#### Sample records for capacitated arc routing

1. Capacitated arc routing problem and its extensions in waste collection

Fadzli, Mohammad; Najwa, Nurul [Institut Matematik Kejuruteraan, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kampus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Luis, Martino [Othman Yeop Abdullah Graduate School of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah (Malaysia)

2015-05-15

Capacitated arc routing problem (CARP) is the youngest generation of graph theory that focuses on solving the edge/arc routing for optimality. Since many years, operational research devoted to CARP counterpart, known as vehicle routing problem (VRP), which does not fit to several real cases such like waste collection problem and road maintenance. In this paper, we highlighted several extensions of capacitated arc routing problem (CARP) that represents the real-life problem of vehicle operation in waste collection. By purpose, CARP is designed to find a set of routes for vehicles that satisfies all pre-setting constraints in such that all vehicles must start and end at a depot, service a set of demands on edges (or arcs) exactly once without exceeding the capacity, thus the total fleet cost is minimized. We also addressed the differentiation between CARP and VRP in waste collection. Several issues have been discussed including stochastic demands and time window problems in order to show the complexity and importance of CARP in the related industry. A mathematical model of CARP and its new version is presented by considering several factors such like delivery cost, lateness penalty and delivery time.

2. Capacitated arc routing problem and its extensions in waste collection

Capacitated arc routing problem (CARP) is the youngest generation of graph theory that focuses on solving the edge/arc routing for optimality. Since many years, operational research devoted to CARP counterpart, known as vehicle routing problem (VRP), which does not fit to several real cases such like waste collection problem and road maintenance. In this paper, we highlighted several extensions of capacitated arc routing problem (CARP) that represents the real-life problem of vehicle operation in waste collection. By purpose, CARP is designed to find a set of routes for vehicles that satisfies all pre-setting constraints in such that all vehicles must start and end at a depot, service a set of demands on edges (or arcs) exactly once without exceeding the capacity, thus the total fleet cost is minimized. We also addressed the differentiation between CARP and VRP in waste collection. Several issues have been discussed including stochastic demands and time window problems in order to show the complexity and importance of CARP in the related industry. A mathematical model of CARP and its new version is presented by considering several factors such like delivery cost, lateness penalty and delivery time

3. An evolutionary algorithm for the capacitated arc routing problem.

Dalessandro Soares Vianna

2006-08-01

Full Text Available The Capacitated Arc Routing Problem (CARP consists of visiting a subset of edges of the graph that describes the problem. CARP applications include urban waste collection and inspection of power lines. The CARP is NP-hard, even in the single-vehicle case (called Rural Postman Problem. In this case, the use of metaheuristics is an efficient solution strategy. This paper proposes a hybrid genetic algorithm for the CARP, which is tested on available instances of the literature. The results obtained until now show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm when it is compared with lower bounds described in the literature.

4. A global repair operator for capacitated arc routing problem.

Mei, Yi; Tang, Ke; Yao, Xin

2009-06-01

Capacitated arc routing problem (CARP) has attracted much attention during the last few years due to its wide applications in real life. Since CARP is NP-hard and exact methods are only applicable for small instances, heuristics and metaheuristic methods are widely adopted when solving CARP. This paper demonstrates one major disadvantage encountered by traditional search algorithms and proposes a novel operator named global repair operator (GRO) to address it. We further embed GRO in a recently proposed tabu search algorithm (TSA) and apply the resultant repair-based tabu search (RTS) algorithm to five well-known benchmark test sets. Empirical results suggest that RTS not only outperforms TSA in terms of quality of solutions but also converges to the solutions faster. Moreover, RTS is also competitive with a number of state-of-the-art approaches for CARP. The efficacy of GRO is thereby justified. More importantly, since GRO is not specifically designed for the referred TSA, it might be a potential tool for improving any existing method that adopts the same solution representation. PMID:19211356

5. A Branch-and-Price Algorithm for the Capacitated Arc Routing Problem with Stochastic Demands

Christiansen, Christian Holk; Lysgaard, Jens; Wøhlk, Sanne

2009-01-01

We address the Capacitated Arc Routing Problem with Stochastic Demands (CARPSD), which we formulate as a Set Partitioning Problem. The CARPSD is solved by a Branch-and-Price algorithm, which we apply without graph transformation. The demand's stochastic nature is incorporated into the pricing pro...... problem. Computational results are reported....

6. A mathematical modeling proposal for a Multiple Tasks Periodic Capacitated Arc Routing Problem

Cleverson Gonçalves dos Santos

2015-12-01

Full Text Available The countless accidents and incidents occurred at dams at the last years, propelled the development of politics related with dams safety. One of the strategies is related to the plan for instrumentation and monitoring of dams. The monitoring demands from the technical team the reading of the auscultation data, in order to periodically monitor the dam. The monitoring plan of the dam can be modeled as a problem of mathematical program of the periodical capacitated arcs routing program (PCARP. The PCARP is considered as a generalization of the classic problem of routing in capacitated arcs (CARP due to two characteristics: 1 Planning period larger than a time unity, as that vehicle make several travels and; 2 frequency of associated visits to the arcs to be serviced over the planning horizon. For the dam's monitoring problem studied in this work, the frequent visits, along the time horizon, it is not associated to the arc, but to the instrument with which is intended to collect the data. Shows a new problem of Multiple tasks Periodic Capacitated Arc Routing Problem and its elaboration as an exact mathematical model. The new main characteristics presented are: multiple tasks to be performed on each edge or edges; different frequencies to accomplish each of the tasks; heterogeneous fleet; and flexibility for more than one vehicle passing through the same edge at the same day. The mathematical model was implemented and examples were generated randomly for the proposed model's validation.

7. THE PERIODIC CAPACITATED ARC ROUTING PROBLEM LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODEL,METAHEURISTIC AND LOWER BOUNDS

Feng CHU; Nacima LABADI; Christian PRINS

2004-01-01

The Periodic Capacitated Arc Routing Problem (PCARP) generalizes the well known NP-hard Capacitated Arc Routing Problem (CARP) by extending the single period to multi-period horizon.The Capacitated Arc Routing Problem (CARP) is defined on an undirected network in which a fleet of identical vehicles is based at a depot node. A subset of edges, called tasks, must be serviced by a vehicle. The CARP consists of determining a set of feasible vehicle trips that minimizes the total cost of traversed edges. The PCARP involves the assignment of tasks to periods and the determination of vehicles trips in each period, to minimize the total cost on the whole horizon. This new problem arises in various real life applications such as waste collection, mail delivery, etc. In this paper, a new linear programming model and preliminary lower bounds based on graph transformation are proposed. A meta-heuristic approach - Scatter Search (SS) is developed for the PCARP and evaluated on a large variety of instances.

8. Implementation Weather-Type Models of Capacitated Arc Routing Problem via Heuristics

Zuhaimy Ismail

2011-01-01

Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study, we introduced a new and real-life condition of Capacitated Arc Routing Problem (CARP, a model that represents vehicles operation in waste collection. In general, we studied the element of rain drops that affected the collected waste weight in total by imposed a new variable namely rainy weight age. In rainy days, the household refusals did not increase in volumes, but in weights due to rain drops. Consequently, this matter thus burdened vehicles capacity and prolonged its operation time. This dynamic variable thus changes the initial CARP model where the existing model did not consider other external elements that have effected onto the model. Approach: Then we developed and enhanced CARP by integrating stochastic demand and time windows to suit the models with our specific case. Results: Objectively, CARP with stochastic demand (CARPSD and CARP with time windows (CARPTW were designed to minimize the total routing cost and number of trips for a vehicle. Our approach is to design CARP models in almost likely to road layout in residential area and graphically this model is called mesh network. We also developed a constructive heuristic that is called nearest procedure based on highest demand/cost (NPHDC and work in conjunction with switching rules to search the feasible solution. Conclusion: Our preliminary results show a higher cost and more trips are needed when the vehicle operates in rainy day compared to normal day operation.

9. The Pyramidal Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

Lysgaard, Jens

This paper introduces the Pyramidal Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (PCVRP) as a restricted version of the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP). In the PCVRP each route is required to be pyramidal in a sense generalized from the Pyramidal Traveling Salesman Problem (PTSP). A pyramidal...

10. The pyramidal capacitated vehicle routing problem

Lysgaard, Jens

2010-01-01

This paper introduces the pyramidal capacitated vehicle routing problem (PCVRP) as a restricted version of the capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP). In the PCVRP each route is required to be pyramidal in a sense generalized from the pyramidal traveling salesman problem (PTSP). A pyramidal...

11. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

2014-09-01

In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

12. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

Goertz, Inge Li

2011-01-01

We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input is a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k vehicles each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for this problem. To achieve this result, we reduce to the k-median-forest problem, which generalizes both k-median and minimum spanning tree, and which might be of independent interest. We give a (3+c)-approximation algorithm for k-median-forest, which leads to a (12+c)-approximation algorithm for the above location-routing problem, for any constant c>0. The algorithm for k-median-forest is just t-swap local search, and we prove that it has locality gap 3+2/t; this generalizes the corresponding result known for k-median. Finally we consider the "non-uniform" k-median-forest problem which has different cost ...

13. Capacitated Vehicle Routing with Non-Uniform Speeds

Gortz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath; Ravi, R

2010-01-01

The capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) involves distributing (identical) items from a depot to a set of demand locations, using a single capacitated vehicle. We study a generalization of this problem to the setting of multiple vehicles having non-uniform speeds (that we call Heterogenous CVRP), and present a constant-factor approximation algorithm. The technical heart of our result lies in achieving a constant approximation to the following TSP variant (called Heterogenous TSP). Given a metric denoting distances between vertices, a depot r containing k vehicles with possibly different speeds, the goal is to find a tour for each vehicle (starting and ending at r), so that every vertex is covered in some tour and the maximum completion time is minimized. This problem is precisely Heterogenous CVRP when vehicles are uncapacitated. The presence of non-uniform speeds introduces difficulties for employing standard tour-splitting techniques. In order to get a better understanding of this technique in our con...

14. A branch-and-cut-and-price algorithm for the cumulative capacitated vehicle routing problem

Wøhlk, Sanne; Lysgaard, Jens

2014-01-01

The paper considers the Cumulative Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CCVRP), which is a variation of the well-known Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP). In this problem, the traditional objective of minimizing total distance or time traveled by the vehicles is replaced by minimizing the...

15. The time-dependent prize-collecting arc routing problem

Black, Dan; Eglese, Richard; Wøhlk, Sanne

2013-01-01

A new problem is introduced named the Time-Dependent Prize-Collecting Arc Routing Problem (TD-PARP). It is particularly relevant to situations where a transport manager has to choose between a number of full truck load pick-ups and deliveries on a road network where travel times change with the...

16. The Service-Time Restricted Capacitated Arc Routing Problem

Lystlund, Lise; Wøhlk, Sanne

We consider an inventory system, operated by a base stock policy and serving two customer classes. One customer class, Class 1, does not provide any advance demand information at all, while the other, Class 2, does. In order to reward a customer of Class 2 for providing advance order information......, it may be sensible to make reservations for the order in the inventory system, thereby preventing later arriving orders from getting access to the inventory before this particular order. We propose various reservation policies and study their impact on the performance of the inventory system....

17. Hybrid discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm for capacitated vehicle routing problem

2006-01-01

Capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) is an NP-hard problem. For large-scale problems, it is quite difficult to achieve an optimal solution with traditional optimization methods due to the high computational complexity. A new hybrid approximation algorithm is developed in this work to solve the problem. In the hybrid algorithm, discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) combines global search and local search to search for the optimal results and simulated annealing (SA) uses certain probability to avoid being trapped in a local optimum. The computational study showed that the proposed algorithm is a feasible and effective approach for capacitated vehicle routing problem, especially for large scale problems.

18. A branch-and-cut algorithm for the capacitated open vehicle routing problem

Letchford, A.N.; Lysgaard, Jens; Eglese, R.W.

2007-01-01

In open vehicle routing problems, the vehicles are not required to return to the depot after completing service. In this paper, we present the first exact optimization algorithm for the open version of the well-known capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP). The algorithm is based on branch...... assess the quality of existing heuristic methods, and to compare the relative difficulty of open and closed versions of the same problem....

19. A Branch-and-Cut Algorithm for the Capacitated Open Vehicle Routing Problem

Letchford, Adam N.; Lysgaard, Jens; Eglese, Richard W.

In open vehicle routing problems, the vehicles are not required to return to the depot after completing service. In this paper, we present the first exact optimization algorithm for the open version of the well-known capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP). The algorithm is based on branch...... assess the quality of existing heuristic methods, and to compare the relative difficulty of open and closed versions of the same problem....

20. A Particle Swarm Optimization with Adaptive Multi-Swarm Strategy for Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

Kui-Ting CHEN; Yijun Dai; Ke Fan; Takaaki Baba

2015-01-01

Capacitated vehicle routing problem with pickups and deliveries (CVRPPD) is one of the most challenging combinatorial optimization problems which include goods delivery/pickup optimization, vehicle number optimization, routing path optimization and transportation cost minimization. The conventional particle swarm optimization (PSO) is difficult to find an optimal solution of the CVRPPD due to its simple search strategy. A PSO with adaptive multi-swarm strategy (AMSPSO) is proposed to solve th...

1. A Centroid-based Heuristic Algorithm for the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

Kwangcheol Shin; Sangyong Han

2012-01-01

The vehicle routing problem (VRP) is famous as a nondeterministic polynomial-time hard problem. This study proposes a centroid-based heuristic algorithm to solve the capacitated VRP in polynomial time. The proposed algorithm consists of three phases: cluster construction, cluster adjustment, and route establishment. At the cluster construction phase, the farthest node (customer) among un-clustered nodes is selected as a seed to form a cluster. The notion of the geometrical centre of a cluster...

2. An Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

Szeto, W.Y.; Wu, Yongzhong; Ho, Sin C.

This paper introduces an artificial bee colony heuristic for the capacitated vehicle routing problem. The artificial bee colony heuristic is a swarm-based heuristic, which mimics the foraging behavior of a honey bee swarm. The performance of the heuristic is evaluated on two sets of benchmark...... instances, and the computational results show that the heuristic produces good solutions....

3. Hybrid self organizing migrating algorithm - Scatter search for the task of capacitated vehicle routing problem

Davendra, Donald; Zelinka, Ivan; Senkerik, Roman; Jasek, Roman; Bialic-Davendra, Magdalena

2012-11-01

One of the new emerging application strategies for optimization is the hybridization of existing metaheuristics. The research combines the unique paradigms of solution space sampling of SOMA and memory retention capabilities of Scatter Search for the task of capacitated vehicle routing problem. The new hybrid heuristic is tested on the Taillard sets and obtains good results.

4. A Food Chain Algorithm for Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Recycling in Reverse Logistics

Song, Qiang; Gao, Xuexia; Santos, Emmanuel T.

2015-12-01

This paper introduces the capacitated vehicle routing problem with recycling in reverse logistics, and designs a food chain algorithm for it. Some illustrative examples are selected to conduct simulation and comparison. Numerical results show that the performance of the food chain algorithm is better than the genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization as well as quantum evolutionary algorithm.

5. A branch-and-price algorithm for the capacitated vehicle routing problem with stochastic demands

Christiansen, Christian Holk; Lysgaard, Jens

This article introduces a new exact algorithm for the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Stochastic Demands (CVRPSD). The CVRPSD can be formulated as a Set Partitioning Problem and it is shown that the associated column generation subproblem can be solved using a dynamic programming scheme....... Computational experiments show promising results....

6. Optimization of Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem by Nested Particle Swarm Optimization

Karuppusamy Kanthavel

2011-01-01

Full Text Available Problem statement: Vehicle routing problem determines the optimum route for each vehicle as a sequence of visiting cities. The problem has been defined as NP-hard and exact solution is relatively difficult to achieve for real time large scale models. Though several attempts to solve the problem were made in the literature, new approaches may be tried to solve the problem to further reduce computational efforts. Approach: In this context this study focuses on maximum utilization of loading capacity and determines the optimum set of vehicle routes for Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP by a Nested Particle Swarm Optimization (NPSO technique. The algorithm is implemented as Master PSO and slave PSO for the identification of candidate list and route sequence in nested form to optimize the model. Results: Benchmarking data set of capacitated vehicle routing is considered for the evaluations. The total distance of set vehicle route obtained by the new approach is compared with the best known solution and other existing techniques. Conclusions/Recommendations: The NPSO produces significant results and computational performance than the existing PSO algorithms. This newly proposed NPSO algorithm develops the vehicle schedule without any local optimization technique.

7. A Capacitated Location Routing Problem with Semi Soft Time Windows

Maryam Gharavani

2015-03-01

Full Text Available In this article we address The Location Routing Problem (LRP, where there is a set of customers with known demand and a set of potential depot site and there is a set of heterogeneous vehicle with a certain capacity. Due to the similarity of the problem with real world, the constraints of depot capacity and vehicle capacity as well as route length have been considered simultaneously. The model provided in this article is described concerning the semi soft time window in which that a delay in service delivery time results in delay costs. The total costs in the proposed model include, the total fixed costs of construction depot, fixed costs associated with the use of vehicles, the total distance traveled by the vehicles, the total time within the system for the vehicle and penalty cost associated with the violation of working hour of vehicles and penalty costs associated with delay time in the start of service to customers and the aim is to minimize the total cost. Due to its complexity, two Meta-Heuristic algorithms of Genetic and Tabu Search algorithm have been used. Since the performance of the Meta-Heuristic algorithms is significantly influenced by their parameters, Taguchi Method is used to set the parameters of developed algorithms. Finally, the result represents that the Genetic Algorithm and Tabu Search are significantly efficient in terms of better quality of solution and computational time respectively.

8. Solving Arc Routing Problems Using the Lin-Kernighan-Helsgaun Algorithm

Helsgaun, Keld

It is well known that many arc routing problems can be transformed into the Equality Generalized Traveling Salesman Problem (E-GTSP), which in turn can be transformed into a standard Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). This opens up the possibility of solving arc routing problems using...

9. An artificial bee colony algorithm for the capacitated vehicle routing problem

Szeto, W.Y.; Wu, Yongzhong; Ho, Sin C.

2011-01-01

This paper introduces an artificial bee colony heuristic for solving the capacitated vehicle routing problem. The artificial bee colony heuristic is a swarm-based heuristic, which mimics the foraging behavior of a honey bee swarm. An enhanced version of the artificial bee colony heuristic is also...... proposed to improve the solution quality of the original version. The performance of the enhanced heuristic is evaluated on two sets of standard benchmark instances, and compared with the original artificial bee colony heuristic. The computational results show that the enhanced heuristic outperforms the...... original one, and can produce good solutions when compared with the existing heuristics. These results seem to indicate that the enhanced heuristic is an alternative to solve the capacitated vehicle routing problem....

10. Robust Branch-and-Cut-and-Price for the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

Fukasawa, R.; Longo, H.; Lysgaard, Jens; Poggi de Aragão, M.; Reis, M.; Uchoa, E.; Werneck, R.F.

2006-01-01

traditional Lagrangean relaxation over q-routes, the other defined by bound, degree and capacity constraints. This is equivalent to a linear program with exponentially many variables and constraints that can lead to lower bounds that are superior to those given by previous methods. The resulting branch......The best exact algorithms for the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP) have been based on either branch-and-cut or Lagrangean relaxation/column generation. This paper presents an algorithm that combines both approaches: it works over the intersection of two polytopes, one associated with a...

11. A branch-and-cut algorithm for the symmetric two-echelon capacitated vehicle routing problem

Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Spoorendonk, Simon; Røpke, Stefan

2013-01-01

This paper presents an exact method for solving the symmetric two-echelon capacitated vehicle routing problem, a transportation problem concerned with the distribution of goods from a depot to a set of customers through a set of satellite locations. The presented method is based on an edge flow m...... model that is a relaxation and provides a valid lower bound. A specialized branching scheme is employed to obtain feasible solutions. Out of a test set of 93 instances the algorithm is able to solve 47 to optimality surpassing previous exact algorithms....

12. A Simulation-Based Algorithm for the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Stochastic Travel Times

Zheng Wang

2013-01-01

Full Text Available This paper presents a flexible solution methodology for the capacitated vehicle routing problem with stochastic travel times (CVRPSTT. One of the basic ideas of the methodology is to consider a vehicle working time lower than the actual maximum vehicle working time when designing CVRPSTT solutions. In this way, the working time surplus can be used to cope with unexpected congestions when necessary. Another important idea is to transform the CVRPSTT instance to a limited set of capacitated vehicle routing problems (CVRP, each of which is defined by a given percentage of the maximum vehicle working time. Thus, our approach can take advantage of any efficient heuristic that already exists for the CVRP. Based on the two key ideas, this paper presents a simulation-based algorithm, in which Monte Carlo simulation is used to obtain estimates of the cost and the reliability of each solution, and the Clarke and Wright heuristic is improved to generate more reliable solutions. Finally, a number of numerical experiments are done in the paper with the purpose of analyzing the efficiency of the described methodology under different uncertainty scenarios.

13. A heuristic algorithm for a multi-product four-layer capacitated location-routing problem

Mohsen Hamidi

2014-01-01

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to solve a complex multi-product four-layer capacitated location-routing problem (LRP in which two specific constraints are taken into account: 1 plants have limited production capacity, and 2 central depots have limited capacity for storing and transshipping products. The LRP represents a multi-product four-layer distribution network that consists of plants, central depots, regional depots, and customers. A heuristic algorithm is developed to solve the four-layer LRP. The heuristic uses GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure and two probabilistic tabu search strategies of intensification and diversification to tackle the problem. Results show that the heuristic solves the problem effectively.

14. A Hybrid Bat Algorithm with Path Relinking for Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

Yongquan Zhou

2013-01-01

Full Text Available The capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP is an NP-hard problem with wide engineering and theoretical background. In this paper, a hybrid bat algorithm with path relinking (HBA-PR is proposed to solve CVRP. The HBA-PR is constructed based on the framework of continuous bat algorithm; the greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP and path relinking are effectively integrated into bat algorithm. Moreover, in order to further improve the performance, the random subsequences and single-point local search are operated with certain loudness (probability. In order to verify the validity of the method in this paper, and it's efficiency and with other existing methods, several classical CVRP instances from three classes of CVRP benchmarks are selected to tested. Experimental results and comparisons show that the HBA-PR is effective for CVRP.

15. Capacitated vehicle routing problem for PSS uses based on ubiquitous computing: An emerging markets approach

Alberto Ochoa-Ortíz

2015-01-01

16. Lower and Upper Bounds for the Node, Edge, and Arc Routing Problem

Bach, Lukas; Wøhlk, Sanne; Hasle, Geir

The Node, Edge, and Arc Routing Problem (NEARP) was defined by Prins and Bouchenoua in 2004. They also proposed a memetic algorithm procedure and defined a set of test instances: the so-called CBMix benchmark. The NEARP generalizes the classical CVRP, the CARP, and the General Routing Problem. It...... for the CARP. We also define two novel sets of test instances to complement the CBMix benchmark. The first is based on well-known CARP instances; the second consists of real life cases of newspaper delivery routing. We provide numerical results in the form 1 of lower and best known upper bounds for...... all instances of all three benchmarks. For two of the instances, the gap is closed....

17. An optimization algorithm for a capacitated vehicle routing problem with time windows

PINAR KIRCI

2016-05-01

In this paper, vehicle routing problem (VRP) with time windows and real world constraints are considered as a real-world application on google maps. Also, tabu search is used and Hopfield neural networks is utilized. Basic constraints consist of customer demands, time windows, vehicle speed, vehicle capacity andworking hours. Recently, cost and on-time delivery are the most important actors in logistics. Thus, the logistic applications attract attention of companies. In logistic management, determining the locations of delivery points and deciding the path are the vital components that should be considered. Deciding the paths of vehicles provides companies to use their vehicles efficiently. And with utilizing optimized paths, big amounts of cost and time savings will be gained. The main aim of the work is providing the best path according to the needs of the customers, minimizing the costs with utilizing the VRP and presenting an application for companies that need logistic management. To compare the results, simulated annealing is used on special scenarios. And t-test is performed in the study for the visited path in km with p-value of 0.05.

18. 基于DSP的调容式消弧线圈补偿装置的设计%Design of Capacitance-adjustable Arc Suppression Compensation Device Based on DSP

刘毅; 付周兴; 南福东; 路宁; 马诚

2013-01-01

笔者对自动调谐消弧线圈的发展现状及存在的问题进行了研究和分析,针对2.2 kV·A/220 V的调容式消弧线圈及其2 kvar的电容调节柜,设计了基于TMS320F2812控制可控硅投切电容器的调容式消弧线圈,并阐明了其工作原理以及硬件和软件设计方案.结果表明,调容式自动跟踪消弧补偿系统能实现电容电流的在线测量,电网运行状态的自动识别和对地电容电流的完全补偿等功能,达到了电网电容电流自动补偿的要求;同时完成了LCD128×64显示模块实时参数的人机交互界面.经试验得出调容试消弧线圈各级补偿电流实际值,并与理论值进行比较且分析了误差原因.所以,该装置具有调谐速度快,范围宽,可靠性高,对电网无谐波污染,具有良好的应用前景.%A capacitance-adjustable arc suppression coil is designed based on TMS320F2812 regulated controlled-silicon switching capacitors for the 2.2 kV·A/220 V capacity-adjustable arc suppression coil and 2 kvar capacitance regulating cabinet,and experimental verification is carried out in laboratory.The working principle and the hardware and software design scheme of the coil are illustrated.The result suggests that the capacitance-adjustable automatically tracking arc-suppression compensation device can realize on-line measurement of capacitive current of power grid.Its functions,such as automatic recognition of operating condition of power gird and complete compensation for earthing capacitive current,fulfill the qualifications for automatic compensation of power grid capacitive current.Furthermore,a 2 kvar capacitance regulating cabinet is designed based on bidirectional controlled-silicon switching capacitor.Moreover,a human-computer interface for displaying real-time parameters of LCD128 ×64 module is designed.The real compensation currents of the arc suppression coil at all levels are obtained experimentally,and are compared with the theoretical ones

19. A capacitive DAC with custom 3-D 1-fF MOM unit capacitors optimized for fast-settling routing in high speed SAR ADCs

Asynchronous successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converters (ADC) feature high energy efficiency but medium performance. From the point of view of speed, the key bottleneck is the unit capacitor size. In this paper, a small size three-dimensional (3-D) metal—oxide—metal (MOM) capacitor is proposed. The unit capacitor has a capacitance of 1-fF. It shapes as an umbrella, which is designed for fast settling consideration. A comparison among the proposed capacitor with other 3-D MOM capacitors is also given in the paper. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the MOM capacitor, a 6-b capacitive DAC is implemented in TSMC 1P9M 65 nm LP CMOS technology. The DAC consumes a power dissipation of 0.16 mW at the rate of 100 MS/s, excluding a source-follower based output buffer. Static measurement result shows that INL is less than ±1 LSB and DNL is less than ±0.5 LSB. In addition, a 100 MS/s 9-bit SAR ADC with the proposed 3-D capacitor is simulated. (paper)

20. A capacitive DAC with custom 3-D 1-fF MOM unit capacitors optimized for fast-settling routing in high speed SAR ADCs

Chixiao, Chen; Jixuan, Xiang; Huabin, Chen; Jun, Xu; Fan, Ye; Ning, Li; Junyan, Ren

2015-05-01

Asynchronous successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converters (ADC) feature high energy efficiency but medium performance. From the point of view of speed, the key bottleneck is the unit capacitor size. In this paper, a small size three-dimensional (3-D) metal—oxide—metal (MOM) capacitor is proposed. The unit capacitor has a capacitance of 1-fF. It shapes as an umbrella, which is designed for fast settling consideration. A comparison among the proposed capacitor with other 3-D MOM capacitors is also given in the paper. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the MOM capacitor, a 6-b capacitive DAC is implemented in TSMC 1P9M 65 nm LP CMOS technology. The DAC consumes a power dissipation of 0.16 mW at the rate of 100 MS/s, excluding a source-follower based output buffer. Static measurement result shows that INL is less than ±1 LSB and DNL is less than ±0.5 LSB. In addition, a 100 MS/s 9-bit SAR ADC with the proposed 3-D capacitor is simulated.

1. Weldability Characteristics of Sintered Hot-Forged AISI 4135 Steel Produced through P/M Route by Using Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

Joseph, Joby; Muthukumaran, S.; Pandey, K. S.

2016-01-01

Present investigation is an attempt to study the weldability characteristics of sintered hot-forged plates of AISI 4135 steel produced through powder metallurgy (P/M) route using matching filler materials of ER80S B2. Compacts of homogeneously blended elemental powders corresponding to the above steel were prepared on a universal testing machine (UTM) by taking pre-weighed powder blend with a suitable die, punch and bottom insert assembly. Indigenously developed ceramic coating was applied on the entire surface of the compacts in order to protect them from oxidation during sintering. Sintered preforms were hot forged to flat, approximately rectangular plates, welded by pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) processes with aforementioned filler materials. Microstructural, tensile and hardness evaluations revealed that PCGTAW process with low heat input could produce weldments of good quality with almost nil defects. It was established that PCGTAW joints possess improved tensile properties compared to the base metal and it was mainly attributed to lower heat input, resulting in finer fusion zone grains and higher fusion zone hardness. Thus, the present investigation opens a new and demanding field in research.

2. Capacitive Extensometer

Perusek, Gail P. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

The present invention provides for measurements of the principal strain magnitudes and directions, and maximum shear strain that occurs in a porous specimen, such as plastic, ceramic or porous metal, when it is loaded (or subjected to a load). In one embodiment the invention includes a capacitive delta extensometer arranged with six sensors in a three piece configuration, with each sensor of each pair spaced apart from each other by a predetermined angle, such as 120 degrees.

3. Multi-objective model and methods for capacitated vehicle routing problem facing different target preference%面向不同目标偏好的 CVRP多目标模型及其求解方法

王超; 金淳; 韩庆平

2016-01-01

This paper proposed a multi-objective model for capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP)facing different target preference (MOCVRPFDTP)to solve CVRP more effectively and evaluate transportation cost comprehensively.There were three different preference structures in this model,which were joint optimization of loading and CVRP,absolute minimum vehi-cles preference,and path optimization preference.To solve this model,this paper constructed an algorithm framework with cor-responding algorithms.In experiments,the model and its solving methods display satisfactory performance in the testing for VR-PLIB,and they are more suitable for practical instance.%为了更有效地求解车辆路径问题、全方位地评估物流运输成本，提出了面向不同目标偏好的车载能力约束车辆路径问题的多目标优化模型（MOCVRPFDTP），其包括三种不同的偏好结构：装载与 CVRP 联合优化、绝对最小车辆数偏好及路径优化偏好。为了求解该模型，设计了算法架构及具体算法。在实验中，该模型及其求解方法对 CVRP 国际标准算例 VRPLIB 的测试结果显示了令人满意的性能，并且它更适用于实际 CVRP 问题的求解。

4. 基于 ArcGIS 的传统村落最佳观景路线提取方法-以世界文化遗产：开平碉楼与村落为例%ArcGIS Based Scenic Route Design Of Traditional Vilages：Kaiping Watchtowers Case

阴劼; 杨雯; 孔中华

2015-01-01

传统村落具有规模较小、景观点数量众多且分散、景观层次丰富和生产与生活性路网发达的特点。采取微观视角下的观景路线选线方法，在已有路网基础上提取最佳观景路线对于传统村落景观的保护与利用具有重要意义。研究以世界文化遗产之开平碉楼与村落为例，探索基于 ArcGIS 的空间视域选线方法：首先，通过要素提取分析和对象特征分析，建立要素数据库、界定景观的观赏效果，以景观数量多且质量好的点为最佳观景点；其次，综合利用 ArcGIS 表面、三维、缓冲分析工具在生产与生活性道路上分析各观景点的景观数量和质量，判断最佳观景点；最后，利用网络分析工具选取最佳观景路线。最佳观景点及最佳观景路线的选择有利于优化村落游赏规划、调整遗产保护范围，为遗产区管理和遗产保护提供新的思路。%Traditional vil ages have rich landscape and road network. Scenic route design is significant to traditional vil age landscape preservation and utilization. The paper studies viewing route design with ArcGIS technology in world cultural heritage site-Kaiping watchtowers case. Firstly analysis of landscape qualities recommend the best viewing points, then ArcGIS technology is used to analyze the amount and quality of dif erent viewpoints, and final y the best scenic route is defined by network tools. The best scenic route design wil help improve vil age planning and heritage preservation.

5. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

2011-01-01

and parameter ρ ∈ R+, the goal in the k median forest problem is to find S ⊆ V with |S| = k minimizing: E u∈V d(u, S) + ρ · d(MST(V/S) ), where d(u, S) = minw∈S d(u,w) and MST(V/S) is a minimum spanning tree in the graph obtained by contracting S to a single vertex. We give a (3+E)-approximation algorithm for k...... forest problem when there is a different (unrelated) cost function c for the MST part, i.e. the objective is Eu∈V d(u, S) + c(MST(V/S) ). We show that the locality gap for this problem is unbounded even under multi-swaps, which contrasts with the c = d case. Nevertheless, we obtain a constant...

6. Modeling the Multicommodity Multimodal Routing Problem with Schedule-Based Services and Carbon Dioxide Emission Costs

Yan Sun

2015-01-01

Full Text Available We explore a freight routing problem wherein the aim is to assign optimal routes to move commodities through a multimodal transportation network. This problem belongs to the operational level of service network planning. The following formulation characteristics will be comprehensively considered: (1 multicommodity flow routing; (2 a capacitated multimodal transportation network with schedule-based rail services and time-flexible road services; (3 carbon dioxide emissions consideration; and (4 a generalized costs optimum oriented to customer demands. The specific planning of freight routing is thus defined as a capacitated time-sensitive multicommodity multimodal generalized shortest path problem. To solve this problem systematically, we first establish a node-arc-based mixed integer nonlinear programming model that combines the above formulation characteristics in a comprehensive manner. Then, we develop a linearization method to transform the proposed model into a linear one. Finally, a computational experiment from the Chinese inland container export business is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the model and linearization method. The computational results indicate that implementing the proposed model and linearization method in the mathematical programming software Lingo can effectively solve the large-scale practical multicommodity multimodal transportation routing problem.

7. False capacitance of supercapacitors

Ragoisha, G. A.; Aniskevich, Y. M.

2016-01-01

Capacitance measurements from cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic chronopotentiometry and calculation of capacitance from imaginary part of impedance are widely used in investigations of supercapacitors. The methods assume the supercapacitor is a capacitor, while real objects correspond to different equivalent electric circuits and show various contributions of non-capacitive currents to the current which is used for calculation of capacitance. Specific capacitances which are presented in F g-1...

8. Effect of astaxanthin on human sperm capacitation.

Donà, Gabriella; Kožuh, Ivana; Brunati, Anna Maria; Andrisani, Alessandra; Ambrosini, Guido; Bonanni, Guglielmo; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Armanini, Decio; Clari, Giulio; Bordin, Luciana

2013-06-01

In order to be able to fertilize oocytes, human sperm must undergo a series of morphological and structural alterations, known as capacitation. It has been shown that the production of endogenous sperm reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a key role in causing cells to undergo a massive acrosome reaction (AR). Astaxanthin (Asta), a photo-protective red pigment belonging to the carotenoid family, is recognized as having anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties and is present in many dietary supplements. This study evaluates the effect of Asta in a capacitating buffer which induces low ROS production and low percentages of acrosome-reacted cells (ARC). Sperm cells were incubated in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of Asta or diamide (Diam) and analyzed for their ROS production, Tyr-phosphorylation (Tyr-P) pattern and percentages of ARC and non-viable cells (NVC). Results show that Asta ameliorated both sperm head Tyr-P and ARC values without affecting the ROS generation curve, whereas Diam succeeded in enhancing the Tyr-P level but only of the flagellum without increasing ARC values. It is suggested that Asta can be inserted in the membrane and therefore create capacitation-like membrane alteration which allow Tyr-P of the head. Once this has occurred, AR can take place and involves a higher numbers of cells. PMID:23736766

9. Effect of Astaxanthin on Human Sperm Capacitation

Luciana Bordin

2013-06-01

Full Text Available In order to be able to fertilize oocytes, human sperm must undergo a series of morphological and structural alterations, known as capacitation. It has been shown that the production of endogenous sperm reactive oxygen species (ROS plays a key role in causing cells to undergo a massive acrosome reaction (AR. Astaxanthin (Asta, a photo-protective red pigment belonging to the carotenoid family, is recognized as having anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties and is present in many dietary supplements. This study evaluates the effect of Asta in a capacitating buffer which induces low ROS production and low percentages of acrosome-reacted cells (ARC. Sperm cells were incubated in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of Asta or diamide (Diam and analyzed for their ROS production, Tyr-phosphorylation (Tyr-P pattern and percentages of ARC and non-viable cells (NVC. Results show that Asta ameliorated both sperm head Tyr-P and ARC values without affecting the ROS generation curve, whereas Diam succeeded in enhancing the Tyr-P level but only of the flagellum without increasing ARC values. It is suggested that Asta can be inserted in the membrane and therefore create capacitation-like membrane alteration which allow Tyr-P of the head. Once this has occurred, AR can take place and involves a higher numbers of cells.

10. Road and Street Centerlines - MO 2011 October MoDOT Roads - Routes (GDB)

NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Routes represent a single linear feature, such as a city street or highway. Routes are linear features composed of one or more arcs or parts of an arc; for example,...

11. Vehicle routing and the value of postponement

Pang, G.; L Muyldermans

2013-01-01

We study capacitated vehicle routing problems (CVRPs) in which the client demands occur over time and the collector or distributor performing the service can decide when to visit the clients. It has been reported in the literature that postponement of collection (or delivery) services may decrease the overall routing cost or distance. We investigate this issue in greater detail and report on experiments in different routing settings to uncover the impact of postponement on routing efficiency....

12. Mesoscopic Capacitance Oscillations

Buttiker, Markus; Nigg, Simon

2006-01-01

We examine oscillations as a function of Fermi energy in the capacitance of a mesoscopic cavity connected via a single quantum channel to a metallic contact and capacitively coupled to a back gate. The oscillations depend on the distribution of single levels in the cavity, the interaction strength and the transmission probability through the quantum channel. We use a Hartree-Fock approach to exclude self-interaction. The sample specific capacitance oscillations are in marked contrast to the c...

13. Variable Synthetic Capacitance

Kleinberg, L. L.

1986-01-01

Feedback amplifier circuit synthesizes electronically variable capacitance. Variable Synthetic Capacitor is amplifier circuit with follower/feedback configuration. Effective input capacitance depends on input set current. If synthetic capacitor is connected across resonant element of oscillator, oscillator frequency controlled via input set current. Circuit especially suitable for fine frequency adjustments of piezoelectric-crystal or inductor/capacitor resonant oscillators.

14. System for Measuring Capacitance

McNichol, Randal S. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

A system has been developed for detecting the level of a liquid in a tank wherein a capacitor positioned in the tank has spaced plates which are positioned such that the dielectric between the plates will be either air or the liquid, depending on the depth of the liquid in the tank. An oscillator supplies a sine wave current to the capacitor and a coaxial cable connects the capacitor to a measuring circuit outside the tank. If the cable is very long or the capacitance to be measured is low, the capacitance inherent in the coaxial cable will prevent an accurate reading. To avoid this problem, an inductor is connected across the cable to form with the capacitance of the cable a parallel resonant circuit. The impedance of the parallel resonant circuit is infinite, so that attenuation of the measurement signal by the stray cable capacitance is avoided.

15. Capacitance pressure sensor

Eaton, William P.; Staple, Bevan D.; Smith, James H.

2000-01-01

A microelectromechanical (MEM) capacitance pressure sensor integrated with electronic circuitry on a common substrate and a method for forming such a device are disclosed. The MEM capacitance pressure sensor includes a capacitance pressure sensor formed at least partially in a cavity etched below the surface of a silicon substrate and adjacent circuitry (CMOS, BiCMOS, or bipolar circuitry) formed on the substrate. By forming the capacitance pressure sensor in the cavity, the substrate can be planarized (e.g. by chemical-mechanical polishing) so that a standard set of integrated circuit processing steps can be used to form the electronic circuitry (e.g. using an aluminum or aluminum-alloy interconnect metallization).

16. Capacitive chemical sensor

Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

2014-05-27

A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

17. Induced Charge Capacitive Deionization

Rubin, S.; Suss, M. E.; Biesheuvel, P. M.; Bercovici, M.

2016-01-01

We demonstrate the phenomenon of induced-charge capacitive deionization (ICCDI) that occurs around a porous and conducting particle immersed in an electrolyte, under the action of an external electrostatic field. The external electric field induces an electric dipole in the porous particle, leading to capacitive charging of its volume by both cations and anions at opposite poles. This regime is characterized both by a large RC charging time and a small electrochemical charge relaxation time, ...

18. Nonlinear Quantum Capacitance

Wang, B; Zhao, X; Guo, H; Wang, J.

1999-01-01

We analyze the nonlinear voltage dependence of electrochemical capacitance for nanoscale conductors. This voltage dependence is due to the finite density of states of the conductors. Within Hartree theory we derive an exact expression for the electrochemical capacitance–voltage curve for a parallel plate system. The result suggests a quantum scanning capacitance microscopy at the nanoscale: by inverting the capacitance–voltage expression one is able to deduce the local spectral function of th...

19. Quantum capacitance: a microscopic derivation

Mukherjee, Sreemoyee; MANNINEN, M; Deo, P. Singha

2010-01-01

We start from microscopic approach to many body physics and show the analytical steps and approximations required to arrive at the concept of quantum capacitance. These approximations are valid only in the semi-classical limit and the quantum capacitance in that case is determined by Lindhard function. The effective capacitance is the geometrical capacitance and the quantum capacitance in series, and this too is established starting from a microscopic theory.

20. High bandwidth on-chip capacitive tuning of microtoroid resonators.

Baker, Christopher G; Bekker, Christiaan; McAuslan, David L; Sheridan, Eoin; Bowen, Warwick P

2016-09-01

We report on the design, fabrication and characterization of silica microtoroid based cavity opto-electromechanical systems (COEMS). Electrodes patterned onto the microtoroid resonators allow for rapid capacitive tuning of the optical whispering gallery mode resonances while maintaining their ultrahigh quality factor, enabling applications such as efficient radio to optical frequency conversion, optical routing and switching applications. PMID:27607646

1. High bandwidth on-chip capacitive tuning of microtoroid resonators

Baker, Christopher G; McAuslan, David L; Sheridan, Eoin; Bowen, Warwick P

2016-01-01

We report on the design, fabrication and characterization of silica microtoroid based cavity opto-electromechanical systems (COEMS). Electrodes patterned onto the microtoroid resonators allow for rapid capacitive tuning of the optical whispering gallery mode resonances while maintaining their ultrahigh quality factor, enabling applications such as efficient radio to optical frequency conversion, optical routing and switching applications.

2. PNW River Reach Files -- 1:100k LLID Routed Streams (routes)

Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This feature class includes the ROUTE features from the 2001 version of the PNW River Reach files Arc/INFO coverage. Separate, companion feature classes are also...

3. Arc Statistics

Meneghetti, M; Dahle, H; Limousin, M

2013-01-01

The existence of an arc statistics problem was at the center of a strong debate in the last fifteen years. With the aim to clarify if the optical depth for giant gravitational arcs by galaxy clusters in the so called concordance model is compatible with observations, several studies were carried out which helped to significantly improve our knowledge of strong lensing clusters, unveiling their extremely complex internal structure. In particular, the abundance and the frequency of strong lensing events like gravitational arcs turned out to be a potentially very powerful tool to trace the structure formation. However, given the limited size of observational and theoretical data-sets, the power of arc statistics as a cosmological tool has been only minimally exploited so far. On the other hand, the last years were characterized by significant advancements in the field, and several cluster surveys that are ongoing or planned for the near future seem to have the potential to make arc statistics a competitive cosmo...

4. Modeling Arcs

Insepov, Zeke; Veitzer, Seth; Mahalingam, Sudhakar

2011-01-01

Although vacuum arcs were first identified over 110 years ago, they are not yet well understood. We have since developed a model of breakdown and gradient limits that tries to explain, in a self-consistent way: arc triggering, plasma initiation, plasma evolution, surface damage and gra- dient limits. We use simple PIC codes for modeling plasmas, molecular dynamics for modeling surface breakdown, and surface damage, and mesoscale surface thermodynamics and finite element electrostatic codes for to evaluate surface properties. Since any given experiment seems to have more variables than data points, we have tried to consider a wide variety of arcing (rf structures, e beam welding, laser ablation, etc.) to help constrain the problem, and concentrate on common mechanisms. While the mechanisms can be comparatively simple, modeling can be challenging.

5. Membrane capacitive deionization

Biesheuvel, P.M.; Wal, van der A.

2010-01-01

Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is an ion-removal process based on applying an electrical potential difference across an aqueous solution which flows in between oppositely placed porous electrodes, in front of which ion-exchange membranes are positioned. Due to the applied potential, ions ar

6. Steerable Capacitive Proximity Sensor

Jenstrom, Del T.; Mcconnell, Robert L.

1994-01-01

Steerable capacitive proximity sensor of "capaciflector" type based partly on sensing units described in GSC-13377 and GSC-13475. Position of maximum sensitivity adjusted without moving sensor. Voltage of each driven shield adjusted separately to concentrate sensing electric field more toward one side or other.

7. Digital capacitance measuring system

1973-01-01

The hardware phase of a digital capacitance measuring system is presented with the major emphasis placed on the electrical design and operation. Test results are included of the three units fabricated. The system's interface is applicable to existing requirements for the space shuttle vehicle.

8. Induced Charge Capacitive Deionization

Rubin, S; Biesheuvel, P M; Bercovici, M

2016-01-01

We demonstrate the phenomenon of induced-charge capacitive deionization (ICCDI) that occurs around a porous and conducting particle immersed in an electrolyte, under the action of an external electrostatic field. The external electric field induces an electric dipole in the porous particle, leading to capacitive charging of its volume by both cations and anions at opposite poles. This regime is characterized both by a large RC charging time and a small electrochemical charge relaxation time, which leads to rapid and significant deionization of ionic species from a volume which is on the scale of the particle. We show by theory and experiment that the transient response around a cylindrical particle results in spatially non-uniform charging and non-steady growth of depletion regions which emerge around the particle's poles. Potentially, ICCDI can be useful in applications where fast concentration changes of ionic species are required over large volumes.

9. Vehicle routing problems with alternative paths: an application to on-demand transportation

Garaix, Thierry; Artigues, Christian; Feillet, Dominique; Josselin, Didier

2010-01-01

The class of vehicle routing problems involves the optimization of freight or passenger transportation activities. These problems are generally treated via the representation of the road network as a weighted complete graph. Each arc of the graph represents the shortest route for a possible origin-destination connection. Several attributes can be deﬁned for one arc (travel time, travel cost . . . ), but the shortest route modelled by this arc is computed according to one single criterion, gen...

10. Molecular Aspects of Capacitation

Gulfidan Zulfikaroglu; Hulya Ozgur; Sait Polaturkey

2010-01-01

Male and female gamets are derived from the primordial germ cells, which migrate from the wall of the yolk sac toward the developing gonads. Following a series of mitotic divisions these cells increase in number at the gonads. The primordial germ cells differentiate into spermatogonia and take the form of mature spermatozoa after spermotogensis and spermotogenesis at puberty. Capacitation is the reaction, which includes all of the molecular and physiological events of mature sperm to gain the...

11. Capacitance of graphene nanoribbons

Shylau, A. A.; Klos, J. W.; Zozoulenko, I. V.

2009-01-01

We present an analytical theory for the gate electrostatics and the classical and quantum capacitance of the graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and compare it with the exact self-consistent numerical calculations based on the tight-binding p-orbital Hamiltonian within the Hartree approximation. We demonstrate that the analytical theory is in a good qualitative (and in some aspects quantitative) agreement with the exact calculations. There are however some important discrepancies. In order to underst...

12. Electrical capacitance clearanceometer

Hester, Norbert J. (Inventor); Hornbeck, Charles E. (Inventor); Young, Joseph C. (Inventor)

1992-01-01

A hot gas turbine engine capacitive probe clearanceometer is employed to measure the clearance gap or distance between blade tips on a rotor wheel and its confining casing under operating conditions. A braze sealed tip of the probe carries a capacitor electrode which is electrically connected to an electrical inductor within the probe which is inserted into a turbine casing to position its electrode at the inner surface of the casing. Electrical power is supplied through a voltage controlled variable frequency oscillator having a tuned circuit in which the probe is a component. The oscillator signal is modulated by a change in electrical capacitance between the probe electrode and a passing blade tip surface while an automatic feedback correction circuit corrects oscillator signal drift. A change in distance between a blade tip and the probe electrode is a change in capacitance therebetween which frequency modulates the oscillator signal. The modulated oscillator signal which is then processed through a phase detector and related circuitry to provide an electrical signal is proportional to the clearance gap.

13. Capacitance of circular patch resonator

In this paper the capacitance of the circular microstrip patch resonator is computed. It is shown that the electrostatic problem can be formulated as a system of dual integral equations, and the most interesting techniques of solutions of these systems are reviewed. Some useful approximated formulas for the capacitance are derived and plots of the capacitance are finally given in a wide range of dielectric constants

14. Capacitance of circular patch resonator

Miano, G.; Verolino, L. [Dip. di Ingegneria Elettrica, Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy); Panariello, G. [Dip. di Ingegneria Elettronica, Naples (Italy); Vaccaro, V.G. [Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche

1995-11-01

In this paper the capacitance of the circular microstrip patch resonator is computed. It is shown that the electrostatic problem can be formulated as a system of dual integral equations, and the most interesting techniques of solutions of these systems are reviewed. Some useful approximated formulas for the capacitance are derived and plots of the capacitance are finally given in a wide range of dielectric constants.

15. Improved Capacitive Liquid Sensor

Waldman, Francis A.

1992-01-01

Improved capacitive sensor used to detect presence and/or measure thickness of layer of liquid. Electrical impedance or admittance of sensor measured at prescribed frequency, and thickness of liquid inferred from predetermined theoretical or experimental relationship between impedance and thickness. Sensor is basically a three-terminal device. Features interdigitated driving and sensing electrodes and peripheral coplanar ground electrode that reduces parasitic effects. Patent-pending because first to utilize ground plane as "shunting" electrode. System less expensive than infrared, microwave, or refractive-index systems. Sensor successfully evaluated in commercial production plants to characterize emulsions, slurries, and solutions.

16. Route optimization model for strike aircraft

Lee, Steve H. K.

1995-01-01

A model is designed and implemented to construct a 'flyable,' least- risk route for strike aircraft from takeoff to target, through enemy radars, in a defined area of operations. A network is fust constructed by discretizing the airspace into a three-dimensional grid of nodes and then connecting adjacent nodes with arcs. A shortest-path model in this network is then constructed with arc lengths that are a function of the probability of detection by radars monitoring t...

17. Programmable electronic synthesized capacitance

Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

1987-01-01

A predetermined and variable synthesized capacitance which may be incorporated into the resonant portion of an electronic oscillator for the purpose of tuning the oscillator comprises a programmable operational amplifier circuit. The operational amplifier circuit has its output connected to its inverting input, in a follower configuration, by a network which is low impedance at the operational frequency of the circuit. The output of the operational amplifier is also connected to the noninverting input by a capacitor. The noninverting input appears as a synthesized capacitance which may be varied with a variation in gain-bandwidth product of the operational amplifier circuit. The gain-bandwidth product may, in turn, be varied with a variation in input set current with a digital to analog converter whose output is varied with a command word. The output impedance of the circuit may also be varied by the output set current. This circuit may provide very small ranges in oscillator frequency with relatively large control voltages unaffected by noise.

18. A novel capacitive micro-accelerometer with grid strip capacitances and sensing gap alterable capacitances

Dong Linxi; Chen Jindan; Yan Haixia; Huo Weihong; Li Yongjie; Sun Lingling

2009-01-01

The comb capacitances fabricated by deep reactive ion etching (RIE) process have high aspect ratio which is usually smaller than 30 : 1 for the complicated process factors, and the combs are usually not parallel due to the well-known micro-loading effect and other process factors, which restricts the increase of the seismic mass by increasing the thickness of comb to reduce the thermal mechanical noise and the decrease of the gap of the comb capacitances for increasing the sensitive capacitance to reduce the electrical noise. Aiming at the disadvantage of the deep RIE, a novel capacitive micro-accelerometer with grid strip capacitances and sensing gap alterable capacitances is developed. One part of sensing of inertial signal of the micro-accelerometer is by the grid strip capacitances whose overlapping area is variable and which do not have the non-parallel plate's effect caused by the deep RIE process. Another part is by the sensing gap alterable capacitances whose gap between combs can be reduced by the actuators. The designed initial gap of the alterable comb capacitances is relatively large to depress the effect of the maximum aspect ratio (30 : 1) of deep RIE process. The initial gap of the capacitance of the actuator is smaller than the one of the comb capacitances. The difference between the two gaps is the initial gap of the sensitive capacitor. The designed structure depresses greatly the requirement of deep RIE process. The effects of non-parallel combs on the accelerometer are also analyzed. The characteristics of the micro-accelerometer are discussed by field emission microscopy (FEM) tool ANSYS. The tested devices based on slide-film damping effect are fabricated, and the tested quality factor is 514, which shows that grid strip capacitance design can partly improve the resolution and also prove the feasibility of the designed silicon-glass anodically bonding process.

19. Capacitated Vehicle Routing with Non-Uniform Speeds

Gørtz, Inge Li; Molinaro, Marco; Nagarajan, Viswanath;

2011-01-01

-uniform speeds (that we call Heterogenous CVRP), and present a constant-factor approximation algorithm. The technical heart of our result lies in achieving a constant approximation to the following TSP variant (called Heterogenous TSP). Given a metric denoting distances between vertices, a depot r containing k...... vehicles having speeds {λ i } i = 1 k , the goal is to find a tour for each vehicle (starting and ending at r), so that every vertex is covered in some tour and the maximum completion time is minimized. This problem is precisely Heterogenous CVRP when vehicles are uncapacitated. The presence of non......-uniform speeds introduces difficulties for employing standard tour-splitting techniques. In order to get a better understanding of this technique in our context, we appeal to ideas from the 2-approximation for minimum makespan scheduling in unrelated parallel machines of Lenstra et al. [19]. This motivates the...

20. Optimal pricing of capacitated networks

Grigoriev, Alexander; Loon, van Joyce; Sitters, René; Uetz, Marc

2009-01-01

We address the algorithmic complexity of a profit maximization problem in capacitated, undirected networks. We are asked to price a set of $m$ capacitated network links to serve a set of $n$ potential customers. Each customer is interested in purchasing a network connection that is specified by a si

1. Arc saw development report

The arc saw is one of the key components of the Contaminated Equipment Volume Reduction (CEVR) Program. This report describes the progress of the arc saw from its inception to its current developmental status. History of the arc saw and early contributors are discussed. Particular features of the arc saw and their advantages for CEVR are detailed. Development of the arc saw including theory of operation, pertinent experimental results, plans for the large arc saw and advanced control systems are covered. Associated topics such as potential applications for the arc saw and other arc saw installations in the world is also touched upon

2. Efficiency of Capacitively Loaded Converters

Andersen, Thomas; Huang, Lina; Andersen, Michael A. E.;

2012-01-01

introduced as a definition of efficiency. The calculated and measured efficiency curves for charging DEAP actuator, polypropylene film capacitor and X7R MLCC are provided and compared. The attention has to be paid for the voltage dependent capacitive load, like X7R MLCC, when evaluating the charging......This paper explores the characteristic of capacitance versus voltage for dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) actuator, 2kV polypropylene film capacitor as well as 3kV X7R multi layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) at the beginning. An energy efficiency for capacitively loaded converters is...... polypropylene film capacitor can be the equivalent capacitive load. Because of the voltage dependent characteristic, X7R MLCC cannot be used to replace the DEAP actuator. However, this type of capacitor can be used to substitute the capacitive actuator with voltage dependent property at the development phase....

3. Large capacitance enhancement induced by metal-doping in graphene-based supercapacitors: a first-principles-based assessment.

Paek, Eunsu; Pak, Alexander J; Hwang, Gyeong S

2014-08-13

Chemically doped graphene-based materials have recently been explored as a means to improve the performance of supercapacitors. In this work, we investigate the effects of 3d transition metals bound to vacancy sites in graphene with [BMIM][PF6] ionic liquid on the interfacial capacitance; these results are compared to the pristine graphene case with particular attention to the relative contributions of the quantum and electric double layer capacitances. Our study highlights that the presence of metal-vacancy complexes significantly increases the availability of electronic states near the charge neutrality point, thereby enhancing the quantum capacitance drastically. In addition, the use of metal-doped graphene electrodes is found to only marginally influence the microstructure and capacitance of the electric double layer. Our findings indicate that metal-doping of graphene-like electrodes can be a promising route toward increasing the interfacial capacitance of electrochemical double layer capacitors, primarily by enhancing the quantum capacitance. PMID:24983127

4. Heritage Route

Chlustiková, Katarína; Válová, Katarína

2013. [Kulturstraßen als Konzept. 20 Jahre Straße der Romanik. 14.11.2013-16.11.2013, Merseburg] Grant ostatní: Culture Programme of European Commission(SI) CU7-MULT7/2010-0653/001-001 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : cultural routes * Romanesque * heritage Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

5. Capacitive Position Sensor For Accelerometer

Vanzandt, Thomas R.; Kaiser, William J.; Kenny, Thomas W.

1995-01-01

Capacitive position sensor measures displacement of proof mass in prototype accelerometer described in "Single-Crystal Springs for Accelerometers" (NPO-18795). Sensor is ultrasensitive, miniature device operating at ultra-high frequency and described in more detail in "Ultra-High-Frequency Capacitive Displacement Sensor," (NPO-18675). Advances in design and fabrication of prototype accelerometer also applicable to magnetometers and other sensors in which sensed quantities measured in terms of deflections of small springs.

6. The concept of chemical capacitance, A critique.

Trissl, H. W.

1981-01-01

The concept of chemical capacitance as introduced by Hong and Mauzerall (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1974. 71:1564) is critically reexamined. This novel capacitance was introduced to explain the time-course of flash-induced photocurrents observed in lipid bilayer membranes containing porphyrins. According to Hong and Mauzerall, the chemical capacitance results from a combination of three fundamental capacitances: the geometric membrane capacitance and the two interfacial double layer capaci...

7. Rotating arc spark plug

Whealton, John H.; Tsai, Chin-Chi

2003-05-27

A spark plug device includes a structure for modification of an arc, the modification including arc rotation. The spark plug can be used in a combustion engine to reduce emissions and/or improve fuel economy. A method for operating a spark plug and a combustion engine having the spark plug device includes the step of modifying an arc, the modifying including rotating the arc.

8. Synthesis of graphene platelets by chemical and electrochemical route

Graphical abstract: A schematic showing the overall reduction process of graphite to reduced graphene platelets by chemical and electrochemical route. - Highlights: • Graphene was prepared by diverse routes viz. chemical and electrochemical methods. • NaBH4 was effective for removing oxygen functional groups from graphene oxide. • Sodium borohydride reduced graphene oxide (SRGO) showed high specific capacitance. • Electrochemical rendered a cheap route for production of graphene in powder form. - Abstract: Graphene platelets were synthesized from graphene oxide by chemical and electrochemical route. Under the chemical method, sodium borohydride and hydrazine chloride were used as reductants to produce graphene. In this paper, a novel and cost effective electrochemical method, which can simplify the process of reduction on a larger scale, is demonstrated. The electrochemical method proposed in this paper produces graphene in powder form with good yield. The atomic force microscopic images confirmed that the graphene samples prepared by all the routes have multilayers of graphene. The electrochemical process provided a new route to make relatively larger area graphene sheets, which will have interest for further patterning applications. Attempt was made to quantify the quantum of reduction using cyclic voltammetry and choronopotentiometry techniques on reduced graphene samples. As a measure in reading the specific capacitance values, a maximum specific capacitance value of 265.3 F/g was obtained in sodium borohydride reduced graphene oxide

9. Improving capacitance/damping ratio in a capacitive MEMS transducer

Damping forces play an important role in capacitive MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) behavior, and typical damper design (parallel-plates) cannot address the design conflict between increase in electrical capacitance and damping reduction. Squeeze-film damping in in-plane parallel-plate MEMS is discussed here and a novel damper geometry for gap-varying parallel-plates is introduced and used to increase the capacitance/damping ratio. The new geometry is compared with a typical parallel-plate design for an silicon-on-insulator process (25 µm thick) and experimental data shows an approximate 25% to 50% reduction for the damping coefficient in structures with 500 µm long dampers (for a gap variation between 0.75 and 3.75 µm), in agreement with computational fluid dynamics simulations, without significantly affecting the capacitance value (∼4% reduction). Preliminary simulations to study the role of the different geometric parameters involved in the improved geometry are also performed and reveal that the channel width is the most critical value for effective damping reduction. (paper)

10. Driven shielding capacitive proximity sensor

Vranish, John M. (Inventor); McConnell, Robert L. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

A capacitive proximity sensing element, backed by a reflector driven at the same voltage as and in phase with the sensor, is used to reflect the field lines away from a grounded robot arm towards an intruding object, thus dramatically increasing the sensor's range and sensitivity.

11. Water desalination via capacitive deionization

Suss, M.E.; Porada, S.; Sun, X.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Yoon, J.; Presser, V.

2015-01-01

Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an emerging technology for the facile removal of charged ionic species from aqueous solutions, and is currently being widely explored for water desalination applications. The technology is based on ion electrosorption at the surface of a pair of electrically charg

12. Voltage Dependence of Supercapacitor Capacitance

2016-09-01

Full Text Available Electronic Double-Layer Capacitors (EDLC, called Supercapacitors (SC, are electronic devices that are capable to store a relatively high amount of energy in a small volume comparing to other types of capacitors. They are composed of an activated carbon layer and electrolyte solution. The charge is stored on electrodes, forming the Helmholtz layer, and in electrolyte. The capacitance of supercapacitor is voltage- dependent. We propose an experimental method, based on monitoring of charging and discharging a supercapacitor, which enables to evaluate the charge in an SC structure as well as the Capacitance-Voltage (C-V dependence. The measurement setup, method and experimental results of charging/discharging commercially available supercapacitors in various voltage and current conditions are presented. The total charge stored in an SC structure is proportional to the square of voltage at SC electrodes while the charge on electrodes increases linearly with the voltage on SC electrodes. The Helmholtz capacitance increases linearly with the voltage bias while a sublinear increase of total capacitance was found. The voltage on SC increases after the discharge of electrodes due to diffusion of charges from the electrolyte to the electrodes. We have found that the recovery voltage value is linearly proportional to the initial bias voltage value.

13. Capacitive Proximity Sensor Has Longer Range

Vranish, John M.

1992-01-01

Capacitive proximity sensor on robot arm detects nearby object via capacitive effect of object on frequency of oscillator. Sensing element part of oscillator circuit operating at about 20 kHz. Total capacitance between sensing element and ground constitutes tuning capacitance of oscillator. Sensor circuit includes shield driven by replica of alternating voltage applied to sensing element. Driven shield concentrates sensing electrostatic field in exterior region to enhance sensitivity to object. Sensitivity and dynamic range has corresponding 12-to-1 improvement.

14. Active Targets For Capacitive Proximity Sensors

Jenstrom, Del T.; Mcconnell, Robert L.

1994-01-01

Lightweight, low-power active targets devised for use with improved capacitive proximity sensors described in "Capacitive Proximity Sensor Has Longer Range" (GSC-13377), and "Capacitive Proximity Sensors With Additional Driven Shields" (GSC-13475). Active targets are short-distance electrostatic beacons; they generate known alternating electro-static fields used for alignment and/or to measure distances.

15. Effects of stray capacitance to ground in bipolar water impedance measurements based on capacitive electrodes

Pallàs Areny, Ramon; Aliau Bonet, Carles

2015-01-01

Liquid impedance measurements based on capacitive (or contactless) electrodes Overcome electrode polarization problems but are affected by stray capacitance from the material being measured to ground, the same as measurements with direct-contact electrodes. This study shows that the effects of that capacitance depend on the impedance being measured and for bipolar impedance measurements they increase when the ratio between that stray capacitance and lectrode capacitance increases.

16. Using Ant Colony Optimization for Routing in VLSI Chips

Arora, Tamanna; Moses, Melanie

2009-04-01

Rapid advances in VLSI technology have increased the number of transistors that fit on a single chip to about two billion. A frequent problem in the design of such high performance and high density VLSI layouts is that of routing wires that connect such large numbers of components. Most wire-routing problems are computationally hard. The quality of any routing algorithm is judged by the extent to which it satisfies routing constraints and design objectives. Some of the broader design objectives include minimizing total routed wire length, and minimizing total capacitance induced in the chip, both of which serve to minimize power consumed by the chip. Ant Colony Optimization algorithms (ACO) provide a multi-agent framework for combinatorial optimization by combining memory, stochastic decision and strategies of collective and distributed learning by ant-like agents. This paper applies ACO to the NP-hard problem of finding optimal routes for interconnect routing on VLSI chips. The constraints on interconnect routing are used by ants as heuristics which guide their search process. We found that ACO algorithms were able to successfully incorporate multiple constraints and route interconnects on suite of benchmark chips. On an average, the algorithm routed with total wire length 5.5% less than other established routing algorithms.

17. Peek Arc Consistency

Bodirsky, Manuel

2008-01-01

This paper studies peek arc consistency, a reasoning technique that extends the well-known arc consistency technique for constraint satisfaction. In contrast to other more costly extensions of arc consistency that have been studied in the literature, peek arc consistency requires only linear space and quadratic time and can be parallelized in a straightforward way such that it runs in linear time with a linear number of processors. We demonstrate that for various constraint languages, peek arc consistency gives a polynomial-time decision procedure for the constraint satisfaction problem. We also present an algebraic characterization of those constraint languages that can be solved by peek arc consistency, and study the robustness of the algorithm.

18. Non-contact wafer thickness measurement of capacitance sensor circuit based on CAV424

Yan You Jun

2016-01-01

Full Text Available Non-contact wafer thickness measurement with the CAV424 capacitance sensor special integrated circuit and arc pole plate capacitor sensor has good stability and linearity under low capacity of the bottom of sensor and low&entity; C condition. This method has a high technical advantages and practical value. Two capacitance sensors Cb, Ca measurement spacing 4mm install at the same axis which constitutes the size condition for measuring thickness. The static capacity of Ca and Cb is a constant value. The capacity of Cb and Ca will change when the silicon wafer is involved. This change is checked by the CAV424 capacitive sensor which has better linearity and higher thickness resolution.

19. Electric arc hydrogen heaters

The experimental data on the electric arc burning in hydrogen are presented. Empirical and semiempirical dependences for calculating the arc characteristics are derived. An engineering method of calculating plasma torches for hydrogen heating is proposed. A model of interaction of a hydrogen arc with a gas flow is outlined. The characteristics of plasma torches for heating hydrogen and hydrogen-bearing gases are described. (author)

20. Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing

Williams, Stewart W.; Martina, Filomeno; Addison, Adrian C.; Ding, Jialuo; Pardal, Goncalo; Colegrove, Paul A.

2016-01-01

Depositing large components (>10 kg) in titanium, aluminium, steel and other metals is possible using Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing. This technology adopts arc welding tools and wire as feedstock for additive manufacturing purposes. High deposition rates, low material and equipment costs, and good structural integrity make Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing a suitable candidate for replacing the current method of manufacturing from solid billets or large forgings, especially with regards to ...

1. Full-bridge capacitive extensometer

Peters, Randall D.

1993-08-01

Capacitive transducers have proven to be very effective sensors of small displacements, because of inherent stability and noninvasive high resolution. The most versatile ones have been those of a differential type, in which two elements are altered in opposite directions in response to change of the system parameter being monitored. Oftentimes, this differential pair has been incorporated into a bridge circuit, which is a useful means for employing synchronous detection to improve signal to noise ratios. Unlike previous differential capacitive dilatometers which used only two active capacitors, the present sensor is a full-bridge type, which is well suited to measuring low-level thermal expansions. This analog sensor is capable of 0.1 μm resolution anywhere within a range of several centimeters, with a linearity of 0.1%. Its user friendly output can be put on a strip chart recorder or directed to a computer for sophisticated data analysis.

2. Water desalination via capacitive deionization

Suss, M. E.; Porada, S.; Sun, X.; Biesheuvel, P. M.; Yoon, J.; Presser, V.

2015-01-01

Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an emerging technology for the facile removal of charged ionic species from aqueous solutions, and is currently being widely explored for water desalination applications. The technology is based on ion electrosorption at the surface of a pair of electrically charged electrodes, commonly composed of highly porous carbon materials. The CDI community has grown exponentially over the past decade, driving tremendous advances via new cell architectures and system de...

3. Capacitive de-ionization electrode

Daily, III, William D.

2013-03-19

An electrode "cell" for use in a capacitive deionization (CDI) reactor consists of the electrode support structure, a non-reactive conductive material, the electrode accompaniment or substrate and a flow through screen/separator. These "layers" are repeated and the electrodes are sealed together with gaskets between two end plates to create stacked sets of alternating anode and cathode electrodes in the CDI reactor.

4. Capacitively-Heated Fluidized Bed

Mchale, E. J.

1982-01-01

Fluidized-bed chamber in which particles in bed are capacitively heated produces high yields of polycrystalline silicon for semiconductor devices. Deposition of unrecoverable silicon on chamber wall is reduced, and amount of recoverable silicon depositing on seed particles in bed is increased. Particles also have a size and density suitable for direct handling without consolidation, unlike silicon dust produced in heated-wall chambers.

5. An approach to evaluate capacitance, capacitive reactance and resistance of pivoted pads of a thrust bearing

1992-07-01

A theoretical approach is developed for determining the capacitance and active resistance between the interacting surfaces of pivoted pads and thrust collar, under different conditions of operation. It is shown that resistance and capacitive reactance of a thrust bearing decrease with the number of pads times the values of these parameters for an individual pad, and that capacitance increases with the number of pads times the capacitance of an individual pad. The analysis presented has a potential to diagnose the behavior of pivoted pad thrust bearings with the angle of tilt and the ratio of film thickness at the leading to trailing edge, by determining the variation of capacitance, resistance, and capacitive reactance.

6. Flow Merging and Hub Route Optimization in Collaborative Transportation

2013-01-01

This paper studies the optimal hub routing problem of merged tasks in collaborative transportation. This problem allows all carriers’ transportation tasks to reach the destinations optionally passing through 0, 1, or 2 hubs within limited distance, while a cost discount on arcs in the hub route could be acquired after paying fixed charges. The problem arises in the application of logistics, postal services, airline transportation, and so forth. We formulate the problem as a mixed-integer prog...

7. Routing Proposals for Multipath Interdomain Routing

Bilal, Sardar M.; Dilber, Muhammad Naveed; Khan, Atta ur Rehman

2013-01-01

Internet is composed of numbers of independent autonomous systems. BGP is used to disseminate reachability information and establishing path between autonomous systems. Each autonomous system is allowed to select a single route to a destination and then export the selected route to its neighbors. The selection of single best route imposes restrictions on the use of alternative paths during interdomain link failure and thus, incurred packet loss. Packet loss still occurs even when multiple pat...

8. Capacitance enhancement via electrode patterning.

Ho, Tuan A; Striolo, Alberto

2013-11-28

The necessity of increasing the energy density in electric double layer capacitors to meet current demand is fueling fundamental and applied research alike. We report here molecular dynamics simulation results for aqueous electrolytes near model electrodes. Particular focus is on the effect of electrode patterning on the structure of interfacial electrolytes, and on the potential drop between the solid electrodes and the bulk electrolytes. The latter is estimated by numerically integrating the Poisson equation using the charge densities due to water and ions accumulated near the interface as input. We considered uniform and patterned electrodes, both positively and negatively charged. The uniformly charged electrodes are modeled as graphite. The patterned ones are obtained by removing carbon atoms from the top-most graphene layer, yielding nanoscopic squares and stripes patterns. For simplicity, the patterned electrodes are effectively simulated as insulators (the charge remains localized on the top-most layer of carbon atoms). Our simulations show that the patterns alter the structure of water and the accumulation of ions at the liquid-solid interfaces. Using aqueous NaCl solutions, we found that while the capacitance calculated for three positively charged electrodes did not change much, that calculated for the negatively charged electrodes significantly increased upon patterning. We find that both water structure and orientation, as well as ion accumulation affect the capacitance. As electrode patterning affects differently water structure and ion accumulation, it might be possible to observe ion-specific effects. These results could be useful for advancing our understanding of electric double layer capacitors, capacitive desalination processes, as well as of fundamental interfacial electrolytes properties. PMID:24289370

9. Dual Cryogenic Capacitive Density Sensor

Youngquist, Robert; Mata, Carlos; Vokrot, Peter; Cox, Robert

2009-01-01

A dual cryogenic capacitive density sensor has been developed. The device contains capacitive sensors that monitor two-phase cryogenic flow density to within 1% accuracy, which, if temperature were known, could be used to determine the ratio of liquid to gas in the line. Two of these density sensors, located a known distance apart, comprise the sensor, providing some information on the velocity of the flow. This sensor was constructed as a proposed mass flowmeter with high data acquisition rates. Without moving parts, this device is capable of detecting the density change within a two-phase cryogenic flow more than 100 times a second. Detection is enabled by a series of two sets of five parallel plates with stainless steel, cryogenically rated tubing. The parallel plates form the two capacitive sensors, which are measured by electrically isolated digital electronics. These capacitors monitor the dielectric of the flow essentially the density of the flow and can be used to determine (along with temperature) the ratio of cryogenic liquid to gas. Combining this information with the velocity of the flow can, with care, be used to approximate the total two-phase mass flow. The sensor can be operated at moderately high pressures and can be lowered into a cryogenic bath. The electronics have been substantially improved over the older sensors, incorporating a better microprocessor, elaborate ground loop protection and noise limiting circuitry, and reduced temperature sensitivity. At the time of this writing, this design has been bench tested at room temperature, but actual cryogenic tests are pending

10. Nucleotide Capacitance Calculation for DNA Sequencing

Lu, Jun-Qiang; Zhang, X.-G.

2008-01-01

Using a first-principles linear response theory, the capacitance of the DNA nucleotides, adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine, are calculated. The difference in the capacitance between the nucleotides is studied with respect to conformational distortion. The result suggests that although an alternate current capacitance measurement of a single-stranded DNA chain threaded through a nanogap electrode may not be sufficient to be used as a standalone method for rapid DNA sequencing, the capaci...

11. Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography: Design and Applications

Warsito Warsito; Liang-Shih Fan; Qussai Marashdeh; Fei Wang

2010-01-01

This article reports recent advances and progress in the field of electrical capacitance volume tomography (ECVT). ECVT, developed from the two-dimensional electrical capacitance tomography (ECT), is a promising non-intrusive imaging technology that can provide real-time three-dimensional images of the sensing domain. Images are reconstructed from capacitance measurements acquired by electrodes placed on the outside boundary of the testing vessel. In this article, a review of progress on capa...

12. Electrochemical capacitance of a leaky nanocapacitor

Zhao, X; Guo, H; Wang, J.

1999-01-01

We report a detailed theoretical investigation on electrochemical capacitance of a nanoscale capacitor where there is a DC coupling between the two conductors. For this leaky'' quantum capacitor, we have derived general analytic expressions of the linear and second order nonlinear electrochemical capacitance within a first principles quantum theory in the discrete potential approximation. Linear and nonlinear capacitance coefficients are also derived in a self-consistent manner without the ...

13. Flexible PVDF ferroelectric capacitive temperature sensor

Khan, Naveed

2015-08-02

In this paper, a capacitive temperature sensor based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) capacitor is explored. The PVDF capacitor is characterized below its Curie temperature. The capacitance of the PVDF capacitor changes vs temperature with a sensitivity of 16pF/°C. The linearity measurement of the capacitance-temperature relation shows less than 0.7°C error from a best fit straight line. An LC oscillator based temperature sensor is demonstrated based on this capacitor.

14. Detection of Telomerase Activity Using Capacitance Measurements

Kang, Bong Keun; Lee, Ri Mi; Choi, Ahmi; Jung, Hyo-Il; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

2007-03-01

Telomerase activity has been found in about 85% cancer cells, while no activity observed in normal cells, so that telomerase has been proposed as a marker for cancer detection. Here, we describe electrical detection of telomerase activity using capacitance measurements. We have investigated the length dependence of capacitance on DNA solutions and found that the capacitance of DNA solutions were dependent on the DNA length. In addition, upon adding telomerase into the solution of telomeric substrate primer, the capacitance was observed to change as a function of time due to the telomeric elongation. These results suggest that this novel nanosensor may be used for rapid detection of telomerase activity.

15. Routing in opportunistic networks

Dhurandher, Sanjay; Anpalagan, Alagan; Vasilakos, Athanasios

2013-01-01

This book provides a comprehensive guide to selected topics, both ongoing and emerging, in routing in OppNets. The book is edited by worldwide technical leaders, prolific researchers and outstanding academics, Dr. Isaac Woungang and co-editors, Dr. Sanjay Kumar Dhurandher, Prof. Alagan Anpalagan and Prof. Athanasios Vasilakos. Consisting of contributions from well known and high profile researchers and scientists in their respective specialties, the main topics that are covered in this book include mobility and routing, social-aware routing, context-based routing, energy-aware routing, incentive-aware routing, stochastic routing, modeling of intermittent connectivity, in both infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets. Key Features: Discusses existing and emerging techniques for routing in infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets. Provides a unified covering of otherwise disperse selected topics on routing in infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets.  Includes a set of PowerPoint slides and g...

16. Tokamak ARC damage

Tokamak fusion reactors will have large plasma currents of approximately 10 MA with hundreds of megajoules stored in the magnetic fields. When a major plasma instability occurs, the disruption of the plasma current induces voltage in the adjacent conducting structures, giving rise to large transient currents. The induced voltages may be sufficiently high to cause arcing across sector gaps or from one protruding component to another. This report reviews a tokamak arcing scenario and provides guidelines for designing tokamaks to minimize the possibility of arc damage

17. Module Eleven: Capacitance; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

In this module the student will learn about another circuit quantity, capacitance, and discover the effects of this component on circuit current, voltage, and power. The module is divided into seven lessons: the capacitor, theory of capacitance, total capacitance, RC (resistive-capacitive circuit) time constant, capacitive reactance, phase and…

18. Capacitance Measurement with a Sigma Delta Converter for 3D Electrical Capacitance Tomography

Nurge, Mark

2005-01-01

This paper will explore suitability of a newly available capacitance to digital converter for use in a 3D Electrical Capacitance Tomography system. A switch design is presented along with circuitry needed to extend the range of the capacitance to digital converter. Results are then discussed for a 15+ hour drift and noise test.

19. Ultrahigh Temperature Capacitive Pressure Sensor

Harsh, Kevin

2014-01-01

Robust, miniaturized sensing systems are needed to improve performance, increase efficiency, and track system health status and failure modes of advanced propulsion systems. Because microsensors must operate in extremely harsh environments, there are many technical challenges involved in developing reliable systems. In addition to high temperatures and pressures, sensing systems are exposed to oxidation, corrosion, thermal shock, fatigue, fouling, and abrasive wear. In these harsh conditions, sensors must be able to withstand high flow rates, vibration, jet fuel, and exhaust. In order for existing and future aeropropulsion turbine engines to improve safety and reduce cost and emissions while controlling engine instabilities, more accurate and complete sensor information is necessary. High-temperature (300 to 1,350 C) capacitive pressure sensors are of particular interest due to their high measurement bandwidth and inherent suitability for wireless readout schemes. The objective of this project is to develop a capacitive pressure sensor based on silicon carbon nitride (SiCN), a new class of high-temperature ceramic materials, which possesses excellent mechanical and electric properties at temperatures up to 1,600 C.

20. A route-based decomposition for the Multi-Commodity k-splittable Maximum Flow Problem

Gamst, Mette

2012-01-01

The Multi-Commodity k-splittable Maximum Flow Problem routes flow through a capacitated graph such that each commodity uses at most k paths and such that the total amount of routedflow is maximized. This paper proposes a branch-and-price algorithm based on a route-based Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition...

1. Robust Branch-Cut-and-Price for the Capacitated Minimum Spanning Tree Problem over a Large Extended Formulation

Uchoa, Eduardo; Fukasawa, Ricardo; Lysgaard, Jens;

This paper presents a robust branch-cut-and-price algorithm for the Capacitated Minimum Spanning Tree Problem (CMST). The variables are associated to q-arbs, a structure that arises from a relaxation of the capacitated prize-collecting arborescence problem in order to make it solvable in pseudo......-polynomial time. Traditional inequalities over the arc formulation, like Capacity Cuts, are also used. Moreover, a novel feature is introduced in such kind of algorithms. Powerful new cuts expressed over a very large set of variables could be added, without increasing the complexity of the pricing subproblem or...

2. Vacuum arc anode phenomena

A brief review of anode phenomena in vacuum arcs is presented. Discussed in succession are: the transition of the arc into the anode spot mode; the temperature of the anode before, during and after the anode spot forms; and anode ions. Characteristically the anode spot has a temperature of the order of the atmospheric boiling point of the anode material and is a copious source of vapor and energetic ions. The dominant mechanism controlling the transition of the vacuum arc into the anode spot mode appears to depend upon the electrode geometry, the electrode material, and the current waveform of the particular vacuum arc being considered. Either magnetic constriction in the gap plasma or gross anode melting can trigger the transition; indeed, a combination of the two is a common cause of anode spot formation

3. Single-Arc IMRT?

The idea of delivering intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a multileaf collimator in a continuous dynamic mode during a single rotation of the gantry has recently gained momentum both in research and industry. In this note we investigate the potential of this Single-Arc IMRT technique at a conceptual level. We consider the original theoretical example case from Brahme et al that got the field of IMRT started. Using analytical methods, we derive deliverable intensity 'landscapes' for Single-Arc as well as standard IMRT and Tomotherapy. We find that Tomotherapy provides the greatest flexibility in shaping intensity landscapes and that it allows one to deliver IMRT in a way that comes close to the ideal case in the transverse plane. Single-Arc and standard IMRT make compromises in different areas. Only in relatively simple cases that do not require substantial intensity modulation will Single-Arc be dosimetrically comparable to Tomotherapy. Compared with standard IMRT, Single-Arc could be dosimetrically superior in certain cases if one is willing to accept the spreading of low dose values over large volumes of normal tissue. In terms of treatment planning, Single-Arc poses a more challenging optimization problem than Tomotherapy or standard IMRT. We conclude that Single-Arc holds potential as an efficient IMRT technique especially for relatively simple cases. In very complex cases, Single-Arc may unduly compromise the quality of the dose distribution, if one tries to keep the treatment time below 2 min or so. As with all IMRT techniques, it is important to explore the tradeoff between plan quality and the efficiency of its delivery carefully for each individual case. (note)

4. ALICE - ARC integration

Anderlik, Csaba; Gregersen, Anders Rhod; Kleist, Josva; Peters, Andreas; Siaz, Pablo

2007-01-01

AliEn or Alice Environment is the Gridware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructur...

5. Facile synthesis of novel graphene sponge for high performance capacitive deionization

Xingtao Xu; Likun Pan; Yong Liu; Ting Lu; Zhuo Sun; Chua, Daniel H. C.

2015-01-01

Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an effective desalination technique offering an appropriate route to obtain clean water. In order to obtain excellent CDI performance, a rationally designed structure of electrode materials has been an urgent need for CDI application. In this work, a novel graphene sponge (GS) was proposed as CDI electrode for the first time. The GS was fabricated via directly freeze-drying graphene oxide solution followed by annealing in nitrogen atmosphere. The morphology, s...

6. Dissecting graphene capacitance in electrochemical cell

Quantum capacitance of graphene plays a significant role for graphene's applications in electrochemical devices and sensors, while the determination of these basic characters of Dirac point, Fermi energy, quantum capacitance, etc is still a subject of considerable debate in both experiments and simulations. Here, we report joint first-principles/continuum calculations (JFPCCs) on a monolayer graphene electrode immersed in an electrolyte coupled with a reference electrode under an applied potential. The JFPCCs gave the Fermi level, charge density on graphene, Dirac point energy, electrostatic potential, electric double layer etc as a function of the applied potential with respect to the reference electrode. These results revealed the strongly coupled relationship between Fermi level change and Dirac point shift in electrochemical cell. The total capacitance of the electrochemical cell was dissected into the quantum capacitance of the graphene electrode and the capacitance of the electric double layer. Furthermore, simple and analytic formulas were proposed for the three capacitances, which predicted, in sufficient accuracy, the behavior of capacitance versus potential. These findings deepen the understanding of quantum capacitance of graphene, which will stimulate novel experimental and theoretical studies and boost the applications of graphene in electrochemical and energy areas

7. Quantum capacitance of the monolayer graphene

Cheremisin, M. V.

2012-01-01

The quantum capacitance of the monolayer graphene for arbitrary carrier density, magnetic field and temperature is found. The density dependence of the quantum capacitance is analyzed for magnetic field(temperature) is fixed(varied) and vice versa. The theory is compared with the experimental data.

8. Capacitance densitometer for flow regime identification

Shipp, Jr., Roy L.

1978-01-01

This invention relates to a capacitance densitometer for determining the flow regime of a two-phase flow system. A two-element capacitance densitometer is used in conjunction with a conventional single-beam gamma densitometer to unambiguously identify the prevailing flow regime and the average density of a flowing fluid.

9. Capacitance-coupled wiper increases potentiometer life

Dimeff, J.

1968-01-01

Capacitively-coupled wiper reduces the friction between the sliding contact and the potentiometer element in conventional potentiometers. A small preamplifier employed close to the wiper reduces errors caused by output cable capacitance. The device is friction free with resultant low wear and has high speed and high resolution.

10. Energy-Efficient Capacitive-Sensor Interfaces

Z. Tan

2013-01-01

This thesis describes the theory, design and realization of energy-efficient capacitive-sensor interfaces that are dedicated to energy-constrained applications. The goal of this work is to explore energy-efficient capacitive-sensor interface design techniques both at the system and the circuit level.

11. Energy-Efficient Capacitive-Sensor Interfaces

Tan, Z.

2013-01-01

This thesis describes the theory, design and realization of energy-efficient capacitive-sensor interfaces that are dedicated to energy-constrained applications. The goal of this work is to explore energy-efficient capacitive-sensor interface design techniques both at the system and the circuit level

12. Conductivity Effect on the Capacitance Measurement of a Parallel-Plate Capacitive Sensor System

Peyman Azimi

2011-01-01

Full Text Available In this article design and operation of a parallel-plate capacitive sensor based on the dielectric capacitance and conductance change of the gap medium is reported. The designed system was used to determine characteristics of different water liquids as a result of the capacitance variations. The air gap capacitance is measured and then by filling the gap with a liquid the capacitance is monitored for different liquids. Proposed sensor is used for the distilled, tap, boiled, and salt water measurements and the capacitance results are compared. A big difference about 45.5 :F in capacitance values for the salt and distilled water shows a high sensitivity, which can be used to recognize different water liquids. The experimental results are promising for water liquids and verify the successful operation of such a device as a liquid sensor, a useful method for checking the electrical quality of the water that is required for different applications.

13. Routing and scheduling problems

Reinhardt, Line Blander

to a destination on a predefined network, the routing and scheduling of vessels in a liner shipping network given a demand forecast to be covered, the routing of manpower and vehicles transporting disabled passengers in an airport and the vehicle routing with time windows where one version studied includes edge...

14. Modeling of Arc Force in Plasma Arc Welding

GAO Zhonglin; HU Shengsun; YIN Fengliang; WANG Rui

2008-01-01

A three. dimensional mathematical model for the transferred-type argon arc was developed to describe arc force on the anode surface. The software ANSYS was employed to solve the model. The model includes a part of torch and tungsten electrode to achieve m ore reasonable results. The arc temperature and flow fields were derived. And the influences of welding parameters on arc force were also studied. The simulated results show that arc pressure at the anode are dependent on the welding current, plasma gas flow rate and electrode neck-in, while not sensitive to arc length.

15. FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS IN PULSED-BIAS ARC DEPOSITION

G.Q.Lin; Z.F.Ding; D.Qi; N.H.Wang; M.D.Huang; D.Z.Wang; Y.N.Wang; C.Dong; L.S.Wen

2002-01-01

Arc deposition, a widely used surface coating technique, has disadvantages such aslarge droplet size and high deposition temperature. Recent trend in its renovation isthe introduction of pulsed bias at the substrate. The present paper attempts to describethe deposition process of TiN films using this technique with emphasis laid on theunderstanding of the basic problems such as discharge plasma properties, temperaturecalculation, and droplet size reduction. We show that this technique improves thefilm microstructure and quality, lowers deposition temperature, and allows coatingson insulating substrates. After analyzing load current oscillation behaviors, we havedetermined that the plasma load is of capacitance nature due to plasma sheath and thatit is equivalent to a circuit element consisting of parallel capacitance and resistance.At last, we point out the remaining problems and future development of the pulsed-biasarc deposition technique.

16. State alternative route designations

1989-07-01

Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency, defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

17. State alternative route designations

1989-07-01

Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

18. Applying min–max k postmen problems to the routing of security guards

E J Willemse; J W Joubert

2012-01-01

The most essential and alluring characteristic of a security estate is the estate's ability to provide 24-h security to its residents, of which the continual patrolling of roads and paths is vital. The objective of this paper is to address the lack of sufficient patrol route design procedures by presenting a tabu search algorithm capable of generating multiple patrol routes for an estate's security guards. The paper shows that the problem of designing these routes can be modelled as an Arc Ro...

19. ALICE-ARC integration

AliEn or Alice Environment is the Grid middleware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The inter-operation has two aspects, one is the data management part and the second the job management aspect. The first aspect was solved by using dCache across NDGF to handle data. Therefore, we will concentrate on the second part. Solving it, was somewhat cumbersome, mainly due to the different computing models employed by AliEn and ARC. AliEN uses an Agent based pull model while ARC handles jobs through the more 'traditional' push model. The solution comes as a module implementing the functionalities necessary to achieve AliEn job submission and management to ARC enabled sites

20. Consolidating NASA's Arc Jets

Balboni, John A.; Gokcen, Tahir; Hui, Frank C. L.; Graube, Peter; Morrissey, Patricia; Lewis, Ronald

2015-01-01

The paper describes the consolidation of NASA's high powered arc-jet testing at a single location. The existing plasma arc-jet wind tunnels located at the Johnson Space Center were relocated to Ames Research Center while maintaining NASA's technical capability to ground-test thermal protection system materials under simulated atmospheric entry convective heating. The testing conditions at JSC were reproduced and successfully demonstrated at ARC through close collaboration between the two centers. New equipment was installed at Ames to provide test gases of pure nitrogen mixed with pure oxygen, and for future nitrogen-carbon dioxide mixtures. A new control system was custom designed, installed and tested. Tests demonstrated the capability of the 10 MW constricted-segmented arc heater at Ames meets the requirements of the major customer, NASA's Orion program. Solutions from an advanced computational fluid dynamics code were used to aid in characterizing the properties of the plasma stream and the surface environment on the calorimeters in the supersonic flow stream produced by the arc heater.

1. Adaptive Memory Procedure to solve the Profitable Arc Tour Problem

Jalel Euchi

2010-05-01

Full Text Available In this paper we propose an Adaptive memory procedure to solve the Profitable Arc Tour Problem (PATP. The PATP is a variant of the well-known Vehicle Routing Problems in which a set of vehicle tours are constructed. The objective is to find a set of cycles in the vehicle tours that maximize the collection of profits minus travel costs, subject to constraints limiting the length of cycles that profit is available on arcs. Computational experiments show that our algorithms provide good results in terms of quality of solution and running times.

2. Arc Plasma Torch Modeling

Trelles, J P; Vardelle, A; Heberlein, J V R

2013-01-01

Arc plasma torches are the primary components of various industrial thermal plasma processes involving plasma spraying, metal cutting and welding, thermal plasma CVD, metal melting and remelting, waste treatment and gas production. They are relatively simple devices whose operation implies intricate thermal, chemical, electrical, and fluid dynamics phenomena. Modeling may be used as a means to better understand the physical processes involved in their operation. This paper presents an overview of the main aspects involved in the modeling of DC arc plasma torches: the mathematical models including thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium models, turbulent and radiative transport, thermodynamic and transport property calculation, boundary conditions and arc reattachment models. It focuses on the conventional plasma torches used for plasma spraying that include a hot-cathode and a nozzle anode.

3. Pore Structures and Electrochemical Properties of Graphene Prepared by Arc Discharge Method

LV Yan, WANG Zhi-Yong, ZHANG Hao, FANG Jin, CAO Gao-Ping, SHI Zu-Jin, WANG Bi-Yan

Full Text Available A graphene material was prepared by arc discharge method, and its pore structures and electrochemical capacitive properties were studied. The graphene presents developed and open mesopore structure, and its specific surface area and mesopore ratio are 77.8 m2/g and 74.7%, respectively. The electrochemical capacitor using graphene as electrode materials, has a capacitance of 12.9 F/g. Its cyclic voltammograms show rectangular shape even under a high scan rate of 200 mV/s, and the specific frequency f0 on the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is as high as 18.5 Hz, exhibiting excellent rate capability.

4. Capacitive Cells for Dielectric Constant Measurement

Aguilar, Horacio Munguía; Maldonado, Rigoberto Franco

2015-01-01

A simple capacitive cell for dielectric constant measurement in liquids is presented. As an illustrative application, the cell is used for measuring the degradation of overheated edible oil through the evaluation of their dielectric constant.

5. Complementary surface charge for enhanced capacitive deionization

Gao, X.; Porada, S.; Omosebi, A.; Liu, K.L.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Landon, J.

2016-01-01

Commercially available activated carbon cloth electrodes are treated using nitric acid and ethylenediamine solutions, resulting in chemical surface charge enhanced carbon electrodes for capacitive deionization (CDI) applications. Surface charge enhanced electrodes are then configured in a CDI cel

Kammenhuber, Nils

2011-01-01

Despite the bursty and highly volatile traffic, routing in the Internet today is optimised only on coarse time scales, as load-adaptive routing is known to induce performance deterioration by causing massive oscillations. We describe ReplEx, an universally applicable distributed algorithm for dynamic routing/traffic engineering, which is based on game theory. We show through extensive realistic simulations that ReplEx does not oscillate, and that it achieves performance gains comparable to tr...

7. Current interruption limit and resistance of the self-similar electric arc

Christen, Thomas; Seeger, Martin

2005-05-01

A model for the axially blown cylindrical arc is derived. In contrast to earlier theories, the model is gauge invariant with respect to energy, which is crucial for investigating current interruption. We determine from our model the dependence of the maximum interruptible current rate, (dI/dt)L, on the pressure, on the parallel capacitance, and on the line impedance for an SF6 arc. (dI/dt)L scales, approximately independent of the gas type, with the square root of the pressure. The arc resistance, at current zero with current rate equal to (dI/dt)L, is pressure independent. As a consequence, the arc resistance at current zero can serve as a figure of merit for the interruption performance of gas circuit breakers.

8. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

2013-06-01

Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

9. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

10. ALICE: ARC integration

Anderlik, C; Kleist, J; Peters, A; Saiz, P

2008-01-01

AliEn or Alice Environment is the Grid middleware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The inter-operation has two aspects, one is the data management part and the second the job management aspect. The first aspect was solved by using dCache across NDGF to handle data. Therefore, we will concentrate on the second part. Solving it, was somewhat cumbersome, mainly due to the different computing models employed by AliEn and ARC. AliEN uses an Agent based pull model while ARC handles jobs through the more 'traditional' push model. The solution comes as a modu...

11. Contact Graph Routing

Burleigh, Scott C.

2011-01-01

Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

12. Experimental determination of dielectric barrier discharge capacitance.

Pipa, A V; Hoder, T; Koskulics, J; Schmidt, M; Brandenburg, R

2012-07-01

The determination of electrical parameters (such as instantaneous power, transferred charge, and gas gap voltage) in dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactors relies on estimates of key capacitance values. In the classic large-scale sinusoidal-voltage driven DBD, also known as silent or ozonizer discharge, capacitance values can be determined from charge-voltage (Q-V) plot, also called Lissajous figure. For miniature laboratory reactors driven by fast pulsed voltage waveforms with sub-microsecond rise time, the capacitance of the dielectric barriers cannot be evaluated from a single Q-V plot because of the limited applicability of the classical theory. Theoretical determination can be problematic due to electrode edge effects, especially in the case of asymmetrical electrodes. The lack of reliable capacitance estimates leads to a "capacitance bottleneck" that obstructs the determination of other DBD electrical parameters in fast-pulsed reactors. It is suggested to obtain capacitance of dielectric barriers from a plot of the maximal charge versus maximal voltage amplitude (Q(max) - V(max) plot) in a manner analogous to the classical approach. The method is examined using measurements of current and voltage waveforms of a coaxial DBD reactor in argon at 100 mbar driven by square voltage pulses with a rise time of 20 ns and with different voltage amplitudes up to 10 kV. Additionally, the applicability of the method has been shown for the data reported in literature measured at 1 bar of nitrogen-oxygen gas mixtures and xenon. PMID:22852728

13. Capacitance of Graphene Bilayer as a Which-Layer Probe

Young, Andrea F.; Levitov, Leonid S.

2011-01-01

The unique capabilities of capacitance measurements in bilayer graphene enable probing of layer-specific properties that are normally out of reach in transport measurements. Furthermore, capacitance measurements in the top-gate and penetration field geometries are sensitive to different physical quantities: the penetration field capacitance probes the two layers equally, whereas the top gate capacitance preferentially samples the near layer, resulting in the "near-layer capacitance enhancemen...

14. Nanoscale capacitance: A classical charge-dipole approximation

Jun-Qiang Lu; Jonathan Gonzalez; Carlos Sierra; Yang Li

2013-01-01

Modeling nanoscale capacitance presents particular challenge because of dynamic contribution from electrodes, which can usually be neglected in modeling macroscopic capacitance and nanoscale conductance. We present a model to calculate capacitances of nano-gap configurations and define effective capacitances of nanoscale structures. The model is implemented by using a classical atomic charge-dipole approximation and applied to calculate capacitance of a carbon nanotube nano-gap and effective ...

15. Combining Nearest Neighbor Search with Tabu Search for Large-Scale Vehicle Routing Problem

Du, Lingling; He, Ruhan

The vehicle routing problem is a classical problem in operations research, where the objective is to design least cost routes for a fleet of identical capacitated vehicles to service geographically scattered customers. In this paper, we present a new and effective hybrid metaheuristic algorithm for large-scale vehicle routing problem. The algorithm combines the strengths of the well-known Nearest Neighbor Search and Tabu Search into a two-stage procedure. More precisely, Nearest Neighbor Search is used to construct initial routes in the first stage and the Tabu Search is utilized to optimize the intra-route and the inter-route in the second stage. The presented algorithm is specifically designed for large-scale problems. The computational experiments were carried out on a standard benchmark and a real dataset with 6772 tobacco customers. The results demonstrate that the suggested method is highly competitive.

16. Semicircular Rashba arc spin polarizer

In this work, we study the generation of spin polarized currents using curved arcs of finite widths, in which the Rashba spin orbit interaction (RSOI) is present. Compared to the 1-dimensional RSOI arcs with zero widths studied previously, the finite width presents charge carriers with another degree of freedom along the transverse width of the arc, in addition to the longitudinal degree of freedom along the circumference of the arc. The asymmetry in the transverse direction due to the difference in the inner and outer radii of the arc breaks the antisymmetry of the longitudinal spin z current in a straight RSOI segment. This property can be exploited to generate spin z polarized current output from the RSOI arc by a spin unpolarized current input. The sign of the spin current can be manipulated by varying the arc dimensions

17. Semicircular Rashba arc spin polarizer

Bin Siu, Zhuo, E-mail: a0018876@nus.edu.sg [NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Advanced Concepts and Nanotechnology, Data Storage Institute, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1 (Off Kent Ridge Crescent, NUS), Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Jalil, Mansoor B. A. [NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Ghee Tan, Seng [Advanced Concepts and Nanotechnology, Data Storage Institute, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1 (Off Kent Ridge Crescent, NUS), Singapore 117608 (Singapore)

2014-05-07

In this work, we study the generation of spin polarized currents using curved arcs of finite widths, in which the Rashba spin orbit interaction (RSOI) is present. Compared to the 1-dimensional RSOI arcs with zero widths studied previously, the finite width presents charge carriers with another degree of freedom along the transverse width of the arc, in addition to the longitudinal degree of freedom along the circumference of the arc. The asymmetry in the transverse direction due to the difference in the inner and outer radii of the arc breaks the antisymmetry of the longitudinal spin z current in a straight RSOI segment. This property can be exploited to generate spin z polarized current output from the RSOI arc by a spin unpolarized current input. The sign of the spin current can be manipulated by varying the arc dimensions.

18. Carbon flow electrodes for continuous operation of capacitive deionization and capacitive mixing energy generation

Porada, S.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Bryjak, M.; Presser, V.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Weingarth, D.

2014-01-01

Capacitive technologies, such as capacitive deionization and energy harvesting based on mixing energy (“capmix” and “CO2 energy”), are characterized by intermittent operation: phases of ion electrosorption from the water are followed by system regeneration. From a system application point of view, c

19. Arc cathode spots

Arc spots are usually highly unstable and jump statistically over the cathode surface. In a magnetic field parallel to the surface, preferably they move in the retrograde direction; i.e., opposite to the Lorentzian rule. If the field is inclined with respect to the surface, the spots drift away at a certain angle with respect to the proper retrograde direction (Robson drift motion). These well-known phenomena are explained by one stability theory

20. Vacuum Arc Ion Sources

Brown, I.

2014-01-01

The vacuum arc ion source has evolved into a more or less standard laboratory tool for the production of high-current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. Applications include primarily ion implantation for material surface modification research, and good performance has been obtained for the injection of high-current beams of heavy-metal ions, in particular uranium, into particle accelerators. As the use of the sourc...

1. Circular arc structures

Bo, Pengbo

2011-07-01

The most important guiding principle in computational methods for freeform architecture is the balance between cost efficiency on the one hand, and adherence to the design intent on the other. Key issues are the simplicity of supporting and connecting elements as well as repetition of costly parts. This paper proposes so-called circular arc structures as a means to faithfully realize freeform designs without giving up smooth appearance. In contrast to non-smooth meshes with straight edges where geometric complexity is concentrated in the nodes, we stay with smooth surfaces and rather distribute complexity in a uniform way by allowing edges in the shape of circular arcs. We are able to achieve the simplest possible shape of nodes without interfering with known panel optimization algorithms. We study remarkable special cases of circular arc structures which possess simple supporting elements or repetitive edges, we present the first global approximation method for principal patches, and we show an extension to volumetric structures for truly threedimensional designs. © 2011 ACM.

2. Ion channels, phosphorylation and mammalian sperm capacitation

Pablo E Visconti; Dario Krapf; José Luis de la Vega-Beltrán; Juan José Acevedo; Alberto Darszon

2011-01-01

Sexually reproducing animals require an orchestrated communication between spermatozoa and the egg to generate a new individual. Capacitation, a maturational complex phenomenon that occurs in the female reproductive tract, renders spermatozoa capable of binding and fusing with the oocyte, and it is a requirement for mammalian fertilization. Capacitation encompasses plasma membrane reorganization, ion permeability regulation, cholesterol loss and changes in the phosphorylation state of many proteins. Novel tools to study sperm ion channels, image intracellular ionic changes and proteins with better spatial and temporal resolution, are unraveling how modifications in sperm ion transport and phosphorylation states lead to capacitation. Recent evidence indicates that two parallel pathways regulate phosphorylation events leading to capacitation, one of them requiring activation of protein kinase A and the second one involving inactivation of ser/thr phosphatases. This review examines the involvement of ion transporters and phosphorylation signaling processes needed for spermatozoa to achieve capacitation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms leading to fertilization is central for societies to deal with rising male infertility rates, to develop safe male gamete-based contraceptives and to preserve biodiversity through better assisted fertilization strategies.

3. Creating dynamic equivalent PV circuit models with impedance spectroscopy for arc-fault modeling.

Johnson, Jay Dean; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Strauch, Jason E.; Schoenwald, David Alan

2011-06-01

Article 690.11 in the 2011 National Electrical Code{reg_sign} (NEC{reg_sign}) requires new photovoltaic (PV) systems on or penetrating a building to include a listed arc fault protection device. Currently there is little experimental or empirical research into the behavior of the arcing frequencies through PV components despite the potential for modules and other PV components to filter or attenuate arcing signatures that could render the arc detector ineffective. To model AC arcing signal propagation along PV strings, the well-studied DC diode models were found to inadequately capture the behavior of high frequency arcing signals. Instead dynamic equivalent circuit models of PV modules were required to describe the impedance for alternating currents in modules. The nonlinearities present in PV cells resulting from irradiance, temperature, frequency, and bias voltage variations make modeling these systems challenging. Linearized dynamic equivalent circuits were created for multiple PV module manufacturers and module technologies. The equivalent resistances and capacitances for the modules were determined using impedance spectroscopy with no bias voltage and no irradiance. The equivalent circuit model was employed to evaluate modules having irradiance conditions that could not be measured directly with the instrumentation. Although there was a wide range of circuit component values, the complex impedance model does not predict filtering of arc fault frequencies in PV strings for any irradiance level. Experimental results with no irradiance agree with the model and show nearly no attenuation for 1 Hz to 100 kHz input frequencies.

4. Flow Merging and Hub Route Optimization in Collaborative Transportation

Kerui Weng

2014-01-01

Full Text Available This paper studies the optimal hub routing problem of merged tasks in collaborative transportation. This problem allows all carriers’ transportation tasks to reach the destinations optionally passing through 0, 1, or 2 hubs within limited distance, while a cost discount on arcs in the hub route could be acquired after paying fixed charges. The problem arises in the application of logistics, postal services, airline transportation, and so forth. We formulate the problem as a mixed-integer programming model, and provide two heuristic approaches, respectively, based on Lagrangian relaxation and Benders decomposition. Computational experiments show that the algorithms work well.

5. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

2016-03-01

Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. PMID:26962031

6. Arc-preserving subsequences of arc-annotated sequences

2011-01-01

Arc-annotated sequences are useful in representing the structural information of RNA and protein sequences. The longest arc-preserving common subsequence problem has been introduced as a framework for studying the similarity of arc-annotated sequences. In this paper, we consider arc-annotated sequences with various arc structures. We consider the longest arc preserving common subsequence problem. In particular, we show that the decision version of the 1-{\\sc fragment LAPCS(crossing,chain)} and the decision version of the 0-{\\sc diagonal LAPCS(crossing,chain)} are {\\bf NP}-complete for some fixed alphabet $\\Sigma$ such that $|\\Sigma| = 2$. Also we show that if $|\\Sigma| = 1$, then the decision version of the 1-{\\sc fragment LAPCS(unlimited, plain)} and the decision version of the 0-{\\sc diagonal LAPCS(unlimited, plain)} are {\\bf NP}-complete.

7. Sleep-Route: Routing through Sleeping Sensors

Sarkar, Chayan; Rao, Vijay S.; Prasad, R. Venkatesha

2014-01-01

In this article, we propose an energy-efficient data gathering scheme for wireless sensor network called Sleep-Route, which splits the sensor nodes into two sets - active and dormant (low-power sleep). Only the active set of sensor nodes participate in data collection. The sensing values of the dormant sensor nodes are predicted with the help of an active sensor node. Virtual Sensing Framework (VSF) provides the mechanism to predict the sensing values by exploiting the data correlation among ...

8. Dahomey Breeding Bird Survey Route

US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Document contains route directions and map for the naitonal Dahomey BBS route. Includes milage for where specific listening stations are located along the route...

9. Capacitance measurement of magnetic specific heat

King, A. R.; Belanger, D. P.; Nordblad, P.; Jaccarino, V.

1984-03-01

A new technique-low frequency capacitance (C) measurement-has been used to study the critical behavior of both isotropic and anisotropic antiferromagnets. We find that dC/dT is accurately proportional to the known magnetic specific heat Cm of FeF2. This indicates that both dɛ/dT and dl/dT scale with Cm. For cubic KNiF3, the critical exponent (Cm=At-α) has been found to be α=-0.151±.004 and A/A'=1.56±0.03. The experiments measured the capacitance of disk-shaped samples with a three-terminal capacitance technique. A ratio transformer bridge was employed, yielding a resolution in ΔC/C of about 10-8. The quality of the results is comparable to the best obtainable from conventional Cm and birefringence measurements.

10. Carbon nanofiber supercapacitors with large areal capacitances

McDonough, James R.

2009-01-01

We develop supercapacitor (SC) devices with large per-area capacitances by utilizing three-dimensional (3D) porous substrates. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) functioning as active SC electrodes are grown on 3D nickel foam. The 3D porous substrates facilitate a mass loading of active electrodes and per-area capacitance as large as 60 mg/ cm2 and 1.2 F/ cm2, respectively. We optimize SC performance by developing an annealing-free CNF growth process that minimizes undesirable nickel carbide formation. Superior per-area capacitances described here suggest that 3D porous substrates are useful in various energy storage devices in which per-area performance is critical. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

11. Signal processing electronics for a capacitive microsensor

Amendola, Gilles; Lu, Guo N.

2000-04-01

An interface circuit in a 0.8-micrometers CMOS process for the on- chip integration of a capacitive micro-sensor used as a microphone is presented. In order to circumvent 1/f noise contributions and to improve the signal/noise ratio, a synchronous modulation-demodulation technique has been applied. For the implementation of this technique, we have studied and designed several functional block, such as modulator with signal conversion, low-noise amplifier, demodulator, etc. To deal with problems related to dispersion of intrinsic capacitance of the sensor, a feedback compensating solution is suggested. The designed circuit has a sensibility of 1200 V/pF, with a minimum detectable capacitance variation of 2 10-6 pF.

12. A high performance, variable capacitance accelerometer

Wilner, L. Bruce

1988-12-01

A variable capacitance acceleration sensor is described. Manufactured using silicon microfabrication techniques, the sensor uses a midplane, flat plate suspension, gas damping, and overrange stops. The sensor is assembled from three silicon wafers, using anodic bonds to inlays of borosilicate glass. Typical sensor properties are 7-pF active capacitance, 3-pF tare capacitance, a response of 0.05 pF/G, a resonance frequency of 3.4 kHz, and damping 0.7 critical. It is concluded that this sensor, with appropriate electronics, forms an accelerometer with an order-of-magnitude greater sensitivity-bandwidth product than a comparable piezoresistive acclerometer, and with extraordinary shock resistance.

13. Class network routing

Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

2009-09-08

Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

14. Hybrid laser-arc welding

Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

15. Highly sensitive micromachined capacitive pressure sensor with reduced hysteresis and low parasitic capacitance

Pedersen, Thomas; Fragiacomo, Giulio; Hansen, Ole;

2009-01-01

This paper describes the design and fabrication of a capacitive pressure sensor that has a large capacitance signal and a high sensitivity of 76 pF/bar in touch mode operation. Due to the large signal, problems with parasitic capacitances are avoided and hence it is possible to integrate the sensor...... with a discrete components electronics circuit for signal conditioning. Using an AC bridge electronics circuit a resolution of 8 mV/mbar is achieved. The large signal is obtained due to a novel membrane structure utilizing closely packed hexagonal elements. The sensor is fabricated in a process based...

16. Development of a 3D capacitive gyroscope with reduced parasitic capacitance

Walther, A.; Desloges, B.; Lejuste, C.; Coster, B.; Audebert, P.; Willemin, J.

2013-02-01

We present the development of a technological platform dedicated to 3D capacitive inertial sensors. The proof of concept will be made on a 3D gyroscope. The mobile structure is made within a 30 µm thick Si top layer of a SOI substrate, while poly-Si deposited on top of a sacrificial PSG layer serves as suspended top electrodes and connection wires. This technology enables us to maintain low parasitic capacitance, which is of paramount significance for capacitive detection. After packaging and association with an analogue electronic board, functionality of the sensor is demonstrated.

17. Development of a 3D capacitive gyroscope with reduced parasitic capacitance

We present the development of a technological platform dedicated to 3D capacitive inertial sensors. The proof of concept will be made on a 3D gyroscope. The mobile structure is made within a 30 µm thick Si top layer of a SOI substrate, while poly-Si deposited on top of a sacrificial PSG layer serves as suspended top electrodes and connection wires. This technology enables us to maintain low parasitic capacitance, which is of paramount significance for capacitive detection. After packaging and association with an analogue electronic board, functionality of the sensor is demonstrated. (paper)

18. Conductive two-dimensional titanium carbide 'clay' with high volumetric capacitance.

Ghidiu, Michael; Lukatskaya, Maria R; Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Gogotsi, Yury; Barsoum, Michel W

2014-12-01

Safe and powerful energy storage devices are becoming increasingly important. Charging times of seconds to minutes, with power densities exceeding those of batteries, can in principle be provided by electrochemical capacitors--in particular, pseudocapacitors. Recent research has focused mainly on improving the gravimetric performance of the electrodes of such systems, but for portable electronics and vehicles volume is at a premium. The best volumetric capacitances of carbon-based electrodes are around 300 farads per cubic centimetre; hydrated ruthenium oxide can reach capacitances of 1,000 to 1,500 farads per cubic centimetre with great cyclability, but only in thin films. Recently, electrodes made of two-dimensional titanium carbide (Ti3C2, a member of the 'MXene' family), produced by etching aluminium from titanium aluminium carbide (Ti3AlC2, a 'MAX' phase) in concentrated hydrofluoric acid, have been shown to have volumetric capacitances of over 300 farads per cubic centimetre. Here we report a method of producing this material using a solution of lithium fluoride and hydrochloric acid. The resulting hydrophilic material swells in volume when hydrated, and can be shaped like clay and dried into a highly conductive solid or rolled into films tens of micrometres thick. Additive-free films of this titanium carbide 'clay' have volumetric capacitances of up to 900 farads per cubic centimetre, with excellent cyclability and rate performances. This capacitance is almost twice that of our previous report, and our synthetic method also offers a much faster route to film production as well as the avoidance of handling hazardous concentrated hydrofluoric acid. PMID:25470044

19. Conductive two-dimensional titanium carbide clay' with high volumetric capacitance

Ghidiu, Michael; Lukatskaya, Maria R.; Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Gogotsi, Yury; Barsoum, Michel W.

2014-12-01

Safe and powerful energy storage devices are becoming increasingly important. Charging times of seconds to minutes, with power densities exceeding those of batteries, can in principle be provided by electrochemical capacitors--in particular, pseudocapacitors. Recent research has focused mainly on improving the gravimetric performance of the electrodes of such systems, but for portable electronics and vehicles volume is at a premium. The best volumetric capacitances of carbon-based electrodes are around 300 farads per cubic centimetre; hydrated ruthenium oxide can reach capacitances of 1,000 to 1,500 farads per cubic centimetre with great cyclability, but only in thin films. Recently, electrodes made of two-dimensional titanium carbide (Ti3C2, a member of the MXene' family), produced by etching aluminium from titanium aluminium carbide (Ti3AlC2, a MAX' phase) in concentrated hydrofluoric acid, have been shown to have volumetric capacitances of over 300 farads per cubic centimetre. Here we report a method of producing this material using a solution of lithium fluoride and hydrochloric acid. The resulting hydrophilic material swells in volume when hydrated, and can be shaped like clay and dried into a highly conductive solid or rolled into films tens of micrometres thick. Additive-free films of this titanium carbide clay' have volumetric capacitances of up to 900 farads per cubic centimetre, with excellent cyclability and rate performances. This capacitance is almost twice that of our previous report, and our synthetic method also offers a much faster route to film production as well as the avoidance of handling hazardous concentrated hydrofluoric acid.

20. Gas tungsten arc welder

A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process in which a rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable grinder, co-axial with the electrode, is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds. The specification also discloses means for loading of the cladding with fuel pellets and for placement of reflectors, gas capsules and end caps. Gravity feed conveyor and inerting means are also described. (author)

1. Quantum capacitance of the armchair-edge graphene nanoribbon

Ling-Feng Mao

2013-08-01

The quantum capacitance, an important parameter in the design of nanoscale devices, is derived for armchair-edge single-layer graphene nanoribbon with semiconducting property. The quantum capacitance oscillations are found and these capacitance oscillations originate from the lateral quantum confinement in graphene nanoribbon. Detailed studies of the capacitance oscillations demonstrate that the local channel electrostatic potential at the capacitance peak, the height and the number of the capacitance peak strongly depend on the width, especially a few nanometres, of the armchair-edge graphene nanoribbon. It implies that the capacitance oscillations observed in the experiments can be utilized to measure the width of graphene nanoribbon. The results also show that the capacitance oscillations are not seen when the width is larger than 30 nm.

2. Analysis of mutual capacitance and inductance of printed circuit

Ivanov, V. G.

2014-01-01

The article analyzes the mutual capacitance and inductance of printed circuit and introduces an evaluation technique for conductor-to-conductor capacitance under electrical connections tracing, the technique based on a multi-layer channel model.

3. Observation of Quantum Capacitance of individual single walled carbon nanotubes

Dai, Junfeng; Li, Jun; Zeng, Hualing; Cui, Xiaodong

2008-01-01

We report a measurement on quantum capacitance of individual semiconducting and small band gap SWNTs. The observed quantum capacitance is remarkably smaller than that originating from density of states and it implies a strong electron correlation in SWNTs.

4. Modeling Routing Overhead Generated by Wireless Reactive Routing Protocols

2011-01-01

In this paper, we have modeled the routing over- head generated by three reactive routing protocols; Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and DYnamic MANET On-deman (DYMO). Routing performed by reactive protocols consists of two phases; route discovery and route maintenance. Total cost paid by a protocol for efficient routing is sum of the cost paid in the form of energy consumed and time spent. These protocols majorly focus on the optimization performed by expanding ring search algorithm to control the flooding generated by the mechanism of blind flooding. So, we have modeled the energy consumed and time spent per packet both for route discovery and route maintenance. The proposed framework is evaluated in NS-2 to compare performance of the chosen routing protocols.

5. Modeling Routing Overhead Generated by Wireless Proactive Routing Protocols

2011-01-01

In this paper, we present a detailed framework consisting of modeling of routing overhead generated by three widely used proactive routing protocols; Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Fish-eye State Routing (FSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR). The questions like, how these protocols differ from each other on the basis of implementing different routing strategies, how neighbor estimation errors affect broadcast of route requests, how reduction of broadcast overhead achieves bandwidth, how to cope with the problem of mobility and density, etc, are attempted to respond. In all of the above mentioned situations, routing overhead and delay generated by the chosen protocols can exactly be calculated from our modeled equations. Finally, we analyze the performance of selected routing protocols using our proposed framework in NS-2 by considering different performance parameters; Route REQuest (RREQ) packet generation, End-to-End Delay (E2ED) and Normalized Routing Load (NRL) with respect to varyi...

6. Fabrication of capacitively-shunted superconducting qubits

Yoder, Jonilyn L.; Gudmundsen, Theodore J.; Bolkhovsky, Vladimir; Welander, Paul B.; Gustavsson, Simon; Hover, David; Kerman, Andrew J.; Sears, Adam P.; Oliver, William D.

2014-03-01

Improvements in superconducting qubit coherence times and reproducibility have been demonstrated using capacitive shunting. In this study, we present methods for the preparation of both capacitively-shunted charge qubits (transmons) and capacitively-shunted flux qubits. Hybrid fabrication techniques were employed to combine high-quality-factor aluminum capacitive shunts with shadow-evaporated Josephson junctions, and the Josephson junctions were prepared using suspended-bridge germanium masks. We also will describe process testing results that were acquired to assess wafer-to-wafer reproducibility of our fabrication protocols. This research was funded in part by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA); and by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering under Air Force Contract number FA8721-05-C-0002. All statements of fact, opinion or conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be construed as representing the official views or policies of IARPA, the ODNI, or the U.S. Government.

7. Teaching of Inductive and Capacitive Reactance.

MacInnes, I.; Jeffrey, W. S.

1983-01-01

Discusses how understanding mechanical systems and their graphic representation can be of value when teaching inductive and capacitive reactance, in particular, the response of inductors and capacitors to an alternating potential difference. Suggests that mechanical systems be taught, not just before introducing reactance but earlier in the…

8. Thermodynamic cycle analysis for capacitive deionization

Biesheuvel, P.M.

2009-01-01

Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an ion removal technology based on temporarily storing ions in the polarization layers of two oppositely positioned electrodes. Here we present a thermodynamic model for the minimum work required for ion separation in the fully reversible case by describing the ionic

9. Capacitive Proximity Sensors With Additional Driven Shields

Mcconnell, Robert L.

1993-01-01

Improved capacitive proximity sensors constructed by incorporating one or more additional driven shield(s). Sensitivity and range of sensor altered by adjusting driving signal(s) applied to shield(s). Includes sensing electrode and driven isolating shield that correspond to sensing electrode and driven shield.

10. Phase-Discriminating Capacitive Sensor System

1993-01-01

Crosstalk eliminated by maintaining voltages on all electrodes at same amplitude, phase, and frequency. Each output feedback-derived control voltage, change of which indicates proximity-induced change in capacitance of associated sensing electrode. Sensors placed close together, enabling imaging of sort. Images and/or output voltages used to guide robots in proximity to various objects.

11. Capacitive Displacement Sensor With Frequency Readout

Fritsch, Klaus

1989-01-01

Simple displacement-measuring circuit senses capacitance between two parallel conducting plates and produces output signal, with frequency proportional to distance between plates. Principle of circuit provides advantages over other methods because of frequency-encoded output and high linearity. Used to measure displacements.

12. Negative capacitance in multidomain ferroelectric superlattices

Zubko, Pavlo; Wojdeł, Jacek C.; Hadjimichael, Marios; Fernandez-Pena, Stéphanie; Sené, Anaïs; Luk’Yanchuk, Igor; Triscone, Jean-Marc; Íñiguez, Jorge

2016-06-01

The stability of spontaneous electrical polarization in ferroelectrics is fundamental to many of their current applications, which range from the simple electric cigarette lighter to non-volatile random access memories. Research on nanoscale ferroelectrics reveals that their behaviour is profoundly different from that in bulk ferroelectrics, which could lead to new phenomena with potential for future devices. As ferroelectrics become thinner, maintaining a stable polarization becomes increasingly challenging. On the other hand, intentionally destabilizing this polarization can cause the effective electric permittivity of a ferroelectric to become negative, enabling it to behave as a negative capacitance when integrated in a heterostructure. Negative capacitance has been proposed as a way of overcoming fundamental limitations on the power consumption of field-effect transistors. However, experimental demonstrations of this phenomenon remain contentious. The prevalent interpretations based on homogeneous polarization models are difficult to reconcile with the expected strong tendency for domain formation, but the effect of domains on negative capacitance has received little attention. Here we report negative capacitance in a model system of multidomain ferroelectric–dielectric superlattices across a wide range of temperatures, in both the ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. Using a phenomenological model, we show that domain-wall motion not only gives rise to negative permittivity, but can also enhance, rather than limit, its temperature range. Our first-principles-based atomistic simulations provide detailed microscopic insight into the origin of this phenomenon, identifying the dominant contribution of near-interface layers and paving the way for its future exploitation.

13. Site Specific Evaluation of Multisensor Capacitance Probes

Multisensor capacitance probes (MCPs) are widely used for measuring soil water content (SWC) at the field scale. Although manufacturers supply a generic MCP calibration, many researchers recognize that MCPs should be calibrated for specific field conditions. MCPs measurements are typically associa...

14. Capacitors and Resistance-Capacitance Networks.

Balabanian, Norman; Root, Augustin A.

This programed textbook was developed under a contract with the United States Office of Education as Number 5 in a series of materials for use in an electrical engineering sequence. It is divided into three parts--(1) capacitors, (2) voltage-current relationships, and (3) simple resistance-capacitance networks. (DH)

15. Inside-out electrical capacitance tomography

Kjærsgaard-Rasmussen, Jimmy; Meyer, Knud Erik

2011-01-01

In this work we demonstrate the construction of an ‘inside-out’ sensor geometry for electrical capacitance tomography (ECT). The inside-out geometry has the electrodes placed around a tube, as usual, but measuring ‘outwards’. The flow between the electrodes and an outer tube is reconstructed; all...

16. [Experience in developing and using capacitive electrodes].

Grishanovich, A P; Iarmolinskiĭ, V I

1984-01-01

A capacitive-type electrode using titanium or tantalum oxide obtained through anodizing is described. Incorporated in the electrode is a source for a buffer amplifier. A shielding cap is used as an indifferent electrode. High performance allows using the electrodes for ECG, EEG, and other signal recording in clinical practice and researches. PMID:6708763

17. Electric arc welding gun

Luttrell, Edward; Turner, Paul W.

1978-01-01

This invention relates to improved apparatus for arc welding an interior joint formed by intersecting tubular members. As an example, the invention is well suited for applications where many similar small-diameter vertical lines are to be welded to a long horizontal header. The improved apparatus includes an arc welding gun having a specially designed welding head which is not only very compact but also produces welds that are essentially free from rolled-over solidified metal. The welding head consists of the upper end of the barrel and a reversely extending electrode holder, or tip, which defines an acute angle with the barrel. As used in the above-mentioned example, the gun is positioned to extend upwardly through the vertical member and the joint to be welded, with its welding head disposed within the horizontal header. Depending on the design of the welding head, the barrel then is either rotated or revolved about the axis of the vertical member to cause the electrode to track the joint.

18. Anisotropic magneto-capacitance in ferromagnetic-plate capacitors

Haigh, J. A.; Ciccarelli, C; Betz, A. C.; Irvine, A; Novák, V.; Jungwirth, T.; Wunderlich, J.

2015-01-01

The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor can depend on applied magnetic field. Previous studies have identified capacitance changes induced via classical Lorentz force or spin-dependent Zeeman effects. Here we measure a magnetization direction dependent capacitance in parallel-plate capacitors where one plate is a ferromagnetic semiconductor, gallium manganese arsenide. This anisotropic magneto-capacitance is due to the anisotropy in the density of states dependent on the magnetization t...

19. Membrane capacitance techniques to monitor granule exocytosis in neutrophils.

Lollike, K; Lindau, M

1999-01-01

Cell membranes behave like electrical capacitors and changes in cell capacitance therefore reflect changes in the cell area. Monitoring capacitance can thus be used to study dynamic cellular phenomenon involving rapid changes in cell surface, such as exo- and/or endocytosis. In this review focus is on the use of capacitance techniques to study exocytosis in human neutrophils. We compare the whole-cell and the cell-attached capacitance techniques, and we review the complete literature dealing ...

20. Negative Quantum Capacitance of Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors

Latessa, L.; Pecchia, A.; Di Carlo, A.; P. Lugli

2004-01-01

Atomistic density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the capacitance between a metallic cylindric gate and a carbon nanotube (CNT) are reported. Results stressing the predominant effect of quantum capacitance in limiting or even enhancing screening properties of the CNT are shown. Other contributions to the quantum capacitance beyond the electronic density of state (DOS) are pointed out. Negative values of the quantum capacitance are obtained for low-density systems, which correspondingl...

1. MOS Capacitance-Voltage Characteristics:V.Methods to Enhance the Trapping Capacitance

揭斌斌; 薩支唐

2012-01-01

Low-frequency and High-frequency Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) curves of Silicon Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Capacitors,showing electron and hole trapping at shallow-level dopant and deep-level generationrecombination-trapping impurities,are presented to illustrate the enhancement of the giant trapping capacitances by physical means via device and circuit designs,in contrast to chemical means via impurity characteristics previously reported.Enhancement is realized by masking the electron or/and hole storage capacitances to make the trapping capacitances dominant at the terminals.Device and materials properties used in the computed CV curves are selected to illustrate experimental realizations for fundamental trapping parameter characterizations and for electrical and optical signal processing applications.

2. Electric field theory and the fallacy of void capacitance

McAllister, Iain Wilson

1991-01-01

The concept of the capacitance of a gaseous void is discussed as applied to electrical insulation science. The most pertinent aspect of the capacitance definition is that of reference to a single-valued potential difference between surfaces. This implies that these surfaces must be surfaces of equipotential. With this essential characteristics the validity of void capacitance is examined

3. Multihop Wireless Networks Opportunistic Routing

Zeng, Kai; Li, Ming

2011-01-01

This book provides an introduction to opportunistic routing an emerging technology designed to improve the packet forwarding reliability, network capacity and energy efficiency of multihop wireless networks This book presents a comprehensive background to the technological challenges lying behind opportunistic routing. The authors cover many fundamental research issues for this new concept, including the basic principles, performance limit and performance improvement of opportunistic routing compared to traditional routing, energy efficiency and distributed opportunistic routing protocol desig

4. Collective network routing

Hoenicke, Dirk

2014-12-02

Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

5. Roots and routes

Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Jensen, Sune Qvotrup

2011-01-01

arguing that there is a dynamic interplay between roots and routes in people's lives. The empirical point of departure is narratives about roots and routes by ethnic minorities settled in Aalborg East, an underprivileged neighbourhood in northern Denmark. One of the main findings is a gap between the...... somewhat paradoxical finding is that it appears to be more difficult for transnational migrants to maintain their roots in the country of origin when they go back than it was to establish new roots in the host country...

6. Torch Route Twist

2008-01-01

San Francisco changes Olympic flame route due to security fears The city of San Francisco,the only North American stop for the 2008 Beijing Olympic torch,surprised thousands of supporters,demon- strators and visitors on April 9,by com- pletely changing the planned torch route at the last minute without notification. As scheduled,the torch was expected to start from the McCovey Cove in the south- east of the city at 1:00 p.m.before heading along the waterfront northbound to famous tourist spot Fisherman’s Wharf and finally

7. Route based forecasting

Zuurendonk, I. W.; Wokke, M. J. J.

2009-09-01

8. Of Eggs and Arcs

Burns, Joseph A.; Thomas, P. C.; Helfenstein, P.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Hedman, M. M.; Agarwal, M.

2012-10-01

New scenarios for the origins of Saturn’s rings/interior moons have directed scientific attention to the region just exterior to Saturn’s main rings. Four satellites (Aegaeon = Ae; Anthe = An; Methone = Me; Pallene = Pa) discovered by the Cassini mission on either side of Mimas’s orbit perhaps comprise a distinct class of ring-moon. They are tiny (R = 0.3-2.5 km); three (AeAnMe) are trapped in co-rotation resonances with Mimas and reside within ring-arcs; and at least two (MePa) have remarkably regular shapes. Images with pixel scales as fine as 27 m taken in May 2012 reveal Methone to be ovoid within 10 m (from sub-pixel limb detection) and devoid of any craters (>130 m) across its 9 km2 of surface; Pallene and even tiny Aegaeon have similar appearances in lesser-quality images. Numerical simulations demonstrate that particles comprising the surrounding ring-arcs populate the same resonances as their embedded moons; escape speeds from the moons are bodies. In this environment, the moons’ shapes are smooth equipotentials; electrostatic effects may also determine how grains settle to surfaces. Considering these shapes to represent equipotential surfaces for rotating, tidally distorted, homogeneous bodies, we infer mean satellite densities of 250+/-60 (Pa), 310+/-30 (Me), and 540+/-120 (Ae) kg m-3. About half of Methone’s leading hemisphere is covered by a sharply bounded, lemon-shaped, relatively dark region, having a form reminiscent of Mimas’s thermal anomaly (Howett et al. 2011). Its (601 nm) albedo is 13% lower than the bounding brighter material. An irregularly shaped, even-darker (by 4%) blotch straddles the apex of the moon’s motion. Impacts with circum-planetary meteoroids and plasma are likely responsible for these features.

9. SET-Routes programme

Marietta Schupp, EMBL Photolab

2008-01-01

Dr Sabine Hentze, specialist in human genetics, giving an Insight Lecture entitled "Human Genetics – Diagnostics, Indications and Ethical Issues" on 23 September 2008 at EMBL Heidelberg. Activities in a achool in Budapest during a visit of Angela Bekesi, Ambassadors for the SET-Routes programme.

10. SET-Routes programme

CERN audiovisual service

2009-01-01

The SET-Routes programme, launched in 2007 with the goal of attracting girls and young women to careers in science, came to an end in April this year. The result of a collaboration between EMBL, EMBO and CERN, the programme established a network of "ambassadors", women scientists who went out to talk about their careers in science at schools and universities across Europe.

11. Whirlpool routing for mobility

Lee, Jung Woo

2010-01-01

We present the Whirlpool Routing Protocol (WARP), which efficiently routes data to a node moving within a static mesh. The key insight in WARP\\'s design is that data traffic can use an existing routing gradient to efficiently probe the topology, repair the routing gradient, and communicate these repairs to nearby nodes. Using simulation, controlled testbeds, and real mobility experiments, we find that using the data plane for topology maintenance is highly effective due to the incremental nature of mobility updates. WARP leverages the fact that converging flows at a destination make the destination have the region of highest traffic. We provide a theoretical basis for WARP\\'s behavior, defining an "update area" in which the topology must adjust when a destination moves. As long as packets arrive at a destination before it moves outside of the update area, WARP can repair the topology using the data plane. Compared to existing protocols, such as DYMO and HYPER, WARP\\'s packet drop rate is up to 90% lower while sending up to 90% fewer packets.

12. Arc Interference Behavior during Twin Wire Gas Metal Arc Welding Process

Dingjian Ye

2013-01-01

Full Text Available In order to study arc interference behavior during twin wire gas metal arc welding process, the synchronous acquisition system has been established to acquire instantaneous information of arc profile including dynamic arc length variation as well as relative voltage and current signals. The results show that after trailing arc (T-arc is added to the middle arc (M-arc in a stable welding process, the current of M arc remains unchanged while the agitation increases; the voltage of M arc has an obvious increase; the shape of M arc changes, with increasing width, length, and area; the transfer frequency of M arc droplet increases and the droplet itself becomes smaller. The wire extension length of twin arc turns out to be shorter than that of single arc welding.

13. Layer resolved capacitive probing of graphene bilayers

Zibrov, Alexander; Parmentier, François; Li, Jia; Wang, Lei; Hunt, Benjamin; Dean, Cory; Hone, James; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Young, Andrea

Compared to single layer graphene, graphene bilayers have an additional which-layer'' degree of freedom that can be controlled by an external electric field in a dual-gated device geometry. We describe capacitance measurements capable of directly probing this degree of freedom. By performing top gate, bottom gate, and penetration field capacitance measurements, we directly extract layer polarization of both Bernal and twisted bilayers. We will present measurements of hBN encapsulated bilayers at both zero and high magnetic field, focusing on the physics of the highly degenerate zero-energy Landau level in the high magnetic field limit where spin, valley, and layer degeneracy are all lifted by electronic interactions.

14. A simple and reproducible capacitive electrode.

Spinelli, Enrique; Guerrero, Federico; García, Pablo; Haberman, Marcelo

2016-03-01

Capacitive Electrodes (CE) allow the acquisition of biopotentials through a dielectric layer, without the use of electrolytes, just by placing them on skin or clothing, but demands front-ends with ultra-high input impedances. This must be achieved while providing a path for bias currents, calling for ultra-high value resistors and special components and construction techniques. A simple CE that uses bootstrap techniques to avoid ultra-high value components and special materials is proposed. When electrodes are placed on the skin; that is, with coupling capacitances CS of around 100 pF, they present a noise level of 3.3 µVRMS in a 0.5-100 Hz bandwidth, which is appropriate for electrocardiography (ECG) measurements. Construction details of the CE and the complete circuit, including a fast recovery feature, are presented. PMID:26792172

15. Development of a capacitive bioimpedance measurement system

2009-01-01

Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) is a well-established and non-invasive method to determine and monitor body composition. Commercially available bioelectrical impedance systems use coated hydrogel-aluminium electrodes, where the hydrogel acts as an adhesive and as an electrolytic medium. The gel/adhesive is physiologically inert over short periods. However, when used over longer periods, hydrogel-aluminium electrodes present limitations, which capacitive electrodes ma...

16. Performance relations in Capacitive Deionization systems

Limpt, van, C.

2010-01-01

Capacitive Deionization (CDI) is a relatively new deionization technology based on the temporary storage of ions on an electrically charged surface. By directing a flow between two oppositely charged surfaces, negatively charged ions will adsorb onto the positively charged surface, and positively charged ions will adsorb onto the negatively charged surface. To optimize CDI design for various applications, performance relations in CDI systems have to be understood. CDI performance is determine...

17. Ultra-High-Frequency Capacitive Displacement Sensor

Vanzandt, Thomas R.; Kenny, Thomas W.; Kaiser, William J.

1994-01-01

Improved class of compact, high-resolution capacitive displacement sensors operates at excitation frequency of 915 MHz and measures about 7.5 by 4 by 2 centimeters. Contains commercially available 915-MHz oscillator and transmission-line resonator. Resonator contains stripline inductor in addition to variable capacitor. Ultrahigh excitation frequency offers advantages of resolution and frequency response. Not deleteriously affected by mechanical overdriving, or contact between electrodes.

18. Capacitive Sensors And Targets Would Measure Alignments

Jenstrom, Del T.

1994-01-01

Multiple capacitive sensors and active targets used to measure distance between, and relative orientation of, two objects. Sensed target signals processed and used by control systems to align objects to be joined. Shapes, sizes, and layouts of sensors and targets optimized for specific application. Particular layout of targets and sensors enables determination of relative position and orientation of two objects in all six degrees of freedom.

19. The fringe capacitance formula of microstructures

This paper presents a fringe capacitance formula of microstructures. The formula is derived by curve fitting on ANSYS simulation results. Compared with the ANSYS and experimental results, the deviation is within ±2%. The application to determine the pull-in voltage of an electrostatic micro-beam is demonstrated, which agrees very well with the experimental data. The formula presented is very accurate, yields explicit physical meanings and is applicable to common dimension ranges for MEMS devices. (paper)

20. Capacitive Structures for Gas and Biological Sensing

Sapsanis, Christos

2015-04-01

The semiconductor industry was benefited by the advances in technology in the last decades. This fact has an impact on the sensors field, where the simple transducer was evolved into smart miniaturized multi-functional microsystems. However, commercially available gas and biological sensors are mostly bulky, expensive, and power-hungry, which act as obstacles to mass use. The aim of this work is gas and biological sensing using capacitive structures. Capacitive sensors were selected due to its design simplicity, low fabrication cost, and no DC power consumption. In the first part, the dominant structure among interdigitated electrodes (IDEs), fractal curves (Peano and Hilbert) and Archimedean spiral was investigated from capacitance density perspective. The investigation consists of geometrical formula calculations, COMSOL Multiphysics simulations and cleanroom fabrication of the capacitors on a silicon substrate. Moreover, low-cost fabrication on flexible plastic PET substrate was conducted outside cleanroom with rapid prototyping using a maskless laser etching. The second part contains the humidity, Volatile Organic compounds (VOCs) and Ammonia sensing of polymers, Polyimide and Nafion, and metal-organic framework (MOF), Cu(bdc)2.xH2O using IDEs and tested in an automated gas setup for experiment control and data extraction. The last part includes the biological sensing of C - reactive protein (CRP) quantification, which is considered as a biomarker of being prone to cardiac diseases and Bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein quantification, which is used as a reference for quantifying unknown proteins.

1. Multi-Channel Capacitive Sensor Arrays.

Wang, Bingnan; Long, Jiang; Teo, Koon Hoo

2016-01-01

In this paper, multi-channel capacitive sensor arrays based on microstrip band-stop filters are studied. The sensor arrays can be used to detect the proximity of objects at different positions and directions. Each capacitive sensing structure in the array is connected to an inductive element to form resonance at different frequencies. The resonances are designed to be isolated in the frequency spectrum, such that the change in one channel does not affect resonances at other channels. The inductive element associated with each capacitive sensor can be surface-mounted inductors, integrated microstrip inductors or metamaterial-inspired structures. We show that by using metamaterial split-ring structures coupled to a microstrip line, the quality factor of each resonance can be greatly improved compared to conventional surface-mounted or microstrip meander inductors. With such a microstrip-coupled split-ring design, more sensing elements can be integrated in the same frequency spectrum, and the sensitivity can be greatly improved. PMID:26821023

2. Disjunctive cuts in a branch-and-price algorithm for the capacitated vehicle routing problem

Røpke, Stefan

This talk presents computational results that show the usefulness of the general-purpose valid inequalities disjunctive cuts when applied to the CVRP. Results indicate that the disjunctive cuts are able to reduce the gap between lower bound and upper bound more than state-of-the-art problem speci...... specific inequalities. Results also indicate that introducing the cuts leads to a smaller branch and bound tree and faster solution times overall.......This talk presents computational results that show the usefulness of the general-purpose valid inequalities disjunctive cuts when applied to the CVRP. Results indicate that the disjunctive cuts are able to reduce the gap between lower bound and upper bound more than state-of-the-art problem...

3. A Column Generation Approach to the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Stochastic Demands

Christiansen, Christian Holk; Lysgaard, Jens

CVRPSD can be formulated as a Set Partitioning Problem. We show that, under the above assumptions on demands, the associated column generation subproblem can be solved using a dynamic programming scheme which is similar to that used in the case of deterministic demands. To evaluate the potential of our...... approach we have embedded this column generation scheme in a branch-and-price algorithm. Computational experiments on a large set of test instances show promising results....

4. Models and Methods for the City Logistics: The Two-Echelon Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

Gonzalez-Feliu, Jesus

2008-01-01

La distribution de marchandises est un secteur en constant développement et constitue un facteur économique important. Par contre, dans les villes, il contribue notamment aux problèmes de congestion, pollution, bruit et d'autres dérangements à la population des villes. Pour faire face à ces problèmes, une nouvelle discipline est née à la fin du XXe siècle, la " City Logistics ", qui a comme objectifs principaux la réduction de la congestion, la pollution et le bruit occasionné par le transpor...

5. High current electric arcs; Les arcs electriques a fort courant

Delalondre, C.; Simonin, O. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Lab. National d' Hydraulique; Mineau, L. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Dept. Systemes Energetiques; Verite, J.C. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Dept. Cables, Condensateurs, Materiel d' Automatisme et Materiaux

1999-07-01

The mechanisms called into play through the interaction between a high current electric arc and the surrounding environment have an essential role to play in the performance of arc furnaces and high voltage circuit breakers. Our knowledge of them remains poor, and because of the very high temperatures and speeds involved, experimental investigation is particularly difficult. What can numerical modelling teach us about these phenomena? (authors)

6. Distributed Capacitive Sensor for Sample Mass Measurement

Toda, Risaku; McKinney, Colin; Jackson, Shannon P.; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Manohara, Harish; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey

2011-01-01

Previous robotic sample return missions lacked in situ sample verification/ quantity measurement instruments. Therefore, the outcome of the mission remained unclear until spacecraft return. In situ sample verification systems such as this Distributed Capacitive (DisC) sensor would enable an unmanned spacecraft system to re-attempt the sample acquisition procedures until the capture of desired sample quantity is positively confirmed, thereby maximizing the prospect for scientific reward. The DisC device contains a 10-cm-diameter pressure-sensitive elastic membrane placed at the bottom of a sample canister. The membrane deforms under the weight of accumulating planetary sample. The membrane is positioned in close proximity to an opposing rigid substrate with a narrow gap. The deformation of the membrane makes the gap narrower, resulting in increased capacitance between the two parallel plates (elastic membrane and rigid substrate). C-V conversion circuits on a nearby PCB (printed circuit board) provide capacitance readout via LVDS (low-voltage differential signaling) interface. The capacitance method was chosen over other potential approaches such as the piezoelectric method because of its inherent temperature stability advantage. A reference capacitor and temperature sensor are embedded in the system to compensate for temperature effects. The pressure-sensitive membranes are aluminum 6061, stainless steel (SUS) 403, and metal-coated polyimide plates. The thicknesses of these membranes range from 250 to 500 m. The rigid substrate is made with a 1- to 2-mm-thick wafer of one of the following materials depending on the application requirements glass, silicon, polyimide, PCB substrate. The glass substrate is fabricated by a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication approach. Several concentric electrode patterns are printed on the substrate. The initial gap between the two plates, 100 m, is defined by a silicon spacer ring that is anodically bonded to the glass

7. STUDY ON THE PRESSURE IN PLASMA ARC

2003-01-01

The axial pressure in plasma arc is measured under different conditions. The effects of the parameters, such as welding current, plasma gas flow rate, electrode setback and arc length, on the pressure in plasma arc are investigated and quantitative analyzed to explain the relationship between the quality of weld and the matching of parameters in plasma arc welding process.

8. Improved capacitance sensor with variable operating frequency for scanning capacitance microscopy

Kwon, Joonhyung [PSIA Corporation, Induspia 5F, Sang-Daewon-Dong 517-13, Sungnam 462-120 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joonhui [PSIA Corporation, Induspia 5F, Sang-Daewon-Dong 517-13, Sungnam 462-120 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jong-Hwa [PSIA Corporation, Induspia 5F, Sang-Daewon-Dong 517-13, Sungnam 462-120 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Euy-Kyu [Department of Physics, Myongji University, Yongin, Kyunggido 449-728 (Korea, Republic of); Seok Kim, Yong [PSIA Corporation, Induspia 5F, Sang-Daewon-Dong 517-13, Sungnam 462-120 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chi Jung [Department of Physics, Myongji University, Yongin, Kyunggido 449-728 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-il [PSIA Corporation, Induspia 5F, Sang-Daewon-Dong 517-13, Sungnam 462-120 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: park@psia.co.kr

2005-11-15

Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) has been gaining attention for its capability to measure local electrical properties in doping profile, oxide thickness, trapped charges and charge dynamics. In many cases, stray capacitance produced by different samples and measurement conditions affects the resonance frequency of a capacitance sensor. The applications of conventional SCM are critically limited by the fixed operating frequency and lack of tunability in its SCM sensor. In order to widen SCM application to various samples, we have developed a novel SCM sensor with variable operating frequency. By performing variable frequency sweep over the band of 160 MHz, the SCM sensor is tuned to select the best and optimized resonance frequency and quality factor for each sample measurement. The fundamental advantage of the new variable frequency SCM sensor was demonstrated in the SCM imaging of silicon oxide nano-crystals. Typical sensitivity of the variable frequency SCM sensor was found to be 10{sup -19} F/V.

9. Improved capacitance sensor with variable operating frequency for scanning capacitance microscopy

Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) has been gaining attention for its capability to measure local electrical properties in doping profile, oxide thickness, trapped charges and charge dynamics. In many cases, stray capacitance produced by different samples and measurement conditions affects the resonance frequency of a capacitance sensor. The applications of conventional SCM are critically limited by the fixed operating frequency and lack of tunability in its SCM sensor. In order to widen SCM application to various samples, we have developed a novel SCM sensor with variable operating frequency. By performing variable frequency sweep over the band of 160 MHz, the SCM sensor is tuned to select the best and optimized resonance frequency and quality factor for each sample measurement. The fundamental advantage of the new variable frequency SCM sensor was demonstrated in the SCM imaging of silicon oxide nano-crystals. Typical sensitivity of the variable frequency SCM sensor was found to be 10-19 F/V

10. Issues of Routing in VANET

Raja, Umar Waqas; Mustafa, Bilal

2010-01-01

Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) is a sub class of mobile ad hoc networks. VANET provides wireless communication among vehicles and vehicle to road side equipments. The communication between vehicles is used for safety, comfort and for entertainment as well. The performance of communication depends on how better the routing takes place in the network. Routing of data depends on the routing protocols being used in network. In this study we investigated about different ad hoc routing protocols ...

11. Alternative iron making routes

Kaushik, P.; Sharma, T. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India)

2002-07-01

The versatile route of iron production 'blast furnace' technique is being replaced by widely accepted Corex technology, Midrex process using Fastmelt ironmaking, eco-friendly Romelt process, more innovative Ausmelt & Hismelt technology, TATA KORF Mini blast furnace improvement, 'quickest iron through Orbiting Plasma', Direct iron ore smelting process, Conred, AISI-Hyl, Inred processes, Direct iron ore reduction methods, their comparison and proposed modifications. 18 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs.

12. Effective local dynamic routing strategy for air route networks

Wu Wenjun; Zhao Lingxi

2015-01-01

With the rapid development of air transportation, network service ability has attracted a lot of attention in academe. Aiming to improve the throughput of the air route network (ARN), we propose an effective local dynamic routing strategy in this paper. Several factors, such as the rout-ing distance, the geographical distance and the real-time local traffic, are taken into consideration. When the ARN is in the normal free-flow state, the proposed strategy can recover the shortest path routing (SPR) strategy. When the ARN undergoes congestion, the proposed strategy changes the paths of flights based on the real-time local traffic information. The throughput of the Chinese air route network (CARN) is evaluated. Results confirm that the proposed strategy can significantly improve the throughput of CARN. Meanwhile, the increase in the average flying distance and time is tiny. Results also indicate the importance of the distance related factors in a routing strategy designed for the ARN.

13. Arcing and rf signal generation during target irradiation by a high-energy, pulsed neutral particle beam

We present a theory describing the dynamics of arc discharges in bulk dielectric materials on board space-based vehicles. Such ''punch-through'' arcs can occur in target satellites irradiated by high-energy (250 MeV), pulsed (100 mA x 10 ms) neutral particle beams. We treat the arc as a capacitively limited avalanche current in the target dielectric material, and we find expressions for the arc duration, charge transport, currents, and discharge energy. These quantities are adjusted to be consistent with known scaling laws for the area of charge depleted by the arc. After a brief account of the statistical distribution of voltages at which the arc starts and stops, we calculate the signal strength and frequency spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation broadcast by the arc. We find that arcs from thick (/similar to/1 cm) targets can generate rf signals detectable up to 1000 km from the target, bu a radio receiver operating at frequency 80 MHz, bandwidth 100 kHz, and detection threshold -105 dBm. These thick-target arc signals are 10 to 20 dB above ambient noise at the receiver, and they provide target hit assessment if the signal spectrum can be sampled at several frequencies in the nominal range 30-200 MHz. Thin-target (/similar to/1 mm) arc signals are much weaker, but when they are detecable in conjunction with thick-target signals, target discrimination is possible by comparing the signal frequency spectra. 24 refs., 12 figs

14. Routing Autonomous Vehicles in Congested Transportation Networks: Structural Properties and Coordination Algorithms

Zhang, Rick; Rossi, Federico; Pavone, Marco

2016-01-01

This paper considers the problem of routing and rebalancing a shared fleet of autonomous (i.e., self-driving) vehicles providing on-demand mobility within a capacitated transportation network, where congestion might disrupt throughput. We model the problem within a network flow framework and show that under relatively mild assumptions the rebalancing vehicles, if properly coordinated, do not lead to an increase in congestion (in stark contrast to common belief). From an algorithmic standpoint...

15. Image reconstruction for field-focusing capacitance imaging

For online monitoring of multi-phase flows of non-conductive materials, a field-focusing capacitance imaging system has been developed. With a field focusing capacitance sensor, a tomographic image based on capacitance measurements is used directly to map the material distribution. However, it is difficult to achieve a required accuracy for measurement of void fraction from the capacitance image, because of the soft-field effect of the capacitance sensor. In this paper, the forward and inverse problems with a field-focusing capacitance sensor are described. Simulation and experimental results show that deconvolution-based algorithms can reduce the blurring artefact and can reconstruct an image close to the original distribution

16. Numerical analysis of capacitive pressure micro-sensors

WANG Xiaomin; LI Mingxuan; WANG Chenghao

2005-01-01

Pseudo-spectral method is used to numerically model the diaphragm deflection of capacitive pressure micro-sensor under uniform load. The relationship between the capacitance of the micro-sensor and the load is then analyzed after the description of the computational principle. For normal mode micro-sensor, the tensile force on the diaphragm can be ignored and thereby the capacitance increases linearly with the load increase only when the load is so small that the resultant deflection is less than the diaphragm thickness. The linear relationship between the capacitance and the load turns to be nonlinear thereafter and the capacitance rises dramatically with the constant increase of the load. For touch mode micro-sensor, an algorithm to determine the touch radius of the diaphragm and substrate is presented and the curve of capacitance versus load is shown on the numerical results laying a theoretical foundation for micro-sensor design.

17. Stochastic vehicle routing with recourse

Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath; Saket, Rishi

We study the classic Vehicle Routing Problem in the setting of stochastic optimization with recourse. StochVRP is a two-stage problem, where demand is satisfied using two routes: fixed and recourse. The fixed route is computed using only a demand distribution. Then after observing the demand...... instantiations, a recourse route is computed - but costs here become more expensive by a factor λ. We present an O(log2n ·log(nλ))-approximation algorithm for this stochastic routing problem, under arbitrary distributions. The main idea in this result is relating StochVRP to a special case of submodular...

18. Robustness of airline route networks

Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

2016-03-01

Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

19. CMOS MEMS capacitive absolute pressure sensor

This paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of a capacitive pressure sensor using a commercial 0.18 µm CMOS (complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor) process and postprocess. The pressure sensor is capacitive and the structure is formed by an Al top electrode enclosed in a suspended SiO2 membrane, which acts as a movable electrode against a bottom or stationary Al electrode fixed on the SiO2 substrate. Both the movable and fixed electrodes form a variable parallel plate capacitor, whose capacitance varies with the applied pressure on the surface. In order to release the membranes the CMOS layers need to be applied postprocess and this mainly consists of four steps: (1) deposition and patterning of PECVD (plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition) oxide to protect CMOS pads and to open the pressure sensor top surface, (2) etching of the sacrificial layer to release the suspended membrane, (3) deposition of PECVD oxide to seal the etching holes and creating vacuum inside the gap, and finally (4) etching of the passivation oxide to open the pads and allow electrical connections. This sensor design and fabrication is suitable to obey the design rules of a CMOS foundry and since it only uses low-temperature processes, it allows monolithic integration with other types of CMOS compatible sensors and IC (integrated circuit) interface on a single chip. Experimental results showed that the pressure sensor has a highly linear sensitivity of 0.14 fF kPa−1 in the pressure range of 0–300 kPa. (paper)

20. Probing Quantum Capacitance in a 3D Topological Insulator

Kozlov, D. A.; Bauer, Dominik; Ziegler, Johannes; Fischer, Ralf, 1965-; Savchenko, M. L.; Kvon, Z.D.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretsky, S. A.; Weiss, Dieter

2016-01-01

We measure the quantum capacitance and probe thus directly the electronic density of states of the high mobility, Dirac type of two-dimensional electron system, which forms on the surface of strained HgTe. Here we show that observed magneto-capacitance oscillations probe, in contrast to magnetotransport, primarily the top surface. Capacitance measurements constitute thus a powerful tool to probe only one topological surface and to reconstruct its Landau level spectrum for different positions ...

1. Accurate sizing of supercapacitors storage system considering its capacitance variation.

Trieste, Sony; Bourguet, Salvy; Olivier, Jean-Christophe; Loron, Luc; Le Claire, Jean-Claude

2011-01-01

This paper highlights the energy errors made for the design of supercapacitors used as a main energy source. First of all, the paper presents the two definitions of capacitance of a capacitance-voltage dependent material. The number of supercapacitors is important for the application purchasing cost. That is why the paper introduces an analytical model and an electrical model along with an identification method for the capacitance variation. This variation is presented and compared to the man...

2. Carrier Statistics and Quantum Capacitance Models of Graphene Nanoscroll

M. Khaledian

2014-01-01

schematic perfect scroll-like Archimedes spiral. The DOS model was derived at first, while it was later applied to compute the carrier concentration and quantum capacitance model. Furthermore, the carrier concentration and quantum capacitance were modeled for both degenerate and nondegenerate regimes, along with examining the effect of structural parameters and chirality number on the density of state and carrier concentration. Latterly, the temperature effect on the quantum capacitance was studied too.

3. Nonlinear dynamics of capacitive charging and desalination by porous electrodes

Biesheuvel, P. M.; Bazant, M.Z.

2010-01-01

The rapid and efficient exchange of ions between porous electrodes and aqueous solutions is important in many applications, such as electrical energy storage by super-capacitors, water desalination and purification by capacitive deionization (or desalination), and capacitive extraction of renewable energy from a salinity difference. Here, we present a unified mean-field theory for capacitive charging and desalination by ideally polarizable porous electrodes (without Faradaic reactions or spec...

4. Capacitive position measurement for high-precision space inertial sensor

Yan-zheng BAI; Ze-bing ZHOU; Hai-bo TU; Shu-chao WU; Lin CAI; LI LIU; Jun LUO

2009-01-01

Low noise position measurement is fundamental for space inertial sensors, and at present the capacitive position sensor is widely employed for space inertial sensors. The design for the possible suppression of the front-end electric noises for a capacitive sensor is presented. A prototype capacitive sensor with 2x 10-6pF/Hzi/2 at frequency above 0.04 Hz is achieved and further improvements are discussed.

5. DEVELOPMENT OF ADAPTED CAPACITANCE MANOMETER FOR  THERMOSPHERIC APPLICATIONS

Orr, Cameron Scott

2016-01-01

An adapted capacitance manometer is a sensor composed of one fixed plate and one movable plate that is able to make accurate pressure measurements in a low pressure environment. Using detection circuitry, a change in capacitance between the two plates can be measured and correlated to a differential pressure. First, a high sensitivity manometer is produced that exhibits a measurable change in capacitance when experiencing a pressure differential in a low pressure space environment. Second,...

6. Static and Motional Feedthrough Capacitance of Flexural Microresonator

Wen-Teng Chang

2011-01-01

The present paper evaluates the static and motional feedthrough capacitance of a silicon carbide-based flexural-mode microelectromechanical system resonator. The static feedthrough capacitance was measured by a network analyzer under atmospheric pressure. The motional feedthrough was obtained by introducing various values into the modeling circuit in order to fit the Bode plots measured under reduced pressure. The static feedthrough capacitance was 0.02 pF, whereas the motional feedthrough ca...

7. Capacitive tool standoff sensor for dismantlement tasks

A capacitive sensing technology has been applied to develop a Standoff Sensor System for control of robotically deployed tools utilized in Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) activities. The system combines four individual sensor elements to provide non-contact, multiple degree-of-freedom control of tools at distances up to five inches from a surface. The Standoff Sensor has been successfully integrated to a metal cutting router and a pyrometer, and utilized for real-time control of each of these tools. Experiments demonstrate that the system can locate stationary surfaces with a repeatability of 0.034 millimeters

8. Capacitive tool standoff sensor for dismantlement tasks

Schmitt, D.J.; Weber, T.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Liu, J.C. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

A capacitive sensing technology has been applied to develop a Standoff Sensor System for control of robotically deployed tools utilized in Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) activities. The system combines four individual sensor elements to provide non-contact, multiple degree-of-freedom control of tools at distances up to five inches from a surface. The Standoff Sensor has been successfully integrated to a metal cutting router and a pyrometer, and utilized for real-time control of each of these tools. Experiments demonstrate that the system can locate stationary surfaces with a repeatability of 0.034 millimeters.

9. 3-D capacitance density imaging system

Fasching, G.E.

1988-03-18

A three-dimensional capacitance density imaging of a gasified bed or the like in a containment vessel is achieved using a plurality of electrodes provided circumferentially about the bed in levels and along the bed in channels. The electrodes are individually and selectively excited electrically at each level to produce a plurality of current flux field patterns generated in the bed at each level. The current flux field patterns are suitably sensed and a density pattern of the bed at each level determined. By combining the determined density patterns at each level, a three-dimensional density image of the bed is achieved. 7 figs.

10. Combinatorial Algorithms for Capacitated Network Design

Hajiaghayi, MohammadTaghi; Khandekar, Rohit; Kortsarz, Guy; Nutov, Zeev

2011-01-01

We focus on designing combinatorial algorithms for the Capacitated Network Design problem (Cap-SNDP). The Cap-SNDP is the problem of satisfying connectivity requirements when edges have costs and hard capacities. We begin by showing that the Group Steiner tree problem (GST) is a special case of Cap-SNDP even when there is connectivity requirement between only one source-sink pair. This implies the first poly-logarithmic lower bound for the Cap-SNDP. We next provide combinatorial algorithms fo...