A magnetic model for low/hard state of black hole binaries
Ye, Yong-Chun; Huang, Chang-Yin; Cao, Xiao-Feng
2015-01-01
A magnetic model for low/hard state (LHS) of black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs),H1743-322 and GX 339-4, is proposed based on the transportation of magnetic field from a companion into an accretion disk around a black hole (BH). This model consists of a truncated thin disk with an inner advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF). The spectral profiles of the sources are fitted in agreement with the data observed at four different dates corresponding to the rising phase of the LHS. In addition, the association of the LHS with quasi-steady jet is modelled based on transportation of magnetic field, where the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) and Blandford-Payne (BP) processes are invoked to drive the jets from BH and inner ADAF. It turns out that the steep radio/X-ray correlations observed in H1743-322 and GX 339-4 can be interpreted based on our model.
A magnetic model for low/hard state of black hole binaries
Ye, Yong-Chun; Wang, Ding-Xiong; Huang, Chang-Yin; Cao, Xiao-Feng
2016-03-01
A magnetic model for the low/hard state (LHS) of two black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs), H1743-322 and GX 339-4, is proposed based on transport of the magnetic field from a companion into an accretion disk around a black hole (BH). This model consists of a truncated thin disk with an inner advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF). The spectral profiles of the sources are fitted in agreement with the data observed at four different dates corresponding to the rising phase of the LHS. In addition, the association of the LHS with a quasi-steady jet is modeled based on transport of magnetic field, where the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) and Blandford-Payne (BP) processes are invoked to drive the jets from BH and inner ADAF. It turns out that the steep radio/X-ray correlations observed in H1743-322 and GX 339-4 can be interpreted based on our model.
Low/Hard State Spectra of GRO J1655-40 Observed with Suzaku
Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Hirasawa, Ayumi; Kitamoto, Shunji; Sudoh, Keisuke; Ogita, Takayuki; Kubota, Aya; Makishima, Kazuo; Itoh, Takeshi; Parmar, Arvind N; Ebisawa, Ken; Naik, Sachindra; Dotani, Tadayasu; Kokubun, Motohide; Ohnuki, Kousuke; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Yaqoob, Tahir; Angelini, Lorella; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Kotani, Taro; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Namiki, Masaaki; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Negoro, Hitoshi
2007-01-01
The Galactic black-hole binary GRO J1655$-$40 was observed with Suzaku on 2005 September 22--23, for a net exposure of 35 ks with the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) and 20 ks with the Hard X-ray Detector (HXD). The source was detected over a broad and continuous energy range of 0.7--300 keV, with an intensity of $\\sim$50 mCrab at 20 keV. At a distance of 3.2 kpc, the 0.7--300 keV luminosity is $ \\sim 5.1 \\times 10^{36}$ erg s$^{-1}$ ($\\sim 0.7$ % of the Eddington luminosity for a 6 $M_{\\odot}$ black hole). The source was in a typical low/hard state, exhibiting a power-law shaped continuum with a photon index of $\\sim 1.6$. During the observation, the source intensity gradually decreased by 25% at energies above $\\sim 3$ keV, and by 35% below 2 keV. This, together with the soft X-ray spectra taken with the XIS, suggests the presence of an independent soft component that can be represented by emission from a cool ($\\sim 0.2$ keV) disk. The hard X-ray spectra obtained with the HXD reveal a high-energy spectral...
Rapid Spectral Changes of Cygnus X-1 in the Low/Hard State with Suzaku
Yamada, S; Torii, S; Noda, H; Mineshige, S; Makishima, K
2013-01-01
Rapid spectral changes in the hard X-ray on a time scale down to ~0.1 s are studied by applying "shot analysis" technique to the Suzaku observations of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1, performed on 2008 April 18 during the low/hard state. We successfully obtained the shot profiles covering 10--200 keV with the Suzaku HXD-PIN and HXD-GSO detector. It is notable that the 100-200 keV shot profile is acquired for the first time owing to the HXD-GSO detector. The intensity changes in a time-symmetric way, though the hardness does in a time-asymmetric way. When the shot-phase-resolved spectra are quantified with the Compton model, the Compton y-parameter and the electron temperature are found to decrease gradually through the rising phase of the shot, while the optical depth appears to increase. All the parameters return to their time-averaged values immediately within 0.1 s past the shot peak. We have not only confirmed this feature previously found in energies below ~60 keV, but also found that the spectral chan...
Powerful jets from black hole X-ray binaries in Low/Hard X-ray states
Fender, R. P.
2000-01-01
Four persistent (Cygnus X-1, GX 339-4, GRS 1758-258 and 1E 1740.7-2942) and three transient (GS 2023+38, GRO J0422+32 and GS 1354-64) black hole X-ray binary systems have been extensively observed at radio wavelengths during extended periods in the Low/Hard X-ray state, which is characterised in X-rays by a hard power-law spectrum and strong variability. All seven systems show a persistent flat or inverted (in the sense that spectral index alpha >= 0) radio spectrum in this state, markedly di...
Plant, D S; Fender, R P
2014-01-01
We present results from three recent XMM-Newton observations of GX 339$-$4 in the low/hard state, taken during the decay of a bright (peak $\\sim 0.05$ L$_{\\rm Edd}$) failed outburst. Uniquely, these are the first XMM-Newton EPIC-pn observations of this source using an imaging mode, which significantly enhances the quality of the data at hand. In particular, thanks to the larger available bandpass, this allows an unprecedented constraint of the thermal accretion disc component, and the level of photoelectric absorption. We simultaneously measured the inner radius of the accretion disc via the broadened Fe K$\\alpha$ line and the disc component. The two methods agree, and the measured radii show good consistency over the three epochs. We find that the inner radius is at 20-30 $r_{\\rm g}$, adding to the growing direct evidence for truncation of the inner accretion disc in the low/hard state.
NuSTAR and integral observations of a low/hard state of 1E1740.7-2942
The microquasar 1E1740.7-2942, also known as the 'Great Annihilator,' was observed by NuSTAR in the summer of 2012. We have analyzed in detail two observations taken ∼2 weeks apart, for which we measure hard and smooth spectra typical of the low/hard state. A few weeks later the source flux declined significantly. Nearly simultaneous coverage by INTEGRAL is available from its Galactic Center monitoring campaign lasting ∼2.5 months. These data probe the hard state spectrum from 1E1740.7-2942 before the flux decline. We find good agreement between the spectra taken with IBIS/ISGRI and NuSTAR, with the measurements being compatible with a change in flux with no spectral variability. We present a detailed analysis of the NuSTAR spectral and timing data and upper limits for reflection of the high energy emission. We show that the high energy spectrum of this X-ray binary is well described by thermal Comptonization.
New Constraints on the Black Hole Low/Hard State Inner Accretion Flow with NuSTAR
Miller, J M; Bachetti, M; Wilkins, D; Boggs, S E; Chistensen, F E; Craig, W W; Fabian, A C; Grefenstette, B W; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Kara, E; King, A L; Stern, D K; Zhang, W W
2014-01-01
We report on an observation of the Galactic black hole candidate GRS 1739-278 during its 2014 outburst, obtained with NuSTAR. The source was captured at the peak of a rising "low/hard" state, at a flux of ~0.3 Crab. A broad, skewed iron line and disk reflection spectrum are revealed. Fits to the sensitive NuSTAR spectra with a number of relativistically blurred disk reflection models yield strong geometrical constraints on the disk and hard X-ray "corona". Two models that explicitly assume a "lamppost" corona find its base to have a vertical height above the black hole of h = 5 (+7, -2) GM/c^2 and h = 18 +/-4 GM/c^2 (90% confidence errors); models that do not assume a "lamppost" return emissivity profiles that are broadly consistent with coronae of this size. Given that X-ray microlensing studies of quasars and reverberation lags in Seyferts find similarly compact coronae, observations may now signal that compact coronae are fundamental across the black hole mass scale. All of the models fit to GRS 1739-278 f...
P. Gandhi; V.S. Dhillon; M. Durant; A.C. Fabian; A. Kubota; K. Makishima; J. Malzac; T.R. Marsh; J.M. Miller; T. Shahbaz; H.C. Spruit; P. Casella
2010-01-01
A rapid timing analysis of Very Large Telescope (VLT)/ULTRACAM (optical) and RXTE (X-ray) observations of the Galactic black hole binary GX 339−4 in the low/hard, post-outburst state of 2007 June is presented. The optical light curves in the r′, g′ and u′ filters show slow (∼20 s) quasi-periodic var
NEW CONSTRAINTS ON THE BLACK HOLE LOW/HARD STATE INNER ACCRETION FLOW WITH NuSTAR
Miller, J. M.; King, A. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Tomsick, J. A.; Boggs, S. E. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bachetti, M. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31100 Toulouse (France); Wilkins, D. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary' s University, Halifax, NS. B3H 3C3 (Canada); Christensen, F. E. [Danish Technical University, DK-2800, Lyngby (Denmark); Craig, W. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA (United States); Fabian, A. C.; Kara, E. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Grefenstette, B. W.; Harrison, F. A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Stern, D. K [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zhang, W. W., E-mail: jonmm@umich.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2015-01-20
We report on an observation of the Galactic black hole candidate GRS 1739–278 during its 2014 outburst, obtained with NuSTAR. The source was captured at the peak of a rising ''low/hard'' state, at a flux of ∼0.3 Crab. A broad, skewed iron line and disk reflection spectrum are revealed. Fits to the sensitive NuSTAR spectra with a number of relativistically blurred disk reflection models yield strong geometrical constraints on the disk and hard X-ray ''corona''. Two models that explicitly assume a ''lamp post'' corona find its base to have a vertical height above the black hole of h=5{sub −2}{sup +7} GM/c{sup 2} and h = 18 ± 4 GM/c {sup 2} (90% confidence errors); models that do not assume a ''lamp post'' return emissivity profiles that are broadly consistent with coronae of this size. Given that X-ray microlensing studies of quasars and reverberation lags in Seyferts find similarly compact coronae, observations may now signal that compact coronae are fundamental across the black hole mass scale. All of the models fit to GRS 1739–278 find that the accretion disk extends very close to the black hole—the least stringent constraint is r{sub in}=5{sub −4}{sup +3} GM/c{sup 2}. Only two of the models deliver meaningful spin constraints, but a = 0.8 ± 0.2 is consistent with all of the fits. Overall, the data provide especially compelling evidence of an association between compact hard X-ray coronae and the base of relativistic radio jets in black holes.
MAXI observations of long-term variations of Cygnus X-1 in the low/hard and the high/soft states
Sugimoto, Juri; Mihara, Tatehiro; Kitamoto, Shunji; Matsuoka, Masaru; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Negoro, Hitoshi; Nakahira, Satoshi; Makishima, Kazuo
2016-06-01
The long-term X-ray variability of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1 was studied with five years of MAXI data from 2009 to 2014, which include substantial periods of the high/soft state, as well as the low/hard state. In each state, normalized power spectrum densities (NPSDs) were calculated in three energy bands of 2-4 keV, 4-10 keV, and 10-20 keV. The NPSDs for frequencies from 10-7 Hz to 10-4 Hz are all approximated by a power-law function with an index -1.35-1.29. The fractional RMS variation η, calculated in the above frequency range, was found to show the following three properties: (1) η slightly decreases with energy in the low/hard state; (2) η increases towards higher energies in the high/soft state; and (3) in the 10-20 keV band, η is three times higher in the high/soft state than in the low/hard state. These properties were confirmed through studies of intensity-correlated changes of the MAXI spectra. Of these three findings, the first one is consistent with that seen in the short-term variability during the low/hard state. The latter two can be understood as a result of high variability of the hard-tail component seen in the high/soft state with the above very low frequency range, although the origin of the variability remains inconclusive.
MAXI observations of long-term variations of Cygnus X-1 in the low/hard and the high/soft states
Sugimoto, Juri; Kitamoto, Shunji; Matsuoka, Masaru; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Negoro, Hitoshi; Nakahira, Satoshi; Makishima, Kazuo
2016-01-01
Long-term X-ray variability of the black hole binary, Cygnus X-1, was studied with five years of MAXI data from 2009 to 2014, which include substantial periods of the high/soft state, as well as the low/hard state. In each state, Normalized Power Spectrum densities (NPSDs) were calculated in three energy bands of 2-4 keV, 4-10 keV and 10-20 keV. The NPSDs in a frequency from 1e-7 Hz to 1e-4 Hz are all approximated by a power-law function with an index -1.35 ~ -1.29. The fractional RMS variation ($\\eta$), calculated in the above frequency range, was found to show the following three properties; (1) $\\eta$ slightly decreases with energy in the low/hard state; (2) $\\eta$ increases towards higher energies in the high/soft state; and (3) in the 10-20 keV band, $\\eta$ is 3 times higher in the high/soft state than in the low/hard state. These properties were confirmed through studies of intensity-correlated changes of the MAXI spectra. Of these three findings, the first one is consistent with that seen in the short-...
Markowitz, A
2005-01-01
We present a broadband power spectral density function (PSD) measured from extensive RXTE monitoring data of the low-luminosity AGN NGC 4258, which has an accurate, maser-determined black hole mass of 3.9+/-0.1 * 10^7 solar masses. We constrain the PSD break timescale to be greater than 4.5 d at >90% confidence, which appears to rule out the possibility that NGC 4258 is an analogue of black hole X-ray binaries (BHXRBs) in the high/soft state. In this sense, the PSD of NGC 4258 is different to those of some more-luminous Seyferts, which appear similar to the PSDs of high/soft state X-ray binaries. This result supports previous analogies between LLAGN and X-ray binaries in the low/hard state based on spectral energy distributions, indicating that the AGN/BHXRB analogy is valid across a broad range of accretion rates.
Canonical Quantum Teleportation of Two-Particle Arbitrary State
HAO Xiang; ZHU Shi-Qun
2005-01-01
The canonical quantum teleportation of two-particle arbitrary state is realized by means of phase operator and number operator. The maximally entangled eigenstates between the difference of phase operators and the sum of number operators are considered as the quantum channels. In contrast to the standard quantum teleportation, the different unitary local operation of canonical teleportation can be simplified by a general expression.
NuSTAR and INTEGRAL observations of a low/hard state of 1E1740.7-2942
Natalucci, Lorenzo; Tomsick, John A.; Bazzano, Angela;
2014-01-01
declined significantly. Nearly simultaneous coverage by INTEGRAL is available from its Galactic Center monitoring campaign lasting ~2.5 months. These data probe the hard state spectrum from 1E1740.7-2942 before the flux decline. We find good agreement between the spectra taken with IBIS/ISGRI and Nu......STAR, with the measurements being compatible with a change in flux with no spectral variability. We present a detailed analysis of the NuSTAR spectral and timing data and upper limits for reflection of the high energy emission. We show that the high energy spectrum of this X-ray binary is well described by...
We report on the results from Suzaku observations of the Galactic black hole X-ray binary H1743–322 in the low/hard state during its outburst in 2012 October. We appropriately take into account the effects of dust scattering to accurately analyze the X-ray spectra. The time-averaged spectra in the 1-200 keV band are dominated by a hard power-law component of a photon index of ≈1.6 with a high-energy cutoff at ≈60 keV, which is well described with the Comptonization of the disk emission by the hot corona. We estimate the inner disk radius from the multi-color disk component, and find that it is 1.3-2.3 times larger than the radius in the high/soft state. This suggests that the standard disk was not extended to the innermost stable circular orbit. A reflection component from the disk is detected with R = Ω/2π ≈ 0.6 (Ω is the solid angle). We also successfully estimate the stable disk component independent of the time-averaged spectral modeling by analyzing short-term spectral variability on a ∼1 s timescale. A weak low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation at 0.1-0.2 Hz is detected, whose frequency is found to correlate with the X-ray luminosity and photon index. This result may be explained by the evolution of the disk truncation radius.
X-Ray and Near-Infrared Observations of GX 339-4 in the Low/Hard State with Suzaku and IRSF
Shidatsu, Megumi; Tazaki, Fumie; Yoshikawa, Tatsuhito; Nagayama, Takahiro; Nagata, Tetsuya; Oi, Nagisa; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Kubota, Aya; Cottam, Jean; Remillard, Ronald; Negoro, Hitoshi
2011-01-01
X-ray and near-infrared ($J$-$H$-$K_{\\rm s}$) observations of the Galactic black hole binary GX 339--4 in the low/hard state were performed with Suzaku and IRSF in 2009 March. The spectrum in the 0.5--300 keV band is dominated by thermal Comptonization of multicolor disk photons, with a small contribution from a direct disk component, indicating that the inner disk is almost fully covered by hot corona with an electron temperature of $\\approx$175 keV. The Comptonizing corona has at least two optical depths, $\\tau \\approx 1,0.4$. Analysis of the iron-K line profile yields an inner disk radius of $(13.3^{+6.4}_{-6.0}) R_{\\rm g}$ ($R_{\\rm g} $ represents the gravitational radius $GM/c^2$), with the best-fit inclination angle of $\\approx50^\\circ$. This radius is consistent with that estimated from the continuum fit by assuming the conservation of photon numbers in Comptonization. Our results suggest that the standard disk of GX 339--4 is likely truncated before reaching the innermost stable circular orbit (for a ...
Yoshikawa, Akifumi; Nakahira, Satoshi; Matsuoka, Masaru; Negoro, Hitoshi; Mihara, Tatehiro; Tamagawa, Toru
2015-01-01
We report MAXI and Swift observations of short-term spectral softenings of the galactic black-hole X-ray binary Swift J1753.5-0127 in the low/hard state. These softening events are characterized by a simultaneous increase of soft X-rays (2-4 keV) and a decrease of hard X-rays (15-50 keV) lasting for a few tens of days. The X-ray energy spectra during the softening periods can be reproduced with a model consisting of a multi-color disk blackbody and its Comptonized component. The fraction of the Comptonized component decreased from 0.30 to 0.15 when the spectrum became softer; meanwhile the inner disk temperature (Tin) increased from 0.2 to 0.45 keV. These results imply that the softening events are triggered by a short-term increase of the mass accretion rate. During the observed spectral softening events, the disk flux (F) and Tin did not obey the relation: F is proportional to Tin^4, suggesting that the inner disk radius does not reach the innermost stable circular orbit.
Gandhi, P; Durant, M; Fabian, A C; Kubota, A; Makishima, K; Malzac, J; Marsh, T R; Miller, J M; Shahbaz, T; Spruit, H C; Casella, P
2010-01-01
A rapid timing analysis of VLT/ULTRACAM and RXTE observations of the black hole binary GX 339-4 in its 2007 low/hard state is presented. The optical light curves in the r', g' and u' filters show slow (~20 s) quasi-periodic variability. Upon this is superposed fast flaring activity on times approaching the best time resolution probed (~50 ms) and with maximum strengths of more than twice the local mean. Power spectral analysis over ~0.004-10 Hz is presented, and shows that although the average optical variability amplitude is lower than that in X-rays, the peak variability power emerges at a higher Fourier frequency in the optical. Energetically, we measure a large optical vs. X-ray flux ratio, higher than that seen when the source was fully jet-dominated. Such a large ratio cannot be easily explained with a disc alone. The optical:X-ray cross-spectrum shows a markedly different behaviour above and below ~0.2 Hz. The peak of the coherence function above this threshold is associated with a short optical time l...
Quantum oscillators in the canonical coherent states
The main characteristics of the quantum oscillator coherent states including the two-particle Calogero interaction are investigated. We show that these Calogero coherent states are the eigenstates of the second-order differential annihilation operator which is deduced via Wigner-Heisenberg algebraic technique and correspond exactly to the pure uncharged-bosonic states. They posses the important properties of non-orthogonality and completeness. The minimum uncertainty relation for the Wigner oscillator coherent states are investigated. New sets of even and odd coherent states are point out. (author)
Three-qubit pure-state canonical forms
In this paper we analyse the canonical forms into which any pure three-qubit state can be cast. The minimal forms, i.e. the ones with the minimal number of product states built from local bases, are also presented and lead to a complete classification of pure three-qubit states. This classification is related to the values of the polynomial invariants under local unitary transformations by a one-to-one correspondence. (author)
Basak, R.
2015-07-01
We analyze three XMM-Newton observations of the black-hole binary source GX 339-4 taken during the decay phase of 2013 outburst when the source was in a low/hard state. Our analysis indicates a large truncation radius (˜ 10-50 r_{g}) for the three observations, which is in agreement with that obtained by Plant et al. (2014) for the same observations. We further extend the result in favour of the standard accretion scenario of the low/hard state. We find the reflection fraction to be small, which is consistent with the hot plasma filling the part of the source below the truncation radius. We further test our result against various models e.g., radius-dependent ionization and various ISM abundances. Finally, we try to find conditions of the inclination and the elemental abundance under which our fits are consistent with the mass function results of the source.
Representations of Canonical Commutation Relations Describing Infinite Coherent States
Joye, Alain; Merkli, Marco
2016-03-01
We investigate the infinite volume limit of quantized photon fields in multimode coherent states. We show that for states containing a continuum of coherent modes, it is mathematically and physically natural to consider their phases to be random and identically distributed. The infinite volume states give rise to Hilbert space representations of the canonical commutation relations which we construct concretely. In the case of random phases, the representations are random as well and can be expressed with the help of Itô stochastic integrals. We analyze the dynamics of the infinite state alone and the open system dynamics of small systems coupled to it. We show that under the free field dynamics, initial phase distributions are driven to the uniform distribution. We demonstrate that coherences in small quantum systems, interacting with the infinite coherent state, exhibit Gaussian time decay. The decoherence is qualitatively faster than the one caused by infinite thermal states, which is known to be exponentially rapid only. This emphasizes the classical character of coherent states.
Coherent states of the q-canonical commutation relations
For the q-deformed canonical commutation relations a(f)a†(g)=(1-q) left angle f,g right angle 1+qa†(g)a(f) for f,g in some Hilbert space H we consider representations generated from a vector Ω satisfying a(f)Ω= left angle f,φ right angle Ω, where φ element of H. We show that such a representation exists if and only if parallel φ parallel ≤1. Moreover, for parallel φ parallel *-algebra for the relations has a largest proper, closed, two-sided ideal. The quotient by this ideal is a natural q-analogue of the Cuntz algebra (obtained for q=0). We discuss the conjecture that, for d<∞, this analogue should, in fact, be equal to the Cuntz algebra itself. In the limiting cases q=±1 we determine all irreducible representations of the relations, and characterize those which can be obtained via coherent states. (orig.)
Rahoui, Farid; Lee, Julia C
2014-01-01
As a complement to our optical and near-infrared study of the continuum properties of GX 339-4 in the two hard and one soft state observations made by the ESO/VLT FORS2 and ISAAC in early 2010, we report here on the results of our spectral line analysis for the same observations. In the soft state, the presence of strong Balmer, Paschen and Brackett emission lines points to the optical and near-infrared spectra stemming from the irradiated chromosphere of the optically thick and geometrically thin accretion disc. Most of these HI features are still detected in emission in both hard states but are veiled by the compact jets continuum. We also confirm the presence of a broad Hbeta absorption feature, prominent in the soft state and shallower in the first hard state, which we argue forms in the deep layers of the optically thick accretion disc. However, this trough is absent in the second hard state, a likely consequence of the formation of a geometrically thick extended envelope that arises above the disc plane...
Basak, Rupal; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.
2016-05-01
We analyse all available observations of GX 339-4 by XMM-Newton in the hard spectral state. We jointly fit the spectral data by Comptonization and the currently best reflection code, relxill. We consider in detail a contribution from a standard blackbody accretion disc, testing whether its inner radius can be set equal to that of the reflector. However, this leads to an unphysical behaviour of the disc truncation radius, implying the soft X-ray component is not a standard blackbody disc. This appears to be due to irradiation by the hard X-rays, which strongly dominate the total emission. We consider a large array of models, testing, e.g. the effects of the chosen energy range, of adding unblurred reflection, and assuming a lamp-post geometry. We find the effects of relativistic broadening to be relatively weak in all cases. In the coronal models, we find the inner radius to be large. In the lamp-post model, the inner radius is unconstrained, but when fixed to the innermost stable orbit, the height of the source is large, which also implies a weak relativistic broadening. In the former models, the inner radius correlates with the X-ray hardness ratio, which is consistent with the presence of a truncated disc turning into a complete disc in the soft state. We also find the degree of the disc ionization to anticorrelate with the hardness, leading to strong spectral broadening due to scattering of reflected photons in the reflector in the softest studied states.
Basak, Rupal
2015-01-01
We analyse all available observations of GX 339--4 by XMM-Newton in the hard spectral state. We jointly fit the spectral data by Comptonisation and the currently best reflection code, relxill. We consider in detail a contribution from a standard blackbody accretion disc, testing whether its inner radius can be set equal to that of the reflector. However, this leads to an unphysical behaviour of the disc truncation radius, implying the soft X-ray component is not a standard blackbody disc. This is due to irradiation by the hard X-rays, which strongly dominate the total emission. We thus treat the soft component phenomenologically. We consider a large array of models, testing, e.g., the effects of the chosen energy range, the radial irradiation profile, adding unblurred reflection, and assuming a lamppost geometry. We find the effects of relativistic broadening to be relatively weak in all cases. In the coronal models, we find the inner radius to be large. In the lamppost model, the inner radius is unconstraine...
Hanke, Manfred; Nowak, Michael A; Pottschmidt, Katja; Schulz, Norbert S; Lee, Julia C
2008-01-01
We present analyses of a 50 ks observation of the supergiant X-ray binary system Cygnus X-1/HDE 226868 taken with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS). Cyg X-1 was in its spectrally hard state and the observation was performed during superior conjunction of the black hole, allowing for the spectroscopic analysis of the accreted stellar wind along the line of sight. A significant part of the observation covers X-ray dips as commonly observed for Cyg X-1 at this orbital phase, however, here we only analyze the high count rate non-dip spectrum. The full 0.5-10 keV continuum can be described by a single model consisting of a disk, a narrow and a relativistically broadened Fe Kalpha line, and a power law component, which is consistent with simultaneous RXTE broad band data. We detect absorption edges from overabundant neutral O, Ne and Fe, and absorption line series from highly ionized ions and infer column densities and Doppler shifts. With emission lines of He-like Mg XI, we detect t...
Hanke, Manfred; Wilms, Jorn; Nowak, Michael A.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Schultz, Norbert S.; Lee, Julia C.
2008-01-01
We present analyses of a 50 ks observation of the supergiant X-ray binary system CygnusX-1/HDE226868 taken with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS). CygX-1 was in its spectrally hard state and the observation was performed during superior conjunction of the black hole, allowing for the spectroscopic analysis of the accreted stellar wind along the line of sight. A significant part of the observation covers X-ray dips as commonly observed for CygX-1 at this orbital phase, however, here we only analyze the high count rate non-dip spectrum. The full 0.5-10 keV continuum can be described by a single model consisting of a disk, a narrow and a relativistically broadened Fe K line, and a power law component, which is consistent with simultaneous RXTE broad band data. We detect absorption edges from overabundant neutral O, Ne and Fe, and absorption line series from highly ionized ions and infer column densities and Doppler shifts. With emission lines of He-like Mg XI, we detect two plasma components with velocities and densities consistent with the base of the spherical wind and a focused wind. A simple simulation of the photoionization zone suggests that large parts of the spherical wind outside of the focused stream are completely ionized, which is consistent with the low velocities (<200 km/s) observed in the absorption lines, as the position of absorbers in a spherical wind at low projected velocity is well constrained. Our observations provide input for models that couple the wind activity of HDE 226868 to the properties of the accretion flow onto the black hole.
Is the plateau state in GRS 1915+105 equivalent to canonical hard states?
van Oers, Pieter; Markoff, Sera; Maitra, Dipankar; Rahoui, Farid; Nowak, Michael; Wilms, Jörn; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Rodriguez, Jerome; Dhawan, Vivek; Harlaftis, Emilios
2010-01-01
GRS1915+105 is a very peculiar black hole binary that exhibits accretion-related states that are not observed in any other stellar-mass black hole system. One of these states, however -- referred to as the plateau state -- may be related to the canonical hard state of black hole X-ray binaries. Both the plateau and hard state are associated with steady, relatively lower X-ray emission and flat/inverted radio emission, that is sometimes resolved into compact, self-absorbed jets. However, while...
Canonical form of three-fermion pure-states with six single particle states
We construct a canonical form for pure states in ∧3(C6), the three-fermion system with six single particle states, under local unitary (LU) transformations, i.e., the unitary group U(6). We also construct a minimal set of generators of the algebra of polynomial U(6)-invariants on ∧3(C6). It turns out that this algebra is isomorphic to the algebra of polynomial LU-invariants of three-qubits which are additionally invariant under qubit permutations. As a consequence of this surprising fact, we deduce that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the U(6)-orbits of pure three-fermion states in ∧3(C6) and the LU orbits of pure three-qubit states when qubit permutations are allowed. As an important byproduct, we obtain a new canonical form for pure three-qubit states under LU transformations U(2) × U(2) × U(2) (no qubit permutations allowed)
State-Vector Space and Canonical Coherent States in Noncommutative Plane
无
2006-01-01
The structure of the state-vector space of identical bosons in noncommutative spaces is investigated. To maintain Bose-Einstein statistics the commutation relations of phase space variables should simultaneously include coordinate-coordinate non-commutativity and momentum-momentum non-commutativity, which leads to a kind of de-formed Heisenberg-Weyl algebra. Although there is no ordinary number representation in this state-vector space, several set of orthogonal and complete state-vectors can be derived which are common eigenvectors of corresponding pairs of commuting Hermitian operators. As a simple application of this state-vector space, an explicit form of two-dimensional canonical coherent state is constructed and its properties are discussed.
De Siena, Silvio; Di Lisi, Antonio; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2002-01-01
We introduce nonlinear canonical transformations that yield effective Hamiltonians of multiphoton down conversion processes, and we define the associated non-Gaussian multiphoton squeezed states as the coherent states of the multiphoton Hamiltonians. We study in detail the four-photon processes and the associated non-Gaussian four-photon squeezed states. The realization of squeezing, the behavior of the field statistics, and the structure of the phase space distributions show that these state...
Is the plateau state in GRS 1915+105 equivalent to canonical hard states?
van Oers, Pieter; Maitra, Dipankar; Rahoui, Farid; Nowak, Michael; Wilms, Jörn; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J; Rodriguez, Jerome; Dhawan, Vivek; Harlaftis, Emilios
2010-01-01
GRS1915+105 is a very peculiar black hole binary that exhibits accretion-related states that are not observed in any other stellar-mass black hole system. One of these states, however -- referred to as the plateau state -- may be related to the canonical hard state of black hole X-ray binaries. Both the plateau and hard state are associated with steady, relatively lower X-ray emission and flat/inverted radio emission, that is sometimes resolved into compact, self-absorbed jets. However, while generally black hole binaries quench their jets when the luminosity becomes too high, GRS1915+105 seems to sustain them despite the fact that it accretes at near- or super-Eddington rates. In order to investigate the relationship between the plateau and the hard state, we fit two multi-wavelength observations using a steady-state outflow-dominated model, developed for hard state black hole binaries. The data sets consist of quasi-simultaneous observations in radio, near-infrared and X-ray bands. Interestingly, we find bo...
Work fluctuations for Bose particles in grand canonical initial states.
Yi, Juyeon; Kim, Yong Woon; Talkner, Peter
2012-05-01
We consider bosons in a harmonic trap and investigate the fluctuations of the work performed by an adiabatic change of the trap curvature. Depending on the reservoir conditions such as temperature and chemical potential that provide the initial equilibrium state, the exponentiated work average (EWA) defined in the context of the Crooks relation and the Jarzynski equality may diverge if the trap becomes wider. We investigate how the probability distribution function (PDF) of the work signals this divergence. It is shown that at low temperatures the PDF is highly asymmetric with a steep fall-off at one side and an exponential tail at the other side. For high temperatures it is closer to a symmetric distribution approaching a Gaussian form. These properties of the work PDF are discussed in relation to the convergence of the EWA and to the existence of the hypothetical equilibrium state to which those thermodynamic potential changes refer that enter both the Crooks relation and the Jarzynski equality. PMID:23004703
De Siena, S; Illuminati, F; Siena, Silvio De; Lisi, Antonio Di; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2002-01-01
We introduce nonlinear canonical transformations that yield effective Hamiltonians of multiphoton down conversion processes, and we define the associated non-Gaussian multiphoton squeezed states as the coherent states of the multiphoton Hamiltonians. We study in detail the four-photon processes and the associated non-Gaussian four-photon squeezed states. The realization of squeezing, the behavior of the field statistics, and the structure of the phase space distributions show that these states realize a natural four-photon generalization of the two-photon squeezed states.
Structure of multiphoton quantum optics. I. Canonical formalism and homodyne squeezed states
We introduce a formalism of nonlinear canonical transformations for general systems of multiphoton quantum optics. For single-mode systems the transformations depend on a tunable free parameter, the homodyne local-oscillator angle; for n-mode systems they depend on n heterodyne mixing angles. The canonical formalism realizes nontrivial mixing of pairs of conjugate quadratures of the electromagnetic field in terms of homodyne variables for single-mode systems, and in terms of heterodyne variables for multimode systems. In the first instance the transformations yield nonquadratic model Hamiltonians of degenerate multiphoton processes and define a class of non-Gaussian, nonclassical multiphoton states that exhibit properties of coherence and squeezing. We show that such homodyne multiphoton squeezed states are generated by unitary operators with a nonlinear time evolution that realizes the homodyne mixing of a pair of conjugate quadratures. Tuning of the local-oscillator angle allows us to vary at will the statistical properties of such states. We discuss the relevance of the formalism for the study of degenerate (up-)down-conversion processes. In a companion paper [F. Dell'Anno, S. De Siena, and F. Illuminati, 69, 033813 (2004)], we provide the extension of the nonlinear canonical formalism to multimode systems, we introduce the associated heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states, and we discuss their possible experimental realization
Structure of multiphoton quantum optics. I. Canonical formalism and homodyne squeezed states
dell'Anno, Fabio; de Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2004-03-01
We introduce a formalism of nonlinear canonical transformations for general systems of multiphoton quantum optics. For single-mode systems the transformations depend on a tunable free parameter, the homodyne local-oscillator angle; for n -mode systems they depend on n heterodyne mixing angles. The canonical formalism realizes nontrivial mixing of pairs of conjugate quadratures of the electromagnetic field in terms of homodyne variables for single-mode systems, and in terms of heterodyne variables for multimode systems. In the first instance the transformations yield nonquadratic model Hamiltonians of degenerate multiphoton processes and define a class of non-Gaussian, nonclassical multiphoton states that exhibit properties of coherence and squeezing. We show that such homodyne multiphoton squeezed states are generated by unitary operators with a nonlinear time evolution that realizes the homodyne mixing of a pair of conjugate quadratures. Tuning of the local-oscillator angle allows us to vary at will the statistical properties of such states. We discuss the relevance of the formalism for the study of degenerate (up-)down-conversion processes. In a companion paper [ F. Dell’Anno, S. De Siena, and F. Illuminati, 69, 033813 (2004) ], we provide the extension of the nonlinear canonical formalism to multimode systems, we introduce the associated heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states, and we discuss their possible experimental realization.
Structure of multiphoton quantum optics. I. Canonical formalism and homodyne squeezed states
Dell'Anno, F; Illuminati, F; Anno, Fabio Dell'; Siena, Silvio De; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2004-01-01
We introduce a formalism of nonlinear canonical transformations for general systems of multiphoton quantum optics. For single-mode systems the transformations depend on a tunable free parameter, the homodyne local oscillator angle; for n-mode systems they depend on n heterodyne mixing angles. The canonical formalism realizes nontrivial mixings of pairs of conjugate quadratures of the electromagnetic field in terms of homodyne variables for single-mode systems; and in terms of heterodyne variables for multimode systems. In the first instance the transformations yield nonquadratic model Hamiltonians of degenerate multiphoton processes and define a class of non Gaussian, nonclassical multiphoton states that exhibit properties of coherence and squeezing. We show that such homodyne multiphoton squeezed states are generated by unitary operators with a nonlinear time evolution that realizes the homodyne mixing of a pair of conjugate quadratures. Tuning of the local oscillator angle allows to vary at will the statist...
Physical states in the canonical tensor model from the perspective of random tensor networks
Narain, Gaurav; Sato, Yuki
2014-01-01
Tensor models, generalization of matrix models, are studied aiming for quantum gravity in dimensions larger than two. Among them, the canonical tensor model is formulated as a totally constrained system with first-class constraints, the algebra of which resembles the Dirac algebra of general relativity. When quantized, the physical states are defined to be vanished by the quantized constraints. In explicit representations, the constraint equations are a set of partial differential equations for physical wave-functions, which do not seem straightforward to solve due to their non-linear character. In this paper, after providing some explicit solutions for N = 2,3, we show that certain scale-free integration of partition functions of statistical systems on random networks, or random tensor networks more generally, provides a series of solutions for general N. Then, by generalizing this form, we also obtain various solutions for general N. Moreover, we show that the solutions for the cases with a cosmological con...
Rahoui, F; Corbel, S; Bel, M Cadolle; Tomsick, J A; Lee, J C; Rodriguez, J; Russell, D M; Migliari, S
2012-01-01
The microquasar GX 339-4, known to exhibit powerful compact jets that dominate its radio to near-infrared emission, entered an outburst in 2010 for the fifth time in about fifteen years. An extensive radio to X-ray multi-wavelength campaign was immediately triggered, and we report here on ESO/FORS2+ISAAC optical and near-infrared spectroscopic observations, supported by ATCA radio and RXTE/Swift X-ray quasi-simultaneous data. GX 339-4 was observed at three different epochs, once in the soft state and twice in the hard state. In the soft state, the optical and near-infrared continuum is largely consistent with the Raleigh-Jeans tail of a thermal process. As an explanation, we favour irradiation of the outer accretion disc by its inner regions, enhanced by disc warping. An excess is also present at low frequencies, likely due to a M subgiant companion star. During the first hard state, the optical/near-infrared continuum is well-described by the optically thin synchrotron emission of the compact jet combined wi...
Novotny, M A; Yuan, S; Miyashita, S; De Raedt, H; Michielsen, K
2016-01-01
We study measures of decoherence and thermalization of a quantum system $S$ in the presence of a quantum environment (bath) $E$. The entirety $S$$+$$E$ is prepared in a canonical thermal state at a finite temperature, that is the entirety is in a steady state. Both our numerical results and theoretical predictions show that measures of the decoherence and the thermalization of $S$ are generally finite, even in the thermodynamic limit, when the entirety $S$$+$$E$ is at finite temperature. Notably, applying perturbation theory with respect to the system-environment coupling strength, we find that under common Hamiltonian symmetries, up to first order in the coupling strength it is sufficient to consider $S$ uncoupled from $E$, but entangled with $E$, to predict decoherence and thermalization measures of $S$. This decoupling allows closed form expressions for perturbative expansions for the measures of decoherence and thermalization in terms of the free energies of $S$ and of $E$. Large-scale numerical results f...
Novotny, M. A.; Jin, F.; Yuan, S.; Miyashita, S.; De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.
2016-03-01
We study measures of decoherence and thermalization of a quantum system S in the presence of a quantum environment (bath) E . The entirety S +E is prepared in a canonical-thermal state at a finite temperature; that is, the entirety is in a steady state. Both our numerical results and theoretical predictions show that measures of the decoherence and the thermalization of S are generally finite, even in the thermodynamic limit, when the entirety S +E is at finite temperature. Notably, applying perturbation theory with respect to the system-environment coupling strength, we find that under common Hamiltonian symmetries, up to first order in the coupling strength it is sufficient to consider S uncoupled from E , but entangled with E , to predict decoherence and thermalization measures of S . This decoupling allows closed-form expressions for perturbative expansions for the measures of decoherence and thermalization in terms of the free energies of S and of E . Large-scale numerical results for both coupled and uncoupled entireties with up to 40 quantum spins support these findings.
Rahoui, F.; Coriat, M.; Corbel, S.; Cadolle Bel, M.; Tomsick, J. A.; Lee, J. C.; Rodriguez, J.; Russell, D. M.; Migliari, S.
2012-05-01
The microquasar GX 339-4, known to exhibit powerful compact jets that dominate its radio to near-infrared emission, entered an outburst in 2010 for the fifth time in about 15 yr. An extensive radio to X-ray multiwavelength campaign was immediately triggered, and we report here on European Southern Observatory/FORS2+ISAAC optical and near-infrared spectroscopic observations, supported by Australia Telescope Compact Array radio and Rossi X-ray Timing Experiment/Swift X-ray quasi-simultaneous data. GX 339-4 was observed at three different epochs, once in the soft state and twice in the hard state. In the soft state, the optical and near-infrared continuum is largely consistent with the Raleigh-Jeans tail of a thermal process. As an explanation, we favour irradiation of the outer accretion disc by its inner regions, enhanced by disc warping. An excess is also present at low frequencies, likely due to an M subgiant companion star. During the first hard state, the optical/near-infrared continuum is well described by the optically thin synchrotron emission of the compact jet combined with disc irradiation and perhaps another component peaking in the ultraviolet. The spectral break where the jet transits from the optically thick to thin regimes, located below 1.20 × 1014 Hz, is not detected and the extension of the optically thin synchrotron is consistent with the 3-50 keV spectrum. In contrast, the emission during the second hard state is more difficult to understand and points towards a more complex jet continuum. In both cases, the near-infrared continuum is found to be variable at time-scales at least as short as 20 s, although these variabilities are smoothed out beyond a few hundred seconds. This implies rapid variations - in flux and frequency - of the location of the spectral break, i.e. dramatic short time-scale changes of the physical conditions at the base of the jet, such as the magnetic field and/or the base radius. a Same as DISKBB.
Miškovičová, Ivica; Hanke, Manfred; Nowak, Michael A; Pottschmidt, Katja; Schulz, Norbert S; Grinberg, Victoria; Duro, Refiz; Madej, Oliwia K; Lohfink, Anne M; Rodriguez, Jérôme; Bel, Marion Cadolle; Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A; Lee, Julia C; Brown, Gregory V; Wilms, Jörn
2016-01-01
The accretion onto the black hole in the system HDE 226868/Cygnus X-1 is powered by the strong line driven stellar wind of the O-type donor star. We study the X-ray properties of the stellar wind in the hard state of Cyg X-1 as determined with data from the Chandra High Energy Transmission Gratings. Large density and temperature inhomogeneities are present in the wind, with a fraction of the wind consisting of clumps of matter with higher density and lower temperature embedded in a photoionized gas. Absorption dips observed in the light curve are believed to be caused by these clumps. This work concentrates on the non-dip spectra as a function of orbital phase. The spectra show lines of H-like and He-like ions of S, Si, Na, Mg, Al and highly ionized Fe (Fe xvii-Fe xxiv). We measure velocity shifts, column densities, and thermal broadening of the line series. The excellent quality of these five observations allows us to investigate the orbital phase dependence of these parameters. We show that the absorber is ...
Communication: Reduced density matrices in molecular systems: Grand-canonical electron states
Grand-canonical like descriptions of many electron atomic and molecular open systems which are characterized by a non-integer number of electrons are presented. Their associated reduced density matrices (RDMs) are obtained by introducing the contracting mapping for this type of distributions. It is shown that there is loss of information when connecting RDMs of different order by partial contractions. The energy convexity property of these systems simplifies the description. Consequently, this formulation opens the possibility to a new look for chemical descriptors such as chemical potential and reactivity among others. Examples are presented to discuss the theoretical aspects of this work
Al Mamon, Abdulla; Das, Sudipta [Visva-Bharati, Department of Physics, Santiniketan (India)
2015-06-15
In this present work, we try to build up a cosmological model using a non-canonical scalar field within the framework of a spatially flat FRW space-time. In this context, we have considered four different parametrizations of the equation of state parameter of the non-canonical scalar field. Under this scenario, analytical solutions for various cosmological parameters have been found out. It has been found that the deceleration parameter shows a smooth transition from a positive value to some negative value which indicates that the universe was undergoing an early deceleration followed by late time acceleration which is essential for the structure formation of the universe. With these four parametrizations, the future evolution of the models are also discussed. It has been found that one of the models (Generalized Chaplygin gas model, GCG) mimics the concordance ΛCDM in the near future, whereas two other models (CPL and JBP) diverge due to future singularity. Finally, we have studied these theoretical models with the latest datasets from SN Ia + H(z) + BAO/CMB. (orig.)
In this present work, we try to build up a cosmological model using a non-canonical scalar field within the framework of a spatially flat FRW space-time. In this context, we have considered four different parametrizations of the equation of state parameter of the non-canonical scalar field. Under this scenario, analytical solutions for various cosmological parameters have been found out. It has been found that the deceleration parameter shows a smooth transition from a positive value to some negative value which indicates that the universe was undergoing an early deceleration followed by late time acceleration which is essential for the structure formation of the universe. With these four parametrizations, the future evolution of the models are also discussed. It has been found that one of the models (Generalized Chaplygin gas model, GCG) mimics the concordance ΛCDM in the near future, whereas two other models (CPL and JBP) diverge due to future singularity. Finally, we have studied these theoretical models with the latest datasets from SN Ia + H(z) + BAO/CMB. (orig.)
Zuniga S, A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)
2003-07-01
Employing canonical transformations defined in the coherent-state representation of quantum mechanics, we introduce Schroedinger-Cat- Like-States. The squeezed displaced number states with real squeezing parameter are contained in these states. (Author)
Kremp, Pierre-Antoine
2010-01-01
This article analyzes the determinants of innovation and success of innovation in the field of U.S. symphony orchestras from 1879 through 1959: why did major orchestras (N = 27) innovate by introducing works of new composers to the repertoire instead of sticking to canonical pieces? Can organizational processes account for the selection and the…
Constrained Canonical Correlation.
DeSarbo, Wayne S.; And Others
1982-01-01
A variety of problems associated with the interpretation of traditional canonical correlation are discussed. A response surface approach is developed which allows for investigation of changes in the coefficients while maintaining an optimum canonical correlation value. Also, a discrete or constrained canonical correlation method is presented. (JKS)
2010-07-01
... Responsibility § 10.46 Canon 3. A practitioner should assist in preventing the unauthorized practice of law. ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canon 3. 10.46 Section 10.46 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF...
2010-07-01
... Responsibility § 10.83 Canon 7. A practitioner should represent a client zealously within the bounds of the law. ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canon 7. 10.83 Section 10.83 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF...
Extending canonical Monte Carlo methods: II
We have previously presented a methodology for extending canonical Monte Carlo methods inspired by a suitable extension of the canonical fluctuation relation C = β2(δE2) compatible with negative heat capacities, C α, as is shown in the particular case of the 2D seven-state Potts model where the exponent α = 0.14–0.18
Rainforth, Tom; Wood, Frank
2015-01-01
We introduce canonical correlation forests (CCFs), a new decision tree ensemble method for classification. Individual canonical correlation trees are binary decision trees with hyperplane splits based on canonical correlation components. Unlike axis-aligned alternatives, the decision surfaces of CCFs are not restricted to the coordinate system of the input features and therefore more naturally represent data with correlation between the features. Additionally we introduce a novel alternative ...
Triality and the grand canonical ensemble in QCD
QCD in the usual finite temperature formulation is using the grand canonical ensemble with chemical potential zero. We demonstrate that this description may give wrong predictions. QCD in the canonical formulation does not explicitly break Z(3) symmetry. It behaves in this sense like pure gluonic QCD. There are no metastable states in the canonical ensemble description as predicted in the grand canonical ensemble formalism. ((orig.))
This paper reviews basic results from a theory of the a priori classical probabilities (weights) in state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) models. It addresses how the classical probabilities limit the invariance of the self-consistency condition to transformations of the complete active space configuration interaction (CAS-CI) problem. Such transformations are of interest for choosing representations of the SA-CASSCF solution that are diabatic with respect to some interaction. I achieve the known result that a SA-CASSCF can be self-consistently transformed only within degenerate subspaces of the CAS-CI ensemble density matrix. For uniformly distributed (“microcanonical”) SA-CASSCF ensembles, self-consistency is invariant to any unitary CAS-CI transformation that acts locally on the ensemble support. Most SA-CASSCF applications in current literature are microcanonical. A problem with microcanonical SA-CASSCF models for problems with “more diabatic than adiabatic” states is described. The problem is that not all diabatic energies and couplings are self-consistently resolvable. A canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF strategy is proposed to solve the problem. For canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF, the equilibrated ensemble is a Boltzmann density matrix parametrized by its own CAS-CI Hamiltonian and a Lagrange multiplier acting as an inverse “temperature,” unrelated to the physical temperature. Like the convergence criterion for microcanonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF, the equilibration condition for canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF is invariant to transformations that act locally on the ensemble CAS-CI density matrix. The advantage of a canonical-ensemble description is that more adiabatic states can be included in the support of the ensemble without running into convergence problems. The constraint on the dimensionality of the problem is relieved by the introduction of an energy constraint. The method is illustrated with a complete active space
Carlos García-Bedoya Maguiña
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Canon es un concepto clave en la historia literaria. En el presente artículo,se revisa la evolución histórica del canon literario peruano. Es solo con la llamada República Aristocrática, en las primeras décadas del siglo XX, que cabe hablar en el caso peruano de la formación de un auténtico canon nacional. El autor denomina a esta primera versión del canon literario peruano como canon oligárquico y destaca la importancia de la obra de Riva Agüero y de Ventura García Calderón en su configuración. Es solo más tarde, desde los años 20 y de modo definitivo desde los años 50, que puede hablarse de la emergencia de un nuevo canon literarioal que el autor propone determinar canon posoligárquico.
Radio/X-ray correlation in the low/hard state of GX 339-4
Corbel, S.; Nowak, M A; Fender, R. P.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Markoff, S. B.
2003-01-01
We present the results of a long-term study of the black hole candidate GX 339-4 using simultaneous radio (from the Australia Telescope Compact Array) and X-ray (from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and BeppoSAX) observations performed between 1997 and 2000. We find strong evidence for a correlation between these two emission regimes that extends over more than three decades in X-ray flux, down to the quiescence level of GX 339-4. This is the strongest evidence to date for such strong couplin...
Canonical Information Analysis
Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg
2015-01-01
Canonical correlation analysis is an established multivariate statistical method in which correlation between linear combinations of multivariate sets of variables is maximized. In canonical information analysis introduced here, linear correlation as a measure of association between variables is...... replaced by the information theoretical, entropy based measure mutual information, which is a much more general measure of association. We make canonical information analysis feasible for large sample problems, including for example multispectral images, due to the use of a fast kernel density estimator...... for entropy estimation. Canonical information analysis is applied successfully to (1) simple simulated data to illustrate the basic idea and evaluate performance, (2) fusion of weather radar and optical geostationary satellite data in a situation with heavy precipitation, and (3) change detection in...
Bertot, Yves; Gonthier, Georges; Ould Biha, Sidi; Pasca, Ioana
2008-01-01
In this paper, we present an approach to describe uniformly iterated “big” operations and to provide lemmas that encapsulate all the commonly used reasoning steps on these constructs. We show that these iterated operations can be handled generically using the syntactic notation and canonical structure facilities provided by the Coq system. We then show how these canonical big operations played a crucial enabling role in the study of various parts of linear algebra and multi-dimensional real a...
Canonical proper time quantum gravitation
Lindesay, James
2015-05-01
At the root of the tensions involved in modeling the quantum dynamics of gravitating systems are the subtleties of quantum locality. Quantum mechanics describes physical phenomena using a theory of non-local phase relationships (non-local in the sense that quantum states maintain a space-like coherence that is acausal). However, the principle of equivalence in general relativity asserts that freely falling frames are locally inertial frames of reference. Thus, gravitating systems are often described using constituents that are freely falling, undergoing geodesic motion defining well localized trajectories. The canonical proper time formulation of relativistic dynamics is particularly useful for describing such inertial constituents using the coordinates of non-inertial observers. The physics of the simplest of gravitating inertial quantum systems, consistent with presented experimental evidence, will be examined. Subsequently, descriptions of both weakly and strongly gravitating quantum systems will be developed using canonical proper gravitation.
Relations between canonical and non-canonical inflation
Gwyn, Rhiannon [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Potsdam (Germany); Rummel, Markus [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Westphal, Alexander [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group
2012-12-15
We look for potential observational degeneracies between canonical and non-canonical models of inflation of a single field {phi}. Non-canonical inflationary models are characterized by higher than linear powers of the standard kinetic term X in the effective Lagrangian p(X,{phi}) and arise for instance in the context of the Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) action in string theory. An on-shell transformation is introduced that transforms non-canonical inflationary theories to theories with a canonical kinetic term. The 2-point function observables of the original non-canonical theory and its canonical transform are found to match in the case of DBI inflation.
Relations between canonical and non-canonical inflation
We look for potential observational degeneracies between canonical and non-canonical models of inflation of a single field φ. Non-canonical inflationary models are characterized by higher than linear powers of the standard kinetic term X in the effective Lagrangian p(X,φ) and arise for instance in the context of the Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) action in string theory. An on-shell transformation is introduced that transforms non-canonical inflationary theories to theories with a canonical kinetic term. The 2-point function observables of the original non-canonical theory and its canonical transform are found to match in the case of DBI inflation.
Dibaryons as canonically quantized biskyrmions
Krupovnickas, T; Riska, D O
2000-01-01
The characteristic feature of the ground state configuration of the Skyrme model description of nuclei is the absence of recognizable individual nucleons. The ground state of the skyrmion with baryon number 2 is axially symmetric, and is well approximated by a simple rational map, which represents a direct generalization of Skyrme's hedgehog ansatz for the nucleon. If the Lagrangian density is canonically quantized this configuration may support excitations that lie close and possible below the threshold for pion decay, and therefore describe dibaryons. The quantum corrections stabilize these solutions, the mass density of which have the correct exponential fall off at large distances.
You, Setthivoine
2015-11-01
A new canonical field theory has been developed to help interpret the interaction between plasma flows and magnetic fields. The theory augments the Lagrangian of general dynamical systems to rigourously demonstrate that canonical helicity transport is valid across single particle, kinetic and fluid regimes, on scales ranging from classical to general relativistic. The Lagrangian is augmented with two extra terms that represent the interaction between the motion of matter and electromagnetic fields. The dynamical equations can then be re-formulated as a canonical form of Maxwell's equations or a canonical form of Ohm's law valid across all non-quantum regimes. The field theory rigourously shows that helicity can be preserved in kinetic regimes and not only fluid regimes, that helicity transfer between species governs the formation of flows or magnetic fields, and that helicity changes little compared to total energy only if density gradients are shallow. The theory suggests a possible interpretation of particle energization partitioning during magnetic reconnection as canonical wave interactions. This work is supported by US DOE Grant DE-SC0010340.
Canonical affordances in context
Alan Costall
2012-12-01
Full Text Available James Gibson’s concept of affordances was an attempt to undermine the traditional dualism of the objective and subjective. Gibson himself insisted on the continuity of “affordances in general” and those attached to human artifacts. However, a crucial distinction needs to be drawn between “affordances in general” and the “canonical affordances” that are connected primarily to artifacts. Canonical affordances are conventional and normative. It is only in such cases that it makes sense to talk of the affordance of the object. Chairs, for example, are for sitting-on, even though we may also use them in many other ways. A good deal of confusion has arisen in the discussion of affordances from (1 the failure to recognize the normative status of canonical affordances and (2 then generalizing from this special case.
Luo, Chongliang; Liu, Jin; Dey, Dipak K; Chen, Kun
2016-07-01
In many fields, multi-view datasets, measuring multiple distinct but interrelated sets of characteristics on the same set of subjects, together with data on certain outcomes or phenotypes, are routinely collected. The objective in such a problem is often two-fold: both to explore the association structures of multiple sets of measurements and to develop a parsimonious model for predicting the future outcomes. We study a unified canonical variate regression framework to tackle the two problems simultaneously. The proposed criterion integrates multiple canonical correlation analysis with predictive modeling, balancing between the association strength of the canonical variates and their joint predictive power on the outcomes. Moreover, the proposed criterion seeks multiple sets of canonical variates simultaneously to enable the examination of their joint effects on the outcomes, and is able to handle multivariate and non-Gaussian outcomes. An efficient algorithm based on variable splitting and Lagrangian multipliers is proposed. Simulation studies show the superior performance of the proposed approach. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in an [Formula: see text] intercross mice study and an alcohol dependence study. PMID:26861909
The canonical and grand canonical models for nuclear multifragmentation
G Chaudhuri; S Das Gupta
2010-08-01
Many observables seen in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions can be explained on the basis of statistical equilibrium. Calculations based on statistical equilibrium can be implemented in microcanonical ensemble, canonical ensemble or grand canonical ensemble. This paper deals with calculations with canonical and grand canonical ensembles. A recursive relation developed recently allows calculations with arbitrary precision for many nuclear problems. Calculations are done to study the nature of phase transition in nuclear matter.
In a Mod.9Cr1Mo steel widely applied to boiler components, low hardness problem related with manufacturing and fabrication processes has become a critical issue recently. In this study, hardness, microstructure, tensile and creep rupture tests have been performed using specimens experienced various thermal cycles to investigate the detailed mechanism causing low hardness values of 150 to 170 Hv and the minimum hardness requirement from a standpoint of tensile and allowable stresses. Low hardness values were mainly attributed to the formation of ferrite structure on cooling after heating at intercritical temperature just above the Ac1, 850 .deg. C. Ferrite transformation on cooling after intercritical heating occurred even at the relatively faster cooling compared to normal heating above the Ac3 since the nose of ferrite transformation in the CCT curve moved to the left due to the very low carbon content in austenite phase formed at intercritical temperature. Low hardness value of 160's Hv occurred occasionally in practical applications was observed at a cooling rate of below 0.167 deg. C/sec(10 .deg. C/min) after intercritical heating. At least 190 Hv of hardness values or more were needed to satisfy tensile properties and maximum allowable stresses specified in ASME B and PV code
Quaternion Linear Canonical Transform Application
Bahri, Mawardi
2015-01-01
Quaternion linear canonical transform (QLCT) is a generalization of the classical linear canonical transfom (LCT) using quaternion algebra. The focus of this paper is to introduce an application of the QLCT to study of generalized swept-frequency filter
Realizations of the Canonical Representation
M K Vemuri
2008-02-01
A characterisation of the maximal abelian subalgebras of the bounded operators on Hilbert space that are normalised by the canonical representation of the Heisenberg group is given. This is used to classify the perfect realizations of the canonical representation.
Rhythmic canons and modular tiling
Caure, Hélianthe
2016-01-01
This thesis is a contribution to the study of modulo p tiling. Many mathematical and computational tools were used for the study of rhythmic tiling canons. Recent research has mainly focused in finding tiling without inner periodicity, being called Vuza canons. Those canons are a constructive basis for all rhythmic tiling canons, however, they are really difficult to obtain. Best current method is a brut force exploration that, despite a few recent enhancements, is exponential. Many technics ...
Canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism
Philbin, Thomas Gerard
2010-01-01
Application of the standard canonical quantization rules of quantum field theory to macroscopic electromagnetism has encountered obstacles due to material dispersion and absorption. This has led to a phenomenological approach to macroscopic quantum electrodynamics where no canonical formulation is attempted. In this paper macroscopic electromagnetism is canonically quantized. The results apply to any linear, inhomogeneous, magnetodielectric medium with dielectric functions that obey the Krame...
Alorizi, Seyed Morteza Emami; Nimruzi, Majid
2016-01-01
Background: Stroke has a huge negative impact on the society and more adversely affect women. There is scarce evidence about any neuroprotective effects of commonly used drug in acute stroke. Bushnell et al. provided a guideline focusing on the risk factors of stroke unique to women, including reproductive factors, metabolic syndrome, obesity, atrial fibrillation, and migraine with aura. The ten variables cited by Avicenna in Canon of Medicine would compensate for the gaps mentioned in this guideline. The prescribed drugs should be selected qualitatively opposite to Mizaj (warm-cold and wet-dry qualities induced by disease state) of the disease and according to ten variables, including the nature of the affected organ, intensity of disease, sex, age, habit, season, place of living, occupation, stamina and physical status. Methods: Information related to stroke was searched in Canon of Medicine, which is an outstanding book in traditional Persian medicine written by Avicenna. Results: A hemorrhagic stroke is the result of increasing sanguine humor in the body. Sanguine has warm-wet quality, and should be treated with food and drugs that quench the abundance of blood in the body. An acute episode of ischemic stroke is due to the abundance of phlegm that causes a blockage in the cerebral vessels. Phlegm has cold-wet quality and treatment should be started with compound medicines that either solve the phlegm or eject it from the body. Conclusion: Avicenna has cited in Canon of Medicine that women have cold and wet temperament compared to men. For this reason, they are more prone to accumulation of phlegm in their body organs including the liver, joints and vessels, and consequently in the risk of fatty liver, degenerative joint disease, atherosclerosis, and stroke especially the ischemic one. This is in accordance with epidemiological studies that showed higher rate of ischemic stroke in women rather than hemorrhagic one. PMID:26722147
Revisiting Canonical Quantization
Klauder, John R.
2012-01-01
Conventional canonical quantization procedures directly link various c-number and q-number quantities. Here, we advocate a different association of classical and quantum quantities that renders classical theory a natural subset of quantum theory with \\hbar>0, in conformity with the real world wherein nature has chosen \\hbar>0 rather than \\hbar=0. While keeping the good results of conventional procedures, some examples are presented for which the new procedures offer better results than conven...
Canonical Infinitesimal Deformations
Ran, Ziv
1998-01-01
This paper gives a canonical construction, in terms of additive cohomological functors, of the universal formal deformation of a compact complex manifold without vector fields (more generally of a faithful $g$-module, where $g$ is a sheaf of Lie algebras without sections). The construction is based on a certain (multivariate) Jacobi complex $J(g)$ associatd to $g$: indeed ${\\mathbb C}\\oplus {\\mathbb H}^0(J(g))^*$ is precisely the base ring of the universal deformation.
Bonduelle, M
1987-01-01
The Canon Law (Codex Iuris Canonici), promulgated in 1917, was a classification of laws and jurisprudence which ruled the early Church, governed the ecclesiastical condition of Roman Church until its reorganisation in 1983. It forbade to be ordained or to exercise orders already received to "those who are or were epileptics either not quite in their right mind or possessed by the Evil One". All the context and in particular the paragraph which treated of bodily lacks, indicated that between these three conditions, there was juxtaposition and no confusion. The texts specified the foundations of these dispositions, not in a malefic view of epilepsy inherited from Morbus Sacer of Antiquity, but in decency and on account of risk incured by Eucharist in case of fit. Some derogations could attenuate the severity of these dispositions--as jurisprudence had taken progresses of Epileptology and therapeutics into consideration. In the new Code of Canon Law (1983) physical disabilities were removed from the text and also possessed evil and epilepsy, the only impediment being "insanity or other psychic defect" appreciation of which is done by experts. Concerning poorly controlled epilepsies, we believe that experts will be allowed to express their opinion and a new jurisprudence will make up for the silence of the law. PMID:3310183
Regularized Generalized Canonical Correlation Analysis
Tenenhaus, Arthur; Tenenhaus, Michel
2011-01-01
Regularized generalized canonical correlation analysis (RGCCA) is a generalization of regularized canonical correlation analysis to three or more sets of variables. It constitutes a general framework for many multi-block data analysis methods. It combines the power of multi-block data analysis methods (maximization of well identified criteria) and…
Extending canonical Monte Carlo methods
Velazquez, L.; Curilef, S.
2010-02-01
In this paper, we discuss the implications of a recently obtained equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation for the extension of the available Monte Carlo methods on the basis of the consideration of the Gibbs canonical ensemble to account for the existence of an anomalous regime with negative heat capacities C < 0. The resulting framework appears to be a suitable generalization of the methodology associated with the so-called dynamical ensemble, which is applied to the extension of two well-known Monte Carlo methods: the Metropolis importance sampling and the Swendsen-Wang cluster algorithm. These Monte Carlo algorithms are employed to study the anomalous thermodynamic behavior of the Potts models with many spin states q defined on a d-dimensional hypercubic lattice with periodic boundary conditions, which successfully reduce the exponential divergence of the decorrelation time τ with increase of the system size N to a weak power-law divergence \\tau \\propto N^{\\alpha } with α≈0.2 for the particular case of the 2D ten-state Potts model.
Canonical versus grand canonical treatment of the conservation laws
The differences between the canonical and the grand canoncial treatment of the conservation laws in the relativistic statistical thermodynamics are discussed. The possible implications on the thermodynamics description of hadronic matter created in particle or ion collisions are considered
Canonical phylogenetic ordination.
Giannini, Norberto P
2003-10-01
A phylogenetic comparative method is proposed for estimating historical effects on comparative data using the partitions that compose a cladogram, i.e., its monophyletic groups. Two basic matrices, Y and X, are defined in the context of an ordinary linear model. Y contains the comparative data measured over t taxa. X consists of an initial tree matrix that contains all the xj monophyletic groups (each coded separately as a binary indicator variable) of the phylogenetic tree available for those taxa. The method seeks to define the subset of groups, i.e., a reduced tree matrix, that best explains the patterns in Y. This definition is accomplished via regression or canonical ordination (depending on the dimensionality of Y) coupled with Monte Carlo permutations. It is argued here that unrestricted permutations (i.e., under an equiprobable model) are valid for testing this specific kind of groupwise hypothesis. Phylogeny is either partialled out or, more properly, incorporated into the analysis in the form of component variation. Direct extensions allow for testing ecomorphological data controlled by phylogeny in a variation partitioning approach. Currently available statistical techniques make this method applicable under most univariate/multivariate models and metrics; two-way phylogenetic effects can be estimated as well. The simplest case (univariate Y), tested with simulations, yielded acceptable type I error rates. Applications presented include examples from evolutionary ethology, ecology, and ecomorphology. Results showed that the new technique detected previously overlooked variation clearly associated with phylogeny and that many phylogenetic effects on comparative data may occur at particular groups rather than across the entire tree. PMID:14530135
Uncertainty relations, zero point energy and the linear canonical group
Sudarshan, E. C. G.
1993-01-01
The close relationship between the zero point energy, the uncertainty relations, coherent states, squeezed states, and correlated states for one mode is investigated. This group-theoretic perspective enables the parametrization and identification of their multimode generalization. In particular the generalized Schroedinger-Robertson uncertainty relations are analyzed. An elementary method of determining the canonical structure of the generalized correlated states is presented.
AN APOLOGY OF THE LITERARY CANON IN A LINGUISTIC STUDY
Alexey Vladimirovich Sosnin
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The article highlights the principles of selecting practical material for a linguistic study aspiring to objectivity and states that in such a study orientation to the literary text is absolutely essential, as a solid corpus of literary texts is indispensable for describing complicated linguistic phenomena and mental structures standing behind them. The article puts forward the postulate that any serious study into the English language should be constructed on the English literary canon – a global textual corpus on the basis of which the greatest part of the educated speakers’ conceptual sphere is formed. At the same time, the article considers certain problems related to the Anglicist’s orientation towards the canon – its definition, limits, central and peripheral authors, the criteria of a literary work canonic status, arguments of those opposing any canonicity in literature, reconstruction of the canon in other cultures. The article also analyzes the cognitive aspect and tells about the key transformation of the English mentality, which gave rise to thinking in the terms of the time, cause-and-effect, and probability in canonic literature. The author of the article comes up with a principal conclusion: orientation to the literary canon in a linguistic study allows reconciling of linguistics and literature studies and including into the analysis nonlinguistic semiotic systems as well as idiolectal systems of conceptualizing the world in literary works.
Canonical Energy is Quantum Fisher Information
Lashkari, Nima
2015-01-01
In quantum information theory, Fisher Information is a natural metric on the space of perturbations to a density matrix, defined by calculating the relative entropy with the unperturbed state at quadratic order in perturbations. In gravitational physics, Canonical Energy defines a natural metric on the space of perturbations to spacetimes with a Killing horizon. In this paper, we show that the Fisher information metric for perturbations to the vacuum density matrix of a ball-shaped region B in a holographic CFT is dual to the canonical energy metric for perturbations to a corresponding Rindler wedge R_B of Anti-de-Sitter space. Positivity of relative entropy at second order implies that the Fisher information metric is positive definite. Thus, for physical perturbations to anti-de-Sitter spacetime, the canonical energy associated to any Rindler wedge must be positive. This second-order constraint on the metric extends the first order result from relative entropy positivity that physical perturbations must sat...
Extending canonical Monte Carlo methods: II
Velazquez, L.; Curilef, S.
2010-04-01
We have previously presented a methodology for extending canonical Monte Carlo methods inspired by a suitable extension of the canonical fluctuation relation C = β2langδE2rang compatible with negative heat capacities, C < 0. Now, we improve this methodology by including the finite size effects that reduce the precision of a direct determination of the microcanonical caloric curve β(E) = ∂S(E)/∂E, as well as by carrying out a better implementation of the MC schemes. We show that, despite the modifications considered, the extended canonical MC methods lead to an impressive overcoming of the so-called supercritical slowing down observed close to the region of the temperature driven first-order phase transition. In this case, the size dependence of the decorrelation time τ is reduced from an exponential growth to a weak power-law behavior, \\tau (N)\\propto N^{\\alpha } , as is shown in the particular case of the 2D seven-state Potts model where the exponent α = 0.14-0.18.
Canonical Approaches to Applications of the Virial Theorem.
Walton, Jay R; Rivera-Rivera, Luis A; Lucchese, Robert R; Bevan, John W
2016-02-11
Canonical approaches are applied for investigation of the extraordinarily accurate electronic ground state potentials of H2(+), H2, HeH(+), and LiH using the virial theorem. These approaches will be dependent on previous investigations involving the canonical nature of E(R), the Born-Oppenheimer potential, and F(R), the associated force of E(R), that have been demonstrated to be individually canonical to high accuracy in the case of the systems investigated. Now, the canonical nature of the remaining functions in the virial theorem [the electronic kinetic energy T(R), the electrostatic potential energy V(R), and the function W(R) = RF(R)] are investigated and applied to H2, HeH(+), and LiH with H2(+) chosen as reference. The results will be discussed in the context of a different perspective of molecular bonding that goes beyond previous direct applications of the virial theorem. PMID:26788937
Periodicity, the Canon and Sport
Thomas F. Scanlon
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The topic according to this title is admittedly a broad one, embracing two very general concepts of time and of the cultural valuation of artistic products. Both phenomena are, in the present view, largely constructed by their contemporary cultures, and given authority to a great extent from the prestige of the past. The antiquity of tradition brings with it a certain cachet. Even though there may be peripheral debates in any given society which question the specifics of periodization or canonicity, individuals generally accept the consensus designation of a sequence of historical periods and they accept a list of highly valued artistic works as canonical or authoritative. We will first examine some of the processes of periodization and of canon-formation, after which we will discuss some specific examples of how these processes have worked in the sport of two ancient cultures, namely Greece and Mesoamerica.
Existence of log canonical closures
Hacon, Christopher D
2011-01-01
Let $f:X\\to U$ be a projective morphism of normal varieties and $(X,\\Delta)$ a dlt pair. We prove that if there is an open set $U^0\\subset U$, such that $(X,\\Delta)\\times_U U^0$ has a good minimal model over $U^0$ and the images of all the non-klt centers intersect $U^0$, then $(X,\\Delta)$ has a good minimal model over $U$. As consequences we show the existence of log canonical compactifications for open log canonical pairs, and the fact that the moduli functor of stable schemes satisfies the valuative criterion for properness.
Gauge Theory by canonical Transformations
Koenigstein, Adrian; Stoecker, Horst; Struckmeier, Juergen; Vasak, David; Hanauske, Matthias
2016-01-01
Electromagnetism, the strong and the weak interaction are commonly formulated as gauge theories in a Lagrangian description. In this paper we present an alternative formal derivation of U(1)-gauge theory in a manifestly covariant Hamilton formalism. We make use of canonical transformations as our guiding tool to formalize the gauging procedure. The introduction of the gauge field, its transformation behaviour and a dynamical gauge field Lagrangian/Hamiltonian are unavoidable consequences of this formalism, whereas the form of the free gauge Lagrangian/Hamiltonian depends on the selection of the gauge dependence of the canonically conjugate gauge fields.
Case studies in canonical stewardship.
Cafardi, N P; Hite, J
1985-11-01
In facing the challenges that confront Catholic health care today, it is important to know which civil law forms will assist in preserving the Church's ministry. The proper meshing of civil law and canon law thus provides a vehicle to strengthen the apostolate's work. The case studies presented here suggest several means of applying the principles in the new Code of Canon Law to three potentially problematic situations: the merger of a Catholic and non-Catholic hospital, the leasing of a Catholic hospital to an operating company, and the use of the multicorporate format. PMID:10274590
Canonical density matrix perturbation theory.
Niklasson, Anders M N; Cawkwell, M J; Rubensson, Emanuel H; Rudberg, Elias
2015-12-01
Density matrix perturbation theory [Niklasson and Challacombe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 193001 (2004)] is generalized to canonical (NVT) free-energy ensembles in tight-binding, Hartree-Fock, or Kohn-Sham density-functional theory. The canonical density matrix perturbation theory can be used to calculate temperature-dependent response properties from the coupled perturbed self-consistent field equations as in density-functional perturbation theory. The method is well suited to take advantage of sparse matrix algebra to achieve linear scaling complexity in the computational cost as a function of system size for sufficiently large nonmetallic materials and metals at high temperatures. PMID:26764847
Canonical and grand canonical theory of spinodal instabilities
In the context of the mean field approximation to the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson functional integral, describing the equilibrium properties of a system with a conserved order parameter, the conditions for critical instabilities in the canonical ensemble are analysed. (A.C.A.S.)
Balawender, Robert
2009-01-01
A unified formulation of the equilibrium state of a many-electron system in terms of an ensemble (mixed-state) density matrix, which applies the maximum entropy principle combined with the use of Massieu-Planck function, is presented. The properties of the characteristic functionals for macrocanonical ensemble are established. Their extension to other ensembles is accomplished via a Legendre transform. The relations between equilibrium states defined by a formal mathematical procedure and by criteria adopted for traditional (Gibbs, Helmholtz) potentials are investigated using Massieu-Planck transform. The preeminence of the Massieu-Planck function over the traditional thermodynamic potentials is discussed in detail on an example of their second derivatives. Introduced functions are suitable for application to the extensions of the density functional theory, both at finite and zero temperatures.
Resistant multiple sparse canonical correlation.
Coleman, Jacob; Replogle, Joseph; Chandler, Gabriel; Hardin, Johanna
2016-04-01
Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is a multivariate technique that takes two datasets and forms the most highly correlated possible pairs of linear combinations between them. Each subsequent pair of linear combinations is orthogonal to the preceding pair, meaning that new information is gleaned from each pair. By looking at the magnitude of coefficient values, we can find out which variables can be grouped together, thus better understanding multiple interactions that are otherwise difficult to compute or grasp intuitively. CCA appears to have quite powerful applications to high-throughput data, as we can use it to discover, for example, relationships between gene expression and gene copy number variation. One of the biggest problems of CCA is that the number of variables (often upwards of 10,000) makes biological interpretation of linear combinations nearly impossible. To limit variable output, we have employed a method known as sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA), while adding estimation which is resistant to extreme observations or other types of deviant data. In this paper, we have demonstrated the success of resistant estimation in variable selection using SCCA. Additionally, we have used SCCA to find multiple canonical pairs for extended knowledge about the datasets at hand. Again, using resistant estimators provided more accurate estimates than standard estimators in the multiple canonical correlation setting. R code is available and documented at https://github.com/hardin47/rmscca. PMID:26963062
Romanticism, Sexuality, and the Canon.
Rowe, Kathleen K.
1990-01-01
Traces the Romanticism in the work and persona of film director Jean-Luc Godard. Examines the contradictions posed by Godard's politics and representations of sexuality. Asserts, that by bringing an ironic distance to the works of such canonized directors, viewers can take pleasure in those works despite their contradictions. (MM)
Basic Canonical Brackets Without Canonical Conjugate Momenta: Supersymmetric Harmonic Oscillator
Shukla, A; Malik, R P
2014-01-01
We exploit the ideas of spin-statistics theorem, normal-ordering and the key concepts behind the symmetry principles to derive the canonical (anti)commutators for the case of a one (0 + 1)-dimensional (1D) supersymmetric (SUSY) harmonic oscillator without taking the help of the mathematical definition of the canonical conjugate momenta with respect to the bosonic and fermionic variables of this toy model for the Hodge theory (where the continuous and discrete symmetries of the theory provide the physical realizations of the de Rham cohomological operators of differential geometry). In our present endeavor, it is the full set of continuous symmetries and their corresponding generators that lead to the derivation of basic (anti)commutators amongst the creation and annihilation operators that appear in the normal mode expansions of the dynamical variables of our theory.
Statistical thermodynamics in relativistic particle and ion physics: Canonical or grand canonical
We consider relativistic statistical thermodynamics of an ideal Boltzmann gas consisting of the particles K, Λ, A, Σ and their antiparticles. Baryon number (B) and strangeness (S) are conserved. While any relativistic gas is necessarily grand canonical with respect to particle numbers, conservation laws can be treated canonically or grand canonically. We construct the partition function for canonical BxS conservation and compare it with the grand canonical one. It is found that the grand canonical partition function is equivalent to a large B approximation of the canonical one. The relative difference between canonical and grand canonical quantities seems to decrease like const/B (two numerical examples) and from this a simple thumb rule for computing canonical quantities from grand canonical ones is guessed. For precise calculations, an integral representation is given. (orig.)
Canonical and non-canonical pathways of osteoclast formation
Knowles, H.J.; Athanasou, N A
2009-01-01
Physiological and pathological bone resorption is mediated by osteoclasts, multinucleated cells which are formed by the fusion of monocyte / macrophage precursors. The canonical pathway of osteoclast formation requires the presence of the receptor activator for NFkB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF). Noncanonical pathways of osteoclast formation have been described in which cytokines / growth factors can substitute for RANKL or M-CSF to...
Concept of canon in literary studies : critical debates 1970-2000.
Villa, Silvia Maria Teresa
2012-01-01
The present thesis focuses on the critical dialogues on the literary canon developed between 1970 and 2000 in the United States as a crucial juncture for the consolidation of the notion of canon as a scholarly subject matter within the field of literary studies. By taking stock of the abundance of scholarly contributions on the literary canon produced at this time, this thesis pursues two aims: first, it initiates a process of systematisation of the scholarly material on the ca...
Functional Multiple-Set Canonical Correlation Analysis
Hwang, Heungsun; Jung, Kwanghee; Takane, Yoshio; Woodward, Todd S.
2012-01-01
We propose functional multiple-set canonical correlation analysis for exploring associations among multiple sets of functions. The proposed method includes functional canonical correlation analysis as a special case when only two sets of functions are considered. As in classical multiple-set canonical correlation analysis, computationally, the…
Non-Linear Canonical Transformations in Classical and Quantum Mechanics
Brodlie, A
2004-01-01
$p$-Mechanics is a consistent physical theory which describes both classical and quantum mechanics simultaneously through the representation theory of the Heisenberg group. In this paper we describe how non-linear canonical transformations affect $p$-mechanical observables and states. Using this we show how canonical transformations change a quantum mechanical system. We seek an operator on the set of $p$-mechanical observables which corresponds to the classical canonical transformation. In order to do this we derive a set of integral equations which when solved will give us the coherent state expansion of this operator. The motivation for these integral equations comes from the work of Moshinsky and a variety of collaborators. We consider a number of examples and discuss the use of these equations for non-bijective transformations.
Canonical computations of cerebral cortex.
Miller, Kenneth D
2016-04-01
The idea that there is a fundamental cortical circuit that performs canonical computations remains compelling though far from proven. Here we review evidence for two canonical operations within sensory cortical areas: a feedforward computation of selectivity; and a recurrent computation of gain in which, given sufficiently strong external input, perhaps from multiple sources, intracortical input largely, but not completely, cancels this external input. This operation leads to many characteristic cortical nonlinearities in integrating multiple stimuli. The cortical computation must combine such local processing with hierarchical processing across areas. We point to important changes in moving from sensory cortex to motor and frontal cortex and the possibility of substantial differences between cortex in rodents vs. species with columnar organization of selectivity. PMID:26868041
Three Dimensional Canonical Quantum Gravity
Matschull, Hans-Juergen
1995-01-01
General aspects of vielbein representation, ADM formulation and canonical quantization of gravity are reviewed using pure gravity in three dimensions as a toy model. The classical part focusses on the role of observers in general relativity, which will later be identified with quantum observers. A precise definition of gauge symmetries and a classification of inequivalent solutions of Einstein's equations in dreibein formalism is given as well. In the quantum part the construction of the phys...
Resistant Multiple Sparse Canonical Correlation
Coleman, Jacob; Replogle, Joseph; Chandler, Gabriel; Hardin, Johanna
2014-01-01
Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) is a multivariate technique that takes two datasets and forms the most highly correlated possible pairs of linear combinations between them. Each subsequent pair of linear combinations is orthogonal to the preceding pair, meaning that new information is gleaned from each pair. By looking at the magnitude of coefficient values, we can find out which variables can be grouped together, thus better understanding multiple interactions that are otherwise difficu...
Derivation of Mayer Series from Canonical Ensemble
Xian-Zhi, Wang
2016-02-01
Mayer derived the Mayer series from both the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble by use of the cluster expansion method. In 2002, we conjectured a recursion formula of the canonical partition function of a fluid (X.Z. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 056102). In this paper we give a proof for this formula by developing an appropriate expansion of the integrand of the canonical partition function. We further derive the Mayer series solely from the canonical ensemble by use of this recursion formula.
Face hallucination using orthogonal canonical correlation analysis
Zhou, Huiling; Lam, Kin-Man
2016-05-01
A two-step face-hallucination framework is proposed to reconstruct a high-resolution (HR) version of a face from an input low-resolution (LR) face, based on learning from LR-HR example face pairs using orthogonal canonical correlation analysis (orthogonal CCA) and linear mapping. In the proposed algorithm, face images are first represented using principal component analysis (PCA). Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) with the orthogonality property is then employed, to maximize the correlation between the PCA coefficients of the LR and the HR face pairs to improve the hallucination performance. The original CCA does not own the orthogonality property, which is crucial for information reconstruction. We propose using orthogonal CCA, which is proven by experiments to achieve a better performance in terms of global face reconstruction. In addition, in the residual-compensation process, a linear-mapping method is proposed to include both the inter- and intrainformation about manifolds of different resolutions. Compared with other state-of-the-art approaches, the proposed framework can achieve a comparable, or even better, performance in terms of global face reconstruction and the visual quality of face hallucination. Experiments on images with various parameter settings and blurring distortions show that the proposed approach is robust and has great potential for real-world applications.
New constraints for canonical general relativity
Reisenberger, M
1995-01-01
Ashtekar's canonical theory of classical complex Euclidean GR (no Lorentzian reality conditions) is found to be invariant under the full algebra of infinitesimal 4-diffeomorphisms, but non-invariant under some finite proper 4-diffeos when the densitized dreibein, \\tilE^a_i, is degenerate. The breakdown of 4-diffeo invariance appears to be due to the inability of the Ashtekar Hamiltonian to generate births and deaths of \\tilE flux loops (leaving open the possibility that a new `causality condition' forbidding the birth of flux loops might justify the non-invariance of the theory). A fully 4-diffeo invariant canonical theory in Ashtekar's variables, derived from Plebanski's action, is found to have constraints that are stronger than Ashtekar's for rank\\tilE < 2. The corresponding Hamiltonian generates births and deaths of \\tilE flux loops. It is argued that this implies a finite amplitude for births and deaths of loops in the physical states of quantum GR in the loop representation, thus modifying this (part...
Canonical metrics on complex manifold
YAU Shing-Tung
2008-01-01
@@ Complex manifolds are topological spaces that are covered by coordinate charts where the Coordinate changes are given by holomorphic transformations. For example, Riemann surfaces are one dimensional complex manifolds. In order to understand complex manifolds, it is useful to introduce metrics that are compatible with the complex structure. In general, we should have a pair (M, ds2M) where ds2M is the metric. The metric is said to be canonical if any biholomorphisms of the complex manifolds are automatically isometries. Such metrics can naturally be used to describe invariants of the complex structures of the manifold.
Canonical metrics on complex manifold
YAU; Shing-Tung(Yau; S.-T.)
2008-01-01
Complex manifolds are topological spaces that are covered by coordinate charts where the coordinate changes are given by holomorphic transformations.For example,Riemann surfaces are one dimensional complex manifolds.In order to understand complex manifolds,it is useful to introduce metrics that are compatible with the complex structure.In general,we should have a pair(M,ds~2_M)where ds~2_M is the metric.The metric is said to be canonical if any biholomorphisms of the complex manifolds are automatically isometries.Such metrics can naturally be used to describe invariants of the complex structures of the manifold.
Gauge fixing and canonical quantization
We study the canonical quantization of non-Abelian gauge fields in the temporal gauge A0 = 0. We impose the constraint condition of Gauss's law by performing a point transformation into any of a large class of noncovariant gauges. The Faddeev and Popov operator arises naturally in this procedure; indeed, we prove the equivalence of all gauges in this class. We discuss the nonexistence of some simple gauges and show how topological considerations reduce the theory to quantum mechanics on an infinite-dimensional periodic hypersurface
The Deuteron as a Canonically Quantized Biskyrmion
Acus, A; Norvaisas, E; Riska, D O
2003-01-01
The ground state configurations of the solution to Skyrme's topological soliton model for systems with baryon number larger than 1 are well approximated with rational map ans"atze, without individual baryon coordinates. Here canonical quantization of the baryon number 2 system, which represents the deuteron, is carried out in the rational map approximation. The solution, which is described by the 6 parameters of the chiral group SU(2)$times$SU(2), is stabilized by the quantum corrections. The matter density of the variational quantized solution has the required exponential large distance falloff and the quantum numbers of the deuteron. Similarly to the axially symmetric semiclassical solution, the radius and the quadrupole moment are, however, only about half as large as the corresponding empirical values. The quantized deuteron solution is constructed for representations of arbitrary dimension of the chiral group.
Parvan, A.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Department of Theoretical Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Moldova Academy of Sciences, Institute of Applied Physics, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of)
2015-09-15
In the present paper, the Tsallis statistics in the grand canonical ensemble was reconsidered in a general form. The thermodynamic properties of the nonrelativistic ideal gas of hadrons in the grand canonical ensemble was studied numerically and analytically in a finite volume and the thermodynamic limit. It was proved that the Tsallis statistics in the grand canonical ensemble satisfies the requirements of the equilibrium thermodynamics in the thermodynamic limit if the thermodynamic potential is a homogeneous function of the first order with respect to the extensive variables of state of the system and the entropic variable z = 1/(q - 1) is an extensive variable of state. The equivalence of canonical, microcanonical and grand canonical ensembles for the nonrelativistic ideal gas of hadrons was demonstrated. (orig.)
Integral canonical models for Spin Shimura varieties
Pera, Keerthi Madapusi
2012-01-01
We construct regular integral canonical models for Shimura varieties attached to Spin groups at (possibly ramified) odd primes. We exhibit these models as schemes of 'relative PEL type' over integral canonical models of larger Spin Shimura varieties with good reduction. Work of Vasiu-Zink then shows that the classical Kuga-Satake construction extends over the integral model and that the integral models we construct are canonical in a very precise sense. We also construct good compactification...
Process modelling on a canonical basis[Process modelling; Canonical modelling
Siepmann, Volker
2006-12-20
Based on an equation oriented solving strategy, this thesis investigates a new approach to process modelling. Homogeneous thermodynamic state functions represent consistent mathematical models of thermodynamic properties. Such state functions of solely extensive canonical state variables are the basis of this work, as they are natural objective functions in optimisation nodes to calculate thermodynamic equilibrium regarding phase-interaction and chemical reactions. Analytical state function derivatives are utilised within the solution process as well as interpreted as physical properties. By this approach, only a limited range of imaginable process constraints are considered, namely linear balance equations of state variables. A second-order update of source contributions to these balance equations is obtained by an additional constitutive equation system. These equations are general dependent on state variables and first-order sensitivities, and cover therefore practically all potential process constraints. Symbolic computation technology efficiently provides sparsity and derivative information of active equations to avoid performance problems regarding robustness and computational effort. A benefit of detaching the constitutive equation system is that the structure of the main equation system remains unaffected by these constraints, and a priori information allows to implement an efficient solving strategy and a concise error diagnosis. A tailor-made linear algebra library handles the sparse recursive block structures efficiently. The optimisation principle for single modules of thermodynamic equilibrium is extended to host entire process models. State variables of different modules interact through balance equations, representing material flows from one module to the other. To account for reusability and encapsulation of process module details, modular process modelling is supported by a recursive module structure. The second-order solving algorithm makes it
Canonical formulation and path integral for local vacuum energy sequestering
Bufalo, R.; Klusoň, J.; Oksanen, M.
2016-01-01
We establish the Hamiltonian analysis and the canonical path integral for a local formulation of vacuum energy sequestering. In particular, by considering the state of the universe as a superposition of vacuum states corresponding to different values of the cosmological and gravitational constants, the path integral is extended to include integrations over the cosmological and gravitational constants. The result is an extension of the Ng-van Dam form of the path integral of unimodular gravity...
Canonical curves with low apolarity
Ballico, Edoardo; Notari, Roberto
2010-01-01
Let $k$ be an algebraically closed field and let $C$ be a non--hyperelliptic smooth projective curve of genus $g$ defined over $k$. Since the canonical model of $C$ is arithmetically Gorenstein, Macaulay's theory of inverse systems allows to associate to $C$ a cubic form $f$ in the divided power $k$--algebra $R$ in $g-2$ variables. The apolarity of $C$ is the minimal number $t$ of linear form in $R$ needed to write $f$ as sum of their divided power cubes. It is easy to see that the apolarity of $C$ is at least $g-2$ and P. De Poi and F. Zucconi classified curves with apolarity $g-2$ when $k$ is the complex field. In this paper, we give a complete, characteristic free, classification of curves $C$ with apolarity $g-1$ (and $g-2$).
Karina Beatriz Lemes
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Intentaremos mostrar cómo venimos trabajando con la reconstrucción de la memoria literaria de la provincia de Misiones a partir de la recopilación de los manuscritos de sus autores más representativos. Hemos utilizado para nuestra lectura, en cruce con la crítica genética, las relaciones que Fernando Ainsa establece entre canon y periferia, espacios de la memoria y construcción de la utopía. Ainsa concibe la escritura como proceso genético que en su origen es personal, visceral y solitario, una búsqueda constante de identidad que se enriquece en contacto con el mundo, con la apertura de fronteras. Estas vinculaciones nos han permitido interpretar las prácticas sociales que fundaron actividades estéticas en la distancia de los centros de poder argentinos.This paper shows some findings of our ongoing research project dealing with the recuperation of literary memory in the province of Misiones by analysing a compilation of the literary manuscripts by the most representative authors of this northern region of Argentina. Here, we follow Fernado Ainsa’s notions of canon and periphery, of memory spaces and construction of utopias. Ainsa sees the act of writing as a genetic process for it originates within a personal, visceral, and solitary realm. For Ainsa, writing is also a permanent search for identity which becomes richer when in contact with the world, when frontiers open up. These concepts allow us to interpret the social practices that gave birth to these aesthetic projects far away from Argentina’s power centers.
Nimon, Kim; Henson, Robin K.; Gates, Michael S.
2010-01-01
In the face of multicollinearity, researchers face challenges interpreting canonical correlation analysis (CCA) results. Although standardized function and structure coefficients provide insight into the canonical variates produced, they fall short when researchers want to fully report canonical effects. This article revisits the interpretation of…
CANONICAL EXTENSIONS OF SYMMETRIC LINEAR RELATIONS
Sandovici, Adrian; Davidson, KR; Gaspar, D; Stratila, S; Timotin, D; Vasilescu, FH
2006-01-01
The concept of canonical extension of Hermitian operators has been recently introduced by A. Kuzhel. This paper deals with a generalization of this notion to the case of symmetric linear relations. Namely, canonical regular extensions of symmetric linear relations in Hilbert spaces are studied. The
Properties of the linear canonical integral transformation.
Alieva, Tatiana; Bastiaans, Martin J
2007-11-01
We provide a general expression and different classification schemes for the general two-dimensional canonical integral transformations that describe the propagation of coherent light through lossless first-order optical systems. Main theorems for these transformations, such as shift, scaling, derivation, etc., together with the canonical integral transforms of selected functions, are derived. PMID:17975592
The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.
Linkin, Harriet Kramer
1991-01-01
Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…
Multiplicity fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions using canonical and grand-canonical ensemble
Garg, P. [Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Discipline of Physics, School of Basic Science, Simrol (India); Mishra, D.K.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Mohanty, A.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Nuclear Physics Division, Mumbai (India)
2016-02-15
We report the higher-order cumulants and their ratios for baryon, charge and strangeness multiplicity in canonical and grand-canonical ensembles in ideal thermal model including all the resonances. When the number of conserved quanta is small, an explicit treatment of these conserved charges is required, which leads to a canonical description of the system and the fluctuations are significantly different from the grand-canonical ensemble. Cumulant ratios of total-charge and net-charge multiplicity as a function of collision energies are also compared in grand-canonical ensemble. (orig.)
Multiplicity fluctuations in heavy ion collisions using canonical and grand canonical ensemble
Garg, P; Netrakanti, P K; Mohanty, A K
2015-01-01
We report the higher order cumulants and their ratios for baryon, charge and strangeness multiplicity in canonical and grand-canonical ensembles in ideal thermal model including all the resonances. When the number of conserved quanta is small, an explicit treatment of these conserved charges is required, which leads to a canonical description of the system and the fluctuations are significantly different from the grand canonical ensemble. Cumulant ratios of total charge and net-charge multiplicity as a function of collision energies are also compared in grand canonical ensemble.
Localizing the Latent Structure Canonical Uncertainty: Entropy Profiles for Hidden Markov Models
Durand, Jean-Baptiste
2012-01-01
This report addresses state inference for hidden Markov models. These models rely on unobserved states, which often have a meaningful interpretation. This makes it necessary to develop diagnostic tools for quantification of state uncertainty. The entropy of the state sequence that explains an observed sequence for a given hidden Markov chain model can be considered as the canonical measure of state sequence uncertainty. This canonical measure of state sequence uncertainty is not reflected by the classic multivariate state profiles computed by the smoothing algorithm, which summarizes the possible state sequences. Here, we introduce a new type of profiles which have the following properties: (i) these profiles of conditional entropies are a decomposition of the canonical measure of state sequence uncertainty along the sequence and makes it possible to localize this uncertainty, (ii) these profiles are univariate and thus remain easily interpretable on tree structures. We show how to extend the smoothing algori...
Canonical pseudotensors, Sparling's form and Noether currents
The canonical energy - momentum and spin pseudotensors of the Einstein theory are studied in two ways. First they are studied in the framework of Lagrangian formalism. It is shown, that for first order Lagrangian and rigid basis description the canonical energy - momentum, the canonical spin, and the Noether current are tensorial quantities, and the canonial energy - momentum and spin tensors satisfy the tensorial Belinfante-Rosenfeld equations. Then the differential geometric unification and reformulation of the previous different pseudotensorial approaches is given. Finally, for any vector field on the spacetime an (m-1) form, called the Noether form is defined. (K.A.) 34 refs
Differential Forms on Log Canonical Spaces
Greb, Daniel; Kovacs, Sandor J; Peternell, Thomas
2010-01-01
The present paper is concerned with differential forms on log canonical varieties. It is shown that any p-form defined on the smooth locus of a variety with canonical or klt singularities extends regularly to any resolution of singularities. In fact, a much more general theorem for log canonical pairs is established. The proof relies on vanishing theorems for log canonical varieties and on methods of the minimal model program. In addition, a theory of differential forms on dlt pairs is developed. It is shown that many of the fundamental theorems and techniques known for sheaves of logarithmic differentials on smooth varieties also hold in the dlt setting. Immediate applications include the existence of a pull-back map for reflexive differentials, generalisations of Bogomolov-Sommese type vanishing results, and a positive answer to the Lipman-Zariski conjecture for klt spaces.
Regularized canonical correlation analysis with unlabeled data
Xi-chuan ZHOU; Hai-bin SHEN
2009-01-01
In standard canonical correlation analysis (CCA), the data from definite datasets are used to estimate their canonical correlation. In real applications, for example in bilingual text retrieval, it may have a great portion of data that we do not know which set it belongs to. This part of data is called unlabeled data, while the rest from definite datasets is called labeled data. We propose a novel method called regularized canonical correlation analysis (RCCA), which makes use of both labeled and unlabeled samples. Specifically, we learn to approximate canonical correlation as if all data were labeled. Then. we describe a generalization of RCCA for the multi-set situation. Experiments on four real world datasets, Yeast, Cloud, Iris, and Haberman, demonstrate that,by incorporating the unlabeled data points, the accuracy of correlation coefficients can be improved by over 30%.
Subsets of configurations and canonical partition functions
Bloch, J.; Bruckmann, F.; Kieburg, M.;
2013-01-01
We explain the physical nature of the subset solution to the sign problem in chiral random matrix theory: the subset sum over configurations is shown to project out the canonical determinant with zero quark charge from a given configuration. As the grand canonical chiral random matrix partition f...... function is independent of the chemical potential, the zero-quark-charge sector provides the full result. © 2013 American Physical Society....
Canonical equations of Hamilton with beautiful symmetry
Liang, Guo; Guo, Qi
2012-01-01
The Hamiltonian formulation plays the essential role in constructing the framework of modern physics. In this paper, a new form of canonical equations of Hamilton with the complete symmetry is obtained, which are valid not only for the first-order differential system, but also for the second-order differential system. The conventional form of the canonical equations without the symmetry [Goldstein et al., Classical Mechanics, 3rd ed, Addison-Wesley, 2001] are only for the second-order differe...
Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation for Three Canonical Observables
Kechrimparis, Spiros; Weigert, Stefan
2014-01-01
Uncertainty relations provide fundamental limits on what can be said about the properties of quantum systems. For a quantum particle, the commutation relation of position and momentum observables entails Heisenberg's uncertainty relation. A third observable is presented which satisfies canonical commutation relations with both position and momentum. The resulting triple of pairwise canonical observables gives rise to a Heisenberg-type uncertainty relation for the product of three standard dev...
An $OSp$ extension of Canonical Tensor Model
Narain, Gaurav
2015-01-01
Tensor models are generalizations of matrix models, and are studied as discrete models of quantum gravity for arbitrary dimensions. Among them, the canonical tensor model (CTM for short) is a rank-three tensor model formulated as a totally constrained system with a number of first-class constraints, which have a similar algebraic structure as the constraints of the ADM formalism of general relativity. In this paper, we formulate a super-extension of CTM as an attempt to incorporate fermionic degrees of freedom. The kinematical symmetry group is extended from $O(N)$ to $OSp(N,\\tilde N)$, and the constraints are constructed so that they form a first-class constraint super-Poisson algebra. This is a straightforward super-extension, and the constraints and their algebraic structure are formally unchanged from the purely bosonic case, except for the additional signs associated to the order of the fermionic indices and dynamical variables. However, this extension of CTM leads to the existence of negative norm state...
Alexander M Many
Full Text Available The characterization of mammary stem cells, and signals that regulate their behavior, is of central importance in understanding developmental changes in the mammary gland and possibly for targeting stem-like cells in breast cancer. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a signaling mechanism associated with maintenance of self-renewing stem cells in many tissues, including mammary epithelium, and can be oncogenic when deregulated. Wnt1 and Wnt3a are examples of ligands that activate the canonical pathway. Other Wnt ligands, such as Wnt5a, typically signal via non-canonical, β-catenin-independent, pathways that in some cases can antagonize canonical signaling. Since the role of non-canonical Wnt signaling in stem cell regulation is not well characterized, we set out to investigate this using mammosphere formation assays that reflect and quantify stem cell properties. Ex vivo mammosphere cultures were established from both wild-type and Wnt1 transgenic mice and were analyzed in response to manipulation of both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling. An increased level of mammosphere formation was observed in cultures derived from MMTV-Wnt1 versus wild-type animals, and this was blocked by treatment with Dkk1, a selective inhibitor of canonical Wnt signaling. Consistent with this, we found that a single dose of recombinant Wnt3a was sufficient to increase mammosphere formation in wild-type cultures. Surprisingly, we found that Wnt5a also increased mammosphere formation in these assays. We confirmed that this was not caused by an increase in canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling but was instead mediated by non-canonical Wnt signals requiring the receptor tyrosine kinase Ror2 and activity of the Jun N-terminal kinase, JNK. We conclude that both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signals have positive effects promoting stem cell activity in mammosphere assays and that they do so via independent signaling mechanisms.
Refining inflation using non-canonical scalars
Unnikrishnan, Sanil; Sahni, Varun [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Toporensky, Aleksey, E-mail: sanil@iucaa.ernet.in, E-mail: varun@iucaa.ernet.in, E-mail: atopor@rambler.ru [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow State University, Universitetsky Prospekt, 13, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)
2012-08-01
This paper revisits the Inflationary scenario within the framework of scalar field models possessing a non-canonical kinetic term. We obtain closed form solutions for all essential quantities associated with chaotic inflation including slow roll parameters, scalar and tensor power spectra, spectral indices, the tensor-to-scalar ratio, etc. We also examine the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and demonstrate the existence of an inflationary attractor. Our results highlight the fact that non-canonical scalars can significantly improve the viability of inflationary models. They accomplish this by decreasing the tensor-to-scalar ratio while simultaneously increasing the value of the scalar spectral index, thereby redeeming models which are incompatible with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) in their canonical version. For instance, the non-canonical version of the chaotic inflationary potential, V(φ) ∼ λφ{sup 4}, is found to agree with observations for values of λ as large as unity! The exponential potential can also provide a reasonable fit to CMB observations. A central result of this paper is that steep potentials (such as V∝φ{sup −n}) usually associated with dark energy, can drive inflation in the non-canonical setting. Interestingly, non-canonical scalars violate the consistency relation r = −8n{sub T}, which emerges as a smoking gun test for this class of models.
Hori method for generalized canonical systems
da Silva Fernandes, Sandro
2009-01-01
In this paper, some special features on the canonical version of Hori method, when it is applied to generalized canonical systems (systems of differential equations described by a Hamiltonian function linear in the momenta), are presented. Two different procedures, based on a new approach for the integration theory recently presented for the canonical version, are proposed for determining the new Hamiltonian and the generating function for systems whose differential equations for the coordinates describe a periodic system with one fast phase. These procedures are equivalent and they are directly related to the canonical transformations defined by the general solution of the integrable kernel of the Hamiltonian. They provide the same near-identity transformation for the coordinates obtained through the non-canonical version of Hori method. It is also shown that these procedures are connected to the classic averaging principle through a canonical transformation. As examples, asymptotic solutions of a non-linear oscillations problem and of the elliptic perturbed problem are discussed.
Qiao, Erlin
2011-01-01
Recent observations reveal that a cool disk may survive in the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) for some black hole X-ray binaries in the canonical low/hard state. The spectrum is characterized by a power law with a photon index $\\Gamma \\sim 1.5-2.1$ in the range of 2-10 keV and a weak disk component with temperature of $\\sim 0.2$ keV. In this work, We revisit the formation of such a cool, optically thick, geometrically thin disk in the most inner region of black hole X-ray binaries at the low/hard state within the context of disk accretion fed by condensation of hot corona. By taking into account the cooling process associated with both Compton and conductive processes in a corona, and the irradiation of the hot corona to the disk, we calculate the structure of the corona. For viscosity parameter $\\alpha=0.2$, it's found that the inner disk can exist for accretion rate ranging from $\\dot M \\sim 0.006-0.03 \\dot M_{\\rm Edd}$, over which the electron temperatures of the corona are in the range of $1-5\\tim...
Universal canonical entropy for gravitating systems
Ashok Chatterjee; Parthasarathi Majumdar
2004-10-01
The thermodynamics of general relativistic systems with boundary, obeying a Hamiltonian constraint in the bulk, is determined solely by the boundary quantum dynamics, and hence by the area spectrum. Assuming, for large area of the boundary, (a) an area spectrum as determined by non-perturbative canonical quantum general relativity (NCQGR), (b) an energy spectrum that bears a power law relation to the area spectrum, (c) an area law for the leading order microcanonical entropy, leading thermal fluctuation corrections to the canonical entropy are shown to be logarithmic in area with a universal coefficient. Since the microcanonical entropy also has universal logarithmic corrections to the area law (from quantum space-time fluctuations, as found earlier) the canonical entropy then has a universal form including logarithmic corrections to the area law. This form is shown to be independent of the index appearing in assumption (b). The index, however, is crucial in ascertaining the domain of validity of our approach based on thermal equilibrium.
Covariant Gauge Fixing and Canonical Quantization
McKeon, D G C
2011-01-01
Theories that contain first class constraints possess gauge invariance which results in the necessity of altering the measure in the associated quantum mechanical path integral. If the path integral is derived from the canonical structure of the theory, then the choice of gauge conditions used in constructing Faddeev's measure cannot be covariant. This shortcoming is normally overcome either by using the "Faddeev-Popov" quantization procedure, or by the approach of Batalin-Fradkin-Fradkina-Vilkovisky, and then demonstrating that these approaches are equivalent to the path integral constructed from the canonical approach with Faddeev's measure. We propose in this paper an alternate way of defining the measure for the path integral when it is constructed using the canonical procedure for theories containing first class constraints and that this new approach can be used in conjunction with covariant gauges. This procedure follows the Faddeev-Popov approach, but rather than working with the form of the gauge tran...
The random-variable canonical distribution
An alternative interpretation to Gibbs' concept of the canonical distribution for an ensemble of systems in statistical equilibrium is proposed. Whereas Gibbs' theory is based upon a consideration of systems subject to dynamical law, the present analysis relies neither on the classical equations of motion nor makes use of any a priori probability of a complexion; rather, it makes avail of the basic algebra of random variables and, specifically, invokes the law of large numbers. Thereby, a canonical distribution is derived which describes a macrosystem in probabilistic, rather than deterministic, terms, and facilitates the understanding of energy fluctuations which occur in macrosystems at an overall constant ensemble temperature. A discussion is given of a modified form of the Gibbs canonical distribution which takes full account of the effects of random energy fluctuations. It is demonstrated that the results from this modified analysis are entirely consonant with those derived from the random-variable approach. (author)
A Canonical Analysis of the Massless Superparticle
McKeon, D G C
2012-01-01
The canonical structure of the action for a massless superparticle is considered in d = 2 + 1 and d = 3 + 1 dimensions. This is done by examining the contribution to the action of each of the components of the spinor {\\theta} present; no attempt is made to maintain manifest covariance. Upon using the Dirac Bracket to eliminate the second class constraints arising from the canonical momenta associated with half of these components, we find that the remaining components have canonical momenta that are all first class constraints. From these first class constraints, it is possible to derive the generator of half of the local Fermionic {\\kappa}-symmetry of Siegel; which half is contingent upon the choice of which half of the momenta associated with the components of {\\theta} are taken to be second class constraints. The algebra of the generator of this Fermionic symmetry transformation is examined.
Functional linear regression via canonical analysis
He, Guozhong; Wang, Jane-Ling; Yang, Wenjing; 10.3150/09-BEJ228
2011-01-01
We study regression models for the situation where both dependent and independent variables are square-integrable stochastic processes. Questions concerning the definition and existence of the corresponding functional linear regression models and some basic properties are explored for this situation. We derive a representation of the regression parameter function in terms of the canonical components of the processes involved. This representation establishes a connection between functional regression and functional canonical analysis and suggests alternative approaches for the implementation of functional linear regression analysis. A specific procedure for the estimation of the regression parameter function using canonical expansions is proposed and compared with an established functional principal component regression approach. As an example of an application, we present an analysis of mortality data for cohorts of medflies, obtained in experimental studies of aging and longevity.
Canonical quantization of gravity without 'frozen formalism'
We write down a quantum gravity equation which generalizes the Wheeler-DeWitt one in view of including a time dependence in the wave functional. The obtained equation provides a consistent canonical quantization of the 3-geometries resulting from a 'gauge-fixing' (3+1)-slicing of the space-time. Our leading idea relies on a criticism to the possibility that, in a quantum space-time, the notion of a (3+1)-slicing formalism (underlying the Wheeler-DeWitt approach) has yet a precise physical meaning. As solution to this problem we propose of adding to the gravity-matter action the so-called kinematical action (indeed in its reduced form, as implemented in the quantum regime), and then we impose the new quantum constraints. As consequence of this revised approach, the quantization procedure of the 3-geometries takes place in a fixed reference frame and the wave functional acquires a time evolution along a one-parameter family of spatial hypersurfaces filling the space-time. We show how the states of the new quantum dynamics can be arranged into an Hilbert space, whose associated inner product induces a conserved probability notion for the 3-geometries. Finally, since the constraints we quantize violate the classical symmetries (i.e., the vanishing nature of the super-Hamiltonian), then a key result is to find a (non-physical) restriction on the initial wave functional phase, ensuring that general relativity outcomes when taking the appropriate classical limit. However, we propose a physical interpretation of the kinematical variables which, based on the analogy with the so-called Gaussian reference fluid, makes allowance even for such classical symmetry violation
Canonical quantization of generally covariant systems
Kretschmann (1917) argued that general relativity does not satisfy any relativity principle and that it is actually a theory of absolute space-time. The issues raised by Kretschmann, that of Hamiltonian dynamics and of canonical quantization of generally covariant systems, are discussed. The questions raised are: what is the role of space-time diffeomorphisms in Hamiltonian dynamics of generally covariant systems, what is the role of isometries in Hamiltonian dynamics of such systems and what happens to both problems in canonical quantization. (author)
Canonic form of linear quaternion functions
Sangwine, Stephen J.
2008-01-01
The general linear quaternion function of degree one is a sum of terms with quaternion coefficients on the left and right. The paper considers the canonic form of such a function, and builds on the recent work of Todd Ell, who has shown that any such function may be represented using at most four quaternion coefficients. In this paper, a new and simple method is presented for obtaining these coefficients numerically using a matrix approach which also gives an alternative proof of the canonic ...
Canonical transformations and Hamiltonian evolutionary systems
In many Lagrangian field theories, one has a Poisson bracket defined on the space of local functionals. We find necessary and sufficient conditions for a transformation on the space of local functionals to be canonical in three different cases. These three cases depend on the specific dimensions of the vector bundle of the theory and the associated Hamiltonian differential operator. We also show how a canonical transformation transforms a Hamiltonian evolutionary system and its conservation laws. Finally, we illustrate these ideas with three examples.
Canonical vs. micro-canonical sampling methods in a 2D Ising model
Canonical and micro-canonical Monte Carlo algorithms were implemented on a 2D Ising model. Expressions for the internal energy, U, inverse temperature, Z, and specific heat, C, are given. These quantities were calculated over a range of temperature, lattice sizes, and time steps. Both algorithms accurately simulate the Ising model. To obtain greater than three decimal accuracy from the micro-canonical method requires that the more complicated expression for Z be used. The overall difference between the algorithms is small. The physics of the problem under study should be the deciding factor in determining which algorithm to use. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs
Communication: Generalized canonical purification for density matrix minimization
Truflandier, Lionel A.; Dianzinga, Rivo M.; Bowler, David R.
2016-03-01
A Lagrangian formulation for the constrained search for the N-representable one-particle density matrix based on the McWeeny idempotency error minimization is proposed, which converges systematically to the ground state. A closed form of the canonical purification is derived for which no a posteriori adjustment on the trace of the density matrix is needed. The relationship with comparable methods is discussed, showing their possible generalization through the hole-particle duality. The appealing simplicity of this self-consistent recursion relation along with its low computational complexity could prove useful as an alternative to diagonalization in solving dense and sparse matrix eigenvalue problems.
Kuidas Canon suureks kasvas / Andres Eilart
Eilart, Andres
2004-01-01
Jaapani kaamerate ja büroomasinate tootja Canon Groupi arengust, tegevusest kolmes regioonis - USA-s, Euroopas ja Aasias ning ettevõtte pikaajalise edu põhjustest - ärifilosoofiast ning ajastatud tootearendusest. Vt. samas: Firma esialgne nimi oli Kwanon; Konkurendid koonduvad
On the canonical treatment of Lagrangian constraints
The canonical treatment of dynamic systems with manifest Lagrangian constraints proposed by Berezin is applied to concrete examples: a special Lagrangian linear in velocities, relativistic particles in proper time gauge, a relativistic string in orthonormal gauge, and the Maxwell field in the Lorentz gauge
Canonical Quantization of Higher-Order Lagrangians
Khaled I. Nawafleh
2011-01-01
Full Text Available After reducing a system of higher-order regular Lagrangian into first-order singular Lagrangian using constrained auxiliary description, the Hamilton-Jacobi function is constructed. Besides, the quantization of the system is investigated using the canonical path integral approximation.
On the generalized Lorenz canonical form
Čelikovský, Sergej; Guanrong, Ch.
2005-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 5 (2005), s. 1271-1276. ISSN 0960-0779 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/05/0011; GA MŠk 1P05LA262 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : chaos * synchronization * canonical form Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.938, year: 2005
Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color
Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.
2010-01-01
We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…
Canonical duties, liabilities of trustees and administrators.
Morrisey, F G
1985-06-01
The new Code of Canon Law outlines a number of duties of those who have responsibility for administering the Church's temporal goods. Before assuming office, administrators must pledge to be efficient and faithful, and they must prepare an inventory of goods belonging to the juridic person they serve. Among their duties, administrators must: Ensure that adequate insurance is provided; Use civilly valid methods to protect canonical ownership of the goods; Observe civil and canon law prescriptions as well as donors' intentions; Collect and safeguard revenues, repay debts, and invest funds securely; Maintain accurate records, keep documents secure, and prepare an annual budget; Prepare an annual report and present it to the Ordinary where prescribed; Observe civil law concerning labor and social policy, and pay employees a just and decent wage. Administrators who carry out acts that are invalid canonically are liable for such acts. The juridic person is not liable, unless it derived benefit from the transaction. Liability is especially high when the sale of property is involved or when a contract is entered into without proper cannonical consent. Although Church law is relatively powerless to punish those who have been negligent, stewards, administrators, and trustees must do all they can to be truthful to the responsibility with which they have been entrusted. PMID:10271510
Conservation laws of semidiscrete canonical Hamiltonian equations
There are many evolution partial differential equations which can be cast into Hamiltonian form. Conservation laws of these equations are related to one-parameter Hamiltonian symmetries admitted by the PDEs. The same result holds for semidiscrete Hamiltonian equations. In this paper we consider semidiscrete canonical Hamiltonian equations. Using symmetries, we find conservation laws for the semidiscretized nonlinear wave equation and Schroedinger equation. (author)
Kelvin's Canonical Circulation Theorem in Hall Magnetohydrodynamics
Shivamoggi, B K
2016-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to show that, thanks to the restoration of the legitimate connection between the current density and the plasma flow velocity in Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), Kelvin's Circulation Theorem becomes valid in Hall MHD. The ion-flow velocity in the usual circulation integral is now replaced by the canonical ion-flow velocity.
Canonical Ensemble Model for Black Hole Radiation
Jingyi Zhang
2014-09-01
In this paper, a canonical ensemble model for the black hole quantum tunnelling radiation is introduced. In this model the probability distribution function corresponding to the emission shell is calculated to second order. The formula of pressure and internal energy of the thermal system is modified, and the fundamental equation of thermodynamics is also discussed.
Bel, M. Cadolle; Ribo, M.; Rodriguez, J.; Chaty, S.; Corbel, S.; Goldwurm, A; Frontera, F.; Farinelli, R.; D'Avanzo, P.; Tarana, A.; Ubertini, P.; Laurent, P.; Goldoni, P.; Mirabel, I.F.
2006-01-01
We report the results of simultaneous multiwavelength observations of the X-ray transient source SWIFT J1753.5-0127 performed with INTEGRAL, RXTE, NTT, REM and VLA on 2005 August 10-12. The source, which underwent an X-ray outburst since 2005 May 30, was observed during the INTEGRAL Target of Opportunity program dedicated to new X-ray novae located in the Galactic Halo. Broad-band spectra and fast timing variability properties of SWIFT J1753.5-0127 are analyzed together with the optical, near...
Hiemstra, Beike; Soleri, Paolo; Mendez, Mariano; Belloni, Tomaso; Mostafa, Reham; Wijnands, Rudy
2009-01-01
We analysed simultaneous archival XMM-Newton and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observations of the X-ray binary and black hole candidate Swift J1753.5-0127. In a previous analysis of the same data, a soft thermal component was found in the X-ray spectrum, and the presence of an accretion disc extendin
Dunfee, J.; Leonard, L.; Rumbarger, J.
1980-01-01
The Franklin Research Center (FRC), a Division of the Franklin Institute, was contracted by the Bureau of Mines to improve walking dragline roller tracks. The contract was subsequently transferred to the Department of Energy. The period from September 1977 to September 1978 covered laboratory rolling contact rig tests to evaluate typical low hardness dragline track materials. The results of this work are covered by DOE/ET/9121-1 Final Report, Volume I. The period from September 1978 to July 1980 covered field measurements of dragline roller circle loadings. The results of this work are covered by DOE/ET/9121-2 Final Report, Volume II. The laboratory rolling contact rig test results indicate that forged vacuum degassed air melt steel materials are recommended over air-melt cast materials for rollers and tracks. The steels tested exhibited good freedom from sensitivity to stress raisers like brinell marks and small holes or discontinuities (Volume I). The largest unknown in a recommended method for life testing roller tracks is the condition of the upper rotating frame structure and the lower tub supporting structure.
Canonical brackets of a toy model for the Hodge theory without its canonical conjugate momenta
Shukla, D; Malik, R P
2014-01-01
We consider the toy model of a rigid rotor as an example of the Hodge theory within the framework of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism and show that the internal symmetries of this theory lead to the derivation of canonical brackets amongst the creation and annihilation operators of the dynamical variables where the definition of the canonical conjugate momenta is not required. We invoke only the spin-statistics theorem, normal ordering and basic concepts of continuous symmetries (and their generators) to derive the canonical brackets for the model of a one (0 + 1)-dimensional (1D) rigid rotor without using the definition of the canonical conjugate momenta anywhere. Our present method of derivation of the basic brackets is conjectured to be true for a class of theories that provide a set of tractable physical examples for the Hodge theory.
Canonical brackets of a toy model for the Hodge theory without its canonical conjugate momenta
Shukla, D.; Bhanja, T.; Malik, R. P.
2015-07-01
We consider the toy model of a rigid rotor as an example of the Hodge theory within the framework of Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism and show that the internal symmetries of this theory lead to the derivation of canonical brackets amongst the creation and annihilation operators of the dynamical variables where the definition of the canonical conjugate momenta is not required. We invoke only the spin-statistics theorem, normal ordering and basic concepts of continuous symmetries (and their generators) to derive the canonical brackets for the model of a one (0 + 1)-dimensional (1D) rigid rotor without using the definition of the canonical conjugate momenta anywhere. Our present method of derivation of the basic brackets is conjectured to be true for a class of theories that provide a set of tractable physical examples for the Hodge theory.
Avicenna's Canon of Medicine: a look at health, public health, and environmental sanitation.
Saffari, Mohsen; Pakpour, Amir H
2012-12-01
Avicenna, a renowned Persian Muslim scientist has written numerous scientific papers and valuable medical books that are respected worldwide. For centuries his masterpiece, the "Canon of Medicine", has been used as a major medical reference. The Canon, as a prime encyclopedia on medicine is comprised of five books. In the introduction to the Canon, Avicenna has described the purpose of medicine as the preservation of health if it is already attained and its restoration when it is lost. He defines health as a trait or state, which results in the normal functioning of the human body and presumes that health is a steady state, whilst disease is more of a variable concept. Thus whenever we depart from a healthy state, we approach disease. A comparison of current views regarding definitions of health, disease and their components as defined by Avicenna could open new horizons for ancient, traditional medicine. The Canon contains numerous implications concerning the infrastructures of public health-related issues. For example the specifications of healthy water and air are well described in the "Canon of Medicine". To enable a better understanding of Avicenna's viewpoints about public health, we have briefly reviewed his perspective on the topics of health, disease, and environmental sanitation concerning water and air. PMID:23199255
Canonical brackets of a toy model for the Hodge theory without its canonical conjugate momenta
D Shukla; Bhanja, T.; Malik, R. P.
2014-01-01
We consider the toy model of a rigid rotor as an example of the Hodge theory within the framework of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism and show that the internal symmetries of this theory lead to the derivation of canonical brackets amongst the creation and annihilation operators of the dynamical variables where the definition of the canonical conjugate momenta is not required. We invoke only the spin-statistics theorem, normal ordering and basic concepts of continuous symmetries...
An introduction to the theory of canonical matrices
Turnbull, H W
2004-01-01
Thorough and self-contained, this penetrating study of the theory of canonical matrices presents a detailed consideration of all the theory's principal features. Topics include elementary transformations and bilinear and quadratic forms; canonical reduction of equivalent matrices; subgroups of the group of equivalent transformations; and rational and classical canonical forms. The final chapters explore several methods of canonical reduction, including those of unitary and orthogonal transformations. 1952 edition. Index. Appendix. Historical notes. Bibliographies. 275 problems.
Dunkl Operators and Canonical Invariants of Reflection Groups
Arkady Berenstein; Yurii Burman
2008-01-01
Using Dunkl operators, we introduce a continuous family of canonical invariants of finite reflection groups. We verify that the elementary canonical invariants of the symmetric group are deformations of the elementary symmetric polynomials. We also compute the canonical invariants for all dihedral groups as certain hypergeometric functions.
Canonical analysis based on mutual information
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack
2015-01-01
Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is an established multi-variate statistical method for finding similarities between linear combinations of (normally two) sets of multivariate observations. In this contribution we replace (linear) correlation as the measure of association between the linear...... combinations with the information theoretical measure mutual information (MI). We term this type of analysis canonical information analysis (CIA). MI allows for the actual joint distribution of the variables involved and not just second order statistics. While CCA is ideal for Gaussian data, CIA facilitates...... analysis of variables with different genesis and therefore different statistical distributions and different modalities. As a proof of concept we give a toy example. We also give an example with one (weather radar based) variable in the one set and eight spectral bands of optical satellite data in the...
DNA pattern recognition using canonical correlation algorithm
B K Sarkar; Chiranjib Chakraborty
2015-10-01
We performed canonical correlation analysis as an unsupervised statistical tool to describe related views of the same semantic object for identifying patterns. A pattern recognition technique based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was proposed for finding required genetic code in the DNA sequence. Two related but different objects were considered: one was a particular pattern, and other was test DNA sequence. CCA found correlations between two observations of the same semantic pattern and test sequence. It is concluded that the relationship possesses maximum value in the position where the pattern exists. As a case study, the potential of CCA was demonstrated on the sequence found from HIV-1 preferred integration sites. The subsequences on the left and right flanking from the integration site were considered as the two views, and statistically significant relationships were established between these two views to elucidate the viral preference as an important factor for the correlation.
2010-01-01
Le numéro sept de notre revue réunit les collaborations d’Isabelle López García (posthume), transition intéressante entre canon littéraire, canon social et figuration des corps rendus monstrueux par le fléau du sida ; de Richard Cleminson, spécialiste de l’histoire de la sexualité (en annexe), ainsi que celles de plusieurs chercheures et chercheurs présent.e.s aux journées d’étude entre Toulouse et Tours : Cecilia González analyse le dialogue entre les “anciens et les modernes” à trav...
Rewriting Canonical Love Stories from the Peripheries
Yang, Karen Ya-Chu
2013-01-01
In her article "Rewriting Canonical Love Stories from the Peripheries" Karen Ya-Chu Yang compares postcolonial and postmodern intertextuality in Taiwanese and the Caribbean texts. Hsien-Yung Pai's "Wandering in the Garden, Waking from a Dream" (1966) and Tien-Hsin Chu's "Breakfast at Tiffany's" (1997) are two short stories which depict identity crises of first generation and second generation 外省人 (waishen gren, mainland immigrants). In these two texts disillusionment towards the center's roma...
On Complex Supermanifolds with Trivial Canonical Bundle
Groeger, Josua
2016-01-01
We give an algebraic characterisation for the triviality of the canonical bundle of a complex supermanifold in terms of a certain Batalin-Vilkovisky superalgebra structure. As an application, we study the Calabi-Yau case, in which an explicit formula in terms of the Levi-Civita connection is achieved. Our methods include the use of complex integral forms and the recently developed theory of superholonomy.
Canonical quantization of substrate-less fields
Gründler, Gerold
2015-01-01
An improved law for the canonical quantization of fields is presented, which is based on the distinction between fields which have a material substrate, and substrate-less fields. It is shown that the improved quantization method solves the (old) cosmological constant problem for all fields of the standard model of elementary particles and for the metric field, but not for the hypothetical inflaton fields, without compromising any of the achievements of the established quantum field theories.
THEOLOGY OF CANONS IN CATHOLIC UNIVERSITIES?
IVÁN FEDERICO MEJÍA A
2010-01-01
Is it useful today, or necessary, an interpretation of the Code of Canon Law from Christology? The article examines some opposition which consider as inappropriate to search for foundations or links from "outside" the Code itself and the normal legislative living tradition of the Catholic Church. The Second Vatican Council and Pope John Paul II sponsored a theological interpretation of the Code, and this article summarizes some features of the validation, method, and the successful applicatio...
A canonical representation for aggregated Markov processes
Larget, Bret
1998-01-01
A deterministic function of a Markov process is called an aggregated Markov process. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for the equivalence of continuous-time aggregated Markov processes. For both discrete- and continuous-time, we show that any aggregated Markov process which satisfies mild regularity conditions can be directly converted to a canonical representation which is unique for each class of equivalent models, and furthermore, is a minimal parameterization ...
Juridic status: canonical provisions, possible applications.
Morrisey, F G
1986-09-01
The 1983 Code of Canon Law presents the basic legislation regarding juridic persons, which are entities brought into existence to assist in carrying out the Church's mission. Juridic persons by nature are perpetual and are not directly identified with their members. The private juridic person, a concept introduced in the 1983 code, operates collegially on behalf of its members or noncollegially on behalf of the things that constitute it. A ministry that receives private juridic status does not share as integrally in the Church's name. The latter therefore has more duties to fulfill in regard to observance of Church law, particularly that concerning the administration of temporal goods. The goods of a private juridic person, in contrast, are not ecclesiastical and thus are not subject to canon law. Instead, the private juridic persons' statutes provide norms for their administration. Canon law in establishing juridic persons enables the ministries they represent to last beyond the lives of those who initiated the ministries. Juridic persons offer both security and possibilities for concerted apostolic activity in the Church. PMID:10277620
Yuan, Xue; Cao, Jay; He, Xiaoning; Serra, Rosa; Qu, Jun; Cao, Xu; Yang, Shuying
2016-01-01
Intraflagellar transport proteins (IFT) are required for hedgehog (Hh) signalling transduction that is essential for bone development, however, how IFT proteins regulate Hh signalling in osteoblasts (OBs) remains unclear. Here we show that deletion of ciliary IFT80 in OB precursor cells (OPC) in mice results in growth retardation and markedly decreased bone mass with impaired OB differentiation. Loss of IFT80 blocks canonical Hh–Gli signalling via disrupting Smo ciliary localization, but elevates non-canonical Hh–Gαi–RhoA–stress fibre signalling by increasing Smo and Gαi binding. Inhibition of RhoA and ROCK activity partially restores osteogenic differentiation of IFT80-deficient OPCs by inhibiting non-canonical Hh–RhoA–Cofilin/MLC2 signalling. Cytochalasin D, an actin destabilizer, dramatically restores OB differentiation of IFT80-deficient OPCs by disrupting actin stress fibres and promoting cilia formation and Hh–Gli signalling. These findings reveal that IFT80 is required for OB differentiation by balancing between canonical Hh–Gli and non-canonical Hh–Gαi–RhoA pathways and highlight IFT80 as a therapeutic target for craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities. PMID:26996322
Canonical formulation and path integral for local vacuum energy sequestering
Bufalo, R; Oksanen, M
2016-01-01
We establish the Hamiltonian analysis and the canonical path integral for a local formulation of vacuum energy sequestering. In particular, by considering the state of the universe as a superposition of vacuum states corresponding to different values of the cosmological and gravitational constants, the path integral is extended to include integrations over the cosmological and gravitational constants. The result is an extension of the Ng-van Dam form of the path integral of unimodular gravity. It is argued to imply a relation between the fraction of the most likely values of the gravitational and cosmological constants and the average values of the energy density and pressure of matter over spacetime. Finally, we construct and analyze a BRST-exact formulation of the theory, which can be considered as a topological field theory.
Canonical formulation and path integral for local vacuum energy sequestering
Bufalo, R.; KlusoÅ, J.; Oksanen, M.
2016-08-01
We establish the Hamiltonian analysis and the canonical path integral for a local formulation of vacuum energy sequestering. In particular, by considering the state of the Universe as a superposition of vacuum states corresponding to different values of the cosmological and gravitational constants, the path integral is extended to include integrations over the cosmological and gravitational constants. The result is an extension of the Ng-van Dam form of the path integral of unimodular gravity. It is argued to imply a relation between the fraction of the most likely values of the gravitational and cosmological constants and the average values of the energy density and pressure of matter over spacetime. Finally, we construct and analyze a Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin-exact formulation of the theory, which can be considered as a topological field theory.
Incompatibility of the observer-based vacuum with canonical quantum field theory
Three new stationary coordinate systems in flat space-time, the last of six possible types, are described. The vacuum state found by canonical quantization of the scalar field in two of these systems is identical to that of Rindler coordinates, yet detectors at rest in these systems are excited in different amounts. A definition of the vacuum based on these detectors is, therefore, incompatible with canonical quantum field theory. The vacuum of the third system is identical to the Minkowski coordinate vacuum; thus, there are only two different vacua in flat space-time
Canonical Notch activation in osteocytes causes osteopetrosis.
Canalis, Ernesto; Bridgewater, David; Schilling, Lauren; Zanotti, Stefano
2016-01-15
Activation of Notch1 in cells of the osteoblastic lineage inhibits osteoblast differentiation/function and causes osteopenia, whereas its activation in osteocytes causes a distinct osteopetrotic phenotype. To explore mechanisms responsible, we established the contributions of canonical Notch signaling (Rbpjκ dependent) to osteocyte function. Transgenics expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the dentin matrix protein-1 (Dmp1) promoter were crossed with Rbpjκ conditional mice to generate Dmp1-Cre(+/-);Rbpjκ(Δ/Δ) mice. These mice did not have a skeletal phenotype, indicating that Rbpjκ is dispensable for osteocyte function. To study the Rbpjκ contribution to Notch activation, Rosa(Notch) mice, where a loxP-flanked STOP cassette is placed between the Rosa26 promoter and the NICD coding sequence, were crossed with Dmp1-Cre transgenic mice and studied in the context (Dmp1-Cre(+/-);Rosa(Notch);Rbpjκ(Δ/Δ)) or not (Dmp1-Cre(+/-);Rosa(Notch)) of Rbpjκ inactivation. Dmp1-Cre(+/-);Rosa(Notch) mice exhibited increased femoral trabecular bone volume and decreased osteoclasts and bone resorption. The phenotype was reversed in the context of the Rbpjκ inactivation, demonstrating that Notch canonical signaling was accountable for the phenotype. Notch activation downregulated Sost and Dkk1 and upregulated Axin2, Tnfrsf11b, and Tnfsf11 mRNA expression, and these effects were not observed in the context of the Rbpjκ inactivation. In conclusion, Notch activation in osteocytes suppresses bone resorption and increases bone volume by utilization of canonical signals that also result in the inhibition of Sost and Dkk1 and upregulation of Wnt signaling. PMID:26578715
Canonical group quantization and boundary conditions
Jung, Florian
2012-07-16
In the present thesis, we study quantization of classical systems with non-trivial phase spaces using the group-theoretical quantization technique proposed by Isham. Our main goal is a better understanding of global and topological aspects of quantum theory. In practice, the group-theoretical approach enables direct quantization of systems subject to constraints and boundary conditions in a natural and physically transparent manner -- cases for which the canonical quantization method of Dirac fails. First, we provide a clarification of the quantization formalism. In contrast to prior treatments, we introduce a sharp distinction between the two group structures that are involved and explain their physical meaning. The benefit is a consistent and conceptually much clearer construction of the Canonical Group. In particular, we shed light upon the 'pathological' case for which the Canonical Group must be defined via a central Lie algebra extension and emphasise the role of the central extension in general. In addition, we study direct quantization of a particle restricted to a half-line with 'hard wall' boundary condition. Despite the apparent simplicity of this example, we show that a naive quantization attempt based on the cotangent bundle over the half-line as classical phase space leads to an incomplete quantum theory; the reflection which is a characteristic aspect of the 'hard wall' is not reproduced. Instead, we propose a different phase space that realises the necessary boundary condition as a topological feature and demonstrate that quantization yields a suitable quantum theory for the half-line model. The insights gained in the present special case improve our understanding of the relation between classical and quantum theory and illustrate how contact interactions may be incorporated.
Canonical group quantization and boundary conditions
In the present thesis, we study quantization of classical systems with non-trivial phase spaces using the group-theoretical quantization technique proposed by Isham. Our main goal is a better understanding of global and topological aspects of quantum theory. In practice, the group-theoretical approach enables direct quantization of systems subject to constraints and boundary conditions in a natural and physically transparent manner -- cases for which the canonical quantization method of Dirac fails. First, we provide a clarification of the quantization formalism. In contrast to prior treatments, we introduce a sharp distinction between the two group structures that are involved and explain their physical meaning. The benefit is a consistent and conceptually much clearer construction of the Canonical Group. In particular, we shed light upon the 'pathological' case for which the Canonical Group must be defined via a central Lie algebra extension and emphasise the role of the central extension in general. In addition, we study direct quantization of a particle restricted to a half-line with 'hard wall' boundary condition. Despite the apparent simplicity of this example, we show that a naive quantization attempt based on the cotangent bundle over the half-line as classical phase space leads to an incomplete quantum theory; the reflection which is a characteristic aspect of the 'hard wall' is not reproduced. Instead, we propose a different phase space that realises the necessary boundary condition as a topological feature and demonstrate that quantization yields a suitable quantum theory for the half-line model. The insights gained in the present special case improve our understanding of the relation between classical and quantum theory and illustrate how contact interactions may be incorporated.
Evidence of non-canonical NOTCH signaling
Traustadóttir, Gunnhildur Ásta; Jensen, Charlotte H; Thomassen, Mads;
2016-01-01
Dlk1(+/+) and Dlk1(-/-) mouse tissues at E16.5, we demonstrated that several NOTCH signaling pathways indeed are affected by DLK1 during tissue development, and this was supported by a lower activation of NOTCH1 protein in Dlk1(+/+) embryos. Likewise, but using a distinct Dlk1-manipulated (si......Canonical NOTCH signaling, known to be essential for tissue development, requires the Delta-Serrate-LAG2 (DSL) domain for NOTCH to interact with its ligand. However, despite lacking DSL, Delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1), a protein that plays a significant role in mammalian development, has been...
Canonical particle tracking in undulator fields
A new algebraic mapping routine for particle tracking across wiggler and undulator fields in presented. It is based on a power series expansion of the generating function to guarantee fully canonical transformations. This method is 10 to 100 times faster than integration routines, applied in tracking codes like BETA or RACETRACK. The tracking method presented is not restricted to wigglers and undulators, it can be applied to other magnetic fields as well such as fringing fields of quadrupoles or dipoles if the suggested expansion converges
Kato expansion in quantum canonical perturbation theory
Nikolaev, Andrey
2016-06-01
This work establishes a connection between canonical perturbation series in quantum mechanics and a Kato expansion for the resolvent of the Liouville superoperator. Our approach leads to an explicit expression for a generator of a block-diagonalizing Dyson's ordered exponential in arbitrary perturbation order. Unitary intertwining of perturbed and unperturbed averaging superprojectors allows for a description of ambiguities in the generator and block-diagonalized Hamiltonian. We compare the efficiency of the corresponding computational algorithm with the efficiencies of the Van Vleck and Magnus methods for high perturbative orders.
Path integrals for arbitrary canonical transformations
Some aspects of the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics are studied. This formalism is generalized to arbitrary canonical transformations, by means of an association between path integral probalility amplitudes and classical generators of transformations, analogous to the usual Hamiltonian time development phase space expression. Such association turns out to be equivalent to the Weyl quantization rule, and it is also shown that this formalism furnishes a path integral representation for a Lie algebra of a given set of classical generators. Some physical considerations about the path integral quantization procedure and about the relationship between classical and quantum dynamical structures are also discussed. (Author)
Zhu, Xiaofeng; Suk, Heung-Il; Lee, Seong-Whan; Shen, Dinggang
2016-09-01
Fusing information from different imaging modalities is crucial for more accurate identification of the brain state because imaging data of different modalities can provide complementary perspectives on the complex nature of brain disorders. However, most existing fusion methods often extract features independently from each modality, and then simply concatenate them into a long vector for classification, without appropriate consideration of the correlation among modalities. In this paper, we propose a novel method to transform the original features from different modalities to a common space, where the transformed features become comparable and easy to find their relation, by canonical correlation analysis. We then perform the sparse multi-task learning for discriminative feature selection by using the canonical features as regressors and penalizing a loss function with a canonical regularizer. In our experiments on the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset, we use Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images to jointly predict clinical scores of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and also identify multi-class disease status for Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. The experimental results showed that the proposed canonical feature selection method helped enhance the performance of both clinical score prediction and disease status identification, outperforming the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26254746
Canonical Transformations can Dramatically Simplify Supersymmetry
Dixon, John
2016-01-01
A useful way to keep track of the SUSY invariance of a theory is by formulating it with a BRST Poisson Bracket. It turns out that there is a crucial subtlety that is hidden in this formulation. When the theory contains a Chiral Multiplet, the relevant BRST Poisson Bracket has a very important Canonical Transformation that leaves it invariant. This Canonical Transformation takes all or part of the Scalar Field $A$ and replaces it with a Zinn Source $J_A$, and also takes the related Zinn Source $\\Gamma_A$ and replaces it with an `Antighost' Field $\\eta_A$. Naively, this looks like it is just a change of notation. But in fact the interpretation means that one has moved some of the conserved Noether SUSY current from the Field Action, and placed it partly in the Zinn Sources Action, and so the SUSY current in the Field part of the Action is no longer conserved, because the Zinn Sources do not satisfy any equations of motion. They are not quantized, because they are Sources. So it needs to be recognized that SUSY ...
Sparse canonical correlation analysis: new formulation and algorithm.
Chu, Delin; Liao, Li-Zhi; Ng, Michael K; Zhang, Xiaowei
2013-12-01
In this paper, we study canonical correlation analysis (CCA), which is a powerful tool in multivariate data analysis for finding the correlation between two sets of multidimensional variables. The main contributions of the paper are: 1) to reveal the equivalent relationship between a recursive formula and a trace formula for the multiple CCA problem, 2) to obtain the explicit characterization for all solutions of the multiple CCA problem even when the corresponding covariance matrices are singular, 3) to develop a new sparse CCA algorithm, and 4) to establish the equivalent relationship between the uncorrelated linear discriminant analysis and the CCA problem. We test several simulated and real-world datasets in gene classification and cross-language document retrieval to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The performance of the proposed method is competitive with the state-of-the-art sparse CCA algorithms. PMID:24136440
王宝臣; 田旭海; 梁军; 赵慧传; 孙标
2012-01-01
By testing and verifying the main property of P91 seamless steel tube with low hardness and that with normal hardness, and comparing with the requirement of ASME SA335-SA335M, differences in property of P91 seamless steel tube with low hardness have been found. The paper analyzes and determines what mainly causes the low hardness of P91 seamless steel tube is that a good deal of ferritic structure exists in the metallographic structure of tubing.%通过相关试验对低硬度P91无缝钢管和正常硬度P91无缝钢管的主要性能进行验证，并与ASMESA335-SA335M的要求进行比对，获得了低硬度P91无缝钢管性能的差异，分析确定了造成P91无缝钢管硬度低的主要原因是管材的金相组织中出现了大量的铁素体组织。
Extension of warm inflation to non-canonical scalar fields
Zhang, Xiao-Min
2014-01-01
We extend the warm inflationary scenario to the case of the non-canonical scalar fields. The equation of motion and the other basic equations of this new scenario are obtained. The Hubble damped term is enhanced in non-canonical inflation. A linear stability analysis is performed to give the proper slow roll conditions in warm non-canonical inflation. We study the density fluctuations in the new picture and obtain an approximate analytic expression of the power spectrum. The energy scale at the horizon crossing is depressed by both non-canonical effect and thermal effect, so does the tensor-to-scalar ratio. Besides the synergy, the non-canonical effect and the thermal effect are competing in the case of the warm non-canonical inflation.
[Huang Yizhou's study on Nei jing (Inner Canon)].
Hu, Benxiang; Huang, Youmei; Yu, Chengfen
2002-01-01
Being a great classical scholar of the late Qing dynasty, Huang Yizhou collated Nei jing (Inner Canon) by textual criticism. But most of his works were missing. By reviewing historical documents and literature, it has been found that his collated books include Huang di nei jing su wen jiao ben (Collated Edition of Huangdi's Inner Canon Plain Questions), Huang di nei jing su wen chong jiao zheng (Recollated Huangdi's Inner Canon Plain Questions), Nei jing zhen ci (Acupuncture in Inner Canon), Huang di nei jing jiu juan ji zhu (Variorum of Nine Volumes of Huangdi's Inner Canon), Huang di nei jing ming tang (Acupuncture Chart of Huangdi's Inner Canon), and Jiu chao tai su jiao ben (Old Extremely Plain Question Recension). Many of his disciples became famous scholars in the Republican period. PMID:12015056
Integral Canonical Models for Automorphic Vector Bundles of Abelian Type
Lovering, Tom
2016-01-01
We define and construct integral canonical models for automorphic vector bundles over Shimura varieties of abelian type. More precisely, we first build on Kisin's work to construct integral canonical models over rings of integers of number fields with finitely many primes inverted for Shimura varieties of abelian type with hyperspecial level at all primes we do not invert, compatible with Kisin's construction. We then define a notion of an integral canonical model for the standard principal b...
The Geometry of Tangent Bundles: Canonical Vector Fields
Tongzhu Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A canonical vector field on the tangent bundle is a vector field defined by an invariant coordinate construction. In this paper, a complete classification of canonical vector fields on tangent bundles, depending on vector fields defined on their bases, is obtained. It is shown that every canonical vector field is a linear combination with constant coefficients of three vector fields: the variational vector field (canonical lift, the Liouville vector field, and the vertical lift of a vector field on the base of the tangent bundle.
Canonical quantization of (2+1)-dimensional QED with a topological mass term
We discuss the canonical quantization of quantum electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions, with a Chern-Simons topological mass term and gauge-covariant coupling to a Dirac spinor field. A gauge-fixing term is used which generates a canonical momentum for A0, so that there are no primary constraints on operator-valued fields. Gauss's law and the gauge condition A0=0 are implemented by embedding the formulation in an appropriate physical subspace, in which state vectors remain naturally in the course of time evolution. The photon propagator is derived from the canonical theory. The electric and magnetic fields are separated into parts that reflect the presence of massive photons, and other parts that are rigidly attached to charged fermions and do not consist of any observable, propagating particle excitations. The effect of rotations on charged particle states is analyzed, and the relation between the canonical and the Belinfante ''symmetric'' angular momentum is discussed. It is shown that the rotation operator can be consistently formulated so that charged particles behave like fermions, and do not acquire any arbitrary phases during rotations, even when they are dressed in the electromagnetic fields required for them to obey Gauss's law
The supersymmetric version of the Stueckelberg Lagrangian of the massive vector superfield leads to an example of higher-order derivative model. The canonical quantization yields massive states which compose two irreducible representations, one physical supermultiplet and another spurious. The origin of the different spurious states are investigated, especially those originating from the higher-order derivative terms. The spurious superfield is found to be decoupled when the supercurrent satisfies some appropriate conditions. (orig.)
Theory of extreme correlations using canonical Fermions and path integrals
The t–J model is studied using a novel and rigorous mapping of the Gutzwiller projected electrons, in terms of canonical electrons. The mapping has considerable similarity to the Dyson–Maleev transformation relating spin operators to canonical Bosons. This representation gives rise to a non Hermitian quantum theory, characterized by minimal redundancies. A path integral representation of the canonical theory is given. Using it, the salient results of the extremely correlated Fermi liquid (ECFL) theory, including the previously found Schwinger equations of motion, are easily rederived. Further, a transparent physical interpretation of the previously introduced auxiliary Greens function and the ‘caparison factor’, is obtained. The low energy electron spectral function in this theory, with a strong intrinsic asymmetry, is summarized in terms of a few expansion coefficients. These include an important emergent energy scale Δ0 that shrinks to zero on approaching the insulating state, thereby making it difficult to access the underlying very low energy Fermi liquid behavior. The scaled low frequency ECFL spectral function, related simply to the Fano line shape, has a peculiar energy dependence unlike that of a Lorentzian. The resulting energy dispersion obtained by maximization is a hybrid of a massive and a massless Dirac spectrum EQ∗∼γQ−√(Γ02+Q2), where the vanishing of Q, a momentum type variable, locates the kink minimum. Therefore the quasiparticle velocity interpolates between (γ∓1) over a width Γ0 on the two sides of Q=0, implying a kink there that strongly resembles a prominent low energy feature seen in angle resolved photoemission spectra (ARPES) of cuprate materials. We also propose novel ways of analyzing the ARPES data to isolate the predicted asymmetry between particle and hole excitations. -- Highlights: •Spectral function of the Extremely Correlated Fermi Liquid theory at low energy. •Electronic origin of low energy kinks in
Linear canonical transforms theory and applications
Kutay, M; Ozaktas, Haldun; Sheridan, John
2016-01-01
This book provides a clear and accessible introduction to the essential mathematical foundations of linear canonical transforms from a signals and systems perspective. Substantial attention is devoted to how these transforms relate to optical systems and wave propagation. There is extensive coverage of sampling theory and fast algorithms for numerically approximating the family of transforms. Chapters on topics ranging from digital holography to speckle metrology provide a window on the wide range of applications. This volume will serve as a reference for researchers in the fields of image and signal processing, wave propagation, optical information processing and holography, optical system design and modeling, and quantum optics. It will be of use to graduate students in physics and engineering, as well as for scientists in other areas seeking to learn more about this important yet relatively unfamiliar class of integral transformations.
Towards a 'canonical' agranular cortical microcircuit
Sarah F. Beul
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Based on regularities in the intrinsic microcircuitry of cortical areas, variants of a 'canonical' cortical microcircuit have been proposed and widely adopted, particularly in computational neuroscience and neuroinformatics. However, this circuit is founded on striate cortex, which manifests perhaps the most extreme instance of cortical organization, in terms of a very high density of cells in highly differentiated cortical layers. Most other cortical regions have a less well differentiated architecture, stretching in gradients from the very dense eulaminate primary cortical areas to the other extreme of dysgranular and agranular areas of low density and poor laminar differentiation. It is unlikely for the patterns of inter- and intra-laminar connections to be uniform in spite of strong variations of their structural substrate. This assumption is corroborated by reports of divergence in intrinsic circuitry across the cortex. Consequently, it remains an important goal to define local microcircuits for a variety of cortical types, in particular, agranular cortical regions. As a counterpoint to the striate microcircuit, which may be anchored in an exceptional cytoarchitecture, we here outline a tentative microcircuit for agranular cortex. The circuit is based on a synthesis of the available literature on the local microcircuitry in agranular cortical areas of the rodent brain, investigated by anatomical and electrophysiological approaches. A central observation of these investigations is a weakening of interlaminar inhibition as cortical cytoarchitecture becomes less distinctive. Thus, our study of agranular microcircuitry revealed deviations from the well-known 'canonical' microcircuit established for striate cortex, suggesting variations in the intrinsic circuitry across the cortex that may be functionally relevant.
The canonical formalism in covariant theories
The problem of quantizing General Relativity (GR) is a formidable one and may require for its solution a complete understanding of string theory and its relationship with the gravitational field. Here the author discusses a more conservative and localized approach based on a covariant canonical formalism developed in a number of papers in the last few years. The idea is to consider theories which can be expressed entirely in terms of differential forms and then to exploit the analogy between time derivative and exterior derivative of forms. In the case of supergravity the field variables have then a double grading, the conventional form grading and the Fermi grading. There is no preferred time direction and, in space-time dimension D + 1, the conjugate momenta of a field form of degree rho is a form of degree D - rho. This form contains the usual components of the momentum besides other components needed in order to preserve covariance. The theory leads naturally to a hamiltonian form H of degree D + 1 which can be used within formalism in order to compute canonically the exterior derivative of a field-form. Its role is therefore quite different to that of the ordinary Hamiltonian which leads instead to Lie derivatives of a field. It is however possible to relate these quantities, and it turns out that the conventional Hamiltonian is the time component of a Poincare multiplet of 3-forms which can be used in order to compute Lie derivatives in any direction. Also the authors approach is well suit for applications within the group manifold approach
Linking covariant and canonical LQG II: spin foam projector
In a seminal paper, Kaminski et al for the first time extended the definition of spin foam models to arbitrary boundary graphs. This is a prerequisite in order to make contact to the canonical formulation of loop quantum gravity whose Hilbert space contains all these graphs. This makes it finally possible to investigate the question whether any of the presently considered spin foam models yields a rigging map for any of the presently defined Hamiltonian constraint operators. We postulate a rigging map by summing over all abstract spin foams with arbitrary but given boundary graphs. The states induced on the boundary of these spin foams can then be identified with elements in the gauge invariant Hilbert space H0 of the canonical theory. Of course, such a sum over all spin foams is potentially divergent and requires a regularization. Such a regularization can be obtained by introducing specific cut-offs and a weight for every single foam. Such a weight could be for example derived from a generalized formal group field theory allowing for arbitrary interaction terms. Since such a derivation is, however, technical involved we forgo to present a strict derivation and assume that there exist a weight satisfying certain natural axioms, most importantly a gluing property. These axioms are motivated by the requirement that spin foam amplitudes should define a rigging map (physical inner product) induced by the Hamiltonian constraint. In the analysis of the resulting object we are able to identify an elementary spin foam transfer matrix that allows to generate any finite foam as a finite power of the transfer matrix. It transpires that the sum over spin foams, as written, does not define a projector on the physical Hilbert space. This statement is independent of the concrete spin foam model and Hamiltonian constraint. However, the transfer matrix potentially contains the necessary ingredient in order to construct a proper rigging map in terms of a modified transfer matrix
Linking covariant and canonical LQG II: spin foam projector
Thiemann, Thomas; Zipfel, Antonia
2014-06-01
In a seminal paper, Kaminski et al for the first time extended the definition of spin foam models to arbitrary boundary graphs. This is a prerequisite in order to make contact to the canonical formulation of loop quantum gravity whose Hilbert space contains all these graphs. This makes it finally possible to investigate the question whether any of the presently considered spin foam models yields a rigging map for any of the presently defined Hamiltonian constraint operators. We postulate a rigging map by summing over all abstract spin foams with arbitrary but given boundary graphs. The states induced on the boundary of these spin foams can then be identified with elements in the gauge invariant Hilbert space {H}_0 of the canonical theory. Of course, such a sum over all spin foams is potentially divergent and requires a regularization. Such a regularization can be obtained by introducing specific cut-offs and a weight for every single foam. Such a weight could be for example derived from a generalized formal group field theory allowing for arbitrary interaction terms. Since such a derivation is, however, technical involved we forgo to present a strict derivation and assume that there exist a weight satisfying certain natural axioms, most importantly a gluing property. These axioms are motivated by the requirement that spin foam amplitudes should define a rigging map (physical inner product) induced by the Hamiltonian constraint. In the analysis of the resulting object we are able to identify an elementary spin foam transfer matrix that allows to generate any finite foam as a finite power of the transfer matrix. It transpires that the sum over spin foams, as written, does not define a projector on the physical Hilbert space. This statement is independent of the concrete spin foam model and Hamiltonian constraint. However, the transfer matrix potentially contains the necessary ingredient in order to construct a proper rigging map in terms of a modified transfer matrix.
Frady, E Paxon; Kapoor, Ashish; Horvitz, Eric; Kristan, William B
2016-08-01
Large-scale data collection efforts to map the brain are underway at multiple spatial and temporal scales, but all face fundamental problems posed by high-dimensional data and intersubject variability. Even seemingly simple problems, such as identifying a neuron/brain region across animals/subjects, become exponentially more difficult in high dimensions, such as recognizing dozens of neurons/brain regions simultaneously. We present a framework and tools for functional neurocartography-the large-scale mapping of neural activity during behavioral states. Using a voltage-sensitive dye (VSD), we imaged the multifunctional responses of hundreds of leech neurons during several behaviors to identify and functionally map homologous neurons. We extracted simple features from each of these behaviors and combined them with anatomical features to create a rich medium-dimensional feature space. This enabled us to use machine learning techniques and visualizations to characterize and account for intersubject variability, piece together a canonical atlas of neural activity, and identify two behavioral networks. We identified 39 neurons (18 pairs, 3 unpaired) as part of a canonical swim network and 17 neurons (8 pairs, 1 unpaired) involved in a partially overlapping preparatory network. All neurons in the preparatory network rapidly depolarized at the onsets of each behavior, suggesting that it is part of a dedicated rapid-response network. This network is likely mediated by the S cell, and we referenced VSD recordings to an activity atlas to identify multiple cells of interest simultaneously in real time for further experiments. We targeted and electrophysiologically verified several neurons in the swim network and further showed that the S cell is presynaptic to multiple neurons in the preparatory network. This study illustrates the basic framework to map neural activity in high dimensions with large-scale recordings and how to extract the rich information necessary to perform
The "cause of Jesus" (Sache Jesu as the Canon behind the Canon
Andries G. van Aarde
2001-01-01
Full Text Available God, and not the Bible as such, is the church's primary authority. Jesus of Nazareth is the manifestation of God in history. In a post-Aufkllirung environment one cannot escape the demand to think historically. To discern what could be seen as the "ground" offaith, one needs to distinguish the "proclaiming Jesus" from the "proclaimed Jesus", though these two aspects are dialectically intertwined. This dialeclic can be described as the "Jesus kerygma" or the "cause of Jesus". The aim of this article is to argue that if Christians focus only on the church's kerygma they base their ultimate trust upon assertions of faith, rather than upon the cause of faith. The dictum that the cause of Jesus is the canon behind the canon is explained in terms of the distinction between ''fides qua creditur" and "fides quae creditur", and postmodern historical Jesus research.
Canonical correlation analysis of course and teacher evaluation
Sliusarenko, Tamara; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær
2010-01-01
information obtained from the course evaluation form overlaps with information obtained from the teacher evaluation form. Employing canonical correlation analysis it was found that course and teacher evaluations are correlated. However, the structure of the canonical correlation is subject to change with...... changes in teaching methods from one year to another....
The Literary Canon in the Age of New Media
Backe, Hans-Joachim
mediality of the canon. In a development that has largely gone unnoticed outside German speaking countries, new approaches for discussing current and future processes of canonization have been developed in recent years. One pivotal element of this process has been a thorough re-evaluation new media as a...
Structuring Catholic Schools: Creative Imagination Meets Canon Law
Brown, Phillip J.
2010-01-01
This paper will explore the underlying requirements of canon law for establishing and administering Catholic schools, with a view toward helping to arrive at creative solutions to the question of how best to structure these schools civilly and canonically in order to ensure their temporal, spiritual, and religious well-being, and to assure that…
Grand canonical potential of a magnetized neutron gas
Diener, Jacobus P W
2015-01-01
We compute the effective action for stationary and spatially constant magnetic fields, when coupled anomalously to charge neutral fermions, by integrating out the fermions. From this the grand canonical partition function and potential of the fermions and fields are computed. This also takes care of magnetic field dependent vacuum corrections to the grand canonical potential. Possible applications to neutron stars are indicated.
LCPT: a program for finding linear canonical transformations
This article describes a MACSYMA program to compute symbolically a canonical linear transformation between coordinate systems. The difficulties in implementation of this canonical small physics problem are also discussed, along with the implications that may be drawn from such difficulties about widespread MACSYMA usage by the community of computational/theoretical physicists
Critical Literature Pedagogy: Teaching Canonical Literature for Critical Literacy
Borsheim-Black, Carlin; Macaluso, Michael; Petrone, Robert
2014-01-01
This article introduces Critical Literature Pedagogy (CLP), a pedagogical framework for applying goals of critical literacy within the context of teaching canonical literature. Critical literacies encompass skills and dispositions to understand, question, and critique ideological messages of texts; because canonical literature is often…
The Asian American Fakeness Canon, 1972-2002
Oishi, Eve
2007-01-01
The year 1972 can be seen to inaugurate not a tradition of Asian American New York theater, but the rich and multigenre collection of writing that the author has called "the Asian American fakeness canon." The fakeness canon refers to a collection of writings that take as one of their central points of reference the question of cultural and ethnic…
A Canonical Approach to the Argument/Adjunct Distinction
Diana Forker
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper provides an account of the argument/adjunct distinction implementing the 'canonical approach'. I identify five criteria (obligatoriness, latency, co-occurrence restrictions, grammatical relations, and iterability and seven diagnostic tendencies that can be used to distinguish canonical arguments from canonical adjuncts. I then apply the criteria and tendencies to data from the Nakh-Daghestanian language Hinuq. Hinuq makes extensive use of spatial cases for marking adjunct-like and argument-like NPs. By means of the criteria and tendencies it is possible to distinguish spatial NPs that come close to canonical arguments from those that are canonical adjuncts, and to place the remaining NPs bearing spatial cases within the argument-adjunct continuum.
Canonical correlations between chemical and energetic characteristics of lignocellulosic wastes
Thiago de Paula Protásio
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Canonical correlation analysis is a statistical multivariate procedure that allows analyzing linear correlation that may exist between two groups or sets of variables (X and Y. This paper aimed to provide canonical correlation analysis between a group comprised of lignin and total extractives contents and higher heating value (HHV with a group of elemental components (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur for lignocellulosic wastes. The following wastes were used: eucalyptus shavings; pine shavings; red cedar shavings; sugar cane bagasse; residual bamboo cellulose pulp; coffee husk and parchment; maize harvesting wastes; and rice husk. Only the first canonical function was significant, but it presented a low canonical R². High carbon, hydrogen and sulfur contents and low nitrogen contents seem to be related to high total extractives contents of the lignocellulosic wastes. The preliminary results found in this paper indicate that the canonical correlations were not efficient to explain the correlations between the chemical elemental components and lignin contents and higher heating values.
The canon as text for a biblical theology
James A. Loader
2005-10-01
Full Text Available The novelty of the canonical approach is questioned and its fascination at least partly traced to the Reformation, as well as to the post-Reformation’s need for a clear and authoritative canon to perform the function previously performed by the church. This does not minimise the elusiveness and deeply contradictory positions both within the canon and triggered by it. On the one hand, the canon itself is a centripetal phenomenon and does play an important role in exegesis and theology. Even so, on the other hand, it not only contains many difficulties, but also causes various additional problems of a formal as well as a theological nature. The question is mooted whether the canonical approach alleviates or aggravates the dilemma. Since this approach has become a major factor in Christian theology, aspects of the Christian canon are used to gauge whether “canon” is an appropriate category for eliminating difficulties that arise by virtue of its own existence. Problematic uses and appropriations of several Old Testament canons are advanced, as well as evidence in the New Testament of a consciousness that the “old” has been surpassed(“Überbietungsbewußtsein”. It is maintained that at least the Childs version of the canonical approach fails to smooth out these and similar difficulties. As a method it can cater for the New Testament’s (superior role as the hermeneutical standard for evaluating the Old, but flounders on its inability to create the theological unity it claims can solve religious problems exposed by Old Testament historical criticism. It is concluded that canon as a category cannot be dispensed with, but is useful for the opposite of the purpose to which it is conventionally put: far from bringing about theological “unity” or producing a standard for “correct” exegesis, it requires different readings of different canons.
Minkowski, Peter
2012-01-01
The regularities at large distances of complete gauge invariance in QCD are shown to bear nontrivial consequences for the selection among inequivalent representations of canonical commutation (anticommutation) rules for gauge boson (quark) fields. The trace anomaly forces a modification of the gauge boson Lagrangean and by this of the entire associated canonical structure.
El Escritor y las Normas del Canon Literario (The Writer and the Norms of the Literary Canon).
Policarpo, Alcibiades
This paper speculates about whether a literary canon exists in contemporary Latin American literature, particularly in the prose genre. The paper points to Carlos Fuentes, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, and Mario Vargas Llosa as the three authors who might form this traditional and liberal canon with their works "La Muerte de Artemio Cruz" (Fuentes),…
Canonical cortical circuits: current evidence and theoretical implications
Capone F
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Fioravante Capone,1,2 Matteo Paolucci,1,2 Federica Assenza,1,2 Nicoletta Brunelli,1,2 Lorenzo Ricci,1,2 Lucia Florio,1,2 Vincenzo Di Lazzaro1,2 1Unit of Neurology, Neurophysiology, Neurobiology, Department of Medicine, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome, Italy; 2Fondazione Alberto Sordi – Research Institute for Aging, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Neurophysiological and neuroanatomical studies have found that the same basic structural and functional organization of neuronal circuits exists throughout the cortex. This kind of cortical organization, termed canonical circuit, has been functionally demonstrated primarily by studies involving visual striate cortex, and then, the concept has been extended to different cortical areas. In brief, the canonical circuit is composed of superficial pyramidal neurons of layers II/III receiving different inputs and deep pyramidal neurons of layer V that are responsible for cortex output. Superficial and deep pyramidal neurons are reciprocally connected, and inhibitory interneurons participate in modulating the activity of the circuit. The main intuition of this model is that the entire cortical network could be modeled as the repetition of relatively simple modules composed of relatively few types of excitatory and inhibitory, highly interconnected neurons. We will review the origin and the application of the canonical cortical circuit model in the six sections of this paper. The first section (The origins of the concept of canonical circuit: the cat visual cortex reviews the experiments performed in the cat visual cortex, from the origin of the concept of canonical circuit to the most recent developments in the modelization of cortex. The second (The canonical circuit in neocortex and third (Toward a canonical circuit in agranular cortex sections try to extend the concept of canonical circuit to other cortical areas, providing some significant examples of circuit functioning in different cytoarchitectonic
Extending the parQ transition matrix method to grand canonical ensembles.
Haber, René; Hoffmann, Karl Heinz
2016-06-01
Phase coexistence properties as well as other thermodynamic features of fluids can be effectively determined from the grand canonical density of states (DOS). We present an extension of the parQ transition matrix method in combination with the efasTM method as a very fast approach for determining the grand canonical DOS from the transition matrix. The efasTM method minimizes the deviation from detailed balance in the transition matrix using a fast Krylov-based equation solver. The method allows a very effective use of state space transition data obtained by different exploration schemes. An application to a Lennard-Jones system produces phase coexistence properties of the same quality as reference data. PMID:27415394
Canonical term-structure models with observable factors and the dynamics of bond risk premiums
Marcello Pericoli; Marco Taboga
2006-01-01
We study the dynamics of risk premiums on the German bond market, employing no-arbitrage term-structure models with both observable and unobservable state variables, recently popularized by Ang and Piazzesi (2003). We conduct a specification analisys based on a new canonical representation for this class of models. We find that risk premiums display a considerable variability over time, are strongly counter-cyclical and bear no significant relation to inflation.
Critical adsorption and critical Casimir forces in the canonical ensemble
Gross, Markus; Vasilyev, Oleg; Gambassi, Andrea; Dietrich, S.
2016-08-01
Critical properties of a liquid film between two planar walls are investigated in the canonical ensemble, within which the total number of fluid particles, rather than their chemical potential, is kept constant. The effect of this constraint is analyzed within mean-field theory (MFT) based on a Ginzburg-Landau free-energy functional as well as via Monte Carlo simulations of the three-dimensional Ising model with fixed total magnetization. Within MFT and for finite adsorption strengths at the walls, the thermodynamic properties of the film in the canonical ensemble can be mapped exactly onto a grand canonical ensemble in which the corresponding chemical potential plays the role of the Lagrange multiplier associated with the constraint. However, due to a nonintegrable divergence of the mean-field order parameter profile near a wall, the limit of infinitely strong adsorption turns out to be not well-defined within MFT, because it would necessarily violate the constraint. The critical Casimir force (CCF) acting on the two planar walls of the film is generally found to behave differently in the canonical and grand canonical ensembles. For instance, the canonical CCF in the presence of equal preferential adsorption at the two walls is found to have the opposite sign and a slower decay behavior as a function of the film thickness compared to its grand canonical counterpart. We derive the stress tensor in the canonical ensemble and find that it has the same expression as in the grand canonical case, but with the chemical potential playing the role of the Lagrange multiplier associated with the constraint. The different behavior of the CCF in the two ensembles is rationalized within MFT by showing that, for a prescribed value of the thermodynamic control parameter of the film, i.e., density or chemical potential, the film pressures are identical in the two ensembles, while the corresponding bulk pressures are not.
A single NFκB system for both canonical and non-canonical signaling
Vincent Feng-Sheng Shih; Rachel Tsui; Andrew Caldwell; Alexander Hoffmann
2011-01-01
Two distinct nuclear factor κB(NFκB)signaling pathways have been described; the canonical pathway that mediates inflammatory responses,and the non-canonical pathway that is involved in immune cell differentiation and maturation and secondary lymphoid organogenesis.The former is dependent on the IκB kinase adaptor molecule NEMO,the latter is independent of it.Here,we review the molecular mechanisms of regulation in each signaling axis and attempt to relate the apparent regulatory logic to the physiological function.Further,we review the recent evidence for extensive cross-regulation between these two signaling axes and summarize them in a wiring diagram.These observations suggest that NEMO-dependent and-independent signaling should be viewed within the context of a single NFκB signaling system,which mediates signaling from both inflammatory and organogenic stimuli in an integrated manner.As in other regulatory biological systems,a systems approach including mathematical models that include quantitative and kinetic information will be necessary to characterize the network properties that mediate physiological function,and that may break down to cause or contribute to pathology.
On the canonical quantization of local field theories
A nonconventional extension of the canonical quantization method for local field theories is presented. Some difficulties of the conventional approach are avoided, e.g. there are no divergencies in the corresponding S-matrices. (author)
Kerr black hole in canonically deformed space-time
Daszkiewicz, Marcin
2014-01-01
We investigate the Kerr black hole defined on canonically deformed space-time. Particulary, we find the corresponding event horizon, the ergosphere, the temperature and the entropy of such deformed object.
Canonical singular hermitian metrics on relative logcanonical bundles
Tsuji, Hajime
2010-01-01
This supersedes 0704.0566. We prove the invariance of logarithmic plurigenera for a projective family of KLT pairs and the adjoint line bundle of KLT line bundles. The proof uses the canonical singular hermitian metrics on relative logcanonical bundles.
Role of Wnt canonical pathway in hematological malignancies
Wang Xin
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Wnt canonical signaling pathway plays a diverse role in embryonic development and maintenance of organs and tissues in adults. It has been observed that Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of many carcinomas. Moreover, Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been revealed to be associated with angiogenesis. Wnt canonical pathway signaling has great potential as a therapeutic target. It has been disclosed that some hematological malignancies, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia, mantle cell lymphoma, may occur partly due to the constitutive activation of Wnt canonical signaling pathway. This review will summarize the latest development in Wnt canonical signaling pathway and its roles in tumorigenesis and angiogenesis.
Canonical Duality Theory for Solving Minimization Problem of Rosenbrock Function
Gao, David Y.; Zhang, Jiapu
2011-01-01
This paper presents a canonical duality theory for solving nonconvex minimization problem of Rosenbrock function. Extensive numerical results show that this benchmark test problem can be solved precisely and efficiently to obtain global optimal solutions.
Asymptotic distributions in the projection pursuit based canonical correlation analysis
无
2010-01-01
In this paper, associations between two sets of random variables based on the projection pursuit (PP) method are studied. The asymptotic normal distributions of estimators of the PP based canonical correlations and weighting vectors are derived.
Ising model on random networks and the canonical tensor model
We introduce a statistical system on random networks of trivalent vertices for the purpose of studying the canonical tensor model, which is a rank-three tensor model in the canonical formalism. The partition function of the statistical system has a concise expression in terms of integrals, and has the same symmetries as the kinematical ones of the canonical tensor model. We consider the simplest non-trivial case of the statistical system corresponding to the Ising model on random networks, and find that its phase diagram agrees with what is implied by regrading the Hamiltonian vector field of the canonical tensor model with N=2 as a renormalization group flow. Along the way, we obtain an explicit exact expression of the free energy of the Ising model on random networks in the thermodynamic limit by the Laplace method. This paper provides a new example connecting a model of quantum gravity and a random statistical system
Integration of transient receptor potential canonical channels with lipids
Beech, D. J.
2012-01-01
Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels are the canonical (C) subset of the TRP proteins, which are widely expressed in mammalian cells. They are thought to be primarily involved in determining calcium and sodium entry and have wide-ranging functions that include regulation of cell proliferation, motility and contraction. The channels are modulated by a multiplicity of factors, putatively existing as integrators in the plasma membrane. This review considers the sensitivities of...
Unravelling the molecular mechanisms of the canonical Wnt signalling pathway
Ng, S. S.
2010-01-01
The Canonical Wnt signaling pathway (Wnt/beta-catenin pathway) is required during embryonic development and maintenance of adult-renewing tissue homeostasis. Deregulation of this pathway is found associated with cancer and other diseases. The main goal of this thesis is to discern the regulation mechanisms of canonical Wnt signaling and thereby identify potential drug targets. We found that, neither the dissembled of Axin1, APC or GSK3 from the destruction complex nor inactivation of GSK3 and...
Canonical correlations between chemical and energetic characteristics of lignocellulosic wastes
Thiago de Paula Protásio; Gustavo Henrique Denzin Tonoli; Mário Guimarães Júnior; Lina Bufalino; Allan Motta Couto; Paulo Fernando Trugilho
2012-01-01
Canonical correlation analysis is a statistical multivariate procedure that allows analyzing linear correlation that may exist between two groups or sets of variables (X and Y). This paper aimed to provide canonical correlation analysis between a group comprised of lignin and total extractives contents and higher heating value (HHV) with a group of elemental components (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur) for lignocellulosic wastes. The following wastes were used: eucalyptus shavings; pine...
Using lattice methods in non-canonical quantum statistics
We define a natural coarse-graining procedure which can be applied to any closed equilibrium quantum system described by a density matrix ensemble and we show how the coarse-graining leads to the Gaussian and canonical ensembles. After this motivation, we present two ways of evaluating the Gaussian expectation values with lattice simulations. The first one is computationally demanding but general, whereas the second employs only canonical expectation values but it is applicable only for systems which are almost thermodynamical
On Uncertainty Principle for Quaternionic Linear Canonical Transform
Kit Ian Kou
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We generalize the linear canonical transform (LCT to quaternion-valued signals, known as the quaternionic linear canonical transform (QLCT. Using the properties of the LCT we establish an uncertainty principle for the QLCT. This uncertainty principle prescribes a lower bound on the product of the effective widths of quaternion-valued signals in the spatial and frequency domains. It is shown that only a 2D Gaussian signal minimizes the uncertainty.
Regression, Discriminant Analysis, and Canonical Correlation Analysis with Homals
Jan de Leeuw
2009-01-01
It is shown that the homals package in R can be used for multiple regression, multi-group discriminant analysis, and canonical correlation analysis. The homals solutions are only different from the more conventional ones in the way the dimensions are scaled by the eigenvalues.It is shown that the homals package in R can be used for multiple regression, multi-group discriminant analysis, and canonical correlation analysis. The homals solutions are only different from the more conventional ones...
Canonical quantization of a string describing N branes at angles
Pesando, Igor, E-mail: ipesando@to.infn.it
2014-12-15
We study the canonical quantization of a bosonic string in presence of N twist fields. This generalizes the quantization of the twisted string in two ways: the in and out states are not necessarily twisted and the number of twist fields N can be bigger than 2. In order to quantize the theory we need to find the normal modes. Then we need to define a product between two modes which is conserved. Because of this we need to use the Klein–Gordon product and to separate the string coordinate into the classical and the quantum part. The quantum part has different boundary conditions than the original string coordinates but these boundary conditions are precisely those which make the operator describing the equation of motion self adjoint. The splitting of the string coordinates into a classical and quantum part allows the formulation of an improved overlap principle. Using this approach we then proceed in computing the generating function for the generic correlator with L untwisted operators and N (excited) twist fields for branes at angles. We recover as expected the results previously obtained using the path integral. This construction explains why these correlators are given by a generalization of the Wick theorem.
An OSp extension of the canonical tensor model
Narain, Gaurav; Sasakura, Naoki
2015-12-01
Tensor models are generalizations of matrix models, and are studied as discrete models of quantum gravity for arbitrary dimensions. Among them, the canonical tensor model (CTM) is a rank-three tensor model formulated as a totally constrained system with a number of first-class constraints, which have a similar algebraic structure to the constraints of the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formalism of general relativity. In this paper, we formulate a super-extension of CTM as an attempt to incorporate fermionic degrees of freedom. The kinematical symmetry group is extended from O(N) to OSp(N,tilde {N}), and the constraints are constructed so that they form a first-class-constraint super-Poisson algebra. This is a straightforward super-extension, and the constraints and their algebraic structure are formally unchanged from the purely bosonic case, except for the additional signs associated with the fermionic degrees of freedom. However, this extension contains negative norm states in the quantized case, and requires some future improvements as quantum gravity with fermions. On the other hand, various results obtained so far for the purely bosonic case should have parallels in this straightforward super-extension, such as the exact physical wave functions and the connection to randomly connected tensor networks.
Canonical quantization of a string describing N branes at angles
We study the canonical quantization of a bosonic string in presence of N twist fields. This generalizes the quantization of the twisted string in two ways: the in and out states are not necessarily twisted and the number of twist fields N can be bigger than 2. In order to quantize the theory we need to find the normal modes. Then we need to define a product between two modes which is conserved. Because of this we need to use the Klein–Gordon product and to separate the string coordinate into the classical and the quantum part. The quantum part has different boundary conditions than the original string coordinates but these boundary conditions are precisely those which make the operator describing the equation of motion self adjoint. The splitting of the string coordinates into a classical and quantum part allows the formulation of an improved overlap principle. Using this approach we then proceed in computing the generating function for the generic correlator with L untwisted operators and N (excited) twist fields for branes at angles. We recover as expected the results previously obtained using the path integral. This construction explains why these correlators are given by a generalization of the Wick theorem
Accretion of the Moon from non-canonical disks
Salmon, Julien
2014-01-01
Impacts that leave the Earth-Moon system with a large excess in angular momentum have recently been advocated as a means of generating a protolunar disc with a composition that is nearly identical to that of the Earth's mantle. We here investigate the accretion of the Moon from discs generated by such "non-canonical" impacts, which are typically more compact than discs produced by canonical impacts and have a higher fraction of their mass initially located inside the Roche limit. Our model predicts a similar overall accretional history for both canonical and non-canonical discs, with the Moon forming in three consecutive steps over hundreds of years. However, we find that, to yield a lunar-mass Moon, the more compact non-canonical discs must initially be more massive than implied by prior estimates, and only a few of the discs produced by impact simulations to date appear to meet this condition. Non-canonical impacts require that capture of the Moon into the evection resonance with the Sun reduced the Earth-M...
Narasimhan, S L; Krishna, P S R; Ponmurugan, M; Murthy, K P N
2008-01-01
We have explained in detail why the canonical partition function of interacting self-avoiding walk (ISAW) is exactly equivalent to the configurational average of the weights associated with growth walks, such as the interacting growth walk (IGW), if the average is taken over the entire genealogical tree of the walk. In this context, we have shown that it is not always possible to factor the density of states out of the canonical partition function if the local growth rule is temperature dependent. We have presented Monte Carlo results for IGWs on a diamond lattice in order to demonstrate that the actual set of IGW configurations available for study is temperature dependent even though the weighted averages lead to the expected thermodynamic behavior of ISAW. PMID:18190183
Receiving the non-Orthodox: A historical study of Greek Orthodox canon law
Heith-Stade, David
2010-01-01
This article analyzes the development of the practice for receiving non-Orthodox in Greek Orthodox canon law. The main argument is that the development of this canonical institution was influenced by a pneumatological realist ecclesiology. This historical study of the development of a canonical institution will shed light on how Greek Orthodox canon law has functioned in practice.
Stanković Novica J.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Low solubility of SiO2 and its occurrence in geothermal waters in the form of ionic, colloidal and suspended state are the main cause of the solid deposit occurrence. Certain chemical types of silica, under the influence of Fe2+, Al3+, F−, OH- ions and other micro-constituents, and due to significantly decreased solubility of SiO2, stimulate nucleation, particle growth and solid deposit formation. The aim of this paper is to inhibit the process of nucleation and solid deposit formation by adding originally designed inhibitor in the form of an emulsion, when the total concentration of the present and added colloidal SiO2 is beyond the solubility limit (120 mg/dm3. By turbidimetric, SEM, EDS and XRD analysis, the processes of solid deposit formation were investigated in Vranjska Banja (Serbia spa geothermal water source (water hardness of 4ºdH, and theoretical and practical conclusions were made.
Zhu, Xiaofeng; Suk, Heung-Il
2016-01-01
Fusing information from different imaging modalities is crucial for more accurate identification of the brain state because imaging data of different modalities can provide complementary perspectives on the complex nature of brain disorders. However, most existing fusion methods often extract features independently from each modality, and then simply concatenate them into a long vector for classification, without appropriate consideration of the correlation among modalities. In this paper, we propose a novel method to transform the original features from different modalities to a common space, where the transformed features become comparable and easy to find their relation, by canonical correlation analysis. We then perform the sparse multi-task learning for discriminative feature selection by using the canonical features as regressors and penalizing a loss function with a canonical regularizer. In our experiments on the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset, we use Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images to jointly predict clinical scores of Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and also identify multi-class disease status for Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis. The experimental results showed that the proposed canonical feature selection method helped enhance the performance of both clinical score prediction and disease status identification, outperforming the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26254746
Canonical Wnt signaling maintains the quiescent stage of hepatic stellate cells
It is well known that hepatic stellate cells (HSC) develop into cells, which are thought to contribute to liver fibrogenesis. Recent data suggest that HSC are progenitor cells with the capacity to differentiate into cells of endothelial and hepatocyte lineages. The present study shows that β-catenin-dependent canonical Wnt signaling is active in freshly isolated HSC of rats. Mimicking of the canonical Wnt pathway in cultured HSC by TWS119, an inhibitor of the glycogen synthase kinase 3β, led to reduced β-catenin phosphorylation, induced nuclear translocation of β-catenin, elevated glutamine synthetase production, impeded synthesis of α-smooth muscle actin and Wnt5a, but promoted the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, Wnt10b, and paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2c. In addition, canonical Wnt signaling lowered DNA synthesis and hindered HSC from entering the cell cycle. The findings demonstrate that β-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling maintains the quiescent state of HSC and, similar to stem and progenitor cells, influences their developmental fate
Debreczeni, Judit E; Farkas, László; Harmat, Veronika; Hetényi, Csaba; Hajdú, István; Závodszky, Péter; Kohama, Kazuhiro; Nyitray, László
2005-12-16
We have previously identified a single inhibitory Ca2+-binding site in the first EF-hand of the essential light chain of Physarum conventional myosin (Farkas, L., Malnasi-Csizmadia, A., Nakamura, A., Kohama, K., and Nyitray, L. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 27399-27405). As a general rule, conformation of the EF-hand-containing domains in the calmodulin family is "closed" in the absence and "open" in the presence of bound cations; a notable exception is the unusual Ca2+-bound closed domain in the essential light chain of the Ca2+-activated scallop muscle myosin. Here we have reported the 1.8 A resolution structure of the regulatory domain (RD) of Physarum myosin II in which Ca2+ is bound to a canonical EF-hand that is also in a closed state. The 12th position of the EF-hand loop, which normally provides a bidentate ligand for Ca2+ in the open state, is too far in the structure to participate in coordination of the ion. The structure includes a second Ca2+ that only mediates crystal contacts. To reveal the mechanism behind the regulatory effect of Ca2+, we compared conformational flexibilities of the liganded and unliganded RD. Our working hypothesis, i.e. the modulatory effect of Ca2+ on conformational flexibility of RD, is in line with the observed suppression of hydrogen-deuterium exchange rate in the Ca2+-bound form, as well as with results of molecular dynamics calculations. Based on this evidence, we concluded that Ca2+-induced change in structural dynamics of RD is a major factor in Ca2+-mediated regulation of Physarum myosin II activity. PMID:16227209
Activation of the Canonical Wnt Signaling Pathway Induces Cementum Regeneration.
Han, Pingping; Ivanovski, Saso; Crawford, Ross; Xiao, Yin
2015-07-01
Canonical Wnt signaling is important in tooth development but it is unclear whether it can induce cementogenesis and promote the regeneration of periodontal tissues lost because of disease. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the influence of canonical Wnt signaling enhancers on human periodontal ligament cell (hPDLCs) cementogenic differentiation in vitro and cementum repair in a rat periodontal defect model. Canonical Wnt signaling was induced by (1) local injection of lithium chloride; (2) local injection of sclerostin antibody; and (3) local injection of a lentiviral construct overexpressing β-catenin. The results showed that the local activation of canonical Wnt signaling resulted in significant new cellular cementum deposition and the formation of well-organized periodontal ligament fibers, which was absent in the control group. In vitro experiments using hPDLCs showed that the Wnt signaling pathway activators significantly increased mineralization, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and gene and protein expression of the bone and cementum markers osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN), cementum protein 1 (CEMP1), and cementum attachment protein (CAP). Our results show that the activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway can induce in vivo cementum regeneration and in vitro cementogenic differentiation of hPDLCs. PMID:25556853
General relativity as an extended canonical gauge theory
Struckmeier, J.
2015-04-01
It is widely accepted that the fundamental geometrical law of nature should follow from an action principle. The particular subset of transformations of a system's dynamical variables that maintain the form of the action principle comprises the group of canonical transformations. In the context of canonical field theory, the adjective "extended" signifies that not only the fields but also the space-time geometry is subject to transformation. Thus, in order to be physical, the transition to another, possibly noninertial frame of reference must necessarily constitute an extended canonical transformation that defines the general mapping of the connection coefficients, hence the quantities that determine the space-time curvature and torsion of the respective reference frame. The canonical transformation formalism defines simultaneously the transformation rules for the conjugates of the connection coefficients and for the Hamiltonian. As will be shown, this yields unambiguously a particular Hamiltonian that is form-invariant under the canonical transformation of the connection coefficients and thus satisfies the general principle of relativity. This Hamiltonian turns out to be a quadratic function of the curvature tensor. Its Legendre-transformed counterpart then establishes a unique Lagrangian description of the dynamics of space-time that is not postulated but derived from basic principles, namely the action principle and the general principle of relativity. Moreover, the resulting theory satisfies the principle of scale invariance and is renormalizable.
Improving the sampling efficiency of the Grand Canonical Simulated Quenching approach
attempted to equilibrate the chemical potential between two cells and hence allow for the calculation of coexistence curves, exploit the same idea: particle insertion (or exchange) is attempted and accepted with a Metropolis-like rule that depends exponentially on the energy change upon insertion. A well known limitation of this kind of approach is that the probability of accepting such a move decreases extremely rapidly with increasing density, due to the extremely large short-range repulsion between atoms. In response to these difficulties it became apparent that a solution to the problem might be to avoid abrupt insertions but instead to proceed gradually, so as to allow the system to react and make way for the incoming particle. In this view of things, the 'occupation' of a certain atomic site can be viewed as a continuous variable, ranging between 0 and 1, representing 'how much' of the particle is present at any given time. These ideas proved ideal in Molecular Dynamics (MD) settings because equations of motions for these occupation variables can sometimes be obtained. For example, in the case of Grand Canonical Molecular Dynamics [Cagin91], one special particle is allowed to have a fractional occupation. This can lead to either its destruction (occupation = 0) or its complex creation (occupation = 1) so as to enforce a given chemical potential. These approaches proved useful, but mostly in the liquid state where the probability of successfully inserting a new particle is sufficiently high. At higher densities, convergence proved to be hampered by very inefficient sampling. In this work, we explore the use of a related MD-based grand canonical technique, the Grand Canonical Simulated Quenching (GCSQ) of Phillpot and Rickman [Phillpot92,Phillpot94], and explore its application to the grand canonical sampling of solid state systems. We show that, in conjunction with advanced sampling techniques, GCSQ can be a useful tool to sample conformations of complex systems, such
Canonical Entropy and Phase Transition of Rotating Black Hole
ZHAO Ren; WU Yue-Qin; ZHANG Li-Chun
2008-01-01
Recently, the Hawking radiation of a black hole has been studied using the tunnel effect method. The radiation spectrum of a black hole is derived. By discussing the correction to spectrum of the rotating black hole, we obtain the canonical entropy. The derived canonical entropy is equal to the sum of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and correction term. The correction term near the critical point is different from the one near others. This difference plays an important role in studying the phase transition of the black hole. The black hole thermal capacity diverges at the critical point. However, the canonical entropy is not a complex number at this point. Thus we think that the phase transition created by this critical point is the second order phase transition. The discussed black hole is a five-dimensional Kerr-AdS black hole. We provide a basis for discussing thermodynamic properties of a higher-dimensional rotating black hole.
Canonical extensions of N\\'eron models of Jacobians
Cais, Bryden
2009-01-01
Let A be the N\\'eron model of an abelian variety A_K over the fraction field K of a discrete valuation ring R. Due to work of Mazur-Messing, there is a functorial way to prolong the universal extension of A_K by a vector group to a smooth and separated group scheme over R, called the canonical extension of A. In this paper, we study the canonical extension when A_K=J_K is the Jacobian of a smooth proper and geometrically connected curve X_K over K. Assuming that X_K admits a proper flat regular model X over R that has generically smooth closed fiber, our main result identifies the identity component of the canonical extension with a certain functor Pic^{\
Canonical invariance of spatially covariant scalar-tensor theory
Saitou, Rio
2016-01-01
We investigate invariant canonical transformations of a spatially covariant scalar-tensor theory of gravity, called the XG theory, by which the action or the Hamiltonian and the primary constraints keep their forms invariant. We derive the Hamiltonian in a non perturbative manner and complete the Hamiltonian analysis for all regions of the theory. We confirm that the theory has at most 3 degrees of freedom in all regions of the theory as long as the theory has the symmetry under the spatial diffeormorphism. Then, we derive the invariant canonical transformation by using the infinitesimal transformation. The invariant metric transformation of the XG theory contains a vector product as well as the disformal transformation. The vector product and the disformal factor can depend on the higher order derivative terms of the scalar field and the metric. In addition, we discover the invariant canonical transformation which transforms the momentum of the metric. Using the invariant transformation, we study the relatio...
Variation principle of piezothermoelastic bodies, canonical equation and homogeneous equation
LIU Yan-hong; ZHANG Hui-ming
2007-01-01
Combining the symplectic variations theory, the homogeneous control equation and isoparametric element homogeneous formulations for piezothermoelastic hybrid laminates problems were deduced. Firstly, based on the generalized Hamilton variation principle, the non-homogeneous Hamilton canonical equation for piezothermoelastic bodies was derived. Then the symplectic relationship of variations in the thermal equilibrium formulations and gradient equations was considered, and the non-homogeneous canonical equation was transformed to homogeneous control equation for solving independently the coupling problem of piezothermoelastic bodies by the incensement of dimensions of the canonical equation. For the convenience of deriving Hamilton isoparametric element formulations with four nodes, one can consider the temperature gradient equation as constitutive relation and reconstruct new variation principle. The homogeneous equation simplifies greatly the solution programs which are often performed to solve nonhomogeneous equation and second order differential equation on the thermal equilibrium and gradient relationship.