WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Prospective Assessment of Cannabis Withdrawal in Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence: A Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

A study to identify and assess the withdrawal symptoms in adolescents afflicted with cannabis dependence is conducted. Results conclude that withdrawal symptoms of cannabis were present in adolescents seeking treatment for this substance abuse.

Milin, Robert; Manion, Ian; Dare, Glenda; Walker, Selena

2008-01-01

2

Negative consequences associated with dependence in daily cannabis users  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis is the most widely consumed illicit substance in America, with increasing rates of use. Some theorists tend to link frequency of use with cannabis dependence. Nevertheless, fewer than half of daily cannabis users meet DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence. This study seeks to determine whether the negative aspects associated with cannabis use can be explained by a proxy measure of dependence instead of by frequency of use. Results Over 2500 adult daily cannabis users completed an Internet survey consisting of measures of cannabis and other drug use, in addition to measures of commonly reported negative problems resulting from cannabis use. We compared those who met a proxy measure of DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence (N = 1111 to those who did not meet the criteria (N = 1770. Cannabis dependent subjects consumed greater amounts of cannabis, alcohol, and a variety of other drugs. They also had lower levels of motivation, happiness, and satisfaction with life, with higher levels of depression and respiratory symptoms. Conclusion Although all of our subjects reported daily use, only those meeting proxy criteria for cannabis dependence reported significant associated problems. Our data suggest that dependence need not arise from daily use, but consuming larger amounts of cannabis and other drugs undoubtedly increases problems.

Earleywine Mitch

2007-01-01

3

Cannabis Withdrawal is Common among Treatment-Seeking Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence and Major Depression, and is Associated with Rapid Relapse to Dependence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently, reports have suggested that cannabis withdrawal occurs commonly in adults with cannabis dependence, though it is unclear whether this extends to those with comorbid depression or to comorbid adolescents. We hypothesized that cannabis withdrawal would be common among our sample of comorbid adolescents and young adults, and that the presence of cannabis withdrawal symptoms would be associated with a self-reported past history of rapid reinstatement of cannabis dependence symptoms (rap...

2008-01-01

4

Decreased respiratory symptoms in cannabis users who vaporize  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Cannabis smoking can create respiratory problems. Vaporizers heat cannabis to release active cannabinoids, but remain cool enough to avoid the smoke and toxins associated with combustion. Vaporized cannabis should create fewer respiratory symptoms than smoked cannabis. We examined self-reported respiratory symptoms in participants who ranged in cigarette and cannabis use. Data from a large Internet sample revealed that the use of a vaporizer predicted fewer respiratory symp...

Earleywine Mitch; Barnwell Sara

2007-01-01

5

Decreased respiratory symptoms in cannabis users who vaporize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Cannabis smoking can create respiratory problems. Vaporizers heat cannabis to release active cannabinoids, but remain cool enough to avoid the smoke and toxins associated with combustion. Vaporized cannabis should create fewer respiratory symptoms than smoked cannabis. We examined self-reported respiratory symptoms in participants who ranged in cigarette and cannabis use. Data from a large Internet sample revealed that the use of a vaporizer predicted fewer respiratory symptoms even when age, sex, cigarette smoking, and amount of cannabis used were taken into account. Age, sex, cigarettes, and amount of cannabis also had significant effects. The number of cigarettes smoked and amount of cannabis used interacted to create worse respiratory problems. A significant interaction revealed that the impact of a vaporizer was larger as the amount of cannabis used increased. These data suggest that the safety of cannabis can increase with the use of a vaporizer. Regular users of joints, blunts, pipes, and water pipes might decrease respiratory symptoms by switching to a vaporizer

Barnwell Sara

2007-04-01

6

Relief of cannabis withdrawal symptoms and cannabis quitting strategies in people with schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the response to cannabis withdrawal symptoms and use of quitting strategies to maintain abstinence in people with schizophrenia. A convenience sample of 120 participants with schizophrenia who had at least weekly cannabis use and a previous quit attempt without formal treatment were administered the 176-item Marijuana Quit Questionnaire to characterize their "most serious" (self-defined) quit attempt. One hundred thirteen participants had withdrawal symptoms, of whom 104 (92.0%) took some action to relieve a symptom, most commonly nicotine use (75%). 90% of withdrawal symptoms evoked an action for relief in a majority of participants experiencing them, most frequently anxiety (95.2% of participants) and cannabis craving (94.4%). 96% of participants used one or more quitting strategies to maintain abstinence during their quit attempt, most commonly getting rid of cannabis (72%) and cannabis paraphernalia (67%). Religious support or prayer was the quitting strategy most often deemed "most helpful" (15%). Use of a self-identified most helpful quitting strategy was associated with significantly higher one-month (80.8% vs. 73.6%) and one-year (54.9% vs. 41.3%) abstinence rates. Actions to relieve cannabis withdrawal symptoms in people with schizophrenia are common. Promotion of effective quitting strategies may aid relapse prevention. PMID:23969281

Koola, Maju Mathew; Boggs, Douglas Lee; Kelly, Deanna Lynn; Liu, Fang; Linthicum, Jared Allen; Turner, Hailey Elaine; McMahon, Robert Patrick; Gorelick, David Alan

2013-10-30

7

Sintomas depressivos e uso de Cannabis em adolescentes Síntomas depresivos en adolescentes usuarios de Cannabis Depressive symptoms in young Cannabis users  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A depressão é um dos transtornos psiquiátricos mais comuns na adolescência. Os quadros depressivos costumam apresentar elevadas taxas de comorbidades psiquiátricas, sendo freqüente o abuso de substâncias psicoativas. O artigo investiga a associação dos sintomas depressivos e o uso da cannabis. MÉTODO: Revisão sistemática, análise dos artigos indexados no Medline, PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science e Lilacs, entre 2000 e 2005, descritores: depressive symptoms, depressive, adolescence, teenager e cannabis. RESULTADOS: Revisados 36 artigos completos, resultando no estudo de 9 artigos, que tratam de sintomas depressivos ou depressão e o uso ou dependência de cannabis em adolescentes. Os estudos confirmam a associação entre sintomas depressivos e o uso de cannabis na adolescência, sendo esta associação mais freqüente no uso precoce e regular de cannabis. CONCLUSÃO: Os sintomas depressivos/depressão estão relacionados ao uso/abuso e dependência de cannabis na adolescência. A investigação clínica e os programas de prevenção devem abordar estes transtornos na adolescência.Este artículo busca investigar la asociación de los síntomas depresivos y el uso de cannabis en la adolescencia. MÉTODO: Ha sido realizado, a través de revisión sistemática, el análisis de los artículos indexados localizados en los sistemas Medline, PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science y Lilacs, entre 2000 y 2005, utilizando los descriptores: depressive symptoms, depressive, adolescence, teenager y cannabis. RESULTADOS: La mayoría de los estudios confirma existir una asociación entre síntomas depresivos y el uso de cannabis en la adolescencia, cabe destacar que esta asociación es más frecuente en el uso precoz y regular de cañabais. CONCLUSIÓN: Los síntomas depresivos/Depresión están relacionados al uso/abuso y dependencia de cañabais en la adolescencia, siendo entonces importante que estas variables puedan ser investigadas en la práctica clínica como también en programas de prevención que aborden de forma simultánea estos síntomas/trastornos en este período de la vida.The association between depressive symptoms and cannabis use is investigated. Due to the fact that depression has been a common psyquiatric disorder in adolescence, depressive cases usually present high rates of psychiatric comorbidities and the abuse of psychoactive substances is frequent. Systematic review, studies at PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science and Lilacs databases analyzed between 2000 and 2005 are discussed. Results show that nine out of the thirty-six studies discuss depression and cannabis use or addiction in adolescents. Whereas the association between depressive symptoms and the use of cannabis during adolescence is confirmed, it is more frequent in an early and continuous cannabis use. Research shows that depressive symptoms are related to cannabis use, abuse and dependence during adolescence. Abovementioned variables must be investigated in clinical practice and in prevention programs that simultaneously focus on these disorders.

Tânia Moraes Ramos Andrade

2008-09-01

8

Sintomas depressivos e uso de Cannabis em adolescentes / Depressive symptoms in young Cannabis users / Síntomas depresivos en adolescentes usuarios de Cannabis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A depressão é um dos transtornos psiquiátricos mais comuns na adolescência. Os quadros depressivos costumam apresentar elevadas taxas de comorbidades psiquiátricas, sendo freqüente o abuso de substâncias psicoativas. O artigo investiga a associação dos sintomas depressivos e o uso da cannabis. MÉTOD [...] O: Revisão sistemática, análise dos artigos indexados no Medline, PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science e Lilacs, entre 2000 e 2005, descritores: depressive symptoms, depressive, adolescence, teenager e cannabis. RESULTADOS: Revisados 36 artigos completos, resultando no estudo de 9 artigos, que tratam de sintomas depressivos ou depressão e o uso ou dependência de cannabis em adolescentes. Os estudos confirmam a associação entre sintomas depressivos e o uso de cannabis na adolescência, sendo esta associação mais freqüente no uso precoce e regular de cannabis. CONCLUSÃO: Os sintomas depressivos/depressão estão relacionados ao uso/abuso e dependência de cannabis na adolescência. A investigação clínica e os programas de prevenção devem abordar estes transtornos na adolescência. Abstract in spanish Este artículo busca investigar la asociación de los síntomas depresivos y el uso de cannabis en la adolescencia. MÉTODO: Ha sido realizado, a través de revisión sistemática, el análisis de los artículos indexados localizados en los sistemas Medline, PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science y Lilacs, entre [...] 2000 y 2005, utilizando los descriptores: depressive symptoms, depressive, adolescence, teenager y cannabis. RESULTADOS: La mayoría de los estudios confirma existir una asociación entre síntomas depresivos y el uso de cannabis en la adolescencia, cabe destacar que esta asociación es más frecuente en el uso precoz y regular de cañabais. CONCLUSIÓN: Los síntomas depresivos/Depresión están relacionados al uso/abuso y dependencia de cañabais en la adolescencia, siendo entonces importante que estas variables puedan ser investigadas en la práctica clínica como también en programas de prevención que aborden de forma simultánea estos síntomas/trastornos en este período de la vida. Abstract in english The association between depressive symptoms and cannabis use is investigated. Due to the fact that depression has been a common psyquiatric disorder in adolescence, depressive cases usually present high rates of psychiatric comorbidities and the abuse of psychoactive substances is frequent. Systemat [...] ic review, studies at PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science and Lilacs databases analyzed between 2000 and 2005 are discussed. Results show that nine out of the thirty-six studies discuss depression and cannabis use or addiction in adolescents. Whereas the association between depressive symptoms and the use of cannabis during adolescence is confirmed, it is more frequent in an early and continuous cannabis use. Research shows that depressive symptoms are related to cannabis use, abuse and dependence during adolescence. Abovementioned variables must be investigated in clinical practice and in prevention programs that simultaneously focus on these disorders.

Tânia Moraes Ramos, Andrade; Irani Iracema de Lima, Argimon.

9

A Genomewide Association Study of DSM-IV Cannabis Dependence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite twin studies showing that 50–70% of variation in DSM-IV cannabis dependence is attributable to heritable influences, little is known of specific genotypes that influence vulnerability to cannabis dependence. We conducted a genomewide association study of DSM-IV cannabis dependence. Association analyses of 708 DSM-IV cannabis dependent cases with 2,346 cannabis exposed nondependent controls was conducted using logistic regression in PLINK. None of the 948,142 SNPs met genomewide sign...

2011-01-01

10

Imaging dopamine transmission parameters in cannabis dependence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3) availability and low ventrostriatal dopamine release have been observed in alcoholism, cocaine and heroin dependence. Multiple studies to date have examined D2 availability in cannabis dependence and have consistently failed to demonstrate alterations. In addition, the response of the dopamine system to an amphetamine challenge and to a stress challenge has also been examined, and did not show alterations. We review these studies here and conclude that cannabis dependence is an exception among commonly abused drugs in that it is not associated with blunting of the dopamine system. PMID:24513022

Ghazzaoui, Rassil; Abi-Dargham, Anissa

2014-07-01

11

Palmitoylethanolamide: from endogenous cannabimimetic substance to innovative medicine for the treatment of cannabis dependence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a fatty acid amide showing some pharmacodynamic similarities with ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the principal psychoactive compound present in the cannabis plant. Like ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol, PEA can produce a direct or indirect activation of cannabinoid receptors. Furthermore, it acts as an agonist at TRPV1 receptor. The hypothesis is that PEA has anti-craving effects in cannabis dependent patients, is efficacious in the treatment of withdrawal symptoms, produces a reduction of cannabis consumption and is effective in the prevention of cannabis induced neurotoxicity and neuro-psychiatric disorders. PMID:23896215

Coppola, M; Mondola, R

2013-10-01

12

Are the symptoms of cannabis use disorder best accounted for by dimensional, categorical, or factor mixture models? A comparison of male and female young adults  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite the consensus that criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence and symptoms of withdrawal are best explained by a single latent liability, it remains unknown whether alternate models provide a better explanation of these criteria. A series of latent factor, latent class and hybrid factor mixture models were fitted to data from 872 recent cannabis users from the Minnesota Twin Family Study who completed DSM-III-R and DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for cannabis abuse, dependence and symptoms...

2012-01-01

13

Dependent cannabis users at a music festival - prevalence and correlates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aim: In western countries, the most prevalent type of illicit substance-use dependence is cannabis dependence. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of cannabis dependence among music festival visitors. Methods: Based on a survey of 380 music festival guests, we estimated the prevalence of cannabis dependence, as defined by a score of 3 or more on the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS), as well as characteristics of cannabis dependent visitors. Results: 143 (38%) reported having used cannabis within the past year (past year cannabis users), and of these respondents, 21 (15%) screened positive for cannabis dependence. Compared to other cannabis users, the dependent respondents were more likely to be daily smokers, and they scored higher on self-reported sensation seeking. Compared with past-year non-users, both dependent users and non-dependent users were more likely to be men, weekly heavy drinkers, daily smokers and to score high on sensation seeking. Conclusions: Out of the past-year cannabis users recruited at a music festival, one in seven of those respondents showed indication of cannabis dependence. This suggests a need for both available treatment options and primary prevention of dependence.

Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien

2011-01-01

14

Cannabis Use Patterns and Their Association with DSM-IV Cannabis Dependence and Gender  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims: To investigate the gender differences in the patterns of cannabis use (CU), namely frequency, times of day, social context and methods and in their association with DSM-IV cannabis dependence. Methods: A sample of 3,904 students from German universities was recruited via an internet survey. Logistic regressions and associated areas under the ROC curve (AUC) were calculated among current cannabis users (at least once a month, n = 843). Results: CU using a water pipe was more ofte...

Noack, Rene?; Ho?fler, Michael; Lu?ken, Ulrike

2014-01-01

15

Time-course of the DSM-5 cannabis withdrawal symptoms in poly-substance abusers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background Evidence is accumulating that a cannabis withdrawal syndrome is common, of clinical significance, and has a clear time course. Up till now, very limited data exist on the cannabis withdrawal symptoms in patients with co-morbid substance use disorders, other than cannabis use and tobacco use. Methods Symptoms of withdrawal were assessed through patient self-reports during detoxification in Danish residential rehabilitation centers. Patients (n = 90) completed booklets three times during their first month at the treatment centre. Self-reported withdrawal symptoms was rated using the DSM-5 Withdrawal Symptom Check List with withdrawal symptoms from all classes of substances, with no indication that the described symptoms should be attributed to withdrawal. Self-reported time since last use of cannabis was used as a predictor of cannabis withdrawal severity. Results With the exception of loss of appetite, time since last use of cannabis was associated with all types of withdrawal symptoms listed in the DSM-5. Only four of 19 symptoms intended to measure withdrawal from other substances were related to time since last use of cannabis, including vivid, unpleasant dreams. Conclusions The findings yield strong support to the notion of a cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and gives further evidence for the inclusion of the criterion of vivid, unpleasant dreams. Further, the findings speak against the significance of demand characteristics in determining the course of the symptoms of cannabis withdrawal.

Hesse, Morten; Thylstrup, Birgitte

2013-01-01

16

A Genomewide Association Study of DSM-IV Cannabis Dependence  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite twin studies showing that 50–70% of variation in DSM-IV cannabis dependence is attributable to heritable influences, little is known of specific genotypes that influence vulnerability to cannabis dependence. We conducted a genomewide association study of DSM-IV cannabis dependence. Association analyses of 708 DSM-IV cannabis dependent cases with 2,346 cannabis exposed nondependent controls was conducted using logistic regression in PLINK. None of the 948,142 SNPs met genomewide significance (p < E?8). The lowest p-values were obtained for polymorphisms on chromosome 17 (rs1019238 and rs1431318, p-values at E?7) in the ANKFN1 gene. While replication is required, this study represents an important first step towards clarifying the biological underpinnings of cannabis dependence.

Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T.; Hinrichs, Anthony; Grucza, Richard; Saccone, Scott F.; Krueger, Robert; Neuman, Rosalind; Howells, William; Fisher, Sherri; Fox, Louis; Cloninger, Robert; Dick, Danielle M.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Goate, Alison M.; Hesselbrock, Victor; Johnson, Eric; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Nurnberger, John I; Pugh, Elizabeth; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay; Rice, John P.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Bierut, Laura J.

2010-01-01

17

Pothead or pot smoker? a taxometric investigation of cannabis dependence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Taxometric methods were used to discern the latent structure of cannabis dependence. Such methods help determine if a construct is categorical or dimensional. Taxometric analyses (MAXEIG and MAMBAC) were conducted on data from 1,474 cannabis-using respondents to the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Respondents answered questions assessing DSM-IV criteria for cannabis dependence. Results

2006-01-01

18

Generalizability of Clinical Trials for Cannabis Dependence to Community Samples*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is growing concern that results of tightly controlled clinical trials may not generalize to broader community samples. To assess the proportion of community-dwelling adults with cannabis dependence who would have been eligible for a typical cannabis dependence treatment study, we applied a standard set of eligibility criteria commonly used in cannabis outcome studies to a large (N=43,093) representative US adult sample interviewed face-to-face, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcoh...

2010-01-01

19

A proof-of-concept randomized controlled study of gabapentin: effects on cannabis use, withdrawal and executive function deficits in cannabis-dependent adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, and patients seeking treatment for primary cannabis dependence represent 25% of all substance use admissions. We conducted a phase IIa proof-of-concept pilot study to examine the safety and efficacy of a calcium channel/GABA modulating drug, gabapentin, for the treatment of cannabis dependence. A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 50 unpaid treatment-seeking male and female outpatients, aged 18-65 years, diagnosed with current cannabis dependence. Subjects received either gabapentin (1200?mg/day) or matched placebo. Manual-guided, abstinence-oriented individual counseling was provided weekly to all participants. Cannabis use was measured by weekly urine toxicology and by self-report using the Timeline Followback Interview. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms were assessed using the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist. Executive function was measured using subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. Relative to placebo, gabapentin significantly reduced cannabis use as measured both by urine toxicology (p=0.001) and by the Timeline Followback Interview (p=0.004), and significantly decreased withdrawal symptoms as measured by the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (p<0.001). Gabapentin was also associated with significantly greater improvement in overall performance on tests of executive function (p=0.029). This POC pilot study provides preliminary support for the safety and efficacy of gabapentin for treatment of cannabis dependence that merits further study, and provides an alternative conceptual framework for treatment of addiction aimed at restoring homeostasis in brain stress systems that are dysregulated in drug dependence and withdrawal. PMID:22373942

Mason, Barbara J; Crean, Rebecca; Goodell, Vivian; Light, John M; Quello, Susan; Shadan, Farhad; Buffkins, Kimberly; Kyle, Mark; Adusumalli, Murali; Begovic, Adnan; Rao, Santosh

2012-06-01

20

Open-label pilot study of quetiapine treatment for cannabis dependence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Background: There are no efficacious pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. The effects of quetiapine are well matched to the symptoms of cannabis withdrawal and could be useful in the treatment of cannabis dependence. Objectives: To evaluate quetiapine for the treatment of cannabis dependence and determine the optimal dosing. Methods: In an eight-week open-label outpatient pilot trial, we evaluated the feasibility of quetiapine treatment for cannabis dependence in 15 outpatients. Quetiapine was gradually titrated to 600?mg or the maximum tolerated dose. Results: The mean study retention was 6.5 weeks (±2.3), with 67% of participants completing all eight weeks of the trial. The mean maximum dose achieved was 197?mg/day (range: 25-600?mg/day). Only two of the 15 participants were able to achieve the target dose of 600?mg daily. There were no serious adverse events and no participants were discontinued from the trial due to adverse effects. The most common reported adverse effects were fatigue (80% of participants) and somnolence (47%). From baseline to week 8, the modeled overall decrease in daily dollar value of marijuana was 76.3% (CI: 63.4%, 84.7%). Over the eight weeks of the study, there was a 46.9% (CI: 11%, 68.3%) decrease in urine tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCOOH) levels. Conclusions: These preliminary results are promising in that quetiapine treatment was tolerated by cannabis-dependent patients and associated with decreased cannabis use. The recommended maximum target dose for cannabis-dependent patients is 300?mg daily. These preliminary data support further evaluation of quetiapine as a treatment for cannabis dependence. PMID:24963729

Mariani, John J; Pavlicova, Martina; Mamczur, Agnieszka K; Bisaga, Adam; Nunes, Edward V; Levin, Frances R

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
21

Anxiety mediates the association between cannabis use and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis use has been associated with a continuum of psychotic experiences. However, it is unclear whether mood and anxiety symptoms account for increases in attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS) among cannabis users. We predicted that depression and anxiety symptoms would mediate the relation between cannabis use and APPS, and between cannabis use and endorsement of eight or more distressing APPS (D-APPS), a potentially more clinically meaningful group. Young adults (n=674) completed the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ); Drug Use Frequency measure; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Trait Form, Anxiety Subscale; and Social Phobia Scale. Results indicated that symptoms of trait anxiety, but not symptoms of depression or social anxiety, mediated the relationship between cannabis use and APPS, as well as the relationship between cannabis use and D-APPS. Results indicate that symptoms of trait anxiety may play a role in the relation between cannabis use and APPS. Findings underscore the importance of considering clinical characteristics co-occurring with psychotic symptoms, such as affective symptoms, when examining the association between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms. PMID:24745470

Reeves, Lauren E; Anglin, Deidre M; Heimberg, Richard G; Gibson, Lauren E; Fineberg, Anna M; Maxwell, Seth D; Kerns, Connor M; Ellman, Lauren M

2014-08-15

22

Cannabis use and childhood trauma interact additively to increase the risk of psychotic symptoms in adolescence.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Adolescent cannabis use has been shown in many studies to increase the risk of later psychosis. Childhood trauma is associated with both substance misuse and risk for psychosis. In this study our aim was to investigate whether there is a significant interaction between cannabis use and childhood trauma in increasing the risk for experiencing psychotic symptoms during adolescence.

Harley, M

2010-10-01

23

No association between chronic cannabis use and loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials as indicator of central serotonergic neurotransmission.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic cannabis use has been found to be associated with major depression. It is suggested that cannabis use induces changes in neurotransmitter systems involved in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders, particularly in the serotonergic system. The analysis of the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP) is a valid non-invasive indicator of central serotonergic activity in animals and humans. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic cannabis use on LDAEP in 30 psychiatrically unaffected users compared to 30 non-user controls. Users were required to abstain from cannabis for at least 24 h before testing. Putative depressive symptoms were assessed by using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-21). LDAEP as well as BDI and HAMD-21 scores did not differ between cannabis users and controls. Moreover, LDAEP neither correlate with duration and quantity of cannabis use nor with psychometric assessments. These results indicate that chronic cannabis use had no influence on the LDAEP in this study sample. It can be suggested that significant alterations in serotonergic systems may rather be related to acute activation of the endogenous cannabinoid system or to cannabis dependence accompanied by manifest depressive symptoms. PMID:19766579

Roser, Patrik; Della, Beate; Norra, Christine; Juckel, Georg; Uhl, Idun

2009-11-13

24

Item Response Theory Analysis of DSM-IV Cannabis Abuse and Dependence Criteria in Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

A study to examine the DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence among adolescents is conducted. Results conclude that abuse and dependence criteria were not found to affect the different levels of severity in cannabis use.

Hartman, Christie A.; Gelhorn, Heather; Crowley, Thomas J.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Stallings, Michael; Young, Susan E.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Corley, Robin; Hewitt, John K.; Hopfer, Christian J.

2008-01-01

25

The role of study and work in cannabis use and dependence trajectories among young adult frequent cannabis users  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Life course theory considers events in study and work as potential turning points in deviance, including illicit drug use. This qualitative study explores the role of occupational life in cannabis use and dependence in young adults. Two and three years after the initial structured interview, 47 at baseline frequent cannabis users were interviewed in-depth about the dynamics underlying changes in their cannabis use and dependence. Overall, cannabis use and dependence declined, including interviewees who quit using cannabis completely, in particular with students, both during their study and after they got employed. Life course theory appeared to be a useful framework to explore how and why occupational life is related to cannabis use and dependence over time. Our study showed that life events in this realm are rather common in young adults and can have a strong impact on cannabis use. While sometimes changes in use are temporary, turning points can evolve from changes in educational and employment situations; an effect that seems to be related to the consequences of these changes in terms of amount of leisure time and agency (i.e. feelings of being in control.

NienkeLiebregts

2013-08-01

26

Cannabis dependence: Effects of cannabis consumption on inter-regional cerebral metabolic relationships in an Indian population  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The effects of cannabis consumption on neurophysiological function have been a matter of considerable debate. With the legalization of medical marijuana, understanding the consequences of cannabis dependence has become extremely important. Aim: We attempted to understand the influence of cannabis on cerebral glucose metabolism in certain predetermined regions of interest (ROIs). Furthermore, we also explored inter-regional metabolic relationships between ROIs forming the “addiction” and “cognitive dysmetria” circuit. Materials and Methods: 2-fluoro, 2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) scans were carried out in 16 male patients (age: 25.3±10.38 years) with cannabis dependence, 8–12 hours after the last cannabis consumption. Resting glucose uptake in 14 pre-determined ROIs was compared with glucose uptake in 16 non-drug using volunteers (age: 29.2±8.39 years). Results: The two groups differed in their lateral and medial temporal glucose uptakes by approximately 16–24%. The relationships between inter-regional glucose uptakes in the two circuits were compared using the Chow Test. Significant differences in inter-regional correlations in the medial temporo–frontal and parieto–thalamic were noted between the two groups. Conclusion: The altered metabolic relationships among various brain regions can have potentially important implications for understanding cannabis dependence and cannabis-induced psychopathology.

Parkar, Shubhangi R.; Ramanathan, Seethalakshmi; Nair, Narendra; Batra, Shefali A.; Adarkar, Shilpa A.; Pandit, Anirudh G.; Kund, Purushottam; Baghel, Nawab Singh

2010-01-01

27

A genome-wide association study of DSM-IV cannabis dependence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite twin studies showing that 50-70% of variation in DSM-IV cannabis dependence is attributable to heritable influences, little is known of specific genotypes that influence vulnerability to cannabis dependence. We conducted a genome-wide association study of DSM-IV cannabis dependence. Association analyses of 708 DSM-IV cannabis-dependent cases with 2346 cannabis-exposed non-dependent controls was conducted using logistic regression in PLINK. None of the 948?142 single nucleotide polymorphisms met genome-wide significance (P at E-8). The lowest P values were obtained for polymorphisms on chromosome 17 (rs1019238 and rs1431318, P values at E-7) in the ANKFN1 gene. While replication is required, this study represents an important first step toward clarifying the biological underpinnings of cannabis dependence. PMID:21668797

Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T; Hinrichs, Anthony; Grucza, Richard; Saccone, Scott F; Krueger, Robert; Neuman, Rosalind; Howells, William; Fisher, Sherri; Fox, Louis; Cloninger, Robert; Dick, Danielle M; Doheny, Kimberly F; Edenberg, Howard J; Goate, Alison M; Hesselbrock, Victor; Johnson, Eric; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Nurnberger, John I; Pugh, Elizabeth; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay; Rice, John P; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Bierut, Laura J

2011-07-01

28

Cue-Reactivity in Cannabis-Dependent Adolescents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) with a craving manipulation to investigate the neural correlates of drug cue-reactivity in 13 cannabis-dependent (CD) adolescents (ages 14–17). The P300 responses to marijuana (MJ) pictures (MJ-P300) and control pictures (C-P300) were assessed after handling neutral objects and again after handling MJ paraphernalia (MJP). Self-reported drug craving and heart rates also were measured. MJ-P300 were larger than C-P300 (p<0.001) and both the MJ-P300 a...

Nickerson, Lisa D.; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Lundahl, Leslie H.; Rodolico, John; Dunlap, Steven; Trksak, George H.; Lukas, Scott E.

2011-01-01

29

Parental alcohol dependence, socioeconomic disadvantage and alcohol and cannabis dependence among young adults in the community.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We tested the hypothesis that socioeconomic disadvantage exacerbates the intergenerational transmission of substance dependence. Among 3056 community-based young adults (18-22 years, 2007), the prevalence of alcohol dependence (WHO AUDIT, 5.8%) and cannabis dependence (DSM IV criteria, 7.3%) was doubled in the presence of combined parental alcohol dependence and socioeconomic disadvantage.

Melchior, Maria; Choquet, Marie; Le Strat, Yann; Hassler, Christine; Gorwood, Philip

2011-01-01

30

Comorbid psychiatric disorders and stages of change in cannabis-dependent, treatment-seeking patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Objectives: To determine whether and to what extent cannabis dependence is associated with comorbid psychiatric disorders and specific stages of change in treatment-seeking patients. Methods: We evaluated 80 cannabis-dependent, treatment-seeking patients residing in an urban area. Data on cannabi [...] s dependence, psychiatric disorders, and motivation were obtained using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry and the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA). Results: A diagnosis of schizophrenia was found to correlate with lower motivation scores (p = 0.038), which could have a negative effect on adherence to treatment. Conclusion: The high prevalence of concurrent psychiatric disorders in cannabis-dependent patients should serve as a stimulus for early screening and treatment of such disorders. Health care professionals should be aware of the magnitude of this association to increase the level of motivation in cannabis-dependent patients with severe concurrent psychiatric disorders.

Hercilio P., Oliveira; Andre, Malbergier.

2014-05-13

31

Comorbid psychiatric disorders and stages of change in cannabis-dependent, treatment-seeking patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: To determine whether and to what extent cannabis dependence is associated with comorbid psychiatric disorders and specific stages of change in treatment-seeking patients. Methods: We evaluated 80 cannabis-dependent, treatment-seeking patients residing in an urban area. Data on cannabis dependence, psychiatric disorders, and motivation were obtained using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry and the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA). Results: A diagnosis of schizophrenia was found to correlate with lower motivation scores (p = 0.038), which could have a negative effect on adherence to treatment. Conclusion: The high prevalence of concurrent psychiatric disorders in cannabis-dependent patients should serve as a stimulus for early screening and treatment of such disorders. Health care professionals should be aware of the magnitude of this association to increase the level of motivation in cannabis-dependent patients with severe concurrent psychiatric disorders. PMID:24676043

Oliveira, Hercilio P; Malbergier, Andre

2014-05-13

32

Comorbid psychiatric disorders and stages of change in cannabis-dependent, treatment-seeking patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Objectives: To determine whether and to what extent cannabis dependence is associated with comorbid psychiatric disorders and specific stages of change in treatment-seeking patients. Methods: We evaluated 80 cannabis-dependent, treatment-seeking patients residing in an urban area. Data on cannabi [...] s dependence, psychiatric disorders, and motivation were obtained using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry and the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA). Results: A diagnosis of schizophrenia was found to correlate with lower motivation scores (p = 0.038), which could have a negative effect on adherence to treatment. Conclusion: The high prevalence of concurrent psychiatric disorders in cannabis-dependent patients should serve as a stimulus for early screening and treatment of such disorders. Health care professionals should be aware of the magnitude of this association to increase the level of motivation in cannabis-dependent patients with severe concurrent psychiatric disorders.

Oliveira, Hercilio P.; Malbergier, Andre.

2014-03-24

33

Evidence for association between polymorphisms in the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) gene and cannabis dependence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genomic studies of cannabis use disorders have been limited. The cannabinoid receptor 1 gene (CNR1) on chromosome 6q14-15 is an excellent candidate gene for cannabis dependence due to the important role of the G-protein coupled receptor encoded by this gene in the rewarding effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Previous studies have found equivocal evidence for an association between SNPs in CNR1 and a general vulnerability to substance use disorders. We investigate the association between 9 SNPs spanning CNR1 and cannabis dependence in 1,923 individuals. Two SNPs that were previously associated with cannabis dependence in other studies were also significant with this phenotype in our analyses [rs806368 (P = 0.05) and rs806380 (P = 0.009)]. Haplotype analyses revealed the association to be largely driven by the SNP rs806380. These results suggest a role for the cannabinoid receptor 1 gene in cannabis dependence. PMID:19016476

Agrawal, Arpana; Wetherill, Leah; Dick, Danielle M; Xuei, Xiaoling; Hinrichs, Anthony; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kramer, John; Nurnberger, John I; Schuckit, Marc; Bierut, Laura J; Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

2009-07-01

34

Cannabis e humor / Cannabis and mood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações entre o uso agudo e crônico de cannabis e alterações do humor. MÉTODO: Os artigos foram selecionados por meio de busca eletrônica no indexador PubMed. Capítulos de livros e as listas de referências dos artigos selecionados também foram revisados. RESULTADOS: Observam-se [...] elevados índices de comorbidade entre abuso/dependência de cannabis e transtornos afetivos em estudos transversais e em amostras clínicas. Estudos longitudinais indicam que, em longo prazo, o uso mais intenso de cannabis está relacionado com um risco maior de desenvolvimento de doença bipolar e, talvez, depressão maior em indivíduos inicialmente sem quadros afetivos; porém, os mesmos não encontraram maior risco de uso de cannabis entre aqueles com mania ou depressão sem esta comorbidade. Outra importante observação é que o uso de substâncias psicoativas em bipolares pode estar associado a uma série de características negativas, como dificuldade na recuperação dos sintomas afetivos, maior número de internações, piora na adesão ao tratamento, risco aumentado de suicídio, agressividade e a uma pobre resposta ao lítio. Tratamentos psicossociais e farmacológicos são indicados para o manejo da comorbidade entre cannabis e transtornos afetivos. CONCLUSÃO: As relações entre o uso de cannabis e alterações do humor são observadas tanto epidemiologicamente quanto nos contextos clínicos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between acute and chronic use of cannabis and mood changes. METHOD: Articles were selected by electronic search in PubMed. Chapters in books and reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. As the research did not involve humans, there was no evaluati [...] on by a Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: High rates of comorbidity between use/abuse/dependence of cannabis and affective disorders in longitudinal studies and in clinical samples were observed. Longitudinal studies indicate that, in long-term, the higher use of cannabis is associated with an increased risk of developing bipolar disorder, and probably, major depression in subjects initially without affective disorder, but was not found increased risk of cannabis use among those initially only with mania or depression. Another important observation is that substance abuse in bipolar patients may be associated with a number of negative characteristics, such as difficulty in recovering the affective symptoms, more hospitalizations, poor compliance with treatment, increased risk of suicide, aggression and a poor response to lithium. Psychosocial and pharmacological treatments are indicated for the management of comorbidity between cannabis and affective disorders. CONCLUSION: The relationship between cannabis use and mood changes are observed both in the epidemiological research and in the clinical settings.

Sanches, Rafael Faria; Marques, João Mazzoncini de Azevedo.

35

Cannabis e humor Cannabis and mood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações entre o uso agudo e crônico de cannabis e alterações do humor. MÉTODO: Os artigos foram selecionados por meio de busca eletrônica no indexador PubMed. Capítulos de livros e as listas de referências dos artigos selecionados também foram revisados. RESULTADOS: Observam-se elevados índices de comorbidade entre abuso/dependência de cannabis e transtornos afetivos em estudos transversais e em amostras clínicas. Estudos longitudinais indicam que, em longo prazo, o uso mais intenso de cannabis está relacionado com um risco maior de desenvolvimento de doença bipolar e, talvez, depressão maior em indivíduos inicialmente sem quadros afetivos; porém, os mesmos não encontraram maior risco de uso de cannabis entre aqueles com mania ou depressão sem esta comorbidade. Outra importante observação é que o uso de substâncias psicoativas em bipolares pode estar associado a uma série de características negativas, como dificuldade na recuperação dos sintomas afetivos, maior número de internações, piora na adesão ao tratamento, risco aumentado de suicídio, agressividade e a uma pobre resposta ao lítio. Tratamentos psicossociais e farmacológicos são indicados para o manejo da comorbidade entre cannabis e transtornos afetivos. CONCLUSÃO: As relações entre o uso de cannabis e alterações do humor são observadas tanto epidemiologicamente quanto nos contextos clínicos.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between acute and chronic use of cannabis and mood changes. METHOD: Articles were selected by electronic search in PubMed. Chapters in books and reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. As the research did not involve humans, there was no evaluation by a Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: High rates of comorbidity between use/abuse/dependence of cannabis and affective disorders in longitudinal studies and in clinical samples were observed. Longitudinal studies indicate that, in long-term, the higher use of cannabis is associated with an increased risk of developing bipolar disorder, and probably, major depression in subjects initially without affective disorder, but was not found increased risk of cannabis use among those initially only with mania or depression. Another important observation is that substance abuse in bipolar patients may be associated with a number of negative characteristics, such as difficulty in recovering the affective symptoms, more hospitalizations, poor compliance with treatment, increased risk of suicide, aggression and a poor response to lithium. Psychosocial and pharmacological treatments are indicated for the management of comorbidity between cannabis and affective disorders. CONCLUSION: The relationship between cannabis use and mood changes are observed both in the epidemiological research and in the clinical settings.

Rafael Faria Sanches

2010-06-01

36

Neurological soft signs in non-psychotic patients with cannabis dependence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Psychomotor performance has consistently been found to be altered in chronic cannabis users. Neurological soft signs (NSS) reflect neurological dysfunction involving integrative networks, especially those involving the cerebellum, where cannabinoid receptors are particularly concentrated. Our objective was to study, for the first time, NSS in a group of patients with cannabis dependence compared with a of healthy control subjects, matched for age, gender and level of education. All outpatients seeking treatment for chronic cannabis use in the substance abuse department of Sainte-Anne Hospital in Paris between June 2007 and May 2009 and meeting the cannabis dependence DSM-IV criteria were included in the study (n = 45). Patients with psychotic disorders, bipolar 1 disorder and current alcohol, opioid or cocaine dependence were excluded. All patients and controls were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, which screens for lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses, and the Standardized Neurological Examination of Neurological Soft Signs. NSS scores were significantly higher in patients with cannabis dependence compared with healthy subjects (8.90 ± 4.85 versus 6.71 ± 2.73, respectively, Mann-Whitney: U = 775.0, P = 0.05). Patients had particularly high scores on motor coordination and sensory integration NSS factors. Cannabis dependence is associated with more NSS and especially motor coordination and sensory integration signs. These results suggest that cannabinoids interact with the brain networks underlying NSS, known to be altered in schizophrenia. PMID:21054691

Dervaux, Alain; Bourdel, Marie-Chantal; Laqueille, Xavier; Krebs, Marie-Odile

2013-03-01

37

Evidence for association between polymorphisms in the Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CNR1) gene and cannabis dependence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Genomic studies of cannabis use disorders have been limited. The cannabinoid receptor 1 gene (CNR1) on chromosome 6q14–15 is an excellent candidate gene for cannabis dependence due to the important role of the G-protein coupled receptor encoded by this gene in the rewarding effects of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Previous studies have found equivocal evidence for an association between SNPs in CNR1 and a general vulnerability to substance use disorders. We investigate the association between 9...

2009-01-01

38

Pericyazine in the treatment of cannabis dependence in general practice: a naturalistic pilot trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Kirsten C Morley,1 Paul S Haber,1,2 Madeleine L Morgan,3 Fares Samara3,41Discipline of Addiction Medicine, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Drug Health Services, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW, Australia; 3Drug and Alcohol Services, North Coast Area Health Service, Kempsey and Port Macquarie, NSW, Australia; 4Durri Aboriginal Medical Service, Kempsey, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Cannabis is one of the most widely used illicit drugs worldwide. However, while the rates of cannabis dependence and treatment increase, there remains no medications approved for this use. Due to its sedative effects and low abuse liability, the typical antipsychotic pericyazine has been utilized in some parts of Australia for the treatment of cannabis dependence. We aimed to provide documentation of preliminary outcomes and acceptability of pericyazine treatment in a small sample. A naturalistic case series study was conducted in which 21 patients were enrolled for a 4-week course of pericyazine (up to 8 × 2.5 mg tablets daily and weekly medical review. Levels of cannabis use were reported and side effects with electrocardiography and blood tests were monitored. Measures of dependence severity, depression, anxiety, and insomnia were taken at baseline and follow-up utilizing validated psychometric tools. Significant reductions in cannabis use, depression, anxiety, and insomnia severity occurred across time. Pericyazine appeared to be well tolerated and easily administered in the community clinics. The results provide some preliminary evidence that low-dose short-term pericyazine may be an acceptable mode of treatment in this population. Given the open-label nature of the design, we cannot conclude that pharmacotherapy was uniquely responsible for the treatment effect. Nonetheless, low-dose pericyazine may be a potentially effective approach to the treatment of cannabis dependence, and further evaluation via a randomized placebo-controlled trial is warranted.Keywords: cannabis, antipsychotic, pharmacotherapy, addiction, pericyazine

Morley KC

2012-05-01

39

A multi-center, randomized controlled trial of a group psychological intervention for psychosis with comorbid cannabis dependence over the early course of illness.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Patients who experience the onset of psychotic illness with a comorbid diagnosis of cannabis dependence experience poor clinical outcomes. Few studies have identified interventions that reduce cannabis use and improve clinical outcome in this population.

Madigan, Kevin

2013-01-01

40

A double-blind randomized controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine in cannabis-dependent adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Preclinical findings suggest that the over-the-counter supplement N-acetylcysteine, via glutamate modulation in the nucleus accumbens, holds promise as a pharmacotherapy targeting substance dependence. We sought to investigate N-acetylcysteine as a novel cannabis cessation treatment in adolescents, a vulnerable group for whom existing treatments have limited efficacy. Method In this 8-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial, treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adolescents (age 15-21, N = 116) received N-acetylcysteine (1200 mg) or placebo twice daily, each added to a contingency management intervention and brief (?10 minute) weekly cessation counseling. The primary efficacy measure was the odds of negative weekly urine cannabinoid tests during treatment among participants receiving N-acetylcysteine versus placebo, via intent-to-treat analysis. The primary tolerability measure was frequency of adverse events, compared by treatment group. Results N-acetylcysteine was well tolerated with minimal adverse events. N-acetylcysteine participants had more than twice the odds, compared to placebo participants, of submitting negative urine cannabinoid tests during treatment (odds ratio = 2.4, [95% CI: 1.1-5.2], p = 0.029). Exploratory secondary abstinence outcomes numerically favored N-acetylcysteine, but were not statistically significant. Conclusions This is the first randomized trial of pharmacotherapy for cannabis dependence in any age group yielding a positive primary cessation outcome via intent-to-treat analysis. Findings support N-acetylcysteine as a pharmacotherapy to complement psychosocial treatment for cannabis dependence in adolescents. Further research is needed to replicate these findings and explore the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine across a variety of treatment contexts and outcomes. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT 01005810

Gray, Kevin M.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; DeSantis, Stacia M.; Kryway, Elisabeth; Hartwell, Karen J.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Brady, Kathleen T.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Cannabis use and mental health  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cannabis use has been implicated as a risk factor for mental health problems, (subclinical) psychotic symptoms in particular. If cannabis use was a cause of these problems, cessation would lead to improved public mental health. If cannabis use was a mere consequence of a predisposition for mental health problems, cessation would not result in less problems. Prevention and intervention strategies aimed at a better public mental health would then do better to incorporate cannabis use in screeni...

Gastel, W.

2013-01-01

42

Vulnerability Factors for the Psychiatric and Behavioral Effects of Cannabis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cogent evidence shows that cannabis plays a variable role on behavioral regulation and the pathophysiology of most psychiatric conditions. Accordingly, cannabis has been alternatively shown to exacerbate or ameliorate mental symptoms, depending on its composition and route of consumption, as well as specific individual and contextual characteristics. The vulnerability to the psychological effects of cannabis is influenced by a complex constellation of genetic and environmental factors. In the present article, we will review the current evidence on the pharmacological, individual and situational factors that have been documented to affect the behavioral and psychiatric effects of cannabinoids.

Simone Tambaro

2010-08-01

43

Psychosis and cannabis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alcohol and cannabis misuse is currently the most frequent co-morbidity disorder of schizophrenia. The following four issues will be dealt with: 1 the neurobiological basis of the psychosis-inducing, pathogenic effects of THC, the agent contained in cannabis products. 2 Can cannabis use - and for comparison alcohol abuse - prematurely trigger or even cause schizophrenia? 3 Are persons genetically liable to schizophrenia, psychosis-prone individuals or young persons before completion of brain development at an increased risk? 4 What consequences does cannabis use have on the symptomatology and further course of schizophrenia? Results from recent literature and the ABC Schizophrenia Study show that the risk for cannabis use in schizophrenia is about twice the size in healthy controls. In most cases cannabis use starts before first admission, in a third of cases before schizophrenia onset. There is an increased affinity to misuse already at the prodromal stage. Cannabis can prematurely trigger schizophrenia onset - on average eight years earlier than in non-use - and cause the illness partly in interaction with predisposing factors. Cannabis use in the course of schizophrenia increases positive symptoms and reduces affective flattening, thus leading to dysfunctional coping in some cases.

Heinz Häfner

2005-01-01

44

Psychosis and cannabis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Alcohol and cannabis misuse is currently the most frequent co-morbidity disorder of schizophrenia. The following four issues will be dealt with: 1) the neurobiological basis of the psychosis-inducing, pathogenic effects of THC, the agent contained in cannabis products. 2) Can cannabis use - and for [...] comparison alcohol abuse - prematurely trigger or even cause schizophrenia? 3) Are persons genetically liable to schizophrenia, psychosis-prone individuals or young persons before completion of brain development at an increased risk? 4) What consequences does cannabis use have on the symptomatology and further course of schizophrenia? Results from recent literature and the ABC Schizophrenia Study show that the risk for cannabis use in schizophrenia is about twice the size in healthy controls. In most cases cannabis use starts before first admission, in a third of cases before schizophrenia onset. There is an increased affinity to misuse already at the prodromal stage. Cannabis can prematurely trigger schizophrenia onset - on average eight years earlier than in non-use - and cause the illness partly in interaction with predisposing factors. Cannabis use in the course of schizophrenia increases positive symptoms and reduces affective flattening, thus leading to dysfunctional coping in some cases.

Häfner, Heinz.

45

A stepped care approach for reducing cannabis use in opioid-dependent outpatients.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated rates of cannabis use and the effectiveness of an adaptive stepped care intervention for reducing cannabis use in methadone maintenance patients. Patients testing cannabis positive during a 6-month baseline were advanced to more weekly counseling (up to 9 hours per week) until producing four consecutive weeks of cannabis- and other drug-negative urine samples. Patients were followed up for 1 year. Continued access to uninterrupted methadone delivery was ultimately contingent upon attending scheduled counseling and achieving abstinence from all drug use. The results showed that 18% of the clinic census (n = 57) tested positive for cannabis. The effectiveness of the intervention was assessed for 15 patients testing positive for cannabis exclusively. Ten of these patients (67%) discontinued cannabis use prior to the intervention and remained at reduced care. Four of the five patients who were advanced to higher steps of care ultimately discontinued cannabis use; one left treatment against medical advice. The results suggest that motivated stepped care is an effective intervention for reducing cannabis use. PMID:17481457

Kidorf, Michael; Neufeld, Karin; King, Van L; Clark, Michael; Brooner, Robert K

2007-06-01

46

Do patients think cannabis causes schizophrenia? - A qualitative study on the causal beliefs of cannabis using patients with schizophrenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a considerable amount of debate among the research community whether cannabis use may cause schizophrenia and whether cannabis use of patients with schizophrenia is associated with earlier and more frequent relapses. Considering that studies exploring patients' view on controversial topics have contributed to our understanding of important clinical issues, it is surprising how little these views have been explored to add to our understanding of the link between cannabis and psychosis. The present study was designed to elucidate whether patients with schizophrenia who use cannabis believe that its use has caused their schizophrenia and to explore these patients other beliefs and perceptions about the effects of the drug. Methods We recruited ten consecutive patients fulfilling criteria for paranoid schizophrenia and for a harmful use of/dependence from cannabis (ICD-10 F20.0 + F12.1 or F12.2 from the in- and outpatient clinic of the Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich. They were interviewed using qualitative methodology. Furthermore, information on amount, frequency, and effects of use was obtained. A grounded theory approach to data analysis was taken to evaluate findings. Results None of the patients described a causal link between the use of cannabis and their schizophrenia. Disease models included upbringing under difficult circumstances (5 or use of substances other than cannabis (e. g. hallucinogens, 3. Two patients gave other reasons. Four patients considered cannabis a therapeutic aid and reported that positive effects (reduction of anxiety and tension prevailed over its possible disadvantages (exacerbation of positive symptoms. Conclusions Patients with schizophrenia did not establish a causal link between schizophrenia and the use of cannabis. We suggest that clinicians consider our findings in their work with patients suffering from these co-occurring disorders. Withholding treatment or excluding patients from certain treatment settings like day-care facilities or in patient care because of their use of cannabis, may cause additional harm to this already heavily burdened patient group.

Schaub Michael

2010-09-01

47

Two Sides of the Same Coin: Cannabis Dependence and Mental Health Problems in Help-Seeking Adolescent and Young Adult Outpatients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the current study was to delineate the psychiatric profile of cannabis dependent young people (14–29 years old) with mental health problems (N?=?36) seeking treatment via a research study. To do so, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Diagnoses were used to obtain DSM-IV diagnoses, while a modified Timeline Followback interview and self-reports were used to measure cannabis use, cannabis-...

Norberg, Melissa M.; Battisti, Robert A.; Copeland, Jan; Hermens, Daniel F.; Hickie, Ian B.

2012-01-01

48

Cannabis Beyond Good and Evil. How genetic and epidemiological factors shape the relationship between cannabis and psychosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The studies presented in this thesis aimed to identify genetic and non-genetic (epidemiological) factors that shape the association between cannabis use and psychosis. We showed that the age of first use of cannabis is a determinant for the strength of the association between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms and general mental health, as is the amount of cannabis that is consumed. Moreover it is likely that the THC/CBD ratio in consumed cannabis products further shapes the relationship be...

Schubart, C. D.

2013-01-01

49

Personality Characteristics of Adolescents with Hallucinogen, Methamphetamine, and Cannabis Dependence: A Comparative Study  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparison of personality factors on scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) was conducted with a sample of adolescents referred to a residential substance abuse treatment program. A total of sixty adolescents identified with hallucinogen (n = 20), cannabis (n = 20), or methamphetamine (n = 20) as their drug…

Palmer, Glen A.; Daiss, Doyle D.

2005-01-01

50

Clinical service desires of medical cannabis patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Medical cannabis dispensaries following the social or hybrid model offer supplementary holistic services in addition to dispensing medical cannabis. Historically, alternative physical health services have been the norm for these dispensaries, including services such as yoga, acupuncture, or chiropractor visits. A clinical service dearth remains for medical cannabis patients seeking substance use, misuse, dependence, and mental health services. This study e...

Janichek Jennifer L; Reiman Amanda

2012-01-01

51

Psychotropic and Nonpsychotropic Cannabis Derivatives Inhibit Human 5-HT3A receptors through a Receptor Desensitization-Dependent Mechanism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

?9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the principal psychoactive and non-psychoactive components of cannabis. While most THC-induced behavioral effects are thought to depend on endogenous cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors, the molecular targets for CBD remain unclear. Here, we report that CBD and THC inhibited the function of human 5-HT3A receptors (h5-HT3ARs) expressed in HEK 293 cells. The magnitude of THC and CBD inhibition was maximal 5 min after a continuous incubation wit...

Xiong, Wei; Koo, Bon-nyeo; Morton, Russell; Zhang, Li

2011-01-01

52

Pericyazine in the treatment of cannabis dependence in general practice: a naturalistic pilot trial  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Kirsten C Morley,1 Paul S Haber,1,2 Madeleine L Morgan,3 Fares Samara3,41Discipline of Addiction Medicine, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Drug Health Services, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW, Australia; 3Drug and Alcohol Services, North Coast Area Health Service, Kempsey and Port Macquarie, NSW, Australia; 4Durri Aboriginal Medical Service, Kempsey, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Cannabis is one of the most widely used illicit drugs worldwide. However, w...

Kc, Morley; Ps, Haber; Ml, Morgan; Samara F

2012-01-01

53

QUELS FUTURS TRAITEMENTS POUR LA DEPENDANCE AU TABAC ET AU CANNABIS?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plus de trois millions de morts sont attribués au tabagisme dans le monde par an, et l’usage de tabac est en progression dans les pays en voie de développement. L’usage de tabac est donc une des rares causes de mortalité qui augmente, avec une prévision de plus de 10 millions de morts par an dans 30–40 ans. Le cannabis ou marijuana est la drogue illicite la plus consommée dans le monde et il n’y a actuellement pas de traitement disponible. Bien que les systèmes dopaminergiques j...

Le Foll, Bernard; Justinova, Zuzana; Tanda, Gianlugi; Goldberg, Steven R.

2008-01-01

54

In vivo measurement of neuronal dopamine transporter in tobacco and cannabis dependents subjects with positron tomography and [11C]P E 2 I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Modifications of dopamine neurotransmission are classically involved in addictive behaviors and drug reinforcement. However, to date no data are available concerning the effects of cannabis addiction on dopaminergic neurotransmission in Human. The neuronal dopamine transporter (D.A.T.) is essential for the maintenance of normal dopamine homeostasis in the brain by ensuring the re-uptake of extracellular dopamine. Therefore, observation of D.A.T. availability abnormalities in cannabis-dependents subjects could provide further evidence for the implication of dopaminergic dysfunction in this addiction. Thus, as the cannabis dependent subjects are also most of time tobacco-dependents, this work aims studying the D.A.T. availability in age-paired control, tobacco-dependent and cannabis-dependent male subjects using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Subjects are scanned on High Resolution Research Tomograph (H.R.R.T.) for one hour after injection of a selective D.A.T. radioligand ([11C]P.E. 2 I.) [1]. The binding potential (B.P.) is calculated in order to obtained the specific binding of [11C]P.E. 2 I. to the D.A.T. using the simplified reference tissue model of Lammertsma (S.R.T.M.) [2] and B.P. maps were generated according to Gunn model [3]. Comparison of mean B.P. obtained in Region Of Interest and voxel to voxel comparison of B.P. maps using S.P.M.5 were performed with M.A.N.C.O.V.A. controlled for age between control, tobacco-dependent and cannabis-dependent groups. Preliminary results are concordant between both approaches and shown significant decreases of the D.A.T. availability in the both groups of addicted subjects in comparison to controls at the level of dorsal and ventral striatum and the dorsal midbrain including substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. However, no difference in D.A.T. binding between tobacco and cannabis dependents subjects was observed. These widespread modifications of D.A.T. availability in the dependents subjects might reflect a modification of dopamine neurotransmission in cannabis and/or tobacco addictions. (authors)

2008-02-01

55

In vivo measurement of neuronal dopamine transporter in tobacco and cannabis dependents subjects with positron tomography and [{sup 11}C]P E 2 I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Modifications of dopamine neurotransmission are classically involved in addictive behaviors and drug reinforcement. However, to date no data are available concerning the effects of cannabis addiction on dopaminergic neurotransmission in Human. The neuronal dopamine transporter (D.A.T.) is essential for the maintenance of normal dopamine homeostasis in the brain by ensuring the re-uptake of extracellular dopamine. Therefore, observation of D.A.T. availability abnormalities in cannabis-dependents subjects could provide further evidence for the implication of dopaminergic dysfunction in this addiction. Thus, as the cannabis dependent subjects are also most of time tobacco-dependents, this work aims studying the D.A.T. availability in age-paired control, tobacco-dependent and cannabis-dependent male subjects using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Subjects are scanned on High Resolution Research Tomograph (H.R.R.T.) for one hour after injection of a selective D.A.T. radioligand ([{sup 11}C]P.E. 2 I.) [1]. The binding potential (B.P.) is calculated in order to obtained the specific binding of [{sup 11}C]P.E. 2 I. to the D.A.T. using the simplified reference tissue model of Lammertsma (S.R.T.M.) [2] and B.P. maps were generated according to Gunn model [3]. Comparison of mean B.P. obtained in Region Of Interest and voxel to voxel comparison of B.P. maps using S.P.M.5 were performed with M.A.N.C.O.V.A. controlled for age between control, tobacco-dependent and cannabis-dependent groups. Preliminary results are concordant between both approaches and shown significant decreases of the D.A.T. availability in the both groups of addicted subjects in comparison to controls at the level of dorsal and ventral striatum and the dorsal midbrain including substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. However, no difference in D.A.T. binding between tobacco and cannabis dependents subjects was observed. These widespread modifications of D.A.T. availability in the dependents subjects might reflect a modification of dopamine neurotransmission in cannabis and/or tobacco addictions. (authors)

Leroy, C.; Ribeiro, M.J.; Trichard, C.; Martinot, J.L. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), U797, Research Unit, Neuroimaging and Psychiatry, IFR49, 91 - Orsay (France); CEA, Neuroimaging and Psychiatry, Unit, Hospital Dept. Frederic Joliot, I2BM, 91 - Orsay (France); Ribeiro, M.J.; Comtat, C.; Dolle, F. [Hospital Dept. Frederic Joliot, Research Medical Dept., I2BM, 91 - Orsay (France); Karila, L.; Lukasiewicz, M.; Reynaud, M. [Paul Brousse Hospital, APHP, Psychiatry and Addictology Dept., 94 - Villejuif (France)

2008-02-15

56

Infant with Altered Consciousness after Cannabis Passive Inhalation  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on an infant who was admitted to hospital with severe neurological symptoms following passive inhalation of cannabis. To date, cannabis abuse has been described almost entirely in adolescents and adults. In early childhood, however, cannabis effects were almost exclusively discussed in the context of maternal prenatal exposure, and the…

Zarfin, Yehoshua; Yefet, Enav; Abozaid, Said; Nasser, Wael; Mor, Tamer; Finkelstein, Yoram

2012-01-01

57

A positive association between anxiety disorders and cannabis use or cannabis use disorders in the general population- a meta-analysis of 31 studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between anxiety and cannabis use/cannabis use disorders in the general population. Methods A total of N?=?267 studies were identified from a systematic literature search (any time- March 2013) of Medline and PsycInfo databases, and a hand search. The results of 31 studies (with prospective cohort or cross-sectional designs using non-institutionalised cases) were analysed using a random-effects meta-analysis with the inverse variance weights. Lifetime or past 12-month cannabis use, anxiety symptoms, and cannabis use disorders (CUD; dependence and/or abuse/harmful use) were classified according to DSM/ICD criteria or scores on standardised scales. Results There was a small positive association between anxiety and either cannabis use (OR?=?1.24, 95% CI: 1.06-1.45, p?=?.006; N?=?15 studies) or CUD (OR?=?1.68, 95% CI: 1.23-2.31, p?=?.001; N?=?13 studies), and between comorbid anxiety?+?depression and cannabis use (OR?=?1.68, 95% CI: 1.17-2.40, p?=?.004; N?=?5 studies). The positive associations between anxiety and cannabis use (or CUD) were present in subgroups of studies with ORs adjusted for possible confounders (substance use, psychiatric illness, demographics) and in studies with clinical diagnoses of anxiety. Cannabis use at baseline was significantly associated with anxiety at follow-up in N?=?5 studies adjusted for confounders (OR?=?1.28, 95% CI: 1.06-1.54, p?=?.01). The opposite relationship was investigated in only one study. There was little evidence for publication bias. Conclusion Anxiety is positively associated with cannabis use or CUD in cohorts drawn from some 112,000 non-institutionalised members of the general population of 10 countries.

2014-01-01

58

Abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos: atualização para uma antiga evidência Cannabis abuse in patients with psychiatric disorders: an update to old evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar uma atualização sobre o abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos. MÉTODO: Busca de artigos nas bases de dados eletrônicas Medline, The Cochrane Library Database, Lilacs, PubMed e SciELO, utilizando os descritores "marijuana abuse", "cannabis abuse", "psychiatric disorders" AND "mental disorders"; incluindo artigos que avaliaram ambas as exposições para abuso e dependência de cannabis e qualquer outro transtorno psiquiátrico. Foi considerado o período até dezembro de 2009. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o abuso frequente de cannabis pode aumentar o risco para o desenvolvimento de esquizofrenia e de sintomas psicóticos crônicos, embora estes achados ainda careçam de comprovação. A cannabis parece ser uma das drogas de escolha de portadores de transtorno afetivo bipolar, sendo que é descrito que estados maníacos podem ser induzidos pelo seu consumo. O abuso de maconha também frequentemente co-ocorre em indivíduos com transtornos ansiosos, sendo que a relação de cronicidade destas condições e o consumo de maconha ainda é incerta. Para depressão ainda não existem evidências claras que apontem que o consumo de cannabis ocorre como forma de automedicação. Em indivíduos com transtornos psiquiátricos, há relatos de que o uso da cannabis pode exacerbar sintomas positivos, somar efeitos negativos no curso do transtorno, contribuir para pior adesão ao tratamento e levar a maior número de hospitalizações. CONCLUSÃO: O abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos como esquizofrenia, transtornos do humor e ansiosos tem impacto negativo tanto na fase aguda quanto em fases mais avançadas destas condições, embora futuros estudos avaliando estas associações ainda sejam necessários.OBJECTIVE: To perform an update on cannabis abuse by patients with psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A search was performed in the electronic databases Medline, The Cochrane Library Database, Lilacs, PubMed, and SciELO, using the keywords 'marijuana abuse', 'cannabis abuse', 'psychiatric disorders', and 'mental disorders'. Articles published until December 2009, dealing with cannabis abuse and dependence in association with other psychiatric disorders were included. RESULTS: Cannabis abuse was found to be associated with increased risk for the onset of schizophrenia and chronic psychotic symptoms, although these findings require confirmation from additional research. Cannabis seems to be one of the drugs of choice of individuals with bipolar disorder, despite evidence that manic states can be induced by its use. Cannabis abuse also occurs frequently in individuals with anxiety disorders, but the relationship between the chronic nature of these conditions and the use of marijuana remains uncertain. In respect to depression, there is no clear evidence to date that depressive patients use cannabis as a form of self-medication. In individuals with psychiatric disorders, the use of cannabis has been associated with increased positive symptoms, additional negative symptoms in the course of illness, impaired treatment compliance, and more hospitalizations. CONCLUSION: The abuse of cannabis by patients with psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and mood and anxious disorders has a negative impact both in the acute and advanced stages of these conditions, although further investigation on this association is still necessary.

Alessandra Diehl

2010-05-01

59

Abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos: atualização para uma antiga evidência / Cannabis abuse in patients with psychiatric disorders: an update to old evidence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Realizar uma atualização sobre o abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos. MÉTODO: Busca de artigos nas bases de dados eletrônicas Medline, The Cochrane Library Database, Lilacs, PubMed e SciELO, utilizando os descritores "marijuana abuse", "cannabis abuse", "psychiatri [...] c disorders" AND "mental disorders"; incluindo artigos que avaliaram ambas as exposições para abuso e dependência de cannabis e qualquer outro transtorno psiquiátrico. Foi considerado o período até dezembro de 2009. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o abuso frequente de cannabis pode aumentar o risco para o desenvolvimento de esquizofrenia e de sintomas psicóticos crônicos, embora estes achados ainda careçam de comprovação. A cannabis parece ser uma das drogas de escolha de portadores de transtorno afetivo bipolar, sendo que é descrito que estados maníacos podem ser induzidos pelo seu consumo. O abuso de maconha também frequentemente co-ocorre em indivíduos com transtornos ansiosos, sendo que a relação de cronicidade destas condições e o consumo de maconha ainda é incerta. Para depressão ainda não existem evidências claras que apontem que o consumo de cannabis ocorre como forma de automedicação. Em indivíduos com transtornos psiquiátricos, há relatos de que o uso da cannabis pode exacerbar sintomas positivos, somar efeitos negativos no curso do transtorno, contribuir para pior adesão ao tratamento e levar a maior número de hospitalizações. CONCLUSÃO: O abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos como esquizofrenia, transtornos do humor e ansiosos tem impacto negativo tanto na fase aguda quanto em fases mais avançadas destas condições, embora futuros estudos avaliando estas associações ainda sejam necessários. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To perform an update on cannabis abuse by patients with psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A search was performed in the electronic databases Medline, The Cochrane Library Database, Lilacs, PubMed, and SciELO, using the keywords 'marijuana abuse', 'cannabis abuse', 'psychiatric disorders', an [...] d 'mental disorders'. Articles published until December 2009, dealing with cannabis abuse and dependence in association with other psychiatric disorders were included. RESULTS: Cannabis abuse was found to be associated with increased risk for the onset of schizophrenia and chronic psychotic symptoms, although these findings require confirmation from additional research. Cannabis seems to be one of the drugs of choice of individuals with bipolar disorder, despite evidence that manic states can be induced by its use. Cannabis abuse also occurs frequently in individuals with anxiety disorders, but the relationship between the chronic nature of these conditions and the use of marijuana remains uncertain. In respect to depression, there is no clear evidence to date that depressive patients use cannabis as a form of self-medication. In individuals with psychiatric disorders, the use of cannabis has been associated with increased positive symptoms, additional negative symptoms in the course of illness, impaired treatment compliance, and more hospitalizations. CONCLUSION: The abuse of cannabis by patients with psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and mood and anxious disorders has a negative impact both in the acute and advanced stages of these conditions, although further investigation on this association is still necessary.

Diehl, Alessandra; Cordeiro, Daniel Cruz; Laranjeira, Ronaldo.

60

How high: Quantity as a predictor of cannabis-related problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on cannabis use has emphasized frequency as a predictor of problems. Studies of other drugs reveal that frequency relates to psychological and physiological outcomes, but quantity also plays an important role. In the study of cannabis, quantity has been difficult to assess due to the wide range of products and means of consumption. Methods The present study introduces three new measures of quantity, and examines their contribution to cannabis-related problems. Over 5,900 adults using cannabis once or more per month completed an internet survey that inquired about use, dependence, social problems and respiratory health. In addition to detailing their frequency of cannabis use, participants also reported three measures of quantity: number of quarter ounces consumed per month, usual intensity of intoxication, and maximum intensity of intoxication. Results Frequency of use, monthly consumption, and levels of intoxication predicted respiratory symptoms, social problems and dependence. What is more, each measure of quantity accounted for significant variance in outcomes after controlling for the effects of frequency. Conclusion These findings indicate that quantity is an important predictor of cannabis-related outcomes, and that the three quantity measures convey useful information about use.

Earleywine Mitch

2008-05-01

 
 
 
 
61

Successful and unsuccessful cannabis quitters: Comparing group characteristics and quitting strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve treatments for cannabis use disorder, a better understanding of factors associated with successful quitting is required. Method This study examined differences between successful (n = 87 and unsuccessful (n = 78 cannabis quitters. Participants completed a questionnaire addressing demographic, mental health, and cannabis-related variables, as well as quitting strategies during their most recent quit attempt. Results Eighteen strategies derived from cognitive behavioral therapy were entered into a principal components analysis. The analysis yielded four components, representing (1 Stimulus Removal, (2 Motivation Enhancement, (3 (lack of Distraction, and (4 (lack of Coping. Between groups comparisons showed that unsuccessful quitters scored significantly higher on Motivation Enhancement and (lack of Coping. This may indicate that unsuccessful quitters focus on the desire to quit, but do not sufficiently plan strategies for coping. Unsuccessful quitters also had significantly more symptoms of depression and stress; less education; lower exposure to formal treatment; higher day-to-day exposure to other cannabis users; and higher cannabis dependence scores. Conclusions The findings suggest that coping, environmental modification, and co-morbid mental health problems may be important factors to emphasize in treatments for cannabis use disorder.

Rooke Sally E

2011-11-01

62

Polysubstance use in cannabis users referred for treatment: Drug use profiles, psychiatric comorbidity and cannabis-related beliefs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Conclusion: In a sample of cannabis users referred for treatment, wide-ranging substance use was associated with elevated risk on measures of cannabis dependence, comorbid psychopathology and dysfunctional cannabis cognitions. These findings have implications for cognitive-behavioural assessment and treatment.

JasonPaulConnor

2013-08-01

63

Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis) component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxi...

Zuardi, A. W.; Crippa, J. A. S.; Hallak, J. E. C.; Moreira, F. A.; Guimara?es, F. S.

2006-01-01

64

Screening of cannabis-related problems among youth: the CPQ-A-S and CAST questionnaires  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis use among young people is a significant problem, making particularly necessary validated screening instruments that permit secondary prevention. The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the psychometric properties of the CAST and CPQ-A-S questionnaires, two screening instruments specifically addressing the youth population. Methods Information was obtained on sociodemographics, frequency of substance use, psychopathological symptoms and cannabis-use problems, and the CPQ-A-S and CAST were applied, as well as an infrequency scale for discarding responses made randomly. The sample was made up of 144 young people aged 16 to 20 that had used cannabis in the last month, of which 71.5% were boys. Mean age of the sample was 17.38 years (SD = 1.16. Results The results show that from the psychometric point of view both the CAST and the CPQ-A-S are good screening instruments. Conclusions The CAST is shorter and presents slightly better internal consistency than the CPQ-A-S. Both instruments show high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of young people dependent on cannabis according to the DSM IV-TR criteria. The CPQ-A-S appears to show greater capacity for detecting psychopathological distress associated with use. Both questionnaires yield significant odds ratios as predictors of frequent cannabis use and of the DSM IV-TR abuse and dependence criteria. In general, the CPQ-A-S emerges as a better predictor than the CAST.

Fernandez-Artamendi Sergio

2012-04-01

65

Does liberalizing cannabis laws increase cannabis use?  

Science.gov (United States)

A key question in the ongoing policy debate over cannabis' legal status is whether liberalizing cannabis laws leads to an increase in cannabis use. This paper provides new evidence on the impact of a specific type of liberalization, decriminalization, on initiation into cannabis use. Our identification strategy exploits variation in the timing of cannabis policy reforms and our estimation framework marries a difference-in-difference approach with a discrete time duration model. Our results reveal evidence of both heterogeneity and dynamics in the response of cannabis uptake to decriminalization. Overall, we find that the impact of decriminalization is concentrated amongst minors, who have a higher rate of uptake in the first five years following its introduction. PMID:24727348

Williams, Jenny; Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line

2014-07-01

66

Effects of cannabis use status on cognitive function, in males with schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cognitive impairment and cannabis use are common among patients with schizophrenia. However, the moderating role of cannabis on cognition remains unclear. We sought to examine cognitive performance as a function of cannabis use patterns in schizophrenia. A secondary aim was to determine the effects of cumulative cannabis exposure on cognition. Cognition was assessed in male outpatients with current cannabis dependence (n=18) and no current cannabis use disorders (n=29). We then parsed non-current users into patients with lifetime cannabis dependence (n=21) and no lifetime cannabis dependence (n=8). Finally, as an exploratory analysis, we examined relationships between cumulative cannabis exposure and cognition in lifetime dependent patients. Cross-sectional comparisons suggest that lifetime cannabis users demonstrate better processing speed than patients with no lifetime dependence. Exploratory analyses indicated that patients with current dependence exhibited robust negative relationships between cumulative cannabis exposure and cognition; these associations were absent in former users. Cannabis status has minimal effects on cognition in males with schizophrenia. However, cumulative cannabis exposure significantly impairs cognition in current, but not former users, suggesting that the state dependent negative effects of cannabis may be reversed with sustained abstinence. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:23246245

Rabin, Rachel A; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; George, Tony P

2013-04-30

67

Neurobiologia da Cannabis: do sistema endocanabinoide aos transtornos por uso de Cannabis / Neurobiology of Cannabis: from the endocannabinoid system to cannabis-related disorders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Diante das lacunas na efetividade das terapêuticas para transtornos por uso de Cannabis, a droga ilícita mais consumida no mundo, este trabalho propõe-se a rever os conhecimentos sobre o substrato neuroanatômico, biomolecular e celular do sistema endocanabinoide, descrever os mecanismos d [...] e neuroplasticidade dependente dos canabinoides e relacioná-los com a neurobiologia dos transtornos por uso de Cannabis (abuso e dependência). MÉTODOS: Recorreu-se às bases de dados Medline, Scopus e ISI Web of Knowledge; as palavras-chave pesquisadas foram "Cannabis", "neurobiology", "endocannabinoid system", "endocannabinoids", "receptors, cannabinoid", "neuronal plasticity", "long-term synaptic depression", "long-term potentiation", "marijuana abuse" e "tetrahydrocannabinol". Foram incluídos 80 trabalhos nesta revisão. DISCUSSÃO: A distribuição neuroanatômica, celular e biomolecular do sistema endocanabinoide adequa-se perfeitamente às suas funções de neuromodulação (via neuroplasticidade e metaplasticidade), nomeadamente em vias relacionadas aos transtornos por uso de substâncias. Os canabinoides exógenos perturbam essas funções. CONCLUSÃO: O sistema endocanabinoide contribui para a definição de setpoints em diversas vias neuronais, incluindo vias cruciais na instalação de transtornos por uso de substâncias; com o uso de Cannabis, esses setpoints tornar-se-ão mais permissivos, facilitando os transtornos por uso de Cannabis. Os avanços no entendimento da neurobiologia da Cannabis abrem uma janela de oportunidades para novas estratégias terapêuticas nos transtornos por uso de Cannabis. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Given the challenges arising from the poor effectiveness of therapies for Cannabis-related disorders, the most commonly used illicit drug in the world, this paper aims to review the present knowledge about the neuroanatomic, biomolecular and cellular substrate of the endocannabinoid syst [...] em, describing the mechanisms of cannabinoid-dependent neuronal plasticity and relating them with the neurobiology of Cannabis-related disorders (abuse and dependence). METHODS: Medline, Scopus and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched for the keywords "Cannabis", "neurobiology", "endocannabinoid system", "endocannabinoids", "receptors, cannabinoid", "neuronal plasticity", "long-term synaptic depression", "long-term potentiation", "marijuana abuse" and "tetrahydrocannabinol". Eighty studies were included in this review. DISCUSSION: The neuroanatomical, cellular and biomolecular characterization of the endocannabinoid system serves perfectly its neuromodulatory neuroplastic and metaplastic functions, particularly in pathways related to substance-related disorders. Exogenous cannabinoids disrupt these functions. CONCLUSION: The endocannabinoid system contributes to the definition of setpoints in several neuronal pathways, including pathways critical for the development of substance-related disorders; with Cannabis use these setpoints become more permissive, facilitating Cannabis-related disorders. The advances in understanding the neurobiology of Cannabis open a window of opportunities for new therapeutic strategies in Cannabis-related disorders.

Costa, José Luis G. Pinho; Maia, Lucas O.; Orlandi-Mattos, P.; Villares, João C.; Esteves, Manuel A. Fernandez.

68

Neurobiologia da Cannabis: do sistema endocanabinoide aos transtornos por uso de Cannabis Neurobiology of Cannabis: from the endocannabinoid system to cannabis-related disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Diante das lacunas na efetividade das terapêuticas para transtornos por uso de Cannabis, a droga ilícita mais consumida no mundo, este trabalho propõe-se a rever os conhecimentos sobre o substrato neuroanatômico, biomolecular e celular do sistema endocanabinoide, descrever os mecanismos de neuroplasticidade dependente dos canabinoides e relacioná-los com a neurobiologia dos transtornos por uso de Cannabis (abuso e dependência. MÉTODOS: Recorreu-se às bases de dados Medline, Scopus e ISI Web of Knowledge; as palavras-chave pesquisadas foram "Cannabis", "neurobiology", "endocannabinoid system", "endocannabinoids", "receptors, cannabinoid", "neuronal plasticity", "long-term synaptic depression", "long-term potentiation", "marijuana abuse" e "tetrahydrocannabinol". Foram incluídos 80 trabalhos nesta revisão. DISCUSSÃO: A distribuição neuroanatômica, celular e biomolecular do sistema endocanabinoide adequa-se perfeitamente às suas funções de neuromodulação (via neuroplasticidade e metaplasticidade, nomeadamente em vias relacionadas aos transtornos por uso de substâncias. Os canabinoides exógenos perturbam essas funções. CONCLUSÃO: O sistema endocanabinoide contribui para a definição de setpoints em diversas vias neuronais, incluindo vias cruciais na instalação de transtornos por uso de substâncias; com o uso de Cannabis, esses setpoints tornar-se-ão mais permissivos, facilitando os transtornos por uso de Cannabis. Os avanços no entendimento da neurobiologia da Cannabis abrem uma janela de oportunidades para novas estratégias terapêuticas nos transtornos por uso de Cannabis.OBJECTIVES: Given the challenges arising from the poor effectiveness of therapies for Cannabis-related disorders, the most commonly used illicit drug in the world, this paper aims to review the present knowledge about the neuroanatomic, biomolecular and cellular substrate of the endocannabinoid system, describing the mechanisms of cannabinoid-dependent neuronal plasticity and relating them with the neurobiology of Cannabis-related disorders (abuse and dependence. METHODS: Medline, Scopus and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched for the keywords "Cannabis", "neurobiology", "endocannabinoid system", "endocannabinoids", "receptors, cannabinoid", "neuronal plasticity", "long-term synaptic depression", "long-term potentiation", "marijuana abuse" and "tetrahydrocannabinol". Eighty studies were included in this review. DISCUSSION: The neuroanatomical, cellular and biomolecular characterization of the endocannabinoid system serves perfectly its neuromodulatory neuroplastic and metaplastic functions, particularly in pathways related to substance-related disorders. Exogenous cannabinoids disrupt these functions. CONCLUSION: The endocannabinoid system contributes to the definition of setpoints in several neuronal pathways, including pathways critical for the development of substance-related disorders; with Cannabis use these setpoints become more permissive, facilitating Cannabis-related disorders. The advances in understanding the neurobiology of Cannabis open a window of opportunities for new therapeutic strategies in Cannabis-related disorders.

José Luis G. Pinho Costa

2011-01-01

69

Cannabis abuse is associated with better emotional memory in schizophrenia: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.  

Science.gov (United States)

In schizophrenia cannabis abuse/dependence is associated with poor compliance and psychotic relapse. Despite this, the reasons for cannabis abuse remain elusive, but emotions may play a critical role in this comorbidity. Accordingly, we performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of emotional memory in schizophrenia patients with cannabis abuse (dual-diagnosis, DD). Participants comprised 14 DD patients, 14 non-abusing schizophrenia patients (SCZ), and 21 healthy controls (HC) who had to recognize positive and negative pictures while being scanned. Recognition of positive and negative emotions was prominently impaired in SCZ patients, relative to HC, while differences between DD and HC were smaller. For positive and negative stimuli, we observed significant activations in frontal, limbic, temporal and occipital regions in HC; in frontal, limbic and temporal regions in DD; and in temporal, parietal, limbic and occipital regions in the SCZ group. Our results suggest that emotional memory and prefrontal lobe functioning are preserved in DD relative to SCZ patients. These results are consistent with previous findings showing that cannabis abuse is associated with fewer negative symptoms and better cognitive functioning in schizophrenia. Longitudinal studies will need to determine whether the relative preservation of emotional memory is primary or secondary to cannabis abuse in schizophrenia. PMID:23906663

Bourque, Josiane; Mendrek, Adrianna; Durand, Myriam; Lakis, Nadia; Lipp, Olivier; Stip, Emmanuel; Lalonde, Pierre; Grignon, Sylvain; Potvin, Stéphane

2013-10-30

70

Cannabis smoking and respiratory health: Consideration of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

The respiratory health effects from tobacco smoking are well described. Cannabis smoke contains a similar profile of carcinogenic chemicals as tobacco smoke but is inhaled more deeply. Although cannabis smoke is known to contain similar harmful and carcinogenic substances to tobacco smoke, relatively little is understood regarding the respiratory health effects from cannabis smoking. There is a need to integrate research on cannabis and respiratory health effects so that gaps in the literature can be identified and the more consistent findings can be consolidated with the purpose of educating smokers and health service providers. This review focuses on several aspects of respiratory health and cannabis use (as well as concurrent cannabis and tobacco use) and provides an update to (i) the pathophysiology; (ii) general respiratory health including symptoms of chronic bronchitis; and (iii) lung cancer. PMID:24831571

Gates, Peter; Jaffe, Adam; Copeland, Jan

2014-07-01

71

Variability of cannabis potency in the Venice area (Italy): a survey over the period 2010-2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance globally, with an estimated annual prevalence in 2010 of 2.6-5.0% of the adult population. Concerns have been expressed about increases in the potency of cannabis products. A high tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content can increase anxiety, depression, and psychotic symptoms, and can increase the risk of dependence and adverse effects on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems in regular users. The aim of this study was to report statistical data about the potency of cannabis products seized in the north-east of Italy, in a geographical area centred in Venice and extending for more than 10,000? km(2) with a population of more than two million, by investigating the variability observed in THC levels of about 4000 samples of cannabis products analyzed over the period 2010-2012. Overall median THC content showed an increasing trend over the study period from about 6.0% to 8.1% (6.2-8.9% for cannabis resin, 5.1-7.6% for herbal cannabis). The variation in the THC content of individual samples was very large, ranging from 0.3% to 31% for cannabis resin and from 0.1 to 19% for herbal cannabis. Median CBN:THC ratios showed a slightly decreasing trend over the study period, from 0.09 (2010) to 0.03 (2012), suggesting an increasing freshness of submitted materials. Median CBD:THC ratios also showed a decreasing trend over the study from about 0.52 (2010) to 0.18 (2012), likely due to the increase in submissions of materials from indoor and domestic cultivation with improved breeding methods. PMID:23868754

Zamengo, Luca; Frison, Giampietro; Bettin, Chiara; Sciarrone, Rocco

2014-01-01

72

Two cases of "cannabis acute psychosis" following the administration of oral cannabis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal drug and its therapeutic aspects have a growing interest. Short-term psychotic reactions have been described but not clearly with synthetic oral THC, especially in occasional users. Case presentations We report two cases of healthy subjects who were occasional but regular cannabis users without psychiatric history who developed transient psychotic symptoms (depersonalization, paranoid feelings and d...

Favrat Bernard; Ménétrey Annick; Augsburger Marc; Rothuizen Laura E; Appenzeller Monique; Buclin Thierry; Pin Marie; Mangin Patrice; Giroud Christian

2005-01-01

73

Two cases of "cannabis acute psychosis" following the administration of oral cannabis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal drug and its therapeutic aspects have a growing interest. Short-term psychotic reactions have been described but not clearly with synthetic oral THC, especially in occasional users. Case presentations We report two cases of healthy subjects who were occasional but regular cannabis users without psychiatric history who developed transient psychotic symptoms (depersonalization, paranoid feelings and derealisation following oral administration of cannabis. In contrast to most other case reports where circumstances and blood concentrations are unknown, the two cases reported here happened under experimental conditions with all subjects negative for cannabis, opiates, amphetamines, cocaine, benzodiazepines and alcohol, and therefore the ingested dose, the time-events of effects on behavior and performance as well as the cannabinoid blood levels were documented. Conclusion While the oral route of administration achieves only limited blood concentrations, significant psychotic reactions may occur.

Pin Marie

2005-04-01

74

Determination of pesticide residues in cannabis smoke.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks. PMID:23737769

Sullivan, Nicholas; Elzinga, Sytze; Raber, Jeffrey C

2013-01-01

75

Limited use of medicinal cannabis but for labeled indications after legalization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since September 2003, cannabis is available for medicinal purposes in Dutch pharmacies to. It was anticipated that the medicinal cannabis use via illegal ways would decrease. The objective of this study was to get insight in the use of medicinal cannabis in daily practise as dispensed by community pharmacies and to characterize the users as well as the symptoms and conditions cannabis is prescribed for.A prospective follow-up study among 200 patients who filled a prescription for medicinal cannabis was performed in the period between September 2003 and January 2004. The patients filled out a structured questionnaire concerning symptoms and conditions and their experience with cannabis. Of all patients, 42% suffered from multiple sclerosis, 11% suffered from rheumatic diseases, and 60% of respondents already used cannabis before the legalization. Cannabis was mainly used for chronic pain and muscle cramp/stiffness.The indication of medicinal cannabis use was in accordance with the labeled indications. However, more than 80% of the patients still obtained cannabis for medicinal purpose from the illegal circuit. Because of the higher prices in pharmacies, ongoing debate on the unproven effectiveness of the drug and the hesitation by physicians to prescribe cannabis. PMID:16149121

Erkens, J A; Janse, A F C; Herings, R M C

2005-11-01

76

20. Integrating Cannabis Into Clinical Care  

Science.gov (United States)

Focus Areas: Integrative Approaches to Care, Mental Health, Alleviating Pain Cannabis is now available to patients as a medicine in 18 states and the District of Columbia. Unfortunately, due to the long-standing prohibition, most providers have little information regarding the medicinal use of this versatile botanical. The history of cannabis as medicine will be reviewed. This presentation will summarize the main components of the plant and their pharmacologic effects, highlighting the entourage effect of the cannabinoids working in concert with the plant's terpenoids and flavonoids. The system of cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoids will be reviewed with a focus on understanding how the phyocannabinoids exert their physiologic effects. The session will highlight results of recently conducted clinical trials investigating the utility of cannabis in painful neuropathic conditions as well as the potential synergistic analgesia that can be achieved through the interaction of cannabinoids and opioids. Attention will be turned to the use of cannabis for symptom management in patients with malignant diagnoses. In view of increasing anecdotes of cancer patients achieving “cures” through the use of heavily concentrated cannabis oil preparations, the body of preclinical evidence suggesting possible direct anti-tumor effects of cannabinoids will be discussed. Patients in states where cannabis is available frequently have a wide range of options in selecting strains (Sativa vs Indica), ratio of tetrahydrocannabinol to other cannabinoids (especially cannabidiol) and mode of delivery (smoking, vaporizing, baked products, tinctures, teas, juices, and oils). A brief overview of these options will be offered. Finally, optimal dosing schedules and safety issues will be discussed. It is anticipated that those attending the session will feel more confident and comfortable discussing medicinal cannabis with their patients at the conclusion of this session.

2013-01-01

77

Survey of Australians using cannabis for medical purposes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The New South Wales State Government recently proposed a trial of the medical use of cannabis. Australians who currently use cannabis medicinally do so illegally and without assurances of quality control. Given the dearth of local information on this issue, this study explored the experiences of medical cannabis users. Methods Australian adults who had used cannabis for medical purposes were recruited using media stories. A total of 147 respondents were screened by phone and anonymous questionnaires were mailed, to be returned by postage paid envelope. Results Data were available for 128 participants. Long term and regular medical cannabis use was frequently reported for multiple medical conditions including chronic pain (57%, depression (56%, arthritis (35%, persistent nausea (27% and weight loss (26%. Cannabis was perceived to provide "great relief" overall (86%, and substantial relief of specific symptoms such as pain, nausea and insomnia. It was also typically perceived as superior to other medications in terms of undesirable effects, and the extent of relief provided. However, nearly one half (41% experienced conditions or symptoms that were not helped by its use. The most prevalent concerns related to its illegality. Participants reported strong support for their use from clinicians and family. There was almost universal interest (89% in participating in a clinical trial of medical cannabis, and strong support (79% for investigating alternative delivery methods. Conclusion Australian medical cannabis users are risking legal ramifications, but consistent with users elsewhere, claim moderate to substantial benefits from its use in the management of their medical condition. In addition to strong public support, medical cannabis users show strong interest in clinical cannabis research, including the investigation of alternative delivery methods.

Dillon Paul

2005-10-01

78

Cannabidiol Attenuates the Appetitive Effects of ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Humans Smoking Their Chosen Cannabis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Worldwide cannabis dependence is increasing, as is the concentration of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in street cannabis. At the same time, the concentration of the second most abundant cannabinoid in street cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), is decreasing. These two cannabinoids have opposing effects both pharmacologically and behaviorally when administered in the laboratory. No research has yet examined how the ratio of these constituents impacts on the appetitive/reinforcing effects of cannabis...

Morgan, Celia Ja; Freeman, Tom P.; Schafer, Gra?inne L.; Curran, H. Valerie

2010-01-01

79

Cannabis and psychosis/schizophrenia: human studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The association between cannabis use and psychosis has long been recognized. Recent advances in knowledge about cannabinoid receptor function have renewed interest in this association. Converging lines of evidence suggest that cannabinoids can produce a full range of transient schizophrenia-like positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms in some healthy individuals. Also clear is that in individuals with an established psychotic disorder, cannabinoids can exacerbate symptoms, trigger relapse,...

D’souza, Deepak Cyril; Sewell, Richard Andrew; Ranganathan, Mohini

2009-01-01

80

Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... 2 diabetes have symptoms so mild that they go unnoticed. Common symptoms of diabetes: Urinating often Feeling ...

 
 
 
 
81

Withdrawal symptoms over time among adolescents in a smoking cessation intervention: Do symptoms vary by level of nicotine dependence?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nicotine dependence may be expressed differently in teens than in adults. Thus, it may not be sufficient to build diagnostic and cessation treatment strategies for teens based on adult-derived clinical and research data. This is the first study to prospectively examine the development of withdrawal symptoms by level of nicotine dependence among adolescent smokers. Forty-seven adolescent smokers completed nicotine withdrawal symptoms measures during 10 weeks of cessation treatment. Nicotine de...

2009-01-01

82

CANNABIS RELATED PSYCHIATRIC SYNDROMES: A SELECTIVE REVIEW  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Association between cannabis use and various psychiatric syndromes does exist, but their nature remains elusive. Cannabis intoxication, ‘cannabis psychosis’ and certain other conditions related with cannabis use like flashbacks and prolonged depersonalization are discussed in this paper. The controversial nature of the cannabis - schizophrenia link is noted, and various methodological issues in clinical cannabis research are highlighted.

Basu, Debasish; Malhotra, Anil; Varma, Vijoy K.

1994-01-01

83

Cannabis Use When it's Legal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper uses information about prime age individuals living in Amsterdam, to study whether the use of alcohol, or tobacco stimulates the use cannabis, i.e. whether alcohol or cannabis are stepping stones for cannabis.The special element of the study is that it concerns the use in an environment where not only alcohol and tobacco but also cannabis is a legal drug.It turns out that alcohol and cannabis are intertemporal substitutes while tobacco and cannabis are intertemporal complements.Onl...

Ours, J. C.

2005-01-01

84

The medicalization of cannabis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cannabis has been considered as both an illicit drug and a medicine throughout its history. Introduced to the UK as a medicine in the nineteenth century, its medical utility was limited and it was not until tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), one of the principal active components in cannabis, was isolated in 1964 by Raphael Mechoulam and his team in Israel that scientific research on the drug expanded. Further major developments came in the 1980s, when the cannabinoid receptors in the brain were dis...

2010-01-01

85

Policy designs for cannabis legalization: starting with the eight Ps.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The cannabis policy landscape is changing rapidly. In November 2012 voters in Colorado and Washington State passed ballot initiatives to remove the prohibition on the commercial production, distribution, and possession of cannabis. This paper does not address the question of whether cannabis should be legal; it instead focuses on the design considerations confronting jurisdictions that are pondering a change in cannabis policy. Indeed, whether or not cannabis legalization is net positive or negative for public health and public safety largely depends on regulatory decisions and how they are implemented. This essay presents eight of these design choices which all conveniently begin with the letter "P": production, profit motive, promotion, prevention, potency, purity, price, and permanency. PMID:24853283

Kilmer, Beau

2014-07-01

86

Long-term effects of cannabis on brain structure.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dose-dependent toxicity of the main psychoactive component of cannabis in brain regions rich in cannabinoid CB1 receptors is well known in animal studies. However, research in humans does not show common findings across studies regarding the brain regions that are affected after long-term exposure to cannabis. In the present study, we investigate (using Voxel-based Morphometry) gray matter changes in a group of regular cannabis smokers in comparison with a group of occasional smokers matched by the years of cannabis use. We provide evidence that regular cannabis use is associated with gray matter volume reduction in the medial temporal cortex, temporal pole, parahippocampal gyrus, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex; these regions are rich in cannabinoid CB1 receptors and functionally associated with motivational, emotional, and affective processing. Furthermore, these changes correlate with the frequency of cannabis use in the 3 months before inclusion in the study. The age of onset of drug use also influences the magnitude of these changes. Significant gray matter volume reduction could result either from heavy consumption unrelated to the age of onset or instead from recreational cannabis use initiated at an adolescent age. In contrast, the larger gray matter volume detected in the cerebellum of regular smokers without any correlation with the monthly consumption of cannabis may be related to developmental (ontogenic) processes that occur in adolescence. PMID:24633558

Battistella, Giovanni; Fornari, Eleonora; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Chtioui, Haithem; Dao, Kim; Fabritius, Marie; Favrat, Bernard; Mall, Jean-Frédéric; Maeder, Philippe; Giroud, Christian

2014-08-01

87

Abuso e dependência de maconha: comparação entre sexos e preparação para mudanças comportamentais entre usuários que iniciam a busca por tratamento / Cannabis abuse and dependency: differences between men and women and readiness to behavior change among users seeking treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Descrever o perfil sociodemográfico de usuários de maconha que iniciam tratamento e comparar os sexos dos indivíduos em relação aos estágios de prontidão para mudança e uso associado de outras drogas. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal descritivo, com amostra não probabilística de indivíduos que [...] ligaram para um teleatendimento especializado em dependência química. RESULTADOS: A amostra se constituiu de 72% de indivíduos do sexo masculino na faixa etária de 12 a 25 anos. Um percentual de 85,5% fazia uso associado de outras drogas. O estágio motivacional predominante foi de ação (56%), sem diferenças entre sexos (p = 0,4). Os homens mais frequentemente procuraram auxílio para o tratamento do uso de maconha. CONCLUSÕES: Com base nesses dados, foi possível delinear o perfil dos usuários de maconha para auxiliar no direcionamento de informações e atendimento adequado. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To describe the social and demographic profile of cannabis users seeking treatment and to compare differences between sex in relation to readiness to behavior change and in relation to associated use of marijuana and other drugs. METHOD: A cross-sectional, descriptive study including a n [...] onprobability sample of individuals who called a chemical dependency hotline. RESULTS: The sample comprised 72% male individuals aged between 12 and 25 years. The sample was composed by 85.5% used other drugs in association with cannabis. The action stage was the most frequent stage of readiness to behavior change observed, in 56% of the callers, with no differences between sex (p = 0.4). Men more frequently sought treatment for the use of cannabis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings allowed delineating a profile of cannabis users, so as to better guide the provision of adequate information and treatment services.

Fernandes, Simone; Ferigolo, Maristela; Benchaya, Mariana Canellas; Pierozan, Pollianna Sangalli; Moreira, Taís de Campos; Santos, Vagner dos; Mazoni, Cláudia Galvão; Barros, Helena Maria Tannhauser.

88

Cannabis Responsive Head Injury Induced Mutiple Disabilities: A Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years cannabinoids and their derivatives have drawn renewed attention because of their diverse pharmacologic activities. We report here one such case, where all types of medical & psychiatric treatment failed to improve the symptoms; however cannabis use was able to bring back this patient to normal productive & meaningful life. The patient was a 47 year old left handed Caucasian had minor subdural hematoma at the posterior vertex and a minor focal subarachnoid haemorrhage following a physical assault. His impairments included cognitive slowing with decreased short term memory, organized skill & language deficit. His physical disabilities included spastic gait (hemiplegic, VII nerve palsy, mild cerebellar dysfunction, blurred vision and easy fatigue. He was unable to return to work or drive. In addition to cognitive deficit, right hemi paresis & dizziness; he had symptoms of anxiety & depression. Cannabis improved his gait and brought back lots of his memory. Within 6 months all his symptoms abated with use of cannabis and he started to look at cannabis as a real medicine. Slowly he also had improvement in cognitive functions, memory, vocabulary and his gait became increasingly better day by day with continued use of cannabis.

Manju Sharma

2012-01-01

89

Striatal D2/D3 Receptor Availability is Inversely Correlated with Cannabis Consumption in Chronic Marijuana Users  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND Although the incidence of cannabis abuse/dependence in Americans is rising, the neurobiology of cannabis addiction is not well understood. Imaging studies have demonstrated deficits in striatal D2/D3 receptor availability in several substance-dependent populations. However, this has not been studied in currently-using chronic cannabis users. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to compare striatal D2/D3 receptor availability between currently-using chronic cannabis users and healthy controls. METHODS Eighteen right-handed males age 18–34 were studied. Ten subjects were chronic cannabis users; eight were demographically matched controls. Subjects underwent a [11C] raclopride (RAC) PET scan. Striatal RAC binding potential (BPND) was calculated on a voxel-wise basis. Prior to scanning, urine samples were obtained from cannabis users for quantification of urine ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and THC metabolites (11-nor-?-9-THC-9-carboxylic acid; THC-COOH and 11-hydroxy-THC;OH-THC). Results There were no differences in D2/D3 receptor availability between cannabis users and controls. Voxel-wise analyses revealed that RAC BPND values were negatively associated with both urine levels of cannabis metabolites and self-report of recent cannabis consumption. CONCLUSIONS In this sample, current cannabis use was not associated with deficits in striatal D2/D3 receptor availability. There was an inverse relationship between chronic cannabis use and striatal RAC BPND. Additional studies are needed to identify the neurochemical consequences of chronic cannabis use on the dopamine system.

Albrecht, Daniel S.; Skosnik, Patrick D.; Vollmer, Jennifer M.; Brumbaugh, Margaret S.; Perry, Kevin M.; Mock, Bruce H.; Zheng, Qi-Huang; Federici, Lauren A.; Patton, Elizabeth A.; Herring, Christine M.; Yoder, Karmen K.

2012-01-01

90

Is the clinical use of cannabis by oncology patients advisable?  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of the cannabis plant for various medical indications by cancer patients has been rising significantly in the past few years in several European countries, the US and Israel. The increase in use comes from public demand for the most part, and not due to a scientific basis. Cannabis chemistry is complex, and the isolation and extraction of the active ingredient remain difficult. The active agent in cannabis is unique among psychoactive plant materials, as it contains no nitrogen and, thus, is not an alkaloid. Alongside inconclusive evidence of increased risks of lung and head and neck cancers from prolonged smoking of the plant produce, laboratory evidence of the anti-cancer effects of plant components exists, but with no clinical research in this direction. The beneficial effects of treatment with the plant, or treatment with medicine produced from its components, are related to symptoms of the disease: pain, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite and weight loss. The clinical evidence of the efficacy of cannabis for these indications is only partial. However, recent scientific data from studies with THC and cannabidiol combinations report the first clinical indication of cancer-related pain relief. The difficulties of performing research into products that are not medicinal, such as cannabis, have not allowed a true study of the cannabis plant extract although, from the public point of view, such studies are greatly desirable. PMID:24606496

Bar-Sela, Gil; Avisar, Adva; Batash, Ron; Schaffer, Moshe

2014-06-01

91

The Role of GABRA2 on risk for Alcohol, Nicotine and Cannabis Dependence in the Iowa Adoption Studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A number of studies have demonstrated that genetic variation at GABRA2 alters vulnerability to alcohol dependence. However, the exact identity of the causal variant(s), the relationship of these variants to other forms of substance use and behavioral illness is uncertain. Therefore, we genotyped 516 subjects from the Iowa Adoption Studies, a large longitudinal case and control adoption study of substance use, at 39 single nucleotide polymorphisms encompassing the GABRA2 locus and analyzed the...

Philibert, Robert A.; Gunter, Tracy D.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Brody, Gene H.; Hollenbeck, Nancy; Andersen, Allan; Adams, William

2009-01-01

92

Effects of Chronic, Heavy Cannabis Use on Executive Functions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This case describes the clinical course of a cannabis-dependent individual entering a 12-week abstinence-based research program. The case illustrates the effects of chronic, heavy cannabis use on executive functions at three time points: 1) 24 hours of abstinence; 2) 4 weeks of abstinence; and 3) 12 weeks of abstinence. It is followed by discussions by two clinical psychologists and a psychiatrist. The findings described here have important clinical implications, as executive functions have a...

Crean, Rebecca D.; Tapert, Susan F.; Minassian, Arpi; Macdonald, Kai; Crane, Natania A.; Mason, Barbara J.

2011-01-01

93

Correlates to the variable effects of cannabis in young adults: a preliminary study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis use can frequently have adverse affects in those that use it and these can be amplified by various characteristics of an individual, from demographic and environmental variations to familial predisposition for mental illnesses. Methods The current study of 100 individuals, who were cannabis users during their adolescence and may still be users, was a survey of the self perceived effects of cannabis and their correlates. A reliable family member was also interviewed for determination of family history of various major mental illnesses and substance use. Results As many as 40% of cannabis users had paranoid feelings (suspiciousness when using cannabis, although the most frequent effect was feeling relaxed (46%. Having a familial background for mental illnesses such as depression or schizophrenia did not determine the effects of cannabis nor its pattern of use, although the number of subjects with such a history was small. An age at which an individual began using cannabis did have an effect on how heavily it was used and the heavier the cannabis use, the more likely the individual was also to have had psychotic symptoms after use. There were no sex differences in effects of cannabis. These results are tempered by the reliance on self-report for many of the variables ascertained. Conclusion Cannabis can frequently have negative effects in its users, which can be amplified by certain demographic and/or psychosocial factors. Thus, users with a specific profile may be at a higher risk of unpleasant effects from cannabis use and caution should be noted when cannabis is administered to young people for medicinal purposes.

Camera Ariella A

2012-03-01

94

Culture and Environment as Predictors of Alcohol Abuse/Dependence Symptoms In American Indian Youths  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study utilizes Bronfenbrenner's ecological model (1979) to examine multiple and interactive environmental (familial, social, and cultural) predictors of adolescent alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms. A stratified random sample of 401 American Indian youths was interviewed in 2001. The findings showed that family members' substance problems, peer misbehaviors, and participation in generic cultural activities positively predicted adolescent alcohol symptoms. Conversely, cultural pride/spiri...

Yu, Mansoo; Stiffman, Arlene Rubin

2007-01-01

95

Cannabidiol attenuates the appetitive effects of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans smoking their chosen cannabis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Worldwide cannabis dependence is increasing, as is the concentration of the ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in street cannabis. At the same time, the concentration of the second most abundant cannabinoid in street cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), is decreasing. These two cannabinoids have opposing effects both pharmacologically and behaviourally when administered in the laboratory. No research has yet examined how the ratio of these constituents impacts upon the appetitive/rein...

2010-01-01

96

Clinical service desires of medical cannabis patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical cannabis dispensaries following the social or hybrid model offer supplementary holistic services in addition to dispensing medical cannabis. Historically, alternative physical health services have been the norm for these dispensaries, including services such as yoga, acupuncture, or chiropractor visits. A clinical service dearth remains for medical cannabis patients seeking substance use, misuse, dependence, and mental health services. This study examined patient desires for various clinical services and level of willingness to participate in specific clinical services. Methods Anonymous survey data (N = 303 were collected at Harborside Health Center (HHC, a medical cannabis dispensary in Oakland, CA. The sample was 70% male, 48% Caucasian and 21% African American. The mean male age was 38 years old and female mean age was 30. Sixty two percent of the male participants and 44% of the female participants are single. Sixteen percent of the population reported having a domestic partner. Forty six percent of the participants are employed full time, 41% have completed at least some college, and 49% make less than $40,000 a year. Results A significant portion of the sample, 62%, indicated a desire to participate in free clinical services at HHC, 34% would like more information about substances and use, and 41% want to learn more about reducing harms from substance use. About one quarter of the participants marked "would" or "likely would" participate in individual services such as consultation. Approximately 20% indicated "would" or "likely would" participate in psycho-educational forums, harm reduction information sharing sessions, online support groups, and coping, life, and social skills group. There was little interest in traditional NA/AA 12-step groups or adapted 12-step groups. Conclusions Desired clinical services can be qualified as a combination of harm reduction, educational, skills-based, peer support and therapeutic individual and group services. Results suggest that medical cannabis patients seek more information about various substances, including cannabis. Dispensaries can help to decrease gaps in substance education and clinical services and fulfill unmet clinical desires. More research is necessary in additional medical cannabis dispensaries in different geographic settings with different service delivery models.

Janichek Jennifer L

2012-03-01

97

Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Symptoms: A Multidimensional Model of Common and Specific Etiology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study tested a theoretical model hypothesizing differential pathways from five predictors to alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms. The participants were college students (N= 2,270) surveyed on two occasions in a 6-month prospective design. Social norms, perceived utility of alcohol use, and family history of alcohol problems were indirectly associated with Time 2 (T2) abuse and dependence symptoms through influencing level of alcohol consumption. Poor behavioral control had a direct eff...

2009-01-01

98

Chemistry, Metabolism, and Toxicology of Cannabis: Clinical Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cannabis is one of the most widely abused substances throughout the world. The primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9_THC, produces a myriad of pharmacological effects in animals and humans. Although it is used as a recreational drug, it can potentially lead to dependence and behavioral disturbances and its heavy use may increase the risk for psychotic disorders.Many studies that endeavor to understand the mechanism of action of cannabis concentrate on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids in humans. However, there is limited research on the chronic adverse effects and retention of cannabinoids in human subjects.Cannabis can be detected in body fluids following exposure through active/passive inhalation and exposure through breastfeeding. Cannabis detection is directly dependent on accurate analytical procedures for detection of metabolites and verification of recent use.In this review, an attempt has been made to summarize the properties of cannabis and its derivatives, and to discuss the implications of its use with emphasis on bioavailability, limit of detection, carry over period and passive inhalation, important factors for detection and diagnosis.

M.M. Srinivas Bharath

2012-12-01

99

Cannabis abuse and risk for psychosis in a prodromal sample  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of the present study was to examine the rate of cannabis use among participants in the Cognitive Assessment and Risk Evaluation (CARE) Program, a longitudinal program for individuals who are “at risk” for developing a psychotic disorder. Cannabis abuse was assessed in 48 individuals identified as “at risk” for schizophrenia based on subsyndromal psychotic symptoms and/or family history. At 1 year follow-up, 6 of the 48 (12.5%) at risk subjects had made the transition to psych...

Kristensen, Karin; Cadenhead, Kristin S.

2007-01-01

100

Selective processing of cannabis cues in regular cannabis users.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies indicate that the regular use of certain drugs, such as tobacco and alcohol, is associated with biases in the processing of drug-related cues, as those cues grab attention, elicit approach and are perceived as pleasant. This study investigated whether regular cannabis users exhibit comparable cognitive biases for cannabis-related pictorial cues. Twenty-three regular cannabis users and 23 non-user controls completed a series of tasks including a visual probe task with concurrent eye movement monitoring (to measure attentional bias), a stimulus-response compatibility task (to measure implicit approach bias) and a valence rating task (to measure the perceived pleasantness of cannabis cues). Results indicated that, relative to non-users, regular cannabis users had biases to maintain their gaze on cannabis cues, to make faster approach responses towards cannabis cues, and to rate cannabis cues as pleasant. Results are generally consistent with previous findings from tobacco smokers and heavy drinkers, and the implications for incentive-motivational theories of addiction are discussed. PMID:16701963

Field, Matt; Eastwood, Brian; Bradley, Brendan P; Mogg, Karin

2006-10-15

 
 
 
 
101

Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Substitution can be operationalized as the conscious choice to use one drug (legal or illicit instead of, or in conjunction with, another due to issues such as: perceived safety; level of addiction potential; effectiveness in relieving symptoms; access and level of acceptance. This practice of substitution has been observed among individuals using cannabis for medical purposes. This study examined drug and alcohol use, and the occurrence of substitution among medical cannabis patients. Methods Anonymous survey data were collected at the Berkeley Patient's Group (BPG, a medical cannabis dispensary in Berkeley, CA. (N = 350 The sample was 68% male, 54% single, 66% White, mean age was 39; 74% have health insurance (including MediCal, 41% work full time, 81% have completed at least some college, 55% make less than $40,000 a year. Seventy one percent report having a chronic medical condition, 52% use cannabis for a pain related condition, 75% use cannabis for a mental health issue. Results Fifty three percent of the sample currently drinks alcohol, 2.6 was the average number of drinking days per week, 2.9 was the average number of drinks on a drinking occasion. One quarter currently uses tobacco, 9.5 is the average number of cigarettes smoked daily. Eleven percent have used a non-prescribed, non OTC drug in the past 30 days with cocaine, MDMA and Vicodin reported most frequently. Twenty five percent reported growing up in an abusive or addictive household. Sixteen percent reported previous alcohol and/or drug treatment, and 2% are currently in a 12-step or other recovery program. Forty percent have used cannabis as a substitute for alcohol, 26% as a substitute for illicit drugs and 66% as a substitute for prescription drugs. The most common reasons given for substituting were: less adverse side effects (65%, better symptom management (57%, and less withdrawal potential (34% with cannabis. Conclusion The substitution of one psychoactive substance for another with the goal of reducing negative outcomes can be included within the framework of harm reduction. Medical cannabis patients have been engaging in substitution by using cannabis as an alternative to alcohol, prescription and illicit drugs.

Reiman Amanda

2009-12-01

102

Cannabis Use and Cognition in Schizophrenia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

People with schizophrenia frequently report cannabis use, and cannabis may be a risk factor for schizophrenia, mediated through effects on brain function and biochemistry. Thus, it is conceivable that cannabis may also influence cognitive functioning in this patient group. We report data from our own laboratory on the use of cannabis by schizophrenia patients, and review the existing literature on the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia and related psychosis. Of the 23 studies t...

Løberg, Else-marie; Hugdahl, Kenneth

2009-01-01

103

Cannabis Use and Mental Health Problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates whether cannabis use leads to worse mental health. To do so, we account for common unobserved factors affecting mental health and cannabis consumption by modeling mental health jointly with the dynamics of cannabis use. Our main finding is that using cannabis increases the likelihood of mental health problems, with current use having a larger effect than past use. The estimates suggest a dose response relationship between the frequency of recent cannabis use and the pr...

Ours, J. C.; Williams, J.

2009-01-01

104

Statistics on cannabis users skew perceptions of cannabis use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Collecting information about the prevalence of cannabis use is necessary but not sufficient for understanding the size, dynamics, and outcomes associated with cannabis markets. This paper uses two data sets describing cannabis consumption in the United States and Europe to highlight 1 differences in inferences about sub-populations based on the measure used to quantify cannabis-related activity; 2 how different measures of cannabis-related activity can be used to more accurately describe trends in cannabis usage over time; and 3 the correlation between frequency of use in the past month and average grams consumed per day. Key findings: Focusing on days of use instead of prevalence shows substantially greater increases in U.S. cannabis use in recent years; however, the recent increase is mostly among adults, not youth. Relatively more rapid growth in use days also occurred among the college-educated and Hispanic. Further, data from a survey conducted in several European countries show a strong positive correlation between frequency of use and quantity consumed per day of use, suggesting consumption is even more skewed toward the minority of heavy users than is suggested by days-of-use calculations.

RachelMelissaBurns

2013-11-01

105

The medical necessity for medicinal cannabis: prospective, observational study evaluating the treatment in cancer patients on supportive or palliative care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Cancer patients using cannabis report better influence from the plant extract than from synthetic products. However, almost all the research conducted to date has been performed with synthetic products. We followed patients with a medicinal cannabis license to evaluate the advantages and side effects of using cannabis by cancer patients. Methods. The study included two interviews based on questionnaires regarding symptoms and side effects, the first held on the day the license was issued and the second 6-8 weeks later. Cancer symptoms and cannabis side effects were documented on scales from 0 to 4 following the CTCAE. The distress thermometer was used also. Results. Of the 211 patients who had a first interview, only 131 had the second interview, 25 of whom stopped treatment after less than a week. All cancer or anticancer treatment-related symptoms showed significant improvement (P < 0.001). No significant side effects except for memory lessening in patients with prolonged cannabis use (P = 0.002) were noted. Conclusion. The positive effects of cannabis on various cancer-related symptoms are tempered by reliance on self-reporting for many of the variables. Although studies with a control group are missing, the improvement in symptoms should push the use of cannabis in palliative treatment of oncology patients. PMID:23956774

Bar-Sela, Gil; Vorobeichik, Marina; Drawsheh, Saher; Omer, Anat; Goldberg, Victoria; Muller, Ella

2013-01-01

106

(Re)introducing medicinal cannabis.  

Science.gov (United States)

• After considering extensive scientific and medical evidence, a New South Wales Legislative Council multiparty committee recommended that medicinal cannabis should lawfully be made available for selected-use pharmacotherapy. • The evidence indicates that cannabis has genuine medicinal utility in patients with certain neuropathic conditions, with acceptable levels of risk from mostly mild side effects. • The potential medical benefits of cannabis pharmacotherapy have largely been overlooked, with research and society's attention, in most parts of the world, being directed towards the hazards of its recreational use. • The NSW Government has since dismissed the unanimous and compassionate recommendations of their committee. PMID:24329652

Mather, Laurence E; Rauwendaal, Evert R; Moxham-Hall, Vivienne L; Wodak, Alex D

2013-12-16

107

CANNABIS, UNA OPCIÓN TERAPÉUTICA / CANNABIS, A THERAPEUTIC OPTION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las preparaciones de Cannabis sativa L. tales como marihuana, hashish y dagga, han sido usadas en medicina por varios siglos. Ahora se sabe que el ?9tetrahidrocannabinol (?9-THC) y sus compuestos relacionados, ejercen una amplia gama de efectos sobre los sistemas inmune, digestivo, repro [...] ductivo, ocular, cardiovascular, y nervioso central. La presente revisión analiza la literatura disponible relacionada con los efectos terapéuticos de la Cannabis. Abstract in english Cannabis sativa L. preparations, such as marijuana, hashish and dagga, have been used in medicine for many centuries. It is now known that ?9tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) and its related compounds, exert a wide array of effects on the immune, digestive, reproductive, ocular, cardiovascul [...] ar, and central nervous systems. The present review analyses the literature related to the therapeutic effects of Cannabis.

Osorio, José Henry; Tangarife, Hugo Fernando.

108

Implicit associations and explicit expectancies towards cannabis in heavy cannabis users and controls  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cognitive biases, including implicit memory associations are thought to play an important role in the development of addictive behaviors. The aim of the present study was to investigate implicit affective memory associations in heavy cannabis users. Implicit positive-arousal, sedation, and negative associations towards cannabis were measured with three Single Category Implicit Association Tests (SC-IAT’s and compared between 59 heavy cannabis users and 89 controls. Moreover, we investigated the relationship between these implicit affective associations and explicit expectancies, subjective craving, cannabis use, and cannabis related problems. Results show that heavy cannabis users had stronger implicit positive-arousal associations but weaker implicit negative associations towards cannabis compared to controls. Moreover, heavy cannabis users had stronger sedation but weaker negative explicit expectancies towards cannabis compared to controls. Within heavy cannabis users, more cannabis use was associated with stronger implicit negative associations whereas more cannabis use related problems was associated with stronger explicit negative expectancies, decreasing the overall difference on negative associations between cannabis users and controls. No other associations were observed between implicit associations, explicit expectancies, measures of cannabis use, cannabis use related problems, or subjective craving. These findings indicate that, in contrast to other substances of abuse like alcohol and tobacco, the relationship between implicit associations and cannabis use appears to be weak in heavy cannabis users.

JannaCousijn

2013-06-01

109

Prescribing cannabis for harm reduction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Neuropathic pain affects between 5% and 10% of the US population and can be refractory to treatment. Opioids may be recommended as a second-line pharmacotherapy but have risks including overdose and death. Cannabis has been shown to be effective for treating nerve pain without the risk of fatal poisoning. The author suggests that physicians who treat neuropathic pain with opioids should evaluate their patients for a trial of cannabis and prescribe it when appropriate prior ...

Collen Mark

2012-01-01

110

Evaluation of herbal cannabis characteristics by medical users: a randomized trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis, in herbal form, is widely used as self-medication by patients with diseases such as HIV/AIDS and multiple sclerosis suffering from symptoms including pain, muscle spasticity, stress and insomnia. Valid clinical studies of herbal cannabis require a product which is acceptable to patients in order to maximize adherence to study protocols. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled crossover trial of 4 different herbal cannabis preparations among 8 experienced and authorized cannabis users with chronic pain. Preparations were varied with respect to grind size, THC content and humidity. Subjects received each preparation on a separate day and prepared the drug in their usual way in a dedicated and licensed clinical facility. They were asked to evaluate the products based on appearance (smell, colour, humidity, grind size, ease of preparation and overall appearance and smoking characteristics (burn rate, hotness, harshness and taste. Five-point Likert scores were assigned to each characteristic. Scores were compared between preparations using ANOVA. Results Seven subjects completed the study, and the product with highest THC content (12%, highest humidity (14% and largest grind size (10 mm was rated highest overall. Significant differences were noted between preparations on overall appearance and colour (p = 0.003. Discussion While the small size of the study precludes broad conclusions, the study shows that medical cannabis users can appreciate differences in herbal product. A more acceptable cannabis product may increase recruitment and retention in clinical studies of medical cannabis.

Ducruet Thierry

2006-11-01

111

Refining the Depression-Nicotine Dependence Link: Patterns of Depressive Symptoms in Psychiatric Outpatients with Current, Past, and No History of Nicotine Dependence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to elucidate the depression-nicotine dependence link by evaluating which specific depressive symptoms are uniquely associated with nicotine dependence in psychiatric outpatients. Participants were assessed using structured clinical interviews which yielded psychiatric diagnoses and clinical ratings on a wide variety of depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were compared across three groups: (1) patients with no history of nicotine dependence (NND; n=1015); (2) pat...

Leventhal, Adam M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Ray, Lara A.; Zimmerman, Mark

2009-01-01

112

Distance to Cannabis-Shops and Age of Onset of Cannabis Use  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract: In the Netherlands cannabis use is quasi-legalized. Small quantities of cannabis can be bought in cannabis-shops. We investigate how the distance to the nearest cannabis- shop affects the age of onset of cannabis use. We use a Mixed Proportional Hazard rate framework to take account of observable as well as unobservable characteristics that in uence the uptake of cannabis. We find that distance matters. Individuals who grow up within 20 kilometers of a cannabis-shop have a lower age...

Palali, A.; Ours, J. C.

2013-01-01

113

Cannabis Responsive Head Injury Induced Mutiple Disabilities: A Case Report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years cannabinoids and their derivatives have drawn renewed attention because of their diverse pharmacologic activities. We report here one such case, where all types of medical & psychiatric treatment failed to improve the symptoms; however cannabis use was able to bring back this patient to normal productive & meaningful life. The patient was a 47 year old left handed Caucasian had minor subdural hematoma at the posterior vertex and a minor focal subarachnoid haemorrhage following...

Manju Sharma

2012-01-01

114

Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Substitution can be operationalized as the conscious choice to use one drug (legal or illicit) instead of, or in conjunction with, another due to issues such as: perceived safety; level of addiction potential; effectiveness in relieving symptoms; access and level of acceptance. This practice of substitution has been observed among individuals using cannabis for medical purposes. This study examined drug and alcohol use, and the occurrence of substitution a...

Reiman Amanda

2009-01-01

115

Cannabis, motivation, and life satisfaction in an internet sample  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Although little evidence supports cannabis-induced amotivational syndrome, sources continue to assert that the drug saps motivation 1, which may guide current prohibitions. Few studies report low motivation in chronic users; another reveals that they have higher subjective wellbeing. To assess differences in motivation and subjective wellbeing, we used a large sample (N = 487 and strict definitions of cannabis use (7 days/week and abstinence (never. Standard statistical techniques showed no differences. Robust statistical methods controlling for heteroscedasticity, non-normality and extreme values found no differences in motivation but a small difference in subjective wellbeing. Medical users of cannabis reporting health problems tended to account for a significant portion of subjective wellbeing differences, suggesting that illness decreased wellbeing. All p-values were above p = .05. Thus, daily use of cannabis does not impair motivation. Its impact on subjective wellbeing is small and may actually reflect lower wellbeing due to medical symptoms rather than actual consumption of the plant.

Wilcox Rand

2006-01-01

116

Cigarette smoking during an N-acetylcysteine-assisted cannabis cessation trial in adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Background and objectives: Tobacco and cannabis use are both highly prevalent worldwide. Their co-use is also common in adults and adolescents. Despite this frequent co-occurrence, cessation from both substances is rarely addressed in randomized clinical trials. Given evidence that tobacco use may increase during cannabis cessation attempts, and additionally that tobacco users have poorer cannabis cessation outcomes, we explored tobacco outcomes, specifically cigarette smoking, from an adolescent cannabis cessation trial that tested the efficacy of N-acetylesteine (NAC). Methods: Cannabis-dependent adolescents (ages 15-21; n?=?116) interested in cannabis treatment were randomized to NAC (1200?mg bid) or matched placebo for 8 weeks. Participants did not need to be cigarette smokers or be interested in smoking cessation to qualify for inclusion. Results: Approximately 59% of enrolled participants were daily and non-daily cigarette smokers, and only differed from non-smoking participants on the compulsion sub-scale of the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire. Among cigarette smokers who were retained in the study, there was no change in cigarettes per day for either NAC or placebo groups during the eight-week treatment phase. Being a cigarette smoker did not appear to influence the effects of NAC on cannabis abstinence, though there was a trend in the placebo group of poorer cannabis outcomes for cigarette smokers vs. non-smokers. Conclusions: No evidence was found of compensatory cigarette smoking during this cannabis cessation trial in adolescents. Further work assessing interventions to reduce both cannabis and tobacco use in this population is greatly needed. PMID:24720376

McClure, Erin A; Baker, Nathaniel L; Gray, Kevin M

2014-07-01

117

Cannabis-induced depersonalization disorder in adolescence.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a case series of 6 patients who developed persistent depersonalization disorder in adolescence after consuming cannabis. In 2 of these cases, the illness course was severely disabling. Within the growing body of literature that investigates the effects of cannabis use on mental health, the association between cannabis and depersonalization disorder is widely neglected. We review the clinical characteristics of this disorder and summarize the neurobiological evidence relating it to cannabis use. This case series extends awareness about the potentially detrimental effect of cannabis use in young individuals beyond its well-documented relationship with psychosis and other psychological sequelae. PMID:22378193

Hürlimann, Franziska; Kupferschmid, Stephan; Simon, Andor E

2012-01-01

118

Passive inhalation of cannabis smoke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Six volunteers each smoked simultaneously, in a small unventilated room (volume 27 950 liter), a cannabis cigarette containing 17.1 mg delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). A further four subjects - passive inhalers - remained in the room during smoking and afterwards for a total of 3 h. Blood and urine samples were taken from all ten subjects and analyzed by radioimmunoassay for THC metabolites. The blood samples from the passive subjects taken up to 3 h after the start of exposure to cannabis smoke showed a complete absence of cannabinoids. In contrast, their urine samples taken up to 6 h after exposure showed significant concentrations of cannabinoid metabolites (less than or equal to 6.8 ng ml-1). These data, taken with the results of other workers, show passive inhalation of cannabis smoke to be possible. These results have important implications for forensic toxicologists who are frequently called upon to interpret cannabinoid levels in body fluids.

Law, B.; Mason, P.A.; Moffat, A.C.; King, L.J.; Marks, V.

1984-09-01

119

Positive posttraumatic stress disorder screens among first-time medical cannabis patients: Prevalence and association with other substance use.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-one states and the District of Columbia have passed legislation allowing for the use of medical cannabis for those individuals with qualifying medical conditions, which include posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for a growing number of states. Little information is available regarding PTSD among medical cannabis patients. This study seeks to provide initial data on this topic by examining the prevalence and correlates of positive PTSD screens among a sample of patients seeking medical cannabis certification for the first time (n=186). Twenty-three percent (42/186; 95% confidence interval [CI] =17%-29%) of the patients in the study sample screened positive for PTSD. Moreover, the group that screened positive for PTSD had higher percentages of lifetime prescription opioid, cocaine, prescription sedative, and street opioid use, as well as a higher percentage of recent prescription sedative use, than the group that screened negative for PTSD. These findings highlight the relatively common use of other substances among medical cannabis patients with significant PTSD symptoms, even when compared with other patients seeking medical cannabis for the first time. As a growing number of states include PTSD among the list of qualifying medical conditions for medical cannabis, additional research is needed to better characterize the longitudinal relationship between medical cannabis use and PTSD symptoms. PMID:24930048

Bohnert, Kipling M; Perron, Brian E; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Kleinberg, Felicia; Jannausch, Mary; Ilgen, Mark A

2014-10-01

120

Prescribing cannabis for harm reduction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Neuropathic pain affects between 5% and 10% of the US population and can be refractory to treatment. Opioids may be recommended as a second-line pharmacotherapy but have risks including overdose and death. Cannabis has been shown to be effective for treating nerve pain without the risk of fatal poisoning. The author suggests that physicians who treat neuropathic pain with opioids should evaluate their patients for a trial of cannabis and prescribe it when appropriate prior to using opioids. This harm reduction strategy may reduce the morbidity and mortality rates associated with prescription pain medications.

Collen Mark

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis) component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typ [...] ical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. The antipsychotic-like properties of CBD have been investigated in animal models using behavioral and neurochemical techniques which suggested that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results of two studies on healthy volunteers using perception of binocular depth inversion and ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms supported the proposal of the antipsychotic-like properties of CBD. In addition, open case reports of schizophrenic patients treated with CBD and a preliminary report of a controlled clinical trial comparing CBD with an atypical antipsychotic drug have confirmed that this cannabinoid can be a safe and well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. Future studies of CBD in other psychotic conditions such as bipolar disorder and comparative studies of its antipsychotic effects with those produced by clozapine in schizophrenic patients are clearly indicated.

A.W., Zuardi; J.A.S., Crippa; J.E.C., Hallak; F.A., Moreira; F.S., Guimarães.

122

Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD, a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. The antipsychotic-like properties of CBD have been investigated in animal models using behavioral and neurochemical techniques which suggested that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results of two studies on healthy volunteers using perception of binocular depth inversion and ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms supported the proposal of the antipsychotic-like properties of CBD. In addition, open case reports of schizophrenic patients treated with CBD and a preliminary report of a controlled clinical trial comparing CBD with an atypical antipsychotic drug have confirmed that this cannabinoid can be a safe and well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. Future studies of CBD in other psychotic conditions such as bipolar disorder and comparative studies of its antipsychotic effects with those produced by clozapine in schizophrenic patients are clearly indicated.

Zuardi A.W.

2006-01-01

123

The Importance of Family Relations for Cannabis Users: The Case of Serbian Adolescents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is transitional stage of physical and mental human development occuring between childhood and adult life. Social interactions and environmental factors together are important predictors of adolescent cannabis use. This study aimed to examine the relationship between the social determinants and adolescents behavior with cannabis consumption.Methods: A cross sectional study as part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs was conducted among 6.150 adolescents aged 16 years in three regions of Serbia, and three types of schools (gymnasium, vocational – professional, and vocational – handicraft during May – June 2008. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to obtain adjusted odds ratios with 95% con?dence intervals in which the dependent variable was cannabis consumption non-user and user.Results: Among 6.7% of adolescents who had tried cannabis at least one in their lives, boys were more involved in cannabis use than girls, especially boys from gymnasium school. Well off family, lower education of mother, worse relations with parents were significantly associated with cannabis use (P < 0.05. Behaviors like skipping from schools, frequent evening outs, and playing on slot machines were also related to cannabis use (P < 0.05.Conclusions: The study confirmed the importance of family relationship development. Drug use preventive programmes should include building interpersonal trust in a family lifecycle and school culture.

Zorica Terzic Supic

2013-03-01

124

What does a mouse tell us about neuregulin 1 – cannabis interactions?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The link between cannabis and psychosis has been debated although there is substantial epidemiological evidence showing that cannabis increases the risk of psychosis. It has been hypothesized that schizophrenia patients carrying particular risk genes might be more sensitive to the psychosis-inducing effects of cannabis than other patients and healthy test subjects. Here we review the effects of cannabinoids on a mutant mouse model for the schizophrenia candidate gene neuregulin 1 (Nrg1. The studies suggest a complex interaction between cannabis and Nrg1: the neuro-behavioural effects of cannabinoids were different in Nrg1 mutant and control mice and depended on exposure time, sex and age of test animals. This research provides the first evidence of complex cannabis-Nrg1 interactions suggesting Nrg1 as a prime target for future clinical investigations. Furthermore, it highlights that animal model research can broaden our understanding of the complex multi-factorial aetiology of schizophrenia. Finally, the findings are important to preventive psychiatry: if the genes that confer genetic vulnerability to cannabis-induced psychosis were identified patients at-high risk could be forewarned of the potential dangers of cannabis abuse.

TimKarl

2013-02-01

125

Pharmacological interventions in the treatment of the acute effects of cannabis: a systematic review of literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis intoxication is related to a number of physical and mental health risks with ensuing social costs. However, little attention has been given to the investigation of possible pharmacological interactions in this condition. Objective To review the available scientific literature concerning pharmacological interventions for the treatment of the acute effects of cannabis. Methods A search was performed on the Pubmed, Lilacs, and Scielo online databases by combining the terms cannabis, intoxication, psychosis, anxiety, and treatment. The articles selected from this search had their reference lists checked for additional publications related to the topic of the review. Results The reviewed articles consisted of case reports and controlled clinical trials and are presented according to interventions targeting the physiological, psychiatric, and cognitive symptoms provoked by cannabis. The pharmacological interventions reported in these studies include: beta-blockers, antiarrhythmic agents, antagonists of CB-1 and GABA-benzodiazepine receptors, antipsychotics, and cannabidiol. Conclusion Although scarce, the evidence on pharmacological interventions for the management of cannabis intoxication suggests that propanolol and rimonabant are the most effective compounds currently available to treat the physiological and subjective effects of the drug. Further studies are necessary to establish the real effectiveness of these two medications, as well as the effectiveness of other candidate compounds to counteract the effects of cannabis intoxication, such as cannabidiol and flumazenil.

Crippa José AS

2012-01-01

126

[Decision making in cannabis users].  

Science.gov (United States)

Several neuropsychological studies have shown that chronic cannabis users have cognitive impairments, including decision-making process. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the process, through the somatic marker hypothesis in a sample of 41 cannabis users compared with a control group of equal size, and to analyze the influence of age, sex, education level, age of onset and amount of daily consumption. In order to do that, the software "Cartas" (similar to the Iowa Gambling Task), was used, implementing its two versions: normal and reverse. The results show significant differences between cannabis users and control group in the normal and reverse task execution. By block analysis, the control group obtained higher scores in the normal task execution, however, in the reverse task, the differences between groups are present in the initial task execution but not final task execution. None of the analyzed variables (age, sex ...) are significantly related to task performance. These results suggest the existence of alterations in the decision making process of consumers cannabis, which may relate to the difficulty in generating somatic markers, and not for insensitivity punishments insensitivity. PMID:22648319

Alameda Bailén, Jose Ramón; Paíno Quesada, Susana; Mogedas Valladares, Ana Isabel

2012-01-01

127

Associations between Cannabinoid Receptor-1 (CNR1) Variation and Hippocampus and Amygdala Volumes in Heavy Cannabis Users  

Science.gov (United States)

Heavy cannabis users display smaller amygdalae and hippocampi than controls, and genetic variation accounts for a large proportion of variance in liability to cannabis dependence (CD). A single nucleotide polymorphism in the cannabis receptor-1 gene (CNR1), rs2023239, has been associated with CD diagnosis and intermediate phenotypes, including abstinence-induced withdrawal, cue-elicited craving, and parahippocampal activation to cannabis cues. This study compared hippocampal and amygdalar volumes (potential CD intermediate phenotypes) between heavy cannabis users and healthy controls, and analyzed interactions between group, rs2023239 variation, and the volumes of these structures. Ninety-four heavy cannabis users participated, of whom 37 (14 men, 23 women; mean age=27.8) were matched to 37 healthy controls (14 men, 23 women; mean age=27.3) for case-control analyses. Controlling for total intracranial volume and other confounding variables, matched cannabis users had smaller bilateral hippocampi (left, p=0.002; right, p=0.001) and left amygdalae (p=0.01) than controls. When genotype was considered in the case-control analyses, there was a group by genotype interaction, such that the rs2023239 G allele predicted lower volume of bilateral hippocampi among cannabis users relative to controls (both p<0.001). This interaction persisted when all 94 cannabis users were compared to controls. There were no group by genotype interactions on amygdalar volume. These data replicate previous findings of reduced hippocampal and amygdalar volume among heavy cannabis users, and suggest that CNR1 rs2023239 variation may predispose smaller hippocampal volume after heavy cannabis use. This association should be tested in future studies of brain volume differences in CD.

Schacht, Joseph P; Hutchison, Kent E; Filbey, Francesca M

2012-01-01

128

Age at initiation of cannabis use predicts age at onset of psychosis: the 7- to 8-year trend.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the existence of a temporal association between age at initiation of cannabis use and age at onset of psychotic illness in 997 participants from the 2010 Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP) in Australia. We tested for group differences in age at onset of psychotic illness and in the duration of premorbid exposure to cannabis (DPEC). Analyses were repeated in subgroups of participants with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (SSD), a diagnosis of lifetime cannabis dependence (LCD), and a comorbid SSD/LCD diagnosis. The association between age at initiation of cannabis use and age at onset of psychotic illness was linear and significant, F(11, 984) = 13.77, P < .001, even after adjusting for confounders. The effect of age at initiation of cannabis use on DPEC was not significant (mean duration of 7.8 years), and this effect was similar in participants with a SSD, LCD, and comorbid SSD/ LCD diagnosis although a shift toward shorter premorbid exposure to cannabis was noted in the SSD/LCD subgroup (mean duration of 7.19 years for SSD/LCD). A temporal direct relationship between age at initiation of cannabis use and age at onset of psychotic illness was detected with a premorbid exposure to cannabis trend of 7-8 years, modifiable by higher severity of premorbid cannabis use and a diagnosis of SSD. Cannabis may exert a cumulative toxic effect on individuals on the pathway to developing psychosis, the manifestation of which is delayed for approximately 7-8 years, regardless of age at which cannabis use was initiated. PMID:23314189

Stefanis, Nikos C; Dragovic, Milan; Power, Brian D; Jablensky, Assen; Castle, David; Morgan, Vera Anne

2013-03-01

129

Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available...

Nicholas Sullivan; Sytze Elzinga; Raber, Jeffrey C.

2013-01-01

130

Idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia demanding ECMO for a teenager smoking tobacco and cannabis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract We describe what we believe is an entirely novel case of a 15-year-old boy with idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia and unusual, resistant hypoxaemia which necessitated extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Response to corticosteroids was excellent and a full recovery was observed. Smoking cigarettes and cannabis on the day the symptoms began may have contributed to the occurrence of this rare disease.

2010-01-01

131

Therapeutic Benefits of Cannabis: A Patient Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical research regarding the therapeutic benefits of cannabis (“marijuana”) has been almost non-existent in the United States since cannabis was given Schedule I status in the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. In order to discover the benefits and adverse effects perceived by medical cannabis patients, especially with regards to chronic pain, we hand-delivered surveys to one hundred consecutive patients who were returning for yearly re-certification for medical cannabis use in Hawai‘i. The response rate was 94%. Mean and median ages were 49.3 and 51 years respectively. Ninety-seven per cent of respondents used cannabis primarily for chronic pain. Average pain improvement on a 0–10 pain scale was 5.0 (from 7.8 to 2.8), which translates to a 64% relative decrease in average pain. Half of all respondents also noted relief from stress/anxiety, and nearly half (45%) reported relief from insomnia. Most patients (71%) reported no adverse effects, while 6% reported a cough or throat irritation and 5% feared arrest even though medical cannabis is legal in Hawai‘i. No serious adverse effects were reported. These results suggest that Cannabis is an extremely safe and effective medication for many chronic pain patients. Cannabis appears to alleviate pain, insomnia, and may be helpful in relieving anxiety. Cannabis has shown extreme promise in the treatment of numerous medical problems and deserves to be released from the current Schedule I federal prohibition against research and prescription.

Webb, Sandra M

2014-01-01

132

Cannabis use and cognition in schizophrenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available People with schizophrenia frequently report cannabis use, and cannabis may be a risk factor for schizophrenia, mediated through effects on brain function and biochemistry. Thus, it is conceivable that cannabis may also influence cognitive functioning in this patients group. We report data from our own laboratory on the use of cannabis by schizophrenia patients, and review the existing literature on the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia and related psychosis. Of the 23 studies that were found, 14 reported that the cannabis users had better cognitive performance than the schizophrenia non-users. Eight studies reported no or minimal differences in cognitive performance in the two groups, but only one study reported better cognitive performance in the schizophrenia non-user group. Our own results confirm the overall impression from the literature review of better cognitive performance in the cannabis user group. These paradoxical findings may have several explanations, which are discussed. We suggest that cannabis causes a transient cognitive breakdown enabling the development of psychosis, imitating the typical cognitive vulnerability seen in schizophrenia. This is further supported by an earlier age of onset and fewer neurological soft signs in the cannabis-related schizophrenia group, suggesting an alternative pathway to psychosis.

KennethHugdahl

2009-11-01

133

Cannabis treatment outcomes among legally coerced and non-coerced adults  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment seeking for cannabis dependence in general, and particularly the number of criminal justice referrals to cannabis treatment, has increased over the past decade. This study aims to compare the characteristics, psychosocial functioning and treatment outcome of those legally coerced into cannabis treatment compared to those entering treatment without legal coercion. Methods This study is a retrospective audit of the administrative clinical records of 27,198 adults presenting to public Texas treatment programs with cannabis as their primary drug problem between 2000 and 2005. Results Of the 69% legally coerced into treatment, there was less psychological distress and greater likelihood of having completed treatment compared with non-coerced clients. Participants who were legally coerced into treatment were also more likely to have received less intensive forms of treatment and to have not used cannabis in the month prior to 90-day post-treatment follow-up. Conclusion More public health information is needed on cannabis dependence and increased availability of subsidised early and brief interventions in a variety of primary health care settings would reduce the late presentations of the more severely impaired voluntary clients. The limitations of this dataset are discussed.

Copeland Jan

2007-06-01

134

Gone to Pot - A Review of the Association between Cannabis and Psychosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, with ~5 million daily users worldwide. Emerging evidence supports a number of associations between cannabis and psychosis/psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. These associations-based on case-studies, surveys, epidemiological studies, and experimental studies indicate that cannabinoids can produce acute, transient effects; acute, persistent effects; and delayed, persistent effects that recapitulate the psychopathology and psychophysiology seen in schizophrenia. Acute exposure to both cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids (Spice/K2) can produce a full range of transient psychotomimetic symptoms, cognitive deficits, and psychophysiological abnormalities that bear a striking resemblance to symptoms of schizophrenia. In individuals with an established psychotic disorder, cannabinoids can exacerbate symptoms, trigger relapse, and have negative consequences on the course of the illness. Several factors appear to moderate these associations, including family history, genetic factors, history of childhood abuse, and the age at onset of cannabis use. Exposure to cannabinoids in adolescence confers a higher risk for psychosis outcomes in later life and the risk is dose-related. Individuals with polymorphisms of COMT and AKT1 genes may be at increased risk for psychotic disorders in association with cannabinoids, as are individuals with a family history of psychotic disorders or a history of childhood trauma. The relationship between cannabis and schizophrenia fulfills many but not all of the standard criteria for causality, including temporality, biological gradient, biological plausibility, experimental evidence, consistency, and coherence. At the present time, the evidence indicates that cannabis may be a component cause in the emergence of psychosis, and this warrants serious consideration from the point of view of public health policy. PMID:24904437

Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Wilkinson, Samuel T; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

2014-01-01

135

Gone to Pot - A Review of the Association between Cannabis and Psychosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, with ~5 million daily users worldwide. Emerging evidence supports a number of associations between cannabis and psychosis/psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. These associations-based on case-studies, surveys, epidemiological studies, and experimental studies indicate that cannabinoids can produce acute, transient effects; acute, persistent effects; and delayed, persistent effects that recapitulate the psychopathology and psychophysiology seen in schizophrenia. Acute exposure to both cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids (Spice/K2) can produce a full range of transient psychotomimetic symptoms, cognitive deficits, and psychophysiological abnormalities that bear a striking resemblance to symptoms of schizophrenia. In individuals with an established psychotic disorder, cannabinoids can exacerbate symptoms, trigger relapse, and have negative consequences on the course of the illness. Several factors appear to moderate these associations, including family history, genetic factors, history of childhood abuse, and the age at onset of cannabis use. Exposure to cannabinoids in adolescence confers a higher risk for psychosis outcomes in later life and the risk is dose-related. Individuals with polymorphisms of COMT and AKT1 genes may be at increased risk for psychotic disorders in association with cannabinoids, as are individuals with a family history of psychotic disorders or a history of childhood trauma. The relationship between cannabis and schizophrenia fulfills many but not all of the standard criteria for causality, including temporality, biological gradient, biological plausibility, experimental evidence, consistency, and coherence. At the present time, the evidence indicates that cannabis may be a component cause in the emergence of psychosis, and this warrants serious consideration from the point of view of public health policy.

Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Wilkinson, Samuel T.; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

2014-01-01

136

Relationship between working-memory network function and substance use: a 3-year longitudinal fMRI study in heavy cannabis users and controls.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deficient executive functions play an important role in the development of addiction. Working-memory may therefore be a powerful predictor of the course of drug use, but chronic substance use may also impair working-memory. The aim of this 3-year longitudinal neuro-imaging study was to investigate the relationship between substance use (e.g. alcohol, cannabis, nicotine, illegal psychotropic drugs) and working-memory network function over time in heavy cannabis users and controls. Forty-nine participants performed an n-back working-memory task at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. At follow-up, there were 22 current heavy cannabis users, 4 abstinent heavy cannabis users and 23 non-cannabis-using controls. Tensor-independent component analysis (Tensor-ICA) was used to investigate individual differences in working-memory network functionality over time. Within the group of cannabis users, cannabis-related problems remained stable, whereas alcohol-related problems, nicotine dependence and illegal psychotropic substance use increased over time. At both measurements, behavioral performance and network functionality during the n-back task did not differ between heavy cannabis users and controls. Although n-back accuracy improved, working-memory network function remained stable over time. Within the group of cannabis users, working-memory network functionality was not associated with substance use. These results suggest that sustained moderate to heavy levels of cannabis, nicotine, alcohol and illegal psychotropic substance use do not change working-memory network functionality. Moreover, baseline network functionality did not predict cannabis use and related problems three years later, warranting longitudinal studies in more chronic or dependent cannabis users. PMID:24589297

Cousijn, Janna; Vingerhoets, Wilhelmina A M; Koenders, Laura; de Haan, Lieuwe; van den Brink, Wim; Wiers, Reinout W; Goudriaan, Anna E

2014-03-01

137

Regulating compassion: an overview of Canada's federal medical cannabis policy and practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to a number of court challenges brought forth by Canadian patients who demonstrated that they benefited from the use of medicinal cannabis but remained vulnerable to arrest and persecution as a result of its status as a controlled substance, in 1999 Canada became the second nation in the world to initiate a centralized medicinal cannabis program. Over its six years of existence, this controversial program has been found unconstitutional by a number of courts, and has faced criticism from the medical establishment, law enforcement, as well as the patient/participants themselves. Methods This critical policy analysis is an evidence-based review of court decisions, government records, relevant studies and Access to Information Act data related to the three main facets of Health Canada's medicinal cannabis policy – the Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD; the Canadians Institute of Health Research Medical Marijuana Research Program; and the federal cannabis production and distribution program. This analysis also examines Canada's network of unregulated community-based dispensaries. Results There is a growing body of evidence that Health Canada's program is not meeting the needs of the nation's medical cannabis patient community and that the policies of the Marihuana Medical Access Division may be significantly limiting the potential individual and public health benefits achievable though the therapeutic use of cannabis. Canada's community-based dispensaries supply medical cannabis to a far greater number of patients than the MMAD, but their work is currently unregulated by any level of government, leaving these organizations and their clients vulnerable to arrest and prosecution. Conclusion Any future success will depend on the government's ability to better assess and address the needs and legitimate concerns of end-users of this program, to promote and fund an expanded clinical research agenda, and to work in cooperation with community-based medical cannabis dispensaries in order to address the ongoing issue of safe and timely access to this herbal medicine.

Lucas Philippe G

2008-01-01

138

Response inhibition and elevated parietal-cerebellar correlations in chronic adolescent cannabis users.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to successfully inhibit an inappropriate behaviour is a crucial component of executive functioning and its impairment has been linked to substance dependence. Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in adolescence and, given the accelerated neuromaturation during adolescence, it is important to determine the effects of cannabis use on neurocognitive functioning during this developmental period. In this study, a cohort of adolescent heavy cannabis users and age-matched non-cannabis-using controls completed a Go/No-Go paradigm. Users were impaired in performance on the task but voxelwise and region-of-interest comparisons revealed no activation differences between groups. Instead, an analysis of correlation patterns between task-activated areas revealed heightened correlation scores in the users between bilateral inferior parietal lobules and the left cerebellum. The increased correlation activity between these regions was replicated with resting state fMRI data and was positively correlated with self-reported, recent cannabis usage. The results suggests that the poorer inhibitory control of adolescent cannabis users might be related to aberrant connectivity between nodes of the response inhibition circuit and that this effect is observable in both task-induced and intrinsic correlation patterns. This article is part of the Special Issue Section entitled 'Neuroimaging in Neuropharmacology'. PMID:23791961

Behan, B; Connolly, C G; Datwani, S; Doucet, M; Ivanovic, J; Morioka, R; Stone, A; Watts, R; Smyth, B; Garavan, H

2014-09-01

139

Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome: Clinical diagnosis of an underrecognised manifestation of chronic cannabis abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cannabis is a common drug of abuse that is associated with various long-term and short-term adverse effects. The nature of its association with vomiting after chronic abuse is obscure and is underrecognised by clinicians. In some patients this vomiting can take on a pattern similar to cyclic vomiting syndrome with a peculiar compulsive hot bathing pattern, which relieves intense feelings of nausea and accompanying symptoms. In this case report, we describe a twenty-two year-old-male with a history of chronic cannabis abuse presenting with recurrent vomiting, intense nausea and abdominal pain. In addition, the patient reported that the hot baths improved his symptoms during these episodes. Abstinence from cannabis led to resolution of the vomiting symptoms and abdominal pain. We conclude that in the setting of chronic cannabis abuse, patients presenting with chronic severe nausea and vomiting that can sometimes be accompanied by abdominal pain and compulsive hot bathing behaviour, in the absence of other obvious causes, a diagnosis of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome should be considered.

Siva P Sontineni, Sanjay Chaudhary, Vijaya Sontineni, Stephen J Lanspa

2009-03-01

140

Residual effects of prolonged heavy cannabis use  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent scientific literature was consulted to answer the following questions: 1. does prolonged heavy cannabis use (daily use for at least 6 months) produce persistent cognitive effects, and 2. does prolonged heavy cannabis use affect the activity of the immune system. The result of the survey has been described.

Jgc, Amsterdam; Jw, Laan; Jl, Slangen

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Variants in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors ?5 and ?3 increase risks to nicotine dependence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors bind to nicotine and initiate the physiological and pharmacological responses to tobacco smoking. In this report, we studied the association of ?5 and ?3 subunits with nicotine dependence and with the symptoms of alcohol and cannabis abuse and dependence in two independent epidemiological samples (n = 815 and 1,121, respectively). In this study, seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in the CHRNA5 and CHRNA3 genes. In both samples, we found th...

Chen, Xiangning; Chen, Jingchun; Williamson, Vernell S.; An, Seon-sook; Hettema, John M.; Aggen, Steven H.; Neale, Michael C.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

2009-01-01

142

Social constructions of dependency by blunts smokers: Qualitative reports  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Concerns about the risk of cannabis dependence have been renewed in recent years by changing patterns of consumption, including increased levels of use, easier access to high-potency strains of cannabis and the rising popularity of blunts (tobacco cigar shells filled with cannabis). Such concerns have been reinforced by a number of studies suggesting that cannabis dependence, as measured by DSM criteria, has indeed increased. However, there are reasons to question these findings. First, the s...

Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen; Sifaneck, Stephen J.; Johnson, Bruce D.

2006-01-01

143

Cognitive bias and drug craving in recreational cannabis users.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent theories propose that repeated drug use is associated with attentional and evaluative biases for drug-related stimuli, and that these cognitive biases are related to individual differences in subjective craving. This study investigated cognitive biases for cannabis-related cues in recreational cannabis users. Seventeen regular cannabis users and 16 non-users completed a visual probe task which assessed attentional biases for cannabis-related words, and an implicit association test (IAT) which assessed implicit positive or negative associations for cannabis-related words. Results from the IAT indicated more negative associations for cannabis-related words in non-users compared to users. Among cannabis users, those with high levels of cannabis craving had a significant attentional bias for cannabis-related words on the visual probe task, but those with low levels of craving did not. Results highlight the role of craving in attentional biases for cannabis-related stimuli. PMID:15072814

Field, Matt; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P

2004-04-01

144

The Long and Winding Road to Cannabis Legalization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In almost all countries supply, distribution and use of cannabis is prohibited. Nevertheless, cannabis is the most popular illicit drug. Prohibition does not seem to work. The debate on legalization of cannabis is often emotional with strong views of both proponents and opponents but ignorance prevails. There are supposedly detrimental health effects of cannabis use but researchers debate whether they are causal or mere associations. As long as nowhere in the world cannabis is legalized it is...

2011-01-01

145

Cannabis, Cocaine and the Wages of Prime Age Males  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper uses a dataset collected among inhabitants of Amsterdam, to study whether wages of prime age male workers are affected by the use of cannabis and cocaine.The analysis shows that cocaine use and infrequent cannabis use do not affect wages.Frequent cannabis use has a negative wage effect.The age of onset is also important.The earlier current cannabis users have started to use cannabis the larger the negative impact on their wage.

Ours, J. C.

2005-01-01

146

A genome wide association study of alcohol dependence symptom counts in extended pedigrees identifies C15orf53  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies have identified genes associated with alcohol use disorders, but the variation in each of these genes explains only a small portion of the genetic vulnerability. The goal of the present study was to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in extended families from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) to identify novel genes affecting risk for alcohol dependence. To maximize the power of the extended family design we used a quantitative endophenotype, measured in all individuals: number of alcohol dependence symptoms endorsed (symptom count). Secondary analyses were performed to determine if the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with symptom count were also associated with the dichotomous phenotype, DSM-IV alcohol dependence. This family-based GWAS identified SNPs in C15orf53 that are strongly associated with DSM-IV alcohol (p=4.5×10?8, inflation corrected p=9.4×10?7). Results with DSM-IV alcohol dependence in the regions of interest support our findings with symptom count, though the associations were less significant. Attempted replications of the most promising association results were conducted in two independent samples: non-overlapping subjects from the Study of Addiction: Genes and Environment (SAGE) and the Australian twin-family study of alcohol use disorders (OZALC). Nominal association of C15orf53 with symptom count was observed in SAGE. The variant that showed strongest association with symptom count, rs12912251 and its highly correlated variants (D?=1, r2? 0.95), has previously been associated with risk for bipolar disorder.

Wang, Jen-Chyong; Foroud, Tatiana; Hinrichs, Anthony L; Le, Nhung XH; Bertelsen, Sarah; Budde, John P; Harari, Oscar; Koller, Daniel L; Wetherill, Leah; Agrawal, Arpana; Almasy, Laura; Brooks, Andrew I; Bucholz, Kathleen; Dick, Danielle; Hesselbrock, Victor; Johnson, Eric O; Kang, Sun; Kapoor, Manav; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Madden, Pamela AF; Manz, Niklas; Martin, Nicholas G; McClintick, Jeanette N; Montgomery, Grant W; Nurnberger, John I; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Rice, John; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay A; Whitfield, John B; Xuei, Xiaoling; Porjesz, Bernice; Heath, Andrew C; Edenberg, Howard J; Bierut, Laura J; Goate, Alison M

2013-01-01

147

Implicit Associations and Explicit Expectancies toward Cannabis in Heavy Cannabis Users and Controls  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cognitive biases, including implicit memory associations are thought to play an important role in the development of addictive behaviors. The aim of the present study was to investigate implicit affective memory associations in heavy cannabis users. Implicit positive-arousal, sedation, and negative associations toward cannabis were measured with three Single Category Implicit Association Tests (SC-IAT’s) and compared between 59 heavy cannabis users and 89 controls. Moreover, we investigated...

Beraha, Esther M.; Cousijn, Janna; Hermanides, Elisa; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Wiers, Reinout W.

2013-01-01

148

History of cannabis as a medicine: a review História da cannabis como medicamento: uma revisão  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cannabis as a medicine was used before the Christian era in Asia, mainly in India. The introduction of cannabis in the Western medicine occurred in the midst of the 19th century, reaching the climax in the last decade of that century, with the availability and usage of cannabis extracts or tinctures. In the first decades of the 20th century, the Western medical use of cannabis significantly decreased largely due to difficulties to obtain consistent results from batches of plant material of di...

Antonio Waldo Zuardi

2006-01-01

149

Escitalopram is Associated with Reductions in Pain Severity and Pain Interference in Opioid Dependent Patients with Depressive Symptoms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pain is common among opioid dependent patients, yet pharmacologic strategies are limited. The aim of this study was to explore whether escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, was associated with reductions in pain. The study used longitudinal data from a randomized, controlled trial that evaluated the effects of escitalopram on treatment retention in patients with depressive symptoms who were initiating buprenorphine/naloxone for treatment of opioid dependence. Participants we...

2011-01-01

150

Do gender differences in the role of dysfunctional attitudes in depressive symptoms depend on depression history?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gender differences in the moderating role of dysfunctional attitudes in the relationship between life stress and depressive symptoms were examined with and without controlling for the presence of lifetime history of depression. When lifetime history of depression was controlled, dysfunctional attitudes played a moderating role in the relationship between life stress and depressive symptoms for both men and women. However, when lifetime history of depression was not controlled, dysfunctional a...

You, Sungeun; Merritt, Rebecca Davis; Conner, Kenneth R.

2009-01-01

151

A Case of Cannabis-Induced Pancreatitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available CONTEXT: There are no previous reports of acute pancreatitis associated with cannabis use in the general population. Drugs of all types are related to the aetiology of pancreatitis in approximately 1.4-2.0% of cases. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 29 year old man who presented with acute pancreatitis after a period of heavy cannabis smoking. Other causes of the disease were ruled out. The pancreatitis resolved itself after the cannabis was stopped and this was confirmed by urinary cannabinoid metabolite monitoring in the community. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first description of a case of cannabis induced pancreatitis. However, the link is difficult to establish and further evidence is required to prove the association.

Grant P

2004-01-01

152

Short scales to assess cannabis-related problems: a review of psychometric properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Aims The purpose of this paper is to summarize the psychometric properties of four short screening scales to assess problematic forms of cannabis use: Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS, Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test (CUDIT, Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST and Problematic Use of Marijuana (PUM. Methods A systematic computer-based literature search was conducted within the databases of PubMed, PsychINFO and Addiction Abstracts. A total of 12 publications reporting measures of reliability or validity were identified: 8 concerning SDS, 2 concerning CUDIT and one concerning CAST and PUM. Studies spanned adult and adolescent samples from general and specific user populations in a number of countries worldwide. Results All screening scales tended to have moderate to high internal consistency (Cronbach's ? ranging from .72 to .92. Test-retest reliability and item total correlation have been reported for SDS with acceptable results. Results of validation studies varied depending on study population and standards used for validity assessment, but generally sensitivity, specificity and predictive power are satisfactory. Standard diagnostic cut-off points that can be generalized to different populations do not exist for any scale. Conclusion Short screening scales to assess dependence and other problems related to the use of cannabis seem to be a time and cost saving opportunity to estimate overall prevalences of cannabis-related negative consequences and to identify at-risk persons prior to using more extensive diagnostic instruments. Nevertheless, further research is needed to assess the performance of the tests in different populations and in comparison to broader criteria of cannabis-related problems other than dependence.

Klempova Danica

2008-12-01

153

[Depersonalization after withdrawal from cannabis usage].  

Science.gov (United States)

The phenomenon of depersonalization during cannabis usage (intoxication) is commonly known. However, its appearance after drug stoppage is relatively unknown. This article reviews the literature on depersonalization after cannabis withdrawal and discusses three representing cases demonstrating the severity of the problem. Clinical features are described as well as effects on functioning and the long-term nature of this disorder. The treatment approach in each case is also presented. PMID:15889607

Shufman, E; Lerner, A; Witztum, E

2005-04-01

154

Assessing Topographical Orientation Skills in Cannabis Users  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The long-term effects of cannabis on human cognition are still unclear, but, considering that cannabis is a widely used substance and, overall, its potential use in therapeutic interventions, it is important to evaluate them. We hypothesize that the discrepancies among studies could be attributed to the specific cognitive function investigated and that skills subserved by the hippocampus, such as the spatial orientation abilities and, specifically, the ability to form and use cognitive maps, ...

Liana Palermo; Filippo Bianchini; Giuseppe Iaria; Antonio Tanzilli; Cecilia Guariglia

2012-01-01

155

Mortality in GOLD stages of COPD and its dependence on symptoms of chronic bronchitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The GOLD classification of COPD severity introduces a stage 0 (at risk comprising individuals with productive cough and normal lung function. The aims of this study were to investigate total mortality risks in GOLD stages 0–4 with special focus on stage 0, and furthermore to assess the influence of symptoms of chronic bronchitis on mortality risks in GOLD stages 1–4. Method Between 1974 and 1992, a total of 22 044 middle-aged individuals participated in a health screening, which included a spirometry as well as recording of respiratory symptoms and smoking habits. Individuals with comorbidity at baseline (diabetes, stroke, cancer, angina pectoris, or heart infarction were excluded from the analyses. Hazard ratios (HR 95% CI of total mortality were analyzed in GOLD stages 0–4 with individuals with normal lung function and without symptoms of chronic bronchitis as a reference group. HR:s in smoking individuals with symptoms of chronic bronchitis within the stages 1–4 were calculated with individuals with the same GOLD stage but without symptoms of chronic bronchitis as reference. Results The number of deaths was 3674 for men and 832 for women based on 352 324 and 150 050 person-years respectively. The proportion of smokers among men was 50% and among women 40%. Self reported comorbidity was present in 4.6% of the men and 6.6% of the women. Among smoking men, Stage 0 was associated with an increased mortality risk, HR; 1.65 (1.32–2.08, of similar magnitude as in stage 2, HR; 1.41 (1.31–1.70. The hazard ratio in stage 0 was significantly higher than in stage 1 HR; 1.13 (0.98–1.29. Among male smokers with stage 1; HR: 2.04 (1.34–3.11, and among female smokers with stage 2 disease; HR: 3.16 (1.38–7.23, increased HR:s were found in individuals with symptoms of chronic bronchitis as compared to those without symptoms of chronic bronchitis. Conclusion Symptoms fulfilling the definition of chronic bronchitis were associated with an increased mortality risk among male smokers with normal pulmonary function (stage 0 and also with an increased risk of death among smoking individuals with mild to moderate COPD (stage 1 and 2.

Nilsson Peter M

2005-08-01

156

Reprint of "Treatment of cannabis use disorders in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders--a systematic review"  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cannabis use disorders (CUD) are prevalent among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), with a range of detrimental effects, e.g. reduced compliance to medication and psychosocial interventions, and increased level of psychotic-dimension symptoms. The aim of this study was to review literature on treatments of CUD in SSD-patients.

Hjorthøj, Carsten; Fohlmann, Allan

2009-01-01

157

Classification and Short-Term Course of DSM-IV Cannabis, Hallucinogen, Cocaine, and Opioid Disorders in Treated Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the latent class structure of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (text rev.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) symptoms used to diagnose cannabis, hallucinogen, cocaine, and opiate disorders among 501 adolescents recruited from addictions treatment. Latent class results were compared with the…

Chung, Tammy; Martin, Christoper S.

2005-01-01

158

Neural correlates of performance monitoring in chronic cannabis users and cannabis-na?ve controls  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic cannabis use is associated with residual negative effects on measures of executive functioning. However, little previous work has focused specifically on executive processes involved in performance monitoring in frequent cannabis users. The present study investigated event-related potential (ERP) correlates of performance monitoring in chronic cannabis users. The error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe), ERPs sensitive to performance monitoring, were recorded from 30 frequent cannabis users (mean usage=5.52 days/week) and 32 cannabis-naïve control participants during a speeded stimulus discrimination task. The “oddball” P3 ERP was recorded as well. Users and controls did not differ on the amplitude or latency of the ERN; however, Pe amplitude was larger among users. Users also showed increased amplitude and reduced latency of the P3 in response to infrequent stimuli presented during the task. Among users, urinary cannabinoid metabolite levels at testing were unrelated to ERP outcomes. However, total years of cannabis use correlated negatively with P3 latency and positively with P3 amplitude, and age of first cannabis use correlated negatively with P3 amplitude. The results of this study suggest that chronic cannabis use is associated with alterations in neural activity related to the processing of motivationally-relevant stimuli (P3) and errors (Pe).

Fridberg, Daniel J; Skosnik, Patrick D; Hetrick, William P; O'Donnell, Brian F

2014-01-01

159

Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent Activation in Basal Ganglia Nuclei Relates to Specific Symptoms in De Novo Parkinson's Disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To aid the development of symptomatic and disease modifying therapies in Parkinson's disease (PD), there is a strong need to identify non-invasive measures of basal ganglia function that are sensitive to disease severity. This study examines the relation between blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation in every nucleus of the basal ganglia and symptom-specific disease severity in early stage, de novo PD. BOLD activation measured at 3 Tesla was compared between 20 early stage de nov...

Prodoehl, Janey; Spraker, Mathew; Corcos, Daniel; Comella, Cynthia; Vaillancourt, David

2010-01-01

160

Do PTSD Symptoms and Course Predict Continued Substance Use for Homeless Individuals in Contingency Management for Cocaine Dependence?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Homeless individuals (n = 187) entering contingency management (CM) for cocaine dependence were assessed for PTSD diagnosis, and a subset of 102 participants reporting traumatic exposure also periodically completed a self-report measure of PTSD symptoms. Patients with PTSD in full remission at 6 months (end of active treatment) and 12 months (end of aftercare) used substances much less frequently during aftercare than those with no PTSD diagnosis. Those whose PTSD diagnosis improved to full r...

Burns, Michelle Nicole; Lehman, Kenneth A.; Milby, Jesse B.; Wallace, Dennis; Schumacher, Joseph E.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

THE EFFECT OF CANNABIS COMPARED WITH ALCOHOL ON DRIVING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of toler...

Sewell, R. Andrew; Poling, James; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

2009-01-01

162

Societal images of Cannabis use: comparing three countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Differences in beliefs about Cannabis were compared between Canada, Sweden and Finland using nationally representative population surveys containing similar items. Findings Compared to Finnish and Swedish respondents, Canadians were both more likely to have tried Cannabis and to view Cannabis as a less serious problem for society. Conclusions These findings emphasize the extent to which views about Cannabis can vary. It is possi...

Cunningham John A; Blomqvist Jan; Koski-Jännes Anja; Raitasalo Kirsimarja

2012-01-01

163

Prenatal Cannabis Exposure and Infant Development: “A Tolerated Matter”  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since centuries, cannabis is used for recreational, spiritual and medicinal purposes. Today, cannabis is one of the most commonly used illicit substances, also among pregnant women. In the last decades, levels of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cannabis products have increased, and these higher levels contributed to our interest for investigating the effects of cannabis during pregnancy. The study described in this thesis was embedded within the Generation R Study, a prospect...

El Marroun, H.

2010-01-01

164

Anormalidades cognitivas no uso da cannabis Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evidências de que o uso de cannabis prejudica funções cognitivas em humanos têm-se acumulado nas décadas recentes. O propósito desta revisão é o de atualizar o conhecimento nesta área com novos achados a partir da literatura mais recente. MÉTODO: As buscas na literatura foram realizadas utilizando-se o banco de dados Web of Science até fevereiro de 2010. Foram buscados os termos "cannabi*" ou "marijuana" e "cogniti*" ou "memory" ou "attention" ou "executive function", e os estudos em humanos foram revisados preferencialmente em relação aos estudos em animais. DISCUSSÃO: O uso de cannabis prejudica a memória, a atenção, o controle inibitório, as funções executivas e a tomada de decisões, tanto durante como após o período de intoxicação aguda, persistindo por horas, dias, semanas ou mais após o último uso. Os estudos de desafio farmacológico em humanos estão elucidando a natureza e os substratos neurais das alterações cognitivas associadas a vários canabinoides. O uso pesado ou de longo prazo de cannabis parece resultar em anormalidades cognitivas mais duradouras e possivelmente em alterações cerebrais estruturais. Efeitos cognitivos adversos maiores estão associados ao uso de cannabis quando este começa no início da adolescência. CONCLUSÃO: O sistema canabinoide endógeno está envolvido nos mecanismos de regulação neural que modulam os processos subjacentes a uma gama de funções cognitivas que estão prejudicadas pela cannabis. Os déficits em usuários humanos muito provavelmente refletem, portanto, neuroadaptações e o funcionamento alterado do sistema canabinoide endógeno.OBJECTIVE: Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. METHOD: Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. DISCUSSION: Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. CONCLUSION: The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

Nadia Solowij

2010-05-01

165

Marijuana Dependence: Not Just Smoke and Mirrors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide as well as in the Unites States. Prolonged use of marijuana or repeated administration of its primary psychoactive constituent, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can lead to physical dependence in humans and laboratory animals. The changes that occur with repeated cannabis use include alterations in behavioral, physiological, and biochemical responses. A variety of withdrawal responses occur in cannabis-dependent indiv...

2011-01-01

166

Synthetic cannabis and acute ischemic stroke.  

Science.gov (United States)

An association between marijuana use and stroke has been previously reported. However, the health risks of newer synthetic cannabinoid compounds are less well known. We describe 2 cases that introduce a previously unreported association between synthetic cannabis use and ischemic stroke in young adults. A 22-year-old woman presented with dysarthria, left hemiplegia, and left hemianesthesia within hours of first use of synthetic cannabis. She was healthy and without identified stroke risk factors other than oral contraceptive use and a patent foramen ovale without venous thromboses. A 26-year-old woman presented with nonfluent aphasia, left facial droop, and left hemianesthesia approximately 12 hours after first use of synthetic cannabis. Her other stroke risk factors included migraine with aura, oral contraceptive use, smoking, and a family history of superficial thrombophlebitis. Both women were found to have acute, large-territory infarctions of the right middle cerebral artery. Our 2 cases had risk factors for ischemic stroke but were otherwise young and healthy and the onset of their deficits occurred within hours after first-time exposure to synthetic cannabis. Synthetic cannabis use is an important consideration in the investigation of stroke in young adults. PMID:24119618

Bernson-Leung, Miya E; Leung, Lester Y; Kumar, Sandeep

2014-01-01

167

Analysis of cannabis seizures in NSW, Australia: cannabis potency and cannabinoid profile.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent analysis of the cannabinoid content of cannabis plants suggests a shift towards use of high potency plant material with high levels of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and low levels of other phytocannabinoids, particularly cannabidiol (CBD). Use of this type of cannabis is thought by some to predispose to greater adverse outcomes on mental health and fewer therapeutic benefits. Australia has one of the highest per capita rates of cannabis use in the world yet there has been no previous systematic analysis of the cannabis being used. In the present study we examined the cannabinoid content of 206 cannabis samples that had been confiscated by police from recreational users holding 15 g of cannabis or less, under the New South Wales "Cannabis Cautioning" scheme. A further 26 "Known Provenance" samples were analysed that had been seized by police from larger indoor or outdoor cultivation sites rather than from street level users. An HPLC method was used to determine the content of 9 cannabinoids: THC, CBD, cannabigerol (CBG), and their plant-based carboxylic acid precursors THC-A, CBD-A and CBG-A, as well as cannabichromene (CBC), cannabinol (CBN) and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THC-V). The "Cannabis Cautioning" samples showed high mean THC content (THC+THC-A?=?14.88%) and low mean CBD content (CBD+CBD-A?=?0.14%). A modest level of CBG was detected (CBG+CBG-A?=?1.18%) and very low levels of CBC, CBN and THC-V (<0.1%). "Known Provenance" samples showed no significant differences in THC content between those seized from indoor versus outdoor cultivation sites. The present analysis echoes trends reported in other countries towards the use of high potency cannabis with very low CBD content. The implications for public health outcomes and harm reduction strategies are discussed. PMID:23894589

Swift, Wendy; Wong, Alex; Li, Kong M; Arnold, Jonathon C; McGregor, Iain S

2013-01-01

168

Analysis of Cannabis Seizures in NSW, Australia: Cannabis Potency and Cannabinoid Profile  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent analysis of the cannabinoid content of cannabis plants suggests a shift towards use of high potency plant material with high levels of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and low levels of other phytocannabinoids, particularly cannabidiol (CBD). Use of this type of cannabis is thought by some to predispose to greater adverse outcomes on mental health and fewer therapeutic benefits. Australia has one of the highest per capita rates of cannabis use in the world yet there has been no previous systematic analysis of the cannabis being used. In the present study we examined the cannabinoid content of 206 cannabis samples that had been confiscated by police from recreational users holding 15 g of cannabis or less, under the New South Wales “Cannabis Cautioning” scheme. A further 26 “Known Provenance” samples were analysed that had been seized by police from larger indoor or outdoor cultivation sites rather than from street level users. An HPLC method was used to determine the content of 9 cannabinoids: THC, CBD, cannabigerol (CBG), and their plant-based carboxylic acid precursors THC-A, CBD-A and CBG-A, as well as cannabichromene (CBC), cannabinol (CBN) and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THC-V). The “Cannabis Cautioning” samples showed high mean THC content (THC+THC-A?=?14.88%) and low mean CBD content (CBD+CBD-A?=?0.14%). A modest level of CBG was detected (CBG+CBG-A?=?1.18%) and very low levels of CBC, CBN and THC-V (<0.1%). “Known Provenance” samples showed no significant differences in THC content between those seized from indoor versus outdoor cultivation sites. The present analysis echoes trends reported in other countries towards the use of high potency cannabis with very low CBD content. The implications for public health outcomes and harm reduction strategies are discussed.

Li, Kong M.; Arnold, Jonathon C.; McGregor, Iain S.

2013-01-01

169

Oral fluid/plasma cannabinoid ratios following controlled oral THC and smoked cannabis administration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral fluid (OF) is a valuable biological alternative for clinical and forensic drug testing. Evaluating OF to plasma (OF/P) cannabinoid ratios provides important pharmacokinetic data on the disposition of drug and factors influencing partition between matrices. Eleven chronic cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit for 51 days. There were four 5-day sessions of 0, 30, 60, and 120 mg oral ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/day followed by a five-puff smoked cannabis challenge on Day 5. Each session was separated by 9 days ad libitum cannabis smoking. OF and plasma specimens were analyzed for THC and metabolites. During ad libitum smoking, OF/P THC ratios were high (median, 6.1; range, 0.2-348.5) within 1 h after last smoking, decreasing to 0.1-20.7 (median, 2.1) by 13.0-17.1 h. OF/P THC ratios also decreased during 5-days oral THC dosing, and after the smoked cannabis challenge, median OF/P THC ratios decreased from 1.4 to 5.5 (0.04-245.6) at 0.25 h to 0.12 to 0.17 (0.04-5.1) at 10.5 h post-smoking. In other studies, longer exposure to more potent cannabis smoke and oromucosal cannabis spray was associated with increased OF/P THC peak ratios. Median OF/P 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) ratios were 0.3-2.5 (range, 0.1-14.7) ng/?g, much more consistent in various dosing conditions over time. OF/P THC, but not THCCOOH, ratios were significantly influenced by oral cavity contamination after smoking or oromucosal spray of cannabinoid products, followed by time-dependent decreases. Establishing relationships between OF and plasma cannabinoid concentrations is essential for making inferences of impairment or other clinical outcomes from OF concentrations. PMID:23831756

Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Milman, Garry; Bergamaschi, Mateus; Mendu, Damodara R; Murray, Jeannie A; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

2013-09-01

170

History of cannabis as a medicine: a review História da cannabis como medicamento: uma revisão  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cannabis as a medicine was used before the Christian era in Asia, mainly in India. The introduction of cannabis in the Western medicine occurred in the midst of the 19th century, reaching the climax in the last decade of that century, with the availability and usage of cannabis extracts or tinctures. In the first decades of the 20th century, the Western medical use of cannabis significantly decreased largely due to difficulties to obtain consistent results from batches of plant material of different potencies. The identification of the chemical structure of cannabis components and the possibility of obtaining its pure constituents were related to a significant increase in scientific interest in such plant, since 1965. This interest was renewed in the 1990's with the description of cannabinoid receptors and the identification of an endogenous cannabinoid system in the brain. A new and more consistent cycle of the use of cannabis derivatives as medication begins, since treatment effectiveness and safety started to be scientifically proven.Antes da Era Cristã, a cannabis foi utilizada na Ásia como medicamento, com grande importância na Índia. A introdução da cannabis na Medicina Ocidental ocorreu em meados do século XIX, atingindo o clímax na última década deste século, com a disponibilidade e o uso de extratos e tinturas da cannabis. Nas primeiras décadas do século XX, o uso médico da cannabis no Ocidente diminuiu significativamente, em grande parte pela dificuldade na obtenção de resultados consistentes de amostras da planta com diferentes potências. A identificação da estrutura química de componentes da cannabis e a possibilidade de se obter seus constituintes puros foram relacionadas a um aumento significativo no interesse científico pela planta, desde 1965. Este interesse foi renovado nos anos 90, com a descrição dos receptores de canabinóides e a identificação de um sistema canabinóide endógeno no cérebro. Usos terapêuticos. Um novo e mais consistente ciclo de uso dos derivados de cannabis como medicamento começa, já que a sua eficácia e segurança no tratamento começam a estar cientificamente provados.

Antonio Waldo Zuardi

2006-06-01

171

Cannabis depenalisation, drug consumption and crime - Evidence from the 2004 cannabis declassification in the UK.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the link between cannabis depenalisation and crime using individual-level panel data for England and Wales from 2003 to 2006. We exploit the declassification of cannabis in the UK in 2004 as a natural experiment. Specifically, we use the fact that the declassification changed expected punishments differently in various age groups due to thresholds in British criminal law and employ a difference-in-differences type design using data from the longitudinal version of the Offending, Crime and Justice Survey. Our findings suggest essentially no increases in either cannabis consumption, consumption of other drugs, crime and other forms of risky behaviour. PMID:24937326

Braakmann, Nils; Jones, Simon

2014-08-01

172

Adolescent brain maturation, the endogenous cannabinoid system and the neurobiology of cannabis-induced schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis use during adolescence increases the risk of developing psychotic disorders later in life. However, the neurobiological processes underlying this relationship are unknown. This review reports the results of a literature search comprising various neurobiological disciplines, ultimately converging into a model that might explain the neurobiology of cannabis-induced schizophrenia. The article briefly reviews current insights into brain development during adolescence. In particular, the role of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in experience-dependent maturation of specific cortical circuitries is examined. The review also covers recent hypotheses regarding disturbances in strengthening and pruning of synaptic connections in the prefrontal cortex, and the link with latent psychotic disorders. In the present model, cannabis-induced schizophrenia is considered to be a distortion of normal late postnatal brain maturation. Distortion of glutamatergic transmission during critical periods may disturb prefrontal neurocircuitry in specific brain areas. Our model postulates that adolescent exposure to ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive substance in cannabis, transiently disturbs physiological control of the endogenous cannabinoid system over glutamate and GABA release. As a result, THC may adversely affect adolescent experience-dependent maturation of neural circuitries within prefrontal cortical areas. Depending on dose, exact time window and duration of exposure, this may ultimately lead to the development of psychosis or schizophrenia. The proposed model provides testable hypotheses which can be addressed in future studies, including animal experiments, reanalysis of existing epidemiological data, and prospective epidemiological studies in which the role of the dose-time-effect relationship should be central. PMID:20624444

Bossong, Matthijs G; Niesink, Raymond J M

2010-11-01

173

Societal images of Cannabis use: comparing three countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in beliefs about Cannabis were compared between Canada, Sweden and Finland using nationally representative population surveys containing similar items. Findings Compared to Finnish and Swedish respondents, Canadians were both more likely to have tried Cannabis and to view Cannabis as a less serious problem for society. Conclusions These findings emphasize the extent to which views about Cannabis can vary. It is possible that views about Cannabis are, at least in part, a social construction influenced by media, social policy and exposure to the drug that varies from country to country.

Cunningham John A

2012-06-01

174

Consommation de cannabis: quels sont les risques ? Cannabis: what are the risks ?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les cannabinoïdes contenus dans la plante de cannabis ont un double usage et possèdent des propriétés opposées suivant les circonstances et les doses employées. Les cannabinoïdes, essentiellement drogue récréative ou d'abus pourraient, pour certains d'entre eux, devenir des médicaments. Selon les conditions d'utilisation, ils peuvent être neurotoxiques ou neuroprotecteurs, carcinogènes ou anticancéreux, hyper-émétiques ou antiémétiques, pro-inflammatoires ou anti-inflammatoires... Les techniques de culture sous serre indoor ainsi que la sélection de variétés de cannabis à fort potentiel de production ont conduit à un accroissement notable des taux de THC. Le cannabis est la drogue illégale la plus fréquemment consommée en Suisse et ailleurs dans le monde occidental. Environ la moitié des jeunes ont déjà expérimenté le cannabis. Environ 10 % des consommateurs le fument quotidiennement et en sont devenus dépendants. Un tiers de ces usagers peut être considéré comme chroniquement intoxiqué. Le THC, la principale substance psychoactive du cannabis, interagit avec le "système endocannabinoïde". Ce système est composé de récepteurs cellulaires, de ligands endogènes et d'un dispositif complexe de synthèse, de dégradation, de régulation et de messagers intra-cellulaires. Le système endocannabinoïde joue un rôle clé dans le réglage fin du système nerveux. Les endocannabinoïdes régulent la mémorisation, l'apprentissage moteur et la plasticité des liaisons nerveuses. À dose psychoactive, le THC réduit les performances psychomotrices et neurocognitives. Les facultés d'apprentissage et de mémorisation sont diminuées. Le risque d'être responsable d'un accident de circulation est augmenté après prise de cannabis, et ceci d'autant plus que de l'alcool aura été consommé parallèlement. À l'exception des jeunes enfants, la consommation de cannabis n'entraîne pas de risque potentiel d'intoxication mortelle. Toutefois, le cannabis pourrait agir comme facteur déclenchant d'accident cardiovasculaire chez de rares individus prédisposés. Les individus jeunes, et/ou vulnérables ont un risque significativement plus élevé de développer une psychose à l'âge adulte ou de devenir dépendant au cannabis. Des études épidémiologiques ont montré que le risque de développer une schizophrénie à l'âge adulte était augmenté pour les consommateurs de cannabis et ceci d'autant plus que l'âge de début de consommation était précoce. Il en va de même pour le risque de dépression. Les troubles respiratoires pourraient être exacerbés par la prise de cannabis. Les femmes enceintes et celles qui allaitent ne devraient pas consommer de cannabis car le THC traverse la barrière hémato-placentaire, en outre, il se concentre dans le lait maternel. La période de la vie la plus sensible aux effets néfastes du cannabis correspond à celle allant du fœtus à l'adolescent. Le système endocannabinoïde sur lequel agit le THC serait en effet un acteur majeur orchestrant le développement des réseaux neuronaux dans le cerveau immature. La prise concomitante d'autres psychotropes comme l'alcool, les benzodiazépines ou la cocaïne conduit à des renforcements mutuels de leurs effets délétères. De plus, il a été montré l'existence d'une sensibilité croisée pour la majorité des psychotropes qui agissent sur le système de la récompense, le cannabis y compris, ce qui augmente ainsi le risque de pharmacodépendance. La prise régulière de doses élevées de cannabis entraîne l'apparition d'une tolérance et de symptômes de sevrage discrets à l'arrêt de la consommation. À part les effets négatifs mentionnés auparavant, le cannabis possède des propriétés médicales originales qui sont l'objet d'études attentives. Plusieurs cannabinoïdes mineurs naturels ou synthétiques, comme l'acide ajulémique, pourraient trouver un jour une place dans la pharmacopée. En usage thérapeutique, des variétés particulières de cannabis sont préférées, par

Giroud Christian

2009-03-01

175

Pathways from cannabis to psychosis: a review of the evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nature of the relationship between cannabis use and psychosis is complex and remains unclear. Researchers and clinicians remain divided regarding key issues such as whether or not cannabis is an independent cause of psychosis and schizophrenia. This paper reviews the field in detail, examining questions of causality, the neurobiological basis for such causality and for differential inter-individual risk, the clinical and cognitive features of psychosis in cannabis users, and patterns of course and outcome of psychosis in the context of cannabis use. The author proposes two major pathways from cannabis to psychosis based on a differentiation between early-initiated lifelong cannabis use and a scenario where vulnerable individuals without a lifelong pattern of use consume cannabis over a relatively brief period of time just prior to psychosis onset. Additional key factors determining the clinical and neurobiological manifestation of psychosis as well as course and outcome in cannabis users include: underlying genetic and developmental vulnerability to schizophrenia-spectrum disorders; and whether or not cannabis use ceases or continues after the onset of psychosis. Finally, methodological guidelines are presented for future research aimed at both elucidating the pathways that lead from cannabis to psychosis and clarifying the long-term outcome of the disorder in those who have a history of using cannabis.

JonathanKBurns

2013-10-01

176

A genome-wide association study of alcohol-dependence symptom counts in extended pedigrees identifies C15orf53.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies have identified genes associated with alcohol-use disorders (AUDs), but the variation in each of these genes explains only a small portion of the genetic vulnerability. The goal of the present study was to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in extended families from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism to identify novel genes affecting risk for alcohol dependence (AD). To maximize the power of the extended family design, we used a quantitative endophenotype, measured in all individuals: number of alcohol-dependence symptoms endorsed (symptom count (SC)). Secondary analyses were performed to determine if the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with SC were also associated with the dichotomous phenotype, DSM-IV AD. This family-based GWAS identified SNPs in C15orf53 that are strongly associated with DSM-IV alcohol-dependence symptom counts (P=4.5 × 10(-8), inflation-corrected P=9.4 × 10(-7)). Results with DSM-IV AD in the regions of interest support our findings with SC, although the associations were less significant. Attempted replications of the most promising association results were conducted in two independent samples: nonoverlapping subjects from the Study of Addiction: Genes and Environment (SAGE) and the Australian Twin Family Study of AUDs (OZALC). Nominal association of C15orf53 with SC was observed in SAGE. The variant that showed strongest association with SC, rs12912251 and its highly correlated variants (D'=1, r(2)? 0.95), have previously been associated with risk for bipolar disorder. PMID:23089632

Wang, J-C; Foroud, T; Hinrichs, A L; Le, N X H; Bertelsen, S; Budde, J P; Harari, O; Koller, D L; Wetherill, L; Agrawal, A; Almasy, L; Brooks, A I; Bucholz, K; Dick, D; Hesselbrock, V; Johnson, E O; Kang, S; Kapoor, M; Kramer, J; Kuperman, S; Madden, P A F; Manz, N; Martin, N G; McClintick, J N; Montgomery, G W; Nurnberger, J I; Rangaswamy, M; Rice, J; Schuckit, M; Tischfield, J A; Whitfield, J B; Xuei, X; Porjesz, B; Heath, A C; Edenberg, H J; Bierut, L J; Goate, A M

2013-11-01

177

Counselling young cannabis users by text message  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article presents the results of a study of two SMS services aimed at providing young people with information on cannabis and helping them to reduce their consumption of the drug. The attitude of the 12 participants in the study towards the SMS services is generally positive, but they prefer factual information to advice and counselling. The messages prompt reflection and awareness among the recipients, and their repetitive, serial nature plays a significant part in the process of change. This is especially true of the young people whose use of cannabis is recreational. For them, the SMS services offer a less demanding, potentially less confrontational alternative to traditional forms of counselling and treatment.

Laursen, Ditte

2010-01-01

178

The effects of current subsyndromal psychiatric symptoms or past psychopathology on alcohol dependence treatment outcomes and acamprosate efficacy.  

Science.gov (United States)

This secondary analysis of the first U.S. acamprosate trial (N = 601) for alcohol dependence examines the effects of subsyndromal psychiatric symptoms or history of severe psychopathology on alcoholism treatment outcomes and any mitigating effects of acamprosate. Psychiatric antecedents were documented using a protocol-specific interview. Current psychiatric symptoms were assessed using Hamilton Anxiety and Depression (HAM-A, HAM-D) rating scales. Predictors of good response, defined as abstinence for > or =90% of trial duration, were identified using logistic regression. Subsyndromal anxiety (as determined by HAM-A "Anxious Mood" item) and the presence of > or =1 psychiatric antecedent were significant negative predictors of good response. Lower pretreatment drinking intensity, baseline motivation to have abstinence as a goal, and treatment with acamprosate were significant positive predictors of good response. No significant interactions among predictors were detected, indicating that they are independent, additive factors. Thus, the beneficial effects of acamprosate treatment in combination with motivational therapy may offset the liabilities for alcoholism recovery that are associated with current anxiety symptoms and/or a significant past psychiatric history. (Am J Addict 2010;00:1-8). PMID:20163387

Mason, Barbara J; Lehert, Philippe

2010-01-01

179

Factores asociados al inicio del consumo de cannabis: una revisión sistemática de estudios de cohortes Factors associated with the onset of cannabis use: a systematic review of cohort studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar los factores asociados al inicio del consumo de cannabis a partir de una revisión sistemática de estudios de cohortes. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica informatizada utilizando diversas palabras clave y sus combinaciones. Entre los estudios identificados se seleccionaron los estudios originales de diseño longitudinal que utilizaran como variable dependiente el inicio de consumo de cannabis, así como los estudios de revisión, publicados entre enero de 1980 y mayo de 2004. Se evaluó la calidad metodológica de los estudios mediante 2 revisores, de manera independiente y a partir de unos criterios prestablecidos, clasificando los artículos en 3 categorías: alta, intermedia o baja calidad. Se midió el nivel de concordancia de los revisores a partir del coeficiente kappa. Resultados: Se identificaron 32 estudios que cumplían los criterios de selección, de los cuales 13 fueron determinados de alta calidad. Las causas de exclusión fueron el sesgo de selección, por la inclusión de consumidores al inicio de la cohorte estudiada, y la falta de ajuste por los potenciales confusores. Los factores que se relacionaron con una mayor evidencia con el inicio del consumo de cannabis fueron el sexo masculino, el consumo de tabaco y alcohol, tener una relación problemática con los padres y el consumo de cannabis por parte de los amigos. Conclusiones: Los resultados señalan la importancia de diversos factores individuales, familiares y del entorno en el inicio del consumo de cannabis, que deberían considerarse de forma conjunta en el abordaje preventivo entre los adolescentes.Objective: To determine the factors associated with the onset of cannabis use through a systematic review of cohort studies. Methods: An internet-based search was performed using several keywords and their combinations. Original studies with longitudinal design and the onset of cannabis use as dependent variable, as well as review studies were included, published between January 1980 and May 2004. Methodology quality of the studies was assessed independently by two reviewers, according to pre-established criteria, in order to classify studies in high, mid or low quality. Agreement between reviewers was assessed through kappa coefficient. Results: A total of 32 relevant studies were identified, of which 13 were of higher quality. Selection bias for the inclusion of consumers at the baseline measurement and lack or insufficient adjustment for confounders were the causes of exclusion. The factors of great evidence related to the onset of cannabis use were masculine sex, consumption of tobacco or alcohol, having a problematic relationship with parents, and cannabis consumption by friends. Conclusion: Results highlight the importance of different individual, family and environmental factors on the onset of cannabis use. These must be considered to properly arrange intervention programs focusing on primary prevention among teenagers.

Mònica Guxens

2007-06-01

180

Dose-dependent onset and cessation of action of inhaled budesonide on exhaled nitric oxide and symptoms in mild asthma  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Dose dependent anti-inflammatory effects of inhaled corticosteroids in asthma are difficult to demonstrate in clinical practice. The anti-inflammatory effect of low dose inhaled budesonide on non-invasive exhaled markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were assessed in patients with mild asthma. Methods: 28 patients entered a double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group study and were randomly given either 100 or 400 µg budesonide or placebo once daily, inhaled from a dry powder inhaler (Turbohaler), for 3 weeks followed by 1 week without treatment. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO), exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), nitrite/nitrate, S-nitrosothiols, and 8-isoprostanes in exhaled breath condensate were measured four times during weeks 1 and 4, and once a week during weeks 2 and 3. Results: A dose-dependent speed of onset and cessation of action of budesonide was seen on exhaled NO and asthma symptoms. Treatment with 400 µg/day reduced exhaled NO faster (–2.06 (0.37) ppb/day) than 100 µg/day (–0.51 (0.35) ppb/day; p<0.01). The mean difference between the effect of 100 and 400 µg budesonide was –1.55 ppb/day (95% CI –2.50 to –0.60). Pretreatment NO levels were positively related to the subsequent speed of reduction during the first 3–5 days of treatment. Faster recovery of exhaled NO was seen after stopping treatment with budesonide 400 µg/day (1.89 (1.43) ppb/day) than 100 µg/day (0.49 (0.34) ppb/day, p<0.01). The mean difference between the effect of 100 and 400 µg budesonide was 1.40 ppb/day (95% CI –0.49 to 2.31). Symptom improvement was dose-dependent, although symptoms returned faster in patients treated with 400 µg/day. A significant reduction in exhaled nitrite/nitrate and S-nitrosothiols after budesonide treatment was not dose-dependent. There were no significant changes in exhaled CO or 8-isoprostanes in breath condensate. Conclusion: Measurement of exhaled NO levels can indicate a dose-dependent onset and cessation of anti-inflammatory action of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with mild asthma.

Kharitonov, S; Donnelly, L; Montuschi, P; Corradi, M; Collins, J; Barnes, P

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Reactivity to Cannabis Cues in Virtual Reality Environments†  

Science.gov (United States)

Virtual reality (VR) cue environments have been developed and successfully tested in nicotine, cocaine, and alcohol abusers. Aims in the current article include the development and testing of a novel VR cannabis cue reactivity assessment system. It was hypothesized that subjective craving levels and attention to cannabis cues would be higher in VR environments merits with cannabis cues compared to VR neutral environments. Twenty nontreatment-seeking current cannabis smokers participated in the VR cue trial. During the VR cue trial, participants were exposed to four virtual environments that contained audio, visual, olfactory, and vibrotactile sensory stimuli. Two VR environments contained cannabis cues that consisted of a party room in which people were smoking cannabis and a room containing cannabis paraphernalia without people. Two VR neutral rooms without cannabis cues consisted of a digital art gallery with nature videos. Subjective craving and attention to cues were significantly higher in the VR cannabis environments compared to the VR neutral environments. These findings indicate that VR cannabis cue reactivity may offer a new technology-based method to advance addiction research and treatment.

Bordnick, Patrick S.; Copp, Hilary L.; Traylor, Amy; Graap, Ken M.; Carter, Brian L.; Walton, Alicia; Ferrer, Mirtha

2014-01-01

182

The effect of cannabis use on memory function: an update  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tabea Schoeler, Sagnik BhattacharyyaDepartment of Psychosis Studies, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UKAbstract: Investigating the effects of cannabis use on memory function appears challenging. While early observational investigations aimed to elucidate the longer-term effects of cannabis use on memory function in humans, findings remained equivocal and pointed to a pattern of interacting factors impacting on the relationship between cannabis use and memory function, rather than a simple direct effect of cannabis. Only recently, a clearer picture of the chronic and acute effects of cannabis use on memory function has emerged once studies have controlled for potential confounding factors and started to investigate the acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC and cannabidiol (CBD, the main ingredients in the extract of the cannabis plant in pharmacological challenge experiments. Relatively consistent findings have been reported regarding the acute impairments induced by a single dose of ?9-THC on verbal and working memory. It is unclear whether they may persist beyond the intoxication state. In the long-term, these impairments seem particularly likely to manifest and may also persist following abstinence if regular and heavy use of cannabis strains high in ?9-THC is started at an early age. Although still at an early stage, studies that employed advanced neuroimaging techniques have started to model the neural underpinnings of the effects of cannabis use and implicate a network of functional and morphological alterations that may moderate the effects of cannabis on memory function. Future experimental and epidemiological studies that take into consideration individual differences, particularly previous cannabis history and demographic characteristics, but also the precise mixture of the ingredients of the consumed cannabis are necessary to clarify the magnitude and the mechanisms by which cannabis-induced memory impairments occur and to elucidate underlying neurobiological mechanisms.Keywords: cannabis, THC, CBD, memory, neuroimaging, fMRI

Schoeler T

2013-01-01

183

Social Anxiety and Cannabis Use: An Analysis from Ecological Momentary Assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear especially vulnerable to cannabis-related problems, yet little is known about the antecedents of cannabis-related behaviors among this high-risk population. The present study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine the relations among social anxiety, cannabis craving, state anxiety, situational variables, and cannabis use in the natural environment during ad-lib cannabis use episodes. Participants were 49 current cannabis users. Du...

2012-01-01

184

Gender Differences in the Correlates of Adolescents' Cannabis Use  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adolescents' gender-specific cannabis use rates and their correlates were examined. Data were obtained via a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2004 in British Columbia, Canada, funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. School districts were invited to participate, and schools within consenting districts were recruited. In total, 8,225 students (50% male)from Grades 7 to 12 participated. About 73% were “White” and 47% had used cannabis in their lifetime. Cannabis users were g...

Tu, Andrew W.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Johnson, Joy L.

2008-01-01

185

Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract More people are using the cannabis plant as modern basic and clinical science reaffirms and extends its medicinal uses. Concomitantly, concern and opposition to smoked medicine has occurred, in part due to the known carcinogenic consequences of smoking tobacco. Are these reactions justified? While chemically very similar, there are fundamental differences in the pharmacological properties between cannabis and tobacco smoke. Cannabis smoke contains cannabinoids whereas tobac...

2005-01-01

186

Cannabinoid Concentrations in Hair from Documented Cannabis Users  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fifty-three head hair specimens were collected from 38 males with a history of cannabis use documented by questionnaire, urinalysis and controlled, double blind administration of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in an institutional review board approved protocol. The subjects completed a questionnaire indicating daily cannabis use (N = 18) or non-daily use, i.e. 1 to 5 cannabis cigarettes per week, (N = 20). Drug use was also documented by a positive cannabinoid urinalysis, a hair specimen was ...

2007-01-01

187

Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

More people are using the cannabis plant as modern basic and clinical science reaffirms and extends its medicinal uses. Concomitantly, concern and opposition to smoked medicine has occurred, in part due to the known carcinogenic consequences of smoking tobacco. Are these reactions justified? While chemically very similar, there are fundamental differences in the pharmacological properties between cannabis and tobacco smoke. Cannabis smoke contains cannabinoids whereas tobacco smoke contains n...

Melamede, Robert

2005-01-01

188

Eysenck Personality Dimensions in a Sample of Cannabis Users  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

    Objective: The objective of this study is to examine Eysenck personality dimensions in cannabis users  Method:100 regular cannabis users were selected and completed Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) which easures Neuroticism (N),Extraversion-Introversion (E-I) and Psychoticism (P) dimensions of Eysenck personality structures  Results:The scores of 51% of cannabis users were higher than mean in all dimensions of EPQ. Also the mean score of N and P were higher than...

Mehrdad Eftekhar; Ebrahimi, Azizeh A.; Hamed Azimi; Arash Vahdat; Hamid Reza Ahmadkhaniha

2007-01-01

189

Anormalidades cognitivas no uso da cannabis / Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Evidências de que o uso de cannabis prejudica funções cognitivas em humanos têm-se acumulado nas décadas recentes. O propósito desta revisão é o de atualizar o conhecimento nesta área com novos achados a partir da literatura mais recente. MÉTODO: As buscas na literatura foram realizadas ut [...] ilizando-se o banco de dados Web of Science até fevereiro de 2010. Foram buscados os termos "cannabi*" ou "marijuana" e "cogniti*" ou "memory" ou "attention" ou "executive function", e os estudos em humanos foram revisados preferencialmente em relação aos estudos em animais. DISCUSSÃO: O uso de cannabis prejudica a memória, a atenção, o controle inibitório, as funções executivas e a tomada de decisões, tanto durante como após o período de intoxicação aguda, persistindo por horas, dias, semanas ou mais após o último uso. Os estudos de desafio farmacológico em humanos estão elucidando a natureza e os substratos neurais das alterações cognitivas associadas a vários canabinoides. O uso pesado ou de longo prazo de cannabis parece resultar em anormalidades cognitivas mais duradouras e possivelmente em alterações cerebrais estruturais. Efeitos cognitivos adversos maiores estão associados ao uso de cannabis quando este começa no início da adolescência. CONCLUSÃO: O sistema canabinoide endógeno está envolvido nos mecanismos de regulação neural que modulam os processos subjacentes a uma gama de funções cognitivas que estão prejudicadas pela cannabis. Os déficits em usuários humanos muito provavelmente refletem, portanto, neuroadaptações e o funcionamento alterado do sistema canabinoide endógeno. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. METHOD: Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science [...] database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. DISCUSSION: Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. CONCLUSION: The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

Solowij, Nadia; Pesa, Nicole.

190

Cannabis Use during Adolescent Development: Susceptibility to Psychiatric Illness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis use is increasingly pervasive among adolescents today, even more common than cigarette smoking. The evolving policy surrounding the legalization of cannabis reaffirms the need to understand the relationship between cannabis exposure early in life and psychiatric illnesses. cannabis contains psychoactive components, notably ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), that interfere with the brain's endogenous endocannabinoid system, which is critically involved in both pre- and post-natal neurodevelopment. Consequently, THC and related compounds could potentially usurp normal adolescent neurodevelopment, shifting the brain's developmental trajectory toward a disease-vulnerable state, predisposing early cannabis users to motivational, affective, and psychotic disorders. Numerous human studies, including prospective longitudinal studies, demonstrate that early cannabis use is associated with major depressive disorder and drug addiction. A strong association between schizophrenia and cannabis use is also apparent, especially when considering genetic factors that interact with this environmental exposure. These human studies set a foundation for carefully controlled animal studies which demonstrate similar patterns following early cannabinoid exposure. Given the vulnerable nature of adolescent neurodevelopment and the persistent changes that follow early cannabis exposure, the experimental findings outlined should be carefully considered by policymakers. In order to fully address the growing issues of psychiatric illnesses and to ensure a healthy future, measures should be taken to reduce cannabis use among teens. PMID:24133461

Chadwick, Benjamin; Miller, Michael L; Hurd, Yasmin L

2013-01-01

191

Cannabis Use during Adolescent Development: Susceptibility to Psychiatric Illness  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis use is increasingly pervasive among adolescents today, even more common than cigarette smoking. The evolving policy surrounding the legalization of cannabis reaffirms the need to understand the relationship between cannabis exposure early in life and psychiatric illnesses. cannabis contains psychoactive components, notably ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), that interfere with the brain’s endogenous endocannabinoid system, which is critically involved in both pre- and post-natal neurodevelopment. Consequently, THC and related compounds could potentially usurp normal adolescent neurodevelopment, shifting the brain’s developmental trajectory toward a disease-vulnerable state, predisposing early cannabis users to motivational, affective, and psychotic disorders. Numerous human studies, including prospective longitudinal studies, demonstrate that early cannabis use is associated with major depressive disorder and drug addiction. A strong association between schizophrenia and cannabis use is also apparent, especially when considering genetic factors that interact with this environmental exposure. These human studies set a foundation for carefully controlled animal studies which demonstrate similar patterns following early cannabinoid exposure. Given the vulnerable nature of adolescent neurodevelopment and the persistent changes that follow early cannabis exposure, the experimental findings outlined should be carefully considered by policymakers. In order to fully address the growing issues of psychiatric illnesses and to ensure a healthy future, measures should be taken to reduce cannabis use among teens.

Chadwick, Benjamin; Miller, Michael L.; Hurd, Yasmin L.

2013-01-01

192

Cannabis and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A review of clinical studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cannabis is the most widely used illegitimate substance in the world, and the number of users has increased by 10% over the last decade worldwide. Therefore, it is important to review the evidence on psychoactive properties of cannabis and its possible association with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD. We searched MEDLINE with the key words cannabis and schizophrenia. The search was limited to articles published in English over the last 10 years (1999-2009. Bibliographies of cited literature were also searched. Data sources included reviews published in core clinical journals, cohort studies, interventional studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional analyses and epidemiological data. Results are discussed under 2 topics. Firstly, evidence related to biochemical functioning of cannabinoids and their relationship to endocannabinoid system is discussed briefly. Secondly, the evidence from clinical studies on cannabis, psychosis proneness and SSD are discussed in detail. The discussion is structured to fit in the evidence from results section to 3 plausible hypotheses on cannabis use and SSD. The evidence for and against each hypothesis is discussed. Despite new evidence, the exact relationship between cannabis and SSD is unclear. There is no firm evidence that cannabis causes SSD. The evidence for the argument that schizophrenic patients are attracted to cannabis is also not strong. The most plausible explanation is that cannabis use and psychosis proneness may have synergistic effects in a vulnerable minority.

Rodrigo Chaturaka

2009-01-01

193

Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract More people are using the cannabis plant as modern basic and clinical science reaffirms and extends its medicinal uses. Concomitantly, concern and opposition to smoked medicine has occurred, in part due to the known carcinogenic consequences of smoking tobacco. Are these reactions justified? While chemically very similar, there are fundamental differences in the pharmacological properties between cannabis and tobacco smoke. Cannabis smoke contains cannabinoids whereas tobacco smoke contains nicotine. Available scientific data, that examines the carcinogenic properties of inhaling smoke and its biological consequences, suggests reasons why tobacco smoke, but not cannabis smoke, may result in lung cancer.

Melamede Robert

2005-10-01

194

Cannabis use during adolescent development: susceptibility to psychiatric illness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cannabis use is increasingly pervasive among adolescents today, even more common than cigarette smoking. The evolving policy surrounding the legalization of cannabis reaffirms the need to understand the relationship between cannabis exposure early in life and psychiatric illnesses. Cannabis contains psychoactive components, notably ?9-tetrahydrocannbinol (THC, that interfere with the brain’s endogenous endocannabinoid system, which is critically involved in both pre- and post-natal neurodevelopment. Consequently, THC and related compounds could potentially usurp normal adolescent neurodevelopment, shifting the brain’s developmental trajectory towards a disease-vulnerable state, predisposing early cannabis-users to motivational, affective and psychotic disorders. Numerous human studies, including prospective longitudinal studies, demonstrate that early cannabis use is associated with major depressive disorder and drug addiction. A strong association between schizophrenia and cannabis use is also apparent, especially when considering genetic factors that interact with this environmental exposure. These human studies set a foundation for carefully controlled animal studies which demonstrate similar patterns following early cannabinoid exposure. Given the vulnerable nature of adolescent neurodevelopment and the persistent changes that follow early cannabis exposure, the experimental findings outlined should be carefully considered by policymakers. In order to fully address the growing issues of psychiatric illnesses and to ensure a healthy future, measures should be taken to reduce cannabis use among teens.

MichaelLawrenceMiller

2013-10-01

195

The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The therapeutic potential of cannabidiol (CBD), the major nonpsychoactive component of cannabis, was explored in murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was elicited by immunizing DBA/1 mice with type II collagen (CII) in complete Freund's adjuvant. The CII used was either bovine or murine, resulting in classical acute CIA or in chronic relapsing CIA, respectively. CBD was administered after onset of clinical symptoms, and in both models of arthritis the treatment effectively blocked pro...

Malfait, A. M.; Gallily, R.; Sumariwalla, P. F.; Malik, A. S.; Andreakos, E.; Mechoulam, R.; Feldmann, M.

2000-01-01

196

Polyketide synthases in Cannabis sativa L.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cannabis sativa L. plants produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites, which have been grouped in cannabinoids, flavonoids, stilbenoids, terpenoids, alkaloids and lignans; the cannabinoids are the best known group of natural products from this plant. The pharmacological aspects of this secondary metabolite group have been extensively studied and the cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway has been partially elucidated. Although, it is known that the geranyl diphosphate (GPP) and the olivetolic ...

2008-01-01

197

Harm reduction-the cannabis paradox  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract This article examines harm reduction from a novel perspective. Its central thesis is that harm reduction is not only a social concept, but also a biological one. More specifically, evolution does not make moral distinctions in the selection process, but utilizes a cannabis-based approach to harm reduction in order to promote survival of the fittest. Evidence will be provided from peer-reviewed scientific literature that supports the hypothesis that humans, and all animals, ...

Melamede Robert

2005-01-01

198

Le cannabis est-il un produit dopant ? Is cannabis a doping substance ?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les propriétés sédatives et anxiolytiques du principe psychoactif principal du cannabis, le delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, sont connues depuis des millénaires. Cette connaissance empirique a été confirmée ces dernières années par une meilleure compréhension des mécanismes d'action du THC. Au niveau neuronal, il induit une diminution intracellulaire du potassium et une augmentation du calcium. Ceci se traduit par une altération des capacités d'exocytose de certains neurotransmetteurs, dont le glutamate. Par ailleurs, il est désormais bien établi que les zones du cerveau dans lesquelles le THC exerce ces effets sont les mêmes que celles où agissent les médicaments sédatifs et les bêtabloquants, substances également utilisées dans la pratique du dopage. Les propriétés sédatives du cannabis sont recherchées par les athlètes, les jours précédant les compétitions pour favoriser l'endormissement, un souci majeur pour ces sportifs de haut niveau. Dans les disciplines sportives nécessitant un état de relaxation important au cours de la compétition, ce qui est le cas pour tous les sports d'adresse (tir, équitation, etc., les propriétés anxiolytiques du cannabis sont également très attractives. En conséquence, et bien que le cannabis puisse être responsable d'une diminution des performances biomécaniques, il est utilisé par les sportifs de haut niveau pour son aptitude à améliorer les performances psychologiques ; il est donc logique qu'il soit proscrit au même titre que certaines classes de médicaments destinés à se substituer aux méthodes naturelles de préparation psychologique. Sedative and anxiolytic properties of delta-9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the main active component of cannabis are known from thousand of years. This empirical knowledge was confirmed in recent years by a better understanding of mechanisms of action of THC. On neurons, its effects consist of a decrease in intracellular concentrations of potassium and of an increase in calcium concentration. Ultimately, the release of neurotransmitters such as glutamate is inhibited. On the other hand, the areas of the brain where THC has its effects are the same as those where the benzodiazepines and the beta-blockers also act. The sedative properties of cannabis are of interest to athletes during the days before the competition since they facilitate falling asleep, a major concern for high level sportsmen. In sports that need a relaxed state during the competition, as it is the case for instance in accuracy specialities (shooting, horse riding, ..., cannabis anxiolytic properties are also attractive. Therefore, and even if cannabis could be responsible of lowering biochemical performances, it is used by high level sportsmen for its virtue to improve psychic components ; it is then logical to ban their use as well as several drugs that could substitute for natural methods of psychological preparation.

Mura Patrick

2009-04-01

199

Síntomas depresivos como factor de riesgo de dependencia en adultos mayores Depressive symptoms as a risk factor for dependence in elderly people  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la relación entre síntomas depresivos y dependencia funcional. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio longitudinal con 1 880 adultos mayores evaluados en 2001 y 2003. Se determinaron los síntomas depresivos con una versión modificada de la Escala de Depresión del Centro de Estudios Epidemiológicos y la dependencia con las escalas de Lawton y Brody, y Katz. La dependencia implicó la asistencia y ayuda para realizar alguna de las actividades interrogadas. Los análisis multifactoriales probaron el nexo entre síntomas depresivos y desarrollo de dependencia. RESULTADOS: En 2001, 37.9% mostró síntomas depresivos. En 2003, 6.1 y 12.7% desarrollaron dependencia para al menos una de las actividades básicas (ABVD e instrumentales de la vida diaria (AIVD, respectivamente. En el análisis multivariado, los síntomas depresivos fueron factor de riesgo sólo para dependencia en las AIVD. CONCLUSIONES: Los síntomas depresivos favorecen el desarrollo de dependencia funcional. Es necesario su reconocimiento sistemático durante la evaluación clínica del adulto mayor.OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between depressive symptoms and dependence in activities of daily living. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Participants, aged 70 to 104 (n= 1 880, were evaluated twice (2001 and 2003. Depressive symptoms were established by a modified version of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, whereas functional dependence was assessed with Lawton & Brody and Katz scales. Dependence implies the attendance and assistance of another person to accomplish the activity. Multivariate regression analyses were used to determine the effect of depressive symptoms on incident dependence. RESULTS: At baseline, 37.9% had depressive symptoms. After two years, 6.1 and 12.7% developed functional dependence for one or more ADL and IADL, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that depressive symptoms were a risk factor to the development of functional dependence only for the instrumental activities for daily living. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms are a risk factor for functional dependence. Systematic screening it seems necessary in the evaluation of geriatric patients.

José Alberto Ávila-Funes

2007-10-01

200

Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome: Clinical diagnosis of an underrecognised manifestation of chronic cannabis abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cannabis is a common drug of abuse that is associated with various long-term and short-term adverse effects. The nature of its association with vomiting after chronic abuse is obscure and is underrecognised by clinicians. In some patients this vomiting can take on a pattern similar to cyclic vomiting syndrome with a peculiar compulsive hot bathing pattern, which relieves intense feelings of nausea and accompanying symptoms. In this case report, we describe a twenty-two year-old-male with a hi...

Siva P Sontineni, Sanjay Chaudhary

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Cannabis consumption as a prognostic factor in schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data were analysed from 62 schizophrenic patients between 18 and 30 years of age, treated at the community mental health centres in Navarra, who had relapsed and then completed a one-year follow-up study. Factors influencing the course of illness during follow-up were: continuing cannabis consumption; previous cannabis intake; non-compliance with treatment; and stress. PMID:7921721

Martinez-Arevalo, M J; Calcedo-Ordoñez, A; Varo-Prieto, J R

1994-05-01

202

Cannabis use and destructive periodontal diseases among adolescents  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIM: The aim of this experiment was to investigate the association between cannabis use and destructive periodontal disease among adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from a population screening examination carried out among Chilean high school students from the Province of Santiago were used to determine whether there was an association between the use of cannabis and signs of periodontal diseases as defined by (1) the presence of necrotizing ulcerative gingival (NUG) lesions or (2) the presence of clinical attachment loss (CAL) > or =3 mm. The cannabis exposures variables considered were "Ever use of cannabis" (yes/no) and "Regular use of cannabis" (yes/no). The associations were investigated using multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, paternal income, paternal education, frequency of tooth-brushing and time since last dental visit. RESULTS: Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that "Ever use of cannabis" was significantly negatively associated with the presence of NUG lesions (OR=0.47 [0.2;0.9]) among non-smokers only. No significant associations were observed between the presence of CAL > or =3 mm and cannabis use in either of the smoking groups. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence to suggest that the use of cannabis is positively associated with periodontal diseases in this adolescent population.

López, Rodrigo; Baelum, Vibeke

2009-01-01

203

Microglial activation underlies cerebellar deficits produced by repeated cannabis exposure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chronic cannabis exposure can lead to cerebellar dysfunction in humans, but the neurobiological mechanisms involved remain incompletely understood. Here, we found that in mice, subchronic administration of the psychoactive component of cannabis, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), activated cerebellar microglia and increased the expression of neuroinflammatory markers, including IL-1?. This neuroinflammatory phenotype correlated with deficits in cerebellar conditioned learning ...

Cutando, Laura; Busquets-garcia, Arnau; Puighermanal, Emma; Gomis-gonza?lez, Maria; Delgado-garci?a, Jose? Mari?a; Gruart, Agne?s; Maldonado, Rafael; Ozaita, Andre?s

2013-01-01

204

Four decades of cannabis criminals in Canada: 1970-2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Canada was one of the first countries in the world to criminalise cannabis in 1923. It was not until the late 1960s and an associated upsurge of youthful cannabis use that the government and various stakeholders seriously interrogated the appropriateness of this punitive prohibition. Nevertheless, despite numerous opportunities for law reform for over four decades, cannabis possession continues to be illegal and as a result, hundreds of thousands of Canadians have received criminal records under these laws. This article reviews federal attempts at cannabis law reform and uses data spanning several decades to examine the characteristics of individuals convicted of cannabis possession and the implications of criminalisation on their lives.

Patricia G. Erickson

2010-10-01

205

Anorexia nervosa and cannabis abuse: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is known that there is a high rate of comorbidity of alcohol-substance abuse and eating disorders. The compounds of cannabis, such as tetrahydrocannabinol, activate endogenous cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 in the brain. Stimulating the CB1 receptor is known to cause increased appetite and an antiemetic effect and because of these effects cannabinoids are used clinically. In this case report, a young girl diagnosed anorexia nervosa and using cannabis will be presented. The patient, a 17 year-old, had complaints of loss weight and had used cannabis for three years. It was found that, although cannabis caused increased appetite, she induced weight loss by self-induction of vomiting and excessive exercise. According to a scan of the literature in Turkey, such a case of using cannabis comorbid with anorexia nervosa has not previously been reported. In this respect, discussion of the case in detail is important.

semra karayilan

2013-01-01

206

Symptoms of Depression Depend on Rigid Parenting Attitudes, Gender, and Race in an At-Risk Sample of Early Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

Trajectories of depressive symptoms were compared between European American and African American boys and girls from ages 8 to 14 in a longitudinal sample of 130 children born to adolescent mothers. Mixed-effects regression modeling was used to analyze individual and group differences in level of depressive symptoms and their changes over time.…

Weed, Keri; Morales, Dawn A.; Harjes, Rachel

2013-01-01

207

Moral regulation and the presumption of guilt in Health Canada's medical cannabis policy and practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is a sociological examination of policies and practices in Health Canada's Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD) that presume the illicit intentions and inherent "guilt" of medical cannabis users, hampering safe access to a medicine to which many are legally entitled, and raising doubts about this federal programme's overall effectiveness and constitutional legitimacy. Beginning with a brief historical overview of Canada's federal medical cannabis programme, this paper examines the failure of the MMAD to meet the needs of many sick and suffering Canadians through Hunt's [Hunt, A. (1999). Governing morals: A social history of moral regulation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press] work on moral regulation and Wodak's [Wodak, A. (2007). Ethics and drug policy. Psychiatry, 6(2), 59-62] critique of "deontological" drug policy strategies. I then cite Tupper's [Tupper, K. W. (2007). The globalization of ayahuasca: Harm reduction or benefit maximization? International Journal of Drug Policy, doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2006.11.001] argument that shifting to a generative metaphor that constructs certain entheogenic substances as potentially useful "tools" rather than regulating them through inherently moralistic prohibitionist policies would better serve public health, and incorporate Young's [Young, I. M. (1990). Justice and the politics of difference. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press] theories of domination and oppression to examine the rise of community-base medical cannabis dispensaries as "new social movements". First-hand accounts by medical cannabis patients, federally funded studies, and internal Health Canada communication and documents suggest that current federal policies and practices are blocking safe access to this herbal medicine. The community-based dispensary model of medical cannabis access is a patient-centered "new social movement" that mitigates the stigmatization and moral regulation of their member-clients by creating opportunities for engagement, empowerment and joint knowledge creation. In light of ongoing Charter challenges and patient criticism, the survival of this federal programme will depend on the government's ability to shift away from policies based on the oppression and moral regulation, and towards consequentialist policies that balance harm reduction and benefit maximization. The effectiveness of such an approach is exemplified by the success of the community-based dispensary model which is currently producing more peer-reviewed research and supplying medical cannabis to a far greater number of patients than Health Canada's Marihuana Medical Access Division. PMID:19124233

Lucas, Philippe

2009-07-01

208

The Rome II and Rome III criteria identify the same subtype-populations in irritable bowel syndrome : agreement depends on the method used for symptom report  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For comparing trials using different classifications for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) subtypes, it is important to know whether these identify the same sub-populations. Our aim was to determine the agreement between Rome II and Rome III subtypes, and to explore whether agreement depends on the symptom reporting method.

Engsbro, A L; Simrén, M

2012-01-01

209

Difference between the prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety in non-diabetic smokers and in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without nicotine dependence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with diabetes who are smokers have higher risks of cardiovascular disease, premature death, and microvascular complications. The present study aims to determine the prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety in smokers with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D and to evaluate if the prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety differ between the three groups studied (patients with T2D who smoke; patients with T2D who do not smoke; smokers without T2D, and finally determine if the degree of nicotine dependence is related to symptoms of anxiety and depression in smokers (with or without T2D. Methods Three study groups were formed: 46 T2D smokers (DS, 46 T2D non-smokers (D, and 46 smokers without diabetes (S, totaling 138 participants. Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD scale and Fagerström Test were applied. Results The prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety in smokers with T2D was 30.4% and 50%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the proportion of individuals with symptoms of anxiety (p?=?0.072 or depression (p?=?0.657 in the DS group compared to group D or S. Among male patients with T2D, the smokers had a higher prevalence of anxiety symptoms (19.6% than non-smokers (4,3% (p?=?0,025. The prevalence of high nicotine dependence among smokers with and without T2D was 39.1% and 37.1%, respectively (p?=?0.999. Fagerström scores showed no significant correlation with the scores obtained on the subscale of anxiety (p?=?0,735 or depression (p?=?0,364. Conclusions The prevalence of depression and anxiety among smokers with and without diabetes and non-smokers T2D is similar. Among male individuals with T2D, the smokers have more symptoms of anxiety than the non-smokers. There is no difference in the prevalence of nicotine dependence among smokers with and without diabetes. The presence of symptoms of anxiety or depression is similar between patients who are dependent and not dependent on nicotine.

Osme Simone

2012-08-01

210

It can't hurt to ask; a patient-centered quality of service assessment of health canada's medical cannabis policy and program  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2001 Health Canada responded to a series of Ontario court decisions by creating the Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD and the Marihuana Medical Access Regulations (MMAR. Although Health Canada has conducted a small number of stakeholder consultations, the federal government has never polled federally authorized cannabis patients. This study is an attempt to learn more about patient needs, challenges and experiences with the MMAD. Methods Launched in the spring of 2007, Quality of Service Assessment of Health Canada's Medical Cannabis Policy and Program pairs a 50 question online survey addressing the personal experiences of patients in the federal cannabis program with 25 semi-guided interviews. Data gathering for this study took place from April 2007 to Jan. 2008, eventually garnering survey responses from 100 federally-authorized users, which at the time represented about 5% of the patients enrolled in Health Canada's program. This paper presents the results of the survey portion of the study. Results 8% of respondents report getting their cannabis from Health Canada, while 66% grow it for themselves. >50% report that they frequent compassion clubs or dispensaries, which remain illegal and unregulated in Canada. 81% of patients would chose certified organic methods of cultivation; >90% state that not all strains are equally effective at relieving symptoms, and 97% would prefer to obtain cannabis from a source where multiple strains are available. Of the 48 patients polled that had tried the Health Canada cannabis supply, >75% rank it as either "1" or "2" on a scale of 1-10 (with "1" being "very poor", and 10 being "excellent". Discussion 72% of respondents report they are either "somewhat" or "totally unsatisfied" with Canada's medical cannabis program. These survey results and relevant court decisions suggest that the MMAR are not meeting the needs of most of the nation's medical cannabis patient community. It is hoped this research will help inform policy changes that will better address the needs of Canada's critically and chronically ill medical cannabis patient population, including the integration of community-based dispensaries into this novel healthcare delivery model.

Lucas Philippe

2012-01-01

211

Specialized psychosocial treatment plus treatment as usual (TAU) versus TAU for patients with cannabis use disorder and psychosis : the CapOpus randomized trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Cannabis abuse in psychotic patients is associated with rehospitalizations, reduced adherence and increased symptom severity. Previous psychosocial interventions have been ineffective in cannabis use, possibly because of low sample sizes and short interventions. We investigated whether adding CapOpus to treatment as usual (TAU) reduces cannabis use in patients with cannabis use disorder and psychosis. Method A total of 103 patients with psychosis and cannabis use disorder were centrally randomized to 6 months of CapOpus plus TAU (n = 52) or TAU (n = 51). CapOpus consisted mainly of motivational interviewing and cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). TAU was targeted primarily at the psychotic disorder. The primary outcome was self-reported days with cannabis use in the preceding month. RESULTS: Pre-randomization cannabis use frequency was 14.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 12.7-17.1] days/month. Post-treatment, the ratio of days/month with cannabis use in CapOpus versus TAU was 0.76 (95% CI 0.38-1.50)(p = 0.42), and 0.80 (95% CI 0.21-3.10) (p = 0.75) at the 4-month follow-up. From 46.4 (95% CI 36.4-56.3) monthly joints pre-randomization, consumption fell to 27.3 (95% CI 12.6-41.9) joints in CapOpus and 48.2 (95% CI 31.8-64.6) in TAU (p = 0.06). Follow-up amounts were 28.4 (95% CI 13.5-43.2) and 41.6 (95% CI 25.2-58.0) joints (p = 0.23). Several subgroup analyses suggested benefits of CapOpus. CONCLUSIONS: CapOpus did not reduce the frequency, but possibly the amount, of cannabis use. This is similar to the findings of previous trials in this population. Implementation of CapOpus-type interventions is thus not warranted at present but subgroup analyses call for further trials.

Hjorthøj, C R; Fohlmann, A

2013-01-01

212

Decline in Genetic Influence on th Co-Occurrence of Alcohol, Marijuana, and Nicotine Dependence Symptoms from Age 14 to 29?  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated high rates of comorbidity among substance use disorders. However, few studies have examined the developmental course of incident comorbidity, and how it changes from adolescence to adulthood. Patterns of comorbidity among substance use disorders provides insight into the effect of shared versus specific etiological influences on measures of substance abuse and dependence. Method We evaluated the pattern of correlations among nicotine, alcohol, and marijuana abuse and dependence symptom counts as well as their underlying genetic and environmental influences in a community-representative twin sample (N=3762). Symptoms were assessed at ages 11, 14, 17, 20, 24, and 29. A single common factor was used to model the correlations among symptom counts at each age. Age-related changes in the influence of this general factor were examined by testing for differences in the mean factor loading across time. Results Mean levels of abuse/dependence symptoms increased throughout adolescence, peaked around age20, and declined from age 24 to 29. The influence of the general factor was highest at ages 14 and 17, but decreased from age 17 to 24. Genetic influences of the general factor declined considerably with age, along with an increase in non-shared environmental influences. Conclusions Adolescent substance abuse/dependence is largely a function of shared etiology. As individuals age, symptoms are increasingly influenced by substance-specific etiological factors. Heritability analyses showed that the generalized risk is primarily influenced by genetic factors in adolescence, but non-shared environmental influences increase in importance as substance dependence becomes more specialized in adulthood.

Vrieze, Scott I.; Hicks, Brian M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

2012-01-01

213

Le cannabis : quelle place dans la soumission chimique ? Cannabis : which occurence in chemical submission ?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Le cannabis est de très loin la drogue illicite la plus consommée en France. Les effets chez l'homme sont dus au delta-9- tétrahydrocannabinol (THC et au 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tétrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC. Les effets aigus consistent en une euphorie, une désinhibition, un état de somnolence pouvant aller jusqu 'à un sommeil profond, des troubles visuels et des troubles de la mémoire à court terme. Avec de tels effets, il n'est pas surprenant que le cannabis puisse être présent dans l'organisme des auteurs et/ou victimes de viols, vols, ou autres crimes faisant appel à la soumission chimique. Cette potentialité n'est cependant pas confirmée par l'expérience des auteurs puisque, parmi plusieurs centaines d'expertises judiciaires réalisées au cours des trois dernières années dans des cas de suspicion de viol, des cannabinoïdes étaient présents dans le sang et/ou les urines de seulement 21 victimes supposées. Pour 9 d'entre-elles, l'analyse des cheveux n'ayant pas été réalisée, la soumission chimique n'a pas pu être confirmée. L'analyse des cheveux a permis de mettre en évidence une consommation chronique de cannabis dans 11 cas. Dans un seul cas, la présence de THC et de 11-OH-THC dans le sang était associée à l'absence de cannabinoïdes dans les cheveux, permettant ainsi de conforter l'hypothèse d'une utilisation du cannabis à des fins criminelles. Les auteurs en concluent que toute recherche positive de cannabinoïdes dans le sang et/ou les urines doit être suivie d'une analyse des cheveux, qui doivent donc être systématiquement prélevés. Cannabis is largely the major drug of abuse consumed in France. Effects in human are due to delta-9 tetrahydrocan- nabinol (THC and 11-hydroxy delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC. The acute effects are euphoria, desinhibition, drowsiness up to heavy sleep, visual disorders and short-memory troubles. With such effects, it is not surprising that cannabis may be present in the organism of authors and/or victims of rapes, robberies or others crimes using chemical submission. This potentiality is not confirmed by our experience since among several hundreds of toxicological investigations realized during the last three years in sexual assaults cases, cannabinoids were only present in blood and/or urines of 21 subjects. In 9 of these positive cases, since hair analysis was not performed, it was not possible to conclude. In 11 cases, hair analysis revealed a chronic cannabis use. In only one case, THC and 11-OH THC were present in blood whereas hair was free of cannabinoids,, confirming the hypothesis of the use of cannabis for the purpose of a criminal act. The authors conclude that each positive cannabis result in blood or urine has to be followed by hair analysis, a speciem which must be systematically sampled.

Mura Patrick

2009-03-01

214

Simultaneous alcohol and cannabis expectancies predict simultaneous use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicts increased negative consequences for users beyond individual or even concurrent use of the two drugs. Given the widespread use of the drugs and common simultaneous consumption, problems unique to simultaneous use may bear important implications for many substance users. Cognitive expectancies offer a template for future drug use behavior based on previous drug experiences, accurately predicting future use and problems. Studies reveal similar mechanisms underlying both alcohol and cannabis expectancies, but little research examines simultaneous expectancies for alcohol and cannabis use. Whereas research has demonstrated unique outcomes associated with simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use, this study hypothesized that unique cognitive expectancies may underlie simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use. Results: This study examined a sample of 2600 (66% male; 34% female Internet survey respondents solicited through advertisements with online cannabis-related organizations. The study employed known measures of drug use and expectancies, as well as a new measure of simultaneous drug use expectancies. Expectancies for simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicted simultaneous use over and above expectancies for each drug individually. Discussion Simultaneous expectancies may provide meaningful information not available with individual drug expectancies. These findings bear potential implications on the assessment and treatment of substance abuse problems, as well as researcher conceptualizations of drug expectancies. Policies directing the treatment of substance abuse and its funding ought to give unique consideration to simultaneous drug use and its cognitive underlying factors.

Earleywine Mitch

2006-10-01

215

Roadside sobriety tests and attitudes toward a regulated cannabis market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Many argue that prohibition creates more troubles than alternative policies, but fewer than half of American voters support a taxed and regulated market for cannabis. Some oppose a regulated market because of concerns about driving after smoking cannabis. Although a roadside sobriety test for impairment exists, few voters know about it. The widespread use of a roadside sobriety test that could detect recent cannabis use might lead some voters who currently oppose a regulated market to support it. In contrast, a question that primes respondents about the potential for driving after cannabis use might lead respondents to be less likely to support a regulated market. Methods Phone interviews with a national sample of 1002 registered voters asked about support for a regulated cannabis market and support for such a market if a reliable roadside sobriety test were widely available. Results In this sample of registered voters, 36% supported a regulated cannabis market. Exploratory chi-square tests revealed significantly higher support among men and Caucasians but no link to age or education. These demographic variables covaried significantly. Logistic regression revealed that gender, ethnicity, and political party were significant when all predictors were included. Support increased significantly with a reliable roadside sobriety test to 44%, but some respondents who had agreed to the regulated market no longer agreed when the sobriety test was mentioned. Logistic regression revealed that ethnicity and political affiliation were again significant predictors of support with a reliable sobriety test, but gender was no longer significant. None of these demographic variables could identify who would change their votes in response to the reliable roadside test. Conclusion Increased awareness and use of roadside sobriety tests that detect recent cannabis use could increase support for a regulated cannabis market. Identifying concerns of voters who are not Caucasian or Democrats could help alter cannabis policy.

Earleywine Mitch

2007-01-01

216

Striatal and extra-striatal dopamine transporter in cannabis and tobacco addiction: a high resolution PET study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dopamine (DA) system is known to be involved in the reward and dependence mechanisms of addiction. However, modifications in dopaminergic neurotransmission associated with long-term tobacco and cannabis use have been poorly documented in vivo. In order to assess striatal and extra-striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in tobacco and cannabis addiction, three groups of male age-matched subjects were compared: 11 healthy non-smoker subjects, 14 tobacco-dependent smokers (17.6 ± 5.3 cigarettes/day for 12.1 ± 8.5 years) and 13 cannabis and tobacco smokers (CTS) (4.8 ± 5.3 cannabis joints/day for 8.7 ± 3.9 years). DAT availability was examined in positron emission tomography (HRRT) with a high resolution research tomograph after injection of [11C]PE2I, a selective DAT radioligand. Region of interest and voxel-by-voxel approaches using a simplified reference tissue model were performed for the between-group comparison of DAT availability. Measurements in the dorsal striatum from both analyses were concordant and showed a mean 20% lower DAT availability in drug users compared with controls. Whole-brain analysis also revealed lower DAT availability in the ventral striatum, the midbrain, the middle cingulate and the thalamus (ranging from -15 to -30%). The DAT availability was slightly lower in all regions in CTS than in subjects who smoke tobacco only, but the difference does not reach a significant level. These results support the existence of a decrease in DAT availability associated with tobacco and cannabis addictions involving all dopaminergic brain circuits. These findings are consistent with the idea of a global decrease in cerebral DA activity in dependent subjects. (authors)

2011-01-01

217

Altered frontal cortical volume and decision making in adolescent cannabis users  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anticipating future outcomes is central to decision making and a failure to consider long-term consequences may lead to impulsive choices. Adolescence is a vulnerable period during which underdeveloped prefrontal cortical systems may contribute to poor judgment, impulsive choices, and substance abuse. Conversely, substance abuse during this period may alter neural systems involved in decision making and lead to greater impulsivity. Although a broad neural network which supports decision making undergoes extensive change during adolescent development, one region that may be critical is the medial prefrontal cortex. Altered functional integrity of this region may be specifically related to reward perception, substance abuse, and dependence. In the present investigation, we acquired structural magnetic resonance images (MRI, using a 3T Siemens Trio scanner, from 18 cannabis abusing adolescents (CA; 2 female and 16 male subjects; mean age, 17.7 years; range 16-19 years and 18 healthy controls (HC; 6 female and 12 male subjects; mean age, 17.2 years; range 16-19 years. In order to measure medial orbital prefrontal cortex (moPFC morphology related to substance abuse and impulsivity, semi-automated cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation of MRIs was performed with FreeSurfer. Impulsivity was evaluated with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS. Our results indicate that cannabis abusing adolescents have decreased right moPFC volume compared to controls, p =.01, d = .92, CI.95 = .21, 1.59. Cannabis abusing adolescents also show decreased future orientation, as indexed by the BIS nonplanning subscale, when compared to controls, p = .01, d = .89, CI.95 = .23, 1.55. Moreover, total moPFC volume was positively correlated with age of first use (18 = .49, p < .03, suggesting that alterations in this region may be related to initiation of cannabis use or that early initiation may lead to reduced moPFC volume.

JohnCChurchwell

2010-12-01

218

Síntomas depresivos como factor de riesgo de dependencia en adultos mayores / Depressive symptoms as a risk factor for dependence in elderly people  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Determinar la relación entre síntomas depresivos y dependencia funcional. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio longitudinal con 1 880 adultos mayores evaluados en 2001 y 2003. Se determinaron los síntomas depresivos con una versión modificada de la Escala de Depresión del Centro de Estudios Epidemi [...] ológicos y la dependencia con las escalas de Lawton y Brody, y Katz. La dependencia implicó la asistencia y ayuda para realizar alguna de las actividades interrogadas. Los análisis multifactoriales probaron el nexo entre síntomas depresivos y desarrollo de dependencia. RESULTADOS: En 2001, 37.9% mostró síntomas depresivos. En 2003, 6.1 y 12.7% desarrollaron dependencia para al menos una de las actividades básicas (ABVD) e instrumentales de la vida diaria (AIVD), respectivamente. En el análisis multivariado, los síntomas depresivos fueron factor de riesgo sólo para dependencia en las AIVD. CONCLUSIONES: Los síntomas depresivos favorecen el desarrollo de dependencia funcional. Es necesario su reconocimiento sistemático durante la evaluación clínica del adulto mayor. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between depressive symptoms and dependence in activities of daily living. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Participants, aged 70 to 104 (n= 1 880), were evaluated twice (2001 and 2003). Depressive symptoms were established by a modified version of Center for Epidemiolog [...] ic Studies Depression scale, whereas functional dependence was assessed with Lawton & Brody and Katz scales. Dependence implies the attendance and assistance of another person to accomplish the activity. Multivariate regression analyses were used to determine the effect of depressive symptoms on incident dependence. RESULTS: At baseline, 37.9% had depressive symptoms. After two years, 6.1 and 12.7% developed functional dependence for one or more ADL and IADL, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that depressive symptoms were a risk factor to the development of functional dependence only for the instrumental activities for daily living. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms are a risk factor for functional dependence. Systematic screening it seems necessary in the evaluation of geriatric patients.

José Alberto, Ávila-Funes; Efrén, Melano-Carranza; Hélène, Payette; Hélène, Amieva.

219

Síntomas depresivos como factor de riesgo de dependencia en adultos mayores / Depressive symptoms as a risk factor for dependence in elderly people  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Determinar la relación entre síntomas depresivos y dependencia funcional. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio longitudinal con 1 880 adultos mayores evaluados en 2001 y 2003. Se determinaron los síntomas depresivos con una versión modificada de la Escala de Depresión del Centro de Estudios Epidemi [...] ológicos y la dependencia con las escalas de Lawton y Brody, y Katz. La dependencia implicó la asistencia y ayuda para realizar alguna de las actividades interrogadas. Los análisis multifactoriales probaron el nexo entre síntomas depresivos y desarrollo de dependencia. RESULTADOS: En 2001, 37.9% mostró síntomas depresivos. En 2003, 6.1 y 12.7% desarrollaron dependencia para al menos una de las actividades básicas (ABVD) e instrumentales de la vida diaria (AIVD), respectivamente. En el análisis multivariado, los síntomas depresivos fueron factor de riesgo sólo para dependencia en las AIVD. CONCLUSIONES: Los síntomas depresivos favorecen el desarrollo de dependencia funcional. Es necesario su reconocimiento sistemático durante la evaluación clínica del adulto mayor. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between depressive symptoms and dependence in activities of daily living. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Participants, aged 70 to 104 (n= 1 880), were evaluated twice (2001 and 2003). Depressive symptoms were established by a modified version of Center for Epidemiolog [...] ic Studies Depression scale, whereas functional dependence was assessed with Lawton & Brody and Katz scales. Dependence implies the attendance and assistance of another person to accomplish the activity. Multivariate regression analyses were used to determine the effect of depressive symptoms on incident dependence. RESULTS: At baseline, 37.9% had depressive symptoms. After two years, 6.1 and 12.7% developed functional dependence for one or more ADL and IADL, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that depressive symptoms were a risk factor to the development of functional dependence only for the instrumental activities for daily living. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms are a risk factor for functional dependence. Systematic screening it seems necessary in the evaluation of geriatric patients.

José Alberto, Ávila-Funes; Efrén, Melano-Carranza; Hélène, Payette; Hélène, Amieva.

220

The Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Supplement: 7 Sessions of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual, a supplement to "Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users: 5 Sessions, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 1", presents a seven-session cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT7) approach designed especially for adolescent cannabis users. It addresses the implementation and…

Webb, Charles; Scudder, Meleney; Kaminer, Yifrah; Kaden, Ron

 
 
 
 
221

Reduction of stem growth and site dependency of leaf injury in Massachusetts black cherries exhibiting ozone symptoms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ozone symptomatic trees had a reduced stem growth and symptom expression was enhanced on moister and better growing stands. - Leaf ozone symptoms in natural ecosystems are increasingly reported but ozone effects on tree growth and the mediation of site conditions are still little documented. This study tests two hypotheses: (1) leaf injury in black cherry is associated with decline in radial growth, (2) symptoms are more prevalent on mesic sites. On sites supporting black cherry across Massachusetts, tree growth and leaf ozone injury were surveyed in 1996 using a randomized plot network established in the 1960s. Forty-seven percent of 120 trees sampled for ozone symptoms were symptomatic with generally low levels of injury. Over a 31-year period symptomatic trees had 28% lower stem growth rates than asymptomatic trees. Ozone symptom expression was enhanced in well growing stands on moister, cooler and more elevated sites. Ozone appeared to increase environmental stress and had a more pronounced effect on growth in better growing black cherry stands. This complicates management decisions as thinning increases growth and moisture availability.

Vollenweider, P.; Woodcock, H.; Kelty, M.J.; Hofer, R.-M

2003-10-01

222

Cannabis misinterpretation and misadventure in a coroner's court.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

A 37-year-old, one-pack-per-day tobacco smoker collapsed and died at home. At autopsy, he had an occluded left anterior descending coronary artery. ?(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid was found in his urine but no cannabinoids were detected in his blood. Misadventure was the inquest verdict on the basis of the urinary cannabis, with acute myocardial infarction as the primary cause and cannabis as the secondary cause of death. Such a conclusion is a misinterpretation of the evidence when the time duration for cannabis as a trigger for myocardial infarction is at most two hours. The absence of cannabis in the blood likely places the time since inhalation at more than two hours. The role of tobacco smoking as a trigger was ignored. Cotinine, the biochemical marker of tobacco smoke, should be added to the standard toxicological screen in the guidelines on autopsy practice of the Royal College of Pathologists.

Tormey, William Patrick

2012-10-01

223

Eysenck Personality Dimensions in a Sample of Cannabis Users  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available     Objective: The objective of this study is to examine Eysenck personality dimensions in cannabis users  Method:100 regular cannabis users were selected and completed Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ which easures Neuroticism (N,Extraversion-Introversion (E-I and Psychoticism (P dimensions of Eysenck personality structures  Results:The scores of 51% of cannabis users were higher than mean in all dimensions of EPQ. Also the mean score of N and P were higher than the score which Eysenck has reported for Iranian population Conclusions:This research reinforces our call for a public health information campaign about a drug which may young people still see as being risk-free.Psychiatric morbidity and cases of psychotic disorder could be prevented by discouraging cannabis use among vulnerable youths.

Arash Vahdat

2007-06-01

224

Cannabis and cognitive dysfunction: Parallels with endophenotypes of schizophrenia?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Currently, there is a lot of interest in cannabis use as a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. Cognitive dysfunction associated with long-term or heavy cannabis use is similar in many respects to the cognitive endophenotypes that have been proposed as vulnerability markers of schizophrenia. In this overview, we examine the similarities between these in the context of the neurobiology underlying cognitive dysfunction, particularly implicating the endogenous cannabinoid system, wh...

Solowij, Nadia; Michie, Patricia T.

2007-01-01

225

[Pathological gambling and addiction to cannabis: common psychosocial profile?].  

Science.gov (United States)

Addiction can involve substances (heroin, cannabis, cocaine) or be characterised by behaviour (pathological gambling, addiction to sport, etc.). The question is to establish whether or not there is a specific personality profile (character, temperament) and emotional functioning (anxiety, depression, alexithymia) in subjects presenting addictive behaviour with and without substance use. To find some answers, a team from Sainte-Marguerite General Hospital in Marseille carried out a study comparing a group of cannabis addicts and a group of pathological gamblers. PMID:24741830

Parolaa, Nathalie; Boyer, Laurent; Simon, Nicolas; Aghababian, Valérie; Lançon, Christophe

2014-01-01

226

Influence of Cannabis on Fatal Traffic Crash: A Detailed Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The influence of cannabis on traffic crashes is a growing concern. Experimental studies provide ample evidences of cannabis influence on psychomotor and cognitive performances. Epidemiological works describe the excess crash risk that this substance causes. And yet, this psychotropic drug influence in causing crashes is still at the centre of many discussions. The present analysis consists in exploiting crash data in detail to obtain a more precise understanding of the failures that drivers a...

Elslande, Pierre; Fournier, Jean-yves; Jaffard, Magali

2012-01-01

227

Developmental emergence of alcohol use disorder symptoms and their potential as early indicators for progression to alcohol dependence in a high risk sample: a longitudinal study from childhood to early adulthood  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study characterized developmental emergence of individual alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms, and evaluated their ability as early indicators of progression into alcohol dependence (AD), conditional upon gender, parental alcohol dependence, early onset of drinking, and level of delinquent behavior at onset. The two parameters of interest were (a) likelihood of specific AUD symptom appearance once drinking has begun, and (b) primacy of symptom appearance as an indicator of likelihood for...

2012-01-01

228

Application of medical cannabis in patients with the neurodegeneration disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medical cannabis is the dried flowers of the female Cannabis sativa L. plant. Cannabis contains a number of active elements, including dronabinol (THC and cannabidiol (CBD. Dronabinol is usually the main ingredient. The body’s own cannabinoid system has been identified. The discovery of this system, which comprises endocannabinoids and receptors, confirmed that cannabis has a positive effect on certain illnesses and conditions. Two types of cannabinoid receptors have been identified: CB1 and CB2 receptors. The first type CB1 is mostly found in the central nervous system, modulate pain. It also has an anti-emetic effect, and has influence on the memory and the motor system. The second type of receptors CB2 is peripheral, and it is primarily found in immune system cells and it is responsible for the immunomodulatory effects of cannabinoids. Medical cannabis can help in cases of the neurodegeneration disorders, for example Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Patients generally tolerate medical cannabis well.

Lidia Kotu?a

2014-04-01

229

Psychomotor performance in relation to acute oral administration of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and standardized cannabis extract in healthy human subjects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abnormalities in psychomotor performance are a consistent finding in schizophrenic patients as well as in chronic cannabis users. The high levels of central cannabinoid (CB(1)) receptors in the basal ganglia, the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum indicate their implication in the regulation of motor activity. Based on the close relationship between cannabis use, the endogenous cannabinoid system and motor disturbances found in schizophrenia, we expected that administration of cannabinoids may change pattern of psychomotor activity like in schizophrenic patients. This prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study investigated the acute effects of cannabinoids on psychomotor performance in 24 healthy right-handed volunteers (age 27.9 +/- 2.9 years, 12 male) by comparing Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and standardized cannabis extract containing Delta(9)-THC and cannabidiol. Psychomotor performance was assessed by using a finger tapping test series. Cannabis extract, but not Delta(9)-THC, revealed a significant reduction of right-hand tapping frequencies that was also found in schizophrenia. As to the pure Delta(9)-THC condition, left-hand tapping frequencies were correlated with the plasma concentrations of the Delta(9)-THC metabolite 11-OH-THC. These effects are thought to be related to cannabinoid actions on CB(1) receptors in the basal ganglia, the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum. Our data further demonstrate that acute CB(1) receptor activation under the cannabis extract condition may also affect intermanual coordination (IMC) as an index of interhemispheric transfer. AIR-Scale scores as a measure of subjective perception of intoxication were dose-dependently related to IMC which was shown by an inverted U-curve. This result may be due to functional changes involving GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission within the corpus callosum. PMID:19224107

Roser, Patrik; Gallinat, Jürgen; Weinberg, Gordon; Juckel, Georg; Gorynia, Inge; Stadelmann, Andreas M

2009-08-01

230

Approach-Bias Predicts Development of Cannabis Problem Severity in Heavy Cannabis Users: Results from a Prospective FMRI Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A potentially powerful predictor for the course of drug (ab)use is the approach-bias, that is, the pre-reflective tendency to approach rather than avoid drug-related stimuli. Here we investigated the neural underpinnings of cannabis approach and avoidance tendencies. By elucidating the predictive power of neural approach-bias activations for future cannabis use and problem severity, we aimed at identifying new intervention targets. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), neural ap...

Cousijn, Janna; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Wiers, Reinout W.

2012-01-01

231

Do patients think cannabis causes schizophrenia? - A qualitative study on the causal beliefs of cannabis using patients with schizophrenia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background There has been a considerable amount of debate among the research community whether cannabis use may cause schizophrenia and whether cannabis use of patients with schizophrenia is associated with earlier and more frequent relapses. Considering that studies exploring patients' view on controversial topics have contributed to our understanding of important clinical issues, it is surprising how little these views have been explored to add to our understanding...

Buadze Anna; Stohler Rudolf; Schulze Beate; Schaub Michael; Liebrenz Michael

2010-01-01

232

Revisão: funcionamento executivo e uso de maconha Review: executive functioning and cannabis use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A maconha é a droga ilícita mais consumida no mundo, porém ainda existem poucos estudos examinando eventuais prejuízos cognitivos relacionados ao seu uso. As manifestações clínicas associadas a esses déficits incluem síndrome amotivacional, prejuízo na flexibilidade cognitiva, desatenção, dificuldade de raciocínio abstrato e formação de conceitos, aspectos intimamente ligados às funções executivas, as quais potencialmente exercem um papel central na dependência de substâncias. O objetivo do estudo foi fazer uma revisão a respeito das implicações do uso da maconha no funcionamento executivo. MÉTODO: Esta revisão foi conduzida utilizando-se bases de dados eletrônicas (MedLine, Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs. DISCUSSÃO: Em estudos de efeito agudo, doses maiores de tetrahidrocanabinol encontram-se associadas a maior prejuízo no desempenho de usuários leves em tarefas de controle inibitório e planejamento; porém, este efeito dose-resposta não ocorre em usuários crônicos. Embora haja controvérsias no que se refere a efeitos residuais da maconha, déficits persistentes parecem estar presentes após 28 dias de abstinência, ao menos em um subgrupo de usuários crônicos. CONCLUSÕES: Os estudos encontrados não tiveram como objetivo principal a avaliação das funções executivas. A seleção de testes padronizados, desenhos de estudos mais apropriados e o uso concomitante com técnicas de neuroimagem estrutural e funcional podem auxiliar na melhor compreensão das conseqüências deletérias do uso crônico da maconha no funcionamento executivo.OBJECTIVE: Cannabis is the most used illicit drug worldwide, however only a few studies have examined cognitive deficits related to its use. Clinical manifestations associated with those deficits include amotivational syndrome, impairment in cognitive flexibility, inattention, deficits in abstract reasoning and concept formation, aspects intimately related to the executive functions, which potentially exert a central role in substance dependence. The objective was to make a review about consequences of cannabis use in executive functioning. METHOD: This review was carried out on reports drawn from MedLine, SciELO, and Lilacs. DISCUSSION: In studies investigating acute use effects, higher doses of tetrahydrocannabinol are associated to impairments in performance of nonsevere users in planning and control impulse tasks. However, chronic cannabis users do not show those impairments. Although demonstration of residual effects of cannabis in the executive functioning is controversial, persistent deficits seem to be present at least in a subgroup of chronic users after 28 days of abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: The neuropsychological studies found did not have as a main aim the evaluation of executive functioning. A criterial selection of standardized neuropsychological tests, more appropriate study designs as well as concomitant investigations with structural and functional neuroimaging techniques may improve the understanding of eventual neurotoxicity associated with cannabis use.

Priscila Previato Almeida

2008-03-01

233

Cannabis abuse in adolescence and the risk of psychosis: A brief review of the preclinical evidence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiological studies suggest that Cannabis use during adolescence confers an increased risk for developing psychotic symptoms later in life. However, despite their interest, the epidemiological data are not conclusive, due to their heterogeneity; thus modeling the adolescent phase in animals is useful for investigating the impact of Cannabis use on deviations of adolescent brain development that might confer a vulnerability to later psychotic disorders. Although scant, preclinical data seem to support the presence of impaired social behaviors, cognitive and sensorimotor gating deficits as well as psychotic-like signs in adult rodents after adolescent cannabinoid exposure, clearly suggesting that this exposure may trigger a complex behavioral phenotype closely resembling a schizophrenia-like disorder. Similar treatments performed at adulthood were not able to produce such phenotype, thus pointing to a vulnerability of the adolescent brain towards cannabinoid exposure. The neurobiological substrate of the adolescent vulnerability is still largely unknown and experimental studies need to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanism underlying these effects. However, the few data available seem to suggest that heavy adolescent exposure to cannabinoids is able to modify neuronal connectivity in specific brain areas long after the end of the treatment. This is likely due to disruption of maturational events within the endocannabinoid system during adolescence that in turn impact on the correct neuronal refinement peculiar of the adolescent brain, thus leading to altered adult brain functionality and behavior. PMID:23916409

Rubino, T; Parolaro, D

2014-07-01

234

Differences in Regional Blood Volume During a 28-Day Period of Abstinence in Chronic Cannabis Smokers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cerebral blood volume (CBV) studies have provided important insight into the effects of illicit substances such as cannabis. The present study examined changes in regional blood volume in the frontal and temporal lobe, and the cerebellum during 28 days of supervised abstinence from cannabis. Dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI (DSCMRI) data were collected on 15 current, long-term cannabis users between 6 and 36 hours after the subjects' last reported cannabis use (Day 0), and again after 7 an...

Sneider, Jennifer T.; Pope, Harrison G.; Silveri, Marisa M.; Simpson, Norah S.; Gruber, Staci A.; Yurgelun-todd, Deborah A.

2008-01-01

235

Exposure to the tsunami disaster, PTSD symptoms and increased substance use – an Internet based survey of male and female residents of Switzerland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background After the tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean basin an Internet based self-screening test was made available in order to facilitate contact with mental health services. Although primarily designed for surviving Swiss tourists as well as relatives and acquaintances of the victims, the screening instrument was open to anyone who felt psychologically affected by this disaster. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influences between self-declared increased substance use in the aftermath of the tsunami disaster, trauma exposure and current PTSD symptoms. Methods One section of the screening covered addiction related behavior. We analyzed the relationship between increased substance use, the level of PTSD symptoms and trauma exposure using multivariable logistic regression with substance use as the dependent variable. Included in the study were only subjects who reported being residents of Switzerland and the analyses were stratified by gender in order to control for possible socio-cultural or gender differences in the use of psychotropic substances. Results In women PTSD symptoms and degree of exposure enlarged the odds of increased alcohol, pharmaceuticals and cannabis use significantly. In men the relationship was more specific: PTSD symptoms and degree of exposure only enlarged the odds of increased pharmaceutical consumption significantly. Increases in alcohol, cannabis and tobacco use were only significantly associated with the degree of PTSD symptoms. Conclusion The tsunami was associated with increased substance use. This study not only replicates earlier findings but also suggests for a gender specificity of post-traumatic substance use increase.

Bisson Jonathan I

2008-03-01

236

Feasibility of Momentary Sampling Assessment of Cannabis Use in Adolescents and Young Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the feasibility of recruiting and retaining adolescents and young adults with frequent cannabis use for a 2-week momentary sampling study of cannabis use. Participants responded to random signals on a handheld computer with reports of their use. Participants also initiated reports pre- and post-cannabis use. Participants had…

Black, Shimrit K.; de Moor, Carl; Kendall, Ashley D.; Shrier, Lydia A.

2014-01-01

237

Role of the endocannabinoid system in brain functions relevant for schizophrenia: an overview of human challenge studies with cannabis or ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).  

Science.gov (United States)

Accumulating evidence suggests involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, which signifies a potential application for this system in the treatment of this disorder. However, before new research can focus on potential treatments that work by manipulating the endocannabinoid system, it needs to be elucidated how this system is involved in symptoms of schizophrenia. Here we review human studies that investigated acute effects of cannabis or ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on brain functions that are implicated in schizophrenia. Results suggest that the impact of THC administration depends on the difficulty of the task performed. Impaired performance of cognitive paradigms is reported on more challenging tasks, which is associated with both activity deficits in temporal and prefrontal areas and a failure to deactivate regions of the default mode network. Comparable reductions in prefrontal activity and impairments in deactivation of the default mode network are seen in patients during performance of cognitive paradigms. Normal performance levels after THC administration demonstrated for less demanding tasks are shown to be related to either increased neural effort in task-specific regions ('neurophysiological inefficiency'), or recruitment of alternative brain areas, which suggests a change in strategy to meet cognitive demands. Particularly a pattern of performance and brain activity corresponding with an inefficient working memory system is consistently demonstrated in patients. These similarities in brain function between intoxicated healthy volunteers and schizophrenia patients provide an argument for a role of the endocannabinoid system in symptoms of schizophrenia, and further emphasize this system as a potential novel target for treatment of these symptoms. PMID:24380726

Bossong, Matthijs G; Jansma, J Martijn; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Ramsey, Nick F

2014-07-01

238

Cannabis, possible cardiac deaths and the coroner in Ireland.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: The elevated risk of triggering a myocardial infarction by smoking cannabis is limited to the first 2 h after smoking. AIM: To examine the possible role of cannabis in cardiac deaths. CASES AND RESULTS: From 3,193 coroners\\' cases over 2 years, there were 13 cases where the clinical information was compatible with a primary cardiac cause of death. An inquest was held in three cases. Myocardial infarction was the primary cause of death in 54%. Other causes were sudden adult death syndrome, sudden death in epilepsy, and poisoning by alcohol and diazepam. Cannabis was mentioned once only on a death certificate, but not as a cause of death. Blood delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid was recorded in one case and in no case was plasma tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) measured. CONCLUSIONS: To attribute sudden cardiac death to cannabis, plasma THC should be measured in the toxicology screen in coroners\\' cases where urine cannabinoids are positive. A positive urine cannabinoids immunoassay alone is insufficient evidence in the linkage of acute cardiac death and cannabis.

Tormey, W P

2012-01-10

239

Linkage scan for quantitative traits identifies new regions of interest for substance dependence in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) Sample  

Science.gov (United States)

Dependence on alcohol and illicit drugs frequently co-occur. Results from a number of twin studies suggest that heritable influences on alcohol dependence and drug dependence may substantially overlap. Using large, genetically informative pedigrees from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA), we performed quantitative linkage analyses using a panel of 1717 SNPs. Genome-wide linkage analyses were conducted for quantitative measures of DSM-IV alcohol dependence criteria, cannabis dependence criteria and dependence criteria across any illicit drug (including cannabis) individually and in combination as an average score across alcohol and illicit drug dependence criteria. For alcohol dependence, LOD scores exceeding 2.0 were noted on chromosome 1 (2.0 at 213 cM), 2 (3.4 at 234 cM) and 10 (3.7 at 60 cM). For cannabis dependence, a maximum LOD of 1.9 was noted at 95 cM on chromosome 14. For any illicit drug dependence, LODs of 2.0 and 2.4 were observed on chromosome 10 (116 cM) and 13 (64 cM) respectively. Finally, the combined alcohol and/or drug dependence symptoms yielded LODs > 2.0 on chromosome 2 (3.2, 234 cM), 10 (2.4 and 2.6 at 60 cM and 116 cM) and 13 (2.1 at 64 cM). These regions may harbor genes that contribute to the biological basis of alcohol and drug dependence.

Agrawal, Arpana; Hinrichs, Anthony L.; Dunn, Gerald; Bertelsen, Sarah; Dick, Danielle M.; Saccone, Scott F.; Saccone, Nancy L.; Grucza, Richard A.; Wang, Jen C.; Robert Cloninger, C.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kramer, John; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Kuperman, Samuel; Nurnberger, John I.; Porjesz, Bernice; Schuckit, Marc A.; Goate, Alison M.; Bierut, Laura J.

2008-01-01

240

Linkage scan for quantitative traits identifies new regions of interest for substance dependence in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) sample.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dependence on alcohol and illicit drugs frequently co-occur. Results from a number of twin studies suggest that heritable influences on alcohol dependence and drug dependence may substantially overlap. Using large, genetically informative pedigrees from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA), we performed quantitative linkage analyses using a panel of 1717 SNPs. Genome-wide linkage analyses were conducted for quantitative measures of DSM-IV alcohol dependence criteria, cannabis dependence criteria and dependence criteria across any illicit drug (including cannabis) individually and in combination as an average score across alcohol and illicit drug dependence criteria. For alcohol dependence, LOD scores exceeding 2.0 were noted on chromosome 1 (2.0 at 213 cM), 2 (3.4 at 234 cM) and 10 (3.7 at 60 cM). For cannabis dependence, a maximum LOD of 1.9 was noted at 95 cM on chromosome 14. For any illicit drug dependence, LODs of 2.0 and 2.4 were observed on chromosome 10 (116 cM) and 13 (64 cM) respectively. Finally, the combined alcohol and/or drug dependence symptoms yielded LODs >2.0 on chromosome 2 (3.2, 234 cM), 10 (2.4 and 2.6 at 60 cM and 116 cM) and 13 (2.1 at 64 cM). These regions may harbor genes that contribute to the biological basis of alcohol and drug dependence. PMID:17942244

Agrawal, Arpana; Hinrichs, Anthony L; Dunn, Gerald; Bertelsen, Sarah; Dick, Danielle M; Saccone, Scott F; Saccone, Nancy L; Grucza, Richard A; Wang, Jen C; Cloninger, C Robert; Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kramer, John; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Kuperman, Samuel; Nurnberger, John I; Porjesz, Bernice; Schuckit, Marc A; Goate, Alison M; Bierut, Laura J

2008-01-11

 
 
 
 
241

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CANNABIS INDICA FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports on the synthesis of Cannabis indica fiber-reinforced composites using Urea-Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (URF as a novel matrix through compression molding technique. The polycondensation between urea, resorcinol, and formaldehyde in different molar ratios was applied to the synthesis of the URF polymer matrix. A thermosetting matrix based composite, reinforced with lignocellulose from Cannabis indica with different fiber loadings 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% by weight, was obtained. The mechanical properties of randomly oriented intimately mixed fiber particle reinforced composites were determined. Effects of fiber loadings on mechanical properties such as tensile, compressive, flexural strength, and wear resistance were evaluated. Results showed that mechanical properties of URF resin matrix increased considerably when reinforced with particles of Cannabis indica fiber. Thermal (TGA/DTA/DTG and morphological studies (SEM of the resin, fiber and polymer composite thus synthesized were carried out.

Amar Singh Singha

2011-04-01

242

Symptom Management  

Science.gov (United States)

... TBI Educational Materials Research DVBIC Locations Press Symptom Management A brain injury can affect a person physically ... Diagnosis and Assessment Treatment and Recovery Caregiving Symptom Management Life After TBI Defense and Veterans Brain Injury ...

243

The Normalization of Cannabis Use among Young People - Symbolic Boundary Work in Focus Groups  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper analyzes "techniques of neutralization" among young people discussing cannabis in focus group interviews. The paper is based on data from focus group interviews with young Danes followed from when they were 14-15 years old in 2004 until they were 18-19 years old in 2008. In this period, the participants' attitudes towards cannabis undergo a radical change from being negative and sceptical into being predominantly positive and accepting - a change we describe as a "normalization" of cannabis use. Four techniques of neutralization are identified in this process: First, the participants redefine the setting of cannabis use, simultaneously creating a new type of togetherness: relaxed social intoxication. Second, the effects of cannabis use are transformed from being "strange" and "unpredictable" to being "controllable" by the individual user. Third, participants change their classification of cannabis in relation to other substances: While 14-15 year olds draw a clear dividing-line between alcohol and illegal drugs (including cannabis), 18-19 year olds put cannabis on the same footing as alcohol but differentiate it from "hard" drugs. Forth, participants dichotomize cannabis use into spontaneous, social use, which they accept, and habitual, individual use which most of them reject. In combination, these four techniques of neutralization turn cannabis into a normal drug - not normal in the sense that everybody uses it but normal in the sense that cannabis use is seen as legitimate by both users and non-users.

Järvinen, Margaretha; Demant, Jakob

2011-01-01

244

The Normalization of Cannabis Use among Young People : Symbolic Boundary Work in Focus Groups  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper analyses â??techniques of neutralisationâ?? among young people discussing cannabis in focus group interviews. The paper is based on data from focus group interviews with young Danes followed from when they were 14â??15 years old in 2004 until they were 18â??19 years old in 2008. In this period, the participantsâ?? attitudes towards cannabis undergo a radical change from being negative and sceptical into being predominantly positive and accepting; a change we describe as a â??normalisationâ?? of cannabis use. Four techniques of neutralisation are identified in this process. First, the participants redefine the setting of cannabis use, simultaneously creating a new type of togetherness: relaxed social intoxication. Second, the effects of cannabis use are transformed from being â??strangeâ?? and â??unpredictableâ?? to being â??controllableâ?? by the individual user. Third, participants change their classification of cannabis in relation to other substances. While 14â??15 year olds draw a clear dividing-line between alcohol and illegal drugs (including cannabis), 18â??19 year olds put cannabis on the same footing as alcohol but differentiate it from â??hardâ?? drugs. Fourth, participants dichotomise cannabis use into spontaneous, social use, which they accept, and habitual, individual use which most of them reject. In combination, these four techniques of neutralisation turn cannabis into a normal drug: not normal in the sense that everybody uses it but normal in the sense that cannabis use is seen as legitimate by both users and non-users.

Järvinen, Margaretha; Demant, Jakob Johan

2011-01-01

245

Decreased spontaneous eye blink rates in chronic cannabis users: evidence for striatal cannabinoid-dopamine interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic cannabis use has been shown to block long-term depression of GABA-glutamate synapses in the striatum, which is likely to reduce the extent to which endogenous cannabinoids modulate GABA- and glutamate-related neuronal activity. The current study aimed at investigating the effect of this process on striatal dopamine levels by studying the spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR), a clinical marker of dopamine level in the striatum. 25 adult regular cannabis users and 25 non-user controls matched for age, gender, race, and IQ were compared. Results show a significant reduction in EBR in chronic users as compared to non-users, suggesting an indirect detrimental effect of chronic cannabis use on striatal dopaminergic functioning. Additionally, EBR correlated negatively with years of cannabis exposure, monthly peak cannabis consumption, and lifetime cannabis consumption, pointing to a relationship between the degree of impairment of striatal dopaminergic transmission and cannabis consumption history. PMID:22125599

Kowal, Mikael A; Colzato, Lorenza S; Hommel, Bernhard

2011-01-01

246

Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action involved in the interaction between cannabinoid compounds and the biological receptors. So, from the therapeutical aspects presented in this work, we intended to show the evolution of the Cannabis sativa research and the possible medicinal use of cannabinoid compounds.

Honório Káthia Maria

2006-01-01

247

Drinking, cannabis use and driving among Ontario students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

LITTLE IS KNOWN ABOUT THE RISK OF INJURY among adolescents who drive after the use of alcohol or cannabis or ride in cars driven by drunk drivers. We examined data from self-administered interviews with 1846 students in grades 7 to 13 who participated in the 2001 Ontario Student Drug Use Survey about their experiences related to alcohol, cannabis and driving during the 12 months preceding the survey. In all, 31.9% of the students reported being a passenger in a car driven by a drunk driver; o...

Adlaf, Edward M.; Mann, Robert E.; Paglia, Angela

2003-01-01

248

Cannabis sativa var. indica : une plante complexe aux effets pervers Cannabis sativa var. indica : a complex plant with perverse effects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cannabis sativa var. indica appartient à la famille des Cannabinaceae et à l'ordre des Urticales. Parmi les 60 cannabinoïdes contenus dans la plante, essentiellement dans les feuilles et les sommités fleuries, le delta-9-tétrahydrocannabinol (THC constitue le principal responsable des effets observables chez l'homme. La teneur en THC est très variable selon les conditions de culture, pouvant dépasser 20 % dans le cas de cultures sous serre aux conditions parfaitement contrôlées. Après inhalation, le THC pénètre dans la circulation sanguine puis, très lipophile, va se fixer sur les tissus riches en lipides et en particulier au niveau du cerveau. Ses effets chez l'homme reposent sur l'existence des récepteurs CB1 (essentiellement au niveau central et CB2 (surtout présents au niveau périphérique. Tandis que la présence du THC dans le sang n'est observable que pendant 2 à 3 heures après inhalation, des travaux très récents chez l'homme et chez l'animal nous ont permis de montrer qu'il restait fixé dans la plupart des structures cérébrales pendant de très nombreuses heures, cela expliquant la persistance importante de ses effets sur le système nerveux central. Les effets aigus sur le psychisme consistent principalement en des perturbations sensorielles, des troubles thymiques et dissociatifs, une diminution des performances intellectuelles, motrices et cognitives, des perturbations de la mémoire à court terme. Lors d'un usage important, régulier et prolongé, on note fréquemment l'apparition de crises d'angoisse aiguë et d'un syndrome amotivationnel. Si les risques pour soi-même liés à son usage sont loin d'être négligeables, les conséquences pour autrui peuvent être considérables lorsque les consommateurs sont des conducteurs d'automobiles, des femmes enceintes ou des travailleurs occupant des postes à risque et/ou de sécurité en entreprise. L'importance du risque est majorée par un nombre de consommateurs de plus en plus grand. C'est pour cette raison que la France a récemment mis en place une législation destinée à sanctionner les conducteurs ayant fait usage de cannabis, sur la base des résultats de l'analyse sanguine. C'est aussi pourquoi il serait désormais opportun d'instaurer par voie législative des dépistages chez les personnes occupant des postes à risque et/ou de sécurité dans les entreprises. Cannabis sativa var. indica is a Cannabaceae, belonging to Urticales order. Among the 60 cannabinoids present in the plant and essentially in leaves and flowering tops, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC is the main responsible of the effects observed in human using it. THC content is very variable depending on cultivation conditions, being able to contain more than 20 % of THC in the case of under glass cultivations with well controlled conditions. After inhalation, THC moves to the blood and, because of its lipophily, distribution very fastly into the brain and other lipidic tissues. Its effects on human are supported by the presence of CB1 receptors (mainly in central nervous system and CB2 (mainly present in other tissues. As THC is found in blood during only 2 to 3 hours after inhalation, recent studies allowed us to indicate that it remained present in brain structures during many hours, which explains the long persistence of its effects on central nervous system. Acute side effects on behavior and central nervous system consist essentially in sensitive perturbations, thymic and dissociative troubles, a decrease of intellectual, motor and cognitive performances, short term memory disorders. For an important, regular and long term use, the occurrence of acute angor attacks or an amotivational syndrome are frequently observed. While risks for oneself related to cannabis use are not negligible, consequences for others may be extensive when consumers are car drivers, pregnant women or workers occupying a risk position. This risk is becoming very important today considering account of the number of consumers. Consequently, the French government and th

Mura Patrick

2009-03-01

249

Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes in Cocaine and Cannabis Dependence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is highly associated with substance use disorders (SUD). In addition to the full ASPD syndrome, which requires both childhood conduct disorder and the adult features, other antisocial behavioral syndromes, including conduct disorder (CD) alone without the adult syndrome, and the adult antisocial behavioral syndrome without childhood CD (AABS) are also frequently diagnosed in patients with SUD. The aim of this study was to compare the rates of these vario...

Mariani, John J.; Horey, Jonathan; Bisaga, Adam; Aharonovich, Efrat; Raby, Wilfrid; Cheng, Wendy Y.; Nunes, Edward; Levin, Frances R.

2008-01-01

250

Cannabis and psychosis: what causes what?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Converging lines of evidence suggest that cannabinoids can produce a full range of transient schizophrenia-like positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Cannabinoids also produce some psychophysiological deficits also known to be present in schizophrenia. It is also clear that, in individuals with an established psychotic disorder, cannabinoids can exacerbate symptoms, trigger relapse, and have negative consequences on the course of the illness. Increasing evidence suggests that early and h...

2013-01-01

251

Trajectory of adolescent cannabis use on addiction vulnerability.  

Science.gov (United States)

The adolescent brain is a period of dynamic development making it vulnerable to environmental factors such as drug exposure. Of the illicit drugs, cannabis is most used by teenagers since it is perceived by many to be of little harm. This perception has led to a growing number of states approving its legalization and increased accessibility. Most of the debates and ensuing policies regarding cannabis were done without consideration of its impact on one of the most vulnerable population, namely teens, or without consideration of scientific data. We provide an overview of the endocannabinoid system in relation to adolescent cannabis exposure and provide insights regarding factors such as genetics and behavioral traits that confer risk for subsequent addiction. While it is clear that more systematic scientific studies are needed to understand the long-term impact of adolescent cannabis exposure on brain and behavior, the current evidence suggests that it has a far-reaching influence on adult addictive behaviors particularly for certain subsets of vulnerable individuals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'. PMID:23954491

Hurd, Yasmin L; Michaelides, Michael; Miller, Michael L; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

2014-01-01

252

Neuropsychological deficits associated with cannabis use in young adults  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance and has been associated with cognitive impairment. It is unclear whether such impairment can occur in the absence of potential confounding influences of co-morbid axis-I disorders and use of other illicit substances.

Grant, Jon E; Chamberlain, Samuel R

2012-01-01

253

Avoiding emotional bonds: An examination of the dimensions of therapeutic alliance among cannabis users  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a growing need to provide treatment for cannabis users, yet engaging and maintaining this population in treatment is particularly difficult. Although past research has focused on the importance of therapeutic alliance on drug treatment outcomes, this is the first study to examine the dimensions of therapeutic alliance for cannabis users compared with users of alcohol or other drugs in a naturalistic setting. The acceptability of Internet-delivered interventions for drug and alcohol treatments is also investigated. Participants (N = 77 included clients who were receiving outpatient drug and alcohol treatment at a publicly-funded health service, including a Specialist Cannabis Clinic. The results indicated that one particular domain of alliance, Bond, was consistently lower, from both client and clinician perspectives, for current cannabis users relative to those not currently using cannabis. Client perceptions of Bond decreased as the severity of cannabis use increased (r =-0.373, p=0.02. Cannabis Clinic clients did not report a significantly lower Bond with their clinicians, suggesting that specialised cannabis services may be better placed to provide appropriate treatment for this population than embedding cannabis treatment within traditional drug and alcohol treatment teams. In addition, Internet/computer based treatments may be one potential way to engage, transition or retain cannabis users in treatment. Trial Registration: Australian Clinical Trial Registration Number: ACTRN12611000382976

FrancesKay-Lambkin

2013-07-01

254

HIV Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

... Submit Home > HIV/AIDS > What is HIV/AIDS? HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) HIV symptoms Photo courtesy of AIDS.gov Facing AIDS ... and brain Return to top More information on HIV symptoms Explore other publications and websites Basic Information ...

255

Whole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis therapy has been considered an effective treatment for spasticity, although clinical reports of symptom reduction in multiple sclerosis (MS describe mixed outcomes. Recently introduced therapies of combined ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC and cannabidiol (CBD extracts have potential for symptom relief with the possibility of reducing intoxication and other side effects. Although several past reviews have suggested that cannabinoid therapy provides a therapeutic benefit for symptoms of MS, none have presented a methodical investigation of newer cannabinoid treatments in MS-related spasticity. The purpose of the present review was to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of combined THC and CBD extracts on MS-related spasticity in order to increase understanding of the treatment's potential effectiveness, safety and limitations. Methods We reviewed MEDLINE/PubMed, Ovid, and CENTRAL electronic databases for relevant studies using randomized controlled trials. Studies were included only if a combination of THC and CBD extracts was used, and if pre- and post-treatment assessments of spasticity were reported. Results Six studies were systematically reviewed for treatment dosage and duration, objective and subjective measures of spasticity, and reports of adverse events. Although there was variation in the outcome measures reported in these studies, a trend of reduced spasticity in treated patients was noted. Adverse events were reported in each study, however combined TCH and CBD extracts were generally considered to be well-tolerated. Conclusion We found evidence that combined THC and CBD extracts may provide therapeutic benefit for MS spasticity symptoms. Although some objective measures of spasticity noted improvement trends, there were no changes found to be significant in post-treatment assessments. However, subjective assessment of symptom relief did often show significant improvement post-treatment. Differences in assessment measures, reports of adverse events, and dosage levels are discussed.

Rowland Marie

2009-12-01

256

Los productos de Cannabis sativa: situación actual y perspectivas en medicina / Cannabis sativa products: current status and perspectives in medicine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los productos psicoactivos de la Cannabis sativa, como marihuana y hachís, se han usado desde hace varios siglos con fines medicinales, religiosos y recreativos. Ahora, la marihuana es la droga ilegal de mayor consumo en el mundo, particularmente por adolescentes y adultos jóvenes. La adolescencia e [...] s una etapa crítica en el desarrollo y maduración del Sistema Nervioso Central. La marihuana está constituida por un gran número y variedad de substancias químicas que pueden interactuar entre sí. Sus efectos agudos se caracterizan por euforia, relajación e intensificación de las experiencias sensoriales ordinarias. Su consumo crónico induce tolerancia, dependencia, síndrome de carencia, déficit cognitivo y aumenta el riesgo de enfermedades psiquiátricas. El descubrimiento de un sistema cannabinoide endógeno renovó el interés médico por la marihuana y los datos de los últimos 20 años indican que el sistema endocannabinoide regula la función de diversos tipos de sinapsis y juega un papel importante en el desarrollo cerebral extrauterino. Recientemente el interés sobre la marihuana se centró en sus propiedades medicinales y existe un buen número de ensayos clínicos controlados que apoyan su uso en ciertas condiciones médicas; sin embargo, su eficacia y seguridad siguen siendo motivo de controversia. En este artículo se analizan los conocimientos farmacológicos sobre la marihuana, se establecen los riesgos de su consumo, la información sobre sus propiedades medicinales y, con base en la evidencia disponible, se opina contra su legalización. Finalmente, aquí se postula que la marihuana en su forma herbaria, por vía enteral, puede ser de gran valor para mitigar el sufrimiento de pacientes con enfermedad terminal. Abstract in english Psychoactive preparations of Cannabis sativa, such as marijuana and hashish, have been used for centuries for medicinal, religious and recreational purposes. Today marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug worldwide, particularly among teenagers and young adults. Adolescence is a critical phase [...] in Central Nervous System development, characterized by neuronal maturation and rearrangement processes. Marijuana is very complex in its chemistry due to the large number of active constituents capable of interacting with each other. With inhaled marihuana, subjects experience euphoria, a feeling of relaxation, and intensification of ordinary sensory experiences. Chronic consumption results in tolerance, dependence, withdrawal syndrome, cognitive deterioration, and increased risk of psychiatric illnesses. The discovery of an endogenous cannabinoid system renewed the medical interest in marijuana and data from the last 20 years have shown that, in the postnatal brain, endocannabinoids regulate the function of many synapses and play an important role in brain development; also, that chronic consumption of marijuana early in life negatively affects Central Nervous System development. Recently, interest on marijuana has centered on its medicinal properties, and a good number of controlled clinical studies support its use in certain medical conditions; however, safety and efficacy of marijuana remains controversial. In this article we analyze the pharmacological knowledge on marijuana, the risks of its consumption, data on its medicinal properties and, based on the available evidence, we conclude that its legalization should be discouraged. Finally, we postulate that marijuana in its herbal form, by the enteral route, could be of a great value in mitigating suffering in patients with terminal illness.

Rodríguez Carranza, Rodolfo.

257

Stress-Related Factors in Cannabis Use and Misuse: Implications for Prevention and Treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examined the role of stress as a risk factor and motivation for cannabis use/misuse. A systematic review of studies gathered from PsychINFO and MEDLINE databases was conducted. Findings suggest that cannabis is commonly used as a stress-coping strategy. Negative life events, trauma, and maladaptive coping were all related to consumption. Cannabis use for stress-coping purposes was most evident when examining chronic as compared with experimental use. While many individuals may be able to u...

Hyman, Scott M.; Sinha, Rajita

2009-01-01

258

Adolescent Cannabis Problems and Young Adult Depression: Male-Female Stratified Propensity Score Analyses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cannabis use and depression are two of the most prevalent conditions worldwide. Adolescent cannabis use is linked to depression in many studies, but the effects of adolescent cannabis involvement on young adult depression remain unclear and may differ for males versus females. In this cohort study of youth from a mid-Atlantic metropolitan area of the United States, repeated assessments from 1985 (at age 6 years) through 2002 (at age 21 years) were made for 1,494 individuals (55% female). Meas...

Harder, Valerie S.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Anthony, James C.

2008-01-01

259

Lower Risk Cannabis Use Guidelines for Canada (LRCUG) : A?Narrative Review of Evidence and Recommendations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: More than one in ten adults – and about one in three young adults – report past year cannabis use in Canada. While cannabis use is associated with a variety of health risks, current policy prohibits all use, rather than adopting a public health approach focusing on interventions to address specific risks and harms as do policies for alcohol. The objective of this paper was to develop ‘Lower Risk Cannabis Use Guidelines’ (LRCUG) based on research evidence on the adverse hea...

2011-01-01

260

Perceptions of cannabis as a stigmatized medicine: a qualitative descriptive study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Despite its increasing prevalence and acceptance among the general public, cannabis use continues to be viewed as an aberrant activity in many contexts. However, little is known about how stigma associated with cannabis use affects individuals who use cannabis for therapeutic purposes (CTP) and what strategies these individuals employ to manage associated stigma. The aim of this Canadian study was to describe users’ perceptions of and responses to the st...

Bottorff Joan L; Jl, Bissell Laura; Balneaves Lynda G; Oliffe John L; Rielle, Capler N.; Buxton Jane

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Cannabis use and depression: a longitudinal study of a national cohort of Swedish conscripts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background While there is increasing evidence on the association between cannabis use and psychotic outcomes, it is still unclear whether this also applies to depression. We aim to assess whether risk of depression and other affective outcomes is increased among cannabis users. Methods A cohort study of 45 087 Swedish men with data on cannabis use at ages 18–20. Diagnoses of unipolar disorder, bipolar disorder, affective psychosis and schizoaffective ...

Manrique-Garcia Edison; Zammit Stanley; Dalman Christina; Hemmingsson Tomas; Allebeck Peter

2012-01-01

262

Lasting impacts of prenatal cannabis exposure and the role of endogenous cannabinoids in the developing brain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit substance among pregnant women. Human epidemiological and animal studies have found that prenatal cannabis exposure influences brain development and can have long-lasting impacts on cognitive functions. Exploration of the therapeutic potential of cannabis-based medicines and synthetic cannabinoid compounds has given us much insight into the physiological roles of endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids) and their receptors. In this article, we examine h...

Wu, Chia-shan; Jew, Christopher P.; Lu, Hui-chen

2011-01-01

263

INCANT: a transnational randomized trial of Multidimensional Family Therapy versus treatment as usual for adolescents with cannabis use disorder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, the governments of Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland agreed that there was a need in Europe for a treatment programme for adolescents with cannabis use disorders and other behavioural problems. Based on an exhaustive literature review of evidence-based treatments and an international experts meeting, Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT was selected for a pilot study first, which was successful, and then for a joint, transnational randomized controlled trial named INCANT (INternational CAnnabis Need for Treatment. Methods/design INCANT is a randomized controlled trial (RCT with an open-label, parallel group design. This study compares MDFT with treatment as usual (TAU at and across sites in Brussels, Berlin, Paris, The Hague and Geneva. Assessments are at baseline and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after randomization. A minimum of 450 cases in total is required; sites will recruit 60 cases each in Belgium and Switzerland, and a maximum of 120 each in France, Germany and the Netherlands. Eligible for INCANT are adolescents from 13 through 18 years of age with a cannabis use disorder (dependence or abuse, with at least one parent willing to take part in the treatment. Randomization is concealed to, and therefore beyond control by, the researcher/site requesting it. Randomization is stratified as to gender, age and level of cannabis consumption. Assessments focus on substance use; mental function; behavioural problems; and functioning regarding family, school, peers and leisure time. For outcome analyses, the study will use state of the art latent growth curve modelling techniques, including all randomized participants according to the intention-to-treat principle. INCANT has been approved by the appropriate ethical boards in Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. INCANT is funded by the (federal Ministries of Health of Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and by MILDT: the Mission Interministerielle de Lutte Contra la Drogue et de Toximanie, France. Discussion Until recently, cannabis use disorders in adolescents were not viewed in Europe as requiring treatment, and the co-occurrence of such disorders with other mental and behavioural problems was underestimated. This has changed now. Initially, there was doubt that a RCT would be feasible in treatment sectors and countries with no experience in this type of study. INCANT has proven that such doubts are unjustified. Governments and treatment sites from the five participating countries agreed on a sound study protocol, and the INCANT trial is now underway as planned. Trial registration ISRCTN51014277

Grichting Esther

2010-04-01

264

Early onset cannabis use and progression to other drug use in a sample of Dutch twins.  

Science.gov (United States)

One possible explanation of the commonly reported associations between early onset cannabis use and elevated risks of other illicit drug use is that early onset cannabis use increases access and availability to other drugs. It was this argument that in part motivated policy changes in the Netherlands that led to the de facto legalization of cannabis there. This study examines, using a co-twin control design, whether previously observed associations between early onset cannabis use and elevated lifetime rates of other illicit drug use would also be observed in a sample of 219 same sex Dutch twin pairs discordant for cannabis use before age 18. After adjustment for covariates, rates of lifetime party drug use (OR=7.4, 95% CI=2.3-23.4), hard drug use (OR=16.5, 95% CI=2.4-111.3), but not regular cannabis use (OR=1.3, 95% CI=0.3-5.1) were significantly elevated in individuals who reported early onset cannabis use, relative to their co-twin who had not used cannabis by age 18. The elevated odds of subsequent illicit drug use in early cannabis users relative to their non early using co-twins suggests that this association could not be explained by common familial risk factors, either genetic or environmental, for which our co-twin methodology provided rigorous control. PMID:16402286

Lynskey, Michael T; Vink, Jacqueline M; Boomsma, Dorret I

2006-03-01

265

Fatores de proteção e de risco associados ao início do uso de cannabis: revisão sistemática  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La finalidad de ese artículo es examinar los factores asociados al uso inicial de cannnabis, a través de una revisión sistemática: Medline, Scielo, Lilacs y Cochrane, con las siguientes palabras clave: cannabis, marijuana, inicio, desde el 1999 hasta abril del 2008. Los factores siguientes se asocian al inicio del cannabis: uso temprano del alcohol y del tabaco; género masculino; comportamiento agresivo temprano; supervisión parental baja; padres solos; uso de sustancias de los padres; grupo de pares que usan cannabis; comportamiento irregular; el pertenecer a las comunidades perjudicadas. El uso temprano del cannabis es un factor predictivo para los desordenes del uso de las sustancias (SUD por los adultos jóvenes.

Tânia Moraes Ramos Andrade

2011-01-01

266

Cross-national differences in clinically significant cannabis problems: epidemiologic evidence from 'cannabis-only' smokers in the United States, Mexico, and Colombia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies show wide variability in the occurrence of cannabis smoking and related disorders across countries. This study aims to estimate cross-national variation in cannabis users' experience of clinically significant cannabis-related problems in three countries of the Americas, with a focus on cannabis users who may have tried alcohol or tobacco, but who have not used cocaine, heroin, LSD, or other internationally regulated drugs. Methods Data are from the World Mental Health Surveys Initiative and the National Latino and Asian American Study, with probability samples in Mexico (n = 4426, Colombia (n = 5,782 and the United States (USA; n = 8,228. The samples included 212 'cannabis only' users in Mexico, 260 in Colombia and 1,724 in the USA. Conditional GLM with GEE and 'exact' methods were used to estimate variation in the occurrence of clinically significant problems in cannabis only (CO users across these surveyed populations. Results The experience of cannabis-related problems was quite infrequent among CO users in these countries, with weighted frequencies ranging from 1% to 5% across survey populations, and with no appreciable cross-national variation in general. CO users in Colombia proved to be an exception. As compared to CO users in the USA, the Colombia smokers were more likely to have experienced cannabis-associated 'social problems' (odds ratio, OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 6.3; p = 0.004 and 'legal problems' (OR = 9.7; 95% CI = 2.7, 35.2; p = 0.001. Conclusions This study's most remarkable finding may be the similarity in occurrence of cannabis-related problems in this cross-national comparison within the Americas. Wide cross-national variations in estimated population-level cumulative incidence of cannabis use disorders may be traced to large differences in cannabis smoking prevalence, rather than qualitative differences in cannabis experiences. More research is needed to identify conditions that might make cannabis-related social and legal problems more frequent in Colombia than in the USA.

Posada-Villa Jose

2010-03-01

267

Syphilis Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Syphilis Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... occurs in four stages that sometimes overlap. Primary Syphilis The first symptom of primary syphilis is often ...

268

Plague Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Plague Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics Info ... Clinicians Public Health Officials Veterinarians Prevention History of Plague Resources FAQ Related Links USGS National Wildlife Health ...

269

Rotavirus Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rotavirus Facebook Reccomend Twitter Tweet Share Compartir Add this ... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Symptoms Español: Síntomas Rotavirus disease is most common in infants and young ...

270

Interaction between COMT haplotypes and cannabis in schizophrenia: a case-only study in two samples from Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis use is one of the environmental factors with more solid evidence contributing to schizophrenia risk, especially in genetically susceptible individuals. One of the genes that may interact with cannabis is COMT, although available data are scarce. Here, we present a case-only study of the putative COMT-cannabis interaction in schizophrenia. Two Spanish samples from Santiago de Compostela and Valencia were screened for cannabis use. One hundred and fifty five individuals from a total of 748 patients were identified as cannabis users. Five SNPs in COMT, defining three common functional haplotypes with different enzymatic activities, were genotyped and analyzed for association at the SNP, haplotype and genotype levels. An association was detected between cannabis use and low activity variants (PCOMT polymorphisms in the association between cannabis use and schizophrenia as well as the existence of additional factors mediating this association. However, further research is needed to confirm the COMT-cannabis interaction. PMID:21310591

Costas, Javier; Sanjuán, Julio; Ramos-Ríos, Ramón; Paz, Eduardo; Agra, Santiago; Tolosa, Amparo; Páramo, Mario; Brenlla, Julio; Arrojo, Manuel

2011-04-01

271

Antigiardial Activity and Toxicological Exploration of Cannabis Sativa Extracts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study has been attempt to elucidate antigiardial activity and explore the cytoxicity, investigation on liver Diagnostic Enzymes and Changes in serum constituents of Cannabis Sativa aerial parts and seeds, which were extracted by Petroleum ether and methanol. Aerial parts methanolic extract gave 63.6% mortality after 72 hours at concentration 1000 ppm (IC50 0.13 ppm comparing with metrondizole (IC50 0.0125 ppm. While the other extracts found inactive as antigiardiasis after 72 hours. The slight increase in Aspartate amino transferase (AST, Alanine amino transferase (ALT and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP liver enzyme and total protein, urea, albumin and calcium which indicate some degree hepatic nefropathy effect of such plant petroleum ether extract. Moreover, phytochemical examination was carried out firstly and revealed that, the petroleum ether extract of Cannabis sativa seed do not contain tetrahydrocannbinol (THC, cannabinol (CBN and cannabidaiol (CBD. However, all extracts showed no significant cytotoxic activity against vero cell line.

Mahmoud M.DAHAB

2013-05-01

272

Crop physiology of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fibre hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) may be an alternative to wood as a raw material for the production of paper pulp. The effects of enviromnental factors and cultural measures on the functioning, yield and quality of fibre hemp crops in the Netherlands were investigated.Until flowering (generally in August), the radiation use efficiency (RUE, above-ground dry matter accumulated per unit of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted) of hemp was 2.2 g MJ -1, after flowering it d...

Werf, H.

1994-01-01

273

Pregnenolone Can Protect the Brain from Cannabis Intoxication  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pregnenolone is considered the inactive precursor of all steroid hormones, and its potential functional effects have been largely uninvestigated. The administration of the main active principle of Cannabis sativa (marijuana), Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), substantially increases the synthesis of pregnenolone in the brain via activation of the type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor. Pregnenolone then, acting as a signaling-specific inhibitor of the CB1 receptor, reduces several effects of TH...

2014-01-01

274

Simultaneous alcohol and cannabis expectancies predict simultaneous use  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicts increased negative consequences for users beyond individual or even concurrent use of the two drugs. Given the widespread use of the drugs and common simultaneous consumption, problems unique to simultaneous use may bear important implications for many substance users. Cognitive expectancies offer a template for future drug use behavior based on previous drug experiences, accurately predicting future use an...

Barnwell Sara; Earleywine Mitch

2006-01-01

275

Antimicrobial Activity of Cannabis sativa L.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The oil of the seeds, petroleum ether and methanol extracts of the whole plant of Cannabis sativa belonging to the family Cannabinaceae were screened for their antimicrobial activity against two Gram positive organisms (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus), two Gram negative organisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two fungi namely Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans...

Ali, Esra M. M.; Almagboul, Aisha Z. I.; Khogali, Salwa M. E.; Gergeir, Umelkheir M. A.

2012-01-01

276

Cloud point extraction of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol from cannabis resin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A cloud point extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/UV) method was developed for the determination of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in micellar phase. The nonionic surfactant "Dowfax 20B102" was used to extract and pre-concentrate THC from cannabis resin, prior to its determination with a HPLC-UV system (diode array detector) with isocratic elution. The parameters and variables affecting the extraction were investigated. Under optimum conditions (1 wt.% Dowfax ...

Ameur, S.; Haddou, Boumediene; Derriche, Zoubir; Canselier, Jean-paul; Gourdon, Christophe

2013-01-01

277

Design paper: The CapOpus trial: A randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial of specialized addiction treatment versus treatment as usual for young patients with cannabis abuse and psychosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies indicate a link between cannabis-use and psychosis as well as more severe psychosis in those with existing psychotic disorders. There is currently insufficient evidence to decide the optimal way to treat cannabis abuse among patients with psychosis. Objectives The major objective for the CapOpus trial is to evaluate the additional effect on cannabis abuse of a specialized addiction treatment program adding group treatment and motivational interviewing to treatment as usual. Design The trial is designed as a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial. Patients are primarily recruited through early-psychosis detection teams, community mental health centers, and assertive community treatment teams. Patients are randomized to one of two treatment arms, both lasting six months: 1 specialized addiction treatment plus treatment as usual or 2 treatment as usual. The specialized addiction treatment is manualized and consists of both individual and group-based motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy, and incorporates both the family and the case manager of the patient. The primary outcome measure will be changes in amount of cannabis consumption over time. Other outcome measures will be psychosis symptoms, cognitive functioning, quality of life, social functioning, and cost-benefit analyses. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00484302.

Gluud Christian

2008-07-01

278

12-Month Follow-up of an Exploratory 'Brief Intervention' for High-Frequency Cannabis Users among Canadian University Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: One in three young people use cannabis in Canada. Cannabis use can be associated with a variety ofhealth problems which occur primarily among intensive/frequent users. Availability and effectiveness ofconventional treatment for cannabis use is limited. While Brief Interventions (BIs) have been shown to result inshort-term reductions of cannabis use risks or problems, few studies have assessed their longer-term effects. Thepresent study examined 12-month follow-up outcomes for B...

Fischer, Benedikt; Jones, Wayne; Shuper, Paul; Rehm, Ju?rgen

2012-01-01

279

12-Month Follow-Up of an Exploratory 'Brief Intervention' For High-Frequency Cannabis Users among Canadian University Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background One in three young people use cannabis in Canada. Cannabis use can be associated with a variety of health problems which occur primarily among intensive/frequent users. Availability and effectiveness of conventional treatment for cannabis use is limited. While Brief Interventions (BIs) have been shown to result in short-term reductions of cannabis use risks or problems, few studies have assessed their longer-term effects. The present study examined 12-month follow-up outcomes fo...

Fischer, Benedikt; Jones, Wayne; Shuper, Paul; Rehm, Jurgen

2012-01-01

280

Mortality following treatment for cannabis use disorders : Predictors and causes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the study was to determine excess mortality associated with cannabis use disorders. Individuals entering treatment for cannabis use disorders were followed by use of Danish registers and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) estimated. Predictors of different causes of death were determined. A total of 6445 individuals were included and 142 deaths recorded during 26,584 person-years of follow-up. Mortality was predicted by age, comorbid use of opioids, and lifetime injection drug use. For different causes of death the SMRs were: accidents: 8.2 (95% CI 6.3-10.5), suicide: 5.3 (95% CI 3.3-7.9), homicide/violence: 3.8 (95% CI 1.5-7.9), and natural causes: 2.8 (95% CI 2.0-3.7). Following exclusion of those with secondary use of opioids, cocaine, amphetamine, or injection drug use, SMRs for all causes of death remained significantly elevated except for homicide/violence. The study underlines the need to address mortality risk associated with cannabis use disorders.

Arendt, Mikkel; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Mortality following treatment for cannabis use disorders : predictors and causes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the study was to determine excess mortality associated with cannabis use disorders. Individuals entering treatment for cannabis use disorders were followed by use of Danish registers and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) estimated. Predictors of different causes of death were determined. A total of 6445 individuals were included and 142 deaths recorded during 26,584 person-years of follow-up. Mortality was predicted by age, comorbid use of opioids, and lifetime injection drug use. For different causes of death the SMRs were: accidents: 8.2 (95% CI 6.3-10.5), suicide: 5.3 (95% CI 3.3-7.9), homicide/violence: 3.8 (95% CI 1.5-7.9), and natural causes: 2.8 (95% CI 2.0-3.7). Following exclusion of those with secondary use of opioids, cocaine, amphetamine, or injection drug use, SMRs for all causes of death remained significantly elevated except for homicide/violence. The study underlines the need to address mortality risk associated with cannabis use disorders.

Arendt, Mikkel; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

2013-01-01

282

Costs and Revenues in Street-Level Cannabis Dealing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the western countries, but only little is known about the supply-side of distribution because most transactions occur indoors between peers. However, in Copenhagen, Denmark, an exception to this in the form of several flagrant street-level markets thrived as a byproduct of a lenient policy towards possession and retail sale offences. In 2004, this policy was reversed and a series of police crackdowns ensued. Transcriptions of police surveillance prior to the crackdowns provide insights into the particularities of the street-level drugs economy: salaries of ancillary staff, number and frequency of sales, and purchase prices of cannabis. This study applies transaction cost reasoning to explore and compare revenues, costs and governance structures in two Copenhagen cannabis markets. It is found that the quantifiable net revenues for the proprietor of the drugs in both markets were substantial and surprisingly similar considering the variations in scale and scope. A set of unquantifiable uncertainties and risks of law enforcement intervention were more prevalent in the smaller of the two markets.

Møller, Kim

2012-01-01

283

Microglial activation underlies cerebellar deficits produced by repeated cannabis exposure  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic cannabis exposure can lead to cerebellar dysfunction in humans, but the neurobiological mechanisms involved remain incompletely understood. Here, we found that in mice, subchronic administration of the psychoactive component of cannabis, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), activated cerebellar microglia and increased the expression of neuroinflammatory markers, including IL-1?. This neuroinflammatory phenotype correlated with deficits in cerebellar conditioned learning and fine motor coordination. The neuroinflammatory phenotype was readily detectable in the cerebellum of mice with global loss of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R, Cb1–/– mice) and in mice lacking CB1R in the cerebellar parallel fibers, suggesting that CB1R downregulation in the cerebellar molecular layer plays a key role in THC-induced cerebellar deficits. Expression of CB2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) and Il1b mRNA was increased under neuroinflammatory conditions in activated CD11b-positive microglial cells. Furthermore, administration of the immunosuppressant minocycline or an inhibitor of IL-1? receptor signaling prevented the deficits in cerebellar function in Cb1–/– and THC-withdrawn mice. Our results suggest that cerebellar microglial activation plays a crucial role in the cerebellar deficits induced by repeated cannabis exposure.

Cutando, Laura; Busquets-Garcia, Arnau; Puighermanal, Emma; Gomis-Gonzalez, Maria; Delgado-Garcia, Jose Maria; Gruart, Agnes; Maldonado, Rafael; Ozaita, Andres

2013-01-01

284

Therapeutic satisfaction and subjective effects of different strains of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In The Netherlands, pharmaceutical-grade cultivated cannabis is distributed for medicinal purposes as commissioned by the Ministry of Health. Few studies have thus far described its therapeutic efficacy or subjective (adverse) effects in patients. The aims of this study are to assess the therapeutic satisfaction within a group of patients using prescribed pharmaceutical-grade cannabis and to compare the subjective effects among the available strains with special focus on their delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol content. In a cross-sectional and natural design, users of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis were investigated with questionnaires. Medical background of the patients was asked as well as experienced therapeutic effects and characteristics of cannabis use. Subjective effects were measured with psychometric scales and used to compare among the strains of cannabis used across this group of patients. One hundred two patients were included; their average age was 53 years and 76% used it for more than a year preceding this study. Chronic pain (53%; n = 54) was the most common medical indication for using cannabis followed by multiple sclerosis (23%; n = 23), and 86% (n = 88) of patients (almost) always experienced therapeutic satisfaction when using pharmaceutical cannabis. Dejection, anxiety, and appetite stimulation were found to differ among the 3 strains of cannabis. These results show that patients report therapeutic satisfaction with pharmaceutical cannabis, mainly pain alleviation. Some subjective effects were found to differ among the available strains of cannabis, which is discussed in relation to their different tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol content. These results may aid in further research and critical appraisal for medicinally prescribed cannabis products. PMID:24747979

Brunt, Tibor M; van Genugten, Marianne; Höner-Snoeken, Kathrin; van de Velde, Marco J; Niesink, Raymond J M

2014-06-01

285

21 CFR 1308.35 - Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom...SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Cannabis Plant Material, and Products Made Therefrom... § 1308.35 Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made...

2010-04-01

286

Toking and Driving: Characteristics of Canadian University Students Who Drive after Cannabis Use--An Exploratory Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis use is increasingly prevalent among young adults in Canada. Due to cannabis' impairment effects, driving under the influence of cannabis has recently developed into a traffic-safety concern, yet little is known about the specific circumstances and factors characterizing this behavior among young people. In this study, we interviewed a…

Fischer, Benedikt; Rodopoulos, Jenny; Rehm, Jurgen; Ivsins, Andrew

2006-01-01

287

Cannabis Use and Related Harms in the Transition to Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…

Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

2013-01-01

288

Characteristics and Predictors of Health Problems from Use among High-Frequency Cannabis Users in a Canadian University Student Population  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims: Assess key cannabis use, risk and outcome characteristics among high-frequency cannabis users within a university student sample in Toronto, Canada. Methods: N = 134 active universities students (ages of 18-28) using cannabis at least three times per week were recruited by mass advertisement, telephone-screened and anonymously assessed by an…

Fischer, Benedikt; Dawe, Meghan; Mcguire, Fraser; Shuper, Paul A; Jones, Wayne; Rudzinski, Katherine; Rehm, Jurgen

2012-01-01

289

Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an anxiolytic drug Canabidiol, um componente da Cannabis sativa, como um ansiolítico  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To review and describe studies of the non-psychotomimetic constituent of Cannabis sativa, cannabidiol (CBD), as an anxiolytic drug and discuss its possible mechanisms of action. METHOD: The articles selected for the review were identified through searches in English, Portuguese, and Spanish in the electronic databases ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, PubMed, and PsycINFO, combining the search terms "cannabidiol and anxiolytic", "cannabidiol and anxiolytic-like", and "cannabidiol and ...

Alexandre Rafael de Mello Schier; Natalia Pinho de Oliveira Ribeiro; Silva, Adriana Cardoso Oliveira E.; Jaime Eduardo Cecílio Hallak; Crippa, Jose? Alexandre S.; Nardi, Antonio E.; Antonio Waldo Zuardi

2012-01-01

290

Cannabis use and depression: a longitudinal study of a national cohort of Swedish conscripts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is increasing evidence on the association between cannabis use and psychotic outcomes, it is still unclear whether this also applies to depression. We aim to assess whether risk of depression and other affective outcomes is increased among cannabis users. Methods A cohort study of 45 087 Swedish men with data on cannabis use at ages 18–20. Diagnoses of unipolar disorder, bipolar disorder, affective psychosis and schizoaffective disorder were identified from inpatient care records over a 35-year follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to assess the hazard ratio (HR of developing these disorders in relation to cannabis exposure. Results Only subjects with the highest level of cannabis use had an increased crude hazard ratio for depression (HR 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.0-2.2, but the association disappeared after adjustment for confounders. There was a strong graded association between cannabis use and schizoaffective disorder, even after control for confounders, although the numbers were small (HR 7.4, 95% CI, 1.0-54.3. Conclusion We did not find evidence for an increased risk of depression among those who used cannabis. Our finding of an increased risk of schizoaffective disorder is consistent with previous findings on the relation between cannabis use and psychosis.

Manrique-Garcia Edison

2012-08-01

291

Emotional processing deficits in chronic cannabis use: A replication and extension.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heavy cannabis use is associated with interpersonal problems that may arise in part from the inaccurate perception of emotional faces. Only one study reports impairments in emotional facial affect processing in heavy cannabis users; however, it is not clear whether these findings were attributable to differences between cannabis users and controls in schizotypy or gender, rather than from cannabis use itself. A total of 25 frequent cannabis users and 34 non-using controls completed an emotional processing task in an independent groups design. We asked participants to identify the emotions on faces morphed from neutral to 100% intensity, for six basic emotions. We measured percentage hit rate, sensitivity and response bias. Schizotypy was indexed using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire. Cannabis users showed lower accuracy and sensitivity on the emotional recognition task. Gender and schizotypy did not differ between the two groups. Men showed lower accuracy on the emotional processing task, but impairments in cannabis users remained when covarying for gender. Schizotypy negatively correlated with sensitivity scores, but this was unreliable when accounting for the groups. Chronic cannabis users showed generalised impairment in emotional processing. These results appeared as independent of the emotional processing deficits amongst men, and were not related to schizotypy. PMID:24646810

Hindocha, Chandni; Wollenberg, Olivia; Carter Leno, Virginia; Alvarez, Beatriz O; Curran, H Valerie; Freeman, Tom P

2014-05-01

292

Social Skills as Precursors of Cannabis Use in Young Adolescents: A Trails Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Social skills (cooperation, assertion, and self-control) were assessed by teachers for a longitudinal cohort of (pre)adolescents, with measurements at average ages 11.1 (baseline) and 16.3 years (follow-up). Prospective associations with participants' self-reported use of cannabis, (age of) onset of cannabis use, and frequency of use at follow-up…

Griffith-Lendering, Merel F. H.; Huijbregts, Stephan C. J.; Huizink, Anja C.; Ormel, Hans; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Swaab, Hanna

2011-01-01

293

Swiss Adolescents' and Adults' Perceptions of Cannabis Use: A Qualitative Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies have attempted to investigate the nature of adolescents and adults conceptions and perceptions of cannabis use. Our objectives were to explore adolescent and adult perception of use and misuse of cannabis, and their opinions and beliefs about the current legal context and preventive strategies. We used focus group discussions with four…

Menghrajani, P.; Klaue, K.; Dubois-Arber, F.; Michaud, P.-A.

2005-01-01

294

Anhedonia and substance dependence: clinical correlates and treatment options  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anhedonia is a condition in which the capacity of experiencing pleasure is totally or partially lost, and it refers to both a state symptom in various psychiatric disorders and a personality trait. It has a putative neural substrate, consisting in the dopaminergic mesolimbic and mesocortical reward circuit. Anhedonia frequently occurs in mood disorders, as a negative symptom in schizophrenia, and in substance use disorders. In particular, we focus our attention on the relationships occurring between anhedonia and substance use disorders, as highlighted by many studies. Several authors suggested that anhedonia is an important factor involved in relapse as well as in the transition from recreational use to excessive drug intake. In particular, anhedonia has been found to be a frequent feature in alcoholics and addicted patients during acute and chronic withdrawal as well as in cocaine, stimulant and cannabis abusers. Furthermore, in subjects with a substance dependence disorder, there is a significant correlation between anhedonia, craving, intensity of withdrawal symptoms and psychosocial and personality characteristics. Therefore treating anhedonia in detoxified alcohol dependent subjects could be critical in terms of relapse prevention strategies, given its strong relationship with craving. On this purpose many different strategies have been proposed.

GiovanniMartinotti

2011-03-01

295

Cannabis Use and Mental Health: A Review of Recent Epidemiological Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cannabis is the most commonly used drug in the world. This review examines recent epidemiological research on the relationships between cannabis use and mental health problems. Relationships with depression, anxiety disorders, mania and psychosis are examined, with relevant issues such as the effect of confounding variables, temporal directions and causality being discussed. Factors which influence the relationship such as dose-response effects, age of first cannabis use and risk of mental health problems are also examined. Causality is often difficult to establish, as cannabis is often used by those with mental illness for self-medication. However, there is substantial evidence to suggest that cannabis may induce or exacerbate a number of mental health problems.

T.H. Richardson

2010-01-01

296

Perfil de consumo de cocaína, cannabis y opiáceos en el laboratorio toxicológico CENATOXA Profile of consumption of cocaine, cannabis and opiates in the toxicology laboratory CENATOXA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Con el propósito de conocer, en la población que concurre al laboratorio del CENATOXA, qué droga de abuso se consume más, cuál es la modalidad de consumo y el perfil de la consulta, se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de 2.635 casos a los que durante el período 1995-2006 se les solicitó investigación en orina de cannabis, cocaína y opiáceos. Los análisis se realizaron utilizando pruebas inmunológicas, cromatografía en capa delgada normalizada y cromatografía gaseosa-espectrometría de masas. El 20% de las muestras (n=529 resultaron positivas, correspondiendo el 50,66% a cannabis, el 37,43% a cocaína, el 2,08% a opiáceos y el 9,83% a la combinación cannabis-cocaína. Los varones constituyeron el 62% de los casos positivos. El mayor consumo de cannabis se observó entre los 11 y 30 años, el de cocaína entre los 21 y 40 años y la combinación de ambas drogas entre los 11 y 30 años. Los motivos de la solicitud de análisis correspondieron mayoritariamente y en proporciones similares al control de la adicción (31,1% y a la sospecha de consumo (29,67%. El cannabis fue la droga ilegal más usada, predominó el monoconsumo, los principales usuarios fueron varones y los más comprometidos fueron los menores de 30 años.A study was conducted in order to know what drugs of abuse are most commonly consumed by the population that comes to CENATOXA, as well as which the consumption patterns and consultation profiles are. A retrospective study was conducted in 2,635 cases for which, during 1995 to 2006, a toxicologycal urine analysis of cocaine, cannabis and opiates was requested. The analytical methodologies applied were immunoassay tests, standardized thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the studied sample (n=529, 20% were positive: 50.66% was due to cannabis, 37.43% to cocaine, 2.08% to opiates and 9.83% to combination of cannabis-cocaine. Sixty-two per cent of positive cases were male subjects, and the highest consumption of cannabis was seen in the 11 to 30 year-old age group; that of cocaine was seen in the 21 to 40 year-old age group and the combination of cannabis-cocaine in the 11 to 30 year-old group. In assessing the reason for test request a similar predominance of addiction control (31.1% and drug abuse suspicion (29.67% was found. Cannabis is the drug of abuse most commonly consumed; mono consumption is usual in this population and drug consumption is higher in males and people under 30 years old.

Patricia Noemí Quiroga

2008-12-01

297

Cannabis, the pregnant woman and her child: weeding out the myths.  

Science.gov (United States)

To review and summarise the literature reporting on cannabis use within western communities with specific reference to patterns of use, the pharmacology of its major psychoactive compounds, including placental and fetal transfer, and the impact of maternal cannabis use on pregnancy, the newborn infant and the developing child. Review of published articles, governmental guidelines and data and book chapters. Although cannabis is one of the most widely used illegal drugs, there is limited data about the prevalence of cannabis use in pregnant women, and it is likely that reported rates of exposure are significantly underestimated. With much of the available literature focusing on the impact of other illicit drugs such as opioids and stimulants, the effects of cannabis use in pregnancy on the developing fetus remain uncertain. Current evidence indicates that cannabis use both during pregnancy and lactation, may adversely affect neurodevelopment, especially during periods of critical brain growth both in the developing fetal brain and during adolescent maturation, with impacts on neuropsychiatric, behavioural and executive functioning. These reported effects may influence future adult productivity and lifetime outcomes. Despite the widespread use of cannabis by young women, there is limited information available about the impact perinatal cannabis use on the developing fetus and child, particularly the effects of cannabis use while breast feeding. Women who are using cannabis while pregnant and breast feeding should be advised of what is known about the potential adverse effects on fetal growth and development and encouraged to either stop using or decrease their use. Long-term follow-up of exposed children is crucial as neurocognitive and behavioural problems may benefit from early intervention aimed to reduce future problems such as delinquency, depression and substance use. PMID:24457255

Jaques, S C; Kingsbury, A; Henshcke, P; Chomchai, C; Clews, S; Falconer, J; Abdel-Latif, M E; Feller, J M; Oei, J L

2014-06-01

298

Problematic Alcohol and Cannabis Use among Young Adults: The Roles of Depression and Discomfort and Distress Tolerance  

Science.gov (United States)

Problematic substance use is associated with depression. Clarifying the relationship between substance use and depression remains an important research goal, with implications for prevention and treatment. Individual differences in the ability to tolerate negative physical and emotional sensations were hypothesized to play a role in substance use behaviors among depressed individuals. The present study investigated the roles of discomfort and distress tolerance in the relationship between alcohol and cannabis problems and depression among undergraduates (N = 265). Consistent with other reports, depression was correlated with alcohol and cannabis problems. As predicated, distress tolerance mediated the relationships between depression and alcohol and cannabis problems. Interestingly, discomfort intolerance moderated the relationship between depression and cannabis problems such that depressed individuals with high discomfort tolerance were most vulnerable to cannabis problems. These data suggest that distress intolerance may at least partially account for alcohol and cannabis problems among depressed young adults whereas discomfort intolerance may actually serve a protective role in the development of cannabis problems.

Buckner, Julia D.; Keough, Meghan E.; Schmidt, Norman B.

2007-01-01

299

Cannabinoid concentrations in hair from documented cannabis users.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifty-three head hair specimens were collected from 38 males with a history of cannabis use documented by questionnaire, urinalysis and controlled, double blind administration of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in an institutional review board approved protocol. The subjects completed a questionnaire indicating daily cannabis use (N=18) or non-daily use, i.e. one to five cannabis cigarettes per week (N=20). Drug use was also documented by a positive cannabinoid urinalysis, a hair specimen was collected from each subject and they were admitted to a closed research unit. Additional hair specimens were collected following smoking of two 2.7% THC cigarettes (N=13) or multiple oral doses totaling 116 mg THC (N=2). Cannabinoid concentrations in all hair specimens were determined by ELISA and GCMSMS. Pre- and post-dose detection rates did not differ statistically, therefore, all 53 specimens were considered as one group for further comparisons. Nineteen specimens (36%) had no detectable THC or 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) at the GCMSMS limits of quantification (LOQ) of 1.0 and 0.1 pg/mg hair, respectively. Two specimens (3.8%) had measurable THC only, 14 (26%) THCCOOH only, and 18 (34%) both cannabinoids. Detection rates were significantly different (p0.3, Fisher's exact test). For specimens with detectable cannabinoids, concentrations ranged from 3.4 to >100 pg THC/mg and 0.10 to 7.3 pg THCCOOH/mg hair. THC and THCCOOH concentrations were positively correlated (r=0.38, p<0.01, Pearson's product moment correlation). Using an immunoassay cutoff concentration of 5 pg THC equiv./mg hair, 83% of specimens that screened positive were confirmed by GCMSMS at a cutoff concentration of 0.1 pg THCCOOH/mg hair. PMID:16963215

Huestis, Marilyn A; Gustafson, Richard A; Moolchan, Eric T; Barnes, Allan; Bourland, James A; Sweeney, Stacy A; Hayes, Eugene F; Carpenter, Patrick M; Smith, Michael L

2007-07-01

300

The inheritance of chemical phenotype in Cannabis sativa L.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Four crosses were made between inbred Cannabis sativa plants with pure cannabidiol (CBD) and pure Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) chemotypes. All the plants belonging to the F(1)'s were analyzed by gas chromatography for cannabinoid composition and constantly found to have a mixed CBD-THC chemotype. Ten individual F(1) plants were self-fertilized, and 10 inbred F(2) offspring were collected and analyzed. In all cases, a segregation of the three chemotypes (pure CBD, mixed CBD-THC, and pure...

Meijer, Etienne P. M.; Bagatta, Manuela; Carboni, Andrea; Crucitti, Paola; Moliterni, V. M. Cristiana; Ranalli, Paolo; Mandolino, Giuseppe

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Perceptions of cannabis as a stigmatized medicine: a qualitative descriptive study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its increasing prevalence and acceptance among the general public, cannabis use continues to be viewed as an aberrant activity in many contexts. However, little is known about how stigma associated with cannabis use affects individuals who use cannabis for therapeutic purposes (CTP and what strategies these individuals employ to manage associated stigma. The aim of this Canadian study was to describe users’ perceptions of and responses to the stigma attached to using CTP. Methods Twenty-three individuals who were using CTP for a range of health problems took part in semi-structured interviews. Transcribed data were analyzed using an inductive approach and comparative strategies to explore participants’ perceptions of CTP and identify themes. Results Participant experiences of stigma were related to negative views of cannabis as a recreational drug, the current criminal sanctions associated with cannabis use, and using cannabis in the context of stigmatizing vulnerability (related to existing illness and disability. Strategies for managing the resulting stigma of using CTP included: keeping CTP ‘undercover’; educating those who did not approve of or understand CTP use; and using cannabis responsibly. Conclusions Understanding how individuals perceive and respond to stigma can inform the development of strategies aimed at reducing stigma associated with the use of CTP and thereby address barriers faced by those using this medicine.

Bottorff Joan L

2013-02-01

302

Is recent cannabis use associated with acute coronary syndromes? An illustrative case series.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis is a frequently used recreational drug that potentially imposes serious health problems. We report three cases where recent and/or chronic use of marijuana led to severe cardiac dysfunction. All three patients collapsed at home and required cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with initial restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The mechanism of the cardiovascular collapse was different in each case. The first case presented with asystole and was found to have diffuse coronary vasospasm on coronary angiography in the hours after acute cannabis abuse. In the second case, an acute anterior infarction with occlusion of both the right coronary artery (RCA) and the left anterior descendens (LAD) was observed in a young patient without known cardiovascular risks but with chronic cannabis abuse. The third case presented at home with ventricular fibrillation presumably caused by an acute coronary syndrome due to left anterior descending (LAD) artery occlusion. The hetero-anamnesis of the family reported that all three patients had recently used cannabis. Toxicological screening also showed no other substance abuse than cannabis. Using these three cases, we would like to illustrate that the widespread use of cannabis is not as innocent as is believed. Cannabis use can lead to severe cardiovascular problems and sudden death, not only in people at increased cardiovascular risk, but also in young people without any medical history or risk factors. PMID:24783463

Casier, Isabelle; Vanduynhoven, Philippe; Haine, Steven; Vrints, Chris; Jorens, Philippe G

2014-04-01

303

Flattened cortisol awakening response in chronic patients with schizophrenia onset after cannabis exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis may play a causal role in the onset of some schizophrenia cases; however, the biological vulnerability that predisposes some individuals to develop schizophrenia after exposure to cannabis is not known. According to the diathesis-stress pathogenetic model, it is likely that the endogenous stress response system, including the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, could be involved. Therefore, we investigated the saliva cortisol awakening response (CAR) of 16 patients with schizophrenia onset after the exposure to cannabis (Can+) as compared to 12 patients with schizophrenia onset without cannabis exposure (Can-) and to 15 healthy controls. The CAR was assessed by collecting saliva samples at awakening and after 15, 30 and 60 min. As compared to healthy controls, Can+ schizophrenia patients exhibited significantly enhanced baseline saliva cortisol levels and a flattened CAR. No significant abnormality in both baseline cortisol levels and CAR was detected in Can- schizophrenia patients. These findings demonstrate a dysregulation of the HPA axis in chronic schizophrenic patients whose illness started after cannabis exposure but not in those with an illness onset without cannabis exposure. Further studies need to clarify whether this HPA dysregulation is a part of the biological background underlying the increased risk to schizophrenia after exposure to cannabis. PMID:24388728

Monteleone, Palmiero; Di Filippo, Carmela; Fabrazzo, Michele; Milano, Walter; Martiadis, Vassilis; Corrivetti, Giulio; Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Maj, Mario

2014-02-28

304

Cannabis, pesticides and conflicting laws: The dilemma for legalized States and implications for public health.  

Science.gov (United States)

State laws on the legalization of medical and recreational cannabis are rapidly evolving. Similar to other crops, cannabis is susceptible to multiple pests during cultivation. Growers have an economic incentive to produce large yields and high quality plants, and may resort to pesticides to achieve these outcomes. Currently, there are no pesticides registered for cannabis in the United States, given its illegal status by the federal government. This discrepancy creates a regulatory vacuum and dilemma for States with legal medical and recreational cannabis that seek to balance lawful compliance with pesticides and worker or public health. Pesticide use presents occupational safety issues that can be mitigated through established worker protection measures. The absence of approved products for cannabis may result in consumer exposures to otherwise more hazardous pesticides or higher residue levels. While many legal and scientific hurdles exist to register conventional pesticides for use on cannabis, legalized States have explored other opportunities to leverage the present regulatory infrastructure. Stakeholder engagement and outreach to the cannabis industry from credible sources could mitigate pesticide misuse and harm. PMID:24859075

Stone, Dave

2014-08-01

305

Spicing up the military: Use and effects of synthetic cannabis in substance abusing army personnel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Synthetic cannabis (SC) use has been increasing within the United States. Due to difficulties with its detection through standard testing, it may be an attractive substance of abuse for military personnel. However, few studies have examined the consequences of its use in this population, including evidence for its potential for abuse and dependence. Participants included 368 active-duty Army personnel who expressed interest in participating in a "check-up" around their alcohol or substance use, of whom 294 (80%) met DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse or dependence (including alcohol, illicit drugs, and prescription medications) and were not engaged in substance abuse treatment. Forty-one participants (11%) reported using SC in the last 90days. Of those, 27 listed SC as their drug of choice. There were no significant differences in race, ethnicity, deployment history, or religion between SC users and others. Users of SC were generally younger and had less education and income than those who used only alcohol. Among SC users, 12% met criteria for drug abuse and 68% for dependence. Participants perceived SC use to be significantly more prevalent among military personnel than among civilians. Results suggest that SC is prevalent among substance-using soldiers and that DSM-IV criteria for abuse and dependence apply to SC. In addition, results highlight the importance of assessing and treating SC use among active-duty military personnel. PMID:24727109

Walker, Denise; Neighbors, Clayton; Walton, Thomas; Pierce, Adam; Mbilinyi, Lyungai; Kaysen, Debra; Roffman, Roger

2014-07-01

306

A survey of the potency of Japanese illicit cannabis in fiscal year 2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, increased 'cannabis potency', or ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in cannabis products, has been reported in many countries. A survey of Japanese illicit cannabis was conducted from April 2010 to March 2011. In Japan, all cannabis evidence is transferred to the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare after criminal trials. The evidence was observed at Narcotics Control Department offices in major 11 cities. The total number of cannabis samples observed was 9072, of which 6376 were marijuana. The marijuana seizures were further classified, and it was found that in terms of the number of samples, 65.2% of them were seedless buds, and by weight 73.0% of them were seedless buds. Seedless buds were supposed to be 'sinsemilla', a potent class of marijuana. THC, cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD) in marijuana seizures exceeding 1g were quantified. The number of samples analyzed was 1115. Many of them were shown to contain CBN, an oxidative product from THC. This was a sign of long-term storage of the cannabis and of the degradation of THC. Relatively fresh cannabis, defined by a CBN/THC ratio of less than or equal to 0.1, was chosen for analysis. Fresh seedless buds (335 samples) contained an average of 11.2% and a maximum of 22.6% THC. These values are comparable to those of 'high potency cannabis' as defined in previous studies. Thus, this study shows that highly potent cannabis products are distributed in Japan as in other countries. PMID:22554871

Tsumura, Yukari; Aoki, Rikiya; Tokieda, Yoshio; Akutsu, Mamoru; Kawase, Yasuharu; Kataoka, Tadashi; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Mizuno, Tomomi; Fukada, Masakatsu; Fujii, Hiroshi; Kurahashi, Kazumi

2012-09-10

307

Increased CB2 mRNA and anandamide in human blood after cessation of cannabis abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

In previous studies, long-term cannabis use led to alterations of the endocannabinoid system including an increase in CB1 and/or CB2 receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) in blood cells and an increase in the serum level of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. However, in those studies, cannabis use was stopped only few days before testing or not interrupted at all. Therefore, one cannot decide whether the alterations are due to long-term cannabis abuse or are confounded by acute effects of cannabis. Blood was sampled from donors that had smoked marijuana ?20 times in their lives but had abstained from cannabis for ?6 months (high-frequency users, HFU) and from controls (cannabis use ?5 times lifetime). CB1 and CB2 mRNA was determined in peripheral mononuclear blood cells using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Serum anandamide level was assayed using electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. CB2 mRNA was increased by 45 % in HFU when compared to controls, whereas CB1 mRNA did not differ. The anandamide level in HFU exceeded that in controls by 90 %. Tobacco smoking could be excluded as a confounding factor. In conclusion, marijuana users that had smoked marijuana ?20 times in their lives and stopped cannabis use at least 6 months before the study show an increase in CB2 receptor mRNA in the blood and in serum anandamide level. These alterations resemble those obtained for marijuana smokers that had stopped cannabis use only few days before testing and may be implicated in the pathogenesis of disorders associated with long-term cannabis use. PMID:24788457

Muhl, Daniela; Kathmann, Markus; Hoyer, Carolin; Kranaster, Laura; Hellmich, Martin; Gerth, Christoph W; Faulhaber, Johannes; Schlicker, Eberhard; Leweke, F Markus

2014-07-01

308

No association of candidate genes with cannabis use in a large sample of Australian twin families.  

Science.gov (United States)

While there is solid evidence that cannabis use is heritable, attempts to identify genetic influences at the molecular level have yielded mixed results. Here, a large twin family sample (n = 7452) was used to test for association between 10 previously reported candidate genes and lifetime frequency of cannabis use using a gene-based association test. None of the candidate genes reached even nominal significance (P < 0.05). The lack of replication may point to our limited understanding of the neurobiology of cannabis involvement and also to potential publication bias and false-positive findings in previous studies. PMID:21507154

Verweij, Karin J H; Zietsch, Brendan P; Liu, Jimmy Z; Medland, Sarah E; Lynskey, Michael T; Madden, Pamela A F; Agrawal, Arpana; Montgomery, Grant W; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

2012-05-01

309

Legalization, decriminalization & medicinal use of cannabis: a scientific and public health perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Empirical and clinical studies clearly demonstrate significant adverse effects of cannabis smoking on physical and mental health as well as its interference with social and occupational functioning. These negative data far outweigh a few documented benefits for a limited set of medical indications, for which safe and effective alternative treatments are readily available. If there is any medical role for cannabinoid drugs, it lies with chemically defined compounds, not with unprocessed cannabis plant. Legalization or medical use of smoked cannabis is likely to impose significant public health risks, including an increased risk of schizophrenia, psychosis, and other forms of substance use disorders. PMID:22675784

Svrakic, Dragan M; Lustman, Patrick J; Mallya, Ashok; Lynn, Taylor Andrea; Finney, Rhonda; Svrakic, Neda M

2012-01-01

310

Quality and Yield of Cannabis Products : Danish seizures from 2008-2011  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract. 180 seizures containing 667 different samples of cannabis products from 5 police districts in Jutland were examined from 2008 to the present. The samples were divided into the groups: hashish, marihuana (leaves and buds) and whole plants (indoors and outdoors). Cannabis seized from indoor cultivation was examined in order to determine THC content and yield. The results are used by the Danish Police Attorney to estimate expected yields in cases with unripe cannabis plants. The results indicate that the THC content found in locally grown marihuana is slightly higher than in hashish. However, the way the plants are snipped during growth has a major impact on the overall yield.

Kastorp, Grith; Lindholst, Christian

311

Prenatal cannabis exposure and infant outcomes: Overview of studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accumulating evidence from both human and preclinical studies indicates maternal substance use during pregnancy can affect fetal development, birth weight and infant outcomes. Thus, the prenatal period can be regarded as an important and potentially sensitive period of development. In this manuscript, an updated overview of studies on prenatal cannabis exposure in humans is presented, including recent studies conducted within the Generation R study. Findings on fetal growth, birth outcomes, early neonatal behavior and infant behavior and cognitive development are discussed in detail. Preclinical evidence and potential mechanisms are described as well, and recommendations for future studies are provided. It is concluded that evidence seems to suggest that fetal development is affected by prenatal maternal cannabis use, while findings on effects on infant behavior or cognition are inconsistent. Beyond infancy, subtle differences may be found in specific cognitive or behavioral outcomes, although replication studies in which pregnant women and their fetuses are exposed to current and probably higher levels of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol and novel designs are needed to come to firm conclusions. PMID:24075896

Huizink, A C

2014-07-01

312

Early Smoking Onset and Risk for Subsequent Nicotine Dependence: A Monozygotic Co-Twin Control Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Early onset of regular smoking is associated with an elevated risk for later nicotine dependence. Whether or not this association is causal is unknown and has substantial public policy implications. Method The authors used a monozygotic co-twin control study design. Pairs were selected from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders for discordance in age at onset of regular smoking. Nicotine dependence was measured by the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and level of craving. Results The authors identified 175 male-male and 69 female-female monozygotic twin pairs who differed by at least 2 years in age at onset of regular smoking. During their period of heaviest smoking, the twin who began smoking earlier had significantly higher Fagerström Test scores in both the male-male (Cohen’s d=0.20) and female-female twin pairs (d=0.26). Craving for cigarettes when unable to smoke was also higher in the early-onset member in both groups (male pairs, d=0.38; female pairs, d=0.25). The early-onset smoking twin did not differ from the later-onset twin in symptoms of alcohol or cannabis abuse or dependence, current alcohol use, or maximal level of cannabis, sedative, stimulant, or cocaine use. Conclusions Controlling for genetic and familial-environmental effects, age at onset of regular smoking predicted level of nicotine dependence. Consistent with the animal literature, these findings suggest that in humans, early nicotine exposure directly increases level of later nicotine dependence. These results should be interpreted in the context of the-methodological strengths and limitations of the monozygotic co-twin design.

Kendler, Kenneth S.; Myers, John; Damaj, M. Imad; Chen, Xianging

2013-01-01

313

An fMRI study of neuronal activation in schizophrenia patients with and without previous cannabis use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI. Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients.

Else-MarieLøberg

2012-10-01

314

Characteristics of cannabis users seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil Características de los fumadores de marihuana que buscan tratamiento en São Paulo, Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This article describes a sample of 160 adults selected to participate in a randomized controlled trial conducted at a specialized outpatient clinic for cannabis users in Brazil. It correlates consumption with several measures of marijuana use, comparing it with other samples. METHODS: Instruments used were the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI and Wender Utah Rating Scale for screening and demographic data interviews, and the ASI, time-line follow back (TLFB, Marijuana Withdrawal and Marijuana Problem Scales, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R Checklist for cannabis dependence. RESULTS: Participants in the study were mostly single, white men; their mean age was 32.3 years. They had a mean of 15.6 years of formal education and 61.6% worked. The cohort started using marijuana at a mean age of 16.5 years and developed daily use by a mean age of 21 years. Subjects in the sample had used marijuana for a mean of 15 years. They used it for 92.2% of the 90 days prior to the interview and smoked a mean of 1.99 marijuana cigarettes per day during this period. Individuals in the group had experimented with other drugs, especially cocaine. CONCLUSIONS: Marijuana users in this sample matched the profiles of those investigated elsewhere, although they reported fewer symptoms of dependence. Marijuana users should be considered independently in substance abuse programs, because they require specific attention and treatment. Broader epidemiological studies should be conducted to determine the extent of marijuana use within the Brazilian population.OBJETIVOS: Describir una muestra de 160 adultos seleccionados para participar en un ensayo aleatorizado controlado, realizado en una clínica ambulatoria especializada para consumidores de marihuana en Brasil. Se asoció el consumo de marihuana con varias medidas relacionadas con este hábito y se comparó con otras muestras. MÉTODOS: Se empleó la Entrevista Diagnóstica Internacional Compuesta (CIDI y la Escala de Valoración de Wender Utah para las entrevistas de tamizaje y la obtención de datos demográficos, y el Índice de Intensidad de la Adicción (ASI, la Línea Cronológica Retrospectiva (TLFB, la Escala de Abandono de la Marihuana, la Escala de Problemas por Marihuana y la lista de comprobación para la dependencia de la marihuana del Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de Trastornos Mentales (DSM-III-R. RESULTADOS: La mayoría de los participantes eran hombres blancos solteros; en promedio, la edad fue de 32,3 años y el nivel de escolarización de 15,6 años; 61,6% trabajaba. Como promedio, esta cohorte comenzó a fumar marihuana a una edad de 16,5 años y llegó a consumirla diariamente a los 21. Los participantes habían consumido marihuana durante 15 años y la consumieron 92,2% de los 90 días previos a la encuesta, con un consumo diario medio en ese lapso de 1,99 cigarrillos de marihuana. Miembros del grupo habían experimentado con otras drogas, principalmente cocaína. CONCLUSIONES: Los consumidores de marihuana estudiados se ajustan a los perfiles encontrados en otras investigaciones similares, aunque manifestaron menos síntomas de dependencia. En los programas para consumidores de estupefacientes se debe considerar a los consumidores de marihuana de manera independiente, ya que necesitan atención y tratamiento específicos. Se deben emprender estudios epidemiológicos más amplios para determinar la magnitud del consumo de marihuana en la población brasileña.

Flávia Serebrenic Jungerman

2008-06-01

315

Cannabis sativa var. indica : une menace croissante pour les entreprises Cannabis sativa var. indica: an increasing hazard for firms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Parmi les drogues illicites, le cannabis est de très loin le produit le plus consommé. Les effets sur l'organisme sont principalement dus au delta-9-tétrahydrocannabinol (THC. Lors d'un usage peu important et occasionnel, ils consistent en une euphorie, une désinhibition, un état de somnolence, avec détérioration de la perception temporelle et spatiale. Les perturbations de la vision consistent en une mydriase, pouvant être accompagnée d'un nystagmus et d'une diplopie. Des troubles de la mémoire à court terme sont fréquemment observés. Ces effets, qui persistent pendant 2 à 10 heures, sont difficilement compatibles avec la réalisation d'actes complexes. Un usage fréquent et important peut conduire à des attaques de panique, des crises d'angoisse, voire l'apparition d'une psychose cannabique avec notamment la survenue d'hallucinations visuelles. C'est en raison de ces effets que son usage est considéré comme étant incompatible avec une conduite automobile en toute sécurité. Une étude française récente, réalisée chez 900 conducteurs impliqués dans un accident corporel de la voie publique et 900 sujets témoins, a montré que le nombre des accidents était multiplié par 2,5 chez les conducteurs ayant consommé du cannabis dans les heures précédentes. Aussi la législation française permet désormais de dépister son usage chez les conducteurs impliqués dans un accident corporel de la circulation, avec une obligation dans le cas des accidents mortels. L'absence de récepteurs au niveau bulbaire, et ce faisant l'absence de décès par overdose, a conduit certaines personnes à classer ce produit parmi les substances addictives les moins dangereuses pour l'homme. Une telle classification fait abstraction de la neurotoxicité fonctionnelle importante du THC qui fait que l'usage de ce produit peut constituer un facteur de risque pour autrui. Cela est vrai pour la conduite automobile. Cela peut être tout aussi vrai lorsque les consommateurs occupent des postes de travail dans lesquels les fautes professionnelles peuvent mettre en péril l'entreprise et/ou la collectivité. Ce risque était négligeable à une époque où la consommation de cannabis était marginale. Il devient majeur aujourd'hui compte tenu du nombre de consommateurs et des mesures de prévention s'imposent désormais, au delà du seul principe de précaution. Among the various drugs of abuse, cannabis is by far the most consumed. The effects on human organism are mainly due to delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC. With low doses and infrequent use, the effects are euphoria, desinhibition, drowsiness, and an alteration of temporal and spatial perception. Visual disorders consist in a mydriasis sometimes accompanied with a nystagmus and a diplopia. Short-memory troubles are frequently observed. These effects, which can persist during 2 to 10 hours, are not compatible with the realization of complex activities. A frequent use may lead to panic and anxiety attacks, and psychiatric disorders such as psychosis with visual hallucinations. Because of these effects, its use is considered to affect traffic safety. A recent French study, performed on 900 drivers involved in a corporal accident and 900 control subjects, indicated the number of accidents was multiplied by 2.5 when drivers had smoked cannabis a few hours before. So, a French law allows to identify drug users in drivers involved in a corporal car accident, with an obligation in the case of fatal accidents. The lack of receptors in the bulb, and then the non-occurrence of deaths by overdose, led some people to the conclusion that cannabis is the least dangerous of addict products. Such an assertion disregards the important functional neurotoxicity of THC which is the reason why cannabis use may represent a risk factor for others. That is true for car driving. That may be also true in factories when consumers occupy operation stations in which professional errors may imperil the enterprise and/or the collectivity. This risk was negligible when cannabis consumpti

Mura Patrick

2009-04-01

316

Quality of life and depressive symptoms among caregivers and drug dependent people Calidad de vida y los síntomas depresivos en cuidadores y los adictos a las drogas Qualidade de vida e sintomas depressivos entre cuidadores e dependentes de drogas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life and the presence of depressive symptoms among the caregivers and drug dependent people of the CAPSad. This is a cross-sectional study, with 109 users of four Psychosocial Care Centers for alcohol and other drugs of Mato Grosso and their caregivers, using the instruments: Medical Outcomes Studies 36 (SF-36), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and a sociodemographic variables questionnaire. The QoL of the caregivers in the domains functiona...

Samira Reschetti Marcon; Elizete Aparecida Rubira; Mariano Martinez Espinosa; Dulce Aparecida Barbosa

2012-01-01

317

In silicio expression analysis of PKS genes isolated from Cannabis sativa L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 51%-73% identity to other CHS/STS type sequences of the PKS family. Further, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these PKS cDNAs grouped with other non-chalcone-producing PKSs. Homology modeling analysis of these cannabis PKSs predicts a 3D overall fold, similar to alfalfa CHS2, with small steric differences on the residues that shape the active site of the cannabis PKSs.

Isvett J. Flores-Sanchez

2010-01-01

318

Stroke with neuropsychiatric sequelae after cannabis use in a man: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The outcome of cerebral ischemic stroke associated with cannabis use is usually favorable. Here we report the first case of cannabis-related stroke followed by neuropsychiatric sequelae. Case presentation A 24-year-old Caucasian man was discovered in a deeply comatose non-reactive state after cannabis use. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of his brain showed bilateral multiple ischemic infarcts. The patient remained deeply comatose for four days, after which time he developed other behavioral impairments and recurrent seizures. Conclusion Stroke related to cannabis use can be followed by severe neuropsychiatric sequelae. Concomitant alcohol intoxication is essential neither to the occurrence of this neurologic event nor to its severity.

Giroud Maurice

2011-06-01

319

In silicio expression analysis of PKS genes isolated from Cannabis sativa L.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, inc [...] luding flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 51%-73% identity to other CHS/STS type sequences of the PKS family. Further, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these PKS cDNAs grouped with other non-chalcone-producing PKSs. Homology modeling analysis of these cannabis PKSs predicts a 3D overall fold, similar to alfalfa CHS2, with small steric differences on the residues that shape the active site of the cannabis PKSs.

Flores-Sanchez, Isvett J.; Linthorst, Huub J.M.; Verpoorte, Robert.

320

Socio-demographic features of cannabis and heroin abuse in Bombay.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study of socio-demographic features of 680 cannabis and heroin addicts showed that the factors like, age, religion, family structure, peer groups and the easy availability of these drugs contribute to the problem of addiction.

Shastri S

1989-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

In silicio expression analysis of PKS genes isolated from Cannabis sativa L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 51%-73% identity to other CHS/STS type sequences of the PKS family. Further, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these PKS cDNAs grouped with other non-chalcone-producing PKSs. Homology modeling analysis of these cannabis PKSs predicts a 3D overall fold, similar to alfalfa CHS2, with small steric differences on the residues that shape the active site of the cannabis PKSs. PMID:21637580

Flores-Sanchez, Isvett J; Linthorst, Huub J M; Verpoorte, Robert

2010-10-01

322

Decreased Spontaneous Eye Blink Rates in Chronic Cannabis Users: Evidence for Striatal Cannabinoid-Dopamine Interactions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chronic cannabis use has been shown to block long-term depression of GABA-glutamate synapses in the striatum, which is likely to reduce the extent to which endogenous cannabinoids modulate GABA- and glutamate-related neuronal activity. The current study aimed at investigating the effect of this process on striatal dopamine levels by studying the spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR), a clinical marker of dopamine level in the striatum. 25 adult regular cannabis users and 25 non-user controls match...

Kowal, Mikael A.; Colzato, Lorenza S.; Hommel, Bernhard

2011-01-01

323

No association of candidate genes with cannabis use in a large sample of Australian twin families  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While there is solid evidence that cannabis use is heritable, attempts to identify genetic influences at the molecular level have yielded mixed results. Here, a large twin family sample (N=7452) was used to test for association between ten previously reported candidate genes and lifetime frequency of cannabis use using a gene-based association test. None of the candidate genes reached even nominal significance (p<.05). The lack of replication may point to our limited understanding of the neur...

Verweij, Karin J. H.; Zietsch, Brendan P.; Liu, Jimmy Z.; Medland, Sarah E.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Agrawal, Arpana; Montgomary, Grant W.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.

2012-01-01

324

Coping with cannabis in a Caribbean country : from problem formulation to going public  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analyzes the dialectic between problem discovery and formulation, ethical considerations, and the public dissemination of research results. Author describes his personal experience of fieldwork, the moral-ethical dilemmas it involved, and the circulation of research findings on cannabis production and consumption in St. Vincent. He became frustrated that his academic publications were only accessible to a tiny portion of St. Vincent's population and therefore decided to publish about cannabis in the local media.

Hymie Rubenstein

1998-07-01

325

Sedative activity of cannabis in relation to its delta'-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol content.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. The oral sedative potencies of cannabis herb, crude ethanolic and petroleum-ether fractions, were assayed against delta'-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administered orally to mice, by measuring spontaneous motor activity over 30 min periods, at selected times, up to 6 h. 2. The THC contents of the extracts were determined chemically by gas-liquid chromatography analysis and the B/C ratio (biological activity divided by chemical activity) calculated for each. The B/C values for cannabis h...

Pickens, J. T.

1981-01-01

326

Fatty acid composition of Achene oils from five Moroccan climatic cultivars of Cannabis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fatty acid composition of achene oil from five Cannabis climatic cultivars cultivated in the nort of Morrocco is determined. Linoleic acid predominated (40 to 45%), followed by linolenic (12 to 17%) and oleic (7 to 10%) acids. Differences in the fatty acid composition of oils are attributed to environmental factors.

Se estudia la composición en ácidos grasos del aceite de los aquenios de cinco variedades climáticas del cáñamo (Cannabis s...

Merzouki, A.; Molero Mesa, J.

1997-01-01

327

Interpreting the association between cannabis use and increased risk for schizophrenia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent longitudinal studies from Sweden, the Netherlands, New Zealand, and Israel report that cannabis use during childhood and adolescence doubles the risk of later appearance of psychosis or schizophrenia, These data have been interpreted as indicating that cannabis has a causal effect along the pathway to psychosis. In this paper, we will offer an alternative explanation of these data. Recent investigations of patients with schizophrenia found increased density of cannabinoid receptors in ...

Weiser, Mark; Noy, Shlomo

2005-01-01

328

A systematic gene-based screen of chr4q22–q32 identifies association of a novel susceptibility gene, DKK2, with the quantitative trait of alcohol dependence symptom counts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies of alcohol dependence (AD) have consistently found evidence of linkage on chromosome 4q21–q32. A genome-wide linkage scan in the Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of Alcohol Dependence (IASPSAD) sample also provided its strongest evidence of linkage on chromosome 4q22–q32 using an index of AD severity based on the count of DSM-IV AD symptoms (ADSX; LOD = 4.59). We conducted a systematic, gene-centric association study using 518 LD-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ...

2010-01-01

329

Considerações sobre a toxicocinética da Cannabis sativa L. ou maconha, com enfase no homem Some aspects of pharmacokinetics of Cannabis sativa L. (Marihuana with emphasis on man  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente artigo consiste em uma análise sobre a origem da Cannabis no Brasil, suas principais substâncias químicas, realçando o ?9 tetrahidrocanabinol como responsável pelos efeitos farmacológicos. é citado também o fato de existirem duas formas de numeração dos carbonos do ?THC. Para melhor entender a toxicocinética foram feitas considerações sobre as doses de maconha, que vão variar de acordo com o usuário, e origem do vegetal. Finalmente é feito urn estudo detalhado sobre, absorção, distribuição, armazenamento, biotransformação e eliminação dos diversos componentes químicos da maconha.This paper contains an analysis of the origin of the introduction of Cannabis in Brazil, the identify of its chemical components, mainly tetrahydrocannabinol responsible for the pharmacological effects of Cannabis. Toxicokinetic studies were developed in relation the amounts of marihuana consumed, characteristics of the user and origin of the drug. Absorption, distribution, storage, biotransformation and elimination of marihuana derived metabolites were studies.

Luiz Marques de Sá

1989-01-01

330

Adolescent Cannabis Problems and Young Adult Depression: Male-Female Stratified Propensity Score Analyses  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis use and depression are two of the most prevalent conditions worldwide. Adolescent cannabis use is linked to depression in many studies, but the effects of adolescent cannabis involvement on young adult depression remain unclear and may differ for males versus females. In this cohort study of youth from a mid-Atlantic metropolitan area of the United States, repeated assessments from 1985 (at age 6 years) through 2002 (at age 21 years) were made for 1,494 individuals (55% female). Measured covariate differences between individuals with and without cannabis problems were controlled via propensity score techniques. The estimated risk of young adult depression for adolescents with cannabis problems was not significantly different from that for comparison adolescents for either females (odds ratio = 0.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.2, 2.3) or males (odds ratio = 1.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.8, 3.6). The evidence does not support a causal association linking adolescent-onset cannabis problems with young adult depression.

Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Anthony, James C.

2008-01-01

331

Cannabinoid receptor 1 binding activity and quantitative analysis of Cannabis sativa L. smoke and vapor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis) extracts, vapor produced by the Volcano vaporizer and smoke made from burning cannabis joints were analyzed by GC-flame ionization detecter (FID), GC-MS and HPLC. Three different medicinal cannabis varieties were investigated Bedrocan, Bedrobinol and Bediol. Cannabinoids plus other components such as terpenoids and pyrolytic by-products were identified and quantified in all samples. Cannabis vapor and smoke was tested for cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) binding activity and compared to pure Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC). The top five major compounds in Bedrocan extracts were Delta(9)-THC, cannabigerol (CBG), terpinolene, myrcene, and cis-ocimene in Bedrobinol Delta(9)-THC, myrcene, CBG, cannabichromene (CBC), and camphene in Bediol cannabidiol (CBD), Delta(9)-THC, myrcene, CBC, and CBG. The major components in Bedrocan vapor (>1.0 mg/g) were Delta(9)-THC, terpinolene, myrcene, CBG, cis-ocimene and CBD in Bedrobinol Delta(9)-THC, myrcene and CBD in Bediol CBD, Delta(9)-THC, myrcene, CBC and terpinolene. The major components in Bedrocan smoke (>1.0 mg/g) were Delta(9)-THC, cannabinol (CBN), terpinolene, CBG, myrcene and cis-ocimene in Bedrobinol Delta(9)-THC, CBN and myrcene in Bediol CBD, Delta(9)-THC, CBN, myrcene, CBC and terpinolene. There was no statistically significant difference between CB1 binding of pure Delta(9)-THC compared to cannabis smoke and vapor at an equivalent concentration of Delta(9)-THC. PMID:20118579

Fischedick, Justin; Van Der Kooy, Frank; Verpoorte, Robert

2010-02-01

332

Prediction of cannabis and cocaine use in adolescence using decision trees and logistic regression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spain is one of the European countries with the highest prevalence of cannabis and cocaine use among young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors related to the consumption of cocaine and cannabis among adolescents. A questionnaire was administered to 9,284 students between 14 and 18 years of age in Palma de Mallorca (47.1% boys and 52.9% girls whose mean age was 15.59 years. Logistic regression and decision trees were carried out in order to model the consumption of cannabis and cocaine. The results show the use of legal substances and committing fraudulence or theft are the main variables that raise the odds of consuming cannabis. In boys, cannabis consumption and a family history of drug use increase the odds of consuming cocaine, whereas in girls the use of alcohol, behaviours of fraudulence or theft and difficulty in some personal skills influence their odds of consuming cocaine. Finally, ease of access to the substance greatly raises the odds of consuming cocaine and cannabis in both genders. Decision trees highlight the role of consuming other substances and committing fraudulence or theft. The results of this study gain importance when it comes to putting into practice effective prevention programmes.

Alfonso L. Palmer

2010-01-01

333

?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol content in cannabis samples seized in Novi Sad during 2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The three main cannabinoids ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC, cannabidiol (CBD and cannabinol (CBN were identified and determined quantitatively using a GCD (GC-EI instrument in 280 samples of illicit herbal cannabis, seized by the Police authorities in Novi Sad, during 2008. The samples were sent to the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Clinical Center Vojvodina, for forensic chemical analysis. The cannabinoid content of the samples enabled the classification of the cannabis into three chemical phenotypes and the differentiation into drug and textile-cannabis, using the Waller classification index. This differentiation has great forensic significance in the classification of certain cases as a criminal action. The experimental results showed that the ?9-THC content in illicitly circulated cannabis slightly decreased from January to December 2008, as did the quality of the drug-cannabis. The reasons for the quality variations could lie in the geographical origin of the cannabis plants, the conditions of plants storage, various parts of the plants in samples and the time elapsed between harvesting and chemical analysis.

MAJA DJURENDI?-BRENESEL

2010-07-01

334

Cloud point extraction of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol from cannabis resin.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cloud point extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/UV) method was developed for the determination of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in micellar phase. The nonionic surfactant "Dowfax 20B102" was used to extract and pre-concentrate THC from cannabis resin, prior to its determination with a HPLC-UV system (diode array detector) with isocratic elution. The parameters and variables affecting the extraction were investigated. Under optimum conditions (1 wt.% Dowfax 20B102, 1 wt.% Na2SO4, T = 318 K, t = 30 min), this method yielded a quite satisfactory recovery rate (~81 %). The limit of detection was 0.04 ?g mL(-1), and the relative standard deviation was less than 2 %. Compared with conventional solid-liquid extraction, this new method avoids the use of volatile organic solvents, therefore is environmentally safer. PMID:23354583

Ameur, S; Haddou, B; Derriche, Z; Canselier, J P; Gourdon, C

2013-04-01

335

Influence of mevinolin on chloroplast terpenoids in Cannabis sativa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants synthesize a myriad of isoprenoid products that are required both for essential constitutive processes and for adaptive responses to the environment. Two independent pathways for the biosynthesis of isoprenoid precursors coexist within the plant cell: the cytosolic mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway and the plastidial methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of the MVA pathway on isoprenoid biosynthesized by the MEP pathway in Cannabis sativa by treatment with mevinolin. The amount of chlorophyll a, b, and total showed to be significantly enhanced in treated plants in comparison with control plants. Also, mevinolin induced the accumulation of carotenoids and ?-tocopherol in treated plants. Mevinolin caused a significant decrease in tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content. This result show that the inhibition of the MVA pathway stimulates MEP pathway but none for all metabolites. PMID:24757332

Mansouri, Hakimeh; Salari, Fatemeh

2014-04-01

336

Trichomes of Cannabis sativa as viewed with scanning electron microscope  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Direct examination of fresh, unfixed and uncoated specimens from vegetative and floral parts of Cannabis sativa with the scanning electron microscope enables one to obtain a faithful representation of their surface morphology. The presence of two major types of trichomes has been confirmed: a glandular type comprising or terminating in a globoid structure, and a conically-shaped nonglandular type. Moreover, three or possibly four distinct glandular types can be distinguished: sessile globoid, small-stalked and large-stalked globoid, and a peltate type. The nonglandular trichomes can be distinguished by the nature of their surfaces: those with a warty surface, and those which are relatively smooth. The range of size and distribution, and the special features of all these types of trichomes are also provided.

Ledbetter, M.C.; Krikorian, A.D.

1975-06-01

337

12-month follow-up of an exploratory ‘brief intervention’ for high-frequency cannabis users among Canadian university students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background One in three young people use cannabis in Canada. Cannabis use can be associated with a variety of health problems which occur primarily among intensive/frequent users. Availability and effectiveness of conventional treatment for cannabis use is limited. While Brief Interventions (BIs have been shown to result in short-term reductions of cannabis use risks or problems, few studies have assessed their longer-term effects. The present study examined 12-month follow-up outcomes for BIs in a cohort of young Canadian high-frequency cannabis users where select short-term effects (3?months had previously been assessed and demonstrated. Findings N?=?134 frequent cannabis users were recruited from among university students in Toronto, randomized to either an oral or a written cannabis BI, or corresponding health controls, and assessed in-person at baseline, 3-months, and 12-months. N?=?72 (54?% of the original sample were retained for follow-up analyses at 12-months where reductions in ‘deep inhalation/breathholding’ (Q?=?13.1; p? Conclusions The results confirm findings from select other studies indicating the potential for longer-term and sustained risk reduction effects of BIs for cannabis use. While further research is needed on the long-term effects of BIs, these may be a valuable – and efficient – intervention tool in a public health approach to high-risk cannabis use.

Fischer Benedikt

2012-04-01

338

Cannabis d'hier et cannabis d'aujourd'hui. Augmentation des teneurs en THC de 1993 à 2004 en France Cannabis of the past and cannabis todays. Increase of THC contents from 1993 to 2004 in France  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Une étude précédente, réalisée sur des échantillons de saisie en France, nous avait permis de montrer que la teneur en delta-9 tétrahydrocannabinol (THC dans les échantillons de "résine" et "d'herbe" avait augmenté durant la période 1993-2000 et tout particulièrement depuis 1996. L'objet de la présente étude a été de déterminer l'évolution de ces teneurs en THC pendant la période 2001-2004 et de comparer cette évolution avec celle de la période précédente. Nous avons regroupé tous les résultats obtenus pendant cette période par les laboratoires de la Gendarmerie Nationale, de l'Institut National de Police Scienti que et de quatre laboratoires d'expertise en France, représentant 2613 échantillons de "résine" et 709 échantillons "d'herbe". Les analyses étaient réalisées par chromatographie gazeuse couplée à la spectrométrie de masse. En ce qui concerne "l'herbe", la très grande majorité des échantillons (71% contiennent moins de 5% de principe actif, ce qui peut être expliqué par des récoltes fréquemment effectuées avant maturité des plants. En revanche, près de l'échantillon sur 5 contient plus de 10% de THC. Les résultats concernant la "résine" indiquent que, depuis 10 ans, le nombre d'échantillons à faible teneur en THC (inférieurs à 5% de principe actif a diminué de manière très signi cative (passant de 48% des échantillons en 1993 à 15% en 2004. Les échantillons contenant plus de 20% de THC restent très rarement rencontrés, représentant seulement 2% des saisies. L'évolution la plus caractéristique a concerné les échantillons de résine contenant entre 10 et 15% de THC. Cette catégorie n'a cessé d'augmenter depuis 1993, passant de 1% des échantillons à 32% en 2004. Cette étude con rme que les teneurs en THC dans les échantillons de "résine" disponibles sur le marché clandestin français ont régulièrement augmenté depuis une dizaine d'années, ayant été en moyenne multipliées par 2 entre 1993 et 2004. Une telle observation n est pas sans conséquence en terme de santé publique car l'utilisation de cannabis "haut dosage" peut être responsable d'hallucinations, d'attaques de panique ou autres états psychotiques aigus. A previous study, performed on seized cannabis products from France, had allowed us to indicate that there has been an increase in the delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC content from herbal products and resin samples during the period 1993-2000 and overall from 1996. The purpose of the present study was to observe the pattern of the THC content of cannabis which was available in France between 2001 and 2004 and to compare these results to those of the previous study. We have collected all the results obtained from 2001 to 2004 on seized cannabis products (2613 resin samples and 709 herbal products by the laboratories of national police force and from four forensic toxicology independent laboratories. The THC content was determined by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. Most of herb samples (71% contained less than 5% of THC. This result can be explained by the fact that harvestings are often made before ripeness. In turn, about one sample out of ve contained more than 10% of THC. About resin, the reached results indicated that during the last 10 years the number of low THC content samples (less than 5% of THC had decreased very signi cantly (48% of samples in 1993 versus 15% in 2004. Samples with more than 20% of THC were seldom found (only 2% of seizures. The most signi cant evolution concerned samples containing between 10 and 15% of THC. This level has constantly increased since 1993 (around 1% of samples analysed to 32% in 2004. This study con rms that THC content of cannabis available in France has regularly increased during the past ten years (enhanced by a factor 2 between 1993 and 2004. Such ndings may be consistent for public health because the use of such high dosage cannabis may be involved in the occurrence of hallucinations, panic attacks or other acute psychotic states.

Mura Patrick

2008-02-01

339

Perfil de consumo de cocaína, cannabis y opiáceos en el laboratorio toxicológico CENATOXA / Profile of consumption of cocaine, cannabis and opiates in the toxicology laboratory CENATOXA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el propósito de conocer, en la población que concurre al laboratorio del CENATOXA, qué droga de abuso se consume más, cuál es la modalidad de consumo y el perfil de la consulta, se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de 2.635 casos a los que durante el período 1995-2006 se les solicitó investigació [...] n en orina de cannabis, cocaína y opiáceos. Los análisis se realizaron utilizando pruebas inmunológicas, cromatografía en capa delgada normalizada y cromatografía gaseosa-espectrometría de masas. El 20% de las muestras (n=529) resultaron positivas, correspondiendo el 50,66% a cannabis, el 37,43% a cocaína, el 2,08% a opiáceos y el 9,83% a la combinación cannabis-cocaína. Los varones constituyeron el 62% de los casos positivos. El mayor consumo de cannabis se observó entre los 11 y 30 años, el de cocaína entre los 21 y 40 años y la combinación de ambas drogas entre los 11 y 30 años. Los motivos de la solicitud de análisis correspondieron mayoritariamente y en proporciones similares al control de la adicción (31,1%) y a la sospecha de consumo (29,67%). El cannabis fue la droga ilegal más usada, predominó el monoconsumo, los principales usuarios fueron varones y los más comprometidos fueron los menores de 30 años. Abstract in english A study was conducted in order to know what drugs of abuse are most commonly consumed by the population that comes to CENATOXA, as well as which the consumption patterns and consultation profiles are. A retrospective study was conducted in 2,635 cases for which, during 1995 to 2006, a toxicologycal [...] urine analysis of cocaine, cannabis and opiates was requested. The analytical methodologies applied were immunoassay tests, standardized thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the studied sample (n=529), 20% were positive: 50.66% was due to cannabis, 37.43% to cocaine, 2.08% to opiates and 9.83% to combination of cannabis-cocaine. Sixty-two per cent of positive cases were male subjects, and the highest consumption of cannabis was seen in the 11 to 30 year-old age group; that of cocaine was seen in the 21 to 40 year-old age group and the combination of cannabis-cocaine in the 11 to 30 year-old group. In assessing the reason for test request a similar predominance of addiction control (31.1%) and drug abuse suspicion (29.67%) was found. Cannabis is the drug of abuse most commonly consumed; mono consumption is usual in this population and drug consumption is higher in males and people under 30 years old.

Patricia Noemí, Quiroga; Isabel, Yohena; Cecilia Mariel, Contartese; Herme, González; Clara Magdalena, López.

340

Individual differences in decision making and reward processing predict changes in cannabis use: a prospective functional magnetic resonance imaging study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Decision-making deficits are thought to play an important role in the development and persistence of substance use disorders. Individual differences in decision-making abilities and their underlying neurocircuitry may, therefore, constitute an important predictor for the course of substance use and the development of substance use disorders. Here, we investigate the predictive value of decision making and neural mechanisms underlying decision making for future cannabis use and problem severity in a sample of heavy cannabis users. Brain activity during a monetary decision-making task (Iowa gambling task) was compared between 32 heavy cannabis users and 41 matched non-using controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, within the group of heavy cannabis users, associations were examined between task-related brain activations, cannabis use and cannabis use-related problems at baseline, and change in cannabis use and problem severity after a 6-month follow-up. Despite normal task performance, heavy cannabis users compared with controls showed higher activation during wins in core areas associated with decision making. Moreover, within the group of heavy cannabis users, win-related activity and activity anticipating loss outcomes in areas generally involved in executive functions predicted change in cannabis use after 6 months. These findings are consistent with previous studies and point to abnormal processing of motivational information in heavy cannabis users. A new finding is that individuals who are biased toward immediate rewards have a higher probability of increasing drug use, highlighting the importance of the relative balance between motivational processes and regulatory executive processes in the development of substance use disorders. PMID:22994937

Cousijn, Janna; Wiers, Reinout W; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Porrino, Linda J; Goudriaan, Anna E

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
341

Plant ozone injury symptoms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of the phytotoxicity of ozone to plants was conducted in controlled-atmosphere greenhouses to determine if the symptoms of such exposure would be similar to symptoms exhibited by plants exposed to photochemical smog (which contains ozone) in the Tokyo area. Test plants used were herbaceous plants and woody plants, which were fumigated to 20 pphm ozone. Plants used as controls for the oxone exposure experiments were placed in a carbon filtered greenhouse. Herbaceous plants were generally sensitive to injury, especially Brassica rapa, Brassica pekinensis and others were extremely responsive species. In comparison with herbaceous plants, woody plants were rather resistant except for poplar. Depending on plant species and severity of injury, ozone-injury symptoms of herbaceous plants were bleaching, chlorosis, necrosis, and red-dish-brown flecks. Leaves of woody plants developed discrete, punctate spots, reddish-brown pigment on the upper surfaces and lastly defoliation. Ozone injury was typically confined to the upper leaf surfaces and notably greater mature leaves. Microscopic examination showed that pallisade cells were much more prone to ozone injury than other tissues.

Nouchi, I.; Odaira, T.; Sawada, T.; Oguchi, K.; Komeiji, T.

1973-01-01

342

Long term marijuana users seeking medical cannabis in California (2001–2007: demographics, social characteristics, patterns of cannabis and other drug use of 4117 applicants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis (marijuana had been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. Cannabinoid agonists are now attracting growing interest and there is also evidence that botanical cannabis is being used as self-medication for stress and anxiety as well as adjunctive therapy by the seriously ill and by patients with terminal illnesses. California became the first state to authorize medicinal use of cannabis in 1996, and it was recently estimated that between 250,000 and 350,000 Californians may now possess the physician's recommendation required to use it medically. More limited medical use has also been approved in 12 additional states and new initiatives are being considered in others. Despite that evidence of increasing public acceptance of "medical" use, a definitional problem remains and all use for any purpose is still prohibited by federal law. Results California's 1996 initiative allowed cannabis to be recommended, not only for serious illnesses, but also "for any other illness for which marijuana provides relief," thus maximally broadening the range of allowable indications. In effect, the range of conditions now being treated with federally illegal cannabis, the modes in which it is being used, and the demographics of the population using it became potentially discoverable through the required screening of applicants. This report examines the demographic profiles and other selected characteristics of 4117 California marijuana users (62% from the Greater Bay Area who applied for medical recommendations between late 2001 and mid 2007. Conclusion This study yielded a somewhat unexpected profile of a hitherto hidden population of users of America's most popular illegal drug. It also raises questions about some of the basic assumptions held by both proponents and opponents of current policy.

Bou-Matar Ché B

2007-11-01

343

Alcohol and cannabis use as risk factors for injury – a case-crossover analysis in a Swiss hospital emergency department  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There is sufficient and consistent evidence that alcohol use is a causal risk factor for injury. For cannabis use, however, there is conflicting evidence; a detrimental dose-response effect of cannabis use on psychomotor and other relevant skills has been found in experimental laboratory studies, while a protective effect of cannabis use has also been found in epidemiological studies. Methods Implementation of a case-crossover design study, with a representative sample of injured patients (N = 486; 332 men; 154 women from the Emergency Department (ED of the Lausanne University Hospital, which received treatment for different categories of injuries of varying aetiology. Results Alcohol use in the six hours prior to injury was associated with a relative risk of 3.00 (C.I.: 1.78, 5.04 compared with no alcohol use, a dose-response relationship also was found. Cannabis use was inversely related to risk of injury (RR: 0.33; C.I.: 0.12, 0.92, also in a dose-response like manner. However, the sample size for people who had used cannabis was small. Simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis did not show significantly elevated risk. Conclusion The most surprising result of our study was the inverse relationship between cannabis use and injury. Possible explanations and underlying mechanisms, such as use in safer environments or more compensatory behavior among cannabis users, were discussed.

Rehm Jürgen

2009-01-01

344

Symptoms of Pneumocystis pneumonia  

Science.gov (United States)

... gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Symptoms of Pneumocystis pneumonia The symptoms of PCP are fever, dry cough, ... Diagnosis & Testing Treatment & Outcomes Statistics Additional Information Pneumocystis pneumonia Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & ...

345

The use of tobacco and cannabis at an international music festival  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Music festivals are known to attract a high proportion of drug users.Methods: Using a survey of 1,772 visitors at the Roskilde Festival in Denmark, we assessed substance use at the festival, the incidence of use of substances among never-users and the incidence of use among lifetime users who had not used a substance in the past 12 months. Results: New onset of tobacco use was reported by 9.2% of never-smokers, and new onset of cannabis use was reported by 9.3% of never-smokers of cannabis. Resumption of tobacco use was reported by 24% of past year abstainers, and resumption of cannabis use was reported by 30% of past year abstainers. New onset of other types of substances was reported by less than 0.5% of subjects, but among past year abstainers, 5â??10% reported resumption of amphetamine, ketamine, MDMA and cocaine use. New onset smokers of cannabis were significantly younger than never-smokers. Conclusion: Music festivals such as the Roskilde Festival may be important arenas for the prevention ofonset of tobacco and cannabis use and for a return to substance use.

Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien

2010-01-01

346

Inter simple sequence repeats separate efficiently hemp from marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Cannabis sativa L. is a multiple-use plant that provides raw material for the production of seed oil, natural fiber for textiles, automotive and pulp industries. It has also been used in insulating boards, ropes, varnishes, animal feed, and as medicinal agents. Cannabis has potential to be used for [...] phytoremediation: however, its cultivation is strictly controlled due to its psychoactive nature and usage in producing drugs such as marijuana, and hashish. In this study, psychoactive type Cannabis samples, which were seized from 23 different locations of Turkey, and nine hemp type Cannabis accessions, as well as an unknown accession were used. Our interest was to identify the genetic relatedness of the seized samples and to separate drug and hemp type plants. Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSRs) were employed for analysis based on single plant material (SET1) and bulked samples of them (SET2). Data was analysed via cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). PCoA analyses, by using SET1 and SET2, were able to efficiently discriminate the seized samples from the fiber type accessions. However, separation of the plants was not clear via unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic average (UPGMA) dendogram in SET1, while they were clearly separated in SET2. Hemp type accessions showed high levels of variation compared to drug type Cannabis both in SET1 and SET2.

Erdogan E, Hakki; Seyit A, Kayis; Emine, Pinarkara; Ayla, Sag.

2007-10-15

347

Intoxicación accidental por cannabis: presentación de cuatro casos pediátricos en un hospital terciario del sur de España / Accidental cannabis poisoning in children: report of four cases in a tertiary care center from southern Spain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. El cannabis es la droga ilegal más consumida en España. La intoxicación accidental por cannabis es una forma infrecuente de intoxicación en niños; pero potencialmente grave. Objetivo. Describir la presentación clínica, diagnóstico y tratamiento de niños con intoxicación accidental por [...] cannabis en un hospital pediátrico de tercer nivel. Presentamos 4 pacientes con intoxicación accidental por cannabis. La clínica de presentación fue deterioro brusco del nivel de conciencia, tendencia al sueño, ataxia, temblor, apnea, hipotonía y convulsión. La pesquisa de tóxicos en orina detectó tetrahidrocannabinol (THC) en todos los casos. En los cuatro pacientes se establecieron medidas de soporte. Todos los casos se recuperaron satisfactoriamente y fueron dados de alta a las 24 horas del ingreso. Conclusión. Se ha de mantener un alto índice de sospecha para la intoxicación por cannabis en niños previamente sanos con aparición brusca de síntomas neurológicos de etiología desconocida. Abstract in english Introduction. Cannabis is the most frequently consumed illicit substance in Spain. Pediatric accidental cannabis poisoning is an uncommon but life-threatening intoxication. Objective. To describe clinical findings, diagnosis and management of children with accidental cannabis poisoning in a tertiary [...] care pediatric hospital. We report four patients with accidental cannabis poisoning. Clinical presentation included reduced level of consciousness, drowsiness, ataxia, tremble, apnea, hypotonia, and seizures. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was detected by urine screening for cannabinoids and other toxic substances in all cases. The four patients were treated with supportive care. All cases recovered uneventfully and were discharged within 24 hours of admission. Conclusion. The possibility of cannabis poisoning should be considered in cases of unexplained acute onset of neurological findings in previously healthy children.

Croche Santander, Borja; Alonso Salas, María Teresa; Loscertales Abril, Mercedes.

348

Intervenções farmacológica e psicossocial para os distúrbios por uso da cannabis Pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for cannabisuse disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A cannabis continua sendo a substância ilegal mais amplamente utilizada na maioria dos países desenvolvidos. Seu potencial aditivo foi estabelecido e a necessidade de intervenções em problemas relacionados à cannabis se tornou clara. Este artigo faz uma revisão sobre as pesquisas que avaliam os tratamentos potenciais para transtornos por uso de cannabis. MÉTODO: Uma busca nos bancos de dados de publicações identificou os estudos e revisões na literatura científica sobre as intervenções psicossociais e farmacológicas nos transtornos por uso de cannabis. RESULTADOS: Para adultos, as intervenções com base comportamental geram efeitos positivos significativos na abstinência e nas reduções no uso de cannabis. Em adolescentes, tratamentos similares e intervenções com base na família demonstraram eficácia. Entre os estudos, os índices de resposta parecem ser modestos mesmo com os mais potentes tratamentos psicossociais. As avaliações das abordagens farmacológicas para os transtornos por uso de cannabis têm ainda que fornecer dados sobre a eficácia clínica de qualquer medicação específica. Enfoques baseados em agonistas e antagonistas parecem ser os mais promissores. Os avanços na compreensão da neurobiologia do sistema canabinoide são fonte de otimismo no sentido de que a síntese de compostos que alteram o funcionamento do sítio receptor CB1 possa produzir medicações promissoras. CONCLUSÃO: As pesquisas clínicas identificaram tratamentos psicossociais eficazes, mas ainda não produziram farmacoterapias eficazes. Muitos estudos ainda têm que ser feitos para aumentar a potência e o acesso às intervenções para aqueles que buscam o tratamento para transtornos por uso de cannabis.OBJECTIVE: Cannabis remains the most widely used illicit substance in most developed countries. Its addictive potential has been established and the need for interventions for cannabis-related problems has become apparent. This article provides a review of the research evaluating potential treatments for cannabis use disorders. METHOD: A search of publication databases identified research studies and reviews of the scientific literature on psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for cannabis use disorders. RESULTS: For adults, behaviorally-based interventions engender significant positive effects on abstinence and reductions in cannabis use. With adolescents, similar treatments and family-based interventions have demonstrated efficacy. Across studies, response rates appear modest even with the most potent psychosocial treatments. Evaluations of pharmacological approaches to cannabis use disorders have yet to provide clinical efficacy data for any specific medication. Agonist and antagonist approaches appear to offer the most promise. Advances in understanding of the neurobiology of the cannabinoid system provide optimism that the synthesis of compounds that alter CB1 receptor site functioning may produce promising medications. CONCLUSION: Clinical research has identified effective psychosocial treatments, but has yet to yield effective pharmacotherapies. Much work remains to enhance the potency of and access to interventions for those seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders.

Alan J. Budney

2010-05-01

349

Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an anxiolytic drug / Canabidiol, um componente da Cannabis sativa, como um ansiolítico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Revisar e descrever os estudos do constituinte não psicotomimético da Cannabis sativa, o canabidiol (CBD), como ansiolítico e discutir seus possíveis mecanismos de ação. MÉTODO: Os artigos selecionados para a presente revisão foram identificados por meio de busca eletrônica em inglês, por [...] tuguês e espanhol nos bancos de dados ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, PubMed e PsycINFO e combinando os termos "canabidiol e ansiolíticos", "canabidiol e semelhante ao ansiolítico" e "canabidiol e ansiedade". Foram também revisadas as listas de referências dos artigos incluídos, de revisões da literatura e de capítulos de livro. Incluímos trabalhos experimentais em humanos e em animais, sem limite de tempo. RESULTADOS: Estudos com modelos animais de ansiedade e envolvendo voluntários saudáveis sugerem claramente que o CBD possui efeitos ansiolíticos. Além disso, o CBD mostrou-se capaz de reduzir a ansiedade em pacientes com transtorno de ansiedade social. CONCLUSÃO: Futuros ensaios clínicos com pacientes portadores de diferentes transtornos de ansiedade, em especial pacientes com transtorno do pânico, obsessivo-compulsivo, ansiedade social e estresse pós-traumático, são oportunos. Além disso, ainda é necessário determinar a adequada faixa terapêutica do CBD e os exatos mecanismos envolvidos nessa ação ansiolítica. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To review and describe studies of the non-psychotomimetic constituent of Cannabis sativa, cannabidiol (CBD), as an anxiolytic drug and discuss its possible mechanisms of action. METHOD: The articles selected for the review were identified through searches in English, Portuguese, and Span [...] ish in the electronic databases ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, PubMed, and PsycINFO, combining the search terms "cannabidiol and anxiolytic", "cannabidiol and anxiolytic-like", and "cannabidiol and anxiety". The reference lists of the publications included, review articles, and book chapters were handsearched for additional references. Experimental animal and human studies were included, with no time restraints. RESULTS: Studies using animal models of anxiety and involving healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. Moreover, CBD was shown to reduce anxiety in patients with social anxiety disorder. CONCLUSION: Future clinical trials involving patients with different anxiety disorders are warranted, especially of panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorders. The adequate therapeutic window of CBD and the precise mechanisms involved in its anxiolytic action remain to be determined.

Alexandre Rafael de Mello, Schier; Natalia Pinho de Oliveira, Ribeiro; Adriana Cardoso de Oliveira e, Silva; Jaime Eduardo Cecílio, Hallak; José Alexandre S., Crippa; Antonio E., Nardi; Antonio Waldo, Zuardi.

350

Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an anxiolytic drug Canabidiol, um componente da Cannabis sativa, como um ansiolítico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To review and describe studies of the non-psychotomimetic constituent of Cannabis sativa, cannabidiol (CBD, as an anxiolytic drug and discuss its possible mechanisms of action. METHOD: The articles selected for the review were identified through searches in English, Portuguese, and Spanish in the electronic databases ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, PubMed, and PsycINFO, combining the search terms "cannabidiol and anxiolytic", "cannabidiol and anxiolytic-like", and "cannabidiol and anxiety". The reference lists of the publications included, review articles, and book chapters were handsearched for additional references. Experimental animal and human studies were included, with no time restraints. RESULTS: Studies using animal models of anxiety and involving healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. Moreover, CBD was shown to reduce anxiety in patients with social anxiety disorder. CONCLUSION: Future clinical trials involving patients with different anxiety disorders are warranted, especially of panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorders. The adequate therapeutic window of CBD and the precise mechanisms involved in its anxiolytic action remain to be determined.OBJETIVOS: Revisar e descrever os estudos do constituinte não psicotomimético da Cannabis sativa, o canabidiol (CBD, como ansiolítico e discutir seus possíveis mecanismos de ação. MÉTODO: Os artigos selecionados para a presente revisão foram identificados por meio de busca eletrônica em inglês, português e espanhol nos bancos de dados ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, PubMed e PsycINFO e combinando os termos "canabidiol e ansiolíticos", "canabidiol e semelhante ao ansiolítico" e "canabidiol e ansiedade". Foram também revisadas as listas de referências dos artigos incluídos, de revisões da literatura e de capítulos de livro. Incluímos trabalhos experimentais em humanos e em animais, sem limite de tempo. RESULTADOS: Estudos com modelos animais de ansiedade e envolvendo voluntários saudáveis sugerem claramente que o CBD possui efeitos ansiolíticos. Além disso, o CBD mostrou-se capaz de reduzir a ansiedade em pacientes com transtorno de ansiedade social. CONCLUSÃO: Futuros ensaios clínicos com pacientes portadores de diferentes transtornos de ansiedade, em especial pacientes com transtorno do pânico, obsessivo-compulsivo, ansiedade social e estresse pós-traumático, são oportunos. Além disso, ainda é necessário determinar a adequada faixa terapêutica do CBD e os exatos mecanismos envolvidos nessa ação ansiolítica.

Alexandre Rafael de Mello Schier

2012-06-01

351

Characterisation of cannabis plants phenotypes from illegal cultivations in Crete.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study samples of cannabis plants presented to us by the Drug Enforcement Units were characterised, based on the analysis of active substances. The fresh samples were dried in a dark room were they were kept until analysis. The samples included leaves, flowers roots and trunks. The analysis was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Gas Chromatography (GC) using standard solutions of cannabidiol, D-9 tetrahydrocannabinol, D-8 tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol. Chemical analysis of the flowers revealed that 80% of the plants were classified as resinous phenotype while the remaining 20% were found to be of the textile phenotype (low concentration of active cannabinoids). The concentration of D-9 tetrahydrocannabinol in the flowers and leaves ranged from 0.014 to 21.06 mg/g, of cannabinol from 0.0002 to 0.350 mg/g and of cannabidiol from 0.03 to 29.6 mg/g. Roots and trunks contained very small quantities of active substances and should not be used for phenotype identification. No delta-8 THC was detected in any sample. Leaves gave less resinous phenotypes than flowers. The use of either mathematical formula, A or B produced the same phenotype character for each separate part of the plant. PMID:10961025

Tsatsakis, A M; Tutudaki, M; Stiakakis, I; Dimopoulou, M; Tzatzarakis, M; Michalodimitrakis, M

2000-01-01

352

Estudio de la actividad antisecretora de ácido gástrico del Cannabis sativa en un modelo animal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: Hay pocos estudios que describan el efecto de los cannabinoides en el sistema gástrico, pues en sólo uno se encontró referencia a alteraciones del pH gástrico. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto antisecretor de la especie Cannabis sativa. Metodología: Se utilizaron 45 ratas Sprague Dawley que se sometieron a un ayuno de 24 horas, al cabo del cual se les ligó el píloro durante 2 ó 4 horas según el grupo experimental. Luego, se anestesiaron, se extirparon los estómagos y se analizó el contenido gástrico en términos de volumen y pH.Resultados: Se encontró que el extracto de Cannabis aumentó el pH gástrico con respecto al grupo control (p0.05. El volumen medido no mostró diferencias entre los grupos.Conclusiones: Estos resultados, sugieren que el extracto de Cannabis sativa disminuye la secreción de ácido en el estómago.

Germán Gabriel Castillo

2006-12-01

353

Adversity, cannabis use and psychotic experiences: evidence of cumulative and synergistic effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background There is robust evidence that childhood adversity is associated with an increased risk of psychosis. There is, however, little research on intervening factors that might increase or decrease risk following childhood adversity. Aims To investigate main effects of, and synergy between, childhood abuse and life events and cannabis use on odds of psychotic experiences. Method Data on psychotic experiences and childhood abuse, life events and cannabis use were collected from 1680 individuals as part of the South East London Community Health Study (SELCoH), a population-based household survey. Results There was strong evidence that childhood abuse and number of life events combined synergistically to increase odds of psychotic experiences beyond the effects of each individually. There was similar, but weaker, evidence for cannabis use (past year). Conclusions Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that childhood abuse creates an enduring vulnerability to psychosis that is realised in the event of exposure to further stressors and risk factors. PMID:24627297

Morgan, Craig; Reininghaus, Ulrich; Reichenberg, Abraham; Frissa, Souci; Hotopf, Matthew; Hatch, Stephani L

2014-05-01

354

Adversity, cannabis use and psychotic experiences: evidence of cumulative and synergistic effects  

Science.gov (United States)

Background There is robust evidence that childhood adversity is associated with an increased risk of psychosis. There is, however, little research on intervening factors that might increase or decrease risk following childhood adversity. Aims To investigate main effects of, and synergy between, childhood abuse and life events and cannabis use on odds of psychotic experiences. Method Data on psychotic experiences and childhood abuse, life events and cannabis use were collected from 1680 individuals as part of the South East London Community Health Study (SELCoH), a population-based household survey. Results There was strong evidence that childhood abuse and number of life events combined synergistically to increase odds of psychotic experiences beyond the effects of each individually. There was similar, but weaker, evidence for cannabis use (past year). Conclusions Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that childhood abuse creates an enduring vulnerability to psychosis that is realised in the event of exposure to further stressors and risk factors.

Morgan, Craig; Reininghaus, Ulrich; Reichenberg, Abraham; Frissa, Souci; Hotopf, Matthew; Hatch, Stephani L.

2014-01-01

355

Understanding Cultivar-Specificity and Soil Determinants of the Cannabis Microbiome  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding microbial partnerships with the medicinally and economically important crop Cannabis has the potential to affect agricultural practice by improving plant fitness and production yield. Furthermore, Cannabis presents an interesting model to explore plant-microbiome interactions as it produces numerous secondary metabolic compounds. Here we present the first description of the endorhiza-, rhizosphere-, and bulk soil-associated microbiome of five distinct Cannabis cultivars. Bacterial communities of the endorhiza showed significant cultivar-specificity. When controlling cultivar and soil type the microbial community structure was significantly different between plant cultivars, soil types, and between the endorhiza, rhizosphere and soil. The influence of soil type, plant cultivar and sample type differentiation on the microbial community structure provides support for a previously published two-tier selection model, whereby community composition across sample types is determined mainly by soil type, while community structure within endorhiza samples is determined mainly by host cultivar.

Winston, Max E.; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Zarraonaindia, Iratxe; Owens, Sarah M.; Moreau, Corrie S.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hartsel, Josh; Kennedy, Suzanne J.; Gibbons, S. M.

2014-01-01

356

Consumo de cannabis en los estudiantes de secundaria de Barcelona: inicio en el consumo, efectos experimentados y expectativas Cannabis consumption among secondary school pupils of Barcelona [Spain]: initial use, reported effects and expectancies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir las circunstancias del inicio del consumo, las razones para hacerlo, los efectos experimentados y las expectativas relacionadas con el consumo de cannabis en adolescentes de Barcelona. Métodos: Encuesta transversal realizada a una muestra de escolares de 3.º de ESO en 2005. El cuestionario era confidencial y autocumplimentado. Se dispone de datos de 2.043 alumnos de 47 centros escolares de Barcelona. Resultados: El 37,5% de los escolares declaró haber probado el cannabis, de los cuales un 10% lo hizo en el último mes. El consumo fue superior en centros públicos que en concertados-privados (p Objectives: To describe the circumstances of initial use of Cannabis, as well as the reasons for consumption, reported effects and expectations related to cannabis use, among adolescents in Barcelona. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample of pupils in the third year of compulsory secondary education in 2005. The questionnaire was confidential and self-completed. Data were gathered from 2,043 secondary school pupils from 47 schools in Barcelona. Results: A total of 37.5% of students reported cannabis consumption at some time, and 10.0% of these students had used cannabis in the previous month. Cannabis use was more common in public schools than in subsidized or private schools (p < 0.001. More than half the adolescents (60.3% smoked cannabis for the first time in parks or on the street. Most (88.4% of the adolescents obtained cannabis from a classmate or friend and 92.3% did so without paying for it. The main reason for initial consumption was curiosity, and reasons for continuing use were a desire to feel better and to forget problems. The most frequently reported effects were memory loss, sadness and difficulties in studying or working. Cannabis use was positively related to the expectation that the drug induces relaxation and aids social and sexual relations, and negatively to the beliefs that the drug can impair intellect and behavior and has negative effects on health. Conclusions: Cannabis was easily accessible to secondary school pupils and 9 out of 10 obtained the drug from a classmate or friend without paying for it. Two out of 3 adolescents reported negative effects as a consequence of cannabis use. Knowledge of expectations could help to explain and prevent cannabis consumption during adolescence.

Eva Morales

2008-08-01

357

Clustering of smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use in adolescents in a rapidly developing country  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use ("risk behaviors" are often initiated at a young age but few epidemiological studies have assessed their joined prevalence in children in developing countries. This study aims at examining the joint prevalence of these behaviors in adolescents in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country in the Indian Ocean. Methods Cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of secondary school students using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire (Global Youth Tobacco Survey. The questionnaire was completed by 1,321 (92% of 1,442 eligible students aged 11 to 17 years. Main variables of interest included smoking cigarettes on ?1 day in the past 30 days; drinking any alcohol beverage on ?1 day in the past 30 days and using cannabis at least once in the past 12 months. Results In boys and girls, respectively, prevalence (95% CI was 30% (26–34/21% (18–25 for smoking, 49% (45–54/48% (43–52 for drinking, and 17% (15–20/8% (6–10 for cannabis use. The prevalence of all these behaviors increased with age. Smokers were two times more likely than non-smokers to drink and nine times more likely to use cannabis. Drinkers were three times more likely than non-drinkers to smoke or to use cannabis. Comparison of observed versus expected frequencies of combination categories demonstrated clustering of these risk behaviors in students (P Conclusion Smoking, drinking and cannabis use were common and clustered among adolescents of a rapidly developing country. These findings stress the need for early and integrated prevention programs.

Chiolero Arnaud

2006-06-01

358

Predictors of age at onset of tobacco and cannabis use in Danish adolescents  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

INTRODUCTION: Early onset of tobacco and cannabis use predicts later substance abuse and risk behaviour and has large health consequences. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine risk factors for the age at onset of smoking and cannabis use among a group of Danish children between 7 years and 18 years of age. METHODS: Four hundred and eighty randomly selected children and their parents participated in a study about the prevalence of asthma. The study included questions about alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use. The children were interviewed face-to-face while the parents answered a questionnaire. RESULTS: The age at onset of daily smoking was significantly associated with the adolescents' tendency to binge drink [hazard ratio 4.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.85-12.34), P = 0.001) and to use hard drugs [hazard ratio 2.81, 95% CI (1.03-7.78), P = 0.047], whereas the age at onset of cannabis use was significantly associated with binge drinking [hazard ratio 3.29, 95% CI (1.51-7.20), P = 0.003] and cigarette smoking [hazard ratio 2.51, 95% CI (1.26-5.00), P = 0.009]. There were no significant effect of the parents' smoking and alcohol habits, their socioeconomic or marital status on the adolescent' age at onset of smoking or cannabis. CONCLUSION: This study shows a close connection between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and alcohol habits. Knowledge of this is important when planning future prevention strategies.

Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim

2010-01-01

359

Oral fluid cannabinoid concentrations following controlled smoked cannabis in chronic frequent and occasional smokers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral fluid (OF) is an alternative biological matrix for monitoring cannabis intake in drug testing, and drugged driving (DUID) programs, but OF cannabinoid test interpretation is challenging. Controlled cannabinoid administration studies provide a scientific database for interpreting cannabinoid OF tests. We compared differences in OF cannabinoid concentrations from 19 h before to 30 h after smoking a 6.8% THC cigarette in chronic frequent and occasional cannabis smokers. OF was collected with the Statsure Saliva Sampler™ OF device. 2D-GC-MS was used to quantify cannabinoids in 357 OF specimens; 65 had inadequate OF volume within 3 h after smoking. All OF specimens were THC-positive for up to 13.5 h after smoking, without significant differences between frequent and occasional smokers over 30 h. Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) had short median last detection times (2.5-4 h for CBD and 6-8 h for CBN) in both groups. THCCOOH was detected in 25 and 212 occasional and frequent smokers' OF samples, respectively. THCCOOH provided longer detection windows than THC in all frequent smokers. As THCCOOH is not present in cannabis smoke, its presence in OF minimizes the potential for false positive results from passive environmental smoke exposure, and can identify oral THC ingestion, while OF THC cannot. THC ? 1 ?g/L, in addition to CBD ? 1 ?g/L or CBN ? 1 ?g/L suggested recent cannabis intake (?13.5 h), important for DUID cases, whereas THC ? 1 ?g/L or THC ? 2 ?g/L cutoffs had longer detection windows (?30 h), important for workplace testing. THCCOOH windows of detection for chronic, frequent cannabis smokers extended beyond 30 h, while they were shorter (0-24 h) for occasional cannabis smokers. PMID:23954944

Anizan, Sebastien; Milman, Garry; Desrosiers, Nathalie; Barnes, Allan J; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

2013-10-01

360

Treatment models for targeting tobacco use during treatment for cannabis use disorder: Case series.  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 50% of individuals seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders (CUD) also smoke tobacco, and tobacco smoking is a predictor of poor outcomes for those in treatment for CUD. Quitting tobacco is associated with long-term abstinence from alcohol and illicit drugs, yet there are no established treatments for CUD that also target tobacco smoking. This report highlights issues related to cannabis and tobacco co-use and discusses potential treatment approaches targeting both substances. Data is shared from the first six participants enrolled in an intervention designed to simultaneously target tobacco use in individuals seeking treatment for CUD. The twelve-week program comprised computer-assisted delivery of Motivational Enhancement Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, and Contingency Management, i.e., abstinence-based incentives for CUD. In addition, participants were encouraged to complete an optional tobacco intervention consisting of nicotine-replacement therapy and computer-assisted delivery of a behavioral treatment tailored for tobacco and cannabis users. All participants completed the cannabis intervention and at least a portion of the tobacco intervention: all completed at least one tobacco computer module (mean=2.5 modules) and 50% initiated nicotine replacement therapy. Five of six participants achieved abstinence from cannabis. The number of tobacco quit attempts was lower than expected, however all participants attempted to reduce tobacco use during treatment. Simultaneously targeting tobacco during treatment for CUD did not negatively impact cannabis outcomes. Participation in the tobacco intervention was high, but cessation outcomes were poor suggesting that alternative strategies might be needed to more effectively prompt quit attempts and enhance quit rates. PMID:24813547

Lee, Dustin C; Budney, Alan J; Brunette, Mary F; Hughes, John R; Etter, Jean-Francois; Stanger, Catherine

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
361

Advice of the Italian CCTN on the toxicity of Cannabis sativa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This recommendation of the Italian National Toxicological Committee (CCTN) regards the possible toxic effects of some products derived from Cannabis sativa, indica variety. The CCTN has especially evaluated genotoxic, immunological and toxic to reproduction effects of these substances, on the basis of the results from both experimental studies and observations on humans. [Italiano] Il documento contiene il parere della CCTN sui potenziali effetti tossici di alcuni derivati della Cannabis sativa, varieta` indica. Il parere e` stato elaborato sulla base dei risultati sia di studi sperimentali sia dei limitati studi sull`uomo, prendendo in particolare considerazione gli effetti genotossici, tossico-riproduttivi ed immunologici.

Camoni, I. [ed.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Mucci, N. [ed.] [ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy). Dip. di Medicina del Lavoro; Paroli, E. [ed.] [Rome, Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Fac. di Medicina, Ist. di Farmacologia

1998-06-01

362

Characteristics of cannabinoids composition of Cannabis plants grown in Northern Thailand and its forensic application.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Thai government has recognized the possibility for legitimate cultivation of hemp. Further study of certain cannabinoid characteristics is necessary in establishing criteria for regulation of cannabis cultivation in Thailand. For this purpose, factors affecting characteristics of cannabinoids composition of Thai-grown cannabis were investigated. Plants were cultivated from seeds derived from the previous studies under the same conditions. 372 cannabis samples from landraces, three different trial fields and seized marijuana were collected. 100g of each sample was dried, ground and quantitatively analyzed for THC, CBD and CBN contents by GC-FID. The results showed that cannabis grown during March-June which had longer vegetative stages and longer photoperiod exposure, had higher cannabinoids contents than those grown in August. The male plants grown in trial fields had the range of THC contents from 0.722% to 0.848% d.w. and average THC/CBD ratio of 1.9. Cannabis in landraces at traditional harvest time of 75 days had a range of THC contents from 0.874% to 1.480% d.w. and an average THC/CBD ratio of 2.6. The THC contents and THC/CBD ratios of cannabis in second generation crops grown in the same growing season were found to be lower than those grown in the first generation, unless fairly high temperatures and a lesser amount of rainfall were present. The average THC content in seized fresh marijuana was 2.068% d.w. while THC/CBD ratios were between 12.6 and 84.09, which is 10-45 times greater than those of similar studied cannabis samples from the previous study. However, most Thai cannabis in landraces and in trial fields giving a low log(10) value of THC/CBD ratio at below 1 may be classified as intermediate type, whereas seized marijuana giving a higher log(10) value at above 1 could be classified as drug type. Therefore, the expanded information provided by the current study will assist in the development of criteria for regulation of hemp cultivation in Thailand. PMID:21636228

Tipparat, Prapatsorn; Natakankitkul, Surapol; Chamnivikaipong, Pipop; Chutiwat, Sirot

2012-02-10

363

Prediction of cannabis and cocaine use in adolescence using decision trees and logistic regression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Spain is one of the European countries with the highest prevalence of cannabis and cocaine use among young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors related to the consumption of cocaine and cannabis among adolescents. A questionnaire was administered to 9,284 students between 14 and 18 years of age in Palma de Mallorca (47.1% boys and 52.9% girls) whose mean age was 15.59 years. Logistic regression and decision trees were carried out in order to model the consumption of ca...

2010-01-01

364

Consumo de cannabis en los estudiantes de secundaria de Barcelona: inicio en el consumo, efectos experimentados y expectativas / Cannabis consumption among secondary school pupils of Barcelona [Spain]: initial use, reported effects and expectancies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Describir las circunstancias del inicio del consumo, las razones para hacerlo, los efectos experimentados y las expectativas rela