Sample records for capital

  1. Capital

    Coulangeon, Philippe


    Empruntée à l’appareil conceptuel de l’économie, la notion de capital désigne en première analyse l’ensemble des ressources dont disposent les individus et les groupes et qui affectent leurs trajectoires, notamment dans les domaines scolaire, professionnel, matrimonial et familial. La sociologie contemporaine se saisit le plus souvent du concept pour en souligner les différentes espèces : capital économique, capital culturel et capital social, principalement. Si le capital économique désigne ...

  2. From capital to capital


    HOW easy it is for one who lives in Beijing, capital of the country, to have the impression that all things significant happen there! This is to forget how there are now many provincial capitals in China, that are rapidly modernizing. In order to achieve such modernization, these cities, like

  3. Intellectual Capital.

    Snyder, Herbert W.; Pierce, Jennifer Burek


    This review focuses on intellectual capital and its relationship to information professionals. Discusses asset recognition; national practices and the acceptance of intellectual capital; definitions of intellectual capital; measuring intellectual capital, including multiple and single variable measures; managing intellectual capital; and knowledge…

  4. Erotic Capital

    Jensen, Natalie Madeleine; Jensen, Benjamin; Engstrøm, Emma; Maas, Jannik; Majchrzak, Izabela


    This project “Erotic Capital” concerns the topic and theory of Erotic Capital, coined by Catherine Hakim. The idea of Erotic Capital derives from Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of Personal Capitals – in this, Erotic Capital is discussed as an additional Personal Capital. In connection to the investigation of the theory Erotic Capital, certain theories of Feminism, Masculinity, Femininity, Gender and Cultural Differences are explored and examined. This is done in order to study how these theories...

  5. Displaced Capital

    Valerie A. Ramey; SHAPIRO, MATTHEW D


    This paper studies the efficiency with which physical capital can be reallocated across sectors. It presents a model of a firm selling specialized capital in a thin resale market. The model predicts that the selling price depends not only on the sectoral specificity of capital, but also on the thinness of the market and the discount factor of the firm. It then provides empirical evidence on the sectoral mobility of capital based on equipment-level data from aerospace industry auctions. These ...

  6. Capital budgeting

    Dorel BERCEANU; Costel IONAŞCU


    This paper has like objective to present some aspects concerning capital budgeting. So, after a short introduction where we specify necessary conditions for a decision situation and we define investment decision and capital budgeting we made a large presentation of stages of capital budgeting process.

  7. Intellectual Capital

    Mouritsen, Jan; Bukh, Per Nikolaj


    Intellectual capital (IC) consists of human capital, organizational capital, and relational capital, and their relationships. It has been said to be important to explain the difference between market value and book value of a firm, but measurement of IC is more likely to be important because it...... forms a starting point for understanding and managing value-creating processes. Three distinct agendas within IC management and research can be identified. The first concerns to measure the components of IC, the second attempts to relate indicators to effects using statistical models, while the third...

  8. Capital gains

    This article examines African and Middle East oil and natural gas project financing. Capital markets financing, Ras Laffan's project bonds, capital market issues in Saudi Arabia, the movement toward gas and away from oil, and Islamic opportunities are discussed, African and Middle East oil and gas projects are listed. (UK)

  9. Celebration Capitalism

    Boykoff, Jules


    Capitalism is a nimble shapeshifter. In this talk Jules Boykoff draws from the history of the Olympic Games to offer a theory of “celebration capitalism,” a form of modern-day economics that complements Naomi Klein’s “disaster capitalism” marked by neoliberalism: privatization, deregulation, and free-market rhetoric.


    Becsky-Nagy Patricia


    Full Text Available Venture capital significantly changes the capital structure of the portfolio company at the time of the investment. Venture capitalists contribute to the company’s success through their active involvement in the management and their added value appears in the increase of the value of the equity. At the same time with taking active role in the management, agency problem occurs, that complicates the cooperation and the success of exit. In this article we search the answer for the question whether the preferred equity, that are commonly used in the US for bridging the agency problem, are used and able to help Hungarian venture capitalists to manage agency problems. On the other hand we examined how the venture capital affect capital structure, how the venture capitalists value added appear in the capital structure. During the evaluation of the three case studies, we came to the conclusion, that the venture capital investments have positive effect on the liabilities of the enterprises, as the capital structure indexes show. However, the investors need the ownership, which help them to step up resolutely, when things change for the worse, and companies need the expertise, which the investors bring with their personal assistance. The investor’s new attitude also has positive effect on a mature company, which has an experienced leader, because he can show another aspect, as a person who come from outside. During the examination of the capital structure, we cannot disregard the events of the company’s environment, which have effects on the firm. The investor’s decisions also appear different ways. Because of this, every venture capital investment is different, just as the capital structure of the firms, in which they invest.


    GUNAL, E. Zeynep


    Dostoyevski who was always in need of money and in debt, wrote two great novels about capital: "Idiot" and "Crime and Punishment". In these novels the writer tries to prove the negative effects of capital on people. This article particularly focuses on "Crime and Punishment". Because crime is discussed as the multi-dimensional factor in this work. Moreover, it is claimed that in the troika of crime which formed of Raskolnikov, Svidrigaylov and Luzhin, Luzhin is the most dangerous character w...

  12. Intellectual Capital

    Mardešič, Jakub


    The work is focused on intellectual capital and its reporting of intangible assets. First part of the work defines the basic theoretical principles, which are an essential part of the work for understanding the issue. Literature review discusses the various components of intellectual capital and focuses on their function within organizations. Work also discusses various approaches of literature and the authors developing a complex theoretical basis for this issue. The following practical part...

  13. Capitalizing China

    Joseph Fan; Randall Morck; Bernard Yeung


    Despite a vast accumulation of private capital, China is not embracing capitalism. Deceptively familiar capitalist features disguise the profoundly unfamiliar foundations of "market socialism with Chinese characteristics." The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), by controlling the career advancement of all senior personnel in all regulatory agencies, all state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and virtually all major financial institutions state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and senior Party positions in all ...

  14. Intelligence Capital

    Maid Pajevic


    Full Text Available The author of this article presents a new theoretical concept of intelligence capital, with which he explains the multi-meaningful term ‘intelligence’. The author offers a conceptual frame „intelligence capital“ as a generic complex consisting of four interactively linked elements. The contribution of this article is, among other things, an answer to a question: What is an applicative value of intelligence capital as a new theoretical concept for the sys­tem of security and intelligence of BiH? Historical context implies greater responsibility of OSA BiH in realising its preventive function of protecting security of BiH and its citizens. Theoretical frame of the intelligence capital implies that the system of security and intelligence of BiH should be able to respond to strategic questions: to know-what, to know – why, to know – how, to know – who.

  15. Intelligence Capital

    Maid Pajevic


    The author of this article presents a new theoretical concept of intelligence capital, with which he explains the multi-meaningful term ‘intelligence’. The author offers a conceptual frame „intelligence capital“ as a generic complex consisting of four interactively linked elements. The contribution of this article is, among other things, an answer to a question: What is an applicative value of intelligence capital as a new theoretical concept for the sys­tem of security and intelligence of Bi...

  16. Trinidadian capitalism

    Kevin A. Yelvington


    [First paragraph] Capitalism: An Ethnographic Approach. DANIEL MILLER. Oxford: Berg, 1997. x + 357 pp. (Cloth £39.00, Paper £17.99) Women, Labour and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago: A History. RHODA E. REDDOCK. London: Zed, 1994. vi + 346 pp. (Cloth £39.95, Paper £15.95) Despite the underdeveloped state of the scholarship on its admittedly short sugar plantation slavery period, we now have a corpus of studies on various aspects of capitalism in Trinidad - from its histor...

  17. Allergy Capitals

    ... McAllen, TX The report looks at 3 important factors: Pollen score Allergy medication usage Availability of Board-certified allergists This year’s report named Jackson, Mississippi, as the top Spring Allergy Capital due to its: Higher than average pollen Higher ...

  18. Dream capitalism

    Pierson, Christopher


    John Tomasi’s Free Market Fairness represents an heroic attempt to bridge the gap between Rawlsian ‘high liberals’ and the advocates of classical liberalism/contemporary libertarianism. I argue that Tomasi’s project fails, above all because it cannot give a compelling account of contemporary (American) capitalism or of its capacity to deliver free market fairness.

  19. Trinidadian capitalism

    Kevin A. Yelvington


    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Capitalism: An Ethnographic Approach. DANIEL MILLER. Oxford: Berg, 1997. x + 357 pp. (Cloth £39.00, Paper £17.99 Women, Labour and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago: A History. RHODA E. REDDOCK. London: Zed, 1994. vi + 346 pp. (Cloth £39.95, Paper £15.95 Despite the underdeveloped state of the scholarship on its admittedly short sugar plantation slavery period, we now have a corpus of studies on various aspects of capitalism in Trinidad - from its historical advent (Sebastien 1978 to its twentieth-century manifestation in the petroleum sector (Seers 1964; Sandoval 1983, and from the ethnic structure of labor markets (Camejo 1971; Harewood 1971 and the role of capitalism in racial/ethnic inequality (Henry 1993; Coppin & Olsen 1998 to the way ethnicity affects business, big (Button 1981; Parris 1985; Centre for Ethnic Studies 1993 and small (Ryan & Barclay 1992; Griffith 1997, and the way ethnicity and gender are used in class recruitment (Yelvington 1995. There are also a number of fine working-class histories (e.g., Rennie 1973; Ramdin 1982; Basdeo 1983 and important works on the labor riots and strikes and the nature of the colonial state during the crises of the 1930s (e.g., Thomas 1987; Singh 1994. The two books under review here complement the works mentioned above, and they complement each other as well: Reddock's deals with the way capitalism up to the mid-century was buttressed by colonial politics, and explores how this formation engendered certain kinds of political responses, while Miller approaches capitalism through the assumption that fundamental changes in the post-Oil Boom period (ca. 1973-80 brought about considerable autonomy between production and consumption that can and should now be read through an analysis of the cultural circulation of images and commodities in the society. These books are both noteworthy because they engage in explicit theorizing on what capitalism was and is, and what it did and

  20. Instrumental Capital

    Gabriel Valerio


    Full Text Available During the history of human kind, since our first ancestors, tools have represented a mean to reach objectives which might otherwise seemed impossibles. In the called New Economy, where tangibles assets appear to be losing the role as the core element to produce value versus knowledge, tools have kept aside man in his dairy work. In this article, the author's objective is to describe, in a simple manner, the importance of managing the organization's group of tools or instruments (Instrumental Capital. The characteristic conditions of this New Economy, the way Knowledge Management deals with these new conditions and the sub-processes that provide support to the management of Instrumental Capital are described.

  1. Contagious Capitalism

    Peter T. Leeson; Russell S. Sobel


    Is capitalism contagious? Since WWI, global foreign policy has treated economic freedom/repression like a virus that spreads between countries. Most recently, the ?domino theory? of freedom has played prominently in U.S. foreign policy toward Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean during the Cold War, and the Middle East during the War on Terror. This paper investigates the spread of economic freedom between nations. Our analysis considers two potential channels of this spread: geography and ...

  2. Flexible Capitalism

    Approaching “work” as at heart a practice of exchange, this volume explores sociality in work environments marked by the kind of structural changes that have come to define contemporary “flexible” capitalism. It introduces anthropological exchange theory to a wider readership, and shows how the...... perspective offers new ways to enquire about the flexible capitalism’s social dimensions. The essays contribute to a trans-disciplinary scholarship on contemporary economic practice and change by documenting how, across diverse settings, “gift-like” socialities proliferate, and even sustain the intensified...... flexible commoditization that more commonly is touted as tearing social relations apart. By interrogating a keenly debated contemporary work regime through an approach to sociality rooted in a rich and distinct anthropological legacy, the volume also makes a novel contribution to the anthropological...

  3. Understanding Capitalism

    du Gay, Paul; Morgan, Glenn


    they are to be sustained. Such logics are stabilized to the degree that they can pass the tests which they set themselves. The chapter shows how the projective city has increasingly failed these tests. It has instead created a privileged group of ‘mobile citizens’ working with mobile, global capital in...... ways that increasingly depend on a static, immobile group who are poorly paid, whose employment rights have been undermined and whose political voice is increasingly ignored. The chapter shows how Boltanski's pragmatist approach to critique as emergent from the experience of the actors themselves...... rather than being imposed by the analyst provides the basis for an understanding of how social and artistic critiques emerge. Whilst recognizing that New Spirits inevitably bears the marks of its origins in the particular context of France in the late 1990s, the chapter argues that there are key aspects...

  4. Placing social capital

    G Mohan; J Mohan


    Metadata only record This paper looks at the relevance and contributions of social capital analysis to human geography and vise versa. The authors start by defining social capital and clarifying and distinguishing concepts, and critiques of Putnam's work. Social capital is simultaneously an economic, sociological, political, and geographical concept, but it must be distinguished from human capital, cultural capital, and networks. Social capital can be relevant to human geographers because ...

  5. National accounting and capital

    John M. Hartwick


    National Accounting and Capital presents definitive solutions to current problems in national accounting practice. Professor Hartwick deals expertly with problems in accounting natural capital, financial capital and skills capital and communicates his solutions in specially designed national accounting tables or matrices.

  6. Capitalism and human flourishing?

    Gasper, D.R.


    What interpretation of human flourishing, what ideas of value does capitalism in practice embody and promote? To address this question the paper clarifies first that "capitalism" must be understood as more than merely a system of private property and markets. It contains "the prerogative of capital", in which surplus remains with the owners of capital, and "the perspective of capital", in which hired work is defined as a cost. The question must also be distinguished from more conventional one...

  7. Capitalism and justification

    Birešev Ana


    Weber's thesis that the spirit of capitalism was preexistent to the rise of capitalism itself inspired many sociologist to search for the cultural background of contemporary forms of capitalism. In this paper, the author focuses on and makes comparisons of three approaches of such kind. The one approach draws from Luc Boltanski and Ève Chiapello who examine the development of 'new spirit of capitalism' by focusing on the interrelation of two macroactors - capitalism and critique; the other on...

  8. Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.

    Porter, M E


    The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317

  9. Intangible Capital and Ramsey Capital Taxation (updated)

    Juan Carlos Conesa; Begoña Domínguez


    The standard analysis of optimal fiscal policy in the neoclassical growth model, e.g. Chamley (1986) and Judd (1985), aggregates different types of assets into a unique capital good and all sorts of capital taxes into a unique capital tax. There, the optimal capital tax rate is very high in the short-run and zero in the long-run and, inevitably, time-inconsistent. This paper shows that this classic result does not hold in a more disaggregated framework. As proposed in McGrattan and Prescott (...

  10. Public Capital, Private Capital and Economic Growth

    Alberto Bucci


    A growth model is presented in which productive government expenditure takes the form of a stock. Private and public capital interact with each other in two ways. The first is related to the specification of the aggregate production function (Cobb-Douglas vs. CES). The second has to do with the rates of investment in the two types of capital, and arises from the law of motion of public capital. The share of public capital devoted to output production can be exogenous or endogenous. In this fr...

  11. Human Capital a Part of Social Capital

    Inna Fedoryshina


    The article considers the content and the structure of human capital. The term “human capital” is viewed as people’s abilities toparticipate in the production process in order to make use of their potential skills. A particular attention is paid to the meaning ofsocial capital and its role in the formation of human capital. It is proven that there is not much research on the connection betweenhuman and social capital. Human development index in Ukraine and 20 leading counties of the global ra...

  12. Financing working capital

    Vasile Popengă; Mirela Popescu


    The paper presents some particularities regarding the following aspects: what is working capital; shows alternative net working capital financing strategies, ranging from the most to least risky; also some sources of short-term finance

  13. Triads of capital

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    Within current research on social capital, a gap exists between political history analyses at the macro level and classical, sociological analyses at the meso and micro levels. Following up on  earlier work, the main purpose of this paper is to mediate between the two conflicting stances...... represented by Putnam and Portes. The paper raises the following question: Is it possible to detect the historical driving forces behind the building of both beneficial and harmful social capital? Driving forces are defined as structural determinants, which change human organization at all levels. The...... hypothesis is that three forms of capital have the potential to act as driving forces: social capital, cultural capital and physical capital, the latter operationaliz­ed as buildings. A new concept, triad of capital, is introduced to analyze the interrelationship between these three forms of capital. A triad...

  14. Measuring Irish capital

    Keeney, Mary J.


    Irish National Income and Expenditure Accounts do not contain information on capital stocks or capital services estimation. Estimates of the national capital stock and the depreciation of its fixed assets are basic macroeconomic aggregates and are integral components for many modelling exercises. This paper will present a detailed asset-level analysis of the stocks and depreciation of Irish fixed assets and the capital formation flows used to derive them. It will apply an improved perpetual i...

  15. Welfare Enhancing Capital Imports

    Masao Oda; Koji Shimomura; Ryuhei Wakasugi


    This paper provides a model to consider the conditions under which an acceptance of foreign capital is welfare enhancing in a multi-commodity multi-factor framework. Contrary to the pessimistic conventional wisdom of capital imports and welfare, we provide a justification for the acceptance of foreign capital and the diversification of industrial structure in developing countries. A sufficient condition for the acceptance of foreign capital to be welfare enhancing is that all domestic factors...

  16. Institutions, Capital, and Growth


    The international development community has encouraged investment in physical and human capital as a precursor to economic progress. Recent evidence shows, however, that increases in capital do not always lead to increases in output. We develop a growth model where the allocation and productivity of capital depends on a country's institutions. We find that increases in physical and human capital lead to output growth only in countries with good institutions. In countries with bad institutions...


    Petris Sorina


    Full Text Available Until recently, capital mobility was encouraged across national borders, because it was considered that such capital can seek the highest rate of return. However, recent global financial developments have shown that, due to contagion, the mobility of capital flows can cause severe financial imbalances. In the context of globalization, liberalization or maintaining controls on capital flows is a current topic, more debated by economists. This topic is very important, due to the impact of liberalization decision or maintaining controls on capital flows has on the overall macroeconomic framework. The paper analyzes the relationship between capital flows’ control and the income per capita, the degree of central bank independence, democracy country, the foreign exchange regime. Also, it analyzes the effectiveness in time of capital controls, taking account of financial system development and potential risks of instability. Over time, it was observed that a period in which they have imposed restrictions on capital movements was followed by a removal of such restrictions, and vice versa. Cyclic change of capital movements regime corresponds to the cyclic evolution of the global economy. Full capital account liberalization led to the emergence of currency and financial crises, so that the idea of maintaining controls on capital is not rejected by economists. After a full liberalization of capital flows, there is a change in the mentality of an increasing number of economists, who support the maintenance of controls, in a gradual liberalization.

  18. Four Books on Capitalism

    Streeck, W.


    Christoph Deutschmann Kapitalistische Dynamik: Eine gesellschaftstheoretische Perspektive. Wiesbaden, VS Verlag, 2008 Geoffrey Ingham Capitalism. Oxford, Polity, 2008 John McMurtry The Cancer Stage of Capitalism. London, Pluto, 1999 Frederic L. Pryor The Future of U.S. Capitalism. New York, Cambridge University Press, 2002

  19. Is Capitalism Ethical?

    Suciu T.


    Full Text Available The author of this paper have set off from the question: is the present capitalism ethical? We started with the delimitation and correlation of the concepts of ethics, morals, morality. Further on, we analysed the evolution of capitalism in connection with morals. Based on this research, we came to the conclusion that the capitalist system has undergone through three stages: moral capitalism, amoral capitalism, and immoral capitalism. We concluded by implying that the corporate capitalist society is immoral, that it cannot regulate itself and that the government’s assistance is needed to inoculate the ethics.


    Yuheng LI; Westlund, Hans


    This paper investigates the relationship between overall inequality in China and the contributions of physical capital, human capital and social capital. The investment in physical capital tends to enlarge overall inequality while human capital helps to reduce the inequality. Human capital appears to be more influential than physical capital in overall inequality reduction in the research period. Social capital (people's social networks) however, does not seem to exert any impact on overall i...

  1. Human Capital, Bankruptcy and Capital Structure

    Jonathan B. Berk; Richard Stanton; Josef Zechner


    We derive a firm's optimal capital structure and managerial compensation contract when employees are averse to bearing their own human capital risk, while equity holders can diversify this risk away. In the presence of corporate taxes, our model delivers optimal debt levels consistent with those observed in practice. It also makes a number of predictions for the cross-sectional distribution of firm leverage. Consistent with existing empirical evidence, it implies persistent idiosyncratic diff...

  2. Capital Utilization and Capital Accumulation: Theory and Evidence

    Shapiro, Matthew D.


    A firm may acquire additional capital input by purchasing new capital or by increasing the utilization of its current capital. The margin between capita accumulation and capital utilization is studied in a model of dynamic factor demand where the firm chooses capital, labor, and their rates of utilization. A direct measure of capital utilization -- the work week of capital -- is incorporated into the theory and estimates. The methodology advocated by Hansen and Singleton (1982) is used to obt...




    Using data collected from 714 entrepreneurs in a random sample of 10,000 Danes, this study provides an investigation of the effect of human capital on social capital among entrepreneurs. Previous entrepreneurship research has extensively investigated the separated effect of human capital and social capital on different entrepreneurial outputs. The study takes a step back and investigates how these two capital concepts are related — specifically how human capital influences social capital. In ...

  4. Capital mobility. An overview

    Arndt, H. W.


    The article analyses the problem of international capital mobility which the Asian crisis has highlighted. It points out that the problem of capital mobility ("hot money" panics) has a long history, but globalization, the opening up of national economies and technological advance have increased the risks. The article discusses four policy debated which are being pursued in the large Asian crisis literature: (i) the pros and cons of capital controls; (ii) the choice of exchange rate regime; (i...

  5. Development and Social Capital

    Fafchamps, Marcel


    This paper examines social capital and its relation with economic development. We focus on the role that interpersonal relationships play in social exchange, whether through the market or through the provision of public goods. By facilitating search and trust, social capital can increase the efficiency of social exchange where formal institutions are weak. But the benefits from social capital are likely to be unequally distributed. Given these features, documenting empirically the benefits of...

  6. Determinants of Soil Capital

    Ekbom, Anders


    This paper combines knowledge from soil science and economics to estimate economic determinants of soil capital. Explaining soil capital facilitates a better understanding of constraints and opportunities for increased agricultural production and reduced land degradation. This study builds on an unusually rich data set that combines data on soil capital (represented by chemical and physical properties) and economic data on household characteristics, labor supply, crop allocation, and conserva...


    Holt Gheorghe


    Full Text Available Setting up business capital is made from different sources and their use coordinates its policy aims, issues that affect the overall efficiency and thus differentiate companies with the same profile of activity and a similar level of capital advanced in the economic cycle. Thus financial structure, the average cost of capital used in the mechanism how the financial management of the company, of particular importance for this.

  8. Human capital and productivity

    Fuente, Ángel de la


    This paper surveys the empirical literature on human capital and productivity and summarizes the results of my own work on the subject. On balance, the available evidence suggests that investment in education has a positive, significant and sizable effect on productivity growth. According to my estimates, moreover, the social returns to investment in human capital are higher than those on physical capital in most EU countries and in many regions of Spain.

  9. KVA: Capital Valuation Adjustment

    Andrew Green; Chris Kenyon


    Credit (CVA), Debit (DVA) and Funding Valuation Adjustments (FVA) are now familiar valuation adjustments made to the value of a portfolio of derivatives to account for credit risks and funding costs. However, recent changes in the regulatory regime and the increases in regulatory capital requirements has led many banks to include the cost of capital in derivative pricing. This paper formalises the addition of cost of capital by extending the Burgard-Kjaer (2013) semi-replication approach to C...

  10. Intangible Capital Accounting

    Mihalache Arsenie-Samoil


    The new economy based on globalization is increasingly important, which shows the decisive role played by intangible capital in achieving the competitive advantage of companies. However, this intangible capital is the hidden side of a company's value, as it represents the company's intangible resources, which cannot be measured by the financial metrics used to measure tangible resources. Given the functional importance of intangible capital, several models several models were proposed by the ...

  11. Human Capital and Retirement

    Alders, P.


    textabstractThis paper investigates the relation between human capital and retirement when the age of retirement is endogenous. This relation is examined in a life-cycle earnings model. An employee works full time until retirement. The worker accumulates human capital by training- on-the-job and by learning-by-doing. The human capital of an employee is subject to depreciation when knowledge of technologies becomes obsolete. After a shock in technology, the worker depreciates on his human capi...

  12. Institutions and Venture Capital

    Lerner, Josh; Tåg, Joacim


    We survey the literature on venture capital and institutions and present a case study comparing the development of the venture capital market in the US to Sweden. Our literature survey underscores that the legal environment, financial market development, the tax system, labor market regulations, and public spending on research and development correlates with venture capital activities across countries. Our case study suggests these institutional differences led to the later development of an ...

  13. Social Capital Database

    Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard


      This report has two purposes: The first purpose is to present our 4-page question­naire, which measures social capital. It is close to the main definitions of social capital and contains the most successful measures from the literature. Also it is easy to apply as discussed. The second purpose ...... to present the social capital database we have collected for 21 countries using the question­naire. We do this by comparing the level of social capital in the countries covered. That is, the report compares the marginals from the 21 surveys....

  14. Capital-Skill Complementarity: Does capital disaggregation matter?

    Correa, Juan; Lorca, Miguel; Parro, Francisco


    Using Chilean manufacturing plants data, we�find: (1) the elasticity of substitution between capital and skilled labor is lower than the elasticity of substitution between capital and unskilled labor, and (2) the higher the technological component of the capital stock the larger the size of complementarity between capital and skilled labor. Our�findings show that capital, as an aggregate input, may under(over) state the complementarity between labor and the type of capital these workers actua...

  15. Capital Flows to Brazil: The Endogeneity of Capital Controls

    Eliane A. Cardoso; Ilan Goldfajn


    This paper creates an index of capital controls to analyze the determinants of capital flows to Brazil, accounting for the endogeneity of capital controls by considering a government that sets controls in response to capital flows. It finds that the government reacts strongly to capital flows by increasing controls on inflows during booms and relaxing them in moments of distress. The paper estimates a vector autoregression with capital flows, controls, and interest differentials. It shows tha...

  16. Linguistic Capital Pays Dividends

    Linse, Caroline


    Some 37 million U.S. residents speak Spanish at home and more than 55% of them say they also speak English. That creates what is called linguistic capital. Although linguistic capital is difficult to quantify, it is enormously valuable and is determined by an individual's language competency, and is too frequently wasted instead of being…

  17. Human Capital and Retirement

    P. Alders


    textabstractThis paper investigates the relation between human capital and retirement when the age of retirement is endogenous. This relation is examined in a life-cycle earnings model. An employee works full time until retirement. The worker accumulates human capital by training- on-the-job and by

  18. Social Capital in Asia

    Li, Peter Ping; Redding, Gordon


    usually larger, transactions backed by law. For economic development, the systemic form becomes crucial but needs to be compatible with relational norms. The dimensions of social capital are often dual in nature. This article employs a theory that accepts this and analyses the phenomena as yin......This article provides an overview of social capital in Asia. Social capital is trust and appears in two main forms: relational, based on societal norms, and systemic, based on societal institutions. The relational encourages personalistic transactions; and systemic trust, supports more formal, and......–yang balancing, seeing trust as a culturally determined enabler of social cooperation. The evolutions of trustworthiness in Japan, China, and the Philippines are analysed. This article contributes to the literature on varieties of capitalism and business systems as well as that on social capital. It raises the...

  19. Handbook of Social Capital

    The Handbook of Social Capital balances the ‘troika' of sociology, political science and economics by offering important contributions to the study of bonding and bridging social capital networks. This inter-disciplinary Handbook intends to serve as a bridge for students and scholars within all t...... social sciences. The contributors explore the different scientific approaches that are all needed if international research is to embrace both the bright and the more shadowy aspects of social capital.......The Handbook of Social Capital balances the ‘troika' of sociology, political science and economics by offering important contributions to the study of bonding and bridging social capital networks. This inter-disciplinary Handbook intends to serve as a bridge for students and scholars within all the...

  20. The capital budgeting manual

    Segelod, Esbjörn


    There has been very many postal surveys of capital budgeting practice, but almost no studies of the written routines that fix the practice of those groups that use a capital budgeting manual. This article fills this vacuum by describing and analysing the capital budgeting manuals used by major Swedish groups, most of whom are multinationals. Changes in the manuals during the last 30 years are studied using hvo earlier Swedish studies of manuals from the 60’s and 70’s. Comparisons are made wit...

  1. Capital Humano y Productividad

    Ángel de la Fuente


    Este trabajo contiene un breve panorama de la literatura empírica sobre capital humano y productividad y resume los resultados de mi propio trabajo sobre el tema. En conjunto, la evidencia disponible sugiere que la inversión en educación tiene un efecto positivo, significativo y cuantitativamente importante sobre el crecimiento de la productividad. De acuerdo con mis estimaciones, además, la rentabilidad social de la inversión en capital humano es mayor que la del capital físico en la mayor p...

  2. On capital gain taxation

    Anton Miglo


    This note provides an explanation for why tax rates on capital gains are usually lower than ordinary income tax rates based on manager's agency problem related to "empire-building" or the underinvestment problem.

  3. Capital Projects Application (CPA)

    General Services Administration — Capital Projects application (CPA) provides users with the ability to maintain project related financial data for Budget Activity (BA) 51, 55, 64, 01, 02, 03, 04....

  4. Cultural Capital Today

    Prieur, Annick; Skjøtt-Larsen, Jakob; Rosenlund, Lennart


    Based on Danish survey data subjected to correspondence analysis, this article aims at carrying out a critical assessment of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of social differentiation in advanced societies as a multi-dimensional phenomenon. As his theory goes, capital volume (economic + cultural capital......) and capital composition (the relative weight of the two) are the main dimensions of social differentiation, which structure the space of social positions as well as the space of lifestyles. The central discussion of the article concerns the character of cultural capital, and the role it plays in the formation...... of social divisions. This leads to a discussion of four core questions: first, are there signs of a strong individualism and, correspondingly, a weak social structuring of lifestyles? The study does not find support for this view. Second, does classical highbrow culture play a central role as a marker...


    Ph. D. Student Ioana - Julieta Josan


    Full Text Available Once with the development of the human capital theory, the education received an economic value. Leading theorists and specialists in the field have shown that the remarkable economic effects of the investments in education influence the chances of acquiring a job and earnings, demonstrating how the theory justifies such an investment. At the hand, the allocation of resources in human capital brings performance and benefits to companies investing in their employees. Also, the investment in human capital is strategic for any country that seeks to create a knowledge economy. Considering the above arguments, the aim of this paper is to highlight the characteristics of investment in human capital, the types of investment, the factors of education investment and the entities interested in investing and their benefits.

  6. Thin Capitalization Rules and Multinational Firm Capital Structure

    Blouin, J.; Huizinga, H.P.; Laeven, L.; Nicodeme, G.


    This paper examines the impact of thin capitalization rules that limit the tax deductibility of interest on the capital structure of the foreign affiliates of US multinationals. We construct a new data set on thin capitalization rules in 54 countries for the period 1982-2004. Using confidential data on the (internal) leverage of foreign affiliates of US multinationals, we find that thin capitalization rules affect multinational firm capital structure in a significant way. Specifically, restri...

  7. Capital mobility, tax competition, and lobbying for redistributive capital taxation

    Lorz, Jens Oliver


    This paper analyzes the impact of international capital mobility on redistributive capital taxation and on lobbying activities by interest groups. It employs a model where different capital endowments lead to a conflict between households concerning their most preferred capital tax rate. Three main results are derived: First, redistributive source based capital taxes or subsidies decline as international tax competition intensifies. Second, lobbying activities of certain interest groups may e...

  8. Cultural capital and demand

    Victoria Ateca - Amestoy


    In this paper we develop a theoretical model that investigates the demand for cultural goods under the assumption of cultural capital and rational addiction. We also consider the effect of a policy intervention in order to raise the initial stock of cultural capital of a given individual, both on individual demand and on supply. Finally, we discuss on the effectiveness of such policies by translating our model to a dynamic framework.

  9. Religion, Science and Capitalisms

    Rehbein, Boike


    This paper enquires into the relation between capitalism, religion and the philosophy of science. We would tend to suppose that there are only superficial and accidental links between them. A closer analysis reveals, however, that the epistemology of contemporary science is still based on a certain interpretation of Christianity and linked to a particular type of capitalism. Science developed after Galileo and Descartes aims at universal truth but was founded on the notion of the Christian ...

  10. Embodied human capital unemployment

    Kumaraku, Klajdi; Naqvi, Nadeem; Rexhepi, Sara


    Adam Smith (1776) devoted the first three chapters to the division of labor in his Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. This process, carried far enough, eventually results in a divergence between the distributions of supplies and demands of such horizontally-differentiated distinct types of human capital embodied in different persons, leading to the emergence of Embodied Human Capital Unemployment. We illustrate the relevance of this new concept of unemployment to the...

  11. Social Capital and Conflict

    Alia Aghajanian


    Conflict is either caused by, or brings about, drastic changes in the underlying social relationships between members of a community involved in the conflict. The conflict literature has taken note, and a growing number of studies attempt to determine the relationship between conflict and social capital. Unfortunately, there are many problems that have plagued the social capital literature, and conflict studies have failed to address these. This paper aims to provide a critical analysis of th...

  12. Empreendedorismo na capital amazonense

    Filho, Aécio Flávio Ferreira da Silva


    This research was elaborated to evaluate entrepreneurship in the Capital of the Amazon State, Brazil. Its relevance is due to the non-existent literature in the subject of entrepreneurship, in the Northern Region of Brazil. The available Brazilian literary archive comprehends only the main cities located in the Southern and Northeastern Regions of the country. There is no research in the Northern Region – where the Amazon State and its Capital, Manaus, are found – and thus lies the reason for...

  13. The global capital leviathan

    Robinson, William I.


    The money mandarins of global capitalism and their political agents are utilizing the global crisis to impose brutal austerity and attempting to dismantle what is left of welfare systems and social states in Europe, North America and elsewhere. The budgetary and fiscal crises that supposedly justify spending cuts and austerity are contrived. They are a consequence of the unwillingness or inability of states to challenge capital and their disposition to transfer the burden of the crisis to wor...

  14. Entrepreneurship and heterogeneous capital

    Foss, Nicolai J.; Klein, Peter G.


    Entrepreneurship is ultimately about the arrangement of resources into productive activi-ties. Much of the entrepreneurship literature, however, has focused on the demand side of the market. While resource heterogeneity is a feature of many theories of the firm, such theories are not built on a systematic theory of capital. We show how the approach to capital developed by the Austrian school of economics provides a natural bridge between theory of entrepreneurship and the theory of the firm. ...

  15. Venture capital and internationalization

    Schertler, Andrea; Tykvová, Tereza


    Cross-border investments represent a substantial share of venture capital activities. We use a new and comprehensive dataset on worldwide investments to analyze the internationalization of venture capital financing. Our results from the perspectives of (i) venture capitalists, (ii) portfolio companies, (iii) portfolio companies' countries and (iv) pairs of venture capitalists' and portfolio companies' countries suggest that some factors, such as viable stock markets, boost investments by dome...

  16. Measuring Natural Capital

    Dariana Tani


    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of establishing a system of natural capital accounting. Natural capital is integral to the economy and yet it is routinely taken for granted because the goods and services it provides are generally freely available. The consequence is that without prices, these resources are not being allocated efficiently within the economy and opportunities for significant gains in well-being and the possibility of long-term future growth are being lo...

  17. Measuring Social Capital

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Bjørnskov, Christian


    How to construct a robust measure of social capital? This paper contains two contributions. The first is an attempt to establish a broad social capital measure based on four indicators, the Freedom House Index, an index of perceived corruption from Transparency International, and scores on civic ...... serve as institutional models for countries and regions aiming to increase their future level of social capital. More rigorous empirical research is needed within this field.......How to construct a robust measure of social capital? This paper contains two contributions. The first is an attempt to establish a broad social capital measure based on four indicators, the Freedom House Index, an index of perceived corruption from Transparency International, and scores on civic...... participation and generalized trust. This measure is then applied by comparing the level of social capital in 25 countries from Western and Eastern Europe. Our nine cluster analysis shows that Switzerland has the highest score, followed by the Netherlands and Scandinavia. At the other end of the continuum we...

  18. The Performance of Intellectual Capital

    Murthy, Vijaya; Mouritsen, Jan


    Purpose – This paper aims to analyse the relationship between intellectual capital and financial capital using a case study. This makes it possible to discuss how intellectual capital is related to value creation with a degree of nuance that is absent from most statistical studies of relationships...... between human, organisational, relational and financial capital. Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses a case study of a firm that invests in intellectual capital in order to develop financial capital. It traces the relationship between intellectual capital elements and financial capital via...... interviews. This allows the development of a nuanced account of the performance of intellectual capital. This account questions the universality of the linear model typically found in statistical studies. The model makes it possible to show how items of intellectual capital not only interact but also compete...

  19. Entrepreneurs’ human and social capital

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas; Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh;


    It is widely acknowledged that entrepreneurs' human capital in form of education and social capital in form of networking are mutually beneficial and also that both human and social capital benefit their performance. Here, the hypothesis is that human and social capital, in combination, provide......, that human capital and social capital (specifically networking in the international environment, work-place, professions and market, but not in the private sphere) both benefit export directly and that human capital amplifies the benefit of social capital, especially through international networking....... added value and jointly add a further boost to performance, specifically if the form of exporting. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor provides data on 52,946 entrepreneurs, who reported on exporting and networking for advice. Hierarchical linear modelling shows that human capital promotes social capital...

  20. Trade Barriers on Capital Goods

    VURAL, Gülfer


    Capital goods play a major role in international trade. World production of capital goods and R&D activity are highly concentrated in some developed countries. Most of the countries, especially developing countries import the most of their capital equipment from some leading capital goods exporter countries. Therefore technological advances can be transmitted across borders through trade in capital goods. In international trade countries face trade costs. Trade costs can be in the form of...

  1. Communication Capital Productivity: National Aspect

    Naumik Ekaterina G.


    The article offers suggestions for assessing communication capital productivity; the contradictions that affect the value of the communication efficiency of capital (the union of the agents of the market of communication services and products allows them to increase the communication capital productivity and to decrease communication capital productivity of competitors) are formulated; the dependence of productivity on the number of communication capital customers of the communication network...

  2. Social Capital Access and Entrepreneurship

    Stefan Bauernschuster; Oliver Falck; Stephan Heblich


    We investigate the effect of social capital access on entrepreneurship. Social capital helps entrepreneurs to overcome resource constraints. This is especially important in small communities where we often see a lack of market-oriented institutions such as venture capital firms. Entrepreneurs gain access to social capital via club memberships. Combining differences in the number of individual club memberships with differences in the importance of social capital across communities, we identify...

  3. Human capital and optimal positive taxation of capital Income

    Jacobs, B.; Bovenberg, A.L.


    This paper analyzes optimal linear taxes on capital and labor incomes in a life-cyclemodel of human capital investment, financial savings, and labor supply with heteroge-nous individuals. A dual income tax with a positive marginal tax rate on not onlylabor income but also capital income is optimal. The positive tax on capital incomeserves to alleviate the distortions of the labor tax on human capital accumulation.The optimal marginal tax rate on capital income is lower than that on labor inco...

  4. Organizational networks and social capital

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Waldstrøm, Christian


    This chapter presents a framework for understanding organizational networks and social capital through the lens of “social capital ownership” as well as the private and collective goods provided through this ownership. More specifically, it argues that ownership of social capital in organizations...... is closely connected to four types of social capital – two belonging to the bridging social capital type, and two belonging to the bonding social capital type. The chapter first reviews literature on organizational social capital and then directly focuses on ownership of social capital in organizations......, as well as the derived benefits, or losses. Next, the chapter presents an empirical case apt to illustrate the theoretical findings in part one, namely the nineteenth-century Danish Cooperative Dairy Movement (Svendsen and Svendsen 2004). It is demonstrated how social capital among Danish peasants...

  5. Risk capital allocation

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    sum of the risks of the individual sub-units. The question is how to allocate the risk capital of the company among the subunits in a fair way. In this paper we propose to use the Lorenz set as an allocation method. We show that the Lorenz set is operational and coherent. Moreover, we propose a set of......Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than the...... new axioms related directly to the problem of risk capital allocation and show that the Lorenz set satisfies these new axioms in contrast to other well-known coherent methods. Finally, we discuss how to deal with non-uniqueness of the Lorenz set....

  6. Bank Capital Management

    Jokipii, T.K.


    The work undertaken in this study empirically explores the determinants of regulatory bank capital bu®ers, and how they in°uence bank decisions. Focusing on bank capital management under the Basel I framework, this thesis serves to address some of the con- cerns that have been voiced regarding the implementation of the new regulation (Basel II) and the broader economic e®ects that could result. In particular, the research chapters of this thesis examine the cyclical behavior of European bank ...

  7. Governing Global Capital

    Harrington, Brooke

    in helping elites avoid taxes and other forms of regulation. The study documents how the means through which they achieve this objective - shifting billions in private capital wealth between Asia, Africa, India and Europe - and how this affects the balance of regional economic power. Drawing from an...... institutionalist perspective, the paper examines three ways in which wealth managers, both individually and through their professional society, influence regional competition for power and wealth: 1) by finding loopholes in existing policies that limit the global flow of capital; 2) by lobbying national and...

  8. Five models of capitalism

    Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira


    Full Text Available Besides analyzing capitalist societies historically and thinking of them in terms of phases or stages, we may compare different models or varieties of capitalism. In this paper I survey the literature on this subject, and distinguish the classification that has a production or business approach from those that use a mainly political criterion. I identify five forms of capitalism: among the rich countries, the liberal democratic or Anglo-Saxon model, the social or European model, and the endogenous social integration or Japanese model; among developing countries, I distinguish the Asian developmental model from the liberal-dependent model that characterizes most other developing countries, including Brazil.

  9. Capital Structure and Assets

    Flor, Christian Riis


    This paper analyzes a firm's capital structure choice when assets have outside value. Valuable assets implicitly provide a collateral and increase tax shield exploitation. The key feature in this paper is asset value uncertainty, implying that it is unknown ex ante whether the equity holders ex...... post optimally sell the assets or re-optimize the capital structure. Ex ante, more uncertain asset value decreases leverage, but not firm value, and selling the assets becomes less likely. Firms should tend to invest in assets whose value is less correlated to changes in earnings and, in addition...

  10. Contingent Capital with a Capital-Ratio Trigger

    Paul Glasserman; Behzad Nouri


    Contingent capital in the form of debt that converts to equity when a bank faces financial distress has been proposed as a mechanism to enhance financial stability and avoid costly government rescues. Specific proposals vary in their choice of conversion trigger and conversion mechanism. We analyze the case of contingent capital with a capital-ratio trigger and partial and ongoing conversion. The capital ratio we use is based on accounting or book values to approximate the regulatory ratios t...

  11. Thin Capitalization Rules and Entrepreneurial Capital Structure Decisions

    Alexandra Maßbaum; Caren Sureth


    Tax planners often choose debt over equity financing. As this has led to increased corporate debt financing, many countries have introduced thin capitalization rules to secure their tax revenues. In a general capital structure model we analyze if thin capitalization rules affect dividend and financing decisions, and whether they can partially explain why corporations receive both debt and equity capital. We model the Belgian, German and Italian rules as examples. We find that the so-called Mi...

  12. Thin Capitalization Rules and Multinational Firm Capital Structure

    Blouin, J.; Huizinga, H.P.; Laeven, L.; Nicodeme, G.


    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of thin capitalization rules that limit the tax deductibility of interest on the capital structure of the foreign affiliates of US multinationals. We construct a new data set on thin capitalization rules in 54 countries for the period 1982-2004. Using confide

  13. Human Capital and Optimal Positive Taxation of Capital Income

    B. Jacobs (Bas); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)


    textabstractThis paper analyzes optimal linear taxes on capital and labor incomes in a life-cycle model of human capital investment, financial savings, and labor supply with heteroge- nous individuals. A dual income tax with a positive marginal tax rate on not only labor income but also capital inco

  14. NANNING China's Green Capital


    @@ Nanning,the capital city of Guangxi province,is not only the political,economic and cultural center of the province,but also plays an important role in the economic development of southwest China.Nanning's advantageous location makes the city a commercial and communication center,opening China to Southeast Asia.

  15. Human Capital and Sustainability

    Garry Jacobs


    Full Text Available A study of sustainability needs to consider the role of all forms of capital—natural, biological, social, technological, financial, cultural—and the complex ways in which they interact. All forms of capital derive their value, utility and application from human mental awareness, creativity and social innovation. This makes human capital, including social capital, the central determinant of resource productivity and sustainability. Humanity has entered the Anthropocene Epoch in which human changes have become the predominant factor in evolution. Humanity is itself evolving from animal physicality to social vitality to mental individuality. This transition has profound bearing on human productive capabilities, adaptability, creativity and values, the organization of economy, public policy, social awareness and life styles that determine sustainability. This article examines the linkages between population, economic development, employment, education, health, social equity, cultural values, energy intensity and sustainability in the context of evolving human consciousness. It concludes that development of human capital is the critical determinant of long-term sustainability and that efforts to accelerate the evolution of human consciousness and emergence of mentally self-conscious individuals will be the most effective approach for ensuring a sustainable future. Education is the primary lever. Human choice matters.

  16. Corruption and Social Capital

    Bjørnskov, Christian


    I examine the causal relation between social capiatl and corruption. A simple model illustrates potential mechanisms and yields testable implications, which I estimate in a sample of European countries. The estimated effect of social capital on corruption is found to be robust to the inclusion of a...... redistribution, which in turn reduces corruption....

  17. Microfoundations of Social Capital

    Thöni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Wengström, Erik Roland

    We show that the standard trust question routinely used in social capital research is importantly related to cooperation behavior and we provide a microfoundation for this relation. We run a large-scale public goods experiment over the internet in Denmark and find that the trust question is a proxy...

  18. Is capitalism possible?

    Gaay Fortman, B. de


    In the two ages of its existence capitalism has given proof of its reformability. It was, however, anti-capitalist blueprints and ideas that constituted a continuous spiritual driving force towards reform. Today, after the collapse of real existing socialism there is an urgent need for new alternati

  19. Microfoundations of Social Capital

    Thöni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl; Wengström, Erik Roland


    Research on social capital routinely relies on survey measures of trust which can be collected in large and heterogeneous samples at low cost. We validate such survey measures in an incentivized public good experiment and show that they are importantly related to cooperation behavior in a large and...

  20. Towards Transnational Academic Capitalism

    Kauppinen, Ilkka


    This paper contributes to current debates on the relationship between globalisation and higher education. The main argument of the paper is that we are currently witnessing transnationalisation of academic capitalism. This argument is illustrated by examining the collaboration between transnational corporations and research universities, and how…

  1. Revitalizing ecological capital

    Swagemakers, P.; Wiskerke, J.S.C.


    The modernization of agricultural food production has diminished and is diminishing the sustainable use of the local natural resource base, resulting in the fragmentation of landscapes and the decline of biodiversity. In this paper we analyze the revitalization of ecological capital, which provides

  2. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    Odden, Allan


    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  3. Venture Capital Backed Growth

    Keuschnigg, Christian


    The paper proposes a simple equilibrium model of venture capital, entrepreneurship and innovation. Venture capitalists not only finance but also advise start-up entrepreneurs and thereby add value to new firms. The paper demonstrates how a productive and active VC industry boosts innovation driven growth.

  4. Auditing and bank capital regulation

    Edward Simpson Prescott


    Auditing is introduced into a model of bank capital regulation. Deterministic and stochastic auditing strategies are studied. Contrary to intuition, auditing of bank risk should be focused on the safest banks because they hold the least amount of capital. Risky banks, which hold more capital, need to be audited less. The importance of auditing by regulators and penalties for non-compliance are discussed in light of the Basel II capital regulation proposals. Emphasis is placed on the importanc...

  5. Capitalism: A System of Conspiracy

    Das, Subhendu


    There are some myths about American capitalism. Some of them are (1) Capitalism made America the richest nation, (2) Capitalism is based on self interest, and (3) America has democracy. We show that the survival of capitalism is based on several powerful conspiracy theories. We briefly describe these conspiracies. Our analysis is based on the following principles: (a) Laws of conservation, (b) System theoretic concepts, and (c) The global space time (GST) environment. Using these princip...

  6. Crony Capitalism: Caricature or Category?

    Mazumdar, Surajit


    This paper, part of a series on Crony Capitalism and Contemporary India, examines the conceptual meaning of the term crony capitalism, which has acquired considerable popularity since it was used as an explanation for the East Asian crisis. The paper argues that the conception of crony capitalism as a description of a distinct kind of capitalism associated with the State playing a key role in the allocation process suffers from serious deficiencies and therefore does not provide a suitable fr...

  7. Entrepreneurship capital and economic performance

    Audretsch, David B; Keilbach, Max


    The neoclassical model of the production function, as applied by Robert Solow to build the neoclassical model of growth, linked labor and capital to output. More recently, Romer and others have expanded the model to include measures of knowledge capital. In this paper we introduce a new factor, entrepreneurship capital, and link it to output in the context of a production function model. This paper explains what is meant by entrepre-neurship capital and why it should influence economic output...

  8. Technology Differences and Capital Flows

    Sebastian Claro


    The one-to-one mapping between cross-country differences in capital returns and the direction of international capital flows is broken in a multisector world where international factor price differences are driven by technology differences. A technology-backward or low-return-to-capital country will face capital inflows or outflows after financial integration depending on whether non-tradable demand is bossted or not

  9. Market Timing and Capital Structure

    Jeffrey A. Wurgler; Baker, Malcolm P.


    It is well known that firms tend to raise equity when their market values are high relative to book and past market values. We document that the resulting effects on capital structure are very persistent. As a consequence, current capital structure is strongly related to past market valuations. The results are difficult to explain within traditional theories of capital structure and suggest that capital structure is the cumulative outcome of past attempts to time the equity market.

  10. Risk, capital and financial crisis

    Ghosh, Saibal


    Employing data on over 100 banks for Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries during 1996-2011, we test the relation between risk and capital. The findings indicate that banks generally increase capital in response to an increase in risk, and not vice versa. Second, there is an uneven impact of regulatory pressure and market discipline on banks attitude towards risk and capital. Additionally, Islamic banks increased their capital as compared to conventional banks.

  11. Capital Taxation and Rent Seeking

    Arefiev, Nikolay; Baron, Tatyana


    We find the optimal capital income tax rate in an imperfectly competitive economy, where some part of recourses is devoted to rent-seeking activity. Optimal tax offsets the difference between marginal social and marginal private return to capital, which is a result of rent seeking, and the difference between the before tax interest rate and the marginal productivity of capital, which arises from imperfect competition. Optimal capital income tax rate depends neither on other tax rates nor on o...

  12. Extended Measures of Capital Transactions

    Jorge Selaive; Beatriz Velásquez; José Miguel Villena


    In this work, we extend de jure measures of capital account restrictions previously assembled by Miniane (2004) to a set of 181 economies for the period 1996-2005. Additionally, we propose two new measures of capital account restrictions. The first excludes prudential regulation and the second weights the indices by a proxy for the enforcement of capital restrictions. We analyze global tendencies and the process of capital account liberalization in Chile. For the group of economies, we observ...


    Yuan K. Chou


    This paper proposes three theoretical growth models incorporating social capital, based on varied expositions on the concept of social capital and the empirical evidence gathered to date. In these models, social capital impacts growth by assisting in the accumulation of human capital, by affecting financial development through its effects on collective trust and social norms, and by facilitating networking between firms that result in the creation and diffusion of business and technological i...

  14. What Drives Venture Capital Fundraising?

    Paul A. Gompers; Josh Lerner


    We examine the determinants of venture capital fundraising in the U.S. over the past twenty-five years. We study industry aggregate, state-level, and firm-specific fundraising to determine if macroeconomic, regulatory, or performance factors affect venture capital activity. We find that shifts in demand for venture capital appear to have a positive and important impact on commitments to new venture capital funds. Commitments by taxable and tax-exempt investors seem equally sensitive to change...

  15. Capital Mobility and Asset Pricing

    Duffie, Darrell; Strulovici, Bruno


    We present a model for the equilibrium movement of capital between asset markets that are distinguished only by the levels of capital invested in each. Investment in that market with the greatest amount of capital earns the lowest risk premium. Intermediaries optimally trade off the costs of intermediation against fees that depend on the gain they can offer to investors for moving their capital to the market with the higher mean return. Those fees also depend on the bargaining power of the in...

  16. How venture capital works.

    Zider, B


    The popular mythology surrounding the U.S. venture-capital industry derives from a previous era. Venture capitalists who nurtured the computer industry in its infancy were legendary both for their risk taking and for their hands-on operating experience. But today things are different, and separating the myths from the realities is crucial to understanding this important piece of the U.S. economy. Today's venture capitalists are more like conservative bankers than the risk takers of days past. They have carved out a specialized niche in the capital markets, filling a void that other institutions cannot serve. They are the linch-pins in an efficient system for meeting the needs of institutional investors looking for high returns, of entrepreneurs seeking funding, and of investment bankers looking for companies to sell. Venture capitalists must earn a consistently superior return on investments in inherently risky businesses. The myth is that they do so by investing in good ideas and good plans. In reality, they invest in good industries--that is, industries that are more competitively forgiving than the market as a whole. And they structure their deals in a way that minimizes their risk and maximizes their returns. Although many entrepreneurs expect venture capitalists to provide them with sage guidance as well as capital, that expectation is unrealistic. Given a typical portfolio of ten companies and a 2,000-hour work year, a venture capital partner spends on average less than two hours per week on any given company. In addition to analyzing the current venture-capital system, the author offers practical advice to entrepreneurs thinking about venture funding. PMID:10187243

  17. Intellectual Capital: Comparison and Contrast.

    Madsen, Susan R.


    Suggests that one of the most important keys for improving individual and organizational performance is in developing and strengthening intellectual capital (IC) and explores the similarities and differences between the concepts of intellectual capital, human capital, and knowledge management. Presents four IC characteristics and addresses the…

  18. Working Paper on Social capital

    Lassen Hanan, Anne


    This paper outlines the major schools within social capital theory. Contemporary authors such as Coleman, Putnam and Bourdieu are elaborated on. The paper also presents a non-exhaustive review on studies of social capital. Furthermore, a criticial discussion on social capital is reviewed, before...

  19. Pension funds and capital accumulation

    Belan, Pascal; Michel, Philippe; Wigniolle, Bertrand


    This note presents a model in which pension funds, by holding a signifiant share of capital assets, can exert a non competitive behavior on labor market. This leads to lower wages and higher capital returns, and can reduce capital accumulation and Long-run welfare.

  20. Thin Capitalization Rules and Entrepreneurial Capital Structure Decisions

    Alexandra Maßbaum


    Full Text Available Tax planners often choose debt over equity financing. As this has led to increased corporate debt financing, many countries have introduced thin capitalization rules to secure their tax revenues. In a general capital structure model we analyze if thin capitalization rules affect dividend and financing decisions, and whether they can partially explain why corporations receive both debt and equity capital. We model the Belgian, German and Italian rules as examples. We find that the so-called Miller equilibrium and definite financing effects depend significantly on the underlying tax system. Further, our results are useful for the treasury to decide what thin capitalization type to implement.

  1. Selection of intellectual capital management strategies

    Shcherbachenko Viktoriia Oleksiivna


    This article deals with the selection of intellectual capital management strategy. The attention is paid to the structure of intellectual capital, which consists of human capital, customer capital, process capital, intellectual property, intangible assets. The algorithm of selection of intellectual capital management strategy was created by author.

  2. Social Capital in Rural Denmark

    Svendsen, G.L.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard


    What are the roots of social capital and how can it be measured and built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society and allows more transactions to take place without third-party enforcement. Theory and lessons from empirical evidence lead to the general recommendation that any loss in social capital must be deducted f...

  3. Performance systems and social capital

    Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard; Edwards, Kasper


    Performance systems and social capital are considered mutually exclusive. Contemporary studies show that social capital is essential in generating performance improvement. This raises an important question: “How do performance systems and social capital correspond?” This study draws on findings...... from a study on implementation of a performance system in Danish construction. The results show causalities between implementing the performance system and the emergence of social capital in construction projects. Results indicate that performance systems and social capital is not mutually exclusive...

  4. Social Capital in Rural Denmark

    Svendsen, G.L.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard


    What are the roots of social capital and how can it be measured and built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society and ......-sized groups in the Danish Cooperative Dairy Movement was eliminated due to economies of scale. It may be so that an alternative way of production, taking social capital into account, could have increased economic growth further....

  5. Ensayo sobre el Capital Social

    Ramón Frediani


    Full Text Available En la teoría económica existen distintas definiciones de capital: capital físico, el capital en recursos naturales, el capital financiero, el capital en infraestructura económica, el capital en infraestructura social y el capital humano. Todos ellos son condiciones necesarias para que un país alcance el desarrollo económico y social y un alto estándar y calidad de vida de sus habitantes, pero no suficientes puesto que hace falta una categoría adicional de capital. En los últimos años ha surgido el análisis de una nueva categoría: el Capital Social. El concepto se ha convertido en uno de los temas más debatidos de las ciencias sociales y políticas. Se refiere a un elemento invisible, etéreo, menos tangible que el capital humano (conocimientos y/o habilidades de los individuos o el capital físico (bienes materiales, pero que resulta decisivo para la actividad productiva, la satisfacción de las necesidades personales y el desarrollo comunitario y de una sociedad toda.

  6. Capital theory and rational choice

    Golubović Nataša


    Full Text Available Almost from the very beginning of economic science the notion of capital has been the subject of numerous controversies. The main reason for the concept's controversial nature is that it explains interest and profit. In Marxian theory, where 'manner of production' determines forms of activities, mutual relationships and life of individuals, capital appears as a social phenomenon i.e. social relation. Goods and money are not capital by themselves but become capital in the capitalist way of production. Economics mainstream is based on methodological individualism upon which explanation of social phenomena and processes must be derived from individual behavior and motivation. Capital, therefore, is not a product of capitalism as a socially and historically specific form of economic organization, but is rather perceived as connected to the individual and his or her rational behavior. Rational choice is the basic and sometimes the only explanatory factor in the neoclassic theories of capital. Although theories of human and cultural capital point out the interdependence between individual activity and choice on the one hand, and social position on the other hand in the process of capitalization, the connection remains in the background and somehow unclear. A more explicit indication of the interdependence between social structure and choice can be found in the theory of social capital. The goal of this paper is to explore the role of rational choice theory in explaining the nature of capital.

  7. Capital Requirements and Banks' Leniency

    Dietrich, J. Kimball; Wihlborg, Clas


    We investigate the effect of changes in capital regulation on the strictness(leniency) of loan terms using a simple model of bank capital requirements andasset quality examinations. Banks offer different levels of `leniency' in the senseof willingness to offer automatic extensions of loans in the...... presence of temporarypayment difficulties of borrowers. Banks offering lenient (less strict) loan termsmust have higher initial levels of capital and charge higher loan rates. Whencapital requirements are increased, both strict and lenient banks hold higher levelsof initial capital and they raise loan...... rates. As capital requirements increase thedifference between initial capital levels and between interest rates of strict andlenient banks decrease. Thus, higher capital requirements in recessions tend toreduce the interest rate premium paid for leniency. If a recession is interpreted asan increase in...

  8. Contabilidad del capital intelectual

    Myriam Ruiz Tibaná; Ramon Elias Jimenez Arias; Tito Duarte


    El capital intelectual es un valor intangible que debe incorporarse a los estados financieros, como parte de la generación de valor de todos los trabajadores de una organización. Existen algunos modelos que permiten cuantificarlo, aunque es preciso reconocer que debemos ahondar con más precisión con el objeto de contar con un mayor número de adeptos a esta importante referencia.

  9. Capital cost estimate


    The capital cost estimate for the nuclear process heat source (NPHS) plant was made by: (1) using costs from the current commercial HTGR for electricity production as a base for items that are essentially the same and (2) development of new estimates for modified or new equipment that is specifically for the process heat application. Results are given in tabular form and cover the total investment required for each process temperature studied.

  10. Social capital and education

    Timur Natkhov


    Timur Natkhov, Ph.D. in Economics, Associate Professor in the Subdepartment of Institutional Economics, National Research University - Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: The paper presents a brief evolution of studies on the relationship between education and social capital in different countries. A distinctive feature of these studies is their interdisciplinary nature, as they combine theories and methods of different social sciences.To ide...

  11. Entrepreneurial Human Capital

    Iversen, Jens; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders


    We argue that formal schooling and wage-work experience are complementary types of human capital for entrepreneurs. Strong empirical support is found for this hypothesis as the interaction term between schooling and actual wage-work experience enters positively and significantly in a Mincer equation, whereas the effect of schooling in the absence of wage-work experience is insignificant. These results are extremely robust towards more flexible specifications, including fixed-effects estimatio...

  12. Managers and Market Capitalism

    Rebecca Henderson; Karthik Ramanna


    In a capitalist system based on free markets, do managers have responsibilities to the system itself? If they do, should these responsibilities shape their behavior when they are engaging in the political process in an attempt to structure the institutions of capitalism? The prevailing view-perhaps most eloquently argued by Milton Friedman-is that the first duty of managers is to maximize shareholder value, and thus that they should take every opportunity (within the bounds of the law) to str...

  13. Investments in human capital

    Milost, Franko; Novak, Matic


    Investments in human capital (employees) include investments in the direct assurance of working abilities, investments in health and well-being and investments in loyalty to the company. These investments are crucial for the long-term existence and development of a company, but their value is not disclosed on the assets side of the classical balance sheet. The most important argument given by the proponents of this approach is that the economic benefits stemming from such investments are unce...

  14. Outside Entrepreneurial Capital

    Andy Cosh; Douglas Cumming; Alan Hughes


    This paper investigates the internal versus external financing decisions among 1900 early stage privately held UK firms in 1996-1997. We study the factors that affect rejection rates in applications for outside finance among the different types of investors, taking into account the non-randomness in a firm’s decision to seek outside finance. The data support the traditional pecking order theory; firms with greater capital expenditures / profits are more likely to seek finance and apply for mo...

  15. fuente de capital humano

    Ligia Becerra


    Full Text Available El capital intelectual es una concepción novedosa, tipificada como un activo intangible que agrega valor a la empresa; está formado por tres componentes: el capital organizacional, el humano y el relacional. El capital humano está relacionado con el desarrollo y los conocimientos del individuo, que permite diferenciar a un profesional de otro. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la formación del Contador Público egresado de la Universidad de Los Andes (ULA de Trujillo, como fuente de capital humano para su desempeño profesional. Los datos se recolectaron aplicando un cuestionario a una muestra aleatoria de 47 de estos profesionales, empleando para el análisis y presentación de los resultados técnicas estadísticas. La investigación evidencia que la mayoría de los encuestados poseen un nivel de satisfacción de medio a bajo con su formación de pregrado, señalando como principales debilidades del Plan de Estudio las áreas tributaria y cambiaria, el manejo instrumental del inglés y el conocimiento de las normativas que rigen el sistema económico. La formación en algunas de estas áreas la han mejorado a través de otras actividades de capacitación. No obstante reconocen algunas fortalezas tales como: el aprendizaje y dominio de conceptos y Principios Contables de Aceptación General, las matemáticas y estadística, el manejo de la contabilidad computarizada y las habilidades para analizar e interpretar problemas contables. Se concluye que a pesar de las deficiencias, la realización de cursos de actualización, junto con las fortalezas en la formación de la carrera, ha contribuido a que el contador público egresado de la ULA de Trujillo constituya un capital humano con ventaja competitiva.

  16. Venture Capital, Private Firms, and the Capital Acquisition Process

    Mull, Rick H.


    This paper presents an empirical examination of the incentives motivating venture capitalists and sample of growth option intensive private firms with acute capital requirements to interact, the gains each group achieves through this association, the types of private firms successfully attracting venture capital, and mechanisms used in this funding process. Results show that venture capital backed firms achieve growth rates (1) greater than expected, and (2) greater than a matched sample of n...

  17. Capital Gains Taxes, Irreversible Investment, and Capital Structure

    Norman Schuerhoff


    Personal taxation can be an important determinant of corporate investment and financing decisions if the marginal investor is taxed. I develop a dynamic capital budgeting model under realization-based capital gains taxation that highlights distinct cross-sectional and time-series implications. Capital gains taxation creates an embedded tax timing option that reduces investors’ uncertainty about after-tax payoffs in downstates. The inherent asymmetry in personal taxation diminishes the value...

  18. Capital Income Taxation and Tax Criteria in International Capital Markets

    Hannu Piekkola


    The study analyses the capital income taxation of foreign-source income, where residence and source criteria are the two well-known tax criteria. The study presents a globally optimal tax rule which equalizes the shadow price of capital in the countries and which is assumed to be a weighted average of the return on savings and on investment, i.e. depending on the gross rate of return to the extent that capital contributes to the capital used, and on the net interest rate to the extent that ca...

  19. Capital social et anthroponomie

    Peaucelle, Irina


    Dans ce texte j'analyse les relations entre la composante Santé du capital social et la reproduction élargie de l'économie. Il s'agit aussi de discuter des méthodes d'évaluation de santé des populations pour apprécier leur potentiel de travail. En s'appuyant sur des travaux en psychologie sociale, je cherche à appréhender les rythmes anthroponomiques de l'évolution économique.

  20. Knight Capital Americas LLC

    Austin, Robert D.; Meister, Darren


    It took 19 years to build Knight Capital Americas LLC into the largest market maker on the New York Stock Exchange, but on August 1, 2012, it took only 45 minutes for the firm to be wiped out by an information technology (IT) problem: a change in the company's software caused it to lose more than...... officer, other managers and the board of directors have done differently? What lessons does this story hold for how firms should be managed and governed? And what does it say about our ability to manage risk in large modern corporations operating in increasingly fast-moving and complex global markets?...

  1. Capital social comunicativo

    Darío Ángel


    Full Text Available En este artículo se buscan establecer las bases para una transformación del tradicional triángulo comunicativo emisor-mensaje-receptor, por un esquema que haga alusión a la dinámica social de la comunicación relacionada con lo público: actores-escenarios-sentidos. De esta forma, es posible conformar guías para la acción y encontrar en los actores ciudadanos de comunicación, la conformaciónde un capital social para la democracia.

  2. The Genesis of Capitalism

    Li, Xing


    foremost a transformative process involving political repercussions as being dealt with here (enforced variation, reshaping, selection and distortion). In sum, the paper intends to problematize the significance of the evolutionary explanation, the culturalist approach as well as the economistic...... (historical, divine, spiritual, miraculous), the establishment of capitalism is less the result of a force for cultural and economic dynamism than the realization of a political project. In other words, from being an enterprise within defined geographical boundaries to becoming a global project is first and...

  3. Contratos de capital humano

    Oscar Alejandro Goyes Viteri


    Full Text Available Este documento busca dar a conocer el tema de la inversión en capital humano a través de la celebración de contratos atípicos y utilizando la fiducia mercantil y la titularización como vehículos financieros. Por medio de estos contratos un estudiante obtiene los recursos que requiere para financiar su educación superior, a cambio de entregar un porcentaje de sus ingresos después de su graduación a quien financió la operación.

  4. Contratos de capital humano

    Oscar Alejandro Goyes Viteri


    Este documento busca dar a conocer el tema de la inversión en capital humano a través de la celebración de contratos atípicos y utilizando la fiducia mercantil y la titularización como vehículos financieros. Por medio de estos contratos un estudiante obtiene los recursos que requiere para financiar su educación superior, a cambio de entregar un porcentaje de sus ingresos después de su graduación a quien financió la operación.

  5. Developing Moral Capital in Schools

    Çelik, Vehbi; Mevlana Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Bölümü


    An abundance of models and approaches have been formed to develop school effectiveness. Schools have been analyzed with respect to psychological, sociological, cultural and administrative dimensions. Social and cultural capitals- as the recently developed nonmonetary forms of capital-have been investigated with respect to school organizations. Nonetheless so far there has been no in-depth research on moral capital in schools as an original concept. In the present research, the concept of mora...

  6. Worker Remittances and Capital Flows

    Buch, Claudia M; Kuckulenz, Anja; Le Manchec, Marie-Helene


    The debate on the risks and benefits of the globalisation of international capital markets has focused on the volume and the volatility of the main capital flows — foreign direct investment (FDI), portfolio investment, and foreign bank lending. Financial transfers in the form of worker remittances have received less attention in this context. This paper provides an analysis on the magnitude of remittances, their volatility, and their relationship to other capital flows. Moreover, we provide ...

  7. Re-Thinking Social Capital

    Zlatko Bukač


    Full Text Available The concept of social capital has been used very often in sociological researches over the last two decades. Measuring social capital in civil society, neighborhoods and educational systems is merely a part of its popular usage. Many sociologists tend to use the concept of social capital very freely and therefore expand the definition of social capital. The author’s personal experience indicates that there have been a great number of academic discussions, research planning and public speeches implementing the notion of social capital without taking a detailed consideration of what that concept truly entails. By overviewing the available literature on social capital, it is actually no wonder that both sociologists and the noted concept were in this confusing situation. As Field stated in his book Social Capital (Key Ideas, published in 2008, his work was “the first attempt to provide an extended introduction on increasingly influential concept of social capital” (Field 1. Quibria notes that even though there is a vast number of research conducted on social capital in many academic fields and with various approaches ‘the concept of social capital remains largely elusive’’(1. That obviously is not an obstacle because there is a constantly growing interest in social capital. A vast body of research concerning, measuring, and defining social capital is available today, which helps a researcher to analyze and compare all of the perspectives concerning social capital. This can be of great importance when researchers approach a somewhat new subject of research such as online communication and, more specifically, online games.

  8. Crises and human capital accumulation

    Freddy Heylen; Lorenzo Pozzi


    This paper studies the effects of crises on human capital formation. Theoretically, a crisis undermines total factor productivity, which reduces the return to working and to accumulating physical capital. If the crisis is temporary, young agents will study now and work later. Human capital rises. To test our model we rely on inflation crises as our main empirical proxy. Using GMM panel procedures, our analysis for 86 countries in 1970-2000 confirms the positive effects of crises on human capi...


    Schmid, A. Allan; Robison, Lindon J.


    Experiments and studies were conducted to investigate the role of social capital. Social capital (relationship to others) is a productive asset which is a substitute for and complement to other productive assets. The productivity of social capital leads to the expectation that firms and individuals invest in relationships. Data were collected to answer the following questions: Does the identity (relationship) of trading partners affect selling and buying prices; the acceptance of catastrophic...

  10. Capitalism and African business cultures

    Taylor, Scott D.


    Scholars and practitioners once commonly linked 'African culture' to a distinctive 'African capitalism', at odds with genuine capitalism and the demands of modern business. Yet contemporary African business cultures reveal that a capitalist ethos has taken hold within both state and society. The success and visibility of an emergent, and celebrated, class of African big business reveals that business and profit are culturally acceptable. Existing theories of African capitalism are ill-equippe...

  11. Capital Flows and Central Banking

    Gupta, Poonam


    Because of the steady liberalization of the capital account since the early 1990s and increased financial integration of the Indian economy, capital flows to India have moved in tandem with broad global trends. This paper looks at the extent to which India’s monetary policy has been affected by the ebbs and flows of the capital it receives. For ease of narration, the paper divides the post...

  12. Venture Capital and Innovation Strategies

    Da Rin, M.; Penas, M.F.


    Venture capital is a specialized form of financial intermediation that often provides funding for costly technological innovation. Venture capital firms need to exit portfolio companies within about five years from the investment to generate returns for institutional investors. This paper is the first to examine the association of venture capital funding with a company’s choice of innovation strategies. We employ a unique dataset of over 10,000 innovative Dutch companies, some of which receiv...

  13. Human Capital and Genetic Diversity

    Sequeira, Tiago; Santos, Marcelo,; Ferreira-Lopes, Alexandra


    The determinants of human capital have been studied sparsely in the literature. Although there is a huge literature on the determinants of schooling linked with the quality of schooling, there are not many contributions that explore the deep determinants of investment in, quantity and quality of human capital. This paper investigates the relationship between human capital and the ancestral genetic diversity of populations. It highlights a strong hump-shaped relationship between genetic divers...


    Félix, Elisabete Gomes Santana


    In this work it was intended to carry through an analysis of the European venture capital market in the last eight years. Also it was done a summary of the venture capital industry history, carrying through a comparison between U.S.A. and Europe. In the European venture capital market analysis it was pointed out aspects about the investment totals, fundraising, investors types and investments types. Among others conclusions, it was found that the banks and pension funds are the main sup...

  15. A Capital Adequacy Buffer Model

    David Allen; Michael McAleer


    In this paper, we develop a new capital adequacy buffer model (CABM) which is sensitive to dynamic economic circumstances. The model, which measures additional bank capital required to compensate for fluctuating credit risk, is a novel combination of the Merton structural model which measures distance to default and the timeless capital asset pricing model (CAPM) which measures additional returns to compensate for additional share price risk.

  16. 77 FR 52977 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market Risk Capital Rule


    ... must assume a margin period of risk under the IMM of 20 business days for netting sets where: (1) The... Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market Risk Capital Rule; Proposed... 325 RIN 3064-AD97 Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market...

  17. Social Capital and Economic Growth

    Reino Hjerppe


    It is argued in order to explain large differences in the level of the development and the growth of economies cannot be adequately explained only by looking the traditional inputs of labour, capital and natural resources. The hypothesis is that also the role of social capital needs to be taken into account. First the concept of social capital is defined and discussed. Then the role of social capital in the development process is explained. Empirical test based on the cross-country data of 27...

  18. Exploring the social capital grid

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Patulny, Roger


    The purpose of this paper is to show that numerous studies have advanced social capital research over the past decade. Most studies have accepted the theoretical distinction between bonding and bridging social capital networks. Many, however, tend to agglomerate empirical research under the one...... catch-all social capital concept, rather than classifying it according to the bonding/bridging distinction. Furthermore, most studies make little distinction on the basis of methodology, between qualitative and quantitative approaches to investigating social capital. These omissions need to be addressed....


    Tomáš KLIEŠTIK; Katarína VALÁŠKOVÁ


    The present contribution deals with the quantification of capital costs. The contribution is written on a theoretical basis. The costs will be particularly quantified in financing only by equity and only by debt capital and particularly in the so-called mixed financing in which weighted average costs of capital will be quantified. The cost of capital can be seen from three different perspectives: in the assets part of a company, in the liability part of a company and in the part of potential ...

  20. Building A Venture Capital Index

    Liang Peng


    This paper builds a venture capital index from 1987 to 1999 that consists of 12,946 rounds of venture financing with 5,643 venture-backed firms. The paper uses two innovative techniques, a re-weighting procedure and a method of moment repeat sales regression, to mitigates three problems - missing data, censored data, and sample selection. We report the time series of capital flows, net asset value, and returns of the venture capital index. We find that the venture capital industry experienced...

  1. Social Capital, Value, and Measure: Antonio Negri's Challenge to Capitalism.

    Day, Ronald E.


    Considers one concept in knowledge management, that of social capital, focusing on the problem of measure and value in capitalism, specifically within the period and conditions of post-Fordist production. Discusses the work of Antonio Negri and suggests the importance of knowledge management as a symptom of a turn in political economy. (Author/LRW)

  2. Human capital and optimal positive taxation of capital income

    B. Jacobs (Bas); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)


    textabstractThis paper analyzes optimal linear and non-linear taxes on capital and labor incomes in a life-cycle model of human capital investment, financial savings, and labor supply with heterogenous individuals. A dual income tax with a positive marginal tax rate on not only labor income but also

  3. Comprehensive wealth, intangible capital, and development

    Ferreira, Susana; Hamilton, Kirk


    Existing wealth estimates show that in most countries intangible capital is the largest share of total wealth. Intangible capital is calculated as the difference between total wealth and tangible (produced and natural) capital. This paper uses new estimates of total wealth, natural capital, and physical capital for a panel of countries to shed light on the constituents of the intangible ca...

  4. Growth Strategy with Social Capital and Physical Capital

    Le Van, Cuong; Nguyen, Anh Ngoc; Nguyen, Ngoc-Minh


    Dans ce papier, nous étudions l'impact du capital social dans un modèle simple à la fois théorique et empirique. L'hypothèse cruciale est que le coût du capital physique, grâce aux contacts sociaux diminue par rapport aux dépenses en capital social. Dans le modèle théorique, nous montrons qu'il existe un seuil critique de l'épargne destinée aux dépenses en capital social. Les firmes dont l'épargne est inférieur à ce seuil ne vont pas investir en capital social. Nous montrons de plus que les p...

  5. 12 CFR 565.4 - Capital measures and capital category definitions.


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital measures and capital category... PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION § 565.4 Capital measures and capital category definitions. (a) Capital measures. For purposes of section 38 and this part, the relevant capital measures shall be: (1) The total...

  6. 76 FR 11668 - Minimum Capital


    ... amended. See 74 FR 5597 (January 30, 2009). As a result, the definition of ``minimum capital level'' as... by HERA. Final Rule: Capital Requirements for the Federal Home Loan Banks, 66 FR 8262, 8282-83... 12 U.S.C. 4612(d). The 60-day comment period closed on April 9, 2010. See Federal Register 75 FR...

  7. 75 FR 6151 - Minimum Capital


    ... Cease and Desist Order, as amended. See 74 FR 5597 (January 30, 2009). As a result, the definition of... AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1225 RIN 2590-AA01 Minimum Capital AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION... Soundness Act that provides for a temporary increase in the minimum capital level for entities regulated...

  8. Business model and Intellectual Capital

    Lindgren, Peter; Saghaug, Kristin Margrethe


    When practicing business model (BM) innovation releasing intellectual capital (IC) strategically from SME´s BMs through the innovation process can be extremely difficult and complex to carry out especially to small and medium size enterprises (SME). There are so many opportunities and resources in...... SME´s Intellectual Capital – but how to release them?...

  9. Taxes and Venture Capital Support

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo


    's success, but is not verifiable. Asa result, the market equilibrium is biased towards inefficiently low venture capitalsupport. The capital gains tax becomes especially harmful, as it further impairsadvice and causes a first-order welfare loss. Once the capital gains tax is in place,limitations on loss off...

  10. Operational risk economic capital allocation

    Nikonov, Oleg I.; Vlasov, Vladimir E.; Medvedeva, Marina A.


    In the paper we describe a model of operational risk of economic capital estimation and allocation based on Loss Distribution Approach (LDA). Bank's total losses are modeled through Monte-Carlo simulations of its business units' losses. It allows to fairly distributing the corresponding capital between business units in order to assess and manage their risk adjusted performance.

  11. Solow Residuals Without Capital Stocks

    Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista


    investment expenditures: one eliminates the capital stock by direct substitution, while the other employs generalized differences of detrended data and the Malmquist index. In short samples, these measures can exhibit consistently lower root mean squared errors than the Solow–Törnqvist counterpart. Capital...




    The book presents the features and the evolution of the capital market in Romania and also presents its role and efficiency in financing the economy. Also the book presents the participants in the capital market, which are defined as regulated entities, investors and issuers.

  13. Universities Venture into Venture Capitalism.

    Desruisseaux, Paul


    Reports that some universities are starting their own venture-capital funds to develop campus companies, or are investing endowment funds with established venture-capital firms inclined to finance potential spinoffs from campus research. Examples cited are from the University of Alabama, Vanderbilt University (Tennessee), University of…

  14. Sand in the Wheels of Capitalism

    Bersem, Mario; Perotti, Enrico; von Thadden, Ernst-Ludwig

    rest receives only lab or income; and (ii) voters have different vintages of human capital. We identify young workers as the decisive voter group, with preferences in between capitalists who favor a free capital market, and old workers, who favor restricted capital mobility. We show that capital market......We present a positive theory of capital market frictions that raise the cost of capital for new firms and lower the cost of capital for incumbent firms. Capital market frictions arise from a political conflict across voters who differ in two dimensions: (i) a fraction of voters owns capital, the...... frictions do not naturally arise in a static framework, or even in a dynamic framework if capital market frictions are reversible. But if capital market frictions can be made to p ersist over time, we show that young workers favor capital market frictions as a way to smo oth income, especially if wealth is...

  15. A successful capital treadmill

    A summary of the operating economics of the Winter Cummings Sand Pool, a horizontal well development project with a sustained rate of development, was presented. A total of 58 horizontal wells have been drilled over a time span of seven years. The production performance of the first pilot wells indicated that development of the pool by horizontal wells could be economically viable. Since its inception the Winter field development was considered to have become a capital treadmill with an incremental rate of return on the incremental investment of 240 percent (a 24 million dollar net operating cash flow for a 10 million dollar investment). Current development status and production forecasts were also discussed. 21 figs

  16. Culture as Capital

    Kacunko, Slavko

    A collection of essays 2011-2014 By following, and reproducing, the cultural turn, the rhetoric of cultural mix and hybridism is disseminated today primarily in its crossing of trade barriers. Cultures reduced to their exchange value function as capital - an accumulative, speculative and......, ultimately, financial affair. In some of its media and site-(un)specific manifestations, process art - which aims to encompass both old and new media art - seems to resist this pressure, despite, nonetheless, not being protected from regulations and incorporations. In the present collection of his recent...... essays, Slavko Kacunko discusses the process art by crossing the disciplines of art history and comparative media-, visual- and -cultural studies. As a first approximation, several historiographical remarks on closed-circuit video installations underline their importance as a core category of process art...

  17. International venture capital perspective

    'Full text:' The emerging fuel cell industry is characterized by global cooperation and partnerships in commercial, technical, and financial aspects. In this talk, we would like to provide observations about international venture capital focused on fuel cells globally. The talk will refer to experiences Conduit Ventures has had with its portfolio companies and other investors in various countries. We discuss our approach to working with portfolio companies who are geographically remote from our main office in London. We also discuss the process of making investment decisions on possible investments in various countries. The talk will conclude with insights and 'lessons learned' which may be of interest to fellow members of Fuel Cells Canada. (author)

  18. Capital Account Liberalization as a Signal


    We present a model in which a government's current capital controls policy signals future policies. Controls on capital outflows evolve in response to news on technology, conditional on government attitudes towards taxation of capital. When there is uncertainty over government types, a policy of liberal capital outflows sends a favorable signal that may trigger a capital inflow. This prediction is consistent with the experience of several countries that have liberalized their capital account

  19. Uninsurable investment risks and capital income taxation

    Césaire A. Meh; Terajima, Yaz


    This paper studies the capital accumulation and welfare implications of reducing capital income taxation in a general equilibrium economy with uninsurable investment risks. It has been shown that, with uninsurable investment risks, under-accumulation of capital may result compared to the complete markets economy. We show that reducing somewhat the capital income tax rate increases the capital stock and leads to a welfare gain. The complete elimination of the capital income tax, however, is no...

  20. Corruption, Public Expenditure, and Human Capital Accumulation

    Spyridon Boikos


    In this paper we investigate the effect of corruption on human capital accumulation through two channels. The first channel is through the effect of corruption on the public expenditure on education and the second channel is through the effect of corruption on the physical capital investment. Public expenditure on education affects positively human capital, while physical capital can obsolete human capital. Initially, we construct an endogenous two-sector growth model with human capital accum...

  1. Capital regulation and banks' financial decisions

    Zhu, Haibin


    This paper develops a stochastic dynamic model to examine the impact of capital regulation on banks' financial decisions. In equilibrium, lending decisions, capital buffer and the probability of bank failure are endogenously determined. Compared to a flat-rate capital rule, a risk-sensitive capital standard causes the capital requirement to be much higher for small (and riskier) banks and much lower for large (and less risky) banks. Nevertheless, changes in actual capital holdings are less pr...

  2. Intellectual capital: Evidence from banking industry

    Somayeh Boostani; Shabnam Fotovvat; Karam Safari


    This paper investigates different components on intellectual capital including human capital, structural capital and customer capital in banking industry in city of Salmas, Iran. The study uses the questionnaire developed by Bontis (1998) [Bontis, N. (1998). Intellectual capital: an exploratory study that develops measures and models. Management Decision, 36(2), 63-76.] to measure the effects of human capital. The questionnaire consists of 42 questions and all of them are designed in Likert s...

  3. 78 FR 55339 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...


    ... Methodology a. Recognition of Wrong-Way Risk b. Increased Asset Value Correlation Factor 4. Credit Valuation... requirement for a ratio of common equity tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets (common equity tier 1 capital... Provisions, Prompt Corrective Action, Standardized Approach for Risk-weighted Assets, Market Discipline...

  4. 78 FR 62417 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...


    ... comments that appeared in the Federal Register of September 10, 2013 (78 FR 55340), regarding Regulatory... NW., Washington, DC 20429. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2013-21357, appearing on page 55518... Part 324 RIN 3064-AD95 Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel...

  5. National Capital Planning Commission Meeting Transcripts

    National Capital Planning Commission — Transcripts of the monthly (with the exception of August) National Capital Planning Commission meeting transcripts are provided for research to confirm actions...

  6. Immigrant Capital and Entrepreneurial Opportunities

    Malavika Sundararajan


    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study is to define and operationalize the concept of immigrant capital, a key factor that differentiates immigrant from host country entrepreneurs in how they recognize and start new ventures. Research Design & Methods: A detailed analysis of contemporary immigrant entrepreneurship and opportunity recognition literature was carried out. Using grounded theory, we synthesized the outcomes from the analysis of eight Canadian and U.S. case studies of successful immigrant entrepreneurs with the key findings from the literature to define and develop a model of immigrant capital. Findings: Based on our grounded theory development process we show that the concept of immigrant capital as a distillate of human, cultural, economic and social capital that goes beyond expected opportunity recognition (OR drivers like prior knowledge and prior experience to differentiate and enhance the immigrant entrepreneur’s ability to recognize business opportunities compared to host country entrepreneurs. We found immigrant capital to be a consequence of being boundary spanners in host and home country networks. Implications & Recommendations: Understanding a unique resource like immigrant capital, will help immigrant as well as host country entrepreneurs further develop their opportunity recognition ability by bridging gaps and fulfilling the needs for both, immigrant and host country consumers. Contribution & Value Added: The main contribution is the theoretical development, identification and definition of the immigrant capital model and propositions that will articulate the factors that lead to the conceptualization and operationalization of immigrant capital. Furthermore, the immigrant capital model can serve host country entrepreneurs to develop cross-cultural networks and jump-start entrepreneurial activities in their home countries as well as learn how to expand their operations into global markets.

  7. Intellectual capital: Evidence from banking industry

    Somayeh Boostani


    Full Text Available This paper investigates different components on intellectual capital including human capital, structural capital and customer capital in banking industry in city of Salmas, Iran. The study uses the questionnaire developed by Bontis (1998 [Bontis, N. (1998. Intellectual capital: an exploratory study that develops measures and models. Management Decision, 36(2, 63-76.] to measure the effects of human capital. The questionnaire consists of 42 questions and all of them are designed in Likert scale. Cronbach alphas for human capital, structural capital and relationship capital were calculated as 0.79, 0.76 and 0.72, respectively. The implementation of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test has indicated that the data were normally distributed. Using t-student test, the study determined that while management team did not pay enough attention on human capital, there were some statistically significant evidence that social and relationship capitals gained good attention.

  8. Social capital in engineering education

    Brown, Shane

    A theoretical argument is presented to suggest that engineering curriculum be designed to develop social capital. Additionally, the value of social capital in the retention of students in the College of Engineering, and the development, role, and value of social capital in an electrical engineering laboratory is evaluated. Data collected includes participant observations, informal and formal student interviews, and a researcher-designed survey. Social capital consists of interaction among individuals (networks), social rules that encourage interactions such as trust and reciprocity (norms), and the value of these networks and norms to the individual and the group. A large body of evidence suggests that social capital is valuable in terms of retention and multiple measures of academic achievement. The importance of social capital in retention was verified by students that have left engineering and those that remain, in terms of interactions with peers, teaching assistants, and engineering faculty; and a lack of sense of community in freshman engineering courses. Students that have left engineering differed in their perceptions of social capital from those that remain in their frustrations with teaching methods that encourage little discussion or opportunities to ask questions about assumptions or approaches. The open-ended nature of laboratory assignments, extensive required troubleshooting, and lack of specific directions from the teaching assistants were found to encourage the development of social capital in the laboratory setting. Degree centrality, a network measure of social capital as the number of ties an individual has within a social network, was found to be positively correlated with laboratory grade. Student perceptions of the importance of interactions with other students on success in the laboratory setting has a negative model effect on academic achievement in the laboratory. In contrast, student perceptions of the quality of interactions with

  9. Social capital and localised learning

    Lorenzen, Mark


      This conceptual paper analyses why social capital is important for learning and economic development, how it is created and its geography. It argues that with the rise of globalisation and learning-based competition, social capital is becoming valuable because it organises markets, lowering...... business firms' costs of co-ordinating and allowing them flexibly to connect and reconnect. The paper defines social capital as a matrix of various social relations, combined with particular normative and cognitive social institutions that facilitate co-operation and reciprocity, and suggests that social...

  10. Capital-imperialismo e neoliberalismo

    Campagnaro, Yuri Gabriel


    Resumo: O marxismo interpreta o imperialismo desde Hilferding, com sua análise do capital financeiro em 1910. Lenin sintetizou o primeiro debate, caracterizando o imperialismo como uma nova fase do capitalismo, com monopólios e maior centralização do capital. O debate se estende à década de 1970 com Mandel, que identificou uma alteração na morfologia do capital de então. Os autores contemporâneos debatem o período do capitalismo após os anos 1970, entre eles David Harvey e Virgínia Fontes. Ch...

  11. Emerging Forms of Cultural Capital

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike


    This paper takes stock of recent research on patterns of cultural engagement in various European nations, with specific reference to British and Danish research. It argues that Bourdieu's original theorisation of cultural capital in ‘Distinction’ needs to be significantly updated to register the...... decline of ‘highbrow’ culture which these studies reveal. However, we argue that this shift does not entail the erosion of cultural capital itself, or the rise of the ‘cultural omnivore’, so much as the emergence of a form of ‘cosmopolitan cultural capital’. We argue that this emerging cultural capital...

  12. Capitalism, Socialism and Public Choice

    Adrián Osvaldo Ravier


    Full Text Available The essay examines Schumpeter’s understanding of the capitalist process and develops a critical analysis of his explanation of why capitalism cannot survive. Part I deals with how Schumpeter understood capitalism. Part II studies why –- from his point of view — capitalism couldn’t survive. Part III analysis why it is actually socialism, as a socio-political alternative, that is impractical and must collapse from contradictions inherent in it. Part IV presents some final reflections, presenting the public choice and the thought of James M. Buchanan, as an alternative to the pessimist Schumpeterian view.

  13. Capital humain, mobilité du capital et commerce international

    Pierre VILLA


    The outsourcing of activities have been taking a peculiar shape recently. Human capital has remote control of the factories which are produced according to the local technology, and it defines the home technology in which it commits these factories and is committed itself. We introduce this idea in a hierarchical model of international trade with two countries, three factors and two final goods: the traditional one produced with labour and capital and the modern one produced with a non traded...

  14. Human Capital Investment, Cash Flow Risk and Capital Structure Dynamics

    Zhang, Xiaolan


    My dissertation explores the financial effects of firms' growing reliance on intangible capital in their production technology. I examine the fundamental link between the cash flow risk, financial decision-making and the accumulation of firm-level intangible capital both in theory and in empirics. In Chapter one, I document that public firms in the United States that provide better insurance against productivity shocks to their workers experience higher cash flow volatility. Difference in i...

  15. Conventional capital, criminal capital, and criminal careers in drug trafficking

    Wang, Wei


    Although the criminal career paradigm has explored various crime types, little effort has been conducted to systematically examine the pattern of drug trafficking careers. Ethnographic studies on drug trafficking have proposed that different forms of capital have an impact on the patterns of drug trafficking careers. The effects of conventional and criminal capital, however, have been the subject of much less empirical attention. Drawing from information on the criminal careers of 182 incarce...

  16. Internal capital markets and capital structure: bank versus internal debt.

    Dewaelheyns, Nico; Van Hulle, Cynthia


    Recent empirical evidence has shown that internal capital markets within multinational corporations are used to reduce overall financing costs by optimizing the mix of internal and external debt of affiliates in different countries. We show that this cost saving use of internal capital markets is not limited to multinationals, but that domestic business groups actively optimize the internal/external debt mix across their subsidiaries as well. We use both subsidiary and group level financial s...

  17. The Valuation of Organizational Capital

    Fiala Roman, Borůvková Jana


    Full Text Available The authors’ aim was to create a model suitable for measuring organization capital. This model was produced by means of the Forward and Backward Stepwise methods, on the basis of company information. Low p-levels (approaching 0 show the statistical significance of all regression coefficients, including the intercept. Organizational capital of 2,796 companies in the Czech Republic was quantified. A statistically significant correlation between organizational capital and return on equity (ROE, as well as between organizational capital and return on assets (ROA, has been established. This article is a part of the results of the project No. 402/09/2057 ‘‘Measurement and Management of Intangible Assets Impact on Firm Performance’’ financed by Czech Science Foundation.

  18. Corporate governance and intellectual capital

    Rahmat Alizadeh


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between corporate governance and Intellectual capital in the pharmaceutical companies accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2004-2009 using a regression based model. The study investigates the impacts of three some independent variables of the corporate governance (i.e. the number of board members, the relative extent of nonexecutive to executive directors, the auditing committee. The results suggest that corporate governance had no special effect on intellectual capital in the pharmaceutical companies. Furthermore among corporate governance's variables, the first one (i.e. board size had negative impact on firms' intellectual capital and the second and the third variables had no effects on intellectual capital.

  19. Emerging Forms of Cultural Capital

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    activities themselves - the claims that there are forms of emotional, subcultural or national cultural capital at work - The claim about cosmopolitanism or an international orientation as a distinctive feature of the culturally privileged classes The paper responds to the first theme announced in the call......This paper reviews recent European studies to assess whether cultural capital now has the same characteristics – or may be rather the same functions - as when Distinction was written. The paper will examine empirical applications of the concept of cultural capital in leading European studies in...... hence are highly appropriate for direct comparisons with that study. This paper will begin by raising general issues regarding the meaning of the concept, and about how one may make assessments and claims about cultural capital. Here we consider how the legitimacy of certain cultural competencies or...

  20. Oligopoly banking and capital accumulation

    Nicola Cetorelli; Pietro F. Peretto


    We develop a dynamic general equilibrium model of capital accumulation where credit is intermediated by banks operating in a Cournot oligopoly. The number of banks affects capital accumulation through two channels. First, it affects the quantity of credit available to entrepreneurs. Second, it affects banks' decisions to collect costly information about entrepreneurs, and thus determines the efficiency of the credit market. We show that under plausible conditions, the market structure that ma...

  1. International Capital Movements Under Uncertainty


    In this paper, we analyze the determinants of international movements of physical capital in a model with uncertainty and international trade in goods and securities.In our model, the world allocation of capital is governed, to some extent, by the asset preferences of risk averse consumer-investors. In a one-good variant in the spirit of the MacDougall model, we find that relative factor abundance, relative labor force size and relative production riskiness have separate but interrelated infl...

  2. Capital budgeting and procurement practices

    Philippe Burger; Ian Hawkesworth


    Capital investment is a key function of government. However, for a number of reasons it has proven difficult for governments to ensure that capital investment represents value for money, is affordable, and is budgeted and accounted for in a prudent and transparent manner. This article discusses these challenges facing governments. Using the findings of a survey conducted among OECD countries and enhanced engagement countries in 2012, this article provides an overview of what governments are d...

  3. Linguistic Capitalism and Algorithmic Mediation

    Kaplan, Frédéric


    Google’s highly successful business model is based on selling words that appear in search queries. Organizing several million auctions per minute, the company has created the first global linguistic market and demonstrated that linguistic capitalism is a lucrative business domain, one in which billions of dollars can be realized per year. Google’s services need to be interpreted from this perspective. This article argues that linguistic capitalism implies not an economy of attention but an ec...


    Taha, Roshaiza; SANUSI Nur Azura


    The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review on two major theories of capital structure; pecking order theory and static-trade off theory in regard with achieving an optimal capital structure. Researchers believed bankruptcy costs, transactions costs, agency conflicts, adverse selection and taxes has been attribute as major explanations of the corporate used of debt financing which has been used as an argument in both theory. To date there is no consensus on the existing of opti...

  5. The hypothesis of cognitive capitalism

    Vercellone, Carlo


    The aim of this presentation is to introduce some aspects of the research programme on Cognitive Capitalism. The main point that characterises this research program resides in the fact that it assume as its main pillar the social crisis of Fordism. Such a crisis manifests itself as a break with respect to the polarising tendency of the forms of knowledge informing Industrial Capitalism, thereby, realising some aspects of Marx's hypotheses concerning the notion of General Intellect. Accordingl...




    Full Text Available Created in the United States of America, Venture Capital is an asset class which attracted recently the attention of the policy makers all over the world. But the concept is still not clearly defined and understood. This paper attempts at introducing in the concept, its characteristics, and reviewing some of the benefits Venture Capital investments can bring at both the macroeconomic level, by looking at the correlation with the economic growth, and at the microeconomic level, for the portfolio companies.

  7. Capital, finance, and trade collapse

    Yang Jiao; Yi Wen


    This paper proposes a model of international trade with capital accumulation and financial intermediation. This is achieved by embedding the Melitz (2003) model into an incomplete-markets neoclassical framework with an endogenous credit market. The model preserves the analytical tractability of the original Melitz model despite non-trivial distribution of firms’ net worth and capital stocks. We use the model to examine the differential effects of financial and non-financial shocks on aggregat...

  8. The Era of Super Capitalism


    The world has entered the "super capitalism" era when one third of its economic activities are controlled by less than 3 percent of global financial capital. This year,a global economic recession,triggered by the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis,seems unavoidable. To tackle international financial problems,Tao Dong,Chief Economist for Asia at Credit Suisse First Boston in Hong Kong,shared his insights with China Business Journal. Excerpts follow.

  9. Insider Ownership and Capital Constraints

    Hobdari, Bersant


    We analyze the impact of corporate governance structures on access to capital using a unique and rich panel data for a large and representative sample of Estonian firms over the period 1993 through 1999. We distinguish among five different governance structures and provide estimates on the impact of each of them on capital constraints. Our results indicate that: (i) separate regimes exist in investment behavior; (ii) the likelihood of being financially constrained is higher in firms that are ...

  10. Stock market and capital market

    Dziková, Iveta


    The bachelor thesis provides an overview of selected topics related to the capital market. For completeness, the first part deals with the financial market whose characteristics can then be applied to the capital market. Furthermore, the stock exchange with its important features is introduced as well as the over-the-counter market, which is recently undergoing dramatic changes. Investment instruments are also listed in the thesis and the nature of the individual groups that make up the finan...

  11. Asset Pricing with Home Capital

    Michal Pakos


    I analyze a stylized consumption-based asset pricing model that features heterogeneous agents and household capital, and discover a novel recession risk factor related to the cross-sectional second moments of the corresponding investments into such home capital. In order to fully isolate the orthogonal effects at work, I completely shut off the well-known mechanism of Constantinides and Duffie (1996) by explicitly stipulating homoscedastic cross-sectional distribution of nondurable goods and ...

  12. Bridges in social capital: A review of the definitions and the social capital of social capital researchers

    Akcomak, Semih


    There has been a recent surge of interest in social economics and social capital. Articles on social capital that are published in the last five years constitute more than 60 percent of all articles on social capital. Research on social capital is now massive and spans sociology, economics, management, political science and health sciences. Despite this interest there is still not a consensus on the definition and the measurement of social capital. This paper argues that this is due to lack o...

  13. 12 CFR 208.4 - Capital adequacy.


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital adequacy. 208.4 Section 208.4 Banks and... Requirements § 208.4 Capital adequacy. (a) Adequacy. A member bank's capital, as defined in appendix A to this... light of all the circumstances, the bank's capital appears inadequate in relation to its...

  14. 47 CFR 32.4540 - Other capital.


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other capital. 32.4540 Section 32.4540... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4540 Other capital. This... capital stock, capital recorded upon the reorganization or recapitalization of the company and...

  15. Social Capital and Economic Well-being

    Munshi Sulaiman; Farhad Ameen


    The proposition that social capital expands household welfare is tested by estimating the effects of social interactions on per capita expenditure among a sample of 810 households in northern Bangladesh. Using data from BRAC’s 2004 Social Capital Survey, ordinary least square (OLS) estimates isolate the differential effects of physical assets, human capital, and social capital [CFPR WP 16].


    Diana Muresan


    The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for the evolution offinancial reporting on capital market. Due to the worlwide changes, the role of financial reportingin capital market is constantly growing. Financial reporting analyzed through market perspective isstrongly correlated with issues like: capital allocation, financial statements, internationalaccounting standards and informational valences. Capital market research emphasizes the need forqualitative and transparent...

  17. Effect of Capital Markets on Environment

    Dr. Rohit N. Desai


    Capital market is the market which gives capital to the business and individual enterprises. It generates capitalfor the long term and short term requirements of the capital market.There are three components of the Capital Market:1. Stock Market,2. Money Market,3. Foreign Exchange Market.

  18. Transmission line capital costs

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs

  19. 12 CFR 303.241 - Reduce or retire capital stock or capital debt instruments.


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reduce or retire capital stock or capital debt... RULES OF PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.241 Reduce or retire capital stock or capital... or preferred stock, or to retire any part of its capital notes or debentures pursuant to section...

  20. Distributional consequences of capital tax coordination


    This paper has two ambitions. First, we review the economic literature on tax coordination. Second, we argue that the taxation of capital is not an issue of efficiency, but instead an issue of equity. In particular, capital tax coordination can alter the vertical distribution of income between the production factors capital and labour. Capital is in perfectly elastic supply in a small open economy. Therefore the tax incidence falls to the immobile factor, labour. By contrast, capital is in in...

  1. Dynamic Programming, Maximum Principle and Vintage Capital

    Fabbri, Giorgio; Iacopetta, Maurizio


    We present an application of the Dynamic Programming (DP) and of the Maximum Principle (MP) to solve an optimization over time when the production function is linear in the stock of capital (Ak model). Two views of capital are considered. In one, which is embraced by the great majority of macroeconomic models, capital is homogeneous and depreciates at a constant exogenous rate. In the other view each piece of capital has its own finite productive life cycle (vintage capital). The interpretatio...

  2. Financial Integration, Technology Differences and Capital Flows

    Sebastián Claro


    The one-to-one mapping between cross-country differences in capital returns and the size and direction of international capital flows after financial integration vanishes in a multi-sector world with a laborintensive non-tradable sector if financial liberalization generates significant swings in the demand for the non-tradable good. For example, a high return to capital country may become an exporter of capital after financial integration if access to world capital markets enhances demand for...

  3. Indian Banks’ Methods for Assessing Working Capital

    Malhotra Gunjan; Shastry Vikram; Sinharay Soumyadeep


    Working Capital is the capital required for by a firm to sustain its day to day activities. Different firms have different approaches to finance their working capital needs. After receiving proposals for working capital loans, as a precaution banks need to assess the amount of working capital loan which can be granted and also to determine the interest rate at which the loan can be provided. The RBI and its committees have introduced new methods for the calculation of credit eligibility for t...

  4. Natural Capital: From Metaphor to Measurement

    FENICHEL, ELI P.; Abbott, Joshua K.


    Current efforts to value ecosystem services have contributed little to the valuation of natural capital, suggesting that in practice "nature is capital" primarily serves as a metaphor. We provide a theoretically motivated approach for recovering natural capital prices that expands beyond idealized management to encompass current, likely inefficient, management institutions. Theoretically consistent capital valuation requires adjusting for the net marginal productivity of the natural capital a...

  5. Intellectual Capital Management in Transport Sector

    Asta Znakovaitė; Arnoldina Pabedinskaitė


    This article presents an analysis of intellectual capital; its management, features and processes by which intellectual capital of a company can be evaluated. The main elements of intellectual capital (human, structural and relationship capital) are presented and used in research. After surveying bibliography, intellectual capital evaluation model, which applies to Lithuanian and Latvian companies operating in the transport sector, is created. The research is based on the value-added intellec...

  6. Measuring Community Strength and Social Capital

    Stimson, Robert; Western, John; Baum, Scott; Gellecum, Yolanda Van


    In 2001/02 five case study communities in both metropolitan and regional urban locations in Australia were chosen as test sites to develop measures of community strength on four domains: natural capital; produced economic capital; human capital; and social and institutional capital. Secondary data sources were used to develop measures on the first three domains. For the fourth domain?social and institutional capital?primary data collection was undertaken through sample surveys of households. ...

  7. When Should Firms Invest in Old Capital?

    Boyan Jovanovic


    This paper studies optimal investment policies when the production function depends on capital of various vintages. In such an environment it is natural to ask whether the firm will invest in old-vintage capital at all. In this paper I derive such a condition. Predictably, investment in old capital takes place if the elasticity of substitution between old and new capital is low, and when the depreciation of capital is high. But other parameters such as the rates of technological progress and ...

  8. Toward A Reliable Cost of Capital

    Jeremiah U. Idialu; Amos O. Arowoshegbe


    This is study is designed to provide basis for determining a reliable cost of capital. Corporate finance textbooks typically devote several chapters to the problems of capital budgeting, cash flow estimation and the determination of a firm’s cost of capital. However, it can be difficult in practice to obtain reliable estimates of the inputs required to perform capital budgeting as recommended by the textbooks. Also, the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) is commonly presented in a way th...

  9. Illegal Immigration: Optimal Enforcement and Capital Mobility

    Subhayu Bandyopadhyay


    This paper analyzes the effectiveness of enforcement in controlling illegal immigration in two scenarios, capital mobility and capital immobility in the host nation (for illegal immigrants). The source nation is assumed throughout to have immobility of capital. We show that the net enforcement expenditure is higher (lower) in the presence of capital mobility if the host nation is an importer (exporter) of capital at the target immigration level. Furthermore, we show that if the host nation is...

  10. Impact of venture capital on economic development

    Laurinavičius, Antanas


    Object of the research is public venture capital as a tool of venture capital market incentive, innovative business start-up financing, and state policy, which helps addressing imperfect/inefficient market situations where private venture capital does not access all market players. Purpose of the research is to reveal the importance of public venture capital to the national venture capital sector, its impact on the economy and, based on the experience of European countries, to create a hypoth...

  11. Intangible Capital, Corporate Valuation and Asset Pricing

    Danthine, Jean-Pierre; Xiangrong JIN


    Recent studies have found unmeasured intangible capital to be large and important. In this paper we observe that by nature intangible capital is also very different from physical capital. We find it plausible to argue that the accumulation process for intangible capital differs significantly from the process by which physical capital accumulates. We study the implications of this hypothesis for rational firm valuation and asset pricing using a two-sector general equilibrium model. Our main fi...

  12. Mapping Italy’s social capital

    Fabio Sabatini


    The contribution of this paper to the social capital literature is threefold. It first develops an innovative framework for measuring social capital, which allows for quantification of five different components of the multidimensional concept of social capital. Secondly, it provides a single, synthetic measure capturing that particular configuration of social capital which the literature generally associates with positive economic outcomes. Thirdly, it maps Italian social capital endowments f...

  13. Capital Account Liberalization, The Cost of Capital, and Economic Growth


    Three things happen when emerging economies open their stock markets to foreign investors. First, the aggregate dividend yield falls by 240 basis points. Second, the growth rate of the capital stock increases by an average of 1.1 percentage points per year. Third, the growth rate of output per worker rises by 2.3 percentage points per year. Since the cost of capital falls, investment booms, and the growth rate of output per worker increases when countries liberalize the stock market, the incr...

  14. Limited Capital Market Participation and Human Capital Risk

    Jonathan Berk; Johan Walden


    The non-tradability of human capital is often cited for the failure of traditional asset pricing theory to explain agents' portfolio holdings. In this paper we argue that the opposite might be true --- traditional models might not be able to explain agent portfolio holdings because they do not explicitly account for the fact that human capital does trade (in the form of labor contracts). We derive wages endogenously as part of a dynamic equilibrium in a production economy. Risk is shared in l...

  15. Capital humano y capacidad humana Human capital and human capacity

    Sen Amartya Kumar


    En este articulo se examinan las relaciones y diferencias entre el concepto de 'capital humano' y el concepto de 'capacidad humana'. El concepto de capital humano es mas limitado puesto que solo concibe las cualidades humanas en su relación con el crecimiento económico mientras que el concepto de capacidades da énfasis a la expansión de libertad humana para vivir el tipo de vida que la gente considera valedera. Cuando se adopta esa visión mas amplia, el proceso de desarrollo no puede verse si...

  16. Measuring Social Capital Investment: Scale Development and Examination of Links to Social Capital and Perceived Stress

    Chen, Xinguang; Wang, Peigang; Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; FANG, XIAOYI; Kaljee, Linda


    Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surv...

  17. Companies with foreign capital on background of companies without foreign capital in kujawsko-pomorske voivodship

    Iwona Sobczak


    This article is a trial of taking share in discussion about the importance of foreign capital for the economy of kujawsko-pomorskie voivodship through the presentation of companies with foreign capital on the background of companies without foreign capital. The aim of this paper is comparing the companies with foreign capital and companies without foreign capital from kujawsko-pomorskie voivodship according to: capital resources, employment, investment outlays and financial results.

  18. Cultural heritage: A fusion of human skill capital and social capital

    M.N. Murthy; Sucheta Murthy


    This paper attempts to show that the cultural heritage is a capital good and it is a fusion of human skill capital and social capital. While the role of human skill capital in economic development is well known, the definition and the role of social capital has not yet clearly understood. Heritage capital consisting of performing and visual arts has public good characteristics. In addition the visual arts are subjected to cost disadvantage in the free market because of rigid input output rela...

  19. Sand in the Wheels of Capitalism, On the Political Economy of Capital Market Frictions

    Ernst-Ludwig von Thadden; Enrico Perotti; Mario Bersem


    We present a positive theory of capital market frictions that raise the cost of capital for new firms and lower the cost of capital for incumbent firms. Capital market frictions arise from a political conflict across voters who differ in two dimensions: (i) a fraction of voters owns capital, the rest receives only lab or income; and (ii) voters have different vintages of human capital. We identify young workers as the decisive voter group, with preferences in between capitalists who favor a f...

  20. Intellectual Capital Management in Transport Sector

    Asta Znakovaitė


    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of intellectual capital; its management, features and processes by which intellectual capital of a company can be evaluated. The main elements of intellectual capital (human, structural and relationship capital are presented and used in research. After surveying bibliography, intellectual capital evaluation model, which applies to Lithuanian and Latvian companies operating in the transport sector, is created. The research is based on the value-added intellectual capital factor model, the relationship between indicators, multi-asset return correlation and regression analysis and generation of alternatives to intellectual capital performance-enhancing. Following an assessment of intellectual capital of Lithuanian and Latvian transport sectors, on the basis of the results, it was found that the intellectual capital is a key factor in corporation management to increase revenue. Article in Lithuanian

  1. The measurement of social capital

    Ester Villalonga-Olives


    Full Text Available Social capital has been defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks. The definition is consistent with either an individualistic approach, i.e. resources (such as information or instrumental assistance that are accessed by individuals through their network connections; or a collective approach, e.g. the benefits accruing to members of a group – such as the ability of a community to engage in collective action – as a consequence of the existence of cohesive relationships. While research often restricts itself to a single level of analysis, the benefits (and downsides of social capital accrue to both the individual as well as to the network to which he belongs. In the Dictionary of Epidemiology both the individual and collective levels of analysis were recognized in the definition of social capital.




    Full Text Available The current crisis seems to shake the foundations of contemporary society as a whole and generated increasingly more opinions that show the capitalist society has begun and continues to lose ground. This is because capitalism has changed something inside so deeply that eternal truths of capitalism – economic growth, full employment, financial stability – seem to have crashed like the New York twin towers. Beyond all the shortcomings, quite a lot in numbers, known and recognized, the world and those who analyze it agree that , at least so far, has not been invented a better mechanism to obstruct and retain tyranny and so it is possible to consider the evolution of capitalism only in and through democracy.

  3. Cost of capital to the hospital sector.

    Sloan, F A; Valvona, J; Hassan, M; Morrisey, M A


    This paper provides estimates of the cost of equity and debt capital to for-profit and non-profit hospitals in the U.S. for the years 1972-83. The cost of equity is estimated using, alternatively, the Capital Asset Pricing Model and Arbitrage Pricing Theory. We find that the cost of equity capital, using either model, substantially exceeded anticipated inflation. The cost of debt capital was much lower. Accounting for the corporate tax shield on debt and capital paybacks by cost-based insurers lowered the net cost of capital to hospitals. PMID:10302653

  4. Insurance and the corporate cost of capital

    Monika Wieczorek-Kosmala


    The purpose of the paper is to provide some support to the thesis that insurance may reduce the cost of capital in a company by influencing both the cost of capital components and the need for rising capital. The problem is here perceived from two perspectives – the classical concept related to the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) and a novel concept related to the risk-based capital structure model with the total average cost of capital (TACC). The paper explains the idea of insurance...

  5. Human capital and career success

    Frederiksen, Anders; Kato, Takao

    formal schooling and subsequent human capital obtained informally on the job are found to be complements in the production of career success. Fourth, though there is a large body of the literature on the relationship between firm-specific human capital and wages, the relative value of firm-specific human......Denmark’s registry data provide accurate and complete career history data along with detailed personal characteristics (e.g., education, gender, work experience, tenure and others) for the population of Danish workers longitudinally. By using such data from 1992 to 2002, we provide rigorous...

  6. An Index for Venture Capital

    Quigley, John M.; Susan E. Woodward


    In this paper we build an index of value for venture capital. Our approach overcomes the problems of intermittent, infrequent pricing of private company deals by using a repeat valuation model to build the index, and it corrects for selection bias in the reporting of values. We use a unique data set from Sand Hill Econometrics. The index measures the return and risk for venture capital. Its covariance with other asset classes from 1987-1999 enables us to explore the role of venture capita...

  7. Capital humano y capacidad humana

    Sen, Amartya Kumar


    En este articulo se examinan las relaciones y diferencias entre el concepto de 'capital humano' y el concepto de 'capacidad humana'. El concepto de capital humano es mas limitado puesto que solo concibe las cualidades humanas en su relación con el crecimiento económico mientras que el concepto de capacidades da énfasis a la expansión de libertad humana para vivir el tipo de vida que la gente considera valedera. Cuando se adopta esa visión mas amplia, el proceso de desarrollo no puede verse si...

  8. Gendered Capital: Emotional Capital and Mothers' Care Work in Education

    O'Brien, Maeve


    This paper is concerned with the inequalities experienced by mothers in the performance of educational care work for their children. It is argued that the caring work carried out by mothers at transfer to second-level schooling is shaped by their ability to activate the significant resource of emotional capital; a gendered resource involving…

  9. Capital humano y capacidad humana Human capital and human capacity

    Sen Amartya Kumar


    Full Text Available En este articulo se examinan las relaciones y diferencias entre el concepto de 'capital humano' y el concepto de 'capacidad humana'. El concepto de capital humano es mas limitado puesto que solo concibe las cualidades humanas en su relación con el crecimiento económico mientras que el concepto de capacidades da énfasis a la expansión de libertad humana para vivir el tipo de vida que la gente considera valedera. Cuando se adopta esa visión mas amplia, el proceso de desarrollo no puede verse simplemente como un incremento del PIB sino como la expansión de la capacidad humana para llevar una vida mas libre y mas digna.In this article the relationships and the differences between the concept of 'human capital' and the concept of 'human capability' are examined. The concept of human capital is more limited since it only conceives human qualities in relation to economic growth, whereas the concept of capabili ties puts emphasis on the expansion of human freedom to live the kind of life that people judge valuable. Whenthis broader vision is adopted, the process of development cannot be seen as simply an increase in the GNP, but rather as the expansion of the human capability to live a more free and worthy life.

  10. School Cheating and Social Capital

    Paccagnella, Marco; Sestito, Paolo


    In this paper we investigate the relationship between social capital and cheating behaviour in standardized tests. Given the low-stakes nature of these tests, we interpret the widespread presence of cheating as a signal of low trust towards central education authorities and as lack of respect for the rule of law. We find that cheating is…