbon materials are discussed as catalyst supports for the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells. This work deals with the preparation of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) supported on N-doped carbon nanofibers (N-CNF) from a polyaniline nanofiber (PANI NF) precursor, and investigates the ORR activity of the produced materials. Initially, Pt NPs are deposited on PANI NFs. The PANI NF precursors are characterized by near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. It is shown, that in the PANI NF precursor materials electrons from the Pt are being transferred toward the ?-conjugated systems of the aromatic ring. This strong interaction of Pt atoms with PANI explains the high dispersion of Pt NPs on the PANI NF. Subsequently, the PANI NF precursors are carbonized at different heat-treatment conditions resulting in structurally different N-CNFs which are characterized by NEXAFS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) ,and TEM measurements. It is shown that an interaction between N-groups and Pt NPs exists in all investigated N-CNFs. However, the N-CNFs differ in the composition of the N-species and the dispersion of the Pt NPs. A small mean Pt NP size with a narrow size distribution is attributed to the presence of pyrdinic N-groups in the N-CNFs, whereas, for the N-CNFs with mainly graphitic and pyrrolic N-groups, an increase in the average Pt NP size with a broad size distribution is found. The ORR activity in alkaline media investigated by Koutecky-Levich analysis of rotating disk electrode measurements showed a largely enhanced ORR activity in comparison to a conventional Pt/C catalyst. PMID:26673813

  19. Effects of vapor grown carbon nanofibers on electrical and mechanical properties of a thermoplastic elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaldua, Daniel Thomas

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF) reinforced composites are exceptional materials that exhibit superior properties compared to conventional composites. This paper presents the development of a vapor grown carbon nanofiber (VGCNF) thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composite by a melt mixing process. Dispersion and distribution of CNFs inside the TPU matrix were examined through scanning electron microscopy to determine homogeneity. The composite material underwent durometer, thermal gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, heat transfer, hysteresis, dynamic modulus, creep, tensile, abrasion, and electrical conductivity testing to characterize its properties and predict behavior. The motivation for this research is to develop an elastomer pad that is an electrically conductive alternative to the elastomer pads currently used in railroad service. The material had to be a completely homogenous electrically conductive CNF composite that could withstand a harsh dynamically loaded environment. The new material meets mechanical and conductive requirements for use as an elastomer pad in a rail suspension.

  20. Bimetal (Ni-Co) nanoparticles-incorporated electrospun carbon nanofibers as an alternative counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameez, Md.; Saranya, K.; Subramania, A.; Sivasankar, N.; Mallick, S.

    2016-02-01

    Counter electrode (CE) plays an important role in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Electron transfer from external circuit to redox couple is mediated and facilitated by it to complete the DSSC circuit. Platinum (Pt) is widely employed as CE in DSSCs. However, due to its high cost and scarcity, efforts are being made to replace Pt. In this study, a bimetal (Ni-Co) nanoparticles-incorporated carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are prepared by electrospinning technique and used as CE material for DSSC applications. The morphology of prepared CNFs is characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope studies. The structural properties are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy studies. The electrochemical characterization of Ni-Co nanoparticles-incorporated CNFs is carried out using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance and Tafel polarization studies and compared with CNFs and std. Pt. The photo-conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSSC assembled with Ni-Co nanoparticles-incorporated CNFs as CE is very nearer to that of the same assembled with std. Pt as CE. Hence, Ni-Co nanoparticles-incorporated CNFs can be used as a cost-effective alternative CE for DSSCs.

  1. Carbon Nanofibers and Their Composites: A Review of Synthesizing, Properties and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichao Feng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanofiber (CNF, as one of the most important members of carbon fibers, has been investigated in both fundamental scientific research and practical applications. CNF composites are able to be applied as promising materials in many fields, such as electrical devices, electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors and as sensors. In these applications, the electrical conductivity is always the first priority need to be considered. In fact, the electrical property of CNF composites largely counts on the dispersion and percolation status of CNFs in matrix materials. In this review, the electrical transport phenomenon of CNF composites is systematically summarized based on percolation theory. The effects of the aspect ratio, percolation backbone structure and fractal characteristics of CNFs and the non-universality of the percolation critical exponents on the electrical properties are systematically reviewed. Apart from the electrical property, the thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of CNF composites are briefly reviewed, as well. In addition, the preparation methods of CNFs, including catalytic chemical vapor deposition growth and electrospinning, and the preparation methods of CNF composites, including the melt mixing and solution process, are briefly introduced. Finally, their applications as sensors and electrode materials are described in this review article.

  2. Enhanced Activity and Selectivity of Carbon Nanofiber Supported Pd Catalysts for Nitrite Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Shuai, Danmeng

    2012-03-06

    Pd-based catalyst treatment represents an emerging technology that shows promise to remove nitrate and nitrite from drinking water. In this work we use vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (CNF) supports in order to explore the effects of Pd nanoparticle size and interior versus exterior loading on nitrite reduction activity and selectivity (i.e., dinitrogen over ammonia production). Results show that nitrite reduction activity increases by 3.1-fold and selectivity decreases by 8.0-fold, with decreasing Pd nanoparticle size from 1.4 to 9.6 nm. Both activity and selectivity are not significantly influenced by Pd interior versus exterior CNF loading. Consequently, turnover frequencies (TOFs) among all CNF catalysts are similar, suggesting nitrite reduction is not sensitive to Pd location on CNFs nor Pd structure. CNF-based catalysts compare favorably to conventional Pd catalysts (i.e., Pd on activated carbon or alumina) with respect to nitrite reduction activity and selectivity, and they maintain activity over multiple reduction cycles. Hence, our results suggest new insights that an optimum Pd nanoparticle size on CNFs balances faster kinetics with lower ammonia production, that catalysts can be tailored at the nanoscale to improve catalytic performance for nitrite, and that CNFs hold promise as highly effective catalyst supports in drinking water treatment. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. How do vapor grown carbon nanofibers nucleate and grow from deoiled asphalt?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → A modified growth mechanism of carbon nanofibers was proposed. → Growth process includes (1) pyrolysis and aggregation, (2) nucleation, coalescence and self-assembly and (3) deveplopment and maturation. → The nucleation and rearrangement of graphitic layers depend on the crystal orientation of the metal nanoparticles. - Abstract: During the experiments aimed at understanding the evolution mechanism by which vapor grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNFs) nucleate and grow, a series of carbon nanomaterials were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using deoiled asphalt (DOA) as carbon source and ferrocene as catalyst precursor with an experimental strategy developed to quench the CVD at different deposition times (3-30 min). The morphology and microstructure of the products were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope, high resolution transmission electron microscope and X-ray powder diffractometer. The formation of hollow/metal-encapsulating carbon nanoparticles at short deposition time (3 min) of CVD and the subsequent evolution of these nanoparticles into carbon nanotubes/nanofibers at longer deposition time suggest a multi-step growth model for VGCNFs, which includes the stages of (1) pyrolysis and aggregation, (2) nucleation, coalescence and self-assembly, and (3) development and maturation. At first, C, Fe and Fe/C clusters are produced by decomposition and agglomeration of C and Fe species from the pyrolysis of DOA and ferrocene; second, the carbon nanoparticles are self-assembled into nanowires with dispersive metal nanoparticles, which are further developed into nanotubes for structural stability and minimum surface energy, meanwhile fishbone-like CNFs might be formed by rearranging carbon layers at an angle against the tube axis under the nucleation of small graphitic layers on certain crystal orientation of the metal particles; finally, CNFs are formed by the synergistic action of metal catalysis and continuous rearrangement of graphitic layers.

  4. In situ formation of hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres in electrospun amorphous carbon nanofibers for high-performance Li-based batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuming; Lu, Zhouguang; Zhou, Limin; Mai, Yiu-Wing; Huang, Haitao

    2012-10-01

    We report on in situ formation of hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres (HGCNs) in amorphous carbon nanofibers (ACNFs) by a combination of electrospinning, calcination and acid treatment. The prepared carbon nanofibers contain many HGCNs on which defects such as discontinuous graphene sheets with a large d-spacing in their wall exist and provide extra sites for Li+ storage and serve as buffers for withstanding large volume expansion and shrinkage during the Li insertion and extraction procedure. Furthermore, some exposed HGCNs on the surface of the ACNFs as well as hollow structures are favorable for lithium ion diffusion from different orientations and sufficient contact between active material and electrolyte. In addition, the high conductivity architectures facilitate collection and transport of electrons during the cycling process. As a result, the ACNFs/HGCNs display a high reversible specific gravimetric capacity of ~750 mA h g-1 and volumetric capacity of ~1.1 A h cm-3 with outstanding rate capability and good cycling stability, which is superior to those of carbon nanofibers (CNFs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), porous ACNFs, graphene nanosheets (GNSs), GNSs/CNFs, hollow carbon nanospheres and graphite. The synthesis process is simple, low-cost and environmentally friendly, providing new avenues for the rational engineering of high-energy carbon-based anode materials.

  5. Direct synthesis of mesostructured carbon nanofibers decorated with silver-nanoparticles as a multifunctional membrane for water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboueloyoun Taha, Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    One-dimensional (1D) porous carbon nanofibers (CNFs) decorated by silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using a one-pot/self-template synthesis strategy by combining electrospinning and carbonization methods. The characterization results revealed that AgNPs were homogenously distributed along the CNFs and possessed a relatively uniform nano-size of about 12 nm. The novel membrane distinctively displayed enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. The membrane exhibited excellent dye degradation and bacteria disinfection in batch experiments. The high photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the highly accessible surface areas, good light absorption capability, and high separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The as-prepared membranes can be easily recycled because of their 1D property.

  6. Activated carbon nanofibers (ACNF) as cathode for single chamber microbial fuel cells (SCMFCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Carlo; Stadlhofer, Astrid; Hacker, Viktor; Squadrito, Gaetano; Schröder, Uwe; Li, Baikun

    2013-12-01

    The suitability of carbon nanofibers (CNF) based cathodes as alternative to the platinum (Pt)-based cathode in single chamber microbial fuel cells (SCMFCs) were extensively studied over 3-month operational period. MFCs were fed with two solutions: synthetic wastewater (phosphate buffer (PBS) plus sodium acetate) and real wastewater (mixed liquor suspendedsolid (MLSS) solution). CNFs were chemically activated using HNO3 and then hot pressed on a carbon cloth support to increase surface area. The cathode polarization showed a better behavior of the clean Pt-based cathode in abiotic conditions. The activation of the nanofibers (ACNFs) gave an advantage to the cathode performances compared to the raw CNFs. The SCMFCs fed with PBS showed four times higher power generation compared to MLSS solution. All the cathodes showed a decrease in performances over time, and the advantage of the Pt over CNF/ACNF disappeared. CNF/ACNF cathodes showed more stability in performances in long time operations. Biofilm formation, salt precipitations on the cathode, and the presence of hydrogen sulfide decreased the activity of Pt cathodes. A degradation and Pt detachment were noticed on Pt cathodes over time. In contrast, CNF/ACNF cathodes exhibited less deterioration throughout the operational period, which demonstrated a great potential as cost-effective cathodes for long-term operation.

  7. Lithium aluminosilicate reinforced with carbon nanofiber and alumina for controlled-thermal-expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials with a very low or tailored thermal expansion have many applications ranging from cookware to the aerospace industry. Among others, lithium aluminosilicates (LAS) are the most studied family with low and negative thermal expansion coefficients. However, LAS materials are electrical insulators and have poor mechanical properties. Nanocomposites using LAS as a matrix are promising in many applications where special properties are achieved by the addition of one or two more phases. The main scope of this work is to study the sinterability of carbon nanofiber (CNFs)/LAS and CNFs/alumina/LAS nanocomposites, and to adjust the ratio among components for obtaining a near-zero or tailored thermal expansion. Spark plasma sintering of nanocomposites, consisting of commercial CNFs and alumina powders and an ad hoc synthesized ?-eucryptite phase, is proposed as a solution to improving mechanical and electrical properties compared with the LAS ceramics obtained under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction results on phase compositions and microstructure are discussed together with dilatometry data obtained in a wide temperature range (?150 to 450 °C). The use of a ceramic LAS phase makes it possible to design a nanocomposite with a very low or tailored thermal expansion coefficient and exceptional electrical and mechanical properties.

  8. Lithium aluminosilicate reinforced with carbon nanofiber and alumina for controlled-thermal-expansion materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Amparo; García-Moreno, Olga; Torrecillas, Ramón; García-Rocha, Victoria; Fernández, Adolfo

    2012-02-01

    Materials with a very low or tailored thermal expansion have many applications ranging from cookware to the aerospace industry. Among others, lithium aluminosilicates (LAS) are the most studied family with low and negative thermal expansion coefficients. However, LAS materials are electrical insulators and have poor mechanical properties. Nanocomposites using LAS as a matrix are promising in many applications where special properties are achieved by the addition of one or two more phases. The main scope of this work is to study the sinterability of carbon nanofiber (CNFs)/LAS and CNFs/alumina/LAS nanocomposites, and to adjust the ratio among components for obtaining a near-zero or tailored thermal expansion. Spark plasma sintering of nanocomposites, consisting of commercial CNFs and alumina powders and an ad hoc synthesized ?-eucryptite phase, is proposed as a solution to improving mechanical and electrical properties compared with the LAS ceramics obtained under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction results on phase compositions and microstructure are discussed together with dilatometry data obtained in a wide temperature range (-150 to 450 °C). The use of a ceramic LAS phase makes it possible to design a nanocomposite with a very low or tailored thermal expansion coefficient and exceptional electrical and mechanical properties.

  9. Lithium aluminosilicate reinforced with carbon nanofiber and alumina for controlled-thermal-expansion materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Borrell, Olga García-Moreno, Ramón Torrecillas, Victoria García-Rocha and Adolfo Fernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials with a very low or tailored thermal expansion have many applications ranging from cookware to the aerospace industry. Among others, lithium aluminosilicates (LAS are the most studied family with low and negative thermal expansion coefficients. However, LAS materials are electrical insulators and have poor mechanical properties. Nanocomposites using LAS as a matrix are promising in many applications where special properties are achieved by the addition of one or two more phases. The main scope of this work is to study the sinterability of carbon nanofiber (CNFs/LAS and CNFs/alumina/LAS nanocomposites, and to adjust the ratio among components for obtaining a near-zero or tailored thermal expansion. Spark plasma sintering of nanocomposites, consisting of commercial CNFs and alumina powders and an ad hoc synthesized ?-eucryptite phase, is proposed as a solution to improving mechanical and electrical properties compared with the LAS ceramics obtained under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction results on phase compositions and microstructure are discussed together with dilatometry data obtained in a wide temperature range (?150 to 450 °C. The use of a ceramic LAS phase makes it possible to design a nanocomposite with a very low or tailored thermal expansion coefficient and exceptional electrical and mechanical properties.

  10. Free-standing anode of N-doped carbon nanofibers containing SnOx for high-performance lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Self-standing SnOx N-CNF electrodes were synthesized by electrospinning. • The SnOx N-CNFs anode exhibits high capacity, good cyclic stability, and excellent rate performance for lithium ion batteries. • The enhanced performance is ascribed to the synergetic effects between N-CNFs and SnOx nanoparticles. - Abstract: Free-standing paper of N-doped carbon nanofibers (NCNFs) containing SnOx was prepared by electrospinning. The structure and morphology of the sample were analyzed by XRD, XPS, SEM, and TEM. The results show that nitrogen atoms were successfully doped into CNFs. The SnOx were homogenously embedded in the N-doped CNFs via annealing treatment. Subsequently, the SnOx NCNF paper was cut into disks and used as anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The anodes of SnOx NCNFs exhibit excellent cycling stability and show high capacity of 520 mA h g?1 tested at a 200 mA g?1 after 100 cycles. More importantly, at a high current density of 500 mA g?1, a large reversible capacity of 430 mA h g?1 after 100 cycles can still be obtained. The good electrochemical performance should be attributed to the good electronic conductivity from the NCNFs and the synergistic effects from NCNFs and SnOx materials

  11. Single-step synthesis of graphene-carbon nanofiber hybrid material and its synergistic magnetic behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, R.K. [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Jeyapandiarajan, P. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India); Devi Chandrasekhar, K. [Cryogenics Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Daniel, B.S.S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India); Venimadhav, A. [Cryogenics Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Sant, S.B. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Jacob, C., E-mail: cxj14_holiday@yahoo.com [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Graphene-CNF-alloy nanoparticle hybrid nanostructure fabricated using CVD. • The hybrid consists of highly crystalline graphene, alloy nanoparticles and CNFs. • The hybrid carbon nanomaterial exhibits interesting induced magnetism. - Abstract: Graphene-carbon nanofiber (CNF) hybrid materials were synthesized by a simple one-step chemical vapour deposition method using propane over a Co{sub 63}Ni{sub 37} alloy catalyst supported on a silicon substrate at 800 °C. The process involves catalyst de-wetting, carbon diffusion and precipitation, with the additional carbon being provided by the polymer (photo-resist, HPR-504). The formation of a graphene-CNF hybrid structure was observed in the presence of the polymer. The polymer plays a crucial role in the formation of the flat carbon nanostructures. In the absence of the polymer, only carbon nanotube growth was observed with the same catalyst under identical experimental conditions. The effect of the polymeric photo-resist layer on the growth of the hybrid structure was analyzed. Structural and morphological data in combination with the Raman spectroscopic data confirmed the formation of a few layers of highly crystalline graphene and CNFs in a hybrid structure. The magnetic behaviour of these as-grown graphene-CNF hybrid samples has been analyzed by using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The results from the magnetic measurements on these samples have also been discussed.

  12. Using Converter Dust to Produce Low Cost Cementitious Composites by in situ Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Ludvig

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs and nanofibers (CNFs were synthesized on clinker and silica fume particles in order to create a low cost cementitious nanostructured material. The synthesis was carried out by an in situ chemical vapor deposition (CVD process using converter dust, an industrial byproduct, as iron precursor. The use of these materials reduces the cost, with the objective of application in large-scale nanostructured cement production. The resulting products were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and were found to be polydisperse in size and to have defective microstructure. Some enhancement in the mechanical behavior of cement mortars was observed due to the addition of these nano-size materials. The contribution of these CNTs/CNFs to the mechanical strength of mortar specimens is similar to that of high quality CNTs incorporated in mortars by physical mixture.

  13. Large-Scale and Selective Synthesis of Carbon Nanofiber Bundles, Curved Carbon Nanofibers and Helical Carbon Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, X S; Ding, Q; Zhong, W; Deng, C Y; Du, Y W

    2015-03-01

    Through the pyrolysis of acetylene at 250 °C, large quantities of carbon nanofiber bundles (CNFBs), curved carbon nanofibers (CCNFs) and helical carbon nanofibers (HCNFs) can be synthesized selectively by controlling the Fe:Cu molar ratio of Fe-Cu nanoparticles. In this study, the systematic experimental results indicated that the Cu content in the Fe-Cu nanoparticles and pyrolysis temperature had great impact on the yield and structure of the final samples. Moreover, the transmission electron microscopic observation indicated that the catalyst nanoparticles were enwrapped tightly by graphite layers, and the obtained HCNFs show good magnetic property. Compared to the methods reported in the literature, the approach described herein has the advantages of being simple, low-cost, and environment-friendly. It is suitable for the controllable and mass production of CNFBs, CCNFs and HCNFs. PMID:26413672

  14. Evaluation of the potential airborne release of carbon nanofibers during the preparation, grinding, and cutting of epoxy-based nanocomposite material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methner, M; Crawford, C; Geraci, C

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted an initial, task-based comparative assessment to determine the potential for release of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) during dry material handling, wet cutting, grinding, and sanding (by machine and hand) of plastic composite material containing CNFs. Using a combination of direct-reading instruments and filter-based air sampling methods for airborne mass and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), concentrations were measured and characterized near sources of particle generation, in the breathing zone of the workers, and in the general work area. Tasks such as surface grinding of composite material and manually transferring dry CNFs produced substantial increases in particle number concentration (range = 20,000-490,000 1-cm(-3)). Concomitant increases in mass concentration were also associated with most tasks. Nearly 90% of all samples examined via TEM indicated that releases of CNFs do occur and that the potential for exposure exists. These findings also indicate that improperly designed, maintained, or installed engineering controls may not be completely effective in controlling releases. Unprotected skin exposure to CNFs was noted in two instances and indicated the need for educating workers on the need for personal protective equipment. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resource: a PDF file containing information on materials, evaluated processes, personal protective equipment, and existing ventilation/engineering controls.]. PMID:22545869

  15. Electrical resistance of carbon-nanofiber concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concrete is the most widely used construction material, and carbon nanofibers have many advantages in both mechanical and electrical properties such as high strength, high Young's modulus and high conductivity. In this paper, the mechanical and electrical properties of concrete containing carbon nanofibers (CNF) are experimentally studied. The test results indicate that the compressive strength and per cent reduction in electrical resistance while loading concrete containing CNF are much greater than those of plain concrete. Finally, a reasonable concentration of CNF is obtained for use in concrete which not only enhances compressive strength, but also improves the electrical properties required for strain monitoring, damage evaluation and self-health monitoring of concrete

  16. Label-Free Detection of Cardiac Troponin-I Using Carbon Nanofiber Based Nanoelectrode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyakaruppan, Adaikkappan; Koehne, Jessica Erin; Gandhiraman, Ram P.; Meyyappan, M.

    2013-01-01

    A sensor platform based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) has been developed. Their inherent nanometer scale, high conductivity, wide potential window, good biocompatibility and well-defined surface chemistry make them ideal candidates as biosensor electrodes. A carbon nanofiber (CNF) multiplexed array has been fabricated with 9 sensing pads, each containing 40,000 carbon nanofibers as nanoelectrodes. Here, we report the use of vertically aligned CNF nanoelectrodes for the detection of cardiac Troponin-I for the early diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Antibody, antitroponin, probe immobilization and subsequent binding to human cardiac troponin-I were characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry techniques. Each step of the modification process resulted in changes in electrical capacitance or resistance to charge transfer due to the changes at the electrode surface upon antibody immobilization and binding to the specific antigen. This sensor demonstrates high sensitivity, down to 0.2 ng/mL, and good selectivity making this platform a good candidate for early stage diagnosis of myocardial infarction.

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis of ?-nickel hydroxide nanocrystalline thin film and growth of oriented carbon nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel well-crystallized ?-nickel hydroxide nanocrystalline thin films were successfully synthesized at low temperature on the quartz substrates by hydrothermal method, and the oriented carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by acetylene cracking at 750 deg. C on thin film as the catalyst precursor. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) measurement shows that thin films were constructed mainly with hexagonal ?-nickel hydroxide nanosheets. The average diameter of the nanosheets was about 80 nm and thickness about 15 nm. Hydrothermal temperature played an important role in the film growth process, influencing the morphologies and catalytic activity of the Ni catalysts. Ni thin films with high catalytic activity were obtained by reduction of these Ni(OH)2 nanocrystalline thin films synthesized at 170 deg. C for 2 h in hydrothermal condition. The highest carbon yield was 1182%, and was significantly higher than the value of the catalyst precursor which was previously reported as the carbon yield (398%) for Ni catalysts. The morphology and growth mechanism of oriented CNFs were also studied finally.

  18. Evaluation of carbon fiber composites modified by in situ incorporation of carbon nanofibers

    OpenAIRE

    André Navarro de Miranda; Luiz Claudio Pardini; Carlos Alberto Moreira dos Santos; Ricardo Vieira

    2011-01-01

    Nano-carbon materials, such as carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers, are being thought to be used as multifunctional reinforcement in composites. The growing of carbon nanofiber at the carbon fiber/epoxy interface results in composites having better electrical properties than conventional carbon fiber/epoxy composites. In this work, carbon nanofibers were grown in situ over the surface of a carbon fiber fabric by chemical vapor deposition. Specimens of carbon fiber/nanofiber/epoxy (CF/CNF/e...

  19. Interweaved Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Miao [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hou, Xianhua, E-mail: houxh@scnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Jie; Li, Min [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu, Shejun [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Shao, Zongping [Nanjing University of Technology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing 210009 (China); Liu, Xiang [Institute of Advanced Materials, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-03-05

    Graphical abstract: In summary, a serious of high-energy wet ball milling, closed spray drying and subsequent chemical vapor deposition methods were introduced successfully to fabricated novel Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites with carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibres interweaved with carbon coated silicon spherical composites as superior anodes in lithium-ion batteries. The core-shell structure of Si@C composites can accommodate the volume change of electrode during charge and discharge. Meanwhile, the citric acid pyrolyzed carbon was coated on the surface of the silicon perfectly and constructs the connection network of nano silicon particles. Moreover, the carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibres, which is interweaved with nano-silicon, also allows high electrical conductivity, improved solid–electrolyte interface formation and structural integrity. Compared with pure silicon and Si@C composites, the novel Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites had the best combination of reversible capacity and cycleablity, and this anode materials exhibited excellent electrochemical performance. The Si/C composite had a fairly high initial discharge capacity of 2168.7 mA h g{sup ?1} with an efficiency of 73%, and the discharge capacity of the 50th cycle maintained surprisingly of 1194.9 mA h g{sup ?1}. Meanwhile, spray drying and chemical vapor deposition are environmentally friendly, economical, and relatively high-yield method for the production of the Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites in large quantities. Consequently, the novel Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composite electrodes may be a potential alternative to graphite for high energy density lithium ion batteries. Highlights: • The core/shell structured silicon/carbon composites were prepared by a facile way. • The as-prepared Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites shows excellent electrochemical performance. • The preparation method has mild experiment conditions and high production rate. • The structure benefited electronic transfer and accommodated volume expansion. -- Abstract: Novel silicon@ carbon/carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibres (Si@C/CNTs and CNFs) composites have been successfully synthesized by a serious of high-energy wet ball milling, closed spray drying and subsequently chemical vapor deposition methods, in which carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers are interweaved with carbon coated silicon (Si@C) spherical composites. As anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites demonstrate a high first discharge capacity and excellent cycle ability. The high initial specific discharge capacity is approximately 2169 mA h g{sup ?1} and a reversible specific capacity approached 1195 mA h g{sup ?1} after 50 cycles at a high current density of 300 mA g{sup ?1}.

  20. Sacrificial bonds in stacked-cup carbon nanofibers: biomimetic toughening mechanisms for composite systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeri, Marc J; Putz, Karl W; Brinson, L Catherine

    2010-07-27

    Many natural composites, such as nacre or bone, achieve exceptional toughening enhancements through the rupture of noncovalent secondary bonds between chain segments in the organic phase. This "sacrificial bond" rupture dissipates enormous amounts of energy and reveals significant hidden lengths due to unraveling of the highly coiled macromolecules, leaving the structural integrity of their covalent backbones intact to large extensions. In this work, we present the first evidence of similar sacrificial bond mechanisms in the inorganic phase of composites using inexpensive stacked-cup carbon nanofibers (CNF), which are composed of helically coiled graphene sheets with graphitic spacing between adjacent layers. These CNFs are dispersed in a series of high-performance epoxy systems containing trifunctional and tetrafunctional resins, which are traditionally difficult to toughen in light of their highly cross-linked networks. Nonetheless, the addition of only 0.68 wt % CNF yields toughness enhancements of 43-112% for the various blends. Analysis of the relevant toughening mechanisms reveals two heretofore unseen mechanisms using sacrificial bonds that complement the observed crack deflection, rupture, and debonding/pullout that are common to many composite systems. First, embedded nanofibers can splay discretely between adjacent graphitic layers in the side walls; second, crack-bridging nanofibers can unravel continuously. Both of these mechanisms entail the dissipation of the pi-pi interactions between layers in the side walls without compromising the structural integrity of the graphene sheets. Moreover, increases in electrical conductivity of approximately 7-10 orders of magnitude were found, highlighting the multifunctionality of CNFs as reinforcements for the design of tough, inexpensive nanocomposites with improved electrical properties. PMID:20568708

  1. Fast preparation of PtRu catalysts supported on carbon nanofibers by the microwave-polyol method and their application to fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Masaharu; Kubokawa, Masatoshi; Yano, Ryuto; Miyamae, Nobuhiro; Tsuji, Takeshi; Jun, Mun-Suk; Hong, Seonghwa; Lim, Seongyop; Yoon, Seong-Ho; Mochida, Isao

    2007-01-16

    PtRu alloy nanoparticles (24 +/- 1 wt %, Ru/Pt atomic ratios = 0.91-0.97) supported on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared within a few minutes by using a microwave-polyol method. Three types of CNFs with very different surface structures, such as platelet, herringbone, and tubular ones, were used as new carbon supports. The dependence of particles sizes and electrochemical properties on the structures of CNFs was examined. It was found that the methanol fuel cell activities of PtRu/CNF catalysts were in the order of platelet > tubular > herringbone. The methanol fuel cell activities of PtRu/CNFs measured at 60 degrees C were 1.7-3.0 times higher than that of a standard PtRu (29 wt %, Ru/Pt atomic ratio = 0.92) catalyst loaded on carbon black (Vulcan XC72R) support. The best electrocatalytic activity was obtained for the platelet CNF, which is characterized by its edge surface and high graphitization degree. PMID:17209582

  2. Novel continuous carbon and ceramic nanofibers and nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yongkui

    2004-12-01

    Manufacturing of carbon nanofibers from PAN precursor is described in Chapter 2 of the dissertation. The electrospun nanofibers were continuous, uniform in diameter, and the samples didn't contain impurities, unlike carbon nanotubes or vapor grown carbon fibers. Systematic studies on the electrospinning parameters showed that nanofiber diameter could be varied in a range of 80 to 1800 nm. XRD studies on the carbon nanofibers fired at different temperatures showed that higher temperature resulted in better nanostructure. Fracture-free random carbon nanofiber sheets were produced by stretch-stabilization and carbonization for the first time. Toughening effects of random as-spun PAN, stabilized PAN, and carbon nanofibers on Mode I and Mode II interlaminar fracture of advanced carbon-epoxy composites were examined by DCB and ENF tests respectively in Chapter 3. The results showed that the interlaminar fracture toughness increased the most with carbon nanofiber reinforcement. 200% improvement in Mode I fracture toughness and 60% in Mode II fracture toughness were achieved with a minimum increase of weight. SEM fractographic analysis showed nanofiber pullout and crack bridging as the main nanomechanisms of toughening. Chapter 4 describes manufacturing of aligned carbon nanofibers and nanocomposites by a modified electrospinning technique. Constant-load stretch-stabilization was applied on carbon nanofibers for the first time. Analysis showed that mechanical properties of nanofibers and nanocomposites improved with stretch-stabilization and alignment of carbon nanofibers. Nanofabrication of ceramic 3Al2O3-2SiO2, SiO2-TiO2 nanofibers by a novel combination of sol-gel and electrospinning techniques invented recently at UNL is described in Chapters 5. The 3Al2O3-2SiO2, SiO2-TiO 2 nanofibers were continuous, non circular in cross section and had crystalline structure after high temperature calcination. Effects of the process parameters on their geometry and structure were studied. In Chapter 6, ZrO2 nanofibers were prepared using commercial and novel polymer-containing sol-gel precursors. The ZrO2 nanofibers were continuous, circular in cross section, and had diameters as small as 80 mn. Aligned ZrO2 nanofibers were prepared using newly developed polymer containing composite precursor for the first time. The possibility of nanomanufacturing of nanocrystalline continuous nanofibers was demonstrated. The results of this dissertation will have an impact in the field of high performance fibers and nanocomposites. This study is expected to catalyze research on advanced continuous nanofibers and may pave way for consideration of continuous advanced electrospun nanofibers as reinforcement in the next generation nanocomposites. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  3. One-step preparation of hydrophilic carbon nanofiber containing magnetic Ni nanoparticles materials and their application in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Jen; Chen, Tse-Ching; Lin, Jarrn-Horng; Huang, Pei-Rong; Tsai, Hsing-Jui; Chen, Ching-Shiun

    2015-02-15

    A one-step process for the synthesis of hydrophilic carbon nanofibers (CNFs) through CO2 hydrogenation on NiNa/Al2O3 was developed for the loading and targeted delivery of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). CNFs that were synthesized on NiNa/Al2O3 for 9 h at 500 °C exhibited an adequate magnetic response and a large content of hydrophilic oxygen-containing functional groups on the carbon surface, resulting in excellent colloidal solution. The CNF material exhibited a highly efficient capacity for DOX adsorption, particularly at pH 9.0. The loading and release of DOX was strongly pH dependent, possibly due to electrostatic and ?-? stacking interactions between DOX and CNF sample. The Langmuir isotherm and pseudo second-order kinetics of DOX-loaded CNFs were well-modeled for the process of DOX adsorption. DOX-loaded CNF targeted cancer cells more selectively and effectively than free DOX and exhibited a marked tendency to kill HeLa cancer cells and reduced toxicity to normal human primary fibroblast (HPF) cells. PMID:25460704

  4. Preparation of flexible zinc oxide/carbon nanofiber webs for mid-temperature desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and zinc precursor were electrospun and heat-treated for preparing zinc oxide (ZnO) modified carbon nanofibers (CNF). • A facile synthesis of composite webs resulted in uniformly loaded ZnO on the surface of CNFs. • The composites showed significant hydrogen sulfide adsorption efficiency at 300 °C. • The flexible webs can be applied for mid-temperature desulfurization. - Abstract: Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) derived carbon nanofiber (CNF) webs loaded with zinc oxide (ZnO) were synthesized using electrospinning and heat treatment at 600 °C. Uniformly dispersed ZnO nanoparticles, clarified by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, were observed on the surface of the nanofiber composites containing 13.6–29.5 wt% of ZnO. The further addition of ZnO up to 34.2 wt% caused agglomeration with a size of 50–80 nm. Higher ZnO contents led the concentrated ZnO nanoparticles on the surface of the nanofibers rather than uniform dispersion along the cross-section of the fiber. The flexible composite webs were crushed and tested for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) adsorption at 300 °C. Breakthrough experiments with the ZnO/CNF composite containing 25.7 wt% of ZnO for H2S adsorption showed three times higher ZnO utilization efficiency compared to pure ZnO nano powders, attributed to chemisorption of the larger surface area of well dispersed ZnO particles on nanofibers and physical adsorption of CNF

  5. Preparation of flexible zinc oxide/carbon nanofiber webs for mid-temperature desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soojung; Bajaj, Bharat [Carbon Convergence Materials Research Center, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, San 101, Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-905 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Chang Ki; Kwon, Soon-Jin [Department of Chemical Engineering Education, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Joh, Han-Ik [Carbon Convergence Materials Research Center, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, San 101, Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-905 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Kwang Bok, E-mail: cosy32@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering Education, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sungho, E-mail: sunghol@kist.re.kr [Carbon Convergence Materials Research Center, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, San 101, Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-905 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Material Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and zinc precursor were electrospun and heat-treated for preparing zinc oxide (ZnO) modified carbon nanofibers (CNF). • A facile synthesis of composite webs resulted in uniformly loaded ZnO on the surface of CNFs. • The composites showed significant hydrogen sulfide adsorption efficiency at 300 °C. • The flexible webs can be applied for mid-temperature desulfurization. - Abstract: Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) derived carbon nanofiber (CNF) webs loaded with zinc oxide (ZnO) were synthesized using electrospinning and heat treatment at 600 °C. Uniformly dispersed ZnO nanoparticles, clarified by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, were observed on the surface of the nanofiber composites containing 13.6–29.5 wt% of ZnO. The further addition of ZnO up to 34.2 wt% caused agglomeration with a size of 50–80 nm. Higher ZnO contents led the concentrated ZnO nanoparticles on the surface of the nanofibers rather than uniform dispersion along the cross-section of the fiber. The flexible composite webs were crushed and tested for hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) adsorption at 300 °C. Breakthrough experiments with the ZnO/CNF composite containing 25.7 wt% of ZnO for H{sub 2}S adsorption showed three times higher ZnO utilization efficiency compared to pure ZnO nano powders, attributed to chemisorption of the larger surface area of well dispersed ZnO particles on nanofibers and physical adsorption of CNF.

  6. Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers: long term involvement and recent applications

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, José; Faria, Joaquim; Órfão, José; Pereira, Fernando; Gomes, Helder; Freitas, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibres (or filaments, CNFs) and vapor-grown carbon fibres (VGCFs) are related materials that can be obtained by pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in the presence of suitable catalysts. The common origins of these carbon nanostructures were discussed in a recent NATO ASI [Carbon Filaments and Nanotubes: Common Origins, Differing Applications? Eds. L.P.Biró, C.A.Bernardo, G.G.Tibbetts, Ph.Lambin, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2001]. CNTs are r...

  7. Mass Production of Carbon Nanofibers Using Microwave Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, N M; Abdullah, E C; Sahu, J N; Jayakumar, N S; Ganesan, P

    2015-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNFs) were produced by gas phase single stage microwave assisted chemical vapour deposition (MA-CVD) using ferrocene as a catalyst and acetylene (C2H2) and hydrogen (H2) as precursor gases. The effect of the process parameters such as microwave power, radiation time, and gas ratio of C2H2/H2 was investigated. The CNFs were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Results reveal that the optimized conditions for CNF production were 1000 W reaction power, 35 min radiation time, and 0.8 gas ratio of C2H2/H2. TEM analyses revealed that the uniformly dispersed CNFs diameters ranging from 115-131 nm. The TGA analysis showed that the purity of CNF produced was 93%. PMID:26682380

  8. Free-standing nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber films as highly efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Xueping; Sun, Zaicheng; You, Tianyan

    2013-09-01

    Free-standing nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber (NCNF) films based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were prepared simply by the combination of electrospinning and thermal treatment. We reused the nitrogen-rich gas generated as the byproduct of PAN at elevated temperature, mainly NH3, for surface etching and nitrogen doping. The as-obtained NCNFs exhibited a rougher surface and smaller diameter than pristine carbon nanofibers. Despite the decreased total N content, a significant increase in the content of pyrrolic-N was observed for the NCNFs. In application to electrochemistry, the free-standing NCNF films showed comparable catalytic activity with a close four-electron pathway to a commercial Pt/C catalyst in alkaline medium toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), which can be attributed to the nitrogen doping and high hydrophilicity. More importantly, the ORR current density on the NCNFs only dropped 6.6% after 10 000 s of continuous operation, suggesting an enhanced long-time durability. In addition, the NCNFs also showed better electrocatalytic selectivity than Pt/C. Our work reveals a facile but efficient approach for the synthesis of free-standing NCNF films as a promising alternative to Pt-based electrocatalysts in fuel cells.Free-standing nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber (NCNF) films based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were prepared simply by the combination of electrospinning and thermal treatment. We reused the nitrogen-rich gas generated as the byproduct of PAN at elevated temperature, mainly NH3, for surface etching and nitrogen doping. The as-obtained NCNFs exhibited a rougher surface and smaller diameter than pristine carbon nanofibers. Despite the decreased total N content, a significant increase in the content of pyrrolic-N was observed for the NCNFs. In application to electrochemistry, the free-standing NCNF films showed comparable catalytic activity with a close four-electron pathway to a commercial Pt/C catalyst in alkaline medium toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), which can be attributed to the nitrogen doping and high hydrophilicity. More importantly, the ORR current density on the NCNFs only dropped 6.6% after 10 000 s of continuous operation, suggesting an enhanced long-time durability. In addition, the NCNFs also showed better electrocatalytic selectivity than Pt/C. Our work reveals a facile but efficient approach for the synthesis of free-standing NCNF films as a promising alternative to Pt-based electrocatalysts in fuel cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental and characterization details; SEM, contact angles of CNFs-A, CNFs-B and NCNFs; rotating disk electrode voltammograms and Koutecky-Levich plots of CNFs-A and CNFs-B; rotating ring-disk electrode voltammograms of NCNFs and Pt/C; and the electrocatalytic selectivity of the NCNFs and Pt/C. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03229a

  9. Carbon nanofibers: a versatile catalytic support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelize Maria de Almeida Coelho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is present an overview of the promising results obtained while using carbon nanofibers based composites as catalyst support for different practical applications: hydrazine decomposition, styrene synthesis, direct oxidation of H2S into elementary sulfur and as fuel-cell electrodes. We have also discussed some prospects of the use of these new materials in total combustion of methane and in ammonia decomposition. The macroscopic carbon nanofibers based composites were prepared by the CVD method (Carbon Vapor Deposition employing a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and ethane. The results showed a high catalytic activity and selectivity in comparison to the traditional catalysts employed in these reactions. The fact was attributed, mainly, to the morphology and the high external surface of the catalyst support.

  10. Carbon nanofibers: a versatile catalytic support

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nelize Maria de Almeida, Coelho; Jomar Livramento Barros, Furtado; Cuong, Pham-Huu; Ricardo, Vieira.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is present an overview of the promising results obtained while using carbon nanofibers based composites as catalyst support for different practical applications: hydrazine decomposition, styrene synthesis, direct oxidation of H2S into elementary sulfur and as fuel-cell electr [...] odes. We have also discussed some prospects of the use of these new materials in total combustion of methane and in ammonia decomposition. The macroscopic carbon nanofibers based composites were prepared by the CVD method (Carbon Vapor Deposition) employing a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and ethane. The results showed a high catalytic activity and selectivity in comparison to the traditional catalysts employed in these reactions. The fact was attributed, mainly, to the morphology and the high external surface of the catalyst support.

  11. Carbon nanofiber/polyethylene nanocomposite: Processing behavior, microstructure and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Electrically conductive CNF/HDPE nanocomposite were prepared by melt compounding. • The effect of processing on the nanocomposites macro and micro structures was analyzed. • 1.4 vol% CNF were required to construct a conductive network within the HDPE matrix. • An EMI SE of 42 dB was reported for 15 vol% CNF/HDPE nanocomposite. • An empirical model was developed to estimate the EMI SE. - Abstract: Electrically conductive polymer nanocomposite of high density polyethylene (HDPE) filled with carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by melt compounding in a batch mixer. The nanocomposite processing behavior was studied by monitoring the mixing torque vs. time as function of filler content. Scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy were used to investigate the nanocomposite dispersion of nanofiller and the adhesion between the nanofiller and polymer matrix. The electrical and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding behaviors of the nanocomposite were reported as function of nanofibers concentration, and an empirical correlation related the EMI SE to the nanocomposite’s electrical resistivity was developed. Good level of CNF dispersion was evident despite the poor adhesion exhibited between the nanofibers and the HDPE matrix. At 1.5 vol% CNF loading, the nanocomposite exhibited an electrical volume resistivity of 105 ?·cm. EMI shielding effectiveness was found to increase with increase in nanofiller concentration. In the 0.1–1.5 GHz frequency range, 2 mm thick plate made of 5 vol% CNF/HDPE nanocomposite exhibits an EMI shielding effectiveness of 20 dB

  12. A Novel Carbon Nanofibers Grown on Glass Microballoons Immunosensor: A Tool for Early Diagnosis of Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Gikunoo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for direct detection of Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein-2 (PfHRP-2 antigen using carbon nanofiber (CNF forests grown on glass microballoons (NMBs. Secondary antibodies specific to PfHRP-2 densely attached to the CNFs exhibit extraordinary ability for the detection of minute concentrations of Plasmodium species. A sandwich immunoassay protocol was employed, where a glass substrate was used to immobilize primary antibodies at designated capture zones. High signal amplification was obtained in both colorimetric and electrical measurements due to the CNFs through specific binding. As a result, it was possible to detect PfHRP-2 levels as low as 0.025 ng/mL concentration in phosphate buffered saline (PBS using a visual signal within only 1 min of test duration. Lower limits of 0.01 ng/mL was obtained by measuring the electrical resistivity of the capture zone. This method is also highly selective and specific in identifying PfHRP-2 and other Plasmodium species from the same solution. In addition, the stability of the labeling mechanism eliminates the false signals generated by the use of dyes in current malaria rapid diagnostic test kits (MRDTs. Thus, the rapid, sensitive and high signal amplification capabilities of NMBs is a promising tool for early diagnosis of malaria and other infectious diseases.

  13. Micro-structural evolution and biomineralization behavior of carbon nanofiber/bioactive glass composites induced by precursor aging time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaolong; Tang, Tianhong; Cheng, Dan; Zhang, Cuihua; Zhang, Ran; Cai, Qing; Yang, Xiaoping

    2015-12-01

    Bioactive glass (BG)-containing carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are promising orthopaedic biomaterials. Herein, CNF composites were produced from electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/BG sol-gel precursor solution, followed by carbonization. Choosing 58S-type BG (mol%: 58.0% SiO2-26.3% CaO-15.7% P2O5) as the model, micro-structural evolution of CNF/BG composites was systematically evaluated in relating to aging times of BG precursor solution. With aging time prolonging, BG precursors underwent morphological changes from small sol clusters with loosely and randomly branched structure to highly crosslinked Si-network structure, showing continuous increase in solution viscosity. BG precursor solution with low viscosity could mix well with PAN solution, resulting in CNF composite with homogeneously distributed BG component. Whereas, BG precursor gel with densely crosslinked Si-network structure led to uneven distribution of BG component along final CNFs due to its significant phase separation from PAN component. Meanwhile, BG nanoparticles in CNFs demonstrated micro-structural evolution that they transited from weak to strong crystal state along with longer aging time. Biomineralization in simulated body fluid and in vitro osteoblasts proliferation were then applied to determine the bioactivity of CNF/BG composites. CNF/BG composites prepared from shorter aging time could induce both faster apatite deposition and cell proliferation rate. It was suggested weakly crystallized BG nanoparticles along CNFs dissolved fast and was able to provide numerous nucleation sites for apatite deposition, which also favored the proliferation of osteoblasts cells. Aging time could thus be a useful tool to regulate the biological features of CNF/BG composites. PMID:26454549

  14. Synthesis of carbon nano-fibers on p-Si having improved temperature sensing capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, S. [UGC-DAE CSR, Kalpakkam Node, Kokilamedu 603104 (India); Ghosh, D.; Ghosh, B.; Chaudhuri, Subhajyoti; Bhar, R. [Department of Instrumentation Science, USIC Building, Jadavpur University, Calcutta 700032 (India); Pal, A.K., E-mail: msakp2002@yahoo.co.in [Department of Instrumentation Science, USIC Building, Jadavpur University, Calcutta 700032 (India)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of carbon nanofibers on p-Si. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBM in Raman spectra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Superior temperature sensing capability. - Abstract: Synthesis of an innovative material for temperature sensor based on carbon nano-fibers (CNFs) on p-Si substrates has been demonstrated. The CNF films were characterized by SEM, Raman and FTIR studies. First order Raman spectra indicated a G band at {approx}1597 cm{sup -1} corresponding to the E{sub 2g} tangential stretching mode of an ordered graphitic structure with sp{sup 2} hybridization and a D band located {approx}1350 cm{sup -1} originated from disordered carbon. Gold fingers were deposited on the p-Si/CNF surface for resistance measurement. Temperature sensing properties were also investigated critically. Resistance changes with temperature ({Delta}R/R) in p-Si/CNF films are found to be significantly large 30-60% Very stable, reproducible and improved temperature sensing properties would make this material superior to commonly available temperature sensors.

  15. Controlled Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibers Anchored with ZnxCo3-xO4 Nanocubes as Binder-Free Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Renzhong; Hu, Yi; Shen, Zhen; Chen, Yanli; He, Xia; Zhang, Xiangwu; Zhang, Yan

    2016-02-01

    The direct growth of complex ternary metal oxides on three-dimensional conductive substrates is highly desirable for improving the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). We herein report a facile and scalable strategy for the preparation of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) anchored with ZnxCo3-xO4 (ZCO) nanocubes, involving a hydrothermal process and thermal treatment. Moreover, the size of the ZCO nanocubes was adjusted by the quantity of urea used in the hydrothermal process. Serving as a binder-free anode material for LIBs, the ZnCo2O4/CNFs composite prepared using 1.0 mmol of urea (ZCO/CNFs-10) exhibited excellent electrochemical performance with high reversible capacity, excellent cycling stability, and good rate capability. More specifically, a high reversible capacity of ?600 mAh g(-1) was obtained at a current density of 0.5 C following 300 charge-discharge cycles. The excellent electrochemical performance could be associated with the controllable size of the ZCO nanocubes and synergistic effects between ZCO and the CNFs. PMID:26761129

  16. Copper-doped Li4Ti5O12/carbon nanofiber composites as anode for high-performance sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yeqian; Jiang, Han; Fu, Kun; Zhang, Changhuan; Zhu, Jiadeng; Chen, Chen; Lu, Yao; Qiu, Yiping; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2014-12-01

    Lithium titanium oxide (Li4Ti5O12) is a promising anode material, owing to its superior safety and reliability. However, the main challenge of Li4Ti5O12 is the low material conductivity which restricts its electrochemical performance. In order to use Li4Ti5O12 in practical sodium-ion batteries, copper-doped Li4Ti5O12 (Li4-xCuxTi5O12, x = 0, 0.05, 0.1) nanoparticles were prepared to enhance the electronic conductivity. Copper-doped Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles were then embedded in continuous carbon nanofibers (CNFs), which gave rise to fast electron transfer along the fiber direction. After copper-doping and CNF embedding, the resultant copper-doped Li4Ti5O12/CNFs achieved excellent reversible capacity (158.1 mAh g-1) at 30 mA g-1, high coulombic efficiency (99.87%), and good capacity retention (91%) after 150 cycles. In addition, copper-doped Li4Ti5O12/CNFs also exhibited good rate capability. It is, therefore, demonstrated that copper-doped Li4Ti5O12/CNFs are promising anode candidate.

  17. Free-standing anode of N-doped carbon nanofibers containing SnO{sub x} for high-performance lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Mingzhong [College of Physics and Energy, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Li, Jiaxin, E-mail: ljx3012982@yahoo.com [College of Physics and Energy, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Wen, Weiwei; Lin, Yingbin [College of Physics and Energy, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Lai, Heng, E-mail: laiheng@fjnu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Energy, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Huang, Zhigao, E-mail: zghuang@fjnu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Energy, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Self-standing SnO{sub x} N-CNF electrodes were synthesized by electrospinning. • The SnO{sub x} N-CNFs anode exhibits high capacity, good cyclic stability, and excellent rate performance for lithium ion batteries. • The enhanced performance is ascribed to the synergetic effects between N-CNFs and SnO{sub x} nanoparticles. - Abstract: Free-standing paper of N-doped carbon nanofibers (NCNFs) containing SnO{sub x} was prepared by electrospinning. The structure and morphology of the sample were analyzed by XRD, XPS, SEM, and TEM. The results show that nitrogen atoms were successfully doped into CNFs. The SnO{sub x} were homogenously embedded in the N-doped CNFs via annealing treatment. Subsequently, the SnO{sub x} NCNF paper was cut into disks and used as anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The anodes of SnO{sub x} NCNFs exhibit excellent cycling stability and show high capacity of 520 mA h g{sup ?1} tested at a 200 mA g{sup ?1} after 100 cycles. More importantly, at a high current density of 500 mA g{sup ?1}, a large reversible capacity of 430 mA h g{sup ?1} after 100 cycles can still be obtained. The good electrochemical performance should be attributed to the good electronic conductivity from the NCNFs and the synergistic effects from NCNFs and SnO{sub x} materials.

  18. The synthesis of titanium carbide-reinforced carbon nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tailoring hard materials into nanoscale building blocks can greatly extend the applications of hard materials and, at the same time, also represents a significant challenge in the field of nanoscale science. This work reports a novel process for the preparation of carbon-based one-dimensional hard nanomaterials. The titanium carbide-carbon composite nanofibers with an average diameter of 90 nm are prepared by an electrospinning technique and a high temperature pyrolysis process. A composite solution containing polyacrylonitrile and titanium sources is first electrospun into the composite nanofibers, which are subsequently pyrolyzed to produce the desired products. The x-ray diffraction pattern and transmission electron microscopy results show that the main phase of the as-synthesized nanofibers is titanium carbide. The Raman analyses show that the composite nanofibers have low graphite clusters in comparison with the pure carbon nanofibers originating from the electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers. The mechanical property tests demonstrate that the titanium carbide-carbon nanofiber membranes have four times higher tensile strength than the carbon nanofiber membranes, and the Young's modulus of the titanium carbide-carbon nanofiber membranes increases in direct proportion to the titanium quantity.

  19. Synthesis of carbon nanofibers on copper particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol'tsova, T. S.; Larionova, T. V.; Shusharina, N. N.; Tolochko, O. V.

    2015-08-01

    We analyze the synthesis of carbon nanostructures from the gas phase (mixture of acetylene or ethylene with hydrogen) on the surface of copper particles without using other catalysts. The synthesized structures (multilayer graphene and carbon nanofibers) are analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering. It is shown that the fiber structure is determined by the C: H ratio in the gas phase. The kinetics of synthesis is analyzed in terms of the formal kinetics of conversion in accordance with the Johnson—Mehl—Avrami equation.

  20. Effect of carbon nanofiber surface groups on oxygen reduction reaction of supported Pt electrocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We studied the effect of oxygen-groups on the particle size and deposition of Pt particles. ? Pt/CNF-OH exhibits smaller Pt mean particle size compared with Pt/CNF-OX. ? Pt/CNF-OH/GC electrode exhibits a better ORR activity than Pt/CNF-OX/GC electrode. -- Abstract: Pt nanoparticles supported on the acid-treated carbon nanofiber (CNF-OX) and LiAlH4-treated carbon nanofiber (CNF-OH) are synthesized via ethylene glycol reduction method. The nature of oxygen-containing surface groups on the CNF-OX and CNF-OH is investigated by potentiometric titration and XPS characterization. Titration of the support materials shows that LiAlH4 can effectively convert the carboxylic acid groups (from 0.21 mmol g?1 to 0.06 mmol g?1) to hydroxyl groups (from 0.09 mmol g?1 to 0.17 mmol g?1), which is agreed well with the results of XPS characterization. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) characterization shows that the Pt nanoparticles are highly dispersed on the two modified CNFs, and the Pt nanoparticles supported on the CNF-OH have a smaller particle size and a more uniform particle size distribution. Rotating disk electrode (RDE) analysis reveals that Pt/CNF-OH exhibits a better activity for ORR than Pt/CNF-OX, and this may be associated with the smaller particle size and better dispersion of Pt nanoparticles on the CNF-OH

  1. The role of carbon nanofiber defects on the electrical and mechanical properties of CNF-based resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagno, Liberata; Raimondo, Marialuigia; Vittoria, Vittoria; Vertuccio, Luigi; Lafdi, Khalid; De Vivo, Biagio; Lamberti, Patrizia; Spinelli, Giovanni; Tucci, Vincenzo

    2013-08-01

    Heat treatment of carbon nanofibers has proven to be an effective method in removing defects from carbon nanofibers, causing a strong increase in their structural perfection and thermal stability. It affects the bonding states of carbon atoms in the nanofiber structure and causes a significant transformation in the hybridization state of the bonded carbon atoms. Nanofilled resins made of heat-treated CNF show significant increases in their electrical conductivity even at low concentrations. This confirms that enhancement in the perfection of the fiber structure with consequent change in the morphological features plays a prominent role in affecting the electrical properties. Indeed heat-treated CNFs display a stiff structure and a smooth surface which tends to lower the thickness of the unavoidable insulating epoxy layer formed around the CNF which, in turn, plays a fundamental role in the electrical transport properties along the conducting clusters. This might be very beneficial in terms of electrical conductivity but might have negligible effect on the mechanical properties.

  2. The role of carbon nanofiber defects on the electrical and mechanical properties of CNF-based resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat treatment of carbon nanofibers has proven to be an effective method in removing defects from carbon nanofibers, causing a strong increase in their structural perfection and thermal stability. It affects the bonding states of carbon atoms in the nanofiber structure and causes a significant transformation in the hybridization state of the bonded carbon atoms. Nanofilled resins made of heat-treated CNF show significant increases in their electrical conductivity even at low concentrations. This confirms that enhancement in the perfection of the fiber structure with consequent change in the morphological features plays a prominent role in affecting the electrical properties. Indeed heat-treated CNFs display a stiff structure and a smooth surface which tends to lower the thickness of the unavoidable insulating epoxy layer formed around the CNF which, in turn, plays a fundamental role in the electrical transport properties along the conducting clusters. This might be very beneficial in terms of electrical conductivity but might have negligible effect on the mechanical properties. (paper)

  3. Highly conductive electrospun carbon nanofiber/MnO2 coaxial nano-cables for high energy and power density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Mingjia; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Meng, Fanke; Wu, Nianqiang

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents highly conductive carbon nanofiber/MnO2 coaxial cables in which individual electrospun carbon nanofibers are coated with an ultrathin hierarchical MnO2 layer. In the hierarchical MnO2 structure, an around 4 nm thick sheath surrounds the carbon nanofiber (CNF) in a diameter of 200 nm, and nano-whiskers grow radically outward from the sheath in view of the cross-section of the coaxial cables, giving a high specific surface area of MnO2. The CNFs are synthesized by electrospinning a precursor containing iron acetylacetonate (AAI). The addition of AAI not only enlarges the specific surface area of the CNF but also greatly enhances their electronic conductivity, which leads to a dramatic improvement in the specific capacitance and the rate capability of the CNF/MnO2 electrode. The AAI-CNF/MnO2 electrode shows a specific capacitance of 311 F g-1 for the whole electrode and 900 F g-1 for the MnO2 shell at a scan rate of 2 mV s-1. Good cycling stability, high energy density (80.2 Wh kg-1) and high power density (57.7 kW kg-1) are achieved. This work indicates that high electronic conductivity of the electrode material is crucial to achieving high power and energy density for pseudo-supercapacitors.

  4. Nanoporous Carbon Nanofibers Decorated with Platinum Nanoparticles for Non-Enzymatic Electrochemical Sensing of H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe the preparation of nanoporous carbon nanofibers (CNFs decorated with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs in this work by electrospining polyacrylonitrile (PAN nanofibers and subsequent carbonization and binding of PtNPs. The fabricated nanoporous CNF-PtNP hybrids were further utilized to modify glass carbon electrodes and used for the non-enzymatic amperometric biosensor for the highly sensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. The morphologies of the fabricated nanoporous CNF-PtNP hybrids were observed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and their structure was further investigated with Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET surface area analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectrum. The cyclic voltammetry experiments indicate that CNF-PtNP modified electrodes have high electrocatalytic activity toward H2O2 and the chronoamperometry measurements illustrate that the fabricated biosensor has a high sensitivity for detecting H2O2. We anticipate that the strategies utilized in this work will not only guide the further design and fabrication of functional nanofiber-based biomaterials and nanodevices, but also extend the potential applications in energy storage, cytology, and tissue engineering.

  5. Development of bimetal-grown multi-scale carbon micro-nanofibers as an immobilizing matrix for enzymes in biosensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, Amit R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India); Saurakhiya, Neelam; Deva, Dinesh [DST Unit on Nanosciences, Kanpur, 208016 (India); Sharma, Ashutosh [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India); DST Unit on Nanosciences, Kanpur, 208016 (India); Verma, Nishith, E-mail: nishith@iitk.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India); Center for Environmental Science and Engineering, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2013-10-15

    This study describes the development of a novel bimetal (Fe and Cu)-grown hierarchical web of carbon micro-nanofiber-based electrode for biosensor applications, in particular to detect glucose in liquids. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are grown on activated carbon microfibers (ACFs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using Cu and Fe as the metal catalysts. The transition metal-fiber composite is used as the working electrode of a biosensor applied to detect glucose in liquids. In such a bi-nanometal-grown multi-scale web of ACF/CNF, Cu nanoparticles adhere to the ACF-surface, whereas Fe nanoparticles used to catalyze the growth of nanofibers attach to the CNF tips. By ultrasonication, Fe nanoparticles are dislodged from the tips of the CNFs. Glucose oxidase (GOx) is subsequently immobilized on the tips by adsorption. The dispersion of Cu nanoparticles at the substrate surface results in increased conductivity, facilitating electron transfer from the glucose solution to the ACF surface during the enzymatic reaction with glucose. The prepared Cu-ACF/CNF/GOx electrode is characterized for various surface and physicochemical properties by different analytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), BET surface area analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical tests show that the prepared electrode has fast response current, electrochemical stability, and high electron transfer rate, corroborated by CV and calibration curves. The prepared transition metal-based carbon electrode in this study is cost-effective, simple to develop, and has a stable immobilization matrix for enzymes. - Graphical abstract: A novel bimetal (Fe and Cu)-grown hierarchical web of carbon micro-nanofiber-based electrode is synthesized for biosensor applications, in particular to detect glucose in liquids. Carbon nanofibers are grown on activated carbon microfibers by chemical vapor deposition using Cu and Fe as the metal catalysts. In such a bi-nanometal-grown multi-scale web of ACF/CNF, Cu nanoparticles adhere to the ACF-surface, whereas Fe nanoparticles used to catalyze the growth of nanofibers attach to the CNF tips. Following ultrasonication, Fe nanoparticles are dislodged and replaced with glucose oxidase. The electrochemical tests show that the prepared electrode has fast response current, electrochemical stability, and high electron transfer rate, corroborated by its CV and calibration curves. Highlights: • Fe–Cu-grown web of carbon micro-nanofiber-based electrode was prepared. • The carbon electrode was applied to detect glucose in liquids. • It has electrochemical stability and high electron transfer rate. • The electrode is cost-effective and simple to develop. • It has a stable immobilization matrix for enzymes.

  6. Development of bimetal-grown multi-scale carbon micro-nanofibers as an immobilizing matrix for enzymes in biosensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the development of a novel bimetal (Fe and Cu)-grown hierarchical web of carbon micro-nanofiber-based electrode for biosensor applications, in particular to detect glucose in liquids. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are grown on activated carbon microfibers (ACFs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using Cu and Fe as the metal catalysts. The transition metal-fiber composite is used as the working electrode of a biosensor applied to detect glucose in liquids. In such a bi-nanometal-grown multi-scale web of ACF/CNF, Cu nanoparticles adhere to the ACF-surface, whereas Fe nanoparticles used to catalyze the growth of nanofibers attach to the CNF tips. By ultrasonication, Fe nanoparticles are dislodged from the tips of the CNFs. Glucose oxidase (GOx) is subsequently immobilized on the tips by adsorption. The dispersion of Cu nanoparticles at the substrate surface results in increased conductivity, facilitating electron transfer from the glucose solution to the ACF surface during the enzymatic reaction with glucose. The prepared Cu-ACF/CNF/GOx electrode is characterized for various surface and physicochemical properties by different analytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), BET surface area analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical tests show that the prepared electrode has fast response current, electrochemical stability, and high electron transfer rate, corroborated by CV and calibration curves. The prepared transition metal-based carbon electrode in this study is cost-effective, simple to develop, and has a stable immobilization matrix for enzymes. - Graphical abstract: A novel bimetal (Fe and Cu)-grown hierarchical web of carbon micro-nanofiber-based electrode is synthesized for biosensor applications, in particular to detect glucose in liquids. Carbon nanofibers are grown on activated carbon microfibers by chemical vapor deposition using Cu and Fe as the metal catalysts. In such a bi-nanometal-grown multi-scale web of ACF/CNF, Cu nanoparticles adhere to the ACF-surface, whereas Fe nanoparticles used to catalyze the growth of nanofibers attach to the CNF tips. Following ultrasonication, Fe nanoparticles are dislodged and replaced with glucose oxidase. The electrochemical tests show that the prepared electrode has fast response current, electrochemical stability, and high electron transfer rate, corroborated by its CV and calibration curves. Highlights: • Fe–Cu-grown web of carbon micro-nanofiber-based electrode was prepared. • The carbon electrode was applied to detect glucose in liquids. • It has electrochemical stability and high electron transfer rate. • The electrode is cost-effective and simple to develop. • It has a stable immobilization matrix for enzymes

  7. Improving interfacial adhesion with epoxy matrix using hybridized carbon nanofibers containing calcium phosphate nanoparticles for bone repairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xukang; Lan, Jinle; Jia, Xiaolong; Cai, Qing; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-04-01

    Hybridized carbon nanofibers containing calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CNF/CaP) were investigated as osteocompatible nanofillers for epoxy resin. The CNF/CaP was produced by electrospinning mixture solution of polyacrylonitrile and CaP precursor sol-gel, followed by preoxidation and carbonization. The continuous and long CNF/CaP was ultrasonically chopped, mixed into epoxy resin and thermo-cured. Compared to pure CNFs with similar ultrasonication treatment, the shortened CNF/CaP reinforced composites demonstrated significant enhancement in flexural properties of epoxy composites, benefiting from the improved interfacial adhesion between CNF/CaP and resin matrix. The resulting composites also displayed good biocompatibility and sustained calcium ion release, which categorized them as promising materials for bone repairing. PMID:26838838

  8. Enhancing the rate performance of graphite anodes through addition of natural graphite/carbon nanofibers in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Internal pores of graphite increased the rate property of anode in Li-ion battery. ? Added NG/CNFs into graphite successfully increased the internal pores. ? Introduced internal pores suppressed the anodic volume change in charge–discharge. - Abstract: Mesophase pitch-derived synthetic graphite was hybridized with natural graphite/carbon nanofiber (NG/CNF) composites prepared by mechanical mixing, carbonization, and graphitization processes. Addition of the NG/CNF composites introduced effective internal pores inside the synthetic graphite matrix, thereby improving the rate performance, 1st cycle coulombic efficiency, and cyclability. Hybridized graphite with 10 wt% of added NG/CNF composite exhibited the best rate performance, with a discharge capacity retention rate of over 90% after a 5 C discharge test

  9. Potential applications of nanofiber textile covered by carbon coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ro?ek

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nanospider technology is modified electrospinning method for production nanofiber textile from polymer solutions. This material can be used as wound dressing and filter materials for example. Carbon coatings deposited onto surface of polymer nanofiber textiles are predicted to improve filtration effectivity of filters and bioactivity of wound dressings. Carbon coatings have been produced by Microwave Radio Frequency Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MW/RF PACVD method.Design/methodology/approach: Carbon coatings were deposited on polymer nanofiber textile by MW/RF PACVD method. Nanocomposite obtained in this way was characterized by the contact angle studies and by scanning electron microscope (SEM.Findings: Carbon coatings can be deposited on the polymer nanofibers by MW/RF PACVD method. Content of diamond phase in produced carbon coatings has been confirmed by wetability test. A SEM microscopic images have shown that the spaces between the nanofibers have not been closed by the material of the film.Research limitations/implications: MW/RF PACVD makes carbon coating synthesis possible in lower temperature, what is essential in case of applying the polymer substrate. Use of any other method than MW/RF PACVD for deposition of carbon coatings onto polymer nanofiber textile is not covered in this paper.Practical implications: Nanofiber textile produced by Nanospider is very good mechanical filter. Carbon onto surface of nanofibers can cause from this material active filter. Since this nanocomposite enables the transport of oxygen and exudate, simultaneously is impenetrable for bacteria or even viruses, it can be used for wound dressing.Originality/value: It is our belief that we are first to have deposited carbon coatings on nanofiber textile. We hope that in this way we have prepared very good material for filtration of air and for wound dressing.

  10. Electrochemical Performance of Electrospun carbon nanofibers as free-standing and binder-free anodes for Sodium-Ion and Lithium-Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Electrospun carbon nanofiber webs were prepared by pyrolysis of polyacrylonitrile. • The webs as binder-free and current collector-free electrodes for SIBs and LIBs. • Different layer spacing and pore size for Li and Na lead different electrochemical behavior. • Electrochemical performances of the electrodes were high. - Abstract: A series of hard carbon nanofiber-based electrodes derived from electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers (PAN-CNFs) have been fabricated by stabilization in air at about 280 °C and then carbonization in N2 at heat treatment temperatures (HTT) between 800 and 1500 °C. The electrochemical performances of the binder-free, current collector-free carbon nanofiber-based anodes in lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries are systematically investigated and compared. We demonstrate the presence of similar alkali metal insertion mechanisms in both cases, but just the differences of the layer spacing and pore size available for lithium and sodium ion lead the discharge capacity delivered at sloping region and plateau region to vary from the kinds of alkali elements. Although the anodes in sodium-ion batteries show poorer rate capability than that in lithium-ion batteries, they still achieve a reversible sodium intercalation capacity of 275 mAh g−1 and similar cycling stability due to the conductive 3-D network, weakly ordered turbostratic structure and a large interlayer spacing between graphene sheets. The feature of high capacity and stable cycling performance makes PAN-CNFs to be promising candidates as electrodes in rechargeable sodium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries

  11. Evaluation of carbon fiber composites modified by in situ incorporation of carbon nanofibers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Navarro de, Miranda; Luiz Claudio, Pardini; Carlos Alberto Moreira dos, Santos; Ricardo, Vieira.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nano-carbon materials, such as carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers, are being thought to be used as multifunctional reinforcement in composites. The growing of carbon nanofiber at the carbon fiber/epoxy interface results in composites having better electrical properties than conventional carbon f [...] iber/epoxy composites. In this work, carbon nanofibers were grown in situ over the surface of a carbon fiber fabric by chemical vapor deposition. Specimens of carbon fiber/nanofiber/epoxy (CF/CNF/epoxy) composites were molded and electrical conductivity was measured. Also, the CF/CNF/epoxy composites were tested under flexure and interlaminar shear. The results showed an overall reduction in mechanical properties as a function of added nanofiber, although electrical conductivity increased up to 74% with the addition of nanofibers. Thus CF/CNF/epoxy composites can be used as electrical dissipation discharge materials.

  12. Preparation of a new adsorbent from activated carbon and carbon nanofiber (AC/CNF for manufacturing organic-vacbpour respirator cartridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forushani Abbas Rahimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study a composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofiber (AC/CNF was prepared to improve the performance of activated carbon (AC for adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and its utilization for respirator cartridges. Activated carbon was impregnated with a nickel nitrate catalyst precursor and carbon nanofibers (CNF were deposited directly on the AC surface using catalytic chemical vapor deposition. Deposited CNFs on catalyst particles in AC micropores, were activated by CO2 to recover the surface area and micropores. Surface and textural characterizations of the prepared composites were investigated using Brunauer, Emmett and Teller’s (BET technique and electron microscopy respectively. Prepared composite adsorbent was tested for benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX adsorption and then employed in an organic respirator cartridge in granular form. Adsorption studies were conducted by passing air samples through the adsorbents in a glass column at an adjustable flow rate. Finally, any adsorbed species not retained by the adsorbents in the column were trapped in a charcoal sorbent tube and analyzed by gas chromatography. CNFs with a very thin diameter of about 10-20 nm were formed uniformly on the AC/CNF. The breakthrough time for cartridges prepared with CO2 activated AC/CNF was 117 minutes which are significantly longer than for those cartridges prepared with walnut shell- based activated carbon with the same weight of adsorbents. This study showed that a granular form CO2 activated AC/CNF composite could be a very effective alternate adsorbent for respirator cartridges due to its larger adsorption capacities and lower weight.

  13. Preparation of a new adsorbent from activated carbon and carbon nanofiber (AC/CNF) for manufacturing organic-vacbpour respirator cartridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangiri, Mehdi; Adl, Javad; Shahtaheri, Seyyed Jamaleddin; Rashidi, Alimorad; Ghorbanali, Amir; Kakooe, Hossein; Forushani, Abbas Rahimi; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    In this study a composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofiber (AC/CNF) was prepared to improve the performance of activated carbon (AC) for adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and its utilization for respirator cartridges. Activated carbon was impregnated with a nickel nitrate catalyst precursor and carbon nanofibers (CNF) were deposited directly on the AC surface using catalytic chemical vapor deposition. Deposited CNFs on catalyst particles in AC micropores, were activated by CO2 to recover the surface area and micropores. Surface and textural characterizations of the prepared composites were investigated using Brunauer, Emmett and Teller's (BET) technique and electron microscopy respectively. Prepared composite adsorbent was tested for benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) adsorption and then employed in an organic respirator cartridge in granular form. Adsorption studies were conducted by passing air samples through the adsorbents in a glass column at an adjustable flow rate. Finally, any adsorbed species not retained by the adsorbents in the column were trapped in a charcoal sorbent tube and analyzed by gas chromatography. CNFs with a very thin diameter of about 10-20 nm were formed uniformly on the AC/CNF. The breakthrough time for cartridges prepared with CO2 activated AC/CNF was 117 minutes which are significantly longer than for those cartridges prepared with walnut shell- based activated carbon with the same weight of adsorbents. This study showed that a granular form CO2 activated AC/CNF composite could be a very effective alternate adsorbent for respirator cartridges due to its larger adsorption capacities and lower weight. PMID:23369424

  14. Carbon nanofiber reinforced epoxy matrix composites and syntactic foams - mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Ronald Leonel

    The tailorability of composite materials is crucial for use in a wide array of real-world applications, which range from heat-sensitive computer components to fuselage reinforcement on commercial aircraft. The mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties of composites are highly dependent on their material composition, method of fabrication, inclusion orientation, and constituent percentages. The focus of this work is to explore carbon nanofibers (CNFs) as potential nanoscale reinforcement for hollow particle filled polymer composites referred to as syntactic foams. In the present study, polymer composites with high weight fractions of CNFs, ranging from 1-10 wt.%, are used for quasi-static and high strain rate compression analysis, as well as for evaluation and characterization of thermal and electrical properties. It is shown that during compressive characterization of vapor grown carbon nanofiber (CNF)/epoxy composites in the strain rate range of 10-4-2800 s-1, a difference in the fiber failure mechanism is identified based on the strain rate. Results from compression analyses show that the addition of fractions of CNFs and glass microballoons varies the compressive strength and elastic modulus of epoxy composites by as much as 53.6% and 39.9%. The compressive strength and modulus of the syntactic foams is also shown to generally increase by a factor of 3.41 and 2.96, respectively, with increasing strain rate when quasi-static and high strain rate testing data are compared, proving strain rate sensitivity of these reinforced composites. Exposure to moisture over a 6 month period of time is found to reduce the quasi-static and high strain rate strength and modulus, with a maximum of 7% weight gain with select grades of CNF/syntactic foam. The degradation of glass microballoons due to dealkalization is found to be the primary mechanism for reduced mechanical properties, as well as moisture diffusion and weight gain. In terms of thermal analysis results, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of CNF/epoxy and CNF/syntactic foam composites reinforced with glass microballoons decrease by as much as 11.6% and 38.4%. The experimental CTE values for all of the composites also fit within the bounds of established analytical models predicting the CTE of fiber and particle-reinforced composites. Further thermal studies through dynamic mechanical analysis demonstrated increased thermal stability and damping capability, where the maximum use and glass transition temperatures increase as much as 27.1% and 25.0%, respectively. The electrical properties of CNF reinforced composites are evaluated as well, where the electrical impedance decreases and the dielectric constant increases with addition of CNFs. Such behavior occurs despite the presence of epoxy and glass microballoons, which serve as insulative phases. Such results are useful in design considerations of lightweight composite materials used in weight saving, compressive strength, and damage tolerance applications, such as lightweight aircraft structure reinforcement, automobile components, and buoyancy control with marine submersibles. The results of the analyses have also evaluated certain factors for environmental exposure and temperature extremes, as well as considerations for electronics packaging, all of which have also played a role in shaping avant-garde composite structure designs for efficient, versatile, and long-life service use.

  15. Facilitated transport channels in carbon nanotube/carbon nanofiber hierarchical composites decorated with manganese dioxide for flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Song, Dengfei; Zhao, Hao; Chen, Jiayi; Zhao, Changhui; Chen, Lulu; Chen, Wanjun; Zhou, Jinyuan; Xie, Erqing

    2015-01-01

    Freestanding carbon nanotube/carbon nanofiber (CNT/CNF) composites are prepared using electrospun CNFs as skeletons in a tubular chemical vapor deposition system. The obtained CNT/CNF composites show a hierarchical structure with a high special surface area, a high conductance (1250 S cm-1 for a 10 mm × 20 mm sample), and a high flexibility. After coated with manganese dioxide (MnO2) via an in-situ redox deposition for 0.5 h (?0.33 mg), the CNT/CNF/MnO2 electrodes show a high specific capacitance of 517 F g-1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1, which is about 5.6 time higher than that CNF/MnO2-0.25 h ones with MnO2 of ?0.36 mg. Moreover, this CNT/CNF/MnO2 electrodes show a much higher rate capability (57% at current density of 14 A g-1) than CNF/MnO2 ones (24% at 14 A g-1), and also show a higher cycling stability (maintaining 75% of the initial capacitance at cycle number of 1000). In addition, the symmetric supercapacitor assembled using two piece CNT/CNF/MnO2 electrodes shows their maximum energy density of 3.88 Wh kg-1 at power density of 7000 W kg-1. The capacitance of the assembled capacitor maintains 70% after 100 bending cycles, indicating a good flexibility. These enhancements in EC performances should be due to our designed hierarchical structures. It is suggested that such freestanding flexible CNFs/CNTs/MnO2 hierarchical composites are highly promising for high-performance flexible supercapacitors.

  16. Silicon Whisker and Carbon Nanofiber Composite Anode Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a silicon whisker and carbon nanofiber composite anode for lithium ion batteries on a Phase I program. This anode...

  17. Silicon Whisker and Carbon Nanofiber Composite Anode Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has successfully developed a silicon whisker and carbon nanofiber composite anode for lithium ion batteries on a Phase I program. PSI...

  18. Potential applications of nanofiber textile covered by carbon coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Ro?ek; W. Kaczorowski; Lukáš, D.; P. Louda; S. Mitura

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Nanospider technology is modified electrospinning method for production nanofiber textile from polymer solutions. This material can be used as wound dressing and filter materials for example. Carbon coatings deposited onto surface of polymer nanofiber textiles are predicted to improve filtration effectivity of filters and bioactivity of wound dressings. Carbon coatings have been produced by Microwave Radio Frequency Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MW/RF PACVD) method.Desig...

  19. Synergistic effect of carbon nanofiber and sub-micro filamentary nickel nanostrand on the shape memory polymer nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work studies the synergistic effect of carbon nanofiber (CNF) and sub-micro filamentary nickel nanostrand on the thermal and electrical properties, as well as the electro-active shape memory behavior, of a shape memory polymer (SMP) nanocomposite. The combination of electrical CNF and electromagnetic nickel nanostrand is used to render insulating thermo-responsive SMPs conductive. Subsequently, the shape memory behavior of the SMP can be activated by the electrical resistive heating. It is shown that sub-micro filamentary nickel-coated nanostrands significantly improved the electrical conductivity to facilitate the actuation of the SMP nanocomposite despite the low nanostrand volume content and low electrical voltage. Also the CNFs are blended with the SMP resin to facilitate the dispersion of nanostrands and improve the thermal conductivity to accelerate the electro- and thermo-active responses

  20. Hierarchically mesoporous carbon nanofiber/Mn3O4 coaxial nanocables as anodes in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seok-Hwan; Lee, Wan-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Carbon nanofiber/Mn3O4 (CNF/Mn3O4) coaxial nanocables with a three-dimensional (3D) structure are prepared for lithium ion batteries by electrophoretic deposition on an electrospun CNF cathode followed by heat treatment in air. The bark-like Mn3O4 shell with a thickness of 30 nm surrounds the CNFs with a diameter of 200 nm; this hierarchically mesoporous Mn3O4 shell consisted of interconnected nanoparticles grows radially toward the CNF core when viewed from the cross-section of the coaxial cables. The charge transfer resistance of the CNF/Mn3O4 is much smaller than that of the Mn3O4 powder, because of (i) the abundant inner spaces provided via the formation of the 3D coaxial core/shell nanocables, (ii) the high electric pathway for the Mn3O4 nanoparticles attained with the 1D CNFs, and (iii) the structural stability obtained through the cushioning effect created by the CNF/Mn3O4 coaxial morphology. These unique characteristics contribute to achieving a high capacity, excellent cyclic stability, and good rate capability. The CNF/Mn3O4 nanocables deliver an initial capacity of 1690 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 and maintain a high reversible capacity of 760 mAh g-1 even after 50 charge-discharge cycles without showing any obvious decay.

  1. Alumina-carbon nanofibers nanocomposites obtained by spark plasma sintering for proton exchange membrane fuel cell bipolar plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrell, A.; Torrecillas, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN) Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad de Oviedo, Principado de Asturias, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, Llanera Asturias (Spain); Rocha, V.G.; Fernandez, A. [ITMA Materials Technology, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, Llanera Asturias (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    There is an increasing demand of multifunctional materials for a wide variety of technological developments. Bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells are an example of complex functionality components that must show among other properties high mechanical strength, electrical, and thermal conductivity. The present research explored the possibility of using alumina-carbon nanofibers (CNFs) nanocomposites for this purpose. In this study, it was studied for the first time the whole range of powder compositions in this system. Homogeneous powders mixtures were prepared and subsequently sintered by spark plasma sintering. The materials obtained were thoroughly characterized and compared in terms of properties required to be used as bipolar plates. The control on material microstructure and composition allows designing materials where mechanical or electrical performances are enhanced. A 50/50 vol.% alumina-CNFs composite appears to be a very promising material for this kind of application. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Structural transformation of vapor grown carbon nanofibers studied by HRTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vapor grown carbon nanofibers have been extensively manufactured and investigated in recent years. In this study commercially available vapor grown carbon nanofibers subjected to different processing and post processing conditions were studied employing high resolution TEM images. The analysis showed that the fibers consist primarily of conical nanofibers, but can contain a significant amount of bamboo nanofibers. Most conical nanofibers were found to consist of an ordered inner layer and a disordered outer layer, with the cone angle distribution of the inner layers indicating that these cannot have a stacked cone structure but are compatible with a cone-helix structure. Fibers that have been heat treated to temperatures above 1,500 oC undergo a structural transformation with the ordered inner layers changing from a cone-helix structure to a highly ordered multiwall stacked cone structure. The bamboo nanofibers were found to have a tapered multiwall nanotube structure for the wall and a multishell fullerene structure for the cap of each segment, surrounded by a disordered outer layer. When these fibers are heat treated the disordered outer layers transform to an ordered multiwall nanotube structure and merge with the wall of each segment. The end caps of each segment transform from a smooth multiwall fullerene structure to one consisting of disjointed graphene planes. A reaction-diffusion mechanism is proposed to explain the growth and structure of the bamboo nanofibers.

  3. Characterization of small-scale batch-fabricated carbon nanofiber probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linear-shaped single carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were batch-grown onto commercially available Si cantilevers for atomic force microscope by the Ar+-ion-irradiation method (9 cantilevers/batch). The force-curve measurements revealed that the long CNF probes (? 1 ?m in length) were as flexible as the carbon nanotubes probes, whereas the short CNF probes (? 400 nm in length) were characterized by the rigid nature similar to the Si probes. Thus, the mechanical properties of CNF probes were controllable by the CNF length. The ion-induced CNF probes were metallic in electrical property, and the higher resolution images in scanning spreading resistance microscopy was attained by the CNF probes than by conventional conductive diamond probes, due to the small tip radius, high aspect ratio and the durability of the CNF probes. Because the small-scale batch-fabricated CNF probes showed good uniformity in the size, mechanical and electrical properties, it was concluded that they are promising as practical conductive SPM probes

  4. Patterned Growth of Carbon Nanotubes or Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance D.

    2004-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the growth of carbon nanotubes or nanofibers in a desired pattern has been invented. The essence of the method is to grow the nanotubes or nanofibers by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) onto a patterned catalyst supported by a substrate. The figure schematically depicts salient aspects of the method and apparatus in a typical application. A substrate is placed in a chamber that contains both ion-beam sputtering and CVD equipment. The substrate can be made of any of a variety of materials that include several forms of silicon or carbon, and selected polymers, metals, ceramics, and even some natural minerals and similar materials. Optionally, the substrate is first coated with a noncatalytic metal layer (which could be a single layer or could comprise multiple different sublayers) by ion-beam sputtering. The choice of metal(s) and thickness(es) of the first layer (if any) and its sublayers (if any) depends on the chemical and electrical properties required for subsequent deposition of the catalyst and the subsequent CVD of the carbon nanotubes. A typical first-sublayer metal is Pt, Pd, Cr, Mo, Ti, W, or an alloy of two or more of these elements. A typical metal for the second sublayer or for an undivided first layer is Al at a thickness .1 nm or Ir at a thickness .5 nm. Proper choice of the metal for a second sublayer of a first layer makes it possible to use a catalyst that is chemically incompatible with the substrate. In the next step, a mask having holes in the desired pattern is placed over the coated substrate. The catalyst is then deposited on the coated substrate by ion-beam sputtering through the mask. Optionally, the catalyst could be deposited by a technique other than sputtering and/or patterned by use of photolithography, electron- beam lithography, or another suitable technique. The catalytic metal can be Fe, Co, Ni, or an alloy of two or more of these elements, deposited to a typical thickness in the range from 0.1 to 20 nm.

  5. Lightweight Structures Utilizing CNFs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AxNano proposes a novel method for producing robust, high-volume, cost-effective carbon fibers in support of next-generation materials for structural composite...

  6. Growth and Characterization of Carbon Nanofibers on Fe/C-Fiber Textiles Coated by Deposition-Precipitation and Dip-Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2015-09-01

    This research was conducted to synthesize carbon nanofibers on C-fiber textiles, by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using Fe catalyst. The substrate, which was a carbon textile consisting of non-woven carbon fibers and attached graphite particles, was oxidized by nitric acid, before the deposition process. Hydroxyl groups were created on the C-fiber textile, due to the oxidization step. Fe(III) hydroxide was subsequently deposited on the oxidized surface of the C-fiber textile. To deposit ferric particles, two different methods were tested: (i) deposition-precipitation, and (ii) dip-coating. For the experiments using both types of catalyst deposition, the weight ratio of Fe to C-fiber textile was also varied. Ferric particles were reduced to iron after deposition, by using H2/N2 gas, and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were grown by flowing ethylene gas. Properties of carbon nanofibers created like this were analyzed through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), N2-sorption (BET), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectoscopy (XPS), Thermal analysis (TG/DTA), and Raman spectroscopy. In the case of the deposition-precipitation method, the results show that the diameter of carbon nanofibers grew up to 40-60 nm and 30-55 nm, at which the weight ratios of Fe catalyst to C-fiber textiles were 1:30 and 1:70, respectively. When Fe particles were deposited by the dip-coating method, the diameter of carbon nanofibers grew up to 40-60 nm and 25-30 nm, for the ratios of Fe catalyst to C-fiber textiles of 1:10 and 1:30, respectively. PMID:26716329

  7. On the growth of carbon nanofibers on glass with a Cr layer by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition: The effect of Ni film thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the effect of the thickness of catalytic Ni film for the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VA-CNFs) on glass substrates coated with a conductive underlayer of Cr. Both the pretreatment process through which the catalytic Ni nanoparticles were formed and the growth of well-aligned CNFs were carried out in an inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD) system. The VA-CNFs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, as well as field emission measurements. The results of VA-CNF growth shows that as the Ni film thicknesses decrease, not only the length but also the density of the CNFs drop, although the density of catalytic Ni nanoparticles increases. The variation of CNF density with Ni film thicknesses is believed to be a result of the detachment of the CNFs from the substrate, caused by the electrostatic force produced by the plasma sheath electric field, as well as an ion-enhanced chemical etching effect due to atomic/ionic hydrogen, during the ICP-CVD growth. A field emission measurement apparatus based on a metallic probe of spherical anode structure was also constructed in this study. An electrostatic image model was employed to determine the electric field distribution on the cathode surface. Along with the standard F-N field emission model, the dependence of field emission current density on the cathode surface electric field, as well as an effective field enhancement factor, were extracted from the current-voltage measurement results. The threshold electric field (Ethreshold, for a current density of 1 mA/cm2) increases from 9.2 V/?m to 13.1 V/?m, and then drops to 11.5 V/?m for the CNFs with Ni film thicknesses of 20 nm, 30 nm, and 40 nm, respectively. The electrostatic model results also indicate that the 20 nm case has the greatest space-charge effect on the emission current, consistent with the growth results that the 20 nm case has the lowest CNF density. On the other hand, the CNF length of the 40 nm case is longer than that of the 30 nm one, while the densities are nearly the same; as a result, Ethreshold for the 30 nm case is higher

  8. Radiation Effects on Polypropylene Carbon Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, John; Mion, Thomas; Chipara, Alin C.; Ibrahim, Elamin I.; Lozano, Karen; Chipara, Magdalena; Tidrow, Steven C.; Chipara, Mircea

    2010-03-01

    Dispersion of carbon nanostructures within polymeric matrices affects most physical and chemical properties of the polymeric matrix (increased Young modulus, improved thermal stability, faster crystallization rates, higher equilibrium degree of crystallinity, modified glass, melting, and crystallization temperatures, enhanced thermal and electrical conductivity). Such changes have been reported and explained by thorough spectroscopic investigations. Nevertheless, little is known about the radiation stability of such nanocomposites. The research is focused on spectroscopic investigations of radiation-induced modifications in isotactic polypropylene (iPP)-vapor grown nanofiber (VGCNF)composites. VGCNF were dispersed within iPP by extrusion at 180^oC. Composites containing various amounts of VGCNFs ranging from 0 to 20 % wt. were prepared and subjected to gamma irradiation, at room temperature, at various integral doses (10 MGy, 20 MGy, and 30 MGy). Raman spectroscopy, ATR, and WAXS were used to assess the radiation-induced modifications in these nanocomposites. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the Welch Foundation (Department of Chemistry at UTPA) and by US Army Research Office (AMSRD-ARL-RO-SI: 54498-MS-ISP).

  9. Health effects of exposure to carbon nanofibers: Systematic review, critical appraisal, meta analysis and research to practice perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Literature reviews examining the relationship between exposure to carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and health consequences are qualitative in nature and do not employ an evidence-based assessment. Objective: This research deals with a systematic review, critical appraisal, and meta-analysis designed to examine the potential health effects associated with exposure to CNFs. The utilization of research findings into practice is also explored. Methods: Published articles were obtained from a search of electronic databases and bibliographies of identified articles. A critical appraisal was conducted using an 'Experimental Appraisal Instrument' developed in this study. The meta-analysis was established using statistical techniques with/without the incorporation of overall study quality. The likelihood of utilizing research findings into practice (i.e., from research to practice) was computed using a four-step algorithm based on the criteria of: strength of association, consistency among studies, temporality, biological gradient, type of experimental unit, type of CNF (single- and multi-wall nanotubes), CNF grade (commercial or altered), exposure dose, exposure duration, and support by analogy from the published literature. Results: Twenty-one experimental studies satisfied the inclusion criteria and were performed on human cells, experimental animal models and animal cells as experimental units. The methodological qualities of published studies ranged from 'very poor' to 'excellent', with 'overall study description' scoring 'good' and 'study execution' equal to 'moderate'. The random-effects model was applied in the meta-analysis calculations as heterogeneity was significant at the 10% for all outcomes reported. The mean standardized meta-estimates for the experimental groups were significantly lower than those for the control groups for cell viability and cell death, respectively. Incorporating the effect of overall study quality score widened the gap between the experimental and control groups. Assessment of research findings on the basis of the four-step algorithm revealed that the likelihood of the results to occur in practice is 'somewhat possible' at this time. That is, if exposure conditions to CNF in the reported studies are similar to those in nano-manufacturing plants, it is somewhat possible that CNFs alter the function of human cells resulting in loss of cell viability and cell death. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that it is 'somewhat possible' for the CNF to penetrate the human cells in the targeted organs and to cause cellular damage. Although the weight of evidence is not sufficient, it is advisable that actions be taken to ensure the protection of workers exposed to CNFs, that is, (a) engineering controls should be established to contain exposure to CNF, and (b) simultaneously rigorous personnel protective equipment should be planned to further minimize the risk of CNF exposure.

  10. Preparation of C/Ni-NiO composite nanofibers for anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chenghao; Lu, Weili; Li, Yu; Feng, Yiyu; Feng, Wei; Zhao, Yunhui; Yuan, Xiaoyan

    2013-11-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) embedded with various amounts of Ni and NiO nanoparticles (C/Ni-NiO) were prepared by electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), followed by heat treatment. The structure and composition of the obtained C/Ni-NiO composite nanofibers were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results suggested that the morphology, nanofiber diameter, and the content of the Ni-NiO nanoparticles in the CNFs were controlled by different amounts of nickel acetate added into the PAN. The electrochemical measurements of a charge/discharge experiment and a cyclic voltammetry test indicated that the content and the size of Ni-NiO nanoparticles embedded in the CNFs had a great influence on the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries. CNFs embedded with a certain content of Ni-NiO nanoparticles as binder-free anodes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries exhibited improved electrochemical performance, including high reversible capacities, good capacity retention, and stable cycling performance. This is mainly ascribed to the formation of a well-distributed Ni-NiO nanoparticle structure and the buffering role of the carbon nanofiber matrix, together with the high theoretical capacity of NiO and the increase in electrode connectivity caused by the formation of electrochemically inactive Ni nanoparticles.

  11. Preparation of a New Adsorbent from Activated Carbon and Carbon Nanofiber (AC/CNF for Manufacturing Organic-Vacbpour Respirator Cartridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Jahangiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study a composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofiber (AC/CNF was prepared to improve the performance of activated carbon (AC for adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and its utilization for respirator cartridges. Activated carbon was impregnated with a nickel nitrate catalyst precursor and carbonnanofibers (CNF were deposited directly on the AC surface using catalytic chemical vapor deposition. Deposited CNFs on catalyst particles in AC micropores, were activated by CO2 to recover the surface area and micropores.Surface and textural characterizations of the prepared composites were investigated using Brunauer, Emmett andTeller’s (BET technique and electron microscopy respectively. Prepared composite adsorbent was tested forbenzene, toluene and xylene (BTX adsorption and then employed in an organic respirator cartridge in granularform. Adsorption studies were conducted by passing air samples through the adsorbents in a glass column at an adjustable flow rate. Finally, any adsorbed species not retained by the adsorbents in the column were trapped in a charcoal sorbent tube and analyzed by gas chromatography. CNFs with a very thin diameter of about 10-20 nmwere formed uniformly on the AC/CNF. The breakthrough time for cartridges prepared with CO2 activated AC/CNF was 117 minutes which are significantly longer than for those cartridges prepared with walnut shell- based activated carbon with the same weight of adsorbents. This study showed that a granular form CO2 activated AC/CNF composite could be a very effective alternate adsorbent for respirator cartridges due to its larger adsorption capacities and lower weight.

  12. Activated Carbon, Carbon Nanofiber and Carbon Nanotube Supported Molybdenum Carbide Catalysts for the Hydrodeoxygenation of Guaiacol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Santillan-Jimenez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum carbide was supported on three types of carbon support—activated carbon; multi-walled carbon nanotubes; and carbon nanofibers—using ammonium molybdate and molybdic acid as Mo precursors. The use of activated carbon as support afforded an X-ray amorphous Mo phase, whereas crystalline molybdenum carbide phases were obtained on carbon nanofibers and, in some cases, on carbon nanotubes. When the resulting catalysts were tested in the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO of guaiacol in dodecane, catechol and phenol were obtained as the main products, although in some instances significant amounts of cyclohexane were produced. The observation of catechol in all reaction mixtures suggests that guaiacol was converted into phenol via sequential demethylation and HDO, although the simultaneous occurrence of a direct demethoxylation pathway cannot be discounted. Catalysts based on carbon nanofibers generally afforded the highest yields of phenol; notably, the only crystalline phase detected in these samples was Mo2C or Mo2C-?, suggesting that crystalline Mo2C is particularly selective to phenol. At 350 °C, carbon nanofiber supported Mo2C afforded near quantitative guaiacol conversion, the selectivity to phenol approaching 50%. When guaiacol HDO was performed in the presence of acetic acid and furfural, guaiacol conversion decreased, although the selectivity to both catechol and phenol was increased.

  13. Structure and properties of carbon nanofibers. application as electrocatalyst support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. del Rio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to gain an insight into the physical-chemical properties of carbon nanofibers and the relationship between those properties and the electrocatalytic behavior when used as catalyst support for their application in fuel cells.

  14. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of multiwalled carbon nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kristopher; Cruden, Brett A.; Chen, Bin; Meyyappan, M.; Delzeit, Lance

    2002-01-01

    Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is used to grow vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanofibers (MWNFs). The graphite basal planes in these nanofibers are not parallel as in nanotubes; instead they exhibit a small angle resembling a stacked cone arrangement. A parametric study with varying process parameters such as growth temperature, feedstock composition, and substrate power has been conducted, and these parameters are found to influence the growth rate, diameter, and morphology. The well-aligned MWNFs are suitable for fabricating electrode systems in sensor and device development.

  15. Silver-functionalized carbon nanofiber composite electrodes for ibuprofen detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Florica; Motoc, Sorina; Pop, Aniela; Remes, Adriana; Schoonman, Joop

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare and characterize two types of silver-functionalized carbon nanofiber (CNF) composite electrodes, i.e., silver-decorated CNF-epoxy and silver-modified natural zeolite-CNF-epoxy composite electrodes suitable for ibuprofen detection in aqueous solution. Ag carbon nanotube composite electrode exhibited the best electroanalytical parameters through applying preconcentration/differential-pulsed voltammetry scheme.

  16. Electrospun Carbon Nanofiber Membranes for Filtration of Nanoparticles from Water

    OpenAIRE

    Mirko Faccini; Guadalupe Borja; Marcel Boerrigter; Diego Morillo Martín; Sandra Martìnez Crespiera; Socorro Vázquez-Campos; Laurent Aubouy; David Amantia

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, hundreds of consumer products contain metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (NP); this increases the probability of such particles to be released to natural waters generating a potential risk to human health and the environment. This paper presents the development of efficient carboneous nanofibrous membranes for NP filtration from aqueous solutions. Free-standing carbon nanofiber (CNF) mats with different fiber size distribution ranging from 126 to 554?nm in diameter were produced by...

  17. Improved bioactivity of PAN-based carbon nanofibers decorated with bioglass nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Zhang, Xuehui; Liu, Haiyang; Deng, Xuliang; Cai, Qing; Jia, Xiaolong; Yang, Xiaoping; Wei, Yan; Li, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Composite nanofibers composed of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon nanofibers and bioactive glass (BG) nanoparticles have been prepared by electrospinning and in situ sintering. Morphology observation showed that the BG nanoparticles of size 20-50?nm were uniformly distributed on the surface of composite nanofibers with 350?nm average diameter after carbonization. Biological mineralization indicated the formation of apatite-like layer on the surface of composite nanofibers, in which the composition of carbonate hydroxyapatite was proved by FTIR and XRD analysis. Cell growth dynamics according to cellular morphology, CCK-8 assay, and alkaline phosphatase activity assay exhibited better cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic induction of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured on the composite nanofibers, which suggested the higher bioactivity of composite nanofibers compared to pure PAN-based carbon nanofibers. PMID:24266838

  18. Mass-transport-controlled, large-area, uniform deposition of carbon nanofibers and their application in gas diffusion layers of fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xian; Xie, Zhiyong; Huang, Qizhong; Chen, Guofen; Hou, Ming; Yi, Baolian

    2015-04-01

    The effect of mass transport on the growth characteristics of large-area vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) was investigated by adjusting the substrate deposition angle (?). The catalyst precursor solution was coated onto one side of a 2D porous carbon paper substrate via a decal printing method. The results showed that the CNFs were grown on only one side of the substrate and ? was found to significantly affect the growth uniformity. At ? = 0°, the growth thickness, the density, the microstructure and the yield of the CNF film were uniform across the substrate surface, whereas the growth uniformity decreased with increasing ?, suggesting that the large-area CNF deposition processes were mass-transport-controlled. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of the gas diffusion processes revealed the homogeneous distributions of the carbon-source-gas concentration, pressure, and velocity near the substrate surface at ? = 0°, which were the important factors in achieving the mass-transport-limited uniform CNF growth. The homogeneity of the field distributions decreased with increasing ?, in accordance with the variation in the growth uniformity with ?. When used as a micro-porous layer, the uniform CNF film enabled higher proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance in comparison with commercial carbon black by virtue of its improved electronic and mass-transport properties confirmed by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results.The effect of mass transport on the growth characteristics of large-area vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) was investigated by adjusting the substrate deposition angle (?). The catalyst precursor solution was coated onto one side of a 2D porous carbon paper substrate via a decal printing method. The results showed that the CNFs were grown on only one side of the substrate and ? was found to significantly affect the growth uniformity. At ? = 0°, the growth thickness, the density, the microstructure and the yield of the CNF film were uniform across the substrate surface, whereas the growth uniformity decreased with increasing ?, suggesting that the large-area CNF deposition processes were mass-transport-controlled. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of the gas diffusion processes revealed the homogeneous distributions of the carbon-source-gas concentration, pressure, and velocity near the substrate surface at ? = 0°, which were the important factors in achieving the mass-transport-limited uniform CNF growth. The homogeneity of the field distributions decreased with increasing ?, in accordance with the variation in the growth uniformity with ?. When used as a micro-porous layer, the uniform CNF film enabled higher proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance in comparison with commercial carbon black by virtue of its improved electronic and mass-transport properties confirmed by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Descriptions of fabrication and characterization of CP and CFD methods; optical images of CNFs; field distributions; fitted impedance parameters; Nyquist plots of PEMFCs. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00022j

  19. Anchoring Mechanism of ZnO Nanoparticles on Graphitic Carbon Nanofiber Surfaces through a Modified Co-Precipitation Method to Improve Interfacial Contact and Photocatalytic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillip, Gowra Raghupathy; Banerjee, Arghya Narayan; Anitha, Veettikunnu Chandran; Joo, Sang Woo; Min, Bong Ki; Sawant, Sandesh Y; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2015-10-26

    A facile three-step co-precipitation method is developed to synthesize graphitic carbon nanofibers (CNFs) decorated with ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). By interchanging intermediate steps of the reaction processes, two kinds of nanohybrids are fabricated with stark morphological and physicochemical differences. The morphologies differ because of the different chemical environments of the NP/nanocluster formation. The hybrid with larger and non-uniform ZnO nanocluster size is formed in liquid phase and resulted in considerable interfacial defects that deteriorate the charge-transfer properties. The hybrid with smaller and uniform ZnO NPs was formed in a dry solid phase and produced near-defect-free interfaces, leading to efficient charge transfer for superior photocatalytic performance. The results broaden the understanding of the anchoring/bonding mechanism in ZnO/CNF hybrid formation and may facilitate further development of more effective exfoliation strategies for the preparation of high-performance composites/hybrids. PMID:26336943

  20. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber Based Biosensor Platform for Glucose Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamun, Khandaker Abdullah Al [ORNL; Tulip, Fahmida S [ORNL; Macarthur, Kimberly C [ORNL; McFarlane, Nicole M [ORNL; Islam, Syed K [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) have recently become an important tool for biosensor design. Carbon nanofibers (CNF) have excellent conductive and structural properties with many irregularities and defect sites in addition to exposed carboxyl groups throughout their surfaces. These properties allow a better immobilization matrix compared to carbon nanotubes and offer better resolution when compared with the FET-based biosensors. VACNFs can be deterministically grown on silicon substrates allowing optimization of the structures for various biosensor applications. Two VACNF electrode architectures have been employed in this study and a comparison of their performances has been made in terms of sensitivity, sensing limitations, dynamic range, and response time. The usage of VACNF platform as a glucose sensor has been verified in this study by selecting an optimum architecture based on the VACNF forest density. Read More: http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0129156414500062

  1. CVD synthesis of carbon nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Mudimela, Prasantha Reddy

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of methods for the controlled synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on flat substrates and on micron sized particles. The carbon nanomaterials were synthesized using three different types of CVD reactors at atmospheric pressure. The vertical CVD reactor was used to study CNT formation on thermally oxidized silicon wafers and to synthesize individual single-walled CNTs on Si3N4 substrates. By using CO as the carbon source a...

  2. Template Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibers Containing Linear Mesocage Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongwen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon nanofibers containing linear mesocage arrays were prepared via evaporation induced self-assembly method within AAO template with an average channel diameter of about 25 nm. The TEM results show that the mesocages have an elongated shape in the transversal direction. The results of N2 adsorption–desorption analysis indicate that the sample possesses a cage-like mesoporous structure and the average mesopore size of the sample is about 18 nm.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Carbon nanofibers on Co and Cu Catalysts by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports on the synthesis of carbon nanofibers via chemical vapor deposition using Co and Cu as catalysts. In order to investigate the suitability of their catalytic activity for the growth of nanofibers, we prepared catalysts for the synthesis of carbon nanofibers with Cobalt nitrate and Copper nitrate, and found the optimum concentration of each respective catalyst. Then we made them react with Aluminum nitrate and Ammonium Molybdate to form precipitates. The precipitates were dried at a temperature of 110 .deg. C in order to be prepared into catalyst powder. The catalyst was sparsely and thinly spread on a quartz tube boat to grow carbon nanofibers via thermal chemical vapor deposition. The characteristics of the synthesized carbon nanofibers were analyzed through SEM, EDS, XRD, Raman, XPS, and TG/DTA, and the specific surface area was measured via BET. Consequently, the characteristics of the synthesized carbon nanofibers were greatly influenced by the concentration ratio of metal catalysts. In particular, uniform carbon nanofibers of 27 nm in diameter grew when the concentration ratio of Co and Cu was 6:4 at 700 .deg. C of calcination temperature; carbon nanofibers synthesized under such conditions showed the best crystallizability, compared to carbon nanofibers synthesized with metal catalysts under different concentration ratios, and revealed 1.26 high amorphicity as well as 292 m2g-1 high specific surface area

  4. Physicochemical investigations of carbon nanofiber supported Cu/ZrO2 catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirconia-promoted copper/carbon nanofiber catalysts (Cu?ZrO2/CNF) were prepared by the sequential deposition precipitation method. The Herringbone type of carbon nanofiber GNF-100 (Graphite nanofiber) was used as a catalyst support. Carbon nanofiber was oxidized to (CNF-O) with 5% and 65 % concentration of nitric acid (HNO3). The CNF activated with 5% HNO3 produced higher surface area which is 155 m2/g. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) and N2 adsorption-desorption. The results showed that increase of HNO3 concentration reduced the surface area and porosity of the catalyst

  5. Designing an ultrathin silica layer for highly durable carbon nanofibers as the carbon support in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sun-Mi; Park, Jae-Hyun; Lim, Seongyop; Jung, Doo-Hwan; Guim, Hwanuk; Yoon, Young-Gi; Yim, Sung-Dae; Kim, Tae-Young

    2014-09-01

    A critical issue for maintaining long-term applications of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is the development of an innovative technique for the functionalization of a carbon support that preserves their exceptional electrical conductivity and robustly enriches their durability. Here, we report for the first time how the formation of a partially coated, ultrathin, hydrophobic silica layer around the surfaces of the carbon nanofiber (CNF) helps improve the durability of the CNF without decreasing the significant electrical conductivity of the virgin CNF. The synthesis involved the adsorption of polycarbomethylsilane (PS) on the CNF's sidewalls, followed by high temperature pyrolysis of PS, resulting in a highly durable, conductive carbon support in PEFCs. The Pt nanoparticles are in direct contact with the surface of the carbon in the empty spaces between unevenly coated silica layers, which are not deposited directly onto the silica layer. The presence of a Pt nanoparticle layer that was thicker than the silica layer would be a quite advantageous circumstance that provides contact with other neighboring CNFs without having a significant adverse effect that deeply damages the electrical conductivity of the neighboring CNF composites with the silica layer. Furthermore, the ultrathin, hydrophobic silica layer around the surfaces of the CNF provides great potential to reduce the presence of water molecules in the vicinity of the carbon supports and the &z.rad;OH radicals formed on the surface of the Pt catalyst. As a result, the CNF with a 5 wt% silica layer that we prepared has had extremely high initial performance and durability under severe carbon corrosion conditions, starting up with 974 mA cm-2 at 0.6 V and ending up with more than 58% of the initial performance (i.e., 569 mA cm-2 at 0.6 V) after a 1.6 V holding test for 6 h. The beginning-of-life and end-of-life performances based on the virgin CNF without the silica layer were 981 and 340 mA cm-2 at 0.6 V, respectively. The CNF having a silica layer had long-term durability which was superior to that of the virgin CNF.

  6. Relationship between Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes Individual Dispersion Behavior and Properties of Electrospun Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The dispersion stability behavior of single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT has important effects on morphological and mechanical properties of SWCNT/polymer composite nanofibers. The relationship of the dispersion conditions with morphological and mechanical characteristics for SWCNT / polyacrylonitrile (PAN / polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP composite nanofibers have been examined. The SEM and TEM analyses of the nanofibers revealed that the deformation in the nanofiber structures increases with increasing SWCNT concentration. Our data indicate that with increasing the amount of SWCNT (from 0 to 2 wt %, the average nanofiber diameter was increased from 163±19 nm to 307±34 nm. Tensile results showed that only 2 wt % SWCNT loading to the electrospun composite nanofibers gave rise to 10-fold and 3-fold increase in the tensile modulus and tenacity of nanofiber layers, respectively. Essentially, high mechanical properties and uniform morphology of the composite naofibers were found at SWCNT concentration of ~2 wt % due to their stable and individual dispersion.

  7. Investigation of interaction between U(VI) and carbonaceous nanofibers by batch experiments and modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Chen, Changlun; Li, Jie; Wang, Xiangke

    2015-12-15

    Carbonaceous nanofibers (CNFs) were synthesized using tellurium nanowires as a template and using glucose as carbon source by the hydrothermal carbonization method. The sorption capacity and mechanism of U(VI) on CNFs were investigated by a combination of batch sorption experiments, the double layer model (DLM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The sorption edges were modeled well by considering the following surface complexes: SOUO2(+), SOUO2OH, SOUO2(OH)2(-) and SOUO2(OH)3(2-) on the strong site as well as XOUO2OH and XOUO2(+) on the weak one (S and X represent surface). The sorption isotherms could be well fitted by the DLM parameters. The difference between type A (SOUO2OH and XOUO2OH) and type B (SOUO2(+) and XOUO2(+)) was observed in XPS because the former species are of low binding energy while the latter are of high one. Desorption and recycle experiments showed that CNFs had good reusability and stability in the present of common sodium salts within five rounds. When co-existing with montmorillonite, CNFs could extract the sorbed uranium onto their surface by a pseudo-second order kinetic process. As a new sort of environmental functional nanomaterials, CNFs should be paid more attention in the area of separation and wastewater remediation. PMID:26342973

  8. CoSn/carbon composite nanofibers for applications as anode in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Weili; Luo, Chenghao; Li, Yu; Feng, Yiyu; Feng, Wei, E-mail: weifeng@tju.edu.cn; Zhao, Yunhui; Yuan, Xiaoyan, E-mail: yuanxy@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials (China)

    2013-09-15

    CoSn/carbon composite nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning followed by heat treatment. Uniform morphologies and microstructures were observed by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results demonstrated that well-dispersed nanoparticles of CoSn intermetallic compound and Sn with diameter of about 30-50 nm embedded in carbon nanofibers were prepared after carbonization at 850 Degree-Sign C. Compared with pure carbon nanofibers without the nanoparticles, CoSn/carbon composite nanofibers showed a high reversible capacity and excellent cycling performance, resulting from the formation of CoSn intermetallic nanoparticles and buffering by the carbon nanofiber matrix. The nanofiber mats with good flexibility were utilized as anodes in lithium-ion batteries, and the CoSn/carbon composite nanofibers exhibited a good fibrous morphology after the discharge/charge processes. Results indicated that electrospinning could be a feasible method to prepare Co-Sn-C composite nanofibers as anodes in lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Composite Nanofibers of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and Amino-functionalized Carbon Nanotubes Electrospun from Dimethylsulfoxide

    OpenAIRE

    ÖNEN, Aysen H.; Ucar, Nuray; KIZILDAG, Nuray; EREN, Olcay

    2015-01-01

    In this study, DMSO was used as the solvent and PAN nanofibers reinforced with amino-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) were successfully electrospun from the electrospinning solutions prepared in DMSO. The concentration of f-MWCNTs were changed as 1w% and 3w% with respect to the weight of PAN. The effect of f-MWCNT concentration on morphology, conductivity and mechanical properties of composite nanofibers were examined and compared to that of pure PAN nanofibers. Uniform ...

  10. EFFECT OF CELLULOSE NANOFIBERS ISOLATED FROM BAMBOO PULP RESIDUE ON VULCANIZED NATURAL RUBBER

    OpenAIRE

    P. M. Visakh,; Sabu Thomas; Kristiina Oksman,; Mathew, Aji P.

    2012-01-01

    Nanocomposites were prepared using two bioresources, viz., cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) extracted from bamboo paper-pulp waste as the reinforcing phase and natural rubber (NR) as the matrix phase. CNFs with diameters up to 50 nm were isolated from bamboo pulp waste, and nanocomposites with 5 and 10% CNFs were obtained via two-roll mill mixing of solid natural rubber with a master batch containing 20 wt% CNFs. The NR phase was cross-linked using sulphur vulcanization. The morphology studies sho...

  11. Structural and electronic characteristics induced by carbonization control of mesoporous carbon nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Ji-Eun [Department of Chemistry, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Min-Soo [Department of Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Li, Jing [Department of Chemistry, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Kyung-Hwa, E-mail: khyoo@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong-Rok, E-mail: yrkim@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Controlled structural property and electrical property of mesoporous carbon nanofiber depending on change of carbonization temperature. • Increasing L{sub a}, L{sub c} and decreasing d-space at higher carbonization temperature. • The lower E{sub a} and energy gap are reduced by high carbonization temperature. • Developing mesoporous carbon nanofiber with higher conductivity is expected to be useful in application for gas sensor. - Abstract: Mesoporous carbon nanofibers (MCNFs) are fabricated at various carbonization temperatures. The carbonization temperature plays a key role in determining the structural characteristics and the electronic properties of MCNFs. The band gap energies of MCNFs are estimated to be 0.080, 0.036, and 0.014 eV at the carbonization temperatures of 600, 900, and 1200 °C, respectively. The MCNF carbonized at 1200 °C has the highest stacking height of graphene planes (L{sub c}) and the largest number of graphene layers (L{sub c}/d). Raman data show the intensity ratio of D to G peaks, which is related to the graphene size (L{sub a}). L{sub a} increases with increasing the carbonization temperature. In addition, as the carbonization temperature increases, the conductivity of MCNF increases due to larges values of L{sub c}, L{sub a}, and L{sub c}/d.

  12. Structural and electronic characteristics induced by carbonization control of mesoporous carbon nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Controlled structural property and electrical property of mesoporous carbon nanofiber depending on change of carbonization temperature. • Increasing La, Lc and decreasing d-space at higher carbonization temperature. • The lower Ea and energy gap are reduced by high carbonization temperature. • Developing mesoporous carbon nanofiber with higher conductivity is expected to be useful in application for gas sensor. - Abstract: Mesoporous carbon nanofibers (MCNFs) are fabricated at various carbonization temperatures. The carbonization temperature plays a key role in determining the structural characteristics and the electronic properties of MCNFs. The band gap energies of MCNFs are estimated to be 0.080, 0.036, and 0.014 eV at the carbonization temperatures of 600, 900, and 1200 °C, respectively. The MCNF carbonized at 1200 °C has the highest stacking height of graphene planes (Lc) and the largest number of graphene layers (Lc/d). Raman data show the intensity ratio of D to G peaks, which is related to the graphene size (La). La increases with increasing the carbonization temperature. In addition, as the carbonization temperature increases, the conductivity of MCNF increases due to larges values of Lc, La, and Lc/d

  13. Oxygen adsorption-induced surface segregation of titanium oxide by activation in carbon nanofibers for maximizing photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-In; Jo, Seong-Mu; Joh, Han-Ik; Lee, Myong-Hoon; Lee, Sungho

    2015-02-14

    This research demonstrates a simple method for synthesizing titanium dioxide nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanofibers. These nanofibers showed highly efficient degradation of methylene blue under UV light because of the synergistic effects of the large surface-active sites of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and the carbon nanofibers on the photocatalytic properties. PMID:25575123

  14. Reverse Kebab Structure Formed inside Carbon Nanofibers via Nanochannel Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Min; Kalyon, Dilhan M; Fisher, Frank T

    2015-09-15

    The morphology of polymers inside a confined space has raised great interest in recent years. However, polymer crystallization within a one-dimensional carbon nanostructure is challenging due to the difficulty of polar solvents carrying polymers to enter a nonpolar graphitic nanotube in bulk solution at normal temperature and pressure. Here we describe a method whereby nylon-11 was crystallized and periodically distributed on the individual graphitic nanocone structure within hollow carbon nanofibers (CNF). Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction indicate that the nylon polymer is in the crystalline phase. A mechanism is suggested for the initiation of nanochannel flow in a bulk solvent as a prerequisite condition to achieve interior polymer crystallization. Selective etching of polymer crystals on the outer wall of CNF indicates that both surface tension and viscosity affect the flow within the CNF. This approach provides an opportunity for the interior functionalization of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers for applications in the biomedical, energy, and related fields. PMID:26313253

  15. Effect of temperature on the electron field emission from aligned carbon nanofibers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of temperature and aspect ratio on the field emission properties of vertically aligned carbon nanofiber and multiwalled carbon nanotube thin films were studied in detail. Carbon nanofibers and multiwalled carbon nanotube have been synthesized on Si substrates via direct current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Surface morphologies of the films have been studied by a scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and an atomic force microscope. It is found that the threshold field and the emission current density are dependent on the ambient temperature as well as on the aspect ratio of the carbon nanostructure. The threshold field for carbon nanofibers was found to decrease from 5.1 to 2.6 V/?m when the temperature was raised from 300 to 650 K, whereas for MWCNTs it was found to decrease from 4.0 to 1.4 V/?m. This dependence was due to the change in work function of the nanofibers and nanotubes with temperature. The field enhancement factor, current density and the dependence of the effective work function with temperature and with aspect ratio were calculated and we have tried to explain the emission mechanism

  16. Carbon Nanofibers Synthesized on Selective Substrates for Nonvolatile Memory and 3D Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Khan, Abdur R.

    2011-01-01

    A plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) growth technique has been developed where the choice of starting substrate was found to influence the electrical characteristics of the resulting carbon nanofiber (CNF) tubes. It has been determined that, if the tubes are grown on refractory metallic nitride substrates, then the resulting tubes formed with dc PECVD are also electrically conducting. Individual CNFs were formed by first patterning Ni catalyst islands using ebeam evaporation and liftoff. The CNFs were then synthesized using dc PECVD with C2H2:NH3 = [1:4] at 5 Torr and 700 C, and approximately equal to 200-W plasma power. Tubes were grown directly on degenerately doped silicon substrates with resistivity rho approximately equal to 1-5 meterohm-centimeter, as well as NbTiN. The approximately equal to 200-nanometer thick refractory NbTiN deposited using magnetron sputtering had rho approximately equal to 113 microohm-centimeter and was also chemically compatible with CNF synthesis. The sample was then mounted on a 45 beveled Al holder, and placed inside a SEM (scanning electron microscope). A nanomanipulator probe stage was placed inside the SEM equipped with an electrical feed-through, where tungsten probes were used to make two-terminal electrical measurements with an HP 4156C parameter analyzer. The positive terminal nanoprobe was mechanically manipulated to physically contact an individual CNF grown directly on NbTiN as shown by the SEM image in the inset of figure (a), while the negative terminal was grounded to the substrate. This revealed the tube was electrically conductive, although measureable currents could not be detected until approximately equal to 6 V, after which point current increased sharply until compliance (approximately equal to 50 nA) was reached at approximately equal to 9.5 V. A native oxide on the tungsten probe tips may contribute to a tunnel barrier, which could be the reason for the suppressed transport at low biases. Currents up to approximately 100 nA could be cycled, which are likely to propagate via the tube surface, or sidewalls, rather than the body, which is shown by the I-V in figure (a). Electrical conduction via the sidewalls is a necessity for dc NEMS (nanoelectromechanical system) applications, more so than for the field emission applications of such tubes. During the tests, high conductivity was expected, because both probes were shorted to the substrate, as shown by curve 1 in the I-V characteristic in figure (b). When a tube grown on NbTiN was probed, the response was similar to the approximately equal to 100 nA and is represented by curve 2 in figure (b), which could be cycled and propagated via the tube surface or the sidewalls. However, no measureable currents for the tube grown directly on Si were observed as shown by curve 3 in figure (b), even after testing over a range of samples. This could arise from a dielectric coating on the sidewalls for tubes on Si. As a result of the directional nature of ion bombardment during dc PECVD, Si from the substrate is likely re-sputtered and possibly coats the sidewalls.

  17. Branched carbon nanofiber network synthesis at room temperature using radio frequency supported microwave plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanofibers have been grown at room temperature using a combination of radio frequency and microwave assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The nanofibers were grown, using Ni powder catalyst, onto substrates kept at room temperature by using a purposely designed water-cooled sample holder. Branched carbon nanofiber growth was obtained without using a template resulting in interconnected carbon nanofiber network formation on substrates held at room temperature. This method would allow room-temperature direct synthesized nanofiber networks over relatively large areas, for a range of temperature sensitive substrates, such as organic materials, plastics, and other polymers of interest for nanoelectronic two-dimensional networks, nanoelectromechanical devices, nanoactuators, and composite materials

  18. Experimental study of mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanofiber/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epoxy nanocomposites of different content of carbon nanofibers up to 1 wt.% have been fabricated under room temperature and refrigerated curing conditions. The composites were studied in terms of mechanical and electrical properties. Flexural modulus and hardness were found to increase significantly in refrigerated samples due to prevention of aggregates of nanofibers during cure condition. Increase and shifting in G-band by Raman spectra of these samples confirmed stress transfer and reinforcement between epoxy matrix and carbon nanofiber. Electrical conductivity improved by 3-6 orders after infusing carbon nanofibers in insulating epoxy. Room temperature samples acquired higher conductivity that was attributed to network formation by aggregates of nanofibers along the fiber alignment direction as revealed by electron microscopic studies.

  19. Electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation based on platinum/carbon nanofibers nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, L; Salernitano, E; Gagliardi, S; Dikonimos, T; Giorgi, R; Lisi, N; De Riccardis, F; Martina, V

    2011-10-01

    New carbon nanomaterials, i.e., carbon nanotubes and nanofibers, with special physico-chemical properties, are recently studied as support for methanol oxidation reaction electrocatalysts replacing the most widely used carbon black. Particularly, carbon fibrous structures with high surface area and available open edges are thought to be promising. Platelet type carbon nanofibers, which have the graphene layers oriented perpendicularly to the fiber axis, exhibit a high ratio of edge to basal atoms. Different types of carbon nanofibers (tubular and platelet) were grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition on carbon paper substrates. The process was controlled and optimised in term of growth pressure and temperature. Carbon nanofibers were characterised by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to assess the morphological properties. Then carbon nanofibers of both morphologies were used as substrates for Pt electrodeposition. High resolution scanning electron microscopy images showed that the Pt nanoparticles distribution was well controlled and the particles size went down to few nanometers. Pt/carbon nanofibers nanocomposites were tested as electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation reaction. Cyclic voltammetry in H2SO4 revealed a catalyst with a high surface area. Cyclic voltammetry in presence of methanol indicated a high electrochemical activity for methanol oxidation reaction and a good long time stability compared to a carbon black supported Pt catalyst. PMID:22400264

  20. Activated carbon nanofiber webs made by electrospinning for capacitive deionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activated carbon fiber (ACF) webs with a non-woven multi-scale texture were fabricated from polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and their electrosorption performance in capacitive deionization for desalination was investigated. PAN nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning, followed by oxidative stabilization and activation with carbon dioxide at 750–900 °C, resulting in the ACF webs that were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption. The results show that the as-made ACFs have a specific surface area of 335–712 m2/g and an average nanofiber diameter of 285–800 nm, which can be tuned by varying the activation temperature. With the ACF webs as an electrode, an electrosorption capacity as high as 4.64 mg/g was achieved on a batch-type electrosorptive setup operated at 1.6 V. The ACF webs made by electrospinning are of potential as an excellent electrode material for capacitive deionization for desalination.

  1. High performance carbon nanotube - polymer nanofiber hybrid fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ozkan; Stano, Kelly; Faraji, Shaghayegh; Stone, Corinne; Willis, Colin; Zhang, Xiangwu; Jur, Jesse S.; Bradford, Philip D.

    2015-10-01

    Stable nanoscale hybrid fabrics containing both polymer nanofibers and separate and distinct carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are highly desirable but very challenging to produce. Here, we report the first instance of such a hybrid fabric, which can be easily tailored to contain 0-100% millimeter long CNTs. The novel CNT - polymer hybrid nonwoven fabrics were created by simultaneously electrospinning nanofibers onto aligned CNT sheets which were drawn and collected on a grounded, rotating mandrel. Due to the unique properties of the CNTs, the hybrids show very high tensile strength, very small pore size, high specific surface area and electrical conductivity. In order to further examine the hybrid fabric properties, they were consolidated under pressure, and also calendered at 70 °C. After calendering, the fabric's strength increased by an order of magnitude due to increased interactions and intermingling with the CNTs. The hybrids are highly efficient as aerosol filters; consolidated hybrid fabrics with a thickness of 20 microns and areal density of only 8 g m-2 exhibited ultra low particulate (ULPA) filter performance. The flexibility of this nanofabrication method allows for the use of many different polymer systems which provides the opportunity for engineering a wide range of nanoscale hybrid materials with desired functionalities.Stable nanoscale hybrid fabrics containing both polymer nanofibers and separate and distinct carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are highly desirable but very challenging to produce. Here, we report the first instance of such a hybrid fabric, which can be easily tailored to contain 0-100% millimeter long CNTs. The novel CNT - polymer hybrid nonwoven fabrics were created by simultaneously electrospinning nanofibers onto aligned CNT sheets which were drawn and collected on a grounded, rotating mandrel. Due to the unique properties of the CNTs, the hybrids show very high tensile strength, very small pore size, high specific surface area and electrical conductivity. In order to further examine the hybrid fabric properties, they were consolidated under pressure, and also calendered at 70 °C. After calendering, the fabric's strength increased by an order of magnitude due to increased interactions and intermingling with the CNTs. The hybrids are highly efficient as aerosol filters; consolidated hybrid fabrics with a thickness of 20 microns and areal density of only 8 g m-2 exhibited ultra low particulate (ULPA) filter performance. The flexibility of this nanofabrication method allows for the use of many different polymer systems which provides the opportunity for engineering a wide range of nanoscale hybrid materials with desired functionalities. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02732b

  2. Electromagnetic Properties of Novel Carbon Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Gai-Hua, DAI Bo, MA Yong-Jun, REN Yong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbonized bacterial cellulose (CBC with a three dimensional net-linked framework were synthesized from carbonized bacterial cellulose and investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum and Transmission electron microscopy. The complex permittivity and permeability of CBC/paraffin wax composite with certain ratio of the composite were measured by vector network analysis in the frequency range of 0.1–18 GHz. It is found that the composite has high permittivity and dielectric loss, especially at the low frequency. The electromagnetic characteristics of the CBC/Fe3O4 complex absorbers synthesized by mixing a small quantity of CBC with Fe3O4 were also studied, aiming at improving the microwave absorbing properties of Fe3O4/Wax composite. When the sample’s thickness was 1.2 mm, the reflection loss reached a minimal value of –21 dB for CBC - Fe3O4/Wax and of –2 dB for Fe3O4/Wax as well.

  3. Binder-free Si nanoparticles@carbon nanofiber fabric as energy storage material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nonwoven nanofiber fabric with paper-like qualities composed of Si nanoparticles and carbon as binder-free anode electrode is reported. The nanofiber fabrics are prepared by convenient electrospinning technique, in which, the Si nanoparticles are uniformly confined in the carbon nanofibers. The high strength and flexibility of the nanofiber fabrics are beneficial for alleviating the structural deformation and facilitating ion transports throughout the whole composited electrodes. Due to the absence of binder, the less weight, higher energy density, and excellent electrical conductivity anodes can be attained. These traits make the composited nanofiber fabrics excellent used as a binder-free, mechanically flexible, high energy storage anode material in the next generation of rechargeable lithium ions batteries

  4. High performance carbon nanotube--polymer nanofiber hybrid fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ozkan; Stano, Kelly; Faraji, Shaghayegh; Stone, Corinne; Willis, Colin; Zhang, Xiangwu; Jur, Jesse S; Bradford, Philip D

    2015-10-28

    Stable nanoscale hybrid fabrics containing both polymer nanofibers and separate and distinct carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are highly desirable but very challenging to produce. Here, we report the first instance of such a hybrid fabric, which can be easily tailored to contain 0-100% millimeter long CNTs. The novel CNT - polymer hybrid nonwoven fabrics were created by simultaneously electrospinning nanofibers onto aligned CNT sheets which were drawn and collected on a grounded, rotating mandrel. Due to the unique properties of the CNTs, the hybrids show very high tensile strength, very small pore size, high specific surface area and electrical conductivity. In order to further examine the hybrid fabric properties, they were consolidated under pressure, and also calendered at 70 °C. After calendering, the fabric's strength increased by an order of magnitude due to increased interactions and intermingling with the CNTs. The hybrids are highly efficient as aerosol filters; consolidated hybrid fabrics with a thickness of 20 microns and areal density of only 8 g m(-2) exhibited ultra low particulate (ULPA) filter performance. The flexibility of this nanofabrication method allows for the use of many different polymer systems which provides the opportunity for engineering a wide range of nanoscale hybrid materials with desired functionalities. PMID:26399497

  5. Tunable Graphitic Carbon Nano-Onions Development in Carbon Nanofibers for Multivalent Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Haiqing L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We developed a novel porous graphitic carbon nanofiber material using a synthesis strategy combining electrospinning and catalytic graphitization. RF hydrogel was used as carbon precursors, transition metal ions were successfully introduced into the carbon matrix by binding to the carboxylate groups of a resorcinol derivative. Transition metal particles were homogeneously distributed throughout the carbon matrix, which are used as in-situ catalysts to produce graphitic fullerene-like nanostructures surrounding the metals. The success design of graphitic carbons with enlarged interlayer spacing will enable the multivalent ion intercalation for the development of multivalent rechargeable batteries.

  6. Diamond synthesis from carbon nanofibers at low temperature and low pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chengzhi; Qi, Xiang; Pan, Chunxu; Yang, Wenge

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we report a new route to synthesize diamond by converting "solid" carbon nanofibers with a Spark Plasma Sintering system under low temperature and pressure (even at atmospheric pressure). Well-crystallized diamond crystals are obtained at the tips of the carbon nanofibers after sintering at 1500?°C and atmospheric pressure. Combining with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron-energy loss spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy observations, we propose the conversion mechanism as follows: the disorder "solid" carbon nanofibers?well crystallined carbon nanofibers?bent graphitic sheets?onion-liked rings?diamond single crystal?the bigger congregated diamond crystal. It is believed that the plasma generated by low-voltage, vacuum spark, via a pulsed DC in Spark Plasma Sintering process, plays a critical role in the low temperature and low pressure diamond formation. This Spark Plasma Sintering process may provide a new route for diamond synthesis in an economical way to a large scale. PMID:26351089

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON NANOFIBERS/ ZrO 2 CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITE.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duszová, A.; Morgiel, J.; Bastl, Zden?k; Mihály, J.; Dusza, J.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 58, ?. 2 (2013), s. 459-463. ISSN 1733-3490 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : carbon nanofibers * nanocomposites * transmission electron microscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.763, year: 2013

  8. Diamond synthesis from carbon nanofibers at low temperature and low pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chengzhi; Qi, Xiang; Pan, Chunxu; Yang, Wenge

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we report a new route to synthesize diamond by converting “solid” carbon nanofibers with a Spark Plasma Sintering system under low temperature and pressure (even at atmospheric pressure). Well-crystallized diamond crystals are obtained at the tips of the carbon nanofibers after sintering at 1500?°C and atmospheric pressure. Combining with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron-energy loss spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy observations, we propose the conversion mechanism as follows: the disorder “solid” carbon nanofibers???well crystallined carbon nanofibers???bent graphitic sheets???onion-liked rings???diamond single crystal???the bigger congregated diamond crystal. It is believed that the plasma generated by low-voltage, vacuum spark, via a pulsed DC in Spark Plasma Sintering process, plays a critical role in the low temperature and low pressure diamond formation. This Spark Plasma Sintering process may provide a new route for diamond synthesis in an economical way to a large scale.

  9. Effect of carbon nanofibers on tensile and compressive characteristics of hollow particle filled composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of presence of carbon nanofibers on the tensile and compressive properties of hollow particle filled composites is studied. Such composites, called syntactic foams, are known to have high specific modulus and low moisture absorption capabilities and are finding applications as core materials in aerospace and marine sandwich structures. The results of this study show that addition of 0.25 wt.% carbon nanofibers results in improvement in tensile modulus and strength compared to similar syntactic foam compositions that did not contain nanofibers. Compressive modulus decreased and strength remained largely unchanged for most compositions. Tensile and compressive failure features are analyzed using scanning electron microscopy.

  10. Mesoporous Carbon Nanofibers Embedded with MoS2 Nanocrystals for Extraordinary Li-Ion Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shan; Chen, Wen; Uchaker, Evan; Zhou, Jing; Cao, Guozhong

    2015-12-01

    MoS2 nanocrystals embedded in mesoporous carbon nanofibers are synthesized through an electrospinning process followed by calcination. The resultant nanofibers are 100-150?nm in diameter and constructed from MoS2 nanocrystals with a lateral diameter of around 7?nm with specific surface areas of 135.9?m(2) ?g(-1) . The MoS2 @C nanofibers are treated at 450?°C in H2 and comparison samples annealed at 800?°C in N2 . The heat treatments are designed to achieve good crystallinity and desired mesoporous microstructure, resulting in enhanced electrochemical performance. The small amount of oxygen in the nanofibers annealed in H2 contributes to obtaining a lower internal resistance, and thus, improving the conductivity. The results show that the nanofibers obtained at 450?°C in H2 deliver an extraordinary capacity of 1022?mA?h?g(-1) and improved cyclic stability, with only 2.3?% capacity loss after 165 cycles at a current density of 100?mA?g(-1) , as well as an outstanding rate capability. The greatly improved kinetics and cycling stability of the mesoporous MoS2 @C nanofibers can be attributed to the crosslinked conductive carbon nanofibers, the large specific surface area, the good crystallinity of MoS2 , and the robust mesoporous microstructure. The resulting nanofiber electrodes, with short mass- and charge-transport pathways, improved electrical conductivity, and large contact area exposed to electrolyte, permitting fast diffusional flux of Li ions, explains the improved kinetics of the interfacial charge-transfer reaction and the diffusivity of the MoS2 @C mesoporous nanofibers. It is believed that the integration of MoS2 nanocrystals and mesoporous carbon nanofibers may have a synergistic effect, giving a promising anode, and widening the applicability range into high performance and mass production in the Li-ion battery market. PMID:26515375

  11. Effect of Sulfur Concentration on the Morphology of Carbon Nanofibers Produced from a Botanical Hydrocarbon

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh Kaushik; Ando Yoshinori; Katoh Ryoji; Sumiyama Kenji; Ghosh Pradip; Soga Tetsuo; Jimbo Takashi

    2008-01-01

    AbstractCarbon nanofibers (CNF) with diameters of 20–130 nm with different morphologies were obtained from a botanical hydrocarbon: Turpentine oil, using ferrocene as catalyst source and sulfur as a promoter by simple spray pyrolysis method at 1,000 °C. The influence of sulfur concentration on the morphology of the carbon nanofibers was investigated. SEM, TEM, Raman, TGA/DTA, and BET surface area were employed to characterize the as-prepared samples. TEM analysis confirms that as-p...

  12. Electrospun vanadium pentoxide/carbon nanofiber composites for supercapacitor electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vanadium pentoxide (V2O5)/carbon nanofiber composites (CNFCs) were prepared from polyacrylonitrile/V2O5 in N,N-dimethylformamide by a simple electrospinning method, and their electrochemical properties as supercapacitor electrodes were investigated. Different loadings of V2O5, the microstructures of the CNFCs (e.g., nanometer-size diameters, high specific surface areas, narrow pore size distributions, and tunable porosities) were changed, and the textural parameters significantly affected the electrochemical properties of the composites. The CNFC capacitors delivered the high specific capacitances of 150.0 F g?1 for the CNFCs in an aqueous, with promising energy densities of 18.8 Wh kg?1, over a power density range of 400–20,000 W kg?1. The CNFCs simultaneously exhibited excellent capacity retention.

  13. Physicochemical investigations of carbon nanofiber supported Cu/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Din, Israf Ud, E-mail: drisraf@yahoo.com, E-mail: maizats@petronas.com.my; Shaharun, Maizatul S., E-mail: drisraf@yahoo.com, E-mail: maizats@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (Malaysia); Subbarao, Duvvuri, E-mail: duvvuri-subbarao@petronas.com.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (Malaysia); Naeem, A., E-mail: naeeem64@yahoo.com [National Centre of Excellence in Physical Chemistry, University of Peshawar (Pakistan)

    2014-10-24

    Zirconia-promoted copper/carbon nanofiber catalysts (Cu?ZrO{sub 2}/CNF) were prepared by the sequential deposition precipitation method. The Herringbone type of carbon nanofiber GNF-100 (Graphite nanofiber) was used as a catalyst support. Carbon nanofiber was oxidized to (CNF-O) with 5% and 65 % concentration of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). The CNF activated with 5% HNO{sub 3} produced higher surface area which is 155 m{sup 2}/g. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption. The results showed that increase of HNO{sub 3} concentration reduced the surface area and porosity of the catalyst.

  14. Ni-catalysed carbon nanotubes and nanofibers assemblies grown on TiN/Si(1 0 0) substrates using hot-filaments combined with d.c. plasma CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleaca, Claudiu Teodor; Le Normand, François

    2014-02-01

    Different carbon nanotubes or nanofibers (CNTs or CNFs) assemblies were obtained using Ni catalyst deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) on TiN/Si(1 0 0) substrate from a H2/C2H2 mixture using plasma emerging from triode configured electrodes with two pairs of intercalated incandescent filaments at 1 kPa and 700 °C. In the presence of a relative intense plasma (54 W power), a dense CNT carpet was grown. The TEM images revealed the presence of elongated yet contorted 10-15 nm diameter CNTs with encapsulated Ni particles at their tips. Using a low plasma power (8 W) in similar conditions and from the same catalyst, a different morphology resulted: few self-sustained long fibrils (diameter around 1 μm) which are curved under the action of their own weight containing compacted CNTs/CNFs and (only in the confined zones near the lateral edges) 50-200 nm thick filaments presenting buds-like structures and Y-shape junctions.

  15. High quality fluorescent cellulose nanofibers from endemic rice husk: isolation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, E; Nath, B K; Deb, P; Agan, F; Islam, Md R; Saikia, K

    2015-05-20

    Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) with high crystallinity and purity were isolated from two endemic rice husk varieties using a hydrothermal approach followed by acid-alkali treatments and mechanical disruption. The CNFs isolated had a mean diameter of ? 35 nm. The TGA and DTG profiles showed good thermostability of the CNFs. The CNFs also showed a prominent photoluminescence peak at 404 nm with high quantum yield (? 58%). This is the first report on the native fluorescence property of nanocellulose in absence of any conjugated fluorescence molecule/dye. The CNFs further demonstrated appreciable hemocompatibility in the hemolysis test, exhibiting its potential for biomedical applications. PMID:25817673

  16. Method for production of carbon nanofiber mat or carbon paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Amit K.

    2015-08-04

    Method for the preparation of a non-woven mat or paper made of carbon fibers, the method comprising carbonizing a non-woven mat or paper preform (precursor) comprised of a plurality of bonded sulfonated polyolefin fibers to produce said non-woven mat or paper made of carbon fibers. The preforms and resulting non-woven mat or paper made of carbon fiber, as well as articles and devices containing them, and methods for their use, are also described.

  17. Platinum nanocluster growth on vertically aligned carbon nanofiber arrays: Sputtering experiments and molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Molecular dynamics simulation of platinum cluster growth on model carbon nanofibers. ? We compare modeled and experimental cluster growth. ? We determine sticking coefficient evolution among deposition time and type of nanofibers. ? We determine cluster size distribution on various model nanofibers. - Abstract: Sputtered platinum nanocluster growth on previously plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition – PECVD – grown vertically aligned carbon nanofiber arrays is presented. Experimental cluster size distribution is shown to decrease from the CNF top to bottom, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out for understanding early stages of Pt growth on model CNF arrays. Especially, sticking coefficients, concentration profiles along CNF wall, cluster size distributions are calculated. Simulated cluster size distribution are consistent with experimental finding. Sticking coefficient decreases against deposition time. The shape of the sticking curve reflects the nanocluster growth process.

  18. Hollow Carbon Nanofiber-Encapsulated Sulfur Cathodes for High Specific Capacity Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Guangyuan

    2011-10-12

    Sulfur has a high specific capacity of 1673 mAh/g as lithium battery cathodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to polysulfides dissolution presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur cathode for effective trapping of polysulfides and demonstrate experimentally high specific capacity and excellent electrochemical cycling of the cells. The hollow carbon nanofiber arrays were fabricated using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, through thermal carbonization of polystyrene. The AAO template also facilitates sulfur infusion into the hollow fibers and prevents sulfur from coating onto the exterior carbon wall. The high aspect ratio of the carbon nanofibers provides an ideal structure for trapping polysulfides, and the thin carbon wall allows rapid transport of lithium ions. The small dimension of these nanofibers provides a large surface area per unit mass for Li2S deposition during cycling and reduces pulverization of electrode materials due to volumetric expansion. A high specific capacity of about 730 mAh/g was observed at C/5 rate after 150 cycles of charge/discharge. The introduction of LiNO3 additive to the electrolyte was shown to improve the Coulombic efficiency to over 99% at C/5. The results show that the hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur structure could be a promising cathode design for rechargeable Li/S batteries with high specific energy. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Development of radiation processing to functionalize carbon nanofiber to use in nanocomposite for industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation can be used to modify and improve the properties of materials. Electron beam and gamma ray irradiation has potential application in modifying the structure of carbon fibers in order to produce useful defects in the graphite structure and create reactive sites. In this study was investigated a methodology for radiation grafting processing to modify carbon nanofiber surfaces by grafting acrylic acid. The samples were submitted to direct radiation process. Several parameters were changed such as acrylic acid concentration, radiation dose and percentage of inhibitor to achieve functionalization with higher percentage of oxygen functional groups on carbon nanofiber surface and better dispersion. The samples were characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and the dispersion stability upon storage was visually investigated. Carbon nanofiber directed irradiated with electron beam and gamma ray in a solution of acrylic acid with 6% of inhibitor (FeSO4.7H2O) and irradiated at 100 kGy had an increase of 20% of oxygen content onto carbon nanofiber surface. The Auger D-parameter for the samples direct irradiated grafted ranged between 17.0-17.7 compared to 21.1-18.9 of the unirradiated ones. This indicated that these samples had less sp2 and more sp3 bonding characteristics than unirradiated samples. This can be an indication of C=C bond breaking leading to the formation of new sp3 carbon atoms on carbon nanofiber surface with oxygen functional groups grafted. The samples grafted presented a good and stable dispersion. (author)

  20. The Optical Excitation of Zigzag Carbon Nanotubes with Photons Guided in Nanofibers

    OpenAIRE

    Broadfoot, S.; Dorner, U.; Jaksch, D.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the excitation of electrons in semiconducting carbon nanotubes by photons from the evanescent field created by a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber. The strongly changing evanescent field of such nanofibers requires dropping the dipole approximation. We show that this leads to novel effects, especially a high dependence of the photon absorption on the relative orientation and geometry of the nanotube-nanofiber setup in the optical and near infrared domain. In particular, we calc...

  1. Positional control of catalyst nanoparticles for the synthesis of high density carbon nanofiber arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Scott T. Retterer; Melechko, Anatoli; Hensley, Dale K.; Simpson, Michael L.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.

    2008-01-01

    Precise arrangement of nanoscale elements within larger systems, is essential to controlling higher order functionality and tailoring nanophase material properties. Here, we present findings on growth conditions for vertically aligned carbon nanofibers that enable synthesis of high density arrays and individual rows of nanofibers, which could be used to form barriers for restricting molecular transport, that have regular spacings and few defects. Growth through plasma-enhanced chemical vapor ...

  2. Relationship between Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes Individual Dispersion Behavior and Properties of Electrospun Nanofibers

    OpenAIRE

    Haji A.; Nasouri K.; Mousavi Shoushtari A.; Kaflou A.

    2013-01-01

    The dispersion stability behavior of single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) has important effects on morphological and mechanical properties of SWCNT/polymer composite nanofibers. The effects of SWCNTs incorporation on the morphological and structural developments and the relation between this develop-ments and mechanical properties of the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers were demonstrated. The uni-form, stable dispersion and well oriented SWCNT within the PAN matrix were achieved through us...

  3. Carbonized Micro- and Nanostructures: Can Downsizing Really Help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naraghi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, we discuss relationships between morphology and mechanical strength of carbonized structures, obtained via pyrolysis of polymeric precursors, across multiple length scales, from carbon fibers (CFs with diameters of 5–10 µm to submicron thick carbon nanofibers (CNFs. Our research points to radial inhomogeneity, skin–core structure, as a size-dependent feature of polyacrylonitrile-based CFs. This inhomogeneity is a surface effect, caused by suppressed diffusion of oxygen and stabilization byproducts during stabilization through skin. Hence, reducing the precursor diameters from tens of microns to submicron appears as an effective strategy to develop homogeneous carbonized structures. Our research establishes the significance of this downsizing in developing lightweight structural materials by comparing intrinsic strength of radially inhomogeneous CFs with that of radially homogeneous CNF. While experimental studies on the strength of CNFs have targeted randomly oriented turbostratic domains, via continuum modeling, we have estimated that strength of CNFs can reach 14 GPa, when the basal planes of graphitic domains are parallel to nanofiber axis. The CNFs in our model are treated as composites of amorphous carbon (matrix, reinforced with turbostratic domains, and their strength is predicted using Tsai–Hill criterion. The model was calibrated with existing experimental data.

  4. Electrospun single-walled carbon nanotube/polyvinyl alcohol composite nanofibers: structure-property relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/PVA composite nanofibers have been produced by electrospinning. An apparent increase in the PVA crystallinity with a concomitant change in its main crystalline phase and a reduction in the crystalline domain size were observed in the SWNT/PVA composite nanofibers, indicating the occurrence of a SWNT-induced nucleation crystallization of the PVA phase. Both the pure PVA and SWNT/PVA composite nanofibers were subjected to the following post-electrospinning treatments: (i) soaking in methanol to increase the PVA crystallinity, and (ii) cross-linking with glutaric dialdehyde to control the PVA morphology. Effects of the PVA morphology on the tensile properties of the resultant electrospun nanofibers were examined. Dynamic mechanical thermal analyses of both pure PVA and SWNT/PVA composite electrospun nanofibers indicated that SWNT-polymer interaction facilitated the formation of crystalline domains, which can be further enhanced by soaking the nanofiber in methanol and/or cross-linking the polymer with glutaric dialdehyde

  5. Investigating the plasma chemistry for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes/nanofibres in an inductively coupled plasma enhanced CVD system: the effect of different gas mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, M; Bogaerts, A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A hybrid model, called the Hybrid Plasma Equipment Model (HPEM) was used to study an inductively coupled plasma in gas mixtures of H 2 or NH 3 with CH 4 or C 2 H 2 used for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes or carbon nanofibers (CNTs/CNFs). The plasma properties are discussed for the different gas mixture at low and moderate pressure, and the growth precursors for CNTs/CNFs are analyzed. It is found that C 2 H 2, C 2 H 4, and C 2 H 6 are the predominant molecules in CH 4 containin...

  6. Preparation and Application of Carbon Nanofibers-supported Palladium Nanoparticles Catalysts Based on Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Li-Ping, BAI Jie, LIANG Hai-Ou, LI Chun-Ping, SUN Wei-Yan, MENG Qing-Run

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanofibers-supported palladium nanoparticle catalysts were prepared by electrospinning, chemical reduction and the subsequent high temperature carbonization methods. The experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of different reducing agents (sodium borohydride, hydrazine hydrate and hydrogen gas on morphology of palladium nanoparticles and carbon nanofibers in detail. Catalysts were characterized by UV-Vis spectra, X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectrum, scanning electron microscope, field emission transmission electron microscope. Results show that the palladium nanoparticles are distributed uniformly on the carbon nanofibers with dimension of about 7 nm, and the catalyst is relatively flexible by using hydrogen gas as reducing agent. Then it was applied to the Heck coupling reaction to test catalytic properties and recyclability. Results indicate that the catalyst possesses excellent stability and recyclability.

  7. Characterisation of hydrophobic carbon nanofiber-silica composite film electrodes for redox liquid immobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon (50-150 nm diameter) nanofibers were embedded into easy to prepare thin films of a hydrophobic sol-gel material and cast onto tin-doped indium oxide substrate electrodes. They promote electron transport and allow efficient electrochemical reactions at solid|liquid and at liquid|liquid interfaces. In order to prevent aggregation of carbon nanofibers silica nanoparticles of 7 nm diameter were added into the sol-gel mixture as a 'surfactant' and homogeneous high surface area films were obtained. Scanning electron microscopy reveals the presence of carbon nanofibers at the electrode surface. The results of voltammetric experiments performed in redox probe-ferrocenedimethanol solution in aqueous electrolyte solution indicate that in the absence of organic phase, incomplete wetting within the hydrophobic film of carbon nanofibers can cause hemispherical diffusion regime typical for ultramicroelectrode like behaviour. The hydrophobic film electrode was modified with two types of redox liquids: pure tert-butylferrocene or dissolved in 2-nitrophenyloctylether as a water-insoluble solvent and immersed in aqueous electrolyte solution. With a nanomole deposit of pure redox liquid, stable voltammetric responses are obtained. The presence of carbon nanofibers embedded in the mesoporous matrix substantially increases the efficiency of the electrode process and stability under voltammetric conditions. Also well-defined response for diluted redox liquids is obtained. From measurements in a range of different aqueous electrolyte media a gradual transition from anion transfer dominated to cation transfer dominated processes is inferred depending on the hydrophilicity of the transferring anion or cation

  8. Electrochemical stability of carbon nanofibers in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Garbine [Energy Department, CIDETEC-IK4, Po Miramon, 196, 20009 San Sebastian (Spain); Alcaide, Francisco, E-mail: falcaide@cidetec.es [Energy Department, CIDETEC-IK4, Po Miramon, 196, 20009 San Sebastian (Spain); Miguel, Oscar [Energy Department, CIDETEC-IK4, Po Miramon, 196, 20009 San Sebastian (Spain); Cabot, Pere L. [Laboratori d' Electroquimica de Materials i del Medi Ambient, Dept. Quimica Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Martinez-Huerta, M.V.; Fierro, J.L.G. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), Marie Curie 2, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-30

    This fundamental study deals with the electrochemical stability of several non-conventional carbon based catalyst supports, intended for low temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathodes. Electrochemical surface oxidation of raw and functionalized carbon nanofibers, and carbon black for comparison, was studied following a potential step treatment at 25.0 deg. C in acid electrolyte, which mimics the operating conditions of low temperature PEMFCs. Surface oxidation was characterized using cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact angle measurements. Cyclic voltammograms clearly showed the presence of the hydroquinone/quinone couple. Furthermore, identification of carbonyl, ether, hydroxyl and carboxyl surface functional groups were made by deconvolution of the XPS spectra. The relative increase in surface oxides on carbon nanofibers during the electrochemical oxidation treatment is significantly smaller than that on carbon black. This suggests that carbon nanofibers are more resistant to the electrochemical corrosion than carbon black under the experimental conditions used in this work. This behaviour could be attributed to the differences found in the microstructure of both kinds of carbons. According to these results, carbon nanofibers possess a high potential as catalyst support to increase the durability of catalysts used in low temperature PEMFC applications.

  9. Electrochemical stability of carbon nanofibers in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fundamental study deals with the electrochemical stability of several non-conventional carbon based catalyst supports, intended for low temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathodes. Electrochemical surface oxidation of raw and functionalized carbon nanofibers, and carbon black for comparison, was studied following a potential step treatment at 25.0 deg. C in acid electrolyte, which mimics the operating conditions of low temperature PEMFCs. Surface oxidation was characterized using cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact angle measurements. Cyclic voltammograms clearly showed the presence of the hydroquinone/quinone couple. Furthermore, identification of carbonyl, ether, hydroxyl and carboxyl surface functional groups were made by deconvolution of the XPS spectra. The relative increase in surface oxides on carbon nanofibers during the electrochemical oxidation treatment is significantly smaller than that on carbon black. This suggests that carbon nanofibers are more resistant to the electrochemical corrosion than carbon black under the experimental conditions used in this work. This behaviour could be attributed to the differences found in the microstructure of both kinds of carbons. According to these results, carbon nanofibers possess a high potential as catalyst support to increase the durability of catalysts used in low temperature PEMFC applications.

  10. A novel nano-nonwoven fabric with three-dimensionally dispersed nanofibers: entrapment of carbon nanofibers within nonwovens using the wet-lay process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study demonstrates, for the first time, the manufacturing of novel nano-nonwovens that are comprised of three-dimensionally distributed carbon nanofibers within the matrices of traditional wet-laid nonwovens. The preparation of these nano-nonwovens involves dispersing and flocking carbon nanofibers, and optimizing colloidal chemistry during wet-lay formation. The distribution of nanofibers within the nano-nonwoven was verified using polydispersed aerosol filtration testing, air permeability, low surface tension liquid capillary porometry, SEM and cyclic voltammetry. All these characterization techniques indicated that nanofiber flocks did not behave as large solid clumps, but retained the ‘nanoporous’ structure expected from nanofibers. These nano-nonwovens showed significant enhancements in aerosol filtration performance. The reduction–oxidation reactions of the functional groups on nanofibers and the linear variation of electric double-layer capacitance with nanofiber loading were measured using cyclic voltammetry. More than 65 m2 (700 ft2) of the composite were made during the demonstration of process scalability using a Fourdrinier-type continuous pilot papermaking machine. The scalability of the process with the control over pore size distribution makes these composites very promising for filtration and other nonwoven applications. (paper)

  11. A novel nano-nonwoven fabric with three-dimensionally dispersed nanofibers: entrapment of carbon nanofibers within nonwovens using the wet-lay process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwa, Amogh N; Barron, Troy J; Davis, Virginia A; Tatarchuk, Bruce J

    2012-05-11

    This study demonstrates, for the first time, the manufacturing of novel nano-nonwovens that are comprised of three-dimensionally distributed carbon nanofibers within the matrices of traditional wet-laid nonwovens. The preparation of these nano-nonwovens involves dispersing and flocking carbon nanofibers, and optimizing colloidal chemistry during wet-lay formation. The distribution of nanofibers within the nano-nonwoven was verified using polydispersed aerosol filtration testing, air permeability, low surface tension liquid capillary porometry, SEM and cyclic voltammetry. All these characterization techniques indicated that nanofiber flocks did not behave as large solid clumps, but retained the 'nanoporous' structure expected from nanofibers. These nano-nonwovens showed significant enhancements in aerosol filtration performance. The reduction-oxidation reactions of the functional groups on nanofibers and the linear variation of electric double-layer capacitance with nanofiber loading were measured using cyclic voltammetry. More than 65 m² (700 ft²) of the composite were made during the demonstration of process scalability using a Fourdrinier-type continuous pilot papermaking machine. The scalability of the process with the control over pore size distribution makes these composites very promising for filtration and other nonwoven applications. PMID:22498976

  12. Radiation Effects on Polypropylene Carbon Nanofibers Composites: Spectroscopic Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, John; Mion, Thomas; Cristian Chipara, Alin; Ibrahim, Elamin I.; Lozano, Karen; Tidrow, Steven; Magdalena Chipara, Dorina; Chipara, Mircea

    2010-03-01

    Dispersion of carbon nanostructures within polymeric matrices affects their physical and chemical properties (increased Young modulus, improved thermal stability, faster crystallization rates, higher equilibrium degree of crystallinity, modified glass, melting, and crystallization temperatures, enhanced thermal and electrical conductivity). Nevertheless, little is known about the radiation stability of such nanocomposites. The research is focused on spectroscopic investigations of radiation-induced modifications in isotactic polypropylene (iPP)-vapor grown nanofiber (VGCNF) composites. VGCNF were dispersed within iPP by extrusion at 180^oC. Composites containing various amounts of VGCNFs ranging from 0 to 20 % wt. were prepared and subjected to gamma irradiation, at room temperature, at various integral doses (10 MGy, 20 MGy, and 30 MGy). Raman spectroscopy, ATR, and WAXS were used to assess the radiation-induced modifications in these nanocomposites. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the Welch Foundation (Department of Chemistry at UTPA), by Air Force Research Laboratory (FA8650-07-2-5061) and by US Army Research Laboratory/Office (W911NF-08-1-0353).

  13. Effect of twist and porosity on the electrical conductivity of carbon nanofiber yarns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on the effect of twist and porosity on the electrical conductivity of carbon nanofiber (CNF) yarns. The process of fabrication of CNF yarns included the synthesis of aligned ribbons of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers via electrospinning. The PAN ribbons were twisted into yarns with twist levels ranging from zero twist to high twists of 1300 turn per meter (tpm). The twist imposed on the ribbons substantially improved the interactions between nanofibers and reduced the porosity. The PAN yarns were subsequently stabilized in air, and then carbonized in nitrogen at 1100?° C for 1 h. Compressive stresses developed between the PAN nanofibers as a result of twist promoted interfusion between neighboring nanofibers, which was accelerated by heating the yarns during stabilization to temperatures above the glass transition of PAN. The electrical conductivity of the yarns was measured with a four point probe measurement technique. Although increasing the twist promotes electrical conductivity between nanofibers by forming junctions between them, our results indicate that the electrical conductivity does not continuously increase with increasing twist, but reaches a threshold value after which it starts to decrease. The causes for this behavior were studied through experimental techniques and further explored using a yarn-equivalent electrical circuit model. (paper)

  14. Effect of twist and porosity on the electrical conductivity of carbon nanofiber yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, S.; Naraghi, M.; Davoudi, A.

    2013-06-01

    This study focuses on the effect of twist and porosity on the electrical conductivity of carbon nanofiber (CNF) yarns. The process of fabrication of CNF yarns included the synthesis of aligned ribbons of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers via electrospinning. The PAN ribbons were twisted into yarns with twist levels ranging from zero twist to high twists of 1300 turn per meter (tpm). The twist imposed on the ribbons substantially improved the interactions between nanofibers and reduced the porosity. The PAN yarns were subsequently stabilized in air, and then carbonized in nitrogen at 1100?° C for 1 h. Compressive stresses developed between the PAN nanofibers as a result of twist promoted interfusion between neighboring nanofibers, which was accelerated by heating the yarns during stabilization to temperatures above the glass transition of PAN. The electrical conductivity of the yarns was measured with a four point probe measurement technique. Although increasing the twist promotes electrical conductivity between nanofibers by forming junctions between them, our results indicate that the electrical conductivity does not continuously increase with increasing twist, but reaches a threshold value after which it starts to decrease. The causes for this behavior were studied through experimental techniques and further explored using a yarn-equivalent electrical circuit model.

  15. Hollow nitrogen-containing core/shell fibrous carbon nanomaterials as support to platinum nanocatalysts and their TEM tomography study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Cuifeng; Liu, Zongwen; Du, Xusheng; Mitchell, David Richard Graham; Mai, Yiu-Wing; Yan, Yushan; Ringer, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Core/shell nanostructured carbon materials with carbon nanofiber (CNF) as the core and a nitrogen (N)-doped graphitic layer as the shell were synthesized by pyrolysis of CNF/polyaniline (CNF/PANI) composites prepared by in situ polymerization of aniline on CNFs. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared and Raman analyses indicated that the PANI shell was carbonized at 900°C. Platinum (Pt) nanoparticles were reduced by formic a...

  16. Towards Scalable Binderless Electrodes: Carbon Coated Silicon Nanofiber Paper via Mg Reduction of Electrospun SiO2 Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favors, Zachary; Bay, Hamed Hosseini; Mutlu, Zafer; Ahmed, Kazi; Ionescu, Robert; Ye, Rachel; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.

    2015-02-01

    The need for more energy dense and scalable Li-ion battery electrodes has become increasingly pressing with the ushering in of more powerful portable electronics and electric vehicles (EVs) requiring substantially longer range capabilities. Herein, we report on the first synthesis of nano-silicon paper electrodes synthesized via magnesiothermic reduction of electrospun SiO2 nanofiber paper produced by an in situ acid catalyzed polymerization of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in-flight. Free-standing carbon-coated Si nanofiber binderless electrodes produce a capacity of 802 mAh g-1 after 659 cycles with a Coulombic efficiency of 99.9%, which outperforms conventionally used slurry-prepared graphite anodes by over two times on an active material basis. Silicon nanofiber paper anodes offer a completely binder-free and Cu current collector-free approach to electrode fabrication with a silicon weight percent in excess of 80%. The absence of conductive powder additives, metallic current collectors, and polymer binders in addition to the high weight percent silicon all contribute to significantly increasing capacity at the cell level.

  17. Carbon-coated SnSb nanoparticles dispersed in reticular structured nanofibers for lithium-ion battery anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Sn0.92Sb0.08O2.04 nanoparticles as SnSb alloy precursor. • Carbon-coated SnSb nanoparticles were prepared and then embedded in carbon nanofibers. • The synergic effect of carbon coating and special structure improved cycling stability. - Abstract: Carbon coating and carbon nanofiber processes were used to enhance the cycling performance of SnSb alloys. Carbon-coated SnSb alloys were firstly prepared by a simple hydrothermal method to build the first protection, and then carbon-coated SnSb nanoparticles were embedded in carbon nanofibers via single-spinneret electrospinning followed by carbonization. The crystal structure of carbon-coated SnSb/C hybrid nanofibers was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphologies of carbon-coated SnSb alloys and hybrid nanofibers were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The thermal stability of hybrid nanofibers were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The electrochemical properties were investigated as a potential high-capacity anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The results showed that the hybrid nanofibers exhibited excellent electrochemical performance due to the special structure. The carbon shell can effectively hinder the agglomeration of SnSb alloys, while maintaining electronic conduction as well as accommodating drastic volume changes during lithium insertion and extraction and carbon nanofibers formed a further protection. The resultant carbon-coated SnSb nanoparticles dispersed in carbon nanofibers deliver a high capacity of 674 mA h g?1 and a good capacity retention of 68.7% after 50 cycles

  18. Oxidative steam reforming of ethanol over carbon nanofiber supported Co catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, A.L.M.; Mattos, L.V.; den Breejen, J.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837318; Bitter, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/160581435; De Jong, K. P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06885580X; Noronha, F.B.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the cobalt particle size in the ethanol oxidative steam reforming reaction for hydrogen production was investigated using cobalt on carbon nanofiber catalysts. The smallest (4 nm) were quite stable during OSR reaction but significant carbon formation was detected.

  19. Carbon Nanotubes/Nanofibers by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, K. B. K.; Hash, D. B.; Bell, M. S.; Chhowalla, M.; Cruden, B. A.; Amaratunga, G. A. J.; Meyyappan, M.; Milne, W. I.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) has been recently used for the production of vertically aligned carbon nanotubedfibers (CN) directly on substrates. These structures are potentially important technologically as electron field emitters (e.g. microguns, microwave amplifiers, displays), nanoelectrodes for sensors, filter media, superhydrophobic surfaces and thermal interface materials for microelectronics. A parametric study on the growth of CN grown by glow discharge dc-PECVD is presented. In this technique, a substrate containing thin film Ni catalyst is exposed to C2H2 and NH3 gases at 700 C. Without plasma, this process is essentially thermal CVD which produces curly spaghetti-like CN as seen in Fig. 1 (a). With the plasma generated by biasing the substrate at -6OOV, we observed that the CN align vertically during growth as shown in Fig. l(b), and that the magnitude of the applied substrate bias affects the degree of alignment. The thickness of the thin film Ni catalyst was found to determine the average diameter and inversely the length of the CN. The yield and density of the CN were controlled by the use of different diffusion barrier materials under the Ni catalyst. Patterned CN growth [Fig. l(c)], with la variation in CN diameter of 4.1% and 6.3% respectively, is achieved by lithographically defining the Ni thin film prior to growth. The shape of the structures could be varied from very straight nanotube-like to conical tip-like nanofibers by increasing the ratio of C2H2 in the gas flow. Due to the plasma decomposition of C2H2, amorphous carbon (a-C) is an undesirable byproduct which could coat the substrate during CN growth. Using a combination of depth profiled Auger electron spectroscopy to study the substrate and in-situ mass spectroscopy to examine gas phase neutrals and ions, the optimal conditions for a-C free growth of CN is determined.

  20. Genotoxicity of carbon nanofibers: Are they potentially more or less dangerous than carbon nanotubes or asbestos?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of carbon nanofibers and nanotubes (CNF/CNT) and their composite products is increasing globally. CNF are generating great interest in industrial sectors such as energy production and electronics, where alternative materials may have limited performance or are produced at a much higher cost. However, despite the increasing industrial use of carbon nanofibers, information on their potential adverse health effects is limited. In the current study, we examine the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of carbon-based nanofibers (Pyrograf (registered) -III) and compare this material with the effects of asbestos fibers (crocidolite) or single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). The genotoxic effects in the lung fibroblast (V79) cell line were examined using two complementary assays: the comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test. In addition, we utilized fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect the chromatin pan-centromeric signals within the MN indicating their origin by aneugenic (chromosomal malsegregation) or clastogenic (chromosome breakage) mechanisms. Cytotoxicity tests revealed a concentration- and time-dependent loss of V79 cell viability after exposure to all tested materials in the following sequence: asbestos > CNF > SWCNT. Additionally, cellular uptake and generation of oxygen radicals was seen in the murine RAW264.7 macrophages following exposure to CNF or asbestos but not after administration of SWCNT. DNA damage and MN induction were found after exposure to all tested materials with the strongest effect seen for CNF. Finally, we demonstrated that CNF induced predominately centromere-positive MN in primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) indicating aneugenic events. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate the possible mechanisms involved in CNF-induced genotoxicity.

  1. Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers and related structures: Controlled synthesis and directed assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The controlled synthesis of materials by methods that permit their assembly into functional nanoscale structures lies at the crux of the emerging field of nanotechnology. Although only one of several materials families is of interest, carbon-based nanostructured materials continue to attract a disproportionate share of research effort, in part because of their wide-ranging properties. Additionally, developments of the past decade in the controlled synthesis of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers have opened additional possibilities for their use as functional elements in numerous applications. Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) are a subclass of carbon nanostructured materials that can be produced with a high degree of control using catalytic plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition (C-PECVD). Using C-PECVD the location, diameter, length, shape, chemical composition, and orientation can be controlled during VACNF synthesis. Here we review the CVD and PECVD systems, growth control mechanisms, catalyst preparation, resultant carbon nanostructures, and VACNF properties. This is followed by a review of many of the application areas for carbon nanotubes and nanofibers including electron field-emission sources, electrochemical probes, functionalized sensor elements, scanning probe microscopy tips, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), hydrogen and charge storage, and catalyst support. We end by noting gaps in the understanding of VACNF growth mechanisms and the challenges remaining in the development of methods for an even more comprehensive control of the carbon nanofiber synthesis process

  2. Effects of Oral Administration of Chitin Nanofiber on Plasma Metabolites and Gut Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kazuo; Izumi, Ryotaro; Kawata, Mari; Nagae, Tomone; Osaki, Tomohiro; Murahata, Yusuke; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Ito, Norihiko; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Morimoto, Minoru; Izawa, Hironori; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of oral administration of chitin nanofibers (CNFs) and surface-deacetylated (SDA) CNFs on plasma metabolites using metabolome analysis. Furthermore, we determined the changes in gut microbiota and fecal organic acid concentrations following oral administrations of CNFs and SDACNFs. Healthy female mice (six-week-old) were fed a normal diet and administered tap water with 0.1% (v/v) CNFs or SDACNFs for 28 days. Oral administration of CNFs increased plasma levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). Oral administration of SDACNFs affected the metabolisms of acyl-carnitines and fatty acids. The fecal organic level analysis indicated that oral administration of CNFs stimulated and activated the functions of microbiota. These results indicate that oral administration of CNFs increases plasma levels of ATP and 5-HT via activation of gut microbiota. PMID:26378523

  3. Plasma oxidation and stabilization of electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofiber for carbon nanofiber formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamideh Mortazavi, S.; Pilehvar, Soheil; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Hosseinnejad, M. T.; Zargham, Shamim; Mirarefi, Ali A.; Mirarefi, Amir Y.

    2013-11-01

    The effect of plasma treatment on the stabilization of copolymer P(AN-MA) containing 6.1 mol% methyl acrylate (MA) prepared by an electrospinning technique has been investigated at various oxygen contents (10 %, 20 % and 30 %) and different exposure times. The morphology and chemical structural evolution of electrospun and oxidized nanofibers were studied using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). FT-IR analysis indicated that the treated nanofibers were effectively oxidized under different contents of oxygen and prolonged plasma exposure times by increasing the peak intensities of polar groups at 1730 and 3400 cm-1 corresponding to C=O stretching band and OH stretching vibration mode, respectively. Additionally, a reduction in the extent of the cyclization reaction is observed with further increase in exposure times and contents of oxygen, which implies lower conversion of C?N bands into C=N ones in the copolymer chain. According to the FE-SEM studies, the surfaces of the treated nanofibers were completely etched after 15 min of treatment due to the existence of strong ion bombardment and a reduction in the average fiber diameters was observed.

  4. Electrochemical enzymatic biosensors using carbon nanofiber nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Li, Yi-fen; Swisher, Luxi Z.; Syed, Lateef U.; Prior, Allan M.; Nguyen, Thu A.; Hua, Duy H.

    2012-10-01

    The reduction of electrode size down to nanometers could dramatically enhance detection sensitivity and temporal resolution. Nanoelectrode arrays (NEAs) are of particular interest for ultrasensitive biosensors. Here we report the study of two types of biosensors for measuring enzyme activities using NEAs fabricated with vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs). VACNFs of ~100 nm in average diameter and 3-5 ?m in length were grown on conductive substrates as uniform vertical arrays which were then encapsulated in SiO2 matrix leaving only the tips exposed. We demonstrate that such VACNF NEAs can be used in profiling enzyme activities through monitoring the change in electrochemical signals induced by enzymatic reactions to the peptides attached to the VACNF tip. The cleavage of the tetrapeptide with a ferrocene tag by a cancerrelated protease (legumain) was monitored with AC voltammetry. Real-time electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) was used for fast label-free detection of two reversible processes, i.e. phosphorylation by c-Src tyrosine kinase and dephosphorylation by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). The REIS data of phosphorylation were slow and unreliable, but those of dephosphorylation showed large and fast exponential decay due to much higher activity of phosphatase PTP1B. The kinetic data were analyzed with a heterogeneous Michaelis-Menten model to derive the "specificity constant" kcat/Km, which is 8.2x103 M-1s-1 for legumain and (2.1 ± 0.1) x 107 M-1s-1 for phosphatase (PTP1B), well consistent with literature. It is promising to develop VACNF NEA based electrochemical enzymatic biosensors as portable multiplex electronic techniques for rapid cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring.

  5. Strong and stiff aramid nanofiber/carbon nanotube nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiaqi; Cao, Wenxin; Yue, Mingli; Hou, Ying; Han, Jiecai; Yang, Ming

    2015-03-24

    Small but strong carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are fillers of choice for composite reinforcement owing to their extraordinary modulus and strength. However, the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites are still much below those for mechanical parameters of individual nanotubes. The gap between the expectation and experimental results arises not only from imperfect dispersion and poor load transfer but also from the unavailability of strong polymers that can be effectively utilized within the composites of nanotubes. Aramid nanofibers (ANFs) with analogous morphological features to nanotubes represent a potential choice to complement nanotubes given their intrinsic high mechanical performance and the dispersible nature, which enables solvent-based processing methods. In this work, we showed that composite films made from ANFs and multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) by vacuum-assisted flocculation and vacuum-assisted layer-by-layer assembly exhibited high ultimate strength of up to 383 MPa and Young's modulus (stiffness) of up to 35 GPa, which represent the highest values among all the reported random CNT nanocomposites. Detailed studies using different imaging and spectroscopic characterizations suggested that the multiple interfacial interactions between nanotubes and ANFs including hydrogen bonding and ?-? stacking are likely the key parameters responsible for the observed mechanical improvement. Importantly, our studies further revealed the attractive thermomechanical characteristics of these nanocomposites with high thermal stability (up to 520 °C) and ultralow coefficients of thermal expansion (2-6 ppm·K(-1)). Our results indicated that ANFs are promising nanoscale building blocks for functional ultrastrong and stiff materials potentially extendable to nanocomposites based on other nanoscale fillers. PMID:25712334

  6. Electrochemical behavior of TiO2/carbon dual nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charge transfer processes are favored in dual nanofibers composed by TiO2Rutile-Csemigraphitic/Csemigraphitic over other systems such as TiO2Anatase and Rutile-Camorphous/Camorphous and TiO2Rutile-Camorphous, dual and single nanofibers respectively. The study of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) shows that the net of nanofibers presented a charge transfer resistance value (Rct) of 3.15 ?. The increased ability of these materials to favor the diffusion of electroactive species in individual nanofibers is that the junction between the n-type semiconductor TiO2 and the semigraphitic material can be of the ohmic kind. Moreover, this observation was supported by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrical conductivity studies by two-probe method. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) confirmed the continuity and duality in the morphology of these materials. The effect of heat treatment on crystallinity was evident in the results obtained from the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED) studies. Due to the electrochemical performance and morphological features of TiO2Rutile-Csemigraphitic/Csemigraphitic dual nanofibers; this novel nanostructured material can be regarded as an excellent candidate for applications such as a base material for electronic devices, photocatalysis, among other similar technologies

  7. The fabrication and electrochemical properties of electrospun nanofibers of a multiwalled carbon nanotube grafted by chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Wu, Zigang; Li, Yu; Feng, Yiyu; Yuan, Xiaoyan

    2008-03-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were grafted by chitosan (CS); the product could disperse well in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) aqueous solution with 2% (v/v) acetic acid solution. Because this product has potential in several biological fields, it was electrospun so as to enlarge the surface area. Raman spectra indicated that the electrospinning process did not severely alter the electron hybridization of carbon atoms within the nanotube framework. Moreover and interestingly, these nanofibers showed a novel sheath-core structure; the outer and inner diameters of these sheath-core nanofibers were about 200 nm and 100 nm, respectively. These nanofibers' electrochemical properties were characterized by detection of hydrogen peroxide and voltammetric responses of potassium ferricyanide. The electrospun fibers' web displayed faster electron transfer kinetics and better electrochemical properties than its cast film, which justified further applications in biological areas.

  8. The fabrication and electrochemical properties of electrospun nanofibers of a multiwalled carbon nanotube grafted by chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were grafted by chitosan (CS); the product could disperse well in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) aqueous solution with 2% (v/v) acetic acid solution. Because this product has potential in several biological fields, it was electrospun so as to enlarge the surface area. Raman spectra indicated that the electrospinning process did not severely alter the electron hybridization of carbon atoms within the nanotube framework. Moreover and interestingly, these nanofibers showed a novel sheath-core structure; the outer and inner diameters of these sheath-core nanofibers were about 200 nm and 100 nm, respectively. These nanofibers' electrochemical properties were characterized by detection of hydrogen peroxide and voltammetric responses of potassium ferricyanide. The electrospun fibers' web displayed faster electron transfer kinetics and better electrochemical properties than its cast film, which justified further applications in biological areas

  9. Nickel/carbon nanofibers composite electrodes as supercapacitors prepared by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel-embedded carbon nanofibers were prepared by the processes of stabilization and carbonation after electrospinning a mixture solution of nickel acetate and polyacrylonitrile in N,N-dimethylformamide. The surface morphology and structure of composites were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Compared with performances of composite electrodes with different mass ratios of nickel and carbon by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronopotentiogram test, the results show that the introduction of a proper proportion of nickel into carbon could enhance both specific capacitance (SC) and electrochemical stability. The specific capacitance of the carbon nanofiber electrode without the Ni loading was 50 F/g, while that of 22.4 wt.% Ni/carbon electrode increased to 164 F/g. The improved specific capacitance may be attributed to synergic effects from each pristine component, and the electrochemical catalysis effect of nickel.

  10. Scaling up the Fabrication of Mechanically-Robust Carbon Nanofiber Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Curtin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to identify and address the main challenges associated with fabricating large samples of carbon foams composed of interwoven networks of carbon nanofibers. Solutions to two difficulties related with the process of fabricating carbon foams, maximum foam size and catalyst cost, were developed. First, a simple physical method was invented to scale-up the constrained formation of fibrous nanostructures process (CoFFiN to fabricate relatively large foams. Specifically, a gas deflector system capable of maintaining conditions supportive of carbon nanofiber foam growth throughout a relatively large mold was developed. ANSYS CFX models were used to simulate the gas flow paths with and without deflectors; the data generated proved to be a very useful tool for the deflector design. Second, a simple method for selectively leaching the Pd catalyst material trapped in the foam during growth was successfully tested. Multiple techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, surface area measurements, and mechanical testing, were employed to characterize the foams generated in this study. All results confirmed that the larger foam samples preserve the basic characteristics: their interwoven nanofiber microstructure forms a low-density tridimensional solid with viscoelastic behavior. Fiber growth mechanisms are also discussed. Larger samples of mechanically-robust carbon nanofiber foams will enable the use of these materials as strain sensors, shock absorbers, selective absorbents for environmental remediation and electrodes for energy storage devices, among other applications.

  11. Carbon functionalized TiO2 nanofibers for high efficiency photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghava Reddy, Kakarla; Gomes, Vincent G.; Hassan, Mahbub

    2014-03-01

    TiO2 nanofibers (30-50 nm diameter), fabricated by the electro-spinning process, were modified with organo-silane agents via a coupling reaction and were grafted with carbohydrate molecules. The mixture was carbonized to produce a uniform coating of amorphous carbon on the surface of the TiO2 nanofibers. The TiO2@C nanofibers were characterized by high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic property of the functional TiO2 and carbon nanocomposite was tested via the decomposition of an organic pollutant. The catalytic activity of the covalently functionalized nanocomposite was found to be significantly enhanced in comparison to unfunctionalized composite and pristine TiO2 due to the synergistic effect of nanostructured TiO2 and amorphous carbon bound via covalent bonds. The improvement in performance is due to bandgap modification in the 1D co-axial nanostructure where the anatase phase is bound by nano-carbon, providing a large surface to volume ratio within a confined space. The superior photocatalytic performance and recyclability of 1D TiO2@C nanofiber composites for water purification were established through dye degradation experiments.

  12. Electrospun carbon nanofibers for improved electrical conductivity of fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarifi, Ibrahim M.; Alharbi, Abdulaziz; Khan, Waseem S.; Asmatulu, Ramazan

    2015-04-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was dissolved in dimethylformamide (DMF), and then electrospun to generate nanofibers using various electrospinning conditions, such as pump speeds, DC voltages and tip-to-collector distances. The produced nanofibers were oxidized at 270 °C for 1 hr, and then carbonized at 850 °C in an argon gas for additional 1 hr. The resultant carbonized PAN nanofibers were placed on top of the pre-preg carbon fiber composites as top layers prior to the vacuum oven curing following the pre-preg composite curing procedures. The major purpose of this study is to determine if the carbonized nanofibers on the fiber reinforced composites can detect the structural defects on the composite, which may be useful for the structural health monitoring (SHM) of the composites. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the electrospun PAN fibers were well integrated on the pre-preg composites. Electrical conductivity studies under various tensile loads revealed that nanoscale carbon fibers on the fiber reinforced composites detected small changes of loads by changing the resistance values. Electrically conductive composite manufacturing can have huge benefits over the conventional composites primarily used for the military and civilian aircraft and wind turbine blades.

  13. High-performance lithium storage in nitrogen-enriched carbon nanofiber webs derived from polypyrrole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • N-enriched carbon nanofiber webs are prepared via direct carbonization route with polyporrole as template. • The pyrolysis time plays an important role in N doping level and existing type. • Effect of N-doping on performance of the carbon anode material is investigated. • High reversible capacity of 238 mAh g?1 at 5 A g?1 is attained. -- Abstract: Nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber webs (N-CNFWs) are prepared by direct pyrolyzation of polypyrrole (PPy) nanofiber webs at 600 °C. The structure and morphology of N-CNFWs are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectra and elemental analysis. Both the doped N content and the N existing type in carbon, change with the pyrolysis time. As anode material for lithium-ion battery, the N-CNFWs show high capacity and good rate capability. The reversible capacity is up to 668 mAh g?1 at a current density of 0.1 A g?1 and 238 mAh g?1 at 5 A g?1, which can be ascribed to the nanofiber structure and high nitrogen content

  14. Fabrication and characterization of hybrid nanofibers from poly(vinyl alcohol), milk protein and metal carbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanta, Narahari; Teow, Yiwei; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2012-08-01

    Porous three dimensional nanofibrous membranes were fabricated from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), milk protein and inorganic salts such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). Microscopic investigations showed that the fibers have smooth morphology with an average diameter of 300-500 nm and a surface area of 5.29 m2g(-1). Thermal analysis of the composite nanofibers showed a decrease in glass transition temperature as compared to PVA nanofiber. Incorporation of CaCO3 and MgCO3 into the nanofiber matrix was confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The cytocompatibility of electrospun composite nanofiber sheets was evaluated using human lung fibroblasts (IMR-90). There was an increase in cell attachment and cell density on milk protein incorporated to PVA-CaCO3 and PVA-MgCO3 fibers within a week of cell seeding. The cytocompatibility and increase in cell adhesion property of the hybrid nanofiber may provide significant advantages for such materials in biomedical applications. PMID:22962721

  15. Controlling the optimum surfactants concentrations for dispersing carbon nanofibers in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Min; Yuan, Zhang; Guo, Zhi-Qiang; Ma, Hai-Nan; Lai, Chuan Fook

    2013-12-01

    As a new nano-scale functional material, it is necessary to achieve a uniform distribution in the composites for gaining the CNFs' excellent reinforcing effect. In this paper, CNFs were purified by the method of high temperature annealing treatment. Six surfactants, methylcellulose (MC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dodecylamine (DDA), N, N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) were used individually and combinatorially in a certain concentration to disperse the CNFs in aqueous solution. To achieve a good dispersion of the CNFs, a method utilizing ultrasonic processing was employed. The CNFs treated by the method of high temperature annealing treatment were characterized by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), and the ultrasonication-driven dispersion of CNFs in aqueous solutions were monitored by UVvis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experiments reveal that the method of high temperature annealing treatment purified the CNFs and the maximum achievable dispersion of CNFs corresponds to the maximum UV absorbance of the solution. All results show that the surfactants mixture of MC and SDS in a certain concentration of 0.4 and 2.0 g/L has the maximum dispersion effect on CNFs in aqueous solution, the optimum concentration ratio of MC, SDS, and CNFs was 2: 10: 1.

  16. Remarkable improvement in microwave absorption by cloaking a micro-scaled tetrapod hollow with helical carbon nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Xian; Chen, Xiangnan; Zhou, Zuowan; Li, Gang; Jiang, Man; Xu, Xiaoling; Lu, Jun; Li, Qiming; Wang, Yong; Gou, Jihua; Hui, David

    2015-02-01

    Helical nanofibers are prepared through in situ growth on the surface of a tetrapod-shaped ZnO whisker (T-ZnO), by employing a precursor decomposition method then adding substrate. After heat treatment at 900 °C under argon, this new composite material, named helical nanofiber-T-ZnO, undergoes a significant change in morphology and structure. The T-ZnO transforms from a solid tetrapod ZnO to a micro-scaled tetrapod hollow carbon film by reduction of the organic fiber at 900 °C. Besides, helical carbon nanofibers, generated from the carbonization of helical nanofibers, maintain the helical morphology. Interestingly, HCNFs with the T-hollow exhibit remarkable improvement in electromagnetic wave loss compared with the pure helical nanofibers. The enhanced loss ability may arise from the efficient dielectric friction, interface effect in the complex nanostructures and the micro-scaled tetrapod-hollow structure. PMID:25510199

  17. A self-template strategy for the synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanofibers as advanced supercapacitor electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Fan; Dou, Yuqian; Wu, Zhangxiong; Liu, Haijing; Qian, Xufang; Gu, Dong; Xia, Yongyao; Tu, Bo; Zhao, Dongyuan [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials and Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Self-construction: A facile self-templating strategy is presented for the synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanofibers by using zinc glycolate fibers as the built-in template. The spectacular architectures show excellent performances as recommended electrode material for electrochemical capacitors. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. The Optical Excitation of Zigzag Carbon Nanotubes with Photons Guided in Nanofibers

    CERN Document Server

    Broadfoot, S; Jaksch, D

    2011-01-01

    We consider the excitation of electrons in semiconducting carbon nanotubes by photons from the evanescent field created by a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber. The strongly changing evanescent field of such nanofibers requires dropping the dipole approximation. We show that this leads to novel effects, especially a high dependence of the photon absorption on the relative orientation and geometry of the nanotube-nanofiber setup in the optical and near infrared domain. In particular, we calculate photon absorption probabilities for a straight nanotube and nanofiber depending on their relative angle. Nanotubes orthogonal to the fiber are found to perform much better than parallel nanotubes when they are short. As the nanotube gets longer the absorption of parallel nanotubes is found to exceed the orthogonal nanotubes and approach 100% for extremely long nanotubes. In addition, we show that if the nanotube is wrapped around the fiber in an appropriate way the absorption is enhanced. We find that optical and ne...

  19. Microwave absorption properties of helical carbon nanofibers-coated carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Helical carbon nanofibers (HCNFs coated-carbon fibers (CFs were fabricated by catalytic chemical vapor deposition method. TEM and Raman spectroscopy characterizations indicate that the graphitic layers of the HCNFs changed from disorder to order after high temperature annealing. The electromagnetic parameters and microwave absorption properties were measured at 2–18 GHz. The maximum reflection loss is 32 dB at 9 GHz and the widest bandwidth under ?10 dB is 9.8 GHz from 8.2 to 18 GHz for the unannealed HCNFs coated-CFs composite with 2.5 mm in thickness, suggesting that HCNFs coated-CFs should have potential applications in high performance microwave absorption materials.

  20. Enhancing capacitive deionization performance of electrospun activated carbon nanofibers by coupling with carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiang; Wang, Gang; Wu, Tingting; Peng, Senpei; Qiu, Jieshan

    2015-05-15

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an alternative, effective and environmentally friendly technology for desalination of brackish water. The performance of the CDI device is highly determined by the electrode materials. In this paper, a composite of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) embedded in activated carbon nanofiber (ACF) was prepared by a direct co-electrospinning way and subsequent CO2 activation. The introduction of CNTs can greatly improve the conductivity while the CO2-mediated activation can render the final product with high porosity. As such, the hybrid structure can provide an excellent storage space and pathways for ion adsorption and conduction. When evaluated as electrode materials for CDI, the as-prepared CNT/ACF composites with higher electrical conductivity and mesopore ratios exhibited higher electrosorption capacity and good regeneration performance in comparison with the pure ACF. PMID:25595622

  1. Durability of Carbon Nanofiber (CNF) & Carbon Nanotube (CNT) as Catalyst Support for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Borghei, Maryam; Lund, Peter; Elina, Yli-Rantala; Pasanen, Antti; Kauppinen, Esko; Ruiz, Virginia; Kauranen, Pertti; Skou, Eivind Morten

    2013-01-01

    Durability issues have recently been given much attention in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) research. It gives fundamental definition for cell life time, capital cost, system stability and technique reliability. Loss of catalyst surface area due to corrosion of supporting material (normally carbon black) is one of the essential degradation mechanisms during cell operation. In this work, durability of Carbon Nanofibers (CNF) & Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) as alternative platinum cata...

  2. Using Mechanical Alloying to Create Bimetallic Catalysts for Vapor-Phase Carbon Nanofiber Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guevara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanofibers were generated over bimetallic catalysts in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD reactor. Catalyst compositions of Fe 30 at%, Cu and Ni 30 at% and Cu were mechanically alloyed using high-energy ball milling over durations of 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 h. The catalyst powders were then used to produce carbon nanofibers in ethylene and hydrogen (4:1 at temperatures of 500, 550, and 600 °C. The microstructures of the catalysts were characterized as a function of milling time as well as at deposition temperature. The corresponding carbon deposition rates were assessed and are correlated to the microstructural features of each catalyst. The milling process directly determines the performance of each catalyst toward carbon deposition, and both catalysts performed comparably to those made by traditional co-precipitation methods. Considerations in miscible and immiscible nanostructured alloy systems are discussed.

  3. Enhanced thermal conductivity of n-octadecane containing carbon-based nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motahar, Sadegh; Alemrajabi, Ali A.; Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, carbon-based nanomaterials including multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were dispersed in n-octadecane as a phase change material (PCM) at various mass fractions of 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 wt% by the two-step method. The transient plane source technique was used to measure thermal conductivity of samples at various temperatures in solid (5-25 °C) and liquid (30-55 °C) phases. The experimental results showed that thermal conductivity of the composites increases with increasing the loading of the MWCNTs and CNFs. A maximum thermal conductivity enhancement of 36 % at 5 wt% MWCNTs and 5 °C as well as 50 % at 2 wt% and 55 °C were experimentally obtained for n-octadecane/MWCNTs samples. Dispersing CNFs into n-octadecane raised the thermal conductivity up to 18 % at 5 wt% and 10 °C and 21 % at 5 wt% and 55 °C. However, the average enhancement of 19 and 21 % for solid and liquid phases of MWCNTs composite as well as 33 and 46 % for solid and liquid phase of CNFs promised a better heat transfer characteristics of MWCNTs in n-octadecane. A comparison between results of the present work and available literature revealed a satisfactory enhancement of thermal conductivity. For the investigated n-octadecane/MWCNTs and n-octadecane/CNFs composites, a new correlation was proposed for predicting the thermal conductivity as a function of temperature and nanomaterials loading.

  4. Elastic and hierarchical porous carbon nanofibrous membranes incorporated with NiFe2O4 nanocrystals for highly efficient capacitive energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jianlong; Fan, Gang; Si, Yang; He, Jianxin; Kim, Hak-Yong; Ding, Bin; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; El-Newehy, Mohamed; Yu, Jianyong

    2016-01-01

    Flexible membranes created from porous carbon nanofibers (CNFs) hold great promise in the next generation wearable energy storage devices, but challenges still remain due to the poor mechanical properties of porous carbon nanofibers. Here, we report a facile strategy to fabricate elastic and hierarchical porous CNF membranes with NiFe2O4 nanocrystals embedded via multicomponent electrospinning and nano-doping methods. Benefiting from the scattering effect of NiFe2O4 nanocrystals and graphitized carbon layers for the condensed stress, the resultant CNF membranes exhibit an enhanced elasticity with a bending radius DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07368e

  5. Carbon Nanofibers and Their Composites: A Review of Synthesizing, Properties and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lichao Feng; Ning Xie; Jing Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF), as one of the most important members of carbon fibers, has been investigated in both fundamental scientific research and practical applications. CNF composites are able to be applied as promising materials in many fields, such as electrical devices, electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors and as sensors. In these applications, the electrical conductivity is always the first priority need to be considered. In fact, the electrical property of CNF composites...

  6. Carbon nanofiber mesoporous films: efficient platforms for bio-hydrogen oxidation in biofuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Poulpiquet, Anne; Marques-Knopf, Helena; Wernert, Véronique; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie Thérèse; Gadiou, Roger; Lojou, Elisabeth

    2014-01-28

    The discovery of oxygen and carbon monoxide tolerant [NiFe] hydrogenases was the first necessary step toward the definition of a novel generation of hydrogen fed biofuel cells. The next important milestone is now to identify and overcome bottlenecks limiting the current densities, hence the power densities. In the present work we report for the first time a comprehensive study of herringbone carbon nanofiber mesoporous films as platforms for enhanced biooxidation of hydrogen. The 3D network allows mediatorless hydrogen oxidation by the membrane-bound hydrogenase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus. We investigate the key physico-chemical parameters that enhance the catalytic efficiency, including surface chemistry and hierarchical porosity of the biohybrid film. We also emphasize that the catalytic current is limited by mass transport inside the mesoporous carbon nanofiber film. Provided hydrogen is supplied inside the carbon film, the combination of the hierarchical porosity of the carbon nanofiber film with the hydrophobicity of the treated carbon material results in very high efficiency of the bioelectrode. By optimization of the whole procedure, current densities as high as 4.5 mA cm(-2) are reached with a turnover frequency of 48 s(-1). This current density is almost 100 times higher than when hydrogenase is simply adsorbed at a bare graphite electrode, and more than 5 times higher than the average of the previous reported current densities at carbon nanotube modified electrodes, suggesting that carbon nanofibers can be efficiently used in future sustainable H2/O2 biofuel cells. PMID:24296569

  7. Development of Electro-Mechanical Spinning for Controlled Deposition of Carbon Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canton, Giulia

    In the past few decades the fields of nanotechnology and miniaturized devices had an exponentially growth of interest in academic and research environment, leading to breakthroughs discoveries that are envisioned to have a profound impact on our economy and society in the near future. Recently, the focus is moving toward the development of technologies that enable the production of micro- /nano-devices on a larger scale and at lower costs. Among the different micro- /nano-devices manufacturing challenges, in this dissertation the aim is to reliably fabricate suspend carbon micro- /nano-fibers between two carbon electrode walls in a way that can be mass produced at relatively low cost. The first part of this thesis provides an in depth overview of current methods used for the fabrication of carbon based micro devices (C-MEMS) and of electrospinning, a manufacturing technology that emerges as a simple and inexpensive approach to produce nanofibers. Electro-Mechanical Spinning (EMS) has been developed from electrospinning and optimized for the production of suspended carbon nanofibers, aiming to achieve greater deposition control at the single nanofiber level, while maintaining the low cost of electrospinning. After the successful development of EMS, the so fabricated carbon micro- /nano-fibers have been characterized, first from the electrical point of view, then from the mechanical one. The electrical characterization involves conductivity measurements of fibers with respect of different and controllable manufacturing processes steps. Variations of those manufacturing parameters have been proven to be capable of tailoring the carbon structure and, therefore, the conductivity of the fibers within a desired range. Further investigation regarding the electrical properties was also conducted to prevent (or control) current induced fiber breakdown. Finally, the Young's modulus of those fibers was investigated and observed to be dependent on the fibers thickness. Similarly to conductivity, variations in Young's modulus are also related to formation of a different carbon structure when fibers diameter is below certain values. In conclusion, appropriate combinations of EMS and C-MEMS processes were proven to be capable of fabricating controllable suspended carbon nanofibers with tuned conductivity and Young's modulus properties.

  8. The interfacial strength of carbon nanofiber epoxy composite using single fiber pullout experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers are extensively researched as reinforcing agents in nanocomposites for their multifunctionality, light weight and high strength. However, it is the interface between the nanofiber and the matrix that dictates the overall properties of the nanocomposite. The current trend is to measure elastic properties of the bulk nanocomposite and then compare them with theoretical models to extract the information on the interfacial strength. The ideal experiment is single fiber pullout from the matrix because it directly measures the interfacial strength. However, the technique is difficult to apply to nanocomposites because of the small size of the fibers and the requirement for high resolution force and displacement sensing. We present an experimental technique for measuring the interfacial strength of nanofiber-reinforced composites using the single fiber pullout technique and demonstrate the technique for a carbon nanofiber-reinforced epoxy composite. The experiment is performed in situ in a scanning electron microscope and the interfacial strength for the epoxy composite was measured to be 170 MPa.

  9. Fe3O4/carbon composite nanofiber absorber with enhanced microwave absorption performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► PAN/AAI/DMF solutions for electrospinning. ► Fe3O4/carbon composite nanofibers as microwave absorbers. ► Microwave absorption performance has been much enhanced than pure carbon naonfibers. ► Microwave absorption mechanisms have been discussed as a key point. - Abstract: Fe3O4/carbon composite nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/acetyl acetone iron (AAI)/dimethyl formamide (DMF) solution, followed by stabilization and carbonization. SEM and TEM observations reveal that the fibers are lengthy and uniform, and are loaded with well-distributed Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which are evidenced by XRD. Electrical and magnetic properties of the samples were studied to show the effect of enhancement of electrical conductivity and magnetic hysteresis performance. Finally, the permittivity and permeability parameters were measured by a vector network analyzer, and the reflectivity loss was calculated based on Transmission Line Theory. Results show that Fe3O4/C composite nanofibers exhibit enhanced properties of microwave absorption as compared to those of pure carbon nanofibers by: decreasing reflectivity loss values; widening absorption width and improving performance in low frequency (2–5 GHz) absorption. Absorption properties can be tuned by changing AAI content, carbonization temperature, composite fiber/paraffin ratio and coating thickness. It is shown that with coating thickness of 5 mm and fiber/paraffin ratio of 5 wt.%, the bandwidth for reflection loss under −5 dB can reach a maximum of 12–13 GHz in the range of 2–18 GHz, accompanying with a minimum reflection loss of −40 to −45 dB, and preferred low frequency band absorption can also be obtained. The mechanisms for the enhanced absorption performance were briefly discussed. It is supposed that this kind of composite material is promising for resolving the problems of weak absorption in the low frequency range and narrow bandwidth absorption.

  10. LiCoPO4—3D carbon nanofiber composites as possible cathode materials for high voltage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrospun and carbonized 3D nanofiber mats coated with olivine structured lithium cobalt phosphate (LiCoPO4) were formed by a Pechini-assisted sol–gel process as cathode material for lithium ion batteries. 3D nonwoven nanofibers were soaked in aqueous solution containing lithium, cobalt salts and phosphates at 80 °C for 2 h. Then, the composites were dried and annealed at 730 °C for 2 to 12 h in nitrogen atmosphere. Crystalline deposits were uniformly distributed on the carbon nanofiber surface. The “loading” of the cathode material on the 3D carbon nanofiber composites reached 300 wt%. The electrochemical measurements revealed the discharge specific capacity (measured at a discharge rate of 0.1 C and room temperature) reaching a maximum value of 46 mAh g?1 after annealing time t = 5 h

  11. Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance of electrospun carbon-doped TiO2/halloysite nanotube hybrid nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling; Huang, Yunpeng; Liu, Tianxi

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the effects of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) on the visible-light photocatalytic ability of electrospun carbon doped TiO2/HNT (C-TH) nanofibers have been explored. Structural and morphological investigations demonstrate that incorporation of HNTs into anatase C-TH hybrid nanofibers was easily achieved by using sol-gel processing combined with electrospinning approach, thus HNTs could be uniformly embedded in the electrospun nanofibers. The visible-light photocatalytic efficiency of C-TH hybrid on the degradation of methyl blue (MB) was greatly enhanced with the combination of moderate amount of HNTs (8%), which was 23 times higher than that of commercial anatase TiO2. Mechanism of the enhancing effect of HNTs has been explored by analyzing the dual-effect of adsorption and photocatalysis in various amounts of HNTs incorporated C-TiO2 nanofibers. With nanotubular structure and considerable adsorption ability, incorporated HNTs functioned as porogen agent in C-TH nanofibers. This simple incorporation approach increases the specific surface areas of nanofibers, which improves the mass transport of reactant into the nanofibers and the adsorption of visible-light by scattering, meanwhile may suppress the charge recombination and enhance photoinduced charge separation, thus efficiently enhancing visible-light photocatalytic performance of the C-TH hybrid nanofibers. PMID:25463176

  12. Noble metal/functionalized cellulose nanofiber composites for catalytic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopiraman, Mayakrishnan; Bang, Hyunsik; Yuan, Guohao; Yin, Chuan; Song, Kyung-Hun; Lee, Jung Soon; Chung, Ill Min; Karvembu, Ramasamy; Kim, Ick Soo

    2015-11-01

    In this study, cellulose acetate nanofibers (CANFs) with a mean diameter of 325 ± 2.0 nm were electrospun followed by deacetylation and functionalization to produce anionic cellulose nanofibers (f-CNFs). The noble metal nanoparticles (RuNPs and AgNPs) were successfully decorated on the f-CNFs by a simple wet reduction method using NaBH4 as a reducing agent. TEM and SEM images of the nanocomposites (RuNPs/CNFs and AgNPs/CNFs) confirmed that the very fine RuNPs or AgNPs were homogeneously dispersed on the surface of f-CNFs. The weight percentage of the Ru and Ag in the nanocomposites was found to be 13.29 wt% and 22.60 wt% respectively; as confirmed by SEM-EDS analysis. The metallic state of the Ru and Ag in the nanocomposites was confirmed by XPS and XRD analyses. The usefulness of these nanocomposites was realized from their superior catalytic activity. In the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde, the RuNPs/CNFs system gave a better yield of 89% with 100% selectivity. Similarly, the AgNPs/CNFs produced an excellent yield of 99% (100% selectivity) in the aza-Michael reaction of 1-phenylpiperazine with acrylonitrile. Mechanism has been proposed for the catalytic systems. PMID:26256382

  13. Synthesis and characterization of electrospun carbon nanofiber supported Pt catalyst for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The functionalized and optimized e-CNF has been prepared. • Increasing functionalization period, the fiber morphology slightly affected. • The suitability of the Pt/fe-CNF was studied in the lab made set-ups of PEMFC. - Abstract: Polyacrylonitrile polymer nanofibers were prepared using an electrospinner. These nanofibers were subjected to stabilization and carbonization processes. The electrospun carbon nanofibers (e-CNF) were functionalized using sulfuric acid and nitric acid under three different refluxing periods (i.e., 1f, 3f, and 5f) to optimize the functionalization level. The thermal stability of the obtained carbon supports was characterized by TGA. The Pt loaded carbon supports (20 wt%) for the three functionalized (1fe, 3fe, and 5fe-CNF) samples were prepared using chloroplatinic acid with ethylene glycol as the reducing agent. The dispersion of platinum on e-CNF and the size of Pt nanoparticles were characterized by HRSEM and HRTEM and the crystalline nature was confirmed by XRD. The surface area and pore size distribution were calculated from Brunner Emmett Teller method. The performance of five different samples such as Pt/C, Pt/1fe, 3fe, 5fe-CNF and e-CNF as electrodes and laboratory prepared hydrocarbon based sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) as electrolyte were studied in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and the results were compared with commercially available Pt/C catalyst and Nafion-117 membrane

  14. Electrospun polyvinyl alcohol/carbon dioxide modified polyethyleneimine composite nanofiber scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han-Bing; Bremner, David H; Nie, Hua-Li; Quan, Jing; Zhu, Li-Min

    2015-05-01

    A novel biocompatible polyvinyl alcohol/carbon dioxide modified polyethyleneimine (PVA/PEI-CO2) composite nanofiber was fabricated by a green and facile protocol, which reduces the cytotoxicity of PEI through the surface modification of the PEI with CO2. The (13)C NMR spectrum, elemental analysis, and TGA show that CO2 has been incorporated in the PEI surface resulting in a relatively stable structure. The resulting PVA/PEI-CO2 composite nanofibers have been characterized by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), contact angle, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the average diameters of the nanofibers range from 265 ± 53 nm to 423 ± 80 nm. The cytotoxicity of PVA/PEI-CO2 composite nanofibers was assessed by cytotoxicity evaluation using the growth and cell proliferation of normal mice Schwann cells. SEM and the MTT assay demonstrated the promotion of cell growth and proliferation on the PVA/PEI-CO2 composite scaffold. It suggests that PEI-CO2 can have tremendous potential applications in biological material research. PMID:25540321

  15. Vertically aligned carbon nanofiber as nano-neuron interface for monitoring neural function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson, Milton Nance [ORNL; McKnight, Timothy E [ORNL; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich [ORNL; Simpson, Michael L [ORNL; Morrison, Barclay [ORNL; Yu, Zhe [Columbia University

    2012-01-01

    Neural chips, which are capable of simultaneous, multi-site neural recording and stimulation, have been used to detect and modulate neural activity for almost 30 years. As a neural interface, neural chips provide dynamic functional information for neural decoding and neural control. By improving sensitivity and spatial resolution, nano-scale electrodes may revolutionize neural detection and modulation at cellular and molecular levels as nano-neuron interfaces. We developed a carbon-nanofiber neural chip with lithographically defined arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanofiber electrodes and demonstrated its capability of both stimulating and monitoring electrophysiological signals from brain tissues in vitro and monitoring dynamic information of neuroplasticity. This novel nano-neuron interface can potentially serve as a precise, informative, biocompatible, and dual-mode neural interface for monitoring of both neuroelectrical and neurochemical activity at the single cell level and even inside the cell.

  16. Preparation and Study on Nickel Oxide Reduction of Polyacrylonitrile-Based Carbon Nanofibers by Thermal Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeong Ju; Kim, Hyun Bin; Jeun, Joon Pyo; Lee, Dae Soo; Koo, Dong Hyun; Kang, Phil Hyun

    2015-08-01

    Carbon materials containing magnetic nanopowder have been attractive in technological applications such as electrochemical capacitors and electromagnetic wave shielding. In this study, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers containing nickel nanoparticles were prepared using an electrospinning method and thermal stabilization. The reduction of nickel oxide was investigated under a nitrogen atmosphere within a temperature range of 600 to 1,000 °C. Carbon nanofibers containing nickel nanoparticles were characterized by FE-SEM, EDS, XRD, TGA, and VSM. It was found that nickel nanoparticles were formed by a NiO reduction in PAN as a function of the thermal treatment. These results led to an increase in the coercivity of nanofibers and a decrease in the remanence magnetization. PMID:26369192

  17. Conducting nanocomposites based on polyamide 6,6 and carbon nanofibers prepared by cryogenic grinding

    OpenAIRE

    Linares, A.; Canalda, J.C.; Cagiao, M.E.; Ezquerra, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    Nanocomposites based on polyamide 6,6 and carbon nanofiber have been obtained following a new procedure. It consists of the physical mixing of the polymer matrix, in the form of powder, and the corresponding amount of additive. Then, samples were prepared by compression moulding and their structural characteristics, as well as their thermal and electrical properties were determined. The materials present good electrical conductivity at lower percolation thresholds than those corresponding to ...

  18. Cobalt supported on carbon nanofibers as catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bezemer, G.L.

    2006-01-01

    The Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process converts synthesis gas (H2/CO) over a heterogeneous catalyst into hydrocarbons. Generally, cobalt catalysts supported on oxidic carriers are used for the FT process, however it appears to be difficult to obtain and maintain fully reduced cobalt particles. To overcome these problems we started to use carbon nanofibers (CNF), a novel support material on which cobalt-support compounds are not expected to form. In chapter 2 we describe our research on the pre...

  19. Carbon Nanofibers enhance the Fracture toughness and Fatigue Performance of a Structural Epoxy system

    OpenAIRE

    Bortz, Daniel R.; Merino, César; Martin-Gullon, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This study investigates the monotonic and dynamic fracture characteristics of a discontinuous fiber reinforced polymer matrix. Specifically, small amounts (0-1 wt%) of a helical-ribbon carbon nanofiber (CNF) were added to an amine cured epoxy system. The resulting nanocomposites were tested to failure in two modes of testing; Mode I fracture toughness and constant amplitude of stress tension-tension fatigue. Fracture toughness testing revealed that adding 0.5 and 1.0 wt% C...

  20. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber as Nano-Neuron Interface for Monitoring Neural Function

    OpenAIRE

    YU, ZHE; McKnight, Timothy E.; Ericson, M. Nance; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Simpson, Michael L; Morrison, Barclay

    2012-01-01

    Neural chips, which are capable of simultaneous, multi-site neural recording and stimulation, have been used to detect and modulate neural activity for almost 30 years. As a neural interface, neural chips provide dynamic functional information for neural decoding and neural control. By improving sensitivity and spatial resolution, nano-scale electrodes may revolutionize neural detection and modulation at cellular and molecular levels as nano-neuron interfaces. We developed a carbon-nanofiber ...

  1. Palladium on carbon nanofibers grown on metallic filters as novel catalytic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Tribolet, P.; Kiwi-Minsker, L

    2005-01-01

    A novel composite material based on carbon nanofibers (CNF) grown on sintered metal fibers (SMFInconel) filter was investigated for its favorable properties as catalytic support. The CNF were formed directly over the SMFInconel by thermal (650 degrees C) chemical vapor deposition of ethane-hydrogen mixture. The CNF/SMFInconel composite consists of metal fibers entangled by CNF network of microns thickness and strongly anchored to the metal surface. The properties of the CNF/SMFInconel were co...

  2. Improvement by Nanofibers of Load Transfer in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Vivet

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the load transfer improvement caused by nanofibers (NF in carbon fiber reinforced composites. Load transfer is defined as the ability to transfer the mechanical loading between two adjacent fibers through the surrounding matrix. NF action is explored with a finite element model representing two carbon fibers separated by a layer of a NF reinforced matrix. It appears that the role of the NF network is to strengthen the matrix by increasing matrix shear rigidity, and thus to improve the load transfer between the carbon fibers. NF network morphology, defined by NF orientation, NF spatial distribution or NF diameter, governs the NF network efficiency.

  3. The effect of filler aspect ratio on the electromagnetic properties of carbon-nanofibers reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vivo, B.; Lamberti, P.; Spinelli, G.; Tucci, V.; Guadagno, L.; Raimondo, M.

    2015-08-01

    The effect of filler aspect ratio on the electromagnetic properties of epoxy-amine resin reinforced with carbon nanofibers is here investigated. A heat treatment at 2500 °C of carbon nanofibers seems to increase their aspect ratio with respect to as-received ones most likely due to a lowering of structural defects and the improvement of the graphene layers within the dixie cup conformation. These morphological differences revealed by Raman's spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses may be responsible for the different electrical properties of the resulting composites. The DC characterization of the nanofilled material highlights an higher electrical conductivity and a lower electrical percolation threshold for the heat-treated carbon nanofibers based composites. In fact, the electrical conductivity is about 0.107 S/m and 1.36 × 10-3 S/m for the nanocomposites reinforced with heat-treated and as received fibers, respectively, at 1 wt. % of nanofiller loading, while the electrical percolation threshold falls in the range [0.05-0.32]wt. % for the first nanocomposites and above 0.64 wt. % for the latter. Moreover, also a different frequency response is observed since the critical frequency, which is indicative of the transition from a resistive to a capacitive-type behaviour, shifts forward of about one decade at the same filler loading. The experimental results are supported by theoretical and simulation studies focused on the role of the filler aspect ratio on the electrical properties of the nanocomposites.

  4. Imaging, spectroscopic, mechanical and biocompatibility studies of electrospun Tecoflex® EG 80A nanofibers and composites thereof containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This work suggested the efficient use of MWCNTs to impart high mechanical properties to nanofibers and while maintaining the toxicity of the materials. • The mechanical properties of the nanofibers can be improved by introducing 2% of MWCNTs, above this point the mechanical property is reduced in nanofibers fabricated from Tecoflex® EG 80A. • The presence of MWCNTs in the nanofibers reflecting the successful electrospining event can be ascertained by FT-IR, Raman, and TEM. • The nanofibers obtained while introducing MWCNTs represent no toxic behavior to cultured fibroblast. - Abstract: The present study discusses the design, development, and characterization of electrospun Tecoflex® EG 80A class of polyurethane nanofibers and the incorporation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to these materials. Scanning electron microscopy results confirmed the presence of polymer nanofibers, which showed a decrease in fiber diameter at 0.5% wt. and 1% wt. MWCNTs loadings, while transmission electron microscopy showed evidence of the MWCNTs embedded within the polymer matrix. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to elucidate the polymer-MWCNTs intermolecular interactions, indicating that the C–N and N–H bonds in polyurethanes are responsible for the interactions with MWCNTs. Furthermore, tensile testing indicated an increase in the Young's modulus of the nanofibers as the MWCNTs concentration was increased. Finally, NIH 3T3 fibroblasts were seeded on the obtained nanofibers, demonstrating cell biocompatibility and proliferation. Therefore, the results indicate the successful formation of polyurethane nanofibers with enhanced mechanical properties, and demonstrate their biocompatibility, suggesting their potential application in biomedical areas

  5. Antitumor Activity of Doxorubicin-Loaded Carbon Nanotubes Incorporated Poly(Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid) Electrospun Composite Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuan; Kong, Lijun; Li, Lan; Li, Naie; Yan, Peng

    2015-08-01

    The drug-loaded composite electrospun nanofiber has attracted more attention in biomedical field, especially in cancer therapy. In this study, a composite nanofiber was fabricated by electrospinning for cancer treatment. Firstly, the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were selected as carriers to load the anticancer drug—doxorubicin (DOX) hydrochloride. Secondly, the DOX-loaded CNTs (DOX@CNTs) were incorporated into the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanofibers via electrospinning. Finally, a new drug-loaded nanofibrous scaffold (PLGA/DOX@CNTs) was formed. The properties of the prepared composite nanofibrous mats were characterized by various techniques. The release profiles of the different DOX-loaded nanofibers were measured, and the in vitro antitumor efficacy against HeLa cells was also evaluated. The results showed that DOX-loaded CNTs can be readily incorporated into the nanofibers with relatively uniform distribution within the nanofibers. More importantly, the drug from the composite nanofibers can be released in a sustained and prolonged manner, and thereby, a significant antitumor efficacy in vitro is obtained. Thus, the prepared composite nanofibrous mats are a promising alternative for cancer treatment.

  6. Antitumor Activity of Doxorubicin-Loaded Carbon Nanotubes Incorporated Poly(Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid) Electrospun Composite Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuan; Kong, Lijun; Li, Lan; Li, Naie; Yan, Peng

    2015-12-01

    The drug-loaded composite electrospun nanofiber has attracted more attention in biomedical field, especially in cancer therapy. In this study, a composite nanofiber was fabricated by electrospinning for cancer treatment. Firstly, the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were selected as carriers to load the anticancer drug-doxorubicin (DOX) hydrochloride. Secondly, the DOX-loaded CNTs (DOX@CNTs) were incorporated into the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanofibers via electrospinning. Finally, a new drug-loaded nanofibrous scaffold (PLGA/DOX@CNTs) was formed. The properties of the prepared composite nanofibrous mats were characterized by various techniques. The release profiles of the different DOX-loaded nanofibers were measured, and the in vitro antitumor efficacy against HeLa cells was also evaluated. The results showed that DOX-loaded CNTs can be readily incorporated into the nanofibers with relatively uniform distribution within the nanofibers. More importantly, the drug from the composite nanofibers can be released in a sustained and prolonged manner, and thereby, a significant antitumor efficacy in vitro is obtained. Thus, the prepared composite nanofibrous mats are a promising alternative for cancer treatment. PMID:26306537

  7. Iron Carbide Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Mesoporous Fe-N-Doped Carbon Nanofibers for Efficient Electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Yu; Xu, Xing-Xing; Hu, Bi-Cheng; Liang, Hai-Wei; Lin, Yue; Chen, Li-Feng; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2015-07-01

    Exploring low-cost and high-performance nonprecious metal catalysts (NPMCs) for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries is crucial for the commercialization of these energy conversion and storage devices. Here we report a novel NPMC consisting of Fe3 C nanoparticles encapsulated in mesoporous Fe-N-doped carbon nanofibers, which is synthesized by a cost-effective method using carbonaceous nanofibers, pyrrole, and FeCl3 as precursors. The electrocatalyst exhibits outstanding ORR activity (onset potential of -0.02?V and half-wave potential of -0.140?V) closely comparable to the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst in alkaline media, and good ORR activity in acidic media, which is among the highest reported activities of NPMCs. PMID:26014581

  8. Characterization of carbon nanofiber mats produced from electrospun lignin-g-polyacrylonitrile copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youe, Won-Jae; Lee, Soo-Min; Lee, Sung-Suk; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Yong Sik

    2016-01-01

    The graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) onto methanol-soluble kraft lignin (ML) was achieved through a two-step process in which AN was first polymerized with an ?,?'-azobisisobutyronitrile initiator, followed by radical coupling with activated ML. A carbon nanofiber material was obtained by electrospinning a solution of this copolymer in N,N-dimethylformamide, then subjecting it to a heat treatment including thermostabilization at 250°C and subsequent carbonization at 600-1400°C. Increasing the carbonization temperature was found to increase the carbon content of the resulting carbon nanofibers from 70.5 to 97.1%, which had the effect of increasing their tensile strength from 35.2 to 89.4MPa, their crystallite size from 13.2 to 19.1nm, and their electrical conductivity from ?0 to 21.3Scm(-1). The morphology of the mats, in terms of whether they experienced beading or not, was found to be dependent on the concentration of the initial electrospinning solution. From these results, it is proposed that these mats could provide the basis for a new class of carbon fiber material. PMID:26459170

  9. Controlling SEI Formation on SnSb-Porous Carbon Nanofibers for Improved Na Ion Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Liwen; Gu, Meng; Shao, Yuyan; Li, Xiaolin; Engelhard, Mark H.; Arey, Bruce W.; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2014-05-14

    Porous carbon nanofiber (CNF)-supported tin-antimony (SnSb) alloys is synthesized and applied as sodium ion battery anode. The chemistry and morphology of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film and its correlation with the electrode performance are studied. The addition of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) in electrolyte significantly reduces electrolyte decomposition and creates a very thin and uniform SEI layer on the cycled electrode surface which could promote the kinetics of Na-ion migration/transportation, leading to excellent electrochemical performance.

  10. Aerosynthesis: Growths of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers with Air DC Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodumagulla, A [North Carolina State University; Varanasi, V [North Carolina State University; Pearce, Ryan [North Carolina State University; Wu, W-C [North Carolina State University; Hensley, Dale K [ORNL; Tracy, Joseph B [North Carolina State University; McKnight, Timothy E [ORNL; Melechko, Anatoli [North Carolina State University

    2014-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNF) have been synthesized in a mixture of acetone and air using catalytic DC plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Typically, ammonia or hydrogen is used as etchant gas in the mixture to remove carbon that otherwise passivates the catalyst surface and impedes growth. Our demonstration of using air as the etchant gas opens up a possibility that ion etching could be sufficient to maintain the catalytic activity state during synthesis. It also demonstrates the path toward growing VACNFs in open atmosphere.

  11. Non-lithographic organization of nickel catalyst for carbon nanofiber synthesis on laser-induced periodic surface structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a non-lithographic technique that produces organized nanoscale nickel catalyst for carbon nanofiber growth on a silicon substrate. This technique involves three consecutive steps: first, the substrate is laser-irradiated to produce a periodic nanorippled structure; second, a thin film of nickel is deposited using glancing-angle ion-beam sputter deposition, followed by heat treatment, and third, a catalytic dc plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process is conducted to produce the vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNF). The nickel catalyst is distributed along the laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) and the Ni particle dimension varies as a function of the location on the LIPSS and is correlated to the nanoripple dimensions. The glancing angle, the distance between the ion beam collimators and the total deposition time all play important roles in determining the final catalyst size and subsequent carbon nanofiber properties. Due to the gradual aspect ratio change of the nanoripples across the sample, Ni catalyst nanoparticles of different dimensions were obtained. After the prescribed three minute PECVD growth, it was observed that, in order for the carbon nanofibers to survive, the nickel catalyst dimension should be larger than a critical value of ?19 nm, below which the Ni is insufficient to sustain carbon nanofiber growth

  12. Electrospun La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 nanofibers for a high-temperature electrochemical carbon monoxide sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanthanum strontium manganite (La0.8Sr0.2MnO3, LSM) nanofibers have been synthesized by the electrospinning method. The electrospun nanofibers are intact without morphological and structural changes after annealing at 1050?°C. The LSM nanofibers are employed as the sensing electrode of an electrochemical sensor with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte for carbon monoxide detection at high temperatures over 500?°C. The electrospun nanofibers form a porous network electrode, which provides a continuous pathway for charge transport. In addition, the nanofibers possess a higher specific surface area than conventional micron-sized powders. As a result, the nanofiber electrode exhibits a higher electromotive force and better electro-catalytic activity toward CO oxidation. Therefore, the sensor with the nanofiber electrode shows a higher sensitivity, lower limit of detection and faster response to CO than a sensor with a powder electrode. (paper)

  13. Preparation of asymmetrically distributed bimetal ceria (CeO?) and copper (Cu) nanoparticles in nitrogen-doped activated carbon micro/nanofibers for the removal of nitric oxide (NO) by reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, Bhaskar; Verma, Nishith

    2014-12-15

    A novel multi-scale web of carbon micro/nanofibers (ACF/CNF) was prepared by the catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD), in which CeO2 and Cu nanoparticles (NPs) were in-situ incorporated during a synthesis step. The CVD temperature was adjusted such that the prepared material had asymmetric distribution of the bimetals, with the Cu NPs located at the tips of the CNFs and the CeO2 particles adhered to the surface of the ACF substrate. The prepared bimetals-dispersed web of ACF/CNF was treated with pyridine and the surface functionalized material was applied for the removal of NO by reduction. The complete reduction of NO was achieved at 500°C and for 400ppm NO concentration. Whereas the Cu NPs acted as the catalyst for the reduction, CeO2 facilitated the incorporation of nitrogen from the pyridine source into the ACF/CNF surface. The produced nitrogen containing surface functional groups enhanced the reactivity of the material toward the NO. The bimetals CeO2 and Cu nanoparticles (NPs)-dispersed ACF/CNF produced in this study is a potential candidate for effectively removing NO by reduction, without requiring urea or ammonia used in conventional abatement methods. PMID:25278359

  14. Copper-based Composite Materials Reinforced with Carbon Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana KOLTSOVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work is devoted to development of high performance Cu-based material reinforced with carbon. For this purpose Cu-C composite powders were produced by one-step CVD process. The powders containing carbon nanofibers and graphene were subjected to compacting and analyzed. Mechanical properties of Cu-carbon nanofibers (CNFs and Cu-graphene composites were compared to traditional Cu-graphite and pure copper samples compacted under the same technology. Cu-CNFs material showed the best performance (1.7 times increase in the hardness compared to copper, that is primarily explained by the smallest matrix grain size, which growth is inhibited by the homogeneously dispersed CNFs. Friction coefficient of the Cu-(17 – 33 vol.%CNF was found to be 9 times less than that of pure copper and coincides within the error with Cu-graphite, however the wear of Cu-33 vol.%CNF reduced by more than 2 times over Cu-33 vol.% graphite samples.

  15. Preparation and electrochemical performance of heteroatom-enriched electrospun carbon nanofibers from melamine formaldehyde resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chang; Song, Yan; Shi, Jingli; Zhang, Dongqing; Guo, Quangui; Liu, Lang

    2013-04-01

    Melamine formaldehyde resin was used to prepare heteroatom-enriched carbon nanofibers by electrospinning for the first time. The melamine formaldehyde resin-based carbon fibers without any activation treatment showed a moderate specific surface area ranging from 130 to 479 m2/g and rich surface functionalities (2.56-5.34 wt.% nitrogen and 10.39-11.2 9 wt.% oxygen). Both the specific surface area and surface functionality greatly depended on the carbonization temperature. The capacitive performance was evaluated in 6M KOH aqueous solution. The electrochemically active surface functionalities played an important role in improving the surface capacitance of the electrodes. The sample carbonized at 600°C showed the highest specific surface capacitance of 1.4 F/m2, which was attributed to the most active functionalities (10.69 wt.% of N and O). In addition, the sample carbonized at 750°C exhibited the highest specific capacitance of 206 F/g. PMID:23375805

  16. A general approach to fabricate free-standing metal sulfide@carbon nanofiber networks as lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Ling; Williams, Brian Patrick; Yoo, Sang Ha; Carlin, Joseph Michael; Joo, Yong Lak

    2016-01-14

    A general approach for fabricating free-standing metal sulfide and carbon nanofiber mats is developed via electrospinning, starting with cheap and abundant raw materials. The prepared free-standing samples have metal sulfide nanoparticles dispersed throughout the interconnected carbon fibers. When applied to LIB, the composites demonstrate excellent cyclability and rate capability. PMID:26659850

  17. Superior Electrochemical Properties of Nanofibers Composed of Hollow CoFe2 O4 Nanospheres Covered with Onion-Like Graphitic Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Young Jun; Cho, Jung Sang; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-12-01

    Nanofibers composed of hollow CoFe2 O4 nanospheres covered with onion-like carbon are prepared by applying nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion to the electrospinning process. Amorphous carbon nanofibers embedded with CoFe2 @onion-like carbon nanospheres are prepared by reduction of the electrospun nanofibers. Oxidation of the CoFe2 -C nanofibers at 300?°C under a normal atmosphere produces porous nanofibers composed of hollow CoFe2 O4 nanospheres covered with onion-like carbon. CoFe2 nanocrystals are transformed into the hollow CoFe2 O4 nanospheres during oxidation through a well-known nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process. The discharge capacities of the carbon-free CoFe2 O4 nanofibers composed of hollow nanospheres and the nanofibers composed of hollow CoFe2 O4 nanospheres covered with onion-like carbon are 340 and 930?mA?h?g(-1) , respectively, for the 1000th cycle at a current density of 1?A?g(-1) . The nanofibers composed of hollow CoFe2 O4 nanospheres covered with onion-like carbon exhibit an excellent rate performance even in the absence of conductive materials. PMID:26542385

  18. In-situ preparation and characterization of acid functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes with polyimide nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakshnamoorthy, M; Ramakrishnan, S; Vikram, S; Kothurkar, Nikhil K; Rangarajan, Murali; Vasanthakumari, R

    2014-07-01

    Nanofiber composites (Polyimide/f-SWCNT) of Pyromellitic dianhydride, 4,4'-Oxydianiline, and 4,4'-(4,4'-isopropylidene diphenyl-1,1'-diyl dioxy) dianiline (PMDA-ODA/IDDA) and surface-functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (f-SWCNT) were made by electrospinning a solution of poly(amic acid) (PAA) containing 0-2 wt% f-SWCNT followed by thermal imidization. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra verified the oxidation of SWCNT surface after acid treatment, and indicated possible hydrogen bonding interactions between the f-SWCNTs and polyamic acid. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy images showed the average diameter of nanofibers to be below 150 nm, and transmission electron microscopy images showed that SWCNTs were aligned inside the polymer nanofiber. In thermogravimetric analysis, all composites showed increased thermal stability with increasing f-SWCNT content compared to neat PI. Storage modulus also increased from 124 MPa to 229 MPa from neat PI to 2% f-SWCNT composite. PMID:24757974

  19. Preparation of Surface Adsorbed and Impregnated Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube/Nylon-6 Nanofiber Composites and Investigation of their Gas Sensing Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Velmurugan Thavasi; Neeta L. Lala; Seeram Ramakrishna

    2009-01-01

    We have prepared electrospun Nylon-6 nanofibers via electrospinning, and adsorbed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) onto the surface of Nylon-6 fibers using Triton® X-100 to form a MWCNTs/Nylon-6 nanofiber composite. The dispersed MWCNTs have been found to be stable in hexafluoroisopropanol for several months without precipitation. A MWCNTs/Nylon-6 nanofiber composite based chemical sensor has demonstrated its responsiveness towards a wide range of solvent vapours at room temperature ...

  20. High performance of NiCo nanoparticles-doped carbon nanofibers as counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NiCo nanoparticles(NPs)-doped carbon nanofibers were synthesized by calcination of electrospun nanofibers composed of nickel acetate, cobalt acetate and poly(vinyl alcohol) in argon atmosphere and used as an efficient and alternative Pt-free electrocatalyst as counter electrode materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Structural and electrochemical properties of the NiCo NPs-doped carbon nanofibers counter-electrodes were inspected by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), andelectrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). This Pt-free counter electrode shows high catalytic activity, surface area and conductivity. Moreover, more catalytic active sites for the reduction reaction at the electrolyte/counter electrode interface and strong contact between the film and FTO substrate have been observed. Therefore, the DSSCs based on NiCo (NPs) carbon nanofibers counter exhibits an enhanced photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 4.47%. As the result, the introduced nanofibers can be considered as a promising counter electrode for DSSCs

  1. Fabrication of Homogeneous Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube/ Poly (vinyl alcohol Composite Nanofibers for Microwave Absorption Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoushtari A.M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Poly (vinyl alcohol (PVA / sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS / multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT camposite nanofibers with various MWCNT contents (up to 10 wt% were fabricated by electrospinning process and their microwave absorption properties were evaluated by a vector network analyzer in the frequency range of 8-12 GHz (X-band at room temperature. The uniform, stable dispersion and well oriented MWCNT within the PVA matrix were achieved through using SDS as dispersing agent. The SEM analysis of the nanofibers samples revealed that the deformation of the nanofibers increases with increasing MWCNT concentration. Very smooth surface of the composite electrospun nanofibers even for the nanofibers with concentration of 10 wt% MWCNT have been successfully prepared because of the high stability dispersion of MWCNT. It was observed that absorption microwave properties improved with increasing in the loading levels of MWCNT. Finally, the PVA/SDS/MWCNT composite nanofibers sample with the 10 wt% content of MWCNT has shown the reflection loss of 15 dB at the frequency of 8 GHz.

  2. Hierarchically mesoporous CuO/carbon nanofiber coaxial shell-core nanowires for lithium ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Seok-Hwan Park; Wan-Jin Lee

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchically mesoporous CuO/carbon nanofiber coaxial shell-core nanowires (CuO/CNF) as anodes for lithium ion batteries were prepared by coating the Cu2(NO3)(OH)3 on the surface of conductive and elastic CNF via electrophoretic deposition (EPD), followed by thermal treatment in air. The CuO shell stacked with nanoparticles grows radially toward the CNF core, which forms hierarchically mesoporous three-dimensional (3D) coaxial shell-core structure with abundant inner spaces in nanoparticle-s...

  3. Electrospun carbon-cobalt composite nanofiber as an anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-cobalt (C/Co) composite nanofibers with diameters from 100 to 300 nm were prepared by electrospinning and subsequent heat treatment. They were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, galvanostatic cell cycling and impedance spectroscopy. As a lithium storage material, these fibers exhibit excellent electrochemical properties with high reversible capacity (>750 mA h g-1) and good rate capability (578 mA h g-1 at 1 C rate). These composite fibers are a promising anode material for high-power Li-ion batteries

  4. Synthesis and photocatalytic property of porous metal oxides nanowires based on carbon nanofiber template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weiqiang; Li, Meng; Xu, Jinfu; Bai, Hongye; Zhang, Rongxian; Chen, Chao

    2015-11-01

    A series of porous metal oxides nanowires (Fe2O3, Co3O4, NiO and CuO) have been successfully synthesized, where commercial carbon nanofibers were used as the template. The obtained samples were systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance (UV-Vis DR) spectra and transmission electron microscope (TEM). According to the photodegradation data, the porous metal oxides nanowires exhibit significantly photocatalytic activity for degrading tetracycline (TC). Furthermore, the porous Fe2O3 nanowires show the best photocatalytic performance among all the samples.

  5. Growth of carbon nanofibers on aligned zinc oxide nanorods and their field emission properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayen, R.N. [Department of Instrumentation Science, USIC Building, Jadavpur University, Calcutta 700 032 (India); Pal, A.K., E-mail: msakp2002@yahoo.co.in [Department of Instrumentation Science, USIC Building, Jadavpur University, Calcutta 700 032 (India)

    2010-08-15

    Carbon nanofibers were grown by electrodeposition technique onto aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods deposited by hybrid wet chemical route on glass substrates. X-ray diffraction traces indicated very strong peak for reflections from (0 0 2) planes of ZnO. The Raman spectra were dominated by the presence of G band at about 1597 cm{sup -1} corresponding to the E{sub 2g} tangential stretching mode of an ordered graphitic structure with sp{sup 2} hybridization and a D band at about 1350 cm{sup -1} originating from disordered carbon. Fourier transformed infrared studies indicated the presence of a distinct characteristic absorption peak at {approx}511 cm{sup -1} for Zn-O stretching mode. Photoluminescence spectra indicated band edge luminescence of ZnO at {approx}3.146 eV along with a low intensity peak at {approx}0.877 eV arising out of carbon nanofibers. Field emission properties of these films and their dependence on the CNF coverage on ZnO nanorods are reported here. The average field enhancement factor as determined from the slope of the FN plot was found to vary between 1 x 10{sup 3} and 3 x 10{sup 3}. Both the values of turn-on field and threshold field for CNF/ZnO were lower than pure ZnO nanorods.

  6. Growth of carbon nanofibers on aligned zinc oxide nanorods and their field emission properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanofibers were grown by electrodeposition technique onto aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods deposited by hybrid wet chemical route on glass substrates. X-ray diffraction traces indicated very strong peak for reflections from (0 0 2) planes of ZnO. The Raman spectra were dominated by the presence of G band at about 1597 cm-1 corresponding to the E2g tangential stretching mode of an ordered graphitic structure with sp2 hybridization and a D band at about 1350 cm-1 originating from disordered carbon. Fourier transformed infrared studies indicated the presence of a distinct characteristic absorption peak at ?511 cm-1 for Zn-O stretching mode. Photoluminescence spectra indicated band edge luminescence of ZnO at ?3.146 eV along with a low intensity peak at ?0.877 eV arising out of carbon nanofibers. Field emission properties of these films and their dependence on the CNF coverage on ZnO nanorods are reported here. The average field enhancement factor as determined from the slope of the FN plot was found to vary between 1 x 103 and 3 x 103. Both the values of turn-on field and threshold field for CNF/ZnO were lower than pure ZnO nanorods.

  7. Formation of carbon nanostructures containing single-crystalline cobalt carbides by ion irradiation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with a diameter of 17 nm, and carbon nanoneedles (CNNs) with sharp tips have been synthesized on graphite substrates by ion irradiation of argon ions with the Co supplies rate of 1 and 3.4 nm/min, respectively. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, combined with selected area electron diffraction patterns has been used to identify the chemical composition and crystallinity of these carbon nanostructures. The CNFs were found to be amorphous in nature, while the structures of the CNNs consisted of cubic CoCx, orthorhombic Co2C and Co3C depending on the cobalt content in the CNNs. The diameter of the carbide crystals was almost as large as the diameter of the CNN. Compared to the ion-induced nickel carbides and iron carbides, the formation of single-crystalline cobalt carbides might be due to the high temperature produced by the irradiation.

  8. Hollow activated carbon nanofibers prepared by electrospinning as counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollow activated carbon nanofibers (H-ACNF) were prepared by concentric electrospinning of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a pyrolytic core precursor and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a carbon shell precursor, followed by stabilization, carbonization, and activation. The H-ACNF with 190 and 270 nm for core and shell diameter showed excellent mesoporous structure, and 1-D conducting pathway in employing as catalysts of counter electrodes (CEs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The mesoporous structure of H-ACNF represented surface area of 1037.5 m2 g?1 with average mesopore diameter of 17.4 nm. The overall conversion efficiency of H-ACNF is comparable to that of Pt CE because its characteristics promotes the electron and ion transfer, decreases the resistance of charge transfer, and increases the contact area between liquid electrolyte and H-ACNF

  9. Durability of Carbon Nanofiber (CNF) & Carbon Nanotube (CNT) as Catalyst Support for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Borghei, Maryam; Lund, Peter; Elina, Yli-Rantala; Pasanen, Antti; Kauppinen, Esko; Ruiz, Virginia; Kauranen, Pertti; Skou, Eivind Morten

    2013-01-01

    Durability issues have recently been given much attention in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) research. It gives fundamental definition for cell life time, capital cost, system stability and technique reliability. Loss of catalyst surface area due to corrosion of supporting material...... (normally carbon black) is one of the essential degradation mechanisms during cell operation. In this work, durability of Carbon Nanofibers (CNF) & Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) as alternative platinum catalyst supports for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) was assessed. Platinized CNF and CNT using a...... standard polyol method were prepared and fabricated as cathodes of Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEA) for PEMFC. Both the catalysts as such and the MEAs made out of them were evaluated regarding to thermal and electrochemical stability using traditional carbon black (Vulcan XC72) as a reference. Thermal...

  10. Revealing the Role of Catalysts in Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers by Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Gao; Jun Zhong; Lili Bai; Jinyin Liu; Guanqi Zhao; Xuhui Sun

    2014-01-01

    The identification of effective components on the atomic scale in carbon nanomaterials which improve the performance in various applications remains outstanding challenges. Here the catalyst residues in individual carbon nanotube (CNT) and carbon nanofiber (CNF) were clearly imaged with a concurrent characterization of their electronic structure by nanoscale scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. Except for prominent catalyst nanoparticle at the tip, tiny catalyst clusters along the tube (fi...

  11. Effect of the nature the carbon precursor on the physico-chemical characteristics of the resulting activated carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon materials, including amorphous carbon, graphite, carbon nanospheres (CNSs) and different types of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) [platelet, herringbone and ribbon], were chemically activated using KOH. The pore structure of carbon materials was analyzed using N2/77 K adsorption isotherms. The presence of oxygen groups was analyzed by temperature programmed desorption in He and acid-base titration. The structural order of the materials was studied by X-ray diffraction and temperature programmed oxidation. The morphology and diameter distribution of CNFs and CNSs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The materials were also characterized by temperature-desorption programmed of H2 and elemental composition. The ways in which the different structures were activated are described, showing the type of pores generated. Relationships between carbon yield, removed carbon, activation degree and graphitic character were also examined. The oxygen content in the form of oxygen-containing surface groups increased after the activation giving qualitative information about them. The average diameter of both CNFs and CNSs was decreased after the activation process as consequence of the changes produced on the material surface.

  12. Radiation grafting of methacrylate onto carbon nanofiber surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation can be used to modify and improve the properties of materials. Electron beam irradiation has potential application in modifying the structure of carbon fibers in order to produce useful defects in the graphite structure and create reactive sites. In this study, vapor grown carbon nano fibers (VGCF) were irradiated with a high energy (3 MeV) electron beam in air to dose of 1000 kGy to create active sites and added to methyl methacrylate (MMA) dissolved in water/methanol (50% V). The irradiated samples were analyzed by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy to assess the impact on surface and bulk properties. Oxygen was readily incorporated enhancing the dispersion of VGCF. Raman spectroscopy analyses indicated that the sample irradiated and preirradiated grafted sample with MMA had the intensity ratio increased. (author)

  13. Morphological characterization of carbon-nanofiber-reinforced epoxy nanocomposites using ultra-small angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the properties of nanocomposites reinforced with vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (VGCFs) can be found throughout the literature. Electrical, mechanical, viscoelastic, and rheological properties are just a few of the characteristics that have been well discussed. Although these properties depend on morphology, morphological characterization is rare. Due to its 2-dimensional nature, microscopy is of limited value when analyzing network morphologies. This work will show how the characterization of the three-dimensional geometry and network formation of VGCFs can be determined using ultra-small angle scattering techniques. Ultra-small angle x-ray and neutron scattering (USAXS and USANS) were used to characterize the morphology of carbon nanofibers suspended in epoxy. Using a simplified tube model, we estimate the dimensions of suspended fibers. The assumption of tubular fibers accounts for the increased surface area observed with USAXS that is not accounted for using a solid rod model. Furthermore, USANS was used to search for a structural signature associated with the electrical percolation threshold. USANS extends to longer dimensional scales than USAXS, which measures a smaller range of momentum transfer. To determine the electrical percolation threshold, AC impedance spectroscopy was employed to verify that an electrically conductive, percolated network forms at VGCNF loadings of 0.8% < CNF wt% < 1.2%. These values correlate with the USANS data, where a morphological transition is seen at ?1.2% loading.

  14. A nanobursa mesh: a graded electrospun nanofiber mesh with metal nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk-Ozer, Semra; Chen, Tao; Degirmenbasi, Nebahat; Gevgilili, Halil; Podkolzin, Simon G.; Kalyon, Dilhan M.

    2014-07-01

    A new type of material, a ``nanobursa'' mesh (from ``bursa'' meaning ``sac or pouch''), is introduced. This material consists of sequential layers of porous polymeric nanofibers encapsulating carbon nanotubes, which are functionalized with different metal nanoparticles in each layer. The nanobursa mesh is fabricated via a novel combination of twin-screw extrusion and electrospinning. Use of this hybrid process at industrially-relevant rates is demonstrated by producing a nanobursa mesh with graded layers of Pd, Co, Ag, and Pt nanoparticles. The potential use of the fabricated nanobursa mesh is illustrated by modeling of catalytic hydrocarbon oxidation.A new type of material, a ``nanobursa'' mesh (from ``bursa'' meaning ``sac or pouch''), is introduced. This material consists of sequential layers of porous polymeric nanofibers encapsulating carbon nanotubes, which are functionalized with different metal nanoparticles in each layer. The nanobursa mesh is fabricated via a novel combination of twin-screw extrusion and electrospinning. Use of this hybrid process at industrially-relevant rates is demonstrated by producing a nanobursa mesh with graded layers of Pd, Co, Ag, and Pt nanoparticles. The potential use of the fabricated nanobursa mesh is illustrated by modeling of catalytic hydrocarbon oxidation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental methods and computational details. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01145g

  15. Tin nanoparticle-loaded porous carbon nanofiber composite anodes for high current lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhen; Hu, Yi; Chen, Yanli; Zhang, Xiangwu; Wang, Kehao; Chen, Renzhong

    2015-03-01

    Metallic Sn is a promising high-capacity anode material for use in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), but its huge volume variation during lithium ion insertion/extraction typically results in poor cycling stability. To address this, we demonstrate the fabrication of Sn nanoparticle-loaded porous carbon nanofiber (Sn-PCNF) composites via the electrospinning of Sn(II) acetate/mineral oil/polyacrylonitrile precursors in N,N-dimethylformamide solvent and their subsequent carbonization at 700 °C under an argon atmosphere. This is shown to result in an even distribution of pores on the surface of the nanofibers, allowing the Sn-PCNF composite to be used directly as an anode in lithium-ion batteries without the need to add non-active materials such as polymer binders or electrical conductors. With a discharge capacity of around 774 mA h g-1 achieved at a high current of 0.8 A g-1 over 200 cycles, this material clearly has a high rate capability and excellent cyclic stability, and thanks to its unique structure and properties, is an excellent candidate for use as an anode material in high-current rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Investigation of Lithium-Air Battery Discharge Product Formed on Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Robert Revell, III

    Carbon nanotubes have been actively investigated for integration in a wide variety of applications since their discovery over 20 years ago. Their myriad desirable material properties including exceptional mechanical strength, high thermal conductivities, large surface-to-volume ratios, and considerable electrical conductivities, which are attributable to a quantum mechanical ability to conduct electrons ballistically, have continued to motivate interest in this material system. While a variety of synthesis techniques exist, carbon nanotubes and nanofibers are most often conveniently synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), which involves their catalyzed growth from transition metal nanoparticles. Vertically-aligned nanotube and nanofiber carpets produced using CVD have been utilized in a variety of applications including those related to energy storage. Li-air (Li-O2) batteries have received much interest recently because of their very high theoretical energy densities (3200 Wh/kgLi2O2 ). which make them ideal candidates for energy storage devices for future fully-electric vehicles. During operation of a Li-air battery O2 is reduced on the surface a porous air cathode, reacting with Li-ions to form lithium peroxide (Li-O2). Unlike the intercalation reactions of Li-ion batteries, discharge in a Li-air cell is analogous to an electrodeposition process involving the nucleation and growth of the depositing species on a foreign substrate. Carbon nanofiber electrodes were synthesized on porous substrates using a chemical vapor deposition process and then assembled into Li-O2 cells. The large surface to volume ratio and low density of carbon nanofiber electrodes were found to yield a very high gravimetric energy density in Li-O 2 cells, approaching 75% of the theoretical energy density for Li 2O2. Further, the carbon nanofiber electrodes were found to be excellent platforms for conducting ex situ electron microscopy investigations of the deposition Li2O2 phase, which was found to have unique disc and toroid morphologies. Subsequent studies were conducted using freestanding carpets of multi-walled CNT arrays, which were synthesized using a modified CVD process. The freestanding CNT arrays were used as a platform for studying the morphological evolution of Li2O2 discharge product as a function of rate and electrode capacity. SEM imaging investigations found that the Li2O 2 particles underwent a shape evolution from discs to toroids as their size increased. TEM imaging and diffraction studies showed that the microscale Li2O2 particles are composed of stacks of thin Li 2O2 crystallites and that splaying of the stacked crystallite array drives the observed disc to toroid transition. Modeling was performed to gain insights into the nucleation and growth processes involved during discharge in Li-O2 cells. The modeling study suggests that poor electronic conductivity of the depositing phase limits the rate capability obtainable in Li-O2 cells. Modeling can provide substantial insights into paths toward electrode optimization. Understanding the size and shape evolution of Li2O2 particles and engineering improved electrode architectures is critical to efficiently filling the electrode void volume during discharge thereby improving the volumetric energy density of Li-O2 batteries. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs mit.edu)

  17. Frontispiece: Hollow Carbon Nanofibers Filled with MnO2 Nanosheets as Efficient Sulfur Hosts for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jintao; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2015-10-26

    Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Hollow carbon nanofibers filled with MnO2 nanosheets were synthesized by X.?W. Lou and co-workers in their Communication on page?12886?ff., and shown to be a suitable sulfur host for lithium-sulfur batteries. PMID:26480342

  18. Carbon nanotube-templated polyaniline nanofibers: synthesis, flash welding and ultrafiltration membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yaozu; Yu, Deng-Guang; Wang, Xia; Chain, Wei; Li, Xin-Gui; Hoek, Eric M. V.; Kaner, Richard B.

    2013-04-01

    Electro-active switchable ultrafiltration membranes are of great interest due to the possibility of external control over permeability, selectivity, anti-fouling and cleaning. Here, we report on hybrid single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-polyaniline (PANi) nanofibers synthesized by in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of oxidized SWCNTs. The composite nanofibers exhibit unique morphology of core-shell (SWCNT-PANi) structures with average total diameters of 60 nm with 10 to 30 nm thick PANi coatings. The composite nanofibers are easily dispersed in polar aprotic solvents and cast into asymmetric membranes via a nonsolvent induced phase separation. The hybrid SWCNT-PANi membranes are electrically conductive at neutral pH and exhibit ultrafiltration-like permeability and selectivity when filtering aqueous suspensions of 6 nm diameter bovine serum albumin and 48 nm diameter silica particles. A novel flash welding technique is utilized to tune the morphology, porosity, conductivity, permeability and nanoparticle rejection of the SWCNT-PANi composite ultrafiltration membranes. Upon flash welding, both conductivity and pure water permeability of the membranes improves by nearly a factor of 10, while maintaining silica nanoparticle rejection levels above 90%. Flash welding of SWCNT-PANi composite membranes holds promise for formation of electrochemically tunable membranes.Electro-active switchable ultrafiltration membranes are of great interest due to the possibility of external control over permeability, selectivity, anti-fouling and cleaning. Here, we report on hybrid single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-polyaniline (PANi) nanofibers synthesized by in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of oxidized SWCNTs. The composite nanofibers exhibit unique morphology of core-shell (SWCNT-PANi) structures with average total diameters of 60 nm with 10 to 30 nm thick PANi coatings. The composite nanofibers are easily dispersed in polar aprotic solvents and cast into asymmetric membranes via a nonsolvent induced phase separation. The hybrid SWCNT-PANi membranes are electrically conductive at neutral pH and exhibit ultrafiltration-like permeability and selectivity when filtering aqueous suspensions of 6 nm diameter bovine serum albumin and 48 nm diameter silica particles. A novel flash welding technique is utilized to tune the morphology, porosity, conductivity, permeability and nanoparticle rejection of the SWCNT-PANi composite ultrafiltration membranes. Upon flash welding, both conductivity and pure water permeability of the membranes improves by nearly a factor of 10, while maintaining silica nanoparticle rejection levels above 90%. Flash welding of SWCNT-PANi composite membranes holds promise for formation of electrochemically tunable membranes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Characteristic chemical shifts/transmittances of ATR/FT-IR spectral bands for SWCNT-PANi EB composite membranes under different numbers of flash welds at full power can be seen in Table S1. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00441d

  19. Chemical isolation and characterization of different cellulose nanofibers from cotton stalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Bhawna; Hassan, El Barbary; Mahmoud, Barakat

    2015-12-10

    Recently, cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) have received wide attention in green nanomaterial technologies. Production of CNFs from agricultural residues has many economic and environmental advantages. In this study, four different CNFs were prepared from cotton stalks by different chemical treatments followed by ultrasonication. CNFs were prepared from untreated bleached pulp, sulfuric acid hydrolysis, and TEMPO [(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl) oxy radical]-mediated oxidation process. Physical and chemical properties of the prepared CNFs such as morphological (FE-SEM, AFM), structural (FTIR), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were investigated. Characterization results clearly showed that the method of preparation results in a significant difference in the structure, thermal stability, shape and dimensions of the produced CNFs. TEMPO-mediated oxidation produced brighter and higher yields (>90%) of CNFs compared to other methods. FE-SEM and AFM analysis clearly indicated that, TEMPO-mediated oxidation produced uniform nano-sized fibers with a very small diameter (3-15 nm width) and very small length (10-100 nm). This was the first time uniform and very small nanofibers were produced. PMID:26428161

  20. EFFECT OF CELLULOSE NANOFIBERS ISOLATED FROM BAMBOO PULP RESIDUE ON VULCANIZED NATURAL RUBBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Visakh,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites were prepared using two bioresources, viz., cellulose nanofibers (CNFs extracted from bamboo paper-pulp waste as the reinforcing phase and natural rubber (NR as the matrix phase. CNFs with diameters up to 50 nm were isolated from bamboo pulp waste, and nanocomposites with 5 and 10% CNFs were obtained via two-roll mill mixing of solid natural rubber with a master batch containing 20 wt% CNFs. The NR phase was cross-linked using sulphur vulcanization. The morphology studies showed that the dispersion of CNF in NR matrix was not optimal, and some aggregates were visible on the fracture surface. The tensile strength and modulus at 50% elongation increased for the nanocomposites with the addition of CNFs, accompanied by a moderate decrease in elongation at break. The storage modulus of the natural rubber significantly increased above its glass-rubber transition temperature upon nanofiber addition. The addition of CNFs also had a synergistic impact on the thermal stability of natural rubber. The susceptibility to organic solvents decreased significantly for the nanocomposites compared to crosslinked NR, which indicated restriction of polymer chain mobility in the vicinity of the nanosized CNFs in the NR matrix.

  1. Biodegradability and mechanical properties of reinforced starch nanocomposites using cellulose nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Mehran; Jonoobi, Mehdi; Hamzeh, Yahya; Ashori, Alireza

    2015-11-01

    In this study the effects of chemical modification of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) on the biodegradability and mechanical properties of reinforced thermoplastic starch (TPS) nanocomposites was evaluated. The CNFs were modified using acetic anhydride and the nanocomposites were fabricated by solution casting from corn starch with glycerol/water as the plasticizer and 10 wt% of either CNFs or acetylated CNFs (ACNFs). The morphology, water absorption (WA), water vapor permeability rate (WVP), tensile, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and fungal degradation properties of the obtained nanocomposites were investigated. The results demonstrated that the addition of CNFs and ACNFs significantly enhanced the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites and reduced the WVP and WA of the TPS. The effects were more pronounced for the CNFs than the ACNFs. The DMA showed that the storage modulus was improved, especially for the CNFs/TPS nanocomposite. Compared with the neat TPS, the addition of nanofibers improved the degradation rate of the nanocomposite and particularly ACNFs reduced degradation rate of the nanocomposite toward fungal degradation. PMID:26256317

  2. Nanographene derived from carbon nanofiber and its application to electric double-layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fascinating properties of graphene are attracting considerable attention in engineering fields such as electronics, optics, and energy engineering. These properties can be controlled by controlling graphene's structure, e.g., the number of layers and the sheet size. In this study, we synthesized nanosized graphene from a platelet-type carbon nanofiber. The thickness and size of nanographene oxide are around 1 nm and 60 nm and we obtained nanographene by hydrazine reduction of nanographene oxide. We applied the nanographene to an ionic-liquid electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC), which exhibited a much larger capacitance per specific surface area than an EDLC using conventional activated carbon. Furthermore, the capacitance increased significantly with increasing cycle time. After 30th cycle, the capacitance was achieved 130 F g?1, though the surface area was only 240 m2 g?1. These results suggest that nanographene structure induce the capacitance enhancement.

  3. Graphene oxides and carbon nanotubes embedded in polyacrylonitrile-based carbon nanofibers used as electrodes for supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-Cheng; Wang, Chen-Hao; Chang, Yu-Chung; Hu, Jin-Hao; Yao, Bing-Yuan; Lin, Chun-Yao

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the use of graphene oxides (GOs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) embedded in polyacrylonitrile-based carbon nanofibers (GO-CNT/CNF) as electrodes for the supercapacitor. GO-CNT/CNF was prepared by electrospinning, and was subsequently stabilized and activated. The specific capacitance of GO-CNT/CNF is 120.5 F g-1 in 0.5 M Na2SO4 electrolyte, which is higher than or comparable to the specific capacitances of carbon-based materials in neutral aqueous electrolyte, as prepared in this study. GO-CNT/CNF also exhibits a superior cycling stability, and 109% of the initial specific capacitance after 5000 cycles. The high capacitance of GO-CNT/CNF could be attributed to the edge planes and the functional groups of GO, the highly electrical conductivity of CNT, and the network structure of the electrode.

  4. Preparation of poly(L-lactic acid) nanofiber scaffolds with a rough surface by phase inversion using supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ding-Zhu; Chen, Ai-Zheng; Wang, Shi-Bin; Li, Yi; Tang, Xiao-Lin; Wu, Yong-Jing

    2015-06-01

    Phase inversion using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) has been widely used in the development of tissue engineering scaffolds, and particular attention has been given to obtaining desired morphology without additional post-treatments. However, the main challenge of this technique is the difficulty in generating a three-dimensional (3D) nanofiber structure with a rough surface in one step. Here, a poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) 3D nanofiber scaffold with a rough surface is obtained via phase inversion using SC-CO2 by carefully choosing fabrication conditions and porogens. It is found that this method can effectively modulate the structure morphology, promote the crystallization process of semicrystalline polymer, and induce the formation of rough structures on the surface of nanofibers. Meanwhile, the porogen of ammonium bicarbonate (AB) can produce a 3D structure with large pores, and porogen of menthol can improve the interconnectivity between the micropores of nanofibers. A significant increase in the fiber diameter is observed as the menthol content increases. Furthermore, the menthol may affect the mutual transition between the α' and α crystals of PLLA during the phase separation process. In addition, the results of protein adsorption, cell adhesion, and proliferation assays indicate that cells tend to have higher viability on the nanofiber scaffold. This process combines the characteristic properties of SC-CO2 and the solubility of menthol to tailor the morphology of polymeric scaffolds, which may have potential applications in tissue engineering. PMID:26107415

  5. Oriented carbon nanostructures grown by hot-filament plasma-enhanced CVD from self-assembled Co-based catalyst on Si substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleaca, Claudiu Teodor; Morjan, Ion; Rodica, Alexandrescu; Dumitrache, Florian; Soare, Iuliana; Gavrila-Florescu, Lavinia; Sandu, Ion; Dutu, Elena; Le Normand, François; Faerber, Jacques

    2012-03-01

    We report the synthesis of coral- and caterpillar-like carbon nanostructures assemblies starting from cobalt nitrate ethanol solutions deposited by drop-casting onto blank or carbon nanoparticles film covered Si(1 0 0) substrates. The seeded films were pre-treated with glow discharge hydrogen plasma aided by hot-filaments at 550 °C followed by introduction of acetylene at 700 °C. The resultant carbon nanostructure assemblies contain a high density of aligned carbon nanotubes/nanofibers (CNTs/CNFs). The influence of the forces that act during liquid-mediated self-assembly of Co catalyst precursor is discussed.

  6. Electrosorptive desalination by carbon nanotubes and nanofibres electrodes and ion-exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibo; Gao, Yang; Pan, Likun; Zhang, Yanping; Chen, Yiwei; Sun, Zhuo

    2008-12-01

    A novel membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) device, integrating both the advantages of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers (CNTs-CNFs) composite film and ion-exchange membrane, was proposed with high removal efficiency, low energy consumption and low cost. The CNTs-CNFs film was synthesized by low pressure and low temperature thermal chemical vapor deposition. Several experiments were conducted to compare desalination performance of MCDI with capacitive deionization (CDI), showing that salt removal of the MCDI system was 49.2% higher than that of the CDI system. The electrosorption isotherms of MCDI and CDI show both of them follow Langmuir adsorption, indicating no change in adsorption behavior when ion-exchange membranes are introduced into CDI system. The better desalination performance of MCDI than that of CDI is due to the minimized ion desorption during electrosorption. PMID:18929385

  7. Synthesis and characterization of magnetically active carbon nanofiber/iron oxide composites with hierarchical pore structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) solution containing the iron oxide precursor iron (III) acetylacetonate (AAI) was electrospun and thermally treated to produce electrically conducting, magnetic carbon nanofiber mats with hierarchical pore structures. The morphology and material properties of the resulting multifunctional nanofiber mats including the surface area and the electric and magnetic properties were examined using various characterization techniques. Scanning electron microscopy images show that uniform fibers were produced with a fiber diameter of ?600 nm, and this uniform fiber morphology is maintained after graphitization with a fiber diameter of ?330 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman studies reveal that both graphite and Fe3O4 crystals are formed after thermal treatment, and graphitization can be enhanced by the presence of iron. A combination of XRD and transmission electron microscopy experiments reveals the formation of pores with graphitic nanoparticles in the walls as well as the formation of magnetite nanoparticles distributed throughout the fibers. Physisorption experiments show that the multifunctional fiber mats exhibit a high surface area (200-400 m2 g-1) and their pore size is dependent on the amount of iron added and graphitization conditions. Finally, we have demonstrated that the fibers are electrically conducting as well as magnetically active.

  8. Morphological characterization of carbon nanofiber aerosol using tandem mobility and aerodynamic size measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterizing microstructural and transport properties of non-spherical particles, such as carbon nanofibers (CNF), is important for understanding their transport and deposition in human respiratory system and engineered devices such as particle filters. We describe an approach to obtain morphological information of non-spherical particles using a tandem system of differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and an electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI). Effective density, dynamic shape factors (DSF), particle mass, and fractal dimension-like mass-scaling exponent of nanofibers were derived using the measured mobility and aerodynamic diameters, along with the known material density of CNF. Multiple charging of particles during DMA classification, which tends to bias the measured shape factors and particle mass toward higher values, was accounted for using a correction procedure. Particle mass derived from DMA–ELPI measurements agreed well with the direct mass measurements using an aerosol particle mass analyzer. Effective densities, based on mobility diameters, ranged from 0.32 to 0.67 g cm?3. The DSF of the CNF ranged from 1.8 to 2.3, indicating highly non-spherical particle morphologies.

  9. Morphological characterization of carbon nanofiber aerosol using tandem mobility and aerodynamic size measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deye, Gregory J.; Kulkarni, Pramod, E-mail: pskulkarni@cdc.gov; Ku, Bon Ki [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Characterizing microstructural and transport properties of non-spherical particles, such as carbon nanofibers (CNF), is important for understanding their transport and deposition in human respiratory system and engineered devices such as particle filters. We describe an approach to obtain morphological information of non-spherical particles using a tandem system of differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and an electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI). Effective density, dynamic shape factors (DSF), particle mass, and fractal dimension-like mass-scaling exponent of nanofibers were derived using the measured mobility and aerodynamic diameters, along with the known material density of CNF. Multiple charging of particles during DMA classification, which tends to bias the measured shape factors and particle mass toward higher values, was accounted for using a correction procedure. Particle mass derived from DMA-ELPI measurements agreed well with the direct mass measurements using an aerosol particle mass analyzer. Effective densities, based on mobility diameters, ranged from 0.32 to 0.67 g cm{sup -3}. The DSF of the CNF ranged from 1.8 to 2.3, indicating highly non-spherical particle morphologies.

  10. Towards Scalable Binderless Electrodes: Carbon Coated Silicon Nanofiber Paper via Mg Reduction of Electrospun SiO2 Nanofibers

    OpenAIRE

    Favors, Zachary; Bay, Hamed Hosseini; Mutlu, Zafer; Ahmed, Kazi; Ionescu, Robert; Ye, Rachel; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.

    2015-01-01

    The need for more energy dense and scalable Li-ion battery electrodes has become increasingly pressing with the ushering in of more powerful portable electronics and electric vehicles (EVs) requiring substantially longer range capabilities. Herein, we report on the first synthesis of nano-silicon paper electrodes synthesized via magnesiothermic reduction of electrospun SiO2 nanofiber paper produced by an in situ acid catalyzed polymerization of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in-flight. Free-...

  11. Manufacturing of Nanocomposite Carbon Fibers and Composite Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Seng; Zhou, Jian-guo

    2013-01-01

    Pitch-based nanocomposite carbon fibers were prepared with various percentages of carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and the fibers were used for manufacturing composite structures. Experimental results show that these nanocomposite carbon fibers exhibit improved structural and electrical conductivity properties as compared to unreinforced carbon fibers. Composite panels fabricated from these nanocomposite carbon fibers and an epoxy system also show the same properties transformed from the fibers. Single-fiber testing per ASTM C1557 standard indicates that the nanocomposite carbon fiber has a tensile modulus of 110% higher, and a tensile strength 17.7% times higher, than the conventional carbon fiber manufactured from pitch. Also, the electrical resistance of the carbon fiber carbonized at 900 C was reduced from 4.8 to 2.2 ohm/cm. The manufacturing of the nanocomposite carbon fiber was based on an extrusion, non-solvent process. The precursor fibers were then carbonized and graphitized. The resultant fibers are continuous.

  12. Enhanced performances in primary lithium batteries of fluorinated carbon nanofibers through static fluorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using galvanostatic discharges, the electrochemical properties of fluorinated carbon nanofibers (CNF) have been investigated. Several methods of fluorination are compared, (i) direct process using a flux of pure molecular fluorine F2 (dynamic process), (ii) controlled fluorination using atomic fluorine released continuously by the thermal decomposition of a solid fluorinating agent (TbF4), and (iii) static fluorination by the filling of a closed reactor with undiluted molecular fluorine as reactive gas. Electrochemical performances of the resulting materials are compared highlighting significant improvement using the static method. The discharge potential increases from 2.27 V (vs. Li+/Li°) for materials obtained by the direct route to a medium 2.40 V by the static route resulting from a two steps discharge mechanism. Owing to a complete characterization of each fluorinated materials by X-ray diffraction (XRD), solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the increased average potential of fluorinated sample through the static way has been explained by the peculiar distribution of fluorine and carbon sites in the nanomaterial. Then, in order to understand the two steps discharge mechanism of the latter material, its discharge mechanism through galvanostatic measurements at different depths of discharge has been investigated in different electrolytes. The discharged materials have been studied owing to 19F MAS NMR, XRD and scanning electron microscopy characterizations. The texture and cristallinity of lithium fluoride particles are key parameters acting on the ionic diffusion of Li+ and F? ions and as a consequence on the electrochemical performances. Its high solubility in EC/PC/3DMC solvent mixture prevents from overvoltage phenomenon occurring during the discharge of fluorinated carbon nanofibers in primary lithium battery

  13. Influence of copper content on the electrocatalytic activity toward methanol oxidation of Co?Cuy alloy nanoparticles-decorated CNFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghouri, Zafar Khan; Barakat, Nasser A. M.; Kim, Hak Yong

    2015-11-01

    In this study, CoCu alloy nanoparticles-incorporated carbon nanofibers are introduced as effective non precious electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation in alkaline medium. The introduced electrocatalyst has been synthesized by simple and effective process; electrospinning. Typically, calcination, in nitrogen atmosphere, of electrospun nanofibers composed of cobalt acetate, copper acetate and poly (vinyl alcohol) leads to form carbon nanofibers decorated by CoCu nanoparticles. The nanofibrous morphology and alloy structure have been confirmed by SEM, TEM and XRD analyses. Investigation of the electrocatalytic activity indicates that copper content has strong influence, the alloy nanoparticles having the composition Cu5%Co95% showed distinct high performance; 100 times higher than other formulations. Overall, the introduced study revealed the veil about the distinct role of copper in enhancing the electrocatalytic activity of cobalt-based materials.

  14. Influence of copper content on the electrocatalytic activity toward methanol oxidation of Co?Cuy alloy nanoparticles-decorated CNFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghouri, Zafar Khan; Barakat, Nasser A. M.; Kim, Hak Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, CoCu alloy nanoparticles-incorporated carbon nanofibers are introduced as effective non precious electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation in alkaline medium. The introduced electrocatalyst has been synthesized by simple and effective process; electrospinning. Typically, calcination, in nitrogen atmosphere, of electrospun nanofibers composed of cobalt acetate, copper acetate and poly (vinyl alcohol) leads to form carbon nanofibers decorated by CoCu nanoparticles. The nanofibrous morphology and alloy structure have been confirmed by SEM, TEM and XRD analyses. Investigation of the electrocatalytic activity indicates that copper content has strong influence, the alloy nanoparticles having the composition Cu5%Co95% showed distinct high performance; 100 times higher than other formulations. Overall, the introduced study revealed the veil about the distinct role of copper in enhancing the electrocatalytic activity of cobalt-based materials. PMID:26568442

  15. High power direct methanol fuel cell with a porous carbon nanofiber anode layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This study demonstrates a novel porous carbon nanofiber anode (PNCF) layer. • PNFC anode layer DMFC presents power density of 23.0 mW cm?2. • This unit operates at room temperature and consumes low concentration of methanol. - Abstract: Three anode electrodes containing Pt–Ru Black as a catalyst were fabricated with a porous layer made with different carbon materials: carbon black (CB), carbon nanofiber (CNF) and a combination of both carbon materials (CB + CNF). The carbon-based porous layer was coated onto a carbon cloth with PTFE pre-treatment for delivering hydrophobic properties and applied in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Characterisation of electrochemical properties for three different anode electrodes was performed with cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) at room temperature in a half-cell configuration. The evolution of the surface morphology of diffusion layer and electrodes was characterised by using variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). The electrochemical results indicate that electrode with CNF layer showed the highest current densities compared to CB and CB + CNF with the same catalyst loading. VP-SEM measurements show the network formation within the structure, which could facilitate the methanol mass transfer and improve the catalyst efficiency. The electrodes were applied to a single-cell DMFC, and the cell performance was experimentally investigated under passive operating mode and room temperature. A maximum power density of 23.0 mW cm?2 at a current density of 88.0 mA cm?2 with a 3 M dilute methanol solution was achieved. The results show that the electrodes with a CNF layer could improve the performance of DMFC as compared with commercially used CB and prove it’s potentially application in DMFC technology especially for portable power source applications due to several advantages as followings: operating at low concentration of methanol, operating at room temperature, low catalyst loading in anode and cathode, cheaper, less hazardous and no parasitic load

  16. Effects of carbon nanoparticles on properties of thermoset polymer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movva, Siva Subramanyam

    Polymer nanocomposites are novel materials in which at least one of the dimensions of the reinforcing material is on the order of 100 nm or less. While thermoplastic nanocomposites have been studied very widely, there are fewer studies concerning the effect of nanoparticles on thermoset systems. Low temperature cure thermoset systems are very important for many important applications. In this study, the processing, mechanical and thermal properties and reaction kinetics of carbon nanofiber (CNF) and/or carbon nanotubes (CNT) reinforced low temperature vinyl ester and epoxy nanocomposites were studied. In the first part, the processing challenge of incorporating CNFs into conventional fiber reinforced composites made by Vacuum infusion resin transfer molding (VARTM) was addressed by a new technique. The CNFs are pre-bound on the long fiber mats, instead of mixing them in the polymer resin, thereby eliminating several processing drawbacks. The resulting hybrid nanocomposites showed significant improvements in tensile, flexural and thermal properties. The effect of CNFs on the mold filling in VARTM was also studied and shown to follow the Darcy's law. In the second part, the effect of CNFs on the low temperature cure kinetics of vinyl ester and epoxy resins is studied using a thermal analysis technique, namely Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The effect of CNFs on the free radical polymerization of vinyl esters was found to be very complex as the CNFs interact with the various curing ingredients in the formulation. Specifically, the interaction effects of CNFs and the inhibitor were studied and a reaction mechanism was proposed to explain the observed phenomenon. The effect of surface modification of the carbon nanoparticles on the cure kinetics of wind-blade epoxy was studied. The surface functionalization reduced the activation energy of the epoxy reaction and was found to have an acceleration effect on the cure kinetics of epoxy resin at room temperature. In the final part, the preparation, properties and characterization of a thin film of carbon nanoparticles, also called a "nanopaper" was studied. Specifically, a new layer-by-layer multiparticle nanopaper was prepared and this layer-by-layer approach improved the mechanical properties of the stand alone nanopaper. The cure kinetics of epoxy resin in the presence of unmodified CNF paper and polyethyleneimine modified CNF paper were studied and modeled using an autocatalytic model. The nanopaper was also used as a functional coating in conventional fiber reinforced epoxy composites and improved several properties such as abrasion resistance and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness.

  17. Mechanisms for catalytic carbon nanofiber growth studied by ab initio density functional theory calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abild-Pedersen, Frank; NØrskov, Jens Kehlet

    2006-01-01

    Mechanisms and energetics of graphene growth catalyzed by nickel nanoclusters were studied using ab initio density functional theory calculations. It is demonstrated that nickel step-edge sites act as the preferential growth centers for graphene layers on the nickel surface. Carbon is transported from the deposition site at the free nickel surface to the perimeter of the growing graphene layer via surface or subsurface diffusion. Three different processes are identified to govern the growth of graphene layers, depending on the termination of the graphene perimeter at the nickel surface, and it is argued how these processes may lead to different nanofiber structures. The proposed growth model is found to be in good agreement with previous findings.

  18. Electrochemical behavior of activated carbon nanofiber-vanadium pentoxide composites for double-layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesopore-enriched activated carbon nanofiber (ACNF) mats are produced by incorporating vanadium(V) oxide (V2O5) into polyacrylonitrile (PAN) via electrospinning, and their electrochemical properties are investigated as an electrode in supercapacitors. The microstructures of the ACNFs (e.g., nanometer-size diameter, high specific surface area, narrow pore size distribution, and tunable porosity) are changed, and the textural parameters are found to affect the electrochemical properties significantly through the different V2O5 loadings and activation process. The V2O5/PAN-based ACNF electrodes with well-balanced micro/mesoporosity having an optimal pore range for effective double layer formation in an organic medium are expected to be useful electrode materials for supercapacitor applications

  19. Self-sensing of carbon nanofiber concrete columns subjected to reversed cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civil infrastructures are generally a country's most expensive investment, and concrete is the most widely used material in the construction of civil infrastructures. During a structure's service life, concrete ages and deteriorates, leading to substantial loss of structural integrity and potentially resulting in catastrophic disasters such as highway bridge collapses. A solution for preventing such occurrences is the use of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for concrete structures containing carbon nanofibers (CNF). CNF concrete has many structural benefits. CNF restricts the growth of nanocracks in addition to yielding higher strength and ductility. Additionally, test results indicate a relationship between electrical resistance and concrete strain, which can be well utilized for SHM. A series of reinforced concrete (RC) columns were built and tested under a reversed cyclic loading using CNF as a SHM device. The SHM device detected and assessed the level of damage in the RC columns, providing a real-time health monitoring system for the structure's overall integrity

  20. The strain sensing property of carbon nanofiber/glass microballoon epoxy nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports the strain sensing property of a nanocomposite made from a free standing multi-scale structure that consisted of glass microballoons and carbon nanofibers. An epoxy system was infiltrated into the structure in order to fabricate a nanocomposite sensor. The electrical resistance of the sensor when subjected to a tensile strain was investigated. The change in electrical resistance of the sensor versus the applied strain was found to have linear and non-linear regions. In the linear region, the sensor exhibited a similar sensitivity to conventional resistance-type strain gages. A single equation that relates the change in electrical resistance to the applied strain for the linear and non-linear regions was developed. (paper)

  1. Surface-Initiated Graft Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate from Chitin Nanofiber Macroinitiator under Dispersion Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Endo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Surface-initiated graft atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP of methyl methacrylate (MMA from self-assembled chitin nanofibers (CNFs was performed under dispersion conditions. Self-assembled CNFs were initially prepared by regeneration from a chitin ion gel with 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide using methanol; the product was then converted into the chitin nanofiber macroinitiator by reaction with ?-bromoisobutyryl bromide in a dispersion containing N,N-dimethylformamide. Surface-initiated graft ATRP of MMA from the initiating sites on the CNFs was subsequently carried out under dispersion conditions, followed by filtration to obtain the CNF-graft-polyMMA film. Analysis of the product confirmed the occurrence of the graft ATRP on the surface of the CNFs.

  2. Durability of Carbon Nanofiber (CNF) & Carbon Nanotube (CNT) as Catalyst Support for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Borghei, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Durability issues have recently been given much attention in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) research. It gives fundamental definition for cell life time, capital cost, system stability and technique reliability. Loss of catalyst surface area due to corrosion of supporting material (normally carbon black) is one of the essential degradation mechanisms during cell operation. In this work, durability of Carbon Nanofibers (CNF) & Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) as alternative platinum catalyst supports for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) was assessed. Platinized CNF and CNT using a standard polyol method were prepared and fabricated as cathodes of Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEA) for PEMFC. Both the catalysts as such and the MEAs made out of them were evaluated regarding to thermal and electrochemical stability using traditional carbon black (Vulcan XC72) as a reference. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), cyclic voltammetry (CV), polarization curve and impedance spectroscopy were applied on the samples under accelerated stress conditions. The carbon nano-materials demonstrated better stability as support for nano-sized platinum catalyst under PEMFC related operating conditions. Due to different morphology of the nano carbons compared to Vulcan XC 72 the electrode structures may still need optimization to improve overall cell performance.

  3. A feasibility study of self-heating concrete utilizing carbon nanofiber heating elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the development of an electric, self-heating concrete system that uses embedded carbon nanofiber paper as electric resistance heating elements. The proposed system utilizes the conductive properties of carbon fiber materials to heat a surface overlay of concrete with various admixtures to improve the concrete's thermal conductivity. The development and laboratory scale testing of the system were conducted for the various compositions of concrete containing, separately, carbon fiber, fly ash, and steel shavings as admixtures. The heating performances of these concrete mixtures with the carbon fiber heating element were experimentally obtained in a sub-freezing ambient environment in order to explore the use of such a system for deicing of concrete roadways. Analysis of electric power consumption, heating rate, and obtainable concrete surface temperatures under typical power loads was performed to evaluate the viability of a large scale implementation of the proposed heating system for roadway deicing applications. A cost analysis is presented to provide a comparison with traditional deicing methods, such as salting, and other integrated concrete heating systems. (technical note)

  4. A nucleation and growth model of vertically-oriented carbon nanofibers or nanotubes by plasma-enhanced catalytic chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocaru, C S; Senger, A; Le Normand, F

    2006-05-01

    Carbon nanofibers are grown by direct current and hot filaments-activated catalytic chemical vapor deposition while varying the power of the hot filaments. Observations of these carbon nanofibers vertically oriented on a SiO2 (8 nm thick)/Si(100) substrate covered with Co nanoparticles (10-15 nm particle size) by Scanning Electron and Transmission Electron Microscopies show the presence of a graphitic "nest" either on the surface of the substrate or at the end of the specific nanofiber that does not encapsulate the catalytic particle. Strictly in our conditions, the activation by hot filaments is required to grow nanofibers with a C2H2 - H2 gas mixture, as large amounts of amorphous carbon cover the surface of the substrate without using hot filaments. From these observations as well as data of the literature, it is proposed that the nucleation of carbon nanofibers occurs through a complex process involving several steps: carbon concentration gradient starting from the catalytic carbon decomposition and diffusion from the surface of the catalytic nanoparticles exposed to the activated gas and promoted by energetic ionic species of the gas phase; subsequent graphitic condensation of a "nest" at the interface of the Co particle and substrate. The large concentration of highly reactive hydrogen radicals mainly provided by activation with hot filaments precludes further spreading out of this interfacial carbon nest over the entire surface of the substrate and thus selectively orientates the growth towards the condensation of graphene over facets that are perpendicular to the surface. Carbon nanofibers can then be grown within the well-known Vapor-Liquid-Solid process. Thus the effect of energetic ions and highly reactive neutrals like atomic hydrogen in the preferential etching of carbon on the edge of graphene shells and on the broadening of the carbon nanofiber is underlined. PMID:16792361

  5. Nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanofiber webs/sulfur composites as cathode materials for lithium-sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanofiber webs-sulfur composites (N-CNFWs/S) were synthesized for the first time with sulfur (S) encapsulated into nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanofiber webs (N-CNFWs) via a modified oxidative template route, carbonization-activation and thermal treatment. The composites were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetry (TG) measurements. The results show that sulfur is well dispersed and immobilized homogeneously in the micropores of nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanofiber webs (N-CNFWs) with high electrical conductivity, surface area and large pore volume. The electrochemical tests show that the N-CNFWs/S composites with 60 wt. % of S have a high initial discharge capacity of 1564 mA h g−1, a good cycling stability at the current density of 175 mA g−1, and excellent rate capability (reversible discharging capacity of above 400 mA h g−1 at 1600 mA g−1)

  6. Pre-hydrolysed ethyl silicate as an alternative precursor for SiO{sub 2}-coated carbon nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrena, M.I., E-mail: ibarrena@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Av. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gomez de Salazar, J.M.; Soria, A.; Matesanz, L. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Av. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    This work reported basically aims at understanding the extent of SiO{sub 2}-coated carbon nanofibers using two different sol-gel precursors for the silicate glass. The silicate precursors employed were tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and pre-hydrolysed ethyl silicate. The first route consisted in an acid hydrolysis and polycondensation of the TEOS and the second one in a polycondensation of the pre-hydrolysed ethyl silicate. The techniques of Fourier Infra Red spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the materials obtained. Both kinds of SiO{sub 2} precursor can coat the CNF effectively. However, the use of pre-hydrolysed ethyl silicate (faster gelation times and higher surface areas) can be considered a low-cost and facile alternative with respect to the use of TEOS, to obtain industrially silica-coated carbon nanofibers.

  7. Pre-hydrolysed ethyl silicate as an alternative precursor for SiO2-coated carbon nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reported basically aims at understanding the extent of SiO2-coated carbon nanofibers using two different sol-gel precursors for the silicate glass. The silicate precursors employed were tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and pre-hydrolysed ethyl silicate. The first route consisted in an acid hydrolysis and polycondensation of the TEOS and the second one in a polycondensation of the pre-hydrolysed ethyl silicate. The techniques of Fourier Infra Red spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the materials obtained. Both kinds of SiO2 precursor can coat the CNF effectively. However, the use of pre-hydrolysed ethyl silicate (faster gelation times and higher surface areas) can be considered a low-cost and facile alternative with respect to the use of TEOS, to obtain industrially silica-coated carbon nanofibers.

  8. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Ni-Based Nanoparticles and Patterning for Carbon Nanofiber Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarac, Mehmet Fahri

    This dissertation reviews a comprehensive set of research results comprised of three studies, which includes the synthesis of nickel (Ni) nanoparticles (NPs) and their conversion chemistry, methods for depositing them onto substrates, and catalysis of carbon nanofiber growth. The first part of the work is concerned with the synthesis of Ni NPs, dropcasting and growing them in alignment with carbon nanofibers along a silicon (Si) substrate. Following observed success of this step, Ni NPs were airbrushed across different substrates, attempting to observe differences while reporting the results of an extensive comparative analysis of the different substrates used. Here, it was observed that the Ni NPs had a tendency to have dendritic rather than spherical shapes, motivating an additional study of the cause of branching and how it can be controlled. All three portions of this study are presented and discussed in detail. In the first set of experiments, vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) were created through ligand-stabilized Ni nanoparticle (NP) catalysts and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition; these NPs were used to allow growth of VACNFs in dense arrays. In the pregrowth heating process, the ligands are converted into graphitic shells that prevent agglomeration and coalescence of the catalyst NPs, resulting in a monodisperse VACNF size distribution. Meanwhile, VACNFs were grown from Ni NPs that had been airbrushed onto various substrates (silicon (Si), aluminum (Al), copper (Cu), and titanium (Ti)). Si micropowder was also used as a precursor for Si coatings formed in situ on VACNFs, causing rigidity. Growth of VACNFs on metal foils will facilitate applications that require thermal or electrical contact to the VACNFs, such as anode materials for Li-ion batteries and thermal interface materials. A related study focused on the synthesis of Ni3C1-x NPs, the control of branching in dendritic Ni3C1-x NPs and the effect of branching on the conversion into nickel phosphide were investigated. Ni3C1-x NPs were synthesized through thermolysis of nickel acetylacetonate, with oleylamine as a reducing agent and 1-octadecene (ODE) as the solvent. Trioctylephosphine (TOP) was added as ligand and inhibited the formation of dendritic shapes, as well as inhibiting the incorporation of carbon. This was found to create Ni NPs which were spherical, while comparable findings have been observed from the use of octadecane (ODA) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as solvents, but these have been observed to have fewer, larger branches than when using ODE, while producing Ni rather than Ni3C 1-x NPs at 230 °C. Incorporating carbon from TOPO or ODA in Ni NPs required higher temperatures, while conversion of the dendritic NPs through this approach led to several voids in branches (rather than larger single voids for the spherical NPs). These studies have generated important knowledge about the synthesis of Ni-based NPs and of their catalysis of VACNF growth. We have shown that ligands encapsulating Ni NPs have a critical role in preventing the NPs from agglomerating during the growth of VACNFs, giving a monodisperse VACNF diameter distribution. The ligands were converted into protective graphitic shells, but if the ligands are intentionally removed after deposition onto the substrate but before initiating VACNF growth, then a polydisperse VACNF diameter distribution are obtained, with a larger average diameter. We have also demonstrated VACNF growth on several metal substrates, where addition of Si micropowder allows the growth of Si-enriched coatings that make the VACNFs mechanically rigid. Recommendations for ongoing research include investigating the conversion chemistry of Ni NPs into nickel chalcogenides or other transition bimetallic NPs and to explore application for nanomaterials in catalysis, plasmonics, electronics, and medicine.

  9. Early Combination of Material Characteristics and Toxicology Is Useful in the Design of Low Toxicity Carbon Nanofiber

    OpenAIRE

    Tore Syversen; Calin D. Marioara; Nygaard, Unni C; Ellen K. Jensen; Sten Y. Larsen

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for the early combination of material characterization and toxicology testing in order to design carbon nanofiber (CNF) with low toxicity. The aim was to investigate how the adjustment of production parameters and purification procedures can result in a CNF product with low toxicity. Different CNF batches from a pilot plant were characterized with respect to physical properties (chemical composition, specific surface area, morphology, surface chemistry) as wel...

  10. Fabrication of Homogeneous Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube/ Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) Composite Nanofibers for Microwave Absorption Application

    OpenAIRE

    Shoushtari A.M.; Salimbeygi G.; Nasouri K.; Haji A.

    2013-01-01

    Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) / sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) / multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) camposite nanofibers with various MWCNT contents (up to 10 wt%) were fabricated by electrospinning process and their microwave absorption properties were evaluated by a vector network analyzer in the frequency range of 8 – 12 GHz (X-band) at room temperature. The uniform, stable dispersion and well oriented MWCNT within the PVA matrix were achieved through using SDS as dispersing agent. The SEM a...

  11. Nitrogen Functionalization of CNFs and Application in Heterogeneous Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Arrigo, Rosa

    2009-01-01

    The need to develop highly selective and active heterogeneous catalysts has lead to search for new synthetic strategies which mimic the highly specific chemical structure encountered in bio-systems. For instance, the high coordinative capability of porphyrin-like structures can be exploited in the preparation of highly dispersed supported metal catalysts. Due to their incomparable feasibility towards chemical functionalization, nanostructured carbons represent an ideal organic substrate whose...

  12. Mechanical, thermal and morphological characterization of polycarbonate/oxidized carbon nanofiber composites produced with a lean 2-step manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lively, Brooks; Kumar, Sandeep; Tian, Liu; Li, Bin; Zhong, Wei-Hong

    2011-05-01

    In this study we report the advantages of a 2-step method that incorporates an additional process pre-conditioning step for rapid and precise blending of the constituents prior to the commonly used melt compounding method for preparing polycarbonate/oxidized carbon nanofiber composites. This additional step (equivalent to a manufacturing cell) involves the formation of a highly concentrated solid nano-nectar of polycarbonate/carbon nanofiber composite using a solution mixing process followed by melt mixing with pure polycarbonate. This combined method yields excellent dispersion and improved mechanical and thermal properties as compared to the 1-step melt mixing method. The test results indicated that inclusion of carbon nanofibers into composites via the 2-step method resulted in dramatically reduced ( 48% lower) coefficient of thermal expansion compared to that of pure polycarbonate and 30% lower than that from the 1-step processing, at the same loading of 1.0 wt%. Improvements were also found in dynamic mechanical analysis and flexural mechanical properties. The 2-step approach is more precise and leads to better dispersion, higher quality, consistency, and improved performance in critical application areas. It is also consistent with Lean Manufacturing principles in which manufacturing cells are linked together using less of the key resources and creates a smoother production flow. Therefore, this 2-step process can be more attractive for industry. PMID:21780388

  13. Imaging, spectroscopic, mechanical and biocompatibility studies of electrospun Tecoflex{sup ®} EG 80A nanofibers and composites thereof containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macossay, Javier, E-mail: jmacossay@utpa.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas-Pan American, Edinburg TX 78539 (United States); Sheikh, Faheem A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas-Pan American, Edinburg TX 78539 (United States); Nano-Bio Regenerative Medical Institute, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Cantu, Travis; Eubanks, Thomas M.; Salinas, M. Esther; Farhangi, Chakavak S.; Ahmad, Hassan [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas-Pan American, Edinburg TX 78539 (United States); Hassan, M. Shamshi; Khil, Myung-seob [Department of Organic Materials and Fiber Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Maffi, Shivani K. [Regional Academic Health Center-Edinburg (E-RAHC), Medical Research Division, 1214 W. Schunior St, Edinburg TX 78541 (United States); Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, 15355 Lambda Dr. San Antonio TX 78245 (United States); Kim, Hern [Energy and Environment Fusion Technology Center, Department of Energy and Biotechnology, Myongji University, Yongin Kyonggi-do 449-728 (Korea, Republic of); Bowlin, Gary l. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Memphis, Memphis TN 38152 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Highlights: • This work suggested the efficient use of MWCNTs to impart high mechanical properties to nanofibers and while maintaining the toxicity of the materials. • The mechanical properties of the nanofibers can be improved by introducing 2% of MWCNTs, above this point the mechanical property is reduced in nanofibers fabricated from Tecoflex{sup ®} EG 80A. • The presence of MWCNTs in the nanofibers reflecting the successful electrospining event can be ascertained by FT-IR, Raman, and TEM. • The nanofibers obtained while introducing MWCNTs represent no toxic behavior to cultured fibroblast. - Abstract: The present study discusses the design, development, and characterization of electrospun Tecoflex{sup ®} EG 80A class of polyurethane nanofibers and the incorporation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to these materials. Scanning electron microscopy results confirmed the presence of polymer nanofibers, which showed a decrease in fiber diameter at 0.5% wt. and 1% wt. MWCNTs loadings, while transmission electron microscopy showed evidence of the MWCNTs embedded within the polymer matrix. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to elucidate the polymer-MWCNTs intermolecular interactions, indicating that the C–N and N–H bonds in polyurethanes are responsible for the interactions with MWCNTs. Furthermore, tensile testing indicated an increase in the Young's modulus of the nanofibers as the MWCNTs concentration was increased. Finally, NIH 3T3 fibroblasts were seeded on the obtained nanofibers, demonstrating cell biocompatibility and proliferation. Therefore, the results indicate the successful formation of polyurethane nanofibers with enhanced mechanical properties, and demonstrate their biocompatibility, suggesting their potential application in biomedical areas.

  14. Functional properties of electrospun NiO/RuO{sub 2} composite carbon nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yongzhi [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Physics Department, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrated Science and Engineering, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119260 (Singapore); Balakrishna, Rajiv [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Physics Department, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Reddy, M.V., E-mail: phymvv@nus.edu.sg [Physics Department, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Nair, A. Sreekumaran, E-mail: nniansn@nus.edu.sg [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Chowdari, B.V.R. [Physics Department, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Ramakrishna, S. [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Kind Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication of carbon nanofibers with nickel-ruthenium composites by electrospinning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An interesting observation of increase in capacitance with increase in the number of cycles for supercapacitor applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Li ion battery testing showed a stable capacity ranging from 350 mAh g{sup -1} to 400 mAh g{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lower impedance with the incorporation of 15 wt% Ru precursor than those without Ru. - Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) nickel oxide/ruthenium oxide (NiO/RuO{sub 2})-carbon composite nanofibers (NiRu-C-NFs) were fabricated via electrospinning of a homogenous mixture of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and Ni/Ru salt precursors at different ratios followed by heat treatments. The 1D nanostructures of the composite material were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rietveld refinement and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements. Li-cycling properties were evaluated using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic properties. The asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor studies were carried out with activated carbon as a cathode and NiRu-C-NFs composites as anodes in the cycling range, 0.005-3.0 V using 1 M LiPF{sub 6} (EC;DMC) electrolyte. NiRu-C-NFs fabricated from 5 wt% nickel (II) and 15 wt% ruthenium (III) precursors showed a capacitance up to {approx}60 F g{sup -1} after 30 cycles. Anodic Li-cycling studies of NiRu-C-NF-0 and NiRu-C-NF-2 composite samples showed a reversible capacity of 230 and 350 m Ahg{sup -1} at current rate of 72 mA g{sup -1} at the end of 40th cycle in the voltage range of 0.005-3.0 V. Electrochemical impedance studies (EIS) on NiRu-C-NFs showed lower impedance value for 15 wt% Ru than the bare sample.

  15. Effect of carbon nanofiber addition in the mechanical properties and durability of cementitious materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galao, O.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on recent work that is directed at studying the changes in the mechanical properties of Portland cement based mortars due to the addition of carbon nanofiber (CNF. Both flexural and compression strength has been determined and related to the CNF addition to the mix, to the curing time and to the porosity and density of the matrix. Also, corrosion of embedded steel rebars in CNF cement pastes exposed to carbonation and chloride attacks has been investigated. The increase in CNF addition implies higher corrosion intensity and higher levels of mechanical properties.En este artículo se han estudiado los cambios en las propiedades mecánicas de los morteros de cemento Portland debido a la adición de nanofibras de carbono (NFC. Se han determinado las resistencias a flexotracción y a compresión de los morteros en relación a la cantidad de NFC añadidas a la mezcla, al tiempo de curado y a la porosidad y densidad de los mismos. Además se han investigado los niveles de corrosión de barras de acero embebidas en pastas de cemento con NFC expuestos al ataque por carbonatación y por ingreso de cloruros. El aumento en el porcentaje de NFC añadido se traduce en un aumento la intensidad de corrosión registrada y una mejora de las propiedades mecánicas.

  16. Leidenfrost temperature increase for impacting droplets on carbon-nanofiber surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Nair, Hrudya; Tran, Tuan; van Houselt, Arie; Prosperetti, Andrea; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Droplets impacting on a superheated surface can either exhibit a contact boiling regime, in which they make direct contact with the surface and boil violently, or a film boiling regime, in which they remain separated from the surface by their own vapor. The transition from the contact to the film boiling regime depends not only on the temperature of the surface and kinetic energy of the droplet, but also on the size of the structures fabricated on the surface. Here we experimentally show that surfaces covered with carbon-nanofibers delay the transition to film boiling to much higher temperature compared to smooth surfaces. We present physical arguments showing that, because of the small scale of the carbon fibers, they are cooled by the vapor flow just before the liquid impact, thus permitting contact boiling up to much higher temperatures than on smooth surfaces. We also show that, as long as the impact is in the film boiling regime, the spreading factor of impacting droplets follows the same $\\We^{3/10}$ sc...

  17. Tin Nanodots Encapsulated in Porous Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanofibers as a Free-Standing Anode for Advanced Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongchang; Zhang, Ning; Jiao, Lifang; Chen, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasmall Sn nanodots (1-2 nm) are homogeneously encapsulated in porous N-doped carbon nanofibers using a simple and scalable electrospinning method. The composite nanofibers weave into flexible free-standing membrane and can be directly used as binder- and current collector-free anode for Na-ion batteries, exhibiting excellent electrochemical performance with high reversible capacity, exceptional rate capability, and ultralong cycle life. PMID:26422696

  18. The Optimization of Electrical Conductivity Using Central Composite Design for Polyvinyl Alcohol/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube-Manganese Dioxide Nanofiber Composites Synthesised by Electrospinning

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah; Sharif Hussein Sharif Zein; Mohd Faiz Muaz Ahmad Zamri; Nor Irwin Basir

    2012-01-01

    This research reports the characterization and statistical analysis of electrical conductivity optimization for polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanofiber composite. The Central Composite Design (CCD), the most common design of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) had been used to optimise the synthesis process of PVA/MWCNT-MnO2 nanofiber composite. The process parameters studied were; applied voltage (16 kV - 30 kV), solution flow rate (3- 5 ...

  19. A co-confined carbonization approach to aligned nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon nanofibers and its application as an adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Aibing, E-mail: chen_ab@163.com [College of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Shijiazhuang 050018 (China); Liu, Chao [College of Gemmology and Material Technics, Shijiazhuang University of Economic, Huaian Road 136, Shijiazhuang 050031 (China); Yu, Yifeng; Hu, Yongqi; Lv, Haijun; Zhang, Yue; Shen, Shufeng [College of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Shijiazhuang 050018 (China); Zhang, Jian, E-mail: jzhang@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • MCNFs were synthesized by a co-confined carbonization method. • The diameter size of MCNFs with bimodal mesoporous structure can be modulated. • The obtained MCNFs manifest better adsorption capacity for SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and Cd{sup 2+}. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (MCNFs) with an aligned mesoporous structure were synthesized by a co-confined carbonization method using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as co-confined templates and ionic liquids as the precursor. The as-synthesized MCNFs with the diameter of 80–120 nm possessed a bulk nitrogen content of 5.3 wt% and bimodal mesoporous structure. The nitrogen atoms were mostly bound to the graphitic network in two forms, i.e. pyridinic and pyrrolic nitrogen, providing adsorption sites for acidic gases like SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. Cyclic experiments revealed a considerable stability of MCNFs over 20 runs of SO{sub 2} adsorption and 15 runs for CO{sub 2} adsorption. The MCNFs also have a preferable adsorption performance for Cd{sup 2+}.

  20. Immobilization of CoCl2 (cobalt chloride) on PAN (polyacrylonitrile) composite nanofiber mesh filled with carbon nanotubes for hydrogen production from hydrolysis of NaBH4 (sodium borohydride)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composite nanofiber sheets containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes and cobalt chloride dispersed in PAN (polyacrylonitrile) were produced by an electrospinning technique. The synthesized PAN/CoCl2/CNTs composite nanofiber was used as the catalyst for hydrogen production from the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride. FT-IR characterization showed that the pretreated CNTs possess different organic functional groups which help improve the compatibility between CNTs and PAN organic polymer. SEM (scanning electron microscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray technique) were used to characterize the composite nanofiber and it was found that CNTs can be coaxially dispersed into the PAN nanofiber. During the hydrolysis of NaBH4, this PAN/CoCl2/CNTs composite nanofiber exhibited higher catalytic activity compared to the composite without CNTs doping. Kinetic analysis of NaBH4 hydrolysis shows that the reaction of NaBH4 hydrolysis based on this catalyst can be ascribed to the first-order reaction and the activation energy of the catalyst was approximately 52.857 kJ/mol. Meanwhile, the composite nanofiber catalyst shows excellent stability and reusability in the recycling experiment. - Highlights: • Composite nanofiber sheets were prepared via electrospinning. • PAN (polyacrylonitrile)/CoCl2 (cobalt chloride)/CNTs (carbon nanotubes) nanofiber was used as the catalyst for hydrogen production. • CNTs can be coaxially dispersed into the PAN nanofiber. • PAN/CoCl2/CNTs composite nanofiber exhibited higher catalytic activity. • The composite nanofiber catalyst shows excellent stability and reusability

  1. Dynamic-mechanical and thermomechanical properties of cellulose nanofiber/polyester resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoratti, Alessandra; Scienza, Lisete Cristine; Zattera, Ademir José

    2016-01-20

    Composites of unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) and cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) obtained from dry cellulose waste of softwood (Pinus sp.) and hardwood (Eucalyptus sp.) were developed. The fiber properties and the influence of the CNFs in the dynamic-mechanical and thermomechanical properties of the composites were evaluated. CNFs with a diameter of 70-90 nm were obtained. Eucalyptus sp. has higher ?-cellulose content than Pinus sp. fibers. The crystallinity of the cellulose pulps decreased after grinding. However, high values were still obtained. The chemical composition of the fibers was not significantly altered by the grinding process. Eucalyptus sp. CNF composites had water absorption close to the neat resin at 1 wt% filler. The dynamic-mechanical properties of Eucalyptus sp. CNFs were slightly increased and the thermal stability was improved. PMID:26572434

  2. Holocellulose Nanofibers of High Molar Mass and Small Diameter for High-Strength Nanopaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, Sylvain; Berthold, Fredrik; Prakobna, Kasinee; Berglund, Lars A

    2015-08-10

    Wood cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) based on bleached pulp are different from the cellulose microfibrils in the plant cell wall in terms of larger diameter, lower cellulose molar mass, and modified cellulose topochemistry. Also, CNF isolation often requires high-energy mechanical disintegration. Here, a new type of CNFs is reported based on a mild peracetic acid delignification process for spruce and aspen fibers, followed by low-energy mechanical disintegration. Resulting CNFs are characterized with respect to geometry (AFM, TEM), molar mass (SEC), and polysaccharide composition. Cellulose nanopaper films are prepared by filtration and characterized by UV-vis spectrometry for optical transparency and uniaxial tensile tests. These CNFs are unique in terms of high molar mass and cellulose-hemicellulose core-shell structure. Furthermore, the corresponding nanopaper structures exhibit exceptionally high optical transparency and the highest mechanical properties reported for comparable CNF nanopaper structures. PMID:26151837

  3. Free-Standing Thin Webs of Activated Carbon Nanofibers by Electrospinning for Rechargeable Li-O2 Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Hongjiao; Xu, Chi; Zhou, Wei; Wu, Baoshan; Li, Xianfeng; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Huamin

    2016-01-27

    Free-standing activated carbon nanofibers (ACNF) were prepared through electrospinning combining with CO2 activation and then used for nonaqueous Li-O2 battery cathodes. As-prepared ACNF based cathode was loosely packed with carbon nanofibers complicatedly overlapped. Owing to some micrometer-sized pores between individual nanofibers, relatively high permeability of O2 across the cathode becomes feasible. Meanwhile, the mesopores introduced by CO2 activation act as additional nucleation sites for Li2O2 formation, leading to an increase in the density of Li2O2 particles along with a size decrease of the individual particles, and therefore, flake-like Li2O2 are preferentially formed. In addition, the free-standing structure of ACNF cathode eliminates the side reactions about PVDF. As a result, the Li-O2 batteries with ACNF cathodes showed increased discharge capacities, reduced overpotentials, and longer cycle life in the case of full discharge and charge operation. This provides a novel pathway for the design of cathodes for Li-O2 battery. PMID:26691321

  4. Novel interlayer made from Fe3C/carbon nanofiber webs for high performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Qiu; Zhang, Biao; Xu, Zheng-Long; Abouali, Sara; Akbari Garakani, Mohammad; Huang, Jiaqiang; Kim, Jang-Kyo

    2015-07-01

    A new freestanding Fe3C/carbon nanofiber (CNF) film is developed using a facile one-pot electrospinning method as an interlayer for high performance lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The interlayer placed between the separator and the sulfur cathode plays many synergistic roles, offering (i) a number of macropores within the nanofiber web to facilitate ion transport and electrolyte penetration, (ii) nitrogen-containing functional groups that entrap soluble polysulfides by strong interatomic attraction, and (iii) much enhanced electron/ion transfer due to the high electrical conductivity of the CNF web. The battery delivers an excellent specific discharge capacity of 893 mA h/g after 100 cycles, maintaining 76% of its initial capacity of 1177 mA h/g. These values are among the highest for those reported recently with similar nanocarbon-based interlayers in terms of rate capability and cyclic stability.

  5. Investigating the plasma chemistry for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes/nanofibres in an inductively coupled plasma-enhanced CVD system: the effect of processing parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, M; Bogaerts, A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A parameter study is carried out for an inductively coupled plasma used for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes or carbon nanofibers (CNTs/CNFs), by means of the Hybrid Plasma Equipment Model (HPEM). The influence of processing parameters including gas ratio for four different gas mixtures typically used for CNT/CNF growth (i.e., CH 4 /H 2, CH 4 /NH 3, C 2 H 2 /H 2 and C 2 H 2 /NH 3), ICP power (50~1000W), operating pressure (10mTorr~1Torr), bias power (0~1000W) and temperature of t...

  6. Thermoelectric properties of carbon nanotube and nanofiber based ethylene-octene copolymer composites for thermoelectric devices, Journal of Nanomaterials.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slobodian, P.; ?íha, Pavel; Olejník, J.; Ková?, M.; Svoboda, P.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 2013, August (2013). ISSN 1687-4110 Grant ostatní: TBU Zlin(CZ) iga/ft/2013/018; GA MŠk(CZ) EE.2.3.20.0104; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : CNF * carbon nanotubes * carbon nanofibers * power-factor * nanocomposites * behavior * network Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.611, year: 2013 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2013/792875/

  7. An inner filter effect based sensor of tetracycline hydrochloride as developed by loading photoluminescent carbon nanodots in the electrospun nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min; Zou, Hong Yan; Yang, Tong; Liu, Ze Xi; Liu, Hui; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The inner filter effect (IFE), which results from the absorption of the excitation or emission light by absorbers, has been employed as an alternative approach in sensing systems due to its flexibility and simplicity. In this work, highly photoluminescent carbon nanodots (CDs), which were simply prepared through a new one-step microwave synthesis route, were loaded in electrospun nanofibers, and the obtained nanofibers were then successfully applied to develop a fluorescent IFE-based visual sensor for tetracycline hydrochloride (Tc) sensing in milk. This developed visual sensor has high selectivity owing to the requirements of the spectral overlap between the CDs and Tc, showing high promise in sensing chemistry with an efficient response and economic effect.The inner filter effect (IFE), which results from the absorption of the excitation or emission light by absorbers, has been employed as an alternative approach in sensing systems due to its flexibility and simplicity. In this work, highly photoluminescent carbon nanodots (CDs), which were simply prepared through a new one-step microwave synthesis route, were loaded in electrospun nanofibers, and the obtained nanofibers were then successfully applied to develop a fluorescent IFE-based visual sensor for tetracycline hydrochloride (Tc) sensing in milk. This developed visual sensor has high selectivity owing to the requirements of the spectral overlap between the CDs and Tc, showing high promise in sensing chemistry with an efficient response and economic effect. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section and additional figures (Fig. S1-S9). See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08177g

  8. Preparation of novel carbon microfiber/carbon nanofiber-dispersed polyvinyl alcohol-based nanocomposite material for lithium-ion electrolyte battery separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel nanocomposite polyvinyl alcohol precursor-based material dispersed with the web of carbon microfibers and carbon nanofibers is developed as lithium (Li)-ion electrolyte battery separator. The primary synthesis steps of the separator material consist of esterification of polyvinyl acetate to produce polyvinyl alcohol gel, ball-milling of the surfactant dispersed carbon micro-nanofibers, mixing of the milled micron size (? 500 nm) fibers to the reactant mixture at the incipience of the polyvinyl alcohol gel formation, and the mixing of hydrophobic reagents along with polyethylene glycol as a plasticizer, to produce a thin film of ? 25 ?m. The produced film, uniformly dispersed with carbon micro-nanofibers, has dramatically improved performance as a battery separator, with the ion conductivity of the electrolytes (LiPF6) saturated film measured as 0.119 S-cm?1, approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that of polyvinyl alcohol. The other primary characteristics of the produced film, such as tensile strength, contact angle, and thermal stability, are also found to be superior to the materials made of other precursors, including polypropylene and polyethylene, discussed in the literature. The method of producing the films in this study is novel, simple, environmentally benign, and economically viable. Highlights: ? A novel material as a potential Li-ion electrolyte battery separator is synthesized. ? Synthesis steps include esterification of polyvinyl acetate to produce PVA-gel. ? The film is in-situ incorporated (dispersed) with carbon micro and nanofibers. ? The produced film has improved performance as a battery separator

  9. Preparation of novel carbon microfiber/carbon nanofiber-dispersed polyvinyl alcohol-based nanocomposite material for lithium-ion electrolyte battery separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ajit K.; Khare, Prateek [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Singh, Jayant K., E-mail: jayantks@iitk.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Verma, Nishith, E-mail: nishith@iitk.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Center for Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2013-04-01

    A novel nanocomposite polyvinyl alcohol precursor-based material dispersed with the web of carbon microfibers and carbon nanofibers is developed as lithium (Li)-ion electrolyte battery separator. The primary synthesis steps of the separator material consist of esterification of polyvinyl acetate to produce polyvinyl alcohol gel, ball-milling of the surfactant dispersed carbon micro-nanofibers, mixing of the milled micron size (? 500 nm) fibers to the reactant mixture at the incipience of the polyvinyl alcohol gel formation, and the mixing of hydrophobic reagents along with polyethylene glycol as a plasticizer, to produce a thin film of ? 25 ?m. The produced film, uniformly dispersed with carbon micro-nanofibers, has dramatically improved performance as a battery separator, with the ion conductivity of the electrolytes (LiPF{sub 6}) saturated film measured as 0.119 S-cm{sup ?1}, approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that of polyvinyl alcohol. The other primary characteristics of the produced film, such as tensile strength, contact angle, and thermal stability, are also found to be superior to the materials made of other precursors, including polypropylene and polyethylene, discussed in the literature. The method of producing the films in this study is novel, simple, environmentally benign, and economically viable. Highlights: ? A novel material as a potential Li-ion electrolyte battery separator is synthesized. ? Synthesis steps include esterification of polyvinyl acetate to produce PVA-gel. ? The film is in-situ incorporated (dispersed) with carbon micro and nanofibers. ? The produced film has improved performance as a battery separator.

  10. Preparation of novel carbon microfiber/carbon nanofiber-dispersed polyvinyl alcohol-based nanocomposite material for lithium-ion electrolyte battery separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajit K; Khare, Prateek; Singh, Jayant K; Verma, Nishith

    2013-04-01

    A novel nanocomposite polyvinyl alcohol precursor-based material dispersed with the web of carbon microfibers and carbon nanofibers is developed as lithium (Li)-ion electrolyte battery separator. The primary synthesis steps of the separator material consist of esterification of polyvinyl acetate to produce polyvinyl alcohol gel, ball-milling of the surfactant dispersed carbon micro-nanofibers, mixing of the milled micron size (~500 nm) fibers to the reactant mixture at the incipience of the polyvinyl alcohol gel formation, and the mixing of hydrophobic reagents along with polyethylene glycol as a plasticizer, to produce a thin film of ~25 ?m. The produced film, uniformly dispersed with carbon micro-nanofibers, has dramatically improved performance as a battery separator, with the ion conductivity of the electrolytes (LiPF6) saturated film measured as 0.119 S-cm(-1), approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that of polyvinyl alcohol. The other primary characteristics of the produced film, such as tensile strength, contact angle, and thermal stability, are also found to be superior to the materials made of other precursors, including polypropylene and polyethylene, discussed in the literature. The method of producing the films in this study is novel, simple, environmentally benign, and economically viable. PMID:23827627

  11. Hierarchically mesoporous CuO/carbon nanofiber coaxial shell-core nanowires for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seok-Hwan; Lee, Wan-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchically mesoporous CuO/carbon nanofiber coaxial shell-core nanowires (CuO/CNF) as anodes for lithium ion batteries were prepared by coating the Cu2(NO3)(OH)3 on the surface of conductive and elastic CNF via electrophoretic deposition (EPD), followed by thermal treatment in air. The CuO shell stacked with nanoparticles grows radially toward the CNF core, which forms hierarchically mesoporous three-dimensional (3D) coaxial shell-core structure with abundant inner spaces in nanoparticle-stacked CuO shell. The CuO shells with abundant inner spaces on the surface of CNF and high conductivity of 1D CNF increase mainly electrochemical rate capability. The CNF core with elasticity plays an important role in strongly suppressing radial volume expansion by inelastic CuO shell by offering the buffering effect. The CuO/CNF nanowires deliver an initial capacity of 1150?mAh?g(-1) at 100?mA?g(-1) and maintain a high reversible capacity of 772?mAh?g(-1) without showing obvious decay after 50?cycles. PMID:25944615

  12. Size-selectivity and anomalous subdiffusion of nanoparticles through carbon nanofiber-based membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simulation is presented here that serves the dual functions of generating a nanoporous membrane replica and executing the Brownian motion of nanoparticles through the virtual membrane. Specifically, the concentration profile of a dilute solution of fluorescent particles in a stochastic and SiO2-coated carbon nanofiber (oxCNF), nanoporous membrane was simulated. The quality of the simulated profile was determined by comparing the results with experimental concentration profiles. The experimental concentration profiles were collected adjacent to the oxCNF membrane surface from time-lapse fluorescence microscopy images. The simulation proved ideal as an accurate predictor of particle diffusion-the simulated concentration profile merged with the experimental profiles at the inlet/exit surfaces of the oxCNF membrane. In particular, the oxCNF barrier was found to hinder the transport of 50 and 100 nm particles and transmembrane trajectories were indicative of anomalous subdiffusion; the diffusion coefficient was found to be a function of time and space

  13. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of carbon nanofiber-cobalt oxide composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF) supported cobalt oxide composites as high-capacity anode materials were prepared through a facile, effective method for potential use in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. The effects of the calcining temperature on the crystallinity, grain size, specific surface area of Co3O4 and phase transformation from Co3O4 to CoO were studied in detail. Both the specific surface area and CNF content in CNF-cobalt oxide composites strongly affect the electrochemical performance of these series composites. The CNF-Co3O4 composite with 24.3% CNF pyrolyzed at 500 deg. C in Ar shows an excellent cycling performance, retaining a specific capacity of 881 mAh g-1 beyond 100 cycles. Homogeneous deposition and distribution of nanosized Co3O4 particles on the surface of CNF can stabilize the electronic and ionic conductivity as well as the morphology of Co3O4 phase, which may be the main reason for the markedly improved electrochemical performance

  14. Dielectric properties and conductivity of carbon nanofiber/semi-crystalline polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of semi-crystalline polymer nanocomposites are affected by the nanofillers directly and indirectly, as two phases, i.e., crystalline and amorphous, exist in the polymer. The effects of nanofillers on the two phases could be competitive. The dielectric properties and conductivity of carbon nanofibers (CNF)/semi-crystalline polymer nanocomposites are studied in this paper. CNF/polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites are prepared in experiment by melt blending. The resulting morphology and crystalline structure are characterized by means of differential scanning calorimetry, wide angle X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The PP nanocomposite containing 5 wt.% CNF exhibits a surprisingly high dielectric constant under wide sweep frequencies attended by low dielectric loss. Its dielectric constant is >600 under lower frequency, and remains >200 at a frequency of 4000 Hz. The electrical and thermal conductivities of the nanocomposites are studied, and enhancements are seen with increased CNF content. Theoretical analyses on the physical properties are carried out by applying the existing models. Research results indicate that a common commercial plastic with good comprehensive performance, which exhibited the potential for applications in advanced electronics, was obtained by a simple industry benign technique

  15. A three-dimensionally chitin nanofiber/carbon nanotube hydrogel network for foldable conductive paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuchu; Yang, Chuang; Li, Suiyi; Li, Dagang

    2015-12-10

    We reported a highly conductive nanocomposite made with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and chitin nanofibers (ChNFs). The MWCNTs were dispersed into ChNFs by the simple process of vacuum-filtration, forming a three-dimensional network structure. In this approach, MWCNT acted as a filler to introduce electron channel paths throughout the ChNF skeleton. And then, a hybrid hydrogel system (20wt.% NaOH, -18°C) was applied to prepare the ChNF/MWCNT gel-film followed with drying process. It is found that the resultant ChNF/MWCNT gel-film exposed much more MWCNT areas forming denser structure due to the shrinking of ChNFs after the gelation treatment. Compared with ChNF/MWCNT film, the one treated under hydrogel system (ChNF/MWCNT gel-film) exhibited almost twice higher conductivity (9.3S/cm for 50wt.% MWCNTs in gel-film; whereas 4.7S/cm for 50wt.% MWCNTs in film). Moreover, the facile and low-cost of this conductive paper may have great potential in development of foldable electronic devices. PMID:26428129

  16. Polyaniline/carbon nanofiber and organic charge transfer complex based composite electrode for electroanalytical urea detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Gautam; Yoon, Hyon Hee

    2015-06-01

    A composite electrode based on polyaniline coated modified carbon nanofiber (PANI-mCNF), tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) and urease (Ur) enzyme was evaluated as biosensor for urea detection. Homogeneous coating of PANI on the surface of mCNF was achieved by oxidative polymerization of anilium ion. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were used to analyze the structural and morphological characteristics of PANI-mCNF nanocomposite. The biosensor showed excellent electroactivity in neutral and basic medium. A linear response to urea in the concentration range of 0.5-8.4 mM with a correlation coefficient of 0.998, good sensitivity (2.84 µA cm-2 mM-1) and a fast response time (ca. 4 s) was obtained for the biosensor. The minimum detection limit was found to be 3 µM. The biosensor was stable and showed minimal loss in sensitivity, even after two months of storage. The amalgamation of the PANI and CNF synergistically enhances the performance of the biosensor for electroanalytical detection of urea.

  17. Novel carbon nanofiber-cobalt oxide composites for lithium storage with large capacity and high reversibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Wen-Li; Wang, Jiu-Lin; Yang, Jun; Du, Guo-Dong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2008-01-21

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF)-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composites were prepared by the calcination of CNF-Co(OH){sub 2} composite precursors under argon atmosphere. SEM and TEM observations revealed that Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles in the size of ca. 30-50 nm were highly dispersed and attached on the surface of the reticular CNF and all around. As for electrode materials, the CNF-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite demonstrated very high reversible capacity (more than 900 mAh g{sup -1} in the initial 50 cycles) and excellent electrochemical cycling stability. The improved cycle performance of the CNF-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite can be attributed to its unique reticular and morphology-stable composite texture with high dispersion of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles on the CNF that provides excellent electronic and ionic conduction pathway for the electrochemical processes. (author)

  18. One-dimensionality of phonon transport in cup-stacked carbon nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We treat the ballistic heat conduction of cup-stacked carbon nanofibers (CSCNF) by a nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. The CSCNF consist of numerous tiny graphene cups linked in line by weak intermolecular forces. The simulation results show that the thermal conductivity varies with the fiber length in a power law fashion with an exponent as large as 0.7. The calculated phonon density of states revealed that a low frequency oscillation in the radial and axial directions dominates the heat conduction in CSCNF. The atomic motions indicate that these low frequency oscillations are quasi-one-dimensional (1D) where each cup moves axially like a rigid body and radially with a breathing motion. This quasi-1D oscillation occurs due to the unique structure of a CSCNF that resembles a 1D harmonic chain. Our investigations show that treating a CSCNF as a 1D chain with three-dimensional oscillations explains why this material has the highest ballistic phonon transport ever observed.

  19. Preparation of Surface Adsorbed and Impregnated Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube/Nylon-6 Nanofiber Composites and Investigation of their Gas Sensing Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, Neeta L.; Thavasi, Velmurugan; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2009-01-01

    We have prepared electrospun Nylon-6 nanofibers via electrospinning, and adsorbed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) onto the surface of Nylon-6 fibers using Triton® X-100 to form a MWCNTs/Nylon-6 nanofiber composite. The dispersed MWCNTs have been found to be stable in hexafluoroisopropanol for several months without precipitation. A MWCNTs/Nylon-6 nanofiber composite based chemical sensor has demonstrated its responsiveness towards a wide range of solvent vapours at room temperature and only mg quantities of MWCNTs were expended. The large surface area and porous nature of the electrospun Nylon-6/MWCNT nanofibers facilitates greater analyte permeability. The experimental analysis has indicated that the dipole moment, functional group and vapour pressure of the analytes determine the magnitude of the responsiveness. PMID:22389589

  20. Preparation of Surface Adsorbed and Impregnated Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube/Nylon-6 Nanofiber Composites and Investigation of their Gas Sensing Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmurugan Thavasi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We have prepared electrospun Nylon-6 nanofibers via electrospinning, and adsorbed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs onto the surface of Nylon-6 fibers using Triton® X-100 to form a MWCNTs/Nylon-6 nanofiber composite. The dispersed MWCNTs have been found to be stable in hexafluoroisopropanol for several months without precipitation. A MWCNTs/Nylon-6 nanofiber composite based chemical sensor has demonstrated its responsiveness towards a wide range of solvent vapours at room temperature and only mg quantities of MWCNTs were expended. The large surface area and porous nature of the electrospun Nylon-6/MWCNT nanofibers facilitates greater analyte permeability. The experimental analysis has indicated that the dipole moment, functional group and vapour pressure of the analytes determine the magnitude of the responsiveness.

  1. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/carbon composite nanofiber absorber with enhanced microwave absorption performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ting [Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Huang, Daqing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Yang, Ying [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kang, Feiyu, E-mail: fykang@tsinghua.edu.cn [Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gu, Jialin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PAN/AAI/DMF solutions for electrospinning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/carbon composite nanofibers as microwave absorbers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microwave absorption performance has been much enhanced than pure carbon naonfibers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microwave absorption mechanisms have been discussed as a key point. - Abstract: Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/carbon composite nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/acetyl acetone iron (AAI)/dimethyl formamide (DMF) solution, followed by stabilization and carbonization. SEM and TEM observations reveal that the fibers are lengthy and uniform, and are loaded with well-distributed Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, which are evidenced by XRD. Electrical and magnetic properties of the samples were studied to show the effect of enhancement of electrical conductivity and magnetic hysteresis performance. Finally, the permittivity and permeability parameters were measured by a vector network analyzer, and the reflectivity loss was calculated based on Transmission Line Theory. Results show that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C composite nanofibers exhibit enhanced properties of microwave absorption as compared to those of pure carbon nanofibers by: decreasing reflectivity loss values; widening absorption width and improving performance in low frequency (2-5 GHz) absorption. Absorption properties can be tuned by changing AAI content, carbonization temperature, composite fiber/paraffin ratio and coating thickness. It is shown that with coating thickness of 5 mm and fiber/paraffin ratio of 5 wt.%, the bandwidth for reflection loss under -5 dB can reach a maximum of 12-13 GHz in the range of 2-18 GHz, accompanying with a minimum reflection loss of -40 to -45 dB, and preferred low frequency band absorption can also be obtained. The mechanisms for the enhanced absorption performance were briefly discussed. It is supposed that this kind of composite material is promising for resolving the problems of weak absorption in the low frequency range and narrow bandwidth absorption.

  2. Optimization of a porous carbon nanofiber layer for the membrane electrode assembly in DMFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nano-materials carbon-based electrodes are able to improve the performance of the electrodes. • Thus, this study is statistically optimizing the preparation of a CNF support for anode. • Finally, this study obtains a high performance DMFC at 21.90 mW cm?2 after the optimization. - Abstract: The performance of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) is strongly influenced by the components in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA), which include a membrane, anode and cathode. The use of nano-materials to improve the performance of fuel cells has attracted the interest of researchers. The incorporation of nano-materials into these carbon-based electrodes is able to improve the performance of the electrodes. The aim of this study is to determine and optimize the parameter effecting the preparation of a nano-structured anode for high power density DMFCs. The two parameters investigated in this study were the Nafion content and the carbon loading. Both the traditional one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) and the response surface methodology (RSM) optimization techniques were used to determine the optimum parameters. The results from the OFAT study indicated that the possible optimum levels for the Nafion content and carbon nanofiber (CNF) loading range from 2.7 to 3.5 mg cm?2 and 2.5 to 3.5 mg cm?2, respectively. A quadratic model was developed based on the RSM results, and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the model provides a good fit to the experimental data. This result indicated that the developed model successfully predicted the response with good accuracy. The maximum power density (response) was predicted and experimentally validated using the optimum composition of a 3.04 mg cm?2 Nafion content and 2.91 mg cm?2 carbon loading. The model validation revealed that the experimental value obtained under the optimum conditions (21.90 mW cm?2) was in good agreement with the values predicted by the model (22.64 mW cm?2)

  3. A facile route for controlled alignment of carbon nanotube-reinforced, electrospun nanofibers using slotted collector plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Rakesh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A facile route for controlled alignment of electrospun multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT-reinforced Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA nanofibers using slotted collector geometries has been realized. The process is based on analytical predictions using electrostatic field analysis for envisaging the extent of alignment of the electrospun fibers on varied collector geometries. Both the experimental and theoretical studies clearly indicate that the introduction of an insulating region into a conductive collector significantly influences the electrostatic forces acting on a charged fiber. Among various collector geometries, rectangular slotted collectors with circular ends showed good fiber alignment over a large collecting area. The electrospun fibers produced by this process were characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Optical Microscopy. Effects of electrospinning time and slot widths on the fiber alignment have been analyzed. PVA-MWCNT nanofibers were found to be conducting in nature owing to the presence of reinforced MWCNTs in PVA matrix. The method can enable the direct integration of aligned nanofibers with controllable configurations, and significantly simplify the production of nanofibersbased devices.

  4. Optimized electrospinning synthesis of iron-nitrogen-carbon nanofibers for high electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction in alkaline medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xingxu; Liu, Kexi; Wang, Xiangqing; Wang, Tuo; Luo, Jun; Zhu, Jing

    2015-04-01

    To achieve iron-nitrogen-carbon (Fe-N-C) nanofibers with excellent electrocatalysis for replacing high-cost Pt-based catalysts in the cathodes of fuel cells and metal-air batteries, we have investigated and evaluated the effects of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) concentration and the proportion of iron to PAN, along with voltage and flow rate during the electrospinning process, and thus proposed three criteria to optimize these parameters for ideal nanofiber catalysts. The best half-wave potential of an optimized catalysts is 0.82 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode in an alkaline medium, which reaches the best range of the non-precious-metal catalysts reported and is very close to that of commercial Pt/C catalysts. Furthermore, the electron-transfer number of our catalysts is superior to that of the Pt/C, indicating the catalysts undergo a four-electron process. The durability of the optimized Fe-N-C nanofibers is also better than that of the Pt/C, which is attributed to the homogeneous distribution of the active sites in our catalysts.

  5. Synthesis of ruthenium oxide coated ordered mesoporous carbon nanofiber arrays as a catalyst for lithium oxygen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ziyang; Zhou, Dandan; Liu, Haijing; Dong, Xiaoli; Yuan, Shouyi; Yu, Aishui; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2015-02-01

    Li-O2 batteries with super-high theoretical energy density are attracting extensive attention. However, the sluggish oxygen reduction/evolution reaction, the huge volume change from O2/Li2O2 conversion and the undesired electrolyte decomposition in cathode limit their performance. Herein we show design and synthesis of RuO2-coated ordered mesoporous carbon nanofiber arrays by using a natural crab shell template as a catalyst for Li-O2 battery, exhibiting several advantage features. First, the ordered mesopores in nanofibers facilitate electrolyte penetration and electron/ion transfer. In addition, the macro-sized voids between the nanofibers provide efficient buffer space for O2/Li2O2 accommodation and improve O2 diffusion. Furthermore, the uniform RuO2-coating layer alleviates undesired electrolyte decomposition and enhances the surface electronic conductivity. As a result, the battery displays high performance, including high capacity (20600 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1), high rate (9750 mAh g-1 at a current density of 1000 mA g-1) and long-life (300 cycles at a fixed capacity of 1000 mAh g-1).

  6. Electrospun polyamide 6/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) nanofibers functionalized with carbon nanotubes for electrochemical detection of dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercante, Luiza A; Pavinatto, Adriana; Iwaki, Leonardo E O; Scagion, Vanessa P; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Mattoso, Luiz H C; Correa, Daniel S

    2015-03-01

    The use of nanomaterials as an electroactive medium has improved the performance of bio/chemical sensors, particularly when synergy is reached upon combining distinct materials. In this paper, we report on a novel architecture comprising electrospun polyamide 6/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PA6/PAH) nanofibers functionalized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes, used to detect the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA). Miscibility of PA6 and PAH was sufficient to form a single phase material, as indicated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), leading to nanofibers with no beads onto which the nanotubes could adsorb strongly. Differential pulse voltammetry was employed with indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes coated with the functionalized nanofibers for the selective electrochemical detection of dopamine (DA), with no interference from uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) that are normally present in biological fluids. The response was linear for a DA concentration range from 1 to 70 ?mol L(-1), with detection limit of 0.15 ?mol L(-1) (S/N = 3). The concepts behind the novel architecture to modify electrodes can be potentially harnessed in other electrochemical sensors and biosensors. PMID:25644325

  7. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanocoil Array Integrated on Carbon Nanofiber Paper for Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won Ho; Choi, Mi Jin; Bang, Jin Ho

    2015-09-01

    Integrating a nanostructured carbon array on a conductive substrate remains a challenging task that presently relies primarily on high-vacuum deposition technology. To overcome the problems associated with current vacuum techniques, we demonstrate the formation of an N-doped carbon array by pyrolysis of a polymer array that was electrochemically grown on carbon fiber paper. The resulting carbon array was investigated for use as a supercapacitor electrode. In-depth surface characterization results revealed that the microtextural properties, surface functionalities, and degree of nitrogen incorporated into the N-doped carbon array can be delicately controlled by manipulating carbonization temperatures. Furthermore, electrochemical measurements showed that subtle changes in these physical properties resulted in significant changes in the capacitive behavior of the N-doped carbon array. Pore structures and nitrogen/oxygen functional groups, which are favorable for charge storage, were formed at low carbonization temperatures. This result showed the importance of having a comprehensive understanding of how the surface characteristics of carbon affect its capacitive performance. When utilized as a substrate in a pseudocapacitive electrode material, the N-doped carbon array maximizes capacitive performance by simultaneously achieving high gravimetric and areal capacitances due to its large surface area and high electrical conductivity. PMID:26264641

  8. Graphene Folding in Si Rich Carbon Nanofibers for Highly Stable, High Capacity Li-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Ling; Williams, Brian P; Yoo, Sang H; Kim, Jangwoo; Shoorideh, Ghazal; Joo, Yong Lak

    2016-03-01

    Silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs) wrapped by graphene in carbon nanofibers were obtained via electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment. In this study, water-soluble poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with low carbon yield is selected to make the process water-based and to achieve a high silicon yield in the composite. It was also found that increasing the amount of graphene helps keep the PVA fiber morphology after carbonization, while forming a graphene network. The fiber SEM and HRTEM images reveal that micrometer graphene is heavily folded into sub-micron scale fibers during electrospinning, while Si NPs are incorporated into the folds with nanospace in between. When applied to lithium-ion battery anodes, the Si/graphene/carbon nanofiber composites show a high reversible capacity of ?2300 mAh g(-1) at a charging rate of 100 mA/g and a stable capacity of 1191 mAh g(-1) at 1 A/g after more than 200 cycles. The interconnected graphene network not only ensures the excellent conductivity but also serves as a buffering matrix for the mechanic stress caused by volume change; the nanospace between Si NPs and folded graphene provides the space needed for volume expansion. PMID:26853163

  9. Membranes of MnO Beading in Carbon Nanofibers as Flexible Anodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Du, Yuxuan; Jin, Lei; Yang, Yang; Wu, Shuilin; Li, Weihan; Yu, Yan; Zhu, Yanwu; Zhang, Qinghua

    2015-09-01

    Freestanding yet flexible membranes of MnO/carbon nanofibers are successfully fabricated through incorporating MnO2 nanowires into polymer solution by a facile electrospinning technique. During the stabilization and carbonization processes of the as-spun membranes, MnO2 nanowires are transformed to MnO nanoparticles coincided with a conversion of the polymer from an amorphous state to a graphitic structure of carbon nanofibers. The hybrids consist of isolated MnO nanoparticles beading in the porous carbon and demonstrate superior performance when being used as a binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries. With an optimized amount of MnO (34.6?wt%), the anode exhibits a reversible capacity of as high as 987.3?mAh g-1 after 150 discharge/charge cycles at 0.1?A g-1, a good rate capability (406.1?mAh g-1 at 3 ?A g-1) and an excellent cycling performance (655?mAh g-1 over 280 cycles at 0.5?A g-1). Furthermore, the hybrid anode maintains a good electrochemical performance at bending state as a flexible electrode.

  10. Bicontinuous Structure of Li?V?(PO?)? Clustered via Carbon Nanofiber as High-Performance Cathode Material of Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Yan, Bo; Xu, Jing; Wang, Chunguang; Chao, Yimin; Jiang, Xuefan; Yang, Gang

    2015-07-01

    In this work, the composite structure of Li3V2(PO4)3 (LVP) nanoparticles with carbon nanofibers (CNF) is designed. The size and location of LVP particles, and the degree of graphitization and diameter of carbon nanofibers, are optimized by electrospinning and heat treatment. The bicontinuous morphologies of LVP/CNF are dependent on the carbonization of PVP and simultaneous growing of LVP, with the fibers shrunk and the LVP crystals grown toward the outside. LVP nanocystals clustered via carbon nanofibers guarantee improving the diffusion ability of Li(+), and the carbon fiber simultaneously guarantees the effective electron conductivity. Compared with the simple carbon-coated LVP and pure LVP, the particle-clustered structure guarantees high rate capability and long-life cycling stability of NF-LVP as cathode for LIBs. At 20 C rate in the range 3.0-4.3 V, NF-LVP delivers the initial capacity of 122.6 mAh g(-1) close to the theoretical value of 133 mAh g(-1), and maintains 97% of the initial capacity at the 1000th cycle. The bead-like structure of cathode material clustered via carbon nanofibers via electrospinning will be further applied to high-performance LIBs. PMID:26053376

  11. Electrical properties and shape-memory behavior of self-assembled carbon nanofiber nanopaper incorporated with shape-memory polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper studies the electrical and shape-memory behavior of self-assembled carbon nanofiber (CNF) nanopaper incorporated with shape-memory polymer (SMP). The morphology and structure of the self-assembled nanopapers were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A continuous and compact network was observed from the SEM images, which indicates that the CNF nanopaper could have highly conductive properties. The electrical conductivity of the CNF nanopaper was measured by the four-point probe method and its temperature coefficient effect was studied. Finally, the actuation of SMP was demonstrated by the electrical resistive heating of the CNF nanopaper

  12. Higher-power supercapacitor electrodes based on mesoporous manganese oxide coating on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klankowski, Steven A.; Pandey, Gaind P.; Malek, Gary; Thomas, Conor R.; Bernasek, Steven L.; Wu, Judy; Li, Jun

    2015-04-01

    A study on the development of high-power supercapacitor materials based on formation of thick mesoporous MnO2 shells on a highly conductive 3D template using vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs). Coaxial manganese shells of 100 to 600 nm nominal thicknesses are sputter-coated on VACNFs and then electrochemically oxidized into rose-petal-like mesoporous MnO2 structure. Such a 3D MnO2/VACNF hybrid architecture provides enhanced ion diffusion throughout the whole MnO2 shell and yields excellent current collection capability through the VACNF electrode. These two effects collectively enable faster electrochemical reactions during charge-discharge of MnO2 in 1 M Na2SO4. Thick MnO2 shells (up to 200 nm in radial thickness) can be employed, giving a specific capacitance up to 437 F g-1. More importantly, supercapacitors employing such a 3D MnO2/VACNF hybrid electrode illustrate more than one order of magnitude higher specific power than the state-of-the-art ones based on other MnO2 structures, reaching ~240 kW kg-1, while maintaining a comparable specific energy in the range of 1 to 10 Wh kg-1. This hybrid approach demonstrates the potential of 3D core-shell architectures for high-power energy storage devices.A study on the development of high-power supercapacitor materials based on formation of thick mesoporous MnO2 shells on a highly conductive 3D template using vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs). Coaxial manganese shells of 100 to 600 nm nominal thicknesses are sputter-coated on VACNFs and then electrochemically oxidized into rose-petal-like mesoporous MnO2 structure. Such a 3D MnO2/VACNF hybrid architecture provides enhanced ion diffusion throughout the whole MnO2 shell and yields excellent current collection capability through the VACNF electrode. These two effects collectively enable faster electrochemical reactions during charge-discharge of MnO2 in 1 M Na2SO4. Thick MnO2 shells (up to 200 nm in radial thickness) can be employed, giving a specific capacitance up to 437 F g-1. More importantly, supercapacitors employing such a 3D MnO2/VACNF hybrid electrode illustrate more than one order of magnitude higher specific power than the state-of-the-art ones based on other MnO2 structures, reaching ~240 kW kg-1, while maintaining a comparable specific energy in the range of 1 to 10 Wh kg-1. This hybrid approach demonstrates the potential of 3D core-shell architectures for high-power energy storage devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01198a

  13. Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanofibers from culinary banana peel using high-intensity ultrasonication combined with chemical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawas, Prerna; Deka, Sankar C

    2016-02-10

    In the present study, culinary banana peel was explored as a source of raw material for production of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs). For isolation of CNFs, first the peel flour was subjected to different chemical treatments to eliminate non-cellulosic compounds. The obtained chemically treated cellulose fibers were then mechanically tailored and separated into nanofibers using high-intensity ultrasonication at different output power ranging from 0 to 1000W. The presences of nanofibers in all samples were confirmed by TEM. Increasing output power of ultrasonication reduced size of CNFs and generated more thinner and needle-like structure. SEM, FT-IR and XRD results indicated chemical treatment employed was effective in removing compounds other than cellulose fibers. Thermal analyses evinced the developed CNFs enhanced thermal properties which serve the purpose as an effective reinforcing material to be used as bionanocomposites. Hence, the production of CNFs from this underutilized agro-waste has potential application in commercial field that can add high value to culinary banana. PMID:26686170

  14. Hybrid Composite Materials Aluminum – Carbon Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana KOLTSOVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated formation of carbon nanofibers grown by chemical deposition (CVD method using an acetylene-hydrogen mixture on the surface of micron-sized aluminum powder particles. To obtain uniform distribution of the carbon nanostructures on the particles we deposited nickel catalyst on the surface by spraying from the aqueous solution of nickel nitrate. It was found that increasing the time of the synthesis lowers the rate of growth of carbon nanostructures due to the deactivation of the catalyst. The Raman spectroscopy measurements confirm the presence of disordered carbon corresponding to CNFs in the specimen. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the presence of aluminum carbide in the hot pressed samples. An aluminum composite material prepared using 1 wt.% CNFs obtained by uniaxial cold pressing and sintering showed 30 % increase in the hardness compared to pure aluminum, whereas the composites prepared by hot pressing showed 80 % increase in the hardness. Composite materials have satisfactory ductility. Thus, the aluminum based material reinforced with carbon nanostructures should be appropriate for creating high-strength and light compacts for aerospace and automotive applications and power engineering.

  15. CoO-carbon nanofiber networks prepared by electrospinning as binder-free anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with enhanced properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Uchaker, Evan; Hu, Shan; Zhang, Qifeng; Wang, Taihong; Cao, Guozhong; Li, Jiangyu

    2013-11-01

    CoOx-carbon nanofiber networks were prepared from cobalt(ii) acetate and polyacrylonitrile by an electrospinning method followed by thermal treatment. The XPS results demonstrated that the cobalt compound in CoOx-carbon obtained at 650 °C was CoO rather than Co or Co3O4. The CoO nanoparticles with diameters of about 8 nm were homogeneously distributed in the matrix of the nanofibers with diameters of 200 nm. As binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries, the discharge capacities of such CoO-carbon (CoO-C) composite nanofiber networks increased with the pyrolysis and annealing temperature, and the highest value was 633 mA h g-1 after 52 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g-1 when the CoO-C was obtained at 650 °C. In addition, the rate capacities of the CoO-C obtained at 650 °C were found to be higher than that of the sample annealed at a lower temperature and pure carbon nanofiber networks annealed at 650 °C. The improved properties of CoO-C nanofiber networks were ascribed to nanofibers as the framework to keep the structural stability, and favorable mass and charge transport. The present study may provide a new strategy for the synthesis of binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries with excellent properties.CoOx-carbon nanofiber networks were prepared from cobalt(ii) acetate and polyacrylonitrile by an electrospinning method followed by thermal treatment. The XPS results demonstrated that the cobalt compound in CoOx-carbon obtained at 650 °C was CoO rather than Co or Co3O4. The CoO nanoparticles with diameters of about 8 nm were homogeneously distributed in the matrix of the nanofibers with diameters of 200 nm. As binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries, the discharge capacities of such CoO-carbon (CoO-C) composite nanofiber networks increased with the pyrolysis and annealing temperature, and the highest value was 633 mA h g-1 after 52 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g-1 when the CoO-C was obtained at 650 °C. In addition, the rate capacities of the CoO-C obtained at 650 °C were found to be higher than that of the sample annealed at a lower temperature and pure carbon nanofiber networks annealed at 650 °C. The improved properties of CoO-C nanofiber networks were ascribed to nanofibers as the framework to keep the structural stability, and favorable mass and charge transport. The present study may provide a new strategy for the synthesis of binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries with excellent properties. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03931e

  16. Catalytical growth of carbon nanotubes/fibers from nanocatalysts prepared by laser pulverization of nickel sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispersed nickel sulfate (NiSO4) microclusters on Si substrates were fragmented by pulsed excimer laser irradiation to serve as catalysts for carbon nanotube/nanofiber (CNT/CNF) growth. At proper fluences, NiSO4 clusters were pulverized into nanoparticles. The sizes of clusters/nanoparticles were found to be dependent on laser fluence and laser pulse number. By increasing the laser fluence from 100 to 300 mJ/cm2, the size of disintegrated particles decreased drastically from several micrometers to several nanometers. It was found that laser-induced disintegration of as-dispersed NiSO4 clusters was mainly due to physical fragmentation by transient thermal expansion/contraction. Thermal melting of nanoparticles in a multipulse regime was also suggested. Hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) was used for growth of CNTs from the pulsed-laser treated catalysts. For samples irradiated at 100 and 200 mJ/cm2, CNFs were dominant products. These CNFs grew radially out of big NiSO4 clusters, forming dendritic CNF bunches. For samples irradiated at 300 mJ/cm2, dense multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNFs) with uniform diameters were obtained. It is suggested that elemental Ni was formed through thermal decomposition of NiSO4 clusters/nanoparticles during HFCVD. The size and the shape of the Ni aggregation, which were determined by the initial size of NiSO4 clusters/nanoparticles, might affect the preference in the synthesis of CNTs or CNFs

  17. Photocatalysis of sub-ppm limonene over multiwalled carbon nanotubes/titania composite nanofiber under visible-light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Wan-Kuen, E-mail: wkjo@knu.ac.kr; Kang, Hyun-Jung

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • A multiwalled carbon nanotube/titania composite nanofiber (MTCN) was synthesized. • Photocatalytic function of visible-activated MTCN was examined using tubular reactor. • MTCNs could be effectively used for the purification of sub-ppm gas-phase limonene. • The experimental results agreed well with Langmuir–Hinshelwood model. • Certain gas-phase intermediates were determined, but not for adsorbed intermediates. - Abstract: This study was conducted under visible-light exposure to investigate the photocatalytic characteristics of a multiwalled carbon nanotube/titania (TiO{sub 2}) composite nanofiber (MTCN) using a continuous-flow tubular reactor. The MTCN was prepared by a sol–gel process, followed by an electrospinning technique. The photocatalytic decomposition efficiency for limonene on the MTCN was higher than those obtained from reference TiO{sub 2} nanofibers or P25 TiO{sub 2}, and the experimental results agreed well with the Langmuir–Hinshelwood model. The CO concentrations generated during the photocatalysis did not reach levels toxic to humans. The mineralization efficiency for limonene on the MTCN was also higher than that for P25 TiO{sub 2}. Moreover, the mineralization efficiency obtained using the MTCN increased steeply from 8.3 to 91.1% as the residence time increased from 7.8 to 78.0 s, compared to the increase in the decomposition efficiencies for limonene from 90.1 to 99.9%. Three gas-phase intermediates (methacrolein, acetic acid, and limonene oxide) were quantitatively determined for the photocatalysis for limonene over the MTCN, whereas only two intermediates (acetic acid and limonene oxide) were quantitatively determined over P25 TiO{sub 2}. Other provisional gas-phase intermediates included cyclopropyl methyl ketone and 2-ethylbutanal.

  18. Photocatalysis of sub-ppm limonene over multiwalled carbon nanotubes/titania composite nanofiber under visible-light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A multiwalled carbon nanotube/titania composite nanofiber (MTCN) was synthesized. • Photocatalytic function of visible-activated MTCN was examined using tubular reactor. • MTCNs could be effectively used for the purification of sub-ppm gas-phase limonene. • The experimental results agreed well with Langmuir–Hinshelwood model. • Certain gas-phase intermediates were determined, but not for adsorbed intermediates. - Abstract: This study was conducted under visible-light exposure to investigate the photocatalytic characteristics of a multiwalled carbon nanotube/titania (TiO2) composite nanofiber (MTCN) using a continuous-flow tubular reactor. The MTCN was prepared by a sol–gel process, followed by an electrospinning technique. The photocatalytic decomposition efficiency for limonene on the MTCN was higher than those obtained from reference TiO2 nanofibers or P25 TiO2, and the experimental results agreed well with the Langmuir–Hinshelwood model. The CO concentrations generated during the photocatalysis did not reach levels toxic to humans. The mineralization efficiency for limonene on the MTCN was also higher than that for P25 TiO2. Moreover, the mineralization efficiency obtained using the MTCN increased steeply from 8.3 to 91.1% as the residence time increased from 7.8 to 78.0 s, compared to the increase in the decomposition efficiencies for limonene from 90.1 to 99.9%. Three gas-phase intermediates (methacrolein, acetic acid, and limonene oxide) were quantitatively determined for the photocatalysis for limonene over the MTCN, whereas only two intermediates (acetic acid and limonene oxide) were quantitatively determined over P25 TiO2. Other provisional gas-phase intermediates included cyclopropyl methyl ketone and 2-ethylbutanal

  19. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on anatase TiO2/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite nanofibers photoanode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? TiO2/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) hybrid nanofibers are prepared via electrospinning. ? Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are assembled using TiO2/MWCNTs nanofibers film as photoanode. ? Energy conversion efficiency of DSSCs is greatly dependent on the content of MWCNTs. ? Moderate MWCNTs incorporation can substantially enhance the performance of DSSCs. - Abstract: Anatase TiO2/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (TiO2/MWCNTs) hybrid nanofibers (NFs) film was prepared via a facile electrospinning method. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on TiO2/MWCNTs composite NFs photoanodes with different contents of MWCNTs (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1 wt.%) were assembled using N719 dye as sensitizer. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Raman spectrometer were used to characterize the TiO2/MWCNTs electrode films. The photocurrent–voltage (I–V) characteristic, incident photo-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) spectrum, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were carried out to evaluate the photoelectric properties of the DSSCs. The results reveal that the energy conversion efficiency is greatly dependent on the content of MWCNTs in the composite NFs film, and a moderate incorporation of MWCNTs can substantially enhance the performance of DSSCs. When the electrode contains 0.3 wt.% MWCNTs, the corresponding solar cell yield the highest efficiency of 5.63%. This efficiency value is approximately 26% larger than that of the unmodified counterpart.

  20. High-yield harvest of nanofibers/mesoporous carbon composite by pyrolysis of waste biomass and its application for high durability electrochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; He, Yan-Rong; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-12-01

    Disposal and recycling of the large scale biomass waste is of great concern. Themochemically converting the waste biomass to functional carbon nanomaterials and bio-oil is an environmentally friendly apporach by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by open burning. In this work, we reported a scalable, "green" method for the synthesis of the nanofibers/mesoporous carbon composites through pyrolysis of the Fe(III)-preloaded biomass, which is controllable by adjustment of temperature and additive of catalyst. It is found that the coupled catalytic action of both Fe and Cl species is able to effectively catalyze the growth of the carbon nanofibers on the mesoporous carbon and form magnetic nanofibers/mesoporous carbon composites (M-NMCCs). The mechanism for the growth of the nanofibers is proposed as an in situ vapor deposition process, and confirmed by the XRD and SEM results. M-NMCCs can be directly used as electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage without further separation, and exhibit favorable energy storage performance with high EDLC capacitance, good retention capability, and excellent stability and durability (more than 98% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles). Considering that biomass is a naturally abundant and renewable resource (over billions tons biomass produced every year globally) and pyrolysis is a proven technique, M-NMCCs can be easily produced at large scale and become a sustainable and reliable resource for clean energy storage. PMID:25372400

  1. Flexible copper-stabilized sulfur-carbon nanofibers with excellent electrochemical performance for Li-S batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Linchao; Jiang, Yu; Xu, Jun; Wang, Min; Li, Weihan; Yu, Yan

    2015-07-01

    By rational design, we fabricated a flexible and free-standing copper-immobilized sulfur-porous carbon nanofiber (denoted as S@PCNFs-Cu) electrode by simply impregnating sulfur into electrospun derived Cu embedded porous carbon nanofibers (PCNFs-Cu). The PCNF film with a 3D interconnected structure is used as a conducting matrix to encapsulate sulfur. In addition, the introduction of Cu leads to the formation of a chemical bond between Cu and S, preventing the dissolution of polysulfide during cycling. The micropores and mesopores of PCNF hosts provide free space to accommodate the volume change of S and polysulfide. When used as a cathode material for Li-S batteries, the S@PCNFs-Cu (S content: 52 wt%) exhibits much better electrochemical performance compared to the Cu-free S@PCNF electrode. The S@PCNFs-Cu displays high reversible capacity (680 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles at 50 mA g(-1)), excellent rate capability (415 mA h g(-1) at 1 A g(-1)) and super Coulombic efficiency of 100%. This strategy of stabilizing S with a small amount of copper nanoparticles can be a very promising method to prepare free-standing cathode material for high-performance Li-S batteries. PMID:26059471

  2. Single layers of WS2 nanoplates embedded in nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sunmoon; Jung, Ji-Won; Kim, Il-Doo

    2015-07-01

    Single layers of WS2 nanoplates are uniformly embedded in nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (WS2@NCNFs) via a facile electrospinning method. Crystallization of the single-layered WS2 nanoplates and in situ nitrogen doping into the carbon nanofibers were simultaneously accomplished during a two-step heat treatment. The distinctive structure of the WS2@NCNFs enables outstanding electrochemical performances.Single layers of WS2 nanoplates are uniformly embedded in nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (WS2@NCNFs) via a facile electrospinning method. Crystallization of the single-layered WS2 nanoplates and in situ nitrogen doping into the carbon nanofibers were simultaneously accomplished during a two-step heat treatment. The distinctive structure of the WS2@NCNFs enables outstanding electrochemical performances. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section, SEM images of WS2 powder and ground WS2 powder, TEM image and SAED pattern of the WS2 powder, Raman spectra of the WS2 powder, CV curves of the WS2 powder, voltage profiles of the WS2 powder, schematic diagram of WS2@NCNFs undergoing lithium storage reactions, electrochemical performance of NCNFs, morphologies and EDS mapping of WS2@NCNFs after cycling, and a table of contributions of NCNFs to the specific capacity. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02425k

  3. The effect of tin content to the morphology of Sn/carbon nanofiber and the electrochemical performance as anode material for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using electrospinning and carbonization, tin nanoparticles enwrapped in carbon nano-fibers (Sn/C) present high capacity and well cyclic performance. The precursor compositions of SnCl2 and polyacrylonitrile (SnCl2/PAN) have a significant effect on the crystal structure, morphology of Sn/C composites, and the electrochemical performance. Along with the increased concentration of tin in the precursors of SnCl2/PAN, the diameters of the carbonized Sn/C nanofibers are decreased. The samples of SnCl2/PAN with starting weight ratio 3:2 (Sn3Pan2), 1:1 (Sn1Pan1) and 2:3 (Sn2Pan3) present the initial discharge capacity 977.8, 1329.8, and 1137.0 mAh g?1, respectively. In the following cycles, the Sn/C nanofibers present high capacity and well cyclic performance. The sample Sn1Pan1 retains a charge capacity of 741.1 mAh g?1 (92% of the initial charge capacity) after 40 cycles. Because the nanoparticles of tin metal are enwrapped in carbon nanofibers, the volume change and aggregation of metal anode are decreased during charging and discharging processes.

  4. Preparation of mesohollow and microporous carbon nanofiber and its application in cathode material for lithium–sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yuanhe; Gao, Mingxia, E-mail: gaomx@zju.edu.cn; Li, Xiang; Liu, Yongfeng; Pan, Hongge, E-mail: hgpan@zju.edu.cn

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Mesohollow and microporous carbon fibers were prepared via electrospinning and carbonization. • Sulfur (S) incorporated into the porous fibers by thermal heating in 60 wt.%, forming composite. • S fills fully in the micropores and partially in the mesohollows of the carbon fibers. • The composite shows high capacity and capacity retention as cathode material for Li–S batteries. • Mesohollow and microporous structure is effective in improving the property of S cathode. - Abstract: Mesohollow and microporous carbon nanofibers (MhMpCFs) were prepared by a coaxial electrospinning with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as outer and inner spinning solutions followed by a carbonization. The carbon fibers were thermal treated with sublimed sulfur to form S/MhMpCFs composite, which was used as cathode material for lithium–sulfur batteries. Electrochemical study shows that the S/MhMpCFs cathode material provides a maximum capacity of 815 mA h/g after several cycles of activation, and the capacity retains 715 mA h/g after 70 cycles, corresponding to a retention of 88%. The electrochemical property of the S/MhMpCFs composite is much superior than the S-incorporated solid carbon fibers prepared from electrospinning of single PAN. The mechanism of the enhanced electrochemical property of the S/MhMpCFs composite is discussed.

  5. Preparation of mesohollow and microporous carbon nanofiber and its application in cathode material for lithium–sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Mesohollow and microporous carbon fibers were prepared via electrospinning and carbonization. • Sulfur (S) incorporated into the porous fibers by thermal heating in 60 wt.%, forming composite. • S fills fully in the micropores and partially in the mesohollows of the carbon fibers. • The composite shows high capacity and capacity retention as cathode material for Li–S batteries. • Mesohollow and microporous structure is effective in improving the property of S cathode. - Abstract: Mesohollow and microporous carbon nanofibers (MhMpCFs) were prepared by a coaxial electrospinning with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as outer and inner spinning solutions followed by a carbonization. The carbon fibers were thermal treated with sublimed sulfur to form S/MhMpCFs composite, which was used as cathode material for lithium–sulfur batteries. Electrochemical study shows that the S/MhMpCFs cathode material provides a maximum capacity of 815 mA h/g after several cycles of activation, and the capacity retains 715 mA h/g after 70 cycles, corresponding to a retention of 88%. The electrochemical property of the S/MhMpCFs composite is much superior than the S-incorporated solid carbon fibers prepared from electrospinning of single PAN. The mechanism of the enhanced electrochemical property of the S/MhMpCFs composite is discussed

  6. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes, Carbon Nanofibers and Laser-Induced Incandescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Kathy (Technical Monitor); VanderWal, Randy L.; Ticich, Thomas M.; Berger, Gordon M.; Patel, Premal D.

    2004-01-01

    Laser induced incandescence applied to a heterogeneous, multi-element reacting flows is characterized by a) temporally resolved emission spectra, time-resolved emission at selected detection wavelengths and fluence dependence. Laser fluences above 0.6 Joules per square centimeter at 1064 nm initiate laser-induced vaporization, yielding a lower incandescence intensity, as found through fluence dependence measurements. Spectrally derived temperatures show that values of excitation laser fluence beyond this value lead to a super-heated plasma, well above the vaporization of temperature of carbon. The temporal evolution of the emission signal at these fluences is consistent with plasma dissipation processes, not incandescence from solid-like structures.

  7. Antimony nanoparticles anchored on interconnected carbon nanofibers networks as advanced anode material for sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hongshuai; Jing, Mingjun; Yang, Yingchang; Zhang, Yan; Song, Weixin; Yang, Xuming; Chen, Jun; Chen, Qiyuan; Ji, Xiaobo

    2015-06-01

    Interconnected carbon nanofibers networks (ICNNs) prepared through the carbonization of polypyrrole (PPy) precursor are utilized as conductive pathways and buffer to improve the Na storage performance of antimony (Sb) as anode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). The as-obtained Sb/ICNNs composite exhibits excellent cycle stability. The reversible capacity can remain 542.5 mAh g-1 with a high capacity retention of 96.7% after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1. And the superior rate performance is also observed, the reversible capacity can still reach 325 mAh g-1 at a high current density of 3200 mA g-1. These great electrochemical performances observed above suggest that this type of composite can be a nice option for advanced SIBs anode materials and may be extended to other active materials/ICNNs composite electrode.

  8. Reversible Hydrogen Storage in Electrospun Composite Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Composite nanofibers containing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT were prepared by using electrospinning technique and hydrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms were carried out by a Sieverts apparatus at room temperature. The SEM analysis of the nanofibers revealed that the deformation of the nanofiber increases with increasing SWNT concentration. The diameter of neat nanofibers was below 200 nm and had smooth surface. The surface of the composite nanofibers was rough even by adding low quantity of SWNT. The hydrogen storage results showed an improvement in the adsorption capacity with increasing the SWNT content in composite nanofibers. These nanofibers were evacuated again to remove the adsorbed hydrogen at room temperature. Moreover, even though specific surface area and total pore volume were important factors for increasing the capacity of hydrogen adsorption. Finally, maximum adsorption capacity was 0.29 wt % in case of nanofibers with 10 wt % SWNT under 30 bar at 298 K.

  9. Application of laser-induced incandescence to the detection of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wal, Randy L; Berger, Gordon M; Ticich, Thomas M; Patel, Premal D

    2002-09-20

    Laser-induced incandescence applied to a heterogeneous, multielement reacting flow is characterized by temporally resolved emission spectra, time-resolved emission at selected detection wavelengths, and fluence dependence. Two-pulse laser measurements are used to further probe the effects of laser-induced changes on the optical signal. Laser fluences above 0.6 J/cm2 at 1064 nm initiate laser-induced vaporization, yielding a lower incandescence intensity, as found through fluence-dependence measurements. Spectrally derived temperatures show that values of excitation laser fluence greater than this value lead to superheated plasmas with temperatures well above the vaporization point of carbon. The temporal evolution of the emission signal at these fluences is consistent with plasma dissipation processes, not incandescence from solidlike structures. Two-pulse laser experiments reveal that other material changes are produced at fluences below the apparent vaporization threshold, leading to nanostructures with different optical and thermal properties. PMID:12269569

  10. Si-Carbon Composite Nanofibers with Good scalability and Favorable Architecture for Highly Reversible Lithium Storage and Superb Kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate a simple electrospinning for preparing Si-carbon composite Nanofiber (NF) in which aciniform aggregates of Si particles are well encased by amorphous carbon. The Si-carbon composite NF exhibit a significantly improved electrochemical performance with a high specific capacity of 1250 mAh·g?1 and a superior cycling performance during 50 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. More importantly, Si-carbon composite NF maintain about 70% of initial capacity at 0.2 C and an excellent cycling stability even at 25 times higher current density compared to the initial condition, proving that it has superb kinetics compared to ever reported Si or SiOx materials. The electrochemical superiority of Si-carbon composite NF can be attributed to amorphous carbon framework accommodating the inherent volume expansion of Si during lithiation as well as the enlarged contact area between active materials and conducting agent attributed to the morphological characteristics of its one dimensional (1D) nanostructure

  11. Carbon-Confined SnO2-Electrodeposited Porous Carbon Nanofiber Composite as High-Capacity Sodium-Ion Battery Anode Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirican, Mahmut; Lu, Yao; Ge, Yeqian; Yildiz, Ozkan; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2015-08-26

    Sodium resources are inexpensive and abundant, and hence, sodium-ion batteries are promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries. However, lower energy density and poor cycling stability of current sodium-ion batteries prevent their practical implementation for future smart power grid and stationary storage applications. Tin oxides (SnO2) can be potentially used as a high-capacity anode material for future sodium-ion batteries, and they have the advantages of high sodium storage capacity, high abundance, and low toxicity. However, SnO2-based anodes still cannot be used in practical sodium-ion batteries because they experience large volume changes during repetitive charge and discharge cycles. Such large volume changes lead to severe pulverization of the active material and loss of electrical contact between the SnO2 and carbon conductor, which in turn result in rapid capacity loss during cycling. Here, we introduce a new amorphous carbon-coated SnO2-electrodeposited porous carbon nanofiber (PCNF@SnO2@C) composite that not only has high sodium storage capability, but also maintains its structural integrity while ongoing repetitive cycles. Electrochemical results revealed that this SnO2-containing nanofiber composite anode had excellent electrochemical performance including high-capacity (374 mAh g(-1)), good capacity retention (82.7%), and large Coulombic efficiency (98.9% after 100th cycle). PMID:26252051

  12. Ultrafine Mo2C nanoparticles encapsulated in N-doped carbon nanofibers with enhanced lithium storage performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruirui; Wang, Shuguang; Wang, Wei; Cao, Minhua

    2015-09-23

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries (LIBs) have attracted extensive attention globally due to their good cycling stability, high energy density, and rapid-rate capability, while the rational design of electrode materials can significantly improve their electrochemical performance. In this work, ultrafine Mo2C nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully encapsulated in one dimensional (1D) N-doped porous carbon nanofibers to form a hybrid (Mo2C-NCNFs) through a single-nozzle electrospinning approach coupled with post-pyrolysis. The sizes of the Mo2C NPs were in the range of 2-4 nm and the ultrafine Mo2C NPs were uniformly encapsulated in the N-doped carbon nanofibers forming a highly conductive and interconnecting network, which can facilitate fast electronic transport. When evaluated as an anode material for LIBs, the resultant hybrid exhibits stable cycling performance and excellent rate behavior. More remarkably, the Mo2C-NCNFs hybrid is capable of delivering a specific capacity of 658.0 mA h g(-1) under 100 mA g(-1) after 50 cycles. Even under 2000 mA g(-1), a relatively high specific capacity of 411.9 mA h g(-1) can be achieved, which surpasses the theoretical capacity of graphite (372 mA h g(-1)). The excellent lithium storage performance can be attributed to its unique nanostructure with a strong interaction between the ultrafine Mo2C NPs and N-doped carbon that effectively tolerates the volume change, suppresses the agglomeration of Mo2C NPs, and provides conductive pathways for highly efficient charge transfer during lithium insertion and extraction. PMID:26344047

  13. Local Structure Determination of Carbon/Nickel Ferrite Composite Nanofibers Probed by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilmoung, Sukunya; Kidkhunthod, Pinit; Maensiri, Santi

    2015-11-01

    Carbon/NiFe2O4 composite nanofibers have been successfully prepared by electrospinning method using a various concentration solution of Ni and Fe nitrates dispersed into polyacrylonitride (PAN) solution in N,N' dimethylformamide. The phase and mophology of PAN/NiFe2O4 composite samples were characterized and investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The magnetic properties of the prepared samples were measured at ambient temperature by a vibrating sample magnetometer. It is found that all composite samples exhibit ferromagnetism. This could be local-structurally explained by the existed oxidation states of Ni2+ and Fe3+ in the samples. Moreover, local environments around Ni and Fe ions could be revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurement including X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). PMID:26726677

  14. Electrodeposition of iron oxide nanorods on carbon nanofiber scaffolds as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron oxide film with spaced radial nanorods is formed on the VGCF (vapor-grown carbon nanofiber) scaffolds by means of anodic electrodeposition. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy show that the iron oxide film deposited on the VGCF surface is ?-Fe2O3 and consists of spaced radial nanorods having 16-21 nm in diameter after annealing at 400 deg. C. Galvanostatic charge/discharge results indicate that the ?-Fe2O3/VGCF anode (970 mAh g-1) has higher capacity than bare ?-Fe2O3 anode (680 mAh g-1) at 10 C current discharge. VGCF scaffolds fabricated by electrophoretic deposition favor the electron conduction, and the spaced radial nanorods on VGCFs facilitate the migration of lithium ion from the electrolyte. Electrochemical reactions between ?-Fe2O3 and lithium ion are therefore improved significantly by this tailored architecture.

  15. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of heme-proteins immobilized in porous carbon nanofiber/room-temperature ionic liquid composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Qinglin [Institute of Analytical Science/Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Northwest University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Zheng Jianbin, E-mail: zhengjb@nwu.edu.c [Institute of Analytical Science/Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Northwest University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Shangguan Xiaodong [Institute of Analytical Science/Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Northwest University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Lin Wanghua; Li Yuanyao [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 62102, Taiwan (China); Liu Ruixiao [Institute of Analytical Science/Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Northwest University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710069 (China)

    2010-03-30

    The combination of porous carbon nanofiber (PCNF) and room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) provided a suitable microenvironment for heme-proteins to transfer electron directly. Hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochrome c incorporated in PCNF/RTIL films exhibited a pair of well-defined, quasi-reversible cyclic voltammetric peaks at about -0.28 V vs. SCE in pH 7.0 buffers, respectively, characteristic of the protein heme Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couples. The cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to characterize the modified electrode. The heme/PCNF/RTIL/CHIT films were also characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, indicating that heme-proteins in the composite film could retain its native structure. Oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and nitrite were catalytically reduced at the heme/PCNF/RTIL/CHIT film modified electrodes, showing the potential applicability of the films as the new type of biosensors or bioreactors based on direct electrochemistry of the redox proteins.

  16. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of heme-proteins immobilized in porous carbon nanofiber/room-temperature ionic liquid composite film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of porous carbon nanofiber (PCNF) and room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) provided a suitable microenvironment for heme-proteins to transfer electron directly. Hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochrome c incorporated in PCNF/RTIL films exhibited a pair of well-defined, quasi-reversible cyclic voltammetric peaks at about -0.28 V vs. SCE in pH 7.0 buffers, respectively, characteristic of the protein heme Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couples. The cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to characterize the modified electrode. The heme/PCNF/RTIL/CHIT films were also characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, indicating that heme-proteins in the composite film could retain its native structure. Oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and nitrite were catalytically reduced at the heme/PCNF/RTIL/CHIT film modified electrodes, showing the potential applicability of the films as the new type of biosensors or bioreactors based on direct electrochemistry of the redox proteins.

  17. Elastic and hierarchical porous carbon nanofibrous membranes incorporated with NiFe2O4 nanocrystals for highly efficient capacitive energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jianlong; Fan, Gang; Si, Yang; He, Jianxin; Kim, Hak-Yong; Ding, Bin; Al-Deyab, Salem S; El-Newehy, Mohamed; Yu, Jianyong

    2016-01-21

    Flexible membranes created from porous carbon nanofibers (CNFs) hold great promise in the next generation wearable energy storage devices, but challenges still remain due to the poor mechanical properties of porous carbon nanofibers. Here, we report a facile strategy to fabricate elastic and hierarchical porous CNF membranes with NiFe2O4 nanocrystals embedded via multicomponent electrospinning and nano-doping methods. Benefiting from the scattering effect of NiFe2O4 nanocrystals and graphitized carbon layers for the condensed stress, the resultant CNF membranes exhibit an enhanced elasticity with a bending radius <12 ?m, rapid recovery from the deformations, and a superior softness. Quantitative pore size distribution and fractal analysis reveal that the CNFs possessed tunable porous structures with a high surface area of 493 m(2) g(-1) and a pore volume of 0.31 cm(3) g(-1). Benefiting from the robust mechanical stability, hierarchical porous structures and good electrochemical properties, the NiFe2O4 doped CNF membranes demonstrate a high electrical capacitance of 343 F g(-1), and good reversibility with a cycling efficiency of 97.4% even after 10?000 cycles. The successful synthesis of elastic porous CNF membranes also provided a versatile platform for the design and development of functional CNF based materials for various applications. PMID:26731700

  18. Lignin-derived electrospun carbon nanofiber mats with supercritically deposited Ag nanoparticles for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Electrospun carbon nanofiber mats were prepared from a natural product of lignin. • The freestanding mats were flexible with BET specific surface area of ?583 m2/g. • The mats were surface-deposited with Ag nanoparticles via the scCO2 method. • Novel electrocatalytic systems of Ag/ECNFs exhibited high activities towards ORR. - Abstract: Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) (11, 15, and 25 wt.%) were deposited on the surface of the freestanding and mechanically flexible mats consisting of lignin-derived electrospun carbon nanofibers (ECNFs) by the supercritical CO2 method followed by the thermal treated at 180 °C. The electrochemical activity of Ag/ECNFs electrocatalyst systems towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was studied in 0.1 M KOH aqueous solution using the rotating disk/rotating ring disk electrode (RDE/RRDE) technique. The SEM, TEM, and XRD results indicated that, the spherical AgNPs were uniformly distributed on the ECNF surface with sizes in the range of 2-10 nm. The electrocatalytic results revealed that, all of the Ag/ECNFs systems exhibited high activity in ORR and demonstrated close-to-theoretical four-electron pathway. In particular, the mass activity of 15 wt.% Ag/ECNFs system was the highest (119 mA mg?1), exceeding that of HiSPEC 4100™ commercial Pt/C catalyst (98 mA mg?1). This study suggested that the lignin-derived ECNF mats surface-deposited with AgNPs would be promising as cost-effective and highly efficient electrocatalyst for ORR in alkaline fuel cells

  19. Towards the control of the diameter of individualized single walled carbon nanotubes in CVD process at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsareva, Svetlana [Institut Jean Lamour UMR 7819, CNRS - Universite de Lorraine, Parc de Saurupt, 54011 Nancy (France); Structure et Reactivite des Systemes Moleculaires Complexes UMR 7565, CNRS - Universite de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Devaux, Xavier [Institut Jean Lamour UMR 7819, CNRS - Universite de Lorraine, Parc de Saurupt, 54011 Nancy (France); Dossot, Manuel [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement UMR 7564, CNRS - Universite de Lorraine, 54602 Villers les Nancy (France)

    2012-12-15

    In the current work, we show that it is possible to favor the selective growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with a narrow diameter distribution on supported catalyst particles with a broad size distribution. Carbon nanotubes were grown at 600 C on silicon substrates. The structure of carbon deposits was controlled by managing the carbon feedstock for adjusting the rate of carbon nanostructures formation on the surface of catalyst particles. Either carbon nanofibers (CNFs) carpets or isolated SWCNTs were obtained. With the fine tune of carbon feedstock, small isolated SWCNTs with a narrow diameter distribution were obtained by limiting the catalytic activity of the largest catalyst particles. HRTEM observations of nanotube embryos have suggested a possible mechanism of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) formation that can explain why the growth of MWCNTs with parallel walls seems to be more difficult than SWCNTs or CNFs at low temperature. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Towards the control of the diameter of individualized single walled carbon nanotubes in CVD process at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current work, we show that it is possible to favor the selective growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with a narrow diameter distribution on supported catalyst particles with a broad size distribution. Carbon nanotubes were grown at 600 C on silicon substrates. The structure of carbon deposits was controlled by managing the carbon feedstock for adjusting the rate of carbon nanostructures formation on the surface of catalyst particles. Either carbon nanofibers (CNFs) carpets or isolated SWCNTs were obtained. With the fine tune of carbon feedstock, small isolated SWCNTs with a narrow diameter distribution were obtained by limiting the catalytic activity of the largest catalyst particles. HRTEM observations of nanotube embryos have suggested a possible mechanism of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) formation that can explain why the growth of MWCNTs with parallel walls seems to be more difficult than SWCNTs or CNFs at low temperature. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Simple preparation of carbon nanofibers with graphene layers perpendicular to the length direction and the excellent li-ion storage performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Wei, Cheng; Wu, Yi-Min; Han, Fu-Dong; Qi, Yong-Xin; Zhu, Hui-Ling; Lun, Ning; Bai, Yu-Jun

    2015-03-11

    Sulfur-containing carbon nanofibers with the graphene layers approximately vertical to the fiber axis were prepared by a simple reaction between thiophene and sulfur at 550 °C in stainless steel autoclaves without using any templates. The formation mechanism was discussed briefly, and the potential application as anode material for lithium-ion batteries was tentatively investigated. The carbon nanofibers exhibit a stable reversible capacity of 676.8 mAh/g after cycling 50 times at 0.1 C, as well as the capacities of 623.5, 463.2, and 365.8 mAh/g at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 C, respectively. The excellent electrochemical performance could be attributed to the effect of sulfur. On one hand, sulfur could improve the reversible capacity of carbon materials due to its high theoretical capacity; on the other hand, sulfur could promote the formation of the unique carbon nanofibers with the graphene layers perpendicular to the axis direction, favorable to shortening the Li-ion diffusion path. PMID:25706088

  2. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanofiber/Molybdenum Disulfide Nanocomposites Derived from Bacterial Cellulose for High-Efficiency Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Feili; Miao, Yue-E; Huang, Yunpeng; Zhang, Youfang; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-02-17

    To remit energy crisis and environmental deterioration, non-noble metal nanocomposites have attracted extensive attention, acting as a fresh kind of cost-effective electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). In this work, hierarchically organized nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber/molybdenum disulfide (pBC-N/MoS2) nanocomposites were successfully prepared via the combination of in situ polymerization, high-temperature carbonization process, and hydrothermal reaction. Attributing to the uniform coating of polyaniline on the surface of bacterial cellulose, the nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber network acts as an excellent three-dimensional template for hydrothermal growth of MoS2 nanosheets. The obtained hierarchical pBC-N/MoS2 nanocomposites exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity for HER with small overpotential of 108 mV, high current density of 8.7 mA cm(-2) at ? = 200 mV, low Tafel slope of 61 mV dec(-1), and even excellent stability. The greatly improved performance is benefiting from the highly exposed active edge sites of MoS2 nanosheets, the intimate connection between MoS2 nanosheets and the highly conductive nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers and the three-dimensional networks thus formed. Therefore, this work provides a novel strategy for design and application of bacterial cellulose and MoS2-based nanocomposites as cost-effective HER eletrocatalysts. PMID:26302501

  3. Effects of potassium on Ni-K/Al2O3 catalysts in the synthesis of carbon nanofibers by catalytic hydrogenation of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching S; Lin, Jarrn H; You, Jiann H; Yang, Kuo H

    2010-03-25

    Commercially available Ni/Al(2)O(3) samples containing various concentrations of potassium were used to achieve carbon deposition from CO(2) via catalytic hydrogenation. Experimental results show that K additives can induce the formation of carbon nanofibers or carbon deposition on Ni/Al(2)O(3) during the reverse water-gas shift reaction. This work proposes that the formation rate of carbon deposition depends closely on ensemble control, suggesting that the ensemble size necessary to form carbon may be approximately 0.5 potassium atoms. The results of CO(2) temperature-programmed desorption provide strong evidence that the new adsorption sites for CO(2) created on Ni-K/Al(2)O(3) closely depend upon the synthesis of carbon nanofibers. It is found that some potassium-related active phases obtained by calcination and reduction pretreatments can participate in the carbon deposition reaction. The formation pathway for carbon deposition suggests that the main source of carbon deposition is CO(2) and that the pathway is independent of the reaction products CO and CH(4) in the reverse water-gas shift reaction. PMID:19655780

  4. Controllable synthesis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) core-shell nanofibers with enhanced electrocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Core-shell structured poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PEDOT/MWCNTs) nanofibers were synthesized through an interfacial polymerization technique. The interfacial polymerization at a liquid-liquid interface allowed PEDOT to grow uniformly on the surface of MWCNTs due to the presence of ?-? interactions between PEDOT and MWCNTs walls. The morphology, structure and composition of the as-prepared PEDOT/MWCNTs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). In addition, the electrocatalytic properties of PEDOT/MWCNTs toward redox reactions of magnolol, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine, were systematically investigated. The results showed that the PEDOT/MWCNTs nanofibers exhibited a distinctly higher activity for the detection of magnolol compared with those of pure MWCNTs and PEDOT. The remarkably enhanced activity for the nanofibers can be attributed to the unique configuration and synergistic contribution between PEDOT and MWCNTs. The presented method is a general, facile and green approach for the synthesis of polymer/CNTs nanofibers, which is significant for the development of high performance electrocatalysts for biosensing and fuel cell applications

  5. Carbon-Based Nano-Electro-Mechanical-Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, A. B.; Khan, A. R.; Megerian, K. G.; Epp, L.; LeDuc, G.; Bagge, L.; Jennings, A. T.; Jang, D.; Greer, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    We provide an overview of our work where carbon-based nanostructures have been applied to two-dimensional (2D) planar and three-dimensional (3D) vertically-oriented nano-electro-mechanical (NEM) switches. In the first configuration, laterally oriented single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were implemented for forming bridge-type 2D NEMS switches, where switching voltages were on the order of a few volts. In the second configuration, vertically oriented carbon nanofibers (CNFs) synthesized using plasma-enhanced (PE) CVD have been explored for their potential application in 3D NEMS. We have performed nanomechanical measurements on such vertically oriented tubes using nanoindentation to determine the mechanical properties of the CNFs. Electrostatic switching was demonstrated in the CNFs synthesized on refractory metallic nitride substrates, where a nanoprobe was used as the actuating electrode inside a scanning-electron-microscope. The switching voltages were determined to be in the tens of volts range and van der Waals interactions at these length scales appeared significant, suggesting such structures are promising for nonvolatile memory applications. A finite element model was also developed to determine a theoretical pull-in voltage which was compared to experimental results. XXXX The Complementary-Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) industry faces major obstacles to further miniaturization beyond the 22 nm integrated-circuit (IC) lithography node. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are among the materials being considered as viable candidates for overcoming some of the issues that arise from the downscaling of IC dimensions, which include electromigration encountered with Copper (Cu) interconnects, or high leakage currents that arise from gate dielectrics just a few nanometers (nm) in thickness. While CNTs are showing promise as interconnects due to their high current carrying ability, 1 as well as efficient heat transporting assemblies, 2 another area that is receiving intense interest is the application of CNTs in nano-electro-mechanical-systems (NEMS), as indicated by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).3 The physical isolation of conducting paths in NEMS reduces leakage currents and power dissipation, which are parameters difficult to constrain with increasingly miniaturized Si transistors with their short source-drain channel lengths or ultra-thin gate oxides. In addition, Si reverts to intrinsic behavior at low- and high-temperatures due to Fermi level shifting, which makes solid-state transistors in general more susceptible to thermal extremes. The underlying mechanical operation of NEMS structures is also suggestive of their inherent tolerance toward harsh thermal, as well as high radiation environments, which potentially enhances their ruggedness over solid-state transistors. In particular, carbon based nanostructures offer advantages due to their exceptional elasticity compared to inorganic nanowires4 for example, for extending their mechanical cycling longevity for NEMS applications. Such exceptional mechanical properties arise from the sp2 bonding character inherent to graphene from which many carbon-based nanostructures are derived, such as single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs), multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs) or CNFs. The success of CNT based NEMS has already been validated in a variety of app 11. cat1. 0ns rangm. g fr om nanotweezers, 5 memory d ev1. ces, 6 nanore 1a ys, 7 ·8 an d resonators. 9 In th.I S paper, we provide an overview of our work in forming NEMS switches which are comprised of laterally oriented SWNTs suspended over pre-fabricated trenches based on two-dimensional (2D) planar technology, as well as vertically oriented CNFs which are under consideration for three-dimensional (3D) NEMS. 2. NEMS

  6. Carbon-Based Nano-Electro-Mechanical-Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, A. B.; Khan, A. R.; Megerian, K. G.; Epp, L.; LeDuc, G.; Bagge, L.; Jennings, A. T.; Jang, D.; Greer, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    We provide an overview of our work where carbon-based nanostructures have been applied to two-dimensional (2D) planar and three-dimensional (3D) vertically-oriented nano-electro-mechanical (NEM) switches. In the first configuration, laterally oriented single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were implemented for forming bridge-type 2D NEMS switches, where switching voltages were on the order of a few volts. In the second configuration, vertically oriented carbon nanofibers (CNFs) synthesized using plasma-enhanced (PE) CVD have been explored for their potential application in 3D NEMS. We have performed nanomechanical measurements on such vertically oriented tubes using nanoindentation to determine the mechanical properties of the CNFs. Electrostatic switching was demonstrated in the CNFs synthesized on refractory metallic nitride substrates, where a nanoprobe was used as the actuating electrode inside a scanning-electron-microscope. The switching voltages were determined to be in the tens of volts range and van der Waals interactions at these length scales appeared significant, suggesting such structures are promising for nonvolatile memory applications. A finite element model was also developed to determine a theoretical pull-in voltage which was compared to experimental results. XXXX The Complementary-Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) industry faces major obstacles to further miniaturization beyond the 22 nm integrated-circuit (IC) lithography node. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are among the materials being considered as viable candidates for overcoming some of the issues that arise from the downscaling of IC dimensions, which include electromigration encountered with Copper (Cu) interconnects, or high leakage currents that arise from gate dielectrics just a few nanometers (nm) in thickness. While CNTs are showing promise as interconnects due to their high current carrying ability, 1 as well as efficient heat transporting assemblies, 2 another area that is receiving intense interest is the application of CNTs in nano-electro-mechanical-systems (NEMS), as indicated by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).3 The physical isolation of conducting paths in NEMS reduces leakage currents and power dissipation, which are parameters difficult to constrain with increasingly miniaturized Si transistors with their short source-drain channel lengths or ultra-thin gate oxides. In addition, Si reverts to intrinsic behavior at low- and high-temperatures due to Fermi level shifting, which makes solid-state transistors in general more susceptible to thermal extremes. The underlying mechanical operation of NEMS structures is also suggestive of their inherent tolerance toward harsh thermal, as well as high radiation environments, which potentially enhances their ruggedness over solid-state transistors. In particular, carbon based nanostructures offer advantages due to their exceptional elasticity compared to inorganic nanowires4 for example, for extending their mechanical cycling longevity for NEMS applications. Such exceptional mechanical properties arise from the sp2 bonding character inherent to graphene from which many carbon-based nanostructures are derived, such as single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs), multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs) or CNFs. The success of CNT based NEMS has already been validated in a variety of app 11. cat1. 0ns rangm. g fr om nanotweezers, 5 memory d ev1. ces, 6 nanore 1a ys, 7 ·8 an d resonators. 9 In th.I S paper, we provide an overview of our work in forming NEMS switches which are comprised of laterally oriented SWNTs suspended over pre-fabricated trenches based on two-dimensional (2D) planar technology, as well as vertically oriented CNFs which are under consideration for three-dimensional (3D) NEMS. 2. NEMS

  7. Preparation and electrochemical performance of hyper-networked Li4Ti5O12/carbon hybrid nanofiber sheets for a battery-supercapacitor hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hong Soo; Kim, TaeHoon; Im, Ji Hyuk; Park, Chong Rae

    2011-10-01

    Hyper-networked Li(4)Ti(5)O(12)/carbon hybrid nanofiber sheets that contain both a faradaically rechargeable battery-type component, namely Li(4)Ti(5)O(12), and a non-faradaically rechargeable supercapacitor-type component, namely N-enriched carbon, are prepared by electrospinning and their dual function as a negative electrode of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and a capacitor is tested for a new class of hybrid energy storage (denoted BatCap). An aqueous solution composed of polyvinylpyrrolidone, lithium hydroxide, titanium(IV) bis(ammonium-lactato)dihydroxide and ammonium persulfate is electrospun to obtain hyper-networked nanofiber sheets. Next, the sheets are exposed to pyrrole monomer vapor to prepare the polypyrrole-coated nanofiber sheets (PPy-HNS). The hyper-networked Li(4)Ti(5)O(12)/N-enriched carbon hybrid nanofiber sheets (LTO/C-HNS) are then obtained by a stepwise heat treatment of the PPy-HNS. The LTO/C-HNS deliver a specific capacity of 135 mAh g(-1) at 4000 mA g(-1) as a negative electrode for LIBs. In addition, potentiodynamic experiments are performed using a full cell with activated carbon (AC) as the positive electrode and LTO/C-HNS as the negative electrode to estimate the capacitance properties. This new asymmetric electrode system exhibits a high energy density of 91 W kg(-1) and 22 W kg(-1) at power densities of 50 W kg(-1) and 4000 W kg(-1), respectively, which are superior to the values observed for the AC [symbol: see text] AC symmetric electrode system. PMID:21911931

  8. Photoelectrochemical properties of hierarchical nanocomposite structure: Carbon nanofibers/TiO2/ZnO thin films.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kment, Št?pán; Hubi?ka, Zden?k; Kmentová, Hana; Kluso?, Petr; Krýsa, Josef; Gregora, Ivan; Morozová, Magdalena; ?ada, Martin; Petráš, D.; Dytrych, Pavel; Slater, M.; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 161, ?. 1 (2011), s. 8-14. ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KAN301370701; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002; GA AV ?R KAN400720701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522; CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : thin layers * hollow cathode * TiO 2 * ZnO * CNFs * IPCE * photocatalysis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2011

  9. Controllable growth of Prussian blue nanostructures on carboxylic group-functionalized carbon nanofibers and its application for glucose biosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glucose detection is very important in biological analysis, clinical diagnosis and the food industry, and especially for the routine monitoring of diabetes. This work presents an electrochemical approach to the detection of glucose based on Prussian blue (PB) nanostructures/carboxylic group-functionalized carbon nanofiber (FCNF) nanocomposites. The hybrid nanocomposites were constructed by growing PB onto the FCNFs. The obtained PB–FCNF nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The mechanism of formation of PB–FCNF nanocomposites was investigated and is discussed in detail. The PB–FCNF modified glassy carbon electrode (PB–FCNF/GCE) shows good electrocatalysis toward the reduction of H2O2, a product from the reduction of O2 followed by glucose oxidase (GOD) catalysis of the oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid. Further immobilizing GOD on the PB–FCNF/GCE, an amperometric glucose biosensor was achieved by monitoring the generated H2O2 under a relatively negative potential. The resulting glucose biosensor exhibited a rapid response of 5 s, a low detection limit of 0.5 ?M, a wide linear range of 0.02–12 mM, a high sensitivity of 35.94 ?A cm?2 mM?1, as well as good stability, repeatability and selectivity. The sensor might be promising for practical application. (paper)

  10. Synergistically improved sensitivity for the detection of specific DNA sequences using polyaniline nanofibers and multi-walled carbon nanotubes composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Zhou, Na; Zhang, Yongchun; Zhang, Wei; Jiao, Kui; Li, Guicun

    2009-03-15

    A sensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor was successfully realized on polyaniline nanofibers (PANI), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) and chitosan (CHIT) modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) based on the synergistic effect between PANI and MWNT nanoparticles in chitosan film. PANI and MWNT nanocomposites resulted in highly enhanced electron conductive and biocompatible nanostructured film, which was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The immobilization of the probe DNA on the surface of electrode was largely improved due to the unique synergistic effect of PANI and MWNT. The DNA hybridization events were monitored with an EIS label-free detection strategy. Under the optimal conditions, the dynamic detection range of this DNA electrochemical biosensor was from 1.0 x 10(-13) to 1.0 x 10(-7)mol/L and a detection limit of 2.7 x 10(-14)mol/L for the detection of DNA specific sequence of the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase gene (PAT, one of the important screening detection genes for the transgenic plants). Simultaneously, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the terminator of nopaline synthase gene (NOS) from the sample of one kind of genetically modified soybean was also detected satisfactorily. PMID:19131238

  11. Structure-Processing-Property Interrelationships of Vapor Grown Carbon Nanofiber, Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube and Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube - Polypropylene Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Vinod Karumathil

    This dissertation describes the first use of a design of experiments approach to investigate the interrelationships between structure, processing, and properties of melt extruded polypropylene (PP) carbon nanomaterial composites. The effect of nanomaterial structure was evaluated by exploring the incorporation of vapor grown carbon nanofibers (VGCFs), or pristine or functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs or C12SWNTs) in polypropylene, while the effect of processing was investigated by studying the influence of melt extrusion temperature, speed, and time. The nanomaterials and PP were combined by an initial mixing method prior to melt extrusion. The nanocomposite properties were characterized by a combination of morphological, rheological, and thermal methods. Preliminary investigations into the effects of the initial mixing method revealed that the distribution of nanomaterials obtained after the mixing had a considerable influence on the properties of the final melt extruded nanocomposite. Dry mixing (DM) resulted in minimal adhesion between nanomaterials and PP during initial mixing; the majority of nanomaterials descended to the bottom. Hot coagulation (HC) mixing resulted in extremely high degrees of interaction between the nanomaterials and PP chains. Rotary evaporation (RE) mixing resulted in nanomaterial distribution uniformity between that obtained from DM and HC. Employing design of experiments to investigate the effects of structure and processing conditions on melt extruded PP nanocomposite properties revealed several interesting effects. The effect of processing conditions varied depending on the degree of nanomaterial distribution in PP attained prior to melt processing. Increasing melt extrusion temperature increased the decomposition temperature (Td) of PP/C12SWNT obtained from HC mixing but decreased T d of PP/C12SWNT obtained from RE mixing. Higher melt extrusion screw speed, on the other hand, significantly improved the nanocomposite crystallization behavior in RE nanocomposites, while not being a major processing factor in HC nanocomposites. The variations in nanocomposite properties with processing conditions were the result of complex interactions between the degree of dispersion, polymer degradation, and stability of the nanocomposite microstructure effected by the nanomaterial structure and processing conditions. Most importantly, this investigation revealed that the optimum melt processing conditions to be employed varied depending on the materials being used and the property of interest.

  12. Effect of Carbon Nanofiber Heat Treatment on Physical Properties of Polymeric Nanocomposites—Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Yildiz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The definition of a nanocomposite material has broadened significantly to encompass a large variety of systems made of dissimilar components and mixed at the nanometer scale. The properties of nanocomposite materials also depend on the morphology, crystallinity, and interfacial characteristics of the individual constituents. In the current work, vapor-grown carbon nanofibers were subjected to varying heat-treatment temperatures. The strength of adhesion between the nanofiber and an epoxy (thermoset matrix was characterized by the flexural strength and modulus. Heat treatment to 1800C∘ demonstrated maximum improvement in mechanical properties over that of the neat resin, while heat-treatment to higher temperatures demonstrated a slight decrease in mechanical properties likely due to the elimination of potential bonding sites caused by the elimination of the truncated edges of the graphene layers. Both the electrical and thermal properties of the resulting nanocomposites increased in conjunction with the increasing heat-treatment temperature.

  13. A TiO2 Nanofiber-Carbon Nanotube-Composite Photoanode for Improved Efficiency in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Thomas J; Tune, Daniel D; Dewi, Melissa R; Gibson, Christopher T; Shapter, Joseph G; Nann, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    A light-scattering layer fabricated from electrospun titanium dioxide nanofibers (TiO2 -NFs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) formed a fiber-based photoanode. The nanocomposite scattering layer had a lawn-like structure and integration of carbon nanotubes into the NF photoanodes increased the power conversion efficiency from 2.9?% to 4.8?% under 1?Sun illumination. Under reduced light intensity (0.25?Sun), TiO2 -NF and TiO2 -NF/SWCNT-based DSSCs reached PCE values of up to 3.7?% and 6.6?%, respectively. PMID:26383499

  14. Lithium-rich layered oxide nanoplate/carbon nanofiber composites exhibiting extremely large reversible lithium storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We report a first example of 0.7Li2MnO3–0.3LiMO2 (LMO, M = Co, Ni, and Mn)/carbon composites. • Highly dispersed nanoplate-LMO/carbon nano fibers composites were successfully prepared. • Combination of ultracentrifugation material processing method and hydrothermal treatment. • A large discharge capacity of 326 mA h g−1(LMO) (228 mA h g−1(composite)) was obtained at 0.1 C. • The LMO/CNF composite maintained more than 70% of the initial capacity after 100 cycles at 1.0 C. - Abstract: Novel 0.7Li2MnO3–0.3LiMO2 (LMO, M = Co, Ni, and Mn) nanoplates were successfully synthesized on a carbon nanofiber (CNF) matrix using our original ultracentrifugation material processing method (UC treatment). The 2D dimension-controlled LMO nanoplates with a length of 100 nm on a side and a thickness of 5–10 nm coexist with CNF in the as-prepared composite owing to the application of an ultrahigh centrifugal force of 75,000G in combination with the hydrothermal method. This first-reported LMO nanoplate/CNF (70/30 by weight) composite exhibited an extremely large reversible capacity at 0.1 C of 326 mA h g−1, which is close to its theoretical value (327 mA h g−1). This high capacity is due to the hyper dispersed and highly crystalline LMO nanoplates entangled within the CNF matrix. The prepared LMO nanoplates are covered with a thin unidentified layer (2–5 nm in thickness). The composite shows a high capacity of ca. 240 mA h g−1 at 1 C as well as stable cycle performance, maintaining 70% of its initial capacity over 100 cycles

  15. Lithium-rich layered oxide nanoplate/carbon nanofiber composites exhibiting extremely large reversible lithium storage capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoi, Katsuhiko, E-mail: k-naoi@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8558 (Japan); Division of Art and Innovative Technologies, K and W Inc., 1-3-16-901 Higashi, Kunitachi, Tokyo 186-0002 (Japan); Advanced Capacitor Research Center, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8558 (Japan); Yonekura, Daisuke [Department of Applied Chemistry, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8558 (Japan); Nippon Chemi-Con Corp., 3-2-1 Sakado Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan); Advanced Capacitor Research Center, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8558 (Japan); Moriyama, Satoshi; Goto, Hidetomo; Iwama, Etsuro [Department of Applied Chemistry, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8558 (Japan); Kubota, Satoshi; Ishimoto, Shuichi [Nippon Chemi-Con Corp., 3-2-1 Sakado Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan); Advanced Capacitor Research Center, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8558 (Japan); Naoi, Wako [Division of Art and Innovative Technologies, K and W Inc., 1-3-16-901 Higashi, Kunitachi, Tokyo 186-0002 (Japan)

    2014-08-25

    Highlights: • We report a first example of 0.7Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}–0.3LiMO{sub 2} (LMO, M = Co, Ni, and Mn)/carbon composites. • Highly dispersed nanoplate-LMO/carbon nano fibers composites were successfully prepared. • Combination of ultracentrifugation material processing method and hydrothermal treatment. • A large discharge capacity of 326 mA h g{sup ?1}(LMO) (228 mA h g{sup ?1}(composite)) was obtained at 0.1 C. • The LMO/CNF composite maintained more than 70% of the initial capacity after 100 cycles at 1.0 C. - Abstract: Novel 0.7Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}–0.3LiMO{sub 2} (LMO, M = Co, Ni, and Mn) nanoplates were successfully synthesized on a carbon nanofiber (CNF) matrix using our original ultracentrifugation material processing method (UC treatment). The 2D dimension-controlled LMO nanoplates with a length of 100 nm on a side and a thickness of 5–10 nm coexist with CNF in the as-prepared composite owing to the application of an ultrahigh centrifugal force of 75,000G in combination with the hydrothermal method. This first-reported LMO nanoplate/CNF (70/30 by weight) composite exhibited an extremely large reversible capacity at 0.1 C of 326 mA h g{sup ?1}, which is close to its theoretical value (327 mA h g{sup ?1}). This high capacity is due to the hyper dispersed and highly crystalline LMO nanoplates entangled within the CNF matrix. The prepared LMO nanoplates are covered with a thin unidentified layer (2–5 nm in thickness). The composite shows a high capacity of ca. 240 mA h g{sup ?1} at 1 C as well as stable cycle performance, maintaining 70% of its initial capacity over 100 cycles.

  16. Factoring-in agglomeration of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers for better prediction of their toxicity versus asbestos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Ashley R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon nanotubes (CNT and carbon nanofibers (CNF are allotropes of carbon featuring fibrous morphology. The dimensions and high aspect ratio of CNT and CNF have prompted the comparison with naturally occurring asbestos fibers which are known to be extremely pathogenic. While the toxicity and hazardous outcomes elicited by airborne exposure to single-walled CNT or asbestos have been widely reported, very limited data are currently available describing adverse effects of respirable CNF. Results Here, we assessed pulmonary inflammation, fibrosis, oxidative stress markers and systemic immune responses to respirable CNF in comparison to single-walled CNT (SWCNT and asbestos. Pulmonary inflammatory and fibrogenic responses to CNF, SWCNT and asbestos varied depending upon the agglomeration state of the particles/fibers. Foci of granulomatous lesions and collagen deposition were associated with dense particle-like SWCNT agglomerates, while no granuloma formation was found following exposure to fiber-like CNF or asbestos. The average thickness of the alveolar connective tissue - a marker of interstitial fibrosis - was increased 28 days post SWCNT, CNF or asbestos exposure. Exposure to SWCNT, CNF or asbestos resulted in oxidative stress evidenced by accumulations of 4-HNE and carbonylated proteins in the lung tissues. Additionally, local inflammatory and fibrogenic responses were accompanied by modified systemic immunity, as documented by decreased proliferation of splenic T cells ex vivo on day 28 post exposure. The accuracies of assessments of effective surface area for asbestos, SWCNT and CNF (based on geometrical analysis of their agglomeration versus estimates of mass dose and number of particles were compared as predictors of toxicological outcomes. Conclusions We provide evidence that effective surface area along with mass dose rather than specific surface area or particle number are significantly correlated with toxicological responses to carbonaceous fibrous nanoparticles. Therefore, they could be useful dose metrics for risk assessment and management.

  17. 75 FR 80819 - Draft Current Intelligence Bulletin “Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ...Prevention [Docket Number NIOSH 161-A] Draft Current Intelligence Bulletin ``Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and...findings on the potential health risks. A draft Current Intelligence Bulletin entitled ``Occupational Exposure to Carbon...

  18. Magnetic amphiphilic composites based on carbon nanotubes and nanofibers grown on an inorganic matrix: effect on water-oil interfaces

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline A. S., Oliveira; Ivo F., Teixeira; Leandro P., Ribeiro; Juliana C., Tristão; Anderson, Dias; Rochel M., Lago.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Novos compósitos magnéticos anfifílicos foram preparados pelo crescimento de nanotubos e nanofibras de carbono contendo partículas magnéticas através de deposição química de vapor (CVD), utilizando etanol como fonte de carbono e lama vermelha (RM, subproduto do processo Bayer de produção de alumina) [...] como suporte e catalisador. Monitoramento da reação CVD à temperatura programada (TPCVD), difração de raios X (XRD), espectroscopia Mössbauer, espectroscopia de energia dispersiva (EDS), espectroscopia Raman, termogravimetria (TG/DTA), análise elementar (CHN), determinação de área superficial (BET), microscopia eletrônica de varredura (SEM) e de transmissão (TEM) e medidas magnéticas mostraram que etanol reduz íons de ferro na RM para formar fases magnéticas, por exemplo Fe3O4 e Fe0, e depósitos de carbono (5-42 wt.%) na forma de nanotubos e nanofibras. A combinação de nanoestruturas hidrofóbicas de carbono com óxidos hidrofílicos de Al, Si e Ti presentes na lama vermelha produziu materiais anfifílicos com excelente interação com a interface água-óleo. Misturas de óleo de soja ou de decalina com água (completamente imiscíveis) foram emulsificadas facilmente na presença dos compósitos anfifílicos. Quando os compósitos foram adicionados a uma emulsão água-biodiesel estável, as partículas anfifílicas difundiram-se para a interface água- óleo. As partículas do compósito foram atraídas por ímãs e carregaram com elas as gotas de óleo, levando à completa desemulsificação e separação entre biodiesel e água. Abstract in english New magnetic amphiphilic composites were prepared by the catalytic carbon vapor deposition (CVD) growth of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers using ethanol as carbon source and red mud waste (RM, a by-product of the Bayer process of alumina production) as catalyst and support. Temperature-programmed CV [...] D (TPCVD), analyses by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG/DTA), elemental analysis (CHN), superficial area determination (BET), scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopies and magnetic measurements showed that ethanol reduces the iron ions in the red mud to form magnetic phases, e.g., Fe3O4 and Fe0, and carbon deposits (5-42 wt.%), particularly nanotubes and nanofibers. The combination of the hydrophobic carbon nanostructures with the hydrophilic Al, Si and Ti oxides present in the RM produced amphiphilic materials with excellent interaction with the water-oil interface. Soybean oil or decalin mixtures with water (completely immiscible) were easily emulsified in the presence of the amphiphilic composites. When the composites were added to stable biodiesel-water emulsions, the amphiphilic particles diffused to the interface oil-water. These composite particles were attracted by a magnet, carrying the oil droplets with them and leading to the complete demulsification and separation of the biodiesel from the water.

  19. Synthesis and properties of SiNx coatings as stable fluorescent markers on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Pearce

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs in a catalytic dc ammonia/acetylene plasma process on silicon substrates is often accompanied by sidewall deposition of material that contains predominantly Si and N. In fluorescent microscopy experiments, whereby VACNFs are interfaced to cell and tissue cultures for a variety of applications, it was observed that this material is broadly fluorescent. In this paper, we provide insight into nature of these silicon/nitrogen in-situ coatings. We propose a potential mechanism for deposition of SiNx coating on the sidewalls of VACNFs during PECVD synthesis and explore the origin of the coating's fluorescence. It is most likely that the substrate reacts with process gases similar to reactive sputtering and chemical vapor deposition (CVD, forming silane and other silicon bearing compounds prior to isotropic deposition as a SiNx coating onto the VACNFs. The formation of Sinanoclusters (NCs is also implicated due to a combination of strong fluorescence and elemental analysis of the samples. These broadly luminescent fibers can prove useful as registry markers in fluorescent cellular studies and for tagging and tracing applications.

  20. Preparation of microporous carbon nanofibers from polyimide by using polyvinyl pyrrolidone as template and their capacitive performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, TrungHieu; Yang, Ying; Huang, Zhenghong; Kang, Feiyu

    2015-03-01

    A self-supported and binder-free micro-porous polyimide (PI)-based carbon fibers are prepared by polymer blend electrospinning technology and subsequent thermal treatment without activation and evaluated electrochemically for supercapacitor application. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) is successfully used as a pore forming template by controlling the crosslinking between PVP and PI precursor via imidization process. The maximal specific capacitance of 215 F g-1 based on a symmetrical two-electrode supercapacitor is achieved at 0.2 A g-1. The specific capacitance could still remain 113 F g-1 at 100 A g-1 with the retention ratio of 53%. It is noteworthy to mention that the energy density is 7.5 Wh kg-1 with power density of 0.05 kW kg-1 at a current density of 0.2 A g-1, and 5.0 Wh kg-1 with a high power density of 7.5 kW kg-1 at 30.0 A g-1. The maximum power density is 20.0 kW kg-1 with energy density of 3.0 Wh kg-1. The results indicate that the specific capacitance is not only attributed to optimized pore structures and surface chemistry but also attributed to the wettability of the electrolyte. The improved rate performance should be related to the reduced ion transportation distance derived from the nanofibers.

  1. Synthesis and properties of SiN coatings as stable fluorescent markers on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Ryan [North Carolina State University; Klein, Kate L [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Hensley, Dale K [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Melechko, Anatoli [North Carolina State University; McKnight, Timothy E [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The growth of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) in a catalytic dc ammonia/acetylene plasma process on silicon substrates is often accompanied by sidewall deposition of material that contains mostly Si and N. In fluorescent microscopy experiments, imaging VACNF interfacing to live cell cultures it turned out that this material is broadly fluorescent, which made VACNFs useful as spatial markers, or created nuisance when DNA-labeling got masked. In this paper we provide insight into nature of this silicon/nitrogen in situ coatings. Here we have proposed a potential mechanism for deposition of SiNx coating on the sidewalls of VACNFs during PECVD synthesis in addition to exploring the origin of the coatings fluorescence. It seems most likely that the substrate reacts with the process gases through both processes similar to reactive sputtering and CVD to form silane and other silicon bearing compounds before being deposited isotropically as a SiNx coating onto the VACNFs. The case for the presence of Si-NCs is made strong through a combination of the strong fluorescence and elemental analysis of the samples. These broadly luminescent fibers can prove useful as registry markers in fluorescent cellular studies.

  2. Sensitive simultaneous determination of catechol and hydroquinone using a gold electrode modified with carbon nanofibers and gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous determination of catechol (CC) and hydroquinone (HQ) was fabricated by electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles onto carbon nanofiber film pre-cast on an Au electrode. Both CC and HQ cause a pair of quasi-reversible and well-defined redox peaks at the modified electrode in pH 7.0 solution. Simultaneously, the oxidation peak potentials of CC and HQ become separated by 112 mV. When simultaneously changing the concentrations of both CC and HQ, the response is linear between 9.0 ?M and 1.50 mM. In the presence of 0.15 mM of the respective isomer, the electrode gives a linear response in the range from 5.0 to 350 ?M, and from 9.0 to 500 ?M for CC and HQ, respectively, and detection limits are 0.36 and 0.86 ?M. The method was successfully examined for real sample analysis with high selectivity and sensitivity. (author)

  3. Hollow Carbon Nanofibers Filled with MnO2 Nanosheets as Efficient Sulfur Hosts for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jintao; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2015-10-26

    Lithium-sulfur batteries have been investigated as promising electrochemical-energy storage systems owing to their high theoretical energy density. Sulfur-based cathodes must not only be highly conductive to enhance the utilization of sulfur, but also effectively confine polysulfides to mitigate their dissolution. A new physical and chemical entrapment strategy is based on a highly efficient sulfur host, namely hollow carbon nanofibers (HCFs) filled with MnO2 nanosheets. Benefiting from both the HCFs and birnessite-type MnO2 nanosheets, the MnO2 @HCF hybrid host not only facilitates electron and ion transfer during the redox reactions, but also efficiently prevents polysulfide dissolution. With a high sulfur content of 71?wt?% in the composite and an areal sulfur mass loading of 3.5?mg?cm(-2) in the electrode, the MnO2 @HCF/S electrode delivered a specific capacity of 1161?mAh?g(-1) (4.1?mAh?cm(-2) ) at 0.05?C and maintained a stable cycling performance at 0.5?C over 300?cycles. PMID:26349817

  4. Early Combination of Material Characteristics and Toxicology Is Useful in the Design of Low Toxicity Carbon Nanofiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore Syversen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach for the early combination of material characterization and toxicology testing in order to design carbon nanofiber (CNF with low toxicity. The aim was to investigate how the adjustment of production parameters and purification procedures can result in a CNF product with low toxicity. Different CNF batches from a pilot plant were characterized with respect to physical properties (chemical composition, specific surface area, morphology, surface chemistry as well as toxicity by in vitro and in vivo tests. A description of a test battery for both material characterization and toxicity is given. The results illustrate how the adjustment of production parameters and purification, thermal treatment in particular, influence the material characterization as well as the outcome of the toxic tests. The combination of the tests early during product development is a useful and efficient approach when aiming at designing CNF with low toxicity. Early quality and safety characterization, preferably in an iterative process, is expected to be efficient and promising for this purpose. The toxicity tests applied are preliminary tests of low cost and rapid execution. For further studies, effects such as lung inflammation, fibrosis and respiratory cancer are recommended for the more in-depth studies of the mature CNF product.

  5. A novel electrochemical sensor of bisphenol A based on stacked graphene nanofibers/gold nanoparticles composite modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a novel and convenient electrochemical sensor based on stacked graphene nanofibers (SGNF) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) composite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was developed for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA). The AuNPs/SGNF modified electrode showed an efficient electrocatalytic role for the oxidation of BPA, and the oxidation overpotentials of BPA were decreased significantly and the peak current increased greatly compared with bare GCE and other modified electrode. The transfer electron number (n) and the charge transfer coefficient (?) were calculated with the result as n = 4, ? = 0.52 for BPA, which indicated the electrochemical oxidation of BPA on AuNPs/SGNF modified electrode was a four-electron and four-proton process. The effective surface areas of AuNPs/SGNF/GCE increased for about 1.7-fold larger than that of the bare GCE. In addition, the kinetic parameters of the modified electrode were calculated and the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks) was 0.51 s?1. Linear sweep voltammetry was applied as a sensitive analytical method for the determination of BPA and a good linear relationship between the peak current and BPA concentration was obtained in the range from 0.08 to 250 ?M with a detection limit of 3.5 × 10?8 M. The modified electrode exhibited a high sensitivity, long-term stability and remarkable reproducible analytical performance and was successfully applied for the determination of BPA in baby bottles with satisfying results

  6. Co-production of hydrogen and carbon nanofibers from methane decomposition over zeolite Y supported Ni catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Methane cracking requires an optimum temperature range of 550–600 °C for H2 yield. • At 550 and 600 °C, catalyst showed longer activity for the whole test. • At 600 °C, a 614.25 gc/gNi of carbon was obtained using 30% Ni/Y zeolite catalysts. • Produced filamentous carbon has the same diameter as the metallic nickel itself. • VHSV has reverse and non-linear relevancy to the weight of Ni/Y zeolite catalyst. - Abstract: The objective of this paper is to study the influences of different operating conditions on the hydrogen formation and properties of accumulated carbon from methane decomposition using zeolite Y supported 15% and 30% Ni, respectively, at a temperature range between 500 and 650 °C in a pilot scale fixed bed reactor. The temperature ramp was showed a significant impact on the thermo-catalytic decomposition (TCD) of methane. An optimum temperature range of 550–600 °C were required to attain the maximum amount of methane conversion and revealed that at 550 and 600 °C, catalyst showed longer activity for the whole studied of experimental runs. Additionally, at 550 °C, the methane decomposition is two times longer for 30% Ni/Y zeolite than that for 15% Ni/Y zeolite catalyst, whereas it is almost three times higher at 500 °C. A maximum carbon yield of 614.25 and 157.54 gc/gNi were reported after end of the complete reaction at 600 °C with 30% and 15% Ni/Y zeolite catalyst, respectively. From BET, TPD, and XRD analysis, we had reported that how the chemistry between the TCD of methane and metal content of the catalysts could significantly affect the hydrogen production as well as carbon nano-fibers. TEM analysis ensured that the produced carbon had fishbone type structures with a hollow core and grew from crystallites of Ni anchored on the external surface of the catalysts and irrespective of the metal loadings, the whisker types of nano filaments were formed as confirmed from FESEM analysis. Nevertheless, the effect of volume hourly space velocity (VHSV) on the methane conversion was also investigated and reported that the methane conversion increased as VHSV and nickel concentration in Ni–Y catalysts increased. Additionally, the initial methane decomposition rate increases with VHSV and it has reverse and non-linear relevancy to the weight of Ni/Y zeolite catalyst

  7. Radiation-Induced Changes of Thermal Properties of Polypropylene Carbon Nanofibers Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Rafael; Cristian Chipara, Alin; Mion, Thomas; Hamilton, John; Adhikari, Ananta; Ibrahim, Elamin I.; Lozano, Karen; Magdalena Chipara, Dorina; Tidrow, Steven; Chipara, Mircea

    2010-03-01

    Dispersion of nanostructures within polymeric matrices affects their thermal properties and stability. Shifts, convolutions, and splitting of the main transitions (glass transition, melting transition, and crystallization temperature) were reported. In most cases, the thermal decomposition of the polymeric matrix is delayed or shifted towards higher temperatures. Nevertheless, little is known about the effect of ionizing radiation on the thermal stability and phase transitions in such nanocomposites. Spectroscopic investigations of radiation-induced modifications in isotactic polypropylene (iPP)-vapor grown nanofiber composites (VGCNF) are reported. VGCNFs were dispersed within iPP by extrusion at 180^oC. Composites containing various amounts of VGCNFs ranging from 0 to 20 % were prepared and subjected to gamma irradiation, at room temperature, at various integral doses (10 MGy, 20 MGy, and 30 MGy). Thermal characteristics were of iPP-VGCNF composites were measured by TGA, DSC, and DMA. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the Welch Foundation, Air Force Research Laboratory (FA8650-07-2-5061), and US Army Research Laboratory/Office (W911NF-08-1-0353).

  8. Porous Core-Shell Fe3C Embedded N-doped Carbon Nanofibers as an Effective Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guangyuan; Lu, Xianyong; Li, Yunan; Zhu, Ying; Dai, Liming; Jiang, Lei

    2016-02-17

    The development of nonprecious-metal-based electrocatalysts with high oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity, low cost, and good durability in both alkaline and acidic media is very important for application of full cells. Herein, we developed a facile and economical strategy to obtain porous core-shell Fe3C embedded nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (Fe3C@NCNF-X, where X denotes pyrolysis temperature) by electrospinning of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and FeCl3 mixture, chemical vapor phase polymerization of pyrrole, and followed by pyrolysis of composite nanofibers at high temperatures. Note that the FeCl3 and polypyrrole acts as precursor for Fe3C core and N-doped carbon shell, respectively. Moreover, PVDF not only plays a role as carbon resources, but also provides porous structures due to hydrogen fluoride exposure originated from thermal decomposition of PVDF. The resultant Fe3C@NCNF-X catalysts, particularly Fe3C@NCNF-900, showed efficient electrocatalytic performance for ORR in both alkaline and acidic solutions, which are attributed to the synergistic effect between Fe3C and N-doped carbon as catalytic active sites, and carbon shell protects Fe3C from leaching out. In addition, the Fe3C@NCNF-X catalyst displayed a better long-term stability, free from methanol crossover and CO-poisoning effects than those of Pt/C, which is of great significance for the design and development of advanced electrocatalysts based on nonprecious metals. PMID:26808226

  9. Carbon and Binder-Free Air Electrodes Composed of Co3O 4 Nanofibers for Li-Air Batteries with Enhanced Cyclic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan Kyu; Park, Yong Joon

    2015-12-01

    In this study, to fabricate a carbon free (C-free) air electrode, Co3O4 nanofibers were grown directly on a Ni mesh to obtain Co3O4 with a high surface area and good contact with the current collector (the Ni mesh). In Li-air cells, any C present in the air electrode promotes unwanted side reactions. Therefore, the air electrode composed of only Co3O4 nanofibers (i.e., C-free) was expected to suppress these side reactions, such as the decomposition of the electrolyte and formation of Li2CO3, which would in turn enhance the cyclic performance of the cell. As predicted, the Co3O4-nanofiber electrode successfully reduced the accumulation of reaction products during cycling, which was achieved through the suppression of unwanted side reactions. In addition, the cyclic performance of the Li-air cell was superior to that of a standard electrode composed of carbonaceous material. PMID:26264685

  10. Development of Radiation Processing to Functionalize Carbon Nanofiber to Use in Nanocomposites for Industrial Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of ionizing radiation on carbon materials have been thoroughly investigated because of its importance in the fields of nuclear, medical, and materials science. Basically, the effect of ionizing radiation on carbon materials takes place as a displacement of carbon atoms from their amorphous or graphitic structures. For nanocarbon materials, only destructive effects were observed in early experiments involving bombardment of carbon nanotubes and fullerenes with ions. However, recent work reveals that radiation can exploit defect creation for novel materials development especially in electronic nanotechnology (Krasheninnikov et al., 2007)

  11. Fabrication of carbon nanowires by pyrolysis of aqueous solution of sugar within asbestos nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butko, V. Yu.; Fokin, A. V.; Nevedomskii, V. N.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.

    2015-05-01

    Carbon nanowires have been fabricated by pyrolysis of an aqueous solution of sugar in nanochannels of asbestos fibers. Electron microscopy demonstrates that the diameter of these nanochannels corresponds to the diameter of the thinnest of the carbon nanowires obtained. Some of these nanowires have a graphite crystal lattice and internal pores. After asbestos is etched out, the carbon nanowires can retain the original shape of the asbestos fibers. Heating in an inert atmosphere reduces the electrical resistivity of the carbon nanowires to ˜0.035 ? cm.

  12. Large Scale Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibres on Sodium Chloride Support

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindra Rajarao; Badekai Ramachandra Bhat

    2012-01-01

    Large scale synthesis of carbon nanofibres (CNFs) on a sodium chloride support has been achieved. CNFs have been synthesized using metal oxalate (Ni, Co and Fe) as catalyst precursors at 680 ?C by chemical vapour deposition method. Upon pyrolysis, this catalyst precursors yield catalyst nanoparticles directly. The sodium chloride was used as a catalyst support, it was chosen because of its non?toxic and water soluble nature. Problems, such as the detrimental effect of CNFs, the detrimental ef...

  13. Thermal Conductivity of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer/Carbon Nanofiller Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, S.; Watson, K. A.; Working, D. C.; Connell, J. W.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Lin, Y.; Sun, Y. P.

    2007-01-01

    To reduce weight and increase the mobility, comfort, and performance of future spacesuits, flexible, thermally conductive fabrics and plastic tubes are needed for the Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment. Such improvements would allow astronauts to operate more efficiently and safely for extended extravehicular activities. As an approach to raise the thermal conductivity (TC) of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (Elvax 260), it was compounded with three types of carbon based nanofillers: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), vapor grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and expanded graphite (EG). In addition, other nanofillers including metallized CNFs, nickel nanostrands, boron nitride, and powdered aluminum were also compounded with Elvax 260 in the melt at various loading levels. In an attempt to improve compatibility between Elvax 260 and the nanofillers, MWCNTs and EG were modified by surface coating and through noncovalent and covalent attachment of organic molecules containing alkyl groups. Ribbons of the nanocomposites were extruded to form samples in which the nanofillers were aligned in the direction of flow. Samples were also fabricated by compression molding to yield nanocomposites in which the nanofillers were randomly oriented. Mechanical properties of the aligned samples were determined by tensile testing while the degree of dispersion and alignment of nanoparticles were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. TC measurements were performed using a laser flash (Nanoflash ) technique. TC of the samples was measured in the direction of, and perpendicular to, the alignment direction. Additionally, tubing was also extruded from select nanocomposite compositions and the TC and mechanical flexibility measured.

  14. Integrated fast assembly of free-standing lithium titanate/carbon nanotube/cellulose nanofiber hybrid network film as flexible paper-electrode for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shaomei; Feng, Xin; Song, Yuanyuan; Xue, Xin; Liu, Hongjiang; Miao, Miao; Fang, Jianhui; Shi, Liyi

    2015-05-27

    A free-standing lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12)/carbon nanotube/cellulose nanofiber hybrid network film is successfully assembled by using a pressure-controlled aqueous extrusion process, which is highly efficient and easily to scale up from the perspective of disposable and recyclable device production. This hybrid network film used as a lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrode has a dual-layer structure consisting of Li4Ti5O12/carbon nanotube/cellulose nanofiber composites (hereinafter referred to as LTO/CNT/CNF), and carbon nanotube/cellulose nanofiber composites (hereinafter referred to as CNT/CNF). In the heterogeneous fibrous network of the hybrid film, CNF serves simultaneously as building skeleton and a biosourced binder, which substitutes traditional toxic solvents and synthetic polymer binders. Of importance here is that the CNT/CNF layer is used as a lightweight current collector to replace traditional heavy metal foils, which therefore reduces the total mass of the electrode while keeping the same areal loading of active materials. The free-standing network film with high flexibility is easy to handle, and has extremely good conductivity, up to 15.0 S cm(-1). The flexible paper-electrode for LIBs shows very good high rate cycling performance, and the specific charge/discharge capacity values are up to 142 mAh g(-1) even at a current rate of 10 C. On the basis of the mild condition and fast assembly process, a CNF template fulfills multiple functions in the fabrication of paper-electrode for LIBs, which would offer an ever increasing potential for high energy density, low cost, and environmentally friendly flexible electronics. PMID:25938940

  15. 75 FR 80819 - Draft Current Intelligence Bulletin “Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Draft Current Intelligence Bulletin... risks. A draft Current Intelligence Bulletin entitled ``Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and..., telephone number, and relevant business affiliations of the presenter, topic of the presentation, and ]...

  16. Electrospinning of ceramic nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Benjamin M.

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) nanofibers of diameters as low as 20 nm are fabricated. The fibers were produced through the electrostatic spinning of the preceramic poly(carbomethylsilane) with pyrolysis to ceramic. A new technique was used where the preceramic was blended with polystyrene (PS) and, subsequent to electrospinning, was exposed to UV to crosslink the PS and prevent fibers flowing during pyrolysis. Electrospun SiC fibers were characterized by FTIR, TGA-DTA, SEM, TEM, XRD, and SAED. Fibers were shown to be polycrystalline and nanograined with alpha-SiC 15R polytype being dominant, where commercial fiber production methods form beta-SiC 3C. Pyrolysis of the bulk polymer blend to SiC produced alpha-SiC 15R as the dominant polytype with larger grains showing that electrospinning nanofibers affects resultant crystallinity. Fibers produced were shown to have a core-shell structure of an oxide scale that was variable by pyrolysis conditions. Metal oxide powders (chromium oxide, cobalt oxide, iron oxide, silicon oxide, tantalum oxide, titanium oxide, tungsten oxide, vanadium oxide, and zirconium oxide), were converted to metal carbide powders and metal nitride powders by the process of carbothermal reduction (CTR). Synthetic pitch was explored as an alternative to graphite which is a common carbon source for CTR. It was shown via characterization with XRD that pitch performs as well and in some cases better than graphite and is therefore a viable alternative in CTR. Conversion of metal oxide powders with pitch led to conversion of sol-gel based metal oxide nanofibers produced by electrospinning. Pitch was soluble in the solutions xv that were electrospun allowing for intimate contact between the sol-gel and the carbon source for CTR. This method became a two step processing method to produce metal carbide and nitride nanofibers: first electrospin sol-gel based metal oxide nanofibers and subsequently pyrolize them in the manner of CTR to transform them. Results indicate that this method was capable of transforming hafnium, niobium, tantalum, titanium, vanadium, and zirconium sol-gel nanofibers to metal carbides and nitrides.

  17. Mechanisms for catalytic carbon nanofiber growth studied by ab initio density functional theory calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Rostrup-Nielsen, Jens; Sehested, Jens; Helveg, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Mechanisms and energetics of graphene growth catalyzed by nickel nanoclusters were studied using ab initio density functional theory calculations. It is demonstrated that nickel step-edge sites act as the preferential growth centers for graphene layers on the nickel surface. Carbon is transported...

  18. The production of carbon nanofibers and thin films on palladium catalysts from ethylene oxygen mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Doorn, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Atwater, Mark [UNM MECH.ENG.; Leseman, Zayd [UNM MECH.ENG.; Luhrs, Claudia C [UNM ENG.MECH; Diez, Yolanda F [SPAIN; Diaz, Angel M [SPAIN

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of carbonaceous materials deposited in fuel rich ethylene-oxygen mixtures on three types of palladium: foil, sputtered film, and nanopowder, are reported. It was found that the form of palladium has a dramatic influence on the morphology of the deposited carbon. In particular, on sputtered film and powder, tight 'weaves' of sub-micron filaments formed quickly. In contrast, on foils under identical conditions, the dominant morphology is carbon thin films with basal planes oriented parallel to the substrate surface. Temperature, gas flow rate, reactant flow ratio (C2H4:02), and residence time (position) were found to influence both growth rate and type for all three forms of Pd. X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, temperature-programmed oxidation, and Raman spectroscopy were used to assess the crystallinity of the as-deposited carbon, and it was determined that transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were the most reliable methods for determining crystallinity. The dependence of growth on reactor position, and the fact that no growth was observed in the absence of oxygen support the postulate that the carbon deposition proceeds by combustion generated radical species.

  19. Introduction of aldehyde vs. carboxylic groups to cellulose nanofibers using laccase/TEMPO mediated oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaušovec, Darja; Vogrin?i?, Robert; Kokol, Vanja

    2015-02-13

    The chemo-enzymatic modification of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) using laccase as biocatalysts and TEMPO or 4-Amino-TEMPO as mediators under mild aqueous conditions (pH 5, 30 °C) has been investigated to introduce surface active aldehyde groups. 4-Amino TEMPO turned out to be kinetically 0.5-times (50%) more active mediator, resulting to oxoammonium cation intermediacy generated and its in situ regeneration during the modification of CNFs. Accordingly, beside of around 750 mmol/kg terminally-located aldehydes, originated during CNFs isolation, the reaction resulted to about 140% increase of C6-located aldehydes at optimal conditions, without reducing CNFs crystallinity. While only the C6-aldehydes were wholly transformed into the carboxyls after additional post-treatment using NaOH according to the Cannizzaro reaction, the post-oxidation with air-oxygen in EtOH/water medium or NaClO2 resulted to no- or very small amounts of carboxyls created, respectively, at a simultaneous loss of all C6- and some terminal-aldehydes in the latter due to the formation of highly-resistant hemiacetal covalent linkages with available cellulose hydroxyls. The results indicated a new way of preparing and stabilizing highly reactive C6-aldehydes on cellulose, and their exploitation in the development of new nanocellulose-based materials. PMID:25458275

  20. Effect of thermal treatment on the properties of electrospun LiFePO4–carbon nanofiber composite cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The composites prepared with the thermal treatment process of stabilization at 280 °C for 4 h with a heating rate of 2 °C min?1 in air followed by carbonization at 800 °C for 14 h with a heating rate of 2 °C min?1 in argon exhibit the optimal electrochemical properties. - Highlights: • Binder-free LiFePO4–CNF composite cathode materials are prepared. • The conductive carbon and LiFePO4 formation take place simultaneously during thermal treatment. • The reaction behavior of the LiFePO4 precursors during thermal treatment are investigated. • Different thermal treatment processes would generate different electrochemical performance. • Cycling performance and rate capability are improved with a suitable thermal treatment condition. - Abstract: Binder-free LiFePO4–carbon nanofiber (LiFePO4–CNF) composites as lithium-ion battery cathode materials are fabricated by electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatments. The thermal decomposition behavior of the electrospun LiFePO4 precursor–polyacrylonitrile (LiFePO4 precursor–PAN) nanofiber composites and the reaction of the LiFePO4 precursors during thermal treatment are investigated. The effects of thermal treatment parameters such as heating rate, temperature, and duration for stabilization and carbonization on the microstructure, morphology, carbon content, crystal structure of the composites, and electrochemical performance of the resultant half-cell are also studied. When the electrospun LiFePO4 precursor–PAN nanofiber composites are first stabilized in air at 280 °C for 4 h with a heating rate of 2 °C min?1 and then carbonized in argon at 800 °C for 14 h with a heating rate of 2 °C min?1, the obtained LiFePO4–CNF composites exhibit optimal electrochemical properties in terms of a higher initial discharge capacity, more stable charge–discharge cycle behavior, and better rate performance. The initial discharge capacity of the composites is 146.3 mA h g?1 at a rate of 0.5 C, while exhibiting a stable cycle performance up to 100 cycles. The results demonstrated that the LiFePO4–CNF composite cathode materials could be a promising candidate for next-generation lithium-ion batteries and the thermal treatment process is a critical step to prepare LiFePO4–CNF composites with optimal performances

  1. Flame Synthesis of Single- and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWal, R. L.; Ticich, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    Metal-catalyzed carbon nanotubes are highly sought for a diverse range of applications that include nanoelectronics, battery electrode material, catalysis, hydrogen storage media and reinforcing agents in polymer composites. These latter applications will require vast quantities of nanotubes at competitive prices to be economically feasible. Moreover, reinforcing applications may not require ultrahigh purity nanotubes. Indeed, functionalization of nanotubes to facilitate interfacial bonding within composites will naturally introduce defects into the tube walls, lessening their tensile strength. Current methods of aerosol synthesis of carbon nanotubes include laser ablation of composite targets of carbon and catalyst metal within high temperature furnaces and decomposition of a organometallics in hydrocarbons mixtures within a tube furnace. Common to each approach is the generation of particles in the presence of the reactive hydrocarbon species at elevated temperatures. In the laser-ablation approach, the situation is even more dynamic in that particles and nanotubes are borne during the transient cooling phase of the laser-induced plasma for which the temperature far exceeds that of the surrounding hot gases within the furnace process tube. A shared limitation is that more efficient methods of nanoparticle synthesis are not readily incorporated into these approaches. In contrast, combustion can quite naturally create nanomaterials such as carbon black. Flame synthesis is well known for its commercial scalability and energy efficiency. However, flames do present a complex chemical environment with steep gradients in temperature and species concentrations. Moreover, reaction times are limited within buoyant driven flows to tens of milliseconds. Therein microgravity can greatly lessen temperature and spatial gradients while allowing independent control of flame residence times. In preparation for defining the microgravity experiments, the work presented here focuses on the effect of catalyst particle size and reactant gas in 1g.

  2. Electrical, Mechanical, and Morphological Characterization of Carbon Nanotube filled Polymeric Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorga, Russell; Clarke, Laura; McCullen, Seth; Ojha, Satyajeet; Roberts, Wesley

    2006-03-01

    This work focuses on the inclusion of conductive nanotubes into polymeric matrices with the end goal of creating conductive nanocomposites. This investigation has been carried out by uniform dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyethylene oxide (PEO), which are inherently nonconductive polymers. To fabricate these structures we are using the electrospinning process encompassing an array of collection methods including parallel bars and a static plate. Carbon nanotubes are known to have excellent electrical conductivity and mechanical properties. This investigation shows that the inclusion of carbon nanotubes increases the electronic conduction in these polymers and enhances the mechanical properties of the composites. Dispersion of these nanotubes is the key factor in this process; gum Arabic and surfactants have been utilized for the dispersion of these nanotubes. Conductivity measurements have been carried out by two point probe method and by performing sensitive current and conductance measurements with a femtoammeter. Further morphological characterization has been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).^1 Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry, and Science ^2 Department of Physics

  3. Growth mechanisms of carbon nanotrees with branched carbon nanofibers synthesized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    OpenAIRE

    He, Zhanbing; Maurice, Jean-Luc; Lee, Chang Seok; Cojocaru, Costel Sorin; Pribat, D.

    2014-01-01

    Y- and comb-type carbon nanotrees formed from branched carbon nanofibres grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition were studied by transmission electron microscopy. Different growth mechanisms are proposed for the two types of nanotrees based on the observed and reconstituted dynamic transformations of the catalyst particles during synthesis. However, the splitting of the larger catalyst particles is required for both kinds of nanotrees, whatever the involved growth mechanism. The c...

  4. The Optimization of Electrical Conductivity Using Central Composite Design for Polyvinyl Alcohol/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube-Manganese Dioxide Nanofiber Composites Synthesised by Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research reports the characterization and statistical analysis of electrical conductivity optimization for polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT-manganese dioxide (MnO2 nanofiber composite. The Central Composite Design (CCD, the most common design of Response Surface Methodology (RSM had been used to optimise the synthesis process of PVA/MWCNT-MnO2 nanofiber composite. The process parameters studied were; applied voltage (16 kV - 30 kV, solution flow rate (3- 5 mL h-1 and surrounding temperature (17-30°C. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to analyse the experimental results. The prediction of optimum value and the clarification of the interactions between the specified range factors were done by using the quadratic model. The results revealed that at the parameter condition of 23 kV for applied voltage, 4 mL h-1 solution flow rate and 18°C of surrounding temperature, the highest electrical conductivity of 2.66x10-5 S cm-1 was obtained. The predicted (2.81 x10-5 S cm-1 value after optimization process was in good agreement with the experimental data (3.06 x10-5 S cm-1. The model was able to accurately predict the response of electrical conductivity with less than 10% error. Referring to ANOVA results, it was statistically found that the surrounding temperature parameter given significant effect to electrical conductivity of PVA/MWCNT-MnO2 nanofiber composite in both single parameter and interaction between parameter.

  5. Carbon Nanofiber-Based, High-Frequency, High-Q, Miniaturized Mechanical Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Epp, Larry W.; Bagge, Leif

    2011-01-01

    High Q resonators are a critical component of stable, low-noise communication systems, radar, and precise timing applications such as atomic clocks. In electronic resonators based on Si integrated circuits, resistive losses increase as a result of the continued reduction in device dimensions, which decreases their Q values. On the other hand, due to the mechanical construct of bulk acoustic wave (BAW) and surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators, such loss mechanisms are absent, enabling higher Q-values for both BAW and SAW resonators compared to their electronic counterparts. The other advantages of mechanical resonators are their inherently higher radiation tolerance, a factor that makes them attractive for NASA s extreme environment planetary missions, for example to the Jovian environments where the radiation doses are at hostile levels. Despite these advantages, both BAW and SAW resonators suffer from low resonant frequencies and they are also physically large, which precludes their integration into miniaturized electronic systems. Because there is a need to move the resonant frequency of oscillators to the order of gigahertz, new technologies and materials are being investigated that will make performance at those frequencies attainable. By moving to nanoscale structures, in this case vertically oriented, cantilevered carbon nanotubes (CNTs), that have larger aspect ratios (length/thickness) and extremely high elastic moduli, it is possible to overcome the two disadvantages of both bulk acoustic wave (BAW) and surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators. Nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS) that utilize high aspect ratio nanomaterials exhibiting high elastic moduli (e.g., carbon-based nanomaterials) benefit from high Qs, operate at high frequency, and have small force constants that translate to high responsivity that results in improved sensitivity, lower power consumption, and im - proved tunablity. NEMS resonators have recently been demonstrated using topdown, lithographically fabricated ap - proaches to form cantilever or bridgetype structures. Top-down approaches, however, rely on complicated and expensive e-beam lithography, and often require a release mechanism. Reso - nance effects in structures synthesized using bottom-up approaches have also recently been reported based on carbon nanotubes, but such approaches have relied on a planar two-dimensional (2D) geometry. In this innovation, vertically aligned tubes synthesized using a bottom- up approach have been considered, where the vertical orientation of the tubes has the potential to increase integration density even further. The simulation of a vertically oriented, cantilevered carbon nanotube was performed using COMSOL Multi - physics, a finite element simulation package. All simulations were performed in a 2D geometry that provided consistent results and minimized computational complexity. The simulations assumed a vertically oriented, cantilevered nanotube of uniform density (1.5 g/cu cm). An elastic modulus was assumed to be 600 GPa, relative permittivity of the nanotube was assumed to be 5.0, and Poisson s ratio was assumed to be 0.2. It should be noted that the relative permittivity and Poisson s ratio for the nanotubes of interest are not known accurately. However, as in previous simulations, the relative permittivity and Poisson s ratios were treated as weak variables in the simulation, and no significant changes were recognized when these variables were varied.

  6. High-Yield Synthesis of Helical Carbon Nanofibers Using Iron Oxide Fine Powder as a Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Suda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanocoil (CNC, which is synthesized by a catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD method, has a coil diameter of 300–900 nm and a length of several tens of ?m. Although it is very small, CNC is predicted to have a high mechanical strength and hence is expected to have a use in nanodevices such as electromagnetic wave absorbers and field emitters. For nanodevice applications, it is necessary to synthesize CNC in high yield and purity. In this study, we improved the conditions of catalytic layer formation and CCVD. Using optimized CVD conditions, a CNC layer with a thickness of >40 ?m was grown from a SnO2/Fe2O3/SnO2 catalyst on a substrate, and its purity increased to 81% ± 2%.

  7. Molecular dynamics simulations of neat vinyl ester and vapor-grown carbon nanofiber/vinyl ester resin composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Changwoon

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to investigate the system equilibrium through the atomic/molecular interactions of a liquid vinyl ester (VE) thermoset resin with the idealized surfaces of both pristine vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNFs) and oxidized VGCNFs. The VE resin has a mole ratio of styrene to bisphenol-A-diglycidyl dimethacrylate VE monomers consistent with a commercially available 33 wt% styrene VE resin (Derakane 441-400). The VGCNF-VE resin interactions may influence the distribution of the liquid VE monomers in the system and the formation of an interphase region. Such an interphase may possess a different mole ratio of VE resin monomers at the vicinity of the VGCNF surfaces compared to the rest of the system after resin curing. Bulk nano-reinforced material properties are highly dependent on the interphase features because of the high surface area to volume ratio of nano-reinforcements. For example, higher length scale micromechanical calculations suggest that the volume fraction and properties of the interphase can have a profound effect on bulk material properties. Interphase formation, microstructure, geometries, and properties in VGCNF-reinforced polymeric composites have not been well characterized experimentally, largely due to the small size of typical nano-reinforcements and interphases. Therefore, MD simulations offer an alternative means to probe the nano-sized formation of the interphase and to determine its properties, without having to perform fine-scale experiments. A robust crosslinking algorithm for VE resin was then developed as a key element of this research. VE resins are crosslinked via free radical copolymerization account for regioselectivity and monomer reactivity ratios. After the VE crosslinked network was created, the constitutive properties of the resin were calculated. This algorithm will be used to crosslink equilibrated VE resin systems containing both pristine and oxidized VGCNFs. An understanding of formation and kinematics of a crosslinked network obtained via MD simulations can facilitate nanomaterials design and can reduce the amount of nanocomposite experiments required. VGCNF pull-out simulations will then be performed to determine the interfacial shear strength between VGCNFs and the matrix. Interphase formation, thickness and interfacial shear strength can directly feed into higher length scale micromechanical models within a global multiscale analysis framework.

  8. Synergetic role of nanoparticles and micro-scale short carbon fibers on the mechanical profiles of epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It was demonstrated in our previous work that the combined carbon nanofibers (CNFs and microsized short carbon fibers (SCFs in epoxy (EP leads to significant improvements in the mechanical properties of the matrix. In this work, the effect of nano-SiO2 particles, having an extremely different aspect ratio from CNFs, on the tensile property and fracture toughness of SCFs-filled EP was studied. It was revealed that the combined use of SCFs and silica nanoparticles exerts a synergetic effect on the mechanical and fracture properties of EP. Application of SCFs and the nanoparticles is an effective way to greatly enhance the modulus, strength and fracture toughness of the EP simultaneously. The synergetic role of the multiscale fillers was explained by prominent changes in the stress state near the microsized fillers and the plastic zone ahead of the crack tip. The synergetic role of multiscale fillers is expected to open up new opportunities to formulate highperformance EP composites.

  9. Tiny Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles embedded in carbon nanofibers as high-capacity and long-life anode materials for both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Tang, Kun; Song, Kepeng; van Aken, Peter A; Yu, Yan; Maier, Joachim

    2013-12-28

    Tiny Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles embedded in carbon nanofibers (Li4Ti5O12@C hierarchical nanofibers) were synthesized using a scalable synthesis technique involving electrospinning and annealing in an Ar atmosphere for the purpose of using them as anode materials for high-capacity and high-rate-capability Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. The Li4Ti5O12@C hierarchical nanofibers exhibited high stable discharge capacities of about 145.5 mA h g(-1) after 1000 cycles at 10C for the Li-ion battery anode. For Na-ion storage performance, a reversible capacity of approximately 162.5 mA h g(-1) is stably maintained at 0.2C during the first 100 cycles. PMID:24202186

  10. Effects of pore structure on the high-performance capacitive deionization using chemically activated carbon nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ji Sun; Kim, Jong Gu; Lee, Young-Seak

    2014-03-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) electrodes were constructed from activated carbon fibers prepared using electrospinning and chemical activation. The CDI efficiencies of these electrodes were studied as a function of their specific surface areas, pore volumes and pore sizes via salt ion adsorption. The specific surface areas increased approximately 90 fold and the pore volume also increased approximately 26 fold with the use of greater amounts of the chemical activation agent. There was a relative increase in the mesopore fraction with higher porosity. A NaCI solution was passed through a prepared CDI system, and the salt removal efficiency of the CDI system was determined by the separation of the Na+ and Cl- ions toward the anode and cathode. The CDI efficiency increased with greater specific surface areas and pore volumes. In addition, the efficiency per unit pore volume increased with a reduction in the micropore fraction, resulting in the suppressed overlapping effect. In conclusion, the obtained improvements in CDI efficiency were mainly attributed to mesopores, but the micropores also played an important role in the high-performance CDI under conditions of high applied potential and high ion concentrations. PMID:24745222

  11. Effective Infiltration of Gel Polymer Electrolyte into Silicon-Coated Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers as Anodes for Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gaind P; Klankowski, Steven A; Li, Yonghui; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan; Wu, Judy; Rojeski, Ronald A; Li, Jun

    2015-09-23

    This study demonstrates the full infiltration of gel polymer electrolyte into silicon-coated vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (Si-VACNFs), a high-capacity 3D nanostructured anode, and the electrochemical characterization of its properties as an effective electrolyte/separator for future all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries. Two fabrication methods have been employed to form a stable interface between the gel polymer electrolyte and the Si-VACNF anode. In the first method, the drop-casted gel polymer electrolyte is able to fully infiltrate into the open space between the vertically aligned core-shell nanofibers and encapsulate/stabilize each individual nanofiber in the polymer matrix. The 3D nanostructured Si-VACNF anode shows a very high capacity of 3450 mAh g(-1) at C/10.5 (or 0.36 A g(-1)) rate and 1732 mAh g(-1) at 1C (or 3.8 A g(-1)) rate. In the second method, a preformed gel electrolyte film is sandwiched between an Si-VACNF electrode and a Li foil to form a half-cell. Most of the vertical core-shell nanofibers of the Si-VACNF anode are able to penetrate into the gel polymer film while retaining their structural integrity. The slightly lower capacity of 2800 mAh g(-1) at C/11 rate and ?1070 mAh g(-1) at C/1.5 (or 2.6 A g(-1)) rate have been obtained, with almost no capacity fade for up to 100 cycles. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy does not show noticeable changes after 110 cycles, further revealing the stable interface between the gel polymer electrolyte and the Si-VACNFs anode. These results show that the infiltrated flexible gel polymer electrolyte can effectively accommodate the stress/strain of the Si shell due to the large volume expansion/contraction during the charge-discharge processes, which is particularly useful for developing future flexible solid-state lithium-ion batteries incorporating Si-anodes. PMID:26325385

  12. Well-aligned cellulose nanofiber-reinforced polyvinyl alcohol composite film: Mechanical and optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jie; Chen, Jingyao; Zhang, Qian; Lei, Miao; He, Jingren; Xiao, Anhong; Ma, Chengjie; Li, Sha; Xiong, Hanguo

    2016-04-20

    Uniaxially aligned cellulose nanofibers (CNFs), which are fabricated by electrospinning of cellulose acetate derived from bamboo cellulose (B-CA) followed by deacetylation, were used as reinforcements to make optically transparent composite films. We examined the effects of B-CA concentration and electrospinning parameters (e.g. spinning distance, and collection speed) on fiber morphology and orientation, which act on mechanical-to-optical properties of the CNFs-reinforced composites. Consequently, the resultant composite film exhibits high visible-light transmittance even with high fiber content, as well as improved mechanical properties. The understanding obtained from this study may facilitate the development of novel nanofibrous materials for various optical uses. PMID:26876850

  13. Polymethylsilsesquioxane-cellulose nanofiber biocomposite aerogels with high thermal insulation, bendability, and superhydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayase, Gen; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi; Abe, Kentaro; Yano, Hiroyuki; Maeno, Ayaka; Kaji, Hironori; Nakanishi, Kazuki

    2014-06-25

    Polymethylsilsesquioxane-cellulose nanofiber (PMSQ-CNF) composite aerogels have been prepared through sol-gel in a solvent containing a small amount of CNFs as suspension. Since these composite aerogels do not show excessive aggregation of PMSQ and CNF, the original PMSQ networks are not disturbed. Composite aerogels with low density (0.020 g cm(-3) at lowest), low thermal conductivity (15 mW m(-1) K(-1)), visible light translucency, bending flexibility, and superhydrophobicity thus have been successfully obtained. In particular, the lowest density and bending flexibility have been achieved with the aid of the physical supporting effect of CNFs, and the lowest thermal conductivity is comparable with the original PMSQ aerogels and standard silica aerogels. The PMSQ-CNF composite aerogels would be a candidate to practical high-performance thermal insulating materials. PMID:24865571

  14. Rheological and physical properties of gelatin suspensions containing cellulose nanofibers for potential coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ricardo D; Skurtys, Olivier; Osorio, Fernando; Zuluaga, Robin; Gañán, Piedad; Castro, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    Rheological and physical properties of edible coating formulations containing gelatin, cellulose nanofibers (CNFs), and glycerol are characterized. Measured properties are analyzed in order to optimize edible coating thickness. Results show that coating formulations density increases linearly with gelatin concentration in presence of CNFs. Surface tension decreases with either gelatin or CNF concentration increases. Power law model well described the rheological behavior of edible coating formulations since determination coefficient was high (R(2 )> 0.98) and standard error was low (SE < 0.0052). Formulations showed pseudoplastic (shear-thinning) flow behavior and no time-dependent features were observed. The flow behavior index was not significantly affected by any factor. Consistency coefficient increases with gelatin concentrations but it decreases with glycerol concentrations. PMID:24831643

  15. Kinetics and deactivation mechanisms of the thermal decomposition of methane in hydrogen and carbon nanofiber Co-production over Ni-supported Y zeolite-based catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Methane cracking requires an optimum temperature range of 550–600 °C for H2 yield. • Reaction order and activation energy were 2.65 and 61.77 kJ/mol, respectively. • At 600 °C, a 496.40 gc/gNi of carbon was obtained using 30% Ni/Y zeolite catalysts. • Deactivation order and activation energy were 1.2, and 94.03 kJ/mol, respectively. • Produced filamentous carbon has the same diameter as the metallic nickel itself. - Abstract: This paper reports the reaction rate and deactivation kinetics of methane decomposition by using zeolite Y as the support and Ni as the active phase in a fixed bed reactor at a temperature range of 500 °C to 650 °C and at partial pressures of methane/nitrogen mixture of 0.2, 0.35, and 0.5 atm. The reaction order and activation energy were 2.65 and 61.77 kJ/mol, respectively. To quantify catalytic activity, carbon deposition rate was taken into consideration, which showed that the actual and thermodynamically predicted accumulated carbons were in good balance. Deactivation order, methane concentration dependency, and activation energy were 1.2, −1.28, and 94.03 kJ/mol, respectively. The kinetic experiment indicates that the optimum temperature range should be maintained to achieve the highest performance from 30% Ni/Y zeolite in terms of hydrogen formation rate, average hydrogen formation rate, total hydrogen formation, average carbon formation, total carbon formation, and carbon formation rate. TEM and XRD analysis were performed to characterize the deactivated, fresh, and calcined catalysts, and the results indicated that the formed filamentous carbon has the same diameter as the metallic nickel itself. The influence of volume hourly space velocity (VHSV) on methane conversion and carbon nanofiber production was also discussed

  16. Decomposição catalítica da hidrazina sobre irídio suportado em compósitos à base de nanofibras de carbono para propulsão espacial: testes em condições reais Catalytic decomposition of hydrazine over iridium supported on carbon nanofiber composites for propulsion in space: tests under real-life conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Vieira; Demétrio Bastos Netto; Pierre Bernhardt; Marc-Jacques Ledoux; Cuong Pham-Huu

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present the catalytic performance of iridium supported on carbon nanofibers with macroscopic shaping in a 2 N hydrazine microthruster placed inside a vacuum chamber in order to reproduce real-life conditions. The performances obtained are compared to those of the commercial catalyst Shell 405. The carbon-nanofiber based catalyst showed better performance than the commercial catalyst from the standpoint of activity due to its texture and its thermal conductivity.

  17. Decomposição catalítica da hidrazina sobre irídio suportado em compósitos à base de nanofibras de carbono para propulsão espacial: testes em condições reais Catalytic decomposition of hydrazine over iridium supported on carbon nanofiber composites for propulsion in space: tests under real-life conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vieira

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the catalytic performance of iridium supported on carbon nanofibers with macroscopic shaping in a 2 N hydrazine microthruster placed inside a vacuum chamber in order to reproduce real-life conditions. The performances obtained are compared to those of the commercial catalyst Shell 405. The carbon-nanofiber based catalyst showed better performance than the commercial catalyst from the standpoint of activity due to its texture and its thermal conductivity.

  18. Simulation of the Impact of Si Shell Thickness on the Performance of Si-Coated Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber as Li-Ion Battery Anode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susobhan Das

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro- and nano-structured electrodes have the potential to improve the performance of Li-ion batteries by increasing the surface area of the electrode and reducing the diffusion distance required by the charged carriers. We report the numerical simulation of Lithium-ion batteries with the anode made of core-shell heterostructures of silicon-coated carbon nanofibers. We show that the energy capacity can be significantly improved by reducing the thickness of the silicon anode to the dimension comparable or less than the Li-ion diffusion length inside silicon. The results of simulation indicate that the contraction of the silicon electrode thickness during the battery discharge process commonly found in experiments also plays a major role in the increase of the energy capacity.

  19. Multidimensional MnO2 nanohair-decorated hybrid multichannel carbon nanofiber as an electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jaemoon; Lee, Jun Seop; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Sung Gun; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-09-01

    One-dimensional (1D)-structured nanomaterials represent one of the most attractive candidates for energy-storage systems due to their contribution to design simplicity, fast charge-transportation network, and their allowance for more accessible ion diffusion. In particular, 1D-structured nanomaterials with a highly complex inner-pore configuration enhance functionality by taking advantage of both the hollow and 1D structures. In this study, we report a MnO2 nanohair-decorated, hybrid multichannel carbon nanofiber (Mn_MCNF) fabricated via single-nozzle co-electrospinning of two immiscible polymer solutions, followed by carbonization and redox reactions. With improved ion accessibility, the optimized Mn_MCNF sample (Mn_MCNF_60 corresponding to a reaction duration time of 60 min for optimal MnO2 nanohair growth) exhibited a high specific capacitance of 855 F g-1 and excellent cycling performance with ~87.3% capacitance retention over 5000 cycles.One-dimensional (1D)-structured nanomaterials represent one of the most attractive candidates for energy-storage systems due to their contribution to design simplicity, fast charge-transportation network, and their allowance for more accessible ion diffusion. In particular, 1D-structured nanomaterials with a highly complex inner-pore configuration enhance functionality by taking advantage of both the hollow and 1D structures. In this study, we report a MnO2 nanohair-decorated, hybrid multichannel carbon nanofiber (Mn_MCNF) fabricated via single-nozzle co-electrospinning of two immiscible polymer solutions, followed by carbonization and redox reactions. With improved ion accessibility, the optimized Mn_MCNF sample (Mn_MCNF_60 corresponding to a reaction duration time of 60 min for optimal MnO2 nanohair growth) exhibited a high specific capacitance of 855 F g-1 and excellent cycling performance with ~87.3% capacitance retention over 5000 cycles. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental data includes optical images, TGA, magnified pore distribution curves and supercapacitor device of the MCNF and Mn_MCNF. See DOI: 10.1039/C5NR03616J

  20. Electrospun porous carbon nanofiber@MoS2 core/sheath fiber membranes as highly flexible and binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yue-E.; Huang, Yunpeng; Zhang, Longsheng; Fan, Wei; Lai, Feili; Liu, Tianxi

    2015-06-01

    Self-standing membranes of porous carbon nanofiber (PCNF)@MoS2 core/sheath fibers have been facilely obtained through a combination of electrospinning, high-temperature carbonization and the solvothermal reaction. PCNF fibers with porous channels are used as building blocks for the construction of hierarchical PCNF@MoS2 composites where thin MoS2 nanosheets are uniformly distributed on the PCNF surface. Thus, a three-dimensional open structure is formed, which provides a highly conductive pathway for rapid charge-transfer reactions, as well as greatly improving the surface active sites of MoS2 for fast lithiation/delithiation of Li+ ions. The highly flexible PCNF@MoS2 composite membrane electrode exhibits synergistically improved electrochemical performance with a high specific capacity of 954 mA h g-1 upon the initial discharge, a high rate capability of 475 mA h g-1 even at a high current density of 1 A g-1, and good cycling stability with almost 100% retention after 50 cycles, indicating its potential application as a binder-free anode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.Self-standing membranes of porous carbon nanofiber (PCNF)@MoS2 core/sheath fibers have been facilely obtained through a combination of electrospinning, high-temperature carbonization and the solvothermal reaction. PCNF fibers with porous channels are used as building blocks for the construction of hierarchical PCNF@MoS2 composites where thin MoS2 nanosheets are uniformly distributed on the PCNF surface. Thus, a three-dimensional open structure is formed, which provides a highly conductive pathway for rapid charge-transfer reactions, as well as greatly improving the surface active sites of MoS2 for fast lithiation/delithiation of Li+ ions. The highly flexible PCNF@MoS2 composite membrane electrode exhibits synergistically improved electrochemical performance with a high specific capacity of 954 mA h g-1 upon the initial discharge, a high rate capability of 475 mA h g-1 even at a high current density of 1 A g-1, and good cycling stability with almost 100% retention after 50 cycles, indicating its potential application as a binder-free anode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02711j

  1. A carbon fiber-ZnS nanocomposite for dual application as an efficient cold cathode as well as a luminescent anode for display technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Arunava; Sarkar, Sudipta Kumar; Sen, Dipayan; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the current work we present a simple technique to develop a carbon nanofiber (CNF)/zinc sulfide (ZnS) composite material for excellent FED application. CNFs and ZnS microspheres were synthesized by following a simple thermal chemical vapor deposition and hydrothermal procedure, respectively. A rigorous chemical mixture of CNF and ZnS was prepared to produce the CNF-ZnS composite material. The cathodo-luminescence intensity of the composite improved immensely compared to pure ZnS, also the composite material showed better field emission than pure CNFs. For pure CNF the turn-on field was found to be 2.1 V ?m-1 whereas for the CNF-ZnS composite it reduced to a value of 1.72 V ?m-1. Altogether the composite happened to be an ideal element for both the anode and cathode of a FED system. Furthermore, simulation of our CNF-ZnS composite system using the finite element modeling method also ensured the betterment of field emission from CNF after surface attachment of ZnS nanoclusters.

  2. Graphitized carbon nanofiber-Pt nanoparticle hybrids as sensitive tool for preparation of screen printing biosensors. Detection of lactate in wines and ciders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiza, Oscar A; Lamas-Ardisana, Pedro J; Añorga, Larraitz; Jubete, Elena; Ruiz, Virginia; Borghei, Maryam; Cabañero, Germán; Grande, Hans J

    2015-02-01

    This work describes the fabrication of a new lactate biosensor. The strategy is based on the use of a novel hybrid nanomaterial for amperometric biosensors i.e. platinum nanoparticles (PtNps) supported on graphitized carbon nanofibers (PtNps/GCNF) prepared by chemical reduction of the Pt precursor at GCNF surfaces. The biosensors were constructed by covalent immobilization of lactate oxidase (LOx) onto screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) modified with PtNps (PtNps/GCNF-SPCEs) using polyethyleneimine (PEI) and glutaraldehyde (GA). Experimental variables concerning both the biosensor design and the detection process were investigated for an optimal analytical performance. Lactate biosensors show good reproducibility (RSD 4.9%, n=10) and sensitivity (41,302±546) ?A/Mcm(2), with a good limit of detection (6.9?M). Covalent immobilization of the enzyme allows the reuse of the biosensor for several measurements, converting them in a cheap alternative to the solid electrodes. The long-term stability of the biosensors was also evaluated. 90% of the signal was kept after 3months of storage at room temperature (RT), while 95% was retained after 18months at -20°C. These results demonstrate that the method provides sensitive electrochemical lactate biosensors where the stability of the enzymatic activity can be preserved for a long period of time in adequate storage conditions. PMID:25108199

  3. Preparation of a novel PAN/cellulose acetate-Ag based activated carbon nanofiber and its adsorption performance for low-concentration SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-bo; Bi, Jun; Lou, Ting; Song, Tie-ben; Yu, Hong-quan

    2015-04-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN), PAN/cellulose acetate (CA), and PAN/CA-Ag based activated carbon nanofiber (ACNF) were prepared using electrostatic spinning and further heat treatment. Thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) analysis indicated that the addition of CA or Ag did not have a significant impact on the thermal decomposition of PAN materials but the yields of fibers could be improved. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the micromorphologies of produced fibers were greatly influenced by the viscosity and conductivity of precursor solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis proved that a cyclized or trapezoidal structure could form and the carbon scaffold composed of C=C bonds appeared in the PAN-based ACNFs. The characteristic diffraction peaks in X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra were the evidence of a turbostratic structure and silver existed in the PAN/CA-Ag based ACNF. Brunner-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis showed that the doping of CA and Ag increased surface area and micropore volume of fibers; particularly, PAN/CA-Ag based ACNF exhibited the best porosity feature. Furthermore, SO2 adsorption experiments indicated that all the three fibers had good adsorption effects on lower concentrations of SO2 at room temperature; especially, the PAN/CA-Ag based ACNF showed the best adsorption performance, and it may be one of the most promising adsorbents used in the fields of chemical industry and environment protection.

  4. In situ fabrication of Ni(OH){sub 2} nanofibers on polypyrrole-based carbon nanotubes for high-capacitance supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Jianzhang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Mi, Hongyu, E-mail: mmihongyu@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Xu, Youlong, E-mail: ylxuxjtu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Gao, Bo [Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ? Facile surface decoration approach to highly porous Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNT composites. ? Polypyrrole-based CNTs form three-dimensional electron-transport channels. ? A high capacitance of 1118 F g{sup ?1} at 50 mA cm{sup ?2} is delivered. ? Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNT composites exhibit high discharge capability. - Abstract: Large-scale nickel hydroxide–carbon [Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNT] networks with three-dimensional electron-transport channels are synthesized via a facile and general surface-decoration approach, using polypyrrole-derived CNTs as the support. Flexible Ni(OH){sub 2} nanofibers with a diameter of 5–10 nm and a length of 50–120 nm are intertwined and wrapped homogenously on carbon networks, leading to the formation of more complex networks. When used as supercapacitor electrodes, this designed architecture with large surface area, abundant pores and good electrical conductivity is very important in technology. It can promote the bulk accessibility of electrolyte OH{sup ?} and diffusion rate within the redox phase. Consequently, an unusual specific capacitance of 1745 F g{sup ?1} can be obtained for Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNT composite at 30 mA cm{sup ?2}. Even at a high rate (50 mA cm{sup ?2}), the composite can also deliver a specific capacitance as high as 1118 F g{sup ?1}, exhibiting the potential application for supercapacitors.

  5. Use of TX100-dangled epoxy as a reactive noncovalent dispersant of vapor-grown carbon nanofibers in an aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yubing; Wang, Rui; Li, Shan; Yang, Hongbing; Du, Mingliang; Fu, Yaqin

    2013-02-01

    The dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into individual particles or small bundles has remained a vexing problem that limits the use of the excellent properties of CNTs in composite applications. Noncovalent functionalization is an attractive option for changing the interfacial properties of nanotubes because it does not destroy the nanotube grapheme structure. In this study, a new reactive copolymer, epoxy-toluene diisocyanate-Triton X-100 (EP-TDI-TX100) was successfully synthesized, which is shown to be highly effective in dispersing vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNFs) into individual or small bundles, as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis absorption spectra. The strong ?-? interaction between VGCNFs and EP-TDI-TX100 was revealed by Raman spectra and the covalent reaction between curing agent was confirmed via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. For an effective dispersion, the optimum weight ratio of EP-TDI-TX100 to VGCNFs is 2:1. The maximum VGCNF concentration that can be homogeneously dispersed in an aqueous solution is approximately 0.64 mg/mL. The EP-TDI-TX100 molecules are adsorbed on the VGCNF surface and prevent reaggregation of VGCNFs, so that a colloidal stability of VGCNF dispersion can be maintained for 6 months. PMID:23116860

  6. Mechanical properties of simultaneously synthesized and consolidated carbon nanofiber (CNF)-dispersed SiC composites by pulsed electric-current pressure sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF) dispersed ?-SiC composites with the addition of 0.2 mass% boron and 2.0 mass% carbon as sintering aids have been synthesized and consolidated simultaneously from mixtures of Si, amorphous C and B powders and CNF by pulsed electric-current pressure sintering (PECPS). Synthesis and consolidation process, which were observed from their expansion and shrinkage curves during PECPS, have been examined using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy for the powder compacts. CNF/SiC composites sintered at 1800 deg. C for 10 min under 40 MPa in a vacuum have ?96.0% of theoretical density and homogeneous structures consisting of ?4.0 ?m grains. A 10 vol% CNF/SiC composite exhibited excellent mechanical properties: a bending strength of ?720 MPa, a Vickers hardness of ?26.0 GPa, and a fracture toughness of ?5.5 MPa m1/2. High-temperature bending strength of ?890 MPa at 1200 deg. C in air was attained with the same nanocomposites

  7. Achieving highly dispersed nanofibres at high loading in carbon nanofibre-metal composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jianli; Nash, Philip; Li, Jiajun; Shi, Chunsheng; Zhao, Naiqin

    2009-06-01

    In order to tap into the advantages of the properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or carbon nanofibres (CNFs) in composites, the high dispersion of CNTs (or CNFs) and strong interfacial bonding are the key issues which are still challenging. In the current work, a novel approach, consisting of in situ synthesis of CNFs within the Cu powders and mixing Cu ions with the in situ CNF(Ni/Y)-Cu composite powders in a solvent, was developed to highly disperse CNFs in a Cu matrix. The composite, produced by vacuum hot pressing, shows extremely high strength, 3.6 times more than that of the matrix material alone. It is worth mentioning that this method can disperse CNFs at high loading in a metal matrix, inferring good potential for applications, such as electronic packaging materials.

  8. Achieving highly dispersed nanofibres at high loading in carbon nanofibre-metal composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)