WorldWideScience
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Depression Symptoms Associated with Cannabis Dependence in an Adolescent American Indian Community Sample  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Depression and substance use disorders, including cannabis dependence, arise during adolescence, are frequently co-morbid, and represent major health burdens in the general U.S. population. Yet little is known about the association of depression symptoms with cannabis and other substance use and use disorders in Native American adolescents. Objective To investigate the comorbidity of cannabis use and depression symptoms in Native American adolescents. Methods This study used the Children’s Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (Adolescent Version) to obtain lifetime DSM-III-R diagnoses from a community sample of 202 (98 boys, 104 girls) American Indian adolescents living on contiguous reservations. Results Thirteen percent of boys and 38% of girls had a lifetime DSM-III-R major depression disorder (MDD) independent of substance use. Fifteen percent of boys and 41% of girls had a major depression episode (MDE) either coincident with or independent of cannabis use. MDE and several individual depression symptoms were significantly associated with cannabis dependence in boys but not in girls. The median ages of onset of MDE were the same in the boys and girls who had experienced both depression and cannabis use. Conclusions These findings suggest that the association of depression with cannabis dependence is more significant in boys than girls in this population of adolescents. Scientific Significance Understanding co-morbidity between depression and cannabis use is important in order to disentangle the etiological relationship between the two and also for designing more effective treatment and prevention strategies, particularly in Native Americans who are at high risk for both disorders. PMID:23082832

Gilder, David A.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

2012-01-01

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Prospective Assessment of Cannabis Withdrawal in Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence: A Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

A study to identify and assess the withdrawal symptoms in adolescents afflicted with cannabis dependence is conducted. Results conclude that withdrawal symptoms of cannabis were present in adolescents seeking treatment for this substance abuse.

Milin, Robert; Manion, Ian; Dare, Glenda; Walker, Selena

2008-01-01

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Cannabis Withdrawal is Common among Treatment-Seeking Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence and Major Depression, and is Associated with Rapid Relapse to Dependence  

OpenAIRE

Recently, reports have suggested that cannabis withdrawal occurs commonly in adults with cannabis dependence, though it is unclear whether this extends to those with comorbid depression or to comorbid adolescents. We hypothesized that cannabis withdrawal would be common among our sample of comorbid adolescents and young adults, and that the presence of cannabis withdrawal symptoms would be associated with a self-reported past history of rapid reinstatement of cannabis dependence symptoms (rap...

Cornelius, Jack R.; Chung, Tammy; Martin, Christopher; Wood, D. Scott; Clark, Duncan B.

2008-01-01

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Pharmacological Treatment of Cannabis Dependence  

OpenAIRE

Cannabis is the most frequently used illegal psychoactive substance in the world. There is a significant increase in the number of treatment admissions for cannabis use disorders in the past few years, and the majority of cannabis-dependent individuals who enter treatment have difficulty in achieving and maintaining abstinence. Thus, there is increased need for medications that can be used to treat this population. So far, no medication has been shown broadly and consistently effective; none ...

Weinstein, A. M.; Gorelick, David A.

2011-01-01

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Decreased respiratory symptoms in cannabis users who vaporize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Cannabis smoking can create respiratory problems. Vaporizers heat cannabis to release active cannabinoids, but remain cool enough to avoid the smoke and toxins associated with combustion. Vaporized cannabis should create fewer respiratory symptoms than smoked cannabis. We examined self-reported respiratory symptoms in participants who ranged in cigarette and cannabis use. Data from a large Internet sample revealed that the use of a vaporizer predicted fewer respiratory symptoms even when age, sex, cigarette smoking, and amount of cannabis used were taken into account. Age, sex, cigarettes, and amount of cannabis also had significant effects. The number of cigarettes smoked and amount of cannabis used interacted to create worse respiratory problems. A significant interaction revealed that the impact of a vaporizer was larger as the amount of cannabis used increased. These data suggest that the safety of cannabis can increase with the use of a vaporizer. Regular users of joints, blunts, pipes, and water pipes might decrease respiratory symptoms by switching to a vaporizer

Barnwell Sara

2007-04-01

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Sintomas depressivos e uso de Cannabis em adolescentes / Depressive symptoms in young Cannabis users / Síntomas depresivos en adolescentes usuarios de Cannabis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A depressão é um dos transtornos psiquiátricos mais comuns na adolescência. Os quadros depressivos costumam apresentar elevadas taxas de comorbidades psiquiátricas, sendo freqüente o abuso de substâncias psicoativas. O artigo investiga a associação dos sintomas depressivos e o uso da cannabis. MÉTOD [...] O: Revisão sistemática, análise dos artigos indexados no Medline, PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science e Lilacs, entre 2000 e 2005, descritores: depressive symptoms, depressive, adolescence, teenager e cannabis. RESULTADOS: Revisados 36 artigos completos, resultando no estudo de 9 artigos, que tratam de sintomas depressivos ou depressão e o uso ou dependência de cannabis em adolescentes. Os estudos confirmam a associação entre sintomas depressivos e o uso de cannabis na adolescência, sendo esta associação mais freqüente no uso precoce e regular de cannabis. CONCLUSÃO: Os sintomas depressivos/depressão estão relacionados ao uso/abuso e dependência de cannabis na adolescência. A investigação clínica e os programas de prevenção devem abordar estes transtornos na adolescência. Abstract in spanish Este artículo busca investigar la asociación de los síntomas depresivos y el uso de cannabis en la adolescencia. MÉTODO: Ha sido realizado, a través de revisión sistemática, el análisis de los artículos indexados localizados en los sistemas Medline, PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science y Lilacs, entre [...] 2000 y 2005, utilizando los descriptores: depressive symptoms, depressive, adolescence, teenager y cannabis. RESULTADOS: La mayoría de los estudios confirma existir una asociación entre síntomas depresivos y el uso de cannabis en la adolescencia, cabe destacar que esta asociación es más frecuente en el uso precoz y regular de cañabais. CONCLUSIÓN: Los síntomas depresivos/Depresión están relacionados al uso/abuso y dependencia de cañabais en la adolescencia, siendo entonces importante que estas variables puedan ser investigadas en la práctica clínica como también en programas de prevención que aborden de forma simultánea estos síntomas/trastornos en este período de la vida. Abstract in english The association between depressive symptoms and cannabis use is investigated. Due to the fact that depression has been a common psyquiatric disorder in adolescence, depressive cases usually present high rates of psychiatric comorbidities and the abuse of psychoactive substances is frequent. Systemat [...] ic review, studies at PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science and Lilacs databases analyzed between 2000 and 2005 are discussed. Results show that nine out of the thirty-six studies discuss depression and cannabis use or addiction in adolescents. Whereas the association between depressive symptoms and the use of cannabis during adolescence is confirmed, it is more frequent in an early and continuous cannabis use. Research shows that depressive symptoms are related to cannabis use, abuse and dependence during adolescence. Abovementioned variables must be investigated in clinical practice and in prevention programs that simultaneously focus on these disorders.

Tânia Moraes Ramos, Andrade; Irani Iracema de Lima, Argimon.

2008-09-01

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Sintomas depressivos e uso de Cannabis em adolescentes Síntomas depresivos en adolescentes usuarios de Cannabis Depressive symptoms in young Cannabis users  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A depressão é um dos transtornos psiquiátricos mais comuns na adolescência. Os quadros depressivos costumam apresentar elevadas taxas de comorbidades psiquiátricas, sendo freqüente o abuso de substâncias psicoativas. O artigo investiga a associação dos sintomas depressivos e o uso da cannabis. MÉTODO: Revisão sistemática, análise dos artigos indexados no Medline, PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science e Lilacs, entre 2000 e 2005, descritores: depressive symptoms, depressive, adolescence, teenager e cannabis. RESULTADOS: Revisados 36 artigos completos, resultando no estudo de 9 artigos, que tratam de sintomas depressivos ou depressão e o uso ou dependência de cannabis em adolescentes. Os estudos confirmam a associação entre sintomas depressivos e o uso de cannabis na adolescência, sendo esta associação mais freqüente no uso precoce e regular de cannabis. CONCLUSÃO: Os sintomas depressivos/depressão estão relacionados ao uso/abuso e dependência de cannabis na adolescência. A investigação clínica e os programas de prevenção devem abordar estes transtornos na adolescência.Este artículo busca investigar la asociación de los síntomas depresivos y el uso de cannabis en la adolescencia. MÉTODO: Ha sido realizado, a través de revisión sistemática, el análisis de los artículos indexados localizados en los sistemas Medline, PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science y Lilacs, entre 2000 y 2005, utilizando los descriptores: depressive symptoms, depressive, adolescence, teenager y cannabis. RESULTADOS: La mayoría de los estudios confirma existir una asociación entre síntomas depresivos y el uso de cannabis en la adolescencia, cabe destacar que esta asociación es más frecuente en el uso precoz y regular de cañabais. CONCLUSIÓN: Los síntomas depresivos/Depresión están relacionados al uso/abuso y dependencia de cañabais en la adolescencia, siendo entonces importante que estas variables puedan ser investigadas en la práctica clínica como también en programas de prevención que aborden de forma simultánea estos síntomas/trastornos en este período de la vida.The association between depressive symptoms and cannabis use is investigated. Due to the fact that depression has been a common psyquiatric disorder in adolescence, depressive cases usually present high rates of psychiatric comorbidities and the abuse of psychoactive substances is frequent. Systematic review, studies at PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science and Lilacs databases analyzed between 2000 and 2005 are discussed. Results show that nine out of the thirty-six studies discuss depression and cannabis use or addiction in adolescents. Whereas the association between depressive symptoms and the use of cannabis during adolescence is confirmed, it is more frequent in an early and continuous cannabis use. Research shows that depressive symptoms are related to cannabis use, abuse and dependence during adolescence. Abovementioned variables must be investigated in clinical practice and in prevention programs that simultaneously focus on these disorders.

Tânia Moraes Ramos Andrade

2008-09-01

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Palmitoylethanolamide: from endogenous cannabimimetic substance to innovative medicine for the treatment of cannabis dependence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a fatty acid amide showing some pharmacodynamic similarities with ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the principal psychoactive compound present in the cannabis plant. Like ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol, PEA can produce a direct or indirect activation of cannabinoid receptors. Furthermore, it acts as an agonist at TRPV1 receptor. The hypothesis is that PEA has anti-craving effects in cannabis dependent patients, is efficacious in the treatment of withdrawal symptoms, produces a reduction of cannabis consumption and is effective in the prevention of cannabis induced neurotoxicity and neuro-psychiatric disorders. PMID:23896215

Coppola, M; Mondola, R

2013-10-01

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Cross-sectional and prospective relation of cannabis potency, dosing and smoking behaviour with cannabis dependence: an ecological study  

OpenAIRE

Background and Aims Increased delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations in cannabis may lead to higher THC exposure, cannabis dependence and treatment need, but users may also adapt the actual intake of THC through reduced inhalation of THC containing smoke (titration). We investigated whether consumers of stronger cannabis use less cannabis per joint or inhale less smoke than those using less potent cannabis and whether these factors predict cannabis dependence severity. Method...

Pol, P.; Liebregts, N.; Brunt, T.; Amsterdam, J.; Graaf, R.; Korf, D. J.; Brink, W. Den; Laar, M.

2014-01-01

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Dependent cannabis users at a music festival - prevalence and correlates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aim: In western countries, the most prevalent type of illicit substance-use dependence is cannabis dependence. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of cannabis dependence among music festival visitors. Methods: Based on a survey of 380 music festival guests, we estimated the prevalence of cannabis dependence, as defined by a score of 3 or more on the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS), as well as characteristics of cannabis dependent visitors. Results: 143 (38%) reported having used cannabis within the past year (past year cannabis users), and of these respondents, 21 (15%) screened positive for cannabis dependence. Compared to other cannabis users, the dependent respondents were more likely to be daily smokers, and they scored higher on self-reported sensation seeking. Compared with past-year non-users, both dependent users and non-dependent users were more likely to be men, weekly heavy drinkers, daily smokers and to score high on sensation seeking. Conclusions: Out of the past-year cannabis users recruited at a music festival, one in seven of those respondents showed indication of cannabis dependence. This suggests a need for both available treatment options and primary prevention of dependence.

Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien

2011-01-01

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Associations between cigarette smoking and cannabis dependence: A longitudinal study of young cannabis users in the United Kingdom  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims To determine the degree to which cigarette smoking predicts levels of cannabis dependence above and beyond cannabis use itself, concurrently and in an exploratory four-year follow-up, and to investigate whether cigarette smoking mediates the relationship between cannabis use and cannabis dependence. Methods The study was cross sectional with an exploratory follow-up in the participants’ own homes or via telephone interviews in the United Kingdom. Participants were 298 cannabis and tobacco users aged between 16 and 23; follow-up consisted of 65 cannabis and tobacco users. The primary outcome variable was cannabis dependence as measured by the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS). Cannabis and tobacco smoking were assessed through a self-reported drug history. Results Regression analyses at baseline showed cigarette smoking (frequency of cigarette smoking: B = 0.029, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.05; years of cigarette smoking: B = 0.159, 95% CI = 0.05, 0.27) accounted for 29% of the variance in cannabis dependence when controlling for frequency of cannabis use. At follow-up, only baseline cannabis dependence predicted follow-up cannabis dependence (B = 0.274, 95% CI = 0.05, 0.53). At baseline, cigarette smoking mediated the relationship between frequency of cannabis use and dependence (B = 0.0168, 95% CI = 0.008, 0.288) even when controlling for possible confounding variables (B = 0.0153, 95% CI = 0.007, 0.027). Conclusions Cigarette smoking is related to concurrent cannabis dependence independently of cannabis use frequency. Cigarette smoking also mediates the relationship between cannabis use and cannabis dependence suggesting tobacco is a partial driver of cannabis dependence in young people who use cannabis and tobacco. PMID:25622777

Hindocha, Chandni; Shaban, Natacha D.C.; Freeman, Tom P.; Das, Ravi K.; Gale, Grace; Schafer, Grainne; Falconer, Caroline J.; Morgan, Celia J.A.; Curran, H. Valerie

2015-01-01

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Objective and subjective memory ratings in cannabis-dependent adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Objectives Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance worldwide, with an estimated 160 million users. Among adolescents, rates of cannabis use are increasing, while the perception of detrimental effects of cannabis use is declining. Difficulty with memory is one of the most frequently noted cognitive deficits associated with cannabis use, but little data exists exploring how well users can identify their own memory deficits, if present. Methods The current secondary analysis sought to characterize objective verbal and visual memory performance via a neurocognitive battery in cannabis-dependent adolescents enrolled in a pharmacotherapeutic cannabis cessation clinical trial (N=112) and compare this to a single self-reported item assessing difficulties with memory loss. Exploratory analyses also assessed dose-dependent effects of cannabis on memory performance. Results A small portion of the study sample (10%) endorsed a “serious problem” with memory loss. Those participants reporting “no problem” or “serious problem” scored similarly on visual and verbal memory tasks on the neurocognitive battery. Exploratory analyses suggested a potential relationship between days of cannabis use, amount of cannabis used, and gender with memory performance. Conclusions and Scientific Significance This preliminary and exploratory analysis suggests that a sub-set of cannabis users may not accurately perceive difficulties with memory. Further work should test this hypothesis with the use of a control group, comprehensive self-reports of memory problems, and adult populations that may have more years of cannabis use and more severe cognitive deficits. PMID:25823635

McClure, Erin A.; Lydiard, Jessica B.; Goddard, Scott D.; Gray, Kevin M.

2015-01-01

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Anxiety mediates the association between cannabis use and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis use has been associated with a continuum of psychotic experiences. However, it is unclear whether mood and anxiety symptoms account for increases in attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS) among cannabis users. We predicted that depression and anxiety symptoms would mediate the relation between cannabis use and APPS, and between cannabis use and endorsement of eight or more distressing APPS (D-APPS), a potentially more clinically meaningful group. Young adults (n=674) completed the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ); Drug Use Frequency measure; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Trait Form, Anxiety Subscale; and Social Phobia Scale. Results indicated that symptoms of trait anxiety, but not symptoms of depression or social anxiety, mediated the relationship between cannabis use and APPS, as well as the relationship between cannabis use and D-APPS. Results indicate that symptoms of trait anxiety may play a role in the relation between cannabis use and APPS. Findings underscore the importance of considering clinical characteristics co-occurring with psychotic symptoms, such as affective symptoms, when examining the association between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms. PMID:24745470

Reeves, Lauren E; Anglin, Deidre M; Heimberg, Richard G; Gibson, Lauren E; Fineberg, Anna M; Maxwell, Seth D; Kerns, Connor M; Ellman, Lauren M

2014-08-15

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Multidimensional family therapy decreases the rate of externalising behavioural disorder symptoms in cannabis abusing adolescents: outcomes of the INCANT trial  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: US-based trials have shown that Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) not only reduces substance abuse among adolescents, but also decreases mental and behavioural disorder symptoms, most notably externalising symptoms. In the INCANT trial, MDFT decreased the rate of cannabis dependence among Western European youth. We now focus on other INCANT outcomes, i.e., lessening of co-morbidity symptoms and improvement of family functioning. METHODS: INCANT was a randomised contr...

Schaub, Michael P.; Henderson, Craig E.; Pelc, Isidore; Tossmann, Peter; Phan, Olivier; Hendriks, Vincent; Rowe, Cindy; Rigter, Henk

2014-01-01

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The effects of cannabis abuse on the symptoms of schizophrenia: patient perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored explanatory models used by individuals with schizophrenia in relation to continuing cannabis abuse. Cannabis is known to exacerbate positive symptoms, compound the effects of negative symptoms, and lead to relapse, having a negative effect upon quality of life. If this is so, why would people choose to continue the drug use? Most previous studies exploring this phenomenon have used quantitative methodology where the questions asked have been preset by the researchers and the subjective experience of the patient has been minimized. Qualitative methodology was utilized in this study in order to give voice to the patients' perspectives, and contribute to the knowledge of the frameworks of meanings employed by patients. The majority of participants in this study did not perceive that they had a mental illness and they held strong beliefs regarding the usefulness of cannabis. They gave explanations for their continuing cannabis use that expanded the understanding from previous studies. These included that they sought the drug effects of cannabis use for clarity of voices, control of symptoms, to feel normal, perceived improvement in cognitive function, reduced psychological pain and increased energy. These beliefs may influence a person's adherence with treatment and their future cannabis use. This research has implications for clinical practice as clinicians may lack insight into the importance of the phenomenological beliefs of a person with schizophrenia. This lack of insight by the clinician into the phenomenological beliefs may impact on the development of a therapeutic relationship. PMID:18666905

Costain, William F

2008-08-01

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From child maltreatment to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence: A developmental cascade model  

OpenAIRE

A developmental cascade model tested associations among child maltreatment, internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, social competence, and cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms in a longitudinal cohort (N = 415). Nested structural equation models evaluated continuity and cross-domain influences among broad multi-informant constructs across four developmental periods: age 7 to 9, 10 to 12, 13 to 15, and 15 to 18. Results indicated significant paths from child maltreatment to early ex...

Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Cicchetti, Dante

2010-01-01

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The role of study and work in cannabis use and dependence trajectories among young adult frequent cannabis users  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Life course theory considers events in study and work as potential turning points in deviance, including illicit drug use. This qualitative study explores the role of occupational life in cannabis use and dependence in young adults. Two and three years after the initial structured interview, 47 at baseline frequent cannabis users were interviewed in-depth about the dynamics underlying changes in their cannabis use and dependence. Overall, cannabis use and dependence declined, including interviewees who quit using cannabis completely, in particular with students, both during their study and after they got employed. Life course theory appeared to be a useful framework to explore how and why occupational life is related to cannabis use and dependence over time. Our study showed that life events in this realm are rather common in young adults and can have a strong impact on cannabis use. While sometimes changes in use are temporary, turning points can evolve from changes in educational and employment situations; an effect that seems to be related to the consequences of these changes in terms of amount of leisure time and agency (i.e. feelings of being in control.

NienkeLiebregts

2013-08-01

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Psychedelic symptoms of cannabis and cocaine use as a function of trait impulsivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trait impulsivity has been linked to addiction in humans. It has been suggested that drug users with high trait impulsivity levels are more sensitive to subjective drug intoxication. This study assessed whether subjective response to drugs differs between drug users with normal or high levels of trait impulsivity. Regular drug users (N = 122) received doses of cocaine HCl, cannabis, and placebo in a three-way crossover study. Their mood, dissociative state, and psychedelic symptoms were measured with subjective rating scales (CADDS, Bowdle, POMS). Trait impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Cannabis increased dissociation and psychedelic state, as well as fatigue, confusion, depression and anxiety, and decreased arousal, positive mood, vigor, friendliness, and elation. Cocaine increased dissociation, psychedelic state, vigor, friendliness, elation, positive mood, anxiety and arousal, while decreasing fatigue. Only a few subjective items revealed a drug × trait impulsivity interaction, suggesting that psychedelic symptoms were most intense in high impulsivity subjects. Trait impulsiveness ratings were negatively correlated with ratings of vigor (r = -.197) and positively correlated with ratings of loss of thought control (r = .237) during cannabis intoxication. It is concluded that a broad association between trait impulsivity and psychedelic subjective drug experience appears to be absent. PMID:25572345

van Wel, Jhp; Spronk, Db; Kuypers, Kpc; Theunissen, El; Toennes, Sw; Verkes, Rj; Ramaekers, Jg

2015-03-01

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Comorbid psychiatric disorders and stages of change in cannabis-dependent, treatment-seeking patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objectives: To determine whether and to what extent cannabis dependence is associated with comorbid psychiatric disorders and specific stages of change in treatment-seeking patients. Methods: We evaluated 80 cannabis-dependent, treatment-seeking patients residing in an urban area. Data on cannabi [...] s dependence, psychiatric disorders, and motivation were obtained using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry and the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA). Results: A diagnosis of schizophrenia was found to correlate with lower motivation scores (p = 0.038), which could have a negative effect on adherence to treatment. Conclusion: The high prevalence of concurrent psychiatric disorders in cannabis-dependent patients should serve as a stimulus for early screening and treatment of such disorders. Health care professionals should be aware of the magnitude of this association to increase the level of motivation in cannabis-dependent patients with severe concurrent psychiatric disorders.

Hercilio P., Oliveira; Andre, Malbergier.

2014-05-13

20

Cannabis e humor / Cannabis and mood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações entre o uso agudo e crônico de cannabis e alterações do humor. MÉTODO: Os artigos foram selecionados por meio de busca eletrônica no indexador PubMed. Capítulos de livros e as listas de referências dos artigos selecionados também foram revisados. RESULTADOS: Observam-se [...] elevados índices de comorbidade entre abuso/dependência de cannabis e transtornos afetivos em estudos transversais e em amostras clínicas. Estudos longitudinais indicam que, em longo prazo, o uso mais intenso de cannabis está relacionado com um risco maior de desenvolvimento de doença bipolar e, talvez, depressão maior em indivíduos inicialmente sem quadros afetivos; porém, os mesmos não encontraram maior risco de uso de cannabis entre aqueles com mania ou depressão sem esta comorbidade. Outra importante observação é que o uso de substâncias psicoativas em bipolares pode estar associado a uma série de características negativas, como dificuldade na recuperação dos sintomas afetivos, maior número de internações, piora na adesão ao tratamento, risco aumentado de suicídio, agressividade e a uma pobre resposta ao lítio. Tratamentos psicossociais e farmacológicos são indicados para o manejo da comorbidade entre cannabis e transtornos afetivos. CONCLUSÃO: As relações entre o uso de cannabis e alterações do humor são observadas tanto epidemiologicamente quanto nos contextos clínicos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between acute and chronic use of cannabis and mood changes. METHOD: Articles were selected by electronic search in PubMed. Chapters in books and reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. As the research did not involve humans, there was no evaluati [...] on by a Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: High rates of comorbidity between use/abuse/dependence of cannabis and affective disorders in longitudinal studies and in clinical samples were observed. Longitudinal studies indicate that, in long-term, the higher use of cannabis is associated with an increased risk of developing bipolar disorder, and probably, major depression in subjects initially without affective disorder, but was not found increased risk of cannabis use among those initially only with mania or depression. Another important observation is that substance abuse in bipolar patients may be associated with a number of negative characteristics, such as difficulty in recovering the affective symptoms, more hospitalizations, poor compliance with treatment, increased risk of suicide, aggression and a poor response to lithium. Psychosocial and pharmacological treatments are indicated for the management of comorbidity between cannabis and affective disorders. CONCLUSION: The relationship between cannabis use and mood changes are observed both in the epidemiological research and in the clinical settings.

Rafael Faria, Sanches; João Mazzoncini de Azevedo, Marques.

2010-06-01

21

Cannabis e humor Cannabis and mood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações entre o uso agudo e crônico de cannabis e alterações do humor. MÉTODO: Os artigos foram selecionados por meio de busca eletrônica no indexador PubMed. Capítulos de livros e as listas de referências dos artigos selecionados também foram revisados. RESULTADOS: Observam-se elevados índices de comorbidade entre abuso/dependência de cannabis e transtornos afetivos em estudos transversais e em amostras clínicas. Estudos longitudinais indicam que, em longo prazo, o uso mais intenso de cannabis está relacionado com um risco maior de desenvolvimento de doença bipolar e, talvez, depressão maior em indivíduos inicialmente sem quadros afetivos; porém, os mesmos não encontraram maior risco de uso de cannabis entre aqueles com mania ou depressão sem esta comorbidade. Outra importante observação é que o uso de substâncias psicoativas em bipolares pode estar associado a uma série de características negativas, como dificuldade na recuperação dos sintomas afetivos, maior número de internações, piora na adesão ao tratamento, risco aumentado de suicídio, agressividade e a uma pobre resposta ao lítio. Tratamentos psicossociais e farmacológicos são indicados para o manejo da comorbidade entre cannabis e transtornos afetivos. CONCLUSÃO: As relações entre o uso de cannabis e alterações do humor são observadas tanto epidemiologicamente quanto nos contextos clínicos.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between acute and chronic use of cannabis and mood changes. METHOD: Articles were selected by electronic search in PubMed. Chapters in books and reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. As the research did not involve humans, there was no evaluation by a Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: High rates of comorbidity between use/abuse/dependence of cannabis and affective disorders in longitudinal studies and in clinical samples were observed. Longitudinal studies indicate that, in long-term, the higher use of cannabis is associated with an increased risk of developing bipolar disorder, and probably, major depression in subjects initially without affective disorder, but was not found increased risk of cannabis use among those initially only with mania or depression. Another important observation is that substance abuse in bipolar patients may be associated with a number of negative characteristics, such as difficulty in recovering the affective symptoms, more hospitalizations, poor compliance with treatment, increased risk of suicide, aggression and a poor response to lithium. Psychosocial and pharmacological treatments are indicated for the management of comorbidity between cannabis and affective disorders. CONCLUSION: The relationship between cannabis use and mood changes are observed both in the epidemiological research and in the clinical settings.

Rafael Faria Sanches

2010-06-01

22

[So called "soft" drugs: cannabis and the amotivational syndrome].  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of its soft drug reputation, severe cannabis abuse can produce a number of adverse chronic effects. Whereas the majority of consumers make a ((soft)) use of cannabis, there is a minority of problematic cannabis users. However, many of cannabis chronic effects are still controversial, especially regarding the causal nature of their relationship with cannabis use. There is a scientific consensus to claim that cannabis induces a state of dependence in a small proportion of users. Severe abuse of cannabis can also lead to cognitive impairments, especially on memory, although these effects usually improve after the cessation of cannabis use. The statistical link between cannabis use and the development of psychotic disorders is more worrying, although the causal nature of this relationship remains controversial. Finally, a chronic abuse of cannabis is reputed to induce an amotivational syndrome, mainly characterized by a state of apathy. Although the symptoms of the amotivational syndrome are in keeping with some clinical observations, it remains difficult to ascertain whether this clinical picture is causally produced by cannabis abuse. PMID:23888577

Schmits, E; Quertemont, E

2013-01-01

23

Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence  

Science.gov (United States)

Ninety cannabis-dependent adults seeking treatment were randomly assigned to receive cognitive-behavioral therapy, abstinence-based voucher incentives, or their combination. Treatment duration was 14 weeks, and outcomes were assessed for 12 months post treatment. Findings suggest that (a) abstinence-based vouchers were effective for engendering…

Budney, Alan J.; Moore, Brent A.; Rocha, Heath L.; Higgins, Stephen T.

2006-01-01

24

Psychopathology among cannabis-dependent treatment seekers and association with later substance abuse treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

We determined the proportion of psychiatric treatments for disorders not due to substance use among a cohort of subjects (n = 3,114) seeking treatment for cannabis dependence. Data were retrieved from Danish treatment registers. Cases were compared with a representative sample, which was randomly selected from the general population according to age and gender (n = 15,570). Cannabis users were followed, and reentry into substance abuse treatment was used as an outcome deploying Cox regression analysis. The proportion of treatment for all psychiatric disorders was much higher among cases than among controls: schizophrenia (odds ratio [OR] = 7.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 6.1-10.2), bipolar disorders (OR = 4.9; 95% CI = 2.8-8.5), other affective disorders (OR = 7.6; 95% CI = 6.1-9.5), and personality disorders (OR = 17.3; 95% CI = 14.5-20.5). All in all, 40.7% of cases, compared with 5.2% of controls, had received psychiatric treatment (OR = 12.5; 95% CI = 11.3-13.8). A history of psychiatric treatment was associated with increased rates of reentry into substance abuse treatment, in general (OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.20-1.53), specifically for cannabis (OR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.07-1.48) and opioid (OR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.23-1.99) dependence. This is the first study to show that the proportion of psychiatric treatment is much elevated among subjects seeking treatment for cannabis dependence, and that a history of psychiatric problems is associated with higher rates of reentry into substance abuse treatment. PMID:17306720

Arendt, Mikkel; Rosenberg, Raben; Foldager, Leslie; Perto, Gurli; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

2007-03-01

25

Vulnerability Factors for the Psychiatric and Behavioral Effects of Cannabis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cogent evidence shows that cannabis plays a variable role on behavioral regulation and the pathophysiology of most psychiatric conditions. Accordingly, cannabis has been alternatively shown to exacerbate or ameliorate mental symptoms, depending on its composition and route of consumption, as well as specific individual and contextual characteristics. The vulnerability to the psychological effects of cannabis is influenced by a complex constellation of genetic and environmental factors. In the present article, we will review the current evidence on the pharmacological, individual and situational factors that have been documented to affect the behavioral and psychiatric effects of cannabinoids.

Simone Tambaro

2010-08-01

26

Psychosis and cannabis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Alcohol and cannabis misuse is currently the most frequent co-morbidity disorder of schizophrenia. The following four issues will be dealt with: 1) the neurobiological basis of the psychosis-inducing, pathogenic effects of THC, the agent contained in cannabis products. 2) Can cannabis use - and for [...] comparison alcohol abuse - prematurely trigger or even cause schizophrenia? 3) Are persons genetically liable to schizophrenia, psychosis-prone individuals or young persons before completion of brain development at an increased risk? 4) What consequences does cannabis use have on the symptomatology and further course of schizophrenia? Results from recent literature and the ABC Schizophrenia Study show that the risk for cannabis use in schizophrenia is about twice the size in healthy controls. In most cases cannabis use starts before first admission, in a third of cases before schizophrenia onset. There is an increased affinity to misuse already at the prodromal stage. Cannabis can prematurely trigger schizophrenia onset - on average eight years earlier than in non-use - and cause the illness partly in interaction with predisposing factors. Cannabis use in the course of schizophrenia increases positive symptoms and reduces affective flattening, thus leading to dysfunctional coping in some cases.

Heinz, Häfner.

27

Psychosis and cannabis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alcohol and cannabis misuse is currently the most frequent co-morbidity disorder of schizophrenia. The following four issues will be dealt with: 1 the neurobiological basis of the psychosis-inducing, pathogenic effects of THC, the agent contained in cannabis products. 2 Can cannabis use - and for comparison alcohol abuse - prematurely trigger or even cause schizophrenia? 3 Are persons genetically liable to schizophrenia, psychosis-prone individuals or young persons before completion of brain development at an increased risk? 4 What consequences does cannabis use have on the symptomatology and further course of schizophrenia? Results from recent literature and the ABC Schizophrenia Study show that the risk for cannabis use in schizophrenia is about twice the size in healthy controls. In most cases cannabis use starts before first admission, in a third of cases before schizophrenia onset. There is an increased affinity to misuse already at the prodromal stage. Cannabis can prematurely trigger schizophrenia onset - on average eight years earlier than in non-use - and cause the illness partly in interaction with predisposing factors. Cannabis use in the course of schizophrenia increases positive symptoms and reduces affective flattening, thus leading to dysfunctional coping in some cases.

Heinz Häfner

2005-01-01

28

[Cannabis hyperemesis syndrome].  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the course of cyclical hyperemesis most likely induced by cannabis in a young cannabis-dependent, but otherwise healthy female adult. Cyclical hyperemesis developed in parallel to increasing cannabis inhalation, and remitted completely within a few days of abstinence in a protective inpatient setting. Just as in those increasing cases which can be found in literature, the hyperemesis improved by taking a hot shower or bath at the beginning of the detoxification. This thermosensitivity, along with the detection of a central disturbance of the thyroid axis, points to the hypothalamic cannabinoid system being involved in cannabis-induced cyclical hyperemesis. The patient was followed up for 4 months without any re-occurrence of the syndrome during controlled cannabis abstinence. PMID:21692016

Bonnet, U; Chang, D-I; Scherbaum, N

2012-02-01

29

Do patients think cannabis causes schizophrenia? - A qualitative study on the causal beliefs of cannabis using patients with schizophrenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a considerable amount of debate among the research community whether cannabis use may cause schizophrenia and whether cannabis use of patients with schizophrenia is associated with earlier and more frequent relapses. Considering that studies exploring patients' view on controversial topics have contributed to our understanding of important clinical issues, it is surprising how little these views have been explored to add to our understanding of the link between cannabis and psychosis. The present study was designed to elucidate whether patients with schizophrenia who use cannabis believe that its use has caused their schizophrenia and to explore these patients other beliefs and perceptions about the effects of the drug. Methods We recruited ten consecutive patients fulfilling criteria for paranoid schizophrenia and for a harmful use of/dependence from cannabis (ICD-10 F20.0 + F12.1 or F12.2 from the in- and outpatient clinic of the Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich. They were interviewed using qualitative methodology. Furthermore, information on amount, frequency, and effects of use was obtained. A grounded theory approach to data analysis was taken to evaluate findings. Results None of the patients described a causal link between the use of cannabis and their schizophrenia. Disease models included upbringing under difficult circumstances (5 or use of substances other than cannabis (e. g. hallucinogens, 3. Two patients gave other reasons. Four patients considered cannabis a therapeutic aid and reported that positive effects (reduction of anxiety and tension prevailed over its possible disadvantages (exacerbation of positive symptoms. Conclusions Patients with schizophrenia did not establish a causal link between schizophrenia and the use of cannabis. We suggest that clinicians consider our findings in their work with patients suffering from these co-occurring disorders. Withholding treatment or excluding patients from certain treatment settings like day-care facilities or in patient care because of their use of cannabis, may cause additional harm to this already heavily burdened patient group.

Schaub Michael

2010-09-01

30

[Cyclical hyperemesis secondary to cannabis abuse].  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabinoid hyperemesis is characterized by recurring episodes of nausea and vomiting, with a stereotyped pattern, related to cannabis consumption. This syndrome is a paradoxical reaction to cannabis that develops in susceptible chronic cannabis users after several years of exposure. There is a direct relationship between cannabis use and the onset of the hyperemesis and between cessation of cannabis use and symptom resolution. The first cases were described in 2004. Since then, several new cases have been reported, although there are few studies of this syndrome. We report a case of chronic cannabis use with nausea and cyclic vomiting for 7 years. The symptoms were relieved by hot baths. A complete gastroenterological study was performed and no alterations were found. Cannabis use and its cessation are related to the presence or absence of the symptoms. PMID:19477551

Ochoa-Mangado, Enriqueta; Jiménez Giménez, Mónica; Salvador Vadillo, Estrella; Madoz-Gúrpide, Agustín

2009-01-01

31

Cannabis Beyond Good and Evil. How genetic and epidemiological factors shape the relationship between cannabis and psychosis  

OpenAIRE

The studies presented in this thesis aimed to identify genetic and non-genetic (epidemiological) factors that shape the association between cannabis use and psychosis. We showed that the age of first use of cannabis is a determinant for the strength of the association between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms and general mental health, as is the amount of cannabis that is consumed. Moreover it is likely that the THC/CBD ratio in consumed cannabis products further shapes the relationship be...

Schubart, C. D.

2013-01-01

32

Drug dependence and psychotic symptoms: a retrospective study of adolescents who abuse drugs at Al-Amal Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Drug abuse is reported to be on the increase among young persons using illicit substances but little is known about the frequency with which they occur, the symptoms on presentation to health institutions, and the different substances abused. To establish this, we reviewed patient data collected at Al-Amal Hospital in Jeddah Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on young persons who are refered to the hospital for problems related to drug abuse. Data on 69 adolescent drug users were reviewed and analyzed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview - Substance Abuse Model (CIDI-SAM to assess dependence on substances including amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, and opioids. Furthermore, we assessed the adolescents’ data on history of delusions and hallucinations in the context of use of, or withdrawal from, these specific substances. Our analysis shows that 10 to 79.6% of users of amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates met DSM-III-R dependence criteria for each specific substance. The prevalence of psychotic symptoms associated with each specific substance ranged from users with no diagnosis to users with severe dependence as follows: amphetamines (3-100%, cannabis (7- 60.0%, cocaine (5-70.7%, and opiates (4- 88%. The risk of psychotic symptoms increased for respondents who abused (OR=7.2 or had mild (OR=8.1, moderate (OR=20.0, or severe dependence (OR=14.0 on cocaine when compared to those who were users with no diagnosis. A similar pattern was evident in cannabis, opiate, and amphetamine users. In conclusion, most adolescent drug users in Saudi Arabia who are dependent on illicit substances experience psychotic symptoms in the context of use of, or withdrawal from, these substances. Psychotic symptoms increased with the severity of the disorders associated with use of all four substances. These findings underscore the importance of developing services to target this population; a population at risk of developing psychotic symptoms.

Osama Alibrahim

2012-03-01

33

Burnout among High-School Students and Cannabis Use, Consumption Frequencies, Abuse and Dependence  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Cannabis is a substance frequently consumed by adolescents, which is a risk factor for many psychopathological disorders. At the same time, adolescents in high-schools are likely to be exposed to significant stress from school that can sometimes lead to a burnout syndrome. Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the impact…

Walburg, Vera; Moncla, Dany; Mialhes, Aurélie

2015-01-01

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Psychotropic and Nonpsychotropic Cannabis Derivatives Inhibit Human 5-HT3A receptors through a Receptor Desensitization-Dependent Mechanism  

OpenAIRE

?9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the principal psychoactive and non-psychoactive components of cannabis. While most THC-induced behavioral effects are thought to depend on endogenous cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors, the molecular targets for CBD remain unclear. Here, we report that CBD and THC inhibited the function of human 5-HT3A receptors (h5-HT3ARs) expressed in HEK 293 cells. The magnitude of THC and CBD inhibition was maximal 5 min after a continuous incubation wit...

Xiong, Wei; Koo, Bon-nyeo; Morton, Russell; Zhang, Li

2011-01-01

35

Characterizing cannabis-induced psychosis: a study with prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis-induced psychotic disorder (CIPD) refers to psychotic symptoms that arise in the context of cannabis intoxication. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficits have been extensively identified in schizophrenia and in cannabis abusers. We aimed to characterize PPI in CIPD patients. We used a sample of 48 CIPD patients, 54 schizophrenia patients and cannabis abuse (SCHZ), 44 cannabis dependents (CD), and 44 controls. CIPD, SCHZ and CD were abstinent of cannabis consumption for 9 months. Participants were assessed with PPI at 30, 60, and 120 ms. At 30 ms, CIPD showed lower PPI levels than controls, and SCHZ obtained worse functioning than controls and CD. At 60 ms, only SCHZ exhibited worse PPI percentages (of object) than controls. Finally, at 120 ms, CIPD showed higher PPI levels than SCHZ, and SCHZ obtained lower percentages than controls. We found that CIPD and SCHZ patients showed deficits at the most pre-attentional levels, whereas CIPD patients performed better than SCHZ at higher attentional levels. These results suggest that CIPD constitutes a different group of patients than that of SCHZ. Deficits in PPI functioning at 30 ms could be a useful psychophysiological measure to detect CIPD patients, who are frequently confused with cannabis abusers whose symptoms may mimic that of schizophrenia. PMID:25175914

Morales-Muñoz, Isabel; Jurado-Barba, Rosa; Ponce, Guillermo; Martínez-Gras, Isabel; Jiménez-Arriero, Miguel Ángel; Moratti, Stephan; Rubio, Gabriel

2014-12-15

36

Quality of Web-Based Information on Cannabis Addiction  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the quality of Web-based information on cannabis use and addiction and investigated particular content quality indicators. Three keywords ("cannabis addiction," "cannabis dependence," and "cannabis abuse") were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed…

Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Cochand, Sophie; Zullino, Daniele

2008-01-01

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Strain dependence of adolescent Cannabis influence on heroin reward and mesolimbic dopamine transmission in adult Lewis and Fischer 344 rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adolescent Cannabis exposure has been hypothesized to act as a gateway to opiate abuse. In order to investigate the role of genetic background in cannabinoid-opiate interactions, we studied the effect of ?(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure of adolescent Lewis and Fischer 344 rats on the responsiveness of accumbens shell and core dopamine (DA), as monitored by microdialysis, to THC and heroin at adulthood. Heroin reward and reinstatement by heroin priming were studied by conditioned place preference (CPP) and cognitive and emotional functions by object recognition, Y maze and elevated plus maze paradigms. THC stimulated shell DA in Lewis but not in Fischer 344 rats. Adolescent THC exposure potentiated DA stimulant effects of heroin in the shell and core of Lewis and only in the core of Fischer 344 rats. Control Lewis rats developed stronger CPP to heroin and resistance to extinction compared with Fischer 344 strain. In Lewis rats, THC exposure did not affect heroin CPP but potentiated the effect of heroin priming. In Fischer 344 rats, THC exposure increased heroin CPP and made it resistant to extinction. Lewis rats showed seeking reactions during extinction and hedonic reactions in response to heroin priming. Moreover, adolescent THC exposure affected emotional function only in Lewis rats. These observations suggest that long-term effects of Cannabis exposure on heroin addictive liability and emotionality are dependent on individual genetic background. PMID:23957273

Cadoni, Cristina; Simola, Nicola; Espa, Elena; Fenu, Sandro; Di Chiara, Gaetano

2015-01-01

38

Cannabis and psychosis revisited.  

Science.gov (United States)

The association between cannabinoids and psychosis has been known for almost a thousand years, but it is still speculated whether cannabis use may be a contributory cause of psychosis, that is, whether it may precipitate schizophrenia in those at risk. In this paper, we will briefly present the data from individual longitudinal studies in the field, together with the factors that are considered important for the association of cannabis abuse and occurrence of schizophrenia and prevention opportunities in the target population. The reviewed studies clearly suggest that cannabis abuse predicts an increased risk for schizophrenia, particularly in young adults. They underline both the need to create adequate prevention measures and consequently avoid the occurrence of the disease in the young at risk. Particular attention should be additionally devoted toward encouraging the young presenting with psychotic symptoms to stop or, at the very least, reduce the frequency of cannabis abuse. The issues are undoubtedly to be addressed by the health care system in general. PMID:25751443

Damjanovi?, Aleksandar; Pantovi?, Maja; Damjanovi?, Aleksandra; Dunji?-Kosti?, Bojana; Ivkovi?, Maja; Milovanovi?, Sr?an; Lackovi?, Maja; Dimitrijevi?, Ivan

2015-03-01

39

Infant with Altered Consciousness after Cannabis Passive Inhalation  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on an infant who was admitted to hospital with severe neurological symptoms following passive inhalation of cannabis. To date, cannabis abuse has been described almost entirely in adolescents and adults. In early childhood, however, cannabis effects were almost exclusively discussed in the context of maternal prenatal exposure, and the…

Zarfin, Yehoshua; Yefet, Enav; Abozaid, Said; Nasser, Wael; Mor, Tamer; Finkelstein, Yoram

2012-01-01

40

In vivo measurement of neuronal dopamine transporter in tobacco and cannabis dependents subjects with positron tomography and [11C]P E 2 I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Modifications of dopamine neurotransmission are classically involved in addictive behaviors and drug reinforcement. However, to date no data are available concerning the effects of cannabis addiction on dopaminergic neurotransmission in Human. The neuronal dopamine transporter (D.A.T.) is essential for the maintenance of normal dopamine homeostasis in the brain by ensuring the re-uptake of extracellular dopamine. Therefore, observation of D.A.T. availability abnormalities in cannabis-dependents subjects could provide further evidence for the implication of dopaminergic dysfunction in this addiction. Thus, as the cannabis dependent subjects are also most of time tobacco-dependents, this work aims studying the D.A.T. availability in age-paired control, tobacco-dependent and cannabis-dependent male subjects using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Subjects are scanned on High Resolution Research Tomograph (H.R.R.T.) for one hour after injection of a selective D.A.T. radioligand ([11C]P.E. 2 I.) [1]. The binding potential (B.P.) is calculated in order to obtained the specific binding of [11C]P.E. 2 I. to the D.A.T. using the simplified reference tissue model of Lammertsma (S.R.T.M.) [2] and B.P. maps were generated according to Gunn model [3]. Comparison of mean B.P. obtained in Region Of Interest and voxel to voxel comparison of B.P. maps using S.P.M.5 were performed with M.A.N.C.O.V.A. controlled for age between control, tobacco-dependent and cannetween control, tobacco-dependent and cannabis-dependent groups. Preliminary results are concordant between both approaches and shown significant decreases of the D.A.T. availability in the both groups of addicted subjects in comparison to controls at the level of dorsal and ventral striatum and the dorsal midbrain including substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. However, no difference in D.A.T. binding between tobacco and cannabis dependents subjects was observed. These widespread modifications of D.A.T. availability in the dependents subjects might reflect a modification of dopamine neurotransmission in cannabis and/or tobacco addictions. (authors)

41

In vivo measurement of neuronal dopamine transporter in tobacco and cannabis dependents subjects with positron tomography and [{sup 11}C]P E 2 I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Modifications of dopamine neurotransmission are classically involved in addictive behaviors and drug reinforcement. However, to date no data are available concerning the effects of cannabis addiction on dopaminergic neurotransmission in Human. The neuronal dopamine transporter (D.A.T.) is essential for the maintenance of normal dopamine homeostasis in the brain by ensuring the re-uptake of extracellular dopamine. Therefore, observation of D.A.T. availability abnormalities in cannabis-dependents subjects could provide further evidence for the implication of dopaminergic dysfunction in this addiction. Thus, as the cannabis dependent subjects are also most of time tobacco-dependents, this work aims studying the D.A.T. availability in age-paired control, tobacco-dependent and cannabis-dependent male subjects using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Subjects are scanned on High Resolution Research Tomograph (H.R.R.T.) for one hour after injection of a selective D.A.T. radioligand ([{sup 11}C]P.E. 2 I.) [1]. The binding potential (B.P.) is calculated in order to obtained the specific binding of [{sup 11}C]P.E. 2 I. to the D.A.T. using the simplified reference tissue model of Lammertsma (S.R.T.M.) [2] and B.P. maps were generated according to Gunn model [3]. Comparison of mean B.P. obtained in Region Of Interest and voxel to voxel comparison of B.P. maps using S.P.M.5 were performed with M.A.N.C.O.V.A. controlled for age between control, tobacco-dependent and cannabis-dependent groups. Preliminary results are concordant between both approaches and shown significant decreases of the D.A.T. availability in the both groups of addicted subjects in comparison to controls at the level of dorsal and ventral striatum and the dorsal midbrain including substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. However, no difference in D.A.T. binding between tobacco and cannabis dependents subjects was observed. These widespread modifications of D.A.T. availability in the dependents subjects might reflect a modification of dopamine neurotransmission in cannabis and/or tobacco addictions. (authors)

Leroy, C.; Ribeiro, M.J.; Trichard, C.; Martinot, J.L. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), U797, Research Unit, Neuroimaging and Psychiatry, IFR49, 91 - Orsay (France); CEA, Neuroimaging and Psychiatry, Unit, Hospital Dept. Frederic Joliot, I2BM, 91 - Orsay (France); Ribeiro, M.J.; Comtat, C.; Dolle, F. [Hospital Dept. Frederic Joliot, Research Medical Dept., I2BM, 91 - Orsay (France); Karila, L.; Lukasiewicz, M.; Reynaud, M. [Paul Brousse Hospital, APHP, Psychiatry and Addictology Dept., 94 - Villejuif (France)

2008-02-15

42

Abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos: atualização para uma antiga evidência / Cannabis abuse in patients with psychiatric disorders: an update to old evidence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar uma atualização sobre o abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos. MÉTODO: Busca de artigos nas bases de dados eletrônicas Medline, The Cochrane Library Database, Lilacs, PubMed e SciELO, utilizando os descritores "marijuana abuse", "cannabis abuse", "psychiatri [...] c disorders" AND "mental disorders"; incluindo artigos que avaliaram ambas as exposições para abuso e dependência de cannabis e qualquer outro transtorno psiquiátrico. Foi considerado o período até dezembro de 2009. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o abuso frequente de cannabis pode aumentar o risco para o desenvolvimento de esquizofrenia e de sintomas psicóticos crônicos, embora estes achados ainda careçam de comprovação. A cannabis parece ser uma das drogas de escolha de portadores de transtorno afetivo bipolar, sendo que é descrito que estados maníacos podem ser induzidos pelo seu consumo. O abuso de maconha também frequentemente co-ocorre em indivíduos com transtornos ansiosos, sendo que a relação de cronicidade destas condições e o consumo de maconha ainda é incerta. Para depressão ainda não existem evidências claras que apontem que o consumo de cannabis ocorre como forma de automedicação. Em indivíduos com transtornos psiquiátricos, há relatos de que o uso da cannabis pode exacerbar sintomas positivos, somar efeitos negativos no curso do transtorno, contribuir para pior adesão ao tratamento e levar a maior número de hospitalizações. CONCLUSÃO: O abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos como esquizofrenia, transtornos do humor e ansiosos tem impacto negativo tanto na fase aguda quanto em fases mais avançadas destas condições, embora futuros estudos avaliando estas associações ainda sejam necessários. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To perform an update on cannabis abuse by patients with psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A search was performed in the electronic databases Medline, The Cochrane Library Database, Lilacs, PubMed, and SciELO, using the keywords 'marijuana abuse', 'cannabis abuse', 'psychiatric disorders', an [...] d 'mental disorders'. Articles published until December 2009, dealing with cannabis abuse and dependence in association with other psychiatric disorders were included. RESULTS: Cannabis abuse was found to be associated with increased risk for the onset of schizophrenia and chronic psychotic symptoms, although these findings require confirmation from additional research. Cannabis seems to be one of the drugs of choice of individuals with bipolar disorder, despite evidence that manic states can be induced by its use. Cannabis abuse also occurs frequently in individuals with anxiety disorders, but the relationship between the chronic nature of these conditions and the use of marijuana remains uncertain. In respect to depression, there is no clear evidence to date that depressive patients use cannabis as a form of self-medication. In individuals with psychiatric disorders, the use of cannabis has been associated with increased positive symptoms, additional negative symptoms in the course of illness, impaired treatment compliance, and more hospitalizations. CONCLUSION: The abuse of cannabis by patients with psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and mood and anxious disorders has a negative impact both in the acute and advanced stages of these conditions, although further investigation on this association is still necessary.

Alessandra, Diehl; Daniel Cruz, Cordeiro; Ronaldo, Laranjeira.

2010-05-01

43

Abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos: atualização para uma antiga evidência Cannabis abuse in patients with psychiatric disorders: an update to old evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar uma atualização sobre o abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos. MÉTODO: Busca de artigos nas bases de dados eletrônicas Medline, The Cochrane Library Database, Lilacs, PubMed e SciELO, utilizando os descritores "marijuana abuse", "cannabis abuse", "psychiatric disorders" AND "mental disorders"; incluindo artigos que avaliaram ambas as exposições para abuso e dependência de cannabis e qualquer outro transtorno psiquiátrico. Foi considerado o período até dezembro de 2009. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o abuso frequente de cannabis pode aumentar o risco para o desenvolvimento de esquizofrenia e de sintomas psicóticos crônicos, embora estes achados ainda careçam de comprovação. A cannabis parece ser uma das drogas de escolha de portadores de transtorno afetivo bipolar, sendo que é descrito que estados maníacos podem ser induzidos pelo seu consumo. O abuso de maconha também frequentemente co-ocorre em indivíduos com transtornos ansiosos, sendo que a relação de cronicidade destas condições e o consumo de maconha ainda é incerta. Para depressão ainda não existem evidências claras que apontem que o consumo de cannabis ocorre como forma de automedicação. Em indivíduos com transtornos psiquiátricos, há relatos de que o uso da cannabis pode exacerbar sintomas positivos, somar efeitos negativos no curso do transtorno, contribuir para pior adesão ao tratamento e levar a maior número de hospitalizações. CONCLUSÃO: O abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos como esquizofrenia, transtornos do humor e ansiosos tem impacto negativo tanto na fase aguda quanto em fases mais avançadas destas condições, embora futuros estudos avaliando estas associações ainda sejam necessários.OBJECTIVE: To perform an update on cannabis abuse by patients with psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A search was performed in the electronic databases Medline, The Cochrane Library Database, Lilacs, PubMed, and SciELO, using the keywords 'marijuana abuse', 'cannabis abuse', 'psychiatric disorders', and 'mental disorders'. Articles published until December 2009, dealing with cannabis abuse and dependence in association with other psychiatric disorders were included. RESULTS: Cannabis abuse was found to be associated with increased risk for the onset of schizophrenia and chronic psychotic symptoms, although these findings require confirmation from additional research. Cannabis seems to be one of the drugs of choice of individuals with bipolar disorder, despite evidence that manic states can be induced by its use. Cannabis abuse also occurs frequently in individuals with anxiety disorders, but the relationship between the chronic nature of these conditions and the use of marijuana remains uncertain. In respect to depression, there is no clear evidence to date that depressive patients use cannabis as a form of self-medication. In individuals with psychiatric disorders, the use of cannabis has been associated with increased positive symptoms, additional negative symptoms in the course of illness, impaired treatment compliance, and more hospitalizations. CONCLUSION: The abuse of cannabis by patients with psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and mood and anxious disorders has a negative impact both in the acute and advanced stages of these conditions, although further investigation on this association is still necessary.

Alessandra Diehl

2010-05-01

44

Two Sides of the Same Coin: Cannabis Dependence and Mental Health Problems in Help-Seeking Adolescent and Young Adult Outpatients  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the current study was to delineate the psychiatric profile of cannabis dependent young people (14-29 years old) with mental health problems (N = 36) seeking treatment via a research study. To do so, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Diagnoses were…

Norberg, Melissa M.; Battisti, Robert A.; Copeland, Jan; Hermens, Daniel F.; Hickie, Ian B.

2012-01-01

45

Cannabis abuse in patients with schizophrenia pattern and effects on symptomatology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the relationship between cannabis abuse and its impact on the short-term outcome and severity of illness. ICD-10 criteria were used for diagnosis of schizophrenia. Severity and type of schizophrenic symptoms were assessed with the help of PANSS. Cases were identified as having problem with cannabis use with the help of section 12 of Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) W.H.O. 1994. Amount, duration and frequency of cannabis use was also noted. Patients with cannabis use were younger had shorter duration of illness and earlier age at onset of illness. They exhibited more positive symptoms. A total of 20% cases met ICD-10 criteria of harmful use of cannabinoid, 76% met ICD-10 criteria of cannabinoid dependence syndrome. Schizophrenic patients with comorbid cannabis abuse exhibited more positive symptoms and violent behavior, and may be more likely to lead to dependence in persons with schizophrenia. This has implication for service development to meet the perceived needs of this group. (author)

46

Successful and unsuccessful cannabis quitters: Comparing group characteristics and quitting strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve treatments for cannabis use disorder, a better understanding of factors associated with successful quitting is required. Method This study examined differences between successful (n = 87 and unsuccessful (n = 78 cannabis quitters. Participants completed a questionnaire addressing demographic, mental health, and cannabis-related variables, as well as quitting strategies during their most recent quit attempt. Results Eighteen strategies derived from cognitive behavioral therapy were entered into a principal components analysis. The analysis yielded four components, representing (1 Stimulus Removal, (2 Motivation Enhancement, (3 (lack of Distraction, and (4 (lack of Coping. Between groups comparisons showed that unsuccessful quitters scored significantly higher on Motivation Enhancement and (lack of Coping. This may indicate that unsuccessful quitters focus on the desire to quit, but do not sufficiently plan strategies for coping. Unsuccessful quitters also had significantly more symptoms of depression and stress; less education; lower exposure to formal treatment; higher day-to-day exposure to other cannabis users; and higher cannabis dependence scores. Conclusions The findings suggest that coping, environmental modification, and co-morbid mental health problems may be important factors to emphasize in treatments for cannabis use disorder.

Rooke Sally E

2011-11-01

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Polysubstance use in cannabis users referred for treatment: Drug use profiles, psychiatric comorbidity and cannabis-related beliefs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Conclusion: In a sample of cannabis users referred for treatment, wide-ranging substance use was associated with elevated risk on measures of cannabis dependence, comorbid psychopathology and dysfunctional cannabis cognitions. These findings have implications for cognitive-behavioural assessment and treatment.

JasonPaulConnor

2013-08-01

48

The intersection between cannabis and cancer in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last 15 years there has been a major shift in the laws governing medical use of cannabis in the United States. Corresponding with this change there has been escalating interest in the role that cannabis, commonly referred to as marijuana, and cannabinoids play in the care of patients with cancer. This review will examine cannabis' and cannabinoids' current and potential roles in cancer care. Specifically, we will examine five areas of cannabis medicine: (1) pharmacologic properties of cannabis; (2) its potential role in the development of human cancers, particularly smoking-related malignancies; (3) cannabinoids' potential as anti-cancer therapies; (4) cannabis and cannabinoids in the palliation of common cancer-associated symptoms; (5) current legal status of cannabis for medical purposes in the United States. PMID:22019199

Bowles, Daniel W; O'Bryant, Cindy L; Camidge, D Ross; Jimeno, Antonio

2012-07-01

49

Applying a Social Determinants of Health Perspective to Early Adolescent Cannabis Use--An Overview  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world. Although the risk of problematic cannabis use is relatively low, the lifetime prevalence of dependence is greater than for all other illicit drugs. As such, the population burden of problematic cannabis use warrants attention. Many health and psychosocial risks associated with cannabis

Hyshka, Elaine

2013-01-01

50

Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug  

OpenAIRE

A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis) component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxi...

Zuardi A.W.; Crippa J.A.S.; Hallak J.E.C.; Moreira F.A.; Guimarães F.S.

2006-01-01

51

Alteration to hippocampal shape in cannabis users with and without schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abnormalities in hippocampal morphology are characteristic of schizophrenia and have also been reported in chronic cannabis users. There is a paucity of research investigating potential additive effects of cannabis use on brain pathology associated with schizophrenia. In this study, we performed hippocampal shape analysis in cannabis-using and non-using patients with schizophrenia, healthy cannabis users and healthy non-using controls. Hippocampal shape changes were observed in each group relative to controls, with the greatest degree of alterations (i.e., deflations across the hippocampus, and with an anterior predisposition), in cannabis-using schizophrenia patients. These alterations were associated with cannabis use patterns and psychotic symptoms. PMID:23201308

Solowij, Nadia; Walterfang, Mark; Lubman, Dan I; Whittle, Sarah; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Styner, Martin; Velakoulis, Dennis; Pantelis, Christos; Yücel, Murat

2013-01-01

52

Neurobiologia da Cannabis: do sistema endocanabinoide aos transtornos por uso de Cannabis / Neurobiology of Cannabis: from the endocannabinoid system to cannabis-related disorders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Diante das lacunas na efetividade das terapêuticas para transtornos por uso de Cannabis, a droga ilícita mais consumida no mundo, este trabalho propõe-se a rever os conhecimentos sobre o substrato neuroanatômico, biomolecular e celular do sistema endocanabinoide, descrever os mecanismos d [...] e neuroplasticidade dependente dos canabinoides e relacioná-los com a neurobiologia dos transtornos por uso de Cannabis (abuso e dependência). MÉTODOS: Recorreu-se às bases de dados Medline, Scopus e ISI Web of Knowledge; as palavras-chave pesquisadas foram "Cannabis", "neurobiology", "endocannabinoid system", "endocannabinoids", "receptors, cannabinoid", "neuronal plasticity", "long-term synaptic depression", "long-term potentiation", "marijuana abuse" e "tetrahydrocannabinol". Foram incluídos 80 trabalhos nesta revisão. DISCUSSÃO: A distribuição neuroanatômica, celular e biomolecular do sistema endocanabinoide adequa-se perfeitamente às suas funções de neuromodulação (via neuroplasticidade e metaplasticidade), nomeadamente em vias relacionadas aos transtornos por uso de substâncias. Os canabinoides exógenos perturbam essas funções. CONCLUSÃO: O sistema endocanabinoide contribui para a definição de setpoints em diversas vias neuronais, incluindo vias cruciais na instalação de transtornos por uso de substâncias; com o uso de Cannabis, esses setpoints tornar-se-ão mais permissivos, facilitando os transtornos por uso de Cannabis. Os avanços no entendimento da neurobiologia da Cannabis abrem uma janela de oportunidades para novas estratégias terapêuticas nos transtornos por uso de Cannabis. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Given the challenges arising from the poor effectiveness of therapies for Cannabis-related disorders, the most commonly used illicit drug in the world, this paper aims to review the present knowledge about the neuroanatomic, biomolecular and cellular substrate of the endocannabinoid syst [...] em, describing the mechanisms of cannabinoid-dependent neuronal plasticity and relating them with the neurobiology of Cannabis-related disorders (abuse and dependence). METHODS: Medline, Scopus and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched for the keywords "Cannabis", "neurobiology", "endocannabinoid system", "endocannabinoids", "receptors, cannabinoid", "neuronal plasticity", "long-term synaptic depression", "long-term potentiation", "marijuana abuse" and "tetrahydrocannabinol". Eighty studies were included in this review. DISCUSSION: The neuroanatomical, cellular and biomolecular characterization of the endocannabinoid system serves perfectly its neuromodulatory neuroplastic and metaplastic functions, particularly in pathways related to substance-related disorders. Exogenous cannabinoids disrupt these functions. CONCLUSION: The endocannabinoid system contributes to the definition of setpoints in several neuronal pathways, including pathways critical for the development of substance-related disorders; with Cannabis use these setpoints become more permissive, facilitating Cannabis-related disorders. The advances in understanding the neurobiology of Cannabis open a window of opportunities for new therapeutic strategies in Cannabis-related disorders.

José Luis G. Pinho, Costa; Lucas O., Maia; P., Orlandi-Mattos; João C., Villares; Manuel A. Fernandez, Esteves.

53

Cannabis and Breastfeeding  

OpenAIRE

Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breastfeeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 TetraHydroCannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at ...

Serreau, Rapha Amp L.; Sylvie Aubry; Valérie Fauroux; Ammar Amirouche; Virginie Rigourd; Aurélia Garry

2009-01-01

54

Alcohol and Relatively Pure Cannabis Use, but Not Schizotypy, are Associated with Cognitive Attenuations  

OpenAIRE

Elevated schizotypy relates to similar cognitive attenuations as seen in psychosis and cannabis/polydrug use. Also, in schizotypal populations cannabis and polydrug (including licit drug) use are enhanced. These cognitive attenuations may therefore either be a behavioral marker of psychotic (-like) symptoms or the consequence of enhanced drug use in schizotypal populations. To elucidate this, we investigated the link between cognitive attenuation and cannabis use in largely pure cannabis user...

Herzig, Daniela A.; Nutt, David J.; Mohr, Christine

2014-01-01

55

Altered architecture and functional consequences of the mesolimbic dopamine system in cannabis dependence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabinoid withdrawal produces a hypofunction of mesencephalic dopamine neurons that impinge upon medium spiny neurons (MSN) of the forebrain. After chronic treatment with two structurally different cannabinoid agonists, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and CP55 940 (CP) rats were withdrawn spontaneously and pharmacologically with the CB1 antagonist SR141716A (SR). In these two conditions, evaluation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons revealed significant morphometrical reductions in the ventrotegmental area but not substantia nigra pars compacta of withdrawn rats. Similarly, confocal analysis of Golgi-Cox-stained sections of the nucleus accumbens revealed a decrease in the shell, but not the core, of the spines' density of withdrawn rats. Administration of the CB1 antagonist SR to control rats, provoked structural abnormalities reminiscent of those observed in withdrawal conditions and support the regulatory role of cannabinoids in neurogenesis, axonal growth and synaptogenesis by acting as eu-proliferative signals through the CB1 receptors. Further, these measures were incorporated into a realistic computational model that predicts a strong reduction in the excitability of morphologically altered MSN, yielding a significant reduction in action potential output. These pieces of evidence support the tenet that withdrawal from addictive compounds alters functioning of the mesolimbic system and provide direct morphological evidence for functional abnormalities associated with cannabinoid dependence at the level of dopaminergic neurons and their postsynaptic counterpart and are coherent with recent hypothesis underscoring a hypodopaminergic state as a distinctive feature of the 'addicted brain'. PMID:20477755

Spiga, Saturnino; Lintas, Alessandra; Migliore, Michele; Diana, Marco

2010-07-01

56

Variability of cannabis potency in the Venice area (Italy): a survey over the period 2010-2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance globally, with an estimated annual prevalence in 2010 of 2.6-5.0% of the adult population. Concerns have been expressed about increases in the potency of cannabis products. A high tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content can increase anxiety, depression, and psychotic symptoms, and can increase the risk of dependence and adverse effects on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems in regular users. The aim of this study was to report statistical data about the potency of cannabis products seized in the north-east of Italy, in a geographical area centred in Venice and extending for more than 10,000? km(2) with a population of more than two million, by investigating the variability observed in THC levels of about 4000 samples of cannabis products analyzed over the period 2010-2012. Overall median THC content showed an increasing trend over the study period from about 6.0% to 8.1% (6.2-8.9% for cannabis resin, 5.1-7.6% for herbal cannabis). The variation in the THC content of individual samples was very large, ranging from 0.3% to 31% for cannabis resin and from 0.1 to 19% for herbal cannabis. Median CBN:THC ratios showed a slightly decreasing trend over the study period, from 0.09 (2010) to 0.03 (2012), suggesting an increasing freshness of submitted materials. Median CBD:THC ratios also showed a decreasing trend over the study from about 0.52 (2010) to 0.18 (2012), likely due to the increase in submissions of materials from indoor and domestic cultivation with improved breeding methods. PMID:23868754

Zamengo, Luca; Frison, Giampietro; Bettin, Chiara; Sciarrone, Rocco

2014-01-01

57

[Epidemiological news in cannabis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis is by far the most common illicit drug in France. Among 15-64 years, 32.1% have already experienced it and 8.4% declare they have used it at least once during the past twelve months. In Europe, France is one of the countries with the highest prevalence. Males are markedly more often cannabis users than females and this gender gap tends to increase with the level of use. During the last two decades, the part of the population having tried cannabis did not stop increasing, under the influence of a generalization of the cannabis experience among young people. However, cannabis last year prevalence is rather stable since 2000. Cannabis lifetime use is very rare at the beginning of middle school (1.5% in sixth grade at age 11) but increases in the following years (11% of the pupils of the eighth grade, 24% of the pupils of the ninth grade). Cannabis use at a younger age is related to subsequent onset of cannabis related problems. Adolescent and young adults from high socioeconomic status (SES) more often try cannabis than young people from lower SES. However, cannabis regular use is associated with bad school results, truancy and early school leaving, and with a lower SES. Young people from high SES indeed dispose of greater sociocultural resources to master and regulate their consumption and are more often conscious of their interest not to be tipped over in problematic use. PMID:24579342

Beck, François; Guignard, Romain; Richard, Jean-Baptiste

2013-12-01

58

Cannabis e humor Cannabis and mood  

OpenAIRE

OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações entre o uso agudo e crônico de cannabis e alterações do humor. MÉTODO: Os artigos foram selecionados por meio de busca eletrônica no indexador PubMed. Capítulos de livros e as listas de referências dos artigos selecionados também foram revisados. RESULTADOS: Observam-se elevados índices de comorbidade entre abuso/dependência de cannabis e transtornos afetivos em estudos transversais e em amostras clínicas. Estudos longitudinais indicam que, em longo ...

Rafael Faria Sanches; João Mazzoncini de Azevedo Marques

2010-01-01

59

Two cases of "cannabis acute psychosis" following the administration of oral cannabis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal drug and its therapeutic aspects have a growing interest. Short-term psychotic reactions have been described but not clearly with synthetic oral THC, especially in occasional users. Case presentations We report two cases of healthy subjects who were occasional but regular cannabis users without psychiatric history who developed transient psychotic symptoms (depersonalization, paranoid feelings and derealisation following oral administration of cannabis. In contrast to most other case reports where circumstances and blood concentrations are unknown, the two cases reported here happened under experimental conditions with all subjects negative for cannabis, opiates, amphetamines, cocaine, benzodiazepines and alcohol, and therefore the ingested dose, the time-events of effects on behavior and performance as well as the cannabinoid blood levels were documented. Conclusion While the oral route of administration achieves only limited blood concentrations, significant psychotic reactions may occur.

Pin Marie

2005-04-01

60

Chemistry, Metabolism, and Toxicology of Cannabis: Clinical Implications  

OpenAIRE

Cannabis is one of the most widely abused substances throughout the world. The primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9_THC), produces a myriad of pharmacological effects in animals and humans. Although it is used as a recreational drug, it can potentially lead to dependence and behavioral disturbances and its heavy use may increase the risk for psychotic disorders.Many studies that endeavor to understand the mechanism of action of cannabis concentrate o...

Srinivas Bharath, M. M.; Pratima Murthy; Priyamvada Sharma

2012-01-01

61

Determination of pesticide residues in cannabis smoke.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks. PMID:23737769

Sullivan, Nicholas; Elzinga, Sytze; Raber, Jeffrey C

2013-01-01

62

Effectiveness of propranolol for cocaine dependence treatment may depend on cocaine withdrawal symptom severity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Propranolol may reduce symptoms of autonomic arousal associated with early cocaine abstinence and improve treatment outcome. This trial was an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of propranolol in 108 cocaine dependent subjects. The primary outcome measure was quantitative urinary benzoylecgonine levels. Secondary outcome measures included treatment retention, addiction severity index results, cocaine craving, mood and anxiety symptoms, cocaine withdrawal symptoms, and adverse events. Propranolol treated subjects had lower cocaine withdrawal symptom severity but otherwise did not differ from placebo treated subjects in any outcome measure. However, in a secondary, exploratory analysis, subjects with more severe cocaine withdrawal symptoms responded better to propranolol in comparison to placebo. In these subjects, propranolol treatment was associated with better treatment retention and lower urinary benzoylecgonine levels as compared with the placebo treatment. Propranolol may be useful only for the treatment of cocaine dependent patients with severe cocaine withdrawal symptoms. PMID:11297832

Kampman, K M; Volpicelli, J R; Mulvaney, F; Alterman, A I; Cornish, J; Gariti, P; Cnaan, A; Poole, S; Muller, E; Acosta, T; Luce, D; O'Brien, C

2001-06-01

63

New insights into cannabis consumption; abuses and possible therapeutic effects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cannabis is one of the oldest psychotropic drugs known to humanity. The paper assesses the current knowledge on the cannabis, including the mechanisms of action and the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids. Three varieties of Cannabis plant are recognised: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. The variety indica is used predominantly to obtain the drugs. Cannabis herb is usually named marijuana, while the cannabis oleoresin secreted by the glandular hairs found mainly on the flowering or fruiting tops of the plant is known as hashish. More than 400 known chemicals are present in cannabis, at least 70 of which are called cannabinoids. The major psychoactive constituent in cannabis is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC. It is now recognized that there are three types of cannabinoids: natural (phytocannabinoids, endogenous cannabinoids, and synthetic cannabioids. Cannabinoids exert their actions by binding to specific membrane protein, the cannabinoid receptor. To date, two subtypes of cannabinoid receptors, named cannabinoid-1 (CB1, most abundantly expressed in the central nervous system and cannabinoid-2 (CB2 receptors, found predominantly in peripheral tissues with immune functions have been cloned. Therefore, the concept of endogenous cannabinoid system (endocannabinoid system, SEC has been developed. Based on the current scientific evidence, there are several effects of cannabinoids with potential therapeutic use: antiemetic, analgesic in cancerous pains, and chronic neuropathic pain, in multiple sclerosis or spinal cord injuries. Cannabis consume can result in a state of drug dependency and cannabis withdrawal has been included in DSM-V. Cannabis plant remains controversial in the twenty-first century and the potential therapeutic of specific cannabinoid compounds and medical marijuana remains under active medical research.

Daniela Luiza Baconi

2014-10-01

64

Cannabis and psychosis/schizophrenia: human studies  

OpenAIRE

The association between cannabis use and psychosis has long been recognized. Recent advances in knowledge about cannabinoid receptor function have renewed interest in this association. Converging lines of evidence suggest that cannabinoids can produce a full range of transient schizophrenia-like positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms in some healthy individuals. Also clear is that in individuals with an established psychotic disorder, cannabinoids can exacerbate symptoms, trigger relapse,...

D’souza, Deepak Cyril; Sewell, Richard Andrew; Ranganathan, Mohini

2009-01-01

65

Can cannabis cause psychosis?  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, increasing popular support for the medicinal and recreational use of cannabis has led to legalization for both medicinal and recreational purposes in the United States. To the extent that these changes in policy lead to increase widespread use, it is important to consider the association between heavy chronic cannabis use and the onset of psychotic illnesses, such as schizophrenia. This article provides a brief review of evidence that support cannabis use as a risk factor in the complex etiology of psychotic illness. In addition to reviewing psychopharmacology, longitudinal research, and clinical studies, the article addresses the potential implications of current research on public health policy. PMID:25768856

Michaels, Timothy I; Novakovic, Vladan

2015-01-01

66

The Relationship between Bipolar Disorder and Cannabis Use in Daily Life: An Experience Sampling Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives Although cannabis use is common in bipolar disorder and may contribute to worse clinical outcomes, little is understood about the relationship between this drug and bipolar disorder over the course of daily life. The aim of study was to examine the effect of cannabis on affect and bipolar symptoms in a group of individuals with bipolar disorder. Methods Twenty-four participants with bipolar disorder type I or type II completed diaries for 6 days using Experience Sampling Methodology to investigate the temporal associations between cannabis, affect and bipolar disorder symptoms. Results The results indicated that higher levels of positive affect increase the odds of using cannabis (OR:1.25 ,CI:1.06–1.47, P=0.008). However, neither negative affect, manic nor depressive symptoms predicted the use of cannabis. Cannabis use was associated with subsequent increases in positive affect (?=0.35, CI:0.20-0.51, P=0.000), manic symptoms (?=0.20,CI:0.05-0.34, P=0.009) and depressive symptoms (?= 0.17,CI:0.04-0.29, P=0.008). Conclusion The findings indicate that cannabis use is associated with a number of subsequent psychological effects. However there was no evidence that individuals with BD were using cannabis to self-medicate minor fluctuations in negative affect or bipolar disorder symptoms over the course of daily life. The findings in relation to existing literature and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25738578

Tyler, Elizabeth; Jones, Steven; Black, Nancy; Carter, Lesley-Anne; Barrowclough, Christine

2015-01-01

67

Cannabis Use When it's Legal  

OpenAIRE

This paper uses information about prime age individuals living in Amsterdam, to study whether the use of alcohol, or tobacco stimulates the use cannabis, i.e. whether alcohol or cannabis are stepping stones for cannabis.The special element of the study is that it concerns the use in an environment where not only alcohol and tobacco but also cannabis is a legal drug.It turns out that alcohol and cannabis are intertemporal substitutes while tobacco and cannabis are intertemporal complements.Onl...

Ours, J. C.

2005-01-01

68

Cannabidiol inhibits THC-elicited paranoid symptoms and hippocampal-dependent memory impairment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-based studies suggest that cannabis products that are high in ??-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but low in cannabidiol (CBD) are particularly hazardous for mental health. Laboratory-based studies are ideal for clarifying this issue because THC and CBD can be administered in pure form, under controlled conditions. In a between-subjects design, we tested the hypothesis that pre-treatment with CBD inhibited THC-elicited psychosis and cognitive impairment. Healthy participants were randomised to receive oral CBD 600 mg (n=22) or placebo (n=26), 210 min ahead of intravenous (IV) THC (1.5 mg). Post-THC, there were lower PANSS positive scores in the CBD group, but this did not reach statistical significance. However, clinically significant positive psychotic symptoms (defined a priori as increases ? 3 points) were less likely in the CBD group compared with the placebo group, odds ratio (OR)=0.22 (?²=4.74, pTHC paranoia, as rated with the State Social Paranoia Scale (SSPS), was less in the CBD group compared with the placebo group (t=2.28, pTHC/low-CBD cannabis products are associated with increased risks for mental health. PMID:23042808

Englund, Amir; Morrison, Paul D; Nottage, Judith; Hague, Dominic; Kane, Fergus; Bonaccorso, Stefania; Stone, James M; Reichenberg, Avi; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Holt, David; Feilding, Amanda; Walker, Lucy; Murray, Robin M; Kapur, Shitij

2013-01-01

69

Cannabis og graviditet.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In two Copenhagen University hospitals 12,885 pregnant women, seen during the period 1.8.1992 to 30.04.1995, answered questionnaires regarding consumption of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other drugs. The prevalence of cannabis use was 0.8%. Women using cannabis but no other illicit drugs were each retrospectively matched with four randomly chosen pregnant women in the same period and the same age group and with same parity. Eighty-four cannabis users were included. These women were socioeconomically disadvantaged and had a higher prevalence of present and past use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. No significant difference in pregnancy, delivery or puerperal outcome was found. Children of women using cannabis were 150 g lighter, 1.2 cm shorter and had 0.2 cm smaller head circumference than the control infants. Controlling for the child's sex and maternal use of alcohol did not eliminate the significant differences in birthweight and length; however, they were eliminated by controlling for maternal tobacco smoking. It is concluded, that the use of cannabis is not a major prognostic factor regarding the outcome of pregnancy, but is an indicator of low socioeconomic status and use of other substances.

Balle, J; Olofsson, May Jonna

1999-01-01

70

Residual cannabis levels in blood, urine and oral fluid following heavy cannabis use.  

Science.gov (United States)

An understanding of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) kinetics and residual levels after cannabis use is essential in interpreting toxicology tests in body fluids from live subjects, particularly when used in forensic settings for drug abuse, traffic and interpersonal violence cases. However the current literature is largely based on laboratory studies using controlled cannabis dosages in experienced users, with limited research investigating the kinetics of residual THC concentrations in regular high dose cannabis users. Twenty-one dependent cannabis users were recruited at admission to two residential detoxification units in Melbourne, Australia. After being provided with information about, and consenting to, the study, subjects volunteered to provide once-daily blood, urine and oral fluid (saliva) samples for seven consecutive days following admission, involving cessation and abstinence from all cannabis use. Blood and oral fluid specimens were analysed for THC and urine specimens for the metabolite THC-COOH. In some subjects THC was detectable in blood for at least 7 days and oral fluid specimens were positive for THC up to 78h after admission to the unit. Urinary THC-COOH concentrations exceeded 1000ng/mL for some subjects 129h after last use. The presented blood THC levels are higher and persist longer in some individuals than previously described, our understanding and interpretation of THC levels in long term heavy cannabis users may need to be reconsidered. PMID:25698515

Odell, Morris S; Frei, Matthew Y; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Chu, Mark; Lubman, Dan I

2015-04-01

71

Alcohol and Relatively Pure Cannabis Use, but Not Schizotypy, are Associated with Cognitive Attenuations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elevated schizotypy relates to similar cognitive attenuations as seen in psychosis and cannabis/polydrug use. Also, in schizotypal populations cannabis and polydrug (including licit drug) use are enhanced. These cognitive attenuations may therefore either be a behavioral marker of psychotic (-like) symptoms or the consequence of enhanced drug use in schizotypal populations. To elucidate this, we investigated the link between cognitive attenuation and cannabis use in largely pure cannabis users (35) and non-using controls (48), accounting for the potential additional influence of both schizotypy and licit drug use (alcohol, nicotine). Cognitive attenuations commonly seen in psychosis were associated with cannabis and alcohol use, but not schizotypy. Future studies should therefore consider (i) non-excessive licit substance use (e.g., alcohol) in studies investigating the effect of cannabis use on cognition and (ii) both enhanced illicit and licit substance use in studies investigating cognition in schizotypal populations. PMID:25324787

Herzig, Daniela A; Nutt, David J; Mohr, Christine

2014-01-01

72

Motivational enhancement of cognitive control depends on depressive symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Performance feedback can motivate improvements in executive function (Ravizza, Goudreau, Delgado, & Ruiz, 2012). The present study examines whether the enhancement of task switching with performance feedback is modulated by the level of depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms have been linked to deficits in processing affective information inherent to such feedback (Henriques, Glowacki, & Davidson, 1994; Pizzagalli, Jahn, & O'Shea, 2005). Task switching speed was assessed when performance feedback about accuracy was present or absent in a group of participants with minimal to moderate levels of depression. A significant positive correlation was observed between depressive symptoms and feedback effects on executive function indicating that those with lower depressive symptoms were more likely to show improvements in switching speed when performance feedback was present. These results suggest a novel link between executive function deficits and depression symptoms; namely, that greater levels of depressive symptoms are linked to diminished executive functioning via deficits in processing the affective component of performance feedback. PMID:24866522

Ravizza, Susan M; Delgado, Mauricio R

2014-08-01

73

Abuso e dependência de maconha: comparação entre sexos e preparação para mudanças comportamentais entre usuários que iniciam a busca por tratamento Cannabis abuse and dependency: differences between men and women and readiness to behavior change among users seeking treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever o perfil sociodemográfico de usuários de maconha que iniciam tratamento e comparar os sexos dos indivíduos em relação aos estágios de prontidão para mudança e uso associado de outras drogas. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal descritivo, com amostra não probabilística de indivíduos que ligaram para um teleatendimento especializado em dependência química. RESULTADOS: A amostra se constituiu de 72% de indivíduos do sexo masculino na faixa etária de 12 a 25 anos. Um percentual de 85,5% fazia uso associado de outras drogas. O estágio motivacional predominante foi de ação (56%, sem diferenças entre sexos (p = 0,4. Os homens mais frequentemente procuraram auxílio para o tratamento do uso de maconha. CONCLUSÕES: Com base nesses dados, foi possível delinear o perfil dos usuários de maconha para auxiliar no direcionamento de informações e atendimento adequado.OBJECTIVES: To describe the social and demographic profile of cannabis users seeking treatment and to compare differences between sex in relation to readiness to behavior change and in relation to associated use of marijuana and other drugs. METHOD: A cross-sectional, descriptive study including a nonprobability sample of individuals who called a chemical dependency hotline. RESULTS: The sample comprised 72% male individuals aged between 12 and 25 years. The sample was composed by 85.5% used other drugs in association with cannabis. The action stage was the most frequent stage of readiness to behavior change observed, in 56% of the callers, with no differences between sex (p = 0.4. Men more frequently sought treatment for the use of cannabis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings allowed delineating a profile of cannabis users, so as to better guide the provision of adequate information and treatment services.

Simone Fernandes

2010-01-01

74

Cannabis Responsive Head Injury Induced Mutiple Disabilities: A Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years cannabinoids and their derivatives have drawn renewed attention because of their diverse pharmacologic activities. We report here one such case, where all types of medical & psychiatric treatment failed to improve the symptoms; however cannabis use was able to bring back this patient to normal productive & meaningful life. The patient was a 47 year old left handed Caucasian had minor subdural hematoma at the posterior vertex and a minor focal subarachnoid haemorrhage following a physical assault. His impairments included cognitive slowing with decreased short term memory, organized skill & language deficit. His physical disabilities included spastic gait (hemiplegic, VII nerve palsy, mild cerebellar dysfunction, blurred vision and easy fatigue. He was unable to return to work or drive. In addition to cognitive deficit, right hemi paresis & dizziness; he had symptoms of anxiety & depression. Cannabis improved his gait and brought back lots of his memory. Within 6 months all his symptoms abated with use of cannabis and he started to look at cannabis as a real medicine. Slowly he also had improvement in cognitive functions, memory, vocabulary and his gait became increasingly better day by day with continued use of cannabis.

Manju Sharma

2012-01-01

75

Is the clinical use of cannabis by oncology patients advisable?  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of the cannabis plant for various medical indications by cancer patients has been rising significantly in the past few years in several European countries, the US and Israel. The increase in use comes from public demand for the most part, and not due to a scientific basis. Cannabis chemistry is complex, and the isolation and extraction of the active ingredient remain difficult. The active agent in cannabis is unique among psychoactive plant materials, as it contains no nitrogen and, thus, is not an alkaloid. Alongside inconclusive evidence of increased risks of lung and head and neck cancers from prolonged smoking of the plant produce, laboratory evidence of the anti-cancer effects of plant components exists, but with no clinical research in this direction. The beneficial effects of treatment with the plant, or treatment with medicine produced from its components, are related to symptoms of the disease: pain, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite and weight loss. The clinical evidence of the efficacy of cannabis for these indications is only partial. However, recent scientific data from studies with THC and cannabidiol combinations report the first clinical indication of cancer-related pain relief. The difficulties of performing research into products that are not medicinal, such as cannabis, have not allowed a true study of the cannabis plant extract although, from the public point of view, such studies are greatly desirable. PMID:24606496

Bar-Sela, Gil; Avisar, Adva; Batash, Ron; Schaffer, Moshe

2014-06-01

76

Adolescent Cannabis Use, Psychosis and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Genotype in African Americans and Caucasians  

OpenAIRE

Cannabis has been reported as a likely risk factor for the development of psychosis, and a gene × environment interaction with the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has been proposed. Moreover, COMT has been separately linked to affective symptoms in psychosis. Despite a high rate of cannabis abuse and affective symptoms in African Americans, no studies exploring a relationship between COMT and psychosis in this group have been reported. An existing database of psychotic patients with...

Kantrowitz, Joshua T.; Nolan, Karen A.; Sen, Srijan; Simen, Arthur A.; Lachman, Herbert M.; Bowers, Malcolm B.

2009-01-01

77

Correlates to the variable effects of cannabis in young adults: a preliminary study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis use can frequently have adverse affects in those that use it and these can be amplified by various characteristics of an individual, from demographic and environmental variations to familial predisposition for mental illnesses. Methods The current study of 100 individuals, who were cannabis users during their adolescence and may still be users, was a survey of the self perceived effects of cannabis and their correlates. A reliable family member was also interviewed for determination of family history of various major mental illnesses and substance use. Results As many as 40% of cannabis users had paranoid feelings (suspiciousness when using cannabis, although the most frequent effect was feeling relaxed (46%. Having a familial background for mental illnesses such as depression or schizophrenia did not determine the effects of cannabis nor its pattern of use, although the number of subjects with such a history was small. An age at which an individual began using cannabis did have an effect on how heavily it was used and the heavier the cannabis use, the more likely the individual was also to have had psychotic symptoms after use. There were no sex differences in effects of cannabis. These results are tempered by the reliance on self-report for many of the variables ascertained. Conclusion Cannabis can frequently have negative effects in its users, which can be amplified by certain demographic and/or psychosocial factors. Thus, users with a specific profile may be at a higher risk of unpleasant effects from cannabis use and caution should be noted when cannabis is administered to young people for medicinal purposes.

Camera Ariella A

2012-03-01

78

Clinical service desires of medical cannabis patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical cannabis dispensaries following the social or hybrid model offer supplementary holistic services in addition to dispensing medical cannabis. Historically, alternative physical health services have been the norm for these dispensaries, including services such as yoga, acupuncture, or chiropractor visits. A clinical service dearth remains for medical cannabis patients seeking substance use, misuse, dependence, and mental health services. This study examined patient desires for various clinical services and level of willingness to participate in specific clinical services. Methods Anonymous survey data (N = 303 were collected at Harborside Health Center (HHC, a medical cannabis dispensary in Oakland, CA. The sample was 70% male, 48% Caucasian and 21% African American. The mean male age was 38 years old and female mean age was 30. Sixty two percent of the male participants and 44% of the female participants are single. Sixteen percent of the population reported having a domestic partner. Forty six percent of the participants are employed full time, 41% have completed at least some college, and 49% make less than $40,000 a year. Results A significant portion of the sample, 62%, indicated a desire to participate in free clinical services at HHC, 34% would like more information about substances and use, and 41% want to learn more about reducing harms from substance use. About one quarter of the participants marked "would" or "likely would" participate in individual services such as consultation. Approximately 20% indicated "would" or "likely would" participate in psycho-educational forums, harm reduction information sharing sessions, online support groups, and coping, life, and social skills group. There was little interest in traditional NA/AA 12-step groups or adapted 12-step groups. Conclusions Desired clinical services can be qualified as a combination of harm reduction, educational, skills-based, peer support and therapeutic individual and group services. Results suggest that medical cannabis patients seek more information about various substances, including cannabis. Dispensaries can help to decrease gaps in substance education and clinical services and fulfill unmet clinical desires. More research is necessary in additional medical cannabis dispensaries in different geographic settings with different service delivery models.

Janichek Jennifer L

2012-03-01

79

Cannabidiol Attenuates the Appetitive Effects of ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Humans Smoking Their Chosen Cannabis  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Worldwide cannabis dependence is increasing, as is the concentration of the ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in street cannabis. At the same time, the concentration of the second most abundant cannabinoid in street cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), is decreasing. These two cannabinoids have opposing effects both pharmacologically and behaviourally when administered in the laboratory. No research has yet examined how the ratio of these constituents impacts upon the appetitive/rein...

Morgan, Celia Janet Ann; Freeman, Tom P.; Schafer, Gra?inne L.; Curran, Helen Valerie

2010-01-01

80

Chemistry, Metabolism, and Toxicology of Cannabis: Clinical Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cannabis is one of the most widely abused substances throughout the world. The primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9_THC, produces a myriad of pharmacological effects in animals and humans. Although it is used as a recreational drug, it can potentially lead to dependence and behavioral disturbances and its heavy use may increase the risk for psychotic disorders.Many studies that endeavor to understand the mechanism of action of cannabis concentrate on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids in humans. However, there is limited research on the chronic adverse effects and retention of cannabinoids in human subjects.Cannabis can be detected in body fluids following exposure through active/passive inhalation and exposure through breastfeeding. Cannabis detection is directly dependent on accurate analytical procedures for detection of metabolites and verification of recent use.In this review, an attempt has been made to summarize the properties of cannabis and its derivatives, and to discuss the implications of its use with emphasis on bioavailability, limit of detection, carry over period and passive inhalation, important factors for detection and diagnosis.

M.M. Srinivas Bharath

2012-12-01

81

Chemistry, metabolism, and toxicology of cannabis: clinical implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis is one of the most widely abused substances throughout the world. The primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?(9_)THC), produces a myriad of pharmacological effects in animals and humans. Although it is used as a recreational drug, it can potentially lead to dependence and behavioral disturbances and its heavy use may increase the risk for psychotic disorders.Many studies that endeavor to understand the mechanism of action of cannabis concentrate on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids in humans. However, there is limited research on the chronic adverse effects and retention of cannabinoids in human subjects.Cannabis can be detected in body fluids following exposure through active/passive inhalation and exposure through breastfeeding. Cannabis detection is directly dependent on accurate analytical procedures for detection of metabolites and verification of recent use.In this review, an attempt has been made to summarize the properties of cannabis and its derivatives, and to discuss the implications of its use with emphasis on bioavailability, limit of detection, carry over period and passive inhalation, important factors for detection and diagnosis. PMID:23408483

Sharma, Priyamvada; Murthy, Pratima; Bharath, M M Srinivas

2012-01-01

82

When Cannabis Is Available and Visible at School--A Multilevel Analysis of Students' Cannabis Use  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims: To investigate the links between the visibility of cannabis use in school (measured by teachers' reports of students being under the influence of cannabis on school premises), the proportion of cannabis users in the class, perceived availability of cannabis, as well as adolescent cannabis use. Methods: A multilevel regression model was…

Kuntsche, Emmanuel

2010-01-01

83

An Australian Twin Study of Cannabis and Other Illicit Drug Use and Misuse, and Other Psychopathology  

OpenAIRE

Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug throughout the developed world and there is consistent evidence of heritable influences on multiple stages of cannabis involvement including initiation of use and abuse/dependence. In this paper, we describe the methodology and preliminary results of a large-scale interview study of 3,824 young adult twins (born 1972–1979) and their siblings. Cannabis use was common with 75.2% of males and 64.7% of females reporting some lifetime use of cannabis...

Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana; Henders, Anjali; Nelson, Elliot C.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.

2012-01-01

84

Adolescent Nicotine Dependence Symptom Profiles and Risk for Future Daily Smoking  

OpenAIRE

Recent research on adolescent smokers suggests that there are important differences in the types of nicotine dependence (ND) symptoms that emerge and different patterns of ND symptoms. The purpose of this study was to use data from the longitudinal Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study to identify latent subgroups of adolescent experimental and nondaily smokers varying in number and types of endorsed ND symptoms. Profiles were identified using baseline level of sm...

Rose, Jennifer S.; Lee, Chien-ti; Dierker, Lisa C.; Selya, Arielle S.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

2012-01-01

85

[Cannabis smoking and lung cancer].  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in the world. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but it is mainly smoked mixed with tobacco. The combined smoking of cannabis and tobacco is a common-place phenomenon in our society. However, its use is responsible for severe pulmonary consequences. The specific impact of smoking cannabis is difficult to assess precisely and to distinguish from the effect of tobacco. Marijuana smoke contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carcinogens at higher concentration than tobacco smoke. Cellular, tissue, animal and human studies, and also epidemiological studies, show that marijuana smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Cannabis exposure doubles the risk of developing lung cancer. This should encourage clinicians to identify cannabis use and to offer patients support in quitting. PMID:25012035

Underner, M; Urban, T; Perriot, J; de Chazeron, I; Meurice, J-C

2014-06-01

86

Statistics on cannabis users skew perceptions of cannabis use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Collecting information about the prevalence of cannabis use is necessary but not sufficient for understanding the size, dynamics, and outcomes associated with cannabis markets. This paper uses two data sets describing cannabis consumption in the United States and Europe to highlight 1 differences in inferences about sub-populations based on the measure used to quantify cannabis-related activity; 2 how different measures of cannabis-related activity can be used to more accurately describe trends in cannabis usage over time; and 3 the correlation between frequency of use in the past month and average grams consumed per day. Key findings: Focusing on days of use instead of prevalence shows substantially greater increases in U.S. cannabis use in recent years; however, the recent increase is mostly among adults, not youth. Relatively more rapid growth in use days also occurred among the college-educated and Hispanic. Further, data from a survey conducted in several European countries show a strong positive correlation between frequency of use and quantity consumed per day of use, suggesting consumption is even more skewed toward the minority of heavy users than is suggested by days-of-use calculations.

RachelMelissaBurns

2013-11-01

87

Cannabis Use and Mental Health Problems  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigates whether cannabis use leads to worse mental health. To do so, we account for common unobserved factors affecting mental health and cannabis consumption by modeling mental health jointly with the dynamics of cannabis use. Our main finding is that using cannabis increases the likelihood of mental health problems, with current use having a larger effect than past use. The estimates suggest a dose response relationship between the frequency of recent cannabis use and the pr...

Ours, J. C.; Williams, J.

2009-01-01

88

Cannabis Use and Cognition in Schizophrenia  

OpenAIRE

People with schizophrenia frequently report cannabis use, and cannabis may be a risk factor for schizophrenia, mediated through effects on brain function and biochemistry. Thus, it is conceivable that cannabis may also influence cognitive functioning in this patients group. We report data from our own laboratory on the use of cannabis by schizophrenia patients, and review the existing literature on the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia and related psychosis. Of the 23 studies ...

KennethHugdahl

2009-01-01

89

Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Symptoms: A Multidimensional Model of Common and Specific Etiology  

OpenAIRE

This study tested a theoretical model hypothesizing differential pathways from five predictors to alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms. The participants were college students (N= 2,270) surveyed on two occasions in a 6-month prospective design. Social norms, perceived utility of alcohol use, and family history of alcohol problems were indirectly associated with Time 2 (T2) abuse and dependence symptoms through influencing level of alcohol consumption. Poor behavioral control had a direct eff...

Simons, Jeffrey S.; Carey, Kate B.; Wills, Thomas A.

2009-01-01

90

CANNABIS, UNA OPCIÓN TERAPÉUTICA / CANNABIS, A THERAPEUTIC OPTION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las preparaciones de Cannabis sativa L. tales como marihuana, hashish y dagga, han sido usadas en medicina por varios siglos. Ahora se sabe que el ?9tetrahidrocannabinol (?9-THC) y sus compuestos relacionados, ejercen una amplia gama de efectos sobre los sistemas inmune, digestivo, reproductivo, ocu [...] lar, cardiovascular, y nervioso central. La presente revisión analiza la literatura disponible relacionada con los efectos terapéuticos de la Cannabis. Abstract in english Cannabis sativa L. preparations, such as marijuana, hashish and dagga, have been used in medicine for many centuries. It is now known that ?9tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) and its related compounds, exert a wide array of effects on the immune, digestive, reproductive, ocular, cardiovascular, and cent [...] ral nervous systems. The present review analyses the literature related to the therapeutic effects of Cannabis.

José Henry, Osorio; Hugo Fernando, Tangarife.

2009-12-01

91

Symptoms of exercise dependence and physical activity in students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health professionals recognize the benefits of moderate physical activity and encourage clients to engage in some form of activity on a regular basis. In spite of these recognized benefits, there are growing concerns that some may exercise at levels detrimental to health. The term exercise dependence refers to those individuals whose extreme exercise schedules interfere with their social, occupational, and family lives. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between weekly exercise habits and scores on the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire in a sample of undergraduate students (213 women and 79 men). Overall, participants who reported high activity scored higher than those reporting low activity on subscales measuring interference with family and social life, positive reward, withdrawal, exercise for social reasons, exercise for health reasons, and stereotyped behavior. PMID:18380126

MacLaren, Vance V; Best, Lisa A

2007-12-01

92

[Alcohol dependence syndrome--symptoms in the oral cavity].  

Science.gov (United States)

Alcohol dependence syndrome is defined as a cluster of physiological, behavioural and cognitive phenomena in which the use of a psychoactive substance takes on a much higher priority for a given individual than other behaviours that once had greater value. In European Union the problem of the addiction affects about 5% of men and 1% of women each year. Long lasting alcohol abuse is detrimental to the whole body, including the oral cavity. The observable changes are usually caused by a convergent impact of a number of factors. The changes differ depending on the chemical features of the consumed substance, the life style adopted - as a consequence of the addiction, simultaneous addiction to nicotine, and finally on the medical treatment applied at different stages of the disease. Pathological changes may occur in all structures in oral cavity (teeth, periodontium, tongue, mucose membrane and salivary glands). Individuals addicted to alcohol revealed high percentage of carious losses and chemical damage enamel and dentine and inflammatory changes of the periapical area of teeth. Presence of these changes is linked unfortunately with low indicator of treatment. There is independence between alcohol addiction and damage of periodontium (clinical attachment level and pocket depth). Results of alcohol abuse may be also double-sided, painless, noninflammatory and non-malignant swelling on salivary glands (sialosis). Alcohol is said to be the risk factor for development of flat-epithelial cancer of the oral cavity. The most frequent localization of cancerous changes is the bottom of the oral cavity and the side of the tongue. PMID:24934540

Surtel, Anna; Klepacz, Robert; Wysoki?ska-Miszczuk, Joanna

2014-01-01

93

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) suspension culture cells were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 carrying the binary plasmid pNOV3635. The plasmid contains a phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) selectable marker gene. Cells transformed with PMI are capable of metabolizing the selective agent mannose, whereas cells not expressing the gene are incapable of using the carbon source and will stop growing. Callus masses proliferating on selection medium were screened for PMI expression using a chlorophenol red assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from putatively transformed callus lines, and the presence of the PMI gene was confirmed using PCR and Southern hybridization. Using this method, an average transformation frequency of 31.23%?±?0.14 was obtained for all transformation experiments, with a range of 15.1-55.3%. PMID:25416268

Feeney, Mistianne; Punja, Zamir K

2015-01-01

94

Cannabis-Related treatment demands in Belgium: a socio-demographic and treatment seeking profile  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims Most people appear to stop using cannabis when getting older, but a certain subgroup becomes cannabis dependent, has problems in various life areas and needs treatment. Our aim is to compare a number of sociodemographic and treatment seeking variables between treatment seekers with primary cannabis problems and those with primary alcohol, opiate, amphetamine or cocaine problems. Understanding how primary canna-bis users seeking treatment differ from other treatment seekers may assist clinicians in better tailoring treatment processes to clients' needs. Methods For this purpose, intake information on 1,626 persons seeking treatment in one of 16 treat-ment agencies in the province of Antwerp (Belgium) was registered via an on-line web application. Primary cannabis users seeking treatment were compared with primary alcohol, opiate, amphetamine and cocaine users by means of bivariate analyses (Chi-square tests and analyses of variance), followed by four logistic regression analyses. Findings 14.5% of all clients used cannabis as their primary drug. Compared to primary alcohol, opiate, amphetamine or cocaine users seeking treatment, cannabis users seeking treatment appeared to be more often male, younger than 30 years old, Belgian and student. They are often referred to treatment by police or justice and 43.6% of them can be considered single-substance users. Multivariate analyses showed that besides age and sex, using no other substances than the primary drug and being registered in outpatient facilities only were significant determinants for being a primary cannabis user seeking treatment. Conclusions Primary cannabis users can clearly be differentiated from other drug users seeking treatment. Although cannabis plays an important part in a polydrug use pattern, persons who have cannabis as their primary drug often use only this one substance. Since they regularly have brief contacts with treatment agencies, more research is needed to measure the effect of this brief intervention.

2010-01-01

95

Depressive symptoms during buprenorphine vs. methadone maintenance: findings from a randomised, controlled trial in opioid dependence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research suggests that buprenorphine may possess antidepressant activity. The Beck Depression Inventory was completed at baseline and 3 months by heroin dependent subjects receiving either buprenorphine or methadone maintenance as part of a larger, pre-existing, double blind trial conducted by NDARC (Australia). Depressive symptoms improved in all subjects, with no difference between methadone and buprenorphine groups, suggesting no differential benefit on depressive symptoms for buprenorphine compared to methadone. PMID:15589713

Dean, Angela J; Bell, James; Christie, Macdonald J; Mattick, Richard P

2004-12-01

96

Association Between Depressive Symptoms and Negative Dependent Life Events from Late Childhood to Adolescence  

OpenAIRE

The association between stressful life events and depression has been consistently supported in the literature; however, studies of the developmental trajectories of these constructs and the nature of their association over time are limited. We examined trajectories of depressive symptoms and negative dependent life events and the associations between these constructs in a sample of 916 youth assessed annually from age 9 to 16, using latent growth curve modeling. Youth depressive symptoms, as...

Johnson, Daniel P.; Whisman, Mark A.; Corley, Robin P.; Hewitt, John K.; Rhee, Soo Hyun

2012-01-01

97

Adolescent nicotine dependence symptom profiles and risk for future daily smoking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent research on adolescent smokers suggests that there are important differences in the types of nicotine dependence (ND) symptoms that emerge and different patterns of ND symptoms. The purpose of this study was to use data from the longitudinal Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study to identify latent subgroups of adolescent experimental and nondaily smokers varying in number and types of endorsed ND symptoms. Profiles were identified using baseline level of smoking, individual patterns of ND symptoms and other ND risk factors. Discrete time survival analysis was used to examine profile differences in probability of becoming daily smokers 48 months later. Four distinct subgroups of smokers with different patterns of smoking behavior, ND symptoms, and alcohol and other substance use emerged. Heavier smoking adolescents with high symptom endorsement, particularly the need to smoke in the morning, were most likely to become daily smokers 48 months later. A subgroup of social smokers had high smoking exposure and symptom endorsement (except need to smoke in the morning), and high levels of other substance use. Despite lower rates of smoking frequency and quantity compared to the heavier smoking class, 36% of these adolescents smoked daily by 48 months, with a steeper decline in survival rates compared to other lighter smoking classes. Morning smoking symptoms and symptoms prioritizing smoking (i.e., choosing to spend money on cigarettes instead of lunch or smoking when ill or where smoking is forbidden) might quickly identify adolescent non-daily smokers with more severe dependence and higher risk for daily smoking. A focus on skills for avoiding social situations involving use of alcohol and other drugs and reducing peer smoking influences may be an important focus for reducing smoking and other substance use among social smokers. PMID:22673155

Rose, Jennifer S; Lee, Chien-Ti; Dierker, Lisa C; Selya, Arielle S; Mermelstein, Robin J

2012-10-01

98

An Evidence Based Review of Acute and Long-Term Effects of Cannabis Use on Executive Cognitive Functions  

OpenAIRE

Cannabis use has been shown to impair cognitive functions on a number of levels—from basic motor coordination to more complex executive function tasks, such as the ability to plan, organize, solve problems, make decisions, remember, and control emotions and behavior. These deficits differ in severity depending on the quantity, recency, age of onset and duration of marijuana use. Understanding how cannabis use impairs executive function is important. Individuals with cannabis-related impairm...

Crean, Rebecca D.; Crane, Natania A.; Mason, Barbara J.

2011-01-01

99

Impairment of inhibitory control processing related to acute psychotomimetic effects of cannabis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis use can induce acute psychotic symptoms and increase the risk of schizophrenia. Impairments in inhibitory control and processing are known to occur both under the influence of cannabis and in schizophrenia. Whether cannabis-induced impairment in inhibitory processing is related to the acute induction of psychotic symptoms under its influence is unclear. We investigated the effects of acute oral administration of 10mg of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC), the main psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, on inhibitory control and regional brain activation during inhibitory processing in humans and examined whether these effects are related to the induction of psychotic symptoms under its influence using a repeated-measures, placebo-controlled, double-blind, within-subject design. We studied thirty-six healthy, English-speaking, right-handed men with minimal previous exposure to cannabis and other illicit drugs twice using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they performed a response inhibition (Go/No-Go) task. Relative to placebo, delta-9-THC caused transient psychotic symptoms, anxiety, intoxication and sedation, inhibition errors and impaired inhibition efficiency. Severity of psychotic symptoms was directly correlated with inhibition error frequency and inversely with inhibition efficiency under the influence of delta-9-THC. Delta-9-THC attenuated left inferior frontal activation which was inversely correlated with the frequency of inhibition errors and severity of psychotic symptoms and positively with inhibition efficiency under its influence. These results provide experimental evidence that impairments in cognitive processes involved in the inhibitory control of thoughts and actions and inferior frontal function under the influence of cannabis may have a role in the emergence of transient psychotic symptoms under its influence. PMID:25532865

Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Atakan, Z; Martin-Santos, R; Crippa, J A; Kambeitz, J; Malhi, S; Giampietro, V; Williams, S; Brammer, M; Rubia, K; Collier, D A; McGuire, P K

2015-01-01

100

Cannabis Use and Performance in Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug among adolescents, many of whom perceive little risk from cannabis. Cannabis use is associated with poor academic performance and increased school drop-outs. It is also associated with high-risk behaviors in adolescents like crime, violence, unprotected sexual encounters, and car accidents. Many of these…

Malhotra, Anil; Biswas, Parthasarathy

2006-01-01

101

Passive inhalation of cannabis smoke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Six volunteers each smoked simultaneously, in a small unventilated room (volume 27 950 liter), a cannabis cigarette containing 17.1 mg delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). A further four subjects - passive inhalers - remained in the room during smoking and afterwards for a total of 3 h. Blood and urine samples were taken from all ten subjects and analyzed by radioimmunoassay for THC metabolites. The blood samples from the passive subjects taken up to 3 h after the start of exposure to cannabis smoke showed a complete absence of cannabinoids. In contrast, their urine samples taken up to 6 h after exposure showed significant concentrations of cannabinoid metabolites (less than or equal to 6.8 ng ml-1). These data, taken with the results of other workers, show passive inhalation of cannabis smoke to be possible. These results have important implications for forensic toxicologists who are frequently called upon to interpret cannabinoid levels in body fluids.

Law, B.; Mason, P.A.; Moffat, A.C.; King, L.J.; Marks, V.

1984-09-01

102

Severity of Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms Depends on Developmental Stage of Long-Evans Rats  

OpenAIRE

To investigate alcohol dependency and the potential role of age of initial alcohol consumption, Long-Evans (LE) rats were fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet starting at postnatal (P) ages (days): P23-27 (juvenile), P35-45 (adolescent) or P65-97 (young adult). Severity of subsequent withdrawal symptoms was dependent on age when consumption began and on duration of alcohol consumption. Frequency of withdrawal seizures was highest for rats starting consumption as juveniles, intermediate for a...

Chung, Chun-shiang; Wang, Jian; Wehman, Monh; Rhoads, Dennis E.

2007-01-01

103

Studies on cannabis, 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The seedlings from Cannabis sativa L. seeds irradiated with different doses of ?-rays were examined, in order to determine the dose sufficient to kill the young plants naturally, before their hallucinnogenic component increases. The seeds of ''Minamioshihara No. 1'', which were harvested in 1972 in Tochigi Prefecture, were irradiated with eight different doses of 60Co ?-rays in January 17, 1973, and the seedlings were examined several times during the subsequent 9 months, from March to November 1973, and their morphological and histological effects were examined, and the results are summarized as follows: Samples irradiated with 1500 and 1000 krads developed radicles about 3 mm in length. Samples irradiated with 500, 200, and 50 krads grew into young plants with the first set of leaves, without lateral roots. Samples irradiated with 30 krads grew to about 10 cm high with a few lateral roots, and the epicotyls about 1 cm in length. These young plants from the irradiated seeds stayed in the same condition and then died. Samples irradiated with 15 and 5 krads grew in the same way as the controls until the stage of flowering. Samples irradiated with 500, 200, 50, and 30 krads showerd the cell membranes of endodermis and pericycle to be partially lignified and suberized. The degree of change was related to the dose of ?-rays. Samples irradiated with 30 krads showed withered cells near the end of the lateral nerves on the first and second set of leaves. The ec first and second set of leaves. The economical dose of 60Co ?-rays for inhibiting young plants from developing into adult ones was a minimum of 30 krads which made the young plants die. Irradiation with 50 krads of ?-rays will be required to kill the young plants completely before they develop the hallucinogenic component. (auth.)

104

Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD, a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. The antipsychotic-like properties of CBD have been investigated in animal models using behavioral and neurochemical techniques which suggested that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results of two studies on healthy volunteers using perception of binocular depth inversion and ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms supported the proposal of the antipsychotic-like properties of CBD. In addition, open case reports of schizophrenic patients treated with CBD and a preliminary report of a controlled clinical trial comparing CBD with an atypical antipsychotic drug have confirmed that this cannabinoid can be a safe and well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. Future studies of CBD in other psychotic conditions such as bipolar disorder and comparative studies of its antipsychotic effects with those produced by clozapine in schizophrenic patients are clearly indicated.

Zuardi A.W.

2006-01-01

105

Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis) component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typ [...] ical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. The antipsychotic-like properties of CBD have been investigated in animal models using behavioral and neurochemical techniques which suggested that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results of two studies on healthy volunteers using perception of binocular depth inversion and ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms supported the proposal of the antipsychotic-like properties of CBD. In addition, open case reports of schizophrenic patients treated with CBD and a preliminary report of a controlled clinical trial comparing CBD with an atypical antipsychotic drug have confirmed that this cannabinoid can be a safe and well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. Future studies of CBD in other psychotic conditions such as bipolar disorder and comparative studies of its antipsychotic effects with those produced by clozapine in schizophrenic patients are clearly indicated.

A.W., Zuardi; J.A.S., Crippa; J.E.C., Hallak; F.A., Moreira; F.S., Guimarães.

2006-04-01

106

Cannabis and adolescent brain development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heavy cannabis use has been frequently associated with increased rates of mental illness and cognitive impairment, particularly amongst adolescent users. However, the neurobiological processes that underlie these associations are still not well understood. In this review, we discuss the findings of studies examining the acute and chronic effects of cannabis use on the brain, with a particular focus on the impact of commencing use during adolescence. Accumulating evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that regular heavy use during this period is associated with more severe and persistent negative outcomes than use during adulthood, suggesting that the adolescent brain may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of cannabis exposure. As the endocannabinoid system plays an important role in brain development, it is plausible that prolonged use during adolescence results in a disruption in the normative neuromaturational processes that occur during this period. We identify synaptic pruning and white matter development as two processes that may be adversely impacted by cannabis exposure during adolescence. Potentially, alterations in these processes may underlie the cognitive and emotional deficits that have been associated with regular use commencing during adolescence. PMID:25460036

Lubman, Dan I; Cheetham, Ali; Yücel, Murat

2015-04-01

107

The Importance of Family Relations for Cannabis Users: The Case of Serbian Adolescents  

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Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is transitional stage of physical and mental human development occuring between childhood and adult life. Social interactions and environmental factors together are important predictors of adolescent cannabis use. This study aimed to examine the relationship between the social determinants and adolescents behavior with cannabis consumption.Methods: A cross sectional study as part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs was conducted among 6.150 adolescents aged 16 years in three regions of Serbia, and three types of schools (gymnasium, vocational – professional, and vocational – handicraft during May – June 2008. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to obtain adjusted odds ratios with 95% con?dence intervals in which the dependent variable was cannabis consumption non-user and user.Results: Among 6.7% of adolescents who had tried cannabis at least one in their lives, boys were more involved in cannabis use than girls, especially boys from gymnasium school. Well off family, lower education of mother, worse relations with parents were significantly associated with cannabis use (P < 0.05. Behaviors like skipping from schools, frequent evening outs, and playing on slot machines were also related to cannabis use (P < 0.05.Conclusions: The study confirmed the importance of family relationship development. Drug use preventive programmes should include building interpersonal trust in a family lifecycle and school culture.

Zorica Terzic Supic

2013-03-01

108

Pharmacological interventions in the treatment of the acute effects of cannabis: a systematic review of literature  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis intoxication is related to a number of physical and mental health risks with ensuing social costs. However, little attention has been given to the investigation of possible pharmacological interactions in this condition. Objective To review the available scientific literature concerning pharmacological interventions for the treatment of the acute effects of cannabis. Methods A search was performed on the Pubmed, Lilacs, and Scielo online databases by combining the terms cannabis, intoxication, psychosis, anxiety, and treatment. The articles selected from this search had their reference lists checked for additional publications related to the topic of the review. Results The reviewed articles consisted of case reports and controlled clinical trials and are presented according to interventions targeting the physiological, psychiatric, and cognitive symptoms provoked by cannabis. The pharmacological interventions reported in these studies include: beta-blockers, antiarrhythmic agents, antagonists of CB-1 and GABA-benzodiazepine receptors, antipsychotics, and cannabidiol. Conclusion Although scarce, the evidence on pharmacological interventions for the management of cannabis intoxication suggests that propanolol and rimonabant are the most effective compounds currently available to treat the physiological and subjective effects of the drug. Further studies are necessary to establish the real effectiveness of these two medications, as well as the effectiveness of other candidate compounds to counteract the effects of cannabis intoxication, such as cannabidiol and flumazenil.

Crippa José AS

2012-01-01

109

Cannabis, pain, and sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex, a cannabis-based medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis sativa L. has been utilized for treatment of pain and sleep disorders since ancient times. This review examines modern studies on effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) on sleep. It goes on to report new information on the effects on sleep in the context of medical treatment of neuropathic pain and symptoms of multiple sclerosis, employing standardized oromucosal cannabis-based medicines containing primarily THC, CBD, or a 1 : 1 combination of the two (Sativex). Sleep-laboratory results indicate a mild activating effect of CBD, and slight residual sedation with THC-predominant extracts. Experience to date with Sativex in numerous Phase I-III studies in 2000 subjects with 1000 patient years of exposure demonstrate marked improvement in subjective sleep parameters in patients with a wide variety of pain conditions including multiple sclerosis, peripheral neuropathic pain, intractable cancer pain, and rheumatoid arthritis, with an acceptable adverse event profile. No tolerance to the benefit of Sativex on pain or sleep, nor need for dosage increases have been noted in safety extension studies of up to four years, wherein 40-50% of subjects attained good or very good sleep quality, a key source of disability in chronic pain syndromes that may contribute to patients' quality of life. PMID:17712817

Russo, Ethan B; Guy, Geoffrey W; Robson, Philip J

2007-08-01

110

Functional capacity and dependency in transfer and dressing are associated with depressive symptoms in older people  

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Full Text Available Gustaf Boström,1 Mia Conradsson,1 Erik Rosendahl,1,2 Peter Nordström,1 Yngve Gustafson,1 Håkan Littbrand1,21Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 2Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, SwedenBackground: This study examined associations between depressive symptoms and functional capacity, overall dependency in personal activities of daily living (ADLs, and dependency in individual ADL tasks, respectively, in people with a high mean age, large range of functional capacity, and wide spectrum of dependency in ADLs.Methods: Cross-sectional data from three studies were used. A total of 392 individuals living in community and residential care facilities were included. Mean age was 86.2 years, 72% were women, 75% were dependent in ADLs, 42% had depression, and 39% had dementia. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, functional capacity with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS, and ADLs with the Barthel ADL Index. Multiple linear regression analyses with comprehensive adjustments were performed between GDS-15 and BBS, GDS-15 and Barthel ADL Index, and GDS-15 and each individual ADL task, separately.Results: GDS-15 score was associated with BBS score (unstandardized b =-0.03, P=0.008, but not with Barthel ADL Index score (unstandardized b =-0.07, P=0.068. No significant interaction effects of sex, dementia, or living conditions were found in these associations. Among individual ADL tasks, dependency in transfer (unstandardized b =-1.03, P=0.007 and dressing (unstandardized b =-0.70, P=0.035 were associated with depressive symptoms.Conclusion: Functional capacity seems to be independently associated with depressive symptoms in older people living in community and residential care facilities, whereas overall ADL performance may not be associated. Dependency in the individual ADL tasks of transfer and dressing appear to be independently associated with depressive symptoms and may be an important focus of future interdisciplinary multifactorial intervention studies.Keywords: aged 80 and over, residential facilities, independent living, depression, activities of daily living

Boström G

2014-02-01

111

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of supratherapeutic oral doses of ?9-THC in cannabis users  

OpenAIRE

Oral ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) has been evaluated as a medication for cannabis dependence, but repeated administration of acute oral doses up to 40 mg has not been effective at reducing drug-taking behavior. Larger doses might be necessary to affect cannabis use. The purpose of the present study was therefore to determine the physiological and behavioral effects of oral ?9-THC at acute doses higher than those tested previously. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of oral...

Lile, Joshua A.; Kelly, Thomas H.; Charnigo, Richard J.; Stinchcomb, Audra L.; Hays, Lon R.

2013-01-01

112

Inhaled medicinal cannabis and the immunocompromised patient.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal cannabis is an invaluable adjunct therapy for pain relief, nausea, anorexia, and mood modification in cancer patients and is available as cookies or cakes, as sublingual drops, as a vaporized mist, or for smoking. However, as with every herb, various microorganisms are carried on its leaves and flowers which when inhaled could expose the user, in particular immunocompromised patients, to the risk of opportunistic lung infections, primarily from inhaled molds. The objective of this study was to identify the safest way of using medicinal cannabis in immunosuppressed patients by finding the optimal method of sterilization with minimal loss of activity of cannabis. We describe the results of culturing the cannabis herb, three methods of sterilization, and the measured loss of a main cannabinoid compound activity. Systematic sterilization of medicinal cannabis can eliminate the risk of fatal opportunistic infections associated with cannabis among patients at risk. PMID:25216851

Ruchlemer, Rosa; Amit-Kohn, Michal; Raveh, David; Hanuš, Lumír

2015-03-01

113

Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke  

OpenAIRE

The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available...

Nicholas Sullivan; Sytze Elzinga; Raber, Jeffrey C.

2013-01-01

114

Cannabis use and cognition in schizophrenia  

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Full Text Available People with schizophrenia frequently report cannabis use, and cannabis may be a risk factor for schizophrenia, mediated through effects on brain function and biochemistry. Thus, it is conceivable that cannabis may also influence cognitive functioning in this patients group. We report data from our own laboratory on the use of cannabis by schizophrenia patients, and review the existing literature on the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia and related psychosis. Of the 23 studies that were found, 14 reported that the cannabis users had better cognitive performance than the schizophrenia non-users. Eight studies reported no or minimal differences in cognitive performance in the two groups, but only one study reported better cognitive performance in the schizophrenia non-user group. Our own results confirm the overall impression from the literature review of better cognitive performance in the cannabis user group. These paradoxical findings may have several explanations, which are discussed. We suggest that cannabis causes a transient cognitive breakdown enabling the development of psychosis, imitating the typical cognitive vulnerability seen in schizophrenia. This is further supported by an earlier age of onset and fewer neurological soft signs in the cannabis-related schizophrenia group, suggesting an alternative pathway to psychosis.

KennethHugdahl

2009-11-01

115

Association between cannabis use and schizotypal dimensions--a meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies.  

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Cannabis consumption can cause abuse and dependence and increase risk of developing psychiatric and somatic disorders. Several literature reviews explored the link between cannabis consumption and schizophrenia but none summarized the rich literature on cannabis and psychometric schizotypy. The aim of our review is to synthesize data from studies that explored the association between cannabis consumption and schizoptypal dimensions. A systematic review of the literature and, when needed, contact with the authors, allowed us to gather data from 29 cross-sectional studies. We compared schizotypy scores between subjects that never used cannabis and subjects that used it at least once ("never vs. ever") and between current users and subjects that do not use cannabis currently ("current vs. other"). We conducted separate analyses for total schizotypy score and each of the three classical schizotypal dimensions (positive, negative, disorganized). For all eight comparisons, the cannabis group ("ever" or "current") had higher schizotypy scores. Differences were in the small or medium range and, with the exception of the negative score in the current vs. other comparison, statistically significant. Cannabis consumption is associated with increased schizotypal traits. More research, using different approaches (e.g. longitudinal studies) is needed to explore the cause of this association. PMID:24878296

Szoke, Andrei; Galliot, Anne-Marie; Richard, Jean-Romain; Ferchiou, Aziz; Baudin, Grégoire; Leboyer, Marion; Schürhoff, Franck

2014-09-30

116

Gone to Pot - A Review of the Association between Cannabis and Psychosis  

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Full Text Available Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, with approximately 5 million daily users worldwide. Emerging evidence supports a number of associations between cannabis and psychosis/psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. These associations based on case-studies, surveys, epidemiological studies, and experimental studies indicate that cannabinoids can produce acute, transient effects; acute, persistent effects as well as delayed, persistent effects that recapitulate the psychopathology and psychophysiology seen in psychotic illness such as schizophrenia. Acute exposure to both cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids (Spice/ K2 can produce a full range of transient psychotomimetic symptoms, cognitive deficits, and psychophysiological abnormalities that bear a striking resemblance to symptoms of schizophrenia. In individuals with an established psychotic disorder, cannabinoids can exacerbate symptoms, trigger relapse, and have negative consequences on the course of the illness. Several factors appear to moderate these associations, including family history, genetic factors, history of childhood abuse, and the age at onset of cannabis use. Exposure to cannabinoids in adolescence confers a higher risk for psychosis outcomes in later life and the risk is dose-related. Individuals with polymorphisms of COMT and AKT1 genes may be at increased risk for psychotic disorders in association with cannabinoids, as are individuals with a family history of psychotic disorders or a history of childhood trauma. The relationship between cannabis and schizophrenia fulfills many but not all of the standard criteria for causality, including temporality, biological gradient, biological plausibility, experimental evidence, consistency, and coherence. At the present time, the evidence indicates that cannabis may be a “component cause” in the emergence of psychosis, and warrants serious consideration from the point of view of public health policy.

DeepakCD'Souza

2014-05-01

117

Cannabis treatment outcomes among legally coerced and non-coerced adults  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment seeking for cannabis dependence in general, and particularly the number of criminal justice referrals to cannabis treatment, has increased over the past decade. This study aims to compare the characteristics, psychosocial functioning and treatment outcome of those legally coerced into cannabis treatment compared to those entering treatment without legal coercion. Methods This study is a retrospective audit of the administrative clinical records of 27,198 adults presenting to public Texas treatment programs with cannabis as their primary drug problem between 2000 and 2005. Results Of the 69% legally coerced into treatment, there was less psychological distress and greater likelihood of having completed treatment compared with non-coerced clients. Participants who were legally coerced into treatment were also more likely to have received less intensive forms of treatment and to have not used cannabis in the month prior to 90-day post-treatment follow-up. Conclusion More public health information is needed on cannabis dependence and increased availability of subsidised early and brief interventions in a variety of primary health care settings would reduce the late presentations of the more severely impaired voluntary clients. The limitations of this dataset are discussed.

Copeland Jan

2007-06-01

118

Unilateral angle-closure glaucoma with ciliochoroidal effusion after the consumption of cannabis: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 35-year-old male patient, diagnosed with acute angle-closure glaucoma, did not improve despite intensive treatment with antiglaucoma medications. Ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed a ciliochoroidal effusion. Due to his past history of drug abuse, a urine test was analyzed and found to be positive for cannabis. After topical cycloplegia and oral steroid therapy, his symptoms improved substantially. The present case highlights the role of ultrasound biomicroscopy in evaluating patients with acute angle-closure glaucoma and the role of cannabis abuse in the development of ciliochoroidal effusion. PMID:25606036

Hanna, Rana; Tiosano, Beatrice; Dbayat, Noora; Gaton, Dan

2014-01-01

119

Cannabis og cannabinoidreceptorer--misbrug og psykose  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abuse of alcohol and drugs often co-occur with psychotic disorders. In this article, we introduce to the reader a number of receptors and neurotransmitter-systems involved in cannabis-abuse. Subsequently, we introduce the connection between abuse - particularly cannabis-abuse - and psychotic disorders.

HjorthØj, Carsten; Nordentoft, Merete

2008-01-01

120

Cannabis og cannabinoidreceptorer misbrug og psykose  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abuse of alcohol and drugs often co-occur with psychotic disorders. In this article, we introduce to the reader a number of receptors and neurotransmitter-systems involved in cannabis-abuse. Subsequently, we introduce the connection between abuse - particularly cannabis-abuse - and psychotic disorders Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/10

Hjorthoj, C.; Nordentoft, M.

2008-01-01

121

Regulating compassion: an overview of Canada's federal medical cannabis policy and practice  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to a number of court challenges brought forth by Canadian patients who demonstrated that they benefited from the use of medicinal cannabis but remained vulnerable to arrest and persecution as a result of its status as a controlled substance, in 1999 Canada became the second nation in the world to initiate a centralized medicinal cannabis program. Over its six years of existence, this controversial program has been found unconstitutional by a number of courts, and has faced criticism from the medical establishment, law enforcement, as well as the patient/participants themselves. Methods This critical policy analysis is an evidence-based review of court decisions, government records, relevant studies and Access to Information Act data related to the three main facets of Health Canada's medicinal cannabis policy – the Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD; the Canadians Institute of Health Research Medical Marijuana Research Program; and the federal cannabis production and distribution program. This analysis also examines Canada's network of unregulated community-based dispensaries. Results There is a growing body of evidence that Health Canada's program is not meeting the needs of the nation's medical cannabis patient community and that the policies of the Marihuana Medical Access Division may be significantly limiting the potential individual and public health benefits achievable though the therapeutic use of cannabis. Canada's community-based dispensaries supply medical cannabis to a far greater number of patients than the MMAD, but their work is currently unregulated by any level of government, leaving these organizations and their clients vulnerable to arrest and prosecution. Conclusion Any future success will depend on the government's ability to better assess and address the needs and legitimate concerns of end-users of this program, to promote and fund an expanded clinical research agenda, and to work in cooperation with community-based medical cannabis dispensaries in order to address the ongoing issue of safe and timely access to this herbal medicine.

Lucas Philippe G

2008-01-01

122

Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome: Clinical diagnosis of an underrecognised manifestation of chronic cannabis abuse  

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Full Text Available Cannabis is a common drug of abuse that is associated with various long-term and short-term adverse effects. The nature of its association with vomiting after chronic abuse is obscure and is underrecognised by clinicians. In some patients this vomiting can take on a pattern similar to cyclic vomiting syndrome with a peculiar compulsive hot bathing pattern, which relieves intense feelings of nausea and accompanying symptoms. In this case report, we describe a twenty-two year-old-male with a history of chronic cannabis abuse presenting with recurrent vomiting, intense nausea and abdominal pain. In addition, the patient reported that the hot baths improved his symptoms during these episodes. Abstinence from cannabis led to resolution of the vomiting symptoms and abdominal pain. We conclude that in the setting of chronic cannabis abuse, patients presenting with chronic severe nausea and vomiting that can sometimes be accompanied by abdominal pain and compulsive hot bathing behaviour, in the absence of other obvious causes, a diagnosis of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome should be considered.

Siva P Sontineni, Sanjay Chaudhary, Vijaya Sontineni, Stephen J Lanspa

2009-03-01

123

Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome: clinical diagnosis of an underrecognised manifestation of chronic cannabis abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis is a common drug of abuse that is associated with various long-term and short-term adverse effects. The nature of its association with vomiting after chronic abuse is obscure and is underrecognised by clinicians. In some patients this vomiting can take on a pattern similar to cyclic vomiting syndrome with a peculiar compulsive hot bathing pattern, which relieves intense feelings of nausea and accompanying symptoms. In this case report, we describe a twenty-two year-old-male with a history of chronic cannabis abuse presenting with recurrent vomiting, intense nausea and abdominal pain. In addition, the patient reported that the hot baths improved his symptoms during these episodes. Abstinence from cannabis led to resolution of the vomiting symptoms and abdominal pain. We conclude that in the setting of chronic cannabis abuse, patients presenting with chronic severe nausea and vomiting that can sometimes be accompanied by abdominal pain and compulsive hot bathing behaviour, in the absence of other obvious causes, a diagnosis of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome should be considered. PMID:19291829

Sontineni, Siva P; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Sontineni, Vijaya; Lanspa, Stephen J

2009-03-14

124

Investigating the interaction between schizotypy, divergent thinking and cannabis use  

OpenAIRE

Cannabis acutely increases schizotypy and chronic use is associated with elevated rates of psychosis. Creative individuals have higher levels of schizotypy, however links between cannabis use, schizotypy and creativity have not been investigated. We investigated the effects of cannabis smoked naturalistically on schizotypy and divergent thinking, a measure of creativity. One hundred and sixty cannabis users were tested on 1 day when sober and another day when intoxicated with cannabis. State ...

Schafer, G.; Feilding, A.; Morgan, C. J.; Agathangelou, M.; Freeman, T. P.; Valerie Curran, H.

2012-01-01

125

[Psychopathological symptoms and personality traits in alcohol-dependent patients: a comparative study].  

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The aim of this paper was to describe the psychopathological and personality profile associated with alcohol dependence and to compare it with those of non-addictive disorders and the normal population. The sample consisted of 158 alcohol-dependent participants attending a psychiatric outpatient clinic, 120 psychiatric patients with non-addictive disorders and 103 participants from the general population chosen to match the patient samples for age, gender and socioeconomic level. All participants were assessed with different instruments related to personality (Impulsiveness Scale, Sensation-Seeking Scale and STAI), psychopathology (SCL-90-R, BDI and Maladjustment Scale) and personality disorders (MCMI-II). Patients from the clinical groups presented more symptoms of anxiety and depression than the healthy participants and had more problems adjusting to everyday life, but there were no differences between the two clinical groups. Alcohol-dependent patients were more impulsive and sensation-seeking than the other two groups. Histrionic, narcissistic and antisocial personality disorders were specific to the alcohol-dependent patients. The implications of this study for further research are discussed. PMID:18173100

Bravo de Medina, Ricardo; Echeburúa, Enrique; Aizpiri, Javier

2007-01-01

126

Insomnia in Alcohol Dependence: Predictors of Symptoms in a Sample of Veterans Referred from Primary Care  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Patients with alcohol dependence presenting for treatment may have multiple associated co-morbid conditions and limited social supports, which complicate treatment. Each of these factors has been independently associated with complaints of insomnia. In this preliminary study, we investigated the relations between insomnia complaints and socio-demographic factors and psychiatric comorbidity in treatment-seeking patients with alcohol dependence. Method We conducted a retrospective chart review on 84 consecutive patients referred to the Behavioral Health Laboratory of the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center for evaluation of psychiatric and substance use disorders. Patients met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence and completed a series of self-assessments of sleep. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to examine the relations amongst the variables of interest. Results In multivariable models, Sleep Latency was significantly greater in individuals without partners (p = .01), those with psychiatric disorders (p = .03) and smokers (p = .01), with a non-significant trend for those with past-year suicidal ideation. No significant predictor of Wake Time After Sleep Onset was seen. Poor Sleep Quality was predicted by younger age (OR = .93 [.88, .98], p = .004) and the presence of a psychiatric disorder (OR = 20.80 [4, 102], p = .0002), with a non-significant trend for suicidal ideation. Conclusions Insomnia symptoms in treatment-seeking alcohol dependent patients should prompt consideration of the individuals’ psychiatric and psychosocial features. PMID:23617870

Chakravorty, Subhajit; Grandner, Michael A.; Kranzler, Henry R.; Mavandadi, Shahrzad; Kling, Mitchel A.; Perlis, Michael L.; Oslin, David W.

2015-01-01

127

Reduced memory and attention performance in a population-based sample of young adults with a moderate lifetime use of cannabis, ecstasy and alcohol  

OpenAIRE

Regular use of illegal drugs is suspected to cause cognitive impairments. Two substances have received heightened attention: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ‘ecstasy’) and ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC or ‘cannabis’). Preclinical evidence, as well as human studies examining regular ecstasy consumers, indicated that ecstasy use may have negative effects on learning, verbal memory and complex attentional functions. Cannabis has also been linked to symptoms of inattention and...

Indlekofer, Friedrich J.; Piechatzek, Michaela; Daamen, Marcel; Glasmacher, Christoph; Lieb, Roselind; Pfister, Hildegard; Tucha, Oliver; Wittchen, Hans-ulrich; Schu?tz, Christian G.

2013-01-01

128

A Case of Cannabis-Induced Pancreatitis  

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Full Text Available CONTEXT: There are no previous reports of acute pancreatitis associated with cannabis use in the general population. Drugs of all types are related to the aetiology of pancreatitis in approximately 1.4-2.0% of cases. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 29 year old man who presented with acute pancreatitis after a period of heavy cannabis smoking. Other causes of the disease were ruled out. The pancreatitis resolved itself after the cannabis was stopped and this was confirmed by urinary cannabinoid metabolite monitoring in the community. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first description of a case of cannabis induced pancreatitis. However, the link is difficult to establish and further evidence is required to prove the association.

Grant P

2004-01-01

129

[(18) F]MK-9470 PET measurement of cannabinoid CB1 receptor availability in chronic cannabis users.  

Science.gov (United States)

?(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychoactive component of cannabis, exerts its central effects through activation of the cerebral type 1 cannabinoid (CB1 ) receptor. Pre-clinical studies have provided evidence that chronic cannabis exposure is linked to decreased CB1 receptor expression and this is thought to be a component underlying drug tolerance and dependence. In this study, we make first use of the selective high-affinity positron emission tomography (PET) ligand [(18) F]MK-9470 to obtain in vivo measurements of cerebral CB1 receptor availability in 10 chronic cannabis users (age?=?26.0?±?4.1 years). Each patient underwent [(18) F]MK-9470 PET within the first week following the last cannabis consumption. A population of 10 age-matched healthy subjects (age?=?23.0?±?2.9 years) was used as control group. Parametric modified standardized uptake value images, reflecting CB1 receptor availability, were calculated. Statistical parametric mapping and volume-of-interest (VOI) analyses of CB1 receptor availability were performed. Compared with controls, cannabis users showed a global decrease in CB1 receptor availability (-11.7 percent). VOI-based analysis demonstrated that the CB1 receptor decrease was significant in the temporal lobe (-12.7 percent), anterior (-12.6 percent) and posterior cingulate cortex (-13.5 percent) and nucleus accumbens (-11.2 percent). Voxel-based analysis confirmed this decrease and regional pattern in CB1 receptor availability in cannabis users. These findings revealed that chronic cannabis use may alter specific regional CB1 receptor expression through neuroadaptive changes in CB1 receptor availability, opening the way for the examination of specific CB1 -cannabis addiction interactions which may predict future cannabis-related treatment outcome. PMID:24373053

Ceccarini, Jenny; Kuepper, Rebecca; Kemels, Dieter; van Os, Jim; Henquet, Cécile; Van Laere, Koen

2015-03-01

130

Synthetic Cannabis-Induced Mania  

Science.gov (United States)

Synthetic cannabinoids (SC), cannabinoid 1 and cannabinoid 2 receptors agonists, are the psychoactive substances. SC was originally produced to treat medical conditions. Compared to other narcotics, SC is easier to obtain, cheap, and highly potent and has a long half-life. In addition, routine analysis does not detect SC, which has led to widespread use. A case is presented that manic episode was developed with the use of SC. Hospitalization and admission to psychiatric units depending on SC use have been observed mostly with psychosis. Although SC-induced affective symptoms were mentioned in the literature, mania has not been reported before. We aimed to discuss the psychiatric conditions induced by widespread use of SC via our case. PMID:25838957

Ustundag, Mehmet Fatih; Ozhan Ibis, Esra; Yucel, Atakan; Ozcan, Halil

2015-01-01

131

Hemispheric language asymmetry in first episode psychosis and schizotypy: the role of cannabis consumption and cognitive disorganization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis use has been related to an elevated psychosis risk and attenuated cognitive functioning. Cannabis-related cognitive impairments are also observed in populations along the psychosis dimension. We here investigated whether a potential behavioral marker of the psychosis dimension (attenuated functional hemispheric asymmetry) is even further attenuated in individuals using cannabis (CU) vs those not using cannabis (nCU). We tested 29 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP; 11 CU) and 90 healthy controls (38 CU) on lateralized lexical decisions assessing left-hemisphere language dominance. In patients, psychotic symptoms were assessed by Positive & Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS). In controls, self-reported schizotypy was assessed (The Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences: O-LIFE). Results indicated that nCU FEP patients had a relative reduced hemispheric asymmetry, as did controls with increasing cognitive disorganization (CogDis) scores, in particular when belonging to the group of nCU controls. Positive, disorganized and negative PANSS scores in patients and negative and positive schizotypy in controls were unrelated to hemispheric asymmetry. These findings suggest that cannabis use potentially balances rather than exacerbates uncommon hemispheric laterality patterns. Moreover, in healthy populations, the potential stabilization of typical hemispheric asymmetry in CU might be most relevant to individuals with elevated CogDis. We discuss the potential beneficial and harmful effects of cannabis use along the psychosis dimension together with propositions for future studies that should account for the mediating role of additional substances (eg nicotine), cannabis composition (eg cannabidiol content), and individual differences (eg physical health, or absence of significant polysubstance use). PMID:25543118

Herzig, Daniela A; Sullivan, Sarah; Lewis, Glyn; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Drake, Richard; Evans, Jonathan; Nutt, David; Mohr, Christine

2015-03-01

132

Cannabis Reclassification: What Is the Message to the Next Generation of Cannabis Users?  

Science.gov (United States)

At the beginning of 2004 the UK government downgraded the legal status of cannabis from a Class B to a Class C drug. Following a review of this decision two years later, cannabis remained a Class C substance--which for some contrasted with the potential harmful social and health effects associated with its use, particularly for young people. These…

McCrystal, Patrick; Winning, Kerry

2009-01-01

133

Reprint of "Treatment of cannabis use disorders in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders--a systematic review"  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cannabis use disorders (CUD) are prevalent among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), with a range of detrimental effects, e.g. reduced compliance to medication and psychosocial interventions, and increased level of psychotic-dimension symptoms. The aim of this study was to review literature on treatments of CUD in SSD-patients.

HjorthØj, Carsten; Fohlmann, Allan

2009-01-01

134

Anormalidades cognitivas no uso da cannabis / Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evidências de que o uso de cannabis prejudica funções cognitivas em humanos têm-se acumulado nas décadas recentes. O propósito desta revisão é o de atualizar o conhecimento nesta área com novos achados a partir da literatura mais recente. MÉTODO: As buscas na literatura foram realizadas ut [...] ilizando-se o banco de dados Web of Science até fevereiro de 2010. Foram buscados os termos "cannabi*" ou "marijuana" e "cogniti*" ou "memory" ou "attention" ou "executive function", e os estudos em humanos foram revisados preferencialmente em relação aos estudos em animais. DISCUSSÃO: O uso de cannabis prejudica a memória, a atenção, o controle inibitório, as funções executivas e a tomada de decisões, tanto durante como após o período de intoxicação aguda, persistindo por horas, dias, semanas ou mais após o último uso. Os estudos de desafio farmacológico em humanos estão elucidando a natureza e os substratos neurais das alterações cognitivas associadas a vários canabinoides. O uso pesado ou de longo prazo de cannabis parece resultar em anormalidades cognitivas mais duradouras e possivelmente em alterações cerebrais estruturais. Efeitos cognitivos adversos maiores estão associados ao uso de cannabis quando este começa no início da adolescência. CONCLUSÃO: O sistema canabinoide endógeno está envolvido nos mecanismos de regulação neural que modulam os processos subjacentes a uma gama de funções cognitivas que estão prejudicadas pela cannabis. Os déficits em usuários humanos muito provavelmente refletem, portanto, neuroadaptações e o funcionamento alterado do sistema canabinoide endógeno. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. METHOD: Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science [...] database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. DISCUSSION: Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. CONCLUSION: The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

Nadia, Solowij; Nicole, Pesa.

2010-05-01

135

Anormalidades cognitivas no uso da cannabis Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evidências de que o uso de cannabis prejudica funções cognitivas em humanos têm-se acumulado nas décadas recentes. O propósito desta revisão é o de atualizar o conhecimento nesta área com novos achados a partir da literatura mais recente. MÉTODO: As buscas na literatura foram realizadas utilizando-se o banco de dados Web of Science até fevereiro de 2010. Foram buscados os termos "cannabi*" ou "marijuana" e "cogniti*" ou "memory" ou "attention" ou "executive function", e os estudos em humanos foram revisados preferencialmente em relação aos estudos em animais. DISCUSSÃO: O uso de cannabis prejudica a memória, a atenção, o controle inibitório, as funções executivas e a tomada de decisões, tanto durante como após o período de intoxicação aguda, persistindo por horas, dias, semanas ou mais após o último uso. Os estudos de desafio farmacológico em humanos estão elucidando a natureza e os substratos neurais das alterações cognitivas associadas a vários canabinoides. O uso pesado ou de longo prazo de cannabis parece resultar em anormalidades cognitivas mais duradouras e possivelmente em alterações cerebrais estruturais. Efeitos cognitivos adversos maiores estão associados ao uso de cannabis quando este começa no início da adolescência. CONCLUSÃO: O sistema canabinoide endógeno está envolvido nos mecanismos de regulação neural que modulam os processos subjacentes a uma gama de funções cognitivas que estão prejudicadas pela cannabis. Os déficits em usuários humanos muito provavelmente refletem, portanto, neuroadaptações e o funcionamento alterado do sistema canabinoide endógeno.OBJECTIVE: Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. METHOD: Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. DISCUSSION: Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. CONCLUSION: The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

Nadia Solowij

2010-05-01

136

Reactivity to Cannabis Cues in Virtual Reality Environments†  

OpenAIRE

Virtual reality (VR) cue environments have been developed and successfully tested in nicotine, cocaine, and alcohol abusers. Aims in the current article include the development and testing of a novel VR cannabis cue reactivity assessment system. It was hypothesized that subjective craving levels and attention to cannabis cues would be higher in VR environments merits with cannabis cues compared to VR neutral environments. Twenty nontreatment-seeking current cannabis smokers participated in th...

Bordnick, Patrick S.; Copp, Hilary L.; Traylor, Amy; Graap, Ken M.; Carter, Brian L.; Walton, Alicia; Ferrer, Mirtha

2009-01-01

137

THE EFFECT OF CANNABIS COMPARED WITH ALCOHOL ON DRIVING  

OpenAIRE

The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of toler...

Sewell, R. Andrew; Poling, James; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

2009-01-01

138

Application of medical cannabis in patients with the neurodegeneration disorders  

OpenAIRE

Medical cannabis is the dried flowers of the female Cannabis sativa L. plant. Cannabis contains a number of active elements, including dronabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Dronabinol is usually the main ingredient. The body’s own cannabinoid system has been identified. The discovery of this system, which comprises endocannabinoids and receptors, confirmed that cannabis has a positive effect on certain illnesses and conditions. Two types of cannabinoid receptors have been identified: CB1 ...

Lidia Kotu?a; Paulina Sobstyl; Jan Sobstyl; Paulina Chwil; Karol Terlecki; Jolanta Karwat; Paulina Gil-Kulik; Alicja Niedojad?o; Janusz Kocki

2014-01-01

139

Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Schizophrenia? A Balanced Neurochemical Framework for Both Adverse and Therapeutic Effects of Cannabis Use  

OpenAIRE

Recent studies have found that cannabinoids may improve neuropsychological performance, ameliorate negative symptoms, and have antipsychotic properties for a subgroup of the schizophrenia population. These findings are in contrast to the longstanding history of adverse consequences of cannabis use, predominantly on the positive symptoms, and a balanced neurochemical basis for these opposing views is lacking. This paper details a review of the neurobiological substrates of schizophrenia and th...

Malhi, Gin S.; Henderson, Antony F.; Michael Perdices; Coulston, Carissa M.

2011-01-01

140

Variations and origin of the atmospheric pollen of Cannabis detected in the province of Tetouan (NW Morocco): 2008-2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis, also called marihuana or hemp, is a wind-pollinated plant that produces hundreds of flowers on large inflorescences. It is also one of the oldest psychoactive plants known to humanity. Morocco has become one of the main producers of Cannabis resin (hashish), primarily supplying the European market. The aim of this paper is to ascertain whether the atmospheric monitoring of Cannabis pollen can play a role, from a criminological point of view, in the surveillance of Cannabis cultivation in the area of Tetouan (NW Morocco) as well as to estimate pollen emission so that the sensitive population can be warned about the allergic diseases that its pollen can cause. Aerobiological samplings were made with the aid of a Hirst type volumetric trap (Hirst, 1952), which worked uninterruptedly during a 3-year period (2008-2010) according to the methodology proposed by the Spanish Aerobiology Network, the REA. Cannabis pollen was present in the atmosphere of Tetouan mainly from early April to late August, a period in which about 95% of the annual counts were registered. The highest levels were detected in June and July, with concentrations more or less evenly distributed throughout the day with slight increases of 5% between 12:00 and 16:00 h. The strong association between skin test reactivity, respiratory symptoms, and pollination period found by other authors, together with the levels registered, suggests that Cannabis pollen could be a clinically important aeroallergen for sensitive patients. On the other hand, the data obtained could serve as an indicator of the cultivation activity of this species and should be taken into account by the state authorities since they provide strong evidence of the existence of Cannabis crops in the region of Tetouan. PMID:23208276

Aboulaich, Nadia; Trigo, M Mar; Bouziane, Hassan; Cabezudo, Baltasar; Recio, Marta; El Kadiri, Mohamed; Ater, Mohammed

2013-01-15

141

Consommation de cannabis: quels sont les risques ? Cannabis: what are the risks ?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les cannabinoïdes contenus dans la plante de cannabis ont un double usage et possèdent des propriétés opposées suivant les circonstances et les doses employées. Les cannabinoïdes, essentiellement drogue récréative ou d'abus pourraient, pour certains d'entre eux, devenir des médicaments. Selon les conditions d'utilisation, ils peuvent être neurotoxiques ou neuroprotecteurs, carcinogènes ou anticancéreux, hyper-émétiques ou antiémétiques, pro-inflammatoires ou anti-inflammatoires... Les techniques de culture sous serre indoor ainsi que la sélection de variétés de cannabis à fort potentiel de production ont conduit à un accroissement notable des taux de THC. Le cannabis est la drogue illégale la plus fréquemment consommée en Suisse et ailleurs dans le monde occidental. Environ la moitié des jeunes ont déjà expérimenté le cannabis. Environ 10 % des consommateurs le fument quotidiennement et en sont devenus dépendants. Un tiers de ces usagers peut être considéré comme chroniquement intoxiqué. Le THC, la principale substance psychoactive du cannabis, interagit avec le "système endocannabinoïde". Ce système est composé de récepteurs cellulaires, de ligands endogènes et d'un dispositif complexe de synthèse, de dégradation, de régulation et de messagers intra-cellulaires. Le système endocannabinoïde joue un rôle clé dans le réglage fin du système nerveux. Les endocannabinoïdes régulent la mémorisation, l'apprentissage moteur et la plasticité des liaisons nerveuses. À dose psychoactive, le THC réduit les performances psychomotrices et neurocognitives. Les facultés d'apprentissage et de mémorisation sont diminuées. Le risque d'être responsable d'un accident de circulation est augmenté après prise de cannabis, et ceci d'autant plus que de l'alcool aura été consommé parallèlement. À l'exception des jeunes enfants, la consommation de cannabis n'entraîne pas de risque potentiel d'intoxication mortelle. Toutefois, le cannabis pourrait agir comme facteur déclenchant d'accident cardiovasculaire chez de rares individus prédisposés. Les individus jeunes, et/ou vulnérables ont un risque significativement plus élevé de développer une psychose à l'âge adulte ou de devenir dépendant au cannabis. Des études épidémiologiques ont montré que le risque de développer une schizophrénie à l'âge adulte était augmenté pour les consommateurs de cannabis et ceci d'autant plus que l'âge de début de consommation était précoce. Il en va de même pour le risque de dépression. Les troubles respiratoires pourraient être exacerbés par la prise de cannabis. Les femmes enceintes et celles qui allaitent ne devraient pas consommer de cannabis car le THC traverse la barrière hémato-placentaire, en outre, il se concentre dans le lait maternel. La période de la vie la plus sensible aux effets néfastes du cannabis correspond à celle allant du fœtus à l'adolescent. Le système endocannabinoïde sur lequel agit le THC serait en effet un acteur majeur orchestrant le développement des réseaux neuronaux dans le cerveau immature. La prise concomitante d'autres psychotropes comme l'alcool, les benzodiazépines ou la cocaïne conduit à des renforcements mutuels de leurs effets délétères. De plus, il a été montré l'existence d'une sensibilité croisée pour la majorité des psychotropes qui agissent sur le système de la récompense, le cannabis y compris, ce qui augmente ainsi le risque de pharmacodépendance. La prise régulière de doses élevées de cannabis entraîne l'apparition d'une tolérance et de symptômes de sevrage discrets à l'arrêt de la consommation. À part les effets négatifs mentionnés auparavant, le cannabis possède des propriétés médicales originales qui sont l'objet d'études attentives. Plusieurs cannabinoïdes mineurs naturels ou synthétiques, comme l'acide ajulémique, pourraient trouver un jour une place dans la pharmacopée. En usage thérapeutique, des variétés particulières de cannabis sont préférées, par

Giroud Christian

2009-03-01

142

Methamphetamine and cannabis abuse in adolescence: a quasi-experimental study on specific and long-term neurocognitive effects  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives Methamphetamine abuse affects brain structure and function. Although methamphetamine and cannabis are commonly abused together, few studies have investigated the differential neurocognitive consequences of methamphetamine abuse with or without cannabis. Furthermore, the effects of drug use on the developing adolescent brain remain poorly understood. We compared neurocognitive function between adolescents with ‘pure’ methamphetamine abuse, those with comorbid methamphetamine and cannabis abuse, and healthy controls at baseline and follow-up. Methods Individuals residing in the greater Cape Town region, between the ages of 13 and 18?years, were recruited into either Methamphetamine only group (Meth-only; n=10), Methamphetamine and cannabis group (Meth-cann; n=10) or healthy control (n=20) groups using a quasi-experimental design. All participants underwent a comprehensive neurocognitive assessment. Substance-use variables and psychiatric symptom counts were also recorded. A portion of the Meth-only and control participants completed 12-month follow-up assessments. Results While the Meth-cann group demonstrated widespread neurocognitive deficits at baseline, these deficits were restricted to the self-monitoring domain in the Meth-only group at baseline and at follow-up. Conclusions Methamphetamine abuse with cannabis abuse is associated with significantly more neurocognitive impairment than methamphetamine abuse alone, and such deficits may be enduring. PMID:25636791

Cuzen, Natalie L; Koopowitz, Sheri-Michelle; Ferrett, Helen L; Stein, Dan J; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

2015-01-01

143

Oral fluid/plasma cannabinoid ratios following controlled oral THC and smoked cannabis administration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral fluid (OF) is a valuable biological alternative for clinical and forensic drug testing. Evaluating OF to plasma (OF/P) cannabinoid ratios provides important pharmacokinetic data on the disposition of drug and factors influencing partition between matrices. Eleven chronic cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit for 51 days. There were four 5-day sessions of 0, 30, 60, and 120 mg oral ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/day followed by a five-puff smoked cannabis challenge on Day 5. Each session was separated by 9 days ad libitum cannabis smoking. OF and plasma specimens were analyzed for THC and metabolites. During ad libitum smoking, OF/P THC ratios were high (median, 6.1; range, 0.2-348.5) within 1 h after last smoking, decreasing to 0.1-20.7 (median, 2.1) by 13.0-17.1 h. OF/P THC ratios also decreased during 5-days oral THC dosing, and after the smoked cannabis challenge, median OF/P THC ratios decreased from 1.4 to 5.5 (0.04-245.6) at 0.25 h to 0.12 to 0.17 (0.04-5.1) at 10.5 h post-smoking. In other studies, longer exposure to more potent cannabis smoke and oromucosal cannabis spray was associated with increased OF/P THC peak ratios. Median OF/P 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) ratios were 0.3-2.5 (range, 0.1-14.7) ng/?g, much more consistent in various dosing conditions over time. OF/P THC, but not THCCOOH, ratios were significantly influenced by oral cavity contamination after smoking or oromucosal spray of cannabinoid products, followed by time-dependent decreases. Establishing relationships between OF and plasma cannabinoid concentrations is essential for making inferences of impairment or other clinical outcomes from OF concentrations. PMID:23831756

Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Milman, Garry; Bergamaschi, Mateus; Mendu, Damodara R; Murray, Jeannie A; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

2013-09-01

144

Anthrax: Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Anthrax Share Compartir Symptoms The symptoms of anthrax depend on the type of infection and can ... than 2 months to appear. All types of anthrax have the potential, if untreated, to spread throughout ...

145

Counselling young cannabis users by text message  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article presents the results of a study of two SMS services aimed at providing young people with information on cannabis and helping them to reduce their consumption of the drug. The attitude of the 12 participants in the study towards the SMS services is generally positive, but they prefer factual information to advice and counselling. The messages prompt reflection and awareness among the recipients, and their repetitive, serial nature plays a significant part in the process of change. This is especially true of the young people whose use of cannabis is recreational. For them, the SMS services offer a less demanding, potentially less confrontational alternative to traditional forms of counselling and treatment.

Laursen, Ditte

2010-01-01

146

Pathways from cannabis to psychosis: a review of the evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nature of the relationship between cannabis use and psychosis is complex and remains unclear. Researchers and clinicians remain divided regarding key issues such as whether or not cannabis is an independent cause of psychosis and schizophrenia. This paper reviews the field in detail, examining questions of causality, the neurobiological basis for such causality and for differential inter-individual risk, the clinical and cognitive features of psychosis in cannabis users, and patterns of course and outcome of psychosis in the context of cannabis use. The author proposes two major pathways from cannabis to psychosis based on a differentiation between early-initiated lifelong cannabis use and a scenario where vulnerable individuals without a lifelong pattern of use consume cannabis over a relatively brief period of time just prior to psychosis onset. Additional key factors determining the clinical and neurobiological manifestation of psychosis as well as course and outcome in cannabis users include: underlying genetic and developmental vulnerability to schizophrenia-spectrum disorders; and whether or not cannabis use ceases or continues after the onset of psychosis. Finally, methodological guidelines are presented for future research aimed at both elucidating the pathways that lead from cannabis to psychosis and clarifying the long-term outcome of the disorder in those who have a history of using cannabis.

JonathanKBurns

2013-10-01

147

Increased Blood Pressure Following Abrupt Cessation of Daily Cannabis Use  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. Acute cannabis administration increases blood pressure and heart rate and tolerance develops to these effects with heavy use. A valid and reliable withdrawal syndrome occurs in most daily users, but few studies have assessed the cardiovascular effects of withdrawal. The objective of this report is to describe unexpected changes in cardiovascular function during brief periods of supervised cannabis use and abstinence in daily cannabis users. Methods A within-subjects ABAC crossover study in which inpatient volunteers smoked cannabis ad-libitum (A), and abstained from cannabis (B/C). Vital signs were obtained three times daily during eleven inpatient days for thirteen daily cannabis users (11 Male, 8 African American). Results Blood pressure increased significantly during periods of cannabis abstinence compared with periods of cannabis use. The magnitude of increase was substantial in a subset (N=6) of participants, with mean increases of up to 22.8mmHg systolic and 12.3mmHg diastolic blood pressure observed. Heart rate also increased during abstinence when measures collected during periods of acute intoxication were excluded, but the magnitude of effect was not clinically significant. Conclusions Abrupt cessation of heavy cannabis use may cause clinically significant increases in blood pressure in a subset of users. Blood pressure should be monitored among those attempting to reduce or quit frequent cannabis use, particularly those with preexisting hypertension. The time course of this effect is currently unknown and requires further study. PMID:21359104

Vandrey, Ryan; Umbricht, Annie; Strain, Eric C.

2010-01-01

148

Ammonia release from heated "street" cannabis leaf and its potential toxic effects on cannabis users.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 103, ?. 10 (2008), s. 1671-1677. ISSN 0965-2140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : ammonia * cannabis * respiratory Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.244, year: 2008

Bloor, R.; Wang, T. S.; Špan?l, Patrik; Smith, D.

2008-01-01

149

The cannabis and the endocannabinoid system. Psychotropic and metabolic effects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evidence has been provided that a sustained use (smoking of cannabis (indian hemp, marijuana leads to impaired psychomotor performance, interacting and interfering with the organism’s endocannabinoid system. The effects are dependent on the used dose and the duration of such a habit and about one in ten consumers may develop dependence. More accentuated adverse effects were recorded in subjects with preexistent psychiatric illness and schizofrenics were found to be particularly vulne-rable to cannabis, which triggered relapses and aggravation. The endocannabinoid system includes specific receptors (CB1 and CB2 and the lipidic endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoilglycerol (2-AG, acting as activating ligands for the specific receptors. Enzymes ensuring the synthesis, as well as enyzmes involved in the degradation of endocannabinoids were also identified. A hyperactivation of this system leads to an exagerated appetite, hyperphagia, and subsequent obesity as well as to the development of an atherogenic dyslipidemia. The synthetic compound rimonabant, a blocker of the CB1 receptor reduced the exagerated appetite and the body weight, also normalising the plasma lipoprotein pattern. Unfortunately, adverse effects of such a therapy were reported emphasizing an increased incidence of depressive and/or anxious moods. Such observations were suggesting that the endo-cannabinoid system may also be involved in establishing a stable statisfied mood and connexions between this system and serotoninergic mediation were actually documented.

Romana Vulturar

2011-11-01

150

Anormalidades cognitivas no uso da cannabis Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use  

OpenAIRE

OBJETIVO: Evidências de que o uso de cannabis prejudica funções cognitivas em humanos têm-se acumulado nas décadas recentes. O propósito desta revisão é o de atualizar o conhecimento nesta área com novos achados a partir da literatura mais recente. MÉTODO: As buscas na literatura foram realizadas utilizando-se o banco de dados Web of Science até fevereiro de 2010. Foram buscados os termos "cannabi*" ou "marijuana" e "cogniti*" ou "memory" ou "attention" ou "executive function", e o...

Nadia Solowij; Nicole Pesa

2010-01-01

151

Low efficacy of non-opioid drugs in opioid withdrawal symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Opioid withdrawal, stress or cues associated with opioid consumption can induce opioid craving. If opioids are not available, opioid-dependent patients usually search for alternative drugs. Because several non-opioid drugs stimulate the endogenous opioidergic system, this concept may explain their frequent use by opioid-dependent patients. We hypothesized that non-opioid drugs alleviate opioid withdrawal symptoms and are therefore consumed by opioid addicts. We asked 89 opioid-dependent patients participating in an out-patient opioid maintenance program to estimate the potential of several non-opioid drugs in being able to alleviate opioid withdrawal. We applied a five-point Lickert scale (1 = very good reduction of opioid withdrawal; 5 = no reduction of opioid withdrawal). Patients could also indicate a worsening of opioid withdrawal. Values (mean +/- SD) were: for benzodiazepines, 3.2 +/- 1.1; tricyclic antidepressants, 3.6 +/- 1.1; cannabis, 3.6 +/- 1.0; alcohol, 4.1 +/- 1.1; cocaine, 4.2 +/- 1.1; amphetamine, 4.4 +/- 0.9; nicotine, 4.7 +/- 0.7; and caffeine, 4.9 +/- 0.5. A worsening of opioid withdrawal was reported by 62% of the patients for cocaine, 62% for amphetamine, 50% for caffeine, 37.5% for cannabis, 27% for nicotine, 26% for alcohol, 8% for tricyclic antidepressants and 3% for benzodiazepines. Our study shows a low efficacy of non-opioid drugs in alleviating opioid withdrawal symptoms. The data basis of this study was good and the sample was suitable to be asked for estimations of drug-drug interactions. Of the patients, 26 - 62% even reported a worsening of opioid withdrawal for cannabis, alcohol, cocaine and amphetamine. Only benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants were reported to have a moderate positive effect on opioid withdrawal. PMID:16191669

Hermann, Derik; Klages, Eckard; Welzel, Helga; Mann, Karl; Croissant, Bernhard

2005-06-01

152

Investigations into the hypothesis of transgenic cannabis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The unusual concentration of cannabinoids recently found in marijuana samples submitted to the forensic laboratory for chemical analysis prompted an investigation into whether genetic modifications have been made to the DNA of Cannabis sativa L. to increase its potency. Traditional methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMO) were used to analyze herbal cannabis preparations. Our analyses support the hypothesis that marijuana samples submitted to forensic laboratories and characterized by an abnormal level of ?(9)-THC are the product of breeding selection rather than of transgenic modifications. Further, this research has shown a risk of false positive results associated with the poor quality of the seized samples and probably due to the contamination by other transgenic vegetable products. On the other hand, based on these data, a conclusive distinction between the hypothesis of GMO plant contamination and the other of genetic modification of cannabis cannot be made requiring further studies on comparative chemical and genetic analyses to find out an explanation for the recently detected increased potency of cannabis. PMID:22211569

Cascini, Fidelia

2012-05-01

153

Tobacco and cannabis smoking cessation can lead to intoxication with clozapine or olanzapine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma levels of clozapine and olanzapine are lower in smokers than in nonsmokers, which is mainly due to induction of cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) by some smoke constituents. Smoking cessation in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs that are CYP1A2 substrates may result in increased plasma levels of the drug and, consequently, in adverse drug effects. Two cases of patients who smoked tobacco and cannabis are reported. The first patient, who was receiving clozapine treatment, developed confusion after tobacco and cannabis smoking cessation, which was related to increased clozapine plasma levels. The second patient, who was receiving olanzapine treatment, showed important extrapyramidal motor symptoms after reducing his tobacco consumption. The clinical implication of these observations is that smoking patients treated with CYP1A2 substrate antipsychotics should regularly be monitored with regard to their smoking consumption in order to adjust doses in cases of a reduction or increase in smoking. PMID:11981356

Zullino, D F; Delessert, D; Eap, C B; Preisig, M; Baumann, P

2002-05-01

154

Reactivity to cannabis cues in virtual reality environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Virtual reality (VR) cue environments have been developed and successfully tested in nicotine, cocaine, and alcohol abusers. Aims in the current article include the development and testing of a novel VR cannabis cue reactivity assessment system. It was hypothesized that subjective craving levels and attention to cannabis cues would be higher in VR environments with cannabis cues compared to VR neutral environments. Twenty nontreatment-seeking current cannabis smokers participated in the VR cue trial. During the VR cue trial, participants were exposed to four virtual environments that contained audio, visual, olfactory, and vibrotactile sensory stimuli. Two VR environments contained cannabis cues that consisted of a party room in which people were smoking cannabis and a room containing cannabis paraphernalia without people. Two VR neutral rooms without cannabis cues consisted of a digital art gallery with nature videos. Subjective craving and attention to cues were significantly higher in the VR cannabis environments compared to the VR neutral environments. These findings indicate that VR cannabis cue reactivity may offer a new technology-based method to advance addiction research and treatment. PMID:19705672

Bordnick, Patrick S; Copp, Hilary L; Traylor, Amy; Graap, Ken M; Carter, Brian L; Walton, Alicia; Ferrer, Mirtha

2009-06-01

155

Genetic predisposition to schizophrenia associated with increased use of cannabis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide. With debate surrounding the legalization and control of use, investigating its health risks has become a pressing area of research. One established association is that between cannabis use and schizophrenia, a debilitating psychiatric disorder affecting ~1% of the population over their lifetime. Although considerable evidence implicates cannabis use as a component cause of schizophrenia, it remains unclear whether this is entirely due to cannabis directly raising risk of psychosis, or whether the same genes that increases psychosis risk may also increase risk of cannabis use. In a sample of 2082 healthy individuals, we show an association between an individual's burden of schizophrenia risk alleles and use of cannabis. This was significant both for comparing those who have ever versus never used cannabis (P=2.6 × 10(-4)), and for quantity of use within users (P=3.0 × 10(-3)). Although directly predicting only a small amount of the variance in cannabis use, these findings suggest that part of the association between schizophrenia and cannabis is due to a shared genetic aetiology. This form of gene-environment correlation is an important consideration when calculating the impact of environmental risk factors, including cannabis use. PMID:24957864

Power, R A; Verweij, K J H; Zuhair, M; Montgomery, G W; Henders, A K; Heath, A C; Madden, P A F; Medland, S E; Wray, N R; Martin, N G

2014-11-01

156

The effect of cannabis use on memory function: an update  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tabea Schoeler, Sagnik BhattacharyyaDepartment of Psychosis Studies, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UKAbstract: Investigating the effects of cannabis use on memory function appears challenging. While early observational investigations aimed to elucidate the longer-term effects of cannabis use on memory function in humans, findings remained equivocal and pointed to a pattern of interacting factors impacting on the relationship between cannabis use and memory function, rather than a simple direct effect of cannabis. Only recently, a clearer picture of the chronic and acute effects of cannabis use on memory function has emerged once studies have controlled for potential confounding factors and started to investigate the acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC and cannabidiol (CBD, the main ingredients in the extract of the cannabis plant in pharmacological challenge experiments. Relatively consistent findings have been reported regarding the acute impairments induced by a single dose of ?9-THC on verbal and working memory. It is unclear whether they may persist beyond the intoxication state. In the long-term, these impairments seem particularly likely to manifest and may also persist following abstinence if regular and heavy use of cannabis strains high in ?9-THC is started at an early age. Although still at an early stage, studies that employed advanced neuroimaging techniques have started to model the neural underpinnings of the effects of cannabis use and implicate a network of functional and morphological alterations that may moderate the effects of cannabis on memory function. Future experimental and epidemiological studies that take into consideration individual differences, particularly previous cannabis history and demographic characteristics, but also the precise mixture of the ingredients of the consumed cannabis are necessary to clarify the magnitude and the mechanisms by which cannabis-induced memory impairments occur and to elucidate underlying neurobiological mechanisms.Keywords: cannabis, THC, CBD, memory, neuroimaging, fMRI

Schoeler T

2013-01-01

157

Oral fluid cannabinoids in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum cannabis smoking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral fluid (OF) offers a simple, non-invasive, directly observable sample collection for clinical and forensic drug testing. Given that chronic cannabis smokers often engage in drug administration multiple times daily, evaluating OF cannabinoid pharmacokinetics during ad libitum smoking is important for practical development of analytical methods and informed interpretation of test results. Eleven cannabis smokers resided in a closed research unit for 51?days, and underwent four, 5-day oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) treatments. Each medication period was separated by 9?days of ad libitum cannabis smoking from 12:00 to 23:00?h daily. Ten OF samples were collected from 9:00-22:00?h on each of the last ad libitum smoking days (Study Days 4, 18, 32, and 46). As the number of cannabis cigarettes smoked increased over the study days, OF THC, cannabinol (CBN), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) also increased with a significant effect of time since last smoking (?time; range, 0.0-17.4?h) and ?88% detection rates; concentrations on Day 4 were significantly lower than those on Days 32 and 46 but not Day 18. Within 30?min of smoking, median THC, CBN, and THCCOOH concentrations were 689?µg/L, 116?µg/L, and 147?ng/L, respectively, decreasing to 19.4?µg/L, 2.4?µg/L, and 87.6?ng/L after 10?h. Cannabidiol and 11-hydroxy-THC showed overall lower detection rates of 29 and 8.6%, respectively. Cannabinoid disposition in OF was highly influenced by ?time and composition of smoked cannabis. Furthermore, cannabinoid OF concentrations increased over ad libitum smoking days, in parallel with increased cannabis self-administration, possibly reflecting development of increased cannabis tolerance. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25220020

Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Mendu, Damodara R; Murray, Jeannie A; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

2014-09-14

158

Mortality in GOLD stages of COPD and its dependence on symptoms of chronic bronchitis  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The GOLD classification of COPD severity introduces a stage 0 (at risk) comprising individuals with productive cough and normal lung function. The aims of this study were to investigate total mortality risks in GOLD stages 0–4 with special focus on stage 0, and furthermore to assess the influence of symptoms of chronic bronchitis on mortality risks in GOLD stages 1–4. Method Between 1974 and 1992, a total of 22 044 middle-aged individuals participated in a health scree...

Nilsson Peter M; Nilsson Jan-Åke; Pehrsson Kerstin; Ekberg-Aronsson Marie; Löfdahl Claes-Göran

2005-01-01

159

Poor School Satisfaction and Number of Cannabis Using Peers within School Classes as Individual Risk Factors for Cannabis Use among Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

There is little information available on the topic of poor school satisfaction as a risk factor for cannabis use among adolescents. We examined if there was an association between poor school satisfaction, school class cannabis use and individual cannabis use. Further, we investigated if many cannabis users within the school class statistically…

Hoff, Dominic A.; Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjorn E.

2010-01-01

160

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) as an Environmentally Friendly Energyplant  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemp is suitable as a renewable energy resource. The aim of this study was to clarify local hemp's (Cannabis sativa L.) possibilities for energy use. Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and titanium (Ti) presence in hemp was determined using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer Optima 2100 DV. If there were increased N fertilizer rates, there were increased hemp `P?ri?i' seeds and shive yield increases, but the oil content was reduced. Arsenic content was higher in the shives than in the stems with fibre. The ash content depends on non-organic substances which the plants absorb during the vegetation season. The lignin content depends on several factors: plant parts, and the N fertilizer rate. The unexplored factors have a great effect on the ash and lignin content. Hemp is suitable for cultivation and for bio-energy production in the agro-climatic conditions in Latvia.

Poisa, Liena; Adamovics, Aleksandrs

2010-01-01

161

Exposure to the tsunami disaster, PTSD symptoms and increased substance use – an Internet based survey of male and female residents of Switzerland  

Science.gov (United States)

Background After the tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean basin an Internet based self-screening test was made available in order to facilitate contact with mental health services. Although primarily designed for surviving Swiss tourists as well as relatives and acquaintances of the victims, the screening instrument was open to anyone who felt psychologically affected by this disaster. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influences between self-declared increased substance use in the aftermath of the tsunami disaster, trauma exposure and current PTSD symptoms. Methods One section of the screening covered addiction related behavior. We analyzed the relationship between increased substance use, the level of PTSD symptoms and trauma exposure using multivariable logistic regression with substance use as the dependent variable. Included in the study were only subjects who reported being residents of Switzerland and the analyses were stratified by gender in order to control for possible socio-cultural or gender differences in the use of psychotropic substances. Results In women PTSD symptoms and degree of exposure enlarged the odds of increased alcohol, pharmaceuticals and cannabis use significantly. In men the relationship was more specific: PTSD symptoms and degree of exposure only enlarged the odds of increased pharmaceutical consumption significantly. Increases in alcohol, cannabis and tobacco use were only significantly associated with the degree of PTSD symptoms. Conclusion The tsunami was associated with increased substance use. This study not only replicates earlier findings but also suggests for a gender specificity of post-traumatic substance use increase. PMID:18366682

Vetter, Stefan; Rossegger, Astrid; Rossler, Wulf; Bisson, Jonathan I; Endrass, Jerome

2008-01-01

162

Yield and turnover of illicit indoor cannabis (Cannabis spp.) plantations in Belgium.  

Science.gov (United States)

In prosecution, Belgian judiciary currently uses outdated yield figures (28.1g per plant, sold at € 3/g at grower level) for fining illicit indoor cannabis plantations. Using state-of-the-art cultivation techniques, our growth experiments showed that yield is better expressed in g/m(2) cultivated surface area rather than in g per plant, and that yield varies significantly between different cannabis strains. It was found that the lower-bound of the one-sided 95% confidence interval of the yield of an indoor cannabis plantation can be set at 575 g/m(2). Prices and pricing mechanisms were investigated using interviews with respondents selected through snowball sampling. Results reveal that (i) the Belgian cannabis market chain is highly complex; (ii) unit prices are predominantly determined by transaction sizes; but also (iii) a set of product- and socially-related price-fixing mechanisms have an equally important role. At grower level, respondents reported prices for 1 g of dry cannabis buds to range € 3.00-4.25. PMID:22502940

Vanhove, Wouter; Surmont, Tim; Van Damme, Patrick; De Ruyver, Brice

2012-07-10

163

Cannabis use correlates with schizotypy in healthy people.  

OpenAIRE

Cannabis use or high scores on self-report schizotypy questionnaires predict an increased risk of developing clinical psychosis. We tested whether cannabis use correlated with schizotypal and other personality traits in 211 healthy adults. Subjects who had used cannabis showed higher scores on schizotypy, borderline and psychoticism scales than never-users. Multivariate analysis, covarying lie scale scores, age and educational level indicated that high schizotypal traits best discriminated su...

Williams, Jh; Wellman, Na; Rawlins, Jn

1996-01-01

164

Cannabis use and violence:Is there a link?  

OpenAIRE

While several studies suggest that cannabis users are at increased risk of interpersonal violence, it is not clear to what extent the association is causal. Our paper aims to assess the association between cannabis use and violence by using a method that diminishes the risk of confounding. Methods: We analysed data on cannabis use and violent behaviour from the second (1994) and third (1999) waves of the Young in Norway Longitudinal Study (cumulative response rate: 68.1%, n = 2681). We applie...

Norstro?m, Thor; Rossow, Ingeborg

2014-01-01

165

Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic  

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Full Text Available Abstract More people are using the cannabis plant as modern basic and clinical science reaffirms and extends its medicinal uses. Concomitantly, concern and opposition to smoked medicine has occurred, in part due to the known carcinogenic consequences of smoking tobacco. Are these reactions justified? While chemically very similar, there are fundamental differences in the pharmacological properties between cannabis and tobacco smoke. Cannabis smoke contains cannabinoids whereas tobacco smoke contains nicotine. Available scientific data, that examines the carcinogenic properties of inhaling smoke and its biological consequences, suggests reasons why tobacco smoke, but not cannabis smoke, may result in lung cancer.

Melamede Robert

2005-10-01

166

Cannabis use during adolescent development: susceptibility to psychiatric illness  

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Full Text Available Cannabis use is increasingly pervasive among adolescents today, even more common than cigarette smoking. The evolving policy surrounding the legalization of cannabis reaffirms the need to understand the relationship between cannabis exposure early in life and psychiatric illnesses. Cannabis contains psychoactive components, notably ?9-tetrahydrocannbinol (THC, that interfere with the brain’s endogenous endocannabinoid system, which is critically involved in both pre- and post-natal neurodevelopment. Consequently, THC and related compounds could potentially usurp normal adolescent neurodevelopment, shifting the brain’s developmental trajectory towards a disease-vulnerable state, predisposing early cannabis-users to motivational, affective and psychotic disorders. Numerous human studies, including prospective longitudinal studies, demonstrate that early cannabis use is associated with major depressive disorder and drug addiction. A strong association between schizophrenia and cannabis use is also apparent, especially when considering genetic factors that interact with this environmental exposure. These human studies set a foundation for carefully controlled animal studies which demonstrate similar patterns following early cannabinoid exposure. Given the vulnerable nature of adolescent neurodevelopment and the persistent changes that follow early cannabis exposure, the experimental findings outlined should be carefully considered by policymakers. In order to fully address the growing issues of psychiatric illnesses and to ensure a healthy future, measures should be taken to reduce cannabis use among teens.

MichaelLawrenceMiller

2013-10-01

167

Gross morphological brain changes with chronic, heavy cannabis use.  

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We investigated the morphology of multiple brain regions in a rare sample of 15 very heavy cannabis users with minimal psychiatric comorbidity or significant exposure to other substances (compared with 15 age- and IQ-matched non-cannabis-using controls) using manual techniques. Heavy cannabis users demonstrated smaller hippocampus and amygdala volumes, but no alterations of the orbitofrontal and anterior- and paracingulate cortices, or the pituitary gland. These findings indicate that chronic cannabis use has a selective and detrimental impact on the morphology of the mediotemporal lobe. PMID:25431432

Lorenzetti, Valentina; Solowij, Nadia; Whittle, Sarah; Fornito, Alex; Lubman, Dan I; Pantelis, Christos; Yücel, Murat

2015-01-01

168

Cannabis smoke condensate II: influence of tobacco on tetrahydrocannabinol levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal cannabis has attracted a lot of attention in recent times. Various forms of administration are used, of which smoking is very common but the least desirable. Smoking cannabis generates a large amount of unwanted side products, of which carcinogenic compounds are the most dangerous. A common practice among recreational drug users, and to a lesser degree patients who uses cannabis as medicine, is to mix the cannabis material with commercially available tobacco in order to increase the burning efficiency of the cigarette and to reduce the overall costs of the cigarette. In this study cannabis material has been mixed with tobacco in order to determine whether tobacco has an influence on the amount of and ratio between tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabigerol (CBG), and cannabinol (CBN) administered while smoking. A small-scale smoking machine has been used and cannabis mixed with various ratios of tobacco was smoked. The trapped smoke was quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the amount of THC, CBG, and CBN was determined for each cigarette. We have found that tobacco increases the amount of THC inhaled per gram of cannabis from 32.70 +/- 2.29 mg/g for a 100% cannabis cigarette to 58.90 +/- 2.30 mg/g for a 25% cannabis cigarette. This indicates that tobacco increases the vaporization efficiency of THC by as much as 45% under the conditions tested. PMID:18855154

Van der Kooy, F; Pomahacova, B; Verpoorte, R

2009-02-01

169

Etat limite, adolescence, cannabis et cocaïne  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Borderline, teenagers, cannabis and cocaine. Teenagers are fond of psychoactive products. Somme of them, according to their personality, go to the limits of their psychic structure. In the practical field, we can often observe the revealing of borderline states, very different from the usual problem [...] atic teenagers. Psychoactive substances, used for the first time as anxiolytics, become quickly a cause of anxiety, therefore revealing the subjects in borderline states.

Didier, Lauru.

2014-08-01

170

LONG TERM EFFECTS OF CANNABIS1  

OpenAIRE

50 chronic cannabis users were studied for their physical, mental, cognitive and socio-economic aspects of health. They were given W.M.S., Bhatia Battery of intelligence and B.G.T. It was observed that only 12% provided clue for suspecting cognitive deficiency. No social breakdown phenomenon was observed in the sample. Also, no significant physical illness was detected in the subjects.

Sethi, B. B.; Trivedi, J. K.; Singh, Harjeet

1981-01-01

171

Lifecourse SEP and tobacco and cannabis use  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Social inequalities in substance use have been well-documented; however, the impact of changes in socio-economic position from childhood to adulthood is unclear. We examined the relationship between intergenerational trajectories of social position and tobacco and cannabis use among young adults. METHODS: Data come from 1103 participants (mean age: 28.9 years) of the Trajectoires Epidémiologiques en Population (TEMPO) study and their parents, participants of the GAZEL study, Fran...

Bowes, Lucy; Chollet, Aude; Fombonne, Eric; Gale?ra, Ce?dric; Melchior, Maria

2012-01-01

172

Distress, coping, and drug law enforcement in a series of patients using medical cannabis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients using medical cannabis in the United States inhabit a conflicting medicolegal space. This study presents data from a dispensary-based survey of patients using medical cannabis in the state of Washington regarding cannabis-specific health behaviors, levels of psychological distress, stress regarding marijuana criminality, past experiences with drug law enforcement, and coping behaviors. Thirty-seven subjects were enrolled in this study, and all but three completed survey materials. The median index of psychological distress, as measured by the Behavioral Symptom Inventory, was nearly 2.5 times higher than that found in a general population sample but one third less than that found in an outpatient sample. The subjects reported a moderate amount of stress related to the criminality of marijuana, with 76% reporting previous exposure to 119 separate drug law enforcement tactics in total. The subjects reported a wide range of coping methods, and their responses to a modified standardized survey showed the confounding influence of legality in assessing substance-related disorders. PMID:23538974

Aggarwal, Sunil Kumar; Carter, Gregory; Sullivan, Mark; Morrill, Richard; Zumbrunnen, Craig; Mayer, Jonathan

2013-04-01

173

The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis  

OpenAIRE

The therapeutic potential of cannabidiol (CBD), the major nonpsychoactive component of cannabis, was explored in murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was elicited by immunizing DBA/1 mice with type II collagen (CII) in complete Freund's adjuvant. The CII used was either bovine or murine, resulting in classical acute CIA or in chronic relapsing CIA, respectively. CBD was administered after onset of clinical symptoms, and in both models of arthritis the treatment effectively blocked pro...

Malfait, Am; Gallily, R.; Sumariwalla, Pf; Malik, As; Andreakos, E.; Mechoulam, R.; Feldmann, M.

2000-01-01

174

Self-reported efficacy of cannabis and other complementary medicine modalities by Parkinson's disease patients in colorado.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used by Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We sought to provide information on CAM use and efficacy in PD patients in the Denver metro area with particular attention to cannabis use given its recent change in legal status. Methods. Self-administered surveys on CAM use and efficacy were completed by PD patients identified in clinics and support groups across the Denver metro area between 2012 and 2013. Results. 207 patients (age 69 ± 11; 60% male) completed the survey. Responses to individual CAM therapy items showed that 85% of respondents used at least one form of CAM. The most frequently reported CAMs were vitamins (66%), prayer (59%), massage (45%), and relaxation (32%). Self-reported improvement related to the use of CAM was highest for massage, art therapy, music therapy, and cannabis. While only 4.3% of our survey responders reported use of cannabis, it ranked among the most effective CAM therapies. Conclusions. Overall, our cross-sectional study was notable for a high rate of CAM utilization amongst PD patients and high rates of self-reported efficacy across most CAM modalities. Cannabis was rarely used in our population but users reported high efficacy, mainly for nonmotor symptoms. PMID:25821504

Finseth, Taylor Andrew; Hedeman, Jessica Louise; Brown, Robert Preston; Johnson, Kristina I; Binder, Matthew Sean; Kluger, Benzi M

2015-01-01

175

Legalising medical use of cannabis in South Africa: Is the empirical evidence sufficient to support policy shifts in this direction?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Inkatha Freedom Party MP Mario Oriani-Ambrosini's impassioned plea to legalise the medical use of cannabis must be understood in the context of his own condition as well as legislative changes in at least ten countries. This article argues that any decisions to shift policy must be based on a consid [...] eration of the evidence on the risks and benefits associated with the medical use of cannabis for the individual and broader society. It concludes that there are important gaps in the evidence base, particularly in human trials supporting the efficacy of cannabis use for treating and preventing medical conditions and alleviating negative symptoms associated with these conditions. South African researchers should be enabled actively to support development of the necessary evidence base by conducting preclinical and clinical research in this area. Human trials to establish the efficacy of the use of cannabis/cannabinoids in addressing AIDS wasting syndrome and other negative sequelae of HIV and AIDS are especially needed.

C D H, Parry; B J, Myers.

2014-06-01

176

Self-Reported Efficacy of Cannabis and Other Complementary Medicine Modalities by Parkinson's Disease Patients in Colorado  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used by Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We sought to provide information on CAM use and efficacy in PD patients in the Denver metro area with particular attention to cannabis use given its recent change in legal status. Methods. Self-administered surveys on CAM use and efficacy were completed by PD patients identified in clinics and support groups across the Denver metro area between 2012 and 2013. Results. 207 patients (age 69 ± 11; 60% male) completed the survey. Responses to individual CAM therapy items showed that 85% of respondents used at least one form of CAM. The most frequently reported CAMs were vitamins (66%), prayer (59%), massage (45%), and relaxation (32%). Self-reported improvement related to the use of CAM was highest for massage, art therapy, music therapy, and cannabis. While only 4.3% of our survey responders reported use of cannabis, it ranked among the most effective CAM therapies. Conclusions. Overall, our cross-sectional study was notable for a high rate of CAM utilization amongst PD patients and high rates of self-reported efficacy across most CAM modalities. Cannabis was rarely used in our population but users reported high efficacy, mainly for nonmotor symptoms.

Finseth, Taylor Andrew; Hedeman, Jessica Louise; Brown, Robert Preston; Johnson, Kristina I.; Binder, Matthew Sean; Kluger, Benzi M.

2015-01-01

177

Cannabinoid hyperemesis should be recognised as an effect of chronic cannabis abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we describe the second reported case of cannabinoid hyperemesis in UK. A 42 years old patient presented on more than one occasion with vomiting, abdominal pain, fever and dehydration and treated as sepsis with antibiotics. Extensive investigations including upper GI endoscopy, colonoscopy, chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasound, abdominal CT scan, barium swallow and echocardiogram; all reported normal. Once the diagnosis of cannabinoid hyperemesis was established, he was advised to abstain from cannabis use resulting in complete resolution of his symptoms. PMID:25120899

Ishaq, Sauid; Ismail, Sanaa; Ghaus, Saad; Roop-E-Zahra; Rostami, Kamran

2014-01-01

178

Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome: Clinical diagnosis of an underrecognised manifestation of chronic cannabis abuse  

OpenAIRE

Cannabis is a common drug of abuse that is associated with various long-term and short-term adverse effects. The nature of its association with vomiting after chronic abuse is obscure and is underrecognised by clinicians. In some patients this vomiting can take on a pattern similar to cyclic vomiting syndrome with a peculiar compulsive hot bathing pattern, which relieves intense feelings of nausea and accompanying symptoms. In this case report, we describe a twenty-two year-old-male with a hi...

Siva P Sontineni, Sanjay Chaudhary

2009-01-01

179

Cannabis use and destructive periodontal diseases among adolescents  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIM: The aim of this experiment was to investigate the association between cannabis use and destructive periodontal disease among adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from a population screening examination carried out among Chilean high school students from the Province of Santiago were used to determine whether there was an association between the use of cannabis and signs of periodontal diseases as defined by (1) the presence of necrotizing ulcerative gingival (NUG) lesions or (2) the presence of clinical attachment loss (CAL) > or =3 mm. The cannabis exposures variables considered were "Ever use of cannabis" (yes/no) and "Regular use of cannabis" (yes/no). The associations were investigated using multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, paternal income, paternal education, frequency of tooth-brushing and time since last dental visit. RESULTS: Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that "Ever use of cannabis" was significantly negatively associated with the presence of NUG lesions (OR=0.47 [0.2;0.9]) among non-smokers only. No significant associations were observed between the presence of CAL > or =3 mm and cannabis use in either of the smoking groups. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence to suggest that the use of cannabis is positively associated with periodontal diseases in this adolescent population.

López, Rodrigo; Baelum, Vibeke

2009-01-01

180

Standardized cannabis in multiple sclerosis: a case report  

OpenAIRE

A 52 year old female suffering from severe progressive multiple sclerosis was administered quantifiable amounts of standardized cannabis and monitored over the period of one year, while providing daily pain charts and records of her condition. An average daily intake of 500 mg of Tetrahydrocannabinol as cannabis was required to achieve a desired quality of life.

Hornby, Paul; Sharma, Manju

2010-01-01

181

Four decades of cannabis criminals in Canada: 1970-2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Canada was one of the first countries in the world to criminalise cannabis in 1923. It was not until the late 1960s and an associated upsurge of youthful cannabis use that the government and various stakeholders seriously interrogated the appropriateness of this punitive prohibition. Nevertheless, despite numerous opportunities for law reform for over four decades, cannabis possession continues to be illegal and as a result, hundreds of thousands of Canadians have received criminal records under these laws. This article reviews federal attempts at cannabis law reform and uses data spanning several decades to examine the characteristics of individuals convicted of cannabis possession and the implications of criminalisation on their lives.

Patricia G. Erickson

2010-10-01

182

Exercise dependencesymptoms and mechanisms [Uzale?nienie od ?wicze? fizycznych – objawy i mechanizmy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this article is to synthesise the knowledge about the phenomenon of exercise dependence (ED, which is now characterised by an obsessive preoccupation with exercise, negative in nature. ED could be operationalized as a multidimensional maladaptive pattern of exercise, leading to clinically impairment or distress. Its criteria are: tolerance, withdrawal effects, lack of control, reductions in other activities, impaired psychological, social or physical functioning. For primary ED, the physical activity is an end in itself; for secondary ED, motivation is extrinsic – to control or alter body mass and shape. Estimates of the prevalence of ED range from 2–3% to 20–30%. Hypotheses of ED development concentrate on ß-endorphin, sympathetic arousal, affect regulation or some psychological explanations (e.g. exercise as distractor.

Guszkowska, Monika

2012-10-01

183

Cannabis in Sport: Anti-Doping Perspective  

OpenAIRE

Since 2004, when the World Anti-Doping Agency assumed the responsi-bility for establishing and maintaining the list of prohibited substances and methods in sport (i.e. the Prohibited List), cannabinoids have been prohibited in all sports during competition. The basis for this prohibition can be found in the World Anti-Doping Code, which defines the three criteria used to consider banning a substance. In this context, we discuss the potential of can-nabis to enhance sports performance, the ris...

Huestis, Marilyn A.; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier

2011-01-01

184

Psychosocial Factors Related to Cannabis Use Disorders  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to explore the association between psychosocial risk and protective factors and cannabis use disorders (CUDs) in a cohort of African American and Puerto Rican young adults. A representative sample (N=838) from the East Harlem area of New York City was assessed at four points in time (at mean ages 14.1, 19.2, 24.5, and 29.2). The psychosocial measures came from six domains: personality attributes, family, peer, work, neighborhood, and substance use The psychosoc...

Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J.; Koppel, Jonathan; Brook, David W.

2011-01-01

185

Compulsive showering and marijuana use – the cannabis hyperemisis syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

Patient: Male, 26 Final Diagnosis: Marihuana addiction Symptoms: Compulsive showering • nausea • vomiting Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Toxicology Objective: Unexpected drug reaction Background: The use or misuse of Cannabis is well recognized in the Caribbean region. Recently, the cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome has been described. The triad is characterized by chronic marijuana use, cyclical vomiting, and compulsive bathing. With the extensive use to marijuana as a recreational drug and also the increased use as prescription medication, a patient presenting with this symptomatology needs to be assessed appropriately and this syndrome needs to be one of the differential diagnoses. Case Report: To our knowledge, we report the first such case in the Caribbean region. Here, we report on the case of a 26-year-old Caucasian male with a 3-week history of nausea and week of epigastric pain and vomiting. The patient was known to use marijuana daily for 2 years and had similar complaints for the last 6 months. Conclusions: Because this popular recreational drug is now being used with increased frequency as a prescribed medication, it is crucial that clinicians be aware of this condition, which can present as a diagnostic dilemma. PMID:23997851

Mohammed, Fawwaz; Panchoo, Kirby; Bartholemew, Maria; Maharaj, Dale

2013-01-01

186

Cannabis users differ from non-users on measures of personality and schizotypy  

OpenAIRE

Accumulating evidence indicates that cannabis use may be a risk factor for schizophrenia (SZ), and chronic cannabis users score higher than non-users on measures of schizotypal personality traits. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relations between normal personality, schizotypy, and cannabis use. Sixty-two chronic cannabis users and 45 cannabis-naïve controls completed a measure of normal personality, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and two measures of schizot...

Fridberg, Daniel J.; Vollmer, Jennifer M.; O Donnell, Brian F.; Skosnik, Patrick D.

2011-01-01

187

Emotional processing deficits in chronic cannabis use: A replication and extension  

OpenAIRE

Heavy cannabis use is associated with interpersonal problems that may arise in part from the inaccurate perception of emotional faces. Only one study reports impairments in emotional facial affect processing in heavy cannabis users; however, it is not clear whether these findings were attributable to differences between cannabis users and controls in schizotypy or gender, rather than from cannabis use itself. A total of 25 frequent cannabis users and 34 non-using controls completed an emotion...

Hindocha, C.; Wollenberg, O.; Carter Leno, V.; Alvarez, B. O.; Curran, H. V.; Freeman, T. P.

2014-01-01

188

Moral regulation and the presumption of guilt in Health Canada's medical cannabis policy and practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is a sociological examination of policies and practices in Health Canada's Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD) that presume the illicit intentions and inherent "guilt" of medical cannabis users, hampering safe access to a medicine to which many are legally entitled, and raising doubts about this federal programme's overall effectiveness and constitutional legitimacy. Beginning with a brief historical overview of Canada's federal medical cannabis programme, this paper examines the failure of the MMAD to meet the needs of many sick and suffering Canadians through Hunt's [Hunt, A. (1999). Governing morals: A social history of moral regulation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press] work on moral regulation and Wodak's [Wodak, A. (2007). Ethics and drug policy. Psychiatry, 6(2), 59-62] critique of "deontological" drug policy strategies. I then cite Tupper's [Tupper, K. W. (2007). The globalization of ayahuasca: Harm reduction or benefit maximization? International Journal of Drug Policy, doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2006.11.001] argument that shifting to a generative metaphor that constructs certain entheogenic substances as potentially useful "tools" rather than regulating them through inherently moralistic prohibitionist policies would better serve public health, and incorporate Young's [Young, I. M. (1990). Justice and the politics of difference. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press] theories of domination and oppression to examine the rise of community-base medical cannabis dispensaries as "new social movements". First-hand accounts by medical cannabis patients, federally funded studies, and internal Health Canada communication and documents suggest that current federal policies and practices are blocking safe access to this herbal medicine. The community-based dispensary model of medical cannabis access is a patient-centered "new social movement" that mitigates the stigmatization and moral regulation of their member-clients by creating opportunities for engagement, empowerment and joint knowledge creation. In light of ongoing Charter challenges and patient criticism, the survival of this federal programme will depend on the government's ability to shift away from policies based on the oppression and moral regulation, and towards consequentialist policies that balance harm reduction and benefit maximization. The effectiveness of such an approach is exemplified by the success of the community-based dispensary model which is currently producing more peer-reviewed research and supplying medical cannabis to a far greater number of patients than Health Canada's Marihuana Medical Access Division. PMID:19124233

Lucas, Philippe

2009-07-01

189

Síntomas depresivos como factor de riesgo de dependencia en adultos mayores Depressive symptoms as a risk factor for dependence in elderly people  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la relación entre síntomas depresivos y dependencia funcional. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio longitudinal con 1 880 adultos mayores evaluados en 2001 y 2003. Se determinaron los síntomas depresivos con una versión modificada de la Escala de Depresión del Centro de Estudios Epidemiológicos y la dependencia con las escalas de Lawton y Brody, y Katz. La dependencia implicó la asistencia y ayuda para realizar alguna de las actividades interrogadas. Los análisis multifactoriales probaron el nexo entre síntomas depresivos y desarrollo de dependencia. RESULTADOS: En 2001, 37.9% mostró síntomas depresivos. En 2003, 6.1 y 12.7% desarrollaron dependencia para al menos una de las actividades básicas (ABVD e instrumentales de la vida diaria (AIVD, respectivamente. En el análisis multivariado, los síntomas depresivos fueron factor de riesgo sólo para dependencia en las AIVD. CONCLUSIONES: Los síntomas depresivos favorecen el desarrollo de dependencia funcional. Es necesario su reconocimiento sistemático durante la evaluación clínica del adulto mayor.OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between depressive symptoms and dependence in activities of daily living. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Participants, aged 70 to 104 (n= 1 880, were evaluated twice (2001 and 2003. Depressive symptoms were established by a modified version of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, whereas functional dependence was assessed with Lawton & Brody and Katz scales. Dependence implies the attendance and assistance of another person to accomplish the activity. Multivariate regression analyses were used to determine the effect of depressive symptoms on incident dependence. RESULTS: At baseline, 37.9% had depressive symptoms. After two years, 6.1 and 12.7% developed functional dependence for one or more ADL and IADL, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that depressive symptoms were a risk factor to the development of functional dependence only for the instrumental activities for daily living. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms are a risk factor for functional dependence. Systematic screening it seems necessary in the evaluation of geriatric patients.

José Alberto Ávila-Funes

2007-10-01

190

Simultaneous alcohol and cannabis expectancies predict simultaneous use  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicts increased negative consequences for users beyond individual or even concurrent use of the two drugs. Given the widespread use of the drugs and common simultaneous consumption, problems unique to simultaneous use may bear important implications for many substance users. Cognitive expectancies offer a template for future drug use behavior based on previous drug experiences, accurately predicting future use and problems. Studies reveal similar mechanisms underlying both alcohol and cannabis expectancies, but little research examines simultaneous expectancies for alcohol and cannabis use. Whereas research has demonstrated unique outcomes associated with simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use, this study hypothesized that unique cognitive expectancies may underlie simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use. Results: This study examined a sample of 2600 (66% male; 34% female Internet survey respondents solicited through advertisements with online cannabis-related organizations. The study employed known measures of drug use and expectancies, as well as a new measure of simultaneous drug use expectancies. Expectancies for simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicted simultaneous use over and above expectancies for each drug individually. Discussion Simultaneous expectancies may provide meaningful information not available with individual drug expectancies. These findings bear potential implications on the assessment and treatment of substance abuse problems, as well as researcher conceptualizations of drug expectancies. Policies directing the treatment of substance abuse and its funding ought to give unique consideration to simultaneous drug use and its cognitive underlying factors.

Earleywine Mitch

2006-10-01

191

Roadside sobriety tests and attitudes toward a regulated cannabis market  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Many argue that prohibition creates more troubles than alternative policies, but fewer than half of American voters support a taxed and regulated market for cannabis. Some oppose a regulated market because of concerns about driving after smoking cannabis. Although a roadside sobriety test for impairment exists, few voters know about it. The widespread use of a roadside sobriety test that could detect recent cannabis use might lead some voters who currently oppose a regulated market to support it. In contrast, a question that primes respondents about the potential for driving after cannabis use might lead respondents to be less likely to support a regulated market. Methods Phone interviews with a national sample of 1002 registered voters asked about support for a regulated cannabis market and support for such a market if a reliable roadside sobriety test were widely available. Results In this sample of registered voters, 36% supported a regulated cannabis market. Exploratory chi-square tests revealed significantly higher support among men and Caucasians but no link to age or education. These demographic variables covaried significantly. Logistic regression revealed that gender, ethnicity, and political party were significant when all predictors were included. Support increased significantly with a reliable roadside sobriety test to 44%, but some respondents who had agreed to the regulated market no longer agreed when the sobriety test was mentioned. Logistic regression revealed that ethnicity and political affiliation were again significant predictors of support with a reliable sobriety test, but gender was no longer significant. None of these demographic variables could identify who would change their votes in response to the reliable roadside test. Conclusion Increased awareness and use of roadside sobriety tests that detect recent cannabis use could increase support for a regulated cannabis market. Identifying concerns of voters who are not Caucasian or Democrats could help alter cannabis policy.

Earleywine Mitch

2007-01-01

192

It can't hurt to ask; a patient-centered quality of service assessment of health canada's medical cannabis policy and program  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2001 Health Canada responded to a series of Ontario court decisions by creating the Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD and the Marihuana Medical Access Regulations (MMAR. Although Health Canada has conducted a small number of stakeholder consultations, the federal government has never polled federally authorized cannabis patients. This study is an attempt to learn more about patient needs, challenges and experiences with the MMAD. Methods Launched in the spring of 2007, Quality of Service Assessment of Health Canada's Medical Cannabis Policy and Program pairs a 50 question online survey addressing the personal experiences of patients in the federal cannabis program with 25 semi-guided interviews. Data gathering for this study took place from April 2007 to Jan. 2008, eventually garnering survey responses from 100 federally-authorized users, which at the time represented about 5% of the patients enrolled in Health Canada's program. This paper presents the results of the survey portion of the study. Results 8% of respondents report getting their cannabis from Health Canada, while 66% grow it for themselves. >50% report that they frequent compassion clubs or dispensaries, which remain illegal and unregulated in Canada. 81% of patients would chose certified organic methods of cultivation; >90% state that not all strains are equally effective at relieving symptoms, and 97% would prefer to obtain cannabis from a source where multiple strains are available. Of the 48 patients polled that had tried the Health Canada cannabis supply, >75% rank it as either "1" or "2" on a scale of 1-10 (with "1" being "very poor", and 10 being "excellent". Discussion 72% of respondents report they are either "somewhat" or "totally unsatisfied" with Canada's medical cannabis program. These survey results and relevant court decisions suggest that the MMAR are not meeting the needs of most of the nation's medical cannabis patient community. It is hoped this research will help inform policy changes that will better address the needs of Canada's critically and chronically ill medical cannabis patient population, including the integration of community-based dispensaries into this novel healthcare delivery model.

Lucas Philippe

2012-01-01

193

Sudden unexpected death under acute influence of cannabis.  

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The acute toxicity of cannabinoids is said to be low and there is little public awareness of the potentially hazardous cardiovascular effects of cannabis, e.g. marked increase in heart rate or supine blood pressure. We describe the cases of two young, putative healthy men who died unexpectedly under the acute influence of cannabinoids. To our knowledge, these are the first cases of suspected fatal cannabis intoxications where full postmortem investigations, including autopsy, toxicological, histological, immunohistochemical and genetical examinations, were carried out. The results of these examinations are presented. After exclusion of other causes of death we assume that the young men experienced fatal cardiovascular complications evoked by smoking cannabis. PMID:24598271

Hartung, Benno; Kauferstein, Silke; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Daldrup, Thomas

2014-04-01

194

Striatal and extra-striatal dopamine transporter in cannabis and tobacco addiction: a high resolution PET study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dopamine (DA) system is known to be involved in the reward and dependence mechanisms of addiction. However, modifications in dopaminergic neurotransmission associated with long-term tobacco and cannabis use have been poorly documented in vivo. In order to assess striatal and extra-striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in tobacco and cannabis addiction, three groups of male age-matched subjects were compared: 11 healthy non-smoker subjects, 14 tobacco-dependent smokers (17.6 ± 5.3 cigarettes/day for 12.1 ± 8.5 years) and 13 cannabis and tobacco smokers (CTS) (4.8 ± 5.3 cannabis joints/day for 8.7 ± 3.9 years). DAT availability was examined in positron emission tomography (HRRT) with a high resolution research tomograph after injection of [11C]PE2I, a selective DAT radioligand. Region of interest and voxel-by-voxel approaches using a simplified reference tissue model were performed for the between-group comparison of DAT availability. Measurements in the dorsal striatum from both analyses were concordant and showed a mean 20% lower DAT availability in drug users compared with controls. Whole-brain analysis also revealed lower DAT availability in the ventral striatum, the midbrain, the middle cingulate and the thalamus (ranging from -15 to -30%). The DAT availability was slightly lower in all regions in CTS than in subjects who smoke tobacco only, but the difference does not reach a significant level. These results support the existence of aese results support the existence of a decrease in DAT availability associated with tobacco and cannabis addictions involving all dopaminergic brain circuits. These findings are consistent with the idea of a global decrease in cerebral DA activity in dependent subjects. (authors)

195

Addiction and the pharmacology of cannabis: implications for medicine and the law.  

Science.gov (United States)

The topic of drug addiction or misuse of drugs has numerous far-reaching ramifications into areas such as neuroscience, medicine and therapeutics, toxicology, epidemiology, national and international economics and politics, and the law. The general principles of drug addiction are first summarised. A recurring and intrinsic problem is lack of adequate characterisation of the independent variable, namely the drug taken. Secondly, it is not feasible to allocate subjects randomly to treatments. Thirdly, the heterogeneity of different forms of addiction precludes facile generalisations. "A problem drug user is anyone who experiences social, psychological, physical, or legal problems related to intoxication, and/or regular excessive consumption, and/or dependence as a consequence of their use of drugs" (UK Advisory Council on Misuse of Drugs, 1982). Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants whose products are used as recreational drugs. Claims have been made for a range of therapeutic properties. Its two main active principles are delta9 - tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). These compounds have contrasting pharmacological properties. THC is suspected of causing psychotic phenomena, but CBD seems more sedative and may even be antipsychotic. The past use of cannabis, particularly the concentrations of THC and CBD, can be monitored with hair analysis. Recent studies involving the administration of THC and CBD to human subjects are reviewed. Suggestions are made for further research into the pharmacology and toxicology of CBD. Such data may also point to a more rational evidence-based approach to the legal control of cannabis preparations. PMID:19306615

Lader, Malcolm

2009-01-01

196

Altered frontal cortical volume and decision making in adolescent cannabis users  

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Full Text Available Anticipating future outcomes is central to decision making and a failure to consider long-term consequences may lead to impulsive choices. Adolescence is a vulnerable period during which underdeveloped prefrontal cortical systems may contribute to poor judgment, impulsive choices, and substance abuse. Conversely, substance abuse during this period may alter neural systems involved in decision making and lead to greater impulsivity. Although a broad neural network which supports decision making undergoes extensive change during adolescent development, one region that may be critical is the medial prefrontal cortex. Altered functional integrity of this region may be specifically related to reward perception, substance abuse, and dependence. In the present investigation, we acquired structural magnetic resonance images (MRI, using a 3T Siemens Trio scanner, from 18 cannabis abusing adolescents (CA; 2 female and 16 male subjects; mean age, 17.7 years; range 16-19 years and 18 healthy controls (HC; 6 female and 12 male subjects; mean age, 17.2 years; range 16-19 years. In order to measure medial orbital prefrontal cortex (moPFC morphology related to substance abuse and impulsivity, semi-automated cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation of MRIs was performed with FreeSurfer. Impulsivity was evaluated with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS. Our results indicate that cannabis abusing adolescents have decreased right moPFC volume compared to controls, p =.01, d = .92, CI.95 = .21, 1.59. Cannabis abusing adolescents also show decreased future orientation, as indexed by the BIS nonplanning subscale, when compared to controls, p = .01, d = .89, CI.95 = .23, 1.55. Moreover, total moPFC volume was positively correlated with age of first use (18 = .49, p < .03, suggesting that alterations in this region may be related to initiation of cannabis use or that early initiation may lead to reduced moPFC volume.

JohnCChurchwell

2010-12-01

197

The Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Supplement: 7 Sessions of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual, a supplement to "Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users: 5 Sessions, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 1", presents a seven-session cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT7) approach designed especially for adolescent cannabis users. It addresses the implementation and…

Webb, Charles; Scudder, Meleney; Kaminer, Yifrah; Kaden, Ron

198

Socialization instances linked to cannabis experimentation among French teenagers.  

Science.gov (United States)

France presents one of the highest prevalence of teenagers aged 15-year-olds who report they already have experienced cannabis in Europe. Data from the French 2010 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HSBC) survey and environmental parameters typifying schools' neighborhoods were used to study cannabis experimentation. We conducted a two-level logistic regression (clusters being schools) on 4,175 French 8th-10th graders from 156 schools. Several individual parameters were linked to cannabis experimentation. Living in a non-intact family, feeling insufficiently monitored, having poor communication with mother and being from a family with a high socio-economic status (SES) were all associated with increased risk of cannabis experimentation. At environmental level, only being in a priority education area was linked to this behavior, without explaining differences among schools. PMID:25099311

Jovic, Sonia; Genolini, Christophe; Delpierre, Cyrille; Spilka, Stanislas; Ehlinger, Virginie; Ross, Jim; Arnaud, Catherine; Godeau, Emmanuelle

2014-11-01

199

Cannabis misinterpretation and misadventure in a coroner's court.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

A 37-year-old, one-pack-per-day tobacco smoker collapsed and died at home. At autopsy, he had an occluded left anterior descending coronary artery. ?(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid was found in his urine but no cannabinoids were detected in his blood. Misadventure was the inquest verdict on the basis of the urinary cannabis, with acute myocardial infarction as the primary cause and cannabis as the secondary cause of death. Such a conclusion is a misinterpretation of the evidence when the time duration for cannabis as a trigger for myocardial infarction is at most two hours. The absence of cannabis in the blood likely places the time since inhalation at more than two hours. The role of tobacco smoking as a trigger was ignored. Cotinine, the biochemical marker of tobacco smoke, should be added to the standard toxicological screen in the guidelines on autopsy practice of the Royal College of Pathologists.

Tormey, William Patrick

2012-10-01

200

Phytochemical and genetic analyses of ancient cannabis from Central Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Yanghai Tombs near Turpan, Xinjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region, China have recently been excavated to reveal the 2700-year-old grave of a Caucasoid shaman whose accoutrements included a large cache of cannabis, superbly preserved by climatic and burial conditions. A multidisciplinary international team demonstrated through botanical examination, phytochemical investigation, and genetic deoxyribonucleic acid analysis by polymerase chain reaction that this material contained tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of cannabis, its oxidative degradation product, cannabinol, other metabolites, and its synthetic enzyme, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase, as well as a novel genetic variant with two single nucleotide polymorphisms. The cannabis was presumably employed by this culture as a medicinal or psychoactive agent, or an aid to divination. To our knowledge, these investigations provide the oldest documentation of cannabis as a pharmacologically active agent, and contribute to the medical and archaeological record of this pre-Silk Road culture. PMID:19036842

Russo, Ethan B; Jiang, Hong-En; Li, Xiao; Sutton, Alan; Carboni, Andrea; del Bianco, Francesca; Mandolino, Giuseppe; Potter, David J; Zhao, You-Xing; Bera, Subir; Zhang, Yong-Bing; Lü, En-Guo; Ferguson, David K; Hueber, Francis; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Liu, Chang-Jiang; Wang, Yu-Fei; Li, Cheng-Sen

2008-01-01

201

Eysenck Personality Dimensions in a Sample of Cannabis Users  

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Full Text Available     Objective: The objective of this study is to examine Eysenck personality dimensions in cannabis users  Method:100 regular cannabis users were selected and completed Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ which easures Neuroticism (N,Extraversion-Introversion (E-I and Psychoticism (P dimensions of Eysenck personality structures  Results:The scores of 51% of cannabis users were higher than mean in all dimensions of EPQ. Also the mean score of N and P were higher than the score which Eysenck has reported for Iranian population Conclusions:This research reinforces our call for a public health information campaign about a drug which may young people still see as being risk-free.Psychiatric morbidity and cases of psychotic disorder could be prevented by discouraging cannabis use among vulnerable youths.

Arash Vahdat

2007-06-01

202

Cannabis use disorders are comparatively prevalent among nonwhite racial/ethnic groups and adolescents: a national study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The racial/ethnic composition of the US population is shifting, with the nonwhite population growing faster than whites. We examined cannabis use disorder (CUD) prevalences and correlates in seven racial/ethnic groups. We included cannabis use (CU) prevalence as a comparison. Data were from the 2005-2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N = 394,400). Substance use among respondents aged ?12 years was assessed by computer-assisted, self-interviewing methods. The following were included as control variables: age, sex, family income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode history, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder, and survey year. Past-year CU prevalence increased significantly from 10.45% in 2005 to 11.41-11.54% during 2009-2011. Compared with whites, mixed-race individuals had higher odds of CU; Asian Americans and Hispanics had lower odds of CU. There were no significant yearly changes in CUD prevalence in the sample during 2005-2011 (1.58-1.73%). Compared with whites, individuals who were mixed-race, black, and Native American had higher odds of CUD; Asian Americans had lower odds. In aggregate, 15.35% of past-year cannabis users met criteria for a CUD in the 12-month period. Past-year cannabis users who were black, Native American, Hispanic, or Asian American had higher odds of CUD than white users. In each racial/ethnic group, adolescent cannabis users generally showed greater odds of CUD than adult users. Behavioral health indicators (major depressive episode, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder) were associated with CU and CUD. In conclusion, CUD disproportionally affects nonwhite groups and youth. PMID:24342767

Wu, Li-Tzy; Brady, Kathleen T; Mannelli, Paolo; Killeen, Therese K

2014-03-01

203

Symptoms of Depression Depend on Rigid Parenting Attitudes, Gender, and Race in an At-Risk Sample of Early Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

Trajectories of depressive symptoms were compared between European American and African American boys and girls from ages 8 to 14 in a longitudinal sample of 130 children born to adolescent mothers. Mixed-effects regression modeling was used to analyze individual and group differences in level of depressive symptoms and their changes over time.…

Weed, Keri; Morales, Dawn A.; Harjes, Rachel

2013-01-01

204

El Cannabis en la práctica Clínica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available RESUMEN. La marihuana ha sido utilizada por cientos de años, es una de las drogas de abuso más usadas. Tiene una larga historia de usos médicos, tanto el Cannabis, como sus derivados, preparaciones y sus formas sintéticas se emplean para aliviar una gran variedad de síntomas de diversas enfermedades [...] , tales como: alivio de las náuseas y vómitos asociados con las terapias del cáncer y del SIDA; alivio del dolor muscular y espasmos; para reducir la frecuencia de convulsiones en la epilepsia; para reducir la presión intraocular en pacientes con glaucoma; para estimular el apetito en pacientes con cáncer y SIDA. Actualmente están disponibles en el mercado dos productos comerciales sintéticos relacionados con la marihuana, de administración oral, el dronabinol (MARINOL®) y la nabilona (CESAMET®). Se han identificado en el cerebro, receptores para los cannabinoides, el CB1 y el CB2, así como ligandos endógenos: la anandamina, el 2-araquinoilglicerol, la homo-gamma -linolenil etanolamina y la palmitoiletanolamina. Abstract in english ABSTRACT: Marijuana has been widely used for hundreds of years, it is perhaps one of the most popular drug of abuse. It has a long medical history, Cannabis, its preparations, derivates and similar synthetic prepartions are use to relieve symtoms associated with some medical conditions, such as: to [...] relief nauseas and vomiting associate with cancer and AIDS therapies; for the relief of muscle pain and spasms; to help reduce the frequency of epileptic seizures; to lower intra ocular pressure in Glaucoma; to stimulate appetite and produce weight gain in AIDS and cancer patients. There are two commercially available drug products related to marijuana: dronabinol (MARINOL®) and nabilone (CESAMET®). Cannabinoids receptors CB1 and CB2, and some endogenous ligands named anandamide, 2-araquinoilglicerol, homo-gamma -linolenil etanolamine and palmitoiletanolamine, have been identified in brain.

CL, Expósito.

2003-07-01

205

The Rome II and Rome III criteria identify the same subtype-populations in irritable bowel syndrome : agreement depends on the method used for symptom report  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For comparing trials using different classifications for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) subtypes, it is important to know whether these identify the same sub-populations. Our aim was to determine the agreement between Rome II and Rome III subtypes, and to explore whether agreement depends on the symptom reporting method.

Engsbro, A L; Simrén, M

2012-01-01

206

Application of medical cannabis in patients with the neurodegeneration disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medical cannabis is the dried flowers of the female Cannabis sativa L. plant. Cannabis contains a number of active elements, including dronabinol (THC and cannabidiol (CBD. Dronabinol is usually the main ingredient. The body’s own cannabinoid system has been identified. The discovery of this system, which comprises endocannabinoids and receptors, confirmed that cannabis has a positive effect on certain illnesses and conditions. Two types of cannabinoid receptors have been identified: CB1 and CB2 receptors. The first type CB1 is mostly found in the central nervous system, modulate pain. It also has an anti-emetic effect, and has influence on the memory and the motor system. The second type of receptors CB2 is peripheral, and it is primarily found in immune system cells and it is responsible for the immunomodulatory effects of cannabinoids. Medical cannabis can help in cases of the neurodegeneration disorders, for example Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Patients generally tolerate medical cannabis well.

Lidia Kotu?a

2014-04-01

207

Binge Drinking, Cannabis and Tobacco Use Among Ethnic Norwegian and Ethnic Minority Adolescents in Oslo, Norway.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to assess prevalence and factors associated with binge drinking, cannabis use and tobacco use among ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in Oslo. We used data from a school-based cross-sectional survey of adolescents in junior- and senior high schools in Oslo, Norway. The participants were 10,934 adolescents aged 14-17 years, and just over half were females. The sample was comprised of 73.2 % ethnic Norwegian adolescents, 9.8 % 1st generation immigrants, and 17 % 2nd generation adolescents from Europe, the US, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. Logistic regression models were applied for the data analyses. Age, gender, religion, parental education, parent-adolescent relationships, depressive symptoms and loneliness were covariates in the regression models. Ethnic Norwegian adolescents reported the highest prevalence of binge drinking (16.1 %), whereas the lowest prevalence was found among 2nd generation adolescents from Asia (2.9 %). Likewise, the past-year prevalence for cannabis use ranged from 10.6 % among 2nd generation Europeans and those from the US to 3.7 % among 2nd generation Asians. For daily tobacco use, the prevalence ranged from 12.9 % among 2nd generation Europeans and the US to 5.1 % among 2nd generation Asians. Ethnicity, age, gender, religion, parental education, and parent-adolescent relationships and mental health status were significantly associated with binge drinking, cannabis and tobacco use. These factors partly explained the observed differences between ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in the current study. There are significant differences in substance use behaviors between ethnic Norwegian and immigrant youth. Factors like age, gender, religion, parental education and relationships and mental health status might influence the relationship between ethnicity and substance abuse. The findings have implications for planning selective- as well as universal prevention interventions. PMID:25037580

Abebe, Dawit S; Hafstad, Gertrud S; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Kumar, Bernadette Nirmal; Lien, Lars

2014-07-19

208

Depressive Symptoms, Substance Use and HIV-Related High Risk Behaviors among Opioid-Dependent Individuals: Results from the Clinical Trials Network  

OpenAIRE

The sample included 343 opioid-dependent adults enrolled in two national multisite studies of the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN001-002). Opioid-dependent individuals were recruited from 12 sites across the United States from January 2001 to July 2002. We examined associations between depressive symptoms, co-occurring substance use (i.e. the use of substances other than opioids), and HIV-related sexual and injection risk behaviors. Data were collected using the Add...

Pilowsky, Daniel; Wu, Li-tzy; Burchett, Bruce; Blazer, Dan G.; Ling, Walter

2011-01-01

209

Revisão: funcionamento executivo e uso de maconha / Review: executive functioning and cannabis use  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A maconha é a droga ilícita mais consumida no mundo, porém ainda existem poucos estudos examinando eventuais prejuízos cognitivos relacionados ao seu uso. As manifestações clínicas associadas a esses déficits incluem síndrome amotivacional, prejuízo na flexibilidade cognitiva, desatenção, [...] dificuldade de raciocínio abstrato e formação de conceitos, aspectos intimamente ligados às funções executivas, as quais potencialmente exercem um papel central na dependência de substâncias. O objetivo do estudo foi fazer uma revisão a respeito das implicações do uso da maconha no funcionamento executivo. MÉTODO: Esta revisão foi conduzida utilizando-se bases de dados eletrônicas (MedLine, Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs). DISCUSSÃO: Em estudos de efeito agudo, doses maiores de tetrahidrocanabinol encontram-se associadas a maior prejuízo no desempenho de usuários leves em tarefas de controle inibitório e planejamento; porém, este efeito dose-resposta não ocorre em usuários crônicos. Embora haja controvérsias no que se refere a efeitos residuais da maconha, déficits persistentes parecem estar presentes após 28 dias de abstinência, ao menos em um subgrupo de usuários crônicos. CONCLUSÕES: Os estudos encontrados não tiveram como objetivo principal a avaliação das funções executivas. A seleção de testes padronizados, desenhos de estudos mais apropriados e o uso concomitante com técnicas de neuroimagem estrutural e funcional podem auxiliar na melhor compreensão das conseqüências deletérias do uso crônico da maconha no funcionamento executivo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Cannabis is the most used illicit drug worldwide, however only a few studies have examined cognitive deficits related to its use. Clinical manifestations associated with those deficits include amotivational syndrome, impairment in cognitive flexibility, inattention, deficits in abstract r [...] easoning and concept formation, aspects intimately related to the executive functions, which potentially exert a central role in substance dependence. The objective was to make a review about consequences of cannabis use in executive functioning. METHOD: This review was carried out on reports drawn from MedLine, SciELO, and Lilacs. DISCUSSION: In studies investigating acute use effects, higher doses of tetrahydrocannabinol are associated to impairments in performance of nonsevere users in planning and control impulse tasks. However, chronic cannabis users do not show those impairments. Although demonstration of residual effects of cannabis in the executive functioning is controversial, persistent deficits seem to be present at least in a subgroup of chronic users after 28 days of abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: The neuropsychological studies found did not have as a main aim the evaluation of executive functioning. A criterial selection of standardized neuropsychological tests, more appropriate study designs as well as concomitant investigations with structural and functional neuroimaging techniques may improve the understanding of eventual neurotoxicity associated with cannabis use.

Priscila Previato, Almeida; Maria Alice Fontes Pinto, Novaes; Rodrigo Affonseca, Bressan; Acioly Luiz Tavares de, Lacerda.

2008-03-01

210

The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The therapeutic potential of cannabidiol (CBD), the major nonpsychoactive component of cannabis, was explored in murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was elicited by immunizing DBA/1 mice with type II collagen (CII) in complete Freund's adjuvant. The CII used was either bovine or murine, resulting in classical acute CIA or in chronic relapsing CIA, respectively. CBD was administered after onset of clinical symptoms, and in both models of arthritis the treatment effectively blocked progression of arthritis. CBD was equally effective when administered i.p. or orally. The dose dependency showed a bell-shaped curve, with an optimal effect at 5 mg/kg per day i.p. or 25 mg/kg per day orally. Clinical improvement was associated with protection of the joints against severe damage. Ex vivo, draining lymph node cells from CBD-treated mice showed a diminished CII-specific proliferation and IFN-gamma production, as well as a decreased release of tumor necrosis factor by knee synovial cells. In vitro effects of CBD included a dose-dependent suppression of lymphocyte proliferation, both mitogen-stimulated and antigen-specific, and the blockade of the Zymosan-triggered reactive oxygen burst by peritoneal granulocytes. It also was found that CBD administration was capable of blocking the lipopolysaccharide-induced rise in serum tumor necrosis factor in C57/BL mice. Taken together, these data show that CBD, through its combined immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory actions, has a potent anti-arthritic effect in CIA. PMID:10920191

Malfait, A M; Gallily, R; Sumariwalla, P F; Malik, A S; Andreakos, E; Mechoulam, R; Feldmann, M

2000-08-15

211

Correlations and agreement between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in blood plasma and Timeline Follow-Back (TLFB)-assisted self-reported use of cannabis of patients with cannabis use disorder and psychotic illness attending the CapOpus randomized clinical trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aims:? To assess correlations and agreement between Timeline Follow-Back (TLFB)-assisted self-report and blood samples for cannabis use. Design:? Secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Setting:? Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants:? 103 patients from the CapOpus trial with cannabis use disorder and psychosis, providing 239 self-reports of cannabis use and 88 valid blood samples. Measurements:? Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) detected in plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. Self-report of cannabis-use last month by TLFB. Pearson's r, sensitivity and specificity calculated as measures of correlation or agreement. Findings:? Correlations were strong; r = 0.75 for number of days and r = 0.83 for number of standard joints in the preceding month when excluding outliers. Including outliers, coefficients were moderate to strong (r = 0.49and r = 0.51, respectively). There were differences in subgroups, mostly inconsistent depending on inclusion or exclusion of outliers. Sensitivity and specificity for TLFB detecting presence or absence of cannabis use were 95.7 % (95 % confidence interval 88.0 % to 99.1 %) and 72.2 % (46.5 % to 90.3 %), respectively. Using 19 days as cutoff on TLFB, they were 94.3 % (86.0 % to 98.4 %) and 94.4 % (72.2 % to 99.9 %), respectively. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC)-curve was 0.96. Conclusions:? Time Line Follow-Back (TLFB)-assisted self-report of cannabis use correlates highly with plasma-THC in patients with comorbid cannabis use disorder and psychosis. Sensitivity and specificity of TLFB appear to be optimised with 19 days as cutoff-point. As such TLFB may be superior to analysis of blood when going beyond 19 days of recall.

HjorthØj, Carsten Rygaard; Fohlmann, Allan

2012-01-01

212

Reduction of stem growth and site dependency of leaf injury in Massachusetts black cherries exhibiting ozone symptoms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ozone symptomatic trees had a reduced stem growth and symptom expression was enhanced on moister and better growing stands. - Leaf ozone symptoms in natural ecosystems are increasingly reported but ozone effects on tree growth and the mediation of site conditions are still little documented. This study tests two hypotheses: (1) leaf injury in black cherry is associated with decline in radial growth, (2) symptoms are more prevalent on mesic sites. On sites supporting black cherry across Massachusetts, tree growth and leaf ozone injury were surveyed in 1996 using a randomized plot network established in the 1960s. Forty-seven percent of 120 trees sampled for ozone symptoms were symptomatic with generally low levels of injury. Over a 31-year period symptomatic trees had 28% lower stem growth rates than asymptomatic trees. Ozone symptom expression was enhanced in well growing stands on moister, cooler and more elevated sites. Ozone appeared to increase environmental stress and had a more pronounced effect on growth in better growing black cherry stands. This complicates management decisions as thinning increases growth and moisture availability

213

Reduction of stem growth and site dependency of leaf injury in Massachusetts black cherries exhibiting ozone symptoms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ozone symptomatic trees had a reduced stem growth and symptom expression was enhanced on moister and better growing stands. - Leaf ozone symptoms in natural ecosystems are increasingly reported but ozone effects on tree growth and the mediation of site conditions are still little documented. This study tests two hypotheses: (1) leaf injury in black cherry is associated with decline in radial growth, (2) symptoms are more prevalent on mesic sites. On sites supporting black cherry across Massachusetts, tree growth and leaf ozone injury were surveyed in 1996 using a randomized plot network established in the 1960s. Forty-seven percent of 120 trees sampled for ozone symptoms were symptomatic with generally low levels of injury. Over a 31-year period symptomatic trees had 28% lower stem growth rates than asymptomatic trees. Ozone symptom expression was enhanced in well growing stands on moister, cooler and more elevated sites. Ozone appeared to increase environmental stress and had a more pronounced effect on growth in better growing black cherry stands. This complicates management decisions as thinning increases growth and moisture availability.

Vollenweider, P.; Woodcock, H.; Kelty, M.J.; Hofer, R.-M

2003-10-01

214

A Meta-Analysis of Interventions to Reduce Adolescent Cannabis Use  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This meta-analytic review assesses the effectiveness of substance abuse interventions to reduce adolescent cannabis use. Method: A systematic search identified 15 randomized controlled evaluations of interventions to reduce adolescent cannabis use published between 1960 and 2008. The primary outcome variables, frequency of cannabis use,…

Bender, Kimberly; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Sarteschi, Christy; Vaughn, Michael G.

2011-01-01

215

Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the relation between maternal cannabis use…

El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

2009-01-01

216

Genetic association between APOE*4 and neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease is dependent on the psychosis phenotype  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropsychiatric symptoms such as psychosis are prevalent in patients with probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Because these disabling symptoms are generally not well tolerated by caregivers, patients with these symptoms tend to be institutionalized earlier than patients without them. The identification of protective and risk factors for neuropsychiatric symptoms in AD would facilitate the development of more specific treatments for these symptoms and thereby decrease morbidity and mortality in AD. The E4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE gene is a well-documented risk factor for the development of AD. However, genetic association studies of the APOE 4 allele and BPS in AD have produced conflicting findings. Methods This study investigates the association between APOE and neuropsychiatric symptoms in a large sample of clinically well-characterized subjects with probable AD (n=790 who were systematically evaluated using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD Behavioral Rating Scale for Dementia (BRSD. Results Our study found that hallucinations were significantly more likely to occur in subjects with no APO?4 alleles than in subjects with two ?4 alleles (15% of subjects and 5% of subjects, respectively; p=.0066, whereas there was no association between the occurrence of delusions, aberrant motor behavior, or agitation and the number of ?4 alleles. However, 94% of the subjects with hallucinations also had delusions (D+H. Conclusion These findings suggest that in AD the ?4 allele is differentially associated with D+H but not delusions alone. This is consistent with the hypothesis that distinct psychotic subphenotypes may be associated with the APOE allele.

Christie Drew

2012-12-01

217

Event-level associations between affect, alcohol intoxication, and acute dependence symptoms: Effects of urgency, self-control, and drinking experience  

OpenAIRE

This study used experience sampling to examine within-person associations between positive affect, anxiety, sadness, and hostility and two outcomes: alcohol intoxication and acute dependence symptoms. We examined the role of urgency, premeditation, and perseverance in predicting the alcohol outcomes and tested whether the affective associations varied as a function of urgency. Participants completed baseline assessments and 21 days of experience sampling on PDAs. Hypotheses were partially con...

Simons, Jeffrey S.; Dvorak, Robert D.; Batien, Bryan D.; Wray, Tyler B.

2010-01-01

218

A strain-specific segment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of grapevine fanleaf virus determines symptoms in Nicotiana species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Factors involved in symptom expression of viruses from the genus Nepovirus in the family Secoviridae such as grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) are poorly characterized. To identify symptom determinants encoded by GFLV, infectious cDNA clones of RNA1 and RNA2 of strain GHu were developed and used alongside existing infectious cDNA clones of strain F13 in a reverse genetics approach. In vitro transcripts of homologous combinations of RNA1 and RNA2 induced systemic infection in Nicotiana benthamiana and Nicotiana clevelandii with identical phenotypes to WT virus strains, i.e. vein clearing and chlorotic spots on N. benthamiana and N. clevelandii for GHu, respectively, and lack of symptoms on both hosts for F13. The use of assorted transcripts mapped symptom determinants on RNA1 of GFLV strain GHu, in particular within the distal 408 nt of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (1E(Pol)), as shown by RNA1 transcripts for which coding regions or fragments derived thereof were swapped. Semi-quantitative analyses indicated no significant differences in virus titre between symptomatic and asymptomatic plants infected with various recombinants. Also, unlike the nepovirus tomato ringspot virus, no apparent proteolytic cleavage of GFLV protein 1E(Pol) was detected upon virus infection or transient expression in N. benthamiana. In addition, GFLV protein 1E(Pol) failed to suppress silencing of EGFP in transgenic N. benthamiana expressing EGFP or to enhance GFP expression in patch assays in WT N. benthamiana. Together, our results suggest the existence of strain-specific functional domains, including a symptom determinant module, on the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of GFLV. PMID:24088345

Vigne, Emmanuelle; Gottula, John; Schmitt-Keichinger, Corinne; Komar, Véronique; Ackerer, Léa; Belval, Lorène; Rakotomalala, Lalaina; Lemaire, Olivier; Ritzenthaler, Christophe; Fuchs, Marc

2013-12-01

219

Exposure to the tsunami disaster, PTSD symptoms and increased substance use – an Internet based survey of male and female residents of Switzerland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background After the tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean basin an Internet based self-screening test was made available in order to facilitate contact with mental health services. Although primarily designed for surviving Swiss tourists as well as relatives and acquaintances of the victims, the screening instrument was open to anyone who felt psychologically affected by this disaster. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influences between self-declared increased substance use in the aftermath of the tsunami disaster, trauma exposure and current PTSD symptoms. Methods One section of the screening covered addiction related behavior. We analyzed the relationship between increased substance use, the level of PTSD symptoms and trauma exposure using multivariable logistic regression with substance use as the dependent variable. Included in the study were only subjects who reported being residents of Switzerland and the analyses were stratified by gender in order to control for possible socio-cultural or gender differences in the use of psychotropic substances. Results In women PTSD symptoms and degree of exposure enlarged the odds of increased alcohol, pharmaceuticals and cannabis use significantly. In men the relationship was more specific: PTSD symptoms and degree of exposure only enlarged the odds of increased pharmaceutical consumption significantly. Increases in alcohol, cannabis and tobacco use were only significantly associated with the degree of PTSD symptoms. Conclusion The tsunami was associated with increased substance use. This study not only replicates earlier findings but also suggests for a gender specificity of post-traumatic substance use increase.

Bisson Jonathan I

2008-03-01

220

Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action involved in the interaction between cannabinoid compounds and the biological receptors. So, from the therapeutical aspects presented in this work, we intended to show the evolution of the Cannabis sativa research and the possible medicinal use of cannabinoid compounds.

Honório Káthia Maria

2006-01-01

221

Abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos: atualização para uma antiga evidência Cannabis abuse in patients with psychiatric disorders: an update to old evidence  

OpenAIRE

OBJETIVO: Realizar uma atualização sobre o abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos. MÉTODO: Busca de artigos nas bases de dados eletrônicas Medline, The Cochrane Library Database, Lilacs, PubMed e SciELO, utilizando os descritores "marijuana abuse", "cannabis abuse", "psychiatric disorders" AND "mental disorders"; incluindo artigos que avaliaram ambas as exposições para abuso e dependência de cannabis e qualquer outro transtorno psiquiátrico. Foi considerado o pe...

Alessandra Diehl; Daniel Cruz Cordeiro; Ronaldo Laranjeira

2010-01-01

222

The Normalization of Cannabis Use among Young People - Symbolic Boundary Work in Focus Groups  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper analyzes "techniques of neutralization" among young people discussing cannabis in focus group interviews. The paper is based on data from focus group interviews with young Danes followed from when they were 14-15 years old in 2004 until they were 18-19 years old in 2008. In this period, the participants' attitudes towards cannabis undergo a radical change from being negative and sceptical into being predominantly positive and accepting - a change we describe as a "normalization" of cannabis use. Four techniques of neutralization are identified in this process: First, the participants redefine the setting of cannabis use, simultaneously creating a new type of togetherness: relaxed social intoxication. Second, the effects of cannabis use are transformed from being "strange" and "unpredictable" to being "controllable" by the individual user. Third, participants change their classification of cannabis in relation to other substances: While 14-15 year olds draw a clear dividing-line between alcohol and illegal drugs (including cannabis), 18-19 year olds put cannabis on the same footing as alcohol but differentiate it from "hard" drugs. Forth, participants dichotomize cannabis use into spontaneous, social use, which they accept, and habitual, individual use which most of them reject. In combination, these four techniques of neutralization turn cannabis into a normal drug - not normal in the sense that everybody uses it but normal in the sense that cannabis use is seen as legitimate by both users and non-users.

Järvinen, Margaretha; Demant, Jakob

2011-01-01

223

The Normalization of Cannabis Use among Young People : Symbolic Boundary Work in Focus Groups  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper analyses ‘techniques of neutralisation’ among young people discussing cannabis in focus group interviews. The paper is based on data from focus group interviews with young Danes followed from when they were 14–15 years old in 2004 until they were 18–19 years old in 2008. In this period, the participants’ attitudes towards cannabis undergo a radical change from being negative and sceptical into being predominantly positive and accepting; a change we describe as a ‘normalisation’ of cannabis use. Four techniques of neutralisation are identified in this process. First, the participants redefine the setting of cannabis use, simultaneously creating a new type of togetherness: relaxed social intoxication. Second, the effects of cannabis use are transformed from being ‘strange’ and ‘unpredictable’ to being ‘controllable’ by the individual user. Third, participants change their classification of cannabis in relation to other substances. While 14–15 year olds draw a clear dividing-line between alcohol and illegal drugs (including cannabis), 18–19 year olds put cannabis on the same footing as alcohol but differentiate it from ‘hard’ drugs. Fourth, participants dichotomise cannabis use into spontaneous, social use, which they accept, and habitual, individual use which most of them reject. In combination, these four techniques of neutralisation turn cannabis into a normal drug: not normal in the sense that everybody uses it but normal in the sense that cannabis use is seen as legitimate by both users and non-users.

Järvinen, Margaretha; Demant, Jakob Johan

2011-01-01

224

Cannabis sativa var. indica : une plante complexe aux effets pervers Cannabis sativa var. indica : a complex plant with perverse effects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cannabis sativa var. indica appartient à la famille des Cannabinaceae et à l'ordre des Urticales. Parmi les 60 cannabinoïdes contenus dans la plante, essentiellement dans les feuilles et les sommités fleuries, le delta-9-tétrahydrocannabinol (THC constitue le principal responsable des effets observables chez l'homme. La teneur en THC est très variable selon les conditions de culture, pouvant dépasser 20 % dans le cas de cultures sous serre aux conditions parfaitement contrôlées. Après inhalation, le THC pénètre dans la circulation sanguine puis, très lipophile, va se fixer sur les tissus riches en lipides et en particulier au niveau du cerveau. Ses effets chez l'homme reposent sur l'existence des récepteurs CB1 (essentiellement au niveau central et CB2 (surtout présents au niveau périphérique. Tandis que la présence du THC dans le sang n'est observable que pendant 2 à 3 heures après inhalation, des travaux très récents chez l'homme et chez l'animal nous ont permis de montrer qu'il restait fixé dans la plupart des structures cérébrales pendant de très nombreuses heures, cela expliquant la persistance importante de ses effets sur le système nerveux central. Les effets aigus sur le psychisme consistent principalement en des perturbations sensorielles, des troubles thymiques et dissociatifs, une diminution des performances intellectuelles, motrices et cognitives, des perturbations de la mémoire à court terme. Lors d'un usage important, régulier et prolongé, on note fréquemment l'apparition de crises d'angoisse aiguë et d'un syndrome amotivationnel. Si les risques pour soi-même liés à son usage sont loin d'être négligeables, les conséquences pour autrui peuvent être considérables lorsque les consommateurs sont des conducteurs d'automobiles, des femmes enceintes ou des travailleurs occupant des postes à risque et/ou de sécurité en entreprise. L'importance du risque est majorée par un nombre de consommateurs de plus en plus grand. C'est pour cette raison que la France a récemment mis en place une législation destinée à sanctionner les conducteurs ayant fait usage de cannabis, sur la base des résultats de l'analyse sanguine. C'est aussi pourquoi il serait désormais opportun d'instaurer par voie législative des dépistages chez les personnes occupant des postes à risque et/ou de sécurité dans les entreprises. Cannabis sativa var. indica is a Cannabaceae, belonging to Urticales order. Among the 60 cannabinoids present in the plant and essentially in leaves and flowering tops, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC is the main responsible of the effects observed in human using it. THC content is very variable depending on cultivation conditions, being able to contain more than 20 % of THC in the case of under glass cultivations with well controlled conditions. After inhalation, THC moves to the blood and, because of its lipophily, distribution very fastly into the brain and other lipidic tissues. Its effects on human are supported by the presence of CB1 receptors (mainly in central nervous system and CB2 (mainly present in other tissues. As THC is found in blood during only 2 to 3 hours after inhalation, recent studies allowed us to indicate that it remained present in brain structures during many hours, which explains the long persistence of its effects on central nervous system. Acute side effects on behavior and central nervous system consist essentially in sensitive perturbations, thymic and dissociative troubles, a decrease of intellectual, motor and cognitive performances, short term memory disorders. For an important, regular and long term use, the occurrence of acute angor attacks or an amotivational syndrome are frequently observed. While risks for oneself related to cannabis use are not negligible, consequences for others may be extensive when consumers are car drivers, pregnant women or workers occupying a risk position. This risk is becoming very important today considering account of the number of consumers. Consequently, the French government and th

Mura Patrick

2009-03-01

225

Prescrire du cannabis fumé pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Résumé Objectif Offrir des conseils préliminaires sur la prescription de cannabis fumé pour la douleur chronique avant la publication de lignes directrices officielles. Qualité des données Nous avons examiné les ouvrages scientifiques sur l’efficacité analgésique du cannabis fumé et les dommages causés par la consommation de cannabis à des fins médicales et récréatives. Nous avons élaboré des recommandations concernant les indications et les contre-indications du cannabis fumé, les précautions à prendre et son dosage et nous avons classé les recommandations en fonction du niveau des données probantes. La plupart des données probantes sont de niveau II (études observationnelles bien effectuées) et de niveau III (opinion d’experts). Message principal Le cannabis fumé pourrait être indiqué chez des patients souffrant de douleurs neuropathiques sévères qui n’ont pas répondu à des essais suffisants de cannabinoïdes pharmaceutiques et d’analgésiques standards (données probantes de niveau II). Le cannabis fumé est contre-indiqué chez les patients de 25 ans ou moins (données probantes de niveau II); ceux qui font actuellement ou ont fait par le passé une psychose ou encore ont de forts antécédents familiaux de psychose (données probantes de niveau II); ceux qui ont ou ont eu un problème de consommation de cannabis (données probantes de niveau III); ceux qui ont un problème actuel de toxicomanie ou d’alcoolisme (données probantes de niveau III); ceux qui ont une maladie cardiovasculaire ou respiratoire (données probantes de niveau III); ou celles qui sont enceintes ou planifient une grossesse (données probantes de niveau II). Il devrait être utilisé avec précaution par les patients qui fument du tabac (données probantes de niveau II), qui sont à risque accru de maladies cardiovasculaires (données probantes de niveau III), qui ont des troubles d’anxiété ou de l’humeur (données probantes de niveau II) ou qui prennent de fortes doses d’opioïdes ou de benzodiazépines (données probantes de niveau III). Il faut conseiller aux utilisateurs de cannabis d’attendre au moins 3 à 4 heures avant de conduire s’ils en ont fumé, au moins 6 heures s’ils en ont consommé par la bouche et au moins 8 heures s’ils ont ressenti un «high» subjectif (données probantes de niveau II). La dose maximale recommandée est de 1 inhalation 4 fois par jour (environ 400 mg par jour) de cannabis séché contenant 9 % de delta-9-tétrahydrocannabinol (données probantes de niveau III)). Les médecins devraient éviter de demander une consultation pour les patients auprès de cliniques «cannabinoïdes» (données probantes de niveau III). Conclusion Les lignes directrices futures devraient se fonder sur une révision systématique des ouvrages scientifiques sur la sécurité et l’efficacité du cannabis fumé. D’autres recherches sont nécessaires sur l’efficacité et la sécurité à long terme du cannabis fumé par rapport à d’autres cannabinoïdes pharmaceutiques, aux opioïdes et à d’autres analgésiques standards.

Kahan, Meldon; Srivastava, Anita; Spithoff, Sheryl; Bromley, Lisa

2014-01-01

226

Temperature-dependent symptom recovery in Nicotiana benthamiana plants infected with tomato ringspot virus is associated with reduced translation of viral RNA2 and requires ARGONAUTE 1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Symptom recovery in nepovirus-infected plants has been attributed to the induction of RNA silencing. However, recovery is not always accompanied with viral RNA clearance. In this study, we show that recovery of Nicotiana benthamiana plants infected with the tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) is associated with a reduction of the steady-state levels of RNA2-encoded coat protein (CP) and movement protein but not of RNA2. In vivo labeling experiments revealed efficient synthesis of the CP early in infection, but reduced RNA2 translation later in infection. Silencing of Argonaute1-like (Ago1) genes prevented both symptom recovery and RNA2 translation repression. Similarly, growing the plants at lower temperature (21 °C rather than 27 °C) alleviated the recovery and the translation repression. Taken together, our results suggest that recovery of ToRSV-infected plants is associated with an Ago1-dependent mechanism that represses the translation of viral RNA2. PMID:24889238

Ghoshal, Basudev; Sanfaçon, Hélène

2014-05-01

227

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds after plasma treatment.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Brasov : Universitatea Transilvania din Brasov, 2012 - (Clotea, L.; Cernat, M.). s. 251-251 ISBN 978-1-4673-1650-7. [International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment /13./ OPTIM 2012. 24.05.-26.05.2012, Brasov] Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Cannabis sativa L. * plasma treatment Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

Šerá, Božena; Gajdová, Iveta; Gavril, B.; Hnatiuc, E.; Šerý, M.; Špatenka, P.

228

Complete sequence of a cryptic virus from hemp (Cannabis sativa).  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 157, ?. 2 (2012), s. 383-385. ISSN 0304-8608 R&D Projects: GA ?R GCP501/10/J018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Cannabis sativa * Partitivirus * cryptic virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.030, year: 2012

Ziegler, A.; Matoušek, Jaroslav; Steger, G.; Schubert, J.

2012-01-01

229

DETECTION OF ILLEGAL CANNABIS CULTIVATION USING REMOTE SENSING  

Science.gov (United States)

Detection of illegal Cannabis cultivation by law enforcement agencies currently relies on low flying aircraft manned by trained aerial spotters. This is physically tiring for the aircrew, inefficient for large or complex landscapes, and is often foiled by camouflaged grow sites. A solution for det...

230

Cannabis, cannabidiol, and epilepsy--from receptors to clinical response.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recreational cannabis use in adults with epilepsy is widespread. The use of cannabis for medicinal purposes is also becoming more prevalent. For this purpose, various preparations of cannabis of varying strengths and content are being used. The recent changes in the legal environment have improved the availability of products with high cannabidiol (CBD) and low tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations. There is some anecdotal evidence of their potential efficacy, but the mechanisms of such action are not entirely clear. Some suspect an existence of synergy or "entourage effect" between CBD and THC. There is strong evidence that THC acts via the cannabinoid receptor CB1. The mechanism of action of CBD is less clear but is likely polypharmacological. The scientific data support the role of the endocannabinoid system in seizure generation, maintenance, and control in animal models of epilepsy. There are clear data for the negative effects of cannabis on the developing and mature brain though these effects appear to be relatively mild in most cases. Further data from well-designed studies are needed regarding short- and long-term efficacy and side effects of CBD or high-CBD/low-THC products for the treatment of seizures and epilepsy in children and adults. PMID:25282526

Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Bebin, E Martina

2014-12-01

231

Symptom Management  

Science.gov (United States)

... TBI Educational Materials Research DVBIC Locations Press Symptom Management A brain injury can affect a person physically ... Diagnosis and Assessment Treatment and Recovery Caregiving Symptom Management Life After TBI Defense and Veterans Brain Injury ...

232

Avoiding emotional bonds: An examination of the dimensions of therapeutic alliance among cannabis users  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a growing need to provide treatment for cannabis users, yet engaging and maintaining this population in treatment is particularly difficult. Although past research has focused on the importance of therapeutic alliance on drug treatment outcomes, this is the first study to examine the dimensions of therapeutic alliance for cannabis users compared with users of alcohol or other drugs in a naturalistic setting. The acceptability of Internet-delivered interventions for drug and alcohol treatments is also investigated. Participants (N = 77 included clients who were receiving outpatient drug and alcohol treatment at a publicly-funded health service, including a Specialist Cannabis Clinic. The results indicated that one particular domain of alliance, Bond, was consistently lower, from both client and clinician perspectives, for current cannabis users relative to those not currently using cannabis. Client perceptions of Bond decreased as the severity of cannabis use increased (r =-0.373, p=0.02. Cannabis Clinic clients did not report a significantly lower Bond with their clinicians, suggesting that specialised cannabis services may be better placed to provide appropriate treatment for this population than embedding cannabis treatment within traditional drug and alcohol treatment teams. In addition, Internet/computer based treatments may be one potential way to engage, transition or retain cannabis users in treatment. Trial Registration: Australian Clinical Trial Registration Number: ACTRN12611000382976

FrancesKay-Lambkin

2013-07-01

233

Cannabis and Tobacco Use: Where Are the Boundaries? A Qualitative Study on Cannabis Consumption Modes among Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to identify tobacco and cannabis co-consumptions and consumers' perceptions of each substance. A qualitative research including 22 youths (14 males) aged 15-21 years in seven individual interviews and five focus groups. Discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and transferred to Atlas.ti software for narrative…

Akre, Christina; Michaud, Pierre-Andre; Berchtold, Andre; Suris, Joan-Carles

2010-01-01

234

Whole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis therapy has been considered an effective treatment for spasticity, although clinical reports of symptom reduction in multiple sclerosis (MS describe mixed outcomes. Recently introduced therapies of combined ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC and cannabidiol (CBD extracts have potential for symptom relief with the possibility of reducing intoxication and other side effects. Although several past reviews have suggested that cannabinoid therapy provides a therapeutic benefit for symptoms of MS, none have presented a methodical investigation of newer cannabinoid treatments in MS-related spasticity. The purpose of the present review was to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of combined THC and CBD extracts on MS-related spasticity in order to increase understanding of the treatment's potential effectiveness, safety and limitations. Methods We reviewed MEDLINE/PubMed, Ovid, and CENTRAL electronic databases for relevant studies using randomized controlled trials. Studies were included only if a combination of THC and CBD extracts was used, and if pre- and post-treatment assessments of spasticity were reported. Results Six studies were systematically reviewed for treatment dosage and duration, objective and subjective measures of spasticity, and reports of adverse events. Although there was variation in the outcome measures reported in these studies, a trend of reduced spasticity in treated patients was noted. Adverse events were reported in each study, however combined TCH and CBD extracts were generally considered to be well-tolerated. Conclusion We found evidence that combined THC and CBD extracts may provide therapeutic benefit for MS spasticity symptoms. Although some objective measures of spasticity noted improvement trends, there were no changes found to be significant in post-treatment assessments. However, subjective assessment of symptom relief did often show significant improvement post-treatment. Differences in assessment measures, reports of adverse events, and dosage levels are discussed.

Rowland Marie

2009-12-01

235

Los productos de Cannabis sativa: situación actual y perspectivas en medicina / Cannabis sativa products: current status and perspectives in medicine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Los productos psicoactivos de la Cannabis sativa, como marihuana y hachís, se han usado desde hace varios siglos con fines medicinales, religiosos y recreativos. Ahora, la marihuana es la droga ilegal de mayor consumo en el mundo, particularmente por adolescentes y adultos jóvenes. La adolescencia e [...] s una etapa crítica en el desarrollo y maduración del Sistema Nervioso Central. La marihuana está constituida por un gran número y variedad de substancias químicas que pueden interactuar entre sí. Sus efectos agudos se caracterizan por euforia, relajación e intensificación de las experiencias sensoriales ordinarias. Su consumo crónico induce tolerancia, dependencia, síndrome de carencia, déficit cognitivo y aumenta el riesgo de enfermedades psiquiátricas. El descubrimiento de un sistema cannabinoide endógeno renovó el interés médico por la marihuana y los datos de los últimos 20 años indican que el sistema endocannabinoide regula la función de diversos tipos de sinapsis y juega un papel importante en el desarrollo cerebral extrauterino. Recientemente el interés sobre la marihuana se centró en sus propiedades medicinales y existe un buen número de ensayos clínicos controlados que apoyan su uso en ciertas condiciones médicas; sin embargo, su eficacia y seguridad siguen siendo motivo de controversia. En este artículo se analizan los conocimientos farmacológicos sobre la marihuana, se establecen los riesgos de su consumo, la información sobre sus propiedades medicinales y, con base en la evidencia disponible, se opina contra su legalización. Finalmente, aquí se postula que la marihuana en su forma herbaria, por vía enteral, puede ser de gran valor para mitigar el sufrimiento de pacientes con enfermedad terminal. Abstract in english Psychoactive preparations of Cannabis sativa, such as marijuana and hashish, have been used for centuries for medicinal, religious and recreational purposes. Today marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug worldwide, particularly among teenagers and young adults. Adolescence is a critical phase [...] in Central Nervous System development, characterized by neuronal maturation and rearrangement processes. Marijuana is very complex in its chemistry due to the large number of active constituents capable of interacting with each other. With inhaled marihuana, subjects experience euphoria, a feeling of relaxation, and intensification of ordinary sensory experiences. Chronic consumption results in tolerance, dependence, withdrawal syndrome, cognitive deterioration, and increased risk of psychiatric illnesses. The discovery of an endogenous cannabinoid system renewed the medical interest in marijuana and data from the last 20 years have shown that, in the postnatal brain, endocannabinoids regulate the function of many synapses and play an important role in brain development; also, that chronic consumption of marijuana early in life negatively affects Central Nervous System development. Recently, interest on marijuana has centered on its medicinal properties, and a good number of controlled clinical studies support its use in certain medical conditions; however, safety and efficacy of marijuana remains controversial. In this article we analyze the pharmacological knowledge on marijuana, the risks of its consumption, data on its medicinal properties and, based on the available evidence, we conclude that its legalization should be discouraged. Finally, we postulate that marijuana in its herbal form, by the enteral route, could be of a great value in mitigating suffering in patients with terminal illness.

Rodolfo, Rodríguez Carranza.

2012-06-01

236

Increased sensorimotor gating in recreational and dependent cocaine users is modulated by craving and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Cocaine dependence has been associated with blunted dopamine and norepinephrine signaling, but it is unknown if recreational cocaine use is also associated with alterations of catecholamine systems. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response-a measure of sensorimotor gating-is highly sensitive for manipulations of the catecholamine system. Therefore, we investigated whether relatively pure recreational users (RCU) and dependent cocaine users (DCU) display alteratio...

Preller, Katrin H.; Ingold, Nina; Hulka, Lea M.; Vonmoos, Matthias; Jenni, Daniela; Baumgartner, M. R.; Vollenweider, F. X.; Quednow, B. B.

2013-01-01

237

Cannabis Use and Mental Health: A Review of Recent Epidemiological Research  

OpenAIRE

Cannabis is the most commonly used drug in the world. This review examines recent epidemiological research on the relationships between cannabis use and mental health problems. Relationships with depression, anxiety disorders, mania and psychosis are examined, with relevant issues such as the effect of confounding variables, temporal directions and causality being discussed. Factors which influence the relationship such as dose-response effects, age of first cannabis use and risk of mental he...

Richardson, T. H.

2010-01-01

238

Adolescent Cannabis Problems and Young Adult Depression: Male-Female Stratified Propensity Score Analyses  

OpenAIRE

Cannabis use and depression are two of the most prevalent conditions worldwide. Adolescent cannabis use is linked to depression in many studies, but the effects of adolescent cannabis involvement on young adult depression remain unclear and may differ for males versus females. In this cohort study of youth from a mid-Atlantic metropolitan area of the United States, repeated assessments from 1985 (at age 6 years) through 2002 (at age 21 years) were made for 1,494 individuals (55% female). Meas...

Harder, Valerie S.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Anthony, James C.

2008-01-01

239

Understanding Cultivar-Specificity and Soil Determinants of the Cannabis Microbiome  

OpenAIRE

Understanding microbial partnerships with the medicinally and economically important crop Cannabis has the potential to affect agricultural practice by improving plant fitness and production yield. Furthermore, Cannabis presents an interesting model to explore plant-microbiome interactions as it produces numerous secondary metabolic compounds. Here we present the first description of the endorhiza-, rhizosphere-, and bulk soil-associated microbiome of five distinct Cannabis cultivars. Bacteri...

Winston, Max E.; Hampton-marcell, Jarrad; Zarraonaindia, Iratxe; Owens, Sarah M.; Moreau, Corrie S.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hartsel, Josh; Kennedy, Suzanne J.; Gibbons, S. M.

2014-01-01

240

Crime and the Depenalization of Cannabis Possession: Evidence from a Policing Experiment  

OpenAIRE

We evaluate the impact on crime of a localized policing experiment that depenalized the possession of small quantities of cannabis in the London borough of Lambeth. Such a policy can: (i) impact the demand for cannabis in Lambeth as users move there to purchase cannabis; (ii) enable the Lambeth police to reallocate effort towards other types of crime. We investigate whether the depenalization policy impacts the level and composition of crime, using administrative records on criminal offences ...

Adda, Je?ro?me; Mcconnell, Brendon; Rasul, Imran

2014-01-01

241

Disposition of smoked cannabis with high [Delta]9-tetrahydrocannabinol content: a kinetic model  

OpenAIRE

Introduction No model exists to describe the disposition and kinetics of inhaled cannabis containing a high THC dose. We aimed to develop a kinetic model providing estimates of the THC serum concentrations after smoking cannabis cigarettes containing high THC doses (up to 69 mg THC).Methods Twenty-four male non-daily cannabis users smoked cannabis cigarettes containing 29.3 mg, 49.1 mg, and 69.4 mg THC. Blood samples were collected over a period of 0-8 h and serum THC concentrations wer...

Hunault, C. C.; Eijkeren, J. C. H.; Mensinga, T. T.; Vries, Irma; Leenders, M. E. C.; Meulenbelt, J.

2010-01-01

242

Predicting creativity: the role of psychometric schizotypy and cannabis use in divergent thinking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence suggests that divergent thinking (DT), a measure of creativity, is associated with positive schizotypy and cannabis use. Given the high rates of cannabis use among those with schizotypy, it is unclear if the relation of DT to schizotypy is due to co-occurring cannabis use. In this study, we examined the relations between DT, schizotypy, and cannabis use among positive schizotypy (n=66), negative schizotypy (n=22), and non-schizotypy (n=60) groups. Results revealed that DT was greater in the positive schizotypy group, on the order of small to medium effects, compared to negative and non-schizotypy groups. Cannabis use and DT were associated in the non-schizotypy group, but not in the positive or negative schizotypy groups. Across all groups, positive schizotypy significantly predicted DT; however, cannabis use was not a significant predictor of DT. In line with previous findings, cannabis use and DT were only related in individuals low in creativity. This suggests that a ceiling effect may be present, with only cannabis users who are low in creativity receiving any increase in DT. Future research should aim to clarify the DT-cannabis relationship. PMID:25219611

Minor, Kyle S; Firmin, Ruth L; Bonfils, Kelsey A; Chun, Charlotte A; Buckner, Julia D; Cohen, Alex S

2014-12-15

243

INCANT: a transnational randomized trial of Multidimensional Family Therapy versus treatment as usual for adolescents with cannabis use disorder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, the governments of Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland agreed that there was a need in Europe for a treatment programme for adolescents with cannabis use disorders and other behavioural problems. Based on an exhaustive literature review of evidence-based treatments and an international experts meeting, Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT was selected for a pilot study first, which was successful, and then for a joint, transnational randomized controlled trial named INCANT (INternational CAnnabis Need for Treatment. Methods/design INCANT is a randomized controlled trial (RCT with an open-label, parallel group design. This study compares MDFT with treatment as usual (TAU at and across sites in Brussels, Berlin, Paris, The Hague and Geneva. Assessments are at baseline and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after randomization. A minimum of 450 cases in total is required; sites will recruit 60 cases each in Belgium and Switzerland, and a maximum of 120 each in France, Germany and the Netherlands. Eligible for INCANT are adolescents from 13 through 18 years of age with a cannabis use disorder (dependence or abuse, with at least one parent willing to take part in the treatment. Randomization is concealed to, and therefore beyond control by, the researcher/site requesting it. Randomization is stratified as to gender, age and level of cannabis consumption. Assessments focus on substance use; mental function; behavioural problems; and functioning regarding family, school, peers and leisure time. For outcome analyses, the study will use state of the art latent growth curve modelling techniques, including all randomized participants according to the intention-to-treat principle. INCANT has been approved by the appropriate ethical boards in Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. INCANT is funded by the (federal Ministries of Health of Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and by MILDT: the Mission Interministerielle de Lutte Contra la Drogue et de Toximanie, France. Discussion Until recently, cannabis use disorders in adolescents were not viewed in Europe as requiring treatment, and the co-occurrence of such disorders with other mental and behavioural problems was underestimated. This has changed now. Initially, there was doubt that a RCT would be feasible in treatment sectors and countries with no experience in this type of study. INCANT has proven that such doubts are unjustified. Governments and treatment sites from the five participating countries agreed on a sound study protocol, and the INCANT trial is now underway as planned. Trial registration ISRCTN51014277

Grichting Esther

2010-04-01

244

Antigiardial Activity and Toxicological Exploration of Cannabis Sativa Extracts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study has been attempt to elucidate antigiardial activity and explore the cytoxicity, investigation on liver Diagnostic Enzymes and Changes in serum constituents of Cannabis Sativa aerial parts and seeds, which were extracted by Petroleum ether and methanol. Aerial parts methanolic extract gave 63.6% mortality after 72 hours at concentration 1000 ppm (IC50 0.13 ppm comparing with metrondizole (IC50 0.0125 ppm. While the other extracts found inactive as antigiardiasis after 72 hours. The slight increase in Aspartate amino transferase (AST, Alanine amino transferase (ALT and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP liver enzyme and total protein, urea, albumin and calcium which indicate some degree hepatic nefropathy effect of such plant petroleum ether extract. Moreover, phytochemical examination was carried out firstly and revealed that, the petroleum ether extract of Cannabis sativa seed do not contain tetrahydrocannbinol (THC, cannabinol (CBN and cannabidaiol (CBD. However, all extracts showed no significant cytotoxic activity against vero cell line.

Mahmoud M.DAHAB

2013-05-01

245

Prevalence of Psychotic Symptoms and Their Risk Factors in Urban Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in urban Tanzania and their relationship with demographic, socio-economic and social factors. A random sample of 899 adults aged 15–59 was surveyed. The main outcome measure was endorsement of one or more psychotic symptoms identified by the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire. 3.9% respondents reported one or more psychotic symptoms in the preceding year. Significantly higher rates of symptoms were found in those who had recently experienced two or more stressful life events, those with CMD and people who had used cannabis in the preceding year.

Rachel Jenkins

2010-06-01

246

Phytochemical and genetic analyses of ancient cannabis from Central Asia  

OpenAIRE

The Yanghai Tombs near Turpan, Xinjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region, China have recently been excavated to reveal the 2700-year-old grave of a Caucasoid shaman whose accoutrements included a large cache of cannabis, superbly preserved by climatic and burial conditions. A multidisciplinary international team demonstrated through botanical examination, phytochemical investigation, and genetic deoxyribonucleic acid analysis by polymerase chain reaction that this material contained tetrahydrocannabi...

Russo, Ethan B.; Jiang, Hong-en; Li, Xiao; Sutton, Alan; Carboni, Andrea; Del Bianco, Francesca; Mandolino, Giuseppe; Potter, David J.; Zhao, You-xing; Bera, Subir; Zhang, Yong-bing; Lu?, En-guo; Ferguson, David K.; Hueber, Francis; Zhao, Liang-cheng

2008-01-01

247

Crop physiology of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).  

OpenAIRE

Fibre hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) may be an alternative to wood as a raw material for the production of paper pulp. The effects of enviromnental factors and cultural measures on the functioning, yield and quality of fibre hemp crops in the Netherlands were investigated.Until flowering (generally in August), the radiation use efficiency (RUE, above-ground dry matter accumulated per unit of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted) of hemp was 2.2 g MJ -1, after flowering it dropped to 1...

Werf, H.

1994-01-01

248

Effect of hydrolysis on identifying prenatal cannabis exposure  

OpenAIRE

Identification of prenatal cannabis exposure is important due to potential cognitive and behavioral consequences. A two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method for cannabinol, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 8?,11-dihydroxy-THC, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) quantification in human meconium was developed and validated. Alkaline, enzymatic, and enzyme–alkaline tandem hydrolysis conditions were optimized with THC- and THCCOOH-glucuronide ref...

Gray, Teresa R.; Barnes, Allan J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2010-01-01

249

Mortality following treatment for cannabis use disorders : Predictors and causes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the study was to determine excess mortality associated with cannabis use disorders. Individuals entering treatment for cannabis use disorders were followed by use of Danish registers and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) estimated. Predictors of different causes of death were determined. A total of 6445 individuals were included and 142 deaths recorded during 26,584 person-years of follow-up. Mortality was predicted by age, comorbid use of opioids, and lifetime injection drug use. For different causes of death the SMRs were: accidents: 8.2 (95% CI 6.3-10.5), suicide: 5.3 (95% CI 3.3-7.9), homicide/violence: 3.8 (95% CI 1.5-7.9), and natural causes: 2.8 (95% CI 2.0-3.7). Following exclusion of those with secondary use of opioids, cocaine, amphetamine, or injection drug use, SMRs for all causes of death remained significantly elevated except for homicide/violence. The study underlines the need to address mortality risk associated with cannabis use disorders.

Arendt, Mikkel; Munk-JØrgensen, Povl

2013-01-01

250

Phytocannabinoids beyond the Cannabis plant - do they exist?  

Science.gov (United States)

It is intriguing that during human cultural evolution man has detected plant natural products that appear to target key protein receptors of important physiological systems rather selectively. Plants containing such secondary metabolites usually belong to unique chemotaxa, induce potent pharmacological effects and have typically been used for recreational and medicinal purposes or as poisons. Cannabis sativa L. has a long history as a medicinal plant and was fundamental in the discovery of the endocannabinoid system. The major psychoactive Cannabis constituent Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) potently activates the G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor CB(1) and also modulates the cannabinoid receptor CB(2). In the last few years, several other non-cannabinoid plant constituents have been reported to bind to and functionally interact with CB receptors. Moreover, certain plant natural products, from both Cannabis and other plants, also target other proteins of the endocannabinoid system, such as hydrolytic enzymes that control endocannabinoid levels. In this commentary we summarize and critically discuss recent findings. PMID:20590562

Gertsch, Jürg; Pertwee, Roger G; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

2010-06-01

251

Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa / Therapeutical aspects of compounds of the plant Cannabis sativa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids) have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of [...] these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action involved in the interaction between cannabinoid compounds and the biological receptors. So, from the therapeutical aspects presented in this work, we intended to show the evolution of the Cannabis sativa research and the possible medicinal use of cannabinoid compounds.

Káthia Maria, Honório; Agnaldo, Arroio; Albérico Borges Ferreira da, Silva.

2006-04-01

252

HIV Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

... Submit Home > HIV/AIDS > What is HIV/AIDS? HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) HIV symptoms Photo courtesy of AIDS.gov Facing AIDS ... and brain Return to top More information on HIV symptoms Explore other publications and websites Basic Information ...

253

Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an anxiolytic drug Canabidiol, um componente da Cannabis sativa, como um ansiolítico  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES: To review and describe studies of the non-psychotomimetic constituent of Cannabis sativa, cannabidiol (CBD), as an anxiolytic drug and discuss its possible mechanisms of action. METHOD: The articles selected for the review were identified through searches in English, Portuguese, and Spanish in the electronic databases ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, PubMed, and PsycINFO, combining the search terms "cannabidiol and anxiolytic", "cannabidiol and anxiolytic-like", and "cannabidiol and ...

Alexandre Rafael de Mello Schier; Natalia Pinho de Oliveira Ribeiro; Silva, Adriana Cardoso Oliveira E.; Jaime Eduardo Cecílio Hallak; Crippa, Jose? Alexandre S.; Nardi, Antonio E.; Antonio Waldo Zuardi

2012-01-01

254

Design paper: The CapOpus trial: a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial of specialized addiction treatment versus treatment as usual for young patients with cannabis abuse and psychosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: A number of studies indicate a link between cannabis-use and psychosis as well as more severe psychosis in those with existing psychotic disorders. There is currently insufficient evidence to decide the optimal way to treat cannabis abuse among patients with psychosis. OBJECTIVES: The major objective for the CapOpus trial is to evaluate the additional effect on cannabis abuse of a specialized addiction treatment program adding group treatment and motivational interviewing to treatment as usual. DESIGN: The trial is designed as a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial. Patients are primarily recruited through early-psychosis detection teams, community mental health centers, and assertive community treatment teams. Patients are randomized to one of two treatment arms, both lasting six months: 1) specialized addiction treatment plus treatment as usual or 2) treatment as usual. The specialized addiction treatment is manualized and consists of both individual and group-based motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy, and incorporates both the family and the case manager of the patient.The primary outcome measure will be changes in amount of cannabis consumption over time. Other outcome measures will be psychosis symptoms, cognitive functioning, quality of life, social functioning, and cost-benefit analyses. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00484302.

HjorthØj, Carsten; Fohlmann, Allan

2008-01-01

255

Design paper: The CapOpus trial: A randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial of specialized addiction treatment versus treatment as usual for young patients with cannabis abuse and psychosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies indicate a link between cannabis-use and psychosis as well as more severe psychosis in those with existing psychotic disorders. There is currently insufficient evidence to decide the optimal way to treat cannabis abuse among patients with psychosis. Objectives The major objective for the CapOpus trial is to evaluate the additional effect on cannabis abuse of a specialized addiction treatment program adding group treatment and motivational interviewing to treatment as usual. Design The trial is designed as a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial. Patients are primarily recruited through early-psychosis detection teams, community mental health centers, and assertive community treatment teams. Patients are randomized to one of two treatment arms, both lasting six months: 1 specialized addiction treatment plus treatment as usual or 2 treatment as usual. The specialized addiction treatment is manualized and consists of both individual and group-based motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy, and incorporates both the family and the case manager of the patient. The primary outcome measure will be changes in amount of cannabis consumption over time. Other outcome measures will be psychosis symptoms, cognitive functioning, quality of life, social functioning, and cost-benefit analyses. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00484302.

Gluud Christian

2008-07-01

256

Cannabis-based medicines--GW pharmaceuticals: high CBD, high THC, medicinal cannabis--GW pharmaceuticals, THC:CBD.  

Science.gov (United States)

GW Pharmaceuticals is undertaking a major research programme in the UK to develop and market distinct cannabis-based prescription medicines [THC:CBD, High THC, High CBD] in a range of medical conditions. The cannabis for this programme is grown in a secret location in the UK. It is expected that the product will be marketed in the US in late 2003. GW's cannabis-based products include selected phytocannabinoids from cannabis plants, including D9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). The company is investigating their use in three delivery systems, including sublingual spray, sublingual tablet and inhaled (but not smoked) dosage forms. The technology is protected by patent applications. Four different formulations are currently being investigated, including High THC, THC:CBD (narrow ratio), THC:CBD (broad ratio) and High CBD. GW is also developing a specialist security technology that will be incorporated in all its drug delivery systems. This technology allows for the recording and remote monitoring of patient usage to prevent any potential abuse of its cannabis-based medicines. GW plans to enter into agreements with other companies following phase III development, to secure the best commercialisation terms for its cannabis-based medicines. In June 2003, GW announced that exclusive commercialisation rights for the drug in the UK had been licensed to Bayer AG. The drug will be marketed under the Sativex brand name. This agreement also provides Bayer with an option to expand their license to include the European Union and certain world markets. GW was granted a clinical trial exemption certificate by the Medicines Control Agency to conduct clinical studies with cannabis-based medicines in the UK. The exemption includes investigations in the relief of pain of neurological origin and defects of neurological function in the following indications: multiple sclerosis (MS), spinal cord injury, peripheral nerve injury, central nervous system damage, neuroinvasive cancer, dystonias, cerebral vascular accident and spina bifida, as well as for the relief of pain and inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis and also pain relief in brachial plexus injury. The UK Government stated that it would be willing to amend the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 to permit the introduction of a cannabis-based medicine. GW stated in its 2002 Annual Report that it was currently conducting five phase III trials of its cannabis derivatives, including a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a sublingual spray containing High THC in more than 100 patients with cancer pain in the UK. Also included is a phase III trial of THC:CBD (narrow ratio) being conducted in patients with severe pain due to brachial plexus injury, as are two more phase III trials of THC:CBD (narrow ratio) targeting spasticity and bladder dysfunction in multiple sclerosis patients. Another phase III trial of THC:CBD (narrow ratio) in patients with spinal cord injury is also being conducted. Results from the trials are expected during 2003. Three additional trials are also in the early stages of planning. These trials include a phase I trial of THC:CBD (broad ratio) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, a phase I trial of High CBD in patients with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, and a preclinical trial of High CBD in various CNS disorders (including epilepsy, stroke and head injury). GW Pharmaceuticals submitted an application for approval of cannabis-based medicines to UK regulatory authorities in March 2003. Originally GW hoped to market cannabis-based prescription medicines by 2004, but is now planning for a launch in the UK towards the end of 2003. Several trials for GW's cannabis derivatives have also been completed, including four randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III clinical trials conducted in the UK. The trials were initiated by GW in April 2002, to investigate the use of a sublingual spray containing THC:CBD (narrow ratio) in the following medical conditions: pain in spinal cord injury, pain and sleep in MS and spinal cord injury, neuro

2003-01-01

257

Behavioral therapies for treatment-seeking cannabis users: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Narrative reviews conclude that behavioral therapies (BTs) produce better outcomes than control conditions for cannabis use disorders (CUDs). However, the strength and consistency of this effect has not been directly empirically examined. The present meta-analysis combined multiple well-controlled studies to help clarify the overall impact of behavioral interventions in the treatment of CUDs. A comprehensive literature search produced 10 randomized controlled trials (RCTs; n = 2,027) that were included in the final analyses. Analyses indicated an effect of BTs (including contingency management, relapse prevention, and motivational interviewing, and combinations of these strategies with cognitive behavioral therapy) over control conditions (including waitlist [WL], psychological placebo, and treatment as usual) across pooled outcomes and time points (Hedges' g = 0.44). These results suggest that the average patient receiving a behavioral intervention fared better than 66% of those in the control conditions. BT also outperformed control conditions when examining primary outcomes alone (frequency and severity of use) and secondary outcomes alone (psychosocial functioning). Effect sizes were not moderated by inclusion of a diagnosis (RCTs including treatment-seeking cannabis users who were not assessed for abuse or dependence vs. RCTs including individuals diagnosed as dependent), dose (number of treatment sessions), treatment format (either group vs. individual treatment or in-person vs. non-in-person treatment), sample size, or publication year. Effect sizes were significantly larger for studies that included a WL control comparison versus those including active control comparisons, such that BT significantly outperformed WL controls but not active control comparisons. PMID:24695072

Davis, Michelle L; Powers, Mark B; Handelsman, Pamela; Medina, Johnna L; Zvolensky, Michael; Smits, Jasper A J

2015-03-01

258

Cannabis Use and Related Harms in the Transition to Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…

Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

2013-01-01

259

A rare case of cannabis hyperemesis syndrome relieved by hot water bathing.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present here a case of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS), which is an under-recognised disorder presenting in chronic abusers of cannabis typically as cyclical vomiting relieved by frequent hot baths. Increased awareness of CHS allows for earlier recognition by emergency departments, leading to prompter treatment and the prevention of future recurrence through cannabis cessation. PMID:24532755

Warner, Ben; Cairns, Stuart; Stone, Andy

2014-02-01

260

Effect of Long-Term Cannabis Use on Axonal Fibre Connectivity  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis use typically begins during adolescence and early adulthood, a period when cannabinoid receptors are still abundant in white matter pathways across the brain. However, few studies to date have explored the impact of regular cannabis use on white matter structure, with no previous studies examining its impact on axonal connectivity. The…

Zalesky, Andrew; Solowij, Nadia; Yucel, Murat; Lubman, Dan I.; Takagi, Michael; Harding, Ian H.; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Wang, Ruopeng; Searle, Karissa; Pantelis, Christos; Seal, Marc

2012-01-01

261

First systematic evaluation of the potency of Cannabis sativa plants grown in Albania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis products (marijuana, hashish, cannabis oil) are the most frequently abused illegal substances worldwide. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa plant, whereas cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) are other major but no psychoactive constituents. Many studies have already been carried out on these compounds and chemical research was encouraged due to the legal implications concerning the misuse of marijuana. The aim of this study was to determine THC, CBD and CBN in a significant number of cannabis samples of Albanian origin, where cannabis is the most frequently used drug of abuse, in order to evaluate and classify them according to their cannabinoid composition. A GC-MS method was used, in order to assay cannabinoid content of hemp samples harvested at different maturation degree levels during the summer months and grown in different areas of Albania. This method can also be used for the determination of plant phenotype, the evaluation of psychoactive potency and the control of material quality. The highest cannabinoid concentrations were found in the flowers of cannabis. The THC concentrations in different locations of Albania ranged from 1.07 to 12.13%. The influence of environmental conditions on cannabinoid content is discussed. The cannabinoid content of cannabis plants were used for their profiling, and it was used for their classification, according to their geographical origin. The determined concentrations justify the fact that Albania is an area where cannabis is extensively cultivated for illegal purposes. PMID:22608266

Bruci, Zana; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Nikolaou, Panagiota; Pazari, Ermira; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Vyshka, Gentian

2012-10-10

262

Emotional processing deficits in chronic cannabis use: a replication and extension.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heavy cannabis use is associated with interpersonal problems that may arise in part from the inaccurate perception of emotional faces. Only one study reports impairments in emotional facial affect processing in heavy cannabis users; however, it is not clear whether these findings were attributable to differences between cannabis users and controls in schizotypy or gender, rather than from cannabis use itself. A total of 25 frequent cannabis users and 34 non-using controls completed an emotional processing task in an independent groups design. We asked participants to identify the emotions on faces morphed from neutral to 100% intensity, for six basic emotions. We measured percentage hit rate, sensitivity and response bias. Schizotypy was indexed using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire. Cannabis users showed lower accuracy and sensitivity on the emotional recognition task. Gender and schizotypy did not differ between the two groups. Men showed lower accuracy on the emotional processing task, but impairments in cannabis users remained when covarying for gender. Schizotypy negatively correlated with sensitivity scores, but this was unreliable when accounting for the groups. Chronic cannabis users showed generalised impairment in emotional processing. These results appeared as independent of the emotional processing deficits amongst men, and were not related to schizotypy. PMID:24646810

Hindocha, Chandni; Wollenberg, Olivia; Carter Leno, Virginia; Alvarez, Beatriz O; Curran, H Valerie; Freeman, Tom P

2014-05-01

263

Temperament and character traits associated with the use of alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, benzodiazepines, and hallucinogens: evidence from a large Brazilian web survey  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate how personality traits are associated with occasional use, abuse, and dependence of alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, benzodiazepines, and hallucinogens in a large availability sample of adults via online questionnaires. Methods: The sample consisted of 8,646 individuals (24.7% me [...] n and 75.3% women) who completed an anonymous web survey. Involvement with drugs and temperament/character traits were assessed through the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and the Temperament and Character Inventory - Revised (TCI-R), respectively. Interactions among variables were analyzed using MANOVA with Bonferroni adjustment. Results: Novelty seeking was the trait most associated with increased involvement with alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine. There was a significant association between harm avoidance and benzodiazepine use. Persistence was lower in cannabis-, benzodiazepine-, and cocaine-dependent subjects, as well as in hallucinogen abusers. Self-directedness was reduced in dependents of all drug classes. No strong relationships were found between other temperament or character dimensions and the severity of drug use. Conclusions: Novelty seeking was associated with increased involvement with all drugs studied in this sample, although to a lesser extent with benzodiazepines and hallucinogens. The temperament and character profile for benzodiazepine use was different from that of other drugs due to the relationship with higher harm avoidance and self-transcendence and lower self-directedness.

Ricardo, Schneider Jr.; Gustavo L., Ottoni; Hudson W. de, Carvalho; Elaine, Elisabetsky; Diogo R., Lara.

2015-03-01

264

Syphilis Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Syphilis Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... occurs in four stages that sometimes overlap. Primary Syphilis The first symptom of primary syphilis is often ...

265

Cannabis Use and Mental Health: A Review of Recent Epidemiological Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cannabis is the most commonly used drug in the world. This review examines recent epidemiological research on the relationships between cannabis use and mental health problems. Relationships with depression, anxiety disorders, mania and psychosis are examined, with relevant issues such as the effect of confounding variables, temporal directions and causality being discussed. Factors which influence the relationship such as dose-response effects, age of first cannabis use and risk of mental health problems are also examined. Causality is often difficult to establish, as cannabis is often used by those with mental illness for self-medication. However, there is substantial evidence to suggest that cannabis may induce or exacerbate a number of mental health problems.

T.H. Richardson

2010-01-01

266

Correlations and agreement between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in blood plasma and timeline follow-back (TLFB)-assisted self-reported use of cannabis of patients with cannabis use disorder and psychotic illness attending the CapOpus randomized clinical trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aims To assess correlations and agreement between timeline follow-back (TLFB)-assisted self-report and blood samples for cannabis use. Design Secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Setting Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants One hundred and three patients from the CapOpus trial with cannabis use disorder and psychosis, providing 239 self-reports of cannabis use and 88 valid blood samples. Measurements Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) and 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) detected in plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. Self-report of cannabis-use last month by TLFB. Pearson's r, sensitivity and specificity calculated as measures of correlation or agreement. Findings Correlations were strong; r = 0.75 for number of days and r = 0.83 for number of standard joints in the preceding month when excluding outliers. Including outliers, coefficients were moderate to strong (r = 0.49). There were differences in subgroups, mainly inconsistent, depending on inclusion or exclusion of outliers. Sensitivity and specificity for TLFB detecting the presence or absence of cannabis use were 95.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 88.0-99.1%) and 72.2% (95% CI 46.5-90.3%), respectively. Using 19 days as cut-off on TLFB, they were 94.3% (95% CI 86.0-98.4%) and 94.4% (95% CI 72.2-99.9%), respectively. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.96. Conclusions Timeline follow-back (TLFB)-assisted self-report of cannabis use correlates highly with plasma-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with comorbid cannabis use disorder and psychosis. Sensitivity and specificity of timeline follow-back appear to be optimized with 19 days as the cut-off point. As such, timeline follow-back may be superior to analysis of blood when going beyond 19 days of recall.

HjorthØj, Carsten Rygaard; Fohlmann, Allan

2012-01-01

267

Altered brain activation during visuomotor integration in chronic active cannabis users: relationship to cortisol levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis is the most abused illegal substance in the United States. Alterations in brain function and motor behavior have been reported in chronic cannabis users, but the results have been variable. The current study aimed to determine whether chronic active cannabis use in humans may alter psychomotor function, brain activation, and hypothalamic-pituitary-axis (HPA) function in men and women. Thirty cannabis users (16 men, 14 women, 18-45 years old) and 30 nondrug user controls (16 men, 14 women, 19-44 years old) were evaluated with neuropsychological tests designed to assess motor behavior and with fMRI using a 3 Tesla scanner during a visually paced finger-sequencing task, cued by a flashing checkerboard (at 2 or 4 Hz). Salivary cortisol was measured to assess HPA function. Male, but not female, cannabis users had significantly slower performance on psychomotor speed tests. As a group, cannabis users had greater activation in BA 6 than controls, while controls had greater activation in the visual area BA 17 than cannabis users. Cannabis users also had higher salivary cortisol levels than controls (p = 0.002). Chronic active cannabis use is associated with slower and less efficient psychomotor function, especially in male users, as indicated by a shift from regions involved with automated visually guided responses to more executive or attentional control areas. The greater but altered brain activities may be mediated by the higher cortisol levels in the cannabis users, which in turn may lead to less efficient visual-motor function. PMID:22159107

King, George R; Ernst, Thomas; Deng, Weiran; Stenger, Andrew; Gonzales, Rachael M K; Nakama, Helenna; Chang, Linda

2011-12-01

268

AKT1 Moderation of Cannabis-Induced Cognitive Alterations in Psychotic Disorder  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic variation in AKT1 may be associated with sensitivity to the psychotomimetic effects of cannabis as well as with increased risk for psychotic disorder following cannabis use. Investigation of the effect of this interaction on relevant intermediate phenotypes for psychosis, such as cognition, may help to clarify the underlying mechanism. Thus, verbal memory (visually presented Word Learning Task), sustained attention (Continuous Performance Test, CPT), AKT1 rs2494732 genotype, and cannabis use were examined in a large cohort of patients with psychotic disorder. No evidence was found for AKT1 × cannabis interaction on verbal memory. Cannabis use preceding onset of psychotic disorder did interact significantly with AKT1 rs2494732 genotype to affect CPT reaction time (?=8.0, SE 3.9, p=0.037) and CPT accuracy (?=?1.2, SE 0.4, p=0.003). Cannabis-using patients with the a priori vulnerability C/C genotype were slower and less accurate on the CPT, whereas cannabis-using patients with the T/T genotype had similar or better performance than non-using patients with psychotic disorder. The interaction was also apparent in patients with psychotic disorder who had not used cannabis in the 12 months preceding assessment, but was absent in the unaffected siblings of these patients and in healthy controls. In conclusion, cannabis use before onset of psychosis may have long-lasting effects on measures of sustained attention, even in the absence of current use, contingent on AKT1 rs2494732 genotype. The results suggest that long-term changes in cognition may mediate the risk-increasing effect of the AKT1 × cannabis interaction on psychotic disorder. PMID:21775978

van Winkel, Ruud; van Beveren, Nico J M; Simons, Claudia; S Kahn, René S; Linszen, Don H; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia; Myin-Germeys, Inez

2011-01-01

269

Cannabis, the pregnant woman and her child: weeding out the myths.  

Science.gov (United States)

To review and summarise the literature reporting on cannabis use within western communities with specific reference to patterns of use, the pharmacology of its major psychoactive compounds, including placental and fetal transfer, and the impact of maternal cannabis use on pregnancy, the newborn infant and the developing child. Review of published articles, governmental guidelines and data and book chapters. Although cannabis is one of the most widely used illegal drugs, there is limited data about the prevalence of cannabis use in pregnant women, and it is likely that reported rates of exposure are significantly underestimated. With much of the available literature focusing on the impact of other illicit drugs such as opioids and stimulants, the effects of cannabis use in pregnancy on the developing fetus remain uncertain. Current evidence indicates that cannabis use both during pregnancy and lactation, may adversely affect neurodevelopment, especially during periods of critical brain growth both in the developing fetal brain and during adolescent maturation, with impacts on neuropsychiatric, behavioural and executive functioning. These reported effects may influence future adult productivity and lifetime outcomes. Despite the widespread use of cannabis by young women, there is limited information available about the impact perinatal cannabis use on the developing fetus and child, particularly the effects of cannabis use while breast feeding. Women who are using cannabis while pregnant and breast feeding should be advised of what is known about the potential adverse effects on fetal growth and development and encouraged to either stop using or decrease their use. Long-term follow-up of exposed children is crucial as neurocognitive and behavioural problems may benefit from early intervention aimed to reduce future problems such as delinquency, depression and substance use. PMID:24457255

Jaques, S C; Kingsbury, A; Henshcke, P; Chomchai, C; Clews, S; Falconer, J; Abdel-Latif, M E; Feller, J M; Oei, J L

2014-06-01

270

Approche en soins primaires pour les problèmes de consommation de cannabis  

Science.gov (United States)

Résumé Objectif Étudier les caractéristiques et complications cliniques de la consommation à risque de cannabis et du trouble de consommation de cannabis, et présenter un protocole en cabinet pour le dépistage, l’identification et la prise en charge de ces problèmes. Sources des données Une recherche des essais contrôlés, des études d’observation et des révisions sur l’usage de cannabis par les adolescents et les jeunes adultes; les méfaits psychiatriques et médicaux liés au cannabis; le trouble de consommation de cannabis et son traitement; et les lignes directrices sur la consommation à faible risque de cannabis a été effectuée dans PubMed. Message principal Les médecins doivent questionner tous leurs patients quant à leur usage de cannabis. Ils doivent questionner plus souvent les adolescents et jeunes adultes de même que les personnes qui présentent un risque élevé de problèmes liés au cannabis (qui ont un trouble psychiatrique ou de consommation de drogue concomitant). Les problèmes pouvant être causés par le cannabis, comme les troubles de l’humeur, la psychose et les symptômes respiratoires, devraient susciter des questions sur la consommation de cannabis. Aux patients qui rapportent un usage de cannabis, les médecins devraient poser des questions sur la fréquence et la quantité consommée, la présence de symptômes de tolérance ou de sevrage, les tentatives de réduire leur consommation et la présence de problèmes liés au cannabis. Les usagers à faible risque fument, inhalent ou ingèrent le cannabis occasionnellement sans aucun signe de dysfonctionnement scolaire, professionnel ou social; les personnes dont l’usage est problématique consomment tous les jours ou presque tous les jours, ont de la difficulté à réduire leur consommation et leur fonctionnement scolaire, professionnel et social est perturbé. Les médecins devraient offrir à tous les patients dont l’usage est problématique des conseils et un bref counseling, en insistant sur les effets du cannabis sur la santé et en visant l’abstinence (certains groupes à risque élevé devraient s’abstenir complètement de consommer du cannabis) ou la réduction de la consommation, et ils doivent fournir des stratégies pratiques de réduction de la consommation. Les techniques d’entrevue motivationnelle doivent faire partie des séances de counseling. Les médecins devraient aiguiller les patients qui sont incapables de réduire leur consommation ou qui présentent des problèmes liés à leur usage de cannabis vers des soins spécialisés, tout en veillant à ce qu’ils demeurent en contact avec leur généraliste. De plus, les médecins devraient donner à tous les usagers de cannabis de l’information sur la consommation à faible risque. Conclusion Les médecins devraient effectuer au moins une fois chez tous leurs patients de leur pratique un test de dépistage de l’usage de cannabis, particulièrement chez les patients qui présentent des problèmes pouvant être causés par le cannabis. Les tests de dépistage doivent être plus fréquents chez les personnes à risque, soit au moins tous les ans. Il faut savoir distinguer la consommation à faible risque de l’usage problématique. Les patients dont l’usage est problématique doivent recevoir de brèves séances de counseling et ces patients doivent être aiguillés vers un spécialiste s’ils sont incapables de réduire leur consommation ou d’y mettre un terme.

Turner, Suzanne D.; Spithoff, Sheryl; Kahan, Meldon

2014-01-01

271

The association between delusional-like experiences, and tobacco, alcohol or cannabis use: a nationwide population-based survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous population-based studies have found that delusional-like experiences (DLE are prevalent in the community, and are associated with a wide range of mental health disorders including substance use. The aim of the study was to explore the association between DLE and three commonly used substances - tobacco, alcohol and cannabis. Methods Subjects were drawn from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing 2007. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify DLE, common psychiatric disorders, and substance use. We examined the relationship between the variables of interest using logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results Of 8 773 participants, 8.4% (n = 776 subjects endorsed one or more DLE. With respect to tobacco use, compared to nonusers, DLE were more common in those who (a had daily use, (b commenced usage aged 15 years or less, and (c those who smoked heavily (23 or more cigarettes per day. Participants with cannabis use disorders were more likely to endorse DLE; this association was most prominent in those with an onset of 16 years or younger. In contrast, the pattern of association between DLE versus alcohol use or dependence was less consistent, however those with early onset alcohol use disorders were more likely to endorse DLE probe items. Conclusions While cannabis use disorders have been previously linked with DLE, our findings linking alcohol and tobacco use and DLE suggest that the influence of these substances on psychosis-related outcomes warrants closer scrutiny in longitudinal prospective studies.

Saha Sukanta

2011-12-01

272

EVALUACIÓN NEUROPSICOLÓGICA EN UN CASO DE CONSUMO DE CANNABIS / NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT IN A CASE OF CANNABIS / AVALIAÇÃO NEUROPSICOLÓGICA EM UM CASO DE CANNABIS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Nos últimos anos tem havido um aumento na demanda por avaliações neuropsicológicas, o objetivo é dirigido para o tratamento às necessidades das pessoas afetadas por alterações nas funções cerebrais superiores. A detecção de déficits neuropsicológicos associados ao uso de drogas que causam dependênci [...] a é muito complicado devido ao grande número de variáveis que devem ser abordadas e as dificuldades metodológicas relacionadas ao seu controle. Este artigo é baseado na avaliação neuropsicológica de um paciente de 20 anos que tem um uso crônico de cannabis por cinco anos e um diagnóstico psiquiátrico de hiperatividade do déficit de atenção residual. Pesquisas recentes nesta área têm determinado que os efeitos cognitivos do consumo de cannabis se devem a três pressupostos fundamentais (Papa e Yurgelun-Todd, 1996): a remoção ou a suspensão do uso de drogas, aumentando receptores CB1 ou um efeito neurotoxicidade do medicamento ou pode ser devido a uma anormalidade preexistente no desenvolvimento do cérebro ou uma combinação de várias destas (Schlaepfer, Lancaster, Heidbreder, Kosel, Fisch e Pearlson, 2005). Os substratos cerebrais envolvidos são mais consistentes com a hipótese de uma disfunção específica frontocerebelar após abuso crônico (Quickfall e Crockford, 2006). O resultado do abuso crônico concentra-se em processos de atenção, memória e funções executivas (Verdejo-Garcia, Lopez-Torrecilla, Orozco Gimenez, e Perez-Garcia, 2004). Abstract in spanish En los últimos años ha existido un aumento en la demanda de evaluaciones neuropsicológicas cuyo objetivo se dirige hacia las necesidades de tratamiento que tienen las personas afectadas por alteraciones en las funciones cerebrales superiores. La detección de los déficits neuropsicológicos asociados [...] con el uso de las drogas adictivas es un tema muy complicado, debido a la gran cantidad de variables que deben tenerse en cuenta y las dificultades metodológicas relacionadas con su control. Éste artículo se basa en la evaluación neuropsicológica de un paciente de veintidós años de edad que presenta un consumo crónico de cannabis de cinco años y un diagnóstico psiquiátrico de déficit de atención e hiperactividad residual. Las investigaciones recientes en este campo han determinado que los efectos cognitivos del consumo por cannabis son debidos a tres hipótesis fundamentales (Pope and Yurgelun-Todd, 1996): a un retiro o suspensión del consumo de la droga por incremento de receptores CB1 o a un efecto de neurotoxicidad de la droga o que puede deberse a una anormalidad preexistente en el desarrollo cerebral o una combinación de varios de estos (Schlaepfer, Lancaster, Heidbreder, Kosel, Fisch and Pearlson, 2005). Los sustratos cerebrales con mayor implicación son congruentes con la hipótesis de una disfunción frontocerebelar específico después de abuso crónico (Quickfall and Crockford, 2006). El resultado del abuso crónico se centra en los procesos atencionales, memoria y funciones ejecutivas (Verdejo-García, López-Torrecillas, Orozco Giménez, and Pérez-García, 2004).

Jacobo José, Brofman Epelbaum; Abel Armando, Delgado Mota.

2012-03-01

273

Is recent cannabis use associated with acute coronary syndromes? An illustrative case series.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis is a frequently used recreational drug that potentially imposes serious health problems. We report three cases where recent and/or chronic use of marijuana led to severe cardiac dysfunction. All three patients collapsed at home and required cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with initial restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The mechanism of the cardiovascular collapse was different in each case. The first case presented with asystole and was found to have diffuse coronary vasospasm on coronary angiography in the hours after acute cannabis abuse. In the second case, an acute anterior infarction with occlusion of both the right coronary artery (RCA) and the left anterior descendens (LAD) was observed in a young patient without known cardiovascular risks but with chronic cannabis abuse. The third case presented at home with ventricular fibrillation presumably caused by an acute coronary syndrome due to left anterior descending (LAD) artery occlusion. The hetero-anamnesis of the family reported that all three patients had recently used cannabis. Toxicological screening also showed no other substance abuse than cannabis. Using these three cases, we would like to illustrate that the widespread use of cannabis is not as innocent as is believed. Cannabis use can lead to severe cardiovascular problems and sudden death, not only in people at increased cardiovascular risk, but also in young people without any medical history or risk factors. PMID:24783463

Casier, Isabelle; Vanduynhoven, Philippe; Haine, Steven; Vrints, Chris; Jorens, Philippe G

2014-04-01

274

Alterations of monetary reward and punishment processing in chronic cannabis users: an FMRI study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alterations in reward and punishment processing have been reported in adults suffering from long-term cannabis use. However, previous findings regarding the chronic effects of cannabis on reward and punishment processing have been inconsistent. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to reveal the neural correlates of reward and punishment processing in long-term cannabis users (n = 15) and in healthy control subjects (n = 15) with no history of drug abuse. For this purpose, we used the well-established Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task, a reliable experimental paradigm that allows the differentiation between anticipatory and consummatory aspects of reward and punishment processing. Regarding the gain anticipation period, no significant group differences were observed. In the left caudate and the left inferior frontal gyrus, cannabis users were - in contrast to healthy controls - not able to differentiate between the conditions feedback of reward and control. In addition, cannabis users showed stronger activations in the left caudate and the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus following feedback of no punishment as compared to healthy controls. We interpreted these deficits in dorsal striatal functioning as altered stimulus-reward or action-contingent learning in cannabis users. In addition, the enhanced lateral prefrontal activation in cannabis users that is related to non-punishing feedback may reflect a deficit in emotion regulation or cognitive reappraisal in these subjects. PMID:25799565

Enzi, Björn; Lissek, Silke; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Tegenthoff, Martin; Nicolas, Volkmar; Scherbaum, Norbert; Juckel, Georg; Roser, Patrik

2015-01-01

275

Functional Connectivity in Brain Networks Underlying Cognitive Control in Chronic Cannabis Users  

Science.gov (United States)

The long-term effect of regular cannabis use on brain function underlying cognitive control remains equivocal. Cognitive control abilities are thought to have a major role in everyday functioning, and their dysfunction has been implicated in the maintenance of maladaptive drug-taking patterns. In this study, the Multi-Source Interference Task was employed alongside functional magnetic resonance imaging and psychophysiological interaction methods to investigate functional interactions between brain regions underlying cognitive control. Current cannabis users with a history of greater than 10 years of daily or near-daily cannabis smoking (n=21) were compared with age, gender, and IQ-matched non-using controls (n=21). No differences in behavioral performance or magnitude of task-related brain activations were evident between the groups. However, greater connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and the occipitoparietal cortex was evident in cannabis users, as compared with controls, as cognitive control demands increased. The magnitude of this connectivity was positively associated with age of onset and lifetime exposure to cannabis. These findings suggest that brain regions responsible for coordinating behavioral control have an increased influence on the direction and switching of attention in cannabis users, and that these changes may have a compensatory role in mitigating cannabis-related impairments in cognitive control or perceptual processes. PMID:22534625

Harding, Ian H; Solowij, Nadia; Harrison, Ben J; Takagi, Michael; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Lubman, Dan I; Seal, Marc L; Pantelis, Christos; Yücel, Murat

2012-01-01

276

Alterations of Monetary Reward and Punishment Processing in Chronic Cannabis Users: An fMRI Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Alterations in reward and punishment processing have been reported in adults suffering from long-term cannabis use. However, previous findings regarding the chronic effects of cannabis on reward and punishment processing have been inconsistent. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to reveal the neural correlates of reward and punishment processing in long-term cannabis users (n = 15) and in healthy control subjects (n = 15) with no history of drug abuse. For this purpose, we used the well-established Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task, a reliable experimental paradigm that allows the differentiation between anticipatory and consummatory aspects of reward and punishment processing. Regarding the gain anticipation period, no significant group differences were observed. In the left caudate and the left inferior frontal gyrus, cannabis users were – in contrast to healthy controls – not able to differentiate between the conditions feedback of reward and control. In addition, cannabis users showed stronger activations in the left caudate and the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus following feedback of no punishment as compared to healthy controls. We interpreted these deficits in dorsal striatal functioning as altered stimulus-reward or action-contingent learning in cannabis users. In addition, the enhanced lateral prefrontal activation in cannabis users that is related to non-punishing feedback may reflect a deficit in emotion regulation or cognitive reappraisal in these subjects. PMID:25799565

Enzi, Björn; Lissek, Silke; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Tegenthoff, Martin; Nicolas, Volkmar; Scherbaum, Norbert; Juckel, Georg; Roser, Patrik

2015-01-01

277

A survey of the potency of Japanese illicit cannabis in fiscal year 2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, increased 'cannabis potency', or ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in cannabis products, has been reported in many countries. A survey of Japanese illicit cannabis was conducted from April 2010 to March 2011. In Japan, all cannabis evidence is transferred to the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare after criminal trials. The evidence was observed at Narcotics Control Department offices in major 11 cities. The total number of cannabis samples observed was 9072, of which 6376 were marijuana. The marijuana seizures were further classified, and it was found that in terms of the number of samples, 65.2% of them were seedless buds, and by weight 73.0% of them were seedless buds. Seedless buds were supposed to be 'sinsemilla', a potent class of marijuana. THC, cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD) in marijuana seizures exceeding 1g were quantified. The number of samples analyzed was 1115. Many of them were shown to contain CBN, an oxidative product from THC. This was a sign of long-term storage of the cannabis and of the degradation of THC. Relatively fresh cannabis, defined by a CBN/THC ratio of less than or equal to 0.1, was chosen for analysis. Fresh seedless buds (335 samples) contained an average of 11.2% and a maximum of 22.6% THC. These values are comparable to those of 'high potency cannabis' as defined in previous studies. Thus, this study shows that highly potent cannabis products are distributed in Japan as in other countries. PMID:22554871

Tsumura, Yukari; Aoki, Rikiya; Tokieda, Yoshio; Akutsu, Mamoru; Kawase, Yasuharu; Kataoka, Tadashi; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Mizuno, Tomomi; Fukada, Masakatsu; Fujii, Hiroshi; Kurahashi, Kazumi

2012-09-10

278

Quality and Yield of Cannabis Products : Danish seizures from 2008-2011  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract. 180 seizures containing 667 different samples of cannabis products from 5 police districts in Jutland were examined from 2008 to the present. The samples were divided into the groups: hashish, marihuana (leaves and buds) and whole plants (indoors and outdoors). Cannabis seized from indoor cultivation was examined in order to determine THC content and yield. The results are used by the Danish Police Attorney to estimate expected yields in cases with unripe cannabis plants. The results indicate that the THC content found in locally grown marihuana is slightly higher than in hashish. However, the way the plants are snipped during growth has a major impact on the overall yield.

Kastorp, Grith; Lindholst, Christian

279

Cannabis sativa var. indica : une menace croissante pour les entreprises Cannabis sativa var. indica: an increasing hazard for firms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Parmi les drogues illicites, le cannabis est de très loin le produit le plus consommé. Les effets sur l'organisme sont principalement dus au delta-9-tétrahydrocannabinol (THC. Lors d'un usage peu important et occasionnel, ils consistent en une euphorie, une désinhibition, un état de somnolence, avec détérioration de la perception temporelle et spatiale. Les perturbations de la vision consistent en une mydriase, pouvant être accompagnée d'un nystagmus et d'une diplopie. Des troubles de la mémoire à court terme sont fréquemment observés. Ces effets, qui persistent pendant 2 à 10 heures, sont difficilement compatibles avec la réalisation d'actes complexes. Un usage fréquent et important peut conduire à des attaques de panique, des crises d'angoisse, voire l'apparition d'une psychose cannabique avec notamment la survenue d'hallucinations visuelles. C'est en raison de ces effets que son usage est considéré comme étant incompatible avec une conduite automobile en toute sécurité. Une étude française récente, réalisée chez 900 conducteurs impliqués dans un accident corporel de la voie publique et 900 sujets témoins, a montré que le nombre des accidents était multiplié par 2,5 chez les conducteurs ayant consommé du cannabis dans les heures précédentes. Aussi la législation française permet désormais de dépister son usage chez les conducteurs impliqués dans un accident corporel de la circulation, avec une obligation dans le cas des accidents mortels. L'absence de récepteurs au niveau bulbaire, et ce faisant l'absence de décès par overdose, a conduit certaines personnes à classer ce produit parmi les substances addictives les moins dangereuses pour l'homme. Une telle classification fait abstraction de la neurotoxicité fonctionnelle importante du THC qui fait que l'usage de ce produit peut constituer un facteur de risque pour autrui. Cela est vrai pour la conduite automobile. Cela peut être tout aussi vrai lorsque les consommateurs occupent des postes de travail dans lesquels les fautes professionnelles peuvent mettre en péril l'entreprise et/ou la collectivité. Ce risque était négligeable à une époque où la consommation de cannabis était marginale. Il devient majeur aujourd'hui compte tenu du nombre de consommateurs et des mesures de prévention s'imposent désormais, au delà du seul principe de précaution. Among the various drugs of abuse, cannabis is by far the most consumed. The effects on human organism are mainly due to delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC. With low doses and infrequent use, the effects are euphoria, desinhibition, drowsiness, and an alteration of temporal and spatial perception. Visual disorders consist in a mydriasis sometimes accompanied with a nystagmus and a diplopia. Short-memory troubles are frequently observed. These effects, which can persist during 2 to 10 hours, are not compatible with the realization of complex activities. A frequent use may lead to panic and anxiety attacks, and psychiatric disorders such as psychosis with visual hallucinations. Because of these effects, its use is considered to affect traffic safety. A recent French study, performed on 900 drivers involved in a corporal accident and 900 control subjects, indicated the number of accidents was multiplied by 2.5 when drivers had smoked cannabis a few hours before. So, a French law allows to identify drug users in drivers involved in a corporal car accident, with an obligation in the case of fatal accidents. The lack of receptors in the bulb, and then the non-occurrence of deaths by overdose, led some people to the conclusion that cannabis is the least dangerous of addict products. Such an assertion disregards the important functional neurotoxicity of THC which is the reason why cannabis use may represent a risk factor for others. That is true for car driving. That may be also true in factories when consumers occupy operation stations in which professional errors may imperil the enterprise and/or the collectivity. This risk was negligible when cannabis consumpti

Mura Patrick

2009-04-01

280

An fMRI study of neuronal activation in schizophrenia patients with and without previous cannabis use  

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Full Text Available Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI. Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients.

Else-MarieLøberg

2012-10-01

281

In silicio expression analysis of PKS genes isolated from Cannabis sativa L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 51%-73% identity to other CHS/STS type sequences of the PKS family. Further, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these PKS cDNAs grouped with other non-chalcone-producing PKSs. Homology modeling analysis of these cannabis PKSs predicts a 3D overall fold, similar to alfalfa CHS2, with small steric differences on the residues that shape the active site of the cannabis PKSs. PMID:21637580

Flores-Sanchez, Isvett J; Linthorst, Huub J M; Verpoorte, Robert

2010-10-01

282

In silicio expression analysis of PKS genes isolated from Cannabis sativa L.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, inc [...] luding flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 51%-73% identity to other CHS/STS type sequences of the PKS family. Further, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these PKS cDNAs grouped with other non-chalcone-producing PKSs. Homology modeling analysis of these cannabis PKSs predicts a 3D overall fold, similar to alfalfa CHS2, with small steric differences on the residues that shape the active site of the cannabis PKSs.

Isvett J., Flores-Sanchez; Huub J.M., Linthorst; Robert, Verpoorte.

283

In silicio expression analysis of PKS genes isolated from Cannabis sativa L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 51%-73% identity to other CHS/STS type sequences of the PKS family. Further, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these PKS cDNAs grouped with other non-chalcone-producing PKSs. Homology modeling analysis of these cannabis PKSs predicts a 3D overall fold, similar to alfalfa CHS2, with small steric differences on the residues that shape the active site of the cannabis PKSs.

Isvett J. Flores-Sanchez

2010-01-01

284

The Effects of Parental Depression and Parenting Practices on Depressive Symptoms and Metabolic Control in Urban Youth with Insulin Dependent Diabetes  

OpenAIRE

Objective?Examine relationships between parental depressive symptoms, affective and instrumental parenting practices, youth depressive symptoms and glycemic control in a diverse, urban sample of adolescents with diabetes.?Methods?Sixty-one parents and youth aged 10–17 completed self-report questionnaires. HbA1c assays were obtained to assess metabolic control. Path analysis was used to test a model where parenting variables mediated the relationship between parental and youth depressi...

Eckshtain, Dikla; Ellis, Deborah A.; Kolmodin, Karen; Naar-king, Sylvie

2009-01-01

285

Coping with cannabis in a Caribbean country : from problem formulation to going public  

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Full Text Available Analyzes the dialectic between problem discovery and formulation, ethical considerations, and the public dissemination of research results. Author describes his personal experience of fieldwork, the moral-ethical dilemmas it involved, and the circulation of research findings on cannabis production and consumption in St. Vincent. He became frustrated that his academic publications were only accessible to a tiny portion of St. Vincent's population and therefore decided to publish about cannabis in the local media.

Hymie Rubenstein

1998-07-01

286

Detecting Cannabis Use on the Human Skin Surface via an Electronic Nose System  

OpenAIRE

The most commonly used drug testing methods are based on the analysis of hair and urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or immunoassay screening. These methods are time-consuming and partly expensive. One alternative method could be the application of an “electronic nose” (eNose). We have developed an eNose to detect directly on the human skin surface metabolic changes in the human body odor caused by cannabis consumption. Twenty cannabi...

Andreas Voss; Katharina Witt; Tobias Kaschowitz; Wolf Poitz; Andreas Ebert; Patrik Roser; Karl-Jürgen Bär

2014-01-01

287

In silicio expression analysis of PKS genes isolated from Cannabis sativa L.  

OpenAIRE

Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants...

Flores-sanchez, Isvett J.; Linthorst, Huub J. M.; Robert Verpoorte

2010-01-01

288

Pharmacological interventions in the treatment of the acute effects of cannabis: a systematic review of literature  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Cannabis intoxication is related to a number of physical and mental health risks with ensuing social costs. However, little attention has been given to the investigation of possible pharmacological interactions in this condition. Objective To review the available scientific literature concerning pharmacological interventions for the treatment of the acute effects of cannabis. Methods A search was performed on the Pubmed, Lilacs, and Scielo online databases by combining the...

As, Crippa Jose?; Derenusson Guilherme N; Hn, Chagas Marcos; Atakan Zerrin; Martín-Santos Rocio; Zuardi Antonio W; Ec, Hallak Jaime

2012-01-01

289

Molecular mechanisms of maternal cannabis and cigarette use on human neurodevelopment  

OpenAIRE

Prenatal development is highly sensitive to maternal drug use due to the vulnerability for disruption of the fetal brain where the ongoing neurodevelopmental, resulting in lifelong consequences that can enhance risk for psychiatric disorders. Cannabis and cigarettes are the most commonly used illicit and licit substances, respectively, among pregnant women. While the behavioral consequences of prenatal cannabis and cigarette exposure have been well-documented in epidemiological and clinical s...

Morris, Claudia V.; Dinieri, Jennifer A.; Szutorisz, Henrietta; Hurd, Yasmin L.

2011-01-01

290

COMT val158met and 5-HTTLPR Genetic Polymorphisms Moderate Executive Control in Cannabis Users  

OpenAIRE

The adverse effects of cannabis use on executive functions are still controversial, fostering the need for novel biomarkers able to unveil individual differences in the cognitive impact of cannabis consumption. Two common genetic polymorphisms have been linked to the neuroadaptive impact of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure and to executive functions in animals: the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene val158met polymorphism and the SLC6A4 gene 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. We aimed to tes...

Verdejo-garci?a, Antonio; Beatriz Fagundo, Ana; Cuenca, Aida; Rodriguez, Joan; Cuya?s, Elisabet; Langohr, Klaus; Sola Llopis, Susana; Civit, Ester; Farre?, Magi?; Pen?a-casanova, Jordi; La Torre, Rafael

2013-01-01

291

Cannabis use, time perspective and risk perception: Evidence of a moderating effect.  

OpenAIRE

This study explores the relationship between time perspective (TP), cannabis use and risk perceptions associated to this substance. A sample of French students (n=198) were provided with a valid French version of the ZTPI scale. Risk perceptions linked to cannabis consumption were evaluated from a list of 22 items referring to different risks. Respondents were asked to declare how frequently they consumed this substance. Data analysis was based on firstly, ZTPI scores, secondly, declared cons...

Apostolidis, The?mis; Fieulaine, Nicolas; Simonin, Laurent; Rolland, Ge?raldine

2006-01-01

292

Sedative activity of cannabis in relation to its delta'-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol content.  

OpenAIRE

1. The oral sedative potencies of cannabis herb, crude ethanolic and petroleum-ether fractions, were assayed against delta'-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administered orally to mice, by measuring spontaneous motor activity over 30 min periods, at selected times, up to 6 h. 2. The THC contents of the extracts were determined chemically by gas-liquid chromatography analysis and the B/C ratio (biological activity divided by chemical activity) calculated for each. The B/C values for cannabis h...

Pickens, J. T.

1981-01-01

293

Evolution of substance use, neurological and psychiatric symptoms in schizophrenia and substance use disorder patients: a 12-week, pilot, case-control trial with quetiapine  

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Full Text Available Neurological and psychiatric symptoms are consequences of substance abuse in schizophrenia and non-schizophrenia patients. The present case-control study examined changes in substance abuse/dependence and neurological and psychiatric symptoms in substance abusers with (DD group, n=26 and without schizophrenia (SUD group, n=24 and in non-abusing schizophrenia patients (SCZ group, n=23 undergoing 12-week treatment with the atypical antipsychotic, quetiapine. Neurological and psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, the Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale and the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale. At endpoint, DD and SCZ patients were receiving significantly higher doses of quetiapine (mean = 554mg/d and 478mg/d, respectively, relative to SUD patients (mean = 150mg/d. We found that SUD patients showed greater improvement in weekly dollars spent on alcohol and drugs and SUD severity, compared to DD patients. At endpoint, there was no significant difference in dollars spent, but DD patients still had a higher mean SUD severity. Interestingly, DD patients had significantly higher Parkinsonism and depression than SCZ patients at baseline and endpoint. On the other hand, we found that SUD patients had significantly more akathisia at baseline, improved more than SCZ patients and this was related to cannabis abuse/dependence. Finally, SUD patients improved more in PANSS positive scores than DD and SCZ patients. Taken together, our results provide evidence for increased vulnerability to the adverse effects of alcohol and drugs in schizophrenia patients. They also suggest that substance abuse/withdrawal may mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia. Future studies will need to determine the role quetiapine played in these improvements.

StephanePotvin

2011-05-01

294

Cloud point extraction of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol from cannabis resin.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cloud point extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/UV) method was developed for the determination of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in micellar phase. The nonionic surfactant "Dowfax 20B102" was used to extract and pre-concentrate THC from cannabis resin, prior to its determination with a HPLC-UV system (diode array detector) with isocratic elution. The parameters and variables affecting the extraction were investigated. Under optimum conditions (1 wt.% Dowfax 20B102, 1 wt.% Na2SO4, T = 318 K, t = 30 min), this method yielded a quite satisfactory recovery rate (~81 %). The limit of detection was 0.04 ?g mL(-1), and the relative standard deviation was less than 2 %. Compared with conventional solid-liquid extraction, this new method avoids the use of volatile organic solvents, therefore is environmentally safer. PMID:23354583

Ameur, S; Haddou, B; Derriche, Z; Canselier, J P; Gourdon, C

2013-04-01

295

Trichomes of Cannabis sativa as viewed with scanning electron microscope  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Direct examination of fresh, unfixed and uncoated specimens from vegetative and floral parts of Cannabis sativa with the scanning electron microscope enables one to obtain a faithful representation of their surface morphology. The presence of two major types of trichomes has been confirmed: a glandular type comprising or terminating in a globoid structure, and a conically-shaped nonglandular type. Moreover, three or possibly four distinct glandular types can be distinguished: sessile globoid, small-stalked and large-stalked globoid, and a peltate type. The nonglandular trichomes can be distinguished by the nature of their surfaces: those with a warty surface, and those which are relatively smooth. The range of size and distribution, and the special features of all these types of trichomes are also provided.

Ledbetter, M.C.; Krikorian, A.D.

1975-06-01

296

Influence of mevinolin on chloroplast terpenoids in Cannabis sativa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants synthesize a myriad of isoprenoid products that are required both for essential constitutive processes and for adaptive responses to the environment. Two independent pathways for the biosynthesis of isoprenoid precursors coexist within the plant cell: the cytosolic mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway and the plastidial methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of the MVA pathway on isoprenoid biosynthesized by the MEP pathway in Cannabis sativa by treatment with mevinolin. The amount of chlorophyll a, b, and total showed to be significantly enhanced in treated plants in comparison with control plants. Also, mevinolin induced the accumulation of carotenoids and ?-tocopherol in treated plants. Mevinolin caused a significant decrease in tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content. This result show that the inhibition of the MVA pathway stimulates MEP pathway but none for all metabolites. PMID:24757332

Mansouri, Hakimeh; Salari, Fatemeh

2014-04-01

297

Considerações sobre a toxicocinética da Cannabis sativa L. ou maconha, com enfase no homem Some aspects of pharmacokinetics of Cannabis sativa L. (Marihuana with emphasis on man  

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Full Text Available O presente artigo consiste em uma análise sobre a origem da Cannabis no Brasil, suas principais substâncias químicas, realçando o ?9 tetrahidrocanabinol como responsável pelos efeitos farmacológicos. é citado também o fato de existirem duas formas de numeração dos carbonos do ?THC. Para melhor entender a toxicocinética foram feitas considerações sobre as doses de maconha, que vão variar de acordo com o usuário, e origem do vegetal. Finalmente é feito urn estudo detalhado sobre, absorção, distribuição, armazenamento, biotransformação e eliminação dos diversos componentes químicos da maconha.This paper contains an analysis of the origin of the introduction of Cannabis in Brazil, the identify of its chemical components, mainly tetrahydrocannabinol responsible for the pharmacological effects of Cannabis. Toxicokinetic studies were developed in relation the amounts of marihuana consumed, characteristics of the user and origin of the drug. Absorption, distribution, storage, biotransformation and elimination of marihuana derived metabolites were studies.

Luiz Marques de Sá

1989-01-01

298

Prediction of cannabis and cocaine use in adolescence using decision trees and logistic regression  

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Full Text Available Spain is one of the European countries with the highest prevalence of cannabis and cocaine use among young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors related to the consumption of cocaine and cannabis among adolescents. A questionnaire was administered to 9,284 students between 14 and 18 years of age in Palma de Mallorca (47.1% boys and 52.9% girls whose mean age was 15.59 years. Logistic regression and decision trees were carried out in order to model the consumption of cannabis and cocaine. The results show the use of legal substances and committing fraudulence or theft are the main variables that raise the odds of consuming cannabis. In boys, cannabis consumption and a family history of drug use increase the odds of consuming cocaine, whereas in girls the use of alcohol, behaviours of fraudulence or theft and difficulty in some personal skills influence their odds of consuming cocaine. Finally, ease of access to the substance greatly raises the odds of consuming cocaine and cannabis in both genders. Decision trees highlight the role of consuming other substances and committing fraudulence or theft. The results of this study gain importance when it comes to putting into practice effective prevention programmes.

Alfonso L. Palmer

2010-01-01

299

Cannabis use by individuals with multiple sclerosis: effects on specific immune parameters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabinoids affect immune responses in ways that may be beneficial for autoimmune diseases. We sought to determine whether chronic Cannabis use differentially modulates a select number of immune parameters in healthy controls and individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS cases). Subjects were enrolled and consented to a single blood draw, matched for age and BMI. We measured monocyte migration isolated from each subject, as well as plasma levels of endocannabinoids and cytokines. Cases met definition of MS by international diagnostic criteria. Monocyte cell migration measured in control subjects and individuals with MS was similarly inhibited by a set ratio of phytocannabinoids. The plasma levels of CCL2 and IL17 were reduced in non-naïve cannabis users irrespective of the cohorts. We detected a significant increase in the endocannabinoid arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) in serum from individuals with MS compared to control subjects, and no significant difference in levels of other endocannabinoids and signaling lipids irrespective of Cannabis use. Chronic Cannabis use may affect the immune response to similar extent in individuals with MS and control subjects through the ability of phytocannabinoids to reduce both monocyte migration and cytokine levels in serum. From a panel of signaling lipids, only the levels of AEA are increased in individuals with MS, irrespective of Cannabis use or not. Our results suggest that both MS cases and controls respond similarly to chronic Cannabis use with respect to the immune parameters measured in this study. PMID:25135301

Sexton, Michelle; Cudaback, Eiron; Abdullah, Rehab A; Finnell, John; Mischley, Laurie K; Rozga, Mary; Lichtman, Aron H; Stella, Nephi

2014-10-01

300

?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol content in cannabis samples seized in Novi Sad during 2008  

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Full Text Available The three main cannabinoids ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC, cannabidiol (CBD and cannabinol (CBN were identified and determined quantitatively using a GCD (GC-EI instrument in 280 samples of illicit herbal cannabis, seized by the Police authorities in Novi Sad, during 2008. The samples were sent to the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Clinical Center Vojvodina, for forensic chemical analysis. The cannabinoid content of the samples enabled the classification of the cannabis into three chemical phenotypes and the differentiation into drug and textile-cannabis, using the Waller classification index. This differentiation has great forensic significance in the classification of certain cases as a criminal action. The experimental results showed that the ?9-THC content in illicitly circulated cannabis slightly decreased from January to December 2008, as did the quality of the drug-cannabis. The reasons for the quality variations could lie in the geographical origin of the cannabis plants, the conditions of plants storage, various parts of the plants in samples and the time elapsed between harvesting and chemical analysis.

MAJA DJURENDI?-BRENESEL

2010-07-01

301

Cannabinoid receptor 1 binding activity and quantitative analysis of Cannabis sativa L. smoke and vapor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis) extracts, vapor produced by the Volcano vaporizer and smoke made from burning cannabis joints were analyzed by GC-flame ionization detecter (FID), GC-MS and HPLC. Three different medicinal cannabis varieties were investigated Bedrocan, Bedrobinol and Bediol. Cannabinoids plus other components such as terpenoids and pyrolytic by-products were identified and quantified in all samples. Cannabis vapor and smoke was tested for cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) binding activity and compared to pure Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC). The top five major compounds in Bedrocan extracts were Delta(9)-THC, cannabigerol (CBG), terpinolene, myrcene, and cis-ocimene in Bedrobinol Delta(9)-THC, myrcene, CBG, cannabichromene (CBC), and camphene in Bediol cannabidiol (CBD), Delta(9)-THC, myrcene, CBC, and CBG. The major components in Bedrocan vapor (>1.0 mg/g) were Delta(9)-THC, terpinolene, myrcene, CBG, cis-ocimene and CBD in Bedrobinol Delta(9)-THC, myrcene and CBD in Bediol CBD, Delta(9)-THC, myrcene, CBC and terpinolene. The major components in Bedrocan smoke (>1.0 mg/g) were Delta(9)-THC, cannabinol (CBN), terpinolene, CBG, myrcene and cis-ocimene in Bedrobinol Delta(9)-THC, CBN and myrcene in Bediol CBD, Delta(9)-THC, CBN, myrcene, CBC and terpinolene. There was no statistically significant difference between CB1 binding of pure Delta(9)-THC compared to cannabis smoke and vapor at an equivalent concentration of Delta(9)-THC. PMID:20118579

Fischedick, Justin; Van Der Kooy, Frank; Verpoorte, Robert

2010-02-01

302

Cannabis d'hier et cannabis d'aujourd'hui. Augmentation des teneurs en THC de 1993 à 2004 en France Cannabis of the past and cannabis todays. Increase of THC contents from 1993 to 2004 in France  

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Full Text Available Une étude précédente, réalisée sur des échantillons de saisie en France, nous avait permis de montrer que la teneur en delta-9 tétrahydrocannabinol (THC dans les échantillons de "résine" et "d'herbe" avait augmenté durant la période 1993-2000 et tout particulièrement depuis 1996. L'objet de la présente étude a été de déterminer l'évolution de ces teneurs en THC pendant la période 2001-2004 et de comparer cette évolution avec celle de la période précédente. Nous avons regroupé tous les résultats obtenus pendant cette période par les laboratoires de la Gendarmerie Nationale, de l'Institut National de Police Scienti que et de quatre laboratoires d'expertise en France, représentant 2613 échantillons de "résine" et 709 échantillons "d'herbe". Les analyses étaient réalisées par chromatographie gazeuse couplée à la spectrométrie de masse. En ce qui concerne "l'herbe", la très grande majorité des échantillons (71% contiennent moins de 5% de principe actif, ce qui peut être expliqué par des récoltes fréquemment effectuées avant maturité des plants. En revanche, près de l'échantillon sur 5 contient plus de 10% de THC. Les résultats concernant la "résine" indiquent que, depuis 10 ans, le nombre d'échantillons à faible teneur en THC (inférieurs à 5% de principe actif a diminué de manière très signi cative (passant de 48% des échantillons en 1993 à 15% en 2004. Les échantillons contenant plus de 20% de THC restent très rarement rencontrés, représentant seulement 2% des saisies. L'évolution la plus caractéristique a concerné les échantillons de résine contenant entre 10 et 15% de THC. Cette catégorie n'a cessé d'augmenter depuis 1993, passant de 1% des échantillons à 32% en 2004. Cette étude con rme que les teneurs en THC dans les échantillons de "résine" disponibles sur le marché clandestin français ont régulièrement augmenté depuis une dizaine d'années, ayant été en moyenne multipliées par 2 entre 1993 et 2004. Une telle observation n est pas sans conséquence en terme de santé publique car l'utilisation de cannabis "haut dosage" peut être responsable d'hallucinations, d'attaques de panique ou autres états psychotiques aigus. A previous study, performed on seized cannabis products from France, had allowed us to indicate that there has been an increase in the delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC content from herbal products and resin samples during the period 1993-2000 and overall from 1996. The purpose of the present study was to observe the pattern of the THC content of cannabis which was available in France between 2001 and 2004 and to compare these results to those of the previous study. We have collected all the results obtained from 2001 to 2004 on seized cannabis products (2613 resin samples and 709 herbal products by the laboratories of national police force and from four forensic toxicology independent laboratories. The THC content was determined by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. Most of herb samples (71% contained less than 5% of THC. This result can be explained by the fact that harvestings are often made before ripeness. In turn, about one sample out of ve contained more than 10% of THC. About resin, the reached results indicated that during the last 10 years the number of low THC content samples (less than 5% of THC had decreased very signi cantly (48% of samples in 1993 versus 15% in 2004. Samples with more than 20% of THC were seldom found (only 2% of seizures. The most signi cant evolution concerned samples containing between 10 and 15% of THC. This level has constantly increased since 1993 (around 1% of samples analysed to 32% in 2004. This study con rms that THC content of cannabis available in France has regularly increased during the past ten years (enhanced by a factor 2 between 1993 and 2004. Such ndings may be consistent for public health because the use of such high dosage cannabis may be involved in the occurrence of hallucinations, panic attacks or other acute psychotic states.

Mura Patrick

2008-02-01

303

Endogenous cannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, attenuates naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, we examined the effects of endogenous ligand 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice, in comparison with that of two cannabinoid agonists, an ingredient of Cannabis sativa Delta(8)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(8)-THC) and the synthetic cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist HU-210. 2-AG at a dose of 10 microg per mouse (i.c.v.) significantly inhibited both jumping and forepaw tremor as signs of withdrawal following naloxone challenge in morphine-dependent mice. Furthermore, both Delta(8)-THC and HU-210 significantly attenuated these symptoms of withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice. Therefore, it is suggested that inactivation of the endogenous cannabinoid system is related to the induction of withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent mice. Moreover, hyperlocomotor activity in morphine-dependent mice was markedly increased by Delta(8)-THC 10 mg/kg, which had no effect in naive mice. This finding suggested that in morphine dependence, upregulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors occurred. Non-psychoactive CB1 receptor agonists or accelerators of endocannabinoid synthesis may be potential as therapeutic drugs for opiate withdrawal symptoms. PMID:11478928

Yamaguchi, T; Hagiwara, Y; Tanaka, H; Sugiura, T; Waku, K; Shoyama, Y; Watanabe, S; Yamamoto, T

2001-08-01

304

Effects of Chronic Active Cannabis Use on Visuomotor Integration, in Relation to Brain Activation and Cortisol Levels  

OpenAIRE

Cannabis is the most abused illegal substance in the United States. Alterations in brain function and motor behavior have been reported in chronic cannabis users, but the results have been variable. The current study aimed to determine whether chronic active cannabis use in humans may alter psychomotor function, brain activation, and hypothalamic-pituitary-axis (HPA) function in men and women. 30 cannabis users (16 men and 14 women, 18 to 45 years old) and 30 non-drug user controls (16 men an...

King, G. R.; Ernst, T.; Deng, W.; Stenger, A.; Gonzales, R. M. K.; Nakama, H.; Chang, L.

2011-01-01

305

Behavioral and biochemical effects of Cannabis Sativa and their modulation by antidepressant drugs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Nos propusimos estudiar el efecto de Cannabis sativa sobre el estrés oxidativo en cerebro y determinar si las respuestas causadas por canabis sobre el comportamiento podrían revertirse por fármacos antidepresivos estándar. Cannabis sativa (5, 10 o 15 mg/kg) (expresada como ?9-tetrahidrocanabinol) se [...] administró subcutáneamente (s.c.) sola o con fluoxetina, sertralina o imipramina una vez al día por 24 días. En la prueba de nado forzado, el tiempo de in movilidad, se incrementó significativamente en los ratones tratados con canabis (5-15 mg/kg, s.c.) a partir del 9° día post-administración. Fluoxetina (20mg/kg, s.c.), coadministrada con canabis (5 mg/kg, s.c.), dio como resultado una disminución significativa en el tiempo de inmovilidad alrededor del día 21 del estudio comparado con el grupo tratado sólo con canabis. Los ratones co-administrados con sertralina o imipramina y canabis no fueron estadísticamente diferentes del grupo control de vehículo respecto al tiempo de inmovilidad. Canabis provocó una disminución significativa en la actividad de levantamientos que fue aumentada tanto por fluoxetina como por sertralina. Cannabis sativa incrementó la glutationa reducida en cerebro y disminuyó los niveles de óxido nítrico. Flouxetina, sertralina o imipramina administrados con canabis disminuyó la malondialdehido e incrementó la glutationa reducida. En conclusión: La administración de canabis disminuye el estrés oxidativo cerebral pero ejerce un efecto parecido a la depresión y disminuye la actividad de levantamientos que puede revertirse por fármacos antidepresivos. Abstract in english We aimed to study the effect of Cannabis sativa on brain oxidative stress and determine whether behavioral responses caused by cannabis could be reversed by standard antidepressant drugs. Cannabis sativa (5, 10 or 15 mg/kg) (expressed as ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol) was given alone or with fluoxetine, s [...] ertraline or imipramine, once daily subcutaneously (s.c.) for 24 days. In the forced-swimming test, the immobility time, was significantly increased in mice treated with cannabis (5-15 mg/kg, s.c.) starting from the 9th day post-injection. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, s.c.) coadministered with cannabis (5 mg/kg, s.c.) resulted in significant decrease in the immobility time by the day 21 of the study compared with the cannabis only group. Mice co-administered sertraline or imipramine with cannabis were not statistically different from the vehicle control group as regards their immobility time. Cannabis resulted in a significant decrease in the rearing activity which was ameliorated by either fluoxetine or sertraline. Cannabis sativa increased brain reduced glutathione, but decreased the level of nitric oxide. Fluoxetine, sertraline or imipramine given with cannabis decreased malondialdehyde and increased reduced glutathione. In conclusion: The administration of cannabis decreases brain oxidative stress but exerts depressive-like effect and decreases rearing activity which can be reversed by antidepressant drugs.

Omar M.E., Abdel-Salam; Rehab Fawzy, Abdel-Rahman; Alaa El-Din M., Gaafar.

306

Multiple Myeloma Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

... CALL NOW Home » About Multiple Myeloma » Symptoms Multiple Myeloma Symptoms Multiple myeloma symptoms may vary by patient, ... be managed or prevented. The most common multiple myeloma symptoms may include: • Bone pain or bone fractures • ...

307

"Mr Police Officer, I Thought Cannabis Was Legal"--Introducing New Policy regarding Cannabis in Belgium: A Story of Good Intentions and Babel  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last five years, the announced new policy on drugs, cannabis in particular, has been the subject of much debate within the Belgian Federal Government and between the government and the opposition parties. Unclear policies and poor public communication from the Federal Government, the competent minister and the other parties caused immense…

Gelders, Dave; Laenen, Freya Vander

2007-01-01

308

Long term marijuana users seeking medical cannabis in California (2001–2007: demographics, social characteristics, patterns of cannabis and other drug use of 4117 applicants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis (marijuana had been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. Cannabinoid agonists are now attracting growing interest and there is also evidence that botanical cannabis is being used as self-medication for stress and anxiety as well as adjunctive therapy by the seriously ill and by patients with terminal illnesses. California became the first state to authorize medicinal use of cannabis in 1996, and it was recently estimated that between 250,000 and 350,000 Californians may now possess the physician's recommendation required to use it medically. More limited medical use has also been approved in 12 additional states and new initiatives are being considered in others. Despite that evidence of increasing public acceptance of "medical" use, a definitional problem remains and all use for any purpose is still prohibited by federal law. Results California's 1996 initiative allowed cannabis to be recommended, not only for serious illnesses, but also "for any other illness for which marijuana provides relief," thus maximally broadening the range of allowable indications. In effect, the range of conditions now being treated with federally illegal cannabis, the modes in which it is being used, and the demographics of the population using it became potentially discoverable through the required screening of applicants. This report examines the demographic profiles and other selected characteristics of 4117 California marijuana users (62% from the Greater Bay Area who applied for medical recommendations between late 2001 and mid 2007. Conclusion This study yielded a somewhat unexpected profile of a hitherto hidden population of users of America's most popular illegal drug. It also raises questions about some of the basic assumptions held by both proponents and opponents of current policy.

Bou-Matar Ché B

2007-11-01

309

A prospective study of natural recovery from cannabis use in early psychosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cannabis use is common in early psychosis and has been linked to adverse outcomes. However, factors that influence and maintain change in cannabis use in this population are poorly understood. An existing prospective dataset was used to predict abstinence from cannabis use [...] over the 6 months following inpatient admission for early psychosis. Methods: Participants were 67 inpatients with early psychosis who had used cannabis in the 6 weeks prior to admission. Current diagnoses of psychotic and substance use disorders were confirmed using a clinical checklist and structured diagnostic interview. Measures of clinical, substance use and social and occupational functioning were administered at baseline and at least fortnightly over the 6-month follow up. Results: No substance use or clinical variables were associated with 6-months’ of cannabis abstinence. Only Caucasian ethnicity, living in private accommodation and receiving an income before the admission were predictive. Only private accommodation and receiving an income were significant predictors of abstinence when these variables were entered into a multivariate analysis. Conclusions: While the observed relationships do not necessarily imply causation, they suggest that more optimal substance use outcomes could be achieved by addressing the accommodation and employment needs of patients.

Shane, Rebgetz; Leanne, Hides; David J., Kavanagh; Sharon, Dawe; Ross M., Young.

2014-12-01

310

Non-smoker exposure to secondhand cannabis smoke. I. Urine screening and confirmation results.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased cannabis potency has renewed concerns that secondhand exposure to cannabis smoke can produce positive drug tests. A systematic study was conducted of smoke exposure on drug-free participants. Six experienced cannabis users smoked cannabis cigarettes (5.3% THC in Session 1 and 11.3% THC in Sessions 2 and 3) in a sealed chamber. Six non-smokers were seated with smokers in an alternating manner. Sessions 1 and 2 were conducted with no ventilation and ventilation was employed in Session 3. Non-smoking participant specimens (collected 0-34 h) were analyzed with four immunoassays at different cutoff concentrations (20, 50, 75 and 100 ng/mL) and by GC-MS (LOQ = 0.75 ng/mL). No presumptive positives occurred for non-smokers at 100 and 75 ng/mL; a single positive occurred at 50 ng/mL; and multiple positives occurred at 20 ng/mL. Maximum THCCOOH concentrations by GC-MS for non-smokers ranged from 1.3 to 57.5 ng/mL. THCCOOH concentrations generally increased with THC potency, but room ventilation substantially reduced exposure levels. These results demonstrate that extreme cannabis smoke exposure can produce positive urine tests at commonly utilized cutoff concentrations. However, positive tests are likely to be rare, limited to the hours immediately post-exposure, and occur only under environmental circumstances where exposure is obvious. PMID:25326203

Cone, Edward J; Bigelow, George E; Herrmann, Evan S; Mitchell, John M; LoDico, Charles; Flegel, Ronald; Vandrey, Ryan

2015-01-01

311

Inter simple sequence repeats separate efficiently hemp from marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Cannabis sativa L. is a multiple-use plant that provides raw material for the production of seed oil, natural fiber for textiles, automotive and pulp industries. It has also been used in insulating boards, ropes, varnishes, animal feed, and as medicinal agents. Cannabis has potential to be used for [...] phytoremediation: however, its cultivation is strictly controlled due to its psychoactive nature and usage in producing drugs such as marijuana, and hashish. In this study, psychoactive type Cannabis samples, which were seized from 23 different locations of Turkey, and nine hemp type Cannabis accessions, as well as an unknown accession were used. Our interest was to identify the genetic relatedness of the seized samples and to separate drug and hemp type plants. Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSRs) were employed for analysis based on single plant material (SET1) and bulked samples of them (SET2). Data was analysed via cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). PCoA analyses, by using SET1 and SET2, were able to efficiently discriminate the seized samples from the fiber type accessions. However, separation of the plants was not clear via unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic average (UPGMA) dendogram in SET1, while they were clearly separated in SET2. Hemp type accessions showed high levels of variation compared to drug type Cannabis both in SET1 and SET2.

Erdogan E, Hakki; Seyit A, Kayis; Emine, Pinarkara; Ayla, Sag.

2007-10-15

312

Cannabis as an adjunct to or substitute for opiates in the treatment of chronic pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a growing body of evidence to support the use of medical cannabis as an adjunct to or substitute for prescription opiates in the treatment of chronic pain. When used in conjunction with opiates, cannabinoids lead to a greater cumulative relief of pain, resulting in a reduction in the use of opiates (and associated side-effects) by patients in a clinical setting. Additionally, cannabinoids can prevent the development of tolerance to and withdrawal from opiates, and can even rekindle opiate analgesia after a prior dosage has become ineffective. Novel research suggests that cannabis may be useful in the treatment of problematic substance use. These findings suggest that increasing safe access to medical cannabis may reduce the personal and social harms associated with addiction, particularly in relation to the growing problematic use of pharmaceutical opiates. Despite a lack of regulatory oversight by federal governments in North America, community-based medical cannabis dispensaries have proven successful at supplying patients with a safe source of cannabis within an environment conducive to healing, and may be reducing the problematic use of pharmaceutical opiates and other potentially harmful substances in their communities. PMID:22880540

Lucas, Philippe

2012-01-01

313

Drug dependence and psychotic symptoms: a retrospective study of adolescents who abuse drugs at Al-Amal Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Drug abuse is reported to be on the increase among young persons using illicit substances but little is known about the frequency with which they occur, the symptoms on presentation to health institutions, and the different substances abused. To establish this, we reviewed patient data collected at Al-Amal Hospital in Jeddah Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on young persons who are refered to the hospital for problems related to drug abuse. Data on 69 adolescent drug users were reviewed and analyzed u...

Osama Alibrahim; Nedal Allam; Shaikh, Tarteel M.; Yusuf Misau; Nagi Elawad

2012-01-01

314

Induction of mutants in Cannabis Sativa L. by ? radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description is given of the mutations induced in a well known cultivar of fibre hemp belonging to the species Cannabis sativa in order to obtain new phenotypic characters that could unequivocally differentiate it from drug hemp. Two new dioecious hemp cultivars, characterized by clear morphological markers and low (?0.2%)?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content, have been obtained by mutagenesis of seeds irradiated with 60Co ? rays(optimum dose 300-350 Gy) and selection of the segregant progenies. These new cultivars, named red petiole (exhibiting anthocyanin leaf petioles) and yellow apex (exhibiting yellow distal leaflets), have been compared with varieties C.S., carmagnola and fibranova by growing them in three different areas (centre-north and south) of Italy. These agronomical trials highlighted the good performance of both new cultivars as for yield in dry matter and in fibre, not significantly different from the results of carmagnola. Besides, the new cultivars showed THC contents (0.09 and 0.17%) lower than the threshold set by the E.U. (0.2%). (Author)

315

Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an anxiolytic drug Canabidiol, um componente da Cannabis sativa, como um ansiolítico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To review and describe studies of the non-psychotomimetic constituent of Cannabis sativa, cannabidiol (CBD, as an anxiolytic drug and discuss its possible mechanisms of action. METHOD: The articles selected for the review were identified through searches in English, Portuguese, and Spanish in the electronic databases ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, PubMed, and PsycINFO, combining the search terms "cannabidiol and anxiolytic", "cannabidiol and anxiolytic-like", and "cannabidiol and anxiety". The reference lists of the publications included, review articles, and book chapters were handsearched for additional references. Experimental animal and human studies were included, with no time restraints. RESULTS: Studies using animal models of anxiety and involving healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. Moreover, CBD was shown to reduce anxiety in patients with social anxiety disorder. CONCLUSION: Future clinical trials involving patients with different anxiety disorders are warranted, especially of panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorders. The adequate therapeutic window of CBD and the precise mechanisms involved in its anxiolytic action remain to be determined.OBJETIVOS: Revisar e descrever os estudos do constituinte não psicotomimético da Cannabis sativa, o canabidiol (CBD, como ansiolítico e discutir seus possíveis mecanismos de ação. MÉTODO: Os artigos selecionados para a presente revisão foram identificados por meio de busca eletrônica em inglês, português e espanhol nos bancos de dados ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, PubMed e PsycINFO e combinando os termos "canabidiol e ansiolíticos", "canabidiol e semelhante ao ansiolítico" e "canabidiol e ansiedade". Foram também revisadas as listas de referências dos artigos incluídos, de revisões da literatura e de capítulos de livro. Incluímos trabalhos experimentais em humanos e em animais, sem limite de tempo. RESULTADOS: Estudos com modelos animais de ansiedade e envolvendo voluntários saudáveis sugerem claramente que o CBD possui efeitos ansiolíticos. Além disso, o CBD mostrou-se capaz de reduzir a ansiedade em pacientes com transtorno de ansiedade social. CONCLUSÃO: Futuros ensaios clínicos com pacientes portadores de diferentes transtornos de ansiedade, em especial pacientes com transtorno do pânico, obsessivo-compulsivo, ansiedade social e estresse pós-traumático, são oportunos. Além disso, ainda é necessário determinar a adequada faixa terapêutica do CBD e os exatos mecanismos envolvidos nessa ação ansiolítica.

Alexandre Rafael de Mello Schier

2012-06-01

316

Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an anxiolytic drug / Canabidiol, um componente da Cannabis sativa, como um ansiolítico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Revisar e descrever os estudos do constituinte não psicotomimético da Cannabis sativa, o canabidiol (CBD), como ansiolítico e discutir seus possíveis mecanismos de ação. MÉTODO: Os artigos selecionados para a presente revisão foram identificados por meio de busca eletrônica em inglês, por [...] tuguês e espanhol nos bancos de dados ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, PubMed e PsycINFO e combinando os termos "canabidiol e ansiolíticos", "canabidiol e semelhante ao ansiolítico" e "canabidiol e ansiedade". Foram também revisadas as listas de referências dos artigos incluídos, de revisões da literatura e de capítulos de livro. Incluímos trabalhos experimentais em humanos e em animais, sem limite de tempo. RESULTADOS: Estudos com modelos animais de ansiedade e envolvendo voluntários saudáveis sugerem claramente que o CBD possui efeitos ansiolíticos. Além disso, o CBD mostrou-se capaz de reduzir a ansiedade em pacientes com transtorno de ansiedade social. CONCLUSÃO: Futuros ensaios clínicos com pacientes portadores de diferentes transtornos de ansiedade, em especial pacientes com transtorno do pânico, obsessivo-compulsivo, ansiedade social e estresse pós-traumático, são oportunos. Além disso, ainda é necessário determinar a adequada faixa terapêutica do CBD e os exatos mecanismos envolvidos nessa ação ansiolítica. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To review and describe studies of the non-psychotomimetic constituent of Cannabis sativa, cannabidiol (CBD), as an anxiolytic drug and discuss its possible mechanisms of action. METHOD: The articles selected for the review were identified through searches in English, Portuguese, and Span [...] ish in the electronic databases ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, PubMed, and PsycINFO, combining the search terms "cannabidiol and anxiolytic", "cannabidiol and anxiolytic-like", and "cannabidiol and anxiety". The reference lists of the publications included, review articles, and book chapters were handsearched for additional references. Experimental animal and human studies were included, with no time restraints. RESULTS: Studies using animal models of anxiety and involving healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. Moreover, CBD was shown to reduce anxiety in patients with social anxiety disorder. CONCLUSION: Future clinical trials involving patients with different anxiety disorders are warranted, especially of panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorders. The adequate therapeutic window of CBD and the precise mechanisms involved in its anxiolytic action remain to be determined.

Alexandre Rafael de Mello, Schier; Natalia Pinho de Oliveira, Ribeiro; Adriana Cardoso de Oliveira e, Silva; Jaime Eduardo Cecílio, Hallak; José Alexandre S., Crippa; Antonio E., Nardi; Antonio Waldo, Zuardi.

2012-06-01

317

Intoxicación accidental por cannabis: presentación de cuatro casos pediátricos en un hospital terciario del sur de España / Accidental cannabis poisoning in children: report of four cases in a tertiary care center from southern Spain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Introducción. El cannabis es la droga ilegal más consumida en España. La intoxicación accidental por cannabis es una forma infrecuente de intoxicación en niños; pero potencialmente grave. Objetivo. Describir la presentación clínica, diagnóstico y tratamiento de niños con intoxicación accidental por [...] cannabis en un hospital pediátrico de tercer nivel. Presentamos 4 pacientes con intoxicación accidental por cannabis. La clínica de presentación fue deterioro brusco del nivel de conciencia, tendencia al sueño, ataxia, temblor, apnea, hipotonía y convulsión. La pesquisa de tóxicos en orina detectó tetrahidrocannabinol (THC) en todos los casos. En los cuatro pacientes se establecieron medidas de soporte. Todos los casos se recuperaron satisfactoriamente y fueron dados de alta a las 24 horas del ingreso. Conclusión. Se ha de mantener un alto índice de sospecha para la intoxicación por cannabis en niños previamente sanos con aparición brusca de síntomas neurológicos de etiología desconocida. Abstract in english Introduction. Cannabis is the most frequently consumed illicit substance in Spain. Pediatric accidental cannabis poisoning is an uncommon but life-threatening intoxication. Objective. To describe clinical findings, diagnosis and management of children with accidental cannabis poisoning in a tertiary [...] care pediatric hospital. We report four patients with accidental cannabis poisoning. Clinical presentation included reduced level of consciousness, drowsiness, ataxia, tremble, apnea, hypotonia, and seizures. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was detected by urine screening for cannabinoids and other toxic substances in all cases. The four patients were treated with supportive care. All cases recovered uneventfully and were discharged within 24 hours of admission. Conclusion. The possibility of cannabis poisoning should be considered in cases of unexplained acute onset of neurological findings in previously healthy children.

Borja, Croche Santander; María Teresa, Alonso Salas; Mercedes, Loscertales Abril.

2011-02-01

318

Intervenções farmacológica e psicossocial para os distúrbios por uso da cannabis Pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for cannabisuse disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A cannabis continua sendo a substância ilegal mais amplamente utilizada na maioria dos países desenvolvidos. Seu potencial aditivo foi estabelecido e a necessidade de intervenções em problemas relacionados à cannabis se tornou clara. Este artigo faz uma revisão sobre as pesquisas que avaliam os tratamentos potenciais para transtornos por uso de cannabis. MÉTODO: Uma busca nos bancos de dados de publicações identificou os estudos e revisões na literatura científica sobre as intervenções psicossociais e farmacológicas nos transtornos por uso de cannabis. RESULTADOS: Para adultos, as intervenções com base comportamental geram efeitos positivos significativos na abstinência e nas reduções no uso de cannabis. Em adolescentes, tratamentos similares e intervenções com base na família demonstraram eficácia. Entre os estudos, os índices de resposta parecem ser modestos mesmo com os mais potentes tratamentos psicossociais. As avaliações das abordagens farmacológicas para os transtornos por uso de cannabis têm ainda que fornecer dados sobre a eficácia clínica de qualquer medicação específica. Enfoques baseados em agonistas e antagonistas parecem ser os mais promissores. Os avanços na compreensão da neurobiologia do sistema canabinoide são fonte de otimismo no sentido de que a síntese de compostos que alteram o funcionamento do sítio receptor CB1 possa produzir medicações promissoras. CONCLUSÃO: As pesquisas clínicas identificaram tratamentos psicossociais eficazes, mas ainda não produziram farmacoterapias eficazes. Muitos estudos ainda têm que ser feitos para aumentar a potência e o acesso às intervenções para aqueles que buscam o tratamento para transtornos por uso de cannabis.OBJECTIVE: Cannabis remains the most widely used illicit substance in most developed countries. Its addictive potential has been established and the need for interventions for cannabis-related problems has become apparent. This article provides a review of the research evaluating potential treatments for cannabis use disorders. METHOD: A search of publication databases identified research studies and reviews of the scientific literature on psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for cannabis use disorders. RESULTS: For adults, behaviorally-based interventions engender significant positive effects on abstinence and reductions in cannabis use. With adolescents, similar treatments and family-based interventions have demonstrated efficacy. Across studies, response rates appear modest even with the most potent psychosocial treatments. Evaluations of pharmacological approaches to cannabis use disorders have yet to provide clinical efficacy data for any specific medication. Agonist and antagonist approaches appear to offer the most promise. Advances in understanding of the neurobiology of the cannabinoid system provide optimism that the synthesis of compounds that alter CB1 receptor site functioning may produce promising medications. CONCLUSION: Clinical research has identified effective psychosocial treatments, but has yet to yield effective pharmacotherapies. Much work remains to enhance the potency of and access to interventions for those seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders.

Alan J. Budney

2010-05-01

319

Frequent cannabis use among 14/15 years old in Northern Ireland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relatively high levels of cannabis use among young people is a cause of concern because of the positive relationship between its early onset use, antisocial behaviours and associated lifestyle. Amongst a survey of 3919 young people at school year 11 in Northern Ireland (aged 14/15 years) 142 reported daily cannabis use. These young people also reported particularly high levels of legal and illegal drug use and accounted for a high proportion of use of hard drugs such as cocaine and heroin for the full school cohort. Daily cannabis users also reported high levels of antisocial behaviour and disaffection with school. The findings perhaps raise questions about the existence of a potentially 'hidden' high risk school based group of young people during adolescence who require specific targeted prevention strategies. PMID:17046174

McCrystal, Patrick; Percy, Andrew; Higgins, Kathryn

2007-04-17

320

Estudio de la actividad antisecretora de ácido gástrico del Cannabis sativa en un modelo animal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: Hay pocos estudios que describan el efecto de los cannabinoides en el sistema gástrico, pues en sólo uno se encontró referencia a alteraciones del pH gástrico. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto antisecretor de la especie Cannabis sativa. Metodología: Se utilizaron 45 ratas Sprague Dawley que se sometieron a un ayuno de 24 horas, al cabo del cual se les ligó el píloro durante 2 ó 4 horas según el grupo experimental. Luego, se anestesiaron, se extirparon los estómagos y se analizó el contenido gástrico en términos de volumen y pH.Resultados: Se encontró que el extracto de Cannabis aumentó el pH gástrico con respecto al grupo control (p0.05. El volumen medido no mostró diferencias entre los grupos.Conclusiones: Estos resultados, sugieren que el extracto de Cannabis sativa disminuye la secreción de ácido en el estómago.

Germán Gabriel Castillo

2006-12-01

321

Clustering of smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use in adolescents in a rapidly developing country  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use ("risk behaviors" are often initiated at a young age but few epidemiological studies have assessed their joined prevalence in children in developing countries. This study aims at examining the joint prevalence of these behaviors in adolescents in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country in the Indian Ocean. Methods Cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of secondary school students using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire (Global Youth Tobacco Survey. The questionnaire was completed by 1,321 (92% of 1,442 eligible students aged 11 to 17 years. Main variables of interest included smoking cigarettes on ?1 day in the past 30 days; drinking any alcohol beverage on ?1 day in the past 30 days and using cannabis at least once in the past 12 months. Results In boys and girls, respectively, prevalence (95% CI was 30% (26–34/21% (18–25 for smoking, 49% (45–54/48% (43–52 for drinking, and 17% (15–20/8% (6–10 for cannabis use. The prevalence of all these behaviors increased with age. Smokers were two times more likely than non-smokers to drink and nine times more likely to use cannabis. Drinkers were three times more likely than non-drinkers to smoke or to use cannabis. Comparison of observed versus expected frequencies of combination categories demonstrated clustering of these risk behaviors in students (P Conclusion Smoking, drinking and cannabis use were common and clustered among adolescents of a rapidly developing country. These findings stress the need for early and integrated prevention programs.

Chiolero Arnaud

2006-06-01

322

Oral fluid cannabinoid concentrations following controlled smoked cannabis in chronic frequent and occasional smokers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral fluid (OF) is an alternative biological matrix for monitoring cannabis intake in drug testing, and drugged driving (DUID) programs, but OF cannabinoid test interpretation is challenging. Controlled cannabinoid administration studies provide a scientific database for interpreting cannabinoid OF tests. We compared differences in OF cannabinoid concentrations from 19 h before to 30 h after smoking a 6.8% THC cigarette in chronic frequent and occasional cannabis smokers. OF was collected with the Statsure Saliva Sampler™ OF device. 2D-GC-MS was used to quantify cannabinoids in 357 OF specimens; 65 had inadequate OF volume within 3 h after smoking. All OF specimens were THC-positive for up to 13.5 h after smoking, without significant differences between frequent and occasional smokers over 30 h. Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) had short median last detection times (2.5-4 h for CBD and 6-8 h for CBN) in both groups. THCCOOH was detected in 25 and 212 occasional and frequent smokers' OF samples, respectively. THCCOOH provided longer detection windows than THC in all frequent smokers. As THCCOOH is not present in cannabis smoke, its presence in OF minimizes the potential for false positive results from passive environmental smoke exposure, and can identify oral THC ingestion, while OF THC cannot. THC ? 1 ?g/L, in addition to CBD ? 1 ?g/L or CBN ? 1 ?g/L suggested recent cannabis intake (?13.5 h), important for DUID cases, whereas THC ? 1 ?g/L or THC ? 2 ?g/L cutoffs had longer detection windows (?30 h), important for workplace testing. THCCOOH windows of detection for chronic, frequent cannabis smokers extended beyond 30 h, while they were shorter (0-24 h) for occasional cannabis smokers. PMID:23954944

Anizan, Sebastien; Milman, Garry; Desrosiers, Nathalie; Barnes, Allan J; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

2013-10-01

323

Predictors of age at onset of tobacco and cannabis use in Danish adolescents  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

INTRODUCTION: Early onset of tobacco and cannabis use predicts later substance abuse and risk behaviour and has large health consequences. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine risk factors for the age at onset of smoking and cannabis use among a group of Danish children between 7 years and 18 years of age. METHODS: Four hundred and eighty randomly selected children and their parents participated in a study about the prevalence of asthma. The study included questions about alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use. The children were interviewed face-to-face while the parents answered a questionnaire. RESULTS: The age at onset of daily smoking was significantly associated with the adolescents' tendency to binge drink [hazard ratio 4.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.85-12.34), P = 0.001) and to use hard drugs [hazard ratio 2.81, 95% CI (1.03-7.78), P = 0.047], whereas the age at onset of cannabis use was significantly associated with binge drinking [hazard ratio 3.29, 95% CI (1.51-7.20), P = 0.003] and cigarette smoking [hazard ratio 2.51, 95% CI (1.26-5.00), P = 0.009]. There were no significant effect of the parents' smoking and alcohol habits, their socioeconomic or marital status on the adolescent' age at onset of smoking or cannabis. CONCLUSION: This study shows a close connection between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and alcohol habits. Knowledge of this is important when planning future prevention strategies.

Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim

2010-01-01

324

Pharmacological evaluation of the natural constituent of Cannabis sativa, cannabichromene and its modulation by ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol.  

Science.gov (United States)

In contrast to the numerous reports on the pharmacological effects of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the pharmacological activity of another substituent of Cannabis sativa, cannabichromene (CBC) remains comparatively unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether CBC elicits cannabinoid activity in the tetrad assay, which consists of the following four endpoints: hypomotility, antinociception, catalepsy, and hypothermia. Because cannabinoids are well documented to possess anti-inflammatory properties, we examined CBC, THC, and combination of both phytocannabinoids in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) paw edema assay. CBC elicited activity in the tetrad that was not blocked by the CB(1) receptor antagonist, rimonabant. Moreover, a behaviorally inactive dose of THC augmented the effects of CBC in the tetrad that was associated with an increase in THC brain concentrations. Both CBC and THC elicited dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects in the LPS-induced paw edema model. The CB(2) receptor, SR144528 blocked the anti-edematous actions of THC, but not those produced by CBC. Isobolographic analysis revealed that the anti-edematous effects of these cannabinoids in combination were additive. Although CBC produced pharmacological effects, unlike THC, its underlying mechanism of action did not involve CB(1) or CB(2) receptors. In addition, there was evidence of a possible pharmacokinetic component in which CBC dose-dependently increased THC brain levels following an i.v. injection of 0.3mg/kg THC. In conclusion, CBC produced a subset of behavioral activity in the tetrad assay and reduced LPS-induced paw edema through a noncannabinoid receptor mechanism of action. These effects were augmented when CBC and THC were co-administered. PMID:20619971

DeLong, Gerald T; Wolf, Carl E; Poklis, Alphonse; Lichtman, Aron H

2010-11-01

325

Disposition of smoked cannabis with high ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol content: A kinetic model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Introduction: No model exists to describe the disposition and kinetics of inhaled cannabis containing a high THC dose. We aimed to develop a kinetic model providing estimates of the THC serum concentrations after smoking cannabis cigarettes containing high THC doses (up to 69 mg THC). Methods: Twenty-four male non-daily cannabis users smoked cannabis cigarettes containing 29.3 mg, 49.1 mg, and 69.4 mg THC. Blood samples were collected over a period of 0-8 h and serum THC concentrations were measured. A two-compartment open model was fitted on the individual observed data. Results: Large inter-individual variability was observed in the pharmacokinetic parameters. The median pharmacokinetic parameters generated by the model were Cmax = 175 ng/mL, Tmax = 14 min, and AUC0-8h = 8150 ng x min/mL for the 69.4 mg THC dose. Median model results show an almost linear dose response relation for Cmax/Dose = 2.8 x 10-6/mL and AUC0-8h/Dose = 136 x 10-6 min/mL. However, for increasing dose level, there was a clear decreasing trend: Cmax/Dose = 3.4, 2.6 and 2.5 x 10-6/mL and AUC0-8h/Dose = 157, 133 and 117 x 10-6 min/mL for the 29.3, 49.1 and 69.4 mg dose, respectively. Within the restriction of 8 h of observation, the apparent terminal half life of THC was 150 min. Conclusion: The model offers insight into the pharmacokinetics of THC in recreational cannabis userstics of THC in recreational cannabis users smoking cannabis containing high doses of THC mixed with tobacco. The model is an objective method for providing serum THC concentrations up to 8 h after smoking cannabis with a high THC content (up to 23%).

326

Enhancing neuropsychological performance in chronic cannabis users: the role of motivation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study sought to determine whether cannabis users demonstrate differential effort during neuropsychological assessment compared to nonusers, and whether better performance can be induced in participants with a motivational statement prior to testing. For two groups of participants, cannabis users and nonusers, either a motivational or a neutral statement was administered prior to neuropsychological testing. The motivational statement resulted in better performance on a test of verbal learning and memory for users than did the neutral statement, while nonusers in the motivational and neutral conditions did not differ in performance. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:22273518

Macher, Rayna B; Earleywine, Mitchell

2012-01-01

327

Advice of the Italian CCTN on the toxicity of Cannabis sativa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This recommendation of the Italian National Toxicological Committee (CCTN) regards the possible toxic effects of some products derived from Cannabis sativa, indica variety. The CCTN has especially evaluated genotoxic, immunological and toxic to reproduction effects of these substances, on the basis of the results from both experimental studies and observations on humans. [Italiano] Il documento contiene il parere della CCTN sui potenziali effetti tossici di alcuni derivati della Cannabis sativa, varieta` indica. Il parere e` stato elaborato sulla base dei risultati sia di studi sperimentali sia dei limitati studi sull`uomo, prendendo in particolare considerazione gli effetti genotossici, tossico-riproduttivi ed immunologici.

Camoni, I. [ed.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Mucci, N. [ed.] [ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy). Dip. di Medicina del Lavoro; Paroli, E. [ed.] [Rome, Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Fac. di Medicina, Ist. di Farmacologia

1998-06-01

328

Molecular characterization of edestin gene family in Cannabis sativa L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Globulins are the predominant class of seed storage proteins in a wide variety of plants. In many plant species globulins are present in several isoforms encoded by gene families. The major seed storage protein of Cannabis sativa L. is the globulin edestin, widely known for its nutritional potential. In this work, we report the isolation of seven cDNAs encoding for edestin from the C. sativa variety Carmagnola. Southern blot hybridization is in agreement with the number of identified edestin genes. All seven sequences showed the characteristic globulin features, but they result to be divergent members/forms of two edestin types. According to their sequence similarity four forms named CsEde1A, CsEde1B, CsEde1C, CsEde1D have been assigned to the edestin type 1 and the three forms CsEde2A, CsEde2B, CsEde2C to the edestin type 2. Analysis of the coding sequences revealed a high percentage of similarity (98-99%) among the different forms belonging to the same type, which decreased significantly to approximately 64% between the forms belonging to different types. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that both edestin types are expressed in developing hemp seeds and the amount of CsEde1 was 4.44 ± 0.10 higher than CsEde2. Both edestin types exhibited a high percentage of arginine (11-12%), but CsEde2 resulted particularly rich in methionine residues (2.36%) respect to CsEde1 (0.82%). The amino acid composition determined in CsEde1 and CsEde2 types suggests that these seed proteins can be used to improve the nutritional quality of plant food-stuffs. PMID:25280223

Docimo, Teresa; Caruso, Immacolata; Ponzoni, Elena; Mattana, Monica; Galasso, Incoronata

2014-11-01

329

Consumo de cannabis en los estudiantes de secundaria de Barcelona: inicio en el consumo, efectos experimentados y expectativas / Cannabis consumption among secondary school pupils of Barcelona [Spain]: initial use, reported effects and expectancies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir las circunstancias del inicio del consumo, las razones para hacerlo, los efectos experimentados y las expectativas relacionadas con el consumo de cannabis en adolescentes de Barcelona. Métodos: Encuesta transversal realizada a una muestra de escolares de 3.º de ESO en 2005. El c [...] uestionario era confidencial y autocumplimentado. Se dispone de datos de 2.043 alumnos de 47 centros escolares de Barcelona. Resultados: El 37,5% de los escolares declaró haber probado el cannabis, de los cuales un 10% lo hizo en el último mes. El consumo fue superior en centros públicos que en concertados-privados (p Abstract in english Objectives: To describe the circumstances of initial use of Cannabis, as well as the reasons for consumption, reported effects and expectations related to cannabis use, among adolescents in Barcelona. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample of pupils in the third year of compulso [...] ry secondary education in 2005. The questionnaire was confidential and self-completed. Data were gathered from 2,043 secondary school pupils from 47 schools in Barcelona. Results: A total of 37.5% of students reported cannabis consumption at some time, and 10.0% of these students had used cannabis in the previous month. Cannabis use was more common in public schools than in subsidized or private schools (p

Eva, Morales; Carles, Ariza; Manel, Nebot; Anna, Pérez; Francesca, Sánchez.

2008-08-01

330

Symptoms of Pneumocystis pneumonia  

Science.gov (United States)

... Contact CDC–INFO Fungal Diseases Types of Diseases Aspergillosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Blastomycosis Definition Symptoms ...

331

Concentrations du ?9 - THC dans les cultures de Cannabis sativa L. du nord du Maroc ?9-THC concentrations in Cannabis sativa L. cultivated in Northern Morocco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La présente étude concerne la détermination du taux de tetrahydrocannabinol des cultures de cannabis dans trois régions du nord du Maroc : Al Hoceima, Chefcliaouen et Larache, à partir de plantes vertes en croissance, sèches arrivées à maturité et réduites en poudre. L'analyse quantitative conduite en chromatographie gazeuse couplée à la spectrométrie de masse, sur les extraits organiques de 245 échantillons issus de 30 parcelles, a permis la détermination des teneurs moyennes en $Delta^9$-THC dans la plante verte (0,5 %, sèche (2,1 % et dans la poudre (8,3 %. En outre, ces résultats démontrent que les régions de culture traditionnelle Al Hoceima et Chefcliaouen produisent du cannabis à plusforte teneur en. $Delta^9$-THC comparativement à la région de Larache, appelée zone d'extension où le cannabis a été mis en culture plus récemment. Par ailleurs, cette étude a établi que les plants mâles, souvent considérés déficients en $Delta^9$-THC, renferment des teneurs de même ordre que celles enregistrées pour les plants femelles aussi bien dans les feuilles que dans les sommités. This study proposes GC/MS determination of $Delta^9$-THC level in plant material grown in Northern Morocco : Al Hoceima, Chefcliaouen and Larache. 245 samples of growing plant, raw and powder sampled from 30 parcels were analysed. The average $Delta^9$-THC concentrations are evaluated for growing plant (0.5 %, raw (2.1 % and powder samples (8.3 %. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that cannabis production coming from traditional cultivation area Al Hoceima and Chefcliaouen, is more concentrated in $Delta^9$-THC than Larache which is a recent cultivation area. Otherwise, this study showed that the male plants, often considered deficient in $Delta^9$-THC, contain approximately the same concentrations present in the female plants.

Stambouli Hamid

2008-02-01

332

Comparison of cannabinoid concentrations in oral fluid and whole blood between occasional and regular cannabis smokers prior to and after smoking a cannabis joint  

OpenAIRE

A cross-over controlled administration study of smoked cannabis was carried out on occasional and heavy smokers. The participants smoked a joint (11 % ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) or a matching placebo on two different occasions. Whole blood (WB) and oral fluid (OF) samples were collected before and up to 3.5 h after smoking the joints. Pharmacokinetic analyses were obtained from these data. Questionnaires assessing the subjective effects were administered to the subjects during each sessi...

Fabritius, Marie; Chtioui, Haithem; Battistella, Giovanni; Annoni, Jean Marie; Dao, Kim; Favrat, Bernard; Fornari, Eleonora; Lauer, Estelle; Maeder, Philippe; Giroud, Christian

2014-01-01

333

Functional genetic variation of the cannabinoid receptor 1 and cannabis use interact on prefrontal connectivity and related working memory behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabinoid signaling is involved in different brain functions and it is mediated by the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1), which is encoded by the CNR1 gene. Previous evidence suggests an association between cognition and cannabis use. The logical interaction between genetically determined cannabinoid signaling and cannabis use has not been determined. Therefore, we investigated whether CNR1 variation predicts CNR1 prefrontal mRNA expression in postmortem prefrontal human tissue. Then, we studied whether functional variation in CNR1 and cannabis exposure interact in modulating prefrontal function and related behavior during working memory processing. Thus, 208 healthy subjects (113 males) were genotyped for the relevant functional SNP and were evaluated for cannabis use by the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire. All individuals performed the 2-back working memory task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. CNR1 rs1406977 was associated with prefrontal mRNA and individuals carrying a G allele had reduced CNR1 prefrontal mRNA levels compared with AA subjects. Moreover, functional connectivity MRI demonstrated that G carriers who were also cannabis users had greater functional connectivity in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and reduced working memory behavioral accuracy during the 2-back task compared with the other groups. Overall, our results indicate that the deleterious effects of cannabis use are more evident on a specific genetic background related to its receptor expression. PMID:25139064

Colizzi, Marco; Fazio, Leonardo; Ferranti, Laura; Porcelli, Annamaria; Masellis, Rita; Marvulli, Daniela; Bonvino, Aurora; Ursini, Gianluca; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

2015-02-01

334

Considerações sobre a toxicocinética da Cannabis sativa L. ou maconha, com enfase no homem / Some aspects of pharmacokinetics of Cannabis sativa L. (Marihuana) with emphasis on man  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo consiste em uma análise sobre a origem da Cannabis no Brasil, suas principais substâncias químicas, realçando o ?9 tetrahidrocanabinol como responsável pelos efeitos farmacológicos. é citado também o fato de existirem duas formas de numeração dos carbonos do ?THC. Para melhor enten [...] der a toxicocinética foram feitas considerações sobre as doses de maconha, que vão variar de acordo com o usuário, e origem do vegetal. Finalmente é feito urn estudo detalhado sobre, absorção, distribuição, armazenamento, biotransformação e eliminação dos diversos componentes químicos da maconha. Abstract in english This paper contains an analysis of the origin of the introduction of Cannabis in Brazil, the identify of its chemical components, mainly tetrahydrocannabinol responsible for the pharmacological effects of Cannabis. Toxicokinetic studies were developed in relation the amounts of marihuana consumed, c [...] haracteristics of the user and origin of the drug. Absorption, distribution, storage, biotransformation and elimination of marihuana derived metabolites were studies.

Luiz Marques de, Sá.

335

Effects of Parthenium hysterophorus L. on Soil Characteristics Initially Inhabited to Cannabis sativa L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Parthenium hysterophorus is a new entry and successfully growing on all types of soils in fields and waste lands. Parthenium is drought resistant highly resistant weed which sustain its survival in highly unfavorable conditions where other delicate flora can not grow. Due to its allelopathic nature, no other plant can grow near it successfully and the chemical nature of the soil also changes which further accelerate the unfavourness for the other species. Because of the weedy characteristics and production of large number of seeds, it grew on an alarming rate and presently it has occupied the large areas in NWFP and Punjab with increasing tendency. It has been found that this weed can grow in association of many other plants of which Cannabis sativa is more important but further studies indicated that even Cannabis is replaced by this weed which means it is highly tolerant and hardy in its nature and due to absence of some natural enemy (Predate it tends to grow on unprecented rate. During the present study it has been observed that Parthenium can grow in variety of soil types with different pH values. Mostly sandy loam and sandy clay loam are found highly conductive for its growth. It is nature of its wide adaptability of various soil types due to which it is found replacing the Cannabis and other natural flora. However, well grown Cannabis plants compete for survival with this weed.

Rizwana Aleem Qureshi

2006-01-01

336

Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

2007-01-01

337

A Meta-Analytic Review of School-Based Prevention for Cannabis Use  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation used meta-analytic techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of school-based prevention programming in reducing cannabis use among youth aged 12 to 19. It summarized the results from 15 studies published in peer-reviewed journals since 1999 and identified features that influenced program effectiveness. The results from the set of…

Porath-Waller, Amy J.; Beasley, Erin; Beirness, Douglas J.

2010-01-01

338

Parietal Lobe Volume Deficits in Adolescents with Schizophrenia and Adolescents with Cannabis Use Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: In early-onset schizophrenia (EOS), the earliest structural brain volumetric abnormalities appear in the parietal cortices. Early exposure to cannabis may represent an environmental risk factor for developing schizophrenia. This study characterized cerebral cortical gray matter structure in adolescents in regions of interest (ROIs) that…

Kumra, Sanjiv; Robinson, Paul; Tambyraja, Rabindra; Jensen, Daniel; Schimunek, Caroline; Houri, Alaa; Reis, Tiffany; Lim, Kelvin

2012-01-01

339

Cannabis and Anxiety and Depression in Young Adults: A Large Prospective Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To examine whether age of first use or frequency of use of cannabis is associated with anxiety and depression (AD) in young adults, independent of known potential confounders, including the use of other illicit drugs. Method: A cohort of 3,239 Australian young adults was followed from birth to the age of 21 when data on AD were obtained…

Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad R.; Najman, Jake M.; Jamrozik, Konrad; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Alati, Rosa; Bor, William

2007-01-01

340

A Rare and Unexpected Side-Effect of Cannabis Use: Abdominal Pain due to Acute Pancreatitis  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute pancreatitis is a frequently encountered disorder in patients presenting to emergency units. Biliary system disorders, alcohol consumption, infections, and drugs are among the causes of acute pancreatitis. However, it is sometimes difficult to determine the etiology of this disorder, particularly if the patient does not wish to disclose his consumption of cannabis, the use of which is illegal. PMID:25759763

Akkucuk, Mehmet Husamettin; Erbayrak, Mustafa

2015-01-01

341

A comparison of delay discounting in adolescents and adults in treatment for cannabis use disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Delay discounting is associated with problematic substance use and poorer treatment outcomes in adolescents and adults with substance use disorders. Although some research has addressed delay discounting among individuals with cannabis use disorders (CUDs), results have been equivocal, and no study has examined whether discounting rates differ between adolescent and adult cannabis users. The aim of this study was to compare discounting rates between adolescents and adults in treatment for CUD to determine whether discounting at intake or changes in discounting across treatment differed between age groups. Participants were 165 adolescents and 104 adults enrolled in treatment for CUD. Participants completed a delay discounting task at intake and end of treatment for 2 commodities (money and cannabis) at 2 different magnitudes ($100 and $1,000). Repeated measures mixed models examined differences in discounting rates by commodity and magnitude across age groups at intake and changes in discounting across treatment. At intake, adolescents discounted money more than adults whereas adults showed greater discounting at $100 magnitude than $1,000. In addition, adults had greater decreases in discounting of cannabis over the course of treatment. Overall, adolescents appeared less sensitive to changes in magnitude of rewards, discounted money at higher rates, and showed less improvement in discounting over the course of treatment compared to adults. Comparing delay discounting in adolescents and adults with CUD can contribute to a better understanding of how development influences the effect of discounting on substance use to better inform treatment for substance use disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25643024

Lee, Dustin C; Stanger, Catherine; Budney, Alan J

2015-04-01

342

Caractérisation de l'huile de graines de Cannabis sativa L. cultivé au nord du Maroc Seed oil characterization of Cannabis sativa L. cultivated in Northern Morocco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La présente étude porte sur la caractérisation de la compo-sition lipidique de l'huile des graines de Cannabis sativa L. type drogue cultivé au Nord du Maroc. Les résultats obtenus montrent que la composition en acides gras de cette huile est assez proche de celle des huiles de graines de cannabis type fibre cultivé dans d'autres parties du monde. Un taux d'aci-de linolénique (oméga-3 de 16 %, un ratio pondéral acides poly-insaturés/acides saturés (P/S de 6:1 et un rapport oméga-6/oméga-3 de 3:1, ont été déterminés. Les teneurs de cette huile en stérols et en tocophérols $(alpha , eta , gamma $ ont été évaluées respectivement à 3765 mg/kg, 13 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg et 426 mg/kg. Cette composition en acides gras, sté-rols et tocophérols, présente de fortes similitudes avec celle de l'huile de soja. Enfin, un lavage à l'hexane des graines avant extraction de l'huile, permet d'obtenir un produit pratiquement exempt de traces de $Delta $-9-THC The object of this study was to characterize the lipid compo-sition of hemp seed oil obtained from Cannabis sativa L plants of the drug-type cultivated in the north of Morocco. Linolenic acid (oméga-3 constituted 16% of the total fatty acids. The weight ratios of polyunsaturated to saturated acids (P/S and omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids were 6:1 and 3:1, respectively. The total sterol concentration was 3765 mg/kg and the $alpha $-, $eta $- and $gamma $- tocopherol concentrations were 13, 2 and 426 mg/kg, respectively. We conclude that this oil has the same fatty acid composition as the oils obtained from fiber-type cannabis cultivated in other parts of the world. Furthermore, the fatty acid, sterol and tocopherol composi-tions of the cannabis oil determined in this study are very similar to the soybean oil. Finally, we showed that washing the seeds with hexane before extraction results in an oil without any detectable amount of $Delta $-9-THC.

Stambouli Hamid

2007-12-01

343

Latent classes of substance use in adolescent cannabis users: Predictors and subsequent substance-related harm.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cannabis use is highly prevalent in late adolescence, but not all users experience significant negative consequences. Little information is available to identify the substance use patterns and risk factors of users who are at greater risk of experiencing negative consequences. In this prospective study, we aimed to empirically identify latent classes of substance use in adolescent cannabis users and to examine how these classes relate to antecedent psychosocial predictors and subsequent substance-related outcomes. The sample was recruited from 68 high schools in Quebec and consisted of 1618 participants who reported using cannabis in grade 10. We used latent class analysis (LCA to empirically identify classes of users based on the age of onset, frequency, and typical quantity of cannabis and other substance use, as well as substance mixing behaviors. We then compared classes in terms of a socio-demographic and psychosocial predictors in grades 7-8 and b substance-related consequences in grade 11. Four distinct classes were identified: Late-Light Users (28%; Late-Heavy+Polydrug Users (14%; Early-Moderate Users (33%; Early-Heavy+Polydrug Users (26%. Late-Light Users reported the lowest levels of substance use, while Early-Heavy+Polydrug Users reported the highest levels of substance. Intermediate levels of susbstance use were found in the other two classes. Sex, age, delinquency, peer delinquency, school bonding, parental monitoring, and parental conflict all helped differentiate classes. Class membership predicted substance-related harm, with greater consequences in early- and late-onset heavy using classes. In light of results, in addition to age and sex, screening and intervention for risky cannabis use among adolescents should focus on school bonding in order to target the most risky late-onset adolescents, and on peer delinquency in order to target the most risky early-onset ones.

Jean-SébastienFallu

2014-02-01

344

Differential effects of cannabis extracts and pure plant cannabinoids on hippocampal neurones and glia.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have shown previously that the plant cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) elevates intracellular calcium levels in both cultured hippocampal neurones and glia. Here, we investigated whether the main psychotropic constituent of cannabis, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) alone or in combination with other cannabis constituents can cause similar responses, and whether THC affects the responses induced by CBD. Our experiments were performed with 1 microM pure THC (pTHC), with 1 microM pure CBD (pCBD), with a high-THC, low CBD cannabis extract (eTHC), with a high-CBD, low THC cannabis extract (eCBD), with a mixture of eTHC and eCBD (THC:CBD=1:1) or with corresponding 'mock extracts' that contained only pTHC and pCBD mixed in the same proportion as in eTHC, eCBD or the 1:1 mixture of eTHC and eCBD. We detected significant differences in neurones both between the effects of pTHC and eTHC and between the effects of pCBD and eCBD. There were also differences between the Ca(2+) responses evoked in both neurones and glia by eTHC and mock eTHC, but not between eCBD and mock eCBD. A particularly striking observation was the much increased response size and maximal responder rates induced by the mixture of eTHC and eCBD than by the corresponding 1:1 mixture of pTHC and pCBD. Our data suggest that THC shares the ability of CBD to elevate Ca(2+) levels in neurones and glia, that THC and CBD interact synergistically and that the cannabis extracts have other constituents yet to be identified that can significantly modulate the ability of THC and CBD to raise Ca(2+) levels. PMID:16997463

Ryan, Duncan; Drysdale, Alison J; Pertwee, Roger G; Platt, Bettina

2006-11-20

345

The effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes: a protocol  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction The effects of exposure to marijuana in utero on fetal development are not clear. Given that the recent legislation on cannabis in the US is likely to result in increased use, there is a need to assess the effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this review is to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to cannabis on pregnancy outcomes (including maternal and child outcomes). Methods and analyses Major databases will be searched from inception to the latest issue, with the aim of identifying studies that reported the effects of prenatal exposure to cannabis on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes. Two investigators will independently review all titles and abstracts to identify potential articles. Discrepancies will be resolved by repeated review, discussion and consensus. Study quality assessment will be undertaken, using standard protocols. To qualify for inclusion, studies must report at least one maternal or neonatal outcome post partum. Cross-sectional, case–control, cohort and randomised controlled trials published in English will be included. In order to rule out the effects of other drugs that may affect fetal development and pregnancy outcomes, studies will only be included if they report outcomes of prenatal exposure to cannabis while excluding other illicit substances. Data from eligible studies will be extracted, and data analysis will include a systematic review and critical appraisal of evidence, and meta-analysis if data permit. Meta-analysis will be conducted if three or more studies report comparable statistics on the same outcome. Ethics and dissemination The review which will result from this protocol has not already been conducted. Preparation of the review will follow the procedures stated in this protocol, and will adhere to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Ethical approval of data will not be required since the review will use data that are already available in the public domain through published articles and other reports. PMID:25770234

Gunn, Jayleen K L; Rosales, Cecilia B; Center, Katherine E; Nuñez, Annabelle V; Gibson, Steven J; Ehiri, John E

2015-01-01

346

Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been the primary focus of cannabis research since 1964, when Raphael Mechoulam isolated and synthesized it. More recently, the synergistic contributions of cannabidiol to cannabis pharmacology and analgesia have been scientifically demonstrated. Other phytocannabinoids, including tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabigerol and cannabichromene, exert additional effects of therapeutic interest. Innovative conventional plant breeding has yielded cannabis chemotypes expressing high titres of each component for future study. This review will explore another echelon of phytotherapeutic agents, the cannabis terpenoids: limonene, myrcene, ?-pinene, linalool, ?-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, nerolidol and phytol. Terpenoids share a precursor with phytocannabinoids, and are all flavour and fragrance components common to human diets that have been designated Generally Recognized as Safe by the US Food and Drug Administration and other regulatory agencies. Terpenoids are quite potent, and affect animal and even human behaviour when inhaled from ambient air at serum levels in the single digits ng·mL(-1) . They display unique therapeutic effects that may contribute meaningfully to the entourage effects of cannabis-based medicinal extracts. Particular focus will be placed on phytocannabinoid-terpenoid interactions that could produce synergy with respect to treatment of pain, inflammation, depression, anxiety, addiction, epilepsy, cancer, fungal and bacterial infections (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). Scientific evidence is presented for non-cannabinoid plant components as putative antidotes to intoxicating effects of THC that could increase its therapeutic index. Methods for investigating entourage effects in future experiments will be proposed. Phytocannabinoid-terpenoid synergy, if proven, increases the likelihood that an extensive pipeline of new therapeutic products is possible from this venerable plant. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-7. PMID:21749363

Russo, Ethan B

2011-08-01

347

Haplotype-based study of the association of alcohol and acetaldehyde-metabolising genes with alcohol dependence (with or without comorbid anxiety symptoms) in a Cape Mixed Ancestry population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alcohol dependence (AD) has a large heritable component. Genetic variation in genes involved in the absorption and elimination of ethanol have been associated with AD. However, some of these polymorphisms are not present in an African population. Previous studies have reported that a type of AD which is characterized by anxious behaviour may be a genetically specific subtype of AD. We investigated whether variation in genes encoding cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) or acetaldehyde-metabolising enzymes (ALDH1A1, ALDH2) might alter the risk of AD, with and without symptoms of anxiety, in a Cape population with mixed ancestry. Eighty case control pairs (one with AD, one without AD) were recruited and individually matched for potential confounders. Genotype data were available for 29 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the three genes. Linkage disequilibrium D' values were evaluated for all pairwise comparisons. Allele and haplotype frequencies were compared between cases and controls using a ?2 test. The ACAG haplotype in block 4 of the ALDH1A1 gene provided evidence of an association with AD (p?=?0.03) and weak evidence of an association with AD without symptoms of anxiety (p?=?0.06). When a genetic score was constructed using SNPs showing nominal evidence of association with AD, every extra risk allele increased the odds of AD by 35% (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.08, 1.68, p?=?0.008) and the odds of having AD with anxiety symptoms increased by 53% (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.14, 2.05, p?=?0.004). Although our results are supported by previous studies in other populations, they must be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size and the potential influence of population stratification. PMID:24567230

Crawford, Andrew; Dalvie, Shareefa; Lewis, Sarah; King, Anthony; Liberzon, Israel; Fein, George; Koenen, Karestan; Ramesar, Rajkumar; Stein, Dan J

2014-06-01

348

Hypercholesterolemic Effect of Drug-Type Cannabis sativa L. Seed (Marijuana Seed) in Guinea Pig  

OpenAIRE

Cannabis sativa L. has two drug and nondrug varieties. Nondrug varieties of Cannabis are hemp but drug varieties commonly referred to as marijuana. Marijuana is considered nutritional and narcotic plant. Marijuana has not been studied extensively for its nutritional potential in recent years but whole hempseed typically contains over 30% oil (3%saturated, 28% unsaturated fatty acids) and about 25% protein. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of whole mariju...

Hossein Hayatghaibi; Isaac Karimi

2007-01-01

349

Cannabidiol, a nonpsychotropic component of cannabis, inhibits cue-induced heroin-seeking and normalizes discrete mesolimbic neuronal disturbances  

OpenAIRE

There remains debate regarding the impact of cannabis on neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we examined the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychoactive constituent of cannabis on heroin self-administration and drug-seeking behavior using an experimental rat model. CBD (5-20 mg/kg) did not alter stable intake of heroin self-administration, extinction behavior, or drug seeking induced by a heroin prime injection. Instead, it specifically attenuated heroin-seeking behavior reinstated by expos...

Ren, Yanhua; Whittard, John; Higuera-matas, Alejandro; Morris, Claudia V.; Hurd, Yasmin L.

2009-01-01

350

Report of a parent survey of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis use in pediatric treatment-resistant epilepsy  

OpenAIRE

Severe childhood epilepsies are characterized by frequent seizures, neurodevelopmental delays and impaired quality of life. In these treatment-resistant epilepsies, families often seek alternative treatments. This survey explored the use of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis in children with treatment-resistant epilepsy. The survey was presented to parents belonging to a Facebook group dedicated to sharing information about the use of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis to treat their child’s seizures...

Porter, Brenda E.; Jacobson, Catherine

2013-01-01

351

Efavirenz does not cause false-positive urine cannabis test in HIV-infected patients on Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with other drugs for the treatment of patients with HIV infection. Efavirenz has been reported to cause a positive urine cannabis test reaction which may create problems between HIV-infected patients on Efavirenz and law enforcement agencies. Doctors are at loss whether to issue documents certifying the potential false positive urine cannabis test with Efavirenz to patients. We investigated if the urine of HIV-infected patients on Efavirenz caused a positive urine cannabis test using the AxSYM Cannabinoids Assay®. Urine samples from 51 eligible patients on Efavirenz were tested for cannabis. All tested negative except for one who had used cannabis the day before. Efavirenz does not cause false positive urine cannabis test with the AxSYM Cannabinoids Assay®. Certification documents from doctors are therefore unnecessary. PMID:23749016

Koh, K C; Lee, W Y; Eh, Z W; Nor Julaika, I; Tee, P S; Azizon, O; Thilageswary, M

2013-06-01

352

Utilization of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry to search for cannabis in herb mixtures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herb mixtures including cannabis among the other herbs have recently appeared. When cannabinoids from herb extracts are detected by chemical examinations such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, forensic analysts have to determine whether cannabis is actually in the mixture or the cannabinoids are spiked. Morphological examinations are time-consuming, since it is difficult to find several pieces of cannabis among a large number of herb pieces using a microscope. Here, we propose a procedure for efficiently searching for cannabis in herb mixtures using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI/IMS). Pieces of herb mixtures were spread on double-sided adhesive tape attached to a stainless steel plate. The pieces were then covered with a conductive sheet and pressed. After a solution containing a matrix reagent was sprayed, the distribution of cannabinoids in the sample was visualized by MALDI/IMS. Then, just the pieces with cannabinoids could be picked up selectively with tweezers and decolorized. Cystolith hairs and trichomes, which are characteristic of cannabis, were observed in most of these pieces using a biological microscope. This MALDI/IMS procedure enables cannabis to be found in herb mixtures without inefficient random sampling and microscopic morphological examination. PMID:24838491

Kuwayama, Kenji; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

2014-07-01

353

Unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its major compound THC-acid have potential immuno-modulating properties not mediated bu CB1 en CB2 receptor coupled pathways  

OpenAIRE

There is a great interest in the pharmacological properties of cannabinoid like compounds that are not linked to the adverse effects of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), e.g. psychoactive properties. The present paper describes the potential immuno-modulating activity of unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its main non-psychoactive constituent ?9-tetrahydrocanabinoid acid (THCa). By heating Cannabis extracts, THCa was shown to be converted into THC. Unheated Cannabis extract and THCa were ab...

Verhoeckx, K. C. M.; Korthout, H. A. A. J.; Meeteren-kreikamp, A. P.; Ehlert, K. A.; Wang, M.; Greef, J.; Rodenburg, R. J. T.; Witkamp, R. F.

2006-01-01

354

Cognitive and psychomotor effects in males after smoking a combination of tobacco and cannabis containing up to 69 mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)  

OpenAIRE

RATIONALE: Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active constituent of cannabis. In recent years, the average THC content of some cannabis cigarettes has increased up to approximately 60 mg per cigarette (20% THC cigarettes). Acute cognitive and psychomotor effects of THC among recreational users after smoking cannabis cigarettes containing such high doses are unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to study the dose-effect relationship between the THC dose contained in...

Hunault, C. C.; Mensinga, T. T.; Bo?cker, K. B. E.; Schipper, C. M. A.; Kruidenier, Maaike; Leenders, Marianne E. C.; Vries, Irma; Meulenbelt, J.

2009-01-01

355

Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... Informed Cancer Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gynecologic cancer symptoms diaries Ovarian cancer may cause one or more of these signs ...

356

Acne: Signs and Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

... Diseases and treatments A - D Acne Signs, symptoms Acne: Signs and symptoms Blackheads and whiteheads Blackheads and ... sandpaper. View as one page View as slideshow Acne signs Many people think that acne is just ...

357

E. coli Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. E. coli Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Symptoms Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) can cause the following symptoms: Nausea Severe ...

358

Symptoms of Parkinson's  

Science.gov (United States)

... as important to treating Parkinson’s. Each person with Parkinson's will experience symptoms differently. For example, many people experience tremor as their primary symptom, while others may not ...

359

Trends in the co-occurrence of tobacco and cannabis use in 15-year-olds from 2002 to 2010 in 28 countries of Europe and North America  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Cannabis and tobacco use frequently co-occur. Adolescents who consume both substances experience more respiratory distress and psychosocial problems and are less likely to stop compared with those who use either tobacco or cannabis alone. This study examined time trends in tobacco and cannabis use among 15-year-olds in Europe and North America between 2002 and 2010. METHODS: Twenty-eight countries were included and merged into six regions based on their welfare systems. Adolescents (n = 142 796) were divided in four 'user groups': 'no-users', 'tobacco and cannabis users', 'tobacco-only users' and 'cannabis-only users'. Prevalence rates are reported by study-wave and region. Logistic regressions with study wave as independent variable were used to study trends in the user groups and regions. Interaction effects between time and gender were considered. RESULTS: Overall, tobacco use, and concurrent tobacco and cannabis use decreased by 3 and 3.7%, respectively, but prevalence rates varied by region. Only in North America, an interaction effect between time and gender was found in tobacco and cannabis users. CONCLUSIONS: Although this study demonstrates a decrease in tobacco and cannabis use in most regions, it also shows that the use of both substances is related. Therefore, studying the co-occurring use of tobacco and cannabis is necessary.

Hublet, Anne; Bendtsen, Pernille

2015-01-01

360

Psychotic symptoms in acromegaly  

OpenAIRE

Various psychiatric symptoms have been reported in patients with acromegaly. Most of them are personality changes characterized by lack of initiative and spontaneity. There are few case reports of the presence of auditory and visual hallucinations, and delusions in patients with acromegaly. We report a patient with acromegaly who had psychotic symptoms including Schneiderian first-rank symptoms.

Pinto, Denzil; Safeekh, A. T.; Trivedi, Mohit

2005-01-01

361

Legalizing a market for cannabis for pleasure: Colorado, Washington, Uruguay and beyond.  

Science.gov (United States)

Colorado, Washington state and Uruguay are currently designing legal non-medical markets for cannabis. These clearly contravene the 1961 and 1988 drug conventions; options for what may happen next are discussed. The current provisions in the three regulatory schemes are summarized. From a public health perspective, the emphasis should be on holding down consumption with regulatory measures, but the public health agenda does not seem to be a strong consideration in the implementation of the US schemes, and they are paying little attention to what can be learned from the history of alcohol and tobacco regulation. While alternative paths to a cannabis market under the conventions are noted, the legalization initiatives underline the need to revise the drug conventions, making prohibition of domestic markets an optional matter. Such changes would also ease the path for including alcohol under the conventions, which would be an important step forward in global health. PMID:24180513

Room, Robin

2014-03-01

362

Primary Prevention of Cannabis Use: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials  

OpenAIRE

A systematic review of primary prevention was conducted for cannabis use outcomes in youth and young adults. The aim of the review was to develop a comprehensive understanding of prevention programming by assessing universal, targeted, uni-modal, and multi-modal approaches as well as individual program characteristics. Twenty-eight articles, representing 25 unique studies, identified from eight electronic databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO, DRUG, EBM Reviews, and Project CORK)...

Norberg, Melissa M.; Kezelman, Sarah; Lim-howe, Nicholas

2013-01-01

363

Alcohol and cannabis use in Norway during the period 1995-2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The description of alcohol and cannabis use in the period 1995-2009 is based on data from five sets of surveys. Sales figures for alcohol consumption are also included. Alcohol sales in Norway increased by 40 per cent during the period 1995-2009, from 4.8 to 6.7 litres of pure alcohol per inhabitant aged 15 years and over. This increase largely reflects a sharp increase in the sale of wine. Also when taking into account unregistered alcohol consumption, the consumption of alcohol increased considerably in Norway during the period in question. The increased alcohol consumption seems to be due to an increase in moderate alcohol consumers and/or an increase in situations involving moderate alcohol consumption. Population surveys indicate that there has been an increase in the proportion who drink alcohol and in the proportion of people who drink relatively often, but the increased drinking frequency is not accompanied by a corresponding increase in the proportion who often drink until they are intoxicated. On average, men drink more often and greater quantities than women, with the exception of wine. The proportion who drink alcohol at least twice a month or more has increased in all age groups, and the increase has been particularly marked among those above the age of 50. Despite a reduction in consumption among young people in recent years, consumption and drinking until intoxicated are still widespread. Young girls drink alcohol as often as boys and are equally often intoxicated. As for cannabis, there was an increase in the age group 15-20 years in the second half of the 1990s, followed by a decrease and stagnation since the turn of the millennium. There was little or no difference between boys and girls in the 15-20 age group in the use of cannabis, while among young adults, far more men than women reported that they had used cannabis

Elin K. Bye

2011-12-01

364

Enhancement of metal(loid)s phytoextraction by Cannabis sativa L.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 10, ?. 1 (2012), s. 631-641. ISSN 1459-0255 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : phytoextraction * chelate * glutathione * Cannabis sativa L. * metal Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2012 http://www.isfae.org/scientficjournal/2012/issue1/pdf/environment/e0.pdf

Petrová, Šárka; Benešová, Dagmar; Soudek, Petr; Van?k, Tomáš

2012-01-01

365

Variation in vegetative growth and trichomes in Cannabis sativa L. (Marihuana) in response to enviromental pollution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four populations of Cannabis sativa L. (marihuana) growing in their native habitat and exposed to different levels of environmental pollution were studied for several leaf morphology and leaf trichome features. Leaf length, petiole length, length and width of central leaflet, and the number of teeth on leaf margin decreased with increase in pollution. Trichome length and trichome density values were found to be higher in populations exposed to higher levels of environmental pollution.

Sharma, G.K.; Mann, S.K.

1984-07-01

366

Activation analysis of rare-earth elements in opium and cannabis samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rare-earth concentrations in 65 Opium, Cannabis and Cannabis resin samples seized from various parts of the world were determined by destructive NAA. Because of the greater concentrations of Ca, P, K, Fe, Na and Si in plant materials, rare-earth elements were isolated after neutron irradiation and determined by gamma-spectrometry. The main steps of the method are: Preashing of 1 g Cannabis resin, 2.5 g Cannabis or 7.5 g Opium, respectively, in quartz ampoules (5 h, 500 deg C). Neutron irradiation, 24 h at 5x1013n cm-2sec-1. Cooling period 2-3 days. After addition of 0.1 ?Ci 139Ce and rare-earth carriers wet ashing of irradiated samples with H2SO4/HNO3, followed by alternate addition of HNO3 and H2O2 (30%). Precipitation and removal of silicates, precipitation of fluorides, precipitation of hydroxides. Dissolution of hydroxides in HCl. Extraction with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (DEHP)/toluene and twice back-extraction of rare earths, gamma-spectrometry of HCl phase. Due to sample activity and half-life of nuclides, three measurements were made on each sample: 2 days (for La, Sm, Gd, Ho, Er, Yb); 14 days (for Nd, Lu) and 30 days after irradiation (for Ce, Eu, Tb). Great variations in absolute element concentrations, but only small significant differences of rare earth concentration ratios were found, indicating inconsiderable biogeochemical fractionation. The mrable biogeochemical fractionation. The mean values of these ratios correspond to the relative abundances of the rare earths in the upper continental earth's crust. (T.G.)

367

Cannabis and Opium Abuse Patterns and Their Associated Complications in a Sample of Young Iranians  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of drug abuse has been reported to be up to 17.0% in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of two frequently abused substances--cannabis and opium--in samples of the young population in Isfahan, Iran. In a survey done from January 2005 to December 2006, 537 individuals aged 13-20 years were recruited using a…

Attari, Mohammad Ali; Asgary, Sedigheh; Shahrokhi, Shahnaz; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Shariatirad, Schwann

2012-01-01

368

Sex Hormones Levels as Influenced by Cannabis sativa in Rats and Men  

OpenAIRE

This study targeted the possible effects of chronic marijuana use on reproductive hormones. To pursue this effect, the levels of the testosterone, the Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and the Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) were assayed in men users in Sudan and in Cannabis sativa extract treated rats. Results were compared to non using groups as controls. Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and testosterone levels showed significant changes after 10 days in rat groups. In all addi...

Gubara, Abdulrahim A.; Elbagir, Nabiela M.; Mukhtar, Amna H.

2012-01-01

369

Predicting the chemical composition of fibre and core fraction of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)  

OpenAIRE

Fibre formation in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a dynamic process. In order to follow this process, the chemical composition of the hemp stem was studied during plant development using the acid and neutral detergent fibre and lignin methods. Additionally, near infra-red spectroscopy was carried out. To predict the chemical composition of the stem samples partial least square (PLS) analysis was carried out. The developed PLS models can predict the level of %ADF and %NDF in the hemp bast and co...

Toonen, M. A. J.; Maliepaard, C. A.; Reijmers, T. H.; Voet, H.; Mastebroek, H. D.; Broeck, H. C.; Ebskamp, M. J. M.; Kessler, W.; Kessler, R. W.

2004-01-01

370

Antidepressant-like effect of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L  

OpenAIRE

The antidepressant action of cannabis as well as the interaction between antidepressants and the endocannabinoid system has been reported. This study was conducted to assess the antidepressant-like activity of ?9-THC and other cannabinoids. Cannabinoids were initially evaluated in the mouse tetrad assay to determine doses that do not induce hypothermia or catalepsy. The automated mouse forced swim (FST) and tail suspension (TST) tests were used to determine antidepressant action. At doses la...

El-alfy, Abir T.; Ivey, Kelly; Robinson, Keisha; Ahmed, Safwat; Radwan, Mohamed; Slade, Desmond; Khan, Ikhlas; Elsohly, Mahmoud; Ross, Samir

2010-01-01

371

Pharmacological Evaluation of the Natural Constituent of Cannabis Sativa, Cannabichromene and its Modulation by ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol*  

OpenAIRE

In contrast to the numerous reports on the pharmacological effects of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the pharmacological activity of another substituent of Cannabis sativa, cannabichromene (CBC) remains comparatively unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether CBC elicits cannabinoid activity in the tetrad assay, which consists of the following four endpoints: hypomotility, antinociception, catalepsy, and hypothermia. Because cannabinoids are well documented to possess anti-inflam...

Delong, Gerald T.; Wolf, Carl E.; Poklis, Alphonse; Lichtman, Aron H.

2010-01-01

372

Propagation through alginate encapsulation of axillary buds of Cannabis sativa L. — an important medicinal plant  

OpenAIRE

Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) is an important medicinal plant well known for its pharmacologic and therapeutic potency. Because of allogamous nature of this species, it is difficult to maintain its potency and efficacy if grown from the seeds. Therefore, chemical profile-based screening, selection of high yielding elite clones and their propagation using biotechnological tools is the most suitable way to maintain their genetic lines. In this regard, we report a simple and efficient method ...

Lata, Hemant; Chandra, Suman; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Elsohly, Mahmoud A.

2009-01-01

373

Clustering of smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use in adolescents in a rapidly developing country  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use ("risk behaviors") are often initiated at a young age but few epidemiological studies have assessed their joined prevalence in children in developing countries. This study aims at examining the joint prevalence of these behaviors in adolescents in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country in the Indian Ocean. Methods Cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of secondary school students using an anonymous self-administe...

Chiolero Arnaud; Warren Wick; Viswanathan Bharathi; Faeh David; Bovet Pascal

2006-01-01

374

Headspace solid-phase microextraction of pesticide residues in Cannabis samples  

OpenAIRE

A headspace solid-phase microextraction method combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was evaluated for the extraction and analysis of selected pesticides, namely alachlor, ?-hexachlorocyclohexane, bromopropylate, carbaryl, diazinon, linuron, polychlorobiphenyl 209, permethrine and simazine in cannabis samples. Using a 100 ?m PDMS fibre, compounds were directly extracted in the headspace mode at 150 °C for 5 min and desorption was performed in the GC injector in the splitless...

Ilias, Yara; Rudaz, Serge; Christen, Philippe; Veuthey, Jean-luc

2006-01-01

375

Cannabis Use Is Quantitatively Associated with Nucleus Accumbens and Amygdala Abnormalities in Young Adult Recreational Users  

OpenAIRE

Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, but little is known about its effects on the human brain, particularly on reward/aversion regions implicated in addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Animal studies show structural changes in brain regions such as the nucleus accumbens after exposure to ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol, but less is known about cannabis use and brain morphometry in these regions in humans. We collected high-resolution MRI scans on ...

Gilman, Jodi M.; Kuster, John K.; Lee, Sang; Lee, Myung Joo; Kim, Byoung Woo; Makris, Nikos; Kouwe, Andre; Blood, Anne J.; Breiter, Hans C.

2014-01-01

376

Intervenções farmacológica e psicossocial para os distúrbios por uso da cannabis / Pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for cannabisuse disorders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A cannabis continua sendo a substância ilegal mais amplamente utilizada na maioria dos países desenvolvidos. Seu potencial aditivo foi estabelecido e a necessidade de intervenções em problemas relacionados à cannabis se tornou clara. Este artigo faz uma revisão sobre as pesquisas que avali [...] am os tratamentos potenciais para transtornos por uso de cannabis. MÉTODO: Uma busca nos bancos de dados de publicações identificou os estudos e revisões na literatura científica sobre as intervenções psicossociais e farmacológicas nos transtornos por uso de cannabis. RESULTADOS: Para adultos, as intervenções com base comportamental geram efeitos positivos significativos na abstinência e nas reduções no uso de cannabis. Em adolescentes, tratamentos similares e intervenções com base na família demonstraram eficácia. Entre os estudos, os índices de resposta parecem ser modestos mesmo com os mais potentes tratamentos psicossociais. As avaliações das abordagens farmacológicas para os transtornos por uso de cannabis têm ainda que fornecer dados sobre a eficácia clínica de qualquer medicação específica. Enfoques baseados em agonistas e antagonistas parecem ser os mais promissores. Os avanços na compreensão da neurobiologia do sistema canabinoide são fonte de otimismo no sentido de que a síntese de compostos que alteram o funcionamento do sítio receptor CB1 possa produzir medicações promissoras. CONCLUSÃO: As pesquisas clínicas identificaram tratamentos psicossociais eficazes, mas ainda não produziram farmacoterapias eficazes. Muitos estudos ainda têm que ser feitos para aumentar a potência e o acesso às intervenções para aqueles que buscam o tratamento para transtornos por uso de cannabis. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Cannabis remains the most widely used illicit substance in most developed countries. Its addictive potential has been established and the need for interventions for cannabis-related problems has become apparent. This article provides a review of the research evaluating potential treatment [...] s for cannabis use disorders. METHOD: A search of publication databases identified research studies and reviews of the scientific literature on psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for cannabis use disorders. RESULTS: For adults, behaviorally-based interventions engender significant positive effects on abstinence and reductions in cannabis use. With adolescents, similar treatments and family-based interventions have demonstrated efficacy. Across studies, response rates appear modest even with the most potent psychosocial treatments. Evaluations of pharmacological approaches to cannabis use disorders have yet to provide clinical efficacy data for any specific medication. Agonist and antagonist approaches appear to offer the most promise. Advances in understanding of the neurobiology of the cannabinoid system provide optimism that the synthesis of compounds that alter CB1 receptor site functioning may produce promising medications. CONCLUSION: Clinical research has identified effective psychosocial treatments, but has yet to yield effective pharmacotherapies. Much work remains to enhance the potency of and access to interventions for those seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders.

Alan J., Budney; Ryan G., Vandrey; Catherine, Stanger.

2010-05-01

377

Detecting cannabis use on the human skin surface via an electronic nose system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most commonly used drug testing methods are based on the analysis of hair and urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or immunoassay screening. These methods are time-consuming and partly expensive. One alternative method could be the application of an "electronic nose" (eNose). We have developed an eNose to detect directly on the human skin surface metabolic changes in the human body odor caused by cannabis consumption. Twenty cannabis-smoking and 20 tobacco-smoking volunteers were enrolled in this study. For the sensor signal data processing, two different methods were applied: Principle component analysis (PCA) with discriminant analysis, and the method of pattern recognition with subsequent support vector machines (SVM) processing. The PCA analysis achieved a correct classification of 70%, whereas the SVM obtained an accuracy of 92.5% (sensitivity 95%, specificity 90%) between cannabis-consuming volunteers and tobacco-smoking subjects. This study shows evidence that a low-cost, portable and fast-working eNose system could be useful for health protection, security agencies and for forensic investigations. The ability to analyze human body odor with an eNose opens up a wide field for diagnosing other drugs and also various diseases. PMID:25057136

Voss, Andreas; Witt, Katharina; Kaschowitz, Tobias; Poitz, Wolf; Ebert, Andreas; Roser, Patrik; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

2014-01-01

378

Detecting Cannabis Use on the Human Skin Surface via an Electronic Nose System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most commonly used drug testing methods are based on the analysis of hair and urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or immunoassay screening. These methods are time-consuming and partly expensive. One alternative method could be the application of an “electronic nose” (eNose. We have developed an eNose to detect directly on the human skin surface metabolic changes in the human body odor caused by cannabis consumption. Twenty cannabis-smoking and 20 tobacco-smoking volunteers were enrolled in this study. For the sensor signal data processing, two different methods were applied: Principle component analysis (PCA with discriminant analysis, and the method of pattern recognition with subsequent support vector machines (SVM processing. The PCA analysis achieved a correct classification of 70%, whereas the SVM obtained an accuracy of 92.5% (sensitivity 95%, specificity 90% between cannabis-consuming volunteers and tobacco-smoking subjects. This study shows evidence that a low-cost, portable and fast-working eNose system could be useful for health protection, security agencies and for forensic investigations. The ability to analyze human body odor with an eNose opens up a wide field for diagnosing other drugs and also various diseases.

Andreas Voss

2014-07-01

379

Cannabis: a triggering factor for schizophrenia? Maconha: fator desencadeador de esquizofrenia?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Schizophrenia has a prevalence of 1.1% in general population. It is believed to be a multifactorial disease in which a genetic predisposition may exist, but triggering environmental factors should also exist. Among the triggering environmental factors suggested, it is highlighted the use of some drugs, including cannabis (marijuana. The present report aimed to carry out a bibliographic review of the papers presenting a causal relationship between cannabis abuse and development of schizophrenia. The results showed that there is increasing evidence, both epidemiological and biological, that cannabis abuse may trigger schizophrenia, at least in predisposed individuals. A esquizofrenia acomete, aproximadamente, 1,1% da população. Atualmente, acredita-se que a esquizofrenia seja uma doença multifatorial, na qual deva existir uma predisposição genética, mas sejam necessários fatores ambientais desencadeadores para ela se manifestar. Entre os fatores ambientais sugeridos como desencadeadores, salienta-se o uso abusivo de algumas drogas psicotrópicas, incluindo a maconha. O objetivo deste trabalho foi fazer um levantamento bibliográfico dos trabalhos que estabelecem uma relação causal entre uso abusivo de maconha e manifestação de esquizofrenia. A análise da literatura mostrou que existem evidências crescentes, tanto epidemiológicas quanto biológicas, de que o uso de maconha pode desencadear o início da esquizofrenia, pelo menos em indivíduos predispostos.

Estefânia Gastaldello Moreira

2007-10-01

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Cannabis retail purchases in a low-risk market: Purchase size and sex of buyers  

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Full Text Available AIM - To analyse the composition of cannabis retail purchases in a representative sample of purchases made in Christiania, Copenhagen in 2004. MATERIAL - Transactions (n=1,123 were registered along four variables; type (loose resin or joints, quantum (n=957, grams or number of joints, sex (n=559, female or male and payment (n=707, notes or coins. RESULTS - We found that more than half of all transactions were for joints only. The median transaction quantum was small, at two joints or three grams of resin, valued at DKK 100. Of the resin transactions, 88% were three grams or below. Women made 11% of the purchases. There was no statistically significant difference in the preferences for quantum or type between males and females. CONCLUSIONS - Buyers prefer joints over loose resin despite the higher price, which is interesting. The small median transactions size is consistent with findings in the international literature. Illicit drug buyers appear to prefer small acquisitions across drugs and social context. The share of purchases made by women is 11%, which is similar to the estimated proportion of women among daily cannabis users. This finding suggests an interesting question for future research. At what point in a cannabis-using career do users purchase their drugs? These findings contribute to the existing research by documenting the proportion of female buyers, and preferences for type and quantum in a sample that is representative of a market and is not based on self-reported purchases

Moeller Kim

2014-04-01