Sample records for carbon 16

  1. Carbon monoxide in the environs of the star WR 16

    CERN Document Server

    Duronea, N U; Bronfman, L


    We analyze the carbon monoxide emission around the star WR 16 aiming to chieve a better understanding of the interaction between massive stars with their surroundings. We study the molecular gas in a region of 86.'4 x 86.'4 in size using CO (J=1-0) and 13CO (J=1-0) line data obtained with the 4-m NANTEN telescope. Radio continuum archival data at 4.85 GHz, obtained from the Parkes-MIT-NRAO Southern Radio Survey, are also analyzed to account for the ionized gas. Available IRAS (HIRES) 60 and 100 microns images are used to study the characteristics of the dust around the star. Our new CO and 13CO data allow the low/intermediate density molecular gas surrounding the WR nebula to be completely mapped. We report two molecular features at -5 km/s and -8.5 km/s (component 1 and component 2, respectively) having a good morphological resemblance with the Halpha emission of the ring nebula. Component 2 seems to be associated with the external ring, whilst component 1 is placed at the interface between component 2 and t...

  2. Use of laser spectroscopy to measure the 13C/12C and 18O/16O compositions of carbonate minerals. (United States)

    Barker, Shaun L L; Dipple, Gregory M; Dong, Feng; Baer, Douglas S


    The stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of carbonate minerals are utilized throughout the earth and environmental sciences for various purposes. Here, we demonstrate the first application of a prototype instrument, based on off-axis integrated cavity output laser spectroscopy, to measure the carbon and oxygen isotope composition of CO(2) gas evolved from the acidification of carbonate minerals. The carbon and oxygen isotope ratios were recorded from absorption spectra of (12)C(16)O(16)O, (13)C(16)O(16)O, and (12)C(16)O(18)O in the near-infrared wavelength region. The instrument was calibrated using CaCO(3) minerals with known δ(13)C(VPDB) and δ(18)O(VSMOW) values, which had been previously calibrated by isotope ratio mass spectrometry relative to the international isotopic standards NBS 18 and NBS 19. Individual analyses are demonstrated to have internal precision (1 SE) of better than 0.15‰ for δ(13)C and 0.6‰ for δ(18)O. Analysis of four carbonate standards of known isotopic composition over 2 months, determined using the original instrumental calibration, indicates that analyses are accurate to better than 0.5‰ for both δ(13)C and δ(18)O without application of standard-sample-standard corrections. PMID:21341717

  3. Carbon Ion Radiotherapy in Advanced Hypofractionated Regimens for Prostate Cancer: From 20 to 16 Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Tohru [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Tsuji, Hiroshi, E-mail: [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Kamada, Tadashi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Akakura, Koichiro; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Shimazaki, Jun [Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Tsujii, Hirohiko [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)


    Purpose: To assess the effects of differences in dose fractionation on late radiation toxicity and biochemical control in patients with prostate cancer treated with carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT). Methods and Materials: A total of 740 prostate cancer patients who received C-ion RT between April 2000 and February 2009 were analyzed. Of those, 664 patients followed for at least 1 year were analyzed with regard to late radiation toxicity. Biochemical relapse-free (BRF) and overall survival (OS) rates in patient subgroups with each dose-fractionation were analyzed. Results: Only 1 case of grade 3 genitourinary (GU) morbidity was observed in 20 fractions, and none of the patients developed higher grade morbidities. The incidence of late GU toxicity in patients treated with 16 fractions was lower than that of patients treated with 20 fractions. The OS rate and BRF rate of the entire group at 5 years were 95.2% and 89.7%, respectively. The 5-year BRF rate of the patients treated with 16 fractions of C-ion RT (88.5%) was comparable to that of the patients treated with 20 fractions (90.2%). Conclusion: C-ion RT of 57.6 GyE (the physical C-ion dose [Gy] Multiplication-Sign RBE) in 16 fractions could offer an even lower incidence of genitourinary toxicity and comparable BRF rate than that in 20 fractions. Advancement in hypofractionation could be safely achieved with C-ion RT for prostate cancer.

  4. 2004 Molecular Basis of Microbial One-Carbon Metabolism Gordon Conference - August 1-6, 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph A. Krzycki


    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on 2004 Molecular Basis of Microbial One-Carbon Metabolism Gordon Conference - August 1-6, 2004 was held at Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, MA from August 1-6, 2004. The Conference was well-attended with 117 participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. In designing the formal speakers program, emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions. In order that more scientists could communicate their most recent results, poster presentation time was scheduled. Attached is a copy of the formal schedule and speaker program and the poster program. In addition to these formal interactions, 'free time' was scheduled to allow informal discussions. Such discussions are fostering new collaborations and joint efforts in the field.

  5. Study of 16O(12C,α20Ne)α for the investigation of carbon-carbon fusion reaction via the Trojan Horse Method (United States)

    Rapisarda, G. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Bordeanu, C.; Hons, Z.; Kiss, G. G.; La Cognata, M.; Mrazek, J.; Nita, C.; Pantelica, D.; Petrascu, H.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Szücs, T.; Trache, L.; Tumino, A.; Velisa, G.


    Carbon-carbon fusion reaction represents a nuclear process of great interest in astrophysics, since the carbon burning is connected with the third phase of massive stars (M > 8 M⊙) evolution. In spite of several experimental works, carbon-carbon cross section has been measured at energy still above the Gamow window moreover data at low energy present big uncertainty. In this paper we report the results about the study of the 16O(12C,α 20Ne)α reaction as a possible three-body process to investigate 12C(12C,α)20Ne at astrophysical energy via Trojan Horse Method (THM). This study represents the first step of a program of experiments aimed to measure the 12C+12C cross section at astrophysical energy using the THM.

  6. The effect of carbon distribution on deformation and cracking of Ni-16Cr-9Fe-C alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests and constant load tensile (CLT) tests were conducted on controlled purity Ni-16Cr-9Fe-C alloys. The amount and form of carbon were varied in order to investigate the roles of carbon in solution and as intergranular (IG) carbides in the deformation and IG cracking behavior in 360 C argon and primary water environments. Results show that the strength, ductility and creep resistance of these alloys are increased with carbon present in solid solution, while IG cracking on the fracture surface is suppressed. Alloys containing carbon in the form of IG carbides, however, exhibit reduced strength and ductility relative to carbon in solution, while maintaining high IG cracking resistance with respect to carbon-free alloys. CERT results of commercial alloy 600 and controlled purity, carbon containing alloys yield comparable failure strains and IG cracking amounts. CLT comparisons with creep tests of alloy 600 suggest that alloys containing IG carbides are more susceptible to creep than those containing all carbon in solid solution

  7. Carbon and Oxygen Isotopic Stratigraphy of Mesoproterozoic Carbonate Sequences (1.6–1.4 Ga from Yanshan in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang Hongwei


    Full Text Available In Yanshan, located in the northern part of North China, Mesoproterozoic carbonate sequences (1.6–1.4 Ga form a 10, 000 m thick succession in an aulacogen basin. Carbon and oxygen isotope (δ13O and δ18O, resp. data were obtained from 110 carbonate samples across three sections of these Mesoproterozoic deposits. From the early to late Mesoproterozoic, low negative values of δ13O appear, followed by low positive variation and then a stable increase. An abrupt decrease in δ13O values, with subsequent rapid increase, is found at the end of the Mesoproterozoic. During the whole Mesoproterozoic, δ18O shows a mainly negative trend and occasional highly negative isotopic shifts (from lower to upper deposits. Whole-rock carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions and profiles must be studied to provide a paleogeochemical record that can be associated with paleocean sedimentary environments, temperature, biological productivity, and sea-level fluctuations. Results of the present study correlate well with other international carbon and oxygen isotope profiles, suggesting that a global marine geochemical system existed during the interval of 1.6–1.4 Ga under a globally united tectonic, sedimentary, and geochemical background.

  8. Heterogeneous synthesis of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate from 1,6-hexanediamine and methyl carbonate in methanol over a CeO2 catalyst☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Cao; Huiquan Li; Xintao Li; Liguo Wang; Ganyu Zhu; Qing Tang


    The efficient synthesis of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate (HDC) from 1,6-hexanediamine (HDA) and methyl carbonate over a series of heterogeneous catalysts (e.g., MgO, Fe2O3, Mo2O3, and CeO2) was investigated. The reaction pathway was confirmed as an alcoholysis reaction through a series of designed experiments. Under optimized conditions, 100%HDA conversion with 83.1%HDCtotal and 16.9%polyurea was obtained using a one-step with high temperature procedure with CeO2 as the catalyst. A new two-step with variable temperature technol-ogy was developed based on the reaction pathway to reduce the polyurea yield. Using the proposed method, the HDCtotal yield reached 95.2%, whereas the polyurea yield decreased to 4.8%. The CeO2 catalyst showed high stability and did not exhibit any observable decrease in the HDC yield or any structural changes after four recycling periods. © 2014 The Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China, and Chemical Industry Press. Al rights reserved.

  9. 13C/12C and 18O/16O in calcium carbonate-cemented beach sands ('beach rocks')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the stable isotope composition (C13/C12 and O18/O16) of the cement and the local groundwater in Itaparica Island (Salvador-Brazil) is carried out to determine the origin of the carbonate cement. For area A, the cement has Δ13C = 9% showing that CO2 in groundwater charged by decay of organic material is the source of carbonate in the cement. Probably comentation occurs during loss of excess CO2 from groundwater as comes into an environment where loss of CO2 is possible . In area B, where the cements contain, on the average Δ18O v=1,3%, the cement is formed from carbonate typical of sea water or a mixture of sea water and fresh water. (Autor)

  10. Genomic organization of the human gene (CA5) and pseudogene for mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase V and their localization to chromosomes 16q and 16p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yoshiro; Sly, W.S.; Batanian, J.R. [St. Louis Univ. School of Medicine, MO (United States)] [and others


    Carbonic anhydrase V (CA V) is expressed in mitochondrial matrix in liver and several other tissues. It is of interest for its putative roles in providing bicarbonate to carbamoyl phosphate synthetase for ureagenesis and to pyruvate carboxylase for gluconeogenesis and its possible importance in explaining certain inherited metabolic disorders with hyperammonemia and hypoglycemia. Following the recent characterization of the cDNA for human CA V, we report the isolation of the human gene from two {lambda} genomic libraries and its characterization. The CA V gene (CA5) is approximately 50 kb long and contains 7 exons and 6 introns. The exon-intron boundaries are found in positions identical to those determined for the previously described CA II, CA III, and CA VII genes. Like the CA VII gene, CA5 does not contain typical TATA and CAAT promoter elements in the 5{prime} flanking region but does contain a TTTAA sequence 147 nucleotides upstream of the initiation codon. CA5 also contains a 12-bp GT-rich segment beginning 13 bp downstream of the polyadenylation signal in the 3{prime} untranslated region of exon 7. FISH analysis allowed CA5 to be assigned to chromosome 16q24.3. An unprocessed pseudogene containing sequence homologous to exons 3-7 and introns 3-6 was also isolated and was assigned by FISH analysis to chromosome 16p11.2-p12. 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. An Environmentally Benign Access to Dimethylated 1,6-Dihydropyrimidines Using Dimethyl Carbonate as Methylating Agent under Microwave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xi-Cun; QUAN Zheng-Jun; ZHANG Zhang


    An environmentally benign procedure for dimethylated 1,6-dihydropyrimidines has been developed by the reaction of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-2-thiones with dimethyl carbonate, a non-toxic and environmentally friendly reagent.The methylation of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-2-thione was promoted by MgO and tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) under microwave.This protocol avoids the use of strong bases and highly toxic methylating agents such as methyl halide or dimethyl sulfate.Additionally, the possible role of MgO/TBAB in the reaction was also presented.

  12. Interactions of 13.6-GeV/nucleon 16O and 28Si with carbon, aluminum, and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections for forming 24Na and 18F by the interactions of 13.6-GeV/nucleon 16O and 28Si ions with Al and for forming 24Na in 16O interactions with Cu have been measured relative to the cross section for forming 11C from carbon. The results are generally consistent with energy-independent inclusive cross sections (limiting fragmentation) for heavy ions between ∼2 and 13.6 GeV/nucleon. However, comparison of the heavy-ion data with those for high-energy protons indicates a significantly weaker dependence on projectile size than that predicted by the factorization hypothesis for σC(11C), σAl(18F), and σAl(24Na). The dependence is slightly stronger in the case of σCu(24Na)

  13. Carbon ion induced DNA double-strand breaks in melanophore B16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in melanophore B16 induced by plateau and extended Bragg peak of 75 MeV/u 12C6+ ions were studied by using a technique of inverse pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PIGE). DNA fragment lengths were distributed in two ranges: the larger in 1.4 Mbp-3.2 Mbp and the smaller in less than 1.2 Mbp. It indicates that distribution of DNA fragments induced by heavy ion irradiation is not stochastic and there probably are sensitive sites to heavy ions in DNA molecules of B16. Percentage of DNA released from plug (PR) increased and trended towards a quasi-plateau ∝85% as dose increased. Content of the larger fragments decreased and flattened with increasing dose while content of the smaller ones increased and trended towards saturation. (orig.)

  14. Carbon ion induced DNA double-strand breaks in melanophore B{sub 16}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Zengquan; Zhou Guangming; Wang Jufang; He Jing; Li Qiang; Li Wenjian; Xie Hongmei; Cai Xichen; Tao Huang; Dang Bingrong; Han Guangwu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China). Inst. of Modern Physics; Gao Qingxiang [Lanzhou Univ. (China)


    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in melanophore B{sub 16} induced by plateau and extended Bragg peak of 75 MeV/u {sup 12}C{sup 6+} ions were studied by using a technique of inverse pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PIGE). DNA fragment lengths were distributed in two ranges: the larger in 1.4 Mbp-3.2 Mbp and the smaller in less than 1.2 Mbp. It indicates that distribution of DNA fragments induced by heavy ion irradiation is not stochastic and there probably are sensitive sites to heavy ions in DNA molecules of B{sub 16}. Percentage of DNA released from plug (PR) increased and trended towards a quasi-plateau {proportional_to}85% as dose increased. Content of the larger fragments decreased and flattened with increasing dose while content of the smaller ones increased and trended towards saturation. (orig.)

  15. Phase transformations in low-carbon manganese steel 6Mn16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lis


    Full Text Available The kinetics of phase transformations of the austenite of 6Mn16 steel during continuous cooling are presented in a CCT diagram. Manganese partitioning between ferrite and austenite during intercritical annealing is enhanced by prior soft annealing. Due to the increased Mn concentration in austenite, the temperatures BS and MS have decreased, as compared to those achieved during cooling from the complete austenite region.

  16. Potential Probiotic Escherichia coli 16 Harboring the Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin Gene Improves Gastrointestinal Tract Colonization and Ameliorates Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasant Kumar


    Full Text Available The present study describes the beneficial effects of potential probiotic E. coli 16 (pUC8:16gfp expressing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb gene, associated with bacterial respiration under microaerobic condition, on gastrointestinal (GI colonization and its antioxidant activity on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced toxicity in Charles Foster rats. In vitro, catalase activity in E. coli 16 (pUC8:16gfp was 1.8 times higher compared to E. coli 16 (pUC-gfp control. In vivo, E. coli 16 (pUC8:16gfp not only was recovered in the fecal matter after 70 days of oral administration but also retained antibacterial activities, whereas E. coli 16 (pUC-gfp was not detected. Oral administration of 200 and 500 μL/kg body weight of CCl4 to rats at weekly interval resulted in elevated serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase (SGPT and serum glutamyl oxalacetate transaminase (SGOT levels compared to controls. Rats prefed with E. coli 16 (pUC8:16gfp demonstrated near to normal levels for SGPT and SGOT, whereas the liver homogenate catalase activity was significantly increased compared to CCl4 treated rats. Thus, pUC8:16gfp plasmid encoding vgb improved the growth and GI tract colonization of E. coli 16. In addition, it also enhanced catalase activity in rats harboring E. coli 16 (pUC8:16gfp, thereby preventing the absorption of CCl4 to GI tract.

  17. A DFT study on the mechanism of palladium-catalyzed divergent reactions of 1,6-enyne carbonates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xing Hui Zhang; Zhi Yuan Geng; Teng Niu; Ke Tai Wang


    The reaction mechanisms of palladium-catalyzed divergent reactions of 1,6-enyne carbonates have been investigated using DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) (LanL2DZ for Pd) level. Solvent effects on these reactions have been considered by the polarizable continuum model (PCM) for the solvent (DMF). The formation of vinylidenepyridines and vinylidenepyrrolidines were generated through 5-exo-dig cyclization or 6-endo-dig cyclization. Our calculation results suggested the following: (i) The first step of the whole cycle is the rate-determining step, which causes allenic palladium intermediate through two plausible pathways. This intermediate provides the corresponding products and releases the palladium catalyst by a subsequent hydrogen transfer and elimination process. (ii) For the catalyst CH3OPdH, the reaction could occur through two possible pathways, but 5-exo-dig cyclization is favoured over 6-endo-dig cyclization. However, when the hydrogen atom is substituted with a phenyl group, the energy barriers for 5-exo-dig cyclization or 6-endo-dig cyclization become relatively high, 18.0–28.5 kcal/mol. The computational results provide good explanation for the experimental observations.

  18. Catalysis over zinc-incorporated berlinite (ZnAlPO4 of the methoxycarbonylation of 1,6-hexanediamine with dimethyl carbonate to form dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate

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    Sun Da-Lei


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The alkoxycarbonylation of diamines with dialkyl carbonates presents promising route for the synthesis of dicarbamates, one that is potentially 'greener' owing to the lack of a reliance on phosgene. While a few homogeneous catalysts have been reported, no heterogeneous catalyst could be found in the literature for use in the synthesis of dicarbamates from diamines and dialkyl carbonates. Because heterogeneous catalysts are more manageable than homogeneous catalysts as regards separation and recycling, in our study, we hydrothermally synthesized and used pure berlinite (AlPO4 and zinc-incorporated berlinite (ZnAlPO4 as heterogeneous catalysts in the production of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate from 1,6-hexanediamine (HDA and dimethyl carbonate (DMC. The catalysts were characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR and XPS. Various influencing factors, such as the HDA/DMC molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time, and ZnAlPO4/HDA ratio, were investigated systematically. Results The XRD characterization identified a berlinite structure associated with both the AlPO4 and ZnAlPO4 catalysts. The FT-IR result confirmed the incorporation of zinc into the berlinite framework for ZnAlPO4. The XPS measurement revealed that the zinc ions in the ZnAlPO4 structure possessed a higher binding energy than those in ZnO, and as a result, a greater electron-attracting ability. It was found that ZnAlPO4 catalyzed the formation of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate from the methoxycarbonylation of HDA with DMC, while no activity was detected on using AlPO4. Under optimum reaction conditions (i.e. a DMC/HDA molar ratio of 8:1, reaction temperature of 349 K, reaction time of 8 h, and ZnAlPO4/HDA ratio of 5 (mg/mmol, a yield of up to 92.5% of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate (with almost 100% conversion of HDA was obtained. Based on these results, a possible mechanism for the methoxycarbonylation over ZnAlPO4 was also proposed. Conclusion As a heterogeneous

  19. Effects of additions of carbon nanotubes on the thermoelectric properties of Ni0.05Mo3Sb5.4Te1.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prepare Ni0.05Mo3Sb5.4Te1.6, the starting materials were loaded in the stoichiometric ratio into silica tubes and then heated at 1000 K. The reaction products were mixed and divided into four equal parts. The first sample was used as a reference sample called bulk. For the remaining samples, 1%, 2% and 3% by mass of MWCNT (multi-wall carbon nanotubes) were added by ball-milling. These materials were then subjected to consolidation by hot-pressing at 850 K and 56 MPa. Their transport properties were determined and compared to study the influence of MWCNT on the transport properties of Ni0.05Mo3Sb5.4Te1.6. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the microstructural and nanostructural features of the samples, and Raman characterization was performed to look for changes induced by ball-milling and hot-pressing of the nanotubes. Mainly due to a largely reduced thermal conductivity by 40% and a slightly reduced power factor, the figure-of-merit was improved by 25% after addition of 3 mass% of MWCNT. - Graphical abstract: Figure-of-merit of various Ni0.05Mo3Sb5.4Te1.6/CNT composites. - Highlights: • Various composites of Ni0.05Mo3Sb5.4Te1.6 with carbon nanotubes were synthesized and characterized. • In each case, the thermoelectric figure-of-merit increases rapidly with increasing temperature. • With increasing amount of carbon nanotubes, the thermal conductivity decreases more than the electrical conductivity. • The composite with 3% carbon nanotubes performs better than the bulk material by 25%

  20. Effects of nimodipine and fructose-1,6-diphosphate on cerebral damage in carbon monoxide poisoning mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊卿; 赵晓辉; 周岐新; 蒋青松


    Objective To study the dose- and time- dependent protective effects and the synergistic effects of nimodipine (NMDP) and fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) against cerebral damage induced by acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in mice.Methods Male mice were exposed to CO 170 mL/kg, i.p. After CO intraperitonealy exposure, mortality of mice, change in memory function estimated by passive avoidance test, the pathomorphologic observation of brain tissue slices, as well as changes of activities of monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase in cerebral tissue were studied. In dose-dependent protective effect study, NMDP (10.6, 5.3, 2.7 mg/kg) and FDP (2.6, 1.3, 0.67 g/kg) was injected ip, respectively 15 min after CO exposure. To study the time-effect relationship of drugs, NMDP (5.3 mg/kg) and FDP (1.3 g/kg) were administered ip respectively 15 minutes, 45 minutes and 120 minutes after CO exposure. The combination of NMDP (2.7 mg/kg) and FDP (0.67 g/kg) was administered ip15 minutes, 45 min and 120 minutes after CO exposure to study the synergism of the two drugs.Results Either NMDP (10.6, 5.3 mg/kg) or FDP (2.6, 1.3 g/kg) administered ip within 15 minutes after CO exposure significantly decreased the impairment of memory function and mortality rate induced by CO, inhibited the decrease of Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activity, blunted the rising of MAO-B activity and prevented the delayed hippocampal neuronal death in poisoning mice. To our surprise, the combined use of NMDP (2.7 mg/kg) and FDP (0.67 g/kg) within 15 minutes after CO exposure had similar effects to that in NMDP (10.6, 5.3 mg/kg) and FDP (2.6, 1.3 g/kg).Conclusions These results suggest that the impairment of CO on brain can be attenuated if NMDP or FDP are administered sufficiently and quickly as soon as possible after CO exposure and there exists a synergism of FDP and NMDP against CO poisoning damage.

  1. Effect of C–O Bonding on the Stability and Energetics of High-Energy Nitrogen-Carbon Molecules N10C2 and N16C2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas L. Strout


    Full Text Available Molecules consisting of nitrogen have been the subject of much attention due to their potential as high-energy materials. Complex molecules consisting entirely of nitrogen can be subject to rapid decomposition, and therefore other atoms are incorporated into the structure to enhance stability. Previous studies have explored the incorporation of carbon atoms into otherwise all-nitrogen cages molecules. The current study involves two such cages, N10C2 and N16C2, whose structures are derived from N12 and N18, respectively. The N10C2 and N16C2 cages in this study are modified by bonding groups O3 and CO3 to determine the effect on the relative energies between the isomers and on the thermodynamic energy release properties. Energetic trends for N10C2 and N16C2 are calculated and discussed.

  2. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-3 in the equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P16C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyet, C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States); Guenther, P.R.; Keeling, C.D.; Talley, L.D. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States); Kozyr, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center


    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to obtain total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), total alkalinity (TALK), hydrographic, and chemical data during the Research Vessel Thomas Washington Expedition TUNES-3 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (Section P16C). Conducted as a part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Papeete, Tahiti, on August 31, 1991, and finished in Honolulu, Hawaii, on October 1, 1991. WOCE Meridional Section P16C along 150{degree}W and between 18{degree}S and 19{degree}N was completed during the 31-day expedition. All 105 hydrographic and 8 large-volume stations were completed to the full water column depth. Station spacing was 30 nautical miles (nm), except between 3{degree}N and 3{degree}S where it was 10 nm. Twenty-five bio-optics stations were sampled for the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, and at 21 stations carbon dioxide measurements were provided for the US Department of Energy`s CO{sub 2} program. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Section P16C included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor; and bottle salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-11, CFC-12, TCO{sub 2}, and TALK. In addition, potential temperatures were calculated from the measured variables.

  3. A 1.16 Ma record of carbon accumulation in western European peatland during the Oligocene from the Ballymoney lignite, Northern Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Large, D.J. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)


    The Oligocene Ballymoney lignite in Northern Ireland is one of the thickest lignites in Europe and provides the potential for comparing Holocene and pre-Holocene peatland evolution and its response to long-term climate change on time scales much greater than 10 ka. Samples were collected from 50 m of lignite and analysed for {delta}{sup 13}C. Spectral analysis of the {delta}{sup 13}C record reveals that the record contains significant frequencies at 0.21 m{sup -1} and 1.12 m{sup -1}. These cycles are interpreted as the c. 100 ka eccentricity and 20 ka precession cycles, respectively. These cycles were then tuned and the duration was determined as 1.16 Ma with a carbon accumulation rate of 27 g C m{sup -2} a{sup -1}. If long-term changes in lignite {delta}{sup 13}C are related to changes in the delta C-13 of the exogenic carbon reservoir, and if the lignite Chattian age is accepted, then the lignite probably formed between 24.6 and 25.8 Ma. Comparison of the estimated carbon accumulation rate with other Cenozoic peatland carbon accumulation rates indicates that this rate appears to be insensitive to changes in the concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2}.

  4. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/Vs Roger Revelle and Thomas Thompson repeat hydrography cruises in the Pacific Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 sections P16S-2005 (9 January - 19 February, 2005) and P16N-2006 (13 February - 30 March, 2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, Alex [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Feely, R. A. [Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, NOAA, Seattle, WA (United States); Sabine, C. L. [Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, NOAA, Seattle, WA (United States); Millero, F. J. [University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science; Langdon, C. [University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science; Dickson, A. G. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Institution of Oceanography; Fine, R. A. [University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science; Bullister, J. L. [Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, NOAA, Seattle, WA (United States); Hansell, D. A. [University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science; Carlson, C. A. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Sloyan, B. M. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States); McNichol, A. P. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Key, R. M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Byrne, R. H. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Wanninkhof, R. [Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA, Miami, FL (United States)


    This report presents methods, and analytical and quality control procedures for salinity, oxygen, nutrients, total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), pH, discrete CO2 partial pressure (pCO2), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), radiocarbon, δ13C, and underway carbon measurements performed during the P16S-2005 (9 January - 19 February 2005) and P16N-2006 (13 February - 30 March, 2006) cruises in the Pacific Ocean. The research vessel (R/V) Roger Revelle departed Papeete, Tahiti, on January 9, 2005 for the Repeat Section P16S, nominally along 150°W, ending in Wellington, New Zealand, on February 19. During this cruise, samples were taken from 36 depths at 111 CTD stations between 16°S and 71°S. The Repeat Section P16N, nominally along 152°W, consisted of two legs. Leg 1 started on February 13, 2006 in Papeete, Tahiti, and finished on March 3, in Honolulu, Hawaii. The R/V Thomas G. Thompson departed Honolulu for Leg 2 on March 10, 2006 and arrived in Kodiak, Alaska, on March 30. During the P16N cruises, samples were taken from 34 or 36 depths at 84 stations between 17°S and 56.28°N. The research conducted on these cruises was part of a series of repeat hydrography sections jointly funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) as part of the Climate Variability Program (CLIVAR)/CO2 Repeat Hydrography Program. The P16S and P16N data sets are available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The NDP consists of the oceanographic data files and this printed documentation, which describes the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  5. Influence of metallurgical phase transformation on crack propagation of 15-5PH stainless steel and 16MND5 low carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on the effects of phase transformations on crack propagation. We want to understand the changes of fracture toughness during welding. In this work, fracture toughness is expressed by J-integral. There are many experimental methods to obtain the critical toughness JIC but they are impractical for our investigation during phase transformation. That is the reason why we have proposed a method coupling mechanical tests, digital image correlation and finite element simulation. The fracture tests are implemented on pre-cracked single edge notched plate sample which is easy for machining and heat conduct during phase transformation. The tests are conducted at different temperatures until rupture. Digital image correlation gives us the displacement information on every sample. Each test is then simulated by finite element where the fracture toughness is evaluated by the method G-Theta at the crack propagation starting moment found by potential drop method and digital image correlation technical. Two materials have been studied, 15Cr-5Ni martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steel and 16MND5 ferritic low carbon steel. For these two materials, different test temperatures were chosen before, during and after phase transformation for testing and failure characterization of the mechanical behavior. Investigation result shows that metallurgical phase transformation has an influence on fracture toughness and further crack propagation. For 15-5PH, the result of J1C shows that the as received 15-5PH has higher fracture toughness than the one at 200 C. The toughness is also higher than the original material after one cycle heat treatment probably due to some residual austenite. Meanwhile, pure austenite 15-5PH at 200 C has higher fracture toughness than pure martensitic 15-5PH at 200 C. For 16MND5, the result also proves that the phase transformation affects fracture toughness. The as received material has bigger J1C than the situation where it was heated

  6. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16S_2005 (11 January - 24 February, 2005)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, Alex [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center


    This report presents methods, and analytical and quality control procedures for salinity, oxygen, nutrient, inorganic carbon, organic carbon, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), and bomb 14C system parameters performed during the A16S_2005 cruise, which took place from January 11 to February 24, 2005, aboard research vessel (R/V) Ronald H. Brown under the auspices of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The R/V Ronald H. Brown departed Punta Arenas, Chile, on January 11, 2005, and ended its cruise in Fortaleza, Brazil, on February 24, 2005. The research conducted was one of a series of repeat hydrography sections jointly funded by NOAA and the National Science Foundation as part of the CLIVAR/CO2/repeat hydrography/tracer program. Samples were taken from 36 depths at 121 stations. The data presented in this report include the analyses of water samples for total inorganic carbon (TCO2), fugacity of CO2 (fCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), CFC, 14C, hydrographic, and other chemical measurements. The R/V Ronald H. Brown A16S_2005 data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The NDP consists of the oceanographic data files and this printed documentation, which describes the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  7. Effects of additions of carbon nanotubes on the thermoelectric properties of Ni{sub 0.05}Mo{sub 3}Sb{sub 5.4}Te{sub 1.6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandihalli, Nagaraj [Department of Chemistry and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Gorsse, Stéphane [Bordeaux INP, ICMCB, UPR 9048, 33600 Pessac (France); Kleinke, Holger, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)


    To prepare Ni{sub 0.05}Mo{sub 3}Sb{sub 5.4}Te{sub 1.6}, the starting materials were loaded in the stoichiometric ratio into silica tubes and then heated at 1000 K. The reaction products were mixed and divided into four equal parts. The first sample was used as a reference sample called bulk. For the remaining samples, 1%, 2% and 3% by mass of MWCNT (multi-wall carbon nanotubes) were added by ball-milling. These materials were then subjected to consolidation by hot-pressing at 850 K and 56 MPa. Their transport properties were determined and compared to study the influence of MWCNT on the transport properties of Ni{sub 0.05}Mo{sub 3}Sb{sub 5.4}Te{sub 1.6}. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the microstructural and nanostructural features of the samples, and Raman characterization was performed to look for changes induced by ball-milling and hot-pressing of the nanotubes. Mainly due to a largely reduced thermal conductivity by 40% and a slightly reduced power factor, the figure-of-merit was improved by 25% after addition of 3 mass% of MWCNT. - Graphical abstract: Figure-of-merit of various Ni{sub 0.05}Mo{sub 3}Sb{sub 5.4}Te{sub 1.6}/CNT composites. - Highlights: • Various composites of Ni{sub 0.05}Mo{sub 3}Sb{sub 5.4}Te{sub 1.6} with carbon nanotubes were synthesized and characterized. • In each case, the thermoelectric figure-of-merit increases rapidly with increasing temperature. • With increasing amount of carbon nanotubes, the thermal conductivity decreases more than the electrical conductivity. • The composite with 3% carbon nanotubes performs better than the bulk material by 25%.

  8. Amplified Expression of Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphatase in Corynebacterium glutamicum Increases In Vivo Flux through the Pentose Phosphate Pathway and Lysine Production on Different Carbon Sources


    Becker, Judith; Klopprogge, Corinna; Zelder, Oskar; Heinzle, Elmar; Wittmann, Christoph


    The overexpression of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) in Corynebacterium glutamicum leads to significant improvement of lysine production on different sugars. Amplified expression of FBPase via the promoter of the gene encoding elongation factor TU (EFTU) increased the lysine yield in the feedback-deregulated lysine-producing strain C. glutamicum lysCfbr by 40% on glucose and 30% on fructose or sucrose. Additionally formation of the by-products glycerol and dihydroxyacetone was significa...

  9. Control of the environmental inluences on THe-Trap on the example of the determination of the mass ratio of carbon-12 to oxygen-16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium-Helium-3-Trap (THe-Trap) is a Penning-trap setup dedicated to measure the 3H to 3He mass ratio with a relative uncertainty of better than 10-11. This is 40 times more precise than the currently adopted value and, thus, will help to investigate possible systematic uncertainties of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN). To achieve the desired level of uncertainty, several environmental influences such as atmospheric pressure shifts and magnetic field fluctuations have to be suppressed. With the implemented stabilization system, the relative magnetic field drift could be reduced to a few 10-12/h for a time span of several weeks. Within the context of this thesis a mass ratio measurement of 12C4+ to 16O5+ was performed to characterize systematic effects. This measurement yielded a statistical uncertainty of 6.3 x 10-11, which can easily be improved with more statistics, i.e. a longer measurement time. While the systematic uncertainty for 12C4+-ions were under control at the 10-11 level, the systematic shifts could not be quantified for 16O5+ due to poor vacuum conditions. Without these corrections, a systematic uncertainty of 1.2.10-10 could be achieved for the 12C/16O mass ratio measurement.

  10. High sensitivity Cavity Ring Down spectroscopy of 18O enriched carbon dioxide between 5850 and 7000 cm-1: Part III-Analysis and theoretical modeling of the 12C17O2, 16O12C17O, 17O12C18O, 16O13C17O and 17O13C18O spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Karlovets, E V; Mondelain, D; Kassi, S; Tashkun, S A; Perevalov, V I


    More than 19,700 transitions belonging to 11 isotopologues of carbon dioxide have been assigned in the room temperature absorption spectrum of highly 18O enriched carbon dioxide recorded by very high sensitivity CW-Cavity Ring Down spectroscopy between 5851 and 6990 cm-1 (1.71-1.43 \\mum). This third and last report is devoted to the analysis of the bands of five 17O containing isotopologues present at very low concentration in the studied spectra: 16O12C17O, 17O12C18O, 16O13C17O, 17O13C18O and 12C17O2 (627, 728, 637, 738 and 727 in short hand notation). On the basis of the predictions of effective Hamiltonian models, a total of 1759, 1786, 335, 273 and 551 transitions belonging to 24, 24, 5, 4 and 7 bands were rovibrationally assigned for 627, 728, 637, 738 and 727, respectively. For comparison, only five bands were previously measured in the region for the 728 species. All the identified bands belong to the \\deltaP=8 and 9 series of transitions, where P=2V1+V2+3V3 is the polyad number (Vi are vibrational qua...

  11. Porous Carbon Spheres: Rational Design of Si/SiO2 @Hierarchical Porous Carbon Spheres as Efficient Polysulfide Reservoirs for High-Performance Li-S Battery (Adv. Mater. 16/2016). (United States)

    Rehman, Sarish; Guo, Shaojun; Hou, Yanglong


    S. Guo, Y. Hou, and S. Rehman develop a new class of silicon crosslinked with hierarchical porous carbon spheres usable as an efficient polysulfide reservoir for enhancing the performance of lithium-sulfur batteries. As described on page 3167, the developed hybrid material adsorbs negatively charged polysulfides via both chemical and physical adsorption. Remarkably, the hybrid spheres show a high specific capacity, an excellent rate capability and long cyclability. PMID:27105813

  12. Carbon transformations in deep granitic groundwater by attached bacterial populations characterized with 16S-rRNA gene sequencing technique and scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents molecular characterization of attached bacterial populations growing in slowly flowing (1-3 mm s-1) artesian groundwater from deep crystalline bed-rock of the Stripa research mine, south central Sweden. The assimilation rate of CO2 and lactate, and the lactate respiration rates were also determined. The bacteria studied grew in anoxic, high pH, 9-10, and low redox artesian groundwater flowing up through tubings from two levels of a borehole designated V2, 812-820 m and 970-1240 m below ground. The major groups of bacteria were found. Signature bases placed them in the appropriate systematic groups. All belonged to the Proteobacterial groups beta and gamma. One group was found only at the 812-820 m level, where it constituted 63% of the sequenced clones, whereas the second group existed almost exclusively and constituted 85% of the sequenced clones at the 970-1240 m level. The third group was equally distributed between the levels. A few other bacteria were also found. None of the 16S-rRNA genes from the dominating bacteria resembled any of the other by more than 90% similarity, and none of them resembled anything in the database by more than 96%. Temperature did not seem to have any effect on species composition at the deeper level. SEM images showed rods appearing in microcolonies. The difference in population diversity between the two levels studied presumably reflect the different environments. The earlier proposed presence of sulphate reducing bacteria could no be confirmed

  13. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C, R/V Knorr, October 1992--April 1993)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, S.; Goddard, J.G.; Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Sutherland, S.C. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; Reid, J.L.; Swift, J.H.; Talley, L.D. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Scripps Institution of Oceanography


    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide concentration (TCO{sub 2}) and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) in discrete water samples collected during three expeditions of the Research Vessel (R/V) Knorr in the South Pacific Ocean. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the first cruise (WOCE Section P16A/P17A) began in Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia, on October 6, 1992, and returned to Papeete on November 25, 1992. The second cruise (WOCE Section P17E/P19S) began in Papeete on December 4, 1992, and finished in Punta Arenas, Chile, on January 22, 1993. The third expedition (WOCE Section P19C) started in Punta Arenas, on February 22 and finished in Panama City, Panama, on April 13, 1993. During the three expeditions, 422 hydrographic stations were occupied. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen [measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) sensor], as well as discrete measurements of salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO{sub 2}, and pCO{sub 2} measured at 4 and 20 C. In addition, potential temperatures were calculated from the measured variables.

  14. Arsamas-16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsamas - 16 is the Russian counterpart to Los Alamos. It is the place where the Soviets have developed their atomic bomb and where Andrej Sacharov has been working on the hydrogen bomb. Since 1946, the Soviet gevernment has been sending the best of the best of the country's scientists and engineers to work at this top secret research center and join their forces in the nuclear arms race with the U.S.A. The author of the book has been among the first journalists ever to meet the leading heads (one woman among them) of the institute for an interview. His report offers insight into the life and personality of the scientists as well as the current situation of the institute, telling about the motivation and sense of responsibility of individual interview partners or the mental background and conception of themselves as an outstanding group of nuclear experts, or their view of the future with regard to specific topics such as the growing danger of nuclear accidents, the problems encountered in disarmament measures, or the exodus of experts and resulting problems. (orig.)

  15. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained in the Central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE sections P17S and P16S) during the tunes-2-expedition of the R/V Thomas Washington, July--August 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), discrete partial pressure of TCO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}), and total alkalinity (TALK), during the Research Vessel (R/V) Thomas Washington TUNES Leg 2 Expedition in the central South Pacific Ocean. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia, on July 16, 1991, and returned to Papeete on August 25, 1991. WOCE Meridional Sections P17S along 135{degrees} W and P16S along 150{degrees} W were completed during the 40-day expedition. A total of 97 hydrographic stations were occupied. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Sections P17S and P16S included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen measured by conductivity, temperature and depth sensor; bottle salinity; oxygen; phosphate; nitrate; nitrite; silicate; CFC-12; CFC- 11; TCO{sub 2}; TALK; and pCO{sub 2} measured at 20{degrees}C. The TCO{sub 2} concentration in 1000 seawater samples was determined with a coulometric analysis system, the pCO{sub 2} in 940 water samples was determined with an equilibrator/gas chromatograph system, while the TALK concentration in 139 samples was determined on shore at the laboratory of C. Goyet of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution with an alkalinity titration system. In addition, 156 coulometric measurements for the Certified Reference Material (Batch {number_sign}6) were made and yielded a mean value of 2303.2 {plus_minus} 1.5 {mu}mol/kg. This mean value agrees within a standard deviation of the 2304.6 {plus_minus} 1.6 {mu}mol/kg (N=9) value determined with the manometer of C. D. Keeling at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO). Replicate samples from 11 Niskin bottles at 4 stations were also collected for later shore-based reference analyses of TCO{sub 2} and TALK by vacuum extraction and manometry in the laboratory of C. D. Keeling of SIO.

  16. 16 CFR 1204.16 - Production testing. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production testing. 1204.16 Section 1204.16... STANDARD FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL CITIZENS BAND BASE STATION ANTENNAS Certification § 1204.16 Production testing... production testing. Each production test shall be conducted at a production interval short enough to...

  17. 16 CFR 1212.16 - Production testing. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production testing. 1212.16 Section 1212.16... STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Certification Requirements § 1212.16 Production testing. (a) General... determine the types of tests for production testing. Each production test shall be conducted at a...

  18. 16 CFR 1210.16 - Production testing. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production testing. 1210.16 Section 1210.16... STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Certification Requirements § 1210.16 Production testing. (a) General... production testing. Each production test shall be conducted at a production interval short enough to...

  19. 16 CFR 1025.16 - Service. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service. 1025.16 Section 1025.16 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Pleadings, Form, Execution, Service of Documents § 1025.16 Service. (a) Mandatory service. Every...

  20. 16 CFR 1018.16 - Membership selection. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Membership selection. 1018.16 Section 1018... Establishment of Advisory Committees § 1018.16 Membership selection. (a) Whenever new applicants are required... qualified, staff members of the Commission, including the Advisory Committee Management Officer. (d)...

  1. Chemical and biological data collected as part of the CArbon Retention In A Colored Ocean (CARIACO) program in the Cariaco Basin off the coast of Venezuela, January 17, 2005 - January 16, 2006 (NODC Accession 0013170) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and biological data were collected using bottle casts on the continental shelf of Venezuela from the HERMANO GINES from January 17, 2005 to January 16,...

  2. Biomarker and 16S rDNA evidence for anaerobic oxidation of methane and related carbonate precipitation in deep-sea mud volcanoes of the Sorokin Trough, Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadnitskaia, A.; Muyzer, G.; Abbas, B.; Coolen, M.J.L.; Hopmans, E.C.; Baas, M.; Weering, T.C.E. van; Ivanov, M.K.; Poludetkina, E.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.


    Many mud volcanoes were recently discovered in the euxinic bottom waters of the Sorokin Trough (NE Black Sea). Three of them, i.e., NIOZ, Odessa, and Kazakov, were selected for a detailed biogeochemical investigation. Four methane-related carbonate crusts covered with microbial mats, and sediments (

  3. Investigation of carbon dioxide in the central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P-16C and P-17C) during the TUNES/2 expedition of the R/V Thomas Washington, July--August, 1991. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, T.; Goddard, J.G.; Rubin, S.; Chipman, D.W.; Sutherland, S.C.


    This report summarizes the results of carbon dioxide and associated hydrographic measurements made during the oceanographic expedition, TUNES/2, aboard the R/V Thomas Washington in the central South Pacific Ocean. During the 40 day expedition, the total carbon dioxide concentration in 1000 seawater samples were determined using a coulometer system and the pCO(sub 2) in 940 seawater samples were determined using an equilibrator/gas chromatograph system. The alkalinity values in 900 water samples were computed using these measurements. In addition, 156 coulometric measurements were made for the Certified Reference Solutions (Batch No. 6) and yielded a mean value of 2303.2 +or- 1.5umol/kg. The chemical characteristics for the major water masses have been determined.

  4. Influence of organic carbon sources and isotope exchange processes between water and nitrate on the fractionation of the stable isotopes 15N/14N and 18O/16O in dissolved nitrate during microbial dentrification in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable isotopes of nitrate are commonly used to determine sources and degradation of nitrate. In this study, nitrite oxidizing bacteria were found to promote an oxygen isotope exchange between water and nitrate under anoxic conditions. Also, different carbon sources were found to influence the enrichment of stable isotopes in nitrate during microbial denitrification. Both results refine the stable isotope model of nitrate in respect to nitrate source determination and microbial nitrate reduction.

  5. Carbon Carbon Composites: An Overview .


    G. Rohini Devi; K. Rama Rao


    Carbon carbon composites are a new class of engineering materials that are ceramic in nature but exhibit brittle to pseudoplastic behaviour. Carbon-carbon is a unique all-carbon composite with carbon fibre embeded in carbon matrix and is known as an inverse composite. Due to their excellent thermo-structural properties, carbon-carbon composites are used in specialised application like re-entry nose-tips, leading edges, rocket nozzles, and aircraft brake discs apart from several indust...

  6. ATG16L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salem, Mohammad; Ammitzboell, Mette; Nys, Kris;


    Genetic variations in the autophagic pathway influence genetic predispositions to Crohn disease. Autophagy, the major lysosomal pathway for degrading and recycling cytoplasmic material, constitutes an important homeostatic cellular process. Of interest, single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ATG16L1...... importance of ATG16L1 and its genetic variant (T300A) within the elementary biological processes linked to Crohn disease....

  7. Control of the environmental inluences on THe-Trap on the example of the determination of the mass ratio of carbon-12 to oxygen-16; Kontrolle der Umwelteinfluesse auf THe-Trap am Beispiel der Bestimmung des Massenverhaeltnisses von Kohlenstoff-12 zu Sauerstoff-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streubel, Sebastian Dennis


    Tritium-Helium-3-Trap (THe-Trap) is a Penning-trap setup dedicated to measure the {sup 3}H to {sup 3}He mass ratio with a relative uncertainty of better than 10{sup -11}. This is 40 times more precise than the currently adopted value and, thus, will help to investigate possible systematic uncertainties of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN). To achieve the desired level of uncertainty, several environmental influences such as atmospheric pressure shifts and magnetic field fluctuations have to be suppressed. With the implemented stabilization system, the relative magnetic field drift could be reduced to a few 10{sup -12}/h for a time span of several weeks. Within the context of this thesis a mass ratio measurement of {sup 12}C{sup 4+} to {sup 16}O{sup 5+} was performed to characterize systematic effects. This measurement yielded a statistical uncertainty of 6.3 x 10{sup -11}, which can easily be improved with more statistics, i.e. a longer measurement time. While the systematic uncertainty for {sup 12}C{sup 4+}-ions were under control at the 10{sup -11} level, the systematic shifts could not be quantified for {sup 16}O{sup 5+} due to poor vacuum conditions. Without these corrections, a systematic uncertainty of 1.2.10{sup -10} could be achieved for the {sup 12}C/{sup 16}O mass ratio measurement.

  8. 16 tales of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    16 Tales of Innovation are told by 16 leaders, who have completed the LAICS executive master program, a collaboration between Aarhus University and Copenhagen Business School. The book is based on their Master theses and illustrates how they have experimented with different innovation tools, mode...... and innovation theories within their own organization. Here they share their unique insights into the processes, methods and the impact of their academic work with innovation in practice.......16 Tales of Innovation are told by 16 leaders, who have completed the LAICS executive master program, a collaboration between Aarhus University and Copenhagen Business School. The book is based on their Master theses and illustrates how they have experimented with different innovation tools, models...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the THOMAS WASHINGTON in the South Pacific Ocean from 1991-07-16 to 1991-08-25 (NODC Accession 0115171) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115171 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS WASHINGTON in the South Pacific Ocean from 1991-07-16 to...

  10. Vedligeholdelsen af F-16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John


    USA sætter helt bestemt pris på Danmarks pålidelige politiske støtte, men det har været evnen til at yde meningsfulde bidrag til koalitionens fælles bestræbelser, der har vundet amerikansk respekt. En hurtig erstatning for F-16 flyene, et øget forsvarsbudget og et styrket samarbejde med Norge og...

  11. 16 CFR 0.16 - Bureau of Competition. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bureau of Competition. 0.16 Section 0.16....16 Bureau of Competition. The Bureau is responsible for enforcing Federal antitrust and trade... free market system and assure the unfettered operation of the forces of supply and demand....

  12. High sensitivity Cavity Ring Down spectroscopy of 18O enriched carbon dioxide between 5850 and 7000 cm−1: Part II—Analysis and theoretical modeling of the 12C18O2, 13C18O2 and 16O13C18O spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 19000 transitions belonging to 11 isotopologues of carbon dioxide have been assigned in the room temperature absorption spectrum of highly 18O enriched carbon dioxide recorded by very high sensitivity CW-Cavity Ring Down spectroscopy between 5851 and 6990 cm−1 (1.71–1.43 μm). The line positions were determined with accuracy better than 1×10−3 cm−1 while the absolute line intensities are reported with an uncertainty better than 10%. This second report is devoted to the analysis of the bands of three multiply substituted isotopologues: 12C18O2, 13C18O2 and 16O13C18O (828, 838 and 638 in short hand notation). On the basis of the predictions of effective Hamiltonian models, a total of 2870, 538 and 1375 transitions belonging to 59, 11 and 15 bands were rovibrationnally assigned for 828, 838 and 638, respectively. For comparison, only 11 bands were previously measured by Fourier Transform spectroscopy in the region, for the 828 species. All the identified bands correspond to a ΔP=9 variation of the polyad number (P=2V1+V2+3V3, where Vi are vibrational quantum numbers). The band-by-band analysis has allowed deriving accurate spectroscopic parameters of 81 bands from a fit of the measured line positions. A few resonance perturbations were identified. In particular, the 31113 and 51106 states of 638 belonging to different polyads (P=10 and P=11, respectively) are anharmonically coupled. Using the large set of newly measured line positions and those collected from the literature, the global modeling of the line positions within the effective Hamiltonian approach was performed and a new set of Hamiltonian parameters was obtained for each of the three considered isopotologues. Using a similar approach, the global fits of the obtained intensity values of the ΔP=9 series of transitions were used to derive the corresponding ΔP=9 effective dipole moment parameters of the three considered isotopologues. The obtained results will help to improve the quality

  13. Marginalia no. 16


    Library, Merrill-Cazier


    Issue Number 16: Spring 2004 REMEMBERING THE PAST, BUILDING FOR THE FUTURE-John Elsweiler update on new library construction. A POSTSCRIPT FROM VENICE-Notes on Ona Siporin’s lecture on rescuing Venice, Italy. HAY DERRICKS, GRAVEMARKERS AND THE INTERNET: THE FIFE SLIDE COLLECTION ON line- Randy Williams. LOOKING BACK …Bygone Years at USU now just a click away-Dan Davis reports on digital access to old photos. KENT CLARK, DIRECTOR OF DEVELOPMENT DOING A SUPER JOB FOR USU LIBRARIE...

  14. Apollo 16 neutron stratigraphy. (United States)

    Russ, G. P., III


    The Apollo 16 soils have the largest low-energy neutron fluences yet observed in lunar samples. Variations in the isotopic ratios Gd-158/Gd-157 and Sm-150/Sm-149 (up to 1.9 and 2.0%, respectively) indicate that the low-energy neutron fluence in the Apollo 16 drill stem increases with depth throughout the section sampled. Such a variation implies that accretion has been the dominant regolith 'gardening' process at this location. The data may be fit by a model of continuous accretion of pre-irradiated material or by models involving as few as two slabs of material in which the first slab could have been deposited as long as 1 b.y. ago. The ratio of the number of neutrons captured per atom by Sm to the number captured per atom by Gd is lower than in previously measured lunar samples, which implies a lower energy neutron spectrum at this site. The variation of this ratio with chemical composition is qualitatively similar to that predicted by Lingenfelter et al. (1972). Variations are observed in the ratio Gd-152/Gd-160 which are fluence-correlated and probably result from neutron capture by Eu-151.

  15. Characterization of the structure of PM-16E furnace black

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlakov, V.P.; Fialkov, A.S.; Smirnov, B.N.


    An investigation of the structure of PM-16E furnace black in the initial and graphitized states has been carried out with the aid of phase-contact electron microscopy with direct resolution of the carbon layers (002). A two-stage mechanism of the formation of furnace black has been confirmed. In the first stage there is a free-radical mechanism of the formation of the particles of carbon black. In the second stage the orientated deposition of pyrolysis products takes place on the particles and their aggregates in the form of planar carbon layers. The structure of graphitized carbon black is represented in the form of a hollow polyhedron the faces of which consist of packets of continuous closed carbon layers.

  16. Post-16 update (United States)


    (post16) Faces of Physics To study a physics course post-16 is take out an option on your future. But physics itself is very varied, and so is what you might do with it. It seems right that post-16 physics courses reflect important aspects of this variety. Physics varies with why people do it. As reliable knowledge, physics is often essential to making things happen. This is physics as feeding into technology, and quite often feeding off technology. The human urge here is the urge to create things that work. It drives individual inventors; it drives large teams in multinational companies. At the opposite end of this spectrum is physics driven by curiosity, by the urge to find out. The stock examples are the grand discoveries from the expansion of the universe to the discovery of the nucleus of atoms. But the physicist's curiosity is often on a more detailed, even finicky scale: how exactly do the molecules of this polymer respond to stress?; just how do ions implanted in this material modify its conductivity? It is clear to me that a decent post-16 physics course must respect and reflect both. This is by no means a matter of `basic laws and their applications'. It is a matter of recognizing two fundamental interests, in doing and in explaining, and of recognizing that they are at once closely interdependent and worlds apart. Ideas in physics are also not of one kind. One opposition is the idea of describing Nature in terms of deterministic physical laws, as against describing Nature as the predictable outcome of probabilistic behaviour `underneath'. The first has gripped the Western imagination since at least the time of Descartes. The second has increasingly come to the fore, especially in thermodynamics with the idea that we can only make processes work by fixing the circumstances so that uncaring atoms and molecules happen by chance to do what we want. Now in quantum theory both ideas - determinism and randomness - co-exist. Post-16 physics courses are not in

  17. NEWS: Post-16 update (United States)

    Campbell, Peter


    post16.gif As a teacher of physics it is very easy to become preoccupied with particulars of courses, or topics or even single concepts. Concerned with imminent student audiences and desired learning outcomes, the daily challenge is to summon satisfactory teaching approaches and resources for the job at hand. For the conscientious teacher, assessment outcomes may too often seem a judgment on our own efforts rather than those of our students. From time to time we may step back and think bigger, for example while planning a recruitment event, or while away from work on holiday. We may be successful locally. But why, at a time when books and television documentaries popularizing science have a large following, has physics education been facing declining numbers? Many recognize that physics has an essential contribution to make to the training of science or engineering specialists, but we know that it is also important for the skilled worker, the informed citizen and, in fact, for anyone trying to make sense of the world. So what are the best ways forward for post-16 physics? To make any impact on the bigger picture requires organization, thinking and meeting time among people in diverse roles: teachers and curriculum managers; university lecturers; employers and professional bodies; unitary awarding bodies; regulatory and funding agencies; and even Government. For the past few years, the Institute of Physics post-16 Initiative has created an unrivalled opportunity to address the wider issues. Its Shaping the Future booklets series was designed to stimulate informed discussion and debate, by providing background information and analysis. Taken together, the booklets should help all those concerned with physics education to understand where we are now, and why. Literally dozens of people have contributed to a review and analysis of physics education. Each booklet is a 48-page smorgasbord in A4 landscape format, containing many examples of good practice, basic but

  18. Quasi-molecular states in the 12C + 16O amd 16O + 16O systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quasi-molecular states observed in the 12C + 16O + 16O and 16O systems are described in a diatomic-like molecular picture using a Morse-type bonding potential. The depths of the bonding potentials are found to be 16.7 and 22.8 MeV respectively, with a long range of about 16 fm. Both the bound and resonance states of these potentials are calculated and compare quite well with the observed states. The diatomic-like rotational and vibrational picture of the quasi-molecular states proposed earlier for 12C + 12C system is found to be valid for the 12C + 16O and 16O + 16O systems. In these two systems, the rotational and vibrational characteristics seem to be more strongly pronounced compared with the 12C + 12C system. (Author)

  19. Post-16 update (United States)


    (Post-16 Initiative) Engineering Physics? Many A-level physics students do not go on to study physics. For them physics is a support subject, either just for fun or just for the grade. Where physics is a lead subject some students go on to study physics but many more go on to study engineering. So can we deliberately give some aspects of an A-level course an engineering flavour? Electromagnetism would seem a good place to start. There is a clear `physics' route into this topic, a microscopic forces and fields view of the situation. But do our students really need to look at it this way? All electromagnetic machines are linked magnetic and electric circuits. The design idea is to link these circuits as closely as possible. The electric circuits must be as good as possible, with a high conductivity. The magnetic circuits must be as good as possible, with high permeance. Conductivity depends on area/length. So does permeance. The goodness of an electromagnetic machine (how good it is at its job, which is linking electric and magnetic circuits) scales as the square of its linear dimensions. That means small electromagnetic machines are harder to make, and so the very smallest nanomotors are electrostatic. None of this is new, but many teachers are uncomfortable with it. We are thinking like physicists. Many of our students are not. They deserve us to take the trouble every now and again to encourage them to think a bit differently about a topic, to look at practical ways of discussing design and to give their course an engineering flavour. Philip Britton Coursework in A-level Physics The criteria for the new AS and A-levels have provided the teams developing the specifications with an opportunity to think creatively about how internal assessment is used within post-16 physics courses. Teachers may be concerned that allowing 30% of the marks to be internally assessed will create a burden for them. However, it is possible to look at this in a much more positive light

  20. NEWS: Post-16 update (United States)


    (post16) Making physics connect Doesn't Melvyn Bragg do a wonderful job, engaging both scientists and artists in sensitive discussion on Radio 4 about their methods and their purposes? But every week teachers have the chance to show their students that physics is a way of seeing the world that is well-connected with other aspects of knowledge and culture. The stakes are high: students who fail to appreciate this generally choose not to study the subject beyond GCSE. Most students find our preoccupation with technical detail off-putting. Accepting that we have a syllabus to cover, it's still a question of balance. In our teaching we should aim for variety in order to find ways to connect with every student's interests. Also, we can show that we (the nearest embodiment of a physicist some students will experience) are multidimensional and so fully human. Most important, teachers need flexibility to both encourage and respond to student comment and questions. The first booklet in the discussion series Shaping the Future takes up these themes. Rich in ideas for both immediate use and the longer term, it aims to stimulate debate and improve teaching. Copies cost £5.50 including postage and are available from Ingrid Ebeyer, Post-16 Initiative, Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH. How far is it? This question is asked in many family cars and school minibuses at the start of a journey, and answered by most in terms of hours and minutes rather than miles. What a good idea for introducing a social and historical perspective to a lesson on distance, velocity and time. How far can you actually get in a day? What is the range of human activity? Walking for eight hours will get many people about 25 miles. A pack horse will progress at much the same rate, but fast riding or a coach and team of horses will get further. Motorway driving (when the cones are on holiday) would take you nearly 500 miles. The 05.15 am train from Penzance arrives in Inverness at 7

  1. Post-16 update (United States)


    Post-16 Initiative logo Physics in Mathematical Mood Later this year, as part of the post-16 initiative of the Institute of Physics, a booklet with the above title will be published. In draft form, the booklet was discussed at the ASE conference in January. Some of the issues raised are briefly set out here. If you have any views to contribute, please write to Simon Carson at the Institute of Physics or e-mail A mathematical view of the world is intrinsically a part of physics and therefore physics should be studied in an appropriately mathematical way. However, we all know that, to some students at least, mathematics proves to be a stumbling block rather than a powerful aid to understanding. So how can we help? Realizing that as physics teachers we need to deliver the mathematics necessary to an understanding of our subject is a start. Its corollary is that we need to find the space within the physics core. We may wish to use supplementary courses such as AS mathematics or QCA's new free-standing mathematics units, but requiring additional courses as a prerequisite to a study of A-level physics may deter students. Teaching the mathematics in context may aid understanding but we also must ensure that techniques are seen in a variety of contexts and that at some point the tool is abstracted from the background. As teachers we need to be aware of the very basic mathematical difficulties that students bring with them: the use of calculators, standard form, simple algebraic manipulation, for example. Mathematical arguments need to be developed fully and carefully. Encouraging cooperation and discussion between students may help the less able to understand and the more able to appreciate and develop their own understanding through making explicit their reasoning by explaining it to others. And what of new technology? Software tools allow students to develop their understanding about graphs, for example, enabling them to investigate the

  2. De novo trisomy 16p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, J.L.C.; Cigudosa, J.C.; Gomez, A.O. [Univ. of La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)] [and others


    We report on a patient with psychomotor retardation and a pattern of malformations comprising single umbilical artery, craniofacial anomalies, severe truncal hypotonia, and lower-limb hyporreflexia. G-banding cytogenetics demonstrated a 16p+ chromosome. Parental chromosomes were normal. The use of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that this extra material derived from chromosome 16. High-resolution G-banding demonstrated a duplicated segment on the 16p arm, confirming our suspicion of a de novo tandem duplication; hence, the cytogenetic diagnosis was given as 46,XY,dir dup(16)(p11.2{r_arrow}p12). 9 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Post-16 update (United States)


    Institute of Physics post-16 initiative, shaping the future Physics education based in IT - sorry ICT! Which, of course, makes for a nifty headline, but as is so often the case with neat slogans, little else. Two formative questions: What, in another decade, will the government of the day call `What you lot should be doing with computers'? and What, of the many things that currently exercise our intellects, will there be anything special to say about in a decade, concerning the use of computers in the teaching of physics? Advancing Physics represents some attempts to come to grips with the second of the two questions above. The first is left to a higher wisdom. In thinking about learning, what can we do with the huge processing power, increasingly available in smaller and less obtrusive packages? What will we do that helps people learn physics, both tomorrow and in 2009? Here are a few suggestions based on development work so far. Wide, reliable and shared access to well ordered learning resources. We have created a CD-ROM, with versions for both student and teacher, that provides a wide range of resources. These do not teach, but do provide. A commitment to allowing a course to evolve and adapt. Electronic publication puts the costs into origination, and not into publication and distribution. A website allows for the community of users to contribute. E-mail networks support individuals and propagate good practice. You can create and explore your own microworlds. The interactive nature of models, and the crafted relationships between the models and the natural world give an insight into the creative imaginary worlds of the physicist. The unreasonable, but pleasurable, success of mathematics in describing the natural world can come to the fore. Measurements that were not possible before are now possible. What was previously indirect, and inaccessible, now becomes a direct measurement, making relationships transparent in new and fruitful ways. The dichotomy between

  4. Porous carbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satish M Manocha


    Carbon in dense as well as porous solid form is used in a variety of applications. Activated porous carbons are made through pyrolysis and activation of carbonaceous natural as well as synthetic precursors. Pyrolysed woods replicate the structure of original wood but as such possess very low surface areas and poor adsorption capacities. On activation, these exhibit increased adsorption volumes of 0.5–0.8 cm3 /gm and surface areas of 700–1800 m2 /gm depending on activation conditions, whether physical or chemical. Former carbons possess mixed pore size distribution while chemically activated carbons predominantly possess micropores. Thus, these carbons can be used for adsorption of wide distributions of molecules from gas to liquid. The molecular adsorption within the pores is due to single layer or multilayer molecule deposition at the pore walls and hence results in different types of adsorption isotherm. On the other hand, activated carbon fibres with controlled microporous structure and surface area in the range of 2500 m2 /gm can be developed by controlled pyrolysis and physical activation of amorphous carbon fibres. Active carbon fibres with unmatchable pore structure and surface characteristics are present and futuristic porous materials for a number of applications from pollution control to energy storage.

  5. Total Syntheses of a 16a'-Homoleurosidine and a 16a'-Homovinblastine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Yong; Martin E. Kuehne


    Vinblastine has been used in clinic as an anti-cancer agent. Due to its high cytotoxity, generation of vinblastine congeners as safe anti-cancer agents is always the interesting topic in medicinal chemistry. In the previous synthesis of vinblastine, it has been found that a higher energy conformation of vinblastine lacking cytotoxity and inhibition against tubulin polymerization, can be converted to its lower energy natural conformation on heating to 110 ℃. The high temperature (110 ℃) other than a physiological temperature required for the conformational inversion excludes the possibility of using the higher energy conformational isomer as a potential pro-drug for thermal activation. In the continuing of searching for thermal activated anti-cancer pro-drug, we re-designed and synthesized new vinblastine congeners with the enlarged azonine ring by inserting one carbon atom at the C-16 position of azonine ring in order to decrease the energy barrier for the conformational inversion.In this paper, we wish to report the total syntheses of 16a'-homoleurosidine and 16a'-homovinblastine, the azonine ring expanded compounds of vinblastine and leurosidine respectively. The synthesis of 16a'-homoleurosidine was achieved through enatioselective generation of a tetracyclic intermediate by a Diels-Alder reaction, followed by ring expansion of the tetracyclic intermediate by regioselective rapture of a cyclopropane ring as key steps. The synthesis of 16a'-homovinblastine was achieved through stereoselective inversion of the tertiary hydroxyl group from R configuration to the S configuration in the tetracyclic intermediate. The 16a'-homoleurosidine was obtained dominantly in its high energy conformation at room temperature and neutral condition. On protonation, a 1:1 mixture of atropisomers of 16a'-homoleurosidine was found. In contrast to 16a'-homoleurosidine, the 16a'-homovinblastine existed in the form of two atropisomers in a 1:2.3 ratio at room temperature and neutral

  6. Calcium Carbonate (United States)

    ... before being swallowed; do not swallow them whole. Drink a full glass of water after taking either the regular or chewable tablets or capsules. Some liquid forms of calcium carbonate must be shaken well before use.Do not ...

  7. Carbon Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. Lloyd Evans


    In this paper, the present state of knowledge of the carbon stars is discussed. Particular attention is given to issues of classification, evolution, variability, populations in our own and other galaxies, and circumstellar material.

  8. ISS Expedition 16 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 16 from 10/2007-04/2008. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  9. Body-Centered Orthorhombic C_{16}: A Novel Topological Node-Line Semimetal. (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Tao; Weng, Hongming; Nie, Simin; Fang, Zhong; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Chen, Changfeng


    We identify by ab initio calculations a novel topological semimetal carbon phase in all-sp^{2} bonding networks with a 16-atom body-centered orthorhombic unit cell, termed bco-C_{16}. Total-energy calculations show that bco-C_{16} is comparable to solid fcc-C_{60} in energetic stability, and phonon and molecular dynamics simulations confirm its dynamical stability. This all-sp^{2} carbon allotrope can be regarded as a three-dimensional modification of graphite, and its simulated x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern matches well a previously unexplained diffraction peak in measured XRD spectra of detonation and chimney soot, indicating its presence in the specimen. Electronic band structure calculations reveal that bco-C_{16} is a topological node-line semimetal with a single nodal ring. These findings establish a novel carbon phase with intriguing structural and electronic properties of fundamental significance and practical interest. PMID:27232027

  10. Body-Centered Orthorhombic C16 : A Novel Topological Node-Line Semimetal (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Tao; Weng, Hongming; Nie, Simin; Fang, Zhong; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Chen, Changfeng


    We identify by ab initio calculations a novel topological semimetal carbon phase in all-s p2 bonding networks with a 16-atom body-centered orthorhombic unit cell, termed bco-C16. Total-energy calculations show that bco-C16 is comparable to solid fcc-C60 in energetic stability, and phonon and molecular dynamics simulations confirm its dynamical stability. This all-s p2 carbon allotrope can be regarded as a three-dimensional modification of graphite, and its simulated x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern matches well a previously unexplained diffraction peak in measured XRD spectra of detonation and chimney soot, indicating its presence in the specimen. Electronic band structure calculations reveal that bco-C16 is a topological node-line semimetal with a single nodal ring. These findings establish a novel carbon phase with intriguing structural and electronic properties of fundamental significance and practical interest.

  11. Monolithic active-passive 16 × 16 optoelectronic switch. (United States)

    Stabile, R; Albores-Mejia, A; Williams, K A


    We present what is to our knowledge the first active-passive monolithically integrated 16×16 switch. The active InP/InGaAsP elements provide semiconductor optical amplifier gates in a multistage rearrangeably nonblocking switch design. Thirty-two representative connections, including the shortest, longest, and comprehensive range of intermediate paths have been assessed across the switch circuit. The 10 Gb/s signal routing is demonstrated with an optical signal-to-noise ratio up to 28.3 dB/0.1 nm and a signal extinction ratio exceeding 50 dB. PMID:23164873

  12. The carbon is down the hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each year, about 7.1 billions of tons of carbon are released by human activities and industries, from which 5.5 come from the combustion of fossil fuels and 1.6 is a direct consequence of deforestation. However, less than half of this carbon is kept by the atmosphere in its CO2 form and contributes to the anthropic greenhouse effect. The rest is necessarily absorbed by carbon sinks, some of them located in the oceans and responsible for the disappearing of about 2 billions of tons of carbon, and the others probably located in the continental biosphere and in particular in the vegetal biomass and the organic matter of soils. This additional storage is probably located in the northern hemisphere between 30 deg. N and 60 deg. N. The distinction between the continental and oceanic sinks is made according to the concentration ratios of carbon 12 and carbon 13 isotopes. (J.S.)

  13. Carbon particles (United States)

    Hunt, Arlon J.


    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  14. Examining the Structure of the Oxygen-16 Nucleus (United States)

    Sauer, Ethan; Aprahamian, Ani; Tan, Wanpeng; Gyurjinyan, Armen; Frentz, Bryce; Guerin, Benjamin


    The intent of this work is to explore the structure of the nucleus of Oxygen-16 (16O), which consists of four alpha particles, each with two protons and two neutrons. 16O is generated via the fusion of helium and carbon during stellar nucleosynthesis. This reaction is crucial to the existence of life. By measuring the structure of the 16O nucleus, we hope to gain a better understanding of stellar evolution and processes. The theoretical state of most interest is a linear arrangement of the four alpha particles, proposed by Chevallier et al. in their 1967 paper to explain the surprisingly large moment of inertia of the nucleus they measured. The existence of this state can be most accurately observed through an analysis of the energy spectra of the decay products. This method has previously been implemented at Notre Dame by Freer et al. when a similar structure, that of Carbon-12 (12C), was analyzed, and a previously unknown state was observed. The data gathered is analyzed using the method of angular correlation, which makes use of the angles and energies of decay products relative to the center of mass frame to reconstruct possible spins of the initial state. Analysis is currently underway and results will be presented at CEU 2015. Supported by NSF Grant PHY-1419765.

  15. 16 CFR 1512.16 - Requirements for reflectors. (United States)


    ... 1512.16 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT... sidewalls or, alternatively, reflectors mounted on the spokes of each wheel, or, for non-caliper rim brake....) of the inside of the rim. Side reflective devices shall be visible on each side of the wheel....

  16. Spectral Classifications of Gaia16akb and PS16bkm (United States)

    Piascik, A. S.; Steele, I. A.


    We conducted a spectroscopic observation of transient Gaia16akb at 2016-04-05T21:00:09 UT. This transient was observed by the Gaia Photometric Science survey at 2016-04-03T13:41:44 UT and position RA=09:18:58.5 DEC=35:54:41.3.

  17. Carbon classified?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar


    . Using an actor- network theory (ANT) framework, the aim is to investigate the actors who bring together the elements needed to classify their carbon emission sources and unpack the heterogeneous relations drawn on. Based on an ethnographic study of corporate agents of ecological modernisation over a...... corporations construing themselves as able and suitable to manage their emissions, and, additionally, given that the construction of carbon emissions has performative consequences, the underlying practices need to be declassified, i.e. opened for public scrutiny. Hence the paper concludes by arguing for a...

  18. Geologic setting of Apollo 16 (United States)

    Hodges, C. A.; Muehlberger, W. R.; Ulrich, G. E.


    Prior to the Apollo 16 mission, the materials of the Cayley Plains and the Descartes Mountains were thought to be mostly of volcanic origin. Rock and soil samples from these regions strongly suggest, however, that they may be products of multiring basin forming impacts, although minor local volcanism is not precluded. The smooth planar surfaces may have been formed initially by Imbrium ejecta which flowed into topographic lows at the distal margins of the lineated Fra Mauro ejecta. It is emphasized, however, that the rocks and soils returned from the Apollo 16 site cannot necessarily be considered representative of the lunar crust in the Descartes region from which they were collected.

  19. Resonance states in 16O + 16O, 12C + 16O, + 16O and + 12C with modified Morse potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Sahu; L Satpathy


    The resonance states in 16O + 16O, 12C + 16O, + 16O and + 12C are described using modified Morse potential proposed earlier whose success has already been demon-strated in the case of 12C + 12C system. The general validity of such a potential with long range, shallow depth and repulsive soft core determined from the resonance data itself is being examined through the present study of the resonances in the above four systems. In each system, the experimental data of a large number of states have been successfully described with a modified Morse potential. The success points out a common mechanism of the origin of these states, and reaffirms authentically the diatomic-like rotational and vibrational picture of the nuclear molecular resonances proposed previously. The close resemblance between the physics of diatomic molecules and nuclear molecular resonances extending to the level of potential which is Morse type in both the cases - although belong to two different areas of physics - is further strengthened through the present study.

  20. F-16 AFTI in flight (United States)


    This 27-second movie clip shows the F-16 Advanced Fighter Technology Integration aircraft in formation flight with another F-16. Note the lower forward-mounted canards just behind the engine intake, which in a dogfight, would be used for 'selective fuselage pointing' to quickly acquire and target the opponent. The AFTI (Advanced Fighter Technology Integration) /F-16 program has been a joint NASA/USAF effort evaluating advanced digital flight controls, automated maneuvering, voice-activated controls, sensors, and close-air support attack systems on a modified F-16. Research and test results could be applied to existing or future aircraft. Originally conceived as a program to explore flight control technology as well as various maneuvering concepts, this program has flown at Edwards Air Force Base continuously from 1982 through the late 1990s (as of this writing). This flight research aircraft was one of the original six F-16A airplanes that since has been modified extensively and repeatedly to study the feasibility of advanced technologies. For instance, it has demonstrated the operational value of voice command and automated ground collision avoidance systems, an automated maneuvering system for all aspects of air and ground combat, an automated threat avoidance and terrain following system, and a night vision helmet with a dual forward-looking infrared capability that was pointed by movement of the pilot's head. All of these systems served to reduce the pilot's workload in the demanding and dangerous role of close-air support. These systems would help ensure that a pilot was more effective in his first pass over a low-level target in a battle area. One of the most important technology spinoffs from the AFTI program has been the incorporation of an Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS) on all commercial airliner traffic. This system has been accepted industry, as well as world-wide, and is currently being installed on all commercial aircraft.

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the HUDSON in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1993-11-05 to 1993-12-16 (NODC Accession 0113553) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113553 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HUDSON in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1993-11-05 to 1993-12-16...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; Reboul, S.


    The closure of Tank 16H will require removal of material from the annulus of the tank. Samples from Tank 16H annulus were characterized and tested to provide information to evaluate various alternatives for removing the annulus waste. The analysis found all four annulus samples to be composed mainly of Si, Na, and Al and lesser amounts of other elements. The XRD data indicate quartz (SiO{sub 2}) and sodium aluminum nitrate silicate hydrate (Na{sub 8}(Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24})(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O) as the predominant crystalline mineral phases in the samples. The XRD data also indicate the presence of crystalline sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, gibbsite, hydrated sodium bicarbonate, and muscovite. Based on the weight of solids remaining at the end of the test, the water leaching test results indicate approximately 20-35% of the solids dissolved after three contacts with an approximately 3:1 volume of water at 45 C. The chemical analysis of the leachates and the XRD results of the remaining solids indicate sodium salts of nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, and possibly carbonate/bicarbonate make up the majority of the dissolved material. The majority of these salts were dissolved in the first water contact and simply diluted with each subsequent water contact. The water leaching removed large amounts of the uranium in two of the samples and {approx}1/3 of the {sup 99}Tc from all four samples. Most of the other radionuclides analyzed showed low solubility in the water leaching test. The preliminary data on the oxalic acid leaching test indicate the three acid contacts at 45 C dissolved from {approx}34-47% of the solids. The somewhat higher dissolution found in the oxalic acid leaching test versus the water leaching test might be offset by the tendency of the oxalic acid solutions to take on a gel-like consistency. The filtered solids left behind after three oxalic acid contacts were sticky and formed large clumps after drying. These two observations could indicate

  3. Carbonate Ion Effects on Coccolith Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes (United States)

    Ziveri, P.; Probert, I.; Stoll, H. M.


    The stable oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of biogenic calcite constitutes one of the primary tools used in paleoceanographic reconstructions. The δ18O of shells of ocean floor microfossils and corals reflects the composition of the paleo-seawater as they use the oxygen to build up their calcite and aragonite shells. The δ13C is used to reconstruct variations in the carbon isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon in the ocean, which is controlled by biological productivity through the removal of isotopically light carbon in organic matter. To be effective and sensitive tools for understanding photic zone processes it is first necessary to understand the various biological fractionations associated with carbonate precipitation. To date, isotopic fractionation models are mainly based on foraminifera and corals but not on coccoliths, tiny plates produced by coccolithophore algae, which are often the most dominant carbonate contributors to pelagic sediments. As photosynthetic organisms, their chemistry can provide a sensitive tool for understanding photic zone processes. Coccoliths may be the most important carbonate phase for geochemical analysis in sediments where foraminifera are less common and/or core material is limited, such as in subpolar regions and for Early Cenozoic and Mesozoic sediments. Here we report experimental results on a common living coccolithophore species showing that the 13C/12C and 18O/16O ratios decrease with the increase of HCO^{3-} (CO32-). The selected species are among the heaviest calcifying extant coccolithophores and are major contributors to present coccolith carbonate export production. Because coccolithophores are photosynthetic organisms that calcify intracellularly in specialized vesicles, the challenge lies in ascertaining how kinetic and thermodynamic processes of isotopic fractionation are linked to cellular carbon "transport" and carbonate precipitation. This is a daunting challenge since studies have not

  4. 16th semi annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 16th semi-annual report 1979/2 is a description of work within the Nuclear Safety Project performed in the second six month of 1979 in the nuclear safety field by KfK institutes and departments and by external institutions on behalf of KfK. The chosen kind of this report is that of short summaries, containing the topics: work performed, results obtained, plans for future work. (orig.)

  5. The N=16 subshell closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sequence of magic numbers for stable nuclei is now well understood. However the magnitude of shell gap may evolve from stability to drip line. Several observables show that N = 16 neutron-rich isotones present a higher stability compared to their neighbors on the N-Z chart. The spectroscopy of the levels of Ne27, involving sd and fp shells, has allowed us to study the evolution of the nuclear shells responsible for the structure changes in N 16 isotones. In this framework we have studied the neutron transfer reaction Ne26(d,p)Ne27 by inverted kinematics at 9,7 MeV/u. A cryogenic D2 target (17 has been used. The use of the magnetic spectrometer Vamos and that of the Exogam photon detector in coincidence operating mode has allowed us to achieve the spectroscopy of Ne27. The results show a reduction in the gap between sd and fp shells for N = 17 isotones as we go from stability toward the neutron drip line. We have also performed a theoretical study in mean-field theory and beyond it through configuration mixing so that we can see the evolution of the isospin of the N = 16 subshell's closure. We have used a HFB (Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov) with the finite range D1S effective interaction. (A.C.)

  6. Opportunities and Challenges for Being a Carbon Black Great Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    1. The "Uth Five-year Plan" Lay- ing the Foundation for Carbon Black Great Power 1.1 Rapid growth of carbon black output and production capacity During the "llth Five-year Plan" Period, China carbon black output was increased by 1.1 times and realized doubling; and the production capacity of carbon black realized an average annu- al growth of 16.9%. In 2011, the carbon black output was 3.853 million tons, increased by 14.2% compared with that of the last year, and the pro- portion of carbon black output in the world carbon black output was increased from 16% to 36%. The carbon black production capacity was 5.345 mil- lion tons, increased by 6% compared with that of the last year, and the proportion of carbon black production capacity in the world carbon black out- put reached 38%. Chinese carbon black output has been ranking the 1st place throughout the world for 6 years successively, and China has become a great power of carbon black production in the world.

  7. New carbon stars at a galactic longitude of 82 deg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective prism infrared plates taken with the Schmidt telescope of the Radioastrophysical Observatory in a 4deg.5 wide and 25 deg long zero perpendicular to the galactic equator and centered on the galactic longitude l=82 deg were used for carbon stars search. 16 new carbon stars were found and one earlier suspected carbon star confirmed. Positions of the new carbon stars BC 256-BC 272 were measured on direct plates and their equatorial and galactic coordinates determined. 17 carbon stars are identified on finding charts

  8. Shell model description of 16O(p,γ)17F and 16O(p,p)16O reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present shell model calculations of both the structure of 17F and the reactions 16O(p,γ)17F, 16O(p,p)16O. We use the ZBM interaction which provides a fair description of the properties of 16O and neighbouring nuclei and, in particular it takes account for the complicated correlations in coexisting low-lying states of 16O. (authors)

  9. Characterization of an extracellular lipase and its chaperone from Ralstonia eutropha H16


    Lu, Jingnan; Brigham, Christopher J.; Rha, ChoKyun; Sinskey, Anthony J.


    Lipase enzymes catalyze the reversible hydrolysis of triacylglycerol to fatty acids and glycerol at the lipid–water interface. The metabolically versatile Ralstonia eutropha strain H16 is capable of utilizing various molecules containing long carbon chains such as plant oil, organic acids, or Tween as its sole carbon source for growth. Global gene expression analysis revealed an upregulation of two putative lipase genes during growth on trioleate. Through analysis of growth and activity using...

  10. New localities of coarsely crystalline cryogenic cave carbonates in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orvošová, M.; Vlček, L.; Žák, Karel

    Vol. 3. Prague : Česká speleologická společnost, 2013 - (Filippi, M.; Bosák, P.), s. 490-495 ISBN 978-80-87857-09-0. [International Congress of Speleology /16./. Brno (CZ), 21.07.2013-28.07.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : caves * carbonates * cryogenic carbonates Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineral ogy

  11. Carbon Footprints


    Rahel Aichele; Gabriel Felbermayr


    Lässt sich der Beitrag eines Landes zum weltweiten Klimaschutz an der Veränderung seines CO2-Ausstoßes messen, wie es im Kyoto-Abkommen implizit unterstellt wird? Oder ist aufgrund der Bedeutung des internationalen Güterhandels der Carbon Footprint – der alle CO2-Emissionen erfasst, die durch die Absorption (d.h. Konsum und Investitionen) eines Landes entstehen – das bessere Maß? Die Autoren erstellen eine Datenbank mit den Footprints von 40 Ländern für den Zeitraum 1995–2007. Die deskriptive...

  12. Physical and nutrient data collected from CTD and bottle casts from the R/V HERMANO GINES from the continental shelf of Venezuela in the Caribbean Sea in support of the project: Carbon Retention in a Colored Ocean (CARIACO) from 16 March 2006 to 06 March 2007 (NODC Accession 0014920) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and bottle data were collected from the R/V HERMANO GINES in the Caribbean Sea on the continental shelf of Venezuela from 16 March 2006 to 06 March 2007. Data...

  13. Experimental and theoretical characterization of MSi16(-), MGe16(-), MSn16(-), and MPb16(-) (M = Ti, Zr, and Hf): the role of cage aromaticity. (United States)

    Furuse, Shunsuke; Koyasu, Kiichirou; Atobe, Junko; Nakajima, Atsushi


    Silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), and lead (Pb) clusters mixed with a group-4 transition metal atom [M = titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), and hafnium (Hf)] were generated by a dual-laser vaporization method, and their properties were analyzed by means of time-of-flight mass spectroscopy and anion photoelectron spectroscopy together with theoretical calculations. In the mass spectra, mixed neutral clusters of MSi(16), MGe(16), and MSn(16) were produced specifically, but the yield of MPb(16) was low. The anion photoelectron spectra revealed that MSi(16), MGe(16), and MSn(16) neutrals have large highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gaps of 1.5-1.9 eV compared to those of MPb(16) (0.8-0.9 eV), implying that MSi(16), MGe(16), and MSn(16) are evidently electronically stable clusters. Cage aromaticity appears to be an important determinant of the electronic stability of these clusters: Calculations of nucleus-independent chemical shifts (NICSs) show that Si(16)(4-), Ge(16)(4-), and Sn(16)(4-) have aromatic characters with negative NICS values, while Pb(16)(4-) has an antiaromatic character with a positive NICS value. PMID:18715073

  14. Carbon Nanomembranes. (United States)

    Turchanin, Andrey; Gölzhäuser, Armin


    Carbon nanomembranes (CNMs) are synthetic 2D carbon sheets with tailored physical or chemical properties. These depend on the structure, molecular composition, and surroundings on either side. Due to their molecular thickness, they can be regarded as "interfaces without bulk" separating regions of different gaseous, liquid, or solid components and controlling the materials exchange between them. Here, a universal scheme for the fabrication of 1 nm-thick, mechanically stable, functional CNMs is presented. CNMs can be further modified, for example perforated by ion bombardment or chemically functionalized by the binding of other molecules onto the surfaces. The underlying physical and chemical mechanisms are described, and examples are presented for the engineering of complex surface architectures, e.g., nanopatterns of proteins, fluorescent dyes, or polymer brushes. A simple transfer procedure allows CNMs to be placed on various support structures, which makes them available for diverse applications: supports for electron and X-ray microscopy, nanolithography, nanosieves, Janus nanomembranes, polymer carpets, complex layered structures, functionalization of graphene, novel nanoelectronic and nanomechanical devices. To close, the potential of CNMs in filtration and sensorics is discussed. Based on tests for the separation of gas molecules, it is argued that ballistic membranes may play a prominent role in future efforts of materials separation. PMID:27281234

  15. Trading forest carbon (United States)

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  16. Panorama 98. 16 thematic files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the 'Panorama 98' title, the Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) has organized an international colloquium on the most recent events and the foreseeable perspectives in the domain of hydrocarbons. 16 technical and economical documentation files were given to the participants. This paper presents a synthesis of the content of these files: the oil offer and demand, the worldwide petroleum activity, the recent oil and gas discoveries, the stakes of the oil and gas perspectives in the North Sea, the US renewal in the Gulf of Mexico, the exploitation of heavy and extra-heavy crudes in Venezuela, the Asian oil rise, the limits of oil recovery efficiency, the oil markets, the international overview of the natural gas industry, the perspectives of the LNG market, the recent evolution and the perspectives of the European refining activities, the oil companies in 1997, the future of marketing, the trends of European automotive industry, and the scientific certitudes and uncertainties about urban pollution. (J.S.)

  17. Synthesis of dimethyl carbonate in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ballivet-Tkatchenko


    Full Text Available The reactivity of carbon dioxide with methanol to form dimethyl carbonate was studied in the presence of the n-butylmethoxytin compounds n-Bu3SnOCH3, n-Bu2Sn(OCH32 , and [n-Bu2(CH3OSn]2 O. The reaction occurred under solventless conditions at 423 K and was produced by an increase in CO2 pressure. This beneficial effect is primarily attributed to phase behavior. The mass transfer under liquid-vapor biphasic conditions was not limiting when the system reached the supercritical state for a CO2 pressure higher than 16 MPa. Under these conditions, CO2 acted as a reactant and a solvent.

  18. Carbon Farming as a Carbon Negative Technology (United States)

    Anderson, C.; Laird, D.; Hayes, D. J.


    Carbon farms have a pivotal role in national and international efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change. A carbon farm in its broadest sense is one that reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or captures and holds carbon in vegetation and soils. Their capacity to remove carbon from the air and store it safely and permanently, while providing additional human and ecosystem benefits, means they could contribute significantly to national efforts to stabilize or reduce GHGs. We examine carbon farms in the context of corn and soybean production agriculture. We illustrate, using Iowa data but with relevance across United States corn and soybean production, the potential for carbon farms to reduce human GHG emissions and sequester carbon permanently at a rate that has meaningful impact on global greenhouse gas concentration. Carbon has been viewed as a next generation cash crop in Iowa for over a decade. The carbon farm perspective, however, goes beyond carbon as cash crop to make carbon the center of an entire farm enterprise. The transformation is possible through slight adjustment crop practices mixed with advances in technology to sequester carbon through biochar. We examine carbon balance of Iowa agriculture given only the combination of slight reduction in fertilizer and sequestration by biochar. We find the following. Iowa carbon farms could turn Iowa agriculture into a carbon sink. The estimated range of GHG reduction by statewide implementation of carbon farms is 19.46 to 90.27 MMt CO2-equivalent (CO2-e), while the current agricultural CO2-e emission estimate is 35.38 MMt CO2-e. Iowa carbon farm GHG reduction would exceed Iowa GHG reduction by wind energy (8.7 MMt CO2-e) and could exceed combined reductions from wind energy and corn grain ethanol (10.7 MMt CO2-e; 19.4 MMt CO2-e combined). In fact, Iowa carbon farms alone could exceed GHG reduction from national corn grain ethanol production (39.6 MMt CO2-e). A carbon price accessible to agricultural

  19. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning (United States)

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is Carbon Monoxide? Carbon monoxide, or “CO,” is an odorless, colorless gas that can kill you. Carbon monoxide detector Where is CO found? CO is ...

  20. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  1. Carbon Monoxide (CO) (United States)

    ... IAQ) » Carbon Monoxide's Impact on Indoor Air Quality Carbon Monoxide's Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this ... length of exposure. Top of Page Sources of Carbon Monoxide Sources of CO include: unvented kerosene and ...

  2. Integral Ring Carbon-Carbon Piston (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor)


    An improved structure for a reciprocating internal combustion engine or compressor piston fabricate from carbon-carbon composite materials is disclosed. An integral ring carbon-carbon composite piston, disclosed herein, reduces the need for piston rings and for small clearances by providing a small flexible, integral component around the piston that allows for variation in clearance due to manufacturing tolerances, distortion due to pressure and thermal loads, and variations in thermal expansion differences between the piston and cylinder liner.

  3. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation


    Huijgen, W.J.J.


    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept behind mineral CO2 sequestration is the mimicking of natural weathering processes in which calcium or magnesium containing minerals react with gaseous CO2 and form solid calcium or magnesium carbonate...

  4. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.


    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept beh

  5. 24 CFR 3500.16 - Title companies. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Title companies. 3500.16 Section 3500.16 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.16 Title companies. No seller of property that...

  6. 31 CFR 16.42 - Judicial review. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 16.42 Section 16.42... FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.42 Judicial review. Section 3805 of title 31, United States Code, authorizes judicial review by an appropriate United States District Court of a final decision of...

  7. 31 CFR 6.16 - Judicial review. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 6.16 Section 6.16... EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 6.16 Judicial review. Judicial review of final agency decisions on awards may be sought as provided in 5 U.S.C. 504(c)(2)....

  8. 22 CFR 309.16 - Review. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Review. 309.16 Section 309.16 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 309.16 Review. (a) Request for outside hearing. Except as... hearing or a review of the documentary evidence is requested. If an oral hearing is desired, the...

  9. 29 CFR 1955.16 - Time. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time. 1955.16 Section 1955.16 Labor Regulations Relating to...) PROCEDURES FOR WITHDRAWAL OF APPROVAL OF STATE PLANS Notice of Formal Proceeding § 1955.16 Time. Computation of any period of time under these rules shall begin with the first business day following that...

  10. 10 CFR 602.16 - National security. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National security. 602.16 Section 602.16 Energy DEPARTMENT... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.16 National security. Activities under the Epidemiology and Other Health Studies..., Formerly Restricted Data, National Security Information). However, if in the opinion of the recipient...

  11. 38 CFR 3.16 - Service pension. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service pension. 3.16 Section 3.16 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.16 Service pension. In computing the 70...

  12. 7 CFR 550.16 - Project development. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project development. 550.16 Section 550.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 550.16 Project development. REE provides partial funding to Cooperators to support research...

  13. 31 CFR 16.25 - Fees. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fees. 16.25 Section 16.25 Money and... REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.25 Fees. The party requesting a subpoena shall pay the cost of the fees and... United States District Court. A check for witness fees and mileage shall accompany the subpoena...

  14. 5 CFR 2504.16 - Appeals process. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeals process. 2504.16 Section 2504.16 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 2504.16 Appeals process. (a) Within 20 work days of receiving the request for review, a review...

  15. 9 CFR 352.16 - Exports. (United States)


    ... CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.16 Exports. This shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions contained in 9 CFR 322.1 through 322.5. ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exports. 352.16 Section 352.16...

  16. 27 CFR 16.31 - Exports. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 16.31 Section 16... TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT General Provisions § 16.31 Exports. The..., bottled, or labeled for export from the United States, or for delivery to a vessel or aircraft,...

  17. 37 CFR 401.16 - Electronic filing. (United States)


    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electronic filing. 401.16 Section 401.16 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY POLICY, DEPARTMENT... GOVERNMENT GRANTS, CONTRACTS, AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS § 401.16 Electronic filing. Unless...

  18. 49 CFR 511.16 - Service. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service. 511.16 Section 511.16 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Pleadings; Form; Execution; Service of Documents § 511.16 Service. (a) Mandatory service. Every document filed with the Office of Hearings shall be...

  19. 15 CFR 8b.16 - Discrimination prohibited. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.16 Section 8b.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Accessibility § 8b.16 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped individual shall, because a...

  20. 10 CFR 1022.16 - Variances. (United States)


    ... such an action) DOE shall document the emergency actions in accordance with NEPA procedures at 10 CFR... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variances. 1022.16 Section 1022.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Procedures for Floodplain and Wetland Reviews § 1022.16 Variances. (a) Emergency actions. DOE may...

  1. 32 CFR 234.16 - Gambling. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gambling. 234.16 Section 234.16 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.16 Gambling. Gambling in any form, or the operation of gambling devices,...

  2. 29 CFR 788.16 - Employment relationship. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment relationship. 788.16 Section 788.16 Labor... MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.16 Employment relationship. (a) The Supreme Court has made... an independent contractor, but that the “total situation controls” (see Rutherford Food Corp. v....

  3. 49 CFR 192.16 - Customer notification. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer notification. 192.16 Section 192.16... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 192.16 Customer notification. (a) This section applies to each operator of a service line who does not maintain the customer's buried piping...

  4. 31 CFR 1.6 - Business information. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Business information. 1.6 Section 1.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Freedom of Information Act § 1.6 Business information. (a) In general. Business information provided to the Department...

  5. 29 CFR 457.16 - Chief, DOE. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chief, DOE. 457.16 Section 457.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STANDARDS OF CONDUCT GENERAL Meaning of Terms as Used in This Chapter § 457.16 Chief, DOE. Chief, DOE means the Chief of the...

  6. 7 CFR 3402.16 - Appendix. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appendix. 3402.16 Section 3402.16 Agriculture... FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Preparation of an Application § 3402.16 Appendix. Any additional supporting information deemed essential to enhancing the application should be included in an Appendix and referenced...

  7. 21 CFR 123.16 - Process controls. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Process controls. 123.16 Section 123.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS Smoked and Smoke-Flavored Fishery Products § 123.16 Process controls....

  8. 45 CFR 1156.16 - Mediation. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mediation. 1156.16 Section 1156.16 Public Welfare... Procedures § 1156.16 Mediation. (a) Referral of complaints for mediation. The Endowment will promptly refer all complaints to the agency designated by the Secretary of HHS to manage the mediation process...

  9. 45 CFR 16.18 - Mediation. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mediation. 16.18 Section 16.18 Public Welfare... BOARD § 16.18 Mediation. (a) In cases pending before the Board. If the Board decides that mediation... mediation techniques and will provide or assist in selecting a mediator. The mediator may take any...

  10. 29 CFR 1919.16 - Heat treatment. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.16 Section 1919.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels' Cargo Gear § 1919.16 Heat treatment. (a) All chains...

  11. 7 CFR 989.16 - Blend. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blend. 989.16 Section 989.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.16 Blend. Blend means to mix or commingle raisins....

  12. 9 CFR 313.16 - Mechanical; gunshot. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mechanical; gunshot. 313.16 Section 313.16 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.16 Mechanical; gunshot. The slaughtering...

  13. 22 CFR 16.13 - Decisions. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decisions. 16.13 Section 16.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.13 Decisions. (a) Upon... proceedings. In each case the decision of the Board shall be in writing, shall include findings of fact,...

  14. 29 CFR 511.16 - Reports. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reports. 511.16 Section 511.16 Labor Regulations Relating... AMERICAN SAMOA § 511.16 Reports. Promptly after receipt of submissions under § 511.15, the committee or subcommittee will resolve the issues before it and prepare a report containing its findings of fact...

  15. 12 CFR 602.16 - Combining requests. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combining requests. 602.16 Section 602.16 Banks....16 Combining requests. You may not avoid paying fees by filing multiple requests at the same time... of requests to avoid fees, we will combine the requests and charge accordingly. We will assume...

  16. 12 CFR 1261.16 - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 1261.16 Section 1261.16 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK DIRECTORS Federal Home Loan Bank Boards of Directors: Eligibility and Elections § 1261.16...

  17. 15 CFR 16.12 - Consumer education. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer education. 16.12 Section 16.12 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR A VOLUNTARY CONSUMER PRODUCT INFORMATION LABELING PROGRAM § 16.12 Consumer education. The Secretary, in close cooperation...

  18. 30 CFR 880.16 - Civil rights. (United States)


    ... CFR part 17) and shall give assurances of compliance in such form as may be required by the Director. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 880.16 Section 880.16 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION MINE FIRE CONTROL § 880.16 Civil rights. State and local authorities shall comply...

  19. 12 CFR 226.16 - Advertising. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 226.16 Section 226.16 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Open-End Credit § 226.16 Advertising. (a) Actually available terms. If...

  20. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  1. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States...

  2. 39 CFR 957.16 - Evidence. (United States)


    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 957.16 Section 957.16 Postal Service... SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.16 Evidence. (a) Except as otherwise provided in the rules in this part, the rules of evidence governing civil proceedings in matters not involving trial by jury in the...

  3. 22 CFR 18.16 - Evidence. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 18.16 Section 18.16 Foreign Relations... Enforcement Proceedings § 18.16 Evidence. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings under this part. However, the hearing examiner shall exclude evidence which...

  4. 31 CFR 16.34 - Evidence. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 16.34 Section 16.34 Money... FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the admissibility of evidence. (b) Except as provided herein, the ALJ shall not be bound by the Federal Rules of...

  5. 14 CFR 16.223 - Evidence. (United States)


    ... party other than the agency except as provided in Department of Transportation regulations at 49 CFR... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 16.223 Section 16.223 Aeronautics... PRACTICE FOR FEDERALLY-ASSISTED AIRPORT ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 16.223 Evidence. (a) General....

  6. 12 CFR 561.16 - Demand accounts. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demand accounts. 561.16 Section 561.16 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.16 Demand accounts. The term demand accounts means...

  7. Detection of abundant CO2 ice in the quiescent dark cloud medium toward Elias 16

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whittet, DCB; Gerakines, PA; Tielens, AGGM; Adamson, AJ; Boogert, ACA; Chiar, JE; de Graauw, T; Ehrenfreund, P; Prusti, T; Schutte, WA; Vandenbussche, B; van Dishoeck, EF


    We report the first detection of solid carbon dioxide (CO2) in quiescent regions of a dark cloud in the solar neighborhood, a result that has important implications for models of ice formation and evolution in the interstellar medium. The K-type field star Elias 16 was previously known to display so

  8. VERSIONS OF 802.16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinder Kumar


    Full Text Available Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WIMAX which is currently employed in some parts of the world is the new era of communication. It is approved by IEEE 802.16 group and is the latest technology which is a standard for point-to-multipoint wireless networking. To deliver “last mile” broadband connectivity to home or business locations is the vision of Wimax, also its data rates can be compared with Cable and Digital Subscriber line (DSL rates. When you are roaming outside home or office, it has the capability which can connect to the ISP (Internet Service Provider. To avert the impending crisis of rural connectivity, the Wimax technology is becoming the way i.e. till the last mile it will be accessible. WiMAX will offer broadband wireless access at data rates of multiple Mbit/s to the end-user and within a range of several kilometers for which we can be thankful to its innovative technology,. With an optimized trade off between throughput and coverage the same radio technology will also offer high-speed data services to all nomadic terminals (laptops, PDAs, etc.. This paper explains about the Wimax, its uses, different versions and its future development.

  9. Carbon isotopic fractionation in heterotrophic microbial metabolism (United States)

    Blair, N.; Leu, A.; Munoz, E.; Olsen, J.; Kwong, E.; Des Marais, D.


    Differences in the natural-abundance carbon stable isotopic compositions between products from aerobic cultures of Escherichia coli K-12 were measured. Respired CO2 was 3.4 percent depleted in C-13 relative to the glucose used as the carbon source, whereas the acetate was 12.3 percent enriched in C-13. The acetate C-13 enrichment was solely in the carboxyl group. Even though the total cellular carbon was only 0.6 percent depleted in C-13, intracellular components exhibited a significant isotopic heterogeneity. The protein and lipid fractions were -1.1 and -2.7 percent, respectively. Aspartic and glutamic acids were -1.6 and +2.7 percent, respectively, yet citrate was isotopically identical to the glucose. Probable sites of carbon isotopic fractionation include the enzyme, phosphotransacetylase, and the Krebs cycle.

  10. Heavy duty piezoresistivity induced strain sensing natural rubber/carbon black nanocomposites reinforced with different carbon nanofillers (United States)

    He, Qingliang; Yuan, Tingting; Zhang, Xi; Guo, Shimei; Liu, Jingjing; Liu, Jiurong; Liu, Xinyu; Sun, Luyi; Wei, Suying; Guo, Zhanhu


    Durable piezoresistive effects of natural rubber nanocomposites have been demonstrated, i.e., with stable and reversible electrical resistance change within the tested 3000 cycles upon applying a small compressive strain (˜16.7%) under a relatively high frequency (0.5 Hz, 2 s/cycle). This unique function was achieved for the first time by combining carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers with natural rubber composites pretreated with carbon black. Even though the combination of different carbon nanomaterials, such as graphene nanosheets and carbon nanotubes, can improve the dispersion quality of both the nanostructures in solution or in polymer matrices, this type of synergistic effect between carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers in producing stable and reversible piezoresistive effect has been rarely reported. Besides, the strong reinforcement (compressive stress at a maximum strain of 16.7% was increased from 12.6 for untreated to 18.5 MPa for the natural rubber/carbon black composites treated with a combination of 1.0 wt% carbon nanotubes and 1.0 wt% carbon nanofibers) makes the as-prepared composites promising for heavy duty pressure sensors, i.e., healthy motion monitoring of industrial machinery vibrations.

  11. Enantioselective Rhodium-Catalyzed Cycloisomerization of (E)-1,6-Enynes. (United States)

    Deng, Xu; Ni, Shao-Fei; Han, Zheng-Yu; Guan, Yu-Qing; Lv, Hui; Dang, Li; Zhang, Xu-Mu


    An enantioselective rhodium(I)-catalyzed cycloisomerization reaction of challenging (E)-1,6-enynes is reported. This novel process enables (E)-1,6-enynes with a wide range of functionalities, including nitrogen-, oxygen-, and carbon-tethered (E)-1,6-enynes, to undergo cycloisomerization with excellent enantioselectivity, in a high-yielding and operationally simple manner. Moreover, this Rh(I) -diphosphane catalytic system also exhibited superior reactivity and enantioselectivity for (Z)-1,6-enynes. A rationale for the striking reactivity difference between (E)- and (Z)-1,6-enynes using Rh(I) -BINAP and Rh(I) -TangPhos is outlined using DFT studies to provide the necessary insight for the design of new catalyst systems and the application to synthesis. PMID:27061132

  12. Composite carbon foam electrode (United States)

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.


    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  13. Estimation of the contribution of soil carbon to paddy rice and soil to rice carbon transfer factor using natural abundances of stable carbon isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To obtain the soil-to-rice transfer factor (TF) of carbon-14 (14C), TF of stable carbon was estimated by measuring stable carbon isotope ratios (13C/12C) and total C concentrations in rice grain and associated soil samples collected throughout Japan. Carbon isotope ratios were reported in terms of a δ13C value. By comparing δ13C values for brown rice, white rice and bran, we concluded that white rice was the most suitable part to be used for this estimation because it reflects products from photosynthesis. The δ13C values for white rice and soil showed a weak correlation which may indicate a potential carbon supply from soil to rice. Thus we took a statistical approach to estimate the percent of soil-origin carbon in rice plants. We found that a maximum 1.6% of total carbon in rice plants was from soil under the reasonable assumptions that the carbon fractionation by paddy rice was -19 per mille and δ13C of atmospheric CO2 was -8 per mille. Maximum TF value ranged from 0.05 to 0.5 for stable carbon and the value would also be applicable for 14C because the carbon fractionation effect for 14C would be negligible in carbon transfer. (author)

  14. Highlights of Astronomy, Vol. 16 (United States)

    Montmerle, Thierry


    Part I. Invited Discourses: 1. The Herschel view of star formation; 2. Past, present and future of Chinese astronomy; 3. The zoo of galaxies; 4. Supernovae, the accelerating cosmos, and dark energy; Part II. Joint Discussion: 5. Very massive stars in the local universe; 6. 3-D views of the cycling Sun in stellar context; 7. Ultraviolet emission in early-type galaxies; 8. From meteors and meteorites to their parent bodies: current status and future developments; 9. The connection between radio properties and high-energy emission in AGNs; 10. Space-time reference systems for future research; Part III. Special Sessions: 11. Origin and complexity of massive star clusters; 12. Cosmic evolution of groups and clusters of galaxies; 13. Galaxy evolution through secular processes; 14. New era for studying interstellar and intergalactic magnetic fields; 15. The IR view of massive stars: the main sequence and beyond; 16. Science with large solar telescopes; 17. The impact hazard: current activities and future plans; 18. Calibration of star-formation rate measurements across the electromagnetic spectrum; 19. Future large scale facilities; 20. Dynamics of the star-planet relations strategic plan and the Global Office of Astronomy for Development; 21. Strategic plan and the Global Office of Astronomy for Development; 22. Modern views of the interstellar medium; 23. High-precision tests of stellar physics from high-precision photometry; 24. Communicating astronomy with the public for scientists; 25. Data intensive astronomy; 26. Unexplained spectral phenomena in the interstellar medium; 27. Light pollution: protecting astronomical sites and increasing global awareness through education.

  15. Mutagenicity of carbon nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, Håkan; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; White, Paul A;


    Carbon nanomaterials such carbon nanotubes, graphene and fullerenes are some the most promising nanomaterials. Although carbon nanomaterials have been reported to possess genotoxic potential, it is imperitive to analyse the data on the genotoxicity of carbon nanomaterials in vivo and in vitro and...

  16. Effect of carbon dioxide concentration on the bioleaching of a pyrite-arsenopyrite ore concentrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, S.; Dahlstrom, D. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)); Oolman, T. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States))


    The effect of carbon dioxide concentration on the bacterial leaching of a pyrite-arsenopyrite ore concentrate was studied in continuous-flow reactors. Steady-state operation with two feed slurry densities, 6 wt% and 16wt% solids, were tested for the effect of carbon dioxide concentration. Bacterial growth rates were estimated via the measurement of carbon dioxide consumption rates. Aqueous-phase carbon dioxide concentrations in excess of 10 mg/L were found to be inhibitory to bacterial growth.

  17. Electroanalysis with carbon paste electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Svancara, Ivan; Walcarius, Alain; Vytras, Karel


    Introduction to Electrochemistry and Electroanalysis with Carbon Paste-Based ElectrodesHistorical Survey and GlossaryField in Publication Activities and LiteratureCarbon Pastes and Carbon Paste ElectrodesCarbon Paste as the Binary MixtureClassification of Carbon Pastes and Carbon Paste ElectrodesConstruction of Carbon Paste HoldersCarbon Paste as the Electrode MaterialPhysicochemical Properties of Carbon PastesElectrochemical Characteristics of Carbon PastesTesting of Unmodified CPEsIntera

  18. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)


    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  19. Layered graphene structure of a hexagonal carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments show that there is a novel hexagonal carbon polymorph restricted to the space group of P-62c, but the detailed atomic structure is not determined. Here we set carbon atoms occupying P-62c 4f or P-62c 2c and 2d Wyckoff positions, and calculate the total energy of the different cell structures changing the internal parameter by first-principles calculations, which demonstrates that the stable structures in energy (at local minima) are hexagonal carbon (P-62c 2c and 2d) and hexagonal diamond (P-62c 4f, z=1/16). The calculated bulk modulus 437±16 GPa and interlayer distance 2.062 Å of the layered graphene structure P-62c 2c and 2d are in good agreement with those of the proposed new carbon, which indicates that P-62c 2c and 2d is a possible precursor or intermediate hard phase during the structural transformation of carbon

  20. Astrophysical S-factor for 16O+16O within the adiabatic molecular picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The astrophysical S-factor for 16O+16O is investigated within the adiabatic molecular picture. It very well explains the available experimental data. The collective radial mass causes a pronounced resonant structure in the S-factor excitation function, providing a motivation for measuring the 16O+16O fusion cross section at deep sub-barrier energies. (author)

  1. Global Carbon Budget 2015 (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.


    carbon budget. For the last decade available (2005-2014), EFF was 9.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 4.4 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1. For the year 2014 alone, EFF grew to 9.8 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, 0.6 % above 2013, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, albeit at a slower rate compared to the average growth of 2.2 % yr-1 that took place during 2005-2014. Also, for 2014, ELUC was 1.1 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 3.9 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 4.1 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1. GATM was lower in 2014 compared to the past decade (2005-2014), reflecting a larger SLAND for that year. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 397.15 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2014. For 2015, preliminary data indicate that the growth in EFF will be near or slightly below zero, with a projection of -0.6 [range of -1.6 to +0.5] %, based on national emissions projections for China and the USA, and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy for the rest of the world. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2015, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 555 ± 55 GtC (2035 ± 205 GtCO2) for 1870-2015, about 75 % from EFF and 25 % from ELUC. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2015, 2014, 2013). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2015).

  2. Wood - a carbon depot


    Lipušček, Igor; Tišler, Vesna


    The article examines the global movement of carbon dioxide, the most important greenhouse gas due to its large quantities. We studied the carbon cycle with possibilities of its extension, and analysed the mechanisms that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and bind it into solid substances for a longer period of time. The focus was on carbon dioxide sink into biomass and carbon deposit in wood. On the basis of wood component data and chemical analysis of the components, we calculated th...

  3. Improvement in char formability of phenolic resin for development of Carbon/Carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the processing of carbon/carbon composites using polymer resin as the matrix precursor, it is inevitable that a porous structure was formed after carbonization. As a result, densification by liquid phase impregnation followed by recarbonization is required to obtain a densified composite. Consequently, the char formability of resin is an important factor in reducing the number of densification cycles and hence the processing cost. In this study, a novel approach is adopted to improve the densification of carbon/carbon composites by using a new phenolic resin modified by pitch. For this purpose, soluble part of pitch was extracted and dispersed in resol type phenolic resin. The polymerization reaction was performed in presence of para-formaldehyde and a resol-pitch compound was obtained. The second compound was prepared by mixing novolac-furfural in 55:45 weight ratio containing 9% by weight hexamethylene tetramine. This compound was added to resol-pitch compound in 10,20,50 and 80 w %. The microstructure of carbonized resin was investigated by X-ray diffraction and char yield, and the linear and volumetric shrinkage were obtained. Results show that in 80:20 ratio of resol-pitch to novolac-furfural , the char yield would be maximized by 71% and volumetric shrinkage would be minimized at 16.4%. At the same time, XRD results indicate that the resin has a strong ability to graphitize carbon/carbon composites matrix as a necessary step for its processing

  4. Kepler-16b: a resonant survivor

    CERN Document Server

    Popova, E A


    The planet Kepler-16b is known to follow a circumbinary orbit around a double system of two main-sequence stars. We construct stability diagrams in the "pericentric distance - eccentricity" plane, which show that Kepler-16b is in a hazardous vicinity to the chaos domain - just between the instability "teeth" in the space of orbital parameters. Kepler-16b survives, because it is close to the half-integer 11/2 orbital resonance with the central binary. The neighbouring resonance cells are vacant, because they are "purged" by Kepler-16b, due to overlap of first-order resonances with the planet.

  5. 7 CFR 1215.16 - Promotion. (United States)


    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.16... popcorn....

  6. Accelerating Mineral Carbonation Using Carbonic Anhydrase. (United States)

    Power, Ian M; Harrison, Anna L; Dipple, Gregory M


    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes have gained considerable attention for their potential use in carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technologies because they are able to catalyze rapidly the interconversion of aqueous CO2 and bicarbonate. However, there are challenges for widespread implementation including the need to develop mineralization process routes for permanent carbon storage. Mineral carbonation of highly reactive feedstocks may be limited by the supply rate of CO2. This rate limitation can be directly addressed by incorporating enzyme-catalyzed CO2 hydration. This study examined the effects of bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA) and CO2-rich gas streams on the carbonation rate of brucite [Mg(OH)2], a highly reactive mineral. Alkaline brucite slurries were amended with BCA and supplied with 10% CO2 gas while aqueous chemistry and solids were monitored throughout the experiments (hours to days). In comparison to controls, brucite carbonation using BCA was accelerated by up to 240%. Nesquehonite [MgCO3·3H2O] precipitation limited the accumulation of hydrated CO2 species, apparently preventing BCA from catalyzing the dehydration reaction. Geochemical models reproduce observed reaction progress in all experiments, revealing a linear correlation between CO2 uptake and carbonation rate. Data demonstrates that carbonation in BCA-amended reactors remained limited by CO2 supply, implying further acceleration is possible. PMID:26829491

  7. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression (United States)

    Cooper, John F.


    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  8. Transparent ultrathin conducting carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrathin conductive carbon layers (UCCLs) were created by spin coating resists and subsequently converting them to conductive films by pyrolysis. Homogeneous layers as thin as 3 nm with nearly atomically smooth surfaces could be obtained. Layer characterization was carried out with the help of atomic force microscopy, profilometry, four-point probe measurements, Raman spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The Raman spectra and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy image indicated that a glassy carbon like material was obtained after pyrolysis. The electrical properties of the UCCL could be controlled over a wide range by varying the pyrolysis temperature. Variation in transmittance with conductivity was investigated for applications as transparent conducting films. It was observed that the layers are continuous down to a thickness below 10 nm, with conductivities of 1.6 x 104 S/m, matching the best values observed for pyrolyzed carbon films. Further, the chemical stability of the films and their utilization as transparent electrochemical electrodes has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  9. Stereochemistry of 16a-Hydroxyfriedelin and 3-Oxo-16-methylfriedel-16-ene Established by 2D NMR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Fernandes Knupp


    Full Text Available Friedelin (1, 3b-friedelinol (2, 28-hydroxyfriedelin (3, 16a-hydroxyfriedelin (4, 30-hydroxyfriedelin (5 and 16a,28-dihydroxyfriedelin (6 were isolated through fractionation of the hexane extract obtained from branches of Salacia elliptica. After a week in CDCl3 solution, 16a-hydroxyfriedelin (4 reacted turning into 3-oxo-16-methylfriedel-16-ene (7. This is the first report of a dehydration followed by a Nametkin rearrangement of a pentacyclic triterpene in CDCl3 solution occurring in the NMR tube. These seven pentacyclic triterpenes was identified through NMR spectroscopy and the stereochemistry of compound 4 and 7 was established by 2D NMR (NOESY spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (GC-MS. It is also the first time that all the 13C-NMR and 2D NMR spectral data are reported for compounds 4 and 7.

  10. 16 CFR 310.6 - Exemptions. (United States)


    ... Regulation Rule Pursuant to the Telephone Disclosure and Dispute Resolution Act of 1992,” 16 CFR Part 308... and Prohibitions Concerning Franchising and Business Opportunity Ventures,” (“Franchise Rule”) 16 CFR... instances of upselling included in such telephone calls; (5) Telephone calls initiated by a customer...

  11. 36 CFR 910.16 - Land use. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Land use. 910.16 Section 910... DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.16 Land use. (a) Development within the Development..., entertainment, and residential opportunities, as well as high quality office uses. (b) That portion of...

  12. 46 CFR 58.16-18 - Installation. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation. 58.16-18 Section 58.16-18 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND... ventilation consisting of a fresh air inlet pipe and an exhaust pipe both entering through the top of...

  13. 7 CFR 1219.16 - Marketing. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing. 1219.16 Section 1219.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Marketing. Marketing means any activity related to the sale or other disposition of Hass avocados in...

  14. A 16N gamma-ray facility (United States)

    Hull, Ethan L.; Pehl, Richard H.; Stanley, Michelle R.; Foster, Charles C.; Komisarcik, Kevin; East, Gary W.; Vanderwerp, John D.; Friesel, Dennis L.


    A practical 16N gamma-ray source is created in a medium-energy cyclotron environment. A 16N source emits 6129 and 7115 keV gamma rays. The viability of this several μCi source for detector calibration and studying detector physics is established.

  15. A 16N gamma-ray facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A practical 16N gamma-ray source is created in a medium-energy cyclotron environment. A 16N source emits 6129 and 7115 keV gamma rays. The viability of this several μCi source for detector calibration and studying detector physics is established. (orig.)

  16. 31 CFR 92.16 - Written response. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Written response. 92.16 Section 92.16 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance UNITED STATES MINT OPERATIONS AND... amount of a civil penalty to be imposed which, upon additional consideration of the evidence, may be...

  17. 31 CFR 16.21 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 16.21 Section 16.21 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM...— (i) Is necessary for the expeditious, fair, and reasonable consideration of the issues; (ii) Is...

  18. 40 CFR 264.16 - Personnel training. (United States)


    ... Administration (OSHA) regulations 29 CFR 1910.120(p)(8) and 1910.120(q), the facility is not required to provide... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personnel training. 264.16 Section 264... Facility Standards § 264.16 Personnel training. (a)(1) Facility personnel must successfully complete...

  19. 40 CFR 265.16 - Personnel training. (United States)


    ... Administration (OSHA) regulations 29 CFR 1910.120(p)(8) and 1910.120(q), the facility is not required to provide... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personnel training. 265.16 Section 265... FACILITIES General Facility Standards § 265.16 Personnel training. (a)(1) Facility personnel...

  20. 22 CFR 120.16 - Foreign person. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign person. 120.16 Section 120.16 Foreign... Foreign person. Foreign person means any natural person who is not a lawful permanent resident as defined... also means any foreign corporation, business association, partnership, trust, society or any...

  1. 28 CFR 512.16 - Informed consent. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Informed consent. 512.16 Section 512.16 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION... researcher can demonstrate that the only link to the subject's identity is the signed statement of...

  2. 14 CFR 43.16 - Airworthiness limitations. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airworthiness limitations. 43.16 Section 43.16 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... manufacturer's maintenance manual or Instructions for Continued Airworthiness shall perform the inspection...

  3. 42 CFR 73.16 - Transfers. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transfers. 73.16 Section 73.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING SELECT AGENTS... select agent or toxin may only be transferred to individuals or entities registered to possess, use,...

  4. 7 CFR 654.16 - Property management. (United States)


    ... property (34 CFR part 256). (c) Establish, adopt, and comply with a property management system which meets... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property management. 654.16 Section 654.16 Agriculture... Property management. Sponsor(s) are to: (a) Use real property acquired in whole or in part with...

  5. 40 CFR 273.16 - Employee training. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee training. 273.16 Section 273.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... Employee training. A small quantity handler of universal waste must inform all employees who handle or...

  6. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  7. 48 CFR 16.203-1 - Description. (United States)


    ... experiences during contract performance. (3) Adjustments based on cost indexes of labor or material. These... performance or delivery incentives (see 16.402-2 and 16.402-3) when the award fee or incentive is based solely... types: (1) Adjustments based on established prices. These price adjustments are based on increases...

  8. 7 CFR 1738.16 - Eligible entities. (United States)


    ... cooperative, nonprofit, limited dividend or mutual associations, limited liability companies, commercial... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible entities. 1738.16 Section 1738.16... Eligible entities. (a) RUS makes broadband loans to legally organized entities providing, or proposing...

  9. 44 CFR 16.160 - Communications. (United States)


    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communications. 16.160... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY § 16.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants, personnel...

  10. 15 CFR 742.16 - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 742.16 Section 742.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS §...

  11. 16 CFR 1500.3 - Definitions. (United States)


    ... toxicity guidelines at 16 CFR 1500.135.) (A) For Carcinogens. A substance is toxic if it is or contains a... definition. The following categories are not intended to be inclusive. (i) Acute toxicity. Toxic means any...(k) of the Federal Hazardous Substances Act (restated in 16 CFR 1500.3(b)(9)) is supplemented by...

  12. 30 CFR 769.16 - Public information. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public information. 769.16 Section 769.16... information. (a) Promptly after determining that a petition is complete, the Director shall notify the general public of the receipt of the petition and request submissions of the relevant information by a...

  13. 15 CFR 785.16 - Decisions. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decisions. 785.16 Section 785.16... Decisions. (a) Recommended decision and order. After considering the entire record in the case, the ALJ will issue a recommended decision based on a preponderance of the evidence. The decision will...

  14. 45 CFR 650.16 - Background rights. (United States)


    ... Background rights. The Foundation will acquire rights to a research performer's pre-existing technology only... of the Bayh-Dole Act (35 U.S.C. 202(f)) as implemented by 37 CFR 401.12). ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Background rights. 650.16 Section 650.16...

  15. 40 CFR 401.16 - Conventional pollutants. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Conventional pollutants. 401.16 Section... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.16 Conventional pollutants. The following comprise the list of conventional pollutants designated pursuant to section 304(a)(4) of the Act: 1. Biochemical oxygen demand...

  16. Carbon nanotube cathode with capping carbon nanosheet (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhao, Dengchao; Pang, Kaige; Pang, Junchao; Liu, Weihua; Liu, Hongzhong; Wang, Xiaoli


    Here, we report a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) film capped with a few layer of carbon nanosheet (FLCN) synthesized by chemical vapor deposition using a carbon source from iron phthalocyanine pyrolysis. The square resistance of the VACNT film is significantly reduced from 1500 Ω/□ to 300 Ω/□ when it is capped with carbon nanosheet. The VACNT capped with carbon nanosheet was transferred to an ITO glass substrate in an inverted configuration so that the carbon nanosheet served as a flexible transparent electrode at the bottom and the VACNT roots served as emission tips. Because all of the VACNTs start growing from a flat silicon substrate, the VACNT roots are very neat and uniform in height. A field emission test of the carbon nanosheet-capped VACNT film proved that the CNT roots show better uniformity in field emission and the carbon nanosheet cap could also potentially serve as a flexible transparent electrode, which is highly desired in photo-assisted field emission.

  17. Trading forest carbon - OSU (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  18. Potassium carbonate poisoning (United States)

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  19. Sodium carbonate poisoning (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  20. Biomass Carbon Stock (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Biomass carbon includes carbon stored in above- and below-ground live plant components (such as leaf, branch, stem and root) as well as in standing and down dead...

  1. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / Safety Education / Safety Education Centers En Español Carbon Monoxide Information Center The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as CO, is called the "Invisible ...

  2. Carbon Monoxide Safety (United States)

    ... with the Media Fire Protection Technology Carbon monoxide safety outreach materials Help inform residents in your community ... KB | Spanish PDF 645 KB Handout: carbon monoxide safety Download this handout and add your organization's logo ...

  3. Soil Organic Carbon Stock (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the carbon held within soil organic constituents (i.e., products produced as dead plants and animals decompose and the soil microbial...

  4. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education / Safety Education Centers En Español Carbon Monoxide Information Center The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known ... Install one and check its batteries regularly. View Information About CO Alarms Other CO Topics Safety Tips ...

  5. Calcium carbonate overdose (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  6. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi


    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  7. Soil carbon budget in different-aged Chinese fir plantations in south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shebao Yu; Dan Wang; Wei Dai; Ping Li


    Understanding the age effect on soil carbon balance in forest ecosystems is important for other material cycles and forest man-agement. In this research we investigated soil organic carbon density, litter production, litter decomposition rate, soil respiration, and soil mi-crobial properties in a chronosequence of four Chinese fir plantations of 7, 16, 23 and 29 years at Dagangshan mountain range, Jiangxi Province, south China. There was a significant increasing trend in litter production with increasing plantation age. Litter decomposition rate and soil respira-tion, however, declined from the 7-year to the 16-year plantation, and then increased after 16 years. This was largely dependent on soil micro-organisms. Soil carbon output was higher than carbon input before 16 years, and total soil carbon stock declined from 35.98 t·ha-1 in the 7-year plantation to 30.12 t·ha-1 in the 16-year plantation. Greater litter produc-tion could not explain the greater soil carbon stock, suggesting that forest growth impacted this microbial process that controlled rates of soil car-bon balance together with litter and soil respiration. The results highlight the importance of the development stage in assessing soil carbon budget and its significance to future management of Chinese fir plantations.


    Tolbert, N. E.


    The C2 oxidative photosynthetic carbon cycle plus the C3 reductive photosynthetic carbon cycle coexist. Both are initiated by Rubisco, use about equal amounts of energy, must regenerate RuBP, and result in exchanges of CO2 and O2 to establish rates of net photosynthesis, CO2 and O2 compensation points, and the ratio of CO2 and O2 in the atmosphere. These concepts evolved from research on O2 inhibition, glycolate metabolism, leaf peroxisomes, photorespiration, 18O2/16O2 exchange, CO2 concentrating processes, and a requirement for the oxygenase activity of Rubisco. Nearly 80 years of research on these topics are unified under the one process of photosynthetic carbon metabolism and its self-regulation. PMID:15012254

  9. Metal filled porous carbon (United States)

    Gross, Adam F.; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping; Salguero, Tina T.


    A porous carbon scaffold with a surface and pores, the porous carbon scaffold containing a primary metal and a secondary metal, where the primary metal is a metal that does not wet the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold but wets the surface of the secondary metal, and the secondary metal is interspersed between the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold and the primary metal.

  10. Potential Carbon Negative Commercial Aviation through Land Management (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.


    Brazilian terra preta soil and char-enhanced soil agricultural systems have demonstrated both enhanced plant biomass and crop yield and functions as a carbon sink. Similar carbon sinking has been demonstrated for both glycophyte and halophyte plants and plant roots. Within the assumption of 3.7 t-C/ha/yr soils and plant root carbon sinking, it is possible to provide carbon neutral U.S. commercial aviation using about 8.5% of U.S. arable lands. The total airline CO2 release would be offset by carbon credits for properly managed soils and plant rooting, becoming carbon neutral for carbon sequestered synjet processing. If these lands were also used to produce biomass fuel crops such as soybeans at an increased yield of 60 bu/acre (225gal/ha), they would provide over 3.15 10(exp 9) gallons biodiesel fuel. If all this fuel were refined into biojet it would provide a 16% biojet-84% synjet blend. This allows the U.S. aviation industry to become carbon negative (carbon negative commercial aviation through carbon credits). Arid land recovery could yield even greater benefits.

  11. The role of urbanization in the global carbon cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina eChurkina


    Full Text Available Urban areas account for more than 70% of CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels. Urban expansion in tropics is responsible for 5% of the annual emissions from land use change. Here I show that the effect of urbanization on the global carbon cycle extends beyond these emissions. I quantify the contribution of urbanization to the major carbon fluxes and pools globally and identify gaps crucial for predicting the evolution of the carbon cycle in the future. Urban residents currently control ~22 (12-40 % of the land carbon uptake (112 PgC/yr and ~24 (15-39 % of the carbon emissions (117 PgC/yr from land globally. Urbanization resulted in the creation of new carbon pools on land such as buildings (~6.7 PgC and landfills (~30 PgC. Together these pools store 1.6 (±0.3 % of the total vegetation and soil carbon pools globally. The creation and maintenance of these new pools has been associated with high emissions of CO2, which are currently better understood than the processes associated with the dynamics of these pools and accompanying uptake of carbon. Predictions of the future trajectories of the global carbon cycle will require a much better understanding of how urban development affects the carbon cycle over the long term.

  12. Carbon storage and recycling in short-rotation energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-rotation energy crops can play a significant role in storing carbon compared to the agricultural land uses they would displace. However, the benefits from these plantations in avoiding further use of fossil fuels and in taking pressure off native forests for energy uses provides longer term carbon benefits than the plantation carbon sequestration itself. The fast growth and harvest frequency of plantations tends to limit the amount of above- and below-ground carbon storage in them. The primary components of plantation carbon sequestering compared to sustained agricultural practices involve above ground wood, possible increased soil carbon, litter layer formation, and increased root biomass. On the average, short-rotation plantations in total may increase carbon inventories by about 10 to 40 tonnes per hectare over about a 20 to 50 year period when displacing cropland. This is about doubling in storage over cropland and about one-half the storage in human-impacted forests. The sequestration benefit of wood energy crops over cropland would be negated in about 75 to 100 years by the use of fossil fuels to tend the plantations and handle biomass. Plantation interactions with other land uses and total landscape carbon inventory is important in assessing the relative role plantations play in terestrial and atmospheric carbon dynamics. It is speculated that plantations, when viewed in this context, could generate a global levelling of net carbon emissions for approximately 10 to 20 years. 16 refs., 7 figs

  13. Febrication of Carbon-Nanotube-Forest Based Bolometer


    Wood, Brian; Dyer, J. S.; Thurgood, V. A.; Shen, T. -C.


    Due to the nearly-vertical alignment and the band structure of graphite, carbon nanotube forests could have near-unity emissivity which make them ideal candidates as the absorbers for radiometric devices. However, forest height, carbon nanotube density, and the presence of surface defects will affect the total reflectance and transmittance. With optimized growth conditions, a total reflectance of 0.003 and a transmittance of 0.001 has been achieved in the 2 µm - 16 µm spectral region. Fabrica...

  14. Protolytic carbon film technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renschler, C.L.; White, C.A.


    This paper presents a technique for the deposition of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) on virtually any surface allowing carbon film formation with only the caveat that the substrate must withstand carbonization temperatures of at least 600 degrees centigrade. The influence of processing conditions upon the structure and properties of the carbonized film is discussed. Electrical conductivity, microstructure, and morphology control are also described.

  15. Carbon Goes To… (United States)

    Savasci, Funda


    The purposes of this activity are to help middle school students understand the carbon cycle and realize how human activities affect the carbon cycle. This activity consists of two parts. The first part of the activity focuses on the carbon cycle, especially before the Industrial Revolution, while the second part of the activity focuses on how…

  16. Carbon/Carbon Pistons for Internal Combustion Engines (United States)

    Taylor, A. H.


    Carbon/carbon piston performs same function as aluminum pistons in reciprocating internal combustion engines while reducing weight and increasing mechanical and thermal efficiencies of engine. Carbon/carbon piston concept features low piston-to-cylinder wall clearance - so low piston rings and skirts unnecessary. Advantages possible by negligible coefficient of thermal expansion of carbon/carbon.

  17. Isotopic signatures of continental and marine carbonates from the Magondi belt, Zimbabwe: implications for the global carbon cycle at 2,0 Ga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon, oxygen and strontium isotope studies have been carried out on continental and marine carbonates of the early Proterozoic Magondi Belt in Zimbabwe. A new model is presented to explain the global carbon isotope anomaly in 2 Ga old rocks, in the light of recent research on the effects of volcanism and global catastrophes on the biosphere, and on isotopes in the geological record. 16 refs

  18. Beyond temperature: Clumped isotope signatures in dissolved inorganic carbon species and the influence of solution chemistry on carbonate mineral composition


    Tripati, Aradhna K.; Hill, Pamela S.; Eagle, Robert A.; Mosenfelder, Jed L.; Tang, Jianwu; Schauble, Edwin A.; Eiler, John M.; Zeebe, Richard E.; Uchikawa, Joji; Coplen, Tyler B.; Ries, Justin B; Henry, Drew


    “Clumped-isotope” thermometry is an emerging tool to probe the temperature history of surface and subsurface environments based on measurements of the proportion of ^(13)C and ^(18)O isotopes bound to each other within carbonate minerals in ^(13)C^(18)O^(16)O_2^(2−) groups (heavy isotope “clumps”). Although most clumped isotope geothermometry implicitly presumes carbonate crystals have attained lattice equilibrium (i.e., thermodynamic equilibrium for a mineral, which is independent of solutio...

  19. APOLLO 16: One for the Album (United States)


    APOLLO 16 :Charles M. Duke photographs Cmdr. John W. Young in front of the Lunar Module. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 16: 'Nothing So Hidden'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO16: Fifth manned lunar landing mission withJohn W. Young, Ken Mattingly, and Charles M. Duke. Landed at Descartes on April 20 1972. Deployed camera and experiments; performed EVA with lunar roving vehicle. Deployed P&F Subsattelite in lunar orbit. Mission Duration 265hrs 51 min 5sec

  20. Activated carbons and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literature on activated carbon is reviewed so as to provide a general background with respect to the effect of source material and activation procedure on carbon properties, the structure and chemical nature of the surface of the activated carbon, and the nature of absorption processes on carbon. The various theories on the absorption of gold and silver from cyanide solutions are then reviewed, followed by a discussion of processes for the recovery of gold and silver from cyanide solutions using activated carbon, including a comparison with zinc precipitation

  1. Food and nutrition studies for Apollo 16 (United States)

    Smith, M. C., Jr.; Rambaut, P. C.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rapp, R. M.; Wheeler, H. O.


    A study has been conducted on nutrient intake and absorption during the Apollo 16 mission. Results indicate that inflight intakes of all essential nutrients were adequate and that absorption of these materials occurred normally.

  2. 16 million [pounds] investment for 'virtual supercomputer'

    CERN Multimedia

    Holland, C


    "The Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council is to spend 16million [pounds] to create a massive computing Grid, equivalent to the world's second largest supercomputer after Japan's Earth Simulator computer" (1/2 page)

  3. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 16, 2006


    African Studies Centre


    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 16 (2006). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  4. KIF16B delivers for transcytosis


    Rodríguez-Fraticelli, Alejo E.; Galvez-Santisteban, Manuel; Martin-Belmonte, Fernando


    Epithelia that natively lack the clathrin adaptor AP-1B recycle basolateral proteins to their apical domain by transcytosis. Although microtubules are required for this process, KIF16B is the first kinesin identified to be involved in transcytosis.

  5. N-16 monitors: Almaraz NPP experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrada, J. [Almaraz NPP, Madrid (Spain)


    Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant has installed N-16 monitors - one per steam generator - to control the leakage rate through the steam generator tubes after the application of leak before break (LBB) criteria for the top tube sheet (TTS). After several years of operation with the N-16 monitors, Almaraz NPP experience may be summarized as follows: N-16 monitors are very useful to follow the steam generator leak rate trend and to detect an incipient tube rupture; but they do not provide an exact absolute leak rate value, mainly when there are small leaks. The evolution of the measured N-16 leak rates varies along the fuel cycle, with the same trend for the 3 steam generators. This behaviour is associated with the primary water chemistry evolution along the cycle.

  6. 48 CFR 16.301-3 - Limitations. (United States)


    ... cost-reimbursement contracts is prohibited for the acquisition of commercial items (see parts 2 and 12). ... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 16.301-3 Limitations. (a) A...

  7. 48 CFR 16.202-2 - Application. (United States)


    ... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.202-2 Application. A firm-fixed-price contract is suitable for acquiring commercial items (see parts 2 and 12) or for acquiring other supplies...

  8. 48 CFR 16.307 - Contract clauses. (United States)


    ... commercial item) is contemplated. If the contract is with an educational institution, modify the clause by... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 16.307 Contract clauses. (a)(1)...

  9. Eestil lüngad 16 euroalal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Euroopa Komisjoni laienemise peadirektoraadi direktor Fabrizio Barbaso nimetas 16 valdkonda, kus Eestil on veel puudujääke enne EL-iga ühinemist. Lisa: Valik seadustest, mis tuleb enne 1. maid vastu võtta

  10. 21 CFR 26.16 - Suspension. (United States)


    ... PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN... Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.16 Suspension. (a) Each party has the...

  11. Carbon-14 waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-14 occurs in nature, but is also formed in nuclear reactors. Because of its long half-life and the biological significance of carbon, releases from nuclear facilities could have a significant radiological impact. Waste management strategies for carbon-14 are therefore of current concern. Carbon-14 is present in a variety of waste streams both at reactors and at reprocessing plants. A reliable picture of the production and release of carbon-14 from various reactor systems has been built up for the purposes of this study. A possible management strategy for carbon-14 might be the reduction of nitrogen impurity levels in core materials, since the activation of 14N is usually the dominant source of carbon-14. The key problem in carbon-14 management is its retention of off-gas streams, particularly in the dissolver off-gas stream at reprocessing plants. Three alternative trapping processes that convert carbon dioxide into insoluble carbonates have been suggested. The results show that none of the options considered need be rejected on the grounds of potential radiation doses to individuals. All exposures should be as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account. If, on these grounds, retention and disposal of carbon-14 is found to be beneficial, then, subject to the limitations noted, appropriate retention, immobilization and disposal technologies have been identified

  12. Possible insect vectors of phytoplasmas affiliated with subgroups 16SrI-B, 16SrI-C, 16SrIII-B and 16SrIII-P in Lithuania (United States)

    Phytoplasma strains affiliated with groups 16SrI, 16SrIII, 16SrV, and 16SrXII have been found in Lithuania, but still little is known about insects that could transmit them. In this study, four phytoplasma strains belonging to phytoplasma subgroups 16SrI-B, 16SrI-C, 16SrIII-B and 16SrIII-P were id...

  13. Spectroscopic Classification of ASASSN-16az (United States)

    Prieto, J. L.; Rich, J.; Shappee, B. J.


    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 360-920 nm) of ASASSN-16az (ATel #8614) on UT 2016 Feb 2.4 with WFCCD mounted on the du Pont 2.5m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Cross-correlation with a library of SN spectra using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows that ASASSN-16az is a normal Type Ia at +10 days.

  14. 16 CFR 1508.3 - Dimensions. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dimensions. 1508.3 Section 1508.3 Commercial... FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1508.3 Dimensions. Full-size baby cribs shall have dimensions as follows: (a) Interior. The interior dimensions shall be 71±1.6 centimeters (28±5/8 inches) wide as measured between...

  15. Structural and bonding trends in platinum-carbon clusters


    Miller, Thomas F., III; Hall, Michael B.


    Density functional calculations with the B3-LYP functional were used to optimize the platinum−carbon cationic clusters, PtC_x^+, 1 ≤ x ≤ 16, in both the doublet and quartet states of the linear, fan, open-ring, closed-ring, and one-carbon-ring geometries. Trends in stability, Pt^+−C_x binding energy, doublet-quartet excitation energy, and Pt−C bond lengths were investigated. Explanations for these patterns are provided in terms of orbital interactions and changes imposed on the carbon chain b...

  16. Production of activated carbon from Atili seed shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehemiah Samuel MAINA


    Full Text Available Activated carbon was produced from atili (black date seed shells by chemical activation with phosphoric acid as an activating agent. Carbonization was done at temperatures of 350°C, 450°C, 550°C, 650°C and at corresponding resident times of 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes respectively in a muffle furnace. The study involved the determination of yield, carbon content, burn-off, moisture content, and ash content as well as the temperature and suitable resident time for carbonization. The result showed that, increasing the carbonization temperature from 350°C to 650°C as well as increasing the corresponding resident time from 20 to 60 minutes led to a decrease in carbonization yield as well as an increase in burn off. An increase in carbonization time led to a decrease in ash content while an increase in carbonization temperature led to a decrease in the moisture content. The yield, burn-off and ash content obtained at a carbonization temperature of 650°C and at a corresponding time of 60 minutes were found to be 68.29%, 31.71% and 0.75% respectively while the highest carbon content (99.16 and lowest moisture content (0.09 was obtained at this same temperature and corresponding time. The activated carbon produced gave a yield of 99.37%, ash content (2.01%, moisture content (4.20%, carbon content (93.79%, burn off (0.63% and pH of 6.752. These properties therefore indicate the suitability of the activated carbon produced.

  17. [Characterization of Black and Dichothrix Cyanobacteria Based on the 16S Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequence (United States)

    Ortega, Maya


    My project focuses on characterizing different cyanobacteria in thrombolitic mats found on the island of Highborn Cay, Bahamas. Thrombolites are interesting ecosystems because of the ability of bacteria in these mats to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and mineralize it as calcium carbonate. In the future they may be used as models to develop carbon sequestration technologies, which could be used as part of regenerative life systems in space. These thrombolitic communities are also significant because of their similarities to early communities of life on Earth. I targeted two cyanobacteria in my research, Dichothrix spp. and whatever black is, since they are believed to be important to carbon sequestration in these thrombolitic mats. The goal of my summer research project was to molecularly identify these two cyanobacteria. DNA was isolated from each organism through mat dissections and DNA extractions. I ran Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR) to amplify the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene in each cyanobacteria. This specific gene is found in almost all bacteria and is highly conserved, meaning any changes in the sequence are most likely due to evolution. As a result, the 16S rRNA gene can be used for bacterial identification of different species based on the sequence of their 16S rRNA gene. Since the exact sequence of the Dichothrix gene was unknown, I designed different primers that flanked the gene based on the known sequences from other taxonomically similar cyanobacteria. Once the 16S rRNA gene was amplified, I cloned the gene into specialized Escherichia coli cells and sent the gene products for sequencing. Once the sequence is obtained, it will be added to a genetic database for future reference to and classification of other Dichothrix sp.

  18. Carbon Stocks in Harran Plain Soils, Sanliurfa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal SAKIN


    Full Text Available Soils are an important component of the global carbon cycle and can be net sources or sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2. The goals of the present study were to analyze the soil organic carbon (SOC and soil inorganic carbon (SIC content of Harran Plain soil in Sanliurfa, Turkey, part of the Southeast Anatolia region (SAR, and to estimate carbon stocks (CSs in soil series that are representative of arid and semiarid lands. To this end, soil samples were collected from 16 profiles in the Harran Plain at depths of 100, 120, and 160 cm of the genetic horizons, and the SOC stocks in the three soil depths were estimated. The carbon stock was 56.41 Tg of C in the 0-100 cm layer, 67.80 Tg of C in the 0-120 cm layer and 87.91 Tg of C in the 0-160 cm layer. For the three soil depths 100, 120, and 160 cm, the SOC content ranged from 6.33 to 11.04, 7.11 to 11.98 and 8.72 to 16.53 kg of C m-2, respectively, and the soil inorganic carbon content ranged from 8.83 to 19.26, 11.00 to 23.34 and 14.82 to 32.64 kg of C m-2, respectively.

  19. An Effective Method of Producing Small Neutral Carbon Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Zhu-Hong; CHEN Cheng-Chu; HSU Yen-Chu


    An effective method of producing small neutral carbon clusters Cn (n = 1-6) is described. The small carbon clusters (positive or negative charge or neutral) are formed by plasma which are produced by a high power 532nm pulse laser ablating the surface of the metal Mn rod to react with small hydrocarbons supplied by a pulse valve, then the neutral carbon clusters are extracted and photo-ionized by another laser (266nm or 355nm) in the ionization region of a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The distributions of the initial neutral carbon clusters are analysed with the ionic species appeared in mass spectra. It is observed that the yield of small carbon clusters with the present method is about 10 times than that of the traditional widely used technology of laser vaporization of graphite.

  20. Agglomeration process of carbon dusts in laboratory plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro-meter size carbon dusts have been formed in a 70 mm diameter, 370 mm long plasma container after running a 16 hour steady state Ar discharge. The formed carbon dusts have been observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to identify their surface structures. The observed images have indicated that dusts with both flake and cauliflower structures were present on the surfaces of sample collectors. Carbon dusts with the flake structures exhibited smoother surfaces than dusts with cauliflower structures. Dust samples were also collected from arc spot parts of the carbon electrode surfaces by placing carbon compound adhesive tapes. Micro-meter size dusts were found collected on the surface of the tapes, indicating formation of dusts during arc discharges. (author)

  1. Complexity of carbon market from multi-scale entropy analysis (United States)

    Fan, Xinghua; Li, Shasha; Tian, Lixin


    Complexity of carbon market is the consequence of economic dynamics and extreme social political events in global carbon markets. The multi-scale entropy can measure the long-term structures in the daily price return time series. By using multi-scale entropy analysis, we explore the complexity of carbon market and mean reversion trend of daily price return. The logarithmic difference of data Dec16 from August 6, 2010 to May 22, 2015 is selected as the sample. The entropy is higher in small time scale, while lower in large. The dependence of the entropy on the time scale reveals the mean reversion of carbon prices return in the long run. A relatively great fluctuation over some short time period indicates that the complexity of carbon market evolves consistently with economic development track and the events of international climate conferences.

  2. Carbon isotopes in mollusk shell carbonates (United States)

    McConnaughey, Ted A.; Gillikin, David Paul


    Mollusk shells contain many isotopic clues about calcification physiology and environmental conditions at the time of shell formation. In this review, we use both published and unpublished data to discuss carbon isotopes in both bivalve and gastropod shell carbonates. Land snails construct their shells mainly from respired CO2, and shell δ13C reflects the local mix of C3 and C4 plants consumed. Shell δ13C is typically >10‰ heavier than diet, probably because respiratory gas exchange discards CO2, and retains the isotopically heavier HCO3 -. Respired CO2 contributes less to the shells of aquatic mollusks, because CO2/O2 ratios are usually higher in water than in air, leading to more replacement of respired CO2 by environmental CO2. Fluid exchange with the environment also brings additional dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into the calcification site. Shell δ13C is typically a few ‰ lower than ambient DIC, and often decreases with age. Shell δ13C retains clues about processes such as ecosystem metabolism and estuarine mixing. Ca2+ ATPase-based models of calcification physiology developed for corals and algae likely apply to mollusks, too, but lower pH and carbonic anhydrase at the calcification site probably suppress kinetic isotope effects. Carbon isotopes in biogenic carbonates are clearly complex, but cautious interpretation can provide a wealth of information, especially after vital effects are better understood.

  3. Photosynthetic isotope fractionation: oxygen and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic carbon analyses of plant tissue and carbon dioxide from air samples and plant and soil respiration were made. Soil respiratory CO2 is about 150/00 lighter than atmospheric CO2. Plant isotopic ratios were found to be influenced by (1) plant photosynthetic efficiency, (2) source CO2, (3) airflow, and (4) CO2 concentrations. Etiolated bean plants have nearly the same delta13C value as seed carbon and seed dark respiratory CO2. Mature leaves from greenhouse grown beans, however, are some 5 0/00 lighter than seed carbon. This is a result of CO2 source, i.e., plant or soil respiratory CO2. Leaves which are generally lighter than other plant organs becomes still lighter during the growing season. As a consequence of increasingly light leaf carbon, photorespired CO2 also becomes lighter during the growing season. Oxygen isotopic values were measured for (1) photorespiratory CO2, which reflects equilibration with leaf water, and (2) photosynthetic O2, which is enriched in 18O, perhaps due to respiratory or photorespiratory 16O preference

  4. The Formation of Ethane from Carbon Dioxide under Cold Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Pulsed-corona plasma has been used as a new method for ethane dehydrogenation at low temperature and normal pressure using carbon dioxide as an oxidant in this paper. The effect of carbon dioxide content in the feed, power input, and flow rate of the reactants on the ethane dehydrogenation has been investigated. The experimental results show that the conversion of ethane increases with the increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the feed. The yield of ethylene and acetylene decreases with the increase in the yield of carbon monoxide, indicating that the increased carbon dioxide leads to the part of ethylene and acetylene being oxidized to carbon monoxide. Power input is primarily an electrical parameter in pulsed-corona plasma, which plays an important role in reactant conversion and product formation. When the power input reaches 16 W, ethane conversion is 41.0% and carbon dioxide conversion is 26.3%. The total yield of ethylene and acetylene is 15.6%. The reduced flow rate of feed improves the conversion of ethane,carbon dioxide and the yield of acetylene, and induces carbon deposit as well.

  5. Université de Genève | Séminaire de physique corpusculaire | 16 octobre

    CERN Multimedia


    Particle accelerators in tumour therapy, Dr Ugo Amaldi, Technische Universität München and TERA Foundation.   Mercredi 16 octobre 2013, 11h15 Science III, Auditoire 1S081 Boulevard d’Yvoy, 1211 Genève 4 Abstract: "Hadrontherapy", or "particle therapy", is a collective word which covers all cancer therapy modalities which irradiate patients with beams of hadrons. The most used hadrons are protons and carbon ions. Protontherapy is developing very rapidly: more than 100,000 patients have been treated and eight companies offer turn-key centres. Carbon ions, used for about 8,000 patients, have a larger radiobiological effectiveness and, being a qualitatively different radiation, require still radiobiological and, in particular, clinical studies to define the best tumour targets. After a review of the rationale for hadrontherapy and of the accelerators used in protontherapy, the European centres for carbon ion therapy will be discussed. Fin...

  6. Biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of the catalytic domain of MMP16 (cdMMP16). (United States)

    Meng, Fan; Yang, Hao; Aitha, Mahesh; George, Sam; Tierney, David L; Crowder, Michael W


    Membrane-bound matrix metalloproteinase 16 (MMP16/MT3-MMP) is considered a drug target due to its role(s) in disease processes such as cancer and inflammation. Biochemical characterization of MMP16 is critical for developing new generation MMP inhibitors (MMPi), which exhibit high efficacies and selectivities. Herein, a modified over-expression and purification protocol was used to prepare the catalytic domain of MMP16 (cdMMP16). The resulting recombinant enzyme exhibited steady-state kinetic constants of K m = 10.6 ± 0.7 μM and k cat = 1.14 ± 0.02 s(-1), when using FS-6 as substrate, and the enzyme bound 1.8 ± 0.1 eq of Zn(II). The enzymatic activity of cdMMP16 is salt concentration-dependent, and cdMMP16 exhibits autoproteolytic activity under certain conditions, which may be related to an in vivo regulatory mechanism of MMP16 and of other membrane-type MMPs (MT-MMPs). Co(II)-substituted analogs (Co2- and ZnCo) of cdMMP16 were prepared and characterized using several spectroscopic techniques, such as UV-Vis, (1)H NMR, and EXAFS spectroscopies. A well-characterized cdMMP16 is now available for future inhibitor screening efforts. PMID:27229514

  7. Seasonal variations in inorganic carbon components in the central and eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; DileepKumar, M.; George, M.D.; Rajendran, A.

    of carbon dioxide to atmosphere reached a maximum of approx 40 m mole m sup(-2) d sup(-1) around 16 degrees N in the central Arabian SEa during monsoon season. The carbon dioxide regenerated from soft tissue was higher during winter and is the least...

  8. 75 FR 21658 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Trinidad and Tobago (United States)


    ... amended, 67 FR 68036 (Nov. 8, 2002). In accordance with sections 201.16(c) and 207.3 of the Commission's... COMMISSION Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Trinidad and Tobago AGENCY: United States... in the antidumping duty Investigation No. 731-TA-961 concerning carbon and certain alloy steel...

  9. Proteomic analysis of carbon concentrating chemolithotrophic bacteria Serratia sp. for sequestration of carbon dioxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randhir K Bharti

    Full Text Available A chemolithotrophic bacterium enriched in the chemostat in presence of sodium bicarbonate as sole carbon source was identified as Serratia sp. by 16S rRNA sequencing. Carbon dioxide sequestering capacity of bacterium was detected by carbonic anhydrase enzyme and ribulose-1, 5- bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO. The purified carbonic anhydrase showed molecular weight of 29 kDa. Molecular weight of RuBisCO was 550 kDa as determined by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC, however, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE showed presence of two subunits whose molecular weights were 56 and 14 kDa. The Western blot analysis of the crude protein and purified sample cross reacted with RuBisCO large-subunit polypeptides antibodies showed strong band pattern at molecular weight around 56 kDa regions. Whole cell soluble proteins of Serratia sp. grown under autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/MS for differential expression of proteins. In proteomic analysis of 63 protein spots, 48 spots were significantly up-regulated in the autotrophically grown cells; seven enzymes showed its utilization in autotrophic carbon fixation pathways and other metabolic activities of bacterium including lipid metabolisms indicated sequestration potency of carbon dioxide and production of biomaterials.

  10. 16th International Symposium of Robotic Research

    CERN Document Server

    Corke, Peter


    This volume presents a collection of papers presented at the 16th International Symposium of Robotic Research (ISRR). ISRR is the biennial meeting of the International Foundation of Robotic Research (IFRR) and its 16th edition took place in Singapore over the period 16th to 19th December 2013. The ISRR is the longest running series of robotics research meetings and dates back to the very earliest days of robotics as a research discipline. This 16th ISRR meeting was held in the 30th anniversary year of the very first meeting which took place in Bretton Woods (New Hampshire, USA) in August 1983., and represents thirty years at the forefront of ideas in robotics research. As for the previous symposia, ISRR 2013 followed up on the successful concept of a mixture of invited contributions and open submissions. 16 of the contributions were invited contributions from outstanding researchers selected by the IFRR officers and the program committee, and the other contributions were chosen among the open submissions afte...