WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbamate pesticides validation

  1. Carbamate pesticide induced toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran N

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A 36-year-old male alleged to have consumed carbamate pesticide liquid (Baygon@ developed toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN within twenty-four hours of intake. Though drugs have been commonly incriminated as offending agents for TEN, carbamate pesticide was found to be the causative agent in our case.

  2. Analysis of Carbamate Pesticides: Validation of Semi-Volatile Analysis by HPLC-MS/MS by EPA Method MS666

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, J; Koester, C

    2008-05-14

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Region 5 Chicago Regional Laboratory (CRL) developed a method for analysis of aldicarb, bromadiolone, carbofuran, oxamyl, and methomyl in water by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), titled Method EPA MS666. This draft standard operating procedure (SOP) was distributed to multiple EPA laboratories and to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which was tasked to serve as a reference laboratory for EPA's Environmental Reference Laboratory Network (ERLN) and to develop and validate analytical procedures. The primary objective of this study was to validate and verify the analytical procedures described in MS666 for analysis of carbamate pesticides in aqueous samples. The gathered data from this validation study will be used to: (1) demonstrate analytical method performance; (2) generate quality control acceptance criteria; and (3) revise the SOP to provide a validated method that would be available for use during a homeland security event. The data contained in this report will be compiled, by EPA CRL, with data generated by other EPA Regional laboratories so that performance metrics of Method EPA MS666 can be determined.

  3. Carbamate Pesticide-Induced Apoptosis in Human T Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We previously found that carbamate pesticides induced significant apoptosis in human natural killer cells. To investigate whether carbamate pesticides also induce apoptosis in human T lymphocytes, in the present study Jurkat human T cells were treated in vitro with thiram, maneb, carbaryl or ziram. Apoptosis was determined by FITC-Annexin-V/PI staining. To explore the mechanism of apoptosis, intracellular levels of active caspase 3 and mitochondrial cytochrome-c release were determined by flow cytometry. We found that thiram, ziram, maneb and carbaryl also induced apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner in the human T cells. However, the strength of the apoptosis-inducing effect differed among the pesticides, with the: thiram > ziram > maneb > carbaryl. Moreover, thiram significantly increased the intracellular level of active caspase 3 and caspase inhibitors significantly inhibited apoptosis. Thiram also significantly caused mitochondrial cytochrome-c release. These findings indicate that carbamate pesticides can induce apoptosis in human T cells, and the apoptosis is mediated by the activation of caspases and the release of mitochondrial cytochrome-c.

  4. Carbamate Pesticide-Induced Apoptosis in Human T Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Kobayashi, Maiko; Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    We previously found that carbamate pesticides induced significant apoptosis in human natural killer cells. To investigate whether carbamate pesticides also induce apoptosis in human T lymphocytes, in the present study Jurkat human T cells were treated in vitro with thiram, maneb, carbaryl or ziram. Apoptosis was determined by FITC-Annexin-V/PI staining. To explore the mechanism of apoptosis, intracellular levels of active caspase 3 and mitochondrial cytochrome-c release were determined by flow cytometry. We found that thiram, ziram, maneb and carbaryl also induced apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner in the human T cells. However, the strength of the apoptosis-inducing effect differed among the pesticides, with the: thiram > ziram > maneb > carbaryl. Moreover, thiram significantly increased the intracellular level of active caspase 3 and caspase inhibitors significantly inhibited apoptosis. Thiram also significantly caused mitochondrial cytochrome-c release. These findings indicate that carbamate pesticides can induce apoptosis in human T cells, and the apoptosis is mediated by the activation of caspases and the release of mitochondrial cytochrome-c. PMID:25837344

  5. Stimulation of Methanogenesis by Aldicarb and Several Other N-Methyl Carbamate Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Kiene, Ronald P.; Capone, Douglas G.

    1986-01-01

    Aldicarb and several other N-methyl carbamate pesticides stimulated methane production in anaerobic salt marsh soils and organic-rich aquifer soils. Stimulation was biological and linearly related to the amount of carbamate added. Of the four carbamates studied, methomyl gave the greatest stimulation followed by carbaryl, aldicarb, and baygon. The percent conversions [(moles of CH4 in excess of control/mole of carbamate added) × 100] for methomyl, carbaryl, aldicarb, and baygon were 88, 57, ...

  6. Sensitivity of Acetylcholinesterases from Aphelenchus avenae to Organophosphorous and Carbamate Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Pree, D. J.; Townshend, J. L.; Archibald, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    The sensitivities of acetylcholinesterases (ACHE) from the nematode Aphelenchus avenae and the house fly Musca domestica to various pesticides were compared using a colorimetric assay. ACHE from A. avenae were generally less sensitive than ACHE from M. domestica to inhibition by organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides. Carbamates were somewhat more inhibiting than organophosphorous pesticides to nematode ACHE. In vivo tests with concentrations of various pesticides up to 500 ppm in sand ca...

  7. DOSE-RESPONSE MODELING FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF CUMULATIVE RISK DUE TO EXPOSURE TO N-METHYL CARBAMATE PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPAs N-Methyl Carbamate Cumulative Risk Assessment (NMCRA) assesses the effect on acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity of exposure to 10 N-methyl carbamate (NMC) pesticides through dietary, drinking water, and residential exposures....

  8. ANTICHOLINESTERASE ACTION OF PESTICIDAL CARBAMATES IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM OF POISONED FISHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the report, kinetic enzyme methods and statistical analyses are used to define the relationship between brain acetycholinesterase inhibition and near-median kills in replicate groups of marine fish in the laboratory by five carbamate pesticides....

  9. Cumulative risk assessment of the intake of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in the Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A. F.; Petersen, Annette

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential cumulative effects of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides that act through a common mechanism of toxicity, and to assess the long- and short-term risks for the Danish population. The intake estimates are based on dietary intake data collected in the Danish nation-wide food consumption survey in 1995. The pesticide data are based on the Danish pesticide residue-monitoring programme from 1996-2001. The amount of 35 organophosphorus pesticides and carbamates were included in the cumulative risk assessment. Processing factors, such as reduction of pesticide levels by rinsing and peeling, were applied in the exposure assessment. The "Toxicity Equivalence Factor" (TEF) approach was used to normalise the toxicity of the different organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Cumulative chronic exposure of organophosphorus and carbamates pesticides via fruit, vegetables and cereals is for adults 0.8-2% of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) in chlorpyrifos equivalents, and 0.03-11% of the ADI in methamidophos equivalents; and for children 2-5% of the ADI in the chlorpyrifos equivalents, and 0.07-27% of the ADI in methamidophos equivalents. Neither Acute Reference Dose (ARfD) nor ADI was exceeded for any of the compounds studied. The results indicate that the Danish population is neither exposed to any cumulative chronic risk, nor at risk of acute exposure, from consumption of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides from fruit, vegetables and cereals.

  10. Photochemical decomposition of carbamate pesticides in natural waters of northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photochemical decomposition of the carbamate pesticides carbofuran, carbaryl and thiram was examined in natural waters of northern Greece under the influence of solar and UV (? > 290 nm) radiation. Different major photoproducts were detected by GC/MS. The result of continuous irradiation was almost total degradation of the pesticides examined

  11. [Acute poisoning with anticholinesterase carbamate pesticides: methomyl-lannate®].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouali, Nadia; Amira, Dorra; Zitouni, Eya; Gana, Ines; Nouioui, Anouer; Khelifi, Fathia; Belwaer, Ines; Masri, Wafa; Ghorbal, Hayet; Hedhili, Abderazzek

    2014-01-01

    The methomyl is increasingly involved in suicidal and autolytic attempts. Intoxication with carbamate (CM) compounds is still a frequent cause for admission in the Emergency department of the medical assistance center (MAC) in Tunis, Tunisia. The aim of this study was to describe the demographics, clinical features and hospital course of patients presenting with CM intoxication to the ED of MAC in Tunis, Tunisia. This was a retrospective study about 52 cases of acute poisoning by methomyl, compiled in the MAC from 1st January, 2009 to December 31, 2012. Intoxications were all oral, mostly intentional (33 cases: 65%) and in young patients (29 years old). Females outnumbered males by almost 2:1. The most frequent symptom was hypotension (41 cases: 80%), followed by miosis (39 cases: 75%), rhabdomyolysis (29 cases: 55%), vomiting (18 cases: 43%), bronchorrhea (14 cases: 27%), diarrhea (11 cases: 21%) and fasciculations (8 cases: 17%). Treatments included gastric lavage in 16 patients (32%), assisted ventilation in 8 cases (17%) and atropine in 44 patients (85%). Seven patients died during hospitalization. Pesticide poisoning is a significant public health problem and some preventive measures must be strictly enforced to limit this kind of intoxication. PMID:25486668

  12. Graphene-modified TiO2 nanotube arrays as an adsorbent in micro-solid phase extraction for determination of carbamate pesticides in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qingxiang; Fang, Zhi

    2015-04-15

    Graphene is a good adsorbent for organic pollutants, especially for compounds containing benzene rings. When used in TiO2 nanotube arrays for micro-solid phase extraction (?-SPE), the combination of graphene's strong adsorptive properties with its good separation capabilities results in excellent sample preconcentration performance. In the present study, graphene-modified TiO2 nanotube arrays were prepared by electrodeposition using a cyclic voltammetric reduction method. Four carbamate pesticides, including metolcarb, carbaryl, isoprocarb, and diethofencarb, were used as model analytes to validate the enrichment properties of the prepared adsorbent in ?-SPE. Factors affecting the enrichment efficiency of the ?-SPE procedure were optimized and included sample pH, elution solvents, salting-out effect, adsorption time and desorption time. Under optimal conditions, graphene-modified TiO2 nanotube arrays exhibited excellent enrichment efficiency for carbamate pesticides. The detection limits of these carbamate pesticides ranged from 2.27 to 3.26?gL(-1). The proposed method was validated using four environmental water samples, and yields of pesticides recovered from spiked test samples of the four analytes were in the range of 83.9-108.8%. These results indicate that graphene-modified TiO2 nanotube arrays exhibit good adsorption to the target pollutants, and the method described in this work could be used as a faster and easier alternative procedure for routine analysis of carbamate pesticides in real water samples. PMID:25818138

  13. Selective effects of carbamate pesticides on rat neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and rat brain acetylcholinesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of commonly used carbamate pesticides on rat neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes have been investigated using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. The potencies of these effects have been compared to the potencies of the carbamates to inhibit rat brain acetylcholinesterase. The potency order of six carbamates to inhibit ?4?4 nicotinic receptors is fenoxycarb > EPTC > carbaryl, bendiocarb > propoxur > aldicarb with IC50 values ranging from 3 ?M for fenoxycarb to 165 ?M for propoxur and >1 mM for aldicarb. Conversely, the potency order of these carbamates to inhibit rat brain acetylcholinesterase is bendiocarb > propoxur, aldicarb > carbaryl >> EPTC, fenoxycarb with IC50 values ranging from 1 ?M for bendiocarb to 17 ?M for carbaryl and >>1 mM for EPTC and fenoxycarb. The ?4?2, ?3?4, and ?3?2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are inhibited by fenoxycarb, EPTC, and carbaryl with potency orders similar to that for ?4?4 receptors. Comparing the potencies of inhibition of the distinct subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors shows that the ?3?2 receptor is less sensitive to inhibition by fenoxycarb and EPTC. The potency of inhibition depends on the carbamate as well as on a combination of ? and ? subunit properties. It is concluded that carbamate pesticides affect different subtypes of neuronal nicotinic receptors independently of acetylcholinesterase inhibition. This implicates that neuronal nicicates that neuronal nicotinic receptors are additional targets for some carbamate pesticides and that these receptors may contribute to carbamate pesticide toxicology, especially after long-term exposure

  14. Colorimetric sensor array for detection and identification of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Sihua; Lin, Hengwei

    2015-05-19

    Due to relatively low persistence and high effectiveness for insect and pest eradication, organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates are the two major classes of pesticides that broadly used in agriculture. Hence, the sensitive and selective detection of OPs and carbamates is highly significant. In this current study, a colorimetric sensor array comprising five inexpensive and commercially available thiocholine and H2O2 sensitive indicators for the simultaneous detection and identification of OPs and carbamates is developed. The sensing mechanism of this array is based on the irreversible inhibition capability of OPs and carbamates to the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), preventing production of thiocholine and H2O2 from S-acetylthiocholine and acetylcholine and thus resulting in decreased or no color reactions to thiocholine and H2O2 sensitive indicators. Through recognition patterns and standard statistical methods (i.e., hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis), the as-developed array demonstrates not only discrimination of OPs and carbamates from other kinds of pesticides but, more interestingly, identification of them exactly from each other. Moreover, this array is experimentally confirmed to have high selectivity and sensitivity, good anti-interference capability, and potential applications in real samples for OPs and carbamates. PMID:25913282

  15. USE OF STRUCTURE-REACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS TO ESTIMATE HYDROLYTIC PERSISTENCE OF CARBAMATE PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linear free energy relationships are given for use in estimating alkaline hydrolysis of carbamate pesticides in water as applied to environmental conditions. Plots of the second-order alkaline hydrolysis rate constants versus pKa of the resulting alcohol are given for N, N-dimeth...

  16. Presence of anticholinergic pesticide (organophosphate and carbamate in fruits and vegetable in Cabo Frio city, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cristina Machado de Figueiredo de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study used acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibition to detect organophosphate and carbamate pesticides in fruits and vegetable consumed in the City of Cabo Frio. Vegetable and fruits collected in the area in distinct years (1996 and 2007 present pesticide in all samples. The samples of lettuce (1996 and watercress (2007 presented the highest rates of parathion-metyl equivalent 0,7 and 1,4 ppm, respectively. The lowest levels were detected in grapes: 0,2 ppm. The solubilization of compounds involved in the study in Triton X-100 were efficient without inhibiting the activity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme. Among the samples studied, lettuce, watercress and apples are valuable in the monitoring of residues of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides.

  17. Biodegradation of carbamate pesticides by natural river biofilms in different seasons and their effects on biofilm community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the ability of natural river biofilms from different seasons to degrade the carbamate pesticides methomyl, carbaryl and carbofuran in single and multiple pesticide systems, and the effects of these pesticides on algal and bacterial communities within biofilms. Spring biofilms had the lowest biomass of algae and bacteria but showed the highest methomyl degradation (>99%) and dissipation rates, suggesting that they might contain microorganisms with high methomyl degradation abilities. Degradation of carbofuran (54.1–59.5%) by biofilms in four seasons was similar, but low degradation of carbaryl (0–27.5%) was observed. The coexistence of other pesticides was found to cause certain effects on pesticide degradation and primarily resulted in lower diversity of diatoms and bacteria than when using a single pesticide. The tolerant diatoms and bacteria potentially having the ability to degrade test pesticides were identified. River biofilms could be suitable biomaterials or used to isolate degraders for bioremediating pesticide-contaminated water. -- Highlights: •Natural river biofilms showed high ability to degrade methomyl and carbofuran. •The presence of other pesticides caused certain effects on pesticide degradation. •Carbamate pesticides caused adverse effects on communities of diatoms and bacteria. •The tolerant diatoms and bacteria were found as potential pesticide-degraders. -- Biodegradation of carbamate pesticides by river biofilm

  18. Determination of Carbamate and Organophosphorus Pesticides in Vegetable Samples and the Efficiency of Gamma-Radiation in Their Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammed Alamgir Zaman Chowdhury; Iffat Jahan; Nurul Karim; Mohammad Khorshed Alam; Mohammad Abdur Rahman; Mohammed Moniruzzaman; Siew Hua Gan; Abu Naieum Muhammad Fakhruddin

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the residual pesticide levels were determined in eggplants (Solanum melongena) (n = 16), purchased from four different markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The carbamate and organophosphorus pesticide residual levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the efficiency of gamma radiation on pesticide removal in three different types of vegetables was also studied. Many (50%) of the samples contained pesticides, and three samples had residual leve...

  19. Retention of carbamate pesticides by different surfactant-modified sorbents: a comparative study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Prapha, Arnnok; Rodjana, Burakham.

    1720-17-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes sorventes sólidos modificados com surfactantes foram investigados comparativamente para a retenção de pesticidas carbamato em solução aquosa. Três sorventes modificados, incluindo alumina tratada com dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS), sílica revestida com brometo de cetil trimetil amônio (CT [...] AB) e zeólita revestida com CTAB foram preparados usando diferentes concentrações de surfactante. Os pesticidas carbamato estudados incluíram oxamil, metomil, aldicarb, carbofurano, carbaril, isoprocarb, metiocarb, promecarb e carbosulfano e foram analisados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC) com UV. A adsorção de pesticidas carbamato (faixa de concentração de 0,5-5,0 mg L-1) nos sorventes modificados com surfactante, seguiu regressão linear com os coeficientes de correlação na faixa de 0,857-0,995. A zeólita modificada com CTAB apresentou alta captação para carbofurano, carbaril, metiocarb e carbosulfano. Alumina modificada com SDS demonstrou alta captação de carbaril, isoprocarb, metiocarb, promecarb e carbosulfano. Sílica modificada com CTAB apresentou alta captação de metiocarb, promecarb e carbosulfano. A dessorção dos pesticidas de carbamato dos sorventes modificados com surfactantes usando metanol foram melhores que as obtidas dos sorventes não modificados. O estudo provou que os sorventes modificados com surfactantes são efetivos para a extração de pesticidas carbamato. Abstract in english Different surfactant-modified solid sorbents have been comparatively investigated for retention of carbamate pesticides in aqueous solution. Three modified-sorbents, including sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) treated alumina, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) coated silica and CTAB coated zeolite, [...] were created using different surfactant concentrations. The studied carbamate pesticides including oxamyl, methomyl, aldicarb, carbofuran, carbaryl, isoprocarb, methiocarb, promecarb and carbosulfan were analyzed by HPLC/UV. Adsorption of all carbamate pesticides (concentration range between 0.5-5.0 mg L-1) onto surfactant-modified sorbents followed linear regressions with the correlation coefficients in the range of 0.857-0.995. CTAB-modified zeolite showed high uptake values for carbofuran, carbaryl, methiocarb and carbosulfan. SDS-modified alumina demonstrated high uptake values for carbaryl, isoprocarb, methiocarb, promecarb and carbosulfan. CTAB-modified silica gave high uptake values for methiocarb, promecarb and carbosulfan. Desorption of carbamate pesticides from surfactant-modified sorbents using methanol were better than that obtained from unmodified sorbents. The study clearly proved that the surfactant-modified sorbents are effective for carbamate pesticides extraction.

  20. Assessment of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticide Residues in Cigarette Tobacco with a Novel Cell Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiridon Kintzios

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The conventional analysis of pesticide residues in analytical commodities, such as tobacco and tobacco products is a labor intensive procedure, since it is necessary to cover a wide range of different chemicals, using a single procedure. Standard analysis methods include extensive sample pretreatment (with solvent extraction and partitioning phases and determination by GC and HPLC to achieve the necessary selectivity and sensitivity for the different classes of compounds under detection. As a consequence, current methods of analysis provide a limited sample capacity. In the present study, we report on the development of a novel cell biosensor for detecting organophosphate and carbamate pesticide residues in tobacco. The sensor is based on neuroblastoma N2a cells and the measurement of changes of the cell membrane potential, according to the working principle of the Bioelectric Recognition Assay (BERA. The presence of pesticide residues is detected by the degree of inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE. The sensor instantly responded to both the organophoshate pesticide chlorpyriphos and the carbamate carbaryl in a concentration-dependent pattern, being able to detect one part per billion (1 ppb. Additionally, tobacco leaf samples (in blended dry form were analyzed with both the novel biosensor and conventional methods, according to a double-blind protocol. Pesticide residues in tobacco samples caused a considerable cell membrane hyperpolarization to neuroblastoma cells immobilized in the sensor, as indicated by the increase of the negative sensor potential, which was clearly distinguishable from the sensor’s response against pesticide-free control samples. The observed response was quite reproducible, with an average variation of +5,6%. Fluorescence microscopy observations showed that treatment of the cells with either chlorpyrifos or carbaryl was associated with increased [Ca2+]cyt . The novel biosensor offers fresh perspectives for ultra-rapid, sensitive and low-cost monitoring of pesticide residues in tobacco as well as other food and agricultural commodities.

  1. Simple, specific analysis of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in sediments using column extraction and gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belisle, A.A.; Swineford, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    A simple, specific procedure was developed for the analysis of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in sediment. The wet soil was mixed with anhydrous sodium sulfate to bind water and the residues were column extracted in acetone:methylene chloride (1:l,v/v). Coextracted water was removed by additional sodium sulfate packed below the sample mixture. The eluate was concentrated and analyzed directly by capillary gas chromatography using phosphorus and nitrogen specific detectors. Recoveries averaged 93 % for sediments extracted shortly after spiking, but decreased significantly as the samples aged.

  2. MERCAPTOBENZOTHIAZOLE-ON-GOLD ORGANIC PHASE BIOSENSOR SYSTEMS: 2. ENHANCED CARBAMATE PESTICIDE DETERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IWUOHA E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results for the construction of a gold/mercaptobenzothiazole/polyaniline/ acetylcholinesterase/polyvinylacetate (Au/MBT/PANI/AChE/PVAc thick-film biosensor for the determination of certain carbamate pesticide solutions in selected aqueous organic solvent solutions are reported. AChE biosensors are designed to complement the classical analytical methods of pesticide detection. The Au/MBT/PANI/AChE/PVAc electrocatalytic biosensor device was constructed by encapsulating acetylcholinesterase (AChE enzyme in the PANI polymer composite, followed by the coating of poly(vinyl acetate (PVAc on top to secure the biosensor film from disintegration in the organic solvents evaluated. The electroactive substrate called acetylthiocholine (ATCh was employed to provide the movement of electrons in the amperometric biosensor. The voltammetric results have shown that the current shifts more anodically as the Au/MBT/PANI/AChE/PVAc biosensor responded to successive acetylthiocholine (ATCh substrate addition under anaerobic conditions in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, KCl (pH 7.2 solution and aqueous organic solvent solutions. For the Au/MBT/PANI/AChE/PVAc biosensor, various performance and stability parameters were evaluated. These factors include the optimal enzyme loading, effect of pH, long-term stability of the biosensor, temperature stability of the biosensor, the effect of polar organic solvents, and the effect of non-polar organic solvents on the amperometric behavior of the biosensor. The biosensor constructed in this study offered a reasonable linear range between 0.25 to 3.45 nM for the detection of carbofuran, aldicarb and dioxacarb pesticide solutions. The detection limits for the individual carbamate pesticides were 0.249 nM for carbofuran, followed by 1.209 nM for aldicarb and 1.572 nM for dioxacarb.

  3. Adsorption Kinetics of Carbamate Pesticide in Rice Field Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soontree Khuntong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic extraction (75.55% with petroleum ether:acetone (1:1, v/v was employed for extraction of carbofuran in rice field soil. The amounts of carbofuran were determined by reverse phase HPLC. The analytical method provided high precision and accuracy with the relative error of 0.47%. The percentage of recoveries varied from 84% to 77% in the con¬centration ranges of 10–40 mg/L of spiked soil samples. The carbofuran residues in the rice field soil significantly decreased year by year because of pesticide properties, soil properties and degradation conditions. A high amount of residues was found in the plots that contained high organic contents. The adsorption of carbofuran in soil reached equilibrium within 23 h. The percentage of adsorption varied from almost 30% to 80% depending on concentrations of carbofuran. The adsorption of carbofuran agreed with Freundlich isotherms; q = 7.07 x 10-5Cf2.5092; with the correlation coefficient of 0.9281. Organic carbon coefficient, Koc, was 1.91 x 10-3 mg/L calculated from Kd, and half-life (8.9 d of adsorbed carbofuran. The GUS index (6.37 calculated from Koc presented a high lixiviation potential. The positive ?G indicated the non-spontaneous reaction. Carbofuran rapidly desorbed from soil at the desorption rate of 0.0228 mg/kg soil d. Kinetic studies provided the first order reaction with the reaction rate of 0.0779 mg/d and half-life of 8.9 days.

  4. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TISSUE LEVELS OF CARBARYL, A PROTOTYPICAL CARBAMATE PESTICIDE, AND CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN LONG EVANS RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of an effort to link pharmacokinetics with biochemical and physiological endpoints, the relationships between cholinesterase (ChE) activity and tissue levels of a prototypical N-methyl carbamate pesticide were examined. In a dose-response study, carbaryl (0, 3, 7.5, 15, 3...

  5. A ONE STEP METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF CARBAMATE PESTICIDES BY DERIVATIZATION WITH ALPHA-BROMO-2,3,4,5,6-PENTAFLUOROTOLUENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A procedure was developed for the determination of trace quantities of a broad range of carbamate pesticides. The carbamates were hydrolyzed and derivatized in a single step, using alkali and alpha-bromo-2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorotoluene (PFBB), and were subsequently analyzed using el...

  6. Laccase-Prussian blue film-graphene doped carbon paste modified electrode for carbamate pesticides quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Thiago M B F; Fátima Barroso, M; Morais, Simone; Araújo, Mariana; Freire, Cristina; de Lima-Neto, Pedro; Correia, Adriana N; Oliveira, Maria B P P; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2013-09-15

    A novel enzymatic biosensor for carbamate pesticides detection was developed through the direct immobilization of Trametes versicolor laccase on graphene doped carbon paste electrode functionalized with Prussian blue films (LACC/PB/GPE). Graphene was prepared by graphite sonication-assisted exfoliation and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Prussian blue film electrodeposited onto graphene doped carbon paste electrode allowed considerable reduction of the charge transfer resistance and of the capacitance of the device. The combined effects of pH, enzyme concentration and incubation time on biosensor response were optimized using a 2(3) full-factorial statistical design and response surface methodology. Based on the inhibition of laccase activity and using 4-aminophenol as redox mediator at pH 5.0, LACC/PB/GPE exhibited suitable characteristics in terms of sensitivity, intra- and inter-day repeatability (1.8-3.8% RSD), reproducibility (4.1 and 6.3% RSD), selectivity (13.2% bias at the higher interference:substrate ratios tested), accuracy and stability (ca. twenty days) for quantification of five carbamates widely applied on tomato and potato crops. The attained detection limits ranged between 5.2×10(-9)molL(-1) (0.002mgkg(-1) w/w for ziram) and 1.0×10(-7)molL(-1) (0.022mgkg(-1) w/w for carbofuran). Recovery values for the two tested spiking levels ranged from 90.2±0.1 (carbofuran) to 101.1±0.3% (ziram) for tomato and from 91.0±0.1% (formetanate) to 100.8±0.1% (ziram) for potato samples. The proposed methodology is appropriate to enable testing pesticide levels in food samples to fit with regulations and food inspections. PMID:23587791

  7. Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticide Residues Detected in Water Samples Collected from Paddy and Vegetable Fields of the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Karim; Siew Hua Gan; Borhan Uddin; Mohammed Moniruzzaman; Sanjoy Banik; Md. Alamgir Zaman Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    Several types of organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides have been used extensively by the farmers in Bangladesh during the last few decades. Twenty seven water samples collected from both paddy and vegetable fields in the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh were analyzed to determine the occurrence and distribution of organo-phosphorus (chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon) and carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran) pesticide residues. A high performance liquid chromatograph instrument ...

  8. Hydrophobic coating of polyaniline-poly(propylene oxide) copolymer for direct immersion solid phase microextraction of carbamate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Youhong; Zhang, Jingqiang; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2015-08-14

    A nanostructural polyaniline-poly(propylene oxide) (PANI-PPO) composite coating was electrochemically synthesized on a stainless steel wire, by using acidic ionic liquid 1-sulfobutyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrosulfate as supporting electrolyte. The coating showed strong hydrophobicity and allowed for the direct immersion solid-phase microextraction of carbamate pesticides (i.e. 2-(1-methylethoxy) phenyl methylcarbamate, m-tolyl-n-methylcarbamate, 2-(1-methylethyl) phenyl methylcarbamate, 2-(1-methylpropyl) phenol methylcarbamate and 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate) in complex matrices. Moreover, this coating could be used for at least 120 times of extraction. When it was coupled with gas chromatography for the determination of these carbamate pesticides the linear ranges were about 0.1-100?gL(-1) and the detection limits were 0.012-0.048?gL(-1). It also displayed acceptable repeatability and reproducibility. When a fiber was used for five successive measurements the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were smaller than 8.7%, and the RSDs for fiber-to-fiber were 5.7-12.9% (n=5). The practical feasibility of the proposed method was evaluated by determining carbamate pesticides in vegetable samples and the recoveries for standards added were 79.8-108.8%. PMID:26163930

  9. Magnetic graphene solid-phase extraction for the determination of carbamate pesticides in tomatoes coupled with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Chen, Juan; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2015-08-15

    Graphene-based magnetic nanoparticles, comprising zero-valent iron, iron oxide-oxyhydroxide and graphene, were prepared through a simple one-step synthesis method, and subsequently applied to magnetic solid-phase extraction for the determination of trace carbamate pesticides in tomatoes coupled with high performance liquid chromatography. The properties of the nanocomposites were confirmed by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The components within the nanocomposites endowed the material with high extraction performance and manipulative convenience. Compared with reduced graphene oxide, the as-prepared G-MNPs showed the better extraction efficiencies for the carbamate pesticides thanks to the contribution of the iron-containing magnetic nanoparticles to the adsorption capacity of the nanocomposites. Various experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiency had been investigated in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the method provided high enrichment factors ranging from 364 to 434, good linearities ranging from 5 to 200ng g(-1) for metolcarb, baygon and methiocarb and 10 to 200ng g(-1) for carbofuran and isoprocarb, low limits of detection ranging from 0.58 to 2.06ng g(-1), and satisfactory spiked recoveries (between 90.34% and 101.98% with the relative standard deviation values from 1.21% to 5.93%). It was confirmed that this novel method was an efficient pretreatment and enrichment procedure and could be successfully applied for extraction and determination of trace carbamate pesticides in complex matrices. PMID:25966405

  10. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary acute exposure of the population of Denmark to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides and as such have a common mode of action. We assessed the cumulative acute exposure of the population of Denmark to 25 organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues from the consumption of fruit, vegetables and cereals. The probabilistic approach was used in the assessments. Residue data obtained from the Danish monitoring programme carried out in the period 2004-2007, which included 6704 samples of fruit, vegetables and cereals, were used in the calculations. Food consumption data were obtained from the nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-2002. Contributions from 43 commodities were included in the calculations. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) approach to normalize the toxicity of the various organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides to the two index compounds chlorpyriphos and methamidophos. RPF values derived from the literature were used in the calculations. We calculated the cumulative acute exposure to 1.8% and 0.8% of the acute reference dose (ARfD) of 100 mu g kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) of chlorpyrifos as an index compound at the 99.9th percentile (P99.5) for children and adults, respectively. When we used methamidophos as the index compound, the cumulative acute intakes were calculated to 31.3% and 13.8% of the ARfD of 3 mu g kg(-1) bw day(-1) at P99.9 for children and adults, respectively. With both index compounds, the greatest contributor to the cumulative acute exposure was apple. The results show that there is no cumulative acute risk for Danish consumers to acetylcholinesterase- inhibiting pesticides.

  11. Comparative voltammetric study and determination of carbamate pesticide residues in soil at carbon nanotubes paste electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THOMMANDRU RAVEENDRANATH BAB

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the persistence of carbamate pesticides in soil samples was investigated. A simple and selective differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry was selected for this investigation. Carbon nanotubes paste electrodes were used as working electrodes for differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry. A symmetric study of the various operational parameters that affect the stripping response was carried out by differential pulse voltammetry. Peak currents were linear over the concentration range of 10-5 to 10-10 M with an accumulation potential of -0.6 V and a 70 s accumulation time with lower detection limits of 1.09 x 10-7 M, 1.07 × 10-7M, 1.09×10-7 M for chlorphropham, thiodicarb, aldicarb. The relative standard deviation (n=10 and correlation coefficient values were 1.15 %, 0.988; 1.13 %, 0.978; and 1.14 %, 0.987, respectively. Universal buffer with pH range 2.0 - 6.0 was used as sup­porting electrolyte. The solutions with uniform concentration (10-5 M were used in all deter­minations. Calculations were made by standard addition method.

  12. Immobilization of acetylcholinesterase via biocompatible interface of silk fibroin for detection of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An amperometric biosensor for the detection of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides was developed based on the immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on regenerated silk fibroin (SF) matrix by non-covalent adsorption. SF and AChE were coated sequentially on the surface of the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) which was modified with multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNTs). The obtained biosensor was denoted as AChE-SF/MWNTs/GCE. The atomic force microscopy images showed that the SF matrix provided a more homogeneous interface for the AChE immobilization. The aggregation of immobilizing AChE was therefore avoided. The cyclic voltammogram of thiocholine at this biosensor exhibited a well defined oxidation peak at 0.667 V (vs. SCE). The inhibition rate of methyl parathion to the immobilized AChE was proportional to the logarithm of the concentration of methyl parathion over the range of the concentration of methyl parathion from 3.5 × 10-6 to 2.0 × 10-3 M with a detection limit of 5.0 × 10-7 M. Similarly, the linearly response range of carbaryl was from 1.0 × 10-7 to 3.0 × 10-5 M with a detection limit of 6.0 × 10-8 M. The experimental results indicate that AChE not only can be immobilized steadily on the SF matrix, but also the bioactivity of immobilizing AChE can be preserved effectively.

  13. Application of a micro multiphase laminar flow on a microchip for extraction and determination of derivatized carbamate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Adelina; Shimura, Kiyohito; Hibara, Akihide; Proskurnin, Mikhail A; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2007-01-01

    Determination of carbamate pesticides such as carbaryl, carbofuran, propoxur and bendiocarb was demonstrated on a microchip with newly designed microchannels developed for efficient solvent extraction. The pesticides were hydrolyzed to corresponding naphthols, coupled with p-nitrobenzenediazonium fluoroborate reagent, and then extracted into 1-butanol as colored azo derivatives and detected with a thermal lens microscope. Optimum flow rates for the aqueous and organic phases were evaluated in the continuous-flow chemical process established in the microchip. The calibration lines showed good linearity in the range of concentrations of 0.03 - 3 ppm (10(-7) - 10(-5) M) and a mass detection limit down to a nanogram level was achieved that is at least two orders of magnitude lower than the LODs for conventional spectrophotometric methods. Azo derivatives of the pesticides were successfully separated and identified by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) using a sample prepared on a bulk scale. PMID:17213633

  14. Immobilization of acetylcholinesterase via biocompatible interface of silk fibroin for detection of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue Rui [College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Kang Tianfang, E-mail: kangtf@yahoo.cn [College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Lu Liping; Cheng Shuiyuan [College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2012-06-01

    An amperometric biosensor for the detection of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides was developed based on the immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on regenerated silk fibroin (SF) matrix by non-covalent adsorption. SF and AChE were coated sequentially on the surface of the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) which was modified with multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNTs). The obtained biosensor was denoted as AChE-SF/MWNTs/GCE. The atomic force microscopy images showed that the SF matrix provided a more homogeneous interface for the AChE immobilization. The aggregation of immobilizing AChE was therefore avoided. The cyclic voltammogram of thiocholine at this biosensor exhibited a well defined oxidation peak at 0.667 V (vs. SCE). The inhibition rate of methyl parathion to the immobilized AChE was proportional to the logarithm of the concentration of methyl parathion over the range of the concentration of methyl parathion from 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} to 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M with a detection limit of 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} M. Similarly, the linearly response range of carbaryl was from 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} to 3.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M with a detection limit of 6.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} M. The experimental results indicate that AChE not only can be immobilized steadily on the SF matrix, but also the bioactivity of immobilizing AChE can be preserved effectively.

  15. The analysis of methomyl, a carbamate pesticide, in post-mortem samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsakis, A M; Tsakalof, A K; Michalodimitrakis, E N

    1996-01-01

    Extraction procedures and analytical methods are described for the quantitation of methomyl, a carbamate insecticide, in autopsy tissue and fluid samples. The analytical results from case work demonstrate the rapid metabolism of methomyl in the body. PMID:8612055

  16. Rapid and sensitive suspension array for multiplex detection of organophosphorus pesticides and carbamate pesticides based on silica–hydrogel hybrid microbeads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Silica–hydrogel hybrid microbeads were used to develop suspension array. • The results in detecting pesticides agree well with those from LC–MS/MS. • The method showed the good capability for multiplex analysis of pesticides residues. - Abstract: A technique for multiplex detection of organophosphorus pesticides and carbamate pesticides has been developed using a suspension array based on silica–hydrogel hybrid microbeads (SHHMs). The main advantage of SHHMs, which consist of both silica and hydrogel materials, is that they not only could be distinguished by their characteristic reflection peak originating from the stop-band of the photonic crystal but also have low non-specific adsorption of proteins. Using fluorescent immunoassay, the LODs for fenitrothion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, fenthion, carbaryl and metolcarb were measured to be 0.02 ng/mL, 0.012 ng/mL, 0.04 ng/mL, 0.05 ng/mL and 0.1 ng/mL, respectively, all of which are much lower than the maximum residue limits, as reported in the European Union pesticides database. All the determination coefficients for these five pesticides were greater than 0.99, demonstrating excellent correlations. The suspension array was specific and had no significant cross-reactivity with other chemicals. The results for the detection of pesticide residues collected from agricultural samples using this method agree well with those from liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Our results showed that this simple method is suitable for simultaneous detection of these five pesticides residues in fruits and vegetables

  17. Rapid and sensitive suspension array for multiplex detection of organophosphorus pesticides and carbamate pesticides based on silica–hydrogel hybrid microbeads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuan [Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Mu, Zhongde; Shangguan, Fengqi [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Liu, Ran; Pu, Yuepu [Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Yin, Lihong, E-mail: lhyin@seu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Silica–hydrogel hybrid microbeads were used to develop suspension array. • The results in detecting pesticides agree well with those from LC–MS/MS. • The method showed the good capability for multiplex analysis of pesticides residues. - Abstract: A technique for multiplex detection of organophosphorus pesticides and carbamate pesticides has been developed using a suspension array based on silica–hydrogel hybrid microbeads (SHHMs). The main advantage of SHHMs, which consist of both silica and hydrogel materials, is that they not only could be distinguished by their characteristic reflection peak originating from the stop-band of the photonic crystal but also have low non-specific adsorption of proteins. Using fluorescent immunoassay, the LODs for fenitrothion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, fenthion, carbaryl and metolcarb were measured to be 0.02 ng/mL, 0.012 ng/mL, 0.04 ng/mL, 0.05 ng/mL and 0.1 ng/mL, respectively, all of which are much lower than the maximum residue limits, as reported in the European Union pesticides database. All the determination coefficients for these five pesticides were greater than 0.99, demonstrating excellent correlations. The suspension array was specific and had no significant cross-reactivity with other chemicals. The results for the detection of pesticide residues collected from agricultural samples using this method agree well with those from liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Our results showed that this simple method is suitable for simultaneous detection of these five pesticides residues in fruits and vegetables.

  18. Monitoring of N-methyl carbamate pesticide residues in water using hollow fibre supported liquid membrane and solid phase extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    The aim of this work was to develop a method for the determination of N-methyl carbamates in water involving hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) and solid phase extraction (SPE) as sample preparation methods. Four N-methyl carbamate pesticides, aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb sulfoxide, were simultaneously extracted and analysed by a liquid chromatograph with a diode array detector (LC-UV/DAD) and a liquid chromatograph coupled to a ion trap quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-MS). The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of carabamate extracts was performed on a C18 column with water-acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The mass spectrometry analyses were carried out in the positive mode, operating under both the selected ion monitoring (SIM) and full scan modes. The solid phase recoveries of the extracts ranged between 8% and 98%, with aldicarb having the highest recoveries, followed by carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb had the lowest recovery. The HFSLM recovery ranged between 8% and 58% and the order of recovery was similar to the SPE trend. Factors controlling the efficiency of the HFSLM extraction such as sample pH, stripping phase pH, enrichment time, stirring speed as well as organic solvent used for entrapment of analytes, were optimised to achieve the highest enrichment factors.

  19. Antioxidant and oxidative stress related responses in the Mediterranean land snail Cantareus apertus exposed to the carbamate pesticide Carbaryl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leomanni, A; Schettino, T; Calisi, A; Gorbi, S; Mezzelani, M; Regoli, F; Lionetto, M G

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the alterations of the antioxidant defenses and the overall susceptibility to oxidative stress of the terrestrial snail Cantareus apertus exposed to the carbamate pesticide Carbaryl at a low environmentally realistic concentration. The animals were exposed to Lactuca sativa soaked for 1h in 1?M Carbaryl. The temporal dynamics of the responses was assessed by measurements at 3, 7 and 14days of exposure. C. apertus exposed to Carbaryl activates a number of enzymatic antioxidant responses, represented by the early induction of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, followed by a delayed induction of superoxide dismutase. Concomitantly, a derangement of the total oxyradical scavenging of the tissues was observed, suggesting an overall impairment of the tissue capability to neutralize ROS probably resulting from the overall negative balance between enzymatic antioxidant defense capability and oxidative stress intensity. This negative balance exposed the animals to the risk of oxidative stress damages including genotoxic damage. Compared to acetylcholinesterase inhibition, the antioxidant responses developed to Carbaryl exposure at the low concentration utilized showed a greater percentage variation in exposed organisms. The results pointed out the high sensitivity of the antioxidant and oxidative stress related responses to Carbaryl exposure at an environmental realistic concentration, demonstrating their usefulness in environmental monitoring and risk assessment. The study highlights also the usefulness of the terrestrial snail C. apertus as potential bioindicator species for assessing the risk of pesticide environmental contamination. PMID:25451076

  20. DOSE-TIME-RESPONSE MODELING FOR EVALUATING CUMULATIVE RISK OF N -METHYL CARBAMATE PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) is required by the Food Quality Protection Act to completely reevaluate pesticide registrations by the end of August, 2006. This evaluation must include the evaluation of cumulative and aggregate risk of compou...

  1. Development of a Computer-Based Survey Instrument for Organophosphate and N-Methyl-Carbamate Exposure Assessment among Agricultural Pesticide Handlers

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Jonathan N.; Checkoway, Harvey; Borges, Ofelio; Servin, Flor; Fenske, Richard A.; Keifer, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Assessment of occupational pesticide exposures based on self-reported information can be challenging, particularly with immigrant farm worker populations for whom specialized methods are needed to address language and cultural barriers and account for limited literacy. An audio computer-assisted self-interview (A-CASI) survey instrument was developed to collect information about organophosphate (OP) and N-methyl-carbamate (CB) exposures and other personal characteristics among mal...

  2. Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticide Residues Detected in Water Samples Collected from Paddy and Vegetable Fields of the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Karim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Several types of organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides have been used extensively by the farmers in Bangladesh during the last few decades. Twenty seven water samples collected from both paddy and vegetable fields in the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh were analyzed to determine the occurrence and distribution of organo-phosphorus (chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon and carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran pesticide residues. A high performance liquid chromatograph instrument equipped with a photodiode array detector was used to determine the concentrations of these pesticide residues. Diazinon and carbofuran were detected in water samples collected from Savar Upazila at 0.9 ?g/L and 198.7 ?g/L, respectively. Malathion was also detected in a single water sample at 105.2 ?g/L from Dhamrai Upazila. Carbaryl was the most common pesticide detected in Dhamrai Upazila at 14.1 and 18.1 ?g/L, while another water sample from Dhamrai Upazila was contaminated with carbofuran at 105.2 ?g/L. Chlorpyrifos was not detected in any sample. Overall, the pesticide residues detected were well above the maximum acceptable levels of total and individual pesticide contamination, at 0.5 and 0.1 ?g/L, respectively, in water samples recommended by the European Economic Community (Directive 98/83/EC. The presence of these pesticide residues may be attributed by their intense use by the farmers living in these areas. Proper handling of these pesticides should be ensured to avoid direct or indirect exposure to these pesticides.

  3. Age-related differences in neurotoxicity produced by organophosphorus and N-methyl carbamate pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potential pesticide effects in infants and toddlers have received much attention in the scientific literature and the public media, including the concern for increased response to acute or shortterm exposures. Age-related differences in the acute neurotoxicity of acetylcholinest...

  4. Multi photon ionization mass spectrometry of carbamate pesticides, herbicides and fungicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides and herbicides are useful for a wide range of applications today. The determination of these substances either in the pure form or in complex matrices is of high analytical interest. Especially since these substances can by found in every day products. The combination of multi photon ionization (MUPI) and time of flight laser mass spectrometry may be a powerful tool for achieving fast well interpretable mass spectra for analytical purposes. In this paper we will discuss the mass spectra of several pesticides and herbicides accessed by MUPI-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The influence of the laser pulse duration on the mass spectra are discussed

  5. Allergic reaction induced by dermal and/or respiratory exposure to low-dose phenoxyacetic acid, organophosphorus, and carbamate pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several types of pesticides, such as organophosphates, phenoxyacetic acid, and carbamate have a high risk of affecting human health, causing allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma-like diseases. We used our long-term sensitization method and a local lymph node assay to examine the allergic reactions caused by several types of pesticides. BALB/c mice were topically sensitized (9 times in 3 weeks), then challenged dermally or intratracheally with 2,4-D, BRP, or furathiocarb. One day post-challenge, the mice were processed to obtain biologic materials for use in assays of total IgE levels in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); differential cell counts and chemokine levels in BALF; lymphocyte counts and surface antigen expression on B-cells within regional lymph nodes (LNs); and, ex situ cytokine production by cells from these LNs. 2,4-D-induced immune responses characteristic of immediate-type respiratory reactions, as evidenced by increased total IgE levels in both serum and BALF; an influx of eosinophils, neutrophils, and chemokines (MCP-1, eotaxin, and MIP-1?) in BALF; increased surface antigen expression on B-cells IgE and MHC class II production) in both auricular and the lung-associated LNs; and increased Th2 cytokine production (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13) in both auricular and the lung-associated LN cells. In contrast, BRP and furathiocarb treatment yielded, at most, non-significant increases in all respiratory allergic parameters. BRP and furathiocarb induced marked proliferation of MHC Class II-positive B-cells and Th1 cytokines (IL-2, TNF-?, and IFN-?) in only auricular LN cells. These results suggest that 2,4-D is a respiratory allergen and BRP and furathiocarb are contact allergens. As our protocol detected classified allergic responses to low-molecular-weight chemicals, it thus may be useful for detecting environmental chemical-related allergy.

  6. Age-related differences in acetylcholinesterase inhibition produced by organophosphorus and N-methyl carbamate pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction The concern that infants and children may be more susceptible to the toxic effects of chemicals, including pesticides, has received much attention in the scientific literature and the public media. Greater toxicity may be evident as long-term adverse outcomes, e.g.,...

  7. Determination of poorly fluorescent carbamate pesticides in water, bendiocarb and promecarb, using cyclodextrin nanocavities and related media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of native cyclodextrins (?, ?, or ?CD with six, seven and eight glucose units, respectively), hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HPCD), chitosan (CHT) and glucose in water solution or water with n-propylamine (PA) as co-solvent upon the UV-vis and fluorescence properties of poorly fluorescent N-methyl carbamates pesticides (C) as bendiocarb (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-benzodioxol-4-ol methylcarbamate, BC) and promecarb (3-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)phenol methylcarbame, PC) was examined. Fluorescent enhancement was found for both substrates with all CDs in water or PA-water except from PC with ?CD. The addition of CHT increases the fluorescence of BC but decreases the fluorescence of PC, and glucose addition gives in both cases no spectral changes. Host-guest interaction was clearly determined by fluorescence enhancement with ?CD and HPCD with a 1:1 stoichiometry for the complexes (C:CD). The values obtained for the association constants (K A, M-1) were (6 ± 2) x 102 and (2.3 ± 0.3) x 102 for BC:?CD and BC:HPCD complexes, respectively. For PC:?CD and PC:HPCD the values of K A were (19 ± 2) x 102 and (21 ± 2) x 102, respectively. The ratio of the fluorescence quantum yields for the bound and free substrates (? CCD/? C) was in the range 1.74-3.8. The limits of detection (L D, ?g mL-1) for the best conditions were (0.57 ± 0.02) for BC with HPC57 ± 0.02) for BC with HPCD and (0.091 ± 0.002) for PC with ?CD in water. Application to the analysis in pesticide spiked samples of tap water and fruit yields satisfactory apparent recoveries (84-114%), and for the extraction procedure in fruits and a commercial formulation, recoveries were of 81-98% and 104%, respectively. The method is rapid, simple, direct, sensitive and useful for pesticide analysis

  8. Assessment of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticide Residues in Cigarette Tobacco with a Novel Cell Biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Spiridon Kintzios; Alexandros Michaelides; Olga Mangana; Georgia Moschopoulou; Kelly Flampouri; Sophie Mavrikou

    2008-01-01

    The conventional analysis of pesticide residues in analytical commodities, such as tobacco and tobacco products is a labor intensive procedure, since it is necessary to cover a wide range of different chemicals, using a single procedure. Standard analysis methods include extensive sample pretreatment (with solvent extraction and partitioning phases) and determination by GC and HPLC to achieve the necessary selectivity and sensitivity for the different classes of compounds under detection. As ...

  9. Computer-assisted design and synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers for the simultaneous determination of six carbamate pesticides from environmental water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Peipei; Wang, Xiangyun; Wang, Xinquan; Zhang, Hu; Xu, Hao; Jiang, Kezhi; Wang, Qiang

    2014-10-01

    The computer-assisted design and synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers for the simultaneous capture of six carbamate pesticides from environmental water are reported in this work. The quantum mechanical computational approach was employed to design the molecularly imprinted polymers with carbofuran as template. The interaction energies between the template molecule and different functional monomers in various solvents were calculated to assist in the selection of the functional monomer and porogen. The optimised molecularly imprinted polymer was subsequently used as a class-selective sorbent in solid-phase extraction for pre-concentration and determination of carbamates from environmental water. The parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of the molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction procedure were systematically investigated to facilitate the class-selective extraction. For the proposed method, linearity was observed over the range of 2-500 ng/mL with the correlation coefficient ranging from 0.9760 to 1.000. The limits of detection ranged from 0.2 to 1.2 ng/mL, and the limit of quantification was 4 ng/mL. These results confirm that computer-assisted design is an effective evaluation tool for molecularly imprinted polymers synthesis, and that molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction can be applied to the simultaneous analysis of carbamates in environmental water. PMID:25234239

  10. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew M; Aaron, Cynthia K

    2015-02-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates have a wide variety of applications, most commonly as pesticides used to eradicate agricultural pests or control populations of disease-carrying vectors. Some OP and carbamates have therapeutic indications such as physostigmine. Certain organophosphorus compounds, known as nerve agents, have been employed in chemical warfare and terrorism incidents. Both classes inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymes, leading to excess acetylcholine accumulation at nerve terminals. In the setting of toxicity from either agent class, clinical syndromes result from excessive nicotinic and muscarinic neurostimulation. The toxic effects from OPs and carbamates differ with respect to reversibility, subacute, and chronic effects. Decontamination, meticulous supportive care, aggressive antimuscarinic therapy, seizure control, and administration of oximes are cornerstones of management. PMID:25455666

  11. Optimization and validation of liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature partitioning for determination of carbamates in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a 23 experimental design, liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature partitioning (LLE-LTP) was optimized and validated for analysis of three carbamates (aldicarb, carbofuran and carbaryl) in water samples. In this method, 2.0 mL of sample is placed in contact with 4.0 mL of acetonitrile. After agitation, the sample is placed in a freezer for 3 h for phase separation. The organic extract is analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). For validation of the technique, the following figures of merit were evaluated: accuracy, precision, detection and quantification limits, linearity, sensibility and selectivity. Extraction recovery percentages of the carbamates aldicarb, carbofuran and carbaryl were 90%, 95% and 96%, respectively. Even though extremely low volumes of sample and solvent were used, the extraction method was selective and the detection and quantification limits were between 5.0 and 10.0 ?g L-1, and 17.0 and 33.0 ?g L-1, respectively.

  12. Optimization and validation of liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature partitioning for determination of carbamates in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado Goulart, Simone; Domingos Alves, Renata; Neves, Antonio Augusto; Queiroz, Jose Humberto de; Conde de Assis, Tamires [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Vila Gianetti, Casa 24, 36 570-000 Vicosa, MG (Brazil); Queiroz, Maria Eliana L.R. de, E-mail: meliana@ufv.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Vila Gianetti, Casa 24, 36 570-000 Vicosa, MG (Brazil)

    2010-06-25

    Using a 2{sup 3} experimental design, liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature partitioning (LLE-LTP) was optimized and validated for analysis of three carbamates (aldicarb, carbofuran and carbaryl) in water samples. In this method, 2.0 mL of sample is placed in contact with 4.0 mL of acetonitrile. After agitation, the sample is placed in a freezer for 3 h for phase separation. The organic extract is analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). For validation of the technique, the following figures of merit were evaluated: accuracy, precision, detection and quantification limits, linearity, sensibility and selectivity. Extraction recovery percentages of the carbamates aldicarb, carbofuran and carbaryl were 90%, 95% and 96%, respectively. Even though extremely low volumes of sample and solvent were used, the extraction method was selective and the detection and quantification limits were between 5.0 and 10.0 {mu}g L{sup -1}, and 17.0 and 33.0 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively.

  13. Characterization of acetylcholinesterase from the brain of the Amazonian tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) and in vitro effect of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Caio Rodrigo Dias; Castro, Patrícia Fernandes; Amaral, Ian Porto Gurgel; Carvalho, Elba Verônica Matoso Maciel; Carvalho, Luiz Bezerra; Bezerra, Ranilson Souza

    2010-10-01

    In the present study, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from the brain of the Amazonian fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) was partially characterized and its activity was assayed in the presence of five organophosphates (dichlorvos, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and tetraethyl pyrophosphate [TEPP]) and two carbamates (carbaryl and carbofuran) insecticides. Optimal pH and temperature were 7.0 to 8.0 and 45°C, respectively. The enzyme retained approximately 70% of activity after incubation at 50°C for 30 min. The insecticide concentration capable of inhibiting half of the enzyme activity (IC50) for dichlorvos, chlorpyrifos, and TEPP were calculated as 0.04?µmol/L, 7.6?µmol/L, and 3.7?µmol/L, respectively. Diazinon and temephos did not inhibit the enzyme. The IC50 values for carbaryl and carbofuran were estimated as 33.8?µmol/L and 0.92?µmol/L, respectively. These results suggest that AChE from the juvenile C. macropomum brain could be used as an alternative biocomponent of organophosphorus and carbamate biosensors in routine pesticide screening in the environment. PMID:20872688

  14. Summary of Validation of Multi-Pesticide Methods for Various Pesticide Formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The validation of multi-pesticide methods applicable for various types of pesticide formulations is treated. In a worked-out practical example, i.e. lambda cyhalothrin, the theoretical considerations outlined in the General Guidance section are put into practice. GC conditions, selection of an internal standard and criteria for an acceptable repeatability of injections are outlined, followed by sample preparation, calibration, batch analysis and confirmation of results through comparison using different separation columns. Complete sets of data are displayed in tabular form for other pesticide active ingredients and real formulations. (author)

  15. Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide exposure in Putumayo Province, Colombia Factores de exposición a plaguicidas organofosforados y carbamatos en el departamento del Putumayo, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Varona

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In 2005, the Sistema de Vigilancia en Salud Pública, the governmental agency responsible for monitoring public health, found that Putumayo Province has the highest incidence of poisoning by pesticides in Colombia.
    Objective. Exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides and carbamates was established in the agricultural population of Putumayo by determining acetylcholinesterase levels.
    Materials and methods. A cross-sectional survey was made in 204 occupationally exposed workers in four municipalities of Putumayo. A questionnaire was administered to collect subject information; a blood sample was taken for acetylcholinesterase determination by Michel's method. A straightforward analysis of the variables and possible associations were explored. A group of workers was enabled with SARAR (a participative educational strategy that means: S: safety, A: association, R: reaction, A: actualization and R: responsabilitymethodology for use and handling of pesticides.
    Results. The average time of exposure was nine years. Seventy-five percent declared using extremely toxic pesticides and 13% highly toxic. On average, they applied pesticides 7.3 hours/day. Nearly 10% used organochloride pesticides. Furthermore, 17.6% demonstrated inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase.
    Conclusion. A realistic scale of the pesticide use problem in humans was obtained; and the data effectively recommend an educatiional intervention for the workers and their families with SARAR methodology.Introducción. En 2005 el Sistema de Vigilancia en Salud Pública encontró que el departamento del Putumayo es la región con mayor incidencia de intoxicaciones por plaguicidas en Colombia.
    Objetivo. Establecer la exposición a plaguicidas organofosforados y carbamatos en la población agrícola mediante la determinación de los niveles de acetilcolinesterasa en el departamento
    de Putumayo, utilizando el método de Michel.
    Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal en 204 trabajadores ocupacionalmente expuestos, en cuatro municipios del departamento de Putumayo. Se aplicó una encuesta para recolectar información y se tomó una muestra de sangre para la determinación de la acetilcolinesterasa. Se llevó a cabo el análisis simple de las variables y se exploraron posibles asociaciones. Un grupo de trabajadores fueron capacitados con la metodología SARAR (una estrategia educacional participativa que significa: S: seguridad, A: asociación, R: reacción, A: actualización y R: responsabilidad sobre el uso y el manejo de plaguicidas.
    Resultados. Se estableció que el tiempo promedio de exposición fue de nueve años. El 75,2% manifestó emplear plaguicidas extremadamente tóxicos y el 13,0% altamente tóxicos. En promedio refirieron aplicar plaguicidas 7,3 horas al día. El 9,8% usaban plaguicidas organoclorados. En cuanto a la actividad de la enzima acetilcolinesterasa, 17,6% presentaban inhibición.
    Conclusión. Este trabajo permitió tener una dimensión real del problema de los plaguicidas en el Putumayo y utilizarla para hacer una intervención educativa sobre los trabajadores y sus familias, con la metodología SARAR.

  16. An improved and validated sample cleanup method for analysis of ethyl carbamate in Chinese liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qiang; Yuan, Huawei; Wu, Chongde; Zheng, Jia; Zhang, Suyi; Shen, Caihong; Yi, Bin; Zhou, Rongqing

    2014-09-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a potential human carcinogen widely existing in fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. The solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry is a widely-used method to determine EC levels, but the accuracy varies with sample matrix and the effects of operation parameters are rarely examined. In this study, the influence factors involved in EC determination were investigated using Chinese liquor as sample matrix, and the improved method was further applied. Three types of SPE columns, including diatomite, Florisil, and primary-secondary amine, were compared in extraction efficiency, and the diatomite column exhibited the highest extraction efficiency. The optimal volumes of elution solvents with diatomite column were 15 mL for 3-mL samples solution loaded. In addition, the alcoholic strength for EC determination should be diluted below 20% (v/v) to avoid the enhancement of matrix-induced chromatographic response. Moreover, the pH neutralization could help improve EC recovery and peak resolution, reducing interfering effects. Based on these results, the improved method showed that the limit of detection, the limit of quantification, and average recoveries were 1.10 ?g/L, 3.65 ?g/L, and 93.06%, respectively. To further elucidate the underlying factors related to EC accumulation, partial least square regression analysis was conducted, and the results suggested that EC levels had the closest relationship with alcoholic strength among the remaining precursors. PMID:25124850

  17. Groundwater pesticides: interactive effects of low concentrations of carbamates aldicarb and methomyl and the triazine metribuzin on thyroxine and somatotropin levels in white rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, W P; Green, S M; Debbink, N L; Carlson, I

    1993-09-01

    Using full-factorial design experiments for three variables at two levels each and center replicates, we examined the effects of common agricultural carbamate insecticides, aldicarb and methomyl, and a triazine herbicide, metribuzin, on hormone levels in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-four female rats were sampled at 2 and 6 wk during a 6-wk exposure to individual chemicals or to combinations of them. Some main effects and interaction effects were significant. For example, rats treated with the herbicide (metribuzin) were hyperthyroid. The interactions of all three chemicals also significantly increased thyroxine levels. One year later, we repeated these experiments for 16 wk using 54 male rats; the results were very similar. Metribuzin alone significantly increased thyroxine throughout the second study (at 7, 13, and 16 wk). Somatotropin levels were significantly altered after 13 wk of exposure. The same concentrations and mixtures of these three pesticides have now been shown to be implicated in learning impairment and other neurological functions, immune parameter changes, and endocrine changes. These findings support the concept of the interconnectedness of the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems and raise the likelihood of impacts on all three systems if one is shown to be affected. Development, growth, and reproduction all depend on the proper function of these three systems. These results strongly suggest the need to reassess currently allowed "safe" levels of chemicals based on adult dosages that are accepted in ground-water and in our food supplies. PMID:8360940

  18. Use of ZIF-8-derived nanoporous carbon as the adsorbent for the solid phase extraction of carbamate pesticides prior to high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lin; Liu, Xingli; Wang, Juntao; Wang, Chun; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Zhi

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a chemically and thermally robust and highly porous zeolite-type metal-organic framework, zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8), was used as both a precursor and a template and furfuryl alcohol as a second precursor to synthesize a nanoporous carbon. The prepared ZIF-8-derived nanoporous carbon was used as the solid-phase extraction adsorbent for the extraction of carbamate pesticides from cabbage and water samples. The adsorbed analytes were eluted with acetonitrile for the determination by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. The high surface area, high porosity, good stability and fast adsorption/desorption kinetics of the material enabled it to have a high adsorption capacity and good adsorption performance. Under optimum conditions, good linearity for the analytes in the range of 0.5-100ngg(-1) and 0.05-20ngmL(-1) existed for cabbage and water samples with the correlation coefficients of 0.9968-0.9980 and 0.9990-0.9995, respectively. The limits of detection (S/N=3) for the analytes were in the range of 0.25-0.1ngg(-1) and 0.01-0.02ngmL(-1) for the cabbage and water samples, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for intra-day and the inter-day determinations of the analytes were below 7.0% and 12.5%, respectively. PMID:26003698

  19. Factores de exposición a plaguicidas organofosforados y carbamatos en el departamento del Putumayo, 2006 / Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide exposure in Putumayo Province, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcela, Varona; Gloria, Henao; Angélica, Lancheros; Álix, Murcia; Sonia, Díaz; Rocío, Morato; Ligia, Morales; Dyva, Revelo; Patricia, de Segurado.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. En 2005 el Sistema de Vigilancia en Salud Pública encontró que el departamento del Putumayo es la región con mayor incidencia de intoxicaciones por plaguicidas en Colombia. Objetivo. Establecer la exposición a plaguicidas organofosforados y carbamatos en la población agrícola mediante [...] la determinación de los niveles de acetilcolinesterasa en el departamento de Putumayo, utilizando el método de Michel. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal en 204 trabajadores ocupacionalmente expuestos, en cuatro municipios del departamento de Putumayo. Se aplicó una encuesta para recolectar información y se tomó una muestra de sangre para la determinación de la acetilcolinesterasa. Se llevó a cabo el análisis simple de las variables y se exploraron posibles asociaciones. Un grupo de trabajadores fueron capacitados con la metodología SARAR (una estrategia educacional participativa que significa: S: seguridad, A: asociación, R: reacción, A: actualización y R: responsabilidad) sobre el uso y el manejo de plaguicidas. Resultados. Se estableció que el tiempo promedio de exposición fue de nueve años. El 75,2% manifestó emplear plaguicidas extremadamente tóxicos y el 13,0% altamente tóxicos. En promedio refirieron aplicar plaguicidas 7,3 horas al día. El 9,8% usaban plaguicidas organoclorados. En cuanto a la actividad de la enzima acetilcolinesterasa, 17,6% presentaban inhibición. Conclusión. Este trabajo permitió tener una dimensión real del problema de los plaguicidas en el Putumayo y utilizarla para hacer una intervención educativa sobre los trabajadores y sus familias, con la metodología SARAR. Abstract in english Introduction. In 2005, the Sistema de Vigilancia en Salud Pública, the governmental agency responsible for monitoring public health, found that Putumayo Province has the highest incidence of poisoning by pesticides in Colombia. Objective. Exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides and car [...] bamates was established in the agricultural population of Putumayo by determining acetylcholinesterase levels. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional survey was made in 204 occupationally exposed workers in four municipalities of Putumayo. A questionnaire was administered to collect subject information; a blood sample was taken for acetylcholinesterase determination by Michel’s method. A straightforward analysis of the variables and possible associations were explored. A group of workers was enabled with SARAR (a participative educational strategy that means: S: safety, A: association, R: reaction, A: actualization and R: responsability)methodology for use and handling of pesticides. Results. The average time of exposure was nine years. Seventy-five percent declared using extremely toxic pesticides and 13% highly toxic. On average, they applied pesticides 7.3 hours/day. Nearly 10% used organochloride pesticides. Furthermore, 17.6% demonstrated inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Conclusion. A realistic scale of the pesticide use problem in humans was obtained; and the data effectively recommend an educatiional intervention for the workers and their families with SARAR methodology.

  20. INTERLABORATORY STUDY OF A THERMOSPRAY-LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC/MASS SPECTROMETRIC METHOD FOR SELECTED N-METHYL CARBAMATES, N-METHYL CARBAMOYLOXIMES, AND SUBSTITUTED UREA PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A thermospray-liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric (TS-LC/MS) method was evaluated in an interlaboratory study for determining 3 N-methyl carbamates (bendiocarb, carbaryl, and carbofuran), 3-N-methyl carbamoyloximes (aldicarb, methomyl, and oxamyl), 2 substituted urea pestic...

  1. Principles of Single-Laboratory Validation of Analytical Methods for Testing the Chemical Composition of Pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underlying theoretical and practical approaches towards pesticide formulation analysis are discussed, i.e. general principles, performance characteristics, applicability of validation data, verification of method performance, and adaptation of validated methods by other laboratories. The principles of single laboratory validation of analytical methods for testing the chemical composition of pesticides are outlined. Also the theoretical background is described for performing pesticide formulation analysis as outlined in ISO, CIPAC/AOAC and IUPAC guidelines, including methodological characteristics such as specificity, selectivity, linearity, accuracy, trueness, precision and bias. Appendices I–III hereof give practical and elaborated examples on how to use the Horwitz approach and formulae for estimating the target standard deviation towards acceptable analytical repeatability. The estimation of trueness and the establishment of typical within-laboratory reproducibility are treated in greater detail by means of worked-out examples. (author)

  2. Carbamates toxicity in farmers and its assesment through biochemical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevalent environmental toxicity of various chemical group of pesticides and their effects leading towards increasing morbidity and mortality in the farmers is of great concerned. In this situation the biochemical biomarkers are regarded as meaningful tools for monitoring toxic end points. This work was aimed to assess the toxic impacts of carbamates through some biochemical parameters and useful validity of these biomarkers was also observed. Present results reveal inhibition of cholinesterase activity by 46% whereas bilirubin, urea and creatinine levels in serum were increased and sugar values was decreased at highly significant level (p<0.001). Urine urobilinogen concentration found raised significantly at high level (p<0.001) while protein, urea creatinine and sugar values in urine of the farmers seen non-significant. This study concluded that the selected biochemical parameters can be used as biomarkers to assess the significant toxic effects in the exposed populations. (author)

  3. Estudio epidemiológico de exposición a plaguicidas organofosforados y carbamatos en siete departamentos colombianos, 1998-2001 / Epidemiological study of organophosphate and carbamate pesticide exposure in 7 separated zones in Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Omayda, Cárdenas; Elizabeth, Silva; Ligia, Morales; Jaime, Ortiz.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la actividad de la acetilcolineterasa en trabajadores con riesgo de exposición a plaguicidas organofosforados y carbamatos y los plaguicidas más frecuentemente aplicados en los cultivos agrícolas en siete departamentos colombianos durante el período de 1998 a 2001. Material y mé [...] todos. De 1998 a 2001, participaron las entidades territoriales de salud de Boyacá, Caldas, Huila, Meta, Norte de Santander, Santander y Valle del Cauca, con 25.242 trabajadores a quienes se les realizó la determinación de la actividad de la acetilcolinesterasa como biomarcador de exposición a estos plaguicidas mediante el método de Limperos y Ranta modificado por Edson. Resultados. Del total de trabajadores, el 78,9% eran hombres y 21,1% mujeres; el 38,8% se encontraba en un rango de edad de 26 a 40 años. El 66,1% reportó pertenecer a un régimen de seguridad social; los oficios con mayor número de trabajadores fueron: fumigador-aplicador con 39,1% y jornalero con 24,9%. Se realizaron 25.356 pruebas de acetilcolinesterasa, de las cuales, 7,6% mostraron resultados anormales. Conclusiones. Con relación a los plaguicidas de importancia en salud pública más usados, se encontraron los organofosforados con 42,4% seguido por carbamatos con 17,8%, insecticidas organoclorados con 8,4% y clorinados 6,6%, lo cual hace necesario ampliar el uso de biomarcadores para la vigilancia de trabajadores expuestos a plaguicidas no controlados por el programa. Abstract in english Objective. Acetylcholinesterase activity was measured in workers potentially exposed to pesticides that are frequently used in agriculture in 7 provinces in Colombia between 1998and 2001. Material and methods. During this period, local health centers in the Departments (provinces) of Boyacá, Caldas, [...] Huila, Meta, Norte de Santander, Santander and Valle del Cauca monitored a total of 25,242 workers for acetylcholinesterase activity. The Limperos and Ranta method, modified by Edson, was used to detect levels of pesticide exposure. Results. The worker sample consisted of 78.9% men and 21.1% women. Thirty-nine percent of the workers were between 26 and 40 years of age, and 66% had social security. The most common work activities were use of spray applicators (39.1%) and harvesters (24.9%). Of the 25,356 tests for acetylcholinesterase activity, 7.6% showed abnormal activity levels. Conclusion. In the zones investigated, organophosphosphates were the most commonly used pesticides (42.4%), followed by carbamates (17.8%), organochlorines (8.4%) and chlorinates (6.6%). The diversity of pesticides in use underlines the need to increase the variety of biomarkers for monitoring exposed workers.

  4. EXTENSION OF MULTI-RESIDUE METHODOLOGY. I. DETERMINING MULTICLASS PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN SOIL BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY. II. DYNAMIC FLUOROGENIC LABELLING DETECTOR FOR CARBAMATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multi-residue procedure was devised for the extraction, cleanup and determination of forty seven pesticides in fortified soil samples. Most of the compounds were determined by gas chromatography interfaced with either the electron capture or the flame photometric detector. Seve...

  5. Carbamate protection of AChE against inhibition by agricultural chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barry W; Rusli, Francisca J; Yan Tam, Michelle Ka; DePeters, Ed; Henderson, John D

    2012-12-01

    The carbamate pyridostigmine bromide has been used as a pretreatment to protect individuals from the nerve agent soman. Previous research showed that pyridostigmine significantly protected human muscle acetylcholinesterase in vitro from soman and bovine red blood cell acetylcholinesterase from some organophosphorous pesticides. Research presented here demonstrates that pretreatment with other carbamates also protects acetylcholinesterase from inhibition by the pesticides chlorpyrifos-oxon and diazinon-oxon, but not from malaoxon. PMID:23169765

  6. Guidelines for the validation of qualitative multi-residue methods used to detect pesticides in food

    OpenAIRE

    Mol, J. G. J.; Reynolds, S. L.; Fussell, R. J.; Stajnbaher, D.

    2012-01-01

    There is a current trend for many laboratories to develop and use qualitative gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based multi-residue methods (MRMs) in order to greatly increase the number of pesticides that they can target. Before these qualitative MRMs can be used for the monitoring of pesticide residues in food, their fitness-for-purpose needs to be established by initial method validation. This paper sets out to assess the per...

  7. Method development and validation for the determination of pesticides in green coffee by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the implementation and validation of a multiresidue methodology for the determination of organochlorine, organophosphorus and pyrethroids pesticides in green coffee. Pesticides residues were extracted from green samples with an acetone-water (2:1) mixture followed by ethyl acetate cyclohexane (1:1) partitioning. The clean up steps include gel permeation chromatography and mini column chromatography using silica gel. Final determination was carried out by high-resolution gas chromatography with a pulsed split less injection mode and simultaneous detection by ?-ECD and NPD coupled in parallel. The methodology is specific, selective precise and accurate. Recoveries of majority of pesticides from spiked samples range from 70 to 110% at fortification levels of 0.038 mg/kg-1.536 mg/kg with limit of quantitation between 0.011 mg/kg and 0.100 mg/kg

  8. Investigation of pesticide residues in apple fruits from conventional and integrated pest management

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenova, Rositsa; Shtereva, Deyana

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This study describes method validation for determination of more than 40 pesticides in apples using GC technique. Target compounds belong to the groups of organochlorine, organophosphorus, carbamates, pyrethroids, triazoles, dicarboximides, strobilurins etc. The sample preparation consists of acetone extraction and subsequent cleanup/concentration by SPE with polymer-based sorbent. Single quadrupole GC-MS operating in SIM mode and electron impact ionization was used for id...

  9. Validation of a residue method to determine pesticide residues in cucumber by using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a multi-residue method using ethyl acetate for extraction and gel permeation chromatography for clean-up was validated to determine chlorpyrifos, malathion and dichlorvos in cucumber by gas chromatography. For this purpose, homogenized cucumber samples were fortified with pesticides at 0.02 0.2, 0.8 and 1 mg/kg levels. The efficiency and repeatability of the method in extraction and cleanup steps were performed using 14C-carbaryl by radioisotope tracer technique. 14C-carbaryl recoveries after the extraction and cleanup steps were between 92.63-111.73 % with a repeatability of 4.85% (CV) and 74.83-102.22 % with a repeatability of 7.19% (CV), respectively. The homogeneity of analytical samples and the stability of pesticides during homogenization were determined using radio tracer technique and chromatographic methods, respectively.

  10. Standard addition method based on four-way PARAFAC decomposition to solve the matrix interferences in the determination of carbamate pesticides in lettuce using excitation-emission fluorescence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, L; Sarabia, L A; Ortiz, M C

    2015-06-01

    The simultaneous determination of two carbamate pesticides (carbaryl and carbendazim) and of the degradation product of carbaryl (1-naphthol) in iceberg lettuce was achieved by means of PARAFAC decomposition and excitation-emission fluorescence matrices. A standard addition method for a calibration based on four-way data was applied using different dilutions of the extract from iceberg lettuce as a fourth way that provided the enough variation of the matrix to carry out the four-way analysis. A high fluorescent overlapping existed between the three analytes and the fluorophores of the matrix. The identification of two fluorescent matrix constituents through the four-way model enabled to know the matrix contribution in each dilution of the extract. This contribution was subtracted from the previous signals and a subsequent three-way analysis was carried out with the tensors corresponding to each dilution. The PARAFAC decomposition of these resulting tensors showed a CORCONDIA index equal to 99%. For the identification of the analytes, the correlation between the PARAFAC spectral loadings and the reference spectra has been used. The trueness of the method, in the concentration range studied, was guaranteed because there was neither constant nor proportional bias according to the appropriate hypothesis tests. The best recovery percentages were obtained with the data from the most diluted extract, being the results: 127.6% for carbaryl, 125.55% for carbendazim and 87.6% for 1-naphthol. When the solvent calibration was performed, the decision limit (CC?) and the capability of detection (CC?) values, in x0=0, were 2.21 and 4.38 ?g L(-1) for carbaryl, 4.87 and 9.64 ?g L(-1) for carbendazim; and 3.22 and 6.38 ?g L(-1) for 1-naphthol, respectively, for probabilities of false positive and false negative fixed at 0.05. However, these values were 5.30 and 10.49 ?g L(-1) for carbaryl, 18.05 and 35.73 ?g L(-1) for carbendazim; and 1.92 and 3.79 ?g L(-1) for 1-naphthol, respectively, when the matrix-matched calibration using the most diluted extract was carried out in the recovery study. PMID:25863376

  11. METABOLISM OF CARBAMATE INSECTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of studies conducted to determine the metabolic fate of carbamate insecticides and its toxicological significance are presented. Methomyl metabolism in rats was investigated in detail as was Croneton in the rat, cow, pig and chicken. Carbaryl and carbofuran were admin...

  12. Adaptation and validation of the TLC detection methods in determination of pesticide residues in grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was performed to investigate the possibilities of applying prescribed TLC detection methods in combination with GPC cleanup procedure in grains as alternative methods to gas and high performance liquid chromatography for pesticide residue analyses. The MDQ, RF and RRf values of marker and selected compounds were close to those reported in the basic method. The recoveries and reproducibility of the method obtained with wheat and rice samples in our laboratory were within the limits specified by the Codex GLs on method validation. The recoveries determined by GC analyses were practically the same which confirms the accuracy of TLC detection. (author)

  13. Development, validation and determination of multiclass pesticide residues in cocoa beans using gas chromatography and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Badrul Hisyam; Salleh, Salsazali; Mohamed, Rahmat; Yap, Ken Choy; Muhamad, Halimah

    2015-04-01

    An efficient and rapid method for the analysis of pesticide residues in cocoa beans using gas and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed, validated and applied to imported and domestic cocoa beans samples collected over 2 years from smallholders and Malaysian ports. The method was based on solvent extraction method and covers 26 pesticides (insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides) of different chemical classes. The recoveries for all pesticides at 10 and 50 ?g/kg were in the range of 70-120% with relative standard deviations of less than 20%. Good selectivity and sensitivity were obtained with method limit of quantification of 10 ?g/kg. The expanded uncertainty measurements were in the range of 4-25%. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the routine analysis of pesticide residues in cocoa beans via a monitoring study where 10% of them was found positive for chlorpyrifos, ametryn and metalaxyl. PMID:25442595

  14. TERMINAL RESIDUES OF CARBAMATE INSECTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three reviews of carbamate metabolism have appeared recently. One general review covered the degradation in soil and by soil microorganisms and the third review addressed the specific topic of derivatized carbamate insecticides. Many of the points noted in these reviews have been...

  15. Validation of thin-layer chromatographic methods for pesticide residue analysis. Results of the coordinated research projects 1996-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) has a long history, but has been used only to a limited extent in pesticide residue analytical laboratories since gas liquid chromatography (GLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) became readily available. Recent developments in the quality of plate coating and detection systems, as well as in extraction and cleanup methods have revived interest in TLC. The combination of these procedures with rigid quality control has created a niche for TLC in laboratories working in compliance with ISO 17025 or GLP. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture recognized the importance of testing pesticide residues, especially in countries with limited resources. A coordinated research programme (CRP) was initiated for investigating the application of TLC detection methods to complement the instrumental techniques in pesticide residue analysis. An initial technical contract provided proof of the concept and elaborated the basic procedures, including a substantial database of retention factors and minimum detectable quantities of pesticides. To satisfy the demands from the eligible laboratories, two similar projects were started in 1997 and 1998. The titles of the projects were as follows: (i) Validation of Thin-layer Chromatographic Screening Methods for Pesticide Residue Analysis; and (ii) Alternative Methods to Gas and High Performance Liquid Chromatography for Pesticide Residue Analysis in Grain. Scientists from 18 countries participated in the above noted two projects. The major tasks of this programme were to adapt the methods, check the repeatability and reproducibility of Rf values, the minimum detectable quantities (MDQ) and apply the methods for determining various pesticide residues in representative matrices. Furthermore, they have extended the methods to other pesticides and commodities of interest in their countries and validated the methods elaborated. This TECDOC includes the most important results of the CRPs. The Rf and MDQ values reported by the participating scientists are compiled in one table for facilitating the assessment of the repeatability and reproducibility of the results. Since the participants were applying the same basic methodology, described in detail in the first article, these methods are only referred to in the other papers. However, the modifications made by the participants are described in their papers. The purpose of this TECDOC is to provide the readers with comprehensive information on the application of TLC detection methods to complement the instrumental techniques in pesticide residue analysis. Further information on any specific topic may be obtained from the authors

  16. [Validation study of a method for multiresidue analysis of pesticides in cereals and pulses using supercritical fluid extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uranishi, Katsushige; Yamashita, Hirokazu; Okayama, Akiko; Yamamoto, Keigo

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was applied to extraction of pesticides from cereals and pulses. Residues were extracted from homogenized samples mixed with water-absorbent polymer and supercritical carbon dioxide in a stainless steel tube, followed by elution with acetonitrile. Co-extractives were removed by means of mini-column clean-up. Measurement was performed by GC-MS/MS. Calibration was achieved by preparing matrix-matched calibration standards to counteract matrix effects. With the Japanese method validation guideline for pesticide residues as a reference, the method was assessed in 5 agricultural products spiked with 334 pesticides at 0.01 and 0.1 µg/g. Compounds at each level were extracted from 2 samples on 5 separate days. The trueness of the method for 137 pesticides in all samples was 70-120%, and the repeatability and within-run reproducibility were also consistent with the guideline. The trueness of the method for the other 101 pesticides was in the range of 50-70%, though the repeatability and within-run reproducibility were satisfactory. This method is available as a multiresidue analysis method for cereals and pulses. PMID:23470855

  17. Impact of Chemical Proportions on the Acute Neurotoxicity of a Mixture of Seven Carbamates in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental exposures generally involve multiple chemicals and pathways, and statistical methodologies now exist to evaluate interactions among any number of chemicals in defined mixtures. N-methyl carbamate pesticides are presumed to act through a common mode of action, that i...

  18. COMPARISON OF ACUTE NEUROBEHAVIORAL AND CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF N-METHYL CARBAMATES IN RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are few studies evaluating direct functional and biochemical consequences of exposure. In the present study of the acute toxicity of seven N-methyl carbamate pesticides, we evaluated the dose-response profiles of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in brain and erythrocytes (R...

  19. Analytical Method Validation of Selected Organochlorine Pesticides in Fortified Rice Using Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutia Kusuma Wardani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD has been validated for simultaneous determination of selected organochlorine pesticides namely heptachlor, endosulfan, dieldrin, dan p,p’-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p’-DDT using aldrin as standard internal. Some parameters for analytical method validation were evaluated, i.e. linearity, precision, sensitivity expressed with limit of detection and limit of quantification, and recovery. GC-ECD was linear for determination of these pesticides with r values ? 0.99. The values of LOD obtained were 2.50, 2.97, 1.61, and 2.54 ng/mL for heptachlor, endosulphan, dieldrin, and p,p’-DDT, respectively. Furthermore, the relative standard deviation (RSD values obtained for the assessment of analytical precision were lower than those required by Horwitz. Finally, the used GC-ECD method was accurate for determination of these organochlorine psticides in fortified rice samples which were indicated by the acceptable recovery percentages.

  20. Generalisering og validering af model for afdrift af pesticider til læhegn og andre marknære biotoper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruus, Marianne; LØfstrØm, Per

    2014-01-01

    I det netop afsluttede projekt ”Generalisering og validering af model for sprøjtemiddelafdrift til læhegn og andre marknære biotoper” har vi målt, hvor meget af det sprøjtemiddel, landmanden sprøjter ud, der ender i markens læhegn. Målingerne er anvendt til at videreudvikle og validere en model, der kan forudsige afdriften af de fleste sprøjtemidler under forskellige betingelser. Modellen kan tage hensyn til de givne egenskaber for pesticidet og til dysens dråbestørrelser, hvordan vejret er og om der er en sprøjtefri zone mellem traktoren og naturen uden for marken. Desuden kan modellen differentiere mellem forskellige højder i læhegn. Som forventet var afdriften til læhegn mindre ved brug af en luftinjektions-dyse end ved sprøjtning med fladsprede-dyse i den samme mark. Forskellen i afdrift mellem de to typer af dyser viser, at der er potentiale for, via valg af sprøjteudstyr, at reducere mængden af pesticider, der lander i læhegnene og dermed reducerer blomstring og frugtsætning. Samtidig viser såvel målinger som modelberegninger, at der ikke er den store effekt af sprøjtefrie bufferzoner på afdriften til læhegn, specielt ikke i den øverste del af læhegnene, hvor frugterne ofte er mest talrige.

  1. Validation and Uncertainty of the method for multiresidue analysis of 35 pesticides in melon using Gas Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC-QP/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhome, M. A. L.; Sousa, J. S.; Andrade, G. A.; de Castro, R. C.; Lima, L. K.; Lima, C. G.; Nascimento, R. F.

    2015-01-01

    QuEChERS method and detection in GC/SQ-MS were validated for the analysis of 35 pesticides in melon. Validation parameters (selectivity, linearity, LOD, LOQ, accuracy and precision) were determined according ABNT NBR 14029:2005. The recoveries rates for all the pesticides studied were from 63% to 117% with relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 15% in the concentration range of 0.05 – 0.20 mg/kg. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for most compounds were below the MRLs established in Brazil. The combined relative uncertainty (Uc) and expanded uncertainty (Ue) was determined using repetitivity, recovery and calibration curves data for each pesticide.

  2. Survey of ethyl carbamate in fermented foods sold in the United Kingdom in 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnip, Sarah; Crews, Colin; Potter, Nicholas; Christy, Julie; Chan, Danny; Bondu, Thomas; Matthews, Wendy; Walters, Barry; Patel, Krishna

    2007-04-01

    Results are presented of a survey of fermented foods and beverages sold in the United Kingdom for levels of ethyl carbamate (urethane) carried out to expand the range of food types sold in the United Kingdom for which data regarding ethyl carbamate are available. Samples were analyzed by in-house validated methods, which included measurement uncertainty estimates. The samples comprised 75 fermented liquids (beers, wines, fortified wines, spirits, liqueurs, soy sauces, and vinegars) and 25 fermented solid foods (cheeses, yogurts, soybean products, sauerkraut, yeast extract, olives, and Christmas pudding). Ethyl carbamate was not detected in the beers or the cider. Wines contained between 11 and 24 microg/kg and sake between 81 and 164 microg/kg. Fortified wines contained ethyl carbamate at levels between 14 and 60 microg/kg. Only two of five liqueurs contained ethyl carbamate. Most soy sauces and vinegars did not contain ethyl carbamate. No ethyl carbamate was detected in cheeses, yogurts, olives, or soybean-based products. Single samples of sauerkraut, yeast extract, and Christmas pudding contained low levels (29, 41, and 20 microg/kg ethyl carbamate, respectively). PMID:17328558

  3. [Validation study on a method for multiresidue analysis of pesticides in vegetables and fruits with supercritical fluid extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uranishi, Katsushige; Yamashita, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Keigo

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was applied to extraction of pesticides from vegetables and fruits. Residues were extracted from homogenized samples mixed with water-absorbent polymer with supercritical carbon dioxide in a stainless steel tube, followed by elution with acetone. Co-extractives were removed by means of mini-column clean-up. Measurement was performed by GC-MS/MS. Calibration was achieved by preparing matrix-matched calibration standards to counteract matrix effects. With the Japanese method validation guideline as a reference, the method was assessed in 5 agricultural products spiked with 334 pesticides at 0.01 and 0.1 µg/g. Compounds at each level were extracted from 2 samples on 5 separate days. The trueness of the method for 189 pesticides in all samples was 70-120%, and the repeatability and within-run reproducibility were also consistent with the guideline. The trueness of the method for the other 71 pesticides was in the range of 50-70%, though the repeatability and within-run reproducibility were satisfactory. This method is available as a multiresidue analysis method for vegetables and fruits. PMID:22450672

  4. Benzimidazole Carbamate Residues in Milk: Detection by SPR Biosensor; using a Modified QuEChERS Method for Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor screening assay was developed and validated to detect 11 benzimidazole carbamate (BZT) veterinary drug residues in milk. The polyclonal antibody used was raised in sheep against a methyl 5 (6)-[(carboxypentyl)-thio]-2-benzimidazole carbamate protein conjug...

  5. The Enhanced Carbamate Adsorption of Modified Bentonite with Coscinium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tha-in

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides daily pollutes soil and water in farmland and environment in ASEAN agricultural developing countries. In this study, pesticide adsorption was studied by bentonite modification, targeting the “organoclay” adsorbent in comparison to native bentonite, which was probably reported to adsorb agricultural pesticide. Commercial bentonite was modified with the berberine containing natural extract from Coscinium fenestratum; the local folk medicine in Thailand. The modified clay by extracted berberine was able to adsorb carbamate pesticide carbaryl with significant rate. HPLC analysis of residue carbaryl after adsorption process showed that it was up to 80% carbaryl adsorption when bentonite was modified by extracted berberine with ratio 1:100 (w/w, whereas commercial bentonite has showed at 70%. Modified bentonite by C. fenestratum extract and berberine revealed by scanning electron microscopy showed that the different transform levels of this clay surface, herein, the highest carbaryl adsorption occurred when berberine/bentonite ratio for modification process was 1/200 (w/w. SEM results also demonstrated that the amount of berberine should be taken into consideration in term of bentonite modification for pesticide adsorption. Coscinium fenestratum plant will be further studied for its contribution to pesticide adsorption material in Thailand.

  6. Validation of Analysis Method of pesticides in fresh tomatoes by Gas Chromatography associated to a liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides are nowadays considered as toxic for human health. The maximum residues levels (MRL) in foodstuff are more and more strict. Therefore, selective analytical techniques are necessary for their identification and their quantification. The aim of this study is to set up a multi residue method for the determination of pesticides in tomatoes by gas chromatography with ?ECD detector (GC/?ECD) associated to liquid scintillation counting. A global analytical protocol consisting of a QuECHERS version of the extraction step followed by purification step of the resulting extract on a polymeric sorbent was set up. The 14C-chloropyrifos used as an internal standard proved excellent to control the different steps needed for the sample preparation. The method optimized is specific, selective with a recovery averaged more than 70 pour cent, repetitive and reproducible. Although some others criteria need to be checked regarding validation before its use in routine analysis, the potential of the method has been demonstrated.

  7. Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Symptoms of Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Aquatic Farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Dalsgaard; Amp Rgen Holm Petersen, J.; Amp Rs, Erik J.; Flemming Konradsen; Hanne Klith Jensen

    2010-01-01

    Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority...

  8. Development and validation of a multiresidue method for determination of 82 pesticides in water using GC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, Md Iqbal Rouf; Park, Jong Hyouk; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Kim, Hee Kwon; Choi, Woo Jung; Han, Seong-Soo; Hwang, Kyungsup; Jang, Nam-Ik; Assayed, Mohamed Ezzat; El-Dib, Mohamed Anwer; Shin, Ho-Chul; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, Jae-Han

    2009-02-01

    Several methods used for the multiresidue analysis of pesticides from the environment and drinking water have been reported. However, most of these reports dealt with a small number of targeted pesticides or some special groups. A method that is simple, faster, and more cost-effective than the environmental protection agency (EPA) method has been developed for the analysis of 82 frequently used pesticides in water samples obtained from Yeongsan and Sumjin rivers, as well as rice fields located in various locations around the two rivers. The samples were extracted by dichloromethane, and the pesticides were analyzed using a GC-electron capture detector (ECD), followed by confirmation with GC-MS. Recoveries were found to be between 82 and 120.1% for most of the tested pesticides, which were in agreement with the standard values dictated by the EPA. The method was potentially applied to 66 water samples for human consumption and 90 water samples from the rice fields and irrigation ditches that were collected from June to September 2007. Oxadiazon, butachlor, and alachlor were detected in some of the river water samples collected in June, iprobenfos (IBP) was detected in samples collected in August, and no pesticide was detected in September. On the other hand, chlorpyrifos-methyl, IBP, hexaconazole, diazinon, oxadiazon, butachlor, and isoprothiolane were detected at relatively high concentrations in 48 rice paddy field water samples collected between June and September 2007. Alachlor in one sample and procymidone in some of the rice paddy field water samples were also detected in trace amounts. The results were consistent with the temporal pattern of pesticide application in Korean rice fields. PMID:19212978

  9. Validation of a methodology multi-residue for the determination of pesticides residuals in strawberry (fragraria spp.) by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the validation of multi-residue analytical methodology for the simultaneous determination of 19 organ chlorine, organophosphorus and organ nitrogen pesticides in strawberry. Pesticides residues were extracted from strawberry samples with ethyl acetate, the extracts were cleaned-up by GPC, the quantitative analysis was carried out by high resolution gas chromatography (GC) with a pulsed splitless injection mode and simultaneous detection by m-ECD and NPD coupled in parallel. The methodology is specific, selective, and accurate and robust the calibration curves in matrix matched analytical standards show linearity over the concentration range of 0.04-5.00 mg/kg with limits of detection and quantitation between 0.007-0.5 mg/kg and 0.01-1.00 mg/kg respectively. The recovery experiments yielding averages between 80-110% for most of the pesticides. The distribution of analyze in the laboratory sample was evaluated and it was found its homogeneity. The methodology was applied in field samples and was mainly found Captan residues below MRL

  10. Validation of an optical immunoprobe for pesticide detection in natural water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Gerd; Brecht, Andreas; Amalric, Laurence; Mouvet, Christophe; Gauglitz, Guenter

    1995-09-01

    Immunoanalytical techniques represent one of the most important applications of biomolecules in analytical procedures. Direct monitoring of immunoreactions by a device is a particular attractive approach to environmental sensing as it offers speed, a simple test scheme, and does not require labelled compounds. Target limits of detection for pesticides are imposed by the EU drinking water act (0.1 (mu) g/1 for a single pesticide). A competitive test format with surface immobilized antigen is common for pesticide detection with direct immunosensors. Free pesticide binds to antibody in solution decreasing the amount of antibody binding to the transducer. A prototype atrazine sensor based on reflectrometric interference spectroscopy was investigated. The slope of the binding curve was used to measure the pesticide concentration by comparison with a calibration curve. By sophisticated surface modification techniques and protolytic regeneration of the surface with an enzyme we were able to use a single chip for more that one hundred measurements without significant loss of binding efficiency. Using a flow injection system a test cycle including measurement and regeneration is done within fifteen minutes. Using on-line evaluation the result is achieved five minutes after the measurement was started. Atrazine concentrations in the lower and sub-ppb range were measured in natural water samples in France. Using HPLC as a reference method, the correlation coefficients between the two analytical techniques were investigated.

  11. Anti-androgenic activities of environmental pesticides in the MDA-kb2 reporter cell line.

    OpenAIRE

    Ai?t-ai?ssa, S.; Laskowski, S.; Laville, N.; Porcher, J. -m; Brion, F.

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides have been suspected to act as endocrine disruptive compounds (EDCs) through several mechanisms of action, however data are still needed for a number of currently used pesticides. In the present study, 30 environmental pesticides selected from different chemical classes (azole, carbamate, dicarboximide, oganochlorine, organophosphorus, oxadiazole, phenylureas, pyrazole, pyrimidine, pyrethroid and sulfonylureas) were tested for their ability to alter in vitro the transcriptional acti...

  12. Development and validation of a basin scale model PCPF-1@SWAT for simulating fate and transport of rice pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulange, Julien; Watanabe, Hirozumi; Inao, Keiya; Iwafune, Takashi; Zhang, Minghua; Luo, Yuzhou; Arnold, Jeff

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop, verify, and validate a new GIS-based model for simulating the fate and transport of rice pesticides in river basins. A plot scale model simulating pesticide fate and transport in rice paddies (PCPF-1) was incorporated into the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) basin scale water and pollutant transport model. The new combined model, PCPF-1@SWAT model, was first used on some base-case scenarios to verify that the PCPF-1 algorithm and the routing of variables were correctly implemented. Next, the PCPF-1@SWAT model was calibrated and validated on the Sakura River basin (Ibaraki prefecture, Japan) using mefenacet concentrations measured during the rice growing season in 2008. The modeling procedures for simulating pesticide fate and transport in a Japanese river basin were demonstrated by providing model parameters related to hydrology, land use, pesticide fate, and rice field managements methods. The water flows predicted by the PCPF-1@SWAT model in the Sakura River basin were accurate throughout the whole simulation year, with R2 and ENS statistics exceeding 0.74 and 0.71, respectively for daily flow. The use of different seepage rates had appreciable influence on the simulations. High seepage rates gave a slight overestimation of the predicted base flow during the rice growing period, whereas the base flow predictions using lower seepage rates were comparable to measured data. The PCPF-1@SWAT model successfully simulated the fate and transport of mefenacet in the Sakura River in which measured mefenacet concentrations peaked soon after the initial herbicide application in May, and decreased gradually during the months of June and July. Occasional major precipitation events caused the mefenacet concentration in streams to peak quickly due to a corresponding loss of mefenacet from paddy areas, and then rapidly decrease due to dilution by excess rainfall discharge. The simulation using a seepage rate of 0.12 cm day-1 had the most accurate prediction of mefenacet concentration in river water with an R2 of 0.61 and an ENS of 0.65.

  13. 40 CFR 721.2025 - Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. 721.2025 Section 721...721.2025 Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. (a) Chemical substance...generically as a substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative (PMN P-91-487)...

  14. 21 CFR 520.434 - Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. 520.434 Section 520...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.434 Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. (a) Specifications. ...contains 400 milligrams of chlorphenesin carbamate. (b) Sponsor. See No....

  15. Validation and application of micro flow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of pesticide residues in fruit jams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Bárbara; Pizzutti, Ionara Regina; Costabeber, Ijoni Hilda; Uclés, Ana; Herrera, Sonia; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a very sensitive method was validated to determine pesticides residues in fruit jams using micro flow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (µLC-MS/MS). A slurry of the fruit jams and water was prepared to yield homogeneous samples. Because of the high sensitivity achieved with the µLC-MS/MS equipment and to minimize matrix effects, the QuEChERS extracts were diluted 30-fold before the analysis. The validation was performed analyzing spiked samples at 9 and 45 µg kg(-1) (n=5). The method met validation criteria of 70-120% recovery and RSD?20% for 92% of the 107 pesticides evaluated. The reporting limit (RL) was 9 and 45 µg kg(-1) for respectively 66% and 26% of the analytes, 5% of the compounds did not fulfill the requirements for validation and 3% were not detected at the studied concentrations. The validated method was applied to the analysis of 51 different fruit jam samples from Brazil and Spain and pesticide residues were detected in 41 samples, 26 of which contained at least one pesticide at concentration >10 µg kg(-1). PMID:25618688

  16. Organic carbamates in drug design and medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arun K; Brindisi, Margherita

    2015-04-01

    The carbamate group is a key structural motif in many approved drugs and prodrugs. There is an increasing use of carbamates in medicinal chemistry and many derivatives are specifically designed to make drug-target interactions through their carbamate moiety. In this Perspective, we present properties and stabilities of carbamates, reagents and chemical methodologies for the synthesis of carbamates, and recent applications of carbamates in drug design and medicinal chemistry. PMID:25565044

  17. Determination of carbamates in beverages by liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature partitioning and liquid chromatography

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Simone M., Goulart; Renata D., Alves; Washington X. de, Paula; José Humberto de, Queiroz; Antônio A., Neves; Maria Eliana L. R. de, Queiroz.

    1154-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbamatos são os pesticidas mais frequentemente encontrados em alimentos e bebidas de coloração escura em casos de intoxicação acidental ou intencional. Neste trabalho, extração líquido-líquido com partição em baixa temperatura (LLE-LTP) foi otimizada e validada para determinação dos carbamatos ald [...] icarb, carbofuran e carbaril em bebidas de sucos de uva e leite achocolatado. Este método envolve a extração com acetonitrila, partição líquido-líquido em baixa temperatura e análise por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detecção ultravioleta (HPLC-UV). O método é rápido, eficiente e de baixo custo, emprega pequenos volumes de solvente por amostra e não necessita de limpeza dos extratos. O método de extração foi seletivo e apresentou porcentagens de extração acima de 90%. As premissas relacionadas com os testes estatísticos de linearidade foram verificadas e confirmadas. O método de extração e análise foi validado com resultados satisfatórios e pode ser aplicado em análises de rotina e forenses. Abstract in english Carbamates are the pesticides most commonly found in dark colored foods and beverages in cases of accidental or intentional poisoning. In this work, the liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature partitioning (LLE-LTP) was optimized and validated for determination of the carbamates aldicarb, carb [...] ofuran and carbaryl in grape juice and chocolate milk beverages. This method involved extraction with acetonitrile, liquid-liquid partition at low temperature and the analysis by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The method is rapid, efficient and of low-cost, employing small volumes of solvent per sample and requiring no cleanup of the extracts. The extraction methodology was selective and presented recovery percentages above 90%. The premises related to the statistical linearity tests were checked and confirmed. The method of extraction and analysis was validated with satisfactory results, and may be applied in forensic and routine analysis.

  18. Pesticide exposure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James R; Karr, Catherine J

    2012-12-01

    Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children's exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth outcomes including physical birth defects, low birth weight, and fetal death, although the data are less robust than for cancer and neurodevelopmental effects. Children's exposures to pesticides should be limited as much as possible. PMID:23184105

  19. The toxicologic effects of the carbamate insecticide aldicarb in mammals: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Risher, J. F.; Mink, F. L.; Stara, J. F.

    1987-01-01

    Aldicarb, 2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde-O-methylcarbamoyloxime, is an oxime carbamate insecticide manufactured by the Union Carbide Corporation and sold under the trade name Temik. It is a soil-applied systemic pesticide used against certain insects, mites, and nematodes, and is applied below the soil surface for absorption by plant roots. It is generally applied to the soil in the form of 5, 10, or 15% granules, and soil moisture is essential for the release of the toxicant. Uptake ...

  20. Pesticides and inner-city children: exposures, risks, and prevention.

    OpenAIRE

    Landrigan, P. J.; Claudio, L.; Markowitz, S. B.; Berkowitz, G. S.; Brenner, B. L.; Romero, H.; Wetmur, J. G.; Matte, T. D.; Gore, A. C.; Godbold, J. H.; Wolff, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    Six million children live in poverty in America's inner cities. These children are at high risk of exposure to pesticides that are used extensively in urban schools, homes, and day-care centers for control of roaches, rats, and other vermin. The organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos and certain pyrethroids are the registered pesticides most heavily applied in cities. Illegal street pesticides are also in use, including tres pasitos (a carbamate), tiza china, and methyl parathion. In New Yo...

  1. [Neurotoxicology of pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides have been used for many years for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating pests such as insects, rodents, and weeds. However, most pesticides are not completely specific for pests and can also induce damage to the human nervous system. In particular, insecticides often directly targets the nervous system by affecting major targets such as the neuro-transmitter metabolism, neuronal receptors, and ion channels; acetylcholine (ACh) esterase for organo-phosphates and carbamates, nicotinic ACh receptor for neonicotinoids, ?-aminobutyric acid receptors/chloride channels for organochlorides and fipronil, and voltage-gated sodium channel for pyrethroids. Additional targets include sites in the sodium channels, glutamate-gated chloride channels, and octopamine and ryanodine receptors. Several pesticides also produce adverse neurological effects indirectly by disrupting the general cellular mechanisms that support the high metabolic activity of the nervous system. Nowadays, more potent pesticides are being developed as replacements for the older, harmful ones. Pesticide neurotoxicity in humans may involve the central or peripheral nervous system or both and may induce typical neuronal damage in case of acute poisoning even by new agents. However, whether effect of exposure to pesticides at below acute-poisoning threshold level remains unclear. Moreover, neurotoxicology for behavioral and higher-brain function remains an unresolved and a challenging problem. PMID:25585434

  2. Validation of automated Library-Based Qualitative Screening of Pesticides by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Mol, J. G. J.; Kamp, H. J.; Weg, G.; Lee, M. K.; Punt, A. M.; Rijk, T. C.

    2011-01-01

    A method for automated detection and reporting of pesticides in plant materials based on comprehensive two-dimensional GC/time-of-flight MS with library-based detection by software has been developed and validated. Optimum settings for detection parameters such as spectral match threshold and first and second dimension retention time tolerances were assessed with respect to occurrence of false detects and false negatives. Next the method was validated following European Union guidelines estab...

  3. Validação de método multirresíduo para determinação de pesticidas em alimentos empregando QuEChERS E UPLC-MS/MS Multiresidue method validation for determination of pesticides in food using QuEChERS and UPLC-MS/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Sonia C. N.; Ferracini, Vera L.; Rosa, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a practical and rapid method which was validated for simultaneous quantification and confirmation of 29 pesticides in fruits and vegetables using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted following the method known as QuEChERS. Using the developed chromatographic conditions, the pesticides can be separated in less than 9 min. Two multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) assays were used for each pesticide. Four repr...

  4. Validation of a method using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography for the determination of pesticide residues in groundwaters

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sergiane S., Caldas; Adriana, Demoliner; Ednei G., Primel.

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, um método para determinação dos agrotóxicos carbofurano, clomazona, 2,4-D e tebuconazol em águas subterrâneas é descrito. O método utiliza a Extração em Fase Sólida (EFS) com cartuchos de C18 e quantificação por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta eficiência com Detector de Arranjo de Diod [...] os (CLAE-DAD). Após a otimização dos parâmetros de extração e separação dos compostos, o método foi validado avaliando-se curva analítica, linearidade, limites de detecção e quantificação, precisão e exatidão (recuperação). O método apresentou recuperações médias de 87,9% e 96,9%, para a repetibilidade e precisão intermediária, respectivamente, com RSD de 0,8 a 20,7% para todos os compostos. O método será empregado na determinação de agrotóxicos em águas subterrâneas com um limite de quantificação de 0,2 ?g L-1. Abstract in english A method is described for the determination of the pesticides carbofuran, clomazone, 2,4-D and tebuconazole in groundwaters. The method involves solid phase extraction (SPE) with C18 cartridges and quantification by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). After t [...] he optimization of the extraction and separation parameters, the method was validated by evaluating the analytical curve, linearity, limits of detection and quantification, precision and accuracy (recovery). The method presents an average recovery of 87.9% and 96.9%, in repeatability and intermediate precision conditions, respectively, with adequate precision (RSD from 0.8 to 20.7%), for all compounds. The method will be applied to determine pesticides in groundwater samples with limit of quantification of 0.2 ?g L-1.

  5. Measurement of pesticides and other toxicants in amniotic fluid as a potential biomarker of prenatal exposure: a validation study.

    OpenAIRE

    Bradman, Asa; Barr, Dana B; Claus Henn, Birgit G; Drumheller, Timothy; Curry, Cynthia; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2003-01-01

    Prenatal pesticide exposures may adversely affect children's health. However, exposure and health research is hampered by the lack of reliable fetal exposure data. No studies have been published that report measurements of commonly used nonpersistent pesticides in human amniotic fluid, although recent studies of pesticides in urine from pregnant women and in meconium indicate that fetuses are exposed to these chemicals. Amniotic fluid collected during amniocentesis is the only medium availabl...

  6. [Pesticide residues in drinking water of an agricultural community in the state of Mérida, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-García, Mery Elisa; Molina-Morales, Yuri; Balza-Quintero, Alirio; Benítez-Díaz, Pedro Rafael; Miranda-Contreras, Leticia

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of pesticides in drinking water from six aqueducts in a region of intense agricultural activity in the state of Merida, Venezuela. The study was conducted for four continuous weeks, between May and June 2008. Pesticide residues were analyzed by solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detector (DAD). The method SPE-HPLC-DAD met the criteria of analytical validation, with good linearity (R2: 0.9840 to 0.9999), precision (coefficient of inter-day variability from 1.47 to 6.25%), accuracy (relative standard deviation 0.9 to 9.20%) and sensitivity (LOD mancozeb with 0.400 microg/L). Seven of the thirteen selected pesticides have a recovery rate between 100% and 70%, the rest between 61% and 37%. Ten pesticides of the following chemical groups, were detected in 72 samples analyzed: organophosphates, carbamates, triazines and urea derivatives. The pesticides with the highest frequency of detection were: carbofuran and atrazine (39%), malathion (25%), dimethoate and metribuzin (19%). The pesticides found at high levels were diazinon (26.31 microg/L), methamidophos (10.99 microg/L), malathion (2.03 microg/L) and mancozeb (1.27 microg/L). Pesticide levels did not exceed the maximum allowed by Venezuelan law, however, according to international standards (EU and EPA-USA) values were above the maximum permissible levels. This study demonstrates the urgent need for systematic monitoring of the quality of water for human consumption in regions of high agricultural productivity. PMID:22523840

  7. Detection of benzimidazole carbamates and amino metabolites in liver by surface plasmon resonance-biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor screening assays were developed and validated to detect 11 benzimidazole carbamate (BZT) and four amino-benzimidazole veterinary drug residues in liver tissue. The assays used polyclonal antibodies, raised in sheep, to detect BZTs and amino-benzimidazole...

  8. Validation of a qualitative screening method for pesticides in fruits and vegetables by gas chromatography quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portolés, T; Mol, J G J; Sancho, J V; López, Francisco J; Hernández, F

    2014-08-01

    A wide-scope screening method was developed for the detection of pesticides in fruit and vegetables. The method was based on gas chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source (GC-(APCI)QTOF MS). A non-target acquisition was performed through two alternating scan events: one at low collision energy and another at a higher collision energy ramp (MS(E)). In this way, both protonated molecule and/or molecular ion together with fragment ions were obtained in a single run. Validation was performed according to SANCO/12571/2013 by analysing 20 samples (10 different commodities in duplicate), fortified with a test set of 132 pesticides at 0.01, 0.05 and 0.20mg kg(-1). For screening, the detection was based on one diagnostic ion (in most cases the protonated molecule). Overall, at the 0.01mg kg(-1) level, 89% of the 2620 fortifications made were detected. The screening detection limit for individual pesticides was 0.01mg kg(-1) for 77% of the pesticides investigated. The possibilities for identification according to the SANCO criteria, requiring two ions with a mass accuracy ?±5ppm and an ion-ratio deviation ?±30%, were investigated. At the 0.01mg kg(-1) level, identification was possible for 70% of the pesticides detected during screening. This increased to 87% and 93% at the 0.05 and 0.20mg kg(-1) level, respectively. Insufficient sensitivity for the second ion was the main reason for the inability to identify detected pesticides, followed by deviations in mass accuracy and ion ratios. PMID:25064246

  9. Solvent-Free Preparation of Primary Carbamates

    OpenAIRE

    Modarresi-alam, Ali Reza

    2006-01-01

    Herein, we describe a simple and efficient method for the conversion of compounds containing a hydroxyl group to primary carbamates at room temperature with excellent yield and purity, and without any epimerization, in the absence of solvent.

  10. A calorimetric study of carbamate formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? MEA-, DEA-, and ammonia-carbamate formation enthalpies have been measured. ? This is the first direct determination of carbamate formation enthalpies. ? Carbamate formation enthalpies follow trends in amine protonation enthalpies. - Abstract: Post combustion capture of CO2 (PCC) is currently one of the leading technologies for the reduction of green house gas emissions from power plants. The most common PCC process is based on the absorption of CO2 into aqueous amine solutions. CO2 absorption involves several parallel reactions including hydration of CO2; deprotonation of carbonic acid; protonation of the amine; and formation of carbamate. The extent to which each reaction proceeds is dependent on the conditions of absorption (or desorption), as well as the associated equilibrium constants. All reactions other than carbamate formation have been extensively investigated previously. The investigation of carbamate formation is more complex, as it cannot be studied in the absence of other, simultaneous reactions. In particular, the enthalpy of carbamate formation has been determined previously only from the temperature dependence of equilibrium constants, but this methodology is not robust. In this contribution, we use calorimetry and advanced model-based data analysis methods for the unravelling of the thermo-chemistry relevant to PCC and specifically directly determine the reaction enthalpy for carermine the reaction enthalpy for carbamate formation. The reaction enthalpies of carbamate formation and amine protonation were measured in dilute aqueous solution at 298 K using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) for monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and ammonia (NH3). The enthalpy of protonation was also measured for carbonate and bicarbonate. The re-determined protonation constants of the carbonate species and the three amines are in excellent agreement with previously reported results. No measured enthalpies of carbamate formation have been reported previously. For the carbamate formation reaction HCO3-+R'RNH?R'RNCO2-, the following reaction enthalpies were determined: MEA, -29.7 ± 0.1 kJ/mol; DEA, -23.7 ± 0.9 kJ/mol, and NH3, -27.6 ± 0.9 kJ/mol. The results are in good agreement with, but much more precise and robust than estimated values reported in the literature.

  11. A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC/PHARMACODYNAMIC (PBPK/PD) MODEL FOR ESTIMATION OF CUMULATIVE RISK FROM EXPOSURE TO THREE N-METHYL CARBAMATES: CARBARYL, ALDICARB, AND CARBOFURAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for a mixture of N-methyl carbamate pesticides was developed based on single chemical models. The model was used to compare urinary metabolite concentrations to levels from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHA...

  12. Using phylogenetic information and chemical properties to predict species tolerances to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénard, Guillaume; Carsten von der Ohe, Peter; Carlisle Walker, Steven; Lek, Sovan; Legendre, Pierre

    2014-08-22

    Direct estimation of species' tolerance to pesticides and other toxic organic substances is a combinatorial problem, because of the large number of species-substance pairs. We propose a statistical modelling approach to predict tolerances associated with untested species-substance pairs, by using models fitted to tested pairs. This approach is based on the phylogeny of species and physico-chemical descriptors of pesticides, with both kinds of information combined in a bilinear model. This bilinear modelling approach predicts tolerance in untested species-compound pairs based on the facts that closely related species often respond similarly to toxic compounds and that chemically similar compounds often have similar toxic effects. The three tolerance models (median lethal concentration after 96 h) used up to 25 aquatic animal species and up to nine pesticides (organochlorines, organophosphates and carbamates). Phylogeny was estimated using DNA sequences, while the pesticides were described by their mode of toxic action and their octanol-water partition coefficients. The models explained 77-84% of the among-species variation in tolerance (log10 LC50). In cross-validation, 84-87% of the predicted tolerances for individual species were within a factor of 10 of the observed values. The approach can also be used to model other species response to multivariate stress factors. PMID:25009056

  13. Electrochemical study of some insecticides deriving from carbamates in aprotic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the rapid growth of the population, there is an increasing demand for agriculture products and a consequent need of pesticides. It is essential to have an analytical methodology to monitoring them in the environment. The present work reports the electrochemical behavior of three carbamate insecticides, methiocarb, bendiocarb and zectran. In oxidation, the cyclic voltammetry measurements indicated an irreversible electrode process for each insecticide in organic media. The electron transfer stoichiometry was determined; the effects of the concentration and the scan rate on oxidation of these compounds were investigated. There was evidence of an ECE type reaction. The principal oxidation products of the carbamate insecticides were determined in acetonitrile using mass spectrometry analysis. Results of this study will be used to develop an electrochemical method for analyzing these compounds.

  14. Measurement of Pyrethroid, Organophosphorus, and Carbamate Insecticides in Human Plasma using Isotope Dilution Gas Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Pe?rez, Jose? J.; Williams, Megan K.; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Smith, Kimberly; Whyatt, Robin M.; Needham, Larry L.; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method for measuring pyrethroid, organophosphorus, carbamate and fipronil pesticides and the synergist piperonyl butoxide in human plasma. Plasma samples were extracted using solid phase extraction and were then concentrated for injection and analysis using isotope dilution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. The limits of detection ranged from 10 to 158 pg/mL with relative recoveries at concentrations ...

  15. Treatment rationale for dogs poisoned with aldicarb (carbamate pesticide)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L F, Arnot; D J H, Veale; J C A, Steyl; J G, Myburgh.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment rationale for dogs poisoned by aldicarb is reviewed from a pharmacological perspective. The illegal use of aldicarb to maliciously poison dogs is a major problem in some parts of the world. In South Africa, it is probably the most common canine poisoning treated by companion animal vet [...] erinarians. Aldicarb poisoning is an emergency and veterinarians need to be able to diagnose it and start with effective treatment immediately to ensure a reasonable prognosis. Successful treatment depends on the timely use of an anti-muscarinic drug (e.g. atropine). Additional supportive treatment options, including fluid therapy, diphenhydramine, benzodiazepines and the prevention of further absorption (activated charcoal) should also be considered. Possible complications after treatment are also briefly discussed.

  16. Adsorption Kinetics of Carbamate Pesticide in Rice Field Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Soontree Khuntong

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic extraction (75.55%) with petroleum ether:acetone (1:1, v/v) was employed for extraction of carbofuran in rice field soil. The amounts of carbofuran were determined by reverse phase HPLC. The analytical method provided high precision and accuracy with the relative error of 0.47%. The percentage of recoveries varied from 84% to 77% in the con¬centration ranges of 10–40 mg/L of spiked soil samples. The carbofuran residues in the rice field soil significantly decreased year by year ...

  17. Fluorimetric Determination of Carbamate Pesticides in Host-Guest Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Viviana Veglia

    2000-01-01

    From the effect of β-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin on the UVvisible and fluorescence spectra of carbaryl and carbofuran, the values of association constants were determined. The ratio of the fluorescence quantum yields for the bound and free substrates indicated an enhanced fluorimetric method of detection.

  18. Fluorimetric Determination of Carbamate Pesticides in Host-Guest Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Viviana Veglia

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available From the effect of β-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin on the UVvisible and fluorescence spectra of carbaryl and carbofuran, the values of association constants were determined. The ratio of the fluorescence quantum yields for the bound and free substrates indicated an enhanced fluorimetric method of detection.

  19. Phthalates, Pesticides, and Bisphenol-A Exposure and the Development of Nonoccupational Asthma and Allergies: How Valid Are the Links?

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Eun Soo; Just, Allan; Whyatt, Robin; Miller, Rachel L.

    2009-01-01

    Phthalates, pesticides, and bisphenol-A (BPA) are three groups of chemicals, implicated in endocrine disruption and commonly found in the local environment, that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergies [1-3]. Multiple observational studies have demonstrated an association between exposure to phthalates and the development of asthma and allergies in humans. Associations with exposure to pesticides and BPA and the development of respiratory disease are less clear. Howev...

  20. Age dependence of organophosphate and carbamate neurotoxicity in the postnatal rat: extrapolation to the human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One important aspect of risk assessment for the organophosphate and carbamate pesticides is to determine whether their neurotoxicity occurs at lower dose levels in human infants compared to adults. Because these compounds probably exert their neurotoxic effects through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the above question can be narrowed to whether the cholinesterase inhibition and neurotoxicity they produce is age-dependent, both in terms of the effects produced and potency. The rat is the animal model system most commonly used to address these issues. This paper first discusses the adequacy of the postnatal rat to serve as a model for neurodevelopment in the postnatal human, concluding that the two species share numerous pathways of postnatal neurodevelopment, and that the rat in the third postnatal week is the neurodevelopmental equivalent of the newborn human. Then, studies are discussed in which young and adult rats were dosed by identical routes with organophosphates or carbamates. Four pesticides were tested in rat pups in their third postnatal week: aldicarb, chlorpyrifos, malathion, and methamidophos. The first three, but not methamidophos, caused neurotoxicity at dose levels that ranged from 1.8- to 5.1-fold lower (mean 2.6-fold lower) in the 2- to 3-week-old rat compared to the adult. This estimate in the rat, based on a limited data set of three organophosphates and a single carbamate, probably represents the minimum difference in the neurotoxits the minimum difference in the neurotoxicity of an untested cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticide that should be expected between the human neonate and adult. For the organophosphates, the greater sensitivity of postnatal rats, and, by analogy, that expected for human neonates, is correlated with generally lower levels of the enzymes involved in organophosphate deactivation

  1. Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Biomonitoring of Farmers and Residents Exposed to Pesticides in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Eloisa Dutra Caldas; Bruno Zago Diniz; Juciê Roniery Silva; Juliana Oliveira Pasiani; Priscila Torres

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding pesticide use and the levels of exposure of farmers and residents to organophosphorous and/or carbamates pesticides were evaluated in two rural settings in Brazil. A questionnaire was completed by 112 farm workers aged ?18 years. Almost all farmers acknowledged that pesticides were potentially harmful to their health (87.5%); however, over half rarely (48.2%) or never (7.2%) used personal protective...

  2. Health risks of employees working in pesticide retail shops: An exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Kesavachandran C; Pathak M; Fareed M; Bihari V; Mathur N; Srivastava A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Shop keepers dealing with pesticides are exposed to multiple pesticides that include organophosphates, organochlorines, carbamates, pyrethroids. Hence an exploratory health study was conducted on shopkeepers selling pesticides in urban areas of Lucknow and Barabanki District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: Detailed information regarding socio-economic status, family history, personal habits and work practices were recorded for 20 subjects and controls by the inves...

  3. Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Honey Samples from Portugal and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco, Cristina; Fernández, Mónica; Pena, Angelina; Lino, Celeste; Silveira, Mª Irene; Font, Guillermina; Picó, Yolanda

    2003-01-01

    Fifty samples of honey collected from local markets of Portugal and Spain during year 2002 were analyzed for 42 organochlorine, carbamate, and organophosphorus pesticide residues. An analytical procedure based on solid-phase extraction with octadecyl sorbent followed by gas chromatography?mass spectrometry (GC?MS), for organochlorines, and by liquid chromatography?atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC?APCI-MS), for organophosphorus and carbamates, has been dev...

  4. Development and validation of method for the determination of organochlorine pesticides and trihalomethanes in the water by HRGC-ECD - 10.4025/actascitechnol.v32i4.7689 Development and validation of method for the determination of organochlorine pesticides and trihalomethanes in the water by HRGC-ECD - 10.4025/actascitechnol.v32i4.7689

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Ribeiro Alves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The development and validation of a simultaneous liquid-liquid extraction method for organochlorine pesticides and trihalomethanes in surface and drinking water by HRGC-ECD is described. The method presents acceptable recovery, with detection ranging from 2.7 to 49.0 ng L-1 for organochlorine pesticides and from 18.0 to 860.0 ng L-1 for trihalomethanes. The extraction method also presents excellent linearity for all the analytes, with excellent repeatability. Extraction is simple, fast, and low cost, uses small amounts of solvent and aqueous sample, and is suitable for routine analyses.The development and validation of a simultaneous liquid-liquid extraction method for organochlorine pesticides and trihalomethanes in surface and drinking water by HRGC-ECD is described. The method presents acceptable recovery, with detection ranging from 2.7 to 49.0 ng L-1 for organochlorine pesticides and from 18.0 to 860.0 ng L-1 for trihalomethanes. The extraction method also presents excellent linearity for all the analytes, with excellent repeatability. Extraction is simple, fast, and low cost, uses small amounts of solvent and aqueous sample, and is suitable for routine analyses.

  5. Validação de método multirresíduo para determinação de pesticidas em alimentos empregando QuEChERS E UPLC-MS/MS Multiresidue method validation for determination of pesticides in food using QuEChERS and UPLC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia C. N. Queiroz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical and rapid method which was validated for simultaneous quantification and confirmation of 29 pesticides in fruits and vegetables using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS. The samples were extracted following the method known as QuEChERS. Using the developed chromatographic conditions, the pesticides can be separated in less than 9 min. Two multiple reaction monitoring (MRM assays were used for each pesticide. Four representative matrices (lettuce, tomato, apple and grapes were selected to investigate the effect in recoveries and precision. Typical recoveries ranged from 70-120%, with relative standard deviation (RSDs lower than 20%.

  6. Evaluation of the Pollution of surface waters in the basin of west Algeria by Organo chlorine and Organophosphorus pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjel, M.; Berkok, N.

    2009-07-01

    The pollutants are pesticides which cover a whole range of chemicals designed to protect plants from pests and destroy unwanted plants. There are a very large number of pesticides and we do here that some of the major families (organo chlorine insecticides, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, phenylcyclohexyl, herbicides. (Author)

  7. Validation of a multi-residue method for the determination of residuals pesticides in cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. Capitata) for gases chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the validation of a multi-residue method for the determination of most used organo chlorine, organophosphorus and organonitrogen pesticides in cabbage in the Cundinamarca Department (Colombia). The extraction process includes blending of small sample quantity with ethyl acetate in presence of Na2SO4 and NaHCO3, filtration and concentration. The clean up steps include GPC and mini-column chromatography using silica gel. Final determination was carried out by gas chromatography with: pulsed splitless injection, HP-5 capillary column, and a parallel detection system with micro electron capture detection (? - ECD) and Nitrogen-Phosphorus Detection (NPD). The methodology is specific, selective, accurate and robust. Recovery values of majority of pesticides were in the range 70-120% at spiking levels ranging 0.05-10.73 mg/kg. Limits of detection were less than 0.10 mg/kg for most of the studied compounds. The distribution of the analyses in the laboratory sample was evaluated and it was found its homogeneity. The evaluation of pesticide residues was made in a specific area of municipality of Madrid-Cundinamarca, (Colombia). No residues of the studied analyses were founded

  8. Acute pesticide poisoning and pesticide registration in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been for 20 years the most acknowledged international initiative for reducing negative impact from pesticide use in developing countries. We analyzed pesticide use and poisoning in Central America, particularly in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, and evaluated whether registration decisions are based on such data, in accordance with the FAO Code. Extensive use of very hazardous pesticides continues in Central America and so do poisonings with organophosphates, carbamates, endosulfan and paraquat as the main causative agents. Central American governments do not carry out or commission scientific risk assessments. Instead, guidelines from international agencies are followed for risk management through the registration process. Documentation of pesticide poisonings during several decades never induced any decision to ban or restrict a pesticide. However, based on the official surveillance systems, in 2000, the ministers of health of the seven Central American countries agreed to ban or restrict twelve of these pesticides. Now, almost 4 years later, restrictions have been implemented in El Salvador and in Nicaragua public debate is ongoing. Chemical and agricultural industries do not withdraw problematic pesticides voluntarily. In conclusion, the registration processes in Central America do not comply satisfactorily with the FAO Codnot comply satisfactorily with the FAO Code. However, international regulatory guidelines are important in developing countries, and international agencies should strongly extend its scope and influence, limiting industry involvement. Profound changes in international and national agricultural policies, steering towards sustainable agriculture based on non-chemical pest management, are the only way to reduce poisonings

  9. The regioselective aminohydroxylation of allylic carbamates.

    OpenAIRE

    Donohoe, Tj; Johnson, Pd; Helliwell, M.; Keenan, M.

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis and aminohydroxylation of a series of acyclic allylic carbamates is described: the formation of a putative O=Os=NR linkage between the transition metal and substrate is proposed to account for the high levels of regioselectivity that were observed; proof of the structure of one of the aminohydroxylation products was obtained through X-ray crystallography.

  10. Validation of an Efficient Method for the Determination of Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables Using Ethyl Acetate for Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, a version of the “quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe” (QuEChERS) method was modified to use ethyl acetate (EtOAc) rather than acetonitrile (MeCN) for extraction in the determination of multiple pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. EtOAc is better suited than MeCN...

  11. Total Pesticide Exposure Calculation among Vegetable Farmers in Benguet, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2009-01-01

    This was a cross-sectional study that investigated pesticide exposure and its risk factors targeting vegetable farmers selected through cluster sampling. The sampling size calculated with P = .05 was 211 vegetable farmers and 37 farms. The mean usage of pesticide was 21.35 liters. Risk factors included damaged backpack sprayer (34.7%), spills on hands (31.8%), and spraying against the wind (58%). The top 3 pesticides used were pyrethroid (46.4%), organophosphates (24.2%), and carbamates (21.3...

  12. Development of biofilters to treat the pesticides wastes from spraying applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, O; de Vleeschouwer, C; Cors, F; Weickmans, B; de Ryckel, B; Pussemier, L; Debongnie, Ph; Culot, M

    2005-01-01

    Several studies carried out in Europe showed the importance of direct losses to the contamination of surface water by pesticides. These pesticides losses can occur at the farm site when the sprayer equipment is filled with the pesticide formulation (spills, overflowing, leaking) and during the clean-up (rinsing) of the sprayer after the treatment. In Belgium studies are carried out on biofilters to treat in an efficient way effluents containing pesticides. The biofilter substrate is elaborated from a homogenised mixture of local soil, chopped straw and peat or composted material, able to absorb or degrade the active substances. Biofilters consist in systems of 2 or 3 units depending on the spray equipment of the farmer and on the configuration of the farmyard. Each unit is made from a 1 m3 plastic container and the different units are stacked in a vertical pile and connected between them using plastic valves and pipes. Eight pilot systems were installed in March 2002 in seven farms and in one agricultural school, all selected in the loamy region of Belgium specialised in arable crops such as cereals, sugar beets and vegetables. The efficacy (yield) of the systems was determined by measuring the balance of the inputs and outputs of the pesticides. Results were expressed in percent of pesticide retained on the biofilters. The results obtained after two years with 5 tracer pesticides (atrazine, carbofuran, diuron, lenacil and simazine) brought on the biofilter installations are very satisfactory since the percentage of retention is generally higher than 95% of the amount applied. In the beginning of 2004, ten new pilot biofilters were installed in several farms or agricultural technical centres (producing cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, vegetables, fruits or ornamental plants), and in a municipal maintenance service. Some biofilters were installed in duplicate in order to compare the efficacy of different substrates. The efficacy of the biofilters was studied for the 5 classical tracer pesticides but also for other chemical classes of herbicides (sulfonylurea, aryloxyalcanoic acids, chloroacetanilides), insecticides (pyrethroids, carbamates) and fungicides (dicarboximides, phenylamides, triazoles and strobilurines). To monitor these pesticides in elutes and substrates, two analytical methods were developed, optimised and validated : the first one by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry Detection (GC-MS), and the second one by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD). The micro-organisms activity in the substrate was also measured in some situations. PMID:16628949

  13. Evaluation and validation of an accurate mass screening method for the analysis of pesticides in fruits and vegetables using liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry with automated detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Mónica García; Fussell, Richard J; Stead, Sara L; Roberts, Dominic; McCullagh, Mike; Rao, Ramesh

    2014-12-19

    This study reports the development and validation of a screening method for the detection of pesticides in 11 different fruit and vegetable commodities. The method was based on ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS). The objective was to validate the method in accordance with the SANCO guidance document (12571/2013) on analytical quality control and validation procedures for pesticide residues analysis in food and feed. Samples were spiked with 199 pesticides, each at two different concentrations (0.01 and 0.05 mg kg(-1)) and extracted using the QuEChERS approach. Extracts were analysed by UPLC-QTOF-MS using generic acquisition parameters. Automated detection and data filtering were performed using the UNIFI™ software and the peaks detected evaluated against a proprietary scientific library containing information for 504 pesticides. The results obtained using different data processing parameters were evaluated for 4378 pesticide/commodities combinations at 0.01 and 0.05 mg kg(-1). Using mass accuracy (± 5 ppm) with retention time (± 0.2 min) and a low response threshold (100 counts) the validated Screening Detection Limits (SDLs) were 0.01 mg kg(-1) and 0.05 mg kg(-1) for 57% and 79% of the compounds tested, respectively, with an average of 10 false detects per sample analysis. Excluding the most complex matrices (onion and leek) the detection rates increased to 69% and 87%, respectively. The use of additional parameters such as isotopic pattern and fragmentation information further reduced the number of false detects but compromised the detection rates, particularly at lower residue concentrations. The challenges associated with the validation and subsequent implementation of a pesticide multi-residue screening method are also discussed. PMID:25465001

  14. Modification and re-validation of the ethyl acetate-based multi-residue method for pesticides in produce

    OpenAIRE

    Mol, J. G. J.; Rooseboom, A.; Dam, R.; Roding, M.; Arondeus, K.; Sunarto, S.

    2007-01-01

    The ethyl acetate-based multi-residue method for determination of pesticide residues in produce has been modified for gas chromatographic (GC) analysis by implementation of dispersive solid-phase extraction (using primary¿secondary amine and graphitized carbon black) and large-volume (20 ¿L) injection. The same extract, before clean-up and after a change of solvent, was also analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC¿MS¿MS). All aspects related to sample preparati...

  15. Divergent effects of postmortem ambient temperature on organophosphorus- and carbamate-inhibited brain cholinesterase activity in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    Time- and temperature-dependent postmortem changes in inhibited brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity may confound diagnosis of field poisoning of wildlife by anticholinesterase pesticide. Carbamate-inhibited ChE activity may return to normal within 1 to 2 days of exposure of intact carcass to moderate ambient temperature (18-32C). Organophosphorus-inhibited ChE activity becomes more depressed over the same time. Uninhibited ChE activity was resilient to above freezing temperature to 32C for 1 day and 25C for 3 days. Carbamate- and organophosphorus-inhibited ChE can be separated by incubation of homogenate for 1 hour at physiological temperatures; carbamylated ChE can be readily reactivated while phosphorylated ChE cannot.

  16. Subchronic Toxicity Study in Rats of Two New Ethyl-Carbamates with Ixodicidal Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe Prado-ochoa, Mar Xed A.; Xed Ctor Hugo Abrego-reyes, V.; Vel Xe Zquez-s Xe Nchez, Ana Mar Xed A.; Marco Antonio Muñoz-Guzmán; Patricia Ramírez-Noguera; Enrique Angeles; Fernando Alba-Hurtado

    2014-01-01

    Female and male Wistar rats were used to determine the subchronic oral toxicities of two new ethyl-carbamates with ixodicidal activities (ethyl-4-bromphenyl-carbamate and ethyl-4-chlorphenyl-carbamate). The evaluated carbamates were administered in the drinking water (12.5, 25 and 50?mg/kg/day) for 90 days. Exposure to the evaluated carbamates did not cause mortality or clinical signs and did not affect food consumption or weight gain. However, exposure to these carbamates produced alterati...

  17. Vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of carbamates in juices by micellar electrokinetic chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-González, David; Huertas-Pérez, José F; García-Campaña, Ana M; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura

    2015-07-01

    A new method based on vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced-emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction has been developed for the extraction of carbamate pesticides in juice samples prior to their determination by micellar electrokinetic chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. This sample treatment allowed the satisfactory extraction and the extract clean-up of 25 carbamates from different fruit and vegetal juices (banana, tomato, and peach). In this study, the addition of ammonium perfluorooctanoate in the aqueous sample in combination with vortex agitation, provided very clean extracts with short extraction times. Under optimized conditions, recoveries of the proposed method for these pesticides from fortified juice samples ranged from 81% to 104%, with relative standard deviations lower than 15%. Limits of quantification were between 2.3µgkg(-)(1) and 4.7µgkg(-)(1), showing the high sensitivity of this fast and simple method. PMID:25882424

  18. Development and validation of a multi-residue method for pesticide determination in honey using on-column liquid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Pirard, Catherine; Widart, Joe?lle; Nguyen, Bach Kim; Deleuze, Christelle; Heudt, Laetitia; Haubruge, Eric; Pauw, Edwin; Focant, Jean-franc?ois

    2007-01-01

    We report on the development and validation under ISO 17025 criteria of a multi-residue confirmatory method to identify and quantify 17 widely chemically different pesticides (insecticides: Carbofuran, Methiocarb, Pirimicarb, Dimethoate, Fipronil, Imidacloprid; herbicides: Amidosulfuron, Rimsulfuron, Atrazine, Simazine, Chloroturon, Linuron, Isoxaflutole, Metosulam; fungicides: Diethofencarb) and 2 metabolites (Methiocarb sulfoxide and 2-Hydroxytertbutylazine) in honey. This method is based o...

  19. Organophosphorus and carbamates residues in milk and feedstuff supplied to dairy cattle Resíduos de praguicidas organofosforados e carbamatos em leite e alimentação animal de propriedades leiteiras

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Fagnani; Vanerli Beloti,; Battaglini, Ana Paula P.; Dunga, Karen Da S.; Ronaldo Tamanini

    2011-01-01

    Considering acute and chronic toxicity effects on human and animal health caused by pesticide residues in food, this study aimed to analyze organophosphorate (OP) and carbamate (CB) in feedstuff and water destined for dairy cattle, as well as in the milk produced by these animals, through gas chromatography (GC). In the Agreste region of Pernambuco, Brazil, 30 raw milk samples and all components of the animals' diet were collected from several farms. Out of the 30 milk of milk analyzed, six (...

  20. QuEChERS GC-MS validation and monitoring of pesticide residues in different foods in the tomato classification group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Restrepo, Andrés; Gallo Ortiz, Andrés Fernando; Hoyos Ossa, Duvan Esteban; Peñuela Mesa, Gustavo Antonio

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to validate (SANCO/12495/2011 and NTC-ISO/IEC 17025) multi-residue multi-class methods using QuEChERS sample preparation and GC-MS for the analysis of regulated pesticides in tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), tamarillos (Solanum betaceum) and goldenberries (Physalis peruviana). These Latin American products are representative and widely produced in Antioquia (Colombia). Sample preparation followed the UNE-EN 15662 method (150 mg MgSO4, 25mg primary secondary amines and 25mg of octadecylsiloxane for cleanup; graphitized carbon black was added for tomatoes). Extracts were injected using a programmed temperature-vaporizing injector. The residues were validated over a range from 0.02 mg/kg to 0.20 mg/kg, with 24 analytes validated in tomatoes, 33 in tamarillos and 28 in goldenberries. An initial risk assessment was enabled by monitoring 24 samples in the municipalities of El Peñol, Marinilla and San Vicente Ferrer. Risks were found for tomatoes, but no significant risks were found for tamarillos or goldenberries. PMID:24731326

  1. Analysis of pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals using methanolic extraction and detection by LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: A method for analysing carbamates and other relatively polar pesticides by LC–MS–MS with electrospray ionisation has been developed. The method is based on extraction by ultrasonication using a methanolic ammonium acetate–acetic acid buffer. After centrifugation the samples are filtered in Miniprep filter HPLC vials and detected by LC–MS–MS. To compensate for variations in the MS response [13C6]-carbaryl was used as internal standard and matrix-matched pesticide solutions were used as external standards for the quantification. The method has been validated for the matrices apple, avocado, carrot, lettuce, orange, potato and wheat at the spiking levels—0.02; 0.04 and 0.20 mg kg?1. Recoveries were generally in the range 70–120%. Results from participation in three intercomparisons proved the accuracy of the method. As the analytical procedure does not include any concentration or cleanup steps, it is easy and fast to perform, making it applicable for routine analysis in large pesticide monitoring programmes.

  2. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Screening of Various O-phenyl-N-aryl Carbamates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of O-phenyl-N-aryl carbamates (3a-i) were synthesized by the reaction of phenyl chloroformate (1) with different aromatic amines (2a-i). The compounds were characterized by IR and 1H-NMR and screened against acetylcholinesterase, butrylcholinesterase and lipoxygenase enzymes. The results revealed that O-phenyl-N-phenyl carbamate (3a) and O-phenyl-N-(3-hydroxyphenyl) carbamate (3e) were active against acetylcholinesterase while O-phenyl-N-benzyl carbamate (3b), O-phenyl-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) carbamate (3f) and O-phenyl-N-(3-methoxyphenyl) carbamate (3h) exhibited potential inhibitory activity against 5-lipoxygenase. All these carbamates were also assayed for their antimicrobial and hemolytic activities. O-phenyl-N-(2-hydroxyphenyl) carbamate (3d), O-phenyl-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) carbamate (3f) and O-phenyl-N-(3-methoxyphenyl) carbamate (3h) showed good antimicrobial and hemolytic activity among all the carbamates. (author)

  3. Introduction to Pesticide Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Introduction to Pesticide Drift Pesticide spray drift is the movement of ... Children form Pesticide Drift" Pesticide volatilization Effects of Pesticide Drift Pesticide drift of sprays and dusts can ...

  4. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain; Md. Alamgir Hossain; Md. Abdur Rahman; Md Mainul Islam; Md. Atiqur Rahman, , and; Tanveer Mehedi Adyel

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion), two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran) and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin) pesticide residues in twelve samples of three comm...

  5. Diazeniumdiolated carbamates: A novel class of nitric oxide donors

    OpenAIRE

    Nandurdikar, Rahul S.; Maciag, Anna E.; Cao, Zhao; Keefer, Larry K.; Saavedra, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    We report an indirect method for synthesis of previously inaccessible diazeniumdiolated carbamates. Synthesis involves use of previously reported triisopropylsilyloxymethylated isopropylamine diazeniumdiolate (TOM-ylated IPA/NO). These novel diazeniumdiolated carbamate prodrugs upon activation release nitric oxide (NO) similar to their secondary amine counterparts. They are also efficient sources of intracellular NO. These prodrugs may have potential applications as therapeutic NO-donors.

  6. Pesticides: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... atmosphere; open air; outside surrounding air. anti-microbial pesticide - Any chemical substance which can be used to ... thus important to Integrated Pest Management programs. biological pesticide - A chemical which is derived from plants, fungi, ...

  7. Validação de método multirresíduo para determinação de pesticidas em alimentos empregando QuEChERS E UPLC-MS/MS / Multiresidue method validation for determination of pesticides in food using QuEChERS and UPLC-MS/MS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sonia C. N., Queiroz; Vera L., Ferracini; Maria A., Rosa.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english This paper presents a practical and rapid method which was validated for simultaneous quantification and confirmation of 29 pesticides in fruits and vegetables using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted following the method known a [...] s QuEChERS. Using the developed chromatographic conditions, the pesticides can be separated in less than 9 min. Two multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) assays were used for each pesticide. Four representative matrices (lettuce, tomato, apple and grapes) were selected to investigate the effect in recoveries and precision. Typical recoveries ranged from 70-120%, with relative standard deviation (RSDs) lower than 20%.

  8. Economic burden of illness from pesticide poisonings in highland Ecuador Carga económica de las intoxicaciones por pesticidas en una región montañosa de Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Donald C; Fernando Carpio; Ninfa León

    2000-01-01

    Active surveillance of acute pesticide poisonings in a potato-growing region of highland Ecuador during 1991-1992 uncovered a rate of 171/100 000, due predominantly to occupational exposures to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Occupational exposure among agricultural workers was the most common reason for poisoning (32 male workers and 1 female worker, out of a total of 50 cases). Of these 33 cases, 28 of them reported pesticide application as the work task just prior to poisoning, w...

  9. Pesticides residues in water treatment plant sludge: validation of analytical methodology using liquid chromatography coupled to Tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolving scenario of Brazilian agriculture brings benefits to the population and demands technological advances to this field. Constantly, new pesticides are introduced encouraging scientific studies with the aim of determine and evaluate impacts on the population and on environment. In this work, the evaluated sample was the sludge resulted from water treatment plant located in the Vale do Ribeira, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The technique used was the reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Compounds were previously liquid extracted from the matrix. The development of the methodology demanded data processing in order to be transformed into reliable information. The processes involved concepts of validation of chemical analysis. The evaluated parameters were selectivity, linearity, range, sensitivity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification and robustness. The obtained qualitative and quantitative results were statistically treated and presented. The developed and validated methodology is simple. As results, even exploring the sensitivity of the analytical technique, the work compounds were not detected in the sludge of the WTP. One can explain that these compounds can be present in a very low concentration, can be degraded under the conditions of the water treatment process or are not completely retained by the WTP. (author)

  10. Development and validation of a method using SPE and LC-ESI-MS-MS for the determination of multiple classes of pesticides and metabolites in water samples

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana, Demoliner; Sergiane S., Caldas; Fabiane P., Costa; Fábio F., Gonçalves; Rosilene M., Clementin; Márcio R., Milani; Ednei G., Primel.

    1424-14-01

    Full Text Available Um método analítico baseado na extração em fase sólida e cromatografia líquida acoplada à espectrometria de massas tandem (LC-ESI-MS-MS) foi desenvolvido e validado para a determinação e confirmação de dezoito agrotóxicos (herbicidas, inseticidas e fungicidas) e dois metabólitos em amostras de água. [...] Os limites de detecção variaram de 0,4 a 40,0 ng L-1 e os limites de quantificação de 4,0 a 100,0 ng L-1. Foi obtida boa linearidade, com r² > 0,99 para todos os compostos. As recuperações, para 95% dos compostos, variaram de 70 a 120%, com RSDs menores que 21% para todos. Através do monitoramento de reações múltiplas (MRM), foram selecionadas duas diferentes transições íon precursor-íon produto para cada agrotóxico. A metodologia proposta pode ser usada para a determinação de resíduos de agrotóxicos em águas de superfície e potável, em concordância com a Lei n° 518 do Ministério da Saúde, Brasil, e com os parâmetros da União Européia para água potável (Directive 98/83/EC). Abstract in english An analytical method using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) was developed and validated for the determination and confirmation of eighteen polar pesticides (herbicides, insecticides and fungicides) and two met [...] abolites in water samples. The limits of detection varied between 0.4-40.0 ng L-1 and the limits of quantification between 4.0-100.0 ng L-1. Good linearity with r² > 0.99 for all compounds was obtained. The recovery for 91% of the accuracy experiments varied from 70 to 120%, with RSD below 21% for all. Through multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) two different precursor ion-product ion transitions were selected for each pesticide. The proposed methodology can be used for the convenient and effective determination of pesticide residues in surface and drinking waters in accordance with Law No. 518 ofthe Ministry of Health, Brazil, and the European Union Directive on drinking water quality (98/83/EC).

  11. Silver nanoparticle-based chemiluminescent sensor array for pesticide discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Xu, Bo; Li, Wenhao; Yu, Haili

    2015-03-25

    In this work, we developed a simple, facile, and highly sensitive nanoparticle-based chemiluminescent (CL) sensor array for the discrimination of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. This CL sensor array is based on simultaneous utilization of the triple-channel properties of the luminol-functionalized silver nanoparticle (Lum-AgNP) and H2O2 CL system containing CL intensity, the time for CL emissions to appear, and the time to reach the CL peak value, which are able to be measured via a single experiment. The triple-channel properties can be simultaneously altered after interaction with pesticides, producing distinct CL response patterns as "fingerprints" related to each specific pesticide, which was subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) to generate a clustering map. Using this sensor array, five organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, including dimethoate, dipterex, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and carbofuran, have been well-distinguished at a concentration of 24 ?g/mL. A total of 20 unknown pesticide samples have been successfully identified with an accuracy of 95%. The simple strategy of this study is expected to promote the development of functionalized nanomaterial-based sensor arrays. PMID:25751408

  12. Development and validation of a multiresidue method for the determination of neonicotinoid and macrocyclic lactone pesticide residues in milk, fruits, and vegetables by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Alaa; Qian, Yaorong; Kolbe, Elizabeth; Stafford, Charles

    2010-01-01

    A multiresidue method was developed and validated for the determination of 13 neonicotinoid pesticides and metabolites, and nine macrocyclic lactone pesticides and veterinary drugs using SPE and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/MS/MS. The method was validated in milk, orange, spinach, apple, plum, watermelon, green bean, zucchini, broccoli, strawberry, grape, and tomato by analyzing replicates of residue-free control samples fortified with a mixture of 22 target analytes at three concentration levels. The recoveries of the analytes from the fortified matrixes were mostly within 70-120%, except for some of the neonicotinoid metabolites. The LOD values varied by analyte and matrix and ranged between 0.001-2 ng/g. The developed method was successful in combining two widely different classes of compounds into a single analysis. PMID:20480883

  13. Radiotracer Approaches to Carbamate Insecticide Toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methylcarbamates constitute one of the major groups of insecticides. Many unresolved problems in their toxicology may be readily approached with radiotracer studies. Dimethylcarbamates have been prepared with carbonyl-C14-labelling and methylcarbamates withmethyl-, carbonyl-and ring-labelling utilizing carbon-14. The pharmacological action of these.compounds presumably results from acetylcholinesterase inhibition and may involve carbamylation. Reaction of carbonyl- or methyl-labelled carbamates with purified cholinesterase or other esterases would allow a critical examination of this carbamylation reaction and the ease of spontaneous and induced reactivation or decarbamylation. The physiological significance of cholinesterase inhibition might be examined by administering acetate-C14 and analysis for radiolabelled acetylcholine accumulation in nervous tissue, or by utilizing acetyl-C14-choline as the substrate for in vitro determination of the degree of cholinesterase inhibition in tissues of poisoned animals with minimal dilution of the inhibitors and enzymes during analysis. Some progress has been made with radiolabelled materials in investigating the metabolism of carbamate insecticides. Sevin (1-naphthyl methylcarbamate) has been most extensively studied along with its potential hydrolysis products. The assumption that the metabolism of Sevin involves an initial hydrolysis and then further decomposition of the fragments wn further decomposition of the fragments was not supported by carbon-14 studies. The major detoxification mechanism in mammals, and probably also in insects, results from initial oxidative attack on the carbamate by the microsomes in the presence of reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Sevin is rapidly metabolized in mammals, but the fate of certain of the fragments has not been resolved. Some of the metabolites appear in the milk of lactating animals. One step in the metabolism appears to be formation of the N-methylol derivative. Preliminary studies on the metabolism of radiolabelled Dimetilan (2-diraethylcarbamyl- 3-methylpyrazolyl-(5)-dimethylcarbamate) and a related compound in cockroaches also indicate that oxidative attack forms N-methyl N-methylol derivatives. Much remains to be done on the relationship of these detoxification reactions to the resistance mechanism, the action of synergists, the selective toxicity in this group of insecticides, and the nature and significance of residues. Metabolism of Sevin following injection into plants is probably also oxidative rather than hydrolytic, but the nature of the products and the enzymatic mechanism have not yet been established. (author)

  14. Organic Pesticide Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Page —> Pesticide Ingredients —> Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic foods are not necessarily pesticide-free. ... npic@ace.orst.edu . Additional Resources on Organic Pesticide Ingredients Understand Organic Labeling - USDA National Organic Program ...

  15. Evaluation of carbamate insecticides as chemotherapeutic agents for cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd. Amanullah; Hari Babu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cancer chemotherapy has already been in practice by the use of toxins and some of the specific poisonous compounds of cyanide derivatives. Carbamate insecticides inhibit cellular metabolism including energy, protein, and nucleic acid metabolism, thereby, causing cell regression and death. Aim: Preliminary evaluation of three carbamate insecticides, namely, baygon, carbaryl, and carbofuran as chemotherapeutic agents for cancer is undertaken in the present study. Materials and Metho...

  16. Design of experiments and detailed uncertainty analysis to develop and validate a solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous analysis of 16 pesticides in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeport, Elodie; Guenne, Angeline; Culhaoglu, Tanya; Moreau, Sylvain; Bouyé, Jean-Michel; Tournebize, Julien

    2010-08-13

    A solid-phase microextraction (SPME)/gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) multiresidue analytical method was developed for 16 pesticides presenting different physicochemical properties including diphenyl ether, triazine, ureas, acetamides, benzofuran, thiocarbamate, pyridine carboxamides, chloronitrile, piperedine, and azoles. Optimization was achieved by means of the design of experiments methodology. Extraction temperature, extraction time, desorption temperature, and NaCl addition were the factors exhibiting the most significant effects on pesticide extraction. Validation was carried out through model adequacy and specificity tests, limits of quantification and detection determination, and full uncertainty assessment on the whole analytical method. Good first- and second-order model adequacy was found for pesticide calibration. LOQs were in the 0.05-0.5 microg L(-1) range and specificity recoveries varied from 75% to 140%. These results were considered acceptable for our research purposes on highly concentrated agricultural flows. Uncertainty calculations accounted for several steps: standard preparation, calibration model selection, and use. On average, real sample concentration uncertainties were lower than 10%, indicating that the analytical method performed very well. Its application to 61 real water samples confirmed the presence of some pesticide concentrations in relation to farmer use, whereas other molecules were usually either not detected or not quantified. PMID:20619842

  17. Physicochemical studies of the carbamate-CO2-solvent system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of carbamate from CO2 and the various amine solutions has been investigated for the purpose of elucidating the structure of the species generated in the reaction. The amine solutions used were 1 and 2 molar solutions of di-n-butylamine (DNBA) in triethylamine (TEA), pure DNBA and pure TEA. It has been found that the nonaqueous solvent participates in the formation of carbamate in 1 and 2M-DNBA/TEA solutions as a proton acceptor in DNBA-carbamate formation. However, due to the high concentration of the solutions and the basicities of the amines, a significant amount of DNBA which does not form the DNBA-carbamate anion is also found to be participating as a proton acceptor. Pure TEA absorbs only 1/60 of the absorption by pure DNBA. The extent of TEA participation in the CO2-absorption process other than as a proton acceptor in DNBA-carbamate is negligible. The formation of carbamic acid and zwitterion have been found unlikely. 7 tables, 15 figs

  18. Pesticide use and self-reported symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning among aquatic farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02-1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22-0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes.

  19. Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Symptoms of Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Aquatic Farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02-1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22-0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes.

  20. Applying pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Bauer (USDA-ARS; Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory)

    2006-05-23

    Fertilizer is one way to provide crops with the nutrients they need. Pesticides can also be applied to crops to keep them healthy and free of insects. However, applying too much fertilizer or pesticide protection could harm the environment and organisms.

  1. The Pesticide Action Network Pesticide Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pesticide Action Network Pesticide Database, maintained by the Pesticide Action Network of North America, provides up-to-date information for those working with or researching pesticides. The site lets users search by chemical name, chemical abstracts service (CAS) number, trade name, or US EPA product registration number to retrieve a selected pesticide's active ingredients, breakdown products, and other chemicals used in it. Also available is California specific pesticide information, toxicity and regulation information, nontoxic alternatives to pesticides, and more.

  2. Exploration analytique des intoxications par les pesticides Analytical investigation in pesticide intoxication cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacassie Éric

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Du fait du nombre croissant d'intoxications par les pesticides, il est important de développer des méthodes performantes permettant l'identification et le dosage des molécules appartenant à l'ensemble des classes de pesticides. Dans ce but, nous avons développé une méthode de dosage originale et sensible de 61 pesticides dans les matrices biologiques. Cette méthode utilise une procédure d'extraction solide/liquide sur support polymérique (HLB and MCX OASIS®. Le couplage chromatographie en phase gazeuse/spectrométrie de masse (GC/MS est utilisé pour les pesticides volatils (organophosphorés, organochlorés, phtalimides, uraciles et un couplage chromatographie en phase liquide/spectrométrie de masse (LC/MS pour les pesticides polaires et thermolabiles (carbamates, benzimidazoles. L'acquisition est réalisée en mode fragmentométrique (SIM. Les rendements d'extraction varient selon la nature des pesticides dosés, mais restent satisfaisants pour l'ensemble des pesticides. Les limites de détection (LOD et les limites de quantification (LOQ sont réparties entre 2,5 et 20 ng/ml et de 5 à 50 ng/ml. La linéarité a été étudiée entre les différentes LOQ et 1000 ng/ml pour tous les pesticides étudiés. Les résultats sont reproductibles et répétables, avec une bonne précision et une bonne justesse. Des exemples d'intoxication permettent de montrer l'intérêt diagnostique de ces méthodes : deux cas d'intoxication mortelle à l'endosulfan et au carbofuran ; trois autres d'intoxication aiguë au parathion-éthyle, à la bifenthrine et à l'aldicarbe. Considering the huge use of pesticides on a worldwide basis, pesticides account for a small but increasing number of human acute and severe intoxication. However, intoxication cases attributed to pesticides are not always well diagnosed nor documented. In clinical and forensic toxicology, identification and quantification of the toxicants involved are essential for a good diagnosis. Hence, we developed an original and sensitive multiresidue methods for the detection and quantitation, in human biological matrices, of sixty one pesticides of toxicological significance in human. These methods involved rapid solid-phase extraction using new polymeric support (HLB and MCX OASIS® cartridges. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS was used for volatile (organophosphate, organochlorine, phtalimide, uracil pesticides and liquid chromatography-ionspray®-mass spectrometry (LC/MS for thermolabile and polar pesticides (carbamates, benzimidazoles. Acquisition was performed in the selected ion monitoring (SIM mode. Extraction recovery varied owing to the nature of pesticides but was satisfactory for all. Limits of detection (LODs and limits of quantitation (LOQs ranged respectively from 2.5 to 20 ng/ml and from 5 to 50 ng/ml. An excellent linearity was observed from LOQs up to 1000 ng/ml for all the pesticides studied. The proposed procedures yielded reproducible results with good inter-assay accuracy and precision. A few cases of intoxication are presented to demonstrate the diagnostic interest of these methods : in two cases were determined lethal concentrations of endosulfan and carbofuran ; in three other cases, the procedures helped diagnose intoxication with respectively parathion-ethyl, bifenthrin and aldicarb.

  3. 40 CFR 268.39 - Waste specific prohibitions-spent aluminum potliners; reactive; and carbamate wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...specific prohibitions-spent aluminum potliners; reactive; and carbamate wastes. 268.39 Section 268.39 Protection of Environment...specific prohibitions—spent aluminum potliners; reactive; and carbamate wastes. (a) On July 8, 1996, the wastes...

  4. Obsolete pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Several hundred tons of obsolete pesticide stocks worldwide will pose a threat to humans and the environment until the year 2030 in some regions, unless funding for waste disposal is significantly increased, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said in a message directed to donor governments and industry on May 24.“Deadly chemicals are contaminating the soils, groundwater, irrigation, and drinking water,” said Amemayehu Wodageneh, senior expert on obsolete pesticides for FAO. “These ‘forgotten’ stocks are a serious risk, [and] they could cause an environmental tragedy in rural areas and big cities. There is hardly any developing country that is not affected by the hazards of obsolete pesticides.”

  5. Occurrence of pesticides from coffee crops in surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Ribeiro Vianna Neto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The excessive amount of pesticides applied in agricultural areas may reach surface water, thereby contaminating it. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of pesticides used in a sub-basin headwater with coffee crops, situated in the Dom Corrêa district, Manhuaçu, Minas Gerais. The region of study is a great producer of coffee. Crops occupy steep areas and are situated close to surface water bodies. In this study, four sample collection points were selected in streams as well as a point in the distribution network and two points in the water treatment station (raw and treated water a total of seven points. The samples were collected in rainy and dry seasons. Organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates and triazoles pesticides were identified by liquid and gas chromatography analysis with tandem mass spectrometry. The occurrence of pesticides was more evident in the rainy season. A total of 24 distinct pesticides were detected. At least one pesticide was identified in 67% of the samples collected during the rainy season and in 21% of the samples collected during drought. Many pesticides detected in water are not regulated in Brazilian legislation regarding potability.

  6. NMDA antagonists exert distinct effects in experimental organophosphate or carbamate poisoning in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organophosphate (OP) and carbamate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors produce seizures and lethality in mammals. Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists encourage the investigation of their effects in AChE inhibitor-induced poisonings. In the present study, the effects of dizocilpine (MK-801, 1 mg/kg) or 3-((RS)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP, 10 mg/kg), alone or combined with muscarinic antagonist atropine (1.8 mg/kg), on convulsant and lethal properties of an OP pesticide dichlorvos or a carbamate drug physostigmine, were studied in mice. Both dichlorvos and physostigmine induced dose-dependent seizure activity and lethality. Atropine did not prevent the occurrence of convulsions but decreased the lethal effects of both dichlorvos and physostigmine. MK-801 or CPP blocked or attenuated, respectively, dichlorvos-induced convulsions. Contrariwise, NMDA antagonists had no effect in physostigmine-induced seizures or lethality produced by dichlorvos or physostigmine. Concurrent pretreatment with atropine and either MK-801 or CPP blocked or alleviated seizures produced by dichlorvos, but not by physostigmine. Both MK-801 and CPP co-administered with atropine enhanced its antilethal effects in both dichlorvos and physostigmine poisoning. In both saline- and AChE inhibitor-treated mice, no interaction of the investigated antidotes with brain cholinesterase was found. The data indicate that both muscas found. The data indicate that both muscarinic ACh and NMDA receptor-mediated mechanisms contribute to the acute toxicity of AChE inhibitors, and NMDA receptors seem critical to OP-induced seizures

  7. Pesticides in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides in Groundwater Care to guess how many pounds of pesticides the Nation used in 1964? How ... other locations, where they may cause health problems. Pesticides can contaminate groundwater Pesticide contamination of groundwater is ...

  8. Pesticides: Protecting Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protecting workers from potential effects of pesticides is an important role of EPA's Pesticide Program. Workers in several occupations may be exposed to pesticides when they: Prepare pesticides for ...

  9. Pesticide Safety Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide Safety Tips Resources Questions On Pesticides? National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) 1-800-858-7378 Although pesticides can be useful, they also can be dangerous if used carelessly ...

  10. [Preparation of samples for proficiency testing of pesticide residue analysis in processed foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okihashi, Masahiro; Osakada, Masakazu; Uchida, Kotaro; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kakimoto, Kensaku; Nakayama, Yukiko; Obana, Hirotaka

    2010-01-01

    To conduct proficiency testing for the analysis of pesticide residues in processed foods, fortified samples of retort curry and pancake were examined. In the case of retort curry, heating and mixing were necessary at the time of preparation to provide a homogenous analytical sample. A mixture of 4 carbamates and 11 organophosphorus pesticides was spiked and 14 of them showed consistent results in the samples. In the case of pancake, 10 kinds of pesticides were added to the pastry. The prepared pastry was them cooked. The relative concentrations of most of the pesticides in the pancake were not affected and all the pesticides showed consistent results in the samples. These results showed that the two tested samples were suitable for proficiency testing. PMID:21071910

  11. Pesticide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neva Sataloglu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed that examining the socio-demographic characteristics of the pesticide poisoning cases in Samsun region where the economy mainly relies on agriculture and comparing it to similar studies; thus contributing the country?s data and the possible measures. 60 pesticide poisoning cases consulted OMU Faculty of Medicine between 01.01.2004 and 31.12.2004 are examined and achieved data are analyzed and presented. Of the 60 cases, 35 (58.3% are females and 25 (41.7 are males and the average age is 21.93 ±17.56 (1-63 years. Pesticide poisoning is most common in summer (55.0% and spring (25.0%. It is stated either by the person himself/herself or by his/her relatives that the intake of the toxic substance is accidental in 36 cases (60.0% and suicidal in 24 cases (40.0%. 25 cases (41.7% are poisoned with organic phosphorus pesticides and 12 cases (20.0% with carbamat-pesticides. Consequently, in order to prevent accidental pesticide poisoning, it is necessary to be very careful with pesticide application especially in rural areas. Substances that are least toxic to human and environment, and are licenced and most effective to pests must be used, spraying period must be short, sensitive people, especially children, must be kept away, personal precautions must be taken for the spraying person and pesticides must be kept away from the reach of children and people at risk. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 169-174

  12. Pesticides residues in the Prochilodus costatus (Valenciennes, 1850) fish caught in the São Francisco River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fabiano A; Reis, Lilian P G; Soto-Blanco, Benito; Melo, Marília M

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticides in the fish Prochilodus costatus caught in São Francisco River, one of most important rivers in Brazil. Thirty-six fish were captured in three different areas, and samples of the dorsal muscle and pooled viscera were collected for toxicological analysis. We evaluated the presence of 150 different classes of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and acaricides by multiresidue analysis technique using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), with the limit of detection of 5 ppb. In this study, organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides were detected at the highest levels in the caught fish. Among the 41 organophosphorus pesticides surveyed, nine types were detected (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, disulfoton, ethion, etrimfos, phosalone, phosmet and pyrazophos) in the muscle, viscera pool, or both in 22 (61.1%) fish. Sampled tissues of 20 (55.6%) fish exhibited at least one of the eight evaluated carbamate pesticides and their metabolites: aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, carbaryl, carbofuran, carbosulfan, furathiocarb, methomyl and propoxur. Fungicides (carbendazim, benalaxyl, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and its metabolite BF 500 pyraclostrobin), herbicides (pyridate and fluasifop p-butyl), acaricide (propargite) and pyrethroid (flumethrin) were also detected. In conclusion, P. costatus fish caught in the São Francisco River contained residues of 17 different pesticides, in both muscles and the viscera pool, indicating heavy environmental contamination by pesticides in the study area. PMID:25844860

  13. Validação de método para determinação de resíduos de agrotóxicos em tomate: uma experiência laboratorial / Method validation for determination of pesticide residues in tomatoes: a laboratorial experience

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Helena Wohlers Morelli, Cardoso; Adherlene Vieira, Gouvêa; Armi Wanderley da, Nóbrega; Shirley de Mello Pereira, Abrantes.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Um modelo de procedimento para validação de método de ensaio para determinação de cinco agrotóxicos (? - HCH, clorotalonil, fenitrotiona, clorpirifós e procimidona em matriz tomate) é demonstrado através da análise cromatográfica. A amostra processada é extraída com 30 mL de acetona e em seguida com [...] 60 mL de uma mistura diclometano: éter de petróleo (1:1). O volume total é centrifugado e a alíquota orgânica é filtrada sob Na2SO4. Um mililitro de extrato orgânico é concentrado e dissolvido em um mililitro de iso-octano. Um microlitro do extrato é analisado no cromatógrafo a gás com detector por captura de elétrons - CG/DCE. Foram avaliados seletividade, linearidade, repetitividade, recuperação e limites de detecção e de quantificação. As recuperações obtidas variaram de 70 a 110%, considerando-se os níveis de adição de agrotóxicos/amostra de 0,02 a 2,50 mg.kg-1. Os limites de detecção do método variaram de 0,004 a 0,006 mg.kg-1 e os de quantificação entre 0,014 e 0,020 mg.kg-1. Abstract in english A validation procedure model of a multiresidue method is presented for chromatographic analyses of five pesticides residues ?-HCH, chlorothalonil, fenitrothion, chlorpyrifos and procymidone applied on tomatoes. The tomatoes were processed and extracted by acetone plus a mixture of dichloromethane:pe [...] troleum benzine (1:1). The volume was centrifuged and was then filtered under Na2SO4. One milliliter of organic extract was concentrated then diluted in isooctane and one microliter was analyzed in the gas chromatograph with electron capture detector - GC/ECD. The parameters evaluated were selectivity, linearity, repeatability, recovery, and limits of detection and quantification. The recovery ranged from 70 to 110% in the concentration range of 0.02 to 2.50 mg.kg-1. The limits of detection ranged from 0.004 to 0.006 mg.kg-1 and the limits of quantification were between 0.014 to 0.02 mg.kg-1.

  14. Validação de método para determinação de resíduos de agrotóxicos em tomate: uma experiência laboratorial Method validation for determination of pesticide residues in tomatoes: a laboratorial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Wohlers Morelli Cardoso

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Um modelo de procedimento para validação de método de ensaio para determinação de cinco agrotóxicos (? - HCH, clorotalonil, fenitrotiona, clorpirifós e procimidona em matriz tomate é demonstrado através da análise cromatográfica. A amostra processada é extraída com 30 mL de acetona e em seguida com 60 mL de uma mistura diclometano: éter de petróleo (1:1. O volume total é centrifugado e a alíquota orgânica é filtrada sob Na2SO4. Um mililitro de extrato orgânico é concentrado e dissolvido em um mililitro de iso-octano. Um microlitro do extrato é analisado no cromatógrafo a gás com detector por captura de elétrons - CG/DCE. Foram avaliados seletividade, linearidade, repetitividade, recuperação e limites de detecção e de quantificação. As recuperações obtidas variaram de 70 a 110%, considerando-se os níveis de adição de agrotóxicos/amostra de 0,02 a 2,50 mg.kg-1. Os limites de detecção do método variaram de 0,004 a 0,006 mg.kg-1 e os de quantificação entre 0,014 e 0,020 mg.kg-1.A validation procedure model of a multiresidue method is presented for chromatographic analyses of five pesticides residues ?-HCH, chlorothalonil, fenitrothion, chlorpyrifos and procymidone applied on tomatoes. The tomatoes were processed and extracted by acetone plus a mixture of dichloromethane:petroleum benzine (1:1. The volume was centrifuged and was then filtered under Na2SO4. One milliliter of organic extract was concentrated then diluted in isooctane and one microliter was analyzed in the gas chromatograph with electron capture detector - GC/ECD. The parameters evaluated were selectivity, linearity, repeatability, recovery, and limits of detection and quantification. The recovery ranged from 70 to 110% in the concentration range of 0.02 to 2.50 mg.kg-1. The limits of detection ranged from 0.004 to 0.006 mg.kg-1 and the limits of quantification were between 0.014 to 0.02 mg.kg-1.

  15. Pesticides in the propolis at São Saulo State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i4.15859 Pesticides in the propolis at São Saulo State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i4.15859

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Moura Kadri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for propolis has caused a raise in its production. However, an increasingly pesticide-dependent agriculture is a great concern with regard to bees, their produce and environmental contamination. Current analysis evaluates the presence of pesticides (organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates, herbicides, fungicides and acaricides in samples of propolis from the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Beekeepers from several localities in the state provided samples of propolis (50, which were collected, stored in non-toxic plastic bags and maintained in a freezer for analyses. Possible pesticide residues were examined by gas chromatography method but no pesticide residues were detected in the examined propolis samples. Propolis analyzed in the state of São Paulo did not show any pesticide contamination. The increasing demand for propolis has caused a raise in its production. However, an increasingly pesticide-dependent agriculture is a great concern with regard to bees, their produce and environmental contamination. Current analysis evaluates the presence of pesticides (organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates, herbicides, fungicides and acaricides in samples of propolis from the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Beekeepers from several localities in the state provided samples of propolis (50, which were collected, stored in non-toxic plastic bags and maintained in a freezer for analyses. Possible pesticide residues were examined by gas chromatography method but no pesticide residues were detected in the examined propolis samples. Propolis analyzed in the state of São Paulo did not show any pesticide contamination.

  16. Comparative MO investigation of hindered rotation and thermal decomposition of carbamates and thiocarbamates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of hindered rotation in carbamates reveals the high flexibility and ionic character of the C-N bond as compared to common amides. This flexibility decreases in the case of thiocarbamates. The mechanism of activation of carbamates has been explored. Computations have proven the possibility of formation of an intramolecular H-bond in carbamates and thiocarbamates. This intramolecular H-bond is formed immediately after protonation of the carbamate. The possibility of formation of zwitterions as intermediates in the decomposition of carbamic and dithiocarbamic acids is discussed. (Auth.)

  17. Tools to study the degradation and loss of the N-phenyl carbamate chlorpropham--a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Margaret J; Bucher, Götz

    2012-11-15

    Chlorpropham (CIPC) was introduced in 1951 and is a primary N-phenyl carbamate belonging to a group of pesticides known as carbamates which are estimated to account for 11% of the total insecticide sales worldwide. They were considered less toxic than organochlorines due to their easier breakdown but, subsequent concerns regarding the environmental impact and their breakdown products have shown them to be environmental toxins and toxic and/or carcinogenic for humans. CIPC is used in growing crops to control weeds and also as a sprout suppressant on crops during long-term storage and while its degradation has been studied and rates quoted these vary greatly. Here published rates of degradation by hydrolysis, biolysis, photolysis and thermal processes are reviewed as well as data on partitioning in air, water and soil. In addition the details of the experimental procedures are reviewed and compared showing how the half-lives and partitioning coefficients have been calculated leading to an understanding of how such vastly different values are achieved. The legislation regarding the use of CIPC and its maximum residue level is also discussed particularly in reference to recent European Commission (EC) legislation. In view of the fact that analytical data on the breakdown of CIPC play an important role in decision-making by regulatory agencies, the authors feel that it is time for an up-to-date review of the data available, including very recent developments in methodology. PMID:22982221

  18. Select Small Core Structure Carbamates Exhibit High Contact Toxicity to “Carbamate-Resistant” Strain Malaria Mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae (Akron)

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Dawn M.; Li, Jianyong; Chen, Qiao-hong; Han, Qian; Mutunga, James M.; Wysinski, Ania; Anderson, Troy D.; Ding, Haizhen; Carpenetti, Tiffany L.; Verma, Astha; Islam, Rafique; Paulson, Sally L.; Lam, Polo C. -h; Totrov, Maxim; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a proven target for control of the malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae). Unfortunately, a single amino acid mutation (G119S) in An. gambiae AChE-1 (AgAChE) confers resistance to the AChE inhibitors currently approved by the World Health Organization for indoor residual spraying. In this report, we describe several carbamate inhibitors that potently inhibit G119S AgAChE and that are contact-toxic to carbamate-resistant An. gambiae. PCR-RFLP analysis was used to c...

  19. A case of methanol intoxication caused by methomyl pesticide ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, H W; Hong, J R; Song, H Y; Hong, S Y

    2012-12-01

    When clinicians treat patients with pesticide poisoning, they often pay attention only to the chief toxic agent and ignore the toxicity of the pesticide's additives or solvents. Occasionally, however, a solvent (e.g. methanol) may itself be the cause of poisoning. We report a case of acute methanol intoxication that occurred after ingestion of a methomyl pesticide that contained methanol as an additive. A 49-year-old man was brought to the emergency department in an unconscious state after ingestion of 20 ml of a carbamate pesticide (chief ingredient: methomyl; active ingredient: methanol). Upon arrival, he was semicomatose and did not breathe spontaneously; however, his cholinesterase level was within normal limits and cholinergic symptoms were not observed. High anion gap metabolic acidosis was present. His blood ethanol level was 74.8 mg/dL. The urine methanol level was 55.60 mg/dL, and urine ethanol level was 22.0 mg/dL. He was treated with hemodialysis; subsequently, his metabolic acidosis resolved and he returned to normal mental status. We guessed that methanol, as the solvent of the methomyl, had produced the symptoms. When treating pesticide-poisoned patients, clinicians should identify the solvent used in the pesticide, because solvents such as methanol may exacerbate the symptoms of poisoned patients. PMID:23023026

  20. Total Pesticide Exposure Calculation among Vegetable Farmers in Benguet, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This was a cross-sectional study that investigated pesticide exposure and its risk factors targeting vegetable farmers selected through cluster sampling. The sampling size calculated with P=.05 was 211 vegetable farmers and 37 farms. The mean usage of pesticide was 21.35 liters. Risk factors included damaged backpack sprayer (34.7%), spills on hands (31.8%), and spraying against the wind (58%). The top 3 pesticides used were pyrethroid (46.4%), organophosphates (24.2%), and carbamates (21.3%). Those who were exposed to fungicides and insecticides also had higher total pesticide exposure. Furthermore, a farmer who was a pesticide applicator, mixer, loader, and who had not been given instructions through training was at risk of having higher pesticide exposure. The most prevalent symptoms were headache (64.1%), muscle pain (61.1%), cough (45.5%), weakness (42.4%), eye pain (39.9%), chest pain (37.4%), and eye redness (33.8%). The data can be used for the formulation of an integrated program on safety and health in the vegetable industry.

  1. Variation in human herpesvirus susceptibility to enhancement by the pesticide carbaryl.

    OpenAIRE

    Jerkofsky, M; Abrahamsen, L H

    1983-01-01

    The ability of various human herpesviruses to be enhanced by the pretreatment of human embryonic lung cells with the pesticide carbaryl (1-naphthyl-N-methyl-carbamate) differs according to the virus tested. Different strains of varicella-zoster virus produced different patterns of susceptibility to enhancement. Laboratory-adapted strains were less sensitive to enhancement than were wild-type strains recently isolated from clinical specimens. The related human herpes simplex viruses types 1 an...

  2. Multi-Analyte Separation Methods for HPLC Determination of the Active Ingredients of Pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The practical quality control of selected pesticides, such as carbamates, organophosphorous compounds, phthalimides, pyrethroids, with HPLC is described. Detailed descriptions are given of materials and methods used, including sample preparation and HPLC operating conditions. The relationship between pH value of the HPLC eluent and the logPow is discussed, illustrated by chromatograms, graphics and tables. The results are also compared with those elaborated by. E. Dudar and presented above. (author)

  3. One-step Extraction of Multiresidue Pesticides in Soil by Microwave-assisted Extraction Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Al- Ghamdi, A. G.; Al- Turki, A. M.; Abdel-nasser, G.; Al- Wabel, M. I.; El-saeid, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    A screening multi-residues method based on the Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) technique has been optimized using soil samples collected from 15 regions in Saudi Arabia. This method was used to extract 12 pesticide residues with a broad range of physico-chemical properties in agricultural soils containing to Organophosphorous, Organochlorines, Pyrethroids and Carbamates mainly used in agriculture. All MAE factors affecting the extraction techniques (heating, pressure, power, time and solv...

  4. Oxidative Stress Induced by Different Pesticides in the Land Snails, Helix aspersa

    OpenAIRE

    Salama, Ahmed K.; Osman, Khaled A.; Saber, Nabila A.; Soliman, Salah A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designated to compare the ability of the two carbamate compounds methomyl and carbofuran, the organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos and the bipyridylium compound paraquat to induce the oxidative stress and affect some biochemical targets in the terrestrial snail, Helix aspersa. LD50 values for these pesticides were determined 48 h following topical application. They were 240, 500, 900 and 920 ?g/snail for methomyl, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos and paraquat, respectively. S...

  5. Optimization of detection conditions and single-laboratory validation of a multiresidue method for the determination of 135 pesticides and 25 organic pollutants in grapes and wine by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Soma; Banerjee, Kaushik; Dhumal, Kondiba N; Adsule, Pandurang G

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes single-laboratory validation of a multiresidue method for the determination of 135 pesticides, 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, 12 polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and bisphenol A in grapes and wine by GC/time-of-flight MS in a total run time of 48 min. The method is based on extraction with ethyl acetate in a sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:1, followed by selective dispersive SPE cleanup for grapes and wine. The GC/MS conditions were optimized for the chromatographic separation and to achieve highest S/N for all 160 target analytes, including the temperature-sensitive compounds, like captan and captafol, that are prone to degradation during analysis. An average recovery of 80-120% with RSD validated methods. PMID:21391504

  6. Examining pyrethroids, carbamates and neonicotenoids in fish, water and sediments from the Indus River for potential health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Farhat; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Manzoor, Sadia; Shaheen, Tayybah

    2015-02-01

    This 3?×?3 factorial study assessed pyrethroids, carbamates and neonicotenoids groups of pesticides in replicated samples of three fish species from low (S1, reference), medium (S2) and heavy (S3) polluted sites receiving agricultural run-offs around the Indus River. Water and sediment samples from the same sites were also analysed for these pesticides by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Out of nine investigated pesticides, only three pesticides (deltamethrin, carbofuran and cypermethrin) were detected in fish and sediment samples. Deltamethrin in Cyprinus carpio ranged from 0.490 to 0.839 ?g/g, mostly exceeding 0.5 ?g/g as the maximum residual limit suggested by FAO-WHO, whereas it ranged from 0.214 to 0.318 ?g/g in the sampled sediments. The carbofuran concentrations were 0.0425-0.066 and 0.613-0.946 ?g/g in Labeo rohita and Channa marulius muscles respectively and 0.069-0.081 ?g/g in the corresponding sediment samples. These values were either higher or lower than the maximum limit (0.1 ?g/g) as suggested by FAO-WHO. Conversely, the cypermethrin concentration ranged from 0.141 to 0.174 in Ch. marulius and 0.183-0.197 ?g/g in sediments which were both below the FAO-WHO maximum limit of 2 ?g/g. No pesticide residues were detected in water from these sampling sites. Most selected physicochemical variables were within the acceptable range of World Health Organization for the water quality for aquatic life. The detected pesticide contents were mostly higher in fish muscles from heavily polluted sites. This is worrying because these pesticides may pose health risks for the fish and people of the study area. However, a preliminary risk assessment indicated that the calculated daily intake of detected pesticides by people consuming fish from the Indus River was low and did not present an immediate risk to the fish-consuming people. This study may be used as a benchmark to determine the safety of fish meat in order to develop intervention strategies to maintain the water quality and to protect the health of fish and fish-consuming people. PMID:25632902

  7. Efficient and Facile Synthesis of ?-Chloroenones Bearing ?-Carbonates or ?-Carbamates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magar, Krishna Bahadur Somai; Lee, Yong Rok [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Efficient synthesis of ?-chloroenones bearing ?-carbonates or ?-carbamates was achieved by rhodium(II)-catalyzed reaction of cyclic diazodicarbonyl compounds with a variety of chloroformates or carbamyl chlorides in good yields. These reactions provided a useful and rapid route to ?-substituted ?-haloenones.

  8. Efficient and Facile Synthesis of ?-Chloroenones Bearing ?-Carbonates or ?-Carbamates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficient synthesis of ?-chloroenones bearing ?-carbonates or ?-carbamates was achieved by rhodium(II)-catalyzed reaction of cyclic diazodicarbonyl compounds with a variety of chloroformates or carbamyl chlorides in good yields. These reactions provided a useful and rapid route to ?-substituted ?-haloenones

  9. Optimization and validation of a methodology for the qualitative determination of polar pesticides in a carbonated soft drink and some cookies for EFS-CG/DEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical analysis of polar pesticides has been qualitatively interest in forensic scientific research by toxicological qualities to the attainment of crimes against human life, pets and plants; associating people and objects in the scene and the possible ways in which the events occurred. The Unidad de Toxicos y Varios of the Seccion de Quimica Analitica of the Departamento de Ciencias Forenses has analyzed polar pesticides and other families to concentration levels, is compared to the environmental analysis and quality control of food. The compounds are used in Costa Rica in recent years as acute chemical weapon to commit crimes against human and animal life. The toxic and lethal amounts of polar pesticides in mammals orally have been milligram level. The Seccion de Quimica Analitica has developed a qualitative methodology to analyze polar pesticides as minor components. The need for reliable analytical quality results has made it necessary to approach a review of the methodology of routine. The review has been solved by selecting two matrices characteristics in such cases: a solid food commercially known as maria biscuits and a carbonated cola. Analytes have been selected based on: greater toxicity, broad spectrum of analytes polarity, the octanol-water partition constant, the water solubility among others. The extraction of analytes in matrices has been selected by solid-phase extraction. The instrumental technique used is gas chromatography with mass selective detector. A method of acquisition optimized in its injection is used. The analysis of instrumental signals were obtained in scanning mode all ions formed, known as Scan and by monitoring mode of ions selected ions (MIS), analysis of the data is acquired in Scan mode because concentration levels of work. The methodology for the qualitative determination of pesticide meets the criteria established for the chemical identification of analytes carbofuran, phorate, terbufos, methyl parathion, chlorpyrifos and azinphos methil

  10. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    This newly launched site from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) offers a variety of resources describing how the EPA regulates antimicrobial pesticides. Antimicrobial pesticides are used in a huge variety of household and commercial products to "disinfect, sanitize, reduce, or mitigate growth or development of microbiological organisms" and to "protect inanimate objects (for example floors and walls), industrial processes or systems, surfaces, water, or other chemical substances from contamination, fouling, or deterioration caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime." Intended mainly for a regulatory audience, the site includes Antimicrobials Science Policy Documents, Antimicrobials Registration Policy Documents, Label Review Manual, Chemical/ Registration Number Indexes, and Antimicrobial PR notices.

  11. Highly selective biomarkers for pesticides developed in Eisenia fetida using SELDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Doo-San; Jeon, Hwang-Ju; Park, Eun-Sil; Bae, In Kyung; Kim, Yong-Eun; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2015-03-01

    The repeated use of pesticides, and their subsequent residues, has contributed to severe adverse effects on the environment, including risks to human health. Therefore, it is important to assess the quality of the environment to ensure it remains free from pesticide residues. The six pesticides tested in this study showed high mortality on Eisenia fetida with LC50 values ranging from 7.7 to 37.9gL(-1). The strongest lethal effect resulted from the organochlorine insecticide endosulfan (LC50=7.7gL(-1)). Following exposure to the carbamate pesticides, acetylcholinesterase activity in E. fetida decreased dramatically in comparison to the control. Carboxylesterase activity was only lowered in E. fetida exposed to propoxur, when compared to the control. The remaining five pesticides had no significant effect on carboxylesterase activity in E. fetida. In order to discover pesticide-specific biomarkers with differentially expressed proteins after exposure to pesticides, protein patterns of pesticide-treated E. fetida were analyzed using SELDI-TOF MS with Q10 ProteinChips. Protein patterns were compared with their intensities at the same mass-to-charge ratios (m/z). All 42 peaks had intensities with associated p-values less than 0.089, and 40 of these peaks had associated p-values of 0.05. Using SELDI-TOF MS technology, selective biomarkers for the six pesticides tested were found in E. fetida; four proteins with 5425, 5697, 9523, and 9868 m/z were consistently observed in the earthworms following exposure to the carbamates. PMID:25682009

  12. Surveying of Pesticides Commonly on the Markets of Iran in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhullah Dehghani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the potential pesticide side effects on environment, their short and long term untoward effects on living creatures, their excessive usage for producing more agricultural products, and also their application to destroy pests of any sort, the present study was carried out to investigate the used amount of common pesticides in Iran markets. A questionnaire was designed. Referring to pesticide selling shops and plants preservations organizations in Tehran and Isfahan, the sufficient data was collected and then categorized regarding the applications and the total amount of used pesticides in a year. The results demonstrated that there were 60 sorts of used pesticides in Iran. They included Organochlorine (10%, Organophosphorus (28.4%, Pyrethroids derivatives (10%, Carbamate derivatives (10%, and others (41.6%. The commonest pesticide used in a year was Organophosphorus and the least one was Organochlorine. The obtained data pointed out that the most common pesticide was Organophosphorus. Given that Organophosphorine compounds are poisonous in living creatures and cause short and long term side effects. It is recommended that responsible authorities provide the necessary information for the aimed groups in terms of the allowable using amount of pesticides, the protection strategies and the pesticides hazards on users.

  13. Validated High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for Analysis of Fenvalerate Pesticide in Chilies by QuEChERS Extraction Cleanup and High Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Altorshani, Ahmed A.; Bakar, Nor K. A.; Eid, Eltayeb E. M.

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Contamination associated with pesticide use has increased as well, adversely impacting the environment and causing human health risks through residues on food. Approach: This study reports the extraction of Fenvalerate (FE) in chilies using QuEChERS based on High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) describes a simple, fast and inexpensive method. The chillie was extracted with acetonitrile Aliquots were cleaned-up using Solid Phase Extraction (dSPE), a primary-secondar...

  14. Simultaneous Determination of Glutamate, Glycine, and Alanine in Human Plasma Using Precolumn Derivatization with 6-Aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl Carbamate and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qing Zhong; Huang, Qing Xian; Li, Shu Cui; Yang, Mei Zi; Rao, Bin

    2012-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been validated for determining concentrations of glutamate, glycine, and alanine in human plasma. Proteins in plasma were precipitated with perchloric acid, followed by derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC). Simultaneous analysis of glutamate, glycine, and alanine is achieved using reversed-phase HPLC conditions and ultraviolet detection. Excellent linearity was ob...

  15. Histological and Ultrastructural Changes Induced by Two Carbamate Molluscicides on the Digestive Gland of Eobania vermiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherifa S. Hamed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial snails are destructive agricultural pests as they cause a great damage to vegetables and crops. The present study was designed to evaluate the toxic action of two carbamate molluscicides, methomyl and methiocarb on the digestive gland of the land snail E. vermiculata which is the main site of accumulation and biotransformation of xenobiotics, using topical application and baiting techniques. Sublethal doses and concentrations of both pesticides were applied. After 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days of treatment, definite number of snails from each group were chosen and prepared for the aimed studies. Histopathological and ultrastructural alterations in the digestive gland were more obvious after topical application than after baiting technique and methomyl was found to be more toxic than methiocarb. These alterations included hemocyte infiltration,bizarre nuclei that ranged in their degenerative changes from karyolysis to severe karyorrhexis and complete pyknosis, after methomyl treatment and extensive destruction and disorganization of the intertubular connective tissue, after methiocarb treatment. In addition, severe cytoplasmic vacuolization, disruption and reduction of microvilli and formation of surface blabs, increased number of calcium spherules in calcium cells and an aberrant increase in the number of excretory cells containing large number of excretory granules or residual bodies were observed after treatment with both molluscicides. These results are important from the economical point of view since the use of low doses of molluscicides was shown effective, more feasible and less harmful to non-target species like vertebrate animals and human beings.

  16. [Acute poisoning with methomyl and other pesticides in the province of Ragusa, Sicily].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, G; Ravalli, P; Settimi, L; Ballard, T J; Bascherini, S

    2001-01-01

    In 1995-96, the Occupational Medicine Service of the province of Ragusa, Sicily, examined all cases of pesticide poisonings among persons seen in two local emergency departments, identifying 86 cases due to unintentional pesticide exposure. Methomyl, a highly toxic carbamate, was indicated for 51% of all cases. The most frequently reported symptoms included nausea and vomiting (48%), excessive perspiration (33%), and dyspnea (16%). Fifty-nine cases (69%) were hospitalized, 5 in intensive care. The methomyl cases occurred more frequently during summer months while the cases from all other pesticides showed no seasonal patterns. These observations point out the relevance of identifying acute pesticide poisonings in the province of Ragusa and suggest that ongoing registration of these events should be a public health priority. PMID:11758270

  17. Detection and quantification of dithiocarbamate pesticides by Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saute, Benjamin Calvin

    Dithiocarbamates are a subclass of carbamate pesticides that are widely used as insecticidal agents on food crops in the US and abroad. Quantitative determination of trace quantities of dithiocarbamates is necessary in order to mitigate potential human exposure via pesticide residues left on inadequately washed food items as well as groundwater contamination from agricultural runoff. The focus of this research is on the development and optimization of a Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) based analytical technique for the quantitative determination of trace amounts of dithiocarbamate pesticides in different matrices. Gold nanoparticles of different shapes and sizes will be investigated to determine the suitability of these materials as SERS active substrates for the trace analysis of dithiocarbamate pesticides. Analytical sensitivity will be evaluated by determining the limits of detection using established statistical methods.

  18. [Survey of pesticide residues in imported frozen vegetables and fruits (1989.4~2008.3)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Maki; Ohtsuka, Kenji; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Tomizawa, Sanae; Kamijo, Kyoko; Iwakoshi, Keiko; Kageyama, Yuriko; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Takano, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    A survey of pesticide residues in 595 imported frozen products on the Tokyo market from April 1989 to March 2008 was carried out. Forty three kinds of pesticides, including organophosphorus, organochlorine, carbamate, pyrethroid and others, were detected between levels of trace (below 0.01 ppm) and 4.6 ppm from 162 samples. Chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and omethoate were frequently detected in green vegetables (komatsuna leaf and spinach), cypermethrin and methamidophos were detected in pods and seeds (green soybean and string pea), chlorpropham (CIPC) was detected in potato, and captan and carbaryl were detected in berries (blueberry, raspberry and strawberry). The hydrophilic pesticide methamidophos was detected in flesh of lychee. Residue levels of these pesticides were calculated as between less than 0.5% and 30% of their ADI values according to the daily intake of frozen products. Therefore, these frozen products should be safe when they were eaten in customary amounts. PMID:21515967

  19. Exposure to Pesticide Mixtures and DNA Damage among Rice Field Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varona-Uribe, Marcela Eugenia; Torres-Rey, Carlos H; Díaz-Criollo, Sonia; Palma, Ruth M; Narváez, Diana María; Carmona, Sandra Patricia; Briceño, Leonardo; Idrovo, Alvaro Javier

    2014-06-27

    Abstract This study describes the use of pesticides mixtures and their potential association with comet assay results in 223 rice field workers in Colombia. Thirty-one pesticides were quantified in blood, serum and urine (15 organochlorines, 10 organophosphorus, 5 carbamates, and ethylenethiourea) and the comet assay was performed. Twenty-four (77,42%) pesticides were present in the workers. The use of the maximum-likelihood factor analysis identified eight different mixtures. Afterwards, robust regressions were used to explore associations between the factors identified and the comet assay. Two groups of mixtures- ?-BHC, HCB and ?-BHC (?: 1,21, 95% CI: 0,33-2,10), and pirimiphos-methyl, malathion, bromophos-methyl, and bromophos-ethyl (?: 11,97, 95% CI: 2,34-21,60)- were associated with a higher percentage of DNA damage and comet tail length, respectively. The findings suggest that exposure to pesticides varies greatly among rice field workers. PMID:24972111

  20. DESARROLLO Y VALIDACIÓN DE UNA METODOLOGÍA PARA LA DETERMINACIÓN DE PLAGUICIDAS EN CAFÉ VERDE POR CROMATOGRAFÍA DE GASES / METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PESTICIDES IN GREEN COFFEE BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    David, Dallos Corredor; Jairo Arturo, Guerrero Dallos.

    2005-12-05

    Full Text Available En este estudio se describe la implementación y validación de una metodología multirresiduo para la determinación de plaguicidas organoclorados, organofosforados y piretroides en café verde. Los plaguicidas se extrajeron con una mezcla de solventes acetona-agua (2:1) seguida de una partición con ace [...] tato de etilo- ciclohexano (1:1). Los extractos se limpiaron posteriormente por cromatografía de permeación en gel para eliminar principalmente grasa y cromatografía en minicolumna sobre silicagel para eliminar otros interferentes. La determinación analítica se realizó por cromatografia de gases de alta resolución con inyección splitless pulsada y detección simultánea por microcaptura electrónica (µ-ECD) y nitrógeno-fósforo (NPD) acoplados en paralelo. La metodología es específica, selectiva, precisa y exacta. Los porcentajes de recuperación de la mayoría de los compuestos estuvieron entre 70 y 110% al fortificar con mezcla de plaguicidas entre 0,038 y 1,536 mg/kg con límites de cuantificación entre 0,011 y 0,100 mg/kg. Abstract in english This study describes the implementation and validation of a multiresidue methodology for the determination of organochlorine, organophosphorus and pyrethroids pesticides in green coffee. Pesticides residues were extracted from green samples with an acetone-water (2:1) mixture followed by ethyl aceta [...] te-cyclohexane (1:1) partitioning. The clean up steps include gel permeation chromatography and mini column chromatography using silicagel. Final determination was carried out by high resolution gas chromatography with a pulsed splitless injection mode and simultaneous detection by µ-ECD and NPD coupled in parallel. The methodology is specific, selective precise and accurate. Recoveries of majority of pesticides from spiked samples range from 70 to 110% at fortification levels of 0.038 mg/kg-1.536 mg/kg with limit of quantitation between 0.011 mg/kg and 0.100 mg/kg.

  1. Safe Storage of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safe Storage of Pesticides Esta página Web está disponible en español Improper pesticide storage and disposal can be hazardous to human health and ... storage needs by buying only the amount of pesticide that you will need in the near future ...

  2. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... advice from your health care provider. What are pesticides? A pesticide is a substance used to prevent ...

  3. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... advice from your health care professional. What are pesticides? A pesticide is a substance used to prevent ...

  4. Illegal Pesticide Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illegal Pesticide Products Esta página Web está disponible en español Quick Resources Protect your Business Counterfeit Flea and Tick ... Center (NPIC) 1-800-858-7378 Questions on Pesticides? National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) 1-800-858- ...

  5. National Pesticide Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Pesticide Information Center npic@ace.orst.edu 1.800.858.7378 Index A B C D E F ... Your Pest Control Your Pest Integrated Pest Management Pesticide Ingredients Active Ingredients Other/Inert Ingredients Pesticide Products ...

  6. B-type esterases in the snail Xeropicta derbentina: An enzymological analysis to evaluate their use as biomarkers of pesticide exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was prompted to characterize the B-type esterase activities in the terrestrial snail Xeropicta derbentina and to evaluate its sensitivity to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Specific cholinesterase and carboxylesterase activities were mainly obtained with acetylthiocholine (Km = 77.2 mM; Vmax = 38.2 mU/mg protein) and 1-naphthyl acetate (Km = 222 mM, Vmax = 1095 mU/mg protein) substrates, respectively. Acetylcholinesterase activity was concentration-dependently inhibited by chlorpyrifos-oxon, dichlorvos, carbaryl and carbofuran (IC50 = 1.35 x 10-5-3.80 x 10-8 M). The organophosphate-inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity was reactivated in the presence of pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride. Carboxylesterase activity was inhibited by organophosphorus insecticides (IC50 = 1.20 x 10-5-2.98 x 10-8 M) but not by carbamates. B-esterase-specific differences in the inhibition by organophosphates and carbamates are discussed with respect to the buffering capacity of the carboxylesterase to reduce pesticide toxicity. These results suggest that B-type esterases in X. derbentina are suitable biomarkers of pesticide exposure and that this snail could be used as sentinel species in field monitoring of Mediterranean climate regions. - Characterization of the B-type esterases in the terrestrial snail Xeropicta derbentina in order to evaluate pesticide exposureluate pesticide exposure

  7. Pesticide residues in cashew apple, guava, kaki and peach: GC-?ECD, GC-FPD and LC-MS/MS multiresidue method validation, analysis and cumulative acute risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Andréia Nunes Oliveira; Mello, Denise Carvalho; Goes, Fernanda Caroline Silva; Frota Junior, Elcio Ferreira; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2014-12-01

    A multiresidue method for the determination of 46 pesticides in fruits was validated. Samples were extracted with acidified ethyl acetate, MgSO4 and CH3COONa and cleaned up by dispersive SPE with PSA. The compounds were analysed by GC-FPD, GC-?ECD or LC-MS/MS, with LOQs from 1 to 8 ?g/kg. The method was used to analyse 238 kaki, cashew apple, guava, and peach fruit and pulp samples, which were also analysed for dithiocarbamates (DTCs) using a spectrophotometric method. Over 70% of the samples were positive, with DTC present in 46.5%, ?-cyhalothrin in 37.1%, and omethoate in 21.8% of the positive samples. GC-MS/MS confirmed the identities of the compounds detected by GC. None of the pesticides found in kaki, cashew apple and guava was authorised for these crops in Brazil. The risk assessment has shown that the cumulative acute intake of organophosphorus or pyrethroid compounds from the consumption of these fruits is unlikely to pose a health risk to consumers. PMID:24996324

  8. Development and validation of method for the determination of organochlorine pesticides and trihalomethanes in the water by HRGC-ECD = Desenvolvimento e validação de método para a determinação de pesticidas organoclorados e trihalometanos em água usando HRGC-ECD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Ribeiro Alves

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The development and validation of a simultaneous liquid-liquid extraction method for organochlorine pesticides and trihalomethanes in surface and drinking water by HRGC-ECD is described. The method presents acceptable recovery, with detection ranging from 2.7 to 49.0 ng L-1 for organochlorine pesticides and from 18.0 to 860.0 ng L-1for trihalomethanes. The extraction method also presents excellent linearity for all the analytes, with excellent repeatability. Extraction is simple, fast, and low cost, uses small amounts of solvent and aqueous sample, and is suitable for routine analyses.O presente trabalho trata do desenvolvimento e validação de um método de extração para a determinação simultânea de trihalometanos e pesticidas organoclorados em água superficial e água potável por HRGC-ECD. O método apresenta recuperação aceitável, com limites dedetecção que variam de 2,7 a 49,0 ng L-1 para pesticidas organoclorados e de 18,0 a 860,0 ng L-1 para trihalometanos. O método de extração apresenta também excelente linearidade para todos os analitos e boa repetibilidade. A extração é simples, rápida, de baixo custo, além de utilizar pequenas quantidades de solvente e de amostra aquosa, sendo, portanto, de alta aplicabilidade em análises de rotina.

  9. Assessment of Acute Oral and Dermal Toxicity of 2 Ethyl-Carbamates with Activity against Rhipicephalus microplus in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe Prado-ochoa, Mar Xed A.; Ricardo Alfonso Gutiérrez-Amezquita; Xed Ctor Hugo Abrego-reyes, V.; Vel Xe Zquez-s Xe Nchez, Ana Mar Xed A.; Marco Antonio Muñoz-Guzmán; Patricia Ramírez-Noguera; Enrique Angeles; Fernando Alba-Hurtado

    2014-01-01

    The acute oral and dermal toxicity of two new ethyl-carbamates (ethyl-4-bromophenyl-carbamate and ethyl-4-chlorophenyl-carbamate) with ixodicide activity was determined in rats. The oral LD50 of each carbamate was 300 to 2000?mg/kg, and the dermal LD50 of each carbamate was >5000?mg/kg. Clinically, the surviving rats that had received oral doses of each carbamate showed decreased weight gain (P < 0.05) and had slight nervous system manifestations. These clinical signs were evident from th...

  10. Solid-State-Trapped Reactive Ammonium Carbamate Self-Derivative Salts of Prolinamide

    OpenAIRE

    Tilborg, Anaëlle; Lanners, Steve; Norberg, Bernadette; Wouters, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Single crystals for two polymorphs of the ammonium carbamate self-derivative salt of prolinamide have been successfully obtained and characterized. Decarbonation of the carbamate salts was monitored by calorimetry, confirming stabilization of the reactive carbonated adducts in the solid state. Sublimation of the salts afforded crystals of prolinamide, leading to the first crystal structure of this otherwise common molecule. Reactivity of the ammonium carbamate self-derivative salt is further ...

  11. Design, Synthesis, and Preliminary Evaluation of Doxazolidine Carbamates as Prodrugs Activated by Carboxylesterases

    OpenAIRE

    Burkhart, David J.; Barthel, Benjamin L.; Post, Glen C.; Kalet, Brian T.; Nafie, Jordan W.; Shoemaker, Richard K.; Koch, Tad H.

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis and tumor cell growth inhibition by Doxazolidine carbamate prodrugs are reported. The carbamates were designed for selective hydrolysis by one or more human carboxylesterases to release Doxazolidine (Doxaz), the formaldehyde-oxazolidine of doxorubicin that cross-links DNA to trigger cell death. Simple butyl and pentyl, but not ethyl, carbamate prodrugs inhibited the growth of cancer cells that overexpress carboxylesterase CES1 (hCE1) and CES2 (hiCE). Relative CES1 and CES2 expre...

  12. Erythema multiforme-like eruption due to carbamates and thiuram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis-Dosil, Vicente M; Campos-Domínguez, Minia; Zamberk-Majlis, Pamela E; Suárez-Fernández, Ricardo M; Lázaro-Ochaita, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    Report of a case of erythema multiforme-like eruption due to the use of rubber gloves. After several complementary studies, including epicutaneous and skin prick tests, we concluded that the eruption was secondary to sensitization to carbamates and thiuram. The main differential diagnosis in this case was allergic contact dermatitis to latex in natural rubber gloves. This entity is less frequent than might be expected, because it is usually due to intermediate chemical compounds used in rubber manufacturing, such as vulcanization accelerators; among of these latter compounds are thiurams and carbamates. Erythema multiforme-like eruption is a rare manifestation of contact dermatitis. Several cases have been reported, most of which have been due to contact with plants, metals or topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Its mechanism is still unclear, but it seems to be a type IV hypersensitivity reaction. PMID:16750123

  13. Molybdenum(V) dimeric complexes with dialkyl carbamates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syntheses are reported for a number of novel oxo and sulphido bridged molybdenum(V) complexes with N-methyl-N-cyclohexyl carbamate and N,N-dicyclohexyl carbamate as ligands, and we have compared these complexes with the molybdenum(V) complexes with dialkyldithiocarbamates as ligands. These complexes were identified by IR and electronic spectra, magnetic susceptibility and analytical data, and were assigned the formulae [Mo2O3(LL)4], [Mo2O4(LL)2], [Mo2O2S2(LL)2] and [Mo2O3S(LL)2]. IR and electronic spectra of these compounds are sensitive to substitution of sulphur atoms into the bridge system. It is suggested that the low magnetic moments observed are due, at least in part, to intramolecular metal-metal interactions. (author)

  14. Aryl methylcarbamates: potency and selectivity towards wild-type and carbamate-insensitive (G119S) Anopheles gambiae acetylcholinesterase, and toxicity to G3 Strain An. gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Dawn M.; Li, Jianyong; Lam, Polo C. H.; Hartsel, Joshua A.; Mutunga, James M.; Totrov, Maxim; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R.; Carlier, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    New carbamates that are highly selective for inhibition of Anopheles gambiae acetylcholinesterase (AChE) over the human enzyme might be useful in continuing efforts to limit malaria transmission. In this report we assessed 34 synthesized and commercial carbamates for their selectivity to inhibit the AChEs found in carbamate-susceptible (G3) and carbamate-resistant (Akron) An. gambiaerelative to human AChE. Excellent correspondence is seen between inhibition potencies measured with carbamate-s...

  15. [Toxicity of several pesticides used in Tunisia, for Aphanius fasciatus Nardo, 1827 (Pisces, Cyprinodontidae.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumaiza, M; Ktari, M H; Vitiello, P

    1979-09-01

    The acute toxicity of some pesticides used in Tunisia is determined for the species Aphanius fasciatus (Pisces - Cyprinodontidae). Bioassays conducted at temperature (19-20 degrees C) and salinity (37-38%) have allowed to calculate the CL50 48 h and 96 h. The classification of these pesticides, based on the CL50 96 h, and according to their toxicity for the test species, shows that the organic phosphorus (Murphotox, Bazudin, Dursban, Zithiol, Lebaycid, Imidan, Oleoparathion, Folimat; Nuvan, Actellic, Carbicron, Nexion, Dimecron, Roxion) have all the degrees of toxicity, but the majority are among the most toxic; the carbamates (Betanal, Dimetilan, Baygon), are generally less toxic than the organic phosphorus tested, except Nexion which is less toxic than the Betanal and Roxion less toxic than the three carbamates tested; the herbicides (2,4-D, Basagran, Printan) have a very low toxicity, and are less toxic than the insecticides tested, except Betanal and Suffix of which the toxicity is higher than some insecticides (Nexion, Dimecron, Baygon, Dimetilan, Roxion); Calixin (Fongicide) is more toxic than the herbicides tested but it is generally less toxic than the insecticides used. At higher temperature (28-29 degrees C) A. fasciatus is more sensible to organic phosphorus (Dursban, Folimat) than to carbamate (Betanal). The variation change of salinity (from 37 to 6.5 %) don't modify the sensibility of the test species face to face of three pesticides: Dursban, Folimat (organic phosphorus insecticide) and Betanal (carbamate herbicide). A. fasciatus is suitable for acute and chronic bioassays. PMID:555295

  16. Efficient synthesis of readily water-soluble sulfonic Acid carbamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idzik, Krzysztof R; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    A series of various readily water-soluble carbamates were synthesized with good yields. These compounds are useful chemical tracers for assessing the cooling progress in a georeservoir during geothermal power plant operation. Acylation of primary amines was carried out as well as using a solution of sodium bicarbonate and without the presence of salt. Products were characterized by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Purity was confirmed through elemental analysis. PMID:25913926

  17. The tethered aminohydroxylation (TA) of cyclic allylic carbamates.

    OpenAIRE

    Donohoe, Tj; Johnson, Pd; Cowley, A.; Keenan, M.

    2002-01-01

    The tethered aminohydroxylation of cyclic allylic carbamates is described using catalytic amounts of potassium osmate. The mechanism of reaction involves formation of an imido-osmium complex which adds intramolecularly to alkenes with complete control of both regio- and stereoselectivity: the formation of syn-aminodiol motifs is now straightforward using this chemistry. Proof of the mechanism was obtained with an X-ray crystal structure of an azaglycolate osmate ester intermediate.

  18. Efficient Synthesis of Readily Water-Soluble Sulfonic Acid Carbamates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof R. Idzik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of various readily water-soluble carbamates were synthesized with good yields. These compounds are useful chemical tracers for assessing the cooling progress in a georeservoir during geothermal power plant operation. Acylation of primary amines was carried out as well as using a solution of sodium bicarbonate and without the presence of salt. Products were characterized by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Purity was confirmed through elemental analysis.

  19. Optimización y validación de un método de dispersión de matriz en fase sólida para la extracción de plaguicidas organofosforados en hortalizas. Optimization and validation of a method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion for organophosphorus pesticides in vegetables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Valenzuela-Quintanar

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Se optimizó y validó el método de dispersión de matriz en fase sólida (DMFS para la extracción de plaguicidas organofosforados en hortalizas. Los análisis de plaguicidas se realizaron por cromatografía de gases con un detector fotométrico de flama (FPD y columna capilar DB-5 la eficiencia de la extraccio. En las hortalizas (chile verde, tomate bola, tomate saladette, cebolla, calabacita y brócoli se evaluó calculando los porcentajes de recuperación. Para ello se adicionó una mezcla de los plaguicidas (diazinón, di-systón, metilparatión, malatión, paratión y etión Se optimizaron las fases de extracción y purificación, donde 0,5 g de sílice como fase de extracción y 2 g de mezcla de carbón-óxido de magnesio-celite (1:2:4 como fase de purificación, produjeron los mayores porcentajes de recuperación de los plaguicidas (61-108% eluídos con 40 mL de diclorometano, volumen 95% menor al utilizado en el Método Oficial. Los coeficientes de regresión de las curvas de calibración fueron de 0,99 excepto para etión (r = 0,98, los cuales se evaluaron en un intervalo de concentraciones de 50, 100 y 200% de los límites máximos de residuos (LMR. Esta técnica fue aplicada en el análisis de 32 muestras de hortalizas obtenidas de dos centros comerciales locales. Únicamente una muestra de tomate bola presentó niveles de malatión (0,08 µg/g y paratión (0,06 µg/g, valores por debajo de los LMR. El método de DMFS optimizado y validado en el presente trabajo resultó ser reproducible, exacto y económico-ecológico por su consumo mínimo de disolventes, y pudiera ser utilizado en análisis rutinarios de plaguicidas organofosforados en hortalizas.The objective of this study was the optimization and validation of a method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in vegetables. This assay was carried out by capillary gas chromatography with Flame Photometric Detection (FPD and a capillary column DB5; the recoveries were determined by fortifying six different crops (tomatoes, onions, green pepper, broccoli and squash with the pesticides studied (diazinon, di-syston, methil-parathion, malathion, parathion, ethion. The optimization of the extraction of these pesticides was achieved using MSPD with diverse extraction and purification phases, where 0.5 g of silica gel on the extraction phase and 2 g of mix of charcoal-magnesium oxide-celite (1:2:4 on the purification phase, eluted using 40 mL dichloromethane, 95% lesser than the used in the official method, were able to extract the pesticides residues. The recoveries were in the range of 61 to 108%. The regression coefficients were 0.99, except for ethion (r = 0.98 over the range between 50, 100 and 200% of maximum residue limits. The applicability of the method to detect and quantify the pesticides studied was demonstrated successfully in 32 vegetables samples obtained from two locals markets. Malathion (0.08 µg/g and parathion (0.06 µg/g, were detected in only one tomatoes sample, at levels lower than the maximum permits limits. The proposed analytical method could be used as an efficient, fast, cheap and ecological procedure in routine determinations of organophosphorous pesticides in vegetables.

  20. Optimización y validación de un método de dispersión de matriz en fase sólida para la extracción de plaguicidas organofosforados en hortalizas. / Optimization and validation of a method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion for organophosphorus pesticides in vegetables.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.I., Valenzuela-Quintanar; R., Armenta-Corral; E., Moreno-Villa; L., Gutiérrez-Coronado; P., Grajeda-Cota; C., Orantes-Arenas..

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Se optimizó y validó el método de dispersión de matriz en fase sólida (DMFS) para la extracción de plaguicidas organofosforados en hortalizas. Los análisis de plaguicidas se realizaron por cromatografía de gases con un detector fotométrico de flama (FPD) y columna capilar DB-5 la eficiencia de la ex [...] traccio. En las hortalizas (chile verde, tomate bola, tomate saladette, cebolla, calabacita y brócoli) se evaluó calculando los porcentajes de recuperación. Para ello se adicionó una mezcla de los plaguicidas (diazinón, di-systón, metilparatión, malatión, paratión y etión) Se optimizaron las fases de extracción y purificación, donde 0,5 g de sílice como fase de extracción y 2 g de mezcla de carbón-óxido de magnesio-celite (1:2:4) como fase de purificación, produjeron los mayores porcentajes de recuperación de los plaguicidas (61-108%) eluídos con 40 mL de diclorometano, volumen 95% menor al utilizado en el Método Oficial. Los coeficientes de regresión de las curvas de calibración fueron de 0,99 excepto para etión (r = 0,98), los cuales se evaluaron en un intervalo de concentraciones de 50, 100 y 200% de los límites máximos de residuos (LMR). Esta técnica fue aplicada en el análisis de 32 muestras de hortalizas obtenidas de dos centros comerciales locales. Únicamente una muestra de tomate bola presentó niveles de malatión (0,08 µg/g) y paratión (0,06 µg/g), valores por debajo de los LMR. El método de DMFS optimizado y validado en el presente trabajo resultó ser reproducible, exacto y económico-ecológico por su consumo mínimo de disolventes, y pudiera ser utilizado en análisis rutinarios de plaguicidas organofosforados en hortalizas. Abstract in english The objective of this study was the optimization and validation of a method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in vegetables. This assay was carried out by capillary gas chromatography with Flame Photometric Detection (FPD) and a capill [...] ary column DB5; the recoveries were determined by fortifying six different crops (tomatoes, onions, green pepper, broccoli and squash) with the pesticides studied (diazinon, di-syston, methil-parathion, malathion, parathion, ethion). The optimization of the extraction of these pesticides was achieved using MSPD with diverse extraction and purification phases, where 0.5 g of silica gel on the extraction phase and 2 g of mix of charcoal-magnesium oxide-celite (1:2:4) on the purification phase, eluted using 40 mL dichloromethane, 95% lesser than the used in the official method, were able to extract the pesticides residues. The recoveries were in the range of 61 to 108%. The regression coefficients were 0.99, except for ethion (r = 0.98) over the range between 50, 100 and 200% of maximum residue limits. The applicability of the method to detect and quantify the pesticides studied was demonstrated successfully in 32 vegetables samples obtained from two locals markets. Malathion (0.08 µg/g) and parathion (0.06 µg/g), were detected in only one tomatoes sample, at levels lower than the maximum permits limits. The proposed analytical method could be used as an efficient, fast, cheap and ecological procedure in routine determinations of organophosphorous pesticides in vegetables.

  1. The IR spectra, hydrogen bonding and conformations of aliphatic and aromatic epoxy carbamates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furer, V. L.

    1999-12-01

    The IR spectra of hexamethylene-bis (methyl) glycidyl carbamate, toluene-2,4-bis (methyl) glycidyl carbamate in the crystalline state and in the melt were studied. The absorption curves for the most stable molecular conformations were compared with experimental IR spectra. The IR spectra of toluene-2,4-bis (methyl) glycidyl carbamate and methyl- N-methyl carbamate clusters were calculated. The spectral features of the different molecular structures were revealed. The results obtained can be used for the analysis of the chemical and physical transformations in polyurethanes.

  2. New screening approach for risk assessment of pesticides in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusà, Vicent; Coscollà, Clara; Millet, Maurice

    2014-10-01

    We present a novel screening approach for inhalation risk assessment of currently used pesticides (CUPs) in ambient air, based on the measurements of pesticide levels in the inhalable fraction of the particulate matter (PM10). Total concentrations in ambient air (gas + particle phases) were estimated using a theoretical model of distribution of semi-volatile organic compounds between the gas and the particulate phase based on the octanol-air partition (Koa) of each pesticide. The proposed approach was used in a pilot study conducted in a rural station in Valencia (Spain) from April through to October 2010. Twenty out of 82 analysed pesticides were detected in average concentrations ranging from 1.63 to 117.01 pg m-3. For adults, children and infants the estimated chronic inhalation risk, expressed as Hazard Quotient (HQ) was carbamates pesticides, was estimated using as metrics the Hazard Index (HI), which was less than 1 for the three families of pesticides assessed. The cancer risk estimated for the detected pesticides classified as Likely or Possible carcinogens was less than 1.15E-7 for infants. In our opinion, the screening approach proposed could be used in the monitoring and risk assessment of pesticides in ambient air.

  3. Carbonic anhydrase and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effects of carbamates and sulfamoylcarbamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göçer, Hülya; Akincio?lu, Ak?n; Göksu, Süleyman; Gülçin, ?lhami; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CA), as a family of metalloenzymes, are found in almost every type of tissue and play an important role in catalyzing the equilibration of carbon dioxide and carbonic acid. In this study, a series of carbamate derivative was synthesized, and their inhibition effects on hCA I, hCA II and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymes were investigated. They were determined to be very good inhibitor against for both isoenzymes (hCA I and hCA II) and AChE. The hCA I and hCA II were effectively inhibited by the carbamate derivatives, with inhibition constants (Ki) in the range of 194.4-893.5?nM (for hCA I) and 103.9-835.7?nM (for hCA II). On the other hand, Ki parameters of these compounds for AChE enzyme inhibition were determined in the range of 12.0-61.3?nM. The results clearly showed that both CA isoenzymes and AChE were inhibited by carbamate derivatives at the nM levels. PMID:24964347

  4. The Enhanced Carbamate Adsorption of Modified Bentonite with Coscinium

    OpenAIRE

    Tha-in, S.; Dau, H. A.; Dumri, K.

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides daily pollutes soil and water in farmland and environment in ASEAN agricultural developing countries. In this study, pesticide adsorption was studied by bentonite modification, targeting the “organoclay” adsorbent in comparison to native bentonite, which was probably reported to adsorb agricultural pesticide. Commercial bentonite was modified with the berberine containing natural extract from Coscinium fenestratum; the local folk medicine in Thailand. The modified clay by extra...

  5. Development, validation, and application of an acetylcholinesterase-biosensor test for the direct detection of insecticide residues in infant food

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze, Holger; Scherbaum, Ellen; Anastassiades, Michelangelo; Vorlova?, Sandra; Schmid, Rolf D.; Bachmann, Till T.

    2002-01-01

    A highly sensitive and rapid food-screening test based on disposable screen-printed biosensors was developed, which is suitable for monitoring infant food. The exposure of infants and children to neurotoxic organophosphates and carbamates is of particular concern because of their higher susceptibility to adverse effects. The European Union has therefore set a very low limit for pesticides in infant food which must not contain concentrations exceeding 10 ?g/kg for any given pesticide. The...

  6. Comparative effect of pesticides on brain acetylcholinesterase in tropical fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Caio Rodrigo Dias; Linhares, Amanda Guedes; Oliveira, Vagne Melo; França, Renata Cristina Penha; Carvalho, Elba Veronica Matoso Maciel; Bezerra, Ranilson Souza; de Carvalho, Luiz Bezerra

    2012-12-15

    Monitoring of pesticides based on acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) inhibition in vitro avoids interference of detoxification defenses and bioactivation of some of those compounds in non-target tissues. Moreover, environmental temperature, age and stress are able to affect specific enzyme activities when performing in vivo studies. Few comparative studies have investigated the inter-specific differences in AChE activity in fish. Screening studies allow choosing the suitable species as source of AChE to detect pesticides in a given situation. Brain AChE from the tropical fish: pirarucu (Arapaima gigas), cobia (Rachycentron canadum) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were characterized and their activities were assayed in the presence of pesticides (the organophosphates: dichlorvos, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, temephos, tetraethyl pyrophosphate- TEPP and the carbamates: carbaryl and carbofuran). Inhibition parameters (IC?? and Ki) for each species were found and compared with commercial AChE from electric eel (Electrophorus electricus). Optimal pH and temperature were found to be 8.0 and 35-45 °C, respectively. A. gigas AChE retained 81% of the activity after incubation at 50 °C for 30 min. The electric eel enzyme was more sensitive to the compounds (mainly carbofuran, IC?? of 5 nM), excepting the one from A. gigas (IC?? of 9 nM) under TEPP inhibition. These results show comparable sensitivity between purified and non-purified enzymes suggesting them as biomarkers for organophosphorus and carbamate detection in routine environmental and food monitoring programs for pesticides. PMID:23137979

  7. Validated High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for Analysis of Fenvalerate Pesticide in Chilies by QuEChERS Extraction Cleanup and High Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Altorshani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Contamination associated with pesticide use has increased as well, adversely impacting the environment and causing human health risks through residues on food. Approach: This study reports the extraction of Fenvalerate (FE in chilies using QuEChERS based on High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC describes a simple, fast and inexpensive method. The chillie was extracted with acetonitrile Aliquots were cleaned-up using Solid Phase Extraction (dSPE, a primary-secondary amine carbon black. Reversed-phased HPlc system with PDA detection was used for the separation identification and quantification of all these analyses using acetonitrile methanol-potassium dehydrogenate phosphate (50:40:10 as mobile phase. Results: Limit of detection of 0.01 µg mL was obtained. Calibration curves that constructed for the analyzes spiked into samples followed linear relationships with good correlation coefficients (R2>0.9944. In this method was found to be precise, specific and accurate for detection and analysis of Fenvalerate in chilies. Conclusion: QuEChERS methods are convenient, rugged methods that simplify extract cleanup, reduce material costs and improve sample throughout. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of QuEChERS sample cleanup using a multiresidue analysis of pesticide on chilies.

  8. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Usage in Menia El-Kamh Province of Sharkia Governorate in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Claude Assad; Olurominiyi Ibitayo; Lidell, Frances P.; Sayed El-Sheikh; El-Adarosy Goma; Romeh, Ahmed A.; Ragheb, Didair A.; Curtina Moreland-Young; Ashour, Bassem A.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract: Menia El-Kamh province of the Sharkia Governorate constitutes one of the largest agricultural areas in Egypt. About 88% of the nearly 472,000 people living in this province rely on agricultural activities for subsistence. Several pesticides including organochloride, organophosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides are commonly used in citrus, vegetable and other crop-growing areas to increase agricultural productivity. However, their use has also ...

  9. Intoxicación por plaguicidas / Pesticide poisoning

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Ferrer.

    Full Text Available Los plaguicidas son una de las familias de productos químicos más ampliamente empleadas por el hombre. Se han usado sobre todo para combatir plagas por su acción sobre las cosechas o como vectores de enfermedades transmisibles. Los plaguicidas pueden clasificarse en función de su empleo (insecticida [...] s, fungicidas, herbicidas, raticidas…) o de su familia química (organoclorados, organofosforados, carbamatos, piretoides, compuestos bipiridílicos, sales inorgánicas…). Todos ellos son biocidas lo que implica, habitualmente una alta toxicidad humana que ha sido motivo de preocupación desde mitad del siglo XX debido al amplio e indiscriminado empleo de estos productos. La exposición a los plaguicidas puede tener efectos agudos, crónicos y a largo plazo. Algunos compuestos organoclorados (como el DDT) fueron los primeros en ser empleado en fumigaciones masivas para combatir la malaria y han debido ser prohibidos debido a su capacidad de bioacumulación y persistencia medioambiental. El peligro representado por la generalizada presencia de estos agentes, se ha demostrado en los numerosos episodios de epidemias tóxicas humanas, productoras de alta morbi-mortalidad, descritas por casi todas las familias químicas: insecticidas y fungicidas organoclorados, insecticidas organofosforados y carbamatos, fungicidas organomercuriales y sales inorgánicas. Estos episodios se han producido sobre todo por vía alimentaria y en el terreno profesional. Otras causas de preocupación sanitaria son su capacidad carcinogénica y de ocasionar alteraciones reproductivas. Se presentan las principales características de algunas de las familias más relevantes. Abstract in english Pesticides are one of the families of chemical products most widely used by man. They have been used above all to combat pests because of their effect on harvests and as vectors of transmissible diseases. Pesticides can be classified according to their use (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, rati [...] cides…) or by their chemical family (organochlorates, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, Bipyridilium compounds, inorganic salts…). All of them are biocides, which normally implies a high toxicity for humans, which has been a cause for concern since the mid-XX century due to the widespread and indiscriminate use of these products. Exposure to pesticides can have effects that are acute, chronic and long-term. Some organochlorate compounds (such as DDT) were the first to be used in massive fumigations to fight malaria and have had to be banned because of their capacity for bioaccumulation and environmental persistence. The danger represented by the widespread presence of these agents has been demonstrated in numerous episodes of human toxic epidemics, producers of a high morbidity/mortality, described for nearly all chemical families: organochlorate insecticides and fungicides, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, organomercurial fungicides and inorganic salts. These episodes have above all been caused through the ingestion of foodstuffs and in the occupational field. Other causes of health concern are their carcinogenic capacity and occasional reproductive alterations. The principal characteristics of some of the most relevant families are presented.

  10. Intoxicación por plaguicidas Pesticide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ferrer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Los plaguicidas son una de las familias de productos químicos más ampliamente empleadas por el hombre. Se han usado sobre todo para combatir plagas por su acción sobre las cosechas o como vectores de enfermedades transmisibles. Los plaguicidas pueden clasificarse en función de su empleo (insecticidas, fungicidas, herbicidas, raticidas… o de su familia química (organoclorados, organofosforados, carbamatos, piretoides, compuestos bipiridílicos, sales inorgánicas…. Todos ellos son biocidas lo que implica, habitualmente una alta toxicidad humana que ha sido motivo de preocupación desde mitad del siglo XX debido al amplio e indiscriminado empleo de estos productos. La exposición a los plaguicidas puede tener efectos agudos, crónicos y a largo plazo. Algunos compuestos organoclorados (como el DDT fueron los primeros en ser empleado en fumigaciones masivas para combatir la malaria y han debido ser prohibidos debido a su capacidad de bioacumulación y persistencia medioambiental. El peligro representado por la generalizada presencia de estos agentes, se ha demostrado en los numerosos episodios de epidemias tóxicas humanas, productoras de alta morbi-mortalidad, descritas por casi todas las familias químicas: insecticidas y fungicidas organoclorados, insecticidas organofosforados y carbamatos, fungicidas organomercuriales y sales inorgánicas. Estos episodios se han producido sobre todo por vía alimentaria y en el terreno profesional. Otras causas de preocupación sanitaria son su capacidad carcinogénica y de ocasionar alteraciones reproductivas. Se presentan las principales características de algunas de las familias más relevantes.Pesticides are one of the families of chemical products most widely used by man. They have been used above all to combat pests because of their effect on harvests and as vectors of transmissible diseases. Pesticides can be classified according to their use (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, raticides… or by their chemical family (organochlorates, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, Bipyridilium compounds, inorganic salts…. All of them are biocides, which normally implies a high toxicity for humans, which has been a cause for concern since the mid-XX century due to the widespread and indiscriminate use of these products. Exposure to pesticides can have effects that are acute, chronic and long-term. Some organochlorate compounds (such as DDT were the first to be used in massive fumigations to fight malaria and have had to be banned because of their capacity for bioaccumulation and environmental persistence. The danger represented by the widespread presence of these agents has been demonstrated in numerous episodes of human toxic epidemics, producers of a high morbidity/mortality, described for nearly all chemical families: organochlorate insecticides and fungicides, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, organomercurial fungicides and inorganic salts. These episodes have above all been caused through the ingestion of foodstuffs and in the occupational field. Other causes of health concern are their carcinogenic capacity and occasional reproductive alterations. The principal characteristics of some of the most relevant families are presented.

  11. Effect of methomyl formulation, a carbamate pesticide on ovarian follicular development and fertility in albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthalatha, A; Madhuranath, B N; Yajurvedi, H N

    2012-01-01

    Administration of 5 mg methomyl (40%) kg(-1) b.wt. mouse(-1) (equal to 50% of LD50 dose), every day for 90 days to adult female mice resulted in a significant decrease in body weight, relative weight of the ovary, uterus and fallopian tube; mean number of small, preantral, antral and pre-ovulatory follicles and fertility compared to controls. On the other hand, total duration of the estrous cycle was significantly increased compared to controls. One month after the cessation of the treatment (a commercial methomyl preparation-lannate) the effect on estrous cycle and organ weight was not restored. Treatment of 2.5 mg or 1 mg lannate kg(-1) b. wt., although did not alter duration of the estrous cycle; relative weight of the ovary, uterus, and fallopian tube and fertility, caused a significant decrease in mean number of small follicles compared to controls. All the groups of mice treated with lannate showed loss in body weight (15.15% in 1 mg, 6.61% in 2 mg and 12.16% in 5 mg treated groups) whereas controls showed a gain in body weight (20.02%) during the period of experimentation. The results indicate that 5 mg lannate kg(-1) b. wt causes loss of follicles and infertility, whereas lower dosages (2.5 and 1 mg) reduce the number of small follicles which might shorten reproductive life span of mice. PMID:23033640

  12. Treatment rationale for dogs poisoned with aldicarb (carbamate pesticide : clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Myburgh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The treatment rationale for dogs poisoned by aldicarb is reviewed from a pharmacological perspective. The illegal use of aldicarb to maliciously poison dogs is a major problem in some parts of the world. In South Africa, it is probably the most common canine poisoning treated by companion animal veterinarians. Aldicarb poisoning is an emergency and veterinarians need to be able to diagnose it and start with effective treatment immediately to ensure a reasonable prognosis. Successful treatment depends on the timely use of an anti-muscarinic drug (e.g. atropine. Additional supportive treatment options, including fluid therapy, diphenhydramine, benzodiazepines and the prevention of further absorption (activated charcoal should also be considered. Possible complications after treatment are also briefly discussed.

  13. Mechanism of Carbamate Inactivation of FAAH: Implications for the Design of Covalent Inhibitors and In Vivo Functional Probes for Enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Jessica P.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2005-01-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) regulates a large class of signaling lipids, including the endocannabinoid anandamide. Carbamate inhibitors of FAAH display analgesic and anxiolytic properties in rodents. However, the mechanism by which carbamates inhibit FAAH remains obscure. Here, we provide biochemical evidence that carbamates covalently modify the active site of FAAH by adopting an orientation ...

  14. Selective Conversion of O-Succinimidyl Carbamates to N-(O-Carbamoyl)-Succinmonoamides and Ureas

    Science.gov (United States)

    N-monoalkyl-O-succinimidyl carbamates reached with primary and secondary amines to produce ureas. However, N,N-dialkyl-O-succinimidyl-carbamates reacted with primary and secondary amines, via succinimide ring opening, to afford N-(O-carbamoyl)-succinmonoamide derivatives. This ring opening trend w...

  15. Versatile approach to ?-alkoxy carbamate synthesis and stimulus-responsive alcohol release†

    OpenAIRE

    Mosey, R. Adam; Floreancig, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    A series of ?-alkoxy carbamates that cleave under mild conditions to release alcohols has been synthesized through a multicomponent process. The relationship between structural features in these compounds and the rate of alcohol release in the presence of basic hydrogen peroxide has been studied. The preparation of carbamates that cleave under other conditions has been demonstrated.

  16. COMPARISON OF ACUTE NEUROBEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF N-METHYL CARBAMATE INSECTICIDES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The acute neurobehavioral and cholinesterase (ChE)-inhibiting effects of N-methyl carbamate insecticides have not been systematically compared. We evaluated five carbamates - carbaryl (CB), propoxur (PP), oxamyl (OM), methomyl (MM), and methiocarb (MC). Adult male Long-Evans ra...

  17. Water templated hydrogen-bonded network of pyridine amide appended carbamate in solid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kumaresh; Adhikari, Suman; Fröhlich, Roland

    2006-03-01

    The pyridine amide appended carbamates 1 and 2 have been synthesized and their hydrogen-bonded self-assemblies in solid state have been described. The self-association pattern is dependent on the nature the anchored group of the carbamate moiety and influenced by water inclusion. Inclusion of water molecule gives a ladder type hydrogen bonded assemblies with cavities.

  18. B-type esterases in the snail Xeropicta derbentina: An enzymological analysis to evaluate their use as biomarkers of pesticide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laguerre, Christel [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); INRA, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Environnementale, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C. [Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Environmental Science, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Carlos III s/n, 45071 Toledo (Spain); Koehler, Heinz R. [Animal Physiological Ecology, University of Tuebingen, Konrad-Adenauer-Strasse 20, D-72072 Tuebingen (Germany); Triebskorn, Rita [Animal Physiological Ecology, University of Tuebingen, Konrad-Adenauer-Strasse 20, D-72072 Tuebingen (Germany); Steinbeis-Transfer Center for Ecotoxicology and Ecophysiology, Blumenstrasse 13, D-72108 Rottenburg (Germany); Capowiez, Yvan [INRA, Unite PSH, F- 84914 Avignon (France); Rault, Magali [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); INRA, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Environnementale, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); Mazzia, Christophe [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); INRA, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Environnementale, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France)], E-mail: mazzia@avignon.inra.fr

    2009-01-15

    The study was prompted to characterize the B-type esterase activities in the terrestrial snail Xeropicta derbentina and to evaluate its sensitivity to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Specific cholinesterase and carboxylesterase activities were mainly obtained with acetylthiocholine (K{sub m} = 77.2 mM; V{sub max} = 38.2 mU/mg protein) and 1-naphthyl acetate (K{sub m} = 222 mM, V{sub max} = 1095 mU/mg protein) substrates, respectively. Acetylcholinesterase activity was concentration-dependently inhibited by chlorpyrifos-oxon, dichlorvos, carbaryl and carbofuran (IC50 = 1.35 x 10{sup -5}-3.80 x 10{sup -8} M). The organophosphate-inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity was reactivated in the presence of pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride. Carboxylesterase activity was inhibited by organophosphorus insecticides (IC50 = 1.20 x 10{sup -5}-2.98 x 10{sup -8} M) but not by carbamates. B-esterase-specific differences in the inhibition by organophosphates and carbamates are discussed with respect to the buffering capacity of the carboxylesterase to reduce pesticide toxicity. These results suggest that B-type esterases in X. derbentina are suitable biomarkers of pesticide exposure and that this snail could be used as sentinel species in field monitoring of Mediterranean climate regions. - Characterization of the B-type esterases in the terrestrial snail Xeropicta derbentina in order to evaluate pesticide exposure.

  19. Organophosphate and carbamate poisonings in the northwest of Paraná state, Brazil from 1994 to 2005: clinical and epidemiological aspects Intoxicações por inseticidas organofosforados e carbamatos no noroeste do Paraná, Brasil, de 1994 a 2005: aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Ferreira; Elisangela Maroco; Mauricio Yonamine; Magda Lúcia Félix de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, clinical and epidemiological aspects of 529 intoxication cases of organophosphate or carbamate pesticides in the northwest of the state of Paraná, Brazil, over a twelve-year period (1994-2005), are presented. One hundred-five of 257 patients (40.8%) who attempted suicide were admitted to Intensive Care Units (ICUs), with an average hospital stay of two days (range 1-40 days). Men corresponded to 56.4% of the cases of suicide attempts and sixteen individuals died. One hu...

  20. Evaluation of the protective effect of garlic oil on hepatic injury induced by pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was directed to evaluate the effect of repeated daily oral administrations of two pesticides; malathion (organophosphorus) and lannate (carbamate) at dose levels of 27.5 and 3.4 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Garlic oil at a dose of 0.2 ml/kg body weight was given by gavage during pesticides treatment (garlic oil + pesticides) to evaluate its role against the harmful effects of the two selected pesticides in male albino rats. The level of serum 14C-isoleucine (4 ?Ci/100 g body weight) twenty-four hours post administration of malathion or lannate and also garlic oil was studied. Malathion and lannate treatments resulted in significant increase in the activity of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin, 5-nucleotidase, glucose-6-phosphatase and serum total calcium level. On the other hand, pesticides treatment caused significant decrease in serum inorganic phosphorus. The level of serum 14C-isoleucine twenty-four hours post administration of malathion or lannate and also garlic oil was significantly increased due to pesticides treatment and decreased in case of garlic oil treatment. The protective role of garlic oil was clear to some extent and could ameliorate the activities of some serum enzymes in addition to inorganic phosphorus. The administration of garlic oil to malathion treated animals was more effective in ameliorating the disturbed levels in case of malathion than that occuevels in case of malathion than that occurred with lannate pesticide treatment

  1. Evaluation of carbamate insecticides as chemotherapeutic agents for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Amanullah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer chemotherapy has already been in practice by the use of toxins and some of the specific poisonous compounds of cyanide derivatives. Carbamate insecticides inhibit cellular metabolism including energy, protein, and nucleic acid metabolism, thereby, causing cell regression and death. Aim: Preliminary evaluation of three carbamate insecticides, namely, baygon, carbaryl, and carbofuran as chemotherapeutic agents for cancer is undertaken in the present study. Materials and Methods: The toxicity of carbamates on squamous cell carcinoma was assessed in-vitro using dye binding tests. Cells were grown in microtitration ELISA plates, as adherent cultures, for six hours, and then exposed to the drugs for 2, 4, 8, and 12 hours, and finally stained with neutral red, to assess the viable cell number, and with methylene blue for the determination of protein in the monolayer. Optical density was read in an ELISA reader. Statistical Analysis: The data obtained during the experiment was subjected to statistical analysis by using the student ?t? test. Results: The results indicated that the percentage of the viable cell number reduced with an increase in the time of exposure of the drugs. Exposure of the tumor cells to the drugs for 12 hours detached them completely from the wells, and hence, all the cells were washed out. Exposure of the drugs prior to the establishment of the culture in-vitro resulted in the non-formation of the monolayer in the wells. Conclusions: Among the three drugs studied, the survival percent was least with carbaryl treatment followed by baygon, and with carbofuran treatment it was almost near to control group.

  2. Pesticide transport simulation in a tropical catchment by SWAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of agrochemicals in Southeast Asia is increasing in rate, variety and toxicity with alarming speed. Understanding the behavior of these different contaminants within the environment require comprehensive monitoring programs as well as accurate simulations with hydrological models. We used the SWAT hydrological model to simulate the fate of three different pesticides, one of each usage type (herbicide, fungicide and insecticide) in a mountainous catchment in Northern Thailand. Three key parameters were identified: the sorption coefficient, the decay coefficient and the coefficient controlling pesticide percolation. We yielded satisfactory results simulating pesticide load dynamics during the calibration period (NSE: 0.92–0.67); the results during the validation period were also acceptable (NSE: 0.61–0.28). The results of this study are an important step in understanding the modeling behavior of these pesticides in SWAT and will help to identify thresholds of worst-case scenarios in order to assess the risk for the environment. - Highlights: • We performed a global LH-sensitivity analysis of all pesticide related parameters. • Key physical parameters are associated to percolation, degradation and sorption. • We simulated the measured loads of three different pesticides. • We performed an uncertainty analysis of all pesticide simulations. • All Pesticides differed considerably in their sensitivity and simulation behavior. - Pesticide load simulations of three pesticides were modeled by SWAT, providing clues on how to handle pesticides in future SWAT studies

  3. Application of ACD/LABS 12 program for determination of conditions for experimental membrane extraction of pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?or?evi? J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the conditions for membrane extraction of pesticides using ACD / LABS 12 program. The program contains a large database of more than 2000 compounds and their ionized species, for determining the pKa, further analysis includes 600 new compounds confirmed by Hammett’s equation, which gives more precise values for logD and solubility. The 16 pesticides of different classes (organophosphates, carbamates, carbamidas, neonicotinoids etc. and polarities commonly used in Serbia were examined. The program is used to calculate logD, pKa and solubility at different pH values for the mixture of pesticides. Based on the calculated values, the conditions for the extraction of pesticides in water using two-phase liquid-liquid membrane extraction were optimized.

  4. Study of Inhibition, Reactivation and Aging Processes of Pesticides Using Graphene Nanosheets/Gold Nanoparticles-Based Acetylcholinesterase Biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lin; Long, Linjuan; Zhang, Weiying; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-09-10

    Organophosphate (OP) and carbamate pesticides exert their toxicity via attacking the hydroxyl moiety of serine in the 'active site' of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In this paper we developed a stable AChE biosensor based on self-assembling AChE to graphene nanosheet (GN)-gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) nanocomposite electrode for investigation of inhibition, reactivation and aging processes of different pesticides. It is confirmed that pesticides can inhibit AChE in a short time. OPs poisoning is treatable with oximes while carbarmates exposure is insensitive to oximes. The proposed electrochemical approach thus provides a new simple tool for comparison of pesticide sensitivity and guide of therapeutic intervention.

  5. Brazilian vodkas have undetectable levels of ethyl carbamate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elainy V. S., Pereira; Sonia P. A., Oliveira; Ian C. C., Nóbrega; Dirk W., Lachenmeier; Adelia C. P., Araújo; Danuza L., Telles; Marileide, Silva.

    Full Text Available While in Europe vodka is mainly derived from potatoes or cereals, a large proportion of Brazilian vodka is likely obtained from sugarcane, which contains ethyl carbamate (EC) precursors. EC, in addition to several other contaminants and congeners, were investigated in 32 samples of Brazilian vodka. [...] All samples complied with the Brazilian regulations for congeners and contaminants, having EC content below 0.01 mg/L (detection limit). These results are probably related to the processing of vodka, in particular the use of extractive and rectifying stainless steel distillation columns, which allow the production of high strength spirits with low levels of congeners and contaminants.

  6. Assessment of acetylcholinesterase activity in Clarias gariepinus as a biomarker of organophosphate and carbamate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdegela, Robinson H; Mosha, Resto D; Sandvik, Morten; Skaare, Janneche U

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the response of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in Clarias gariepinus in response to Organophosphates (Ops) and carbamate exposure. The AChE activities were determined in plasma, and eye and brain homogenates of unexposed and exposed fish using Ellman's method and 5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) chromophore. The baseline AChE activities in plasma, eyes and brain tissues in unexposed fish were comparable between males and females (P > 0.05). Concentrations of pesticides that inhibited 50% (IC(50)) of AChE activities in brain homogenates following in vitro exposures were 0.003, 0.03, 0.15, 190, 0.2, 0.003 and 0.002 microM for carbaryl, chlorfenvinphos, diazinon, dimethoate, fenitrothion, pirimiphosmethyl and profenofos, respectively. The in vivo dose-effect relationships were assessed using chlorfenvinphos and carbaryl at different concentrations that ranged from 0.0003 to 0.06 microM and 0.0005 to 0.05 microM, respectively. Acetylcholinesterase activities were comparable in plasma, and eye and brain homogenates from control and carbaryl-exposed fish. Following exposure of fish to chlorfenvinphos at concentrations above 0.03 microM, a significant inhibition of AChE activities in plasma (84%) and eye homogenate (50%) was observed. The AChE activities in brain homogenate were comparable between chlorfenvinphos-exposed fish and controls. Because carbaryl cause reversible inhibition of AChE activities was found to be more potent than chlorfenvinphos that cause irreversible inhibition following in vitro exposure. Contrary, carbaryl was less potent than chlorfenvinphos after in vivo exposure possibly due to more rapid biotransformation of carbaryl than chlorfenvinphos. Findings from this study have demonstrated that inhibition of AChE activity in C. gariepinus is a useful biomarker in assessing aquatic environment contaminated by anticholinesterases. PMID:20169407

  7. Before the curtain falls: endocrine-active pesticides--a German contamination legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Oehlmann, Jörg; Keil, Florian

    2011-01-01

    The European Parliament recently approved a new EU regulation aimed at eliminating the use of pesticides that have unwanted endocrine-disrupting properties. The test criteria for these chemicals are slated to be finalized by 2013. For this reason, in this review, we have evaluated the meta data of lists and databanks that address pesticides with potentially endocrine-disrupting properties, and have checked which of the 250 active ingredients currently in use in Germany are affected. Azoles, dithio-carbamates/carbamates, and pyrethroids were most frequently rated as endocrine-active ingredients. In Germany, assessments have shown that total environmental pesticide emission is equivalent to approximately 0.1% of total pesticide use.Courtyard drainage and field runoff are regarded to constitute the most important sources of pesticide emission into the aquatic environment. In addition, in several investigations of drinking- and groundwater contamination, various pesticide-active ingredients and their metabolites were confirmed to be contaminants. Water suppliers recorded the following pesticides or their metabolites as being most frequently detected in drinking water: atrazine, desethylatrazine, diuron, simazine, isoproturon,and its dichlobenil metabolite 2,6-dichlorobenzamide. Surface water contamination results mainly from substances that are no longer approved by EU pesticide regulation. The most frequently detected pesticides in streaming waters that are still authorized were bentazone, diuron, glyphosate, isoproturon, MCPA, mecoprop,metamitron, pendimethalin, and tebuconazole. Pesticide residues in comestible goods of herbal origin are periodically detected in all EU member countries. The European Commission recently published results showing that 54% of all monitoring samples were devoid of positive findings. Of samples showing detectable residues, 42% were below, and 4.4% exceeded the EUMRLs. Monitoring data over a 10-year period revealed that the percentage of foodstuff without detectable pesticide residues has continuously decreased from 64 to 51.5%. In Germany, herbal samples mainly contained residues of maneb, iprodion,procymidone and deltamethrin. Notwithstanding these detections, chronic health risk evaluations indicated that there were no violations of ADI values. However,for carbaryl, methomyl, and procymidone, ARfDs were exceeded substantially for intake of grapefruit and bell peppers. As a result, the EU withdrew the methomyl authorization in 2008 and revised procymidone guideline values. PMID:21541850

  8. Leaching and degradation of pesticides in groundwater layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date, most of the published data on pesticides and soil describe the fate of environmental contaminants in the upper soil layers, where low transportation, high adsorption and high microbial degradation occur. In contrast, few data are available for groundwater layers (to a depth of 5 m) with filtration media such as sand or stony layers. Laboratory testing systems were developed that allow examinations to be carried out under conditions that are close to natural. These include original sands and stones from the relevant groundwater filtration areas, original water from the same areas, and measurement of the velocity of water migrations. The temperature and pH were determined and exact analyses of the sand quality and particle size were made prior to the experiments. To produce accurate data on leaching and adsorption, and to identify the degradation products more easily, 14C labelled pesticides were applied. To determine the column characteristics, tritium labelled water was used. The following 12 pesticides were investigated: the carbamate insecticide, carbofuran; chlorinated hydrocarbons, lindane, DDT and DDE; phosphoric acid esters, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion and parathion; phenylurea herbicides, diuron and monolinuron; the triazine herbicide, terbutylazine; and the novel chloronicotinyl insecticide, imidacloprid. Although the recovery data of the individual pesticides were similar in the eluates of the two different sand types, in most cases e two different sand types, in most cases the elution curves differed significantly. The different degradation rates and procedures for the same pesticide were clearly shown by the significantly different concentration values. Concerning elution and degradation, the behaviour of the chemicals differed, even if they belonged to the same class of bioactive compound. Furthermore, the behaviour of the same chemical differed in different types of sand. Because of the low transportation velocity, and the subsequent long retention times of the pesticides in the sand medial, microbial degradation (metabolisms) can also take place. (author). 11 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  9. Crystal and molecular structure of carbamate insectides. III. Methomyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takusagawa, F.; Jacobson, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The crystal and molecular structure of methomyl (S-methyl N-((methylcarbamoyl)oxy) thioacetimidate) has been determined by three-dimensional x-ray analysis. It crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2/sub 1//n with cell dimensions a = 13.996 (6), b = 9.678 (3), c = 6.096 (2) A, and ..beta.. = 91.45 (4)/sup 0/. The structure was solved by the heavy-atom technique and refined by full-matrix least-squares procedures to a final discrepancy factor R = 0.054 for 888 observed reflections. The molecule is approximately planar, and the moieties are weakly hydrogen bonded to one another along the b direction. The C-O single bond length was found to be somewhat lengthened (1.371 A) relative to the equivalent distance found in carboxylic acids. Comparison of the general features of the carbamate group in methomyl, aldicarb, and Mesurol suggest a possible correlation of both C-O single bond distance and angle opposite the doubly bonded oxygen with LD/sub 50/ values. Results of CNDO molecular orbital calculations are also given for these three carbamate insecticides.

  10. Crystal and molecular structure of carbamate insecticides. III. Methomyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takusagawa, F.; Jacobson, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The crystal and molecular structure of methomyl (S-methyl N-((methylcarbamoyl)oxy)thioacetimidate) has been determined by three-dimensional x-ray analysis. It crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2/sub 1//n with cell dimensions a = 13.996 (6), b = 9.678 (3), c = 6.096 (2) A, and ..beta.. = 91.45 (4)/sup 0/. The structure was solved by the heavy-atom technique and refined by full-matrix least-squares procedures to a final discrepancy factor R = 0.054 for 888 observed reflections. The molecule is approximately planar, and the moieties are weakly hydrogen bonded to one another along the b direction. The C-O single bond length was found to be somewhat lengthened (1.371 A) relative to the equivalent distance found in carboxylic acids. Comparison of the general features of the carbamate group in methomyl, aldicarb, and Mesurol suggest a possible correlation of both C-O single bond distance and angle opposite the doubly bonded oxygen with LD/sub 50/ values. Results of CNDO molecular orbital calculations are also given for these three carbamate insecticides.

  11. Development and validation of a multi-residue analytical methodology to determine the presence of selected pesticides in water through liquid chromatography

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia H. G., Brondi; Fernando M., Lanças.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho uma metodologia analítica é descrita para determinar a presença de multi-residuos de pesticidas utilizados na cultura da cana de açúcar (tebuthiuron, hexazinona, diuron, 2,4-D e ametrina), em fontes de água de abastecimento. Os analitos foram isolados da matriz água, através das [...] seguintes técnicas: extração liquido-liquido (LLE), utilizando diclorometano como solvente; extração em fase sólida (SPE), utilizando C18 como suporte sólido e acetonitrila como solvente para condicionamento da fase e eluição dos analitos; e extração com fluido supercrítico (SFE), utilizando C18 como suporte sólido e CO2 no estado supercrítico como solvente de extração. Análise cromatográfica foi feita por cromatografia liquida de alta eficiência (HPLC) com detector ultravioleta, utilizando acetonitrila/água como fase móvel. Dentre as três técnicas de extração avaliadas, os melhores resultados foram obtidos com extração liquido-liquido e extração em fase sólida. Abstract in english In the present work an analytical methodology is described to determine the presence of multi-residues of selected pesticides used in sugar-cane cultures (tebuthiuron, hexazinone, diuron, 2,4-D and ametrine), in source of drinking water. The analytes were isolated from the water matrix through the f [...] ollowing techniques: liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using dichloromethane as solvent; solid phase extraction (SPE) using C18 as solid support and acetonitrile as solvent to condition the solid phase and elution of the analytes; and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using C18 as solid support and CO2 in supercritical state as extractant solvent. The chromatographic analysis was done by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ultraviolet detector and using acetonitrile/water as mobile phase. Among the three evaluated extraction techniques, the best results were obtained with both liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction.

  12. Pesticide Product Label System

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  13. Pesticides and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people like children , pregnant women and sick or aging populations may be more sensitive to the effects of pesticides than others. To reduce the risk of health problems from pesticides there are several things you can ...

  14. Groundbreaking Pesticide Ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2011-07-01

    Learn how one child's willingness to share her experience of life-threatening exposure to lawn pesticides helped inspire a citywide ban of pesticides for lawn or garden use, in this video segment adapted from Playing with Poison.

  15. Pesticides poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  16. Pesticide exposure - Indian scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intellion, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides

  17. Development and validation of a multi-residue screening method for veterinary drugs, their metabolites and pesticides in meat using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huimin; Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Xie, Shuyu; Pan, Yuanhu; Liu, Zhenli; Huang, Lingli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2015-01-01

    A rapid multi-residue screening method that includes 128 veterinary anti-parasitic drugs and metabolites in meat of chicken, porcine and bovine has been developed. The scope of the method focuses on screening the following main families of veterinary anti-parasitic drugs: avermectines, benzimidazoles, the polyether ionophore, anti-tapeworm, anti-trematode, anti-piroplasmosis and chemical classes of coccodiostats. The method described a QuEChERS sample preparation procedure prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. The modified QuEChERS technology minimises sample complexity and ion suppression effects. The method was validated according to European Union guidelines (2002/657/EC) for a quantitative screening method. The validation results demonstrate that the described LC-MS/MS method provides sensitive, repeatable and meets residue screening monitoring requirements. PMID:25632989

  18. Paclitaxel C-10 carbamates: potential candidates for the treatment of neurodegenerative tauopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Ballatore, Carlo; Hyde, Edward; Deiches, Robert F.; –y Lee, Virginia M.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Huryn, Donna; Smith, Amos B.

    2007-01-01

    A series of paclitaxel C-10 carbamates were synthesized and evaluated in a bi-directional permeability assay in comparison with paclitaxel and the blood-brain barrier-permeable C-10 ester derivative, TX-67. A number of the carbamates were found not to be substrates for Pgp. Moreover, when tested for Pgp-inhibitory potential, representative compounds proved to be devoid of Pgp interactions. Side–by–side comparison between TX-67 and the corresponding C-10 carbamate, CNDR-3, revealed a signi...

  19. Safe Disposal of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safe Disposal of Pesticides Esta página Web está disponible en español The best way to dispose of small amounts of excess pesticides is ... 1-800-CLEANUP. State and local laws regarding pesticide disposal may be stricter than the Federal requirements ...

  20. Pesticide National Synthesis Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pesticide National Synthesis Project homepage offers a number of publications and reports on pesticides in the Hydrologic System. The site also features data sets, national maps of pesticide use, and some special topic reports, as well as information on the Project and its staff.

  1. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion, two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady’s finger and brinjal. Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (<0.01 to 0.36 mg/kg. Acephate, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL. Hazard risk index (HRI for ethion (10.12 and carbaryl (1.09 was found in lady’s finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.

  2. Determination of biocides and pesticides by on-line solid phase extraction coupled with mass spectrometry and their behaviour in wastewater and surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focused on the input of hydrophilic biocides into the aquatic environment and on the efficiency of their removal in conventional wastewater treatment by a mass flux analysis. A fully automated method consisting of on-line solid phase extraction coupled to LC-ESI-MS/MS was developed and validated for the simultaneous trace determination of different biocidal compounds (1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one (BIT), 3-Iodo-2-propynylbutyl-carbamate (IPBC), irgarol 1051 and 2-N-octyl-4-isothiazolinone (octhilinone, OIT), carbendazim, diazinon, diuron, isoproturon, mecoprop, terbutryn and terbutylazine) and pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole) in wastewater and surface water. In the tertiary effluent, the highest average concentrations were determined for mecoprop (1010 ng/L) which was at comparable levels as the pharmaceuticals diclofenac (690 ng/L) and sulfamethoxazole (140 ng/L) but 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the other biocidal compounds. Average eliminations for all compounds were usually below 50%. During rain events, increased residual amounts of biocidal contaminants are discharged to receiving surface waters. - Incomplete removal of biocides and pesticides during wastewater treatment.

  3. Pesticide residues in canned foods, fruits, and vegetables: the application of Supercritical Fluid Extraction and chromatographic techniques in the analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Saeid, Mohamed H

    2003-12-11

    Multiple pesticide residues have been observed in some samples of canned foods, frozen vegetables, and fruit jam, which put the health of the consumers at risk of adverse effects. It is quite apparent that such a state of affairs calls for the need of more accurate, cost-effective, and rapid analytical techniques capable of detecting the minimum concentrations of the multiple pesticide residues. The aims of this paper were first, to determine the effectiveness of the use of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) techniques in the analysis of the levels of pesticide residues in canned foods, vegetables, and fruits; and second, to contribute to the promotion of consumer safety by excluding pesticide residue contamination from markets. Fifteen different types of imported canned and frozen fruits and vegetables samples obtained from the Houston local food markets were investigated. The major types of pesticides tested were pyrethroids, herbicides, fungicides, and carbamates. By using these techniques, the overall data showed 60.82% of the food samples had no detection of any pesticide residues under this investigation. On the other hand, 39.15% different food samples were contaminated by four different pyrethroid residues +/- RSD% ranging from 0.03 +/- 0.005 to 0.05 +/- 0.03 ppm, of which most of the pyrethroid residues were detected in frozen vegetables and strawberry jam. Herbicide residues in test samples ranged from 0.03 +/- 0.005 to 0.8 +/- 0.01 ppm. Five different fungicides, ranging from 0.05 +/- 0.02 to 0.8 +/- 0.1 ppm, were found in five different frozen vegetable samples. Carbamate residues were not detected in 60% of investigated food samples. It was concluded that SFE and SFC techniques were accurate, reliable, less time consuming, and cost effective in the analysis of imported canned foods, fruits, and vegetables and are recommended for the monitoring of pesticide contaminations. PMID:14755112

  4. Oxidative stress responses in blood and gills of Carassius auratus exposed to the mancozeb-containing carbamate fungicide Tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrak, Olga I; Atamaniuk, Tetiana M; Husak, Viktor V; Drohomyretska, Ivanna Z; Storey, Janet M; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2012-11-01

    Intensive use of pesticides, particularly dithiocarbamates, in agriculture often leads to contamination of freshwater ecosystems. To our knowledge, the mechanisms of toxicity to fish by the carbamate fungicide Tattoo that contains mancozeb [ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate)] have not been studied. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Tattoo on goldfish gills and blood, tissues that would have close early contact with the pollutant. Exposure of goldfish Carassius auratus to 3, 5 or 10mgL(-1) of Tattoo for 96h resulted in moderate lymphopenia (by 8 percent) with a concomitant increase in both stab (by 66-88 percent) and segmented (by 166 percent) neutrophils. An increase in the content of protein carbonyl groups in blood (by 137-184 percent) together with decreased levels of protein thiols (by 23 percent) and an enhancement of lipid peroxide concentrations (by 29 percent) in gills after exposure to 10mgL(-1) of Tattoo demonstrated the induction of mild oxidative stress in response to Tattoo exposure. At the same time, the activities of selected antioxidant enzymes were enhanced in gills: superoxide dismutase by 18-25 percent and catalase by 27 percent. A 34 percent increment in low molecular mass thiol concentrations (mainly represented by glutathione) also occurred in gills and could be related to increased activity (by 13-30 percent) of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The results indicate that Tattoo exposure perturbs free radical processes, i.e. induces mild oxidative stress and enhances the activity of certain antioxidant and associated enzymes in goldfish gills. It is clear that goldfish respond to the presence of waterborne pesticide by adjusting antioxidant defenses through upregulation of activities of antioxidant and associated enzymes. PMID:22963715

  5. Ecological risk of pesticide residues in the British Columbia environment: 1973-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    An updated ecological risk assessment was conducted to re-evaluate and review the overall risk of pesticide residues to certain aquatic life. The focus was the impact on offsite non-target, freshwater organisms of pesticide operational sprays in British Columbia from 1973 until 2012. The values of risk quotients for pesticides of selected indicator organisms were determined to measure the effect. When compared with organophosphorus, carbamate, and other miscellaneous pesticides, this risk assessment analysis suggests that the historical use of persistent and highly toxic organochlorine pesticides posed, and continue to pose, a deleterious ecological risk. The risk is both short-term acute and long-term sub-acute, chronic toxicity to offsite, non-target aquatic invertebrates and juvenile salmonid fish. Data indicated that these organisms were, and remain, subjected to harmful effects of pesticide residues to varying degrees. Most vulnerable were, and also are, benthic organisms inhabiting bottom sediments. This substrate is the natural sink for persistent pesticide residues, predominantly organochlorine pesticides from historical use, as well as dioxins, furans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from wood preservatives, and other sources. Environment Canada's main aquatic protection strategy was a 10 metre no-treatment buffer zone, augmented with an additional appropriate setback along shorelines of fishery and wildlife resource-sensitive water bodies. This study discusses why this guideline was necessary, useful and effective, but was only partially successful. The physical-chemical properties of pesticide residues, from either an individual compound or different compounds in combination, also influence the nature of biological impacts on non-target, aquatic organisms. Few studies have been conducted in British Columbia aquatic environments to investigate the significance of this aspect. PMID:23431973

  6. Toxic effects of pesticide mixtures at a molecular level: Their relevance to human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Toxic effects of pesticide mixtures can be independent, dose addition or interaction. ? Metabolic interactions involve inhibition or induction of detoxifying enzymes. ? Organophosphates can potentiate pyrethroid, carbaryl and triazine toxicity. ? Synergism occurs when two active pesticides elicit greater than additive toxicity. ? Endocrine disruptors have the potential for additivity rather than synergism. - Abstract: Pesticides almost always occur in mixtures with other ones. The toxicological effects of low-dose pesticide mixtures on the human health are largely unknown, although there are growing concerns about their safety. The combined toxicological effects of two or more components of a pesticide mixture can take one of three forms: independent, dose addition or interaction. Not all mixtures of pesticides with similar chemical structures produce additive effects; thus, if they act on multiple sites their mixtures may produce different toxic effects. The additive approach also fails when evaluating mixtures that involve a secondary chemical that changes the toxicokinetics of the pesticide as a result of its increased activation or decreased detoxification, which is followed by an enhanced or reduced toxicity, respectively. This review addresses a number of toxicological interactions of pesticide mixtures at a molecular level. Examples of such interactions include the postulated mechanisms for the potentiation of pyrethroid, carbaryl and triazine herbicides toxicity by organophosphates; how the toxicity of some organophosphates can be potentiated by other organophosphates or by previous exposure to organochlorines; the synergism between pyrethroid and carbamate compounds and the antagonism between triazine herbicides and prochloraz. Particular interactions are also addressed, such as those of pesticides acting as endocrine disruptors, the cumulative toxicity of organophosphates and organochlorines resulting in estrogenic effects and the promotion of organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy

  7. Biofilters to treat the pesticides wastes from spraying applications: results after 4 years of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, O; De Vleeschouwer, C; Cors, F; Weickmans, B; Huyghebaert, B; Planchon, V; Pussemier, L; Culot, M

    2006-01-01

    Biofilters were developed in order to eliminate or reduce the quantity of pesticides from rinsing and cleaning waters of sprayers. Biofilters consist in 1, 2 or 3 plastic containers of 1 m3 placed in a vertical pile and containing a substrate elaborated from a homogenised mixture of local soil, chopped straw and compost able to absorb and degrade the pesticides. Biofilters are installed near the area for cleaning and rinsing the sprayer and the waste waters are pumped into the system. Since 2002, a pilot study is carried out in Belgium in order to evaluate the efficacy of these systems. Twenty pilot systems were installed since 2002 until 2004 in several farms, agricultural technical centres or schools and in a municipal maintenance service. The efficacy of the biofilters was studied for several chemical classes of herbicides (sulfonylurea, aryloxyalcanoic acids, chloroacetanilides), insecticides (pyrethroids, carbamates) and fungicides (dicarboximides, phenylamides, triazoles and strobilurines). The balance of the inputs and the outputs of the pesticides was determined by monitoring the elutes. The degradation kinetic of pesticides into the substrate was evaluated by analysing the pesticides into the substrate. The microbiological activity of the substrate was also evaluated by measuring respiration and some indirect parameters like dry matter content, Kjeldahl nitrogen content, organic carbon content and biological oxygen demand (BOD). Results obtained until now after four years of experiments have showed an overall good efficacy (retention) of pesticides by the biofilter and a high degradation rate for the majority of pesticides. Biofilters permit to reduce highly the quantity of pesticides from rinsing and cleaning waters of sprayers and contribute significantly to the reduction of the contamination of surface water. Biofilters are now registered by the Ministry of Agriculture and Environment of the Walloon Region in Belgium and are recommended to pesticides users. PMID:17390768

  8. Quality Control Of Selected Pesticides With GC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The practical quality control of selected pesticides with GC is treated. Detailed descriptions are given on materials and methods used, including sample preparation and GC operating conditions. The systematic validation of multi methods is described, comprising performance characteristics in routine analysis, like selectivity, specificity etc. This is illustrated by chromatograms, calibration curves and tables derived from real laboratory data. (author)

  9. Use of an ionic liquid-based surfactant as pseudostationary phase in the analysis of carbamates by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Casado, Carmen; Moreno-González, David; García-Campaña, Ana M; del Olmo-Iruela, Monsalud

    2015-03-01

    The applicability of an ionic liquid-based cationic surfactant 1-dodecyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate (C12 MImBF4 ) as pseudostationary phase in MEKC has been evaluated for the analysis of 11 carbamate pesticides (promecarb, carbofuran, metolcarb, fenobucarb, aldicarb, propoxur, asulam, benomyl, carbendazim, ethiofencarb, isoprocarb) in juice samples. Under optimum conditions (separation buffer, 35 mM NaHCO3 and 20 mM C12 MImBF4 , pH 9.0; capillary temperature 25°C; voltage -22 kV) the analysis was carried out in less than 12 min, using hydrodynamic injection (50 mbar for 7.5 s) and detection at 200 nm. For the extraction of these CRBs from juice samples, a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) procedure has been proposed, by optimization of variables affecting the efficiency of the extraction. Following this treatment, sample throughput was approximately 12 samples per hour, obtaining a preconcentration factor of 20. Matrix-matched calibration curves were established using tomato juice as representative matrix (from 5 to 250 ?g/L for CBZ, BY, PX, CF, FEN, ETH, ISP, and 25-250 ?g/L for ASL, ALD, PRC, MTL), obtaining quantification limits ranging from 1 to 18 ?g/L and recoveries from 70 to 96%, with RSDs lower than 9%. PMID:25546365

  10. In vitro inhibition of acetylcholinesterase from four marine species by organophosphates and carbamates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galgani, F.; Bocquene, G. (Institut Francais de Recherche pour l' Exploitation, Nantes (France))

    1990-08-01

    The literature on the biological, physical, and pharmaceutical chemistry of cholinesterase is considerable and includes data on activators and inhibitors. Most of the work on specific anticholinesterasic agents has been concerned with carbamates and organophosphates. Because of the sensitivity of acetylcholinesterase to carbamates and organophosphates, the enzyme has been used as a biochemical indicator of pollution by these agents. However, the chemical reactivity of such chemicals has not been correlated with their effect on Ache and it is impossible to accurately predict biological effects based only on structure. The objectives of this study were to investigate the sensitivity of various marine animals to both organo-phosphates and carbamates. The study was conducted by assessing the in vitro effect of five organophosphates and three carbamates on acetylcholinesterase activity from the muscle of the shrimp Palaemon serratus, the fishes Scomber and Pleuronectes platessa, and from the whole mussels Mytilus edulis. All these species could be used for the monitoring of effect of pollutants.

  11. Total syntheses of oxygenated brazanquinones via regioselective homologous anionic Fries rearrangement of benzylic O-carbamates

    OpenAIRE

    Slana, Glaucia Barbosa Candido Alves; Azevedo, Maria?ngela Soares; Lopes, Rosa?ngela Sabattini Capella; Lopes, Cla?udio Cerqueira; Cardoso, Jari Nobrega

    2006-01-01

    Using new variations of anionic aromatic chemistry, the total synthesis of oxygenated brazanquinones (1a-1c), derived from ?-brasan, a natural product isolated from Caesalpina echinata, via carbamates 2a-2c is described.

  12. Distribution of pesticides in n-hexane/water and n-hexane/acetonitrile systems and estimation of possibilities of their extraction isolation and preconcentration from various matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayats, M F; Leschev, S M; Petrashkevich, N V; Zayats, M A; Kadenczki, L; Szitás, R; Szemán Dobrik, H; Keresztény, N

    2013-04-24

    Distribution of 150 most widely used pesticides of different chemical classes (amides, anilinopirimidines, aromatics, benzenesulfonates, carbamates, dicarboximides, organophosphorus compounds, phenyl esters, phenylureas, pyrazoles, pyrethroids, pyrimidines, strobilurins, sulfamides, triazines, triazoles, etc.) in n-hexane/water and n-hexane/acetonitrile systems was investigated at 25°C. Distribution constants of pesticides (P) have been calculated as ratio of pesticide concentration in n-hexane to its concentration in water or acetonitrile phase. HPLC and GC methods were used for pesticides determination in phases. It was found that the overwhelming majority of pesticides are hydrophobic, i.e. in n-hexane/water system LgP?0, and the difference in LgP values can reach 9.1 units. Replacement of water for acetonitrile leads to dramatic fall of LgP values reaching 9.5 units. The majority of LgP values in this case are negative and their differences is strongly leveled in comparison with a hexane/water system. Thus, maximal difference in pesticides LgP values for n-hexane/acetonitrile system is 3.2 units. It is shown that n-hexane can be used for selective and efficient extraction and preconcentration of pesticides from water matrices. On the other hand, acetonitrile is effective for the isolation and preconcentration of pesticides from hydrocarbon and vegetable oil matrices. The distribution constants described in the paper may be effectively used for the estimation of possibilities of extraction isolation, preconcentration and separation of pesticides. PMID:23567114

  13. Conformation analysis and computation of energy barrier to rotation about Csbnd N bond in para-methylphenyl carbamate and its solvent dependence in comparison with tertiary carbamates and tertiary amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarresi-Alam, Ali Reza; Nowroozi, Alireza; Najafi, Parisa; Movahedifar, Fahimeh; Hajiabadi, Hossein

    2014-11-01

    Barrier to rotation about conjugated Csbnd N bond in p-Methyl phenyl carbamate (PMPC) was computed 14-16 kcal/mol at three levels of HF, B3LYP and MP2 using 6-311++G?? basis set. The solvent effect and energy barriers about Csbnd N bond in PMPC were compared to the case of tertiary carbamates and tertiary amides. Moreover, it is shown that in primary carbamates such as PMPC and tertiary amides isomerisation process passes through TS2 and TS1 respectively, while in tertiary carbamates goes through a combination of both TSs. Furthermore, X-ray analysis which is reported for the first time for primary aryl carbamates demonstrated that the inclusive plane of carbamate functional group is perpendicular to the plane of phenyl ring. The results of computations are completely in agreement with the X-ray data.

  14. Palladium(II)-catalyzed meta-selective direct arylation of O-?-naphthyl carbamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingchang; Liu, Qingwen; Liu, Xufei; Zhang, Suoqin; Jiang, Pingping; Wang, Yanxiang; Luo, Shengyuan; Li, Yang; Wang, Qifeng

    2015-01-25

    Selective meta-arylation of O-?-naphthyl carbamate has been accomplished using Pd(OAc)2 as a catalyst precursor and K2S2O8 with AgOAc as the oxidant. A range of aryl boronic acids could be introduced in moderate to good yields. Mechanistic investigation shows that the carbamate substituent has a unique effect and the reaction undergoes an ortho-carbometallation/meta-direct arylation process. PMID:25478680

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Carbamates as Prophylactic Agents against Organophosphate Intoxication Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Chatterjee

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigates the effects of two well-known carbamates, physostigmine and pyridostigmine against organophosphorous compound and nerve gas toxicity. Physostigmine pretreatment for 30 min enhanced the survival time of rats against DFP intoxication whereas it did not have any effect with sarin poisoning. However, pyridostigmine pretreatment did not produce any significant effect on survival time either against DFP or sarin intoxication. Treatment with atropine along with carbamates further enhanced significantly the survival time against DFP poisoning.

  16. Cumulative risk assessment of the exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides in the dutch diet

    OpenAIRE

    Boon, P. E.; Voet, H.; Raaij, M. T. M.; Klaveren, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    We report the acute cumulative exposure to organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) and carbamates in the Dutch population and young children (1-6 years) via the diet. Residue data were derived from Dutch monitoring programmes performed during 2003-2005, and food consumption levels from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 1997/1998. The relative potency factor (RPF) approach was used to cumulate the exposure to OPs and carbamates using acephate and oxamyl as index compound respectively. The...

  17. Characterization of tunable piperidine and piperazine carbamates as inhibitors of endocannabinoid hydrolases

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Jonathan Z.; Jin, Xin; Adibekian, Alexander; Li, Weiwei; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2010-01-01

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are two enzymes from the serine hydrolase superfamily that degrade the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide, respectively. We have recently discovered that MAGL and FAAH are both inhibited by carbamates bearing an N-piperidine/piperazine group. Piperidine/piperazine carbamates show excellent in vivo activity, raising brain endocannabinoid levels and producing CB1-dependent behavioral effects in mice, sugges...

  18. Synthesis, characterization, and self-assembly of bicarbamates and tri-carbamates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv Kumar

    Recent decades have witnessed the discovery of a wide variety of nanomaterials. These nanomaterials vary from zero-dimensional nanodots to three-dimensional nanoflowers. However the properties of these nanomaterials have not been fully explored. A majority of the nonmaterials discovered so far are inorganic. There is little information about nanomaterials which are entirely based on organic compounds. Therefore this thesis focuses on the synthesis of two-dimensional nanosheets based on organic frameworks. In this study, a number of two-armed and three-armed carboxamides and carbamates have been synthesized, characterized and self-assembly process was studied. The self-assembly of these amides and carbamates were studied in a large number of single solvents as well as combination of solvents. Two-armed amides and carbamates having aromatic cores are found to have poor solubility in all but DMF and DMSO. The two-armed amides and carbamates having linker alkyl chain are found to have good solubility and crystal formation in a few solvents, but the quality of the crystal is not good enough for the XRD analysis. The polar solvents along with a trace amount of water are found to be more effective in getting perfect crystals of three-armed carbamates for X-ray crystallography. Carbamates with side-arms of three carbons and a cyclohexyl ring form perfect quality crystals in EtOAc, MeCN, and THF:H2O. In the process of growing single crystal several crystallization techniques were used. Slow evaporation process is found to be more efficient in getting good quality crystal. The crystal structures of carbamates have been determined as a part of the project. The morphology of the nanosheets was also studied by the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The TEM image of the carbamates reveals that its morphology is two-dimensional sheet. Additionally, data from powdered XRD have also revealed the formation of same or similar crystalline isoform from a variety of conditions.

  19. Carbolithiation of N-alkenyl ureas and N-alkenyl carbamates

    OpenAIRE

    Julien Lefranc; Alberto Minassi; Jonathan Clayden

    2013-01-01

    N-Alkenyl ureas and N-alkenyl carbamates, like other N-acyl enamines, are typically nucleophilic at their ?-carbon. However, by incorporating an ?-aryl substituent, we show that they will also undergo attack at the ?-carbon by organolithium nucleophiles, leading to the products of carbolithiation. The carbolithiation of E and Z N-alkenyl ureas is diastereospecific, and N-tert-butoxycarbonyl N-alkenyl carbamates give carbolithiation products that may be deprotected in situ to pr...

  20. Carbolithiation of N-alkenyl ureas and N-alkenyl carbamates

    OpenAIRE

    Lefranc, Julien; Minassi, Alberto; Clayden, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    N-Alkenyl ureas and N-alkenyl carbamates, like other N-acyl enamines, are typically nucleophilic at their ?-carbon. However, by incorporating an ?-aryl substituent, we show that they will also undergo attack at the ?-carbon by organolithium nucleophiles, leading to the products of carbolithiation. The carbolithiation of E and Z N-alkenyl ureas is diastereospecific, and N-tert-butoxycarbonyl N-alkenyl carbamates give carbolithiation products that may be deprotected in situ to provide a new ...

  1. Theoretical study of influence of structure of carbamates on their thermal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energetic and structural characteristics of carbamates of different structure were calculated by the semiempirical quantum-chemical method MINDO/3 [modified intermediate neglect of differential overlap] with geometry optimization of the compounds. The influence was shown of N- and O-substituents on the strength of the bonds, rupturing in both reversible thermal dissociation of the carbamates into isocyanate and alcohol components, and as a result of irreversible thermal decomposition with liberation of CO2, amine and olefin

  2. Characterizing pesticide sorption and degradation in macro scale biopurification systems using column displacement experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of biopurification systems to treat pesticide-contaminated water was previously studied in microcosms. To validate the obtained results, macrocosm systems were set-up. Four pesticides (linuron, isoproturon, bentazone, and metalaxyl) were continuously applied to ten different organic substrate mixes. Retention of the pesticides was similar and in some cases slightly lower in the macrocosms compared to the microcosms. Differences in retention between the different mixes were however minimal. Moreover, the classification of the retention strength of the pesticides was identical to that observed in microcosms: linuron > isoproturon > metalaxyl > bentazone. Monod kinetics were used to describe delayed degradation, which occurred for isoproturon, metalaxyl and bentazone. No breakthrough of linuron was observed, thus, this pesticide was appointed as the most retained and/or degraded pesticide, followed by isoproturon, metalaxyl and bentazone. Finally, most of the matrix mixes efficient in degrading or retaining pesticides were mixes containing dried cow manure. - Transport of pesticides in macrocosm containing organic substrates

  3. Resíduos de pesticidas em águas superficiais de área de nascente do Rio São Lourenço-MT: validação de método por extração em fase sólida e cromatografia líquida / Pesticide residues in surface waters at the headwaters of São Lourenço River-MT, Brazil: validation of a method using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anna Carolina Araújo, Ribeiro; Eliana Freire Gaspar de Carvalho, Dores; Ricardo Santos Silva, Amorim; Carolina, Lourencetti.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english A multiresidue method using HPLC/DAD for the determination of fourteen pesticides in water based on SPE, using SDVB (styrene divynilbenzene copolymer) as adsorbent was validated. Recoveries from 61 to 120%, relative standard deviation between 2 and 15% and detection limits from 0.07 to 0.75 µg L-1 w [...] ere obtained. It was applied to 66 surface water samples collected in a degraded area at the headwaters of São Lourenço river, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Eight pesticides were detected in concentrations ranging from 0.15 to 35.25 µg L-1. Considering ecotoxicological data, carbendazim and carbofuran may represent a risk to aquatic organisms. These results draw attention to the contamination of this vulnerable degraded area.

  4. Resíduos de pesticidas em águas superficiais de área de nascente do Rio São Lourenço-MT: validação de método por extração em fase sólida e cromatografia líquida Pesticide residues in surface waters at the headwaters of São Lourenço River-MT, Brazil: validation of a method using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carolina Araújo Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiresidue method using HPLC/DAD for the determination of fourteen pesticides in water based on SPE, using SDVB (styrene divynilbenzene copolymer as adsorbent was validated. Recoveries from 61 to 120%, relative standard deviation between 2 and 15% and detection limits from 0.07 to 0.75 µg L-1 were obtained. It was applied to 66 surface water samples collected in a degraded area at the headwaters of São Lourenço river, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Eight pesticides were detected in concentrations ranging from 0.15 to 35.25 µg L-1. Considering ecotoxicological data, carbendazim and carbofuran may represent a risk to aquatic organisms. These results draw attention to the contamination of this vulnerable degraded area.

  5. Comparative assessment of pesticide residues in grain, soil, and water from IPM and non-IPM trials of basmati rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sumitra; Mukherjee, Irani; Kumar, Aman; Garg, D K

    2014-01-01

    The integrated pest management (IPM) modules of pesticide schedule on Basmati rice were validated at field experiments conducted in Northern India for consecutive 3 years (2005-2008). The pesticide residues were found below the detectable limit (basmati rice as safe and economical with pesticide residue-free rice grains. PMID:23996682

  6. POEM: PESTICIDE ORCHARD ECOSYSTEM MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pesticide Orchard Ecosystem Model (POEM) is a mathematical model of organophosphate pesticide movement in an apple orchard ecosystem. In addition submodels on invertebrate population dynamics are included. The fate model allows the user to select the pesticide, its applicatio...

  7. Consumer Products Treated with Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pesticides are widely used in the manufacture of textiles, plastics, paper, adhesives, and coatings. Any pesticide-treated ... Top of page Enforcement FIFRA does not allow companies to make public health pesticidal claims for any ...

  8. Ban of Neonicotinoid Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Inthasen, Prapaporn

    2014-01-01

    European Union (EU) has banned the use of three pesticides: clothianidin, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid in bee attractive crops. These pesticides all belong to a pesticide group called neonicotinoids, and they are believed to be a contributing factor in the declining bee population. The ban was enforced in EU the 1st of December 2013. Neonicotinoids (clothianidin and thiamethoxam) are an important part of the control of pests in oilseed rape production in Danish agriculture. The neonicotinoid...

  9. Health Risk Associated with Pesticide Contamination of Fish from the Densu River Basin in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Adom

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Densu River Basin constitutes one of the largest agricultural areas in Ghana. The practice of using pesticides such as organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids and several others in agriculture and public health programs has raised concerns about potentially adverse effects on human health and the environment. In this study, a field survey was conducted to assess farmers’ knowledge of safe handling and use of pesticides. Residues of pesticides in fish samples as well as the potential health risk associated with exposure to these pesticides were also evaluated. Data obtained from the field survey indicate that a very high proportion of farmers are at high risk of pesticide poisoning from occupational exposure. More than 90% of farm workers do not practice safety precaution during pesticide formulation and application leading to considerable prevalence of pesticide related illness in this agricultural community. Pesticide residues in fish samples varied greatly; from 0.10 µgKg-1 to 30.90 µgKg-1, consumption of fish and fisheries product from the basin was no zero risk. The estimated dose for aldrin, methoxychlor, ?-chlordane, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, endrin, p'p'-DDT and ?- HCH do not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present in fish samples since the values were lower than toxic thresholds as well as reference dose. However, ?- HCH, heptachlor, ?-endosulfan, endosulfan Sulphate, p'p'-DDE and dieldrin levels exceeded the reference dose, indicating a great potential for systemic toxicity in children who are considered to be the most vulnerable population subgroup.

  10. Optimización de un método para la detección de carbamatos y organofosforados en vegetales / Optimization of a method for the detection of organophosphates and carbamates in vegetables

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karl, Schosinsky; Eugenia María, Quintana Guzmán; Clements, Ruepert.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Debido al alto grado de contaminación por plaguicidas de productos agrícolas y al alto costo que implica su detección se consideró importante optimizar el método de escrutinio de inhibición de colinesterasas humanas en presencia de extractos vegetales. Se demostró que las suspensiones de glóbulos ro [...] jos y plasma son estables al menos por tres meses si se mantienen entre 4 y 8 °C. El reactivo de color es estable por al menos dos años y medio en refrigeración y los sustratos de ambas colinesterasas son estables congelados al menos por dos años. La mezcla del extracto vegetal y los glóbulos rojos o plasma debe incubarse 90 minutos a 37 °C para determinar los porcentajes de inhibición enzimática. Se determinó que los porcentajes de inhibición superiores a 16% en la plasmática y a 21% en la eritrocítica indican presencia de plaguicida en los vegetales. Este método de screening optimizado para detectar la presencia de carbamatos y organofosforados tiene ventaja sobre otros por su bajo costo, facilidad y rapidez de análisis sin requerir de equipo costoso y poco versátil. Esta metodología no cuantifica ni identifica el plaguicida presente pero permite diferenciar entre organofosforados y carbamatos si el periodo de incubación del vegetal con eritrocitos o plasma se prolonga por 24 horas a 20-25 °C. Abstract in english Optimization of the screening method of inhibition of human cholinesterases is considered important because of the high contamination rate of agricultural products with pesticides and its high detection cost. It has been demonstrated that erythrocytes and plasma are stable at least for three months [...] at 4-8 °C. The colour reaction reagent is stable for at least two and a half years at 4-8 °C and the substrate for both cholinesterases is stable when frozen, at least for two years. The solution of vegetable extract and erythrocytes or plasma must be incubated 90 minutes at 37 °C in order to determine the percentages of enzymatic inhibition. It was established that inhibition percentages higher than 16% for the plasmatic solution, and 21% for the erythrocytic solution mean that pesticide is present in vegetables. The advantages of this optimized screening method for the detection of carbamates and organophosphates in vegetables are its low cost and its easy and quick analysis without the need of expensive equipment. This method does not quantify or identify the pesticide, but rather it differentiates organophosphates from carbamates if the incubation time of the vegetable extract with erythrocytes or plasma is maintained at 20- 25 °C for 24 hours.

  11. Optimización de un método para la detección de carbamatos y organofosforados en vegetales Optimization of a method for the detection of organophosphates and carbamates in vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Schosinsky

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Debido al alto grado de contaminación por plaguicidas de productos agrícolas y al alto costo que implica su detección se consideró importante optimizar el método de escrutinio de inhibición de colinesterasas humanas en presencia de extractos vegetales. Se demostró que las suspensiones de glóbulos rojos y plasma son estables al menos por tres meses si se mantienen entre 4 y 8 °C. El reactivo de color es estable por al menos dos años y medio en refrigeración y los sustratos de ambas colinesterasas son estables congelados al menos por dos años. La mezcla del extracto vegetal y los glóbulos rojos o plasma debe incubarse 90 minutos a 37 °C para determinar los porcentajes de inhibición enzimática. Se determinó que los porcentajes de inhibición superiores a 16% en la plasmática y a 21% en la eritrocítica indican presencia de plaguicida en los vegetales. Este método de screening optimizado para detectar la presencia de carbamatos y organofosforados tiene ventaja sobre otros por su bajo costo, facilidad y rapidez de análisis sin requerir de equipo costoso y poco versátil. Esta metodología no cuantifica ni identifica el plaguicida presente pero permite diferenciar entre organofosforados y carbamatos si el periodo de incubación del vegetal con eritrocitos o plasma se prolonga por 24 horas a 20-25 °C.Optimization of the screening method of inhibition of human cholinesterases is considered important because of the high contamination rate of agricultural products with pesticides and its high detection cost. It has been demonstrated that erythrocytes and plasma are stable at least for three months at 4-8 °C. The colour reaction reagent is stable for at least two and a half years at 4-8 °C and the substrate for both cholinesterases is stable when frozen, at least for two years. The solution of vegetable extract and erythrocytes or plasma must be incubated 90 minutes at 37 °C in order to determine the percentages of enzymatic inhibition. It was established that inhibition percentages higher than 16% for the plasmatic solution, and 21% for the erythrocytic solution mean that pesticide is present in vegetables. The advantages of this optimized screening method for the detection of carbamates and organophosphates in vegetables are its low cost and its easy and quick analysis without the need of expensive equipment. This method does not quantify or identify the pesticide, but rather it differentiates organophosphates from carbamates if the incubation time of the vegetable extract with erythrocytes or plasma is maintained at 20- 25 °C for 24 hours.

  12. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...

  13. Pesticide management and their residues in sediments and surface and drinking water in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toan, Pham Van; Sebesvari, Zita; Bläsing, Melanie; Rosendahl, Ingrid; Renaud, Fabrice G

    2013-05-01

    Public concern in Vietnam is increasing with respect to pesticide pollution of the environment and of drinking water resources. While established monitoring programs in the Mekong Delta (MD) focus on the analysis of organochlorines and some organophosphates, the environmental concentrations of more recently used pesticides such as carbamates, pyrethroides, and triazoles are not monitored. In the present study, household level pesticide use and management was therefore surveyed and combined with a one year environmental monitoring program of thirteen relevant pesticides (buprofezin, butachlor, cypermethrin, ?-endosulfan, ?-endosulfan, endosulfan-sulfate, fenobucarb, fipronil, isoprothiolane, pretilachlor, profenofos, propanil, and propiconazole) in surface water, soil, and sediment samples. The surveys showed that household level pesticide management remains suboptimal in the Mekong Delta. As a consequence, a wide range of pesticide residues were present in water, soil, and sediments throughout the monitoring period. Maximum concentrations recorded were up to 11.24 ?g l(-1) in water for isoprothiolane and up to 521 ?g kg(-1) dm in sediment for buprofezin. Annual average concentrations ranged up to 3.34 ?g l(-1) in water and up to 135 ?g kg(-1) dm in sediment, both for isoprothiolane. Occurrence of pesticides in the environment throughout the year and co-occurrence of several pesticides in the samples indicate a considerable chronic exposure of biota and humans to pesticides. This has a high relevance in the delta as water for drinking is often extracted from canals and rivers by rural households (GSO, 2005, and own surveys). The treatment used by the households for preparing surface water prior to consumption (flocculation followed by boiling) is insufficient for the removal of the studied pesticides and boiling can actually increase the concentration of non-volatile pollutants. PMID:23500396

  14. Biochemical response to toxic effects of nudrin pesticide in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of daily oral administrations of 4 mg /kg of the carbamate pesticide nudrin for 28 days on acetylcholine esterase activity in brain and serum, white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), blood hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) levels. Also, its effect on the metabolism of14C-glucose has been also studied. The results obtained demonstrated that nudrin is an acetylcholine esterase inhibitor in both brain and serum. Also, the pesticide induced significant increase in white blood cells and significant decrease in red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit values all over the experimental period. Reduction in the metabolism of14C-glucose was also observed

  15. Optical Biosensor with Multienzyme System Immobilized onto Hybrid Membrane for Pesticides Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov Yotova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A construction of optical biosensor based on simultaneous immobilization of acetylcholinesterase and choline oxidase enzymes for the detection of pesticides residues is described. Different kinds of novel SiO2 hybrid membranes were synthesized to be suitable for optical biosensors using sol-gel techniques. The bioactive component of the sensor consists of a multi-enzyme system including acetylcholinesterase and choline oxidase covalently immobilized on new hybrid membranes. The sensor exhibited a linear response to acetylcholine in a concentration range of 2.5 - 30 mM. Inhibition plots obtained from testing carbamate (carbofuran pesticides exhibited concentration dependent behaviour and showed linear profiles in concentration ranges between 5x10-8 - 5x10-7 M for carbofuran. The factors affecting the constructed optical biosensors were investigated.

  16. Carbamate insecticide methomyl confers cytotoxicity through DNA damage induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanggang, Xiang; Diqiu, Li; Jianzhong, Yuan; Jingmin, Guan; Huifeng, Zhai; Mingan, Shi; Liming, Tao

    2013-03-01

    Carbamate insecticide methomyl could induce genotoxic effects, including micronuclei, chromosome aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges. However, methomyl induction of cytotoxicity through DNA damage is largely unknown. Here we identify cytotoxicity and potential genotoxicity of methomyl in vitro. We have employed alkaline comet assay, ?H2AX foci formation and DNA ladder assay to detected DNA damage and apoptosis of Drosophila S2, HeLa and HEK293 cells. The alkaline comet assay was used to evaluate total DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) in the target cells exposed in vitro to sublethal concentrations of methomyl. As expected, methomyl induced significant concentration-dependent increases in DNA damage of target cells compared with the negative control, as measured by increases in tail length (?m), tail DNA (percentage of the comet tail) and tail moment (arbitrary units). In agreement with the comet assay data, the percentage of ?H2AX positive reaction in HeLa cells also revealed methomyl caused DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, methomyl induced a significant increase of apoptosis in Drosophila S2, HeLa and HEK293 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, as determined by Urea PAGE DNA fragmentation analysis. In conclusion, methomyl is a strongly genotoxic agent that induces cell DNA damage and apoptosis in vitro at these sublethal concentrations. PMID:23266502

  17. Competitive degradation and detoxification of carbamate insecticides by membrane anodic Fenton treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiquan; Lemley, Ann T

    2003-08-27

    The competitive degradation of six carbamate insecticides by membrane anodic Fenton treatment (AFT), a new Fenton treatment technology, was carried out in this study. The carbamates studied were dioxacarb, carbaryl, fenobucarb, promecarb, bendiocarb, and carbofuran. The results indicate that AFT can effectively degrade these insecticides in both single component and multicomponent systems. The carbamates compete for hydroxyl radicals, and their kinetics obey the previously developed AFT kinetic model quite well. Hydroxyl radical reaction rate constants were obtained, and they decrease in the following order: dioxacarb approximately carbaryl > fenobucarb > promecarb > bendiocarb > carbofuran. The AFT is shown to have higher treatment efficiency at higher temperature. Degradation products of the carbamates were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and it appears that degradation can be initiated by hydroxyl radical attack at different sites in the molecule, depending on the individual structure of the compound. Substituted phenols are the commonly seen degradation products. The AFT treatment can efficiently remove the chemical oxygen demand of the carbamate mixture, significantly increasing the biodegradability. Earthworm studies show that the AFT is also an effective detoxification process. PMID:12926887

  18. The enthalpies of formation of alkyl carbamates: Experimental and computational redetermination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Combustion calorimetry was used to redetermine ?fHmo(cr) of methyl and ethyl carbamates. ? ?crgHmo of methyl and ethyl carbamates were redetermined by Calvet Microcalorimetry. ? Gas-phase ?fHmo of the studied compounds have been derived from the experimental values of ?fHmo (cr) and ?crgHmo. ? Gas-phase ?fHmo of the studied compounds have been calculated by computational thermochemistry. ? The obtained ?fHmo(g) for the alkylcarbamates are discussed versus literature values for the same compounds. - Abstract: In the present work, a redetermination of thermochemical data of methyl carbamate and ethyl carbamate was performed by both experimental and computational techniques. Their gas-phase standard (po = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation, ?fHmo(g), at T = 298.15 K, were derived from the standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the crystalline phase, ?fHmo(cr), and from the standard molar enthalpies of sublimation, ?crgHmo at T = 298.15 K, measured, respectively, by static bomb combustion calorimetry and high temperature Calvet microcalorimetry. The experimental rry. The experimental results were compared with computational data, calculated at the G3(MP2)//B3LYP level, as well as with values reported in the literature. At the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory, the molecular structure of both carbamates was obtained.

  19. Different sensitivity of Ca(2+)-ATPase and cholinesterase to pure and commercial pesticides in nervous ganglia of Phyllocaulis soleiformis (Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza da Silva, Rosane; Cognato, Giana de Paula; Vuaden, Fernanda Cenci; Rezende, Maria Fernanda S; Thiesen, Flávia Valladão; Fauth, Maria da Graça; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise; Dias, Renato Dutra

    2003-06-01

    We measured the effects in vitro of pure and commercial pesticides on Ca(2+)-activated ATPase and cholinesterase (ChE) activities in the nervous system of the slug Phyllocaulis soleiformis. The pesticides used in this study included carbamate and organophosphates, which acts as reversible and irreversible anticholinesterases, respectively. Both enzymes were insensitive to pure carbofuran (1 mM), glyphosate (1 mM) and malathion (120 microM). However, the carbamate carbofuran, in the commercial formulation Furandan 350S, inhibited ATPase and ChE activities. The organophosphate glyphosate used in the commercial preparation of Gliz 480CS inhibited ATPase activity and increased cholinesterase activity. These effects are likely due to the action of adjuvant substances of the chemical formulation. The commercial formulation (Malatol 500CE) did not alter enzymes activities. Our results suggest that cholinesterase present in the slug nervous tissue has a different behavior to those identified in vertebrate nervous tissue, since it was insensitive to pure compounds, known as anticholinesterases in vertebrates. Considering the insensitivity of the Ca(2+)-activated ATPase, we suggested that the purinergic neurotransmission and other roles of ATP might not be affected by the pure pesticides tested. PMID:12860061

  20. Application of Multi-Analyte Methods for Pesticide Formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of multi-analyte methods for pesticide formulations by GC analysis is discussed. HPLC was used to determine active ingredients. HPLC elution sequences were related to individual n-octanol/water partition coefficients. Real laboratory data are presented and evaluated with regard to validation requirements. The retention time data of pesticides on different HPLC columns under gradient and isocratic conditions are compared to illustrate the applicability of the methodologies. (author)

  1. New synthesis of carbamate, thiocarbamate and urea type herbicides: preparation of 14C-labelled diuron and EPTC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N,N-dialkyl-carbamic acid-trimethylsilyl-esters were synthesized starting with 14CO2. The new synthesis route is simple and provides good radiochemical yield. Silyl-carbaminates directly or through carbamoyl-halogenides may be used for preparation of labelled herbicides: carbamates, thiocarbamates and ureas. (author)

  2. Time-course, dose-response, and age comparative sensitivity of N-methyl carbamates in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    N-Methyl carbamate insecticides are reversible inhibitors of central and peripheral acetylcholinesterease (ChE). Despite their widespread use, there are few studies of neurotoxicity in young animals. To study potential age-related differences, we evaluated seven carbamates (carba...

  3. Assessment of environmental exposures from agricultural pesticides in childhood leukaemia studies: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides are ubiquitous in environments of many rural communities due to drift from agricultural applications and home/garden use. Studies of childhood leukaemia predominantly relied on retrospective pesticide exposure assessment and parental recall of use or proximity to fields or pesticide applications. Sample size requirements mostly preclude the collection of individual-level exposure information, bio-markers or environmental measurements of pesticides prospectively in cohorts. Yet such measures can be used in nested case-control approaches or for validating exposure models that can be applied to large populations. Recently developed models incorporate geographic information system technology and environmental databases of pesticide and/or crop data to assess exposure. Models developed in California to estimate residential exposures are presented by linking addresses to agricultural pesticide application data and land-use maps. Results from exposure validation and simulation studies and exposure measurement error issues are discussed. (authors)

  4. Effect Of Fenugreek Seed Powder In Toxicity Induced By MALAPHOS And METHAVINE Pesticides In Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides administration to rats led to an enhancement in oxidative stress and generation of free radicals. These free radicals may be involved in the toxicity of some pesticides. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess the effect of pre-treatment of rats with fenugreek seed powder at the dose level of 250 mg/kg b.wt in inhibiting the oxidative damage induced by administration malaphos (organophosphorus) at the dose level of 343.75 mg/kg b.wt and methavine (carbamate) at the dose level of 4 mg/kg b.wt for 6 weeks. Also the present study was carried out to evaluate the strength of fenugreek seed powder and the influence of both pesticides, malaphos and methovine on serum glucose, insuline, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase (?GT), calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorus and iron (Fe) contents. The metabolism of14C-glucose injected 24 hours post-treatments with the two pesticides and fenugreek seed powder were studied. The results obtained demonstrated that the deleterious damage due to malaphos and methavine administration was manifested by the significant elevation in serum glucose, gamma glutamyl transferase (? -GT), calcium (Ca), and iron content. Also, there was significant decrease in insulin level, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin and inorganic phosphorus. On the other hand, the data recorded a reduction in the tracing of metabolizable of14C- glucose which was more pronounced in urine ofse which was more pronounced in urine of rats administrated malaphos compared to those received methavine pesticide. It could be concluded that administration of fenugreek seed powder (FSP) to rats during the treatment with malaphos or methavine pesticide attenuated to a great extent the damaging effects of both pesticides on the here in assayed parameters. According, by fenugreek administration at the used dose may have an indirect physiological effect on the metabolism of14C- glucose.

  5. Inhibition of plasma butyrylcholinesterase activity in the lizard Gallotia galloti palmae by pesticides: a field study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study was performed to evaluate the effect of exposure to organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate (CB) pesticides on the lizard Gallotia galloti palmae. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity was measured in the plasma of 420 lizards collected from agricultural and reference areas on the Island of La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain) in two sampling periods. Exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides was evaluated by a statistical criterion based on a threshold value (two standard deviations below the mean enzyme activity) calculated for the reference group, and a chemical criterion based on the in vitro reactivation of BChE activity using pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride (2-PAM) or after water dilution of the sample. Mean (±SD) BChE activity for lizards from agricultural areas was significantly lower (Fuencaliente site = 2.00 ± 0.98 ?mol min-1 ml-1, Tazacorte site = 2.88 ± 1.08) than that for lizards from the reference areas (Los Llanos site = 3.06 ± 1.17 ?mol min-1 ml-1, Tigalate site = 3.96 ± 1.62). According to the statistical criterion, the number of lizards with BChE depressed was higher at Fuencaliente (22% of males and 25.4% of females) than that sampled at Tazacorte (7.8% of males and 6.2% of females). According to the chemical criterion, Fuencaliente also yielded a higher number of individuals (112 males and 47 females) with BChE activity inhibited by both OP and CB pesticides. CBs appeared to be the pesticides. CBs appeared to be the pesticides most responsible for BChE inhibition because most of the samples showed reactivation of BChE activity after water treatment (63.3% from Fuencaliente and 29% from Tazacorte). We concluded that the use of reactivation techniques on plasma BChE activity is a better and more accurate method for assessing field exposure to OP/CB pesticides in this lizard species than making direct comparisons of enzyme activity levels between sampling areas. - Capsule: Chemical reactivation of lizard BChE activity is a suitable diagnostic method for evaluating field exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides

  6. Solid-state-trapped reactive ammonium carbamate self-derivative salts of prolinamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilborg, Anaëlle; Lanners, Steve; Norberg, Bernadette; Wouters, Johan

    2013-12-01

    Single crystals for two polymorphs of the ammonium carbamate self-derivative salt of prolinamide have been successfully obtained and characterized. Decarbonation of the carbamate salts was monitored by calorimetry, confirming stabilization of the reactive carbonated adducts in the solid state. Sublimation of the salts afforded crystals of prolinamide, leading to the first crystal structure of this otherwise common molecule. Reactivity of the ammonium carbamate self-derivative salt is further illustrated by the observation of a series of derived products, including dehydroprolinamide, a methylene-bridged prolinamide, and a bicyclic derivative. Crystal structures of these products display distinct amidic and/or non-amidic hydrogen bonding. This study emphasizes the reactivity of carbonated amines stabilized in the solid and opens perspectives for a systematic study of (solid-state) reactions involving these trapped reactive species. PMID:24551566

  7. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Usage in Menia El-Kamh Province of Sharkia Governorate in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Assad

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Menia El-Kamh province of the Sharkia Governorate constitutes one of the largest agricultural areas in Egypt. About 88% of the nearly 472,000 people living in this province rely on agricultural activities for subsistence. Several pesticides including organochloride, organophosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides are commonly used in citrus, vegetable and other crop-growing areas to increase agricultural productivity. However, their use has also been associated with several cases of pesticide poisoning. In this research, we conducted a field survey to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the farmer’s community regarding the safe use of pesticides. We also evaluated the residual concentrations of selected pesticides in water, soil, milk, fish, and orange samples, and estimated the potential health risks associated with the exposure to these pesticides. Data obtained from the field survey indicate that more than 95% of farm workers do not practice safety precautions during pesticide formulation and application; leading to a considerable prevalence of pesticide-related illnesses in this agricultural community. Pesticide residues in various environmental samples varied greatly; from below detection levels (3-5 ng to as high as 325 ppb depending on the matrix of interest, and the specific pesticide of concern. The analysis of health risk estimates indicated that chlorpyrifos, DDT, dimethoate, methomyl, and larvin did not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present in water, milk, orange, and/or fish. However, aldicarb, and carbosulfan levels exceeded the reference doses, indicating a great potential for systemic toxicity, especially in children who are considered to be the most vulnerable population subgroup. The upper-bound values of cancer risk from DDT exposure were estimated to be about 8 (adults, and 55 (children excess cancers in a population of one million.

  8. Economic Evaluation of Health Cost of Pesticide Use: Willingness to Pay Method

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Khan, Muhammad Khan

    2009-01-01

    This study highlights the results of contingent valuation method to measure health cost of pesticide use from farmer’s point of view. Analysis shows that farmers have a positive willingness to pay for avoiding pesticide related health risks. Theoretical validity tests show that relevant indicators such as risk perception, previous experience of pesticide related poisoning, education and income are significant predictors for the Positive WTP. From the results it is evident that ...

  9. Pesticides And Farmer Health In Nicaragua: A Willingness To Pay Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Waibel, Hermann; Garming, Hildegard

    2007-01-01

    This study presents an economic valuation of health risks of pesticides among Nicaraguan vegetable farmers. A comprehensive valuation of market and non-market value components of human health is established through farmers? willingness to pay (WTP) for low toxicity pesticides. Results show, that farmers are willing to spend about 28% of current pesticide expenditure for avoiding health risks. The validity of results is established in scope tests and a two-step regression model. WTP depends on...

  10. Infrared spectra of aliphatic amine carbamates and the solution of the inverse spectroscopic problem. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, S. A.; Gribov, L. A.; Ribnikar, S. V.; Mio?, U. B.

    1992-03-01

    For two carbamates of primary and secondary amines, taken to have structures of ionic pairs, EtHNCOO -+H 3NEt and Me 2NCOO -+H 2NMe, force fields were formed and vibrational frequencies calculated. A detailed assignment of the observed band frequencies was obtained. A parallel calculation was done for molecules with 13C-substituted COO --group carbon atoms. Separation factors for the isotope exchange between gaseous CO 2 and the two carbamate types were calculated. Their values vary 2 from 1.03 at 293 K to 1.01 at 573 K.

  11. Carbolithiation of N-alkenyl ureas and N-alkenyl carbamates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Lefranc

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available N-Alkenyl ureas and N-alkenyl carbamates, like other N-acyl enamines, are typically nucleophilic at their ?-carbon. However, by incorporating an ?-aryl substituent, we show that they will also undergo attack at the ?-carbon by organolithium nucleophiles, leading to the products of carbolithiation. The carbolithiation of E and Z N-alkenyl ureas is diastereospecific, and N-tert-butoxycarbonyl N-alkenyl carbamates give carbolithiation products that may be deprotected in situ to provide a new connective route to hindered amines.

  12. Film formation of ?-aminoalkylcellulose carbamates--a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elschner, Thomas; Doliška, Aleš; Bra?i?, Matej; Stana-Kleinschek, Karin; Heinze, Thomas

    2015-02-13

    The film formation of novel ?-aminoalkylcellulose carbamates on gold surface was studied by means of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The influence of the pH value of the buffer solution, the concentration, the degree of polymerization, and the structure (spacer length) of the polymers on the coating was investigated. The layer formation was explained based on the pKa value and the degree of substitution of the ?-aminoalkylcellulose carbamates determined by potentiometric titration. This work provides novel supporting materials that might be applied in field of immobilization of biomolecules. PMID:25458279

  13. Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of carbamates of antiviral agent stavudine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, T K; Samuel, P; Kourinov, I V; Uckun, F M

    2002-09-01

    An efficient synthesis of carbamate analogues of the NRTI compound stavudine, has been achieved in five steps starting from commercially available thymidine. The synthesis involves conversion of thymidine into stavudine followed by condensation with carbaimidazole derivative obtained from various aromatic and heterocyclic amines in dimethylformamide solvent. The analogues thus obtained were further purified by crystallization to furnish analytically pure products. Examination of biological activity of these carbamate derivatives of stavudine showed that they inhibited HIV replication only at micro-molar concentrations. PMID:12630677

  14. Ethyl carbamate levels in wine and spirits from markets in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y P; Dong, B; Qin, Z S; Yang, N J; Lu, Y; Yang, L X; Chang, F Q; Wu, Y N

    2011-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) in wine, grain spirits and wine sauce (145 samples) was analysed using solid-phase extraction and stable isotope dilution GC/MS. Samples were obtained from markets in eight areas (Shijiazhuang, Baoding, Handan, Qinhuangdao, Langfang, Zhangjiakou, Xingtai and Cangzhou) of Hebei Province, China. The method had a limit of detection of 2 µg kg?¹, with recoveries varying from 95.7 to 102% and RSD ranging 2.3-5.6%. The average concentrations of ethyl carbamate in wines, grain spirits and wine sauce were 14.7 (wines. PMID:24779655

  15. A study of neurologic symptoms on exposure to organophosphate pesticides in the children of agricultural workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastogi S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used extensively throughout the world in agriculture and in pest control as well as for community health purposes. Organophosphate (OP pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world that kills an estimated 200,000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is an apparent problem in places where highly toxic OP pesticides are available. Neurologic dysfunction is the best documented health effect of pesticide exposure. High-level exposure has both acute and long-term neurologic signs and symptoms, and adverse effects have been reported in most type of pesticides, including organophosphate (OP, carbamate, organochlorine, and pyrethroid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and fumigants. Acute OP pesticide exposure can involve in wide range of both central and peripheral neurologic symptoms. Increased neurologic symptom prevalence may provide early evidence of neurologic dysfunctions, before clinically measurable signs are evident. In this study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data on neurologic signs and symptoms from 225 rural children, both males (n = 132 and females (n = 93 who were occupationally and paraoccupationally exposed to methyl OPs (dichlorvos, fenthion, malathion, methyl parathion and ethyl OPs (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, ethyl parathion as they belonged to agricultural families handling, mixing, and spraying the OP pesticides. The children completed a specially designed questionnaire (Q16 on neurologic symptoms associated with pesticide exposure with their parental help. A suitable reference group consisting of rural children (n = 50 never involved in pesticide handling (neither outdoor nor indoor belonging to similar socioeconomic strata included in the study to compare the prevalence of various neurologic symptoms between the two groups. Among all the neurologic self-reported symptoms, headache, watering in eyes, and burning sensation in eye/face were the most important clinical manifestations attributed to OP pesticide exposure. These symptoms could probably be the consequence of chronic effects of most pesticides on the central nervous system. The muscarinic symptoms reported the maximum prevalence of salivation (18.22%, whereas lacrimation was observed in 17.33% cases, followed by diarrhea in 9.33% cases. The nicotinic clinical manifestations of acute OP poisoning revealed excessive sweating in 13.78% cases and tremors in 9.3% cases followed by mydriasis in 8.4% exposed children. The characteristic cholinergic symptoms, such as insomnia, headache, muscle cramps, weakness, and anorexia were also reported by both male and female exposed children. The high frequency of neurologic symptoms observed in the study may be due to parasympathetic hyperactivity due to the accumulated ACh resulting from AChE inhibition.

  16. Health effects of pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Seth, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    Tea industry is one of the most important agro-industry of the country. Wide scale use of pesticides in tea cultivation to protect the crops from insect and fungus has led to buildup of their residues in several parts of tea plant, and around the area. Some of the pesticides are toxic and injurious to health and affect the environment. In India, a large member of pesticides have been registered for use in tea cultivation. But only few are being used currently and for which maximum residue lev...

  17. Determination of Ethyl Carbamate in Chinese Yellow Rice Wine by Diatomaceous Earth Extraction and GC/MS Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pinggu; Zhang, Liqun; Shen, Xianghong; Wang, Liyuan; Zou, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Ying; Tang, Jun; Ma, Bingjie; Pan, Xiaodong; Jiang, Wei

    2015-05-01

    A sensitive and rapid analytical method based on alkaline diatomaceous earth extraction followed by GC/MS was developed for the quantitative determination of the toxic contaminant ethyl carbamate (EC) in yellow rice wines. The optimal extraction conditions were investigated. With the application of diatomaceous earth extraction, the damage of organic acids to the capillary column was greatly reduced. By using d5-EC as an internal standard for quantitative analysis of EC, the linearity of the calibration curves was good between 10 and 1000 ng/mL. The LOD and LOQ were 1.7 and 5.0 ?g/kg, respectively. The spiked level of EC was 5.0-300 ?g/kg, and the average recovery of the spikes was between 78.4 and 98.2%, with an RSD between 4.3 and 8.3%. Upon validation by five laboratories when spiked with 50, 100, and 300 ?g/kg, the average respective recoveries were 102.9, 102.2, and 98.7% with a RSD between 0.7 and 8.1%. The validation results demonstrated that the method is fast, simple, selective, and suitable for the determination of EC in yellow rice wines. PMID:26086264

  18. Investigations of primary and secondary amine carbamate stability by 1H NMR spectroscopy for post combustion capture of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Carbamate stability constants of series of amines have been measured at (288 to 318) K. ? Standard molar enthalpies and entropies have been determined by van’t Hoff analyses. ? A ?Hmo-?Smo plot for carbamate formation gives a linear relationship. ? This relationship provides a guide for the selection of amines for PCC applications. ? Stereochemical effects and intramolecular H-bonding affect carbamate formation. - Abstract: Carbamate formation is one of the major chemical reactions that can occur in solution in the capture of CO2 by amine-based solvents, and carbamate formation makes a significant enthalpy contribution to the absorption-desorption of CO2 that occurs in the absorber/stripper columns of the PCC process. Consequently, the formation of carbamates of selected series of primary and secondary amines over the temperature range (288 to 318) K has been investigated by equilibrium 1H NMR studies, and the stability constants (K9) for the equilibrium: RNH2+HCO3-?K9RNHCOO-+H2O are reported. van’t Hoff analyses have resulted in standard molar enthalpies, ?Hmo, and entropies, ?Smo, of carbamate formation. A ?Hmo-?Smo plot generates a linear correlation for carbamate formation (providte formation (providing a mean standard molar free energy, ?Gmo, for carbamate formation of about ?7 kJ · mol?1), and this relationship helps provide a guide to the selection of an amine(s) solvent for CO2 capture, in terms of enthalpy considerations. A linear ?Hmo-?Smo plot also occurs for carbamate protonation. The formation of the carbamates has been correlated with systematic changes in composition and structure, and steric effects have been identified by comparing molecular geometries obtained using density functional B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) calculations. Trends in steric effects have been identified in the series of compounds monoethanolamine (MEA), 1-amino-2-propanol, 2-amino-1-propanol (AP) and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP). In the case of 2-piperidinemethanol, 2-piperidineethanol and 3-piperidinemethanol, strong intramolecular hydrogen bonding is shown to be the likely cause for lack of carbamate formation, and in the ring systems of pyrrolidine, morpholine, piperidine and thiomorpholine trends in carbamate formation (as given by K9) have been correlated with the internal ring angle at the amine nitrogen, as well as the planarity of the environment around the nitrogen atom.

  19. Assessment of peripheral nerve function in an Ecuadorian rural population exposed to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, D C; Carpio, F; Julian, J; Léon, N

    1998-09-25

    To explore the peripheral nervous system effects of regular agricultural pesticide use, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in highland Ecuador. Participants were 144 occupationally exposed farm members, 30 female farm members with little direct exposure, and 72 unexposed local town residents, frequency matched to the exposed people on age, sex, and education. Organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides and dithiocarbamate fungicides accounted for the majority of pesticide applications, with leaking backpack sprayers, minimal use of personal protective equipment, and frequent dermal contact being the norm. In polytomous logistic regression analyses, applicators had significantly greater odds for more current peripheral nerve symptoms (odds ratio OR = 3.1), signs of poor coordination (OR = 4.3), abnormal deep tendon reflexes (OR = 2.9), and reduced power (OR = 2.1) compared to controls. Mean toe vibration threshold scores, on a logarithmic scale, were significantly higher among applicators (beta = 0.035) and those reporting previous pesticide poisonings (beta = 0.074). Such indicators of peripheral nervous system effects may be due to a variety of factors, including high pesticide exposure conditions. PMID:9761129

  20. Health risks of employees working in pesticide retail shops: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavachandran C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shop keepers dealing with pesticides are exposed to multiple pesticides that include organophosphates, organochlorines, carbamates, pyrethroids. Hence an exploratory health study was conducted on shopkeepers selling pesticides in urban areas of Lucknow and Barabanki District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: Detailed information regarding socio-economic status, family history, personal habits and work practices were recorded for 20 subjects and controls by the investigator on a pre-tested questionnaire. Clinical examination including neurological studies of the shopkeepers and control subjects was done. Results: The study revealed significant slowing of motor nerve conduction velocity and low peak expiratory flow rate among shopkeepers as compared to control subjects. Prevalence of significantly higher gastro-intestinal problems was also observed among exposed subjects. Neurological, ocular, cardiovascular and musculo-skeletal symptoms were also found to be higher among shopkeepers. This was not statistically significant. Significantly higher relative risk for sickness related to systems viz., cardio-vasular, genito-urinary, respiratory, nervous and dermal was observed among exposed subjects compared to controls. Conclusions: These findings provide a prima facie evidence of clinical manifestations because of multiple exposures to pesticides and poor safety culture at work place.

  1. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted

    2015-01-01

    This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highest pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all individuals in the target group necessarily react to the economic incentives as predicted by economic modeling. It also demonstrates that a small first green-tax-step over time might develop into a better tax design.

  2. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  3. Optimization of chromatographic conditions and comparison of extraction efficiencies of four different methods for determination and quantification of pesticide content in bovine milk by UFLC-MS/MS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabiano A. S., Oliveira; Fernando D., Madureira; Renata P., Lopes; Marina G., Ferreira; Benito, Soto-Blanco; Marília M., Melo.

    1699-17-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the optimization of a multiresidue chromatographic analysis for the identification and quantification of 20 pesticides in bovine milk, including three carbamates, a carbamate oxime, six organophosphates, two strobilurins, a pyrethroid, an oxazolidinedione, an aryloxyphenoxypropi [...] onate acid/ester, a neonicotinoid, a dicarboximide, and three triazoles. The influences of different chromatographic columns and gradients were evaluated. Furthermore, four different extraction methods were evaluated; each utilized both different solvents, including ethyl acetate, methanol, and acetonitrile, and different workup steps. The best results were obtained by a modified QuEChERS method that lacked a workup step, and that included freezing the sample for 2 hours at -20 ºC. The results were satisfactory, yielding coefficients of variation of less than 20%, with the exception of the 50 µg L-1 sample of famoxadone, and recoveries between 70 and 120%, with the exception of acephate and bifenthrin; however, both analytes exhibited coefficients of variation of less than 20%.

  4. Farmers and Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

    2006-05-23

    Modern pesticides have helped make farming far more productive. But they've also caused countless accidental poisonings. Now, a new study suggests that even the routine use of pesticides can pose serious health risks in the long run.This Science Update also contains in text format details of the research, which leads to these findings presented in the Science Update podcast. It also offers links to the other podcasts topics and resources for further inquiry.

  5. Genotoxicity of chlororganic pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Kazakhstan there are the warehouses of the obsolete pesticides and their container which should be buried in special burial grounds or neutralized to minimize dangerous genetic and ecological risks. The results of two yr of research were identification of substances stored in 64 former warehouses of pesticides. 64 former warehouses (in the 10 areas of Almaty oblast) are on distance of 250 km from a large city of Almaty (the former capital of Kazakhstan). A total of 352,6 ton of obsolete pesticides and 250 ton of their container were disposed. We determined the residues of DDT metabolites (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and HCH isomers (hexachlorocyclohexane) in soil around pesticides warehouses where their concentrations exceed MAC (maximum concentration limit) in tens - hundreds times. To analyze a genotoxicity of chlororganic pesticides we used their concentrations that were found in soil from former warehouses. The analysis of structural mutations of chromosomes was carried out by metaphase method in I mitoses meristem cells of barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.). It was ascertained that HCH isomers and DDT metabolites have genotoxic effect exceeding spontaneous mutation in 5-7 times. High contaminations by pesticides on soil around of warehouses and their ability to induce chromosome aberrations in plant cells indicate that warehouses are a new centre of contamination by POP's (proof organic pollutants). (author)

  6. Gold-catalyzed oxycyclization of allenic carbamates: expeditious synthesis of 1,3-oxazin-2-ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Alcaide

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A combined experimental and computational study on regioselective gold-catalyzed synthetic routes to 1,3-oxazinan-2-ones (kinetically controlled products and 1,3-oxazin-2-one derivatives (thermodynamically favored from easily accessible allenic carbamates has been carried out.

  7. Carbamic acid produced by the UV/EUV irradiation of interstellar ice analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.-J.; Nuevo, M.; Hsieh, J.-M.; Yih, T.-S.; Sun, W.-H.; Ip, W.-H.; Fung, H.-S.; Chiang, S.-Y.; Lee, Y.-Y.; Chen, J.-M.; Wu, C.-Y. R.

    2007-03-01

    Context: Carbamic acid (NH2COOH) is the smallest amino acid, smaller than the smallest proteinaceous amino acid glycine. This compound has never been observed in the interstellar medium (ISM). Previous experiments where ice mixtures containing H2O, CO2 and NH3 were subjected to 1-MeV proton bombardment showed that carbamic acid is formed in a stable zwitterionic (NH3^+COO^-) form. Aims: In the present work, we have carried out irradiations of ice mixtures containing H2O, 12CO2/13CO2 and NH3 with ultraviolet (UV)/extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons provided by a synchrotron source in the 4-20 eV range, and compared the results with those obtained for energetic protons. Methods: Infrared (IR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry were used to identify the formed photo-products and monitor their evolution in the ices at 15 K and during the warming up to room temperature in the formed residues. Results: We identified the IR absorption features of HNCO, OCN^-, CO, NH4+ and NH2CHO at low temperature in the ices, and features assigned to carbamic acid in the residues around 250 K. Finally, we conclude that under our experimental conditions, unlike what was obtained after bombardment with energetic protons, carbamic acid may be formed in the neutral form, and propose some photochemical pathways leading to its formation.

  8. Quantum calculations of the electro-optical parameters of haloid ethers, esters, amides and carbamates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furer, V. L.

    1992-03-01

    Force and electro-optical parameters of haloid ethers, esters, amides and carbamates were calculated using the MINDO/3 method. The obtained values of parameters, frequencies and intensities of bands in IR spectra are in good accordance with experiment. The changes of molecular parameters due to the electronic interactions and conformational transitions are discussed.

  9. Substrate scope and stereocontrol in the Rh(II)-catalysed oxyamination of allylic carbamates

    OpenAIRE

    Unsworth, Wp; Lamont, Sg; Robertson, J.

    2014-01-01

    Application of a modified Du Bois protocol for rhodium-stabilised nitrenoid generation to a variety of allylic carbamates results in 4-acetoxymethyl-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one derivatives with moderate to high levels of stereocontrol. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gold-catalyzed oxycyclization of allenic carbamates: Expeditious synthesis of 1,3-oxazin-2-ones

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaide, Benito; Almendros, Pedro; Quiro?s, M. Teresa; Ferna?ndez, Israel

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental and computational study on regioselective gold-catalyzed synthetic routes to 1,3-oxazinan-2-ones (kinetically controlled products) and 1,3-oxazin-2-one derivatives (thermodynamically favored) from easily accessible allenic carbamates has been carried out. © 2013 Alcaide et al.

  11. Synthesis of di-ethyl-di-thio-carbamates on the base of 1,3-dioxolane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work authors present the results of investigations obtained at studying of reaction of nucleophilic substitution of chlor atom in 2,2-di-alkyl-4-chlor-methyl-1,3-dioxolane on anion of di-ethyl-di-thio-carbamate

  12. Gold(I)-Catalyzed Enantioselective Intramolecular Dehydrative Amination of Allylic Alcohols with Carbamates

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Paramita; Widenhoefer, Ross A.

    2012-01-01

    A 1:2 mixture of [(S)-2](AuCl)2 [(S)-2 = (S)-DTBM-MeOBIPHEP] and AgClO4 catalyzes the intramolecular enantioselective dehydrative amination of allylic alcohols with carbamates to form five- and six-membered aliphatic nitrogen heterocycles in high yield with up to 95% ee.

  13. TIME-COURSE OF ACUTE NEUROTOXICITY PRODUCED BY N-METHYL CARBAMATES IN PREWEANLING RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N-methyl carbamate insecticides are reversible inhibitors of central and peripheral acetylcholinesterease (ChE). Despite their widespread and long-term use, we could find no studies of a systematic comparison of neurotoxicity in young animals across this group of chemicals. To ...

  14. X-ray structure and characterization of carbamate kinase from the human parasite Giardia lamblia

    OpenAIRE

    Galkin, Andrey; Kulakova, Liudmila; Wu, Rui; Nash, Theodore E.; Dunaway-mariano, Debra; Herzberg, Osnat

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of carbamate kinase from the human parasite G. lamblia has been determined at 3?Å resolution. Steady-state kinetic parameters have been determined and dsRNA-silencing experiments indicate that the enzyme is essential for the survival of G. lamblia.

  15. Pesticides in the agricultural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most countries, regulations to control the use of pesticides require data from a hierarchical series of tests in order to assess their environmental acceptability. The test sequence begins with laboratory measurements, which are followed by field studies intended to confirm the predictions made from the laboratory results. Frequently, such predictions are not confirmed, largely because controlled laboratory conditions are too far removed from those that occur in the field. There is increasing interest in the potential of lysimeter systems to replace many of the laboratory tests. They enable test, including those using radiolabelled compounds, to be conducted outdoors under closely monitored conditions. The results to data are encouraging, but more work is required to validate such systems. (author). 33 refs

  16. Pesticide transport simulation in a tropical catchment by SWAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannwarth, M A; Sangchan, W; Hugenschmidt, C; Lamers, M; Ingwersen, J; Ziegler, A D; Streck, T

    2014-08-01

    The application of agrochemicals in Southeast Asia is increasing in rate, variety and toxicity with alarming speed. Understanding the behavior of these different contaminants within the environment require comprehensive monitoring programs as well as accurate simulations with hydrological models. We used the SWAT hydrological model to simulate the fate of three different pesticides, one of each usage type (herbicide, fungicide and insecticide) in a mountainous catchment in Northern Thailand. Three key parameters were identified: the sorption coefficient, the decay coefficient and the coefficient controlling pesticide percolation. We yielded satisfactory results simulating pesticide load dynamics during the calibration period (NSE: 0.92-0.67); the results during the validation period were also acceptable (NSE: 0.61-0.28). The results of this study are an important step in understanding the modeling behavior of these pesticides in SWAT and will help to identify thresholds of worst-case scenarios in order to assess the risk for the environment. PMID:24811948

  17. Pesticides in the propolis at São Saulo State, Brazil=Pesticidas na própolis do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria Alves Gomes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for propolis has caused a raise in its production. However, an increasingly pesticide-dependent agriculture is a great concern with regard to bees, their produce and environmental contamination. Current analysis evaluates the presence of pesticides (organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates, herbicides, fungicides and acaricides in samples of propolis from the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Beekeepers from several localities in the state provided samples of propolis (50, which were collected, stored in non-toxic plastic bags and maintained in a freezer for analyses. Possible pesticide residues were examined by gas chromatography method but no pesticide residues were detected in the examined propolis samples. Propolis analyzed in the state of São Paulo did not show any pesticide contamination.A crescente procura pela própolis tem ocasionado aumento em sua produção. Entretanto, uma agricultura cada vez mais dependente de pesticidas representa preocupação com relação à contaminação ambiental, além das abelhas e seus produtos. Neste sentido, a proposta do presente trabalho foi avaliar a presença de pesticidas (organoclorados, organofosforados, piretroides, carbamatos, herbicidas, fungicidas e acaricidas em amostras de própolis do Estado de São Paulo. Apicultores de diversas localidades do Estado forneceram amostras de própolis (50. Estas foram coletadas, armazenadas em sacos plásticos atóxicos e mantidas em freezer até as análises. Os possíveis resíduos de pesticidas foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa. Não foi observada a presença dos pesticidas analisados nas amostras. Neste caso, a própolis analisada no Estado de São Paulo não apresentou contaminação por pesticidas.

  18. Pesticides in the propolis at São Saulo State, Brazil / Pesticidas na própolis do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo de Oliveira, Orsi; Lidia Maria Ruv Carelli, Barreto; Silvia Maria Alves, Gomes; Samir Moura, Kadri.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A crescente procura pela própolis tem ocasionado aumento em sua produção. Entretanto, uma agricultura cada vez mais dependente de pesticidas representa preocupação com relação à contaminação ambiental, além das abelhas e seus produtos. Neste sentido, a proposta do presente trabalho foi avaliar a pre [...] sença de pesticidas (organoclorados, organofosforados, piretroides, carbamatos, herbicidas, fungicidas e acaricidas) em amostras de própolis do Estado de São Paulo. Apicultores de diversas localidades do Estado forneceram amostras de própolis (50). Estas foram coletadas, armazenadas em sacos plásticos atóxicos e mantidas em freezer até as análises. Os possíveis resíduos de pesticidas foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa. Não foi observada a presença dos pesticidas analisados nas amostras. Neste caso, a própolis analisada no Estado de São Paulo não apresentou contaminação por pesticidas. Abstract in english The increasing demand for propolis has caused a raise in its production. However, an increasingly pesticide-dependent agriculture is a great concern with regard to bees, their produce and environmental contamination. Current analysis evaluates the presence of pesticides (organochlorines, organophosp [...] hates, pyrethroids, carbamates, herbicides, fungicides and acaricides) in samples of propolis from the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Beekeepers from several localities in the state provided samples of propolis (50), which were collected, stored in non-toxic plastic bags and maintained in a freezer for analyses. Possible pesticide residues were examined by gas chromatography method but no pesticide residues were detected in the examined propolis samples. Propolis analyzed in the state of São Paulo did not show any pesticide contamination.

  19. The Lasting Threat of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Laura X.

    Over the past several weeks, a plethora of news articles have featured pesticides: the recent findings that amniotic fluids (which surround a fetus in the womb) contain detectable levels of pesticides in 30% of tested women; the fact that, in addition to the already-established link to cancers, pesticide exposure during pregnancy may also be linked to child learning disabilities, such as Hyperactivity or Attention Deficit Disorder; and the initiation of a multi-agency proposal to impose a sales tax on agricultural chemicals, such as pesticides and insecticides. Despite continued controversy over the real health effects of pesticides, few argue about the global increase in pesticide use. With the increase in pesticide use, there is a concomitant increase in the amount of unused, stored (or more accurately, abandoned) pesticides. This week's In The News addresses the fate of unused pesticides -- the several hundred thousand tons of obsolete, dangerous pesticides that currently plague several countries around the globe. Many of these obsolete pesticides were banned from use after import, were oversupplied or sent as duplicate supplies by aid agencies, or were inappropriate for local use. The nine resources listed provide background information and scientific resources on pesticides and the obsolete pesticide problem.

  20. Case study to illustrate an approach for detecting contamination and impurities in pesticide formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasali, Helen; Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Machera, Kyriaki; Ambrus, Arpad

    2014-11-26

    Counterfeit pesticides threaten public health, food trade, and the environment. The present work draws attention to the importance of regular monitoring of impurities in formulated pesticide products. General screening revealed the presence of carbaryl as a contaminant in a copper oxychloride formulated product. In this paper, as a case study, a liquid chromatographic diode array-mass spectrometric method developed for general screening of pesticide products and quantitative determination of carbaryl together with its validation is presented. The proposed testing strategy is considered suitable for use as a general approach for testing organic contaminants and impurities in solid pesticide formulations. PMID:25360991

  1. Effects of pesticides on songbird productivity in conjunction with pecan cultivation in southern Georgia: A multiple-exposure experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnode, K.A.; White, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    A prototypic experimental design was used to assess sublethal effects of multiple and varied organophosphates and carbamates on reproduction in birds. The design allowed for classification of pesticide exposure according to toxicity of applied compounds and type and frequency of applications. Daily survival rates (DSRs) of nests, eggs, and nestlings were determined for northern mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos), brown thrashers (Toxostoma rufum), and northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) nesting along edges of pecan orchards and row crops in southern Georgia [USA]. Egg and nestling DSRs for all species combined varied inversely (P 0.05) among three exposure levels. Brain cholinesterase activities were age-dependent and substantiated adult, but not nestling, exposure. Results suggest that increasing exposure to pesticides may reduce songbird productivity.

  2. Organophosphorus and carbamates residues in milk and feedstuff supplied to dairy cattle Resíduos de praguicidas organofosforados e carbamatos em leite e alimentação animal de propriedades leiteiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fagnani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering acute and chronic toxicity effects on human and animal health caused by pesticide residues in food, this study aimed to analyze organophosphorate (OP and carbamate (CB in feedstuff and water destined for dairy cattle, as well as in the milk produced by these animals, through gas chromatography (GC. In the Agreste region of Pernambuco, Brazil, 30 raw milk samples and all components of the animals' diet were collected from several farms. Out of the 30 milk of milk analyzed, six (20% were contaminated with OP, five (16.7% with CB, and one sample with both pesticides. From 48 analyzed feed samples, 15 (31.25% were contaminated with residues of OP, six (12.50% with CB, and one sample was contaminated with both pesticides. Out of 16 water samples analyzed, six (37.50% were contaminated with OP residues, but non with CB. In four dairy farms the pesticides detected in milk were compatible with the active principles found in water and/or foodstuff, suggesting them to be the source of contamination.Considerando os efeitos tóxicos, agudos e crônicos, para a saúde humana e animal, causados por resíduos de praguicidas em alimentos, este trabalho teve como objetivo a identificação e quantificação por cromatografia gasosa (CG de resíduos de praguicidas organofosforados (OF e carbamatos (CB no leite cru, nos componentes da alimentação e água dos animais. Foram coletadas 30 amostras de leite cru da região agreste de Pernambuco e ao mesmo tempo eram coletadas amostras de alimentação e água ofertada aos animais em lactação de cada propriedade, totalizando 109 amostras de alimentação e 38 amostras de água. Das 30 amostras de leite analisadas, seis (20% estavam contaminadas por resíduos de OF, cinco (16,7% por resíduos de CB e uma amostra por ambos os praguicidas. Das 109 amostras de alimentação ofertada aos animais coletadas, 48 foram analisadas, com 15 amostras (31,25% apresentando resíduos de OF, seis amostras (12,50% contaminadas por resíduos de CB e uma amostra positiva para ambos os praguicidas. Das 16 amostras de água analizadas, seis (37,50% estavam contaminadas por resíduos de OF e nenhuma apresentou resíduos de CB. Em quatro propriedades leiteiras os praguicidas detectados no leite foram compatíveis com o princípio ativo detectado na alimentação e/ou na água ofertada aos animais, sugerindo uma possível fonte de contaminação, mas não a única.

  3. Organophosphorus and carbamates residues in milk and feedstuff supplied to dairy cattle / Resíduos de praguicidas organofosforados e carbamatos em leite e alimentação animal de propriedades leiteiras

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael, Fagnani; Vanerli, Beloti; Ana Paula P., Battaglini; Karen da S., Dunga; Ronaldo, Tamanini.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Considerando os efeitos tóxicos, agudos e crônicos, para a saúde humana e animal, causados por resíduos de praguicidas em alimentos, este trabalho teve como objetivo a identificação e quantificação por cromatografia gasosa (CG) de resíduos de praguicidas organofosforados (OF) e carbamatos (CB) no le [...] ite cru, nos componentes da alimentação e água dos animais. Foram coletadas 30 amostras de leite cru da região agreste de Pernambuco e ao mesmo tempo eram coletadas amostras de alimentação e água ofertada aos animais em lactação de cada propriedade, totalizando 109 amostras de alimentação e 38 amostras de água. Das 30 amostras de leite analisadas, seis (20%) estavam contaminadas por resíduos de OF, cinco (16,7%) por resíduos de CB e uma amostra por ambos os praguicidas. Das 109 amostras de alimentação ofertada aos animais coletadas, 48 foram analisadas, com 15 amostras (31,25%) apresentando resíduos de OF, seis amostras (12,50%) contaminadas por resíduos de CB e uma amostra positiva para ambos os praguicidas. Das 16 amostras de água analizadas, seis (37,50%) estavam contaminadas por resíduos de OF e nenhuma apresentou resíduos de CB. Em quatro propriedades leiteiras os praguicidas detectados no leite foram compatíveis com o princípio ativo detectado na alimentação e/ou na água ofertada aos animais, sugerindo uma possível fonte de contaminação, mas não a única. Abstract in english Considering acute and chronic toxicity effects on human and animal health caused by pesticide residues in food, this study aimed to analyze organophosphorate (OP) and carbamate (CB) in feedstuff and water destined for dairy cattle, as well as in the milk produced by these animals, through gas chroma [...] tography (GC). In the Agreste region of Pernambuco, Brazil, 30 raw milk samples and all components of the animals' diet were collected from several farms. Out of the 30 milk of milk analyzed, six (20%) were contaminated with OP, five (16.7%) with CB, and one sample with both pesticides. From 48 analyzed feed samples, 15 (31.25%) were contaminated with residues of OP, six (12.50%) with CB, and one sample was contaminated with both pesticides. Out of 16 water samples analyzed, six (37.50%) were contaminated with OP residues, but non with CB. In four dairy farms the pesticides detected in milk were compatible with the active principles found in water and/or foodstuff, suggesting them to be the source of contamination.

  4. Human Health Benchmarks for Pesticides

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Advanced testing methods now allow pesticides to be detected in water at very low levels. These small amounts of pesticides detected in drinking water or source...

  5. Pesticides (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Basics Pesticides are substances we use to control or kill pests. Pests can be weeds, insects, rodents, or bacteria — anything ... t want to have around. Show more Sometimes pesticides work too well. They may not only harm ...

  6. Decontaminating pesticide protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, J

    1993-01-01

    The review of recent work on the mechanisms of soil removal from textiles assists in understanding decontamination of pesticide protective clothing. The current work provides explanatory conclusions about residue retention as a basis of making recommendations for the most effective decontamination procedures. A caution about generalizations: Some pesticides produce very idiosyncratic responses to decontamination. An example is the paraquat/salt response. Other pesticides exhibit noticeable and unique responses to a highly alkaline medium (carbaryl), or to bleach (chlorpyrifos), or are quickly volatilized (methyl parathion). Responses such as these do not apply to other pesticides undergoing decontamination. Given this caution, there are soil, substrate, and solvent responses that do maximize residue removal. Residue removal is less complete as the concentration of pesticide increases. The concentration of pesticide in fabric builds with successive exposures, and the more concentrated the pesticide, the more difficult the removal. Use a prewash product and/or presoak. The surfactant and/or solvent in a prewash product is a booster in residue removal. Residues transfer from contaminated clothing to other clothing during the washing cycle. Use a full washer of water for a limited number of garments to increase residue removal. The hotter the washing temperature, the better. Generally, this means a water temperature of at least 49 degrees C, and preferably 60 degrees C. Select the detergent shown to be more effective for the formulation: heavy-duty liquid detergents for emulsifiable concentrate formulations and powdered phosphate detergents for wettable powder formulations. If the fabric has a soil-repellent finish, use 1.25 times the amount recommended on the detergent label. For water hardness above 300 ppm, an additional amount of powdered phosphate detergent is needed to obtain the same level of residue removal as obtained with the heavy-duty liquid detergent when laundering fabrics with the soil-repellent finish. The mechanical action of agitation increases dislodgement of particulate material. Too many items in the washing apparatus or too low water volume, or both, decrease agitation and soil removal. Bleach can be used if desired. Fabric softener does not affect pesticide absorption or residue removal in laundering. Dry cleaning is not recommended because the solvents used in dry cleaning may be recycled through dilution, filtration, activated charcoal adsorption, or distillation. Pesticides still may be present in recycled solvents and can be transferred from one item to another, or from one load to subsequent loads of dry cleaning. PMID:8419989

  7. On the paradox of pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y. Charles; Yang, Yipeng

    2013-01-01

    The paradox of pesticides was observed experimentally, which says that pesticides may dramatically increase the population of a pest when the pest has a natural predator. Here we use a mathematical model to study the paradox. We find that the timing for the application of pesticides is crucial for the resurgence or non-resurgence of the pests. In particular, regularly applying pesticides is not a good idea as also observed in experiments. In fact, the best time to apply pest...

  8. Residuos de plaguicidas en aguas para consumo humano en una comunidad agrícola del estado Mérida, Venezuela / Pesticide residues in drinking water of an agricultural community in the state of Mérida, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mery Elisa, Flores-García; Yuri, Molina-Morales; Alirio, Balza-Quintero; Pedro Rafael, Benítez-Díaz; Leticia, Miranda-Contreras.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la presencia de plaguicidas en agua potable, provenientes de seis acueductos en una región de intensa actividad agrícola del Estado Mérida, Venezuela. El estudio fue realizado durante cuatro semanas continuas, entre mayo y junio de 2008. Los residuos d [...] e plaguicidas fueron analizados mediante extracción en fase sólida y HPLC con detector de arreglo de diodos. El método SPE-HPLC-DAD cumplió con los criterios de validación analítica: linealidad (R²: 0,9840-0,9999), precisión (coeficiente de variabilidad inter-día 1,47-6,25%), exactitud (desviación estándar relativa 0,9-9,20%) y sensibilidad (límite de detección ? 0,012 µg/L; límite de cuantificación ? 0,030 µg/L, excepto mancozeb con 0,400 µg/L). Siete de los trece plaguicidas seleccionados tienen un porcentaje de recuperación entre 100% y 70%, el resto, entre 61% y 37%. En 72 muestras analizadas, se detectaron diez plaguicidas de los grupos químicos: organofosforados, carbamatos, triazinas y derivados de urea. Los plaguicidas con mayor frecuencia de detección fueron: carbofuran y atrazina (39%), malation (25%), dimetoato y metribuzin (19%). Los plaguicidas que se encontraron en niveles más altos fueron: diazinon (26,31 µg/L), metamidofos (10,99 µg/L), malation (2,03 µg/L) y mancozeb (1,27 µg/L). Los niveles de plaguicidas no superaron los valores máximos permitidos por la Legislación Venezolana, sin embargo, fueron superiores al nivel máximo permitido por la Unión Europea y EPA-USA. Este estudio demuestra la urgente necesidad de hacer un monitoreo sistemático de la calidad del agua para consumo humano en las regiones de alta productividad agrícola. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine the presence of pesticides in drinking water from six aqueducts in a region of intense agricultural activity in the state of Merida, Venezuela. The study was conducted for four continuous weeks, between May and June 2008. Pesticide residues were analyzed by sol [...] id phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detector (DAD). The method SPE-HPLC-DAD met the criteria of analytical validation, with good linearity (R²: 0.9840 to 0.9999), precision (coefficient of inter-day variability from 1.47 to 6.25%), accuracy (relative standard deviation 0.9 to 9.20%) and sensitivity (LOD ? 0.012 µg/L; LOQ ? 0.030 µg/L, except mancozeb with 0.400 µg/L). Seven of the thirteen selected pesticides have a recovery rate between 100% and 70%, the rest between 61% and 37%. Ten pesticides of the following chemical groups, were detected in 72 samples analyzed: organophosphates, carbamates, triazines and urea derivatives. The pesticides with the highest frequency of detection were: carbofuran and atrazine (39%), malathion (25%), dimethoate and metribuzin (19%). The pesticides found at high levels were diazinon (26.31 µg/L), methamidophos (10.99 µg/L), malathion (2.03 µg/L) and mancozeb (1.27 µg/L). Pesticide levels did not exceed the maximum allowed by Venezuelan law, however, according to international standards (EU and EPA-USA) values were above the maximum permissible levels. This study demonstrates the urgent need for systematic monitoring of the quality of water for human consumption in regions of high agricultural productivity.

  9. Gene transcription in Daphnia magna: effects of acute exposure to a carbamate insecticide and an acetanilide herbicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Joana Luísa; Hill, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    Daphnia magna is a key invertebrate in the freshwater environment and is used widely as a model in ecotoxicological measurements and risk assessment. Understanding the genomic responses of D. magna to chemical challenges will be of value to regulatory authorities worldwide. Here we exposed D. magna to the insecticide methomyl and the herbicide propanil to compare phenotypic effects with changes in mRNA expression levels. Both pesticides are found in drainage ditches and surface water bodies standing adjacent to crops. Methomyl, a carbamate insecticide widely used in agriculture, inhibits acetylcholinesterase, a key enzyme in nerve transmission. Propanil, an acetanilide herbicide, is used to control grass and broad-leaf weeds. The phenotypic effects of single doses of each chemical were evaluated using a standard immobilisation assay. Immobilisation was linked to global mRNA expression levels using the previously estimated 48h-EC(1)s, followed by hybridization to a cDNA microarray with more than 13,000 redundant cDNA clones representing >5000 unique genes. Following exposure to methomyl and propanil, differential expression was found for 624 and 551 cDNAs, respectively (one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni correction, P

  10. Total syntheses of oxygenated brazanquinones via regioselective homologous anionic Fries rearrangement of benzylic O-carbamates

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes Cláudio; Lopes Rosângela; de Azevedo Mariângela; Slana Glaucia; Cardoso Jari

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Using new variations of anionic aromatic chemistry, the total synthesis of oxygenated brazanquinones (1a-1c), derived from ?-brasan, a natural product isolated from Caesalpina echinata, via carbamates 2a-2c is described.

  11. Pesticide Action Network UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pesticide Action Network UK (PAN UK) is a nonprofit organization that "promotes healthy food, agriculture and an environment which will provide food and meet public health needs without dependence on toxic chemicals, and without harm to food producers and agricultural workers.� Through its website, PAN UK offers a number of downloadable publications including briefings; fact sheets for active ingredients like aldicarb, cypermethrin, methyl parathion, and paraquat; monthly gardening tips, and annual reviews. Site visitors can also search for pesticide-related images and numerous publication listings through the website's Photographic Database and Research Database. The site also contains pesticide-related news, press releases, and information about PAN UK activities in the United Kingdom, Europe, and around the world. Many related links are included as well in such categories as Conferences, Consumer Links, Databases & Resources, Integrated Pest Management, and more.

  12. A case of poisoning in a man who drank a nutrition supplement containing methomyl, a carbamate pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Keiko; Hida, Yoshihiro; Zaitsu, Akinori; Inoue, Hiromasa; Tsuji, Akiko; Ishida, Tomomi; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2005-07-01

    A 50-year-old man was admitted to the emergency room complaining oppression on his chest, sweating and vomiting. He had drunk a 30 ml volume nutrition supplement 60 minutes before. As myosis and decrease of serum choline esterase activity were observed on admission examination, poisoning was suspected and toxicological analyses were carried out on the heeltap of the drink. Drug screening by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed the presence of methomyl and the concentration of methomyl in the heeltap determined by liquid chromatography was 2.1 mg/ml. Methomyl concentrations in the serum and urine were determined after converting methomyl to its oxime form followed by derivatization and GC/MS. Methomyl concentration in the serum collected 6 hours after ingestion was 0.63 microg/ml, and that in the urine collected 7-20 hours after ingestion was 0.10 microg/ml. Based on these values and reported data, the amount of methomyl contaminated to the drink was considered to be a toxic dose. PMID:16173456

  13. A study on the effects of golf course organophosphate and carbamate pesticides on endangered, cave-dwelling arthropods Kauai, Hawaii

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Three endemic species, two arthropods and one isopod, are present in the Kauai caves. These species are critical components of the cave ecosystems and are possibly...

  14. Exposure to pesticides and metal contaminants of fertilizer among tree planters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman Ng, Melanie; Stjernberg, Ernst; Koehoorn, Mieke; Demers, Paul A; Davies, Hugh W

    2011-08-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, harvested forests are manually replanted by seasonal workers. The work is known to be physically demanding and ergonomically difficult, and recently, there have been concerns over chemical exposures due to pesticide residues on seedlings, fertilizers (often applied alongside seedlings), and potential metal contamination of these fertilizers. This study aimed to characterize metal and pesticide exposure among a sample of British Columbia tree planters. Between May 2006 and April 2007, exposure measurements were taken from 54 tree planters at five geographically disperse worksites throughout British Columbia. Four worksites were using fertilizer and one was not. Metal concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on post-shift hand wipes, full-shift personal air sample, bulk soil, seedling root balls, and fertilizer samples. Pesticides were measured on post-shift hand wipes and on bulk seedling samples. Seedling nursery pesticide application records were used to focus pesticide analyses on pesticides known to have been applied to the seedlings used at the study sites. Carbamate pesticides were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy and all other pesticides by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. No evidence was found that tree planters who worked with fertilizer were at an elevated risk of exposure to arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel relative to tree planters who did not. Pesticide residues were found on seedlings taken from work sites early in the tree planting season in April 2007. At these worksites, the fungicides chlorothalonil and iprodione were found on the skin of workers at low levels (range 0.37-106.3 ng cm(-2) and 0.48-15.9 ng cm(-2), respectively), providing evidence for exposure potential. Very poor hygiene conditions were observed at all tree planting work sites. Hand washing facilities were not available at work sites and only 5.6% of subjects reported hand washing during the work day, including prior to eating or smoking. Gloves were worn by all subjects but no personal protective equipment programs existed to train workers in the correct use or selection of gloves, and consequentially, many glove choices were inappropriate. The lack of hand washing facilities combined with incorrect glove use could increase the duration of dermal exposure and increase the risk of hand-to-mouth ingestion exposure. PMID:21673126

  15. Integrating Landsat and California pesticide exposure estimation at aggregated analysis scales: Accuracy assessment of rurality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vopham, Trang Minh

    Pesticide exposure estimation in epidemiologic studies can be constrained to analysis scales commonly available for cancer data - census tracts and ZIP codes. Research goals included (1) demonstrating the feasibility of modifying an existing geographic information system (GIS) pesticide exposure method using California Pesticide Use Reports (PURs) and land use surveys to incorporate Landsat remote sensing and to accommodate aggregated analysis scales, and (2) assessing the accuracy of two rurality metrics (quality of geographic area being rural), Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes and the U.S. Census Bureau urban-rural system, as surrogates for pesticide exposure when compared to the GIS gold standard. Segments, derived from 1985 Landsat NDVI images, were classified using a crop signature library (CSL) created from 1990 Landsat NDVI images via a sum of squared differences (SSD) measure. Organochlorine, organophosphate, and carbamate Kern County PUR applications (1974-1990) were matched to crop fields using a modified three-tier approach. Annual pesticide application rates (lb/ac), and sensitivity and specificity of each rurality metric were calculated. The CSL (75 land use classes) classified 19,752 segments [median SSD 0.06 NDVI]. Of the 148,671 PUR records included in the analysis, Landsat contributed 3,750 (2.5%) additional tier matches. ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) rates ranged between 0 and 1.36 lb/ac and census tract rates between 0 and 1.57 lb/ac. Rurality was a mediocre pesticide exposure surrogate; higher rates were observed among urban areal units. ZCTA-level RUCA codes offered greater specificity (39.1-60%) and sensitivity (25-42.9%). The U.S. Census Bureau metric offered greater specificity (92.9-97.5%) at the census tract level; sensitivity was low (?6%). The feasibility of incorporating Landsat into a modified three-tier GIS approach was demonstrated. Rurality accuracy is affected by rurality metric, areal aggregation, pesticide chemical class, and pesticide exposure cutoff. Future research should explore integrating Landsat for higher spatial resolution pesticide exposure estimation.

  16. Pesticides and Eggshell Thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Tucker

    2009-01-01

    This lab activity is about toxic substances like pesticides and their effects on biological systems. The activity starts with an introduction of how birds sequester calcium to make an egg. Learners are asked to bring eggshells from home from different kinds of birds, if possible. These shells are prepared for analysis. Learners discover how to prepare a primary acid, neutralize a base, and calculate the percentage of CaCO3 in shell material. These results lead to a discussion of how calcium moves through this biochemical system and how a pesticide can prevent calcium from building eggshell. This resource includes tips, some related to safety; adult supervision recommended.

  17. On the paradox of pesticides

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Y Charles

    2013-01-01

    The paradox of pesticides was observed experimentally, which says that pesticides may dramatically increase the population of a pest when the pest has a natural predator. Here we use a mathematical model to study the paradox. We find that the timing for the application of pesticides is crucial for the resurgence or non-resurgence of the pests. In particular, regularly applying pesticides is not a good idea as also observed in experiments. In fact, the best time to apply pesticides is when the pest population is reasonably high.

  18. The concentration of ethyl carbamate in commercial ume (Prunus mume) liqueur products and a method of reducing it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Tomokazu; Horii, Sachie; Izu, Hanae; Sudo, Shigetoshi

    2010-01-01

    The ethyl carbamate concentration of commercial ume liqueur products was studied, and a method of reducing it was examined from the viewpoint of antioxidation. The average ethyl carbamate concentration across 38 ume liqueur products was 0.12 mg/l (0.02-0.33 mg/l). When potassium metabisulfite was added to a concentration of 0-1,000 ppm during production, the generation of ethyl carbamate was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner, but when the amount of potassium metabisulfite added was below the maximum level allowed under the Japanese Food Sanitation Act, the reduction was only 27%. When ume liqueurs were produced under deoxygenated conditions created using an oxygen absorber, the ethyl carbamate concentration was reduced by up to 47% as compared with the control group, probably due mainly to a reduction in free hydrogen cyanide. When ume liqueur was produced in an oxygen atmosphere, the ethyl carbamate concentration increased by up to 50% as compared with the control group. Thus, oxygen may be involved in the generation of ethyl carbamate in ume liqueur production. PMID:20944415

  19. Comparative study of human and mouse pregnane X receptor agonistic activity in 200 pesticides using in vitro reporter gene assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear receptor, pregnane X receptor (PXR), is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that regulates genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Recent studies have shown that PXR activation may affect energy metabolism as well as the endocrine and immune systems. In this study, we characterized and compared the agonistic activities of a variety of pesticides against human PXR (hPXR) and mouse PXR (mPXR). We tested the hPXR and mPXR agonistic activity of 200 pesticides (29 organochlorines, 11 diphenyl ethers, 56 organophosphorus pesticides, 12 pyrethroids, 22 carbamates, 12 acid amides, 7 triazines, 7 ureas, and 44 others) by reporter gene assays using COS-7 simian kidney cells. Of the 200 pesticides tested, 106 and 93 activated hPXR and mPXR, respectively, and a total of 111 had hPXR and/or mPXR agonistic activity with greater or lesser inter-species differences. Although all of the pyrethroids and most of the organochlorines and acid amides acted as PXR agonists, a wide range of pesticides with diverse structures also showed hPXR and/or mPXR agonistic activity. Among the 200 pesticides, pyributicarb, pretilachlor, piperophos and butamifos for hPXR, and phosalone, prochloraz, pendimethalin, and butamifos for mPXR, acted as particularly potent activators at low concentrations in the order of 10-8-10-7 M. In addition, we found that several organophosphorus oxon- and pyributicarb oxon-metabolites decreased PXR activation potency compared to their parent compounds. These results suggest that a large number of structurally diverse pesticides and their metabolites possess PXR-mediated transcriptional activity, and their ability to do so varies in a species-dependent manner in humans and mice.

  20. A Test House Study of Pesticides and PesticideDegradation Products Following an Indoor Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preexisting pesticide degradates are a concern for pesticide biomonitoring studies as exposure to them may result in overestimation of pesticide exposure. The purpose of this research was to determine whether there was significant formation and movement, of pesticide degradates o...

  1. Environmental impact of pesticides after sewage treatment plants removal in four Spanish Mediterranean rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Julian; Masiá, Ana; Blasco, Cristina; Picó, Yolanda; Andreu, Vicente

    2013-04-01

    The re-use of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents is currently one of the most employed strategies in several countries to deal with the water shortage problem. Some pesticides are bio-accumulative and due to their toxicity they can affect non-target organisms, especially in the aquatic ecosystems, threating their ecological status. Despite these facts, and to our knowledge, there are few peer-reviewed articles that report concentrations of pesticides in Spanish STPs. This work presents the results of an extensive survey that was carried out in October of 2010 in 15 of the STPs of Ebro, Guadalquivir, Jucar and Llobregat rivers in Spain. Forty-three currently used pesticides, belonging to anilide, neonicotinoid, thiocarbamate, acaricide, juvenile hormone mimic, insect growth regulator, urea, azole, carbamate, chloroacetanilide, triazine and organophosphorus, have been monitored. Integrated samples of influent and effluent, and dehydrated, lyophilized sludge from 15 STPs located along the rivers were analyzed for pesticide residues. With these data, removal efficiencies are also calculated. Extraction of water samples was performed through Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) and sludge samples were extracted using the QuEchERS method. Pesticide determination was carried out using Liquid Chromatograph - tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Recoveries ranged from 48% to 70%, in water samples, and from 40 to 105 %, in sludge samples. The limits of quantification were 0.01-5 ng L-1 for the former, and 0.1-5.0 ng g-1 for the latter. In terms of frequency of detection, 31 analytes were detected in influent, 29 in effluent and 11 in sludge samples. Organophosphorus pesticides were the most frequently detected in all wastewater samples, but azole, urea, triazine, neonicotinoid and the insect growth regulator were also commonly found. Imazalil revealed the maximum concentration in wastewater samples from all rivers except the Guadalquivir, in which diuron presented the maximum one. Eleven pesticides including five organophosphorus, two azoles, one triazine, one chloroacetanilide, one juvenile hormone mimic and one acaricide were detected in the sludge samples. Accordingly, organophosphorus were the most frequently detected pesticides in the sludge samples, but the highest concentration was observed for imazalil. The higher concentration of this azole in the influent and their possible stronger adsorption may be the reason for their higher concentration in the sludge samples. The removal efficiency of pesticides was calculated from the analyte concentration in influent (Cin) and effluent (Cef): [(Cin-Cef)/Cin] x 100%. The removal of organophosporus ranged from -810,47 to 93,11%, meanwhile azoles and ureas were not removed in the STPs. The poor elimination of pesticides by sewage treatment plants presented in this study could be related to the treatment process used, hydraulic and solid retention times, besides the dilution and temperature of the raw sewage and the plant's configuration. These poor efficiencies are responsible of the high pesticides concentration (e.g.diuron) found in some effluents, which may endanger water quality of the ecosystem when they are re-used or directly discharged into the river. In fact, with respect to the Maximum Allowable Concentrations (MAC) stipulated by the Directive 2008/105/EC for pesticides in inland and other surface waters (Council of the European Communities, 2008), diuron exceeded these limits. Nevertheless, it is important to emphasize that, even though, the pesticides concentrations measured were relatively low (according to directives); this study analysed just some of them. A wide variety of other compounds, including other pesticides and pesticides transformation products, may contribute to the bad quality of the water ecosystems. Acknowledgements: This work has been supported by by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation through the project Consolider-Ingenio 2010 (CSD2009), as well as by this Ministry and the European Regional Development Funds (ERDF) (projects CGL2011-29703-C02-0

  2. Pesticides and Mosquito Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    This factsheet from the Environmental Protection Agency includes several summary documents on the problem of mosquito-borne diseases and the pesticides used to control mosquitoes. The resources cover issues from mosquito biology through the EPA's recent findings on the negative health impacts of Malathion.

  3. PESTICIDE ROOT ZONE MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRZM3 is a modeling system that links two subordinate models - PRZM and VADOFT to predict pesticide transport and transformation down through the crop root and unsaturated zone. PRZM3 includes modeling capabilities for such phenomena as soil temperature simulation, vo...

  4. Genotoxic effects of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornuta, N; Bagley, E; Nedopitanskaya, N

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiologic data showed an increase in the number of cancer cases in persons involved in agricultural production using pesticides. According to IARC, more than 25% of pesticides are classified as oncogens. In recent years, the concept of malignant tumors developing after environmental contamination with chemicals has been accepted. Changes in genetic material are at the basis of this process because many environmental pollutants are chemical carcinogens and mutagens with the capacity of causing DNA damage. DNA damage was proposed as a useful parameter for assessing the genotoxic properties of environmental pollutants. The correlation between exposure to carcinogenic substance and the level of DNA damage is essential. Pesticides are highly biologically active chemicals. They may interact with DNA and damage its structure. Such interaction may be critical for the manifestation of carcinogenic properties of different chemicals. We report on the organotropic genotoxic effects of different chemical classes of pesticides (decis, cypermetrin, 2,4-D, polyram) studied by means of alkaline unwinding assay DNA. PMID:9216788

  5. Biochemical biomarkers in Scinax fuscovarius tadpoles exposed to a commercial formulation of the pesticide fipronil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani Margarido, Tatiana Cristina; Felício, Andréia Arantes; de Cerqueira Rossa-Feres, Denise; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves

    2013-10-01

    One of the main pesticides used in the cultivation of sugarcane in São Paulo State, Brazil, is Regent(®)800WG, the main active compound of which is fipronil. Fipronil is a potent insecticide that eliminates pests, including insects resistant to pyrethroids, organophosphates (OP) and carbamates (CA). There is little known on the toxic effects of fipronil on non-target organisms, such as tadpoles of frogs. It is possible that this compound carries a high toxicity for these organisms, since the pesticide can be incorporated into aquatic environments during the rainy season, a time which coincides with the time of amphibian reproduction and the occurrence of tadpoles in the aquatic environment in this region. Thus, the pesticide could be contributing to the decline of amphibians in the northwest region of São Paulo state due to its wide use. This study aimed to test the influence of Regent(®)800WG on some biochemical systems of tadpoles (such as antioxidant defense systems) at different stages of development. The results of analysis from in vivo exposures demonstrated that only a few parameters in the groups exposed to fipronil responded to exposure to Regent(®)800WG, results which indicate that the pesticide instigates biochemical responses in tadpoles. Although catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) were unchanged during the experiments, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was inhibited in tadpoles, and the activity of glutathione reductase (GR) varied according to the exposure period and pesticide concentration. This data demonstrated the influence of the fipronil formulation on the metabolism of tadpoles, and showed that it can increase their susceptibility to environmental contaminants. PMID:23489839

  6. Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Biomonitoring of Farmers and Residents Exposed to Pesticides in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Dutra Caldas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding pesticide use and the levels of exposure of farmers and residents to organophosphorous and/or carbamates pesticides were evaluated in two rural settings in Brazil. A questionnaire was completed by 112 farm workers aged ?18 years. Almost all farmers acknowledged that pesticides were potentially harmful to their health (87.5%; however, over half rarely (48.2% or never (7.2% used personal protective devices (PPDs. An association was found (p = 0.001 between the work regimen and the use of PPDs, with more frequent equipment use among hired laborers than those involved in family agriculture. A significant correlation (p = 0.027 was found between the reporting of adverse symptoms and the use of backpack sprayers. Mean AChE activities of farmers (n = 64 and residents (n = 18 during the exposure and non-exposure periods were significantly lower than their control groups. Mean BChE activities of farmers and residents were significantly lower than their controls during the exposure period. Among the 60 farmers that had blood samples collected in both the exposure and non-exposure (baseline periods, 10 (16.7% had AChE depletion of over 30% during the exposure period compared with the baseline level. Six residents living on the same farms also presented this depletion. AChE was over 30% higher than the baseline level for 19 farmers (31.7%, indicating a reboot effect. Special education programs are needed in these regions to promote the safe use of pesticides in the field to decrease the risks from exposure to pesticides for farmers, and from secondary exposure to these compounds for their families.

  7. Validation of QuEChERS method for the determination of 36 pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from Ghana, using gas chromatography with electron capture and pulsed flame photometric detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkor, Augustine; Osei-Fosu, Paul; Nyarko, Stephen; Kingsford-Adaboh, Robert; Dubey, Brajesh; Asante, Isaac

    2015-08-01

    In this study, "Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe" 'QuEChERS' method was modified for the determination of 36 pesticides fortified at (0.01-1.0) mg kg(-1) in three vegetables and a fruit (lettuce, carrot, tomatoes and pineapples respectively) from Ghana. The method involved extraction with acetonitrile, phase separation with primary secondary amine and magnesium sulfate; the final injection solution was reconstituted in ethyl acetate. Organochlorine and synthetic pyrethroids residues were detected with electron capture detector whereas organophosphorus, pulsed flame photometric detector was used. The recoveries at different concentration levels (0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg kg(-1)) were in the range of 83% and 93% with relative standard deviation ranging from 2% to 10% (n = 5) and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) was greater than 0.99 for all the 36 pesticides. The method was successfully tested on 120 real samples from Accra markets and this proved to be useful for monitoring purposes particularly in laboratories that have no gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. PMID:26065516

  8. Genetic effects of methyl benzimidazole-2-yl-carbamate on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    The genetic effects of the mitotic inhibitor methyl benzimidazole-2-yl-carbamate (MBC) have been studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. MBC had little or no effect on the frequency of mutation. In some experiments MBC caused an increase in the frequency of mitotic recombination; however, this effect was small and not reproducible. The primary genetic effect of MBC was to induce mitotic chromosome loss at a high frequency. Chromosome loss occurred at equal frequencies for all chromosomes tested ...

  9. Enantioselective Hydroformylation of N-Vinyl Carboxamides, Allyl Carbamates and Allyl Ethers Using Chiral Diazaphospholane Ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Mcdonald, Richard I.; Wong, Gene W.; Neupane, Ram P.; Stahl, Shannon S.; Landis, Clark R.

    2010-01-01

    Rhodium complexes of diazaphospholane ligands catalyze the asymmetric hydroformylation of N-vinyl carboxamides, allyl ethers and allyl carbamates; products include 1,2- and 1,3-amino aldehydes and 1,3-alkoxy aldehydes. Using glass pressure bottles, short reaction times (generally less than 6 hours), and low catalyst loading (commonly 0.5 mol %), 20 substrates are successfully converted to chiral aldehydes with useful regioselectivity and high enantioselectivity (up to 99% ee). Chiral Roche al...

  10. Proteome-wide reactivity profiling identifies diverse carbamate chemotypes tuned for serine hydrolase inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jae Won; Cognetta, Armand B.; Niphakis, Micah J.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2013-01-01

    Serine hydrolases are one of the largest and most diverse enzyme classes in Nature. Inhibitors of serine hydrolases are used to treat many diseases, including obesity, diabetes, cognitive dementia, and bacterial and viral infections. Nonetheless, the majority of the 200+ serine hydrolases in mammals still lack selective inhibitors for their functional characterization. We and others have shown that activated carbamates, through covalent reaction with the conserved serine nucleophile of serine...

  11. N-sulfonyloxy carbamates as reoxidants for the tethered aminohydroxylation reaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Donohoe, Tj; Chughtai, Mj; Klauber, Dj; Griffin, D.; Campbell, Ad

    2006-01-01

    The use of N-sulfonyloxy carbamates as reoxidants for the tethered aminohydroxylation (TA) reaction is reported. These new conditions obviate the requirement for lithium hydroxide and tBuOCl in the oxidation mixture. In addition to providing aminohydroxylation products in good yields, the catalyst loadings can be reduced to just 1 mol % osmium. Moreover, for the first time, homoallylic alcohols are now viable substrates for the TA reaction.

  12. Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Coupling of Aryl Carbamates and Sulfamates: Experimental and Computational Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Quasdorf, Kyle W.; Antoft-finch, Aurora; Liu, Peng; Silberstein, Amanda L.; Komaromi, Anna; Blackburn, Tom; Ramgren, Stephen D.; Houk, K. N.; Snieckus, Victor; Garg, Neil K.

    2011-01-01

    The first Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reactions of the synthetically versatile O-aryl carbamate and O-sulfamate groups is described. The transformations utilize the inexpensive, bench-stable catalyst NiCl2(PCy3)2 to furnish biaryls in good to excellent yields. A broad scope for this methodology has been demonstrated. Substrates with electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups (EDGs, EWGs) are tolerated, in addition to those that possess ortho substitutents. Furthermore, heteroaryl s...

  13. Mechanisms of action of cephalosporin 3'-quinolone esters, carbamates, and tertiary amines in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Georgopapadakou, N. H.; Bertasso, A.

    1993-01-01

    Cephalosporin 3'-quinolone esters, carbamates, and tertiary amines are potent antibiotics whose antibacterial activities reflect the action of both the beta-lactam and the quinolone components. The biological properties of representative compounds from each class were compared in Escherichia coli. All compounds bound to the essential PBP 3, inhibited DNA gyrase, and caused filamentation in growing cells. To distinguish between cephalosporin- and quinolone-induced filaments, nucleoid segregati...

  14. Structure-Activity Studies on Nematicidal Activity of Dialkyl Carbamates and Thiocarbamates

    OpenAIRE

    Kochansky, Jan; Feldmesser, Julius

    1989-01-01

    In laboratory tests, 129 dialkyl carbamates of types ROC(O)NHR', RSC(O)NHR', and ROC(S)NHR' were tested in a screening bioassay against Panagrellus redivivus. The 10 most active were lethal at concentrations from 5 ppm down to ca. 1 ppm. Eight of these (the only ones active below 2.5 ppm) were thiolcarbamates (RSC(O)NHR'). Decyl N-methyhhiolcarbamate was also lethal to Meloidogyne incognita at approximately 1 ppm in direct contact tests.

  15. Synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from methyl carbamate and methanol over lanthanum compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dengfeng; Zhang, Xuelan; Gao, Yangyan [State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan, 030001 (China); Graduate university of Chinese, Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China); Xiao, Fukui; Wei, Wei; Sun, Yuhan [State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan, 030001 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Various lanthanum compounds were used as the catalyst for the synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from methyl carbamate and methanol. Among them, La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} presented the best catalytic performance with the DMC yield of 53.7% under suitable reaction conditions. Based on the results of X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and element analysis, a possible reaction mechanism over lanthanum nitrate was proposed for this reaction. (author)

  16. Carbamate derivatives and sesquiterpenoids from the South China Sea gorgonian Melitodes squamata

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Si Huang; Fei He; Hui Huang; Xiao-Yong Zhang; Shu-Hua Qi

    2012-01-01

    Five carbamate derivatives, obtucarbamates C and D (1, 2), dimethyl ((carbonylbis(azanediyl))bis(2-methyl-5,1-phenylene))dicarbamate (3), obtucarbamates A and B (4, 5), and four aromadendrane-type sesquiterpenoids, (+)-4?-N-methenetauryl-10?-methoxy-1?,5?,6?,7?-aromadendrane (6), (?)-4?-N-methenetauryl-10?-methoxy-1?,5?,6?,7?-aromadendrane (7), (?)-4?,10?-aromadendranediol (8), (+)-4?,10?-aromadendrane...

  17. Discriminação quiral por CLAE em carbamatos de polissacarídeos: desenvolvimento, aplicações e perspectivas Polysaccharide carbamate as chiral stationary phases for HPLC: development, applications and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Cass, Quezia B.; Elizabeth Tiritan, M.; Ana Lúcia Bassi; Calafatti, Silvana A.; Degani, Ana Luiza G.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of chromatographic separation of enantiomers has been acknowledged. This review surveys the development, application and perspectives of polysaccharide carbamates as chiral stationary phase for HPLC.

  18. Preliminary risk assessment of common-use pesticides using PRIMET and PERPEST pesticide risk models in a semi-arid subtropical region

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    W, Malherbe; JHJ, van Vuren; V, Wepener.

    Full Text Available The pesticide risk in agriculture in developing countries has not been adequately studied due to the extent and fate of pesticides in the environment often being unknown. South Africa is a country that has significant pressure on its freshwater and agricultural resources, which increases the possibi [...] lity of pesticide effects. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the PRIMET (Pesticide Risks in the Tropics to Man, Environment and Trade) and PERPEST (Predicting the Ecological Risk of PESTicides) models to predict pesticide exposure and effects on aquatic ecosystems due to spray drift. Vaalharts Irrigation Scheme is situated in the Northern Cape Province and receives water from the Vaal River for 43 000 ha of agricultural land. Crops in the area mostly consist of wheat, maize and groundnuts. Data gathered through household surveys with farmers were used in PRIMET as a first-tier estimate of the potential risk of the pesticides. The Predicted Effect Concentrations (PEC) calculated for the pesticides indicating a possible to definite risk were then used as input for PERPEST. PERPEST is a higher-tier model that predicts the potential effects of a pesticide on various grouped endpoints in the aquatic environment. The PRIMET results indicated most pesticides posed no risk to the environment, except the pyrethroid, deltamethrin. The ETR for deltamethrin indicated a possible to definite risk to the aquatic environment. The PERPEST results for deltamethrin indicated a high probability of clear effects on insects, micro- and macro-crustacean communities, with a lower probability for rotifers, algae, macrophytes and fish. PRIMET and PERPEST provided valid estimates of risk for pesticides and could be used effectively in South Africa.

  19. In vitro pesticide degradation in turfgrass soil incubated under open and sealed conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Yaguchi, K; Suzuki, S; Suga, T

    2001-01-01

    Degradation of selected pesticides was conducted in a turfgrass soil from a golf course under open (i.e., allowing gas exchange with atmosphere) and sealed systems. The time required for 50% of the initial dose of fenitrothion (O,O-dimethyl O-4-nitro-m-tolyl phosphorothioate), diazinon (O,O-dimethyl O-2-isopropyl-6-methylpyrimidin4-yl phosphorothioate), iprodione [3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-N-isopropyl-2,4-dioxo-imidazolidine-1-carboxamide], mecoprop [(RS)-2-(4-chloro-otolyloxy)propionic acid], and asulam (4-aminophenylsulfonyl-carbamate) to dissipate (half-life, t 1/2) was less than 2 wk under both conditions. The t 1/2 values of dithiopyr (S,S'-dimethyl 2-difluoromethyl-4-isobutyl-6-trifluoro-methylpyridine-3,5-dicarbothioate) were 324 and 185 d under the open and sealed conditions, respectively. The t 1/2 values of isoprothiolane (di-isopropyl 1,3-dithiolan-2-ylidene-malonate), flutolanil (alpha,alpha,alpha-trifluoro-3'-isopropoxy-o-toluanilide), and benefin (N-butyl-N-ethyl-alpha,alpha,alpha-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-p-toluidine) under the open conditions were 154, 336, and 47 d, respectively. The t 1/2 values of these pesticides increased slightly under the sealed conditions. The t 1/2 values of terbutol (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenyl N-methycarbamate) and one of the major degradation products, N-demethyl-terbutol (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenyl carbamate), were 182 and 291 d under the open conditions and increased by six- and threefold under the sealed conditions, respectively. The degradation system under the sealed conditions could characterize the persistence of terbutol and N-demethyl-terbutol, which were the most persistent in the field. PMID:11215650

  20. 75 FR 69005 - Flumioxazin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ...Mail: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP...the filing of a pesticide petition (PP...or on commodity fish, freshwater at...legal limit for a pesticide chemical residue in or on...Flumioxazin. Human Health Risk...

  1. Effects of Urbanization on Water Quality: Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page The effects of urbanization on water quality: Pesticides Pesticides are chemical and biological substances intended to control pests, such as insects, weeds, bacteria, and algae. Pesticides are heavily used on farmland, but in urban ...

  2. 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP) covers discharges of biological pesticides, and chemical pesticides that leave a residue, in areas where EPA is the...

  3. Resíduos de agrotóxicos em alimentos: uma preocupação ambiental global - Um enfoque às maçãs / Residues of pesticides in food: a global environmental preoccupation - Focussing on apples

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabel Cristina Sales Fontes, Jardim; Juliano de Almeida, Andrade; Sonia Claudia do Nascimento de, Queiroz.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english This paper describes the use of pesticides in agriculture. Research has shown that significant quantities of pesticide residues have been found in many types of foods. Thus, an overview is given of pesticide residue determinations in fruits and vegetables, with special attention to apples. The toxic [...] ity and the adverse effects possibly caused by the exposure of these compounds are alerting the scientific community to develop studies about the validation of analytical methods for multiresidue pesticide determination in these samples. This review shows that pesticide-residue determination in apples is becoming a very important and challenging issue.

  4. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  5. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

    2000-01-01

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  6. Modelling pesticides residues

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Raphael

    2004-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of a specific method to assess the presence of residues in agricultural commodities. The following objectives are formulated: to identify and describe main processes in environment — plant exchanges, to build of a model to assess the residue concentration at harvest in agricultural commodities, to understand the functioning of the modelled system, to characterise pesticides used in field crops and identify optimisation potentials in phytosanitary...

  7. Patrón de uso y venta de plaguicidas en Nayarit, México / Pattern of use and sale of pesticides in Nayarit, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cyndia Azucena, GONZÁLEZ-ARIAS; María de Lourdes, ROBLEDO-MARENCO; Irma Martha, MEDINA-DÍAZ; Jesús Bernardino, VELÁZQUEZ-FERNÁNDEZ; Manuel Iván, GIRÓN-PÉREZ; Betzabet, QUINTANILLA-VEGA; Patricia, OSTROSKY-WEGMAN; Norma Elena, PÉREZ-HERRERA; Aurora Elizabeth, ROJAS-GARCÍA.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Los plaguicidas son compuestos ampliamente utilizados en la agricultura y para controlar vectores que transmiten enfermedades a hombres y animales. Se investigó el patrón actual de venta y uso de plaguicidas en Nayarit, uno de los principales estados agrícolas en México; estos datos no existen en la [...] literatura. Se aplicó una encuesta a los encargados de los establecimientos de venta de agroquímicos en el estado; de acuerdo a los resultados, los insecticidas son los plaguicidas más frecuentemente empleados (45.9 %), seguidos de los herbicidas (30.5 %), fungicidas (20.1 %), entre otros. En cuanto a los grupos químicos, los organofosforados son los más vendidos y usados, seguidos de los piretroides, carbamatos y organoclorados. Contar con una base de datos completa y actual de los plaguicidas que se comercializan y en consecuencia se usan en cada una de las regiones de Nayarit, sentará las bases para futuros estudios que evalúen los efectos adversos de estos contaminantes sobre la salud humana y los ecosistemas. Abstract in english Pesticides are compounds widely used in agriculture and for the control of vectors that transmit diseases to humans and animals. No studies, however, have provided data regarding the potential use of pesticides in Nayarit State, one of the main agricultural states in México. This paper presents the [...] use of pesticides in Nayarit by obtaining the rate of their sales via a direct interview with establishment retailers. The data indicate that insecticides are the most used agrochemicals (45.9 %) in Nayarit State, followed by herbicides (30.5 %) and fungicides (20.1 %). According to chemical classification, organophosphates are the most sold and used pesticides in the State, followed by pyretroids, carbamates and organochlorine pesticides. This study provides detailed and updated data about the pesticide sales and their consequent use in each region of Nayarit. This database may serve as a background for future studies evaluating adverse effects of these environmental contaminants on human health and ecosystems.

  8. The Geochemistry of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, J. E.

    2003-12-01

    The mid-1970s marked a major turning point in human history, for it was at that moment that the ability of the Earth's ecosystems to absorb most of the biological impacts of human activities appears to have been exceeded by the magnitude of those impacts. This conclusion is based partly upon estimates of the rate of carbon dioxide emission during the combustion of fossil fuels, relative to the rate of its uptake by terrestrial ecosystems (Loh, 2002). A very different threshold, however, had already been crossed several decades earlier with the birth of the modern chemical industry, which produced novel substances for which no such natural assimilative capacity existed. Among these new chemical compounds, none has posed a greater challenge to the planet's ecosystems than synthetic pesticides, compounds that have been intentionally released into the hydrologic system in vast quantities - several hundred million pounds of active ingredient per year in the United States alone ( Donaldson et al., 2002) - for many decades. To gauge the extent to which we are currently able to assess the environmental implications of this new development in the Earth's history, this chapter presents an overview of current understanding regarding the sources, transport, fate and biological effects of pesticides, their transformation products, and selected adjuvants in the hydrologic system. (Adjuvants are the so-called "inert ingredients" included in commercial pesticide formulations to enhance the effectiveness of the active ingredients.)

  9. A novel optimised and validated method for analysis of multi-residues of pesticides in fruits and vegetables by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE)-dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE)-retention time locked (RTL)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with Deconvolution reporting software (DRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, Gouri; Tyagi, Yogesh Kumar; Gupta, Rajinder Kumar

    2011-08-01

    A rapid, effective and ecofriendly method for sensitive screening and quantification of 72 pesticides residue in fruits and vegetables, by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE), retention time locked (RTL) capillary gas-chromatographic separation in trace ion mode mass spectrometric determination has been validated as per ISO/IEC: 17025:2005. Identification and reporting with total and extracted ion chromatograms were facilitated to a great extent by Deconvolution reporting software (DRS). For all compounds LOD were 0.002-0.02mg/kg and LOQ were 0.025-0.100mg/kg. Correlation coefficients of the calibration curves in the range of 0.025-0.50mg/kg were >0.993. To validate matrix effects repeatability, reproducibility, recovery and overall uncertainty were calculated for the 35 matrices at 0.025, 0.050 and 0.100mg/kg. Recovery ranged between 72% and 114% with RSD of <20% for repeatability and intermediate precision. The reproducibility of the method was evaluated by an inter laboratory participation and Z score obtained within ±2. PMID:25214130

  10. Pesticide-sampling equipment, sample-collection and processing procedures, and water-quality data at Chicod Creek, North Carolina, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, T.K.; Smith, K.E.; Wood, C.D.; Williams, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected from Chicod Creek in the Coastal Plain Province of North Carolina during the summer of 1992 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Chicod Creek is in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage area, one of four study units designated to test equipment and procedures for collecting and processing samples for the solid-phase extraction of selected pesticides, The equipment and procedures were used to isolate 47 pesticides, including organonitrogen, carbamate, organochlorine, organophosphate, and other compounds, targeted to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sample-collection and processing equipment equipment cleaning and set-up procedures, methods pertaining to collecting, splitting, and solid-phase extraction of samples, and water-quality data resulting from the field test are presented in this report Most problems encountered during this intensive sampling exercise were operational difficulties relating to equipment used to process samples.

  11. Silica sulfuric acid: a versatile and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the synthesis of N-acyl carbamates and oxazolidinones under solvent-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Wu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Silica sulfuric acid catalyzes efficiently the reaction of carbamates and oxazolidinones with anhydrides under solvent-free conditions. All the reactions were done at room temperature and the N-acyl carbamates and oxazolidinones were obtained with high yields and purity via an easy work-up procedure. This method is attractive and is in a close agreement with green chemistry.

  12. Silica sulfuric acid: a versatile and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the synthesis of N-acyl carbamates and oxazolidinones under solvent-free conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Liqiang Wu; Xiaojuan Yang; Fulin Yan

    2011-01-01

    Silica sulfuric acid catalyzes efficiently the reaction of carbamates and oxazolidinones with anhydrides under solvent-free conditions. All the reactions were done at room temperature and the N-acyl carbamates and oxazolidinones were obtained with high yields and purity via an easy work-up procedure. This method is attractive and is in a close agreement with green chemistry.

  13. The IR spectra and hydrogen bonding of toluene-2,6-bis(methyl) and 4,4'-diphenylmethane-bis(methyl) carbamates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furer, V. L.

    2000-03-01

    The IR spectroscopy has been used to study models of polyurethanes containing different hard segments. The spectra of toluene-2,6-bis(methyl) and 4,4'-diphenylmethane-bis(methyl) carbamates at different temperatures were studied. The absorption curves of the free and associated carbamate molecules were compared with experimental IR spectra. The characteristic features of toluene-2,6-bis(methyl) carbamate and methyl- N-methyl carbamate clusters were revealed. The IR spectra for the two most stable toluene-2,6-bis(methyl) carbamate conformations were compared. The origin of the multiplet structure of bands in the experimental IR spectra of polyurethanes was discussed. The results obtained can be used for the analysis of the chemical and physical transformations in urethanes and polyurethanes.

  14. Synthesis, receptor binding and target-tissue uptake of carbon-11-labeled carbamate derivatives of estradiol and hexestrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-11-labeled estradiol and hexestrol derivatives were prepared via the reaction of [11 C]ethylchloroformate with the 2- and 4-amino derivatives of estradiol, the 3'-amino derivatives of hexestrol, and the l-aminophenoxy derivatives of hexestrol and 1-norhexestrol. The corresponding nonradioactive carbamates were prepared for chemical characterization and in vitro receptor binding assays. The positions of the substituents on the parent molecules were selected with a view to minimize interference with the receptor binding process. In spite of this, affinity for the estrogen receptor was strongly impaired for all carbamate derivatives. Likewise, in vivo, the [11C]carbamate analogs failed to localize in receptor rich tissue via an estrogen receptor mediated process. (Author)

  15. One-step Extraction of Multiresidue Pesticides in Soil by Microwave-assisted Extraction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Al- Ghamdi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A screening multi-residues method based on the Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE technique has been optimized using soil samples collected from 15 regions in Saudi Arabia. This method was used to extract 12 pesticide residues with a broad range of physico-chemical properties in agricultural soils containing to Organophosphorous, Organochlorines, Pyrethroids and Carbamates mainly used in agriculture. All MAE factors affecting the extraction techniques (heating, pressure, power, time and solvent volume of the targeted compounds were studied through experimental design to obtain a simple MAE method and evaluate the optimum extraction condition compared with traditional Soxhlet method for soil samples. The tested pesticide residues in the extracts of both techniques were analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS. The results were compared for the percentage of recovery, time consumption and volume of organic solvent used in each extraction procedure. The results indicated that the MAE method had the advantages resulting from the use of a low volume of organic solvent (acetone: hexane, 3:2, an unnecessary cleanup step and good efficiency to extract different groups of pesticides in soils at residual levels in 20 min, this compared with Soxhlet method. All the compounds extracted by MAE method were recovered in good yields and Minimum Detection Limits (MDL ranging from 0.0001 to 0.004 mg kg-1. The MAE approach was efficient and faster than the Soxhlet method in determining 12 multi-residue pesticides with a broad range of physico-chemical properties in soils without cleanup of the extracts.

  16. CHIRAL PESTICIDES: OCCURRENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like amino acids, certain pesticides exist in "left-handed" and "right-handed" (chiral) forms. Commercially available chiral pesticides are produced as racemic mixtures in which the ratio of the two forms (or enantiomers) is 1:1. Enantiomers have the same ...

  17. Determination of pesticide in ground and surface water samples and perception of farmers about pesticides in Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in our food, drinking water, environment and biosphere at large is needed for creating awareness for the trends of level of contamination and building up a data base upon which, future plan could be decided. In this paper monitoring requirements regarding the instrumentations, valid sampling, analytical protocols and its purpose are discussed in detail. Twenty nine water samples were analyzed and 22 were found contaminated with detectable level of 5 pesticides. These samples were found contaminated in the range of 0.0005-0.054 micro g/L. The percentage of detection of Chloropyriphos, Malathion, Dimethoate, Cypermethrin, and Endosulfan was respectively 7%, 14%. 17.8%, 35.8% and 25%. However, none of the samples were found above their Maximum Acceptable Concentrate (MAC) i.e. 0.1 micro g/L and 0.5 micro g/L for single and number of insecticides respectively set by EEC (European Economic Commission). Moreover, a survey of farmers' perceptions in respect of effects on their health with pesticide exposure was conducted to find out farmers' perception for the use of pesticides and how these may affect on their health with, identification of key issues those are relevant to farmers' health for further training to increase farmer's awareness about the use of pesticides. (author)

  18. Quality control of pesticide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In light of an established need for more efficient analytical procedures, this publication, which documents the findings of an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on “Quality Control of Pesticide Products”, simplifies the existing protocol for pesticide analysis while simultaneously upholding existing standards of quality. This publication includes both a report on the development work done in the CRP and a training manual for use by pesticide analysis laboratories. Based on peer reviewed and internationally recognized methods published by the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) and the Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC), this report provides laboratories with versatile tools to enhance the analysis of pesticide chemicals and to extend the scope of available analytical repertoires. Adoption of the proposed analytical methodologies promises to reduce laboratories’ use of solvents and the time spent on reconfiguration and set-up of analytical equipment

  19. The ARS Pesticide Properties Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maintained by the Agricultural Research Service's (ARS) Remote Sensing and Modeling Lab, the ARS Pesticide Properties Database "is a compendium of chemical and physical properties of 324 widely used pesticides." The database, organized alphabetically, focuses on "16 of the most important properties" affecting pesticide transport and degradation characteristics under different soil and weather conditions. For each pesticide, users will find information on CASRN, Molecular formula, Molecular weight, Physical state, Boiling point, Melting point, Decomposition point, Heat of vaporization, Rate Constants-Hydrolysis (Photolysis), Vapor pressure, Water solubility, Organic solubility, Henry's Law, Octanol/ water partitioning, Acid dissociation, Soil sorption, Field dissipation, and Soil halflife (aerobic, anaerobic). Also provided are several sections describing the properties and units of pesticide parameters, a Coden list, and links to a few related sites.

  20. Radioiodinated 2-nitrobenzyl carbamates as bioreductive alkylating agents for tissue hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three N-methylcarbamates of iodonitrobenzyl alcohols (4-iodo-2-nitrobenzyl alcohol 2, 5-iodo-2-nitrobenzyl alcohol 3 and 4-iodo-2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol 4) bearing [125I] have been prepared and characterized for their lipophilicity, their reduction potentials and the in vivo lability of the radioiodine in healthy mice. Based upon these results, 2 and 4 were tested in tumour-bearing mice showing limited uptake of radioactivity in tumours and a tumour-to-blood ratio of less than 1. Consequently these particular carbamates are not satisfactory as hypoxia imaging agents. (Author)

  1. beta-Lactamase hydrolysis of cephalosporin 3'-quinolone esters, carbamates, and tertiary amines.

    OpenAIRE

    Georgopapadakou, N. H.; Mccaffrey, C.

    1994-01-01

    The beta-lactam hydrolysis of five cephalosporin 3'-quinolones (dual-action cephalosporins) by three gram-negative beta-lactamases was examined. The dual-action cephalosporins tested were the ester Ro 23-9424; the carbamates Ro 25-2016, Ro 25-4095, and Ro 25-4835; and the tertiary amine Ro 25-0534. Also tested were cephalosporins with similar side chains (cefotaxime, desacetylcefotaxime, cephalothin, cephacetrile, and Ro 09-1227 [SR 0124]) and standard beta-lactams (penicillin G, cephaloridin...

  2. Radioiodinated 2-nitrobenzyl carbamates as bioreductive alkylating agents for tissue hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three N-methylcarbamates of iodonitrobenzyl alcohols (4-iodo-2-nitrobenzyl alcohol 2, 5-iodo-2-nitrobenzyl alcohol 3 and 4-iodo-2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol 4) bearing [125I] have been prepared and characterized for their lipophilicity, their reduction potentials and the in vivo lability of the radioiodine in healthy mice. Based upon these results, 2 and 4 were tested in tumor-bearing mice showing limited uptake of radioactivity in tumours and a tumor-to-blood ratio of less than 1. Consequently these particular carbamates are not satisfactory as hypoxia imaging agents. (author)

  3. Synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from methyl carbamate and methanol using a Fixed-Bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D. [Zaozhuang University, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zaozhuang (China); Zhang, X. [Zaozhuang University, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zaozhuang (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Coal Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Taiyuan (China); Wei, W.; Sun, Y. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Coal Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Taiyuan (China)

    2012-12-15

    Several mixed oxide catalysts were prepared by coprecipitation for dimethyl carbonate (DMC) synthesis from methyl carbamate and methanol. During the batch process, the DMC yield was below 35 %. In order to minimize the unfavorable thermodynamic equilibrium and side reactions for the DMC synthesis, a fixed-bed reactor was designed. A maximum DMC yield of {proportional_to} 73 % could be realized over a ZnO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. The effects of reaction conditions for this type of reactor were investigated in detail. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Carbamates I: Structural and conformational study of eight Methoxyphenyl-N-pyridinylcarbamates

    OpenAIRE

    Mocilac, Pavle; Gallagher, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Crystal and molecular structures of phenyl carbamates are relatively unexplored. Only 33 basic phenylcarbamates are present on the Cambridge Structure Database with no phenyl-N-pyridinylcarbamates (Scheme 1a). Our field is structural systematics and isomer grids by bridging solid state crystallography and in silico molecular modeling with conformational analysis as a central tool. A 3×3 isomer grid of nine Methoxyphenyl-N-pyridinylcarbamates (C13H12N2O3) as CxxOMe (x = para-/meta-/ortho-) wa...

  5. EFFICACY OF MANGANESE ETHYL BISDITHIO-CARBAMATE AGAINST TEN PATHOGENIC FUNGI OF LEAFY VEGETABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Narayan Shinde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: At present, there are 1.5 millions of plant species exist on the earth playing a role of prime source of food, fibers and drugs. India has achieved self sufficiency and good degree of stability of vegetable crop production out of which leafy vegetables are most essential component of our diet which nourishes with nutrients, minerals and vitamins. Aim: The aim of the present work is to evaluate Manganese ethyl bisdithio-carbamate(Mancozeb a Non Systemic fungicide against ten pathogenic fungi of leafy vegetables.

  6. toxicological effect of carbamate (methavin) on some biochemical activities in white rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    this work aims to study the toxic effect, which resulted from the direct or indirect exposure to the applied insecticide (methomyl), which was formerly known as lannate, that belongs to carbamate group. this study includes the determination of the effect of the methomyl on some biochemical activities in white rats as well as the changes in some hormonal levels. since the mentioned insecticide used in egypt from many years ago, which necessitated numerous studies on its effect to various organs of the human body by treating some animals which are closely similar to human construction

  7. Comparative Evaluation of High Protein against Normal Protein Diet in Combination with Carbamates against Organophosphorus Intoxication in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Chatterjee

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative efficacy of an isocaloric high (HPD containing 59 per cent protein, in comparison to a conventional diet containing 21 per cent protein as applied in the alleviation of toxicity of diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP and methyl isopropyl phosphonofluoridate (sarin, has been reported. In combination with well-known prophylactics like carbamates and cholinolytics like atropine against nerve gas toxicity, HPD appears to be superior to the conventional diet as studied by survival time measurements. Apart from carbamates, atropine and mecamylamine, HPD may be treated as an additional prophylactic agent to guard against the toxicity of DFP and sarin, which are being used as war chemicals.

  8. The role of kaolin particles in the performance of a carbamate-based biocide for water bacterial control

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Maria Ol Via; Vieira, M. J.; Melo, L. F.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of kaolin particles on the activity of Pseudomonas fuorescens and on the efficacy of a carbamate-based biocide was investigated. The results indicated that kaolin particles stimulated the activity of the bacteria for all buffered pH values studied (5, 7, and 9); this effect being more evident for the tests carried out at pH 5 and 9. The presence of the clay in P. fuorescens suspensions decreased the efficiency of disinfection of the carbamate. The results also showed that kaolin...

  9. Synthesis of acyl carbamates via four component Pd-catalyzed carbonylative coupling of aryl halides, potassium cyanate, and alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hongfei; de Almeida, Angelina M; de Almeida, Mauro V; Lindhardt, Anders T; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2015-03-01

    A simple and mild method is demonstrated for assembling acyl carbamates through a base-free four-component Pd-catalyzed carbonylation of aryl halides in the presence of potassium cyanate and alcohols in a two-chamber system. This approach produces a wide range of aryl acyl carbamates in good to excellent yields from the corresponding aryl bromides or iodides with near-stoichiometric carbon monoxide. In addition, the method can be extended to the synthesis of primary amides thereby expanding the usefulness of cyanate as an ammonia equivalent. PMID:25679260

  10. Kombinationseffekter af pesticider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudsk, Per; Andersen, Helle Raun

    2006-01-01

    Resumé: Effekten af 101 tokomponentblandinger og 20 trekomponentblandinger bestående af 22 forskellige pesticider blev undersøgt i 7 forskellige testsystemer. Effekterne af blandingerne blev sammenholdt med pesticidernes virkningsmekanismer/virkemåder med henblik på at undersøge, om det med baggrund i denne viden var muligt prediktere, hvorvidt blandingerne ville udvise additivitet, antagonisme eller synergisme. Endvidere blev undersøgt i hvor vid udstrækning resultaterne fra et testsystem kunne overføres til andre testsystemer. Hovedparten af blandingerne virkede additivt, og der blev generelt fundet en god overensstemmelse imellem terrestriske og akvatiske planter samt Microtox testen og dafnier.

  11. Progress in studies on genotoxicity of pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides are playing an important role in food production and food security. However, the ecoenvironment and human being could be impacted by improper use of some pesticides. An increasing attention has been paid to genotoxicity of pesticide and a progress has been made in recent years. The methodology, results, and probable mechanisms of genotoxicity of pesticide are reviewed in this article. (authors)

  12. Fact Sheets on Pesticides in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Coalition against the Misuse of Pesticides, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of a collection of fact sheets about the use of pesticides in schools and how to reduce it. The sheets are: (1) "Alternatives to Using Pesticides in Schools: What Is Integrated Pest Management?"; (2) "Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Pesticides in Schools"; (3) "The Schooling of State Pesticide Laws--2002 Update: A Review…

  13. Monitoring pesticide residues in greenhouse tomato by combining acetonitrile-based extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Armindo; Cunha, Sara C; Mansilha, Catarina; Aguiar, Ana; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2012-12-01

    A multiclass and multiresidue method for pesticide analysis in tomato was validated. Extraction and pre-concentration of the pesticide residues from acetonitrile extracts was performed by using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) technique, followed by gas chromatography-mass detection. DLLME was performed using carbon tetrachloride as extractive solvent and acetonitrile extract as dispersive solvent, in order to increase enrichment factor of the extraction procedure. Validation parameters indicated the suitability of the method for routine analyses of thirty pesticides in a large number of samples. In general, pesticide recoveries ranged between 70% and 110% and repeatability ranged between 1% and 20%. The proposed method was applied to the monitoring of pesticides in tomatoes grown during winter in greenhouses. Among the compounds considered in this work, cyprodinil was found in tomato at concentrations of 0.33mg/kg, other pesticides like azoxystrobin, fenhexanid, tolyfluanid, ?-cyhalothrin and trifloxystrobin were also detected, but, not quantified. PMID:22953826

  14. The Greening of Pesticide–Environment Interactions: Some Personal Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Casida, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pesticide–environment interactions are bidirectional. The environment alters pesticides by metabolism and photodegradation, and pesticides in turn change the environment through nontarget or secondary effects.

  15. PESTICIDE APPLICATION TECHNICS IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?uro Banaj

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The academic textbook Pesticide application tehnics improvement is the result of several-year recording theoretical models, numerous practical tests, and data collection relating to technical systems in plant protection and its environment in the narrowest sense. In this first edition, the authors cover the area they have dealt with for many years. The authors aimed to present complete and clear methods how to solve specific problems in the agricultural practice management, plant protection, and direct practice application – ‘‘Know- How'', with as many as possible useful data. References used, along with local ones, are mostly American and from Western Europe. This textbook is intended for those who already use the agricultural technique in plant protection and those who are just acquiring the basics of technical systems proper application in daily practice, regardless the size of the agricultural farm. The authors covered in details and explained some bases of physics logic, analysis, and synthesis of specific laws while using pesticides due to extremely importance in understanding the problem area.

  16. 77 FR 23713 - Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0176; FRL-9343-9] Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for Comment on Paperwork...Agency is announcing the availability of a Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice)...

  17. 40 CFR 168.22 - Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA section 24(c) registrations...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS OF ENFORCEMENT...

  18. 75 FR 33705 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2005-0327; FRL-8830-7] RIN 2070-AJ74 Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to Labeling...SUMMARY: EPA is amending the pesticide container and containment regulations...

  19. Optimization of 1,2,5-thiadiazole carbamates as potent and selective ABHD6 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jayendra Z; Nevalainen, Tapio J; Savinainen, Juha R; Adams, Yahaya; Laitinen, Tuomo; Runyon, Robert S; Vaara, Miia; Ahenkorah, Stephen; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Navia-Paldanius, Dina; Gynther, Mikko; Aaltonen, Niina; Joharapurkar, Amit A; Jain, Mukul R; Haka, Abigail S; Maxfield, Frederick R; Laitinen, Jarmo T; Parkkari, Teija

    2015-02-01

    At present, inhibitors of ?/?-hydrolase domain?6 (ABHD6) are viewed as a promising approach to treat inflammation and metabolic disorders. This article describes the development of 1,2,5-thiadiazole carbamates as ABHD6 inhibitors. Altogether, 34 compounds were synthesized, and their inhibitory activity was tested using lysates of HEK293 cells transiently expressing human ABHD6 (hABHD6). Among the compound series, 4-morpholino-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yl cyclooctyl(methyl)carbamate (JZP-430) potently and irreversibly inhibited hABHD6 (IC50 =44 nM) and showed ?230-fold selectivity over fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and lysosomal acid lipase (LAL), the main off-targets of related compounds. Additionally, activity-based protein profiling indicated that JZP-430 displays good selectivity among the serine hydrolases of the mouse brain membrane proteome. JZP-430 has been identified as a highly selective, irreversible inhibitor of hABHD6, which may provide a novel approach in the treatment of obesity and type?II diabetes. PMID:25504894

  20. Carbamate and pyrethroid resistance in the akron strain of Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutunga, James M; Anderson, Troy D; Craft, Derek T; Gross, Aaron D; Swale, Daniel R; Tong, Fan; Wong, Dawn M; Carlier, Paul R; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2015-06-01

    Insecticide resistance in the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, is a serious problem, epitomized by the multi-resistant Akron strain, originally isolated in the country of Benin. Here we report resistance in this strain to pyrethroids and DDT (13-fold to 35-fold compared to the susceptible G3 strain), but surprisingly little resistance to etofenprox, a compound sometimes described as a "pseudo-pyrethroid." There was also strong resistance to topically-applied commercial carbamates (45-fold to 81-fold), except for the oximes aldicarb and methomyl. Biochemical assays showed enhanced cytochrome P450 monooxygenase and carboxylesterase activity, but not that of glutathione-S-transferase. A series of substituted ?,?,?,-trifluoroacetophenone oxime methylcarbamates were evaluated for enzyme inhibition potency and toxicity against G3 and Akron mosquitoes. The compound bearing an unsubstituted phenyl ring showed the greatest toxicity to mosquitoes of both strains. Low cross resistance in Akron was retained by all analogs in the series. Kinetic analysis of acetylcholinesterase activity and its inhibition by insecticides in the G3 strain showed inactivation rate constants greater than that of propoxur, and against Akron enzyme inactivation rate constants similar to that of aldicarb. However, inactivation rate constants against recombinant human AChE were essentially identical to that of the G3 strain. Thus, the acetophenone oxime carbamates described here, though potent insecticides that control resistant Akron mosquitoes, require further structural modification to attain acceptable selectivity and human safety. PMID:26047119

  1. Improved sample preparation for GC-MS-SIM analysis of ethyl carbamate in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, Ian C C; Pereira, Giuliano E; Silva, Marileide; Pereira, Elainy V S; Medeiros, Marcelo M; Telles, Danuza L; Albuquerque, Eden C; Oliveira, Juliane B; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2015-06-15

    An improved sample preparation procedure for analysis of carcinogenic ethyl carbamate (EC) in wine by GC-MS-SIM is proposed. Differences over AOAC reference procedure were: (1) use of EC-d5 as internal standard instead of less similar propyl carbamate; (2) extraction by diethyl ether instead of more toxic dichloromethane, and (3) concentration by vacuum automated parallel evaporation instead of more time and work consuming rotary evaporation. Mean recovery was 104.4%, intraday precision was 6.7% (3.4 ?g L(-)(1)) and 1.7% (88.5 ?g L(-)(1)), regression coefficient was 0.999 in the linear working range of 3-89 ?g L(-)(1), and limits of detection and quantification were 0.4 and 1.2 ?g L(-)(1). Applicability was demonstrated by analysis (in triplicate) of 5 wine samples. EC concentration ranged from 5.2 ± 0.2 to 29.4 ± 1.5 ?g L(-)(1). The analytical method is selective, accurate, repeatable, linear, and has similar method performance as the reference method along with the several mentioned advantages. PMID:25660853

  2. Pesticide use and application: An Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of applicati was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

  3. A bi-enzymatic whole cell conductometric biosensor for heavy metal ions and pesticides detection in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouteau, Celine; Dzyadevych, Sergei; Durrieu, Claude; Chovelon, Jean-Marc

    2005-08-15

    A conductometric biosensor using immobilised Chlorella vulgaris microalgae as bioreceptors was used as a bi-enzymatic biosensor. Algae were immobilised inside bovine serum albumin membranes reticulated with glutaraldehyde vapours deposited on interdigitated conductometric electrodes. Local conductivity variations caused by algae alkaline phosphatase and acetylcholinesterase activities could be detected. These two enzymes are known to be inhibited by distinct families of toxic compounds: heavy metals for alkaline phosphatase, carbamates and organophosphorous (OP) pesticides for acetylcholinesterase. The bi-enzymatic biosensors were tested to study the influence of heavy metal ions and pesticides on the corresponding enzyme. It has finally appeared that these biosensors are quite sensitive to Cd2+ and Zn2+ (limits of detection (LOD) = 10 ppb for a 30 min long exposure) while Pb2+ gives no significant inhibition as this ion seems to adsorb on albumin preferably. For pesticides, first experiments showed that paraoxon-methyl inhibits C. vulgaris AChE contrary to parathion-methyl and carbofuran. Biosensors were then exposed to different mixtures (Cd2+/Zn2+, Cd2+/paraoxon-methyl) but no synergetic or antagonist effect could be observed. A good repeatability could be achieve with biosensors since the relative standard deviation did not exceed 8% while response time was 5-7 min. A comparison between inhibition levels obtained with biosensors (after a 30 min long exposure) and bioassays (after a 240 min long exposure) has finally shown a similar LOD for both Cd and Zn (LOD = 10 ppb). PMID:16023954

  4. Trabalho rural e fatores de risco associados ao regime de uso de agrotóxicos em Minas Gerais, Brasil Rural work and risk factors associated with pesticide use in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Soares

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi caracterizar o processo do trabalho rural em nove municípios de Minas Gerais, considerando indicadores sócio-demográficos, a estrutura agrária dos estabelecimentos rurais, práticas de trabalho relacionadas ao uso de agrotóxicos e, a intoxicação associada a seu uso. Os dados foram obtidos de uma pesquisa realizada pela Fundação Jorge Duprat Figueiredo, de Segurança e Medicina do Trabalho, que aplicou um questionário a 1.064 trabalhadores rurais, entre os anos de 1991 a 2000. Por meio de uma regressão logística, foram obtidos os fatores de risco associados à intoxicação por agrotóxicos dos grupos organofosforados e carbamatos. Cerca de 50% dos entrevistados se encontravam ao menos moderadamente intoxicados. Os fatores de risco encontrados foram: ter o último contato a menos de duas semanas com agrotóxicos; não usar proteção; ser orientado pelo vendedor; citar organofosforado ou carbamato como agrotóxico principal e trabalhar nos municípios de Teófoli Otoni, Guidoval ou Piraúba. Os resultados apontam para o alto grau de risco de agravos à saúde a que estão sujeitos trabalhadores rurais em contato com agrotóxicos.This paper aimed to characterize the rural work process in nine counties in Minas Gerais State, considering socio-demographic indicators, the land tenure structure of farm operations, and work practices related to pesticide use and poisoning Data were obtained through the Jorge Duprat Figueiredo Foundation for Workers' Safety and Occupational Medicine, which applied a questionnaire to 1,064 rural workers from 1991 to 2000. Through a logistic regression, risk factors associated with pesticide poisoning were obtained for the carbamate and organophosphate groups. Some 50% of interviewees displayed at least moderate pesticide toxicity. Risk factors for pesticide poisoning were: last contact with pesticides less than two weeks before the blood cholinesterase test; no use of personal protective equipment by workers applying pesticides; having received instructions from the pesticide salesperson; report of carbamates/organophosphates as the main pesticides used; and working in the counties of Teófoli Otoni, Guidoval, or Piraúba. The results emphasize the high level of health risk associated with pesticide use among these rural workers.

  5. Movement of pesticides from the site of application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important among the data needed to reduce the environmental risks potentially associated with pesticide use is a clear understanding of environmental processes. Much information has been accumulated and this is discussed with special reference to the research being carried out by scientists of the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture at Beltsville. Physical and chemical properties are important in predicting the environmental fate of a pesticide. Routes of dissipation from the site of application will be influenced by the agricultural system and the method of application. Causes of loss include runoff and a three year study showed the extent of herbicide runoff to the Wye River Estuary. Potential contamination of groundwater by leaching has been recognized as a problem in certain cases and its extent and causes are being extensively studied. Volatilization may be a significant source of loss. Two important factors are the vapour pressure of the pesticide and the nature of the surface. Pesticide volatilization was measured using specially designed sampling equipment. Losses from dry soil surfaces were much smaller than the rapid losses from moist surfaces. Losses were predictable in terms of the vapour pressure of the compound and its interaction with surfaces. Atmospheric movement is important in the transport of pesticides. They may be redeposited on the Earth's surface by a number of mechanisms including rainfall, fog and snowechanisms including rainfall, fog and snow or be adsorbed on particulate matter. A specially constructed sampler was used to collect the liquid and vapour phases of fog. Pesticides, their alteration products, plasticizers, flame retardants, industrial chemicals and combustion products were found in fog samples collected in Maryland and California. Distribution between liquid and vapour phases was not in accordance with Henry's Law and experiments are in progress to measure Henry's Law constants to validate these observations. 26 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Evidence for genotoxicity of pesticides in pesticide applicators: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, S.; Fletcher, K.; Boobis, A. R.; Battershill, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature has been conducted and studies reporting investigations of genotoxicity biomarkers in pesticide workers have been assessed with view to establishing whether there was evidence for any risk to those using pesticides approved in the United Kingdom. Each of the studies was evaluated using a set of criteria drawn up by members of the UK Committee of Mutagenicity based upon the guidelines proposed by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) workin...

  7. C?H alkenylations with alkenyl acetates, phosphates, carbonates, and carbamates by cobalt catalysis at 23?°c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moselage, Marc; Sauermann, Nicolas; Richter, Sven C; Ackermann, Lutz

    2015-05-18

    Inexpensive cobalt catalysts with N-heterocyclic carbene ligands enable direct arene alkenylations with easily accessible alkenyl acetates through regioselective C?H/C?O functionalizations in a stereoconvergent fashion. The versatile cobalt catalyst was broadly applicable and thus also allowed for the efficient conversion of alkenyl phosphates, carbonates, and carbamates at ambient temperature. PMID:25864965

  8. Synthesis of CdS and CdSe nanoparticles by thermolysis of diethyldithio- or diethyldiseleno-carbamates of cadmium

    OpenAIRE

    Trindade, Tito; O Brien, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide and cadmium selenide nanoparticles have been synthesised by a novel route involving the thermal decomposition of the bisdiethyldithio- or bisdiethyldiseleno-carbamates of cadmium in refluxing 4-ethylpyridine solutions. The nanodispersed materials were studied by electronic spectroscopy and bandgaps were blue shifted. Transmission electron microscopy of the samples showed material to be in the nanosize range and crystalline.

  9. EFFECTS OF THE FUNGICIDE METHYL-BENZIMIDAZOL-2-YL CARBAMATE (MBC) ON MOUSE GERM CELLS AS DETERMINED BY FLOW CYTOMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dual-parameter (DNA, RNA) flow cytometry (FCM) measurements were made on testicular and epidiymal sperm cells isolated from mice exposed by oral gavage to 0, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg x 5 d of the fungicide methylbezimidazol-2-yl carbamate (MBC), which is known to bind with tubulin...

  10. The comparison of COCO and CO2/carbamate chemical exchange systems of the enrichment of 13C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical exchange systems of CO/aqueous solution of Cu2Cl2.8NH4Cl, abbreviated as COCO, and CO2/carbamate in enrichment of 13C were compared using identical experimental devices. The results indicate that the latter system is better than the former, and can be used to produce highly concentrated 13C

  11. Demonstration of a functional requirement for the carbamate nitrogen of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase by chemical rescue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase is reversibly activated by the reaction of Co2 with a specific lysyl residue to form a carbamate that coordinates an essential Mg2+ cation. Surprisingly, the Lys191?Cys mutant protein, in the presence of Co2 and Mg2+ exhibits tight binding of the reaction intermediate analogue 2-carboxyarabinitol bisphosphate a property normally equated with effective coordination of the Mg2+ by the carbamate. Catalytic ineptness of the Cys191 mutant protein, despite its ability to coordinate Mg2+ properly, might be due to the absence of the carbamate nitrogen. To investigate this possibility, the authors have evaluated the ability of exogenous amines to restore catalytic activity to the mutant protein. Significantly, the Cys191 protein manifests ribulose bisphosphate dependent fixation of 14CO2 when incubated with aminomethanewsulfonate but not ethanesulfonate. This novel activity reflects a Km value for ribulose bisphosphate which is not markedly perturbed relative to wild-type enzyme, a Km for Mg2+ which is in fact decreased 10-fold, and rate saturation with respect to aminomethanesulfonate. Chromatographic and spectrophotometric analyses reveal the product of CO2 fixation to be D-3-phosphoglycerate while turnover of [1-3H]ribulose bisphosphate into [3H]phosphoglycolate confirms oxygena/sup>H]phosphoglycolate confirms oxygenase activity. The authors conclude that aminomethanesulfonate restored ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activities to the Cys191 mutant protein by providing a nitrogenous function which satisfies a catalytic demand normally met by the carbamate nitrogen of Lys191

  12. Organofosforados e carbamatos no leite produzido em quatro regiões leiteiras no Brasil: ocorrência e ação sobre Listeria monocytogenes e Salmonella spp. / Organophosphates and carbamates in milk produced in four milk producing regions from Brazil: occurrence and activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luís Augusto, Nero; Marcos Rodrigues de, Mattos; Vanerli, Beloti; Márcia Aguiar Ferreira, Barros; Daisy Pontes, Netto; Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo, Franco.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Organofosforados e carbamatos são compostos utilizados no controle de parasitas em animais e podem gerar resíduos nos produtos alimentícios derivados, representando um risco para o consumidor. O presente estudo objetivou pesquisar a presença de resíduos de organofosforados e carbamatos em leite cru [...] produzido em quatro regiões leiteiras no Brasil e verificar se a presença desses compostos teria alguma relação com a ausência de Listeria monocytogenes e Salmonella spp., anteriormente observada nessas amostras. Entre 209 amostras analisadas, a presença de ao menos um desses compostos foi detectada em 196 (93,8%). Para a avaliação da sua interferência na detecção de L. monocytogenes e Salmonella spp., 28 amostras de leite positivas e negativas para esses compostos foram submetidas à fervura por 10 minutos e adicionadas desses patógenos, monitorando-se sua multiplicação durante armazenamento a 4 °C e a 25 °C. Não houve diferença significativa (p Abstract in english Chemical residues may be present in foods due to contamination in early stages of production, posing a potential risk to consumers. Organophosphates and carbamates are used in the control of parasites in animals and may generate residues in foods derived from these animals, like milk. This study aim [...] ed to survey the presence of these two pesticides in raw milk samples collected in four important milk-producing regions in Brazil and observe any possible relationship between presence of these compounds and the previously reported absence of Listeria monocytogenes e Salmonella spp. in the same milk samples. Organophosphates and/or carbamates were detected in 196 (93.8%) out of 209 samples. For evaluation of the interference of these products on detection of L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp., 28 milk samples containing these pesticides were boiled for 10 minutes, added of the pathogens, and their multiplication was monitored during storage at 4 °C and 25 °C. No significant differences (p

  13. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Occupational Exposure to Agricultural Pesticide Chemical Groups and Active Ingredients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Schinasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes results from a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses of nearly three decades worth of epidemiologic research on the relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide active ingredients and chemical groups. Estimates of associations of NHL with 21 pesticide chemical groups and 80 active ingredients were extracted from 44 papers, all of which reported results from analyses of studies conducted in high-income countries. Random effects meta-analyses showed that phenoxy herbicides, carbamate insecticides, organophosphorus insecticides and the active ingredient lindane, an organochlorine insecticide, were positively associated with NHL. In a handful of papers, associations between pesticides and NHL subtypes were reported; B cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicides and the organophosphorus herbicide glyphosate. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicide exposure. Despite compelling evidence that NHL is associated with certain chemicals, this review indicates the need for investigations of a larger variety of pesticides in more geographic areas, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which, despite producing a large portion of the world’s agriculture, were missing in the literature that were reviewed.

  14. A pesticide monitoring survey in rivers and lakes of northern Greece and its human and ecotoxicological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Emmaluel N; Vryzas, Zisis; Kotopoulou, Athena; Kintzikoglou, Katerina; Makris, Konstantinos C; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2015-06-01

    A pesticide monitoring study covering the main rivers and lakes of Northern Greece (Macedonia, Thrace and Thessaly) was undertaken. A total of 416 samples were collected over a 1.5-year sampling period (September 1999- February 2001) from six rivers and ten lakes. The water samples were analyzed with an off-line solid phase extraction technique coupled with a gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometer using an analytical method for 147 pesticides and their metabolites, including organochlorines, organophosphates, triazines, chloroacetanilides, pyrethroids, carbamates, phthalimides and other pesticides (herbicides, insecticides and fungicides). Based on the pesticide survey results, a human health carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk assessment was conducted for adults and children. Ecotoxicological risk assessment was also conducted using default endpoint values and the risk quotient method. Results showed that the herbicides metolachlor, prometryn, alachlor and molinate, were the most frequently detected pesticides (29%, 12.5%, 12.5% and 10%, respectively). They also exhibited the highest concentration values, often exceeding 1?g/L. Chlorpyrifos ethyl was the most frequently detected insecticide (7%). Seasonal variations in measured pesticide concentrations were observed in all rivers and lakes. The highest concentrations were recorded during May-June period, right after pesticide application. Concentrations of six pesticides were above the maximum allowable limit of 0.1?g/L set for drinking water. Alachlor, atrazine and a-HCH showed unacceptable carcinogenic risk estimates (4.5E-06, 4.6E-06 and 1.3E-04, respectively). Annual average concentrations of chlorpyriphos ethyl (0.031?gL), dicofol (0.01?g/L), dieldrin (0.02?g/L) and endosulfan a (0.065?g/L) exceeded the EU environmental quality standards. The risk quotient estimates for the insecticides chorpyrifos ethyl, diazinon and parathion methyl and herbicide prometryn were above acceptable risk values. The coupling of monitoring data to probabilistic human and ecotoxicological risk estimates could find use by Greek regulatory authorities, proposing effective pollution management schemes. PMID:25733189

  15. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

  16. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants

  17. Structural relaxation accompanied by photo-induced chromatic phase transition of polydiacetylenes with butylene-N-difluorophenyl carbamate side chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Yuuki; Sakamoto, Naoya; Kokado, Ryousuke; Kajimoto, Naoshi; Izumi, Yuuichiro [Department of Materials Science and Chemistry, Wakayama University, 930 Sakaedani, Wakayama (Japan); Itoh, Chihiro, E-mail: citoh@sys.wakayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Chemistry, Wakayama University, 930 Sakaedani, Wakayama (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    We have studied the phase transition of poly-5,7-dodecadiyne-1,12-diol bis[2,4-difluorophenyl carbamate] (PDA-2,4-DFPC) and poly-5,7-dodecadiyne-1,12-diol bis[3,4-difluorophenyl carbamate] (PDA-3,4-DFPC) by visible reflection spectroscopy and mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy. Both PDA-2,4-DFPC and PDA-3,4-DFPC show the reflection spectra characterized by a sharp peak at around 1.9 eV at room temperature. While PDA-3,4-DFPC shows thermochromic phase transition to the phase showing the reflection spectrum with a peak around 2.2 eV above 120 Degree-Sign C, PDA-2,4-DFPC shows no abrupt change of the reflection spectrum. However, PDA-2,4-DFPC shows drastic change of the reflection spectrum under 532-nm CW-laser excitation. Based on these results, we can draw the following two conclusions. First, the phase transition behavior of PDA can be controlled by modifying the side-chain structure. Second, we demonstrate that thermally inaccessible phase of PDA is induced by the photo-excitation. By measuring mid-infrared absorption of PDAs, we elucidated that conformational change of side chains is accompanied with the phase transition. Based on the results, we discussed the role of the side chain in the phase transition. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have synthesized polydiacetylene (PDA) with difluorophenyl carbamate side chain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PDAs show distinct phase transition (PT) depending on the side-chain structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PDA with 3,4-difluorophenyl carbamate shows PT by thermal stimulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer However, PDA with 2,4-difluorophenyl carbamate shows PT only under photo-excitation.

  18. Use of pesticides in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Republic of Kazakhstan has 210 regional stations, 19 provincial stations and one co-ordinating government research and production station, all known as Republic Stations for Plant Protection. These stations have the following functions: they control pesticide use and development, and monitor pest populations; they inform and teach farmers the methods for controlling insect pests, diseases and weeds, and the rules for safe pesticide use; and they continually monitor the presence or spread of any adverse effects in order to make short and long term prognoses, which are then used to determine the pesticide requirements. The major functions of these government stations is to control the timely distribution of pesticides and their safe and timely application, so that regulations for their use can be monitored and control over technology maintained. The co-ordinating station evaluates all projects, provides documentation on the use and storage of pesticides, controls field trials carried out by foreign companies on the Republic's territory and regulates pesticide usage during campaigns against insect pests, diseases and weeds. The regional and district subdivisions of these government stations promote integrated pest management for protecting harvests. (author)

  19. MONITORING OF ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS PESTICIDE RESDUES IN SAMPLES OF BANANA, PAPAYA, AND BELL PEPPER

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana F., Lemos; Mayara F., Lemos; Henrique P., Pacheco; Rodrigo, Scherer.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to monitor 11 organophosphorus pesticides in samples of papaya, bell pepper, and banana, commercialized in the metropolitan area of Vitória (ES, Brazil). The pesticides were determined by an optimized and validated method using high performance liquid chromatography w [...] ith tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). All three samples exhibited a matrix effect for most of the pesticides, mainly with signal suppression, and therefore the calibration curves were produced in matrices. Linearity revealed coefficients of determination (r2) greater than 0.9895 for all pesticides and recovery results ranged from between 76% and 118% with standard deviation no greater than 16%. Precision showed relative standard deviation values lower than 19% and HorRat values lower than 0.7, considering all pesticides. Limits of quantification were less than 0.01 mg/kg for all pesticides. Regarding analysis of the samples (50 of each), none of the pesticides exceeded the maximum residue limit determined by Brazilian legislation.

  20. PESTIS: Pesticide Action Network North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the word Action in its title indicates, PESTIS is definitely an advocacy group and is not moderate on its feelings about pesticides. In fact, a part of PESTIS, is PANNA (Pesticide Action Network North America), which "works to replace pesticide use with ecologically sound and socially just alternatives." Regardless of your feeling towards pesticides, this Web site includes all sorts of data and information related to pesticide use, including ecotoxicological studies on fish, amphibians, fungi, and more, to ideas for alternatives to pesticides. And, for those visitors interested in furthering their own activism, there is a link to current PESTIS projects and campaigns and ways to help.

  1. 78 FR 3418 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Web-Distributed Labeling for Pesticide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ...labeling, a user would visit the Web site identified on the pesticide...intended state and use site. The Web site would return a streamlined version...recommends content, function, and security for the Web site associated with a...

  2. PestLCI 2.0: a second generation model for estimating emissions of pesticides from arable land in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Birkved, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The spatial dependency of pesticide emissions to air, surface water and groundwater is illustrated and quantified using PestLCI 2.0, an updated and expanded version of PestLCI 1.0.PestLCI is a model capable of estimating pesticide emissions to air, surface water and groundwater for use in life cycle inventory (LCI) modelling of field applications. After calculating the primary distribution of pesticides between crop and soil, specific modules calculate the pesticide’s fate, thus determining the pesticide emission pattern for the application. PestLCI 2.0 was developed to overcome the limitations of the first model version, replacement of fate calculation equations and introducing new modules for macropore flow and effects of tillage. The accompanying pesticide database was expanded, the meteorological and soil databases were extended to include a range of European climatic zones and soil profiles. Environmental emissions calculated by PestLCI 2.0 were compared to results from the risk assessment models SWASH (surface water emissions), FOCUSPEARL (groundwater via matrix leaching) and MACRO (groundwater including macropore flow, only one scenario available) to partially validate the updated model. A case study was carried out to demonstrate the spatial variation of pesticide emission patterns due to dependency on meteorological and soil conditions.Compared to PestLCI 1.0, PestLCI 2.0 calculated lower emissions to surface water and higher emissions to groundwater. Both changes were expected due to new pesticide fate calculation approaches and the inclusion of macropore flow. Differences between the SWASH and FOCUSPEARL and PestLCI 2.0 emission estimates were generally lower than 2 orders of magnitude, with PestLCI generally calculating lower emissions. This is attributed to the LCA approach to quantify average cases, contrasting with the worst-case risk assessment approach inherent to risk assessment. Compared to MACRO, the PestLCI 2.0 estimates for emissions to groundwater were higher, suggesting that PestLCI 2.0 estimates of fractions leached to groundwater may be slightly conservative as a consequence of the chosen macropore modelling approach. The case study showed that the distribution of pesticide emissions between environmental compartments strongly depends on local climate and soil characteristics.PestLCI 2.0 is partly validated in this paper. Judging from the validation data and case study, PestLCI 2.0 is a pesticide emission model in acceptable accordance with both state-of-the-art pesticide risk assessment models. The case study underlines that the common pesticide emission estimation practice in LCI may lead to misestimating the toxicity impacts of pesticide use in LCA.

  3. Part I: temporal and spatial distribution of multiclass pesticide residues in lake waters of Northern Greece: application of an optimized SPE-UPLC-MS/MS pretreatment and analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogridi, Eleni-Chrysoula; Christophoridis, Christophoros; Bizani, Erasmia; Drimaropoulou, Garyfallia; Fytianos, Konstantinos

    2014-06-01

    The present work describes the application of an analytical procedure, utilizing ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry instrumentation, for the determination of 253 multiclass pesticides, classified in six different groups. Solid phase extraction was applied for the isolation and pre-concentration of target compounds in water samples. Surface waters of the lakes located in Northern Greece (Volvi, Doirani, and Kerkini), were collected in two time periods (fall/winter 2010 and spring/summer 2011) and analyzed, applying the developed analytical methods. Spatial distribution of detected pesticides was visualized using interpolation methods and geographical information systems (GIS). Pesticides with maximum concentrations were amitrole, propoxur, simazine, chlorpyrifos, carbendazim, triazophos, disulfoton-sulfone, pyridaben, sebuthylazine, terbuthylazine, atrazine, atrazine-desethyl, bensulfuron-methyl, metobromuron, metribuzin, rotenone, pyriproxyfen, and rimsulfuron. In Lake Kerkini, mainly carbamates and triazines were determined at elevated concentrations, near the coastal point of the NW side of the lake. Seasonal variations were strong among the applied pesticide classes and determined concentrations, indicating the contribution of pesticide application patterns and rainfall. Lake Doirani exhibited organophosphate pesticides at higher concentrations mainly at coastal points, while triazines emerged as the main pollutant during spring sampling. Lake Volvi exhibited the highest pesticide concentrations, mostly triazines and ureas at the central part of the lake. The occurrence of extreme values and nonconstant seasonal variations indicated that the concentrations were increased disproportionately during the second sampling, as a result of the varying contribution of pollution sources right after the application period. In all cases, the total concentration of pesticides increased during the second sampling period. PMID:24696214

  4. Sampling and sample processing in pesticide residue analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotay, Steven J; Cook, Jo Marie

    2015-05-13

    Proper sampling and sample processing in pesticide residue analysis of food and soil have always been essential to obtain accurate results, but the subject is becoming a greater concern as approximately 100 mg test portions are being analyzed with automated high-throughput analytical methods by agrochemical industry and contract laboratories. As global food trade and the importance of monitoring increase, the food industry and regulatory laboratories are also considering miniaturized high-throughput methods. In conjunction with a summary of the symposium "Residues in Food and Feed - Going from Macro to Micro: The Future of Sample Processing in Residue Analytical Methods" held at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry, this is an opportune time to review sampling theory and sample processing for pesticide residue analysis. If collected samples and test portions do not adequately represent the actual lot from which they came and provide meaningful results, then all costs, time, and efforts involved in implementing programs using sophisticated analytical instruments and techniques are wasted and can actually yield misleading results. This paper is designed to briefly review the often-neglected but crucial topic of sample collection and processing and put the issue into perspective for the future of pesticide residue analysis. It also emphasizes that analysts should demonstrate the validity of their sample processing approaches for the analytes/matrices of interest and encourages further studies on sampling and sample mass reduction to produce a test portion. PMID:25677085

  5. Organofosforados e carbamatos no leite produzido em quatro regiões leiteiras no Brasil: ocorrência e ação sobre Listeria monocytogenes e Salmonella spp. Organophosphates and carbamates in milk produced in four milk producing regions from Brazil: occurrence and activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Augusto Nero

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Organofosforados e carbamatos são compostos utilizados no controle de parasitas em animais e podem gerar resíduos nos produtos alimentícios derivados, representando um risco para o consumidor. O presente estudo objetivou pesquisar a presença de resíduos de organofosforados e carbamatos em leite cru produzido em quatro regiões leiteiras no Brasil e verificar se a presença desses compostos teria alguma relação com a ausência de Listeria monocytogenes e Salmonella spp., anteriormente observada nessas amostras. Entre 209 amostras analisadas, a presença de ao menos um desses compostos foi detectada em 196 (93,8%. Para a avaliação da sua interferência na detecção de L. monocytogenes e Salmonella spp., 28 amostras de leite positivas e negativas para esses compostos foram submetidas à fervura por 10 minutos e adicionadas desses patógenos, monitorando-se sua multiplicação durante armazenamento a 4 °C e a 25 °C. Não houve diferença significativa (p Chemical residues may be present in foods due to contamination in early stages of production, posing a potential risk to consumers. Organophosphates and carbamates are used in the control of parasites in animals and may generate residues in foods derived from these animals, like milk. This study aimed to survey the presence of these two pesticides in raw milk samples collected in four important milk-producing regions in Brazil and observe any possible relationship between presence of these compounds and the previously reported absence of Listeria monocytogenes e Salmonella spp. in the same milk samples. Organophosphates and/or carbamates were detected in 196 (93.8% out of 209 samples. For evaluation of the interference of these products on detection of L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp., 28 milk samples containing these pesticides were boiled for 10 minutes, added of the pathogens, and their multiplication was monitored during storage at 4 °C and 25 °C. No significant differences (p < 0.05 were observed in the growth of these pathogens in the milk samples when compared to negative controls, indicating absence of interference of the compounds on the detection of L. monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. However, the high frequency of raw milk samples containing organophosphates and/or carbamates poses a potential health problem to the consumers, even after heat treatment of the milk.

  6. Oxidative Stress Induced by Different Pesticides in the Land Snails, Helix aspersa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed K. Salama

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designated to compare the ability of the two carbamate compounds methomyl and carbofuran, the organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos and the bipyridylium compound paraquat to induce the oxidative stress and affect some biochemical targets in the terrestrial snail, Helix aspersa. LD50 values for these pesticides were determined 48 h following topical application. They were 240, 500, 900 and 920 ?g/snail for methomyl, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos and paraquat, respectively. Some biomarkers of the oxidative stress such as Lipid Peroxidation (LP, Lactic Dehydrogenase (LDH and Glutathione (GSH as well as the inhibitory effects of these compounds against acetylcholinesterase (AChE were carried out following topical application of 1/4LD50 values. The results showed that carbofuran was the most potent to inhibit AChE in snails followed by methomyl, where the enzyme activities dropped to 9.86 and 28.82% of the control activity, respectively, 48 h following application. Non-significant increase in the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive species in the snail tissue homogenate intoxicated with methomyl, paraquat or carbofuran were found comparing to control value, while it was similar to control following chlorpyrifos treatment. On the other hand, the activities of LDH were increased following all tested pesticides. Also, the results showed that GSH level in the snail tissue homogenate was elevated following both methomyl and chlorpyrifos, while it decreased following either carbofuran or paraquat application. It could be concluded that methomyl was the most toxic pesticide followed by carbofuran against the land snail and their mode of action could be due to the induction of oxidative stress in addition to their anticholinesterase potencies. Chlorpyrifos or paraquat had slightly effects to alter the biomarkers of oxidative stress in the snail.

  7. Simultaneous determination of ethyl carbamate and 4-(5-)methylimidazole in yellow rice wine and soy sauce by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pinggu; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Liyuan; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Ying; Tang, Jun; Ma, Bingjie; Pan, Xiaodong; Jiang, Wei

    2014-08-01

    We developed a new method, based on alkaline diatomite solid-phase extraction followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, for the simultaneous determination of the toxic contaminants ethyl carbamate (EC) and 4-(5-)methylimidazole (4-MEI) in yellow rice wine and soy sauce. The optimal extraction conditions were defined. With the application of alkaline diatomite solid-phase extraction, damage to the capillary column by organic acids was greatly reduced. With deuterated EC used as the internal standard, the linearity of the calibration curves for EC and 4-MEI was good with correlation coefficient above 0.99. In a spiked experiment with EC and 4-MEI in yellow rice wine and soy sauce, recovery of the added EC was 80.5-102.5% and that of 4-MEI was 78.3-92.8%. The limit of quantification and limit of detection for EC were 6.0 and 2.0 ?g/kg, respectively, and for 4-MEI were 15.0 and 5.0 ?g/kg, respectively. The validation results demonstrate that the method is fast, simple, and selective, and therefore is suitable for simultaneously determining the presence of EC and 4-MEI in fermented food. PMID:24865453

  8. Determination of ethyl carbamate in fermented liquids by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a Q Exactive hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xirong; Jiang, Changxing

    2015-06-15

    In this study, the determination of ethyl carbamate (EC) in fermented liquids (red wines, Chinese liquors and yellow wines) was carried by using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a Q Exactive hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS/MS). The parameters usually examined in the method validation were firstly evaluated. Good linearity was obtained with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) of EC in sample were 1.8 and 4.0 ?g/L, respectively. Recoveries ranged between 107.19% and 110.98%. The precision (relative standard deviation, RSD) of the method was Chinese liquors and yellow wines for sale were detected using this method. The results showed that the red wines and Chinese liquors had the normal EC level that was within the limits of the Canadian legislation. The proposed method was simple in sample preparation without using organic solvents in pre-treatment and could be used for the determination of the content of EC in fermented liquids. PMID:25660859

  9. Enhancement of the efficacy of a carbamate nematicide against the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, through mycorrhization in commercial potato fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliopoulos, T; Minnis, S T; Jones, P W; Haydock, P P J

    2010-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted over 2 years in commercial potato fields in Shropshire, UK, to evaluate the compatibility of the nematicide aldicarb with commercial inocula of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the control of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. The AMF used were Vaminoc (mixed-AMF inoculum), Glomus intraradices (BioRize BB-E) and G. mosseae (isolate BEG 12). In the absence of AMF, the in-soil hatch of G. pallida increased 30% (P potato (cv. Golden Wonder) tubers with AMF eliminated this delay in G. pallida hatch by stimulating a mean increase of 32% (P < 0.01) in hatch within 2 wk after planting. In the aldicarb-treated plots in Experiment 1, G. pallida multiplication rate was 38% lower (P < 0.05) in roots of AMF-inoculated than noninoculated plants, but in Experiment 2, this effect was slightly lower (P = 0.07). In these plots, the single AMF inocula showed also a weak trend (P = 0.10) towards greater tuber yields relative to their noninoculated counterparts. Mycorrhization therefore appears to enhance the efficacy of carbamate nematicides against G. pallida and consequently more research is proposed to validate these findings and fully explore the potential of this model. PMID:22736833

  10. Prediction of Multi-Target Networks of Neuroprotective Compounds with Entropy Indices and Synthesis, Assay, and Theoretical Study of New Asymmetric 1,2-Rasagiline Carbamates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Romero Durán

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a multi-target complex network, the links (Lij represent the interactions between the drug (di and the target (tj, characterized by different experimental measures (Ki, Km, IC50, etc. obtained in pharmacological assays under diverse boundary conditions (cj. In this work, we handle Shannon entropy measures for developing a model encompassing a multi-target network of neuroprotective/neurotoxic compounds reported in the CHEMBL database. The model predicts correctly >8300 experimental outcomes with Accuracy, Specificity, and Sensitivity above 80%–90% on training and external validation series. Indeed, the model can calculate different outcomes for >30 experimental measures in >400 different experimental protocolsin relation with >150 molecular and cellular targets on 11 different organisms (including human. Hereafter, we reported by the first time the synthesis, characterization, and experimental assays of a new series of chiral 1,2-rasagiline carbamate derivatives not reported in previous works. The experimental tests included: (1 assay in absence of neurotoxic agents; (2 in the presence of glutamate; and (3 in the presence of H2O2. Lastly, we used the new Assessing Links with Moving Averages (ALMA-entropy model to predict possible outcomes for the new compounds in a high number of pharmacological tests not carried out experimentally.

  11. Carbamate derivatives and sesquiterpenoids from the South China Sea gorgonian Melitodes squamata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Si Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Five carbamate derivatives, obtucarbamates C and D (1, 2, dimethyl ((carbonylbis(azanediylbis(2-methyl-5,1-phenylenedicarbamate (3, obtucarbamates A and B (4, 5, and four aromadendrane-type sesquiterpenoids, (+-4?-N-methenetauryl-10?-methoxy-1?,5?,6?,7?-aromadendrane (6, (?-4?-N-methenetauryl-10?-methoxy-1?,5?,6?,7?-aromadendrane (7, (?-4?,10?-aromadendranediol (8, (+-4?,10?-aromadendranediol (9 were obtained from the South China Sea gorgonian coral Melitodes squamata Nutting. Compounds 1, 2, 6, and 7 were new, and their structures were established by spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 6 and 7 contained a taurine group that was rarely found in marine natural compounds, and 7 showed moderate antibacterial activity. The possible biosynthesis routes of 1–5 were conjectured.

  12. Children poisoning by carbamate: a descriptive study - doi:10.5020/18061230.2004.p193

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study had as its aim to characterize the children under 5 years old, attended with exogenous poisoning by carbamate (popularly called “chumbinho” – “small shot” at an emergency hospital in Fortaleza and to relate the signs and symptoms detected in this type of poisoning. It concerned a descriptive study, with a sample of 65 children attended during the period of 1998 to 2000, in Fortaleza, Ceará. It was noticed that the most affected age group was of those with 1 to 3 years old, not being verified any significant difference between sexes. The most evident signs and symptoms were myosis, vomits, profuse perspiration and sialorrhea and the predominant treatment was the use of active coal. It is concluded, therefore, that there is a need of putting into effect the health education, calling the society’s attention to the risks of the inadequate “chumbinho” use in the domiciliar environment.

  13. A general method for tritium labelling of benzimidazole carbamates by catalytic exchange in dioxane solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzimidazole carbamates (BZCs) act as inhibitors of the tubulin-microtubule equilibria in eukaryotic organisms. Recently drug resistance to this class of compounds in helminth parasites has been shown to be due to a reduced ability of resistant tubulin to bind BZCs. In order to quantitate the nature of the tubulin-BZC interaction a general method for the specific tritium labelling of BZCs has been developed. The BZCs: mebendazole, oxfendazole, parbendazole, oxibendazole, albendazole and fenbendazole were labelled by catalytic exchange using palladium on calcium carbonate in pure dioxane at 600C under tritium gas. The position of label incorporation for tritiated albendazole was determined by tritium-NMR as the 4-position of benzimadazole nucleus. The yields for individual BZCs varied from 8 to 68% for a range of specific activity of 0.44 to 13.4 Ci/mmole. (author)

  14. Solubility improvement of an anthelmintic benzimidazole carbamate by association with dendrimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, L.; Sigal, E.; Santo, M., E-mail: msanto@exa.unrc.edu.ar [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Fisicoquimicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina); Otero, L.; Silber, J. J. [Departamento de Quimica. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Fisicoquimicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Rio Cuarto (Argentina)

    2011-10-15

    The improvement of aqueous solubility of methyl (5-[propylthio]-1H-benzimidazole-2-yl) carbamate, albendazole (ABZ) using polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers as solubility enhancers was investigated. Full generation PAMAM dendrimers with amine terminal groups, (G3), with hydroxyl terminal groups (G3OH) and half generation PAMAM dendrimers with carboxylate terminal groups (G2.5 and G3.5), were chosen for this study. The nature of dendrimer-ABZ association was investigated by UV absorption, fluorescence emission measurements and by {sup 1}H-NMR spectroscopy. The results obtained show that these polymeric structures have the capacity to enhance the solubility of ABZ, both lipophilic and specific hydrogen bond interactions contributing to the guest-host association. Although all studied dendrimers have hydrophobic internal nanoenvironments with similar dimensions, their surfaces differ significantly and the nature and the localization of the interactions involved in ABZ-dendrimer association depend on the type of terminal groups. (author)

  15. Solubility improvement of an anthelmintic benzimidazole carbamate by association with dendrimers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L., Fernández; E., Sigal; L., Otero; J. J., Silber; M., Santo.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of aqueous solubility of methyl (5-[propylthio]-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl) carbamate, albendazole (ABZ) using polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers as solubility enhancers was investigated. Full generation PAMAM dendrimers with amine terminal groups, (G3), with hydroxyl terminal groups (G3OH) [...] and half generation PAMAM dendrimers with carboxylate terminal groups (G2.5 and G3.5), were chosen for this study. The nature of dendrimer-ABZ association was investigated by UV absorption, fluorescence emission measurements and by ¹H-NMR spectroscopy. The results obtained show that these polymeric structures have the capacity to enhance the solubility of ABZ, both lipophilic and specific hydrogen bond interactions contributing to the guest-host association. Although all studied dendrimers have hydrophobic internal nanoenvironments with similar dimensions, their surfaces differ significantly and the nature and the localization of the interactions involved in ABZ-dendrimer association depend on the type of terminal groups.

  16. Synthesis of kenaf cellulose carbamate using microwave irradiation for preparation of cellulose membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Sinyee; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua; Kaco, Hatika; Padzil, Farah Nadia Mohammad

    2014-06-15

    Cellulose carbamate (CCs) was produced from kenaf core pulp (KCP) using microwave reactor-assisted method. The effects of urea concentration and reaction time on the formation of nitrogen content in CCs were investigated. The CCs' solubility in LiOH/urea system was determined and its membranes were characterized. As the urea content and reaction time increased, the nitrogen content form in CCs increased which enhanced the CCs' solubility. The formation of CCs was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nitrogen content analysis. The CCs' morphology was examined using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cellulose II and crystallinity index of the membranes were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The pore size of the membrane displayed upward trend with respect to the urea content observed under Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). This investigation provides a simple and efficient procedure of CCs determination which is useful in producing environmental friendly regenerated CCs. PMID:24721064

  17. [Neuropsychological sequelae of acute poisoning by pesticides containing cholinesterase inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán Tapia, L; Sánchez Santed, F

    In recent years a number of studies have drawn attention to the possible neuropsychological sequelae stemming from acute poisoning by certain substances, namely cholinesterase inhibitors. These chemicals, carbamates and organophosphorates (OP), have been used in industry, for washing cattle, as insecticides and even as chemical agents in terrorist attacks and in wars. Nowadays, they are widely used as a pesticide and this is particularly so in regions such as the west of Almeria. The intensive farming in greenhouses carried out in this area, together with the conditions in which these products are used and handled, leads to a relatively high number of cases of poisoning. Yet this is not an isolated fact; the first clinical study to describe cases of poisoning by these substances in workers was published back in 1955. Some of the neurotoxic sequelae deriving from such intoxications are well defined: acute cholinergic syndrome, intermediate syndrome and delayed polyneuropathy provoked by OP (OPIDN). Several studies have been carried out over the past few decades to measure the long term neuropsychological disorders produced by acute poisoning by these substances, and findings suggest that both cholinesterase inhibition and other biochemical phenomena can have permanent neurotoxic consequences. This communication aims to bring some order to the data offered by the different studies by analysing and verifying the evaluation protocols followed, the results of the neurophysiological and neurocognitive biochemical measurements, the type of poisoning and the time elapsed since they occurred, so that they can be summarised and taken as guidelines for possible work to be carried out in the future. PMID:15054724

  18. Synthesis, structural, conformational and pharmacological study of some carbamates derived from 8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3?-ol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriepa, I.; Bellanato, J.

    2011-12-01

    A series of benzimidazole, thiazole, and benzothiazole carbamates derived from 8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3?-ol hydrochloride was synthesized and studied by 1H, 13C NMR and IR spectroscopy. To assist in the interpretation of the spectroscopic data, the free bases were obtained and studied by IR spectroscopy in different media. As in related compounds, spectroscopic results showed that two different carbamates (1-carbamate or 2-carbamate) could be obtained in the case of the hydrochlorides of benzimidazole derivatives. The hydrochlorides studied displayed in DMSO- d6 solution a preferred flattened chair-envelope conformation with the Nsbnd CH 3 substituent in an equatorial disposition. Pharmacological assays in vitro and in vivo were drawn to evaluate 5-HT 3 activity.

  19. Discriminação quiral por CLAE em carbamatos de polissacarídeos: desenvolvimento, aplicações e perspectivas / Polysaccharide carbamate as chiral stationary phases for HPLC: development, applications and perspectives

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Quezia B., Cass; M. Elizabeth, Tiritan; Ana Lúcia, Bassi; Silvana A., Calafatti; Ana Luiza G., Degani.

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The importance of chromatographic separation of enantiomers has been acknowledged. This review surveys the development, application and perspectives of polysaccharide carbamates as chiral stationary phase for HPLC. [...

  20. Discriminação quiral por CLAE em carbamatos de polissacarídeos: desenvolvimento, aplicações e perspectivas Polysaccharide carbamate as chiral stationary phases for HPLC: development, applications and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quezia B. Cass

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of chromatographic separation of enantiomers has been acknowledged. This review surveys the development, application and perspectives of polysaccharide carbamates as chiral stationary phase for HPLC.

  1. New treatment regimens in organophosphate (diazinon) and carbamate (methomyl) insecticide-induced toxicosis in fowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlosberg, A; Bellaiche, M; Hanji, V; Ershov, E

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this work was to determine optimal treatment regimens for organophosphate (OP) or carbamate insecticide toxicoses in fowl using the antidotes atropine sulfate and pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM). Broiler chicks in treatment groups, each comprising 3 replicates of 6-7 birds/replicate, were gavaged on a body weight (BW) basis with the OP and carbamate insecticides, diazinon and methomyl, respectively, at lethal dosages. Treatment groups were injected with either or both of the antidotes at various dosages as soon as clinical signs appeared. Birds appearing healthy 24 h thereafter were regarded as having been treated successfully. At a dosage of 100 mg/kg BW, atropine was mildly toxic and at 200 mg/kg 2-PAM was severely toxic (but not lethal), whereas at dosages of 50 and 100 mg/kg BW, respectively, the antidotes were at their most effective. With diazinon, atropine alone was only partially effective (12/20 survivors), whereas 2-PAM was extremely efficacious. (20/20 survivors); the combination of the 2 antidotes at 2 dosages was slightly less effective (19/20 survivors) than 2-PAM alone. For methomyl toxicity, atropine was largely successful (18/20 survivors), whereas 2-PAM was mostly unsuccessful (10/20 survivors); the combination at high dosage was less effective (15/20 survivors) than atropine alone, but at a low dosage the combination was the most successful (20/20 survivors). The results indicate that anticholinesterase insecticide toxicoses in fowl should not be treated according to textbook recommendations, and antidotal dosage with atropine should be up to 100 times greater than is commonly recommended. The specific cause of the toxicoses should ideally be determined before treatment is given, but as this is often unknown, a combination of antidotes may be the optimal treatment protocol. PMID:9397503

  2. Challenges in Regulating Pesticide Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Denton

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the field of mixture toxicity and the challenges in regulating pesticide mixtures. Even though pesticides are unique chemical stressors designed to have biological activity that can affect a number of nontarget species, they are intentionally placed into the environment in large quantities. Currently, methods and terminology for evaluating mixture toxicity are poorly established. The most common approach used is the assumption of additive concentration, with the concentrations adjusted for potency to a reference toxicant. Using this approach, the joint action of pesticides that have similar chemical structures and modes of toxic action can be predicted. However, this approach and other modeling techniques often provide little insight into the observed toxicity produced by mixtures of pesticides from different classes. Particularly difficult to model are mixtures that involve a secondary toxicant that changes the toxicokinetics of a primary toxicant. This may result in increased activation or a change in the persistence of the primary toxicant within the organism and may be responsible for a several-fold increase or decrease in toxicity. At present, the ecological effects caused by mixtures of pesticides are given little consideration in the regulatory process. However, mixtures are being considered in relation to human health in the pesticide registration process, setting a precedent that could be followed for ecological protection. Additionally, pesticide mixtures may be regulated through toxicity testing of surface water under the Clean Water Act. The limits of our basic knowledge of how mixtures interact are compromising both these avenues for regulating mixtures. We face many challenges to adequately protecting the environment from mixture toxicity; these challenges include understanding the interactions of toxicants within an organism, identifying the mixtures that most commonly occur and cause adverse effects, and developing a regulatory structure capable of minimizing environmental impacts.

  3. Chiral Pesticides: Identification, Description and Environmental Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless...

  4. 76 FR 59908 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0888; FRL-8888-3] Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances; Correction...pesticide tolerances for residues of chlorantraniliprole in or on multiple commodities...follows: Sec. [emsp14]180.628 Chlorantraniliprole; tolerances for residues....

  5. 78 FR 66651 - Imazapyr; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ...and children to the pesticide chemical residue in establishing...aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue...forage; grass, hay; fish; shellfish; fats...Organization/World Health Organization food...

  6. Pesticides Linked to ADHD, Study Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152892.html Pesticides Linked to ADHD, Study Says Research found greater ... of a link between a commonly used household pesticide and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children ...

  7. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality: Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EPA Home Air Introduction to IAQ Pesticides An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Pesticides Basic Information ... Member, Committee on Governmental Affairs, Resources, Community, and Economic Development Division, U.S. Senate, November 29, 1999, GAO/ ...

  8. Pesticide risks around the home (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides are substances which kill or deter unwanted pests, such as insects or rodents. These substances can ... avoid an accidental ingestion is to keep all pesticides out of the reach of children.

  9. Effects of fertilizer and pesticide use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-06-25

    When used properly, fertilizer and pesticide application can help protect crops and encourage their growth. However, fertilizers and pesticides can run off into bodies of water and contaminate water sources.

  10. Tandem Mass Spectrometry Measurement of the Collision Products of Carbamate Anions Derived from CO2 Capture Sorbents: Paving the Way for Accurate Quantitation

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Phil; Fisher, Keith J.; Attalla, Moetaz Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    The reaction between CO2 and aqueous amines to produce a charged carbamate product plays a crucial role in post-combustion capture chemistry when primary and secondary amines are used. In this paper, we report the low energy negative-ion CID results for several anionic carbamates derived from primary and secondary amines commonly used as post-combustion capture solvents. The study was performed using the modern equivalent of a triple quadrupole instrument equipped with a T-wave collision cell...

  11. Pesticide Alternatives Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pesticide Alternatives Laboratory of Michigan State University is on the cutting edge of pest control in the Upper Midwest, whether on agricultural or non-agricultural lands, public or private. Visitors interested in seeing the pesky adversaries of the lab, should click on "Bugs of The Lab", on the left hand side of the page, then click on the subcategory "Research Subjects". Along with photos of a dozen pests, including the "Plum Curculio", "Mites", and the "Oblique-Banded Leaf Roller", visitors can read a description of the pest, learn about and see images of the damage they do to specific crops, and discover where they are found on the plant. The Resistant Pest management Newsletter section on the left-hand side of the page has numerous subsections that should be of interest to visitors. Visitors can "Subscribe to the Newsletter" and peruse "Archives of Past Issues". Also interesting is the "Ask an Expert About Resistance Issues" section, which lists ten regions of the earth, and when one of the regions is clicked on, several experts' names pop up with their area of expertise, e-mail, and location. Additionally, anyone who is an expert and qualified, but is not on the list, may have their name added after filling out the "Expert Application", available on the "Ask an Expert..." homepage. All of the experts are volunteers.

  12. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in acting directly as estrogens, their involvement in embryonic and early post-embryonic toxicity, interferences with antibody formation, effects on behavior, and interactions with stress such as nutritional deficiencies or food deprivation. Delayed mortality long after dosage ceased has shown the serious effects of storage of organochlorines in fat. DDT has been suggested as the indirect cause of a reduction of egg-shell thickness that occurred in the midforties in association with failing reproduction and population decline of certain predatory birds. The impact of these new components of the environment has appeared as death, reproductive impairment, disruption of species balance, and behavioral alteration, but the overall effects on the environment have not been determined. Research should be aimed at interpretation of the significance of pesticide residues to survival and reproduction, to assessment of levels of pesticides in critical environments, and to the kinetics of pesticides in individuals and the ecosystem.

  13. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Ye; Jeremy Beach; Martin, Jonathan W.; Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occup...

  14. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides §...

  15. Occurrence of pesticides from coffee crops in surface water / Ocorrência de agrotóxicos de culturas de café em águas superficiais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandra Fátima Saraiva, Soares; Mônica Maria Diniz, Leão; Vanessa Heloisa Ferreira de, Faria; Márcia Cassimira Marcos da, Costa; Ana Clara Mourão, Moura; Vladimir Diniz Vieira, Ramos; Márcio Ribeiro, Vianna Neto; Elizângela Pinheiro da, Costa.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O excedente dos agrotóxicos aplicados nas áreas agrícolas pode atingir as águas superficiais, contaminando-as. Assim, o principal objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a presença dos agrotóxicos em águas superficiais e utilizadas para abastecimento público em uma sub-bacia de cabeceira, com cultivo d [...] e café, situada no distrito de Dom Corrêa em Manhuaçu, Minas Gerais. A região de estudo é grande produtora de café, as lavouras ocupam áreas íngremes e situam-se próximas aos cursos d´água. Para isso, foram selecionados quatro pontos de coletas de amostras de água nos córregos, um ponto na rede de distribuição e dois pontos na estação de tratamento (água bruta e tratada), totalizando sete pontos. As amostras foram coletadas em período chuvoso e seco. Agrotóxicos organoclorados, organofosforados, piretróides, carbamatos e triazóis foram constatados por meio de análise por cromatografia líquida e gasosa com espectrometria de massas em tandem. A ocorrência de agrotóxicos foi mais evidente no período chuvoso. Vinte e quatro agrotóxicos distintos foram detectados. Pelo menos um agrotóxico foi detectado em 67% das amostras coletadas, durante a estação chuvosa, e em 21% das amostras coletadas durante a estação seca. Muitos agrotóxicos detectados não estão relacionados na legislação brasileira de potabilidade. Abstract in english The excessive amount of pesticides applied in agricultural areas may reach surface water, thereby contaminating it. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of pesticides used in a sub-basin headwater with coffee crops, situated in the Dom Corrêa district, Manhuaçu, Minas [...] Gerais. The region of study is a great producer of coffee. Crops occupy steep areas and are situated close to surface water bodies. In this study, four sample collection points were selected in streams as well as a point in the distribution network and two points in the water treatment station (raw and treated water) a total of seven points. The samples were collected in rainy and dry seasons. Organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates and triazoles pesticides were identified by liquid and gas chromatography analysis with tandem mass spectrometry. The occurrence of pesticides was more evident in the rainy season. A total of 24 distinct pesticides were detected. At least one pesticide was identified in 67% of the samples collected during the rainy season and in 21% of the samples collected during drought. Many pesticides detected in water are not regulated in Brazilian legislation regarding potability.

  16. Pesticide regulations and farm worker safety: the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural pesticide use in Viet Nam has more than tripled since 1990. However, pesticide legislation and regulations have not been developed in response to this large increase in usage, as a result of which pesticides pose a serious threat to human health and the environment. This paper identifies the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam through a comparative analysis of pesticide regulations in Viet Nam and the United States of America, where the rate of acute poisoning am...

  17. Pesticide use practices in rural Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadevosyan, Artashes; Tadevosyan, Natalya; Kelly, Kevin; Gibbs, Shawn G; Rautiainen, Risto H

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide use can have adverse effects on both human health and the environment. Inappropriate use of pesticides increases the health risk to those who work with or live around pesticides. Educational programs for agricultural workers on the proper use of pesticides and personal protective equipment coupled with pesticide regulations are important tools to reduce the associated health risks. The authors conducted a survey (N?=?2336) on pesticide use practices in the Ararat Valley of Armenia in 2000-2006. This study was a cross-sectional design. A multistage sampling method was implemented in the selection of the study population. The authors developed a questionnaire containing 173 questions to evaluate demographic characteristics, health conditions, and details of pesticides use practices. The intensity of pesticide use was high; 82.8% of respondents used them. More than 150 brand names of pesticides were in use. Unregistered, obsolete, expired, and banned compounds were found in active use. Poor compliance with the basic rules of pesticide safety was found throughout the study population, with 21.3% using gloves and only 11% using respirators. The agricultural workers' knowledge of the toxic properties of these pesticides as well as basic hygienic norms was very low. In some instances, the number of agrichemical applications to crops, particularly cucumbers and melons, reached 40 applications during the growing season. Better protection and training of pesticide users in Armenia is needed. PMID:24125047

  18. 75 FR 29435 - Diquat Dibromide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ...exposure to the pesticide. For hazards that...www.epa.gov/pesticides/factsheets/riskassess...Dibromide: Human Health Risk Assessment...for a food-use pesticide, if a toxicological...irrigated. For fish, average residues...unnecessary for this chemical. iv....

  19. 76 FR 23882 - Metiram; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ...aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including...and children to the pesticide chemical residue in...aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue...combined risks from food, water, and non-occupational...the risks of ETU, a contaminant, metabolite, and...

  20. 76 FR 18906 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ...aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including...and children to the pesticide chemical residue in...aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue...combined risks from food, water and non-occupational...the risks of ETU, a contaminant, metabolite...

  1. Defensivos químicos (especialmente novos produtos) no combate ao ácaro rajado Tetranychus urticae koch, 1836, em cultura de algodão / Pesticides against the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae koch, 1836 on cotton

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.J., Raizer; J.M., Silva; M., Takaoka; R., Motta; W.Y., Kato; F.A.M., Mariconi.

    Full Text Available Este experimento vem dar continuidade às pesquisas de combate ao ácaro rajado do algodoeiro Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836, tendo por objetivo prinicipal encontrar produtos eficientes contra esse aracnídeo. Nos sete tratamentos realizados no campo, inclufda a testemunha, foram utilizados quatro prod [...] utos: bifentrina (50 e 70 g/ha), bromopropilato (500 g/ha), carbamato UC 81341 (100 e 150 g/ha) e clofentzina (500 g/ha). A análise dos resultados demostrou que a clofentezina foi o único tratamento eficaz, pois apresentou ótimos resultados contra o ãcaro e um efeito residual relativamente longo. Abstract in english This test was carried out in Santa Bárbara D'Oeste, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The treatments and quantities of active ingredients per hectare were: A - check (no pesticide); B -biphenthrin, 70 g; C - carbamate UC 81341 , 150 g; D -biphenthrin, 50 g; E - carbamate UC 81341, 100 g; F-bromopropilate, [...] 500 g; - clofentezine, 500g. Endosulfan was added to each experimental pesticide in order to control the cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis grandis Boh. In the first avaluations the best control was obtained with biphenthrin. In the last avaluations, clofentezine was the best.

  2. Pesticides: Food and environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides are an integral part of modern agriculture, also in most developing countries. Although the annual average consumption of active ingredients in agriculture may be below 0.1 kg a.i./ha, most countries now consume more than 2 kg a.i./ha; some of the intensively cropped regions in South-East Asia are exposed to even higher amounts. Inherent contamination of the environment follows if rules and regulations are not strictly adhered to. The search for safer, less persistent and more specific pesticides and examination of the fate of applied pesticides in various regions of the world were the main themes of the symposium. Special emphasis was placed on the use of nuclear techniques, especially on labelled compounds in research. The Proceedings include all the papers and posters that were presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in tomatoes by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chloropyriphos and malathion are two organophosphorus pesticides from many others pesticides widely used by famers in agriculture .Because of their bad effect on human health, officials standards are set by the international organisations and communities to ensure safer food for consumer .In the same way, scientists over the world are working hard to develop new detection techniques responding to the international requirements. In this study, an ' IAEA-ethylacetate method ', an adaptation of the popular QuEChERS multi residue method, was optimized to analyse chloropyriphos and Malathion residues in tomatoes .Ethyl-Acetate was used as an extraction solvent the PSA was kept for the clean up procedure. GC-NPD is used for samples analysis .The method optimized is specifique, selective with a recovery averaged more than 70 pour cent. A complete validation of the method is necessary to be used for routine analysis.

  4. Experimental and ab initio study on structures and internal barriers to rotation in ?-stannyl, germanium, and silicon carbamates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadidi, Khosrow; Khaligh, Nader Ghaffari; Islami, Parisa; Aryan, Reza; Arvin-Nezhad, Hamid

    2009-02-01

    A detailed study of structural parameters and internal rotational barriers in ?-stannyl, germanium and silicon carbamates 1 [H 3 CX-CH 2-N(Me)CO 2Me X dbnd C, Si, Ge, Sn] were calculated at HF/6-311G, HF/3-21G and B3LYP/3-21G//HF/3-21G levels and compared with DNMR data of synthesized molecules and a literature X-ray data. Two minimum-energy conformers, namely A and B, with almost similar energies were found for these molecules. Effect of heteroatom on structure and relative energies ( Erel) between the participants in the conformational equilibrium (A ? B) of these carbamates has been investigated.

  5. Efficient hydrogenation of organic carbonates, carbamates and formates indicates alternative routes to methanol based on CO2 and CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaraman, Ekambaram; Gunanathan, Chidambaram; Zhang, Jing; Shimon, Linda J. W.; Milstein, David

    2011-08-01

    Catalytic hydrogenation of organic carbonates, carbamates and formates is of significant interest both conceptually and practically, because these compounds can be produced from CO2 and CO, and their mild hydrogenation can provide alternative, mild approaches to the indirect hydrogenation of CO2 and CO to methanol, an important fuel and synthetic building block. Here, we report for the first time catalytic hydrogenation of organic carbonates to alcohols, and carbamates to alcohols and amines. Unprecedented homogeneously catalysed hydrogenation of organic formates to methanol has also been accomplished. The reactions are efficiently catalysed by dearomatized PNN Ru(II) pincer complexes derived from pyridine- and bipyridine-based tridentate ligands. These atom-economical reactions proceed under neutral, homogeneous conditions, at mild temperatures and under mild hydrogen pressures, and can operate in the absence of solvent with no generation of waste, representing the ultimate ‘green’ reactions. A possible mechanism involves metal-ligand cooperation by aromatization-dearomatization of the heteroaromatic pincer core.

  6. State governance of pesticide use and trade in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Van Hoi; Mol, A. P. J.; Oosterveer, P. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is facing serious challenges with respect to the amount and toxicity of the pesticides used. With hardly any domestic pesticides production, Vietnam experienced an exponential growth of both the quantity and the value of imported pesticides in recent years. And the increasing import of newly formulated (and safer) pesticides has not replaced or reduced the highly toxic pesticides with low efficacy. The improper use of pesticides by farmers (too high dosages, cocktailing of pesticides,...

  7. Applicability of carbamate extraction to radiochemical separation and determination of cadmium, cobalt, copper and zinc in various biosphere samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the applicability of the carbamate extraction method under specific conditions (appropriate pH values, masking agent, selective stripping) for simultaneous radiochemical separation and determination of traces of Cd, Co, Cu and Zn in a wide selection of materials following neutron irradiation is described. The performance of the proposed separation method was tested by means of analyses of these elements in a series of Standard Reference Materials and good agreement with certified values was obtained. (author)

  8. Comparison of two biocides ??? carbamate and glutaraldehyde ??? in the control of fouling in pulp and paper industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Maria Ol??via; Vieira, M. J.; Beleza, V. M.; Melo, L. F.

    2001-01-01

    Formation of fouling deposits is a serious problem facing paper mills. Despite the search for alternative methods, chemical biocides still represent the chief countermeasure to control microbial growth and general fouling buid-up in pulp and paper mills. The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of two biocides (carbamate and glutaraldehyde) on both planktonic cells and fouling layers of a paper machine system. A flow system was used for the study of fouling accumulation in an indu...

  9. Effects of Two Carbamates on Infective Juveniles of Stemernema carpocapsae All Strain and Steinernema feltiae Umeå Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, R.; Chippett, J.; Tilley, J.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the effects of two carbamates, carbofuran (an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor) and fenoxycarb (a juvenile hormone analog), on survival and infectivity of the infective juveniles (IJ) of Steinernema feltiae Umeå strain and Steinernema carpocapsae All strain. Both insecticides caused mortality of IJ in a dose-related fashion. The two nematode species were equally sensitive to fenoxycarb (LD?? ca. 0.03mg/ml). Whereas IJ of S. feltiae were seve...

  10. A new approach to cyclic hydroxamic acids: Intramolecular cyclization of N-benzyloxy carbamates with carbon nucleophiles

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yuan; Jacobs, Hollie K.; Gopalan, Aravamudan S.

    2011-01-01

    N-Alkyl-N-benzyloxy carbamates, 2, undergo facile intramolecular cyclization with a variety of carbon nucleophiles to give functionalized 5- and 6-membered protected cyclic hydroxamic acids, 3, in good to excellent yields. This method can be extended to prepare seven-membered cyclic hydroxamic acids in moderate yields. The sulfone intermediates 3 from this study can be alkylated while the corresponding phosphonates have been shown to undergo HWE reaction. The ?,?-unsaturated synthon, 8, pre...

  11. Base-promoted coupling of carbon dioxide, amines, and N-tosylhydrazones: a novel and versatile approach to carbamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wenfang; Qi, Chaorong; He, Haitao; Ouyang, Lu; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Huanfeng

    2015-03-01

    A base-promoted three-component coupling of carbon dioxide, amines, and N-tosylhydrazones has been developed. The reaction is suggested to proceed via a carbocation intermediate and constitutes an efficient and versatile approach for the synthesis of a wide range of organic carbamates. The advantages of this method include the use of readily available substrates, excellent functional group tolerance, wide substrate scope, and a facile work-up procedure. PMID:25620194

  12. A practical route to tertiary diarylmethylamides or -carbamates from imines, organozinc reagents and acyl chlorides or chloroformates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan Le Gall

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A practical route to tertiary diarylmethylamides or -carbamates from imines, organozinc reagents and acyl chlorides or chloroformates is described. This route involves the formation of an imine, which is used without isolation, followed by its activation by the carbonyl-containing electrophile and the trapping of the acyliminium by an organozinc reagent. Most steps are conducted concomitantly to render the procedure as practical and straightforward as possible. Therefore, the whole experimental protocol takes less than two hours.

  13. A practical route to tertiary diarylmethylamides or -carbamates from imines, organozinc reagents and acyl chlorides or chloroformates

    OpenAIRE

    Erwan Le Gall; Antoine Pignon; Thierry Martens

    2011-01-01

    A practical route to tertiary diarylmethylamides or -carbamates from imines, organozinc reagents and acyl chlorides or chloroformates is described. This route involves the formation of an imine, which is used without isolation, followed by its activation by the carbonyl-containing electrophile and the trapping of the acyliminium by an organozinc reagent. Most steps are conducted concomitantly to render the procedure as practical and straightforward as possible. Therefore, the whole experiment...

  14. Thiadiazole Carbamates: Potent Inhibitors of Lysosomal Acid Lipase and Potential Niemann-Pick Type C Disease Therapeuticsa

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, Anton I.; Cosner, Casey C.; Mariani, Christopher J.; Maxfield, Frederick R.; Wiest, Olaf; Helquist, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized at the cellular level by abnormal accumulation of cholesterol and other lipids in lysosomal storage organelles. Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) has been recently identified as a potential therapeutic target for NPC. LAL can be specifically inhibited by a variety of 3,4-disubstituted thiadiazole carbamates. An efficient synthesis of the C(3) oxygenated/C(4) aminated analogues has been developed that furnishes the produ...

  15. Determination of bromoxynil and ioxynil in the presence of carbamates by supported liquid membrane-liquid chromatography in river waters

    OpenAIRE

    Titus Motswadi Maswabi

    2003-01-01

    Sample pre-treatment and enrichment using the supported liquid membrane (SLM) technique for the determination of phenolic nitrile herbicides in presence of carbamates in river water samples was investigated. The uncharged herbicide molecules from the flowing aqueous solution diffuse through an immobilized water-immiscible organic solvent, supported by a porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane, and trapped in a stagnant acidic acceptor phase in an ionic form. Using n-undecane as a membr...

  16. Covalent Inhibition of Recombinant Human Carboxylesterase 1 and 2 and Monoacylglycerol Lipase by the Carbamates JZL184 and URB597

    OpenAIRE

    Crow, J. Allen; Bittles, Victoria; Borazjani, Abdolsamad; Potter, Philip M.; Ross, Matthew K.

    2012-01-01

    Carboxylesterase type 1 (CES1) and CES2 are serine hydrolases located in the liver and small intestine. CES1 and CES2 actively participate in the metabolism of several pharmaceuticals. Recently, carbamate compounds were developed to inhibit members of the serine hydrolase family via covalent modification of the active site serine. URB597 and JZL184 inhibit fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), respectively; however, carboxylesterases in liver have been identifi...

  17. A second generation of carbamate-based fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors with improved activity in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Clapper, Jason R.; Vacondio, Federica; King, Alvin R.; Duranti, Andrea; Tontini, Andrea; Silva, Claudia; Sanchini, Silvano; Tarzia, Giorgio; Mor, Marco; Piomelli, Daniele

    2009-01-01

    The fatty acid ethanolamides are a class of signaling lipids that include agonists at cannabinoid and type-? peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. In the brain, these compounds are primarily hydrolyzed by the intracellular serine enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). O-aryl carbamate FAAH inhibitors such as URB597 are being evaluated clinically for the treatment of pain and anxiety, but interactions with carboxylesterases in liver might limit their usefulness. Here we explore two ...

  18. Multiresidue Analysis of Pesticides in Soil by Liquid-Solid Extraction Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada ?urovi?

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiresidue method for simultaneous determination of four pesticides (diazinon,acetochlor, aldrine and carbofuran belonging to different pesticide groups, extractedfrom soil samples, is described. The method presented is based on liquid-solid extraction(LSE and determination of pesticides, i.e. the pesticides were extracted by methanol-acetone mixture, purified on florisil column and eluted by ethyl acetate-acetone mixture.Optimization of the main parameters affecting the LSE procedure, such as the choiceof purification sorbent, as well as the elution solvent and its volume, were investigated indetails and optimized. Also, validation of the proposed method was done.Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS was used for detection and quantificationof the pesticides studied. Relative standard deviation (RSD and recovery values formultiple analysis of soil samples fortified with 30 ?g/kg of each pesticide were below 8%and higher than 89%, respectively. Limits of detection (LOD for all the compounds studiedwere less than 4 ?g/kg.

  19. Organophosphate and carbamate poisonings in the northwest of Paraná state, Brazil from 1994 to 2005: clinical and epidemiological aspects Intoxicações por inseticidas organofosforados e carbamatos no noroeste do Paraná, Brasil, de 1994 a 2005: aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ferreira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, clinical and epidemiological aspects of 529 intoxication cases of organophosphate or carbamate pesticides in the northwest of the state of Paraná, Brazil, over a twelve-year period (1994-2005, are presented. One hundred-five of 257 patients (40.8% who attempted suicide were admitted to Intensive Care Units (ICUs, with an average hospital stay of two days (range 1-40 days. Men corresponded to 56.4% of the cases of suicide attempts and sixteen individuals died. One hundred-forty patients intoxicated due to occupational exposure were all young adults and nine of them were admitted to ICU, with average hospital stays of eight days (range 1-16 days. Of these cases, two patients died. One hundred twenty-four patients intoxicated due to accidental exposure were mainly children and had a hospital average stay of four days. Twenty patients were admitted to the ICU, and one of them died. Overall complications included respiratory failure, convulsions, and aspiration pneumonia. Deliberate ingestion of organophosphates and carbamates was much more toxic than occupational and accidental exposure. Men aged 15-39 years were the most likely to attempt suicide with these agents and had more prolonged ICU with significant complications and mortality.No presente estudo são apresentados aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos de 529 casos de intoxicação por inseticidas organofosforados e carbamatos ocorridos na região noroeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil, no período de 1994 a 2005. A saber, 105 pessoas de 257 pacientes (40,8% que tentaram suicídio foram admitidas na Unidade de Tratamento Intensivo (UTI, com média de estadia hospitalar de 2 dias (de 1 a 40 dias. Pacientes do sexo masculino corresponderam a 56,4% dos casos de tentativa de suicídio e 16 indivíduos morreram. Todos os 140 pacientes intoxicados devido à exposição ocupacional eram adultos e 9 foram admitidos na UTI, com média de estadia hospitalar de 8 dias (de 1 a 16 dias. Destes casos, 2 pacientes faleceram. Dos 124 pacientes intoxicados devido à exposição acidental, a maioria era crianças e teve uma média de estadia hospitalar de 4 dias. Foram admitidos 20 pacientes na UTI e um morreu. Complicações gerais incluíram insuficiência respiratória, convulsões e pneumonia. A ingestão deliberada de organofosforados e carbamatos foi muito mais grave do que a intoxicação em decorrência da exposição ocupacional ou acidental. Homens na faixa de 15 a 39 anos foram os mais prováveis de tentar suicídio com esses agentes e tiveram admissões mais prolongadas na UTI com significativas complicações e mortalidade.

  20. Organophosphate and carbamate poisonings in the northwest of Paraná state, Brazil from 1994 to 2005: clinical and epidemiological aspects / Intoxicações por inseticidas organofosforados e carbamatos no noroeste do Paraná, Brasil, de 1994 a 2005: aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre, Ferreira; Elisangela, Maroco; Mauricio, Yonamine; Magda Lúcia Félix de, Oliveira.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo são apresentados aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos de 529 casos de intoxicação por inseticidas organofosforados e carbamatos ocorridos na região noroeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil, no período de 1994 a 2005. A saber, 105 pessoas de 257 pacientes (40,8%) que tentaram suicídio f [...] oram admitidas na Unidade de Tratamento Intensivo (UTI), com média de estadia hospitalar de 2 dias (de 1 a 40 dias). Pacientes do sexo masculino corresponderam a 56,4% dos casos de tentativa de suicídio e 16 indivíduos morreram. Todos os 140 pacientes intoxicados devido à exposição ocupacional eram adultos e 9 foram admitidos na UTI, com média de estadia hospitalar de 8 dias (de 1 a 16 dias). Destes casos, 2 pacientes faleceram. Dos 124 pacientes intoxicados devido à exposição acidental, a maioria era crianças e teve uma média de estadia hospitalar de 4 dias. Foram admitidos 20 pacientes na UTI e um morreu. Complicações gerais incluíram insuficiência respiratória, convulsões e pneumonia. A ingestão deliberada de organofosforados e carbamatos foi muito mais grave do que a intoxicação em decorrência da exposição ocupacional ou acidental. Homens na faixa de 15 a 39 anos foram os mais prováveis de tentar suicídio com esses agentes e tiveram admissões mais prolongadas na UTI com significativas complicações e mortalidade. Abstract in english In the present study, clinical and epidemiological aspects of 529 intoxication cases of organophosphate or carbamate pesticides in the northwest of the state of Paraná, Brazil, over a twelve-year period (1994-2005), are presented. One hundred-five of 257 patients (40.8%) who attempted suicide were a [...] dmitted to Intensive Care Units (ICUs), with an average hospital stay of two days (range 1-40 days). Men corresponded to 56.4% of the cases of suicide attempts and sixteen individuals died. One hundred-forty patients intoxicated due to occupational exposure were all young adults and nine of them were admitted to ICU, with average hospital stays of eight days (range 1-16 days). Of these cases, two patients died. One hundred twenty-four patients intoxicated due to accidental exposure were mainly children and had a hospital average stay of four days. Twenty patients were admitted to the ICU, and one of them died. Overall complications included respiratory failure, convulsions, and aspiration pneumonia. Deliberate ingestion of organophosphates and carbamates was much more toxic than occupational and accidental exposure. Men aged 15-39 years were the most likely to attempt suicide with these agents and had more prolonged ICU with significant complications and mortality.