Full Text Available Abstract Background Human capillariasis caused by Capillaria hepatica (syn. Calodium hepaticum is a rare disease with no more than 40 cases registered around the world. Classically, the disease has severe symptoms that mimic acute hepatitis. Natural reservoirs of C. hepatica are urban rodents (Mus musculus and Rattus novergicus that harbor their eggs in the liver. After examining the feces of 6 riverine inhabitants (Rio Preto area, 8° 03'S and 62° 53' W to 8° 14'S and 62° 52'W of the State of Rondonia, Brazil, and identifying C. hepatica eggs in their feces, the authors decided to investigate the real dimension of these findings by looking for two positive signals. Methods Between June 1st and 15th, 2008, 246 out of 304 individuals were clinically examined. Blood samples were collected, kept under -20°C, and test by the indirect immunofluorescence technique. Results The first positive signal was the presence of specific antibodies at 1:150 dilution, which indicates that the person is likely to have been exposed to eggs, most likely non-infective eggs, passing through the food chain or via contaminated food (total prevalence of 34.1%. A second more specific signal was the presence of antibodies at higher titers, thus indicating true infection. Conclusions The authors concluded that only two subjects were really infected (prevalence of 0.81%; the rest was false-positives that were sensitized after consuming non-embryonated eggs. The present study is the first one carried out in a native Amazonian population and indicates the presence of antibodies against C. hepatica in this population. The results further suggest that the transmission of the parasite occurs by the ingestion of embryonated eggs from human feces and/or carcasses of wild animals. The authors propose a novel mode of transmission, describing the disease as a low pathogenic one, and showing low infectivity.
Guardone, Lisa; Deplazes, Peter; Macchioni, Fabio; Magi, Marta; Mathis, Alexander
Several species of Trichuridae nematodes can infect dogs, cats and wild mammals. The diagnosis of these infections relies on the microscopic identification of eggs which are characterized by a similar "lemon" shape and polar plugs in all Trichuridae. Thus, morphological diagnosis to species level is challenging. The use of biomolecular diagnostic methods is desirable but very little genetic data are known from Trichuridae of carnivores and small mammals. The aim of this work was to genetically characterize several species of Trichuridae that can affect dogs, cats and wild mammals, as a basis to develop molecular diagnostic tests. Specimens (adult worms or eggs) of Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila), Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi), Pearsonema plica (syn. Capillaria plica), Aonchotheca putorii (syn. Capillaria putorii), Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica), Calodium splenaecum (syn. Capillaria splenaeca) and Trichuris vulpis were obtained from carcasses of red foxes, feces of dogs, the liver of a vole and from the spleen of Crocidura sp. Parts of the small subunit rRNA (18S rRNA) gene and of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox 1 mtDNA) gene were amplified from the above mentioned nematodes, yielding the first 18S rRNA gene sequences of all the capillariid nematodes and the first cox 1 mtDNA sequences of E. boehmi, P. plica, C. hepaticum, A. putorii and T. vulpis. The 18S rRNA gene is highly conserved among the different species and not suitable as a target for specific diagnostic oligonucleotides. However, these sequences contribute to a better understanding of the complex taxonomic relations among Trichuridae. Indeed, a dendrogram based on the 18S rRNA gene locus supports the latest taxonomic revision. Interspecies divergence was much higher at the cox 1 mtDNA gene locus, rendering it suitable for DNA barcoding and particularly valuable in resolving closely related species. Furthermore, the mitochondrial genetic
Panti-May, Jesús Alonso; Robles, María Del Rosario
In Mexico, four species of Trichuris Roederer, 1761 have been recorded in wild rodents belonging to the family Heteromyidae. In the present paper, we describe a new species based on specimens collected from Heteromys gaumeri Allen & Chapman (Heteromyidae: Heteromyinae) in the tropical forests of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Trichuris silviae n. sp. can be differentiated from the congeners described in North and South American rodents by morphological and morphometric features, such as the possession of a wide spicular tube, a thicker proximal cloacal tube, a shorter distal cloacal tube and a cylindrical spicular sheath. This is the first description of a Trichuris spp. from heteromyid rodents in Mexico and the fourth in North America. Despite the broad distribution of Heteromys spp., few cases of Trichuris infection have been reported. Further studies are necessary to verify if the new species is present in other heteromyid rodents in order to increase our knowledge about its geographical and host distribution. PMID:27522370
Cardia, Daniel Fontana Ferreira; Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme Lux; Tebaldi, José Hairton; Fornazari, Felipe; Menozzi, Benedito Donizete; Langoni, Helio; Nascimento, Adjair Antônio do; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva
Pterothominx pulchra (Freitas, 1934) are little known gastric nematodes of Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae). Information about the occurrence and host range of these parasites in Neotropical region is still scanty, and the only two morphological descriptions available in the literature are divergent about the presence or absence of a spiny spicular sheath in males, which may lead to incorrect taxonomical positioning, since this feature represents the main difference between the genera Pterothominx and Aonchotheca. Based on the absence of this morphological feature in specimens of this nematode obtained from N. laticaudatus and Nyctinomops macrotis bats captured in two municipalities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, the present study reclassifies the aforementioned species in the genus Aonchotheca and allocates it to the subgenus Aonchotheca. Additional morphometric data and new host and locality records are also provided. PMID:25271463
La Rosa, Giuseppe; Marucci, Gianluca; Pozio, Edoardo
Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis was used to analyse genetic variation in the genus Trichinella. Twenty-eight isolates belonging to eight species and six genotypes were analysed for 12 enzyme systems, producing 19 different phenotypes. According to Jaccard's similarity index, the isolates clustered into two main groups, specifically, encapsulated species/genotypes and non-encapsulated species/genotypes. Furthermore, the non-encapsulated species clustered into two other groups: the species infecting mammals and birds ( Trichinella pseudospiralis) and those infecting mammals and reptiles ( Trichinella papuaeand Trichinella zimbabwensis). The encapsulated species/genotypes, which only infect mammals, clustered into four main groups: the cosmopolitan species Trichinella spiralis, the species/genotypes of the temperate regions ( Trichinella britovi, Trichinella murrelli, Trichinella T8, and Trichinella T9), the species/genotype of the arctic region ( Trichinella nativa and Trichinella T6), and the equatorial species Trichinella nelsoni. These results are consistent with biological, epidemiological, and molecular data, which show a high genetic divergence in this genus. PMID:14557876
Robles, María del Rosario; Cutillas, Cristina; Panei, Carlos Javier; Callejón, Rocío
Populations of Trichuris spp. isolated from six species of sigmodontine rodents from Argentina were analyzed based on morphological characteristics and ITS2 (rDNA) region sequences. Molecular data provided an opportunity to discuss the phylogenetic relationships among the Trichuris spp. from Noth and South America (mainly from Argentina). Trichuris specimens were identified morphologically as Trichuris pardinasi, T. navonae, Trichuris sp. and Trichuris new species, described in this paper. Sequences analyzed by Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference methods showed four main clades corresponding with the four different species regardless of geographical origin and host species. These four species from sigmodontine rodents clustered together and separated from Trichuris species isolated from murine and arvicoline rodents (outgroup). Different genetic lineages observed among Trichuris species from sigmodontine rodents which supported the proposal of a new species. Moreover, host distribution showed correspondence with the different tribes within the subfamily Sigmodontinae. PMID:25393618
Magi M; Guardone L.; Prati M.C.; Torracca B.; Macchioni F.
Dogs can be infected by several nematodes of the Trichuridae family. Trichuridae eggs are all similar, barrel shaped with polar plugs, and misdiagnosis among different species can occur. The most common species is Trichuris vulpis, while the respiratory parasites Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) and Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila) are rarely observed in pets. E. boehmi is reported for the first time in this study in north-western Italy with other Trichuridae. Dog faeca...
Magi, M; Guardone, L; Prati, M C; Torracca, B; Macchioni, F
Dogs can be infected by several nematodes of the Trichuridae family. Trichuridae eggs are all similar, barrel shaped with polar plugs, and misdiagnosis among different species can occur. The most common species is Trichuris vulpis, while the respiratory parasites Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) and Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila) are rarely observed in pets. E. boehmi is reported for the first time in this study in north-western Italy with other Trichuridae. Dog faecal samples (270) were examined by flotation. E. boehmi (2.2%), E. aerophilus (4.4%) and T. vulpis (12.2%) were found; identification was done with measurements and through observation of morphological characters already known. The specific identification of E. boehmi was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy: its egg shell shows a dense network with a fine mesh, surrounding small pits, on the contrary E. aerophilus eggs present a thick mesh with wide depressions, while T. vulpis eggs surface is smooth. PMID:23193529
Full Text Available Dogs can be infected by several nematodes of the Trichuridae family. Trichuridae eggs are all similar, barrel shaped with polar plugs, and misdiagnosis among different species can occur. The most common species is Trichuris vulpis, while the respiratory parasites Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi and Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila are rarely observed in pets. E. boehmi is reported for the first time in this study in north-western Italy with other Trichuridae. Dog faecal samples (270 were examined by flotation. E. boehmi (2.2%, E. aerophilus (4.4% and T. vulpis (12.2% were found; identification was done with measurements and through observation of morphological characters already known. The specific identification of E. boehmi was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy: its egg shell shows a dense network with a fine mesh, surrounding small pits, on the contrary E. aerophilus eggs present a thick mesh with wide depressions, while T. vulpis eggs surface is smooth.
Full Text Available In most instances of parasitism in captive birds there is no expression of clinical signs. This fact underscores the importance of performing frequent parasitological examinations in these animals. The aim of this study was to do a coproparasitological analysis to monitor parasitic infections in captive birds in Danilo Galafassi Municipal Park (Municipal Zoo of Cascavel-PR, project approved by the Committee of Ethics and Animal Welfare (CEBEA Campus Palotina-UFPR, protocol nº 29/2010. A total of 228 fecal samples were analyzed from 37 species of captive birds from 22 enclosures in the period from August 2010 to July 2012. Chilled feces were analyzed through flotation methods of Willis-Mollay and simple sedimentation of Hoffmann, Pons and Janer. Out of the analyzed samples, 127 (55.7% were positive and among these 55 (43.3% presented mixed infection. The parasites that were found belonged to the genus Strongyloides, Eimeria, Capillaria, Deletrocephalus and Isospora, the superfamilies Strongyloidea, Ascaroidea and Spiruroidea, the order Trichurida and the class Cestoda. The examinations results of the enclosure of Jabiru mycteia (tuiuiú and Cariama cristata (seriema were negative throughout the study period. Hygienic-sanitary measures and movement control measures of animals and people circulation were introduced to minimize bird’s infection, but it requires further analysis to assess their impact.
Juliana Lúcia Costa Santos
Full Text Available Over recent decades, diseases have been shown to be important causes of extinctions among wild species. Greater emphasis has been given to diseases transmitted by domestic animals, which have been increasing in numbers in natural areas, along with human populations. This study had the aim of investigating the presence of intestinal helminths in wild canids (maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, and crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous in the Serra do Cipó National Park (43-44º W and 19-20º S and endo and ectoparasites of domestic dogs in the Morro da Pedreira Environmental Protection Area (an area surrounding the National Park. The Serra do Cipó is located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Among the enteroparasites found in domestic and wild canids, the following taxons were identified: Ancylostomidae, Trichuridae, Toxocara sp., Spirocerca sp., Physaloptera sp., Strongyloides sp., Cestoda, Dipylidium caninum, Diphyllobothriidae, Hymenolepidae, Anoplocephalidae, Trematoda, Acanthocephala and Isospora sp. Domestic dogs were positive for leishmaniasis and Babesia canis in serological tests. Among the ectoparasites, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Ctenocephalides felis felis were observed in domestic dogs. Variations in the chaetotaxy of the meta-episternum and posterior tibia were observed in some specimens of C. felis felis.Nas últimas décadas, as doenças têm sido apontadas como importantes causas de extinção de espécies silvestres. Maior ênfase tem sido dada às doenças transmitidas por animais domésticos que crescem em número, bem como as populações humanas, em áreas naturais. O presente estudo objetivou verificar a presença de helmintos intestinais de canídeos silvestres (lobo-guará - Chrysocyon brachyurus e cachorro-do-mato - Cerdocyon thous do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó (43-44º W e 19-20º S e endo e ectoparasitos de cães domésticos da Área de Proteção Ambiental Morro da Pedreira (entorno do
Differences in richness and composition of gastrointestinal parasites of small rodents (Cricetidae, Rodentia in a continental and insular area of the Atlantic Forest in Santa Catarina state, Brazil Diferenças na composição e na riqueza de parasitas gastrointestinais de pequenos roedores (Cricetidae, Rodentia em uma área continental e uma insular de Floresta Atlântica em Santa Catarina, Brasil
Full Text Available The first and only study on gastrointestinal parasites of wild rodents in the Island of Santa Catarina was done in 1987. The aim of this study was to identify intestinal parasites from wild rodents in Santo Amaro da Imperatriz and Santa Catariana Island, and to compare the richness and composition of the gastrointestinal parasite community of both areas. Rodents were captured with live traps, and feces were screened using the sedimentation method and optical microscopy. The following species of rodents were captured in the two areas: Akodon montensis, Euryoryzomys russatus, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Nectomys squamipes. In Santo Amaro da Impetratriz, prevalent parasites were: A. montensis (51%, E. russatus (62%, O. nigripes (53% and N. squamipes (20%. From the Island of Santa Catarina the rodent prevalence rates were: A. montensis (43%, E. russatus (59%, O. nigripes (30% and N. squamipes (33% and the collected parasites were: Hymenolepis sp., Longistriata sp., Strongyloides sp., Hassalstrongylus sp., Syphacia sp., Trichomonas sp., Ancylostomidae, Trichuridae, Oxyuridae and Eucoccidiorida. The species richness (10.6 ± 0.7 of the endoparasite comunity in the area located on the continent was higher (p Parasitas gastrointestinais de roedores silvestres foram estudados pela primeira vez na Ilha de Santa Catarina em 1987. Desde então, nenhum outro estudo nessa área foi realizado no Estado. O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar parasitas intestinais de roedores silvestres de Santo Amaro da Imperatriz e da Ilha de Santa Catarina, bem como comparar a composição e a riqueza da comunidade de parasitas gastrointestinais de ambas as áreas. A análise das fezes dos animais capturados foi realizada por meio do método de sedimentação espontânea (HJP e por microscopia óptica. Nas duas áreas, foram capturadas as espécies de roedores Akodon montensis, Euryoryzomys russatus, Oligoryzomys nigripes e Nectomys squamipes. Em Santo Amaro da