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Sample records for cannabis dependence symptoms

  1. Depression Symptoms Associated with Cannabis Dependence in an Adolescent American Indian Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilder, David A.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Depression and substance use disorders, including cannabis dependence, arise during adolescence, are frequently co-morbid, and represent major health burdens in the general U.S. population. Yet little is known about the association of depression symptoms with cannabis and other substance use and use disorders in Native American adolescents. Objective To investigate the comorbidity of cannabis use and depression symptoms in Native American adolescents. Methods This study used the Children’s Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (Adolescent Version) to obtain lifetime DSM-III-R diagnoses from a community sample of 202 (98 boys, 104 girls) American Indian adolescents living on contiguous reservations. Results Thirteen percent of boys and 38% of girls had a lifetime DSM-III-R major depression disorder (MDD) independent of substance use. Fifteen percent of boys and 41% of girls had a major depression episode (MDE) either coincident with or independent of cannabis use. MDE and several individual depression symptoms were significantly associated with cannabis dependence in boys but not in girls. The median ages of onset of MDE were the same in the boys and girls who had experienced both depression and cannabis use. Conclusions These findings suggest that the association of depression with cannabis dependence is more significant in boys than girls in this population of adolescents. Scientific Significance Understanding co-morbidity between depression and cannabis use is important in order to disentangle the etiological relationship between the two and also for designing more effective treatment and prevention strategies, particularly in Native Americans who are at high risk for both disorders. PMID:23082832

  2. Prospective Assessment of Cannabis Withdrawal in Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milin, Robert; Manion, Ian; Dare, Glenda; Walker, Selena

    2008-01-01

    A study to identify and assess the withdrawal symptoms in adolescents afflicted with cannabis dependence is conducted. Results conclude that withdrawal symptoms of cannabis were present in adolescents seeking treatment for this substance abuse.

  3. Cannabis Withdrawal is Common among Treatment-Seeking Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence and Major Depression, and is Associated with Rapid Relapse to Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelius, Jack R.; Chung, Tammy; Martin, Christopher; Wood, D. Scott; Clark, Duncan B.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, reports have suggested that cannabis withdrawal occurs commonly in adults with cannabis dependence, though it is unclear whether this extends to those with comorbid depression or to comorbid adolescents. We hypothesized that cannabis withdrawal would be common among our sample of comorbid adolescents and young adults, and that the presence of cannabis withdrawal symptoms would be associated with a self-reported past history of rapid reinstatement of cannabis dependence symptoms (rap...

  4. Pharmacological Treatment of Cannabis Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, A. M.; Gorelick, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis is the most frequently used illegal psychoactive substance in the world. There is a significant increase in the number of treatment admissions for cannabis use disorders in the past few years, and the majority of cannabis-dependent individuals who enter treatment have difficulty in achieving and maintaining abstinence. Thus, there is increased need for medications that can be used to treat this population. So far, no medication has been shown broadly and consistently effective; none ...

  5. Decreased respiratory symptoms in cannabis users who vaporize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnwell Sara

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cannabis smoking can create respiratory problems. Vaporizers heat cannabis to release active cannabinoids, but remain cool enough to avoid the smoke and toxins associated with combustion. Vaporized cannabis should create fewer respiratory symptoms than smoked cannabis. We examined self-reported respiratory symptoms in participants who ranged in cigarette and cannabis use. Data from a large Internet sample revealed that the use of a vaporizer predicted fewer respiratory symptoms even when age, sex, cigarette smoking, and amount of cannabis used were taken into account. Age, sex, cigarettes, and amount of cannabis also had significant effects. The number of cigarettes smoked and amount of cannabis used interacted to create worse respiratory problems. A significant interaction revealed that the impact of a vaporizer was larger as the amount of cannabis used increased. These data suggest that the safety of cannabis can increase with the use of a vaporizer. Regular users of joints, blunts, pipes, and water pipes might decrease respiratory symptoms by switching to a vaporizer

  6. Sintomas depressivos e uso de Cannabis em adolescentes / Depressive symptoms in young Cannabis users / Síntomas depresivos en adolescentes usuarios de Cannabis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tânia Moraes Ramos, Andrade; Irani Iracema de Lima, Argimon.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A depressão é um dos transtornos psiquiátricos mais comuns na adolescência. Os quadros depressivos costumam apresentar elevadas taxas de comorbidades psiquiátricas, sendo freqüente o abuso de substâncias psicoativas. O artigo investiga a associação dos sintomas depressivos e o uso da cannabis. MÉTOD [...] O: Revisão sistemática, análise dos artigos indexados no Medline, PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science e Lilacs, entre 2000 e 2005, descritores: depressive symptoms, depressive, adolescence, teenager e cannabis. RESULTADOS: Revisados 36 artigos completos, resultando no estudo de 9 artigos, que tratam de sintomas depressivos ou depressão e o uso ou dependência de cannabis em adolescentes. Os estudos confirmam a associação entre sintomas depressivos e o uso de cannabis na adolescência, sendo esta associação mais freqüente no uso precoce e regular de cannabis. CONCLUSÃO: Os sintomas depressivos/depressão estão relacionados ao uso/abuso e dependência de cannabis na adolescência. A investigação clínica e os programas de prevenção devem abordar estes transtornos na adolescência. Abstract in spanish Este artículo busca investigar la asociación de los síntomas depresivos y el uso de cannabis en la adolescencia. MÉTODO: Ha sido realizado, a través de revisión sistemática, el análisis de los artículos indexados localizados en los sistemas Medline, PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science y Lilacs, entre [...] 2000 y 2005, utilizando los descriptores: depressive symptoms, depressive, adolescence, teenager y cannabis. RESULTADOS: La mayoría de los estudios confirma existir una asociación entre síntomas depresivos y el uso de cannabis en la adolescencia, cabe destacar que esta asociación es más frecuente en el uso precoz y regular de cañabais. CONCLUSIÓN: Los síntomas depresivos/Depresión están relacionados al uso/abuso y dependencia de cañabais en la adolescencia, siendo entonces importante que estas variables puedan ser investigadas en la práctica clínica como también en programas de prevención que aborden de forma simultánea estos síntomas/trastornos en este período de la vida. Abstract in english The association between depressive symptoms and cannabis use is investigated. Due to the fact that depression has been a common psyquiatric disorder in adolescence, depressive cases usually present high rates of psychiatric comorbidities and the abuse of psychoactive substances is frequent. Systemat [...] ic review, studies at PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science and Lilacs databases analyzed between 2000 and 2005 are discussed. Results show that nine out of the thirty-six studies discuss depression and cannabis use or addiction in adolescents. Whereas the association between depressive symptoms and the use of cannabis during adolescence is confirmed, it is more frequent in an early and continuous cannabis use. Research shows that depressive symptoms are related to cannabis use, abuse and dependence during adolescence. Abovementioned variables must be investigated in clinical practice and in prevention programs that simultaneously focus on these disorders.

  7. Sintomas depressivos e uso de Cannabis em adolescentes Síntomas depresivos en adolescentes usuarios de Cannabis Depressive symptoms in young Cannabis users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Moraes Ramos Andrade

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A depressão é um dos transtornos psiquiátricos mais comuns na adolescência. Os quadros depressivos costumam apresentar elevadas taxas de comorbidades psiquiátricas, sendo freqüente o abuso de substâncias psicoativas. O artigo investiga a associação dos sintomas depressivos e o uso da cannabis. MÉTODO: Revisão sistemática, análise dos artigos indexados no Medline, PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science e Lilacs, entre 2000 e 2005, descritores: depressive symptoms, depressive, adolescence, teenager e cannabis. RESULTADOS: Revisados 36 artigos completos, resultando no estudo de 9 artigos, que tratam de sintomas depressivos ou depressão e o uso ou dependência de cannabis em adolescentes. Os estudos confirmam a associação entre sintomas depressivos e o uso de cannabis na adolescência, sendo esta associação mais freqüente no uso precoce e regular de cannabis. CONCLUSÃO: Os sintomas depressivos/depressão estão relacionados ao uso/abuso e dependência de cannabis na adolescência. A investigação clínica e os programas de prevenção devem abordar estes transtornos na adolescência.Este artículo busca investigar la asociación de los síntomas depresivos y el uso de cannabis en la adolescencia. MÉTODO: Ha sido realizado, a través de revisión sistemática, el análisis de los artículos indexados localizados en los sistemas Medline, PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science y Lilacs, entre 2000 y 2005, utilizando los descriptores: depressive symptoms, depressive, adolescence, teenager y cannabis. RESULTADOS: La mayoría de los estudios confirma existir una asociación entre síntomas depresivos y el uso de cannabis en la adolescencia, cabe destacar que esta asociación es más frecuente en el uso precoz y regular de cañabais. CONCLUSIÓN: Los síntomas depresivos/Depresión están relacionados al uso/abuso y dependencia de cañabais en la adolescencia, siendo entonces importante que estas variables puedan ser investigadas en la práctica clínica como también en programas de prevención que aborden de forma simultánea estos síntomas/trastornos en este período de la vida.The association between depressive symptoms and cannabis use is investigated. Due to the fact that depression has been a common psyquiatric disorder in adolescence, depressive cases usually present high rates of psychiatric comorbidities and the abuse of psychoactive substances is frequent. Systematic review, studies at PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science and Lilacs databases analyzed between 2000 and 2005 are discussed. Results show that nine out of the thirty-six studies discuss depression and cannabis use or addiction in adolescents. Whereas the association between depressive symptoms and the use of cannabis during adolescence is confirmed, it is more frequent in an early and continuous cannabis use. Research shows that depressive symptoms are related to cannabis use, abuse and dependence during adolescence. Abovementioned variables must be investigated in clinical practice and in prevention programs that simultaneously focus on these disorders.

  8. Palmitoylethanolamide: from endogenous cannabimimetic substance to innovative medicine for the treatment of cannabis dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, M; Mondola, R

    2013-10-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a fatty acid amide showing some pharmacodynamic similarities with ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the principal psychoactive compound present in the cannabis plant. Like ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol, PEA can produce a direct or indirect activation of cannabinoid receptors. Furthermore, it acts as an agonist at TRPV1 receptor. The hypothesis is that PEA has anti-craving effects in cannabis dependent patients, is efficacious in the treatment of withdrawal symptoms, produces a reduction of cannabis consumption and is effective in the prevention of cannabis induced neurotoxicity and neuro-psychiatric disorders. PMID:23896215

  9. Cross-sectional and prospective relation of cannabis potency, dosing and smoking behaviour with cannabis dependence: an ecological study

    OpenAIRE

    Pol, P.; Liebregts, N.; Brunt, T.; Amsterdam, J.; Graaf, R.; Korf, D. J.; Brink, W. Den; Laar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Increased delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations in cannabis may lead to higher THC exposure, cannabis dependence and treatment need, but users may also adapt the actual intake of THC through reduced inhalation of THC containing smoke (titration). We investigated whether consumers of stronger cannabis use less cannabis per joint or inhale less smoke than those using less potent cannabis and whether these factors predict cannabis dependence severity. Method...

  10. Dependent cannabis users at a music festival - prevalence and correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Aim: In western countries, the most prevalent type of illicit substance-use dependence is cannabis dependence. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of cannabis dependence among music festival visitors. Methods: Based on a survey of 380 music festival guests, we estimated the prevalence of cannabis dependence, as defined by a score of 3 or more on the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS), as well as characteristics of cannabis dependent visitors. Results: 143 (38%) reported having used cannabis within the past year (past year cannabis users), and of these respondents, 21 (15%) screened positive for cannabis dependence. Compared to other cannabis users, the dependent respondents were more likely to be daily smokers, and they scored higher on self-reported sensation seeking. Compared with past-year non-users, both dependent users and non-dependent users were more likely to be men, weekly heavy drinkers, daily smokers and to score high on sensation seeking. Conclusions: Out of the past-year cannabis users recruited at a music festival, one in seven of those respondents showed indication of cannabis dependence. This suggests a need for both available treatment options and primary prevention of dependence.

  11. Associations between cigarette smoking and cannabis dependence: A longitudinal study of young cannabis users in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindocha, Chandni; Shaban, Natacha D.C.; Freeman, Tom P.; Das, Ravi K.; Gale, Grace; Schafer, Grainne; Falconer, Caroline J.; Morgan, Celia J.A.; Curran, H. Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Aims To determine the degree to which cigarette smoking predicts levels of cannabis dependence above and beyond cannabis use itself, concurrently and in an exploratory four-year follow-up, and to investigate whether cigarette smoking mediates the relationship between cannabis use and cannabis dependence. Methods The study was cross sectional with an exploratory follow-up in the participants’ own homes or via telephone interviews in the United Kingdom. Participants were 298 cannabis and tobacco users aged between 16 and 23; follow-up consisted of 65 cannabis and tobacco users. The primary outcome variable was cannabis dependence as measured by the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS). Cannabis and tobacco smoking were assessed through a self-reported drug history. Results Regression analyses at baseline showed cigarette smoking (frequency of cigarette smoking: B = 0.029, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.05; years of cigarette smoking: B = 0.159, 95% CI = 0.05, 0.27) accounted for 29% of the variance in cannabis dependence when controlling for frequency of cannabis use. At follow-up, only baseline cannabis dependence predicted follow-up cannabis dependence (B = 0.274, 95% CI = 0.05, 0.53). At baseline, cigarette smoking mediated the relationship between frequency of cannabis use and dependence (B = 0.0168, 95% CI = 0.008, 0.288) even when controlling for possible confounding variables (B = 0.0153, 95% CI = 0.007, 0.027). Conclusions Cigarette smoking is related to concurrent cannabis dependence independently of cannabis use frequency. Cigarette smoking also mediates the relationship between cannabis use and cannabis dependence suggesting tobacco is a partial driver of cannabis dependence in young people who use cannabis and tobacco. PMID:25622777

  12. Objective and subjective memory ratings in cannabis-dependent adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin A.; Lydiard, Jessica B.; Goddard, Scott D.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance worldwide, with an estimated 160 million users. Among adolescents, rates of cannabis use are increasing, while the perception of detrimental effects of cannabis use is declining. Difficulty with memory is one of the most frequently noted cognitive deficits associated with cannabis use, but little data exists exploring how well users can identify their own memory deficits, if present. Methods The current secondary analysis sought to characterize objective verbal and visual memory performance via a neurocognitive battery in cannabis-dependent adolescents enrolled in a pharmacotherapeutic cannabis cessation clinical trial (N=112) and compare this to a single self-reported item assessing difficulties with memory loss. Exploratory analyses also assessed dose-dependent effects of cannabis on memory performance. Results A small portion of the study sample (10%) endorsed a “serious problem” with memory loss. Those participants reporting “no problem” or “serious problem” scored similarly on visual and verbal memory tasks on the neurocognitive battery. Exploratory analyses suggested a potential relationship between days of cannabis use, amount of cannabis used, and gender with memory performance. Conclusions and Scientific Significance This preliminary and exploratory analysis suggests that a sub-set of cannabis users may not accurately perceive difficulties with memory. Further work should test this hypothesis with the use of a control group, comprehensive self-reports of memory problems, and adult populations that may have more years of cannabis use and more severe cognitive deficits. PMID:25823635

  13. Anxiety mediates the association between cannabis use and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Lauren E; Anglin, Deidre M; Heimberg, Richard G; Gibson, Lauren E; Fineberg, Anna M; Maxwell, Seth D; Kerns, Connor M; Ellman, Lauren M

    2014-08-15

    Cannabis use has been associated with a continuum of psychotic experiences. However, it is unclear whether mood and anxiety symptoms account for increases in attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS) among cannabis users. We predicted that depression and anxiety symptoms would mediate the relation between cannabis use and APPS, and between cannabis use and endorsement of eight or more distressing APPS (D-APPS), a potentially more clinically meaningful group. Young adults (n=674) completed the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ); Drug Use Frequency measure; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Trait Form, Anxiety Subscale; and Social Phobia Scale. Results indicated that symptoms of trait anxiety, but not symptoms of depression or social anxiety, mediated the relationship between cannabis use and APPS, as well as the relationship between cannabis use and D-APPS. Results indicate that symptoms of trait anxiety may play a role in the relation between cannabis use and APPS. Findings underscore the importance of considering clinical characteristics co-occurring with psychotic symptoms, such as affective symptoms, when examining the association between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms. PMID:24745470

  14. Multidimensional family therapy decreases the rate of externalising behavioural disorder symptoms in cannabis abusing adolescents: outcomes of the INCANT trial

    OpenAIRE

    Schaub, Michael P.; Henderson, Craig E.; Pelc, Isidore; Tossmann, Peter; Phan, Olivier; Hendriks, Vincent; Rowe, Cindy; Rigter, Henk

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: US-based trials have shown that Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) not only reduces substance abuse among adolescents, but also decreases mental and behavioural disorder symptoms, most notably externalising symptoms. In the INCANT trial, MDFT decreased the rate of cannabis dependence among Western European youth. We now focus on other INCANT outcomes, i.e., lessening of co-morbidity symptoms and improvement of family functioning. METHODS: INCANT was a randomised contr...

  15. The effects of cannabis abuse on the symptoms of schizophrenia: patient perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costain, William F

    2008-08-01

    This study explored explanatory models used by individuals with schizophrenia in relation to continuing cannabis abuse. Cannabis is known to exacerbate positive symptoms, compound the effects of negative symptoms, and lead to relapse, having a negative effect upon quality of life. If this is so, why would people choose to continue the drug use? Most previous studies exploring this phenomenon have used quantitative methodology where the questions asked have been preset by the researchers and the subjective experience of the patient has been minimized. Qualitative methodology was utilized in this study in order to give voice to the patients' perspectives, and contribute to the knowledge of the frameworks of meanings employed by patients. The majority of participants in this study did not perceive that they had a mental illness and they held strong beliefs regarding the usefulness of cannabis. They gave explanations for their continuing cannabis use that expanded the understanding from previous studies. These included that they sought the drug effects of cannabis use for clarity of voices, control of symptoms, to feel normal, perceived improvement in cognitive function, reduced psychological pain and increased energy. These beliefs may influence a person's adherence with treatment and their future cannabis use. This research has implications for clinical practice as clinicians may lack insight into the importance of the phenomenological beliefs of a person with schizophrenia. This lack of insight by the clinician into the phenomenological beliefs may impact on the development of a therapeutic relationship. PMID:18666905

  16. From child maltreatment to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence: A developmental cascade model

    OpenAIRE

    Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Cicchetti, Dante

    2010-01-01

    A developmental cascade model tested associations among child maltreatment, internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, social competence, and cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms in a longitudinal cohort (N = 415). Nested structural equation models evaluated continuity and cross-domain influences among broad multi-informant constructs across four developmental periods: age 7 to 9, 10 to 12, 13 to 15, and 15 to 18. Results indicated significant paths from child maltreatment to early ex...

  17. The role of study and work in cannabis use and dependence trajectories among young adult frequent cannabis users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NienkeLiebregts

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Life course theory considers events in study and work as potential turning points in deviance, including illicit drug use. This qualitative study explores the role of occupational life in cannabis use and dependence in young adults. Two and three years after the initial structured interview, 47 at baseline frequent cannabis users were interviewed in-depth about the dynamics underlying changes in their cannabis use and dependence. Overall, cannabis use and dependence declined, including interviewees who quit using cannabis completely, in particular with students, both during their study and after they got employed. Life course theory appeared to be a useful framework to explore how and why occupational life is related to cannabis use and dependence over time. Our study showed that life events in this realm are rather common in young adults and can have a strong impact on cannabis use. While sometimes changes in use are temporary, turning points can evolve from changes in educational and employment situations; an effect that seems to be related to the consequences of these changes in terms of amount of leisure time and agency (i.e. feelings of being in control.

  18. Psychedelic symptoms of cannabis and cocaine use as a function of trait impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wel, Jhp; Spronk, Db; Kuypers, Kpc; Theunissen, El; Toennes, Sw; Verkes, Rj; Ramaekers, Jg

    2015-03-01

    Trait impulsivity has been linked to addiction in humans. It has been suggested that drug users with high trait impulsivity levels are more sensitive to subjective drug intoxication. This study assessed whether subjective response to drugs differs between drug users with normal or high levels of trait impulsivity. Regular drug users (N = 122) received doses of cocaine HCl, cannabis, and placebo in a three-way crossover study. Their mood, dissociative state, and psychedelic symptoms were measured with subjective rating scales (CADDS, Bowdle, POMS). Trait impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Cannabis increased dissociation and psychedelic state, as well as fatigue, confusion, depression and anxiety, and decreased arousal, positive mood, vigor, friendliness, and elation. Cocaine increased dissociation, psychedelic state, vigor, friendliness, elation, positive mood, anxiety and arousal, while decreasing fatigue. Only a few subjective items revealed a drug × trait impulsivity interaction, suggesting that psychedelic symptoms were most intense in high impulsivity subjects. Trait impulsiveness ratings were negatively correlated with ratings of vigor (r = -.197) and positively correlated with ratings of loss of thought control (r = .237) during cannabis intoxication. It is concluded that a broad association between trait impulsivity and psychedelic subjective drug experience appears to be absent. PMID:25572345

  19. Comorbid psychiatric disorders and stages of change in cannabis-dependent, treatment-seeking patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hercilio P., Oliveira; Andre, Malbergier.

    2014-05-13

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine whether and to what extent cannabis dependence is associated with comorbid psychiatric disorders and specific stages of change in treatment-seeking patients. Methods: We evaluated 80 cannabis-dependent, treatment-seeking patients residing in an urban area. Data on cannabi [...] s dependence, psychiatric disorders, and motivation were obtained using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry and the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA). Results: A diagnosis of schizophrenia was found to correlate with lower motivation scores (p = 0.038), which could have a negative effect on adherence to treatment. Conclusion: The high prevalence of concurrent psychiatric disorders in cannabis-dependent patients should serve as a stimulus for early screening and treatment of such disorders. Health care professionals should be aware of the magnitude of this association to increase the level of motivation in cannabis-dependent patients with severe concurrent psychiatric disorders.

  20. Cannabis e humor / Cannabis and mood

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael Faria, Sanches; João Mazzoncini de Azevedo, Marques.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações entre o uso agudo e crônico de cannabis e alterações do humor. MÉTODO: Os artigos foram selecionados por meio de busca eletrônica no indexador PubMed. Capítulos de livros e as listas de referências dos artigos selecionados também foram revisados. RESULTADOS: Observam-se [...] elevados índices de comorbidade entre abuso/dependência de cannabis e transtornos afetivos em estudos transversais e em amostras clínicas. Estudos longitudinais indicam que, em longo prazo, o uso mais intenso de cannabis está relacionado com um risco maior de desenvolvimento de doença bipolar e, talvez, depressão maior em indivíduos inicialmente sem quadros afetivos; porém, os mesmos não encontraram maior risco de uso de cannabis entre aqueles com mania ou depressão sem esta comorbidade. Outra importante observação é que o uso de substâncias psicoativas em bipolares pode estar associado a uma série de características negativas, como dificuldade na recuperação dos sintomas afetivos, maior número de internações, piora na adesão ao tratamento, risco aumentado de suicídio, agressividade e a uma pobre resposta ao lítio. Tratamentos psicossociais e farmacológicos são indicados para o manejo da comorbidade entre cannabis e transtornos afetivos. CONCLUSÃO: As relações entre o uso de cannabis e alterações do humor são observadas tanto epidemiologicamente quanto nos contextos clínicos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between acute and chronic use of cannabis and mood changes. METHOD: Articles were selected by electronic search in PubMed. Chapters in books and reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. As the research did not involve humans, there was no evaluati [...] on by a Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: High rates of comorbidity between use/abuse/dependence of cannabis and affective disorders in longitudinal studies and in clinical samples were observed. Longitudinal studies indicate that, in long-term, the higher use of cannabis is associated with an increased risk of developing bipolar disorder, and probably, major depression in subjects initially without affective disorder, but was not found increased risk of cannabis use among those initially only with mania or depression. Another important observation is that substance abuse in bipolar patients may be associated with a number of negative characteristics, such as difficulty in recovering the affective symptoms, more hospitalizations, poor compliance with treatment, increased risk of suicide, aggression and a poor response to lithium. Psychosocial and pharmacological treatments are indicated for the management of comorbidity between cannabis and affective disorders. CONCLUSION: The relationship between cannabis use and mood changes are observed both in the epidemiological research and in the clinical settings.

  1. Cannabis e humor Cannabis and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Faria Sanches

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações entre o uso agudo e crônico de cannabis e alterações do humor. MÉTODO: Os artigos foram selecionados por meio de busca eletrônica no indexador PubMed. Capítulos de livros e as listas de referências dos artigos selecionados também foram revisados. RESULTADOS: Observam-se elevados índices de comorbidade entre abuso/dependência de cannabis e transtornos afetivos em estudos transversais e em amostras clínicas. Estudos longitudinais indicam que, em longo prazo, o uso mais intenso de cannabis está relacionado com um risco maior de desenvolvimento de doença bipolar e, talvez, depressão maior em indivíduos inicialmente sem quadros afetivos; porém, os mesmos não encontraram maior risco de uso de cannabis entre aqueles com mania ou depressão sem esta comorbidade. Outra importante observação é que o uso de substâncias psicoativas em bipolares pode estar associado a uma série de características negativas, como dificuldade na recuperação dos sintomas afetivos, maior número de internações, piora na adesão ao tratamento, risco aumentado de suicídio, agressividade e a uma pobre resposta ao lítio. Tratamentos psicossociais e farmacológicos são indicados para o manejo da comorbidade entre cannabis e transtornos afetivos. CONCLUSÃO: As relações entre o uso de cannabis e alterações do humor são observadas tanto epidemiologicamente quanto nos contextos clínicos.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between acute and chronic use of cannabis and mood changes. METHOD: Articles were selected by electronic search in PubMed. Chapters in books and reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. As the research did not involve humans, there was no evaluation by a Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: High rates of comorbidity between use/abuse/dependence of cannabis and affective disorders in longitudinal studies and in clinical samples were observed. Longitudinal studies indicate that, in long-term, the higher use of cannabis is associated with an increased risk of developing bipolar disorder, and probably, major depression in subjects initially without affective disorder, but was not found increased risk of cannabis use among those initially only with mania or depression. Another important observation is that substance abuse in bipolar patients may be associated with a number of negative characteristics, such as difficulty in recovering the affective symptoms, more hospitalizations, poor compliance with treatment, increased risk of suicide, aggression and a poor response to lithium. Psychosocial and pharmacological treatments are indicated for the management of comorbidity between cannabis and affective disorders. CONCLUSION: The relationship between cannabis use and mood changes are observed both in the epidemiological research and in the clinical settings.

  2. [So called "soft" drugs: cannabis and the amotivational syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmits, E; Quertemont, E

    2013-01-01

    In spite of its soft drug reputation, severe cannabis abuse can produce a number of adverse chronic effects. Whereas the majority of consumers make a ((soft)) use of cannabis, there is a minority of problematic cannabis users. However, many of cannabis chronic effects are still controversial, especially regarding the causal nature of their relationship with cannabis use. There is a scientific consensus to claim that cannabis induces a state of dependence in a small proportion of users. Severe abuse of cannabis can also lead to cognitive impairments, especially on memory, although these effects usually improve after the cessation of cannabis use. The statistical link between cannabis use and the development of psychotic disorders is more worrying, although the causal nature of this relationship remains controversial. Finally, a chronic abuse of cannabis is reputed to induce an amotivational syndrome, mainly characterized by a state of apathy. Although the symptoms of the amotivational syndrome are in keeping with some clinical observations, it remains difficult to ascertain whether this clinical picture is causally produced by cannabis abuse. PMID:23888577

  3. Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, Alan J.; Moore, Brent A.; Rocha, Heath L.; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2006-01-01

    Ninety cannabis-dependent adults seeking treatment were randomly assigned to receive cognitive-behavioral therapy, abstinence-based voucher incentives, or their combination. Treatment duration was 14 weeks, and outcomes were assessed for 12 months post treatment. Findings suggest that (a) abstinence-based vouchers were effective for engendering…

  4. Psychopathology among cannabis-dependent treatment seekers and association with later substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Mikkel; Rosenberg, Raben; Foldager, Leslie; Perto, Gurli; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2007-03-01

    We determined the proportion of psychiatric treatments for disorders not due to substance use among a cohort of subjects (n = 3,114) seeking treatment for cannabis dependence. Data were retrieved from Danish treatment registers. Cases were compared with a representative sample, which was randomly selected from the general population according to age and gender (n = 15,570). Cannabis users were followed, and reentry into substance abuse treatment was used as an outcome deploying Cox regression analysis. The proportion of treatment for all psychiatric disorders was much higher among cases than among controls: schizophrenia (odds ratio [OR] = 7.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 6.1-10.2), bipolar disorders (OR = 4.9; 95% CI = 2.8-8.5), other affective disorders (OR = 7.6; 95% CI = 6.1-9.5), and personality disorders (OR = 17.3; 95% CI = 14.5-20.5). All in all, 40.7% of cases, compared with 5.2% of controls, had received psychiatric treatment (OR = 12.5; 95% CI = 11.3-13.8). A history of psychiatric treatment was associated with increased rates of reentry into substance abuse treatment, in general (OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.20-1.53), specifically for cannabis (OR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.07-1.48) and opioid (OR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.23-1.99) dependence. This is the first study to show that the proportion of psychiatric treatment is much elevated among subjects seeking treatment for cannabis dependence, and that a history of psychiatric problems is associated with higher rates of reentry into substance abuse treatment. PMID:17306720

  5. Vulnerability Factors for the Psychiatric and Behavioral Effects of Cannabis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Tambaro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cogent evidence shows that cannabis plays a variable role on behavioral regulation and the pathophysiology of most psychiatric conditions. Accordingly, cannabis has been alternatively shown to exacerbate or ameliorate mental symptoms, depending on its composition and route of consumption, as well as specific individual and contextual characteristics. The vulnerability to the psychological effects of cannabis is influenced by a complex constellation of genetic and environmental factors. In the present article, we will review the current evidence on the pharmacological, individual and situational factors that have been documented to affect the behavioral and psychiatric effects of cannabinoids.

  6. Psychosis and cannabis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Heinz, Häfner.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Alcohol and cannabis misuse is currently the most frequent co-morbidity disorder of schizophrenia. The following four issues will be dealt with: 1) the neurobiological basis of the psychosis-inducing, pathogenic effects of THC, the agent contained in cannabis products. 2) Can cannabis use - and for [...] comparison alcohol abuse - prematurely trigger or even cause schizophrenia? 3) Are persons genetically liable to schizophrenia, psychosis-prone individuals or young persons before completion of brain development at an increased risk? 4) What consequences does cannabis use have on the symptomatology and further course of schizophrenia? Results from recent literature and the ABC Schizophrenia Study show that the risk for cannabis use in schizophrenia is about twice the size in healthy controls. In most cases cannabis use starts before first admission, in a third of cases before schizophrenia onset. There is an increased affinity to misuse already at the prodromal stage. Cannabis can prematurely trigger schizophrenia onset - on average eight years earlier than in non-use - and cause the illness partly in interaction with predisposing factors. Cannabis use in the course of schizophrenia increases positive symptoms and reduces affective flattening, thus leading to dysfunctional coping in some cases.

  7. Psychosis and cannabis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Häfner

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and cannabis misuse is currently the most frequent co-morbidity disorder of schizophrenia. The following four issues will be dealt with: 1 the neurobiological basis of the psychosis-inducing, pathogenic effects of THC, the agent contained in cannabis products. 2 Can cannabis use - and for comparison alcohol abuse - prematurely trigger or even cause schizophrenia? 3 Are persons genetically liable to schizophrenia, psychosis-prone individuals or young persons before completion of brain development at an increased risk? 4 What consequences does cannabis use have on the symptomatology and further course of schizophrenia? Results from recent literature and the ABC Schizophrenia Study show that the risk for cannabis use in schizophrenia is about twice the size in healthy controls. In most cases cannabis use starts before first admission, in a third of cases before schizophrenia onset. There is an increased affinity to misuse already at the prodromal stage. Cannabis can prematurely trigger schizophrenia onset - on average eight years earlier than in non-use - and cause the illness partly in interaction with predisposing factors. Cannabis use in the course of schizophrenia increases positive symptoms and reduces affective flattening, thus leading to dysfunctional coping in some cases.

  8. [Cannabis hyperemesis syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, U; Chang, D-I; Scherbaum, N

    2012-02-01

    We present the course of cyclical hyperemesis most likely induced by cannabis in a young cannabis-dependent, but otherwise healthy female adult. Cyclical hyperemesis developed in parallel to increasing cannabis inhalation, and remitted completely within a few days of abstinence in a protective inpatient setting. Just as in those increasing cases which can be found in literature, the hyperemesis improved by taking a hot shower or bath at the beginning of the detoxification. This thermosensitivity, along with the detection of a central disturbance of the thyroid axis, points to the hypothalamic cannabinoid system being involved in cannabis-induced cyclical hyperemesis. The patient was followed up for 4 months without any re-occurrence of the syndrome during controlled cannabis abstinence. PMID:21692016

  9. Do patients think cannabis causes schizophrenia? - A qualitative study on the causal beliefs of cannabis using patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaub Michael

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a considerable amount of debate among the research community whether cannabis use may cause schizophrenia and whether cannabis use of patients with schizophrenia is associated with earlier and more frequent relapses. Considering that studies exploring patients' view on controversial topics have contributed to our understanding of important clinical issues, it is surprising how little these views have been explored to add to our understanding of the link between cannabis and psychosis. The present study was designed to elucidate whether patients with schizophrenia who use cannabis believe that its use has caused their schizophrenia and to explore these patients other beliefs and perceptions about the effects of the drug. Methods We recruited ten consecutive patients fulfilling criteria for paranoid schizophrenia and for a harmful use of/dependence from cannabis (ICD-10 F20.0 + F12.1 or F12.2 from the in- and outpatient clinic of the Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich. They were interviewed using qualitative methodology. Furthermore, information on amount, frequency, and effects of use was obtained. A grounded theory approach to data analysis was taken to evaluate findings. Results None of the patients described a causal link between the use of cannabis and their schizophrenia. Disease models included upbringing under difficult circumstances (5 or use of substances other than cannabis (e. g. hallucinogens, 3. Two patients gave other reasons. Four patients considered cannabis a therapeutic aid and reported that positive effects (reduction of anxiety and tension prevailed over its possible disadvantages (exacerbation of positive symptoms. Conclusions Patients with schizophrenia did not establish a causal link between schizophrenia and the use of cannabis. We suggest that clinicians consider our findings in their work with patients suffering from these co-occurring disorders. Withholding treatment or excluding patients from certain treatment settings like day-care facilities or in patient care because of their use of cannabis, may cause additional harm to this already heavily burdened patient group.

  10. [Cyclical hyperemesis secondary to cannabis abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Mangado, Enriqueta; Jiménez Giménez, Mónica; Salvador Vadillo, Estrella; Madoz-Gúrpide, Agustín

    2009-01-01

    Cannabinoid hyperemesis is characterized by recurring episodes of nausea and vomiting, with a stereotyped pattern, related to cannabis consumption. This syndrome is a paradoxical reaction to cannabis that develops in susceptible chronic cannabis users after several years of exposure. There is a direct relationship between cannabis use and the onset of the hyperemesis and between cessation of cannabis use and symptom resolution. The first cases were described in 2004. Since then, several new cases have been reported, although there are few studies of this syndrome. We report a case of chronic cannabis use with nausea and cyclic vomiting for 7 years. The symptoms were relieved by hot baths. A complete gastroenterological study was performed and no alterations were found. Cannabis use and its cessation are related to the presence or absence of the symptoms. PMID:19477551

  11. Cannabis Beyond Good and Evil. How genetic and epidemiological factors shape the relationship between cannabis and psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Schubart, C. D.

    2013-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis aimed to identify genetic and non-genetic (epidemiological) factors that shape the association between cannabis use and psychosis. We showed that the age of first use of cannabis is a determinant for the strength of the association between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms and general mental health, as is the amount of cannabis that is consumed. Moreover it is likely that the THC/CBD ratio in consumed cannabis products further shapes the relationship be...

  12. Drug dependence and psychotic symptoms: a retrospective study of adolescents who abuse drugs at Al-Amal Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Alibrahim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug abuse is reported to be on the increase among young persons using illicit substances but little is known about the frequency with which they occur, the symptoms on presentation to health institutions, and the different substances abused. To establish this, we reviewed patient data collected at Al-Amal Hospital in Jeddah Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on young persons who are refered to the hospital for problems related to drug abuse. Data on 69 adolescent drug users were reviewed and analyzed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview - Substance Abuse Model (CIDI-SAM to assess dependence on substances including amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, and opioids. Furthermore, we assessed the adolescents’ data on history of delusions and hallucinations in the context of use of, or withdrawal from, these specific substances. Our analysis shows that 10 to 79.6% of users of amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates met DSM-III-R dependence criteria for each specific substance. The prevalence of psychotic symptoms associated with each specific substance ranged from users with no diagnosis to users with severe dependence as follows: amphetamines (3-100%, cannabis (7- 60.0%, cocaine (5-70.7%, and opiates (4- 88%. The risk of psychotic symptoms increased for respondents who abused (OR=7.2 or had mild (OR=8.1, moderate (OR=20.0, or severe dependence (OR=14.0 on cocaine when compared to those who were users with no diagnosis. A similar pattern was evident in cannabis, opiate, and amphetamine users. In conclusion, most adolescent drug users in Saudi Arabia who are dependent on illicit substances experience psychotic symptoms in the context of use of, or withdrawal from, these substances. Psychotic symptoms increased with the severity of the disorders associated with use of all four substances. These findings underscore the importance of developing services to target this population; a population at risk of developing psychotic symptoms.

  13. Burnout among High-School Students and Cannabis Use, Consumption Frequencies, Abuse and Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walburg, Vera; Moncla, Dany; Mialhes, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cannabis is a substance frequently consumed by adolescents, which is a risk factor for many psychopathological disorders. At the same time, adolescents in high-schools are likely to be exposed to significant stress from school that can sometimes lead to a burnout syndrome. Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the impact…

  14. Psychotropic and Nonpsychotropic Cannabis Derivatives Inhibit Human 5-HT3A receptors through a Receptor Desensitization-Dependent Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Wei; Koo, Bon-nyeo; Morton, Russell; Zhang, Li

    2011-01-01

    ?9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the principal psychoactive and non-psychoactive components of cannabis. While most THC-induced behavioral effects are thought to depend on endogenous cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors, the molecular targets for CBD remain unclear. Here, we report that CBD and THC inhibited the function of human 5-HT3A receptors (h5-HT3ARs) expressed in HEK 293 cells. The magnitude of THC and CBD inhibition was maximal 5 min after a continuous incubation wit...

  15. Characterizing cannabis-induced psychosis: a study with prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Muñoz, Isabel; Jurado-Barba, Rosa; Ponce, Guillermo; Martínez-Gras, Isabel; Jiménez-Arriero, Miguel Ángel; Moratti, Stephan; Rubio, Gabriel

    2014-12-15

    Cannabis-induced psychotic disorder (CIPD) refers to psychotic symptoms that arise in the context of cannabis intoxication. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficits have been extensively identified in schizophrenia and in cannabis abusers. We aimed to characterize PPI in CIPD patients. We used a sample of 48 CIPD patients, 54 schizophrenia patients and cannabis abuse (SCHZ), 44 cannabis dependents (CD), and 44 controls. CIPD, SCHZ and CD were abstinent of cannabis consumption for 9 months. Participants were assessed with PPI at 30, 60, and 120 ms. At 30 ms, CIPD showed lower PPI levels than controls, and SCHZ obtained worse functioning than controls and CD. At 60 ms, only SCHZ exhibited worse PPI percentages (of object) than controls. Finally, at 120 ms, CIPD showed higher PPI levels than SCHZ, and SCHZ obtained lower percentages than controls. We found that CIPD and SCHZ patients showed deficits at the most pre-attentional levels, whereas CIPD patients performed better than SCHZ at higher attentional levels. These results suggest that CIPD constitutes a different group of patients than that of SCHZ. Deficits in PPI functioning at 30 ms could be a useful psychophysiological measure to detect CIPD patients, who are frequently confused with cannabis abusers whose symptoms may mimic that of schizophrenia. PMID:25175914

  16. Quality of Web-Based Information on Cannabis Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Cochand, Sophie; Zullino, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the quality of Web-based information on cannabis use and addiction and investigated particular content quality indicators. Three keywords ("cannabis addiction," "cannabis dependence," and "cannabis abuse") were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed…

  17. Strain dependence of adolescent Cannabis influence on heroin reward and mesolimbic dopamine transmission in adult Lewis and Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoni, Cristina; Simola, Nicola; Espa, Elena; Fenu, Sandro; Di Chiara, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent Cannabis exposure has been hypothesized to act as a gateway to opiate abuse. In order to investigate the role of genetic background in cannabinoid-opiate interactions, we studied the effect of ?(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure of adolescent Lewis and Fischer 344 rats on the responsiveness of accumbens shell and core dopamine (DA), as monitored by microdialysis, to THC and heroin at adulthood. Heroin reward and reinstatement by heroin priming were studied by conditioned place preference (CPP) and cognitive and emotional functions by object recognition, Y maze and elevated plus maze paradigms. THC stimulated shell DA in Lewis but not in Fischer 344 rats. Adolescent THC exposure potentiated DA stimulant effects of heroin in the shell and core of Lewis and only in the core of Fischer 344 rats. Control Lewis rats developed stronger CPP to heroin and resistance to extinction compared with Fischer 344 strain. In Lewis rats, THC exposure did not affect heroin CPP but potentiated the effect of heroin priming. In Fischer 344 rats, THC exposure increased heroin CPP and made it resistant to extinction. Lewis rats showed seeking reactions during extinction and hedonic reactions in response to heroin priming. Moreover, adolescent THC exposure affected emotional function only in Lewis rats. These observations suggest that long-term effects of Cannabis exposure on heroin addictive liability and emotionality are dependent on individual genetic background. PMID:23957273

  18. Cannabis and psychosis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanovi?, Aleksandar; Pantovi?, Maja; Damjanovi?, Aleksandra; Dunji?-Kosti?, Bojana; Ivkovi?, Maja; Milovanovi?, Sr?an; Lackovi?, Maja; Dimitrijevi?, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    The association between cannabinoids and psychosis has been known for almost a thousand years, but it is still speculated whether cannabis use may be a contributory cause of psychosis, that is, whether it may precipitate schizophrenia in those at risk. In this paper, we will briefly present the data from individual longitudinal studies in the field, together with the factors that are considered important for the association of cannabis abuse and occurrence of schizophrenia and prevention opportunities in the target population. The reviewed studies clearly suggest that cannabis abuse predicts an increased risk for schizophrenia, particularly in young adults. They underline both the need to create adequate prevention measures and consequently avoid the occurrence of the disease in the young at risk. Particular attention should be additionally devoted toward encouraging the young presenting with psychotic symptoms to stop or, at the very least, reduce the frequency of cannabis abuse. The issues are undoubtedly to be addressed by the health care system in general. PMID:25751443

  19. Infant with Altered Consciousness after Cannabis Passive Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarfin, Yehoshua; Yefet, Enav; Abozaid, Said; Nasser, Wael; Mor, Tamer; Finkelstein, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    We report on an infant who was admitted to hospital with severe neurological symptoms following passive inhalation of cannabis. To date, cannabis abuse has been described almost entirely in adolescents and adults. In early childhood, however, cannabis effects were almost exclusively discussed in the context of maternal prenatal exposure, and the…

  20. In vivo measurement of neuronal dopamine transporter in tobacco and cannabis dependents subjects with positron tomography and [11C]P E 2 I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modifications of dopamine neurotransmission are classically involved in addictive behaviors and drug reinforcement. However, to date no data are available concerning the effects of cannabis addiction on dopaminergic neurotransmission in Human. The neuronal dopamine transporter (D.A.T.) is essential for the maintenance of normal dopamine homeostasis in the brain by ensuring the re-uptake of extracellular dopamine. Therefore, observation of D.A.T. availability abnormalities in cannabis-dependents subjects could provide further evidence for the implication of dopaminergic dysfunction in this addiction. Thus, as the cannabis dependent subjects are also most of time tobacco-dependents, this work aims studying the D.A.T. availability in age-paired control, tobacco-dependent and cannabis-dependent male subjects using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Subjects are scanned on High Resolution Research Tomograph (H.R.R.T.) for one hour after injection of a selective D.A.T. radioligand ([11C]P.E. 2 I.) [1]. The binding potential (B.P.) is calculated in order to obtained the specific binding of [11C]P.E. 2 I. to the D.A.T. using the simplified reference tissue model of Lammertsma (S.R.T.M.) [2] and B.P. maps were generated according to Gunn model [3]. Comparison of mean B.P. obtained in Region Of Interest and voxel to voxel comparison of B.P. maps using S.P.M.5 were performed with M.A.N.C.O.V.A. controlled for age between control, tobacco-dependent and cannetween control, tobacco-dependent and cannabis-dependent groups. Preliminary results are concordant between both approaches and shown significant decreases of the D.A.T. availability in the both groups of addicted subjects in comparison to controls at the level of dorsal and ventral striatum and the dorsal midbrain including substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. However, no difference in D.A.T. binding between tobacco and cannabis dependents subjects was observed. These widespread modifications of D.A.T. availability in the dependents subjects might reflect a modification of dopamine neurotransmission in cannabis and/or tobacco addictions. (authors)

  1. In vivo measurement of neuronal dopamine transporter in tobacco and cannabis dependents subjects with positron tomography and [{sup 11}C]P E 2 I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, C.; Ribeiro, M.J.; Trichard, C.; Martinot, J.L. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), U797, Research Unit, Neuroimaging and Psychiatry, IFR49, 91 - Orsay (France); CEA, Neuroimaging and Psychiatry, Unit, Hospital Dept. Frederic Joliot, I2BM, 91 - Orsay (France); Ribeiro, M.J.; Comtat, C.; Dolle, F. [Hospital Dept. Frederic Joliot, Research Medical Dept., I2BM, 91 - Orsay (France); Karila, L.; Lukasiewicz, M.; Reynaud, M. [Paul Brousse Hospital, APHP, Psychiatry and Addictology Dept., 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2008-02-15

    Modifications of dopamine neurotransmission are classically involved in addictive behaviors and drug reinforcement. However, to date no data are available concerning the effects of cannabis addiction on dopaminergic neurotransmission in Human. The neuronal dopamine transporter (D.A.T.) is essential for the maintenance of normal dopamine homeostasis in the brain by ensuring the re-uptake of extracellular dopamine. Therefore, observation of D.A.T. availability abnormalities in cannabis-dependents subjects could provide further evidence for the implication of dopaminergic dysfunction in this addiction. Thus, as the cannabis dependent subjects are also most of time tobacco-dependents, this work aims studying the D.A.T. availability in age-paired control, tobacco-dependent and cannabis-dependent male subjects using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Subjects are scanned on High Resolution Research Tomograph (H.R.R.T.) for one hour after injection of a selective D.A.T. radioligand ([{sup 11}C]P.E. 2 I.) [1]. The binding potential (B.P.) is calculated in order to obtained the specific binding of [{sup 11}C]P.E. 2 I. to the D.A.T. using the simplified reference tissue model of Lammertsma (S.R.T.M.) [2] and B.P. maps were generated according to Gunn model [3]. Comparison of mean B.P. obtained in Region Of Interest and voxel to voxel comparison of B.P. maps using S.P.M.5 were performed with M.A.N.C.O.V.A. controlled for age between control, tobacco-dependent and cannabis-dependent groups. Preliminary results are concordant between both approaches and shown significant decreases of the D.A.T. availability in the both groups of addicted subjects in comparison to controls at the level of dorsal and ventral striatum and the dorsal midbrain including substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. However, no difference in D.A.T. binding between tobacco and cannabis dependents subjects was observed. These widespread modifications of D.A.T. availability in the dependents subjects might reflect a modification of dopamine neurotransmission in cannabis and/or tobacco addictions. (authors)

  2. Abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos: atualização para uma antiga evidência / Cannabis abuse in patients with psychiatric disorders: an update to old evidence

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alessandra, Diehl; Daniel Cruz, Cordeiro; Ronaldo, Laranjeira.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar uma atualização sobre o abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos. MÉTODO: Busca de artigos nas bases de dados eletrônicas Medline, The Cochrane Library Database, Lilacs, PubMed e SciELO, utilizando os descritores "marijuana abuse", "cannabis abuse", "psychiatri [...] c disorders" AND "mental disorders"; incluindo artigos que avaliaram ambas as exposições para abuso e dependência de cannabis e qualquer outro transtorno psiquiátrico. Foi considerado o período até dezembro de 2009. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o abuso frequente de cannabis pode aumentar o risco para o desenvolvimento de esquizofrenia e de sintomas psicóticos crônicos, embora estes achados ainda careçam de comprovação. A cannabis parece ser uma das drogas de escolha de portadores de transtorno afetivo bipolar, sendo que é descrito que estados maníacos podem ser induzidos pelo seu consumo. O abuso de maconha também frequentemente co-ocorre em indivíduos com transtornos ansiosos, sendo que a relação de cronicidade destas condições e o consumo de maconha ainda é incerta. Para depressão ainda não existem evidências claras que apontem que o consumo de cannabis ocorre como forma de automedicação. Em indivíduos com transtornos psiquiátricos, há relatos de que o uso da cannabis pode exacerbar sintomas positivos, somar efeitos negativos no curso do transtorno, contribuir para pior adesão ao tratamento e levar a maior número de hospitalizações. CONCLUSÃO: O abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos como esquizofrenia, transtornos do humor e ansiosos tem impacto negativo tanto na fase aguda quanto em fases mais avançadas destas condições, embora futuros estudos avaliando estas associações ainda sejam necessários. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To perform an update on cannabis abuse by patients with psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A search was performed in the electronic databases Medline, The Cochrane Library Database, Lilacs, PubMed, and SciELO, using the keywords 'marijuana abuse', 'cannabis abuse', 'psychiatric disorders', an [...] d 'mental disorders'. Articles published until December 2009, dealing with cannabis abuse and dependence in association with other psychiatric disorders were included. RESULTS: Cannabis abuse was found to be associated with increased risk for the onset of schizophrenia and chronic psychotic symptoms, although these findings require confirmation from additional research. Cannabis seems to be one of the drugs of choice of individuals with bipolar disorder, despite evidence that manic states can be induced by its use. Cannabis abuse also occurs frequently in individuals with anxiety disorders, but the relationship between the chronic nature of these conditions and the use of marijuana remains uncertain. In respect to depression, there is no clear evidence to date that depressive patients use cannabis as a form of self-medication. In individuals with psychiatric disorders, the use of cannabis has been associated with increased positive symptoms, additional negative symptoms in the course of illness, impaired treatment compliance, and more hospitalizations. CONCLUSION: The abuse of cannabis by patients with psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and mood and anxious disorders has a negative impact both in the acute and advanced stages of these conditions, although further investigation on this association is still necessary.

  3. Abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos: atualização para uma antiga evidência Cannabis abuse in patients with psychiatric disorders: an update to old evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Diehl

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar uma atualização sobre o abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos. MÉTODO: Busca de artigos nas bases de dados eletrônicas Medline, The Cochrane Library Database, Lilacs, PubMed e SciELO, utilizando os descritores "marijuana abuse", "cannabis abuse", "psychiatric disorders" AND "mental disorders"; incluindo artigos que avaliaram ambas as exposições para abuso e dependência de cannabis e qualquer outro transtorno psiquiátrico. Foi considerado o período até dezembro de 2009. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o abuso frequente de cannabis pode aumentar o risco para o desenvolvimento de esquizofrenia e de sintomas psicóticos crônicos, embora estes achados ainda careçam de comprovação. A cannabis parece ser uma das drogas de escolha de portadores de transtorno afetivo bipolar, sendo que é descrito que estados maníacos podem ser induzidos pelo seu consumo. O abuso de maconha também frequentemente co-ocorre em indivíduos com transtornos ansiosos, sendo que a relação de cronicidade destas condições e o consumo de maconha ainda é incerta. Para depressão ainda não existem evidências claras que apontem que o consumo de cannabis ocorre como forma de automedicação. Em indivíduos com transtornos psiquiátricos, há relatos de que o uso da cannabis pode exacerbar sintomas positivos, somar efeitos negativos no curso do transtorno, contribuir para pior adesão ao tratamento e levar a maior número de hospitalizações. CONCLUSÃO: O abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos como esquizofrenia, transtornos do humor e ansiosos tem impacto negativo tanto na fase aguda quanto em fases mais avançadas destas condições, embora futuros estudos avaliando estas associações ainda sejam necessários.OBJECTIVE: To perform an update on cannabis abuse by patients with psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A search was performed in the electronic databases Medline, The Cochrane Library Database, Lilacs, PubMed, and SciELO, using the keywords 'marijuana abuse', 'cannabis abuse', 'psychiatric disorders', and 'mental disorders'. Articles published until December 2009, dealing with cannabis abuse and dependence in association with other psychiatric disorders were included. RESULTS: Cannabis abuse was found to be associated with increased risk for the onset of schizophrenia and chronic psychotic symptoms, although these findings require confirmation from additional research. Cannabis seems to be one of the drugs of choice of individuals with bipolar disorder, despite evidence that manic states can be induced by its use. Cannabis abuse also occurs frequently in individuals with anxiety disorders, but the relationship between the chronic nature of these conditions and the use of marijuana remains uncertain. In respect to depression, there is no clear evidence to date that depressive patients use cannabis as a form of self-medication. In individuals with psychiatric disorders, the use of cannabis has been associated with increased positive symptoms, additional negative symptoms in the course of illness, impaired treatment compliance, and more hospitalizations. CONCLUSION: The abuse of cannabis by patients with psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and mood and anxious disorders has a negative impact both in the acute and advanced stages of these conditions, although further investigation on this association is still necessary.

  4. Two Sides of the Same Coin: Cannabis Dependence and Mental Health Problems in Help-Seeking Adolescent and Young Adult Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Melissa M.; Battisti, Robert A.; Copeland, Jan; Hermens, Daniel F.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to delineate the psychiatric profile of cannabis dependent young people (14-29 years old) with mental health problems (N = 36) seeking treatment via a research study. To do so, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Diagnoses were…

  5. Cannabis abuse in patients with schizophrenia pattern and effects on symptomatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the relationship between cannabis abuse and its impact on the short-term outcome and severity of illness. ICD-10 criteria were used for diagnosis of schizophrenia. Severity and type of schizophrenic symptoms were assessed with the help of PANSS. Cases were identified as having problem with cannabis use with the help of section 12 of Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) W.H.O. 1994. Amount, duration and frequency of cannabis use was also noted. Patients with cannabis use were younger had shorter duration of illness and earlier age at onset of illness. They exhibited more positive symptoms. A total of 20% cases met ICD-10 criteria of harmful use of cannabinoid, 76% met ICD-10 criteria of cannabinoid dependence syndrome. Schizophrenic patients with comorbid cannabis abuse exhibited more positive symptoms and violent behavior, and may be more likely to lead to dependence in persons with schizophrenia. This has implication for service development to meet the perceived needs of this group. (author)

  6. Successful and unsuccessful cannabis quitters: Comparing group characteristics and quitting strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooke Sally E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve treatments for cannabis use disorder, a better understanding of factors associated with successful quitting is required. Method This study examined differences between successful (n = 87 and unsuccessful (n = 78 cannabis quitters. Participants completed a questionnaire addressing demographic, mental health, and cannabis-related variables, as well as quitting strategies during their most recent quit attempt. Results Eighteen strategies derived from cognitive behavioral therapy were entered into a principal components analysis. The analysis yielded four components, representing (1 Stimulus Removal, (2 Motivation Enhancement, (3 (lack of Distraction, and (4 (lack of Coping. Between groups comparisons showed that unsuccessful quitters scored significantly higher on Motivation Enhancement and (lack of Coping. This may indicate that unsuccessful quitters focus on the desire to quit, but do not sufficiently plan strategies for coping. Unsuccessful quitters also had significantly more symptoms of depression and stress; less education; lower exposure to formal treatment; higher day-to-day exposure to other cannabis users; and higher cannabis dependence scores. Conclusions The findings suggest that coping, environmental modification, and co-morbid mental health problems may be important factors to emphasize in treatments for cannabis use disorder.

  7. Polysubstance use in cannabis users referred for treatment: Drug use profiles, psychiatric comorbidity and cannabis-related beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JasonPaulConnor

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: In a sample of cannabis users referred for treatment, wide-ranging substance use was associated with elevated risk on measures of cannabis dependence, comorbid psychopathology and dysfunctional cannabis cognitions. These findings have implications for cognitive-behavioural assessment and treatment.

  8. The intersection between cannabis and cancer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Daniel W; O'Bryant, Cindy L; Camidge, D Ross; Jimeno, Antonio

    2012-07-01

    In the last 15 years there has been a major shift in the laws governing medical use of cannabis in the United States. Corresponding with this change there has been escalating interest in the role that cannabis, commonly referred to as marijuana, and cannabinoids play in the care of patients with cancer. This review will examine cannabis' and cannabinoids' current and potential roles in cancer care. Specifically, we will examine five areas of cannabis medicine: (1) pharmacologic properties of cannabis; (2) its potential role in the development of human cancers, particularly smoking-related malignancies; (3) cannabinoids' potential as anti-cancer therapies; (4) cannabis and cannabinoids in the palliation of common cancer-associated symptoms; (5) current legal status of cannabis for medical purposes in the United States. PMID:22019199

  9. Applying a Social Determinants of Health Perspective to Early Adolescent Cannabis Use--An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyshka, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world. Although the risk of problematic cannabis use is relatively low, the lifetime prevalence of dependence is greater than for all other illicit drugs. As such, the population burden of problematic cannabis use warrants attention. Many health and psychosocial risks associated with cannabis

  10. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug

    OpenAIRE

    Zuardi A.W.; Crippa J.A.S.; Hallak J.E.C.; Moreira F.A.; Guimarães F.S.

    2006-01-01

    A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis) component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxi...

  11. Alteration to hippocampal shape in cannabis users with and without schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solowij, Nadia; Walterfang, Mark; Lubman, Dan I; Whittle, Sarah; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Styner, Martin; Velakoulis, Dennis; Pantelis, Christos; Yücel, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Abnormalities in hippocampal morphology are characteristic of schizophrenia and have also been reported in chronic cannabis users. There is a paucity of research investigating potential additive effects of cannabis use on brain pathology associated with schizophrenia. In this study, we performed hippocampal shape analysis in cannabis-using and non-using patients with schizophrenia, healthy cannabis users and healthy non-using controls. Hippocampal shape changes were observed in each group relative to controls, with the greatest degree of alterations (i.e., deflations across the hippocampus, and with an anterior predisposition), in cannabis-using schizophrenia patients. These alterations were associated with cannabis use patterns and psychotic symptoms. PMID:23201308

  12. Neurobiologia da Cannabis: do sistema endocanabinoide aos transtornos por uso de Cannabis / Neurobiology of Cannabis: from the endocannabinoid system to cannabis-related disorders

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Luis G. Pinho, Costa; Lucas O., Maia; P., Orlandi-Mattos; João C., Villares; Manuel A. Fernandez, Esteves.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Diante das lacunas na efetividade das terapêuticas para transtornos por uso de Cannabis, a droga ilícita mais consumida no mundo, este trabalho propõe-se a rever os conhecimentos sobre o substrato neuroanatômico, biomolecular e celular do sistema endocanabinoide, descrever os mecanismos d [...] e neuroplasticidade dependente dos canabinoides e relacioná-los com a neurobiologia dos transtornos por uso de Cannabis (abuso e dependência). MÉTODOS: Recorreu-se às bases de dados Medline, Scopus e ISI Web of Knowledge; as palavras-chave pesquisadas foram "Cannabis", "neurobiology", "endocannabinoid system", "endocannabinoids", "receptors, cannabinoid", "neuronal plasticity", "long-term synaptic depression", "long-term potentiation", "marijuana abuse" e "tetrahydrocannabinol". Foram incluídos 80 trabalhos nesta revisão. DISCUSSÃO: A distribuição neuroanatômica, celular e biomolecular do sistema endocanabinoide adequa-se perfeitamente às suas funções de neuromodulação (via neuroplasticidade e metaplasticidade), nomeadamente em vias relacionadas aos transtornos por uso de substâncias. Os canabinoides exógenos perturbam essas funções. CONCLUSÃO: O sistema endocanabinoide contribui para a definição de setpoints em diversas vias neuronais, incluindo vias cruciais na instalação de transtornos por uso de substâncias; com o uso de Cannabis, esses setpoints tornar-se-ão mais permissivos, facilitando os transtornos por uso de Cannabis. Os avanços no entendimento da neurobiologia da Cannabis abrem uma janela de oportunidades para novas estratégias terapêuticas nos transtornos por uso de Cannabis. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Given the challenges arising from the poor effectiveness of therapies for Cannabis-related disorders, the most commonly used illicit drug in the world, this paper aims to review the present knowledge about the neuroanatomic, biomolecular and cellular substrate of the endocannabinoid syst [...] em, describing the mechanisms of cannabinoid-dependent neuronal plasticity and relating them with the neurobiology of Cannabis-related disorders (abuse and dependence). METHODS: Medline, Scopus and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched for the keywords "Cannabis", "neurobiology", "endocannabinoid system", "endocannabinoids", "receptors, cannabinoid", "neuronal plasticity", "long-term synaptic depression", "long-term potentiation", "marijuana abuse" and "tetrahydrocannabinol". Eighty studies were included in this review. DISCUSSION: The neuroanatomical, cellular and biomolecular characterization of the endocannabinoid system serves perfectly its neuromodulatory neuroplastic and metaplastic functions, particularly in pathways related to substance-related disorders. Exogenous cannabinoids disrupt these functions. CONCLUSION: The endocannabinoid system contributes to the definition of setpoints in several neuronal pathways, including pathways critical for the development of substance-related disorders; with Cannabis use these setpoints become more permissive, facilitating Cannabis-related disorders. The advances in understanding the neurobiology of Cannabis open a window of opportunities for new therapeutic strategies in Cannabis-related disorders.

  13. Cannabis and Breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Serreau, Rapha Amp L.; Sylvie Aubry; Valérie Fauroux; Ammar Amirouche; Virginie Rigourd; Aurélia Garry

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breastfeeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 TetraHydroCannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at ...

  14. Alcohol and Relatively Pure Cannabis Use, but Not Schizotypy, are Associated with Cognitive Attenuations

    OpenAIRE

    Herzig, Daniela A.; Nutt, David J.; Mohr, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Elevated schizotypy relates to similar cognitive attenuations as seen in psychosis and cannabis/polydrug use. Also, in schizotypal populations cannabis and polydrug (including licit drug) use are enhanced. These cognitive attenuations may therefore either be a behavioral marker of psychotic (-like) symptoms or the consequence of enhanced drug use in schizotypal populations. To elucidate this, we investigated the link between cognitive attenuation and cannabis use in largely pure cannabis user...

  15. Altered architecture and functional consequences of the mesolimbic dopamine system in cannabis dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, Saturnino; Lintas, Alessandra; Migliore, Michele; Diana, Marco

    2010-07-01

    Cannabinoid withdrawal produces a hypofunction of mesencephalic dopamine neurons that impinge upon medium spiny neurons (MSN) of the forebrain. After chronic treatment with two structurally different cannabinoid agonists, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and CP55 940 (CP) rats were withdrawn spontaneously and pharmacologically with the CB1 antagonist SR141716A (SR). In these two conditions, evaluation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons revealed significant morphometrical reductions in the ventrotegmental area but not substantia nigra pars compacta of withdrawn rats. Similarly, confocal analysis of Golgi-Cox-stained sections of the nucleus accumbens revealed a decrease in the shell, but not the core, of the spines' density of withdrawn rats. Administration of the CB1 antagonist SR to control rats, provoked structural abnormalities reminiscent of those observed in withdrawal conditions and support the regulatory role of cannabinoids in neurogenesis, axonal growth and synaptogenesis by acting as eu-proliferative signals through the CB1 receptors. Further, these measures were incorporated into a realistic computational model that predicts a strong reduction in the excitability of morphologically altered MSN, yielding a significant reduction in action potential output. These pieces of evidence support the tenet that withdrawal from addictive compounds alters functioning of the mesolimbic system and provide direct morphological evidence for functional abnormalities associated with cannabinoid dependence at the level of dopaminergic neurons and their postsynaptic counterpart and are coherent with recent hypothesis underscoring a hypodopaminergic state as a distinctive feature of the 'addicted brain'. PMID:20477755

  16. Variability of cannabis potency in the Venice area (Italy): a survey over the period 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamengo, Luca; Frison, Giampietro; Bettin, Chiara; Sciarrone, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance globally, with an estimated annual prevalence in 2010 of 2.6-5.0% of the adult population. Concerns have been expressed about increases in the potency of cannabis products. A high tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content can increase anxiety, depression, and psychotic symptoms, and can increase the risk of dependence and adverse effects on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems in regular users. The aim of this study was to report statistical data about the potency of cannabis products seized in the north-east of Italy, in a geographical area centred in Venice and extending for more than 10,000? km(2) with a population of more than two million, by investigating the variability observed in THC levels of about 4000 samples of cannabis products analyzed over the period 2010-2012. Overall median THC content showed an increasing trend over the study period from about 6.0% to 8.1% (6.2-8.9% for cannabis resin, 5.1-7.6% for herbal cannabis). The variation in the THC content of individual samples was very large, ranging from 0.3% to 31% for cannabis resin and from 0.1 to 19% for herbal cannabis. Median CBN:THC ratios showed a slightly decreasing trend over the study period, from 0.09 (2010) to 0.03 (2012), suggesting an increasing freshness of submitted materials. Median CBD:THC ratios also showed a decreasing trend over the study from about 0.52 (2010) to 0.18 (2012), likely due to the increase in submissions of materials from indoor and domestic cultivation with improved breeding methods. PMID:23868754

  17. [Epidemiological news in cannabis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, François; Guignard, Romain; Richard, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-12-01

    Cannabis is by far the most common illicit drug in France. Among 15-64 years, 32.1% have already experienced it and 8.4% declare they have used it at least once during the past twelve months. In Europe, France is one of the countries with the highest prevalence. Males are markedly more often cannabis users than females and this gender gap tends to increase with the level of use. During the last two decades, the part of the population having tried cannabis did not stop increasing, under the influence of a generalization of the cannabis experience among young people. However, cannabis last year prevalence is rather stable since 2000. Cannabis lifetime use is very rare at the beginning of middle school (1.5% in sixth grade at age 11) but increases in the following years (11% of the pupils of the eighth grade, 24% of the pupils of the ninth grade). Cannabis use at a younger age is related to subsequent onset of cannabis related problems. Adolescent and young adults from high socioeconomic status (SES) more often try cannabis than young people from lower SES. However, cannabis regular use is associated with bad school results, truancy and early school leaving, and with a lower SES. Young people from high SES indeed dispose of greater sociocultural resources to master and regulate their consumption and are more often conscious of their interest not to be tipped over in problematic use. PMID:24579342

  18. Cannabis e humor Cannabis and mood

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Faria Sanches; João Mazzoncini de Azevedo Marques

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações entre o uso agudo e crônico de cannabis e alterações do humor. MÉTODO: Os artigos foram selecionados por meio de busca eletrônica no indexador PubMed. Capítulos de livros e as listas de referências dos artigos selecionados também foram revisados. RESULTADOS: Observam-se elevados índices de comorbidade entre abuso/dependência de cannabis e transtornos afetivos em estudos transversais e em amostras clínicas. Estudos longitudinais indicam que, em longo ...

  19. Two cases of "cannabis acute psychosis" following the administration of oral cannabis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Marie

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal drug and its therapeutic aspects have a growing interest. Short-term psychotic reactions have been described but not clearly with synthetic oral THC, especially in occasional users. Case presentations We report two cases of healthy subjects who were occasional but regular cannabis users without psychiatric history who developed transient psychotic symptoms (depersonalization, paranoid feelings and derealisation following oral administration of cannabis. In contrast to most other case reports where circumstances and blood concentrations are unknown, the two cases reported here happened under experimental conditions with all subjects negative for cannabis, opiates, amphetamines, cocaine, benzodiazepines and alcohol, and therefore the ingested dose, the time-events of effects on behavior and performance as well as the cannabinoid blood levels were documented. Conclusion While the oral route of administration achieves only limited blood concentrations, significant psychotic reactions may occur.

  20. Chemistry, Metabolism, and Toxicology of Cannabis: Clinical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivas Bharath, M. M.; Pratima Murthy; Priyamvada Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis is one of the most widely abused substances throughout the world. The primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9_THC), produces a myriad of pharmacological effects in animals and humans. Although it is used as a recreational drug, it can potentially lead to dependence and behavioral disturbances and its heavy use may increase the risk for psychotic disorders.Many studies that endeavor to understand the mechanism of action of cannabis concentrate o...

  1. Determination of pesticide residues in cannabis smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Nicholas; Elzinga, Sytze; Raber, Jeffrey C

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks. PMID:23737769

  2. Effectiveness of propranolol for cocaine dependence treatment may depend on cocaine withdrawal symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampman, K M; Volpicelli, J R; Mulvaney, F; Alterman, A I; Cornish, J; Gariti, P; Cnaan, A; Poole, S; Muller, E; Acosta, T; Luce, D; O'Brien, C

    2001-06-01

    Propranolol may reduce symptoms of autonomic arousal associated with early cocaine abstinence and improve treatment outcome. This trial was an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of propranolol in 108 cocaine dependent subjects. The primary outcome measure was quantitative urinary benzoylecgonine levels. Secondary outcome measures included treatment retention, addiction severity index results, cocaine craving, mood and anxiety symptoms, cocaine withdrawal symptoms, and adverse events. Propranolol treated subjects had lower cocaine withdrawal symptom severity but otherwise did not differ from placebo treated subjects in any outcome measure. However, in a secondary, exploratory analysis, subjects with more severe cocaine withdrawal symptoms responded better to propranolol in comparison to placebo. In these subjects, propranolol treatment was associated with better treatment retention and lower urinary benzoylecgonine levels as compared with the placebo treatment. Propranolol may be useful only for the treatment of cocaine dependent patients with severe cocaine withdrawal symptoms. PMID:11297832

  3. New insights into cannabis consumption; abuses and possible therapeutic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Luiza Baconi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is one of the oldest psychotropic drugs known to humanity. The paper assesses the current knowledge on the cannabis, including the mechanisms of action and the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids. Three varieties of Cannabis plant are recognised: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. The variety indica is used predominantly to obtain the drugs. Cannabis herb is usually named marijuana, while the cannabis oleoresin secreted by the glandular hairs found mainly on the flowering or fruiting tops of the plant is known as hashish. More than 400 known chemicals are present in cannabis, at least 70 of which are called cannabinoids. The major psychoactive constituent in cannabis is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC. It is now recognized that there are three types of cannabinoids: natural (phytocannabinoids, endogenous cannabinoids, and synthetic cannabioids. Cannabinoids exert their actions by binding to specific membrane protein, the cannabinoid receptor. To date, two subtypes of cannabinoid receptors, named cannabinoid-1 (CB1, most abundantly expressed in the central nervous system and cannabinoid-2 (CB2 receptors, found predominantly in peripheral tissues with immune functions have been cloned. Therefore, the concept of endogenous cannabinoid system (endocannabinoid system, SEC has been developed. Based on the current scientific evidence, there are several effects of cannabinoids with potential therapeutic use: antiemetic, analgesic in cancerous pains, and chronic neuropathic pain, in multiple sclerosis or spinal cord injuries. Cannabis consume can result in a state of drug dependency and cannabis withdrawal has been included in DSM-V. Cannabis plant remains controversial in the twenty-first century and the potential therapeutic of specific cannabinoid compounds and medical marijuana remains under active medical research.

  4. Cannabis and psychosis/schizophrenia: human studies

    OpenAIRE

    D’souza, Deepak Cyril; Sewell, Richard Andrew; Ranganathan, Mohini

    2009-01-01

    The association between cannabis use and psychosis has long been recognized. Recent advances in knowledge about cannabinoid receptor function have renewed interest in this association. Converging lines of evidence suggest that cannabinoids can produce a full range of transient schizophrenia-like positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms in some healthy individuals. Also clear is that in individuals with an established psychotic disorder, cannabinoids can exacerbate symptoms, trigger relapse,...

  5. Can cannabis cause psychosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Timothy I; Novakovic, Vladan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing popular support for the medicinal and recreational use of cannabis has led to legalization for both medicinal and recreational purposes in the United States. To the extent that these changes in policy lead to increase widespread use, it is important to consider the association between heavy chronic cannabis use and the onset of psychotic illnesses, such as schizophrenia. This article provides a brief review of evidence that support cannabis use as a risk factor in the complex etiology of psychotic illness. In addition to reviewing psychopharmacology, longitudinal research, and clinical studies, the article addresses the potential implications of current research on public health policy. PMID:25768856

  6. The Relationship between Bipolar Disorder and Cannabis Use in Daily Life: An Experience Sampling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Elizabeth; Jones, Steven; Black, Nancy; Carter, Lesley-Anne; Barrowclough, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Although cannabis use is common in bipolar disorder and may contribute to worse clinical outcomes, little is understood about the relationship between this drug and bipolar disorder over the course of daily life. The aim of study was to examine the effect of cannabis on affect and bipolar symptoms in a group of individuals with bipolar disorder. Methods Twenty-four participants with bipolar disorder type I or type II completed diaries for 6 days using Experience Sampling Methodology to investigate the temporal associations between cannabis, affect and bipolar disorder symptoms. Results The results indicated that higher levels of positive affect increase the odds of using cannabis (OR:1.25 ,CI:1.06–1.47, P=0.008). However, neither negative affect, manic nor depressive symptoms predicted the use of cannabis. Cannabis use was associated with subsequent increases in positive affect (?=0.35, CI:0.20-0.51, P=0.000), manic symptoms (?=0.20,CI:0.05-0.34, P=0.009) and depressive symptoms (?= 0.17,CI:0.04-0.29, P=0.008). Conclusion The findings indicate that cannabis use is associated with a number of subsequent psychological effects. However there was no evidence that individuals with BD were using cannabis to self-medicate minor fluctuations in negative affect or bipolar disorder symptoms over the course of daily life. The findings in relation to existing literature and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25738578

  7. Cannabis Use When it's Legal

    OpenAIRE

    Ours, J. C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses information about prime age individuals living in Amsterdam, to study whether the use of alcohol, or tobacco stimulates the use cannabis, i.e. whether alcohol or cannabis are stepping stones for cannabis.The special element of the study is that it concerns the use in an environment where not only alcohol and tobacco but also cannabis is a legal drug.It turns out that alcohol and cannabis are intertemporal substitutes while tobacco and cannabis are intertemporal complements.Onl...

  8. Cannabidiol inhibits THC-elicited paranoid symptoms and hippocampal-dependent memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Amir; Morrison, Paul D; Nottage, Judith; Hague, Dominic; Kane, Fergus; Bonaccorso, Stefania; Stone, James M; Reichenberg, Avi; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Holt, David; Feilding, Amanda; Walker, Lucy; Murray, Robin M; Kapur, Shitij

    2013-01-01

    Community-based studies suggest that cannabis products that are high in ??-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but low in cannabidiol (CBD) are particularly hazardous for mental health. Laboratory-based studies are ideal for clarifying this issue because THC and CBD can be administered in pure form, under controlled conditions. In a between-subjects design, we tested the hypothesis that pre-treatment with CBD inhibited THC-elicited psychosis and cognitive impairment. Healthy participants were randomised to receive oral CBD 600 mg (n=22) or placebo (n=26), 210 min ahead of intravenous (IV) THC (1.5 mg). Post-THC, there were lower PANSS positive scores in the CBD group, but this did not reach statistical significance. However, clinically significant positive psychotic symptoms (defined a priori as increases ? 3 points) were less likely in the CBD group compared with the placebo group, odds ratio (OR)=0.22 (?²=4.74, pTHC paranoia, as rated with the State Social Paranoia Scale (SSPS), was less in the CBD group compared with the placebo group (t=2.28, pTHC/low-CBD cannabis products are associated with increased risks for mental health. PMID:23042808

  9. Cannabis og graviditet.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, J; Olofsson, May Jonna

    1999-01-01

    In two Copenhagen University hospitals 12,885 pregnant women, seen during the period 1.8.1992 to 30.04.1995, answered questionnaires regarding consumption of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other drugs. The prevalence of cannabis use was 0.8%. Women using cannabis but no other illicit drugs were each retrospectively matched with four randomly chosen pregnant women in the same period and the same age group and with same parity. Eighty-four cannabis users were included. These women were socioeconomically disadvantaged and had a higher prevalence of present and past use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. No significant difference in pregnancy, delivery or puerperal outcome was found. Children of women using cannabis were 150 g lighter, 1.2 cm shorter and had 0.2 cm smaller head circumference than the control infants. Controlling for the child's sex and maternal use of alcohol did not eliminate the significant differences in birthweight and length; however, they were eliminated by controlling for maternal tobacco smoking. It is concluded, that the use of cannabis is not a major prognostic factor regarding the outcome of pregnancy, but is an indicator of low socioeconomic status and use of other substances.

  10. Residual cannabis levels in blood, urine and oral fluid following heavy cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, Morris S; Frei, Matthew Y; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Chu, Mark; Lubman, Dan I

    2015-04-01

    An understanding of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) kinetics and residual levels after cannabis use is essential in interpreting toxicology tests in body fluids from live subjects, particularly when used in forensic settings for drug abuse, traffic and interpersonal violence cases. However the current literature is largely based on laboratory studies using controlled cannabis dosages in experienced users, with limited research investigating the kinetics of residual THC concentrations in regular high dose cannabis users. Twenty-one dependent cannabis users were recruited at admission to two residential detoxification units in Melbourne, Australia. After being provided with information about, and consenting to, the study, subjects volunteered to provide once-daily blood, urine and oral fluid (saliva) samples for seven consecutive days following admission, involving cessation and abstinence from all cannabis use. Blood and oral fluid specimens were analysed for THC and urine specimens for the metabolite THC-COOH. In some subjects THC was detectable in blood for at least 7 days and oral fluid specimens were positive for THC up to 78h after admission to the unit. Urinary THC-COOH concentrations exceeded 1000ng/mL for some subjects 129h after last use. The presented blood THC levels are higher and persist longer in some individuals than previously described, our understanding and interpretation of THC levels in long term heavy cannabis users may need to be reconsidered. PMID:25698515

  11. Alcohol and Relatively Pure Cannabis Use, but Not Schizotypy, are Associated with Cognitive Attenuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Daniela A; Nutt, David J; Mohr, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Elevated schizotypy relates to similar cognitive attenuations as seen in psychosis and cannabis/polydrug use. Also, in schizotypal populations cannabis and polydrug (including licit drug) use are enhanced. These cognitive attenuations may therefore either be a behavioral marker of psychotic (-like) symptoms or the consequence of enhanced drug use in schizotypal populations. To elucidate this, we investigated the link between cognitive attenuation and cannabis use in largely pure cannabis users (35) and non-using controls (48), accounting for the potential additional influence of both schizotypy and licit drug use (alcohol, nicotine). Cognitive attenuations commonly seen in psychosis were associated with cannabis and alcohol use, but not schizotypy. Future studies should therefore consider (i) non-excessive licit substance use (e.g., alcohol) in studies investigating the effect of cannabis use on cognition and (ii) both enhanced illicit and licit substance use in studies investigating cognition in schizotypal populations. PMID:25324787

  12. Motivational enhancement of cognitive control depends on depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravizza, Susan M; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2014-08-01

    Performance feedback can motivate improvements in executive function (Ravizza, Goudreau, Delgado, & Ruiz, 2012). The present study examines whether the enhancement of task switching with performance feedback is modulated by the level of depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms have been linked to deficits in processing affective information inherent to such feedback (Henriques, Glowacki, & Davidson, 1994; Pizzagalli, Jahn, & O'Shea, 2005). Task switching speed was assessed when performance feedback about accuracy was present or absent in a group of participants with minimal to moderate levels of depression. A significant positive correlation was observed between depressive symptoms and feedback effects on executive function indicating that those with lower depressive symptoms were more likely to show improvements in switching speed when performance feedback was present. These results suggest a novel link between executive function deficits and depression symptoms; namely, that greater levels of depressive symptoms are linked to diminished executive functioning via deficits in processing the affective component of performance feedback. PMID:24866522

  13. Abuso e dependência de maconha: comparação entre sexos e preparação para mudanças comportamentais entre usuários que iniciam a busca por tratamento Cannabis abuse and dependency: differences between men and women and readiness to behavior change among users seeking treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever o perfil sociodemográfico de usuários de maconha que iniciam tratamento e comparar os sexos dos indivíduos em relação aos estágios de prontidão para mudança e uso associado de outras drogas. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal descritivo, com amostra não probabilística de indivíduos que ligaram para um teleatendimento especializado em dependência química. RESULTADOS: A amostra se constituiu de 72% de indivíduos do sexo masculino na faixa etária de 12 a 25 anos. Um percentual de 85,5% fazia uso associado de outras drogas. O estágio motivacional predominante foi de ação (56%, sem diferenças entre sexos (p = 0,4. Os homens mais frequentemente procuraram auxílio para o tratamento do uso de maconha. CONCLUSÕES: Com base nesses dados, foi possível delinear o perfil dos usuários de maconha para auxiliar no direcionamento de informações e atendimento adequado.OBJECTIVES: To describe the social and demographic profile of cannabis users seeking treatment and to compare differences between sex in relation to readiness to behavior change and in relation to associated use of marijuana and other drugs. METHOD: A cross-sectional, descriptive study including a nonprobability sample of individuals who called a chemical dependency hotline. RESULTS: The sample comprised 72% male individuals aged between 12 and 25 years. The sample was composed by 85.5% used other drugs in association with cannabis. The action stage was the most frequent stage of readiness to behavior change observed, in 56% of the callers, with no differences between sex (p = 0.4. Men more frequently sought treatment for the use of cannabis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings allowed delineating a profile of cannabis users, so as to better guide the provision of adequate information and treatment services.

  14. Cannabis Responsive Head Injury Induced Mutiple Disabilities: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years cannabinoids and their derivatives have drawn renewed attention because of their diverse pharmacologic activities. We report here one such case, where all types of medical & psychiatric treatment failed to improve the symptoms; however cannabis use was able to bring back this patient to normal productive & meaningful life. The patient was a 47 year old left handed Caucasian had minor subdural hematoma at the posterior vertex and a minor focal subarachnoid haemorrhage following a physical assault. His impairments included cognitive slowing with decreased short term memory, organized skill & language deficit. His physical disabilities included spastic gait (hemiplegic, VII nerve palsy, mild cerebellar dysfunction, blurred vision and easy fatigue. He was unable to return to work or drive. In addition to cognitive deficit, right hemi paresis & dizziness; he had symptoms of anxiety & depression. Cannabis improved his gait and brought back lots of his memory. Within 6 months all his symptoms abated with use of cannabis and he started to look at cannabis as a real medicine. Slowly he also had improvement in cognitive functions, memory, vocabulary and his gait became increasingly better day by day with continued use of cannabis.

  15. Is the clinical use of cannabis by oncology patients advisable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Sela, Gil; Avisar, Adva; Batash, Ron; Schaffer, Moshe

    2014-06-01

    The use of the cannabis plant for various medical indications by cancer patients has been rising significantly in the past few years in several European countries, the US and Israel. The increase in use comes from public demand for the most part, and not due to a scientific basis. Cannabis chemistry is complex, and the isolation and extraction of the active ingredient remain difficult. The active agent in cannabis is unique among psychoactive plant materials, as it contains no nitrogen and, thus, is not an alkaloid. Alongside inconclusive evidence of increased risks of lung and head and neck cancers from prolonged smoking of the plant produce, laboratory evidence of the anti-cancer effects of plant components exists, but with no clinical research in this direction. The beneficial effects of treatment with the plant, or treatment with medicine produced from its components, are related to symptoms of the disease: pain, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite and weight loss. The clinical evidence of the efficacy of cannabis for these indications is only partial. However, recent scientific data from studies with THC and cannabidiol combinations report the first clinical indication of cancer-related pain relief. The difficulties of performing research into products that are not medicinal, such as cannabis, have not allowed a true study of the cannabis plant extract although, from the public point of view, such studies are greatly desirable. PMID:24606496

  16. Adolescent Cannabis Use, Psychosis and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Genotype in African Americans and Caucasians

    OpenAIRE

    Kantrowitz, Joshua T.; Nolan, Karen A.; Sen, Srijan; Simen, Arthur A.; Lachman, Herbert M.; Bowers, Malcolm B.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis has been reported as a likely risk factor for the development of psychosis, and a gene × environment interaction with the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has been proposed. Moreover, COMT has been separately linked to affective symptoms in psychosis. Despite a high rate of cannabis abuse and affective symptoms in African Americans, no studies exploring a relationship between COMT and psychosis in this group have been reported. An existing database of psychotic patients with...

  17. Correlates to the variable effects of cannabis in young adults: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camera Ariella A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis use can frequently have adverse affects in those that use it and these can be amplified by various characteristics of an individual, from demographic and environmental variations to familial predisposition for mental illnesses. Methods The current study of 100 individuals, who were cannabis users during their adolescence and may still be users, was a survey of the self perceived effects of cannabis and their correlates. A reliable family member was also interviewed for determination of family history of various major mental illnesses and substance use. Results As many as 40% of cannabis users had paranoid feelings (suspiciousness when using cannabis, although the most frequent effect was feeling relaxed (46%. Having a familial background for mental illnesses such as depression or schizophrenia did not determine the effects of cannabis nor its pattern of use, although the number of subjects with such a history was small. An age at which an individual began using cannabis did have an effect on how heavily it was used and the heavier the cannabis use, the more likely the individual was also to have had psychotic symptoms after use. There were no sex differences in effects of cannabis. These results are tempered by the reliance on self-report for many of the variables ascertained. Conclusion Cannabis can frequently have negative effects in its users, which can be amplified by certain demographic and/or psychosocial factors. Thus, users with a specific profile may be at a higher risk of unpleasant effects from cannabis use and caution should be noted when cannabis is administered to young people for medicinal purposes.

  18. Clinical service desires of medical cannabis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janichek Jennifer L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical cannabis dispensaries following the social or hybrid model offer supplementary holistic services in addition to dispensing medical cannabis. Historically, alternative physical health services have been the norm for these dispensaries, including services such as yoga, acupuncture, or chiropractor visits. A clinical service dearth remains for medical cannabis patients seeking substance use, misuse, dependence, and mental health services. This study examined patient desires for various clinical services and level of willingness to participate in specific clinical services. Methods Anonymous survey data (N = 303 were collected at Harborside Health Center (HHC, a medical cannabis dispensary in Oakland, CA. The sample was 70% male, 48% Caucasian and 21% African American. The mean male age was 38 years old and female mean age was 30. Sixty two percent of the male participants and 44% of the female participants are single. Sixteen percent of the population reported having a domestic partner. Forty six percent of the participants are employed full time, 41% have completed at least some college, and 49% make less than $40,000 a year. Results A significant portion of the sample, 62%, indicated a desire to participate in free clinical services at HHC, 34% would like more information about substances and use, and 41% want to learn more about reducing harms from substance use. About one quarter of the participants marked "would" or "likely would" participate in individual services such as consultation. Approximately 20% indicated "would" or "likely would" participate in psycho-educational forums, harm reduction information sharing sessions, online support groups, and coping, life, and social skills group. There was little interest in traditional NA/AA 12-step groups or adapted 12-step groups. Conclusions Desired clinical services can be qualified as a combination of harm reduction, educational, skills-based, peer support and therapeutic individual and group services. Results suggest that medical cannabis patients seek more information about various substances, including cannabis. Dispensaries can help to decrease gaps in substance education and clinical services and fulfill unmet clinical desires. More research is necessary in additional medical cannabis dispensaries in different geographic settings with different service delivery models.

  19. Cannabidiol Attenuates the Appetitive Effects of ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Humans Smoking Their Chosen Cannabis

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Celia Janet Ann; Freeman, Tom P.; Schafer, Gra?inne L.; Curran, Helen Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Worldwide cannabis dependence is increasing, as is the concentration of the ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in street cannabis. At the same time, the concentration of the second most abundant cannabinoid in street cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), is decreasing. These two cannabinoids have opposing effects both pharmacologically and behaviourally when administered in the laboratory. No research has yet examined how the ratio of these constituents impacts upon the appetitive/rein...

  20. Chemistry, Metabolism, and Toxicology of Cannabis: Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Srinivas Bharath

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is one of the most widely abused substances throughout the world. The primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9_THC, produces a myriad of pharmacological effects in animals and humans. Although it is used as a recreational drug, it can potentially lead to dependence and behavioral disturbances and its heavy use may increase the risk for psychotic disorders.Many studies that endeavor to understand the mechanism of action of cannabis concentrate on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids in humans. However, there is limited research on the chronic adverse effects and retention of cannabinoids in human subjects.Cannabis can be detected in body fluids following exposure through active/passive inhalation and exposure through breastfeeding. Cannabis detection is directly dependent on accurate analytical procedures for detection of metabolites and verification of recent use.In this review, an attempt has been made to summarize the properties of cannabis and its derivatives, and to discuss the implications of its use with emphasis on bioavailability, limit of detection, carry over period and passive inhalation, important factors for detection and diagnosis.

  1. Chemistry, metabolism, and toxicology of cannabis: clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyamvada; Murthy, Pratima; Bharath, M M Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis is one of the most widely abused substances throughout the world. The primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?(9_)THC), produces a myriad of pharmacological effects in animals and humans. Although it is used as a recreational drug, it can potentially lead to dependence and behavioral disturbances and its heavy use may increase the risk for psychotic disorders.Many studies that endeavor to understand the mechanism of action of cannabis concentrate on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids in humans. However, there is limited research on the chronic adverse effects and retention of cannabinoids in human subjects.Cannabis can be detected in body fluids following exposure through active/passive inhalation and exposure through breastfeeding. Cannabis detection is directly dependent on accurate analytical procedures for detection of metabolites and verification of recent use.In this review, an attempt has been made to summarize the properties of cannabis and its derivatives, and to discuss the implications of its use with emphasis on bioavailability, limit of detection, carry over period and passive inhalation, important factors for detection and diagnosis. PMID:23408483

  2. When Cannabis Is Available and Visible at School--A Multilevel Analysis of Students' Cannabis Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the links between the visibility of cannabis use in school (measured by teachers' reports of students being under the influence of cannabis on school premises), the proportion of cannabis users in the class, perceived availability of cannabis, as well as adolescent cannabis use. Methods: A multilevel regression model was…

  3. An Australian Twin Study of Cannabis and Other Illicit Drug Use and Misuse, and Other Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana; Henders, Anjali; Nelson, Elliot C.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug throughout the developed world and there is consistent evidence of heritable influences on multiple stages of cannabis involvement including initiation of use and abuse/dependence. In this paper, we describe the methodology and preliminary results of a large-scale interview study of 3,824 young adult twins (born 1972–1979) and their siblings. Cannabis use was common with 75.2% of males and 64.7% of females reporting some lifetime use of cannabis...

  4. Adolescent Nicotine Dependence Symptom Profiles and Risk for Future Daily Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Jennifer S.; Lee, Chien-ti; Dierker, Lisa C.; Selya, Arielle S.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research on adolescent smokers suggests that there are important differences in the types of nicotine dependence (ND) symptoms that emerge and different patterns of ND symptoms. The purpose of this study was to use data from the longitudinal Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study to identify latent subgroups of adolescent experimental and nondaily smokers varying in number and types of endorsed ND symptoms. Profiles were identified using baseline level of sm...

  5. [Cannabis smoking and lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Urban, T; Perriot, J; de Chazeron, I; Meurice, J-C

    2014-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in the world. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but it is mainly smoked mixed with tobacco. The combined smoking of cannabis and tobacco is a common-place phenomenon in our society. However, its use is responsible for severe pulmonary consequences. The specific impact of smoking cannabis is difficult to assess precisely and to distinguish from the effect of tobacco. Marijuana smoke contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carcinogens at higher concentration than tobacco smoke. Cellular, tissue, animal and human studies, and also epidemiological studies, show that marijuana smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Cannabis exposure doubles the risk of developing lung cancer. This should encourage clinicians to identify cannabis use and to offer patients support in quitting. PMID:25012035

  6. Statistics on cannabis users skew perceptions of cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RachelMelissaBurns

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Collecting information about the prevalence of cannabis use is necessary but not sufficient for understanding the size, dynamics, and outcomes associated with cannabis markets. This paper uses two data sets describing cannabis consumption in the United States and Europe to highlight 1 differences in inferences about sub-populations based on the measure used to quantify cannabis-related activity; 2 how different measures of cannabis-related activity can be used to more accurately describe trends in cannabis usage over time; and 3 the correlation between frequency of use in the past month and average grams consumed per day. Key findings: Focusing on days of use instead of prevalence shows substantially greater increases in U.S. cannabis use in recent years; however, the recent increase is mostly among adults, not youth. Relatively more rapid growth in use days also occurred among the college-educated and Hispanic. Further, data from a survey conducted in several European countries show a strong positive correlation between frequency of use and quantity consumed per day of use, suggesting consumption is even more skewed toward the minority of heavy users than is suggested by days-of-use calculations.

  7. Cannabis Use and Mental Health Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Ours, J. C.; Williams, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates whether cannabis use leads to worse mental health. To do so, we account for common unobserved factors affecting mental health and cannabis consumption by modeling mental health jointly with the dynamics of cannabis use. Our main finding is that using cannabis increases the likelihood of mental health problems, with current use having a larger effect than past use. The estimates suggest a dose response relationship between the frequency of recent cannabis use and the pr...

  8. Cannabis Use and Cognition in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    KennethHugdahl

    2009-01-01

    People with schizophrenia frequently report cannabis use, and cannabis may be a risk factor for schizophrenia, mediated through effects on brain function and biochemistry. Thus, it is conceivable that cannabis may also influence cognitive functioning in this patients group. We report data from our own laboratory on the use of cannabis by schizophrenia patients, and review the existing literature on the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia and related psychosis. Of the 23 studies ...

  9. Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Symptoms: A Multidimensional Model of Common and Specific Etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Carey, Kate B.; Wills, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a theoretical model hypothesizing differential pathways from five predictors to alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms. The participants were college students (N= 2,270) surveyed on two occasions in a 6-month prospective design. Social norms, perceived utility of alcohol use, and family history of alcohol problems were indirectly associated with Time 2 (T2) abuse and dependence symptoms through influencing level of alcohol consumption. Poor behavioral control had a direct eff...

  10. CANNABIS, UNA OPCIÓN TERAPÉUTICA / CANNABIS, A THERAPEUTIC OPTION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Henry, Osorio; Hugo Fernando, Tangarife.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las preparaciones de Cannabis sativa L. tales como marihuana, hashish y dagga, han sido usadas en medicina por varios siglos. Ahora se sabe que el ?9tetrahidrocannabinol (?9-THC) y sus compuestos relacionados, ejercen una amplia gama de efectos sobre los sistemas inmune, digestivo, reproductivo, ocu [...] lar, cardiovascular, y nervioso central. La presente revisión analiza la literatura disponible relacionada con los efectos terapéuticos de la Cannabis. Abstract in english Cannabis sativa L. preparations, such as marijuana, hashish and dagga, have been used in medicine for many centuries. It is now known that ?9tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) and its related compounds, exert a wide array of effects on the immune, digestive, reproductive, ocular, cardiovascular, and cent [...] ral nervous systems. The present review analyses the literature related to the therapeutic effects of Cannabis.

  11. Symptoms of exercise dependence and physical activity in students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, Vance V; Best, Lisa A

    2007-12-01

    Health professionals recognize the benefits of moderate physical activity and encourage clients to engage in some form of activity on a regular basis. In spite of these recognized benefits, there are growing concerns that some may exercise at levels detrimental to health. The term exercise dependence refers to those individuals whose extreme exercise schedules interfere with their social, occupational, and family lives. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between weekly exercise habits and scores on the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire in a sample of undergraduate students (213 women and 79 men). Overall, participants who reported high activity scored higher than those reporting low activity on subscales measuring interference with family and social life, positive reward, withdrawal, exercise for social reasons, exercise for health reasons, and stereotyped behavior. PMID:18380126

  12. [Alcohol dependence syndrome--symptoms in the oral cavity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surtel, Anna; Klepacz, Robert; Wysoki?ska-Miszczuk, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol dependence syndrome is defined as a cluster of physiological, behavioural and cognitive phenomena in which the use of a psychoactive substance takes on a much higher priority for a given individual than other behaviours that once had greater value. In European Union the problem of the addiction affects about 5% of men and 1% of women each year. Long lasting alcohol abuse is detrimental to the whole body, including the oral cavity. The observable changes are usually caused by a convergent impact of a number of factors. The changes differ depending on the chemical features of the consumed substance, the life style adopted - as a consequence of the addiction, simultaneous addiction to nicotine, and finally on the medical treatment applied at different stages of the disease. Pathological changes may occur in all structures in oral cavity (teeth, periodontium, tongue, mucose membrane and salivary glands). Individuals addicted to alcohol revealed high percentage of carious losses and chemical damage enamel and dentine and inflammatory changes of the periapical area of teeth. Presence of these changes is linked unfortunately with low indicator of treatment. There is independence between alcohol addiction and damage of periodontium (clinical attachment level and pocket depth). Results of alcohol abuse may be also double-sided, painless, noninflammatory and non-malignant swelling on salivary glands (sialosis). Alcohol is said to be the risk factor for development of flat-epithelial cancer of the oral cavity. The most frequent localization of cancerous changes is the bottom of the oral cavity and the side of the tongue. PMID:24934540

  13. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mistianne; Punja, Zamir K

    2015-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) suspension culture cells were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 carrying the binary plasmid pNOV3635. The plasmid contains a phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) selectable marker gene. Cells transformed with PMI are capable of metabolizing the selective agent mannose, whereas cells not expressing the gene are incapable of using the carbon source and will stop growing. Callus masses proliferating on selection medium were screened for PMI expression using a chlorophenol red assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from putatively transformed callus lines, and the presence of the PMI gene was confirmed using PCR and Southern hybridization. Using this method, an average transformation frequency of 31.23%?±?0.14 was obtained for all transformation experiments, with a range of 15.1-55.3%. PMID:25416268

  14. Cannabis-Related treatment demands in Belgium: a socio-demographic and treatment seeking profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Aims Most people appear to stop using cannabis when getting older, but a certain subgroup becomes cannabis dependent, has problems in various life areas and needs treatment. Our aim is to compare a number of sociodemographic and treatment seeking variables between treatment seekers with primary cannabis problems and those with primary alcohol, opiate, amphetamine or cocaine problems. Understanding how primary canna-bis users seeking treatment differ from other treatment seekers may assist clinicians in better tailoring treatment processes to clients' needs. Methods For this purpose, intake information on 1,626 persons seeking treatment in one of 16 treat-ment agencies in the province of Antwerp (Belgium) was registered via an on-line web application. Primary cannabis users seeking treatment were compared with primary alcohol, opiate, amphetamine and cocaine users by means of bivariate analyses (Chi-square tests and analyses of variance), followed by four logistic regression analyses. Findings 14.5% of all clients used cannabis as their primary drug. Compared to primary alcohol, opiate, amphetamine or cocaine users seeking treatment, cannabis users seeking treatment appeared to be more often male, younger than 30 years old, Belgian and student. They are often referred to treatment by police or justice and 43.6% of them can be considered single-substance users. Multivariate analyses showed that besides age and sex, using no other substances than the primary drug and being registered in outpatient facilities only were significant determinants for being a primary cannabis user seeking treatment. Conclusions Primary cannabis users can clearly be differentiated from other drug users seeking treatment. Although cannabis plays an important part in a polydrug use pattern, persons who have cannabis as their primary drug often use only this one substance. Since they regularly have brief contacts with treatment agencies, more research is needed to measure the effect of this brief intervention.

  15. Depressive symptoms during buprenorphine vs. methadone maintenance: findings from a randomised, controlled trial in opioid dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Angela J; Bell, James; Christie, Macdonald J; Mattick, Richard P

    2004-12-01

    Research suggests that buprenorphine may possess antidepressant activity. The Beck Depression Inventory was completed at baseline and 3 months by heroin dependent subjects receiving either buprenorphine or methadone maintenance as part of a larger, pre-existing, double blind trial conducted by NDARC (Australia). Depressive symptoms improved in all subjects, with no difference between methadone and buprenorphine groups, suggesting no differential benefit on depressive symptoms for buprenorphine compared to methadone. PMID:15589713

  16. Association Between Depressive Symptoms and Negative Dependent Life Events from Late Childhood to Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Daniel P.; Whisman, Mark A.; Corley, Robin P.; Hewitt, John K.; Rhee, Soo Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The association between stressful life events and depression has been consistently supported in the literature; however, studies of the developmental trajectories of these constructs and the nature of their association over time are limited. We examined trajectories of depressive symptoms and negative dependent life events and the associations between these constructs in a sample of 916 youth assessed annually from age 9 to 16, using latent growth curve modeling. Youth depressive symptoms, as...

  17. Adolescent nicotine dependence symptom profiles and risk for future daily smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jennifer S; Lee, Chien-Ti; Dierker, Lisa C; Selya, Arielle S; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2012-10-01

    Recent research on adolescent smokers suggests that there are important differences in the types of nicotine dependence (ND) symptoms that emerge and different patterns of ND symptoms. The purpose of this study was to use data from the longitudinal Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study to identify latent subgroups of adolescent experimental and nondaily smokers varying in number and types of endorsed ND symptoms. Profiles were identified using baseline level of smoking, individual patterns of ND symptoms and other ND risk factors. Discrete time survival analysis was used to examine profile differences in probability of becoming daily smokers 48 months later. Four distinct subgroups of smokers with different patterns of smoking behavior, ND symptoms, and alcohol and other substance use emerged. Heavier smoking adolescents with high symptom endorsement, particularly the need to smoke in the morning, were most likely to become daily smokers 48 months later. A subgroup of social smokers had high smoking exposure and symptom endorsement (except need to smoke in the morning), and high levels of other substance use. Despite lower rates of smoking frequency and quantity compared to the heavier smoking class, 36% of these adolescents smoked daily by 48 months, with a steeper decline in survival rates compared to other lighter smoking classes. Morning smoking symptoms and symptoms prioritizing smoking (i.e., choosing to spend money on cigarettes instead of lunch or smoking when ill or where smoking is forbidden) might quickly identify adolescent non-daily smokers with more severe dependence and higher risk for daily smoking. A focus on skills for avoiding social situations involving use of alcohol and other drugs and reducing peer smoking influences may be an important focus for reducing smoking and other substance use among social smokers. PMID:22673155

  18. An Evidence Based Review of Acute and Long-Term Effects of Cannabis Use on Executive Cognitive Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Crean, Rebecca D.; Crane, Natania A.; Mason, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis use has been shown to impair cognitive functions on a number of levels—from basic motor coordination to more complex executive function tasks, such as the ability to plan, organize, solve problems, make decisions, remember, and control emotions and behavior. These deficits differ in severity depending on the quantity, recency, age of onset and duration of marijuana use. Understanding how cannabis use impairs executive function is important. Individuals with cannabis-related impairm...

  19. Impairment of inhibitory control processing related to acute psychotomimetic effects of cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Atakan, Z; Martin-Santos, R; Crippa, J A; Kambeitz, J; Malhi, S; Giampietro, V; Williams, S; Brammer, M; Rubia, K; Collier, D A; McGuire, P K

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis use can induce acute psychotic symptoms and increase the risk of schizophrenia. Impairments in inhibitory control and processing are known to occur both under the influence of cannabis and in schizophrenia. Whether cannabis-induced impairment in inhibitory processing is related to the acute induction of psychotic symptoms under its influence is unclear. We investigated the effects of acute oral administration of 10mg of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC), the main psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, on inhibitory control and regional brain activation during inhibitory processing in humans and examined whether these effects are related to the induction of psychotic symptoms under its influence using a repeated-measures, placebo-controlled, double-blind, within-subject design. We studied thirty-six healthy, English-speaking, right-handed men with minimal previous exposure to cannabis and other illicit drugs twice using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they performed a response inhibition (Go/No-Go) task. Relative to placebo, delta-9-THC caused transient psychotic symptoms, anxiety, intoxication and sedation, inhibition errors and impaired inhibition efficiency. Severity of psychotic symptoms was directly correlated with inhibition error frequency and inversely with inhibition efficiency under the influence of delta-9-THC. Delta-9-THC attenuated left inferior frontal activation which was inversely correlated with the frequency of inhibition errors and severity of psychotic symptoms and positively with inhibition efficiency under its influence. These results provide experimental evidence that impairments in cognitive processes involved in the inhibitory control of thoughts and actions and inferior frontal function under the influence of cannabis may have a role in the emergence of transient psychotic symptoms under its influence. PMID:25532865

  20. Cannabis Use and Performance in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Anil; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2006-01-01

    Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug among adolescents, many of whom perceive little risk from cannabis. Cannabis use is associated with poor academic performance and increased school drop-outs. It is also associated with high-risk behaviors in adolescents like crime, violence, unprotected sexual encounters, and car accidents. Many of these…

  1. Passive inhalation of cannabis smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, B.; Mason, P.A.; Moffat, A.C.; King, L.J.; Marks, V.

    1984-09-01

    Six volunteers each smoked simultaneously, in a small unventilated room (volume 27 950 liter), a cannabis cigarette containing 17.1 mg delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). A further four subjects - passive inhalers - remained in the room during smoking and afterwards for a total of 3 h. Blood and urine samples were taken from all ten subjects and analyzed by radioimmunoassay for THC metabolites. The blood samples from the passive subjects taken up to 3 h after the start of exposure to cannabis smoke showed a complete absence of cannabinoids. In contrast, their urine samples taken up to 6 h after exposure showed significant concentrations of cannabinoid metabolites (less than or equal to 6.8 ng ml-1). These data, taken with the results of other workers, show passive inhalation of cannabis smoke to be possible. These results have important implications for forensic toxicologists who are frequently called upon to interpret cannabinoid levels in body fluids.

  2. Severity of Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms Depends on Developmental Stage of Long-Evans Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Chun-shiang; Wang, Jian; Wehman, Monh; Rhoads, Dennis E.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate alcohol dependency and the potential role of age of initial alcohol consumption, Long-Evans (LE) rats were fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet starting at postnatal (P) ages (days): P23-27 (juvenile), P35-45 (adolescent) or P65-97 (young adult). Severity of subsequent withdrawal symptoms was dependent on age when consumption began and on duration of alcohol consumption. Frequency of withdrawal seizures was highest for rats starting consumption as juveniles, intermediate for a...

  3. Studies on cannabis, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seedlings from Cannabis sativa L. seeds irradiated with different doses of ?-rays were examined, in order to determine the dose sufficient to kill the young plants naturally, before their hallucinnogenic component increases. The seeds of ''Minamioshihara No. 1'', which were harvested in 1972 in Tochigi Prefecture, were irradiated with eight different doses of 60Co ?-rays in January 17, 1973, and the seedlings were examined several times during the subsequent 9 months, from March to November 1973, and their morphological and histological effects were examined, and the results are summarized as follows: Samples irradiated with 1500 and 1000 krads developed radicles about 3 mm in length. Samples irradiated with 500, 200, and 50 krads grew into young plants with the first set of leaves, without lateral roots. Samples irradiated with 30 krads grew to about 10 cm high with a few lateral roots, and the epicotyls about 1 cm in length. These young plants from the irradiated seeds stayed in the same condition and then died. Samples irradiated with 15 and 5 krads grew in the same way as the controls until the stage of flowering. Samples irradiated with 500, 200, 50, and 30 krads showerd the cell membranes of endodermis and pericycle to be partially lignified and suberized. The degree of change was related to the dose of ?-rays. Samples irradiated with 30 krads showed withered cells near the end of the lateral nerves on the first and second set of leaves. The ec first and second set of leaves. The economical dose of 60Co ?-rays for inhibiting young plants from developing into adult ones was a minimum of 30 krads which made the young plants die. Irradiation with 50 krads of ?-rays will be required to kill the young plants completely before they develop the hallucinogenic component. (auth.)

  4. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuardi A.W.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD, a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. The antipsychotic-like properties of CBD have been investigated in animal models using behavioral and neurochemical techniques which suggested that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results of two studies on healthy volunteers using perception of binocular depth inversion and ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms supported the proposal of the antipsychotic-like properties of CBD. In addition, open case reports of schizophrenic patients treated with CBD and a preliminary report of a controlled clinical trial comparing CBD with an atypical antipsychotic drug have confirmed that this cannabinoid can be a safe and well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. Future studies of CBD in other psychotic conditions such as bipolar disorder and comparative studies of its antipsychotic effects with those produced by clozapine in schizophrenic patients are clearly indicated.

  5. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.W., Zuardi; J.A.S., Crippa; J.E.C., Hallak; F.A., Moreira; F.S., Guimarães.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis) component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typ [...] ical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. The antipsychotic-like properties of CBD have been investigated in animal models using behavioral and neurochemical techniques which suggested that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results of two studies on healthy volunteers using perception of binocular depth inversion and ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms supported the proposal of the antipsychotic-like properties of CBD. In addition, open case reports of schizophrenic patients treated with CBD and a preliminary report of a controlled clinical trial comparing CBD with an atypical antipsychotic drug have confirmed that this cannabinoid can be a safe and well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. Future studies of CBD in other psychotic conditions such as bipolar disorder and comparative studies of its antipsychotic effects with those produced by clozapine in schizophrenic patients are clearly indicated.

  6. Cannabis and adolescent brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubman, Dan I; Cheetham, Ali; Yücel, Murat

    2015-04-01

    Heavy cannabis use has been frequently associated with increased rates of mental illness and cognitive impairment, particularly amongst adolescent users. However, the neurobiological processes that underlie these associations are still not well understood. In this review, we discuss the findings of studies examining the acute and chronic effects of cannabis use on the brain, with a particular focus on the impact of commencing use during adolescence. Accumulating evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that regular heavy use during this period is associated with more severe and persistent negative outcomes than use during adulthood, suggesting that the adolescent brain may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of cannabis exposure. As the endocannabinoid system plays an important role in brain development, it is plausible that prolonged use during adolescence results in a disruption in the normative neuromaturational processes that occur during this period. We identify synaptic pruning and white matter development as two processes that may be adversely impacted by cannabis exposure during adolescence. Potentially, alterations in these processes may underlie the cognitive and emotional deficits that have been associated with regular use commencing during adolescence. PMID:25460036

  7. The Importance of Family Relations for Cannabis Users: The Case of Serbian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Terzic Supic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is transitional stage of physical and mental human development occuring between childhood and adult life. Social interactions and environmental factors together are important predictors of adolescent cannabis use. This study aimed to examine the relationship between the social determinants and adolescents behavior with cannabis consumption.Methods: A cross sectional study as part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs was conducted among 6.150 adolescents aged 16 years in three regions of Serbia, and three types of schools (gymnasium, vocational – professional, and vocational – handicraft during May – June 2008. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to obtain adjusted odds ratios with 95% con?dence intervals in which the dependent variable was cannabis consumption non-user and user.Results: Among 6.7% of adolescents who had tried cannabis at least one in their lives, boys were more involved in cannabis use than girls, especially boys from gymnasium school. Well off family, lower education of mother, worse relations with parents were significantly associated with cannabis use (P < 0.05. Behaviors like skipping from schools, frequent evening outs, and playing on slot machines were also related to cannabis use (P < 0.05.Conclusions: The study confirmed the importance of family relationship development. Drug use preventive programmes should include building interpersonal trust in a family lifecycle and school culture.

  8. Pharmacological interventions in the treatment of the acute effects of cannabis: a systematic review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crippa José AS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis intoxication is related to a number of physical and mental health risks with ensuing social costs. However, little attention has been given to the investigation of possible pharmacological interactions in this condition. Objective To review the available scientific literature concerning pharmacological interventions for the treatment of the acute effects of cannabis. Methods A search was performed on the Pubmed, Lilacs, and Scielo online databases by combining the terms cannabis, intoxication, psychosis, anxiety, and treatment. The articles selected from this search had their reference lists checked for additional publications related to the topic of the review. Results The reviewed articles consisted of case reports and controlled clinical trials and are presented according to interventions targeting the physiological, psychiatric, and cognitive symptoms provoked by cannabis. The pharmacological interventions reported in these studies include: beta-blockers, antiarrhythmic agents, antagonists of CB-1 and GABA-benzodiazepine receptors, antipsychotics, and cannabidiol. Conclusion Although scarce, the evidence on pharmacological interventions for the management of cannabis intoxication suggests that propanolol and rimonabant are the most effective compounds currently available to treat the physiological and subjective effects of the drug. Further studies are necessary to establish the real effectiveness of these two medications, as well as the effectiveness of other candidate compounds to counteract the effects of cannabis intoxication, such as cannabidiol and flumazenil.

  9. Cannabis, pain, and sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex, a cannabis-based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B; Guy, Geoffrey W; Robson, Philip J

    2007-08-01

    Cannabis sativa L. has been utilized for treatment of pain and sleep disorders since ancient times. This review examines modern studies on effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) on sleep. It goes on to report new information on the effects on sleep in the context of medical treatment of neuropathic pain and symptoms of multiple sclerosis, employing standardized oromucosal cannabis-based medicines containing primarily THC, CBD, or a 1 : 1 combination of the two (Sativex). Sleep-laboratory results indicate a mild activating effect of CBD, and slight residual sedation with THC-predominant extracts. Experience to date with Sativex in numerous Phase I-III studies in 2000 subjects with 1000 patient years of exposure demonstrate marked improvement in subjective sleep parameters in patients with a wide variety of pain conditions including multiple sclerosis, peripheral neuropathic pain, intractable cancer pain, and rheumatoid arthritis, with an acceptable adverse event profile. No tolerance to the benefit of Sativex on pain or sleep, nor need for dosage increases have been noted in safety extension studies of up to four years, wherein 40-50% of subjects attained good or very good sleep quality, a key source of disability in chronic pain syndromes that may contribute to patients' quality of life. PMID:17712817

  10. Functional capacity and dependency in transfer and dressing are associated with depressive symptoms in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boström G

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gustaf Boström,1 Mia Conradsson,1 Erik Rosendahl,1,2 Peter Nordström,1 Yngve Gustafson,1 Håkan Littbrand1,21Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 2Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, SwedenBackground: This study examined associations between depressive symptoms and functional capacity, overall dependency in personal activities of daily living (ADLs, and dependency in individual ADL tasks, respectively, in people with a high mean age, large range of functional capacity, and wide spectrum of dependency in ADLs.Methods: Cross-sectional data from three studies were used. A total of 392 individuals living in community and residential care facilities were included. Mean age was 86.2 years, 72% were women, 75% were dependent in ADLs, 42% had depression, and 39% had dementia. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, functional capacity with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS, and ADLs with the Barthel ADL Index. Multiple linear regression analyses with comprehensive adjustments were performed between GDS-15 and BBS, GDS-15 and Barthel ADL Index, and GDS-15 and each individual ADL task, separately.Results: GDS-15 score was associated with BBS score (unstandardized b =-0.03, P=0.008, but not with Barthel ADL Index score (unstandardized b =-0.07, P=0.068. No significant interaction effects of sex, dementia, or living conditions were found in these associations. Among individual ADL tasks, dependency in transfer (unstandardized b =-1.03, P=0.007 and dressing (unstandardized b =-0.70, P=0.035 were associated with depressive symptoms.Conclusion: Functional capacity seems to be independently associated with depressive symptoms in older people living in community and residential care facilities, whereas overall ADL performance may not be associated. Dependency in the individual ADL tasks of transfer and dressing appear to be independently associated with depressive symptoms and may be an important focus of future interdisciplinary multifactorial intervention studies.Keywords: aged 80 and over, residential facilities, independent living, depression, activities of daily living

  11. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of supratherapeutic oral doses of ?9-THC in cannabis users

    OpenAIRE

    Lile, Joshua A.; Kelly, Thomas H.; Charnigo, Richard J.; Stinchcomb, Audra L.; Hays, Lon R.

    2013-01-01

    Oral ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) has been evaluated as a medication for cannabis dependence, but repeated administration of acute oral doses up to 40 mg has not been effective at reducing drug-taking behavior. Larger doses might be necessary to affect cannabis use. The purpose of the present study was therefore to determine the physiological and behavioral effects of oral ?9-THC at acute doses higher than those tested previously. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of oral...

  12. Inhaled medicinal cannabis and the immunocompromised patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchlemer, Rosa; Amit-Kohn, Michal; Raveh, David; Hanuš, Lumír

    2015-03-01

    Medicinal cannabis is an invaluable adjunct therapy for pain relief, nausea, anorexia, and mood modification in cancer patients and is available as cookies or cakes, as sublingual drops, as a vaporized mist, or for smoking. However, as with every herb, various microorganisms are carried on its leaves and flowers which when inhaled could expose the user, in particular immunocompromised patients, to the risk of opportunistic lung infections, primarily from inhaled molds. The objective of this study was to identify the safest way of using medicinal cannabis in immunosuppressed patients by finding the optimal method of sterilization with minimal loss of activity of cannabis. We describe the results of culturing the cannabis herb, three methods of sterilization, and the measured loss of a main cannabinoid compound activity. Systematic sterilization of medicinal cannabis can eliminate the risk of fatal opportunistic infections associated with cannabis among patients at risk. PMID:25216851

  13. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Sullivan; Sytze Elzinga; Raber, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available...

  14. Cannabis use and cognition in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KennethHugdahl

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available People with schizophrenia frequently report cannabis use, and cannabis may be a risk factor for schizophrenia, mediated through effects on brain function and biochemistry. Thus, it is conceivable that cannabis may also influence cognitive functioning in this patients group. We report data from our own laboratory on the use of cannabis by schizophrenia patients, and review the existing literature on the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia and related psychosis. Of the 23 studies that were found, 14 reported that the cannabis users had better cognitive performance than the schizophrenia non-users. Eight studies reported no or minimal differences in cognitive performance in the two groups, but only one study reported better cognitive performance in the schizophrenia non-user group. Our own results confirm the overall impression from the literature review of better cognitive performance in the cannabis user group. These paradoxical findings may have several explanations, which are discussed. We suggest that cannabis causes a transient cognitive breakdown enabling the development of psychosis, imitating the typical cognitive vulnerability seen in schizophrenia. This is further supported by an earlier age of onset and fewer neurological soft signs in the cannabis-related schizophrenia group, suggesting an alternative pathway to psychosis.

  15. Association between cannabis use and schizotypal dimensions--a meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoke, Andrei; Galliot, Anne-Marie; Richard, Jean-Romain; Ferchiou, Aziz; Baudin, Grégoire; Leboyer, Marion; Schürhoff, Franck

    2014-09-30

    Cannabis consumption can cause abuse and dependence and increase risk of developing psychiatric and somatic disorders. Several literature reviews explored the link between cannabis consumption and schizophrenia but none summarized the rich literature on cannabis and psychometric schizotypy. The aim of our review is to synthesize data from studies that explored the association between cannabis consumption and schizoptypal dimensions. A systematic review of the literature and, when needed, contact with the authors, allowed us to gather data from 29 cross-sectional studies. We compared schizotypy scores between subjects that never used cannabis and subjects that used it at least once ("never vs. ever") and between current users and subjects that do not use cannabis currently ("current vs. other"). We conducted separate analyses for total schizotypy score and each of the three classical schizotypal dimensions (positive, negative, disorganized). For all eight comparisons, the cannabis group ("ever" or "current") had higher schizotypy scores. Differences were in the small or medium range and, with the exception of the negative score in the current vs. other comparison, statistically significant. Cannabis consumption is associated with increased schizotypal traits. More research, using different approaches (e.g. longitudinal studies) is needed to explore the cause of this association. PMID:24878296

  16. Gone to Pot - A Review of the Association between Cannabis and Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeepakCD'Souza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, with approximately 5 million daily users worldwide. Emerging evidence supports a number of associations between cannabis and psychosis/psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. These associations based on case-studies, surveys, epidemiological studies, and experimental studies indicate that cannabinoids can produce acute, transient effects; acute, persistent effects as well as delayed, persistent effects that recapitulate the psychopathology and psychophysiology seen in psychotic illness such as schizophrenia. Acute exposure to both cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids (Spice/ K2 can produce a full range of transient psychotomimetic symptoms, cognitive deficits, and psychophysiological abnormalities that bear a striking resemblance to symptoms of schizophrenia. In individuals with an established psychotic disorder, cannabinoids can exacerbate symptoms, trigger relapse, and have negative consequences on the course of the illness. Several factors appear to moderate these associations, including family history, genetic factors, history of childhood abuse, and the age at onset of cannabis use. Exposure to cannabinoids in adolescence confers a higher risk for psychosis outcomes in later life and the risk is dose-related. Individuals with polymorphisms of COMT and AKT1 genes may be at increased risk for psychotic disorders in association with cannabinoids, as are individuals with a family history of psychotic disorders or a history of childhood trauma. The relationship between cannabis and schizophrenia fulfills many but not all of the standard criteria for causality, including temporality, biological gradient, biological plausibility, experimental evidence, consistency, and coherence. At the present time, the evidence indicates that cannabis may be a “component cause” in the emergence of psychosis, and warrants serious consideration from the point of view of public health policy.

  17. Cannabis treatment outcomes among legally coerced and non-coerced adults

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    Copeland Jan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment seeking for cannabis dependence in general, and particularly the number of criminal justice referrals to cannabis treatment, has increased over the past decade. This study aims to compare the characteristics, psychosocial functioning and treatment outcome of those legally coerced into cannabis treatment compared to those entering treatment without legal coercion. Methods This study is a retrospective audit of the administrative clinical records of 27,198 adults presenting to public Texas treatment programs with cannabis as their primary drug problem between 2000 and 2005. Results Of the 69% legally coerced into treatment, there was less psychological distress and greater likelihood of having completed treatment compared with non-coerced clients. Participants who were legally coerced into treatment were also more likely to have received less intensive forms of treatment and to have not used cannabis in the month prior to 90-day post-treatment follow-up. Conclusion More public health information is needed on cannabis dependence and increased availability of subsidised early and brief interventions in a variety of primary health care settings would reduce the late presentations of the more severely impaired voluntary clients. The limitations of this dataset are discussed.

  18. Unilateral angle-closure glaucoma with ciliochoroidal effusion after the consumption of cannabis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Rana; Tiosano, Beatrice; Dbayat, Noora; Gaton, Dan

    2014-01-01

    A 35-year-old male patient, diagnosed with acute angle-closure glaucoma, did not improve despite intensive treatment with antiglaucoma medications. Ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed a ciliochoroidal effusion. Due to his past history of drug abuse, a urine test was analyzed and found to be positive for cannabis. After topical cycloplegia and oral steroid therapy, his symptoms improved substantially. The present case highlights the role of ultrasound biomicroscopy in evaluating patients with acute angle-closure glaucoma and the role of cannabis abuse in the development of ciliochoroidal effusion. PMID:25606036

  19. Cannabis og cannabinoidreceptorer--misbrug og psykose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HjorthØj, Carsten; Nordentoft, Merete

    2008-01-01

    Abuse of alcohol and drugs often co-occur with psychotic disorders. In this article, we introduce to the reader a number of receptors and neurotransmitter-systems involved in cannabis-abuse. Subsequently, we introduce the connection between abuse - particularly cannabis-abuse - and psychotic disorders.

  20. Cannabis og cannabinoidreceptorer misbrug og psykose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthoj, C.; Nordentoft, M.

    2008-01-01

    Abuse of alcohol and drugs often co-occur with psychotic disorders. In this article, we introduce to the reader a number of receptors and neurotransmitter-systems involved in cannabis-abuse. Subsequently, we introduce the connection between abuse - particularly cannabis-abuse - and psychotic disorders Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/10

  1. Regulating compassion: an overview of Canada's federal medical cannabis policy and practice

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    Lucas Philippe G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to a number of court challenges brought forth by Canadian patients who demonstrated that they benefited from the use of medicinal cannabis but remained vulnerable to arrest and persecution as a result of its status as a controlled substance, in 1999 Canada became the second nation in the world to initiate a centralized medicinal cannabis program. Over its six years of existence, this controversial program has been found unconstitutional by a number of courts, and has faced criticism from the medical establishment, law enforcement, as well as the patient/participants themselves. Methods This critical policy analysis is an evidence-based review of court decisions, government records, relevant studies and Access to Information Act data related to the three main facets of Health Canada's medicinal cannabis policy – the Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD; the Canadians Institute of Health Research Medical Marijuana Research Program; and the federal cannabis production and distribution program. This analysis also examines Canada's network of unregulated community-based dispensaries. Results There is a growing body of evidence that Health Canada's program is not meeting the needs of the nation's medical cannabis patient community and that the policies of the Marihuana Medical Access Division may be significantly limiting the potential individual and public health benefits achievable though the therapeutic use of cannabis. Canada's community-based dispensaries supply medical cannabis to a far greater number of patients than the MMAD, but their work is currently unregulated by any level of government, leaving these organizations and their clients vulnerable to arrest and prosecution. Conclusion Any future success will depend on the government's ability to better assess and address the needs and legitimate concerns of end-users of this program, to promote and fund an expanded clinical research agenda, and to work in cooperation with community-based medical cannabis dispensaries in order to address the ongoing issue of safe and timely access to this herbal medicine.

  2. Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome: Clinical diagnosis of an underrecognised manifestation of chronic cannabis abuse

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    Siva P Sontineni, Sanjay Chaudhary, Vijaya Sontineni, Stephen J Lanspa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is a common drug of abuse that is associated with various long-term and short-term adverse effects. The nature of its association with vomiting after chronic abuse is obscure and is underrecognised by clinicians. In some patients this vomiting can take on a pattern similar to cyclic vomiting syndrome with a peculiar compulsive hot bathing pattern, which relieves intense feelings of nausea and accompanying symptoms. In this case report, we describe a twenty-two year-old-male with a history of chronic cannabis abuse presenting with recurrent vomiting, intense nausea and abdominal pain. In addition, the patient reported that the hot baths improved his symptoms during these episodes. Abstinence from cannabis led to resolution of the vomiting symptoms and abdominal pain. We conclude that in the setting of chronic cannabis abuse, patients presenting with chronic severe nausea and vomiting that can sometimes be accompanied by abdominal pain and compulsive hot bathing behaviour, in the absence of other obvious causes, a diagnosis of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome should be considered.

  3. Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome: clinical diagnosis of an underrecognised manifestation of chronic cannabis abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontineni, Siva P; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Sontineni, Vijaya; Lanspa, Stephen J

    2009-03-14

    Cannabis is a common drug of abuse that is associated with various long-term and short-term adverse effects. The nature of its association with vomiting after chronic abuse is obscure and is underrecognised by clinicians. In some patients this vomiting can take on a pattern similar to cyclic vomiting syndrome with a peculiar compulsive hot bathing pattern, which relieves intense feelings of nausea and accompanying symptoms. In this case report, we describe a twenty-two year-old-male with a history of chronic cannabis abuse presenting with recurrent vomiting, intense nausea and abdominal pain. In addition, the patient reported that the hot baths improved his symptoms during these episodes. Abstinence from cannabis led to resolution of the vomiting symptoms and abdominal pain. We conclude that in the setting of chronic cannabis abuse, patients presenting with chronic severe nausea and vomiting that can sometimes be accompanied by abdominal pain and compulsive hot bathing behaviour, in the absence of other obvious causes, a diagnosis of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome should be considered. PMID:19291829

  4. Investigating the interaction between schizotypy, divergent thinking and cannabis use

    OpenAIRE

    Schafer, G.; Feilding, A.; Morgan, C. J.; Agathangelou, M.; Freeman, T. P.; Valerie Curran, H.

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis acutely increases schizotypy and chronic use is associated with elevated rates of psychosis. Creative individuals have higher levels of schizotypy, however links between cannabis use, schizotypy and creativity have not been investigated. We investigated the effects of cannabis smoked naturalistically on schizotypy and divergent thinking, a measure of creativity. One hundred and sixty cannabis users were tested on 1 day when sober and another day when intoxicated with cannabis. State ...

  5. [Psychopathological symptoms and personality traits in alcohol-dependent patients: a comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo de Medina, Ricardo; Echeburúa, Enrique; Aizpiri, Javier

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe the psychopathological and personality profile associated with alcohol dependence and to compare it with those of non-addictive disorders and the normal population. The sample consisted of 158 alcohol-dependent participants attending a psychiatric outpatient clinic, 120 psychiatric patients with non-addictive disorders and 103 participants from the general population chosen to match the patient samples for age, gender and socioeconomic level. All participants were assessed with different instruments related to personality (Impulsiveness Scale, Sensation-Seeking Scale and STAI), psychopathology (SCL-90-R, BDI and Maladjustment Scale) and personality disorders (MCMI-II). Patients from the clinical groups presented more symptoms of anxiety and depression than the healthy participants and had more problems adjusting to everyday life, but there were no differences between the two clinical groups. Alcohol-dependent patients were more impulsive and sensation-seeking than the other two groups. Histrionic, narcissistic and antisocial personality disorders were specific to the alcohol-dependent patients. The implications of this study for further research are discussed. PMID:18173100

  6. Insomnia in Alcohol Dependence: Predictors of Symptoms in a Sample of Veterans Referred from Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Subhajit; Grandner, Michael A.; Kranzler, Henry R.; Mavandadi, Shahrzad; Kling, Mitchel A.; Perlis, Michael L.; Oslin, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patients with alcohol dependence presenting for treatment may have multiple associated co-morbid conditions and limited social supports, which complicate treatment. Each of these factors has been independently associated with complaints of insomnia. In this preliminary study, we investigated the relations between insomnia complaints and socio-demographic factors and psychiatric comorbidity in treatment-seeking patients with alcohol dependence. Method We conducted a retrospective chart review on 84 consecutive patients referred to the Behavioral Health Laboratory of the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center for evaluation of psychiatric and substance use disorders. Patients met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence and completed a series of self-assessments of sleep. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to examine the relations amongst the variables of interest. Results In multivariable models, Sleep Latency was significantly greater in individuals without partners (p = .01), those with psychiatric disorders (p = .03) and smokers (p = .01), with a non-significant trend for those with past-year suicidal ideation. No significant predictor of Wake Time After Sleep Onset was seen. Poor Sleep Quality was predicted by younger age (OR = .93 [.88, .98], p = .004) and the presence of a psychiatric disorder (OR = 20.80 [4, 102], p = .0002), with a non-significant trend for suicidal ideation. Conclusions Insomnia symptoms in treatment-seeking alcohol dependent patients should prompt consideration of the individuals’ psychiatric and psychosocial features. PMID:23617870

  7. Reduced memory and attention performance in a population-based sample of young adults with a moderate lifetime use of cannabis, ecstasy and alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Indlekofer, Friedrich J.; Piechatzek, Michaela; Daamen, Marcel; Glasmacher, Christoph; Lieb, Roselind; Pfister, Hildegard; Tucha, Oliver; Wittchen, Hans-ulrich; Schu?tz, Christian G.

    2013-01-01

    Regular use of illegal drugs is suspected to cause cognitive impairments. Two substances have received heightened attention: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ‘ecstasy’) and ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC or ‘cannabis’). Preclinical evidence, as well as human studies examining regular ecstasy consumers, indicated that ecstasy use may have negative effects on learning, verbal memory and complex attentional functions. Cannabis has also been linked to symptoms of inattention and...

  8. A Case of Cannabis-Induced Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: There are no previous reports of acute pancreatitis associated with cannabis use in the general population. Drugs of all types are related to the aetiology of pancreatitis in approximately 1.4-2.0% of cases. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 29 year old man who presented with acute pancreatitis after a period of heavy cannabis smoking. Other causes of the disease were ruled out. The pancreatitis resolved itself after the cannabis was stopped and this was confirmed by urinary cannabinoid metabolite monitoring in the community. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first description of a case of cannabis induced pancreatitis. However, the link is difficult to establish and further evidence is required to prove the association.

  9. [(18) F]MK-9470 PET measurement of cannabinoid CB1 receptor availability in chronic cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarini, Jenny; Kuepper, Rebecca; Kemels, Dieter; van Os, Jim; Henquet, Cécile; Van Laere, Koen

    2015-03-01

    ?(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychoactive component of cannabis, exerts its central effects through activation of the cerebral type 1 cannabinoid (CB1 ) receptor. Pre-clinical studies have provided evidence that chronic cannabis exposure is linked to decreased CB1 receptor expression and this is thought to be a component underlying drug tolerance and dependence. In this study, we make first use of the selective high-affinity positron emission tomography (PET) ligand [(18) F]MK-9470 to obtain in vivo measurements of cerebral CB1 receptor availability in 10 chronic cannabis users (age?=?26.0?±?4.1 years). Each patient underwent [(18) F]MK-9470 PET within the first week following the last cannabis consumption. A population of 10 age-matched healthy subjects (age?=?23.0?±?2.9 years) was used as control group. Parametric modified standardized uptake value images, reflecting CB1 receptor availability, were calculated. Statistical parametric mapping and volume-of-interest (VOI) analyses of CB1 receptor availability were performed. Compared with controls, cannabis users showed a global decrease in CB1 receptor availability (-11.7 percent). VOI-based analysis demonstrated that the CB1 receptor decrease was significant in the temporal lobe (-12.7 percent), anterior (-12.6 percent) and posterior cingulate cortex (-13.5 percent) and nucleus accumbens (-11.2 percent). Voxel-based analysis confirmed this decrease and regional pattern in CB1 receptor availability in cannabis users. These findings revealed that chronic cannabis use may alter specific regional CB1 receptor expression through neuroadaptive changes in CB1 receptor availability, opening the way for the examination of specific CB1 -cannabis addiction interactions which may predict future cannabis-related treatment outcome. PMID:24373053

  10. Synthetic Cannabis-Induced Mania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustundag, Mehmet Fatih; Ozhan Ibis, Esra; Yucel, Atakan; Ozcan, Halil

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SC), cannabinoid 1 and cannabinoid 2 receptors agonists, are the psychoactive substances. SC was originally produced to treat medical conditions. Compared to other narcotics, SC is easier to obtain, cheap, and highly potent and has a long half-life. In addition, routine analysis does not detect SC, which has led to widespread use. A case is presented that manic episode was developed with the use of SC. Hospitalization and admission to psychiatric units depending on SC use have been observed mostly with psychosis. Although SC-induced affective symptoms were mentioned in the literature, mania has not been reported before. We aimed to discuss the psychiatric conditions induced by widespread use of SC via our case. PMID:25838957

  11. Hemispheric language asymmetry in first episode psychosis and schizotypy: the role of cannabis consumption and cognitive disorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Daniela A; Sullivan, Sarah; Lewis, Glyn; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Drake, Richard; Evans, Jonathan; Nutt, David; Mohr, Christine

    2015-03-01

    Cannabis use has been related to an elevated psychosis risk and attenuated cognitive functioning. Cannabis-related cognitive impairments are also observed in populations along the psychosis dimension. We here investigated whether a potential behavioral marker of the psychosis dimension (attenuated functional hemispheric asymmetry) is even further attenuated in individuals using cannabis (CU) vs those not using cannabis (nCU). We tested 29 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP; 11 CU) and 90 healthy controls (38 CU) on lateralized lexical decisions assessing left-hemisphere language dominance. In patients, psychotic symptoms were assessed by Positive & Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS). In controls, self-reported schizotypy was assessed (The Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences: O-LIFE). Results indicated that nCU FEP patients had a relative reduced hemispheric asymmetry, as did controls with increasing cognitive disorganization (CogDis) scores, in particular when belonging to the group of nCU controls. Positive, disorganized and negative PANSS scores in patients and negative and positive schizotypy in controls were unrelated to hemispheric asymmetry. These findings suggest that cannabis use potentially balances rather than exacerbates uncommon hemispheric laterality patterns. Moreover, in healthy populations, the potential stabilization of typical hemispheric asymmetry in CU might be most relevant to individuals with elevated CogDis. We discuss the potential beneficial and harmful effects of cannabis use along the psychosis dimension together with propositions for future studies that should account for the mediating role of additional substances (eg nicotine), cannabis composition (eg cannabidiol content), and individual differences (eg physical health, or absence of significant polysubstance use). PMID:25543118

  12. Cannabis Reclassification: What Is the Message to the Next Generation of Cannabis Users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrystal, Patrick; Winning, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of 2004 the UK government downgraded the legal status of cannabis from a Class B to a Class C drug. Following a review of this decision two years later, cannabis remained a Class C substance--which for some contrasted with the potential harmful social and health effects associated with its use, particularly for young people. These…

  13. Reprint of "Treatment of cannabis use disorders in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders--a systematic review"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HjorthØj, Carsten; Fohlmann, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis use disorders (CUD) are prevalent among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), with a range of detrimental effects, e.g. reduced compliance to medication and psychosocial interventions, and increased level of psychotic-dimension symptoms. The aim of this study was to review literature on treatments of CUD in SSD-patients.

  14. Anormalidades cognitivas no uso da cannabis / Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nadia, Solowij; Nicole, Pesa.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evidências de que o uso de cannabis prejudica funções cognitivas em humanos têm-se acumulado nas décadas recentes. O propósito desta revisão é o de atualizar o conhecimento nesta área com novos achados a partir da literatura mais recente. MÉTODO: As buscas na literatura foram realizadas ut [...] ilizando-se o banco de dados Web of Science até fevereiro de 2010. Foram buscados os termos "cannabi*" ou "marijuana" e "cogniti*" ou "memory" ou "attention" ou "executive function", e os estudos em humanos foram revisados preferencialmente em relação aos estudos em animais. DISCUSSÃO: O uso de cannabis prejudica a memória, a atenção, o controle inibitório, as funções executivas e a tomada de decisões, tanto durante como após o período de intoxicação aguda, persistindo por horas, dias, semanas ou mais após o último uso. Os estudos de desafio farmacológico em humanos estão elucidando a natureza e os substratos neurais das alterações cognitivas associadas a vários canabinoides. O uso pesado ou de longo prazo de cannabis parece resultar em anormalidades cognitivas mais duradouras e possivelmente em alterações cerebrais estruturais. Efeitos cognitivos adversos maiores estão associados ao uso de cannabis quando este começa no início da adolescência. CONCLUSÃO: O sistema canabinoide endógeno está envolvido nos mecanismos de regulação neural que modulam os processos subjacentes a uma gama de funções cognitivas que estão prejudicadas pela cannabis. Os déficits em usuários humanos muito provavelmente refletem, portanto, neuroadaptações e o funcionamento alterado do sistema canabinoide endógeno. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. METHOD: Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science [...] database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. DISCUSSION: Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. CONCLUSION: The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

  15. Anormalidades cognitivas no uso da cannabis Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Solowij

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evidências de que o uso de cannabis prejudica funções cognitivas em humanos têm-se acumulado nas décadas recentes. O propósito desta revisão é o de atualizar o conhecimento nesta área com novos achados a partir da literatura mais recente. MÉTODO: As buscas na literatura foram realizadas utilizando-se o banco de dados Web of Science até fevereiro de 2010. Foram buscados os termos "cannabi*" ou "marijuana" e "cogniti*" ou "memory" ou "attention" ou "executive function", e os estudos em humanos foram revisados preferencialmente em relação aos estudos em animais. DISCUSSÃO: O uso de cannabis prejudica a memória, a atenção, o controle inibitório, as funções executivas e a tomada de decisões, tanto durante como após o período de intoxicação aguda, persistindo por horas, dias, semanas ou mais após o último uso. Os estudos de desafio farmacológico em humanos estão elucidando a natureza e os substratos neurais das alterações cognitivas associadas a vários canabinoides. O uso pesado ou de longo prazo de cannabis parece resultar em anormalidades cognitivas mais duradouras e possivelmente em alterações cerebrais estruturais. Efeitos cognitivos adversos maiores estão associados ao uso de cannabis quando este começa no início da adolescência. CONCLUSÃO: O sistema canabinoide endógeno está envolvido nos mecanismos de regulação neural que modulam os processos subjacentes a uma gama de funções cognitivas que estão prejudicadas pela cannabis. Os déficits em usuários humanos muito provavelmente refletem, portanto, neuroadaptações e o funcionamento alterado do sistema canabinoide endógeno.OBJECTIVE: Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. METHOD: Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. DISCUSSION: Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. CONCLUSION: The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

  16. Reactivity to Cannabis Cues in Virtual Reality Environments†

    OpenAIRE

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Copp, Hilary L.; Traylor, Amy; Graap, Ken M.; Carter, Brian L.; Walton, Alicia; Ferrer, Mirtha

    2009-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) cue environments have been developed and successfully tested in nicotine, cocaine, and alcohol abusers. Aims in the current article include the development and testing of a novel VR cannabis cue reactivity assessment system. It was hypothesized that subjective craving levels and attention to cannabis cues would be higher in VR environments merits with cannabis cues compared to VR neutral environments. Twenty nontreatment-seeking current cannabis smokers participated in th...

  17. THE EFFECT OF CANNABIS COMPARED WITH ALCOHOL ON DRIVING

    OpenAIRE

    Sewell, R. Andrew; Poling, James; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of toler...

  18. Application of medical cannabis in patients with the neurodegeneration disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Kotu?a; Paulina Sobstyl; Jan Sobstyl; Paulina Chwil; Karol Terlecki; Jolanta Karwat; Paulina Gil-Kulik; Alicja Niedojad?o; Janusz Kocki

    2014-01-01

    Medical cannabis is the dried flowers of the female Cannabis sativa L. plant. Cannabis contains a number of active elements, including dronabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Dronabinol is usually the main ingredient. The body’s own cannabinoid system has been identified. The discovery of this system, which comprises endocannabinoids and receptors, confirmed that cannabis has a positive effect on certain illnesses and conditions. Two types of cannabinoid receptors have been identified: CB1 ...

  19. Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Schizophrenia? A Balanced Neurochemical Framework for Both Adverse and Therapeutic Effects of Cannabis Use

    OpenAIRE

    Malhi, Gin S.; Henderson, Antony F.; Michael Perdices; Coulston, Carissa M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have found that cannabinoids may improve neuropsychological performance, ameliorate negative symptoms, and have antipsychotic properties for a subgroup of the schizophrenia population. These findings are in contrast to the longstanding history of adverse consequences of cannabis use, predominantly on the positive symptoms, and a balanced neurochemical basis for these opposing views is lacking. This paper details a review of the neurobiological substrates of schizophrenia and th...

  20. Variations and origin of the atmospheric pollen of Cannabis detected in the province of Tetouan (NW Morocco): 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboulaich, Nadia; Trigo, M Mar; Bouziane, Hassan; Cabezudo, Baltasar; Recio, Marta; El Kadiri, Mohamed; Ater, Mohammed

    2013-01-15

    Cannabis, also called marihuana or hemp, is a wind-pollinated plant that produces hundreds of flowers on large inflorescences. It is also one of the oldest psychoactive plants known to humanity. Morocco has become one of the main producers of Cannabis resin (hashish), primarily supplying the European market. The aim of this paper is to ascertain whether the atmospheric monitoring of Cannabis pollen can play a role, from a criminological point of view, in the surveillance of Cannabis cultivation in the area of Tetouan (NW Morocco) as well as to estimate pollen emission so that the sensitive population can be warned about the allergic diseases that its pollen can cause. Aerobiological samplings were made with the aid of a Hirst type volumetric trap (Hirst, 1952), which worked uninterruptedly during a 3-year period (2008-2010) according to the methodology proposed by the Spanish Aerobiology Network, the REA. Cannabis pollen was present in the atmosphere of Tetouan mainly from early April to late August, a period in which about 95% of the annual counts were registered. The highest levels were detected in June and July, with concentrations more or less evenly distributed throughout the day with slight increases of 5% between 12:00 and 16:00 h. The strong association between skin test reactivity, respiratory symptoms, and pollination period found by other authors, together with the levels registered, suggests that Cannabis pollen could be a clinically important aeroallergen for sensitive patients. On the other hand, the data obtained could serve as an indicator of the cultivation activity of this species and should be taken into account by the state authorities since they provide strong evidence of the existence of Cannabis crops in the region of Tetouan. PMID:23208276

  1. Consommation de cannabis: quels sont les risques ? Cannabis: what are the risks ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giroud Christian

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Les cannabinoïdes contenus dans la plante de cannabis ont un double usage et possèdent des propriétés opposées suivant les circonstances et les doses employées. Les cannabinoïdes, essentiellement drogue récréative ou d'abus pourraient, pour certains d'entre eux, devenir des médicaments. Selon les conditions d'utilisation, ils peuvent être neurotoxiques ou neuroprotecteurs, carcinogènes ou anticancéreux, hyper-émétiques ou antiémétiques, pro-inflammatoires ou anti-inflammatoires... Les techniques de culture sous serre indoor ainsi que la sélection de variétés de cannabis à fort potentiel de production ont conduit à un accroissement notable des taux de THC. Le cannabis est la drogue illégale la plus fréquemment consommée en Suisse et ailleurs dans le monde occidental. Environ la moitié des jeunes ont déjà expérimenté le cannabis. Environ 10 % des consommateurs le fument quotidiennement et en sont devenus dépendants. Un tiers de ces usagers peut être considéré comme chroniquement intoxiqué. Le THC, la principale substance psychoactive du cannabis, interagit avec le "système endocannabinoïde". Ce système est composé de récepteurs cellulaires, de ligands endogènes et d'un dispositif complexe de synthèse, de dégradation, de régulation et de messagers intra-cellulaires. Le système endocannabinoïde joue un rôle clé dans le réglage fin du système nerveux. Les endocannabinoïdes régulent la mémorisation, l'apprentissage moteur et la plasticité des liaisons nerveuses. À dose psychoactive, le THC réduit les performances psychomotrices et neurocognitives. Les facultés d'apprentissage et de mémorisation sont diminuées. Le risque d'être responsable d'un accident de circulation est augmenté après prise de cannabis, et ceci d'autant plus que de l'alcool aura été consommé parallèlement. À l'exception des jeunes enfants, la consommation de cannabis n'entraîne pas de risque potentiel d'intoxication mortelle. Toutefois, le cannabis pourrait agir comme facteur déclenchant d'accident cardiovasculaire chez de rares individus prédisposés. Les individus jeunes, et/ou vulnérables ont un risque significativement plus élevé de développer une psychose à l'âge adulte ou de devenir dépendant au cannabis. Des études épidémiologiques ont montré que le risque de développer une schizophrénie à l'âge adulte était augmenté pour les consommateurs de cannabis et ceci d'autant plus que l'âge de début de consommation était précoce. Il en va de même pour le risque de dépression. Les troubles respiratoires pourraient être exacerbés par la prise de cannabis. Les femmes enceintes et celles qui allaitent ne devraient pas consommer de cannabis car le THC traverse la barrière hémato-placentaire, en outre, il se concentre dans le lait maternel. La période de la vie la plus sensible aux effets néfastes du cannabis correspond à celle allant du fœtus à l'adolescent. Le système endocannabinoïde sur lequel agit le THC serait en effet un acteur majeur orchestrant le développement des réseaux neuronaux dans le cerveau immature. La prise concomitante d'autres psychotropes comme l'alcool, les benzodiazépines ou la cocaïne conduit à des renforcements mutuels de leurs effets délétères. De plus, il a été montré l'existence d'une sensibilité croisée pour la majorité des psychotropes qui agissent sur le système de la récompense, le cannabis y compris, ce qui augmente ainsi le risque de pharmacodépendance. La prise régulière de doses élevées de cannabis entraîne l'apparition d'une tolérance et de symptômes de sevrage discrets à l'arrêt de la consommation. À part les effets négatifs mentionnés auparavant, le cannabis possède des propriétés médicales originales qui sont l'objet d'études attentives. Plusieurs cannabinoïdes mineurs naturels ou synthétiques, comme l'acide ajulémique, pourraient trouver un jour une place dans la pharmacopée. En usage thérapeutique, des variétés particulières de cannabis sont préférées, par

  2. Methamphetamine and cannabis abuse in adolescence: a quasi-experimental study on specific and long-term neurocognitive effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzen, Natalie L; Koopowitz, Sheri-Michelle; Ferrett, Helen L; Stein, Dan J; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Methamphetamine abuse affects brain structure and function. Although methamphetamine and cannabis are commonly abused together, few studies have investigated the differential neurocognitive consequences of methamphetamine abuse with or without cannabis. Furthermore, the effects of drug use on the developing adolescent brain remain poorly understood. We compared neurocognitive function between adolescents with ‘pure’ methamphetamine abuse, those with comorbid methamphetamine and cannabis abuse, and healthy controls at baseline and follow-up. Methods Individuals residing in the greater Cape Town region, between the ages of 13 and 18?years, were recruited into either Methamphetamine only group (Meth-only; n=10), Methamphetamine and cannabis group (Meth-cann; n=10) or healthy control (n=20) groups using a quasi-experimental design. All participants underwent a comprehensive neurocognitive assessment. Substance-use variables and psychiatric symptom counts were also recorded. A portion of the Meth-only and control participants completed 12-month follow-up assessments. Results While the Meth-cann group demonstrated widespread neurocognitive deficits at baseline, these deficits were restricted to the self-monitoring domain in the Meth-only group at baseline and at follow-up. Conclusions Methamphetamine abuse with cannabis abuse is associated with significantly more neurocognitive impairment than methamphetamine abuse alone, and such deficits may be enduring. PMID:25636791

  3. Oral fluid/plasma cannabinoid ratios following controlled oral THC and smoked cannabis administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Milman, Garry; Bergamaschi, Mateus; Mendu, Damodara R; Murray, Jeannie A; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-09-01

    Oral fluid (OF) is a valuable biological alternative for clinical and forensic drug testing. Evaluating OF to plasma (OF/P) cannabinoid ratios provides important pharmacokinetic data on the disposition of drug and factors influencing partition between matrices. Eleven chronic cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit for 51 days. There were four 5-day sessions of 0, 30, 60, and 120 mg oral ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/day followed by a five-puff smoked cannabis challenge on Day 5. Each session was separated by 9 days ad libitum cannabis smoking. OF and plasma specimens were analyzed for THC and metabolites. During ad libitum smoking, OF/P THC ratios were high (median, 6.1; range, 0.2-348.5) within 1 h after last smoking, decreasing to 0.1-20.7 (median, 2.1) by 13.0-17.1 h. OF/P THC ratios also decreased during 5-days oral THC dosing, and after the smoked cannabis challenge, median OF/P THC ratios decreased from 1.4 to 5.5 (0.04-245.6) at 0.25 h to 0.12 to 0.17 (0.04-5.1) at 10.5 h post-smoking. In other studies, longer exposure to more potent cannabis smoke and oromucosal cannabis spray was associated with increased OF/P THC peak ratios. Median OF/P 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) ratios were 0.3-2.5 (range, 0.1-14.7) ng/?g, much more consistent in various dosing conditions over time. OF/P THC, but not THCCOOH, ratios were significantly influenced by oral cavity contamination after smoking or oromucosal spray of cannabinoid products, followed by time-dependent decreases. Establishing relationships between OF and plasma cannabinoid concentrations is essential for making inferences of impairment or other clinical outcomes from OF concentrations. PMID:23831756

  4. Anthrax: Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Anthrax Share Compartir Symptoms The symptoms of anthrax depend on the type of infection and can ... than 2 months to appear. All types of anthrax have the potential, if untreated, to spread throughout ...

  5. Counselling young cannabis users by text message

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Ditte

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study of two SMS services aimed at providing young people with information on cannabis and helping them to reduce their consumption of the drug. The attitude of the 12 participants in the study towards the SMS services is generally positive, but they prefer factual information to advice and counselling. The messages prompt reflection and awareness among the recipients, and their repetitive, serial nature plays a significant part in the process of change. This is especially true of the young people whose use of cannabis is recreational. For them, the SMS services offer a less demanding, potentially less confrontational alternative to traditional forms of counselling and treatment.

  6. Pathways from cannabis to psychosis: a review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JonathanKBurns

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the relationship between cannabis use and psychosis is complex and remains unclear. Researchers and clinicians remain divided regarding key issues such as whether or not cannabis is an independent cause of psychosis and schizophrenia. This paper reviews the field in detail, examining questions of causality, the neurobiological basis for such causality and for differential inter-individual risk, the clinical and cognitive features of psychosis in cannabis users, and patterns of course and outcome of psychosis in the context of cannabis use. The author proposes two major pathways from cannabis to psychosis based on a differentiation between early-initiated lifelong cannabis use and a scenario where vulnerable individuals without a lifelong pattern of use consume cannabis over a relatively brief period of time just prior to psychosis onset. Additional key factors determining the clinical and neurobiological manifestation of psychosis as well as course and outcome in cannabis users include: underlying genetic and developmental vulnerability to schizophrenia-spectrum disorders; and whether or not cannabis use ceases or continues after the onset of psychosis. Finally, methodological guidelines are presented for future research aimed at both elucidating the pathways that lead from cannabis to psychosis and clarifying the long-term outcome of the disorder in those who have a history of using cannabis.

  7. Increased Blood Pressure Following Abrupt Cessation of Daily Cannabis Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandrey, Ryan; Umbricht, Annie; Strain, Eric C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. Acute cannabis administration increases blood pressure and heart rate and tolerance develops to these effects with heavy use. A valid and reliable withdrawal syndrome occurs in most daily users, but few studies have assessed the cardiovascular effects of withdrawal. The objective of this report is to describe unexpected changes in cardiovascular function during brief periods of supervised cannabis use and abstinence in daily cannabis users. Methods A within-subjects ABAC crossover study in which inpatient volunteers smoked cannabis ad-libitum (A), and abstained from cannabis (B/C). Vital signs were obtained three times daily during eleven inpatient days for thirteen daily cannabis users (11 Male, 8 African American). Results Blood pressure increased significantly during periods of cannabis abstinence compared with periods of cannabis use. The magnitude of increase was substantial in a subset (N=6) of participants, with mean increases of up to 22.8mmHg systolic and 12.3mmHg diastolic blood pressure observed. Heart rate also increased during abstinence when measures collected during periods of acute intoxication were excluded, but the magnitude of effect was not clinically significant. Conclusions Abrupt cessation of heavy cannabis use may cause clinically significant increases in blood pressure in a subset of users. Blood pressure should be monitored among those attempting to reduce or quit frequent cannabis use, particularly those with preexisting hypertension. The time course of this effect is currently unknown and requires further study. PMID:21359104

  8. Ammonia release from heated "street" cannabis leaf and its potential toxic effects on cannabis users.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bloor, R.; Wang, T. S.; Špan?l, Patrik; Smith, D.

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 103, ?. 10 (2008), s. 1671-1677. ISSN 0965-2140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : ammonia * cannabis * respiratory Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.244, year: 2008

  9. The cannabis and the endocannabinoid system. Psychotropic and metabolic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Vulturar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has been provided that a sustained use (smoking of cannabis (indian hemp, marijuana leads to impaired psychomotor performance, interacting and interfering with the organism’s endocannabinoid system. The effects are dependent on the used dose and the duration of such a habit and about one in ten consumers may develop dependence. More accentuated adverse effects were recorded in subjects with preexistent psychiatric illness and schizofrenics were found to be particularly vulne-rable to cannabis, which triggered relapses and aggravation. The endocannabinoid system includes specific receptors (CB1 and CB2 and the lipidic endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoilglycerol (2-AG, acting as activating ligands for the specific receptors. Enzymes ensuring the synthesis, as well as enyzmes involved in the degradation of endocannabinoids were also identified. A hyperactivation of this system leads to an exagerated appetite, hyperphagia, and subsequent obesity as well as to the development of an atherogenic dyslipidemia. The synthetic compound rimonabant, a blocker of the CB1 receptor reduced the exagerated appetite and the body weight, also normalising the plasma lipoprotein pattern. Unfortunately, adverse effects of such a therapy were reported emphasizing an increased incidence of depressive and/or anxious moods. Such observations were suggesting that the endo-cannabinoid system may also be involved in establishing a stable statisfied mood and connexions between this system and serotoninergic mediation were actually documented.

  10. Anormalidades cognitivas no uso da cannabis Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Solowij; Nicole Pesa

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Evidências de que o uso de cannabis prejudica funções cognitivas em humanos têm-se acumulado nas décadas recentes. O propósito desta revisão é o de atualizar o conhecimento nesta área com novos achados a partir da literatura mais recente. MÉTODO: As buscas na literatura foram realizadas utilizando-se o banco de dados Web of Science até fevereiro de 2010. Foram buscados os termos "cannabi*" ou "marijuana" e "cogniti*" ou "memory" ou "attention" ou "executive function", e o...

  11. Low efficacy of non-opioid drugs in opioid withdrawal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Derik; Klages, Eckard; Welzel, Helga; Mann, Karl; Croissant, Bernhard

    2005-06-01

    Opioid withdrawal, stress or cues associated with opioid consumption can induce opioid craving. If opioids are not available, opioid-dependent patients usually search for alternative drugs. Because several non-opioid drugs stimulate the endogenous opioidergic system, this concept may explain their frequent use by opioid-dependent patients. We hypothesized that non-opioid drugs alleviate opioid withdrawal symptoms and are therefore consumed by opioid addicts. We asked 89 opioid-dependent patients participating in an out-patient opioid maintenance program to estimate the potential of several non-opioid drugs in being able to alleviate opioid withdrawal. We applied a five-point Lickert scale (1 = very good reduction of opioid withdrawal; 5 = no reduction of opioid withdrawal). Patients could also indicate a worsening of opioid withdrawal. Values (mean +/- SD) were: for benzodiazepines, 3.2 +/- 1.1; tricyclic antidepressants, 3.6 +/- 1.1; cannabis, 3.6 +/- 1.0; alcohol, 4.1 +/- 1.1; cocaine, 4.2 +/- 1.1; amphetamine, 4.4 +/- 0.9; nicotine, 4.7 +/- 0.7; and caffeine, 4.9 +/- 0.5. A worsening of opioid withdrawal was reported by 62% of the patients for cocaine, 62% for amphetamine, 50% for caffeine, 37.5% for cannabis, 27% for nicotine, 26% for alcohol, 8% for tricyclic antidepressants and 3% for benzodiazepines. Our study shows a low efficacy of non-opioid drugs in alleviating opioid withdrawal symptoms. The data basis of this study was good and the sample was suitable to be asked for estimations of drug-drug interactions. Of the patients, 26 - 62% even reported a worsening of opioid withdrawal for cannabis, alcohol, cocaine and amphetamine. Only benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants were reported to have a moderate positive effect on opioid withdrawal. PMID:16191669

  12. Investigations into the hypothesis of transgenic cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascini, Fidelia

    2012-05-01

    The unusual concentration of cannabinoids recently found in marijuana samples submitted to the forensic laboratory for chemical analysis prompted an investigation into whether genetic modifications have been made to the DNA of Cannabis sativa L. to increase its potency. Traditional methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMO) were used to analyze herbal cannabis preparations. Our analyses support the hypothesis that marijuana samples submitted to forensic laboratories and characterized by an abnormal level of ?(9)-THC are the product of breeding selection rather than of transgenic modifications. Further, this research has shown a risk of false positive results associated with the poor quality of the seized samples and probably due to the contamination by other transgenic vegetable products. On the other hand, based on these data, a conclusive distinction between the hypothesis of GMO plant contamination and the other of genetic modification of cannabis cannot be made requiring further studies on comparative chemical and genetic analyses to find out an explanation for the recently detected increased potency of cannabis. PMID:22211569

  13. Tobacco and cannabis smoking cessation can lead to intoxication with clozapine or olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullino, D F; Delessert, D; Eap, C B; Preisig, M; Baumann, P

    2002-05-01

    Plasma levels of clozapine and olanzapine are lower in smokers than in nonsmokers, which is mainly due to induction of cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) by some smoke constituents. Smoking cessation in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs that are CYP1A2 substrates may result in increased plasma levels of the drug and, consequently, in adverse drug effects. Two cases of patients who smoked tobacco and cannabis are reported. The first patient, who was receiving clozapine treatment, developed confusion after tobacco and cannabis smoking cessation, which was related to increased clozapine plasma levels. The second patient, who was receiving olanzapine treatment, showed important extrapyramidal motor symptoms after reducing his tobacco consumption. The clinical implication of these observations is that smoking patients treated with CYP1A2 substrate antipsychotics should regularly be monitored with regard to their smoking consumption in order to adjust doses in cases of a reduction or increase in smoking. PMID:11981356

  14. Reactivity to cannabis cues in virtual reality environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordnick, Patrick S; Copp, Hilary L; Traylor, Amy; Graap, Ken M; Carter, Brian L; Walton, Alicia; Ferrer, Mirtha

    2009-06-01

    Virtual reality (VR) cue environments have been developed and successfully tested in nicotine, cocaine, and alcohol abusers. Aims in the current article include the development and testing of a novel VR cannabis cue reactivity assessment system. It was hypothesized that subjective craving levels and attention to cannabis cues would be higher in VR environments with cannabis cues compared to VR neutral environments. Twenty nontreatment-seeking current cannabis smokers participated in the VR cue trial. During the VR cue trial, participants were exposed to four virtual environments that contained audio, visual, olfactory, and vibrotactile sensory stimuli. Two VR environments contained cannabis cues that consisted of a party room in which people were smoking cannabis and a room containing cannabis paraphernalia without people. Two VR neutral rooms without cannabis cues consisted of a digital art gallery with nature videos. Subjective craving and attention to cues were significantly higher in the VR cannabis environments compared to the VR neutral environments. These findings indicate that VR cannabis cue reactivity may offer a new technology-based method to advance addiction research and treatment. PMID:19705672

  15. Genetic predisposition to schizophrenia associated with increased use of cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, R A; Verweij, K J H; Zuhair, M; Montgomery, G W; Henders, A K; Heath, A C; Madden, P A F; Medland, S E; Wray, N R; Martin, N G

    2014-11-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide. With debate surrounding the legalization and control of use, investigating its health risks has become a pressing area of research. One established association is that between cannabis use and schizophrenia, a debilitating psychiatric disorder affecting ~1% of the population over their lifetime. Although considerable evidence implicates cannabis use as a component cause of schizophrenia, it remains unclear whether this is entirely due to cannabis directly raising risk of psychosis, or whether the same genes that increases psychosis risk may also increase risk of cannabis use. In a sample of 2082 healthy individuals, we show an association between an individual's burden of schizophrenia risk alleles and use of cannabis. This was significant both for comparing those who have ever versus never used cannabis (P=2.6 × 10(-4)), and for quantity of use within users (P=3.0 × 10(-3)). Although directly predicting only a small amount of the variance in cannabis use, these findings suggest that part of the association between schizophrenia and cannabis is due to a shared genetic aetiology. This form of gene-environment correlation is an important consideration when calculating the impact of environmental risk factors, including cannabis use. PMID:24957864

  16. The effect of cannabis use on memory function: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoeler T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tabea Schoeler, Sagnik BhattacharyyaDepartment of Psychosis Studies, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UKAbstract: Investigating the effects of cannabis use on memory function appears challenging. While early observational investigations aimed to elucidate the longer-term effects of cannabis use on memory function in humans, findings remained equivocal and pointed to a pattern of interacting factors impacting on the relationship between cannabis use and memory function, rather than a simple direct effect of cannabis. Only recently, a clearer picture of the chronic and acute effects of cannabis use on memory function has emerged once studies have controlled for potential confounding factors and started to investigate the acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC and cannabidiol (CBD, the main ingredients in the extract of the cannabis plant in pharmacological challenge experiments. Relatively consistent findings have been reported regarding the acute impairments induced by a single dose of ?9-THC on verbal and working memory. It is unclear whether they may persist beyond the intoxication state. In the long-term, these impairments seem particularly likely to manifest and may also persist following abstinence if regular and heavy use of cannabis strains high in ?9-THC is started at an early age. Although still at an early stage, studies that employed advanced neuroimaging techniques have started to model the neural underpinnings of the effects of cannabis use and implicate a network of functional and morphological alterations that may moderate the effects of cannabis on memory function. Future experimental and epidemiological studies that take into consideration individual differences, particularly previous cannabis history and demographic characteristics, but also the precise mixture of the ingredients of the consumed cannabis are necessary to clarify the magnitude and the mechanisms by which cannabis-induced memory impairments occur and to elucidate underlying neurobiological mechanisms.Keywords: cannabis, THC, CBD, memory, neuroimaging, fMRI

  17. Oral fluid cannabinoids in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum cannabis smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Mendu, Damodara R; Murray, Jeannie A; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-09-14

    Oral fluid (OF) offers a simple, non-invasive, directly observable sample collection for clinical and forensic drug testing. Given that chronic cannabis smokers often engage in drug administration multiple times daily, evaluating OF cannabinoid pharmacokinetics during ad libitum smoking is important for practical development of analytical methods and informed interpretation of test results. Eleven cannabis smokers resided in a closed research unit for 51?days, and underwent four, 5-day oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) treatments. Each medication period was separated by 9?days of ad libitum cannabis smoking from 12:00 to 23:00?h daily. Ten OF samples were collected from 9:00-22:00?h on each of the last ad libitum smoking days (Study Days 4, 18, 32, and 46). As the number of cannabis cigarettes smoked increased over the study days, OF THC, cannabinol (CBN), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) also increased with a significant effect of time since last smoking (?time; range, 0.0-17.4?h) and ?88% detection rates; concentrations on Day 4 were significantly lower than those on Days 32 and 46 but not Day 18. Within 30?min of smoking, median THC, CBN, and THCCOOH concentrations were 689?µg/L, 116?µg/L, and 147?ng/L, respectively, decreasing to 19.4?µg/L, 2.4?µg/L, and 87.6?ng/L after 10?h. Cannabidiol and 11-hydroxy-THC showed overall lower detection rates of 29 and 8.6%, respectively. Cannabinoid disposition in OF was highly influenced by ?time and composition of smoked cannabis. Furthermore, cannabinoid OF concentrations increased over ad libitum smoking days, in parallel with increased cannabis self-administration, possibly reflecting development of increased cannabis tolerance. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25220020

  18. Mortality in GOLD stages of COPD and its dependence on symptoms of chronic bronchitis

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson Peter M; Nilsson Jan-Åke; Pehrsson Kerstin; Ekberg-Aronsson Marie; Löfdahl Claes-Göran

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The GOLD classification of COPD severity introduces a stage 0 (at risk) comprising individuals with productive cough and normal lung function. The aims of this study were to investigate total mortality risks in GOLD stages 0–4 with special focus on stage 0, and furthermore to assess the influence of symptoms of chronic bronchitis on mortality risks in GOLD stages 1–4. Method Between 1974 and 1992, a total of 22 044 middle-aged individuals participated in a health scree...

  19. Poor School Satisfaction and Number of Cannabis Using Peers within School Classes as Individual Risk Factors for Cannabis Use among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Dominic A.; Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjorn E.

    2010-01-01

    There is little information available on the topic of poor school satisfaction as a risk factor for cannabis use among adolescents. We examined if there was an association between poor school satisfaction, school class cannabis use and individual cannabis use. Further, we investigated if many cannabis users within the school class statistically…

  20. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) as an Environmentally Friendly Energyplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisa, Liena; Adamovics, Aleksandrs

    2010-01-01

    Hemp is suitable as a renewable energy resource. The aim of this study was to clarify local hemp's (Cannabis sativa L.) possibilities for energy use. Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and titanium (Ti) presence in hemp was determined using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer Optima 2100 DV. If there were increased N fertilizer rates, there were increased hemp `P?ri?i' seeds and shive yield increases, but the oil content was reduced. Arsenic content was higher in the shives than in the stems with fibre. The ash content depends on non-organic substances which the plants absorb during the vegetation season. The lignin content depends on several factors: plant parts, and the N fertilizer rate. The unexplored factors have a great effect on the ash and lignin content. Hemp is suitable for cultivation and for bio-energy production in the agro-climatic conditions in Latvia.

  1. Exposure to the tsunami disaster, PTSD symptoms and increased substance use – an Internet based survey of male and female residents of Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Stefan; Rossegger, Astrid; Rossler, Wulf; Bisson, Jonathan I; Endrass, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    Background After the tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean basin an Internet based self-screening test was made available in order to facilitate contact with mental health services. Although primarily designed for surviving Swiss tourists as well as relatives and acquaintances of the victims, the screening instrument was open to anyone who felt psychologically affected by this disaster. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influences between self-declared increased substance use in the aftermath of the tsunami disaster, trauma exposure and current PTSD symptoms. Methods One section of the screening covered addiction related behavior. We analyzed the relationship between increased substance use, the level of PTSD symptoms and trauma exposure using multivariable logistic regression with substance use as the dependent variable. Included in the study were only subjects who reported being residents of Switzerland and the analyses were stratified by gender in order to control for possible socio-cultural or gender differences in the use of psychotropic substances. Results In women PTSD symptoms and degree of exposure enlarged the odds of increased alcohol, pharmaceuticals and cannabis use significantly. In men the relationship was more specific: PTSD symptoms and degree of exposure only enlarged the odds of increased pharmaceutical consumption significantly. Increases in alcohol, cannabis and tobacco use were only significantly associated with the degree of PTSD symptoms. Conclusion The tsunami was associated with increased substance use. This study not only replicates earlier findings but also suggests for a gender specificity of post-traumatic substance use increase. PMID:18366682

  2. Yield and turnover of illicit indoor cannabis (Cannabis spp.) plantations in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Wouter; Surmont, Tim; Van Damme, Patrick; De Ruyver, Brice

    2012-07-10

    In prosecution, Belgian judiciary currently uses outdated yield figures (28.1g per plant, sold at € 3/g at grower level) for fining illicit indoor cannabis plantations. Using state-of-the-art cultivation techniques, our growth experiments showed that yield is better expressed in g/m(2) cultivated surface area rather than in g per plant, and that yield varies significantly between different cannabis strains. It was found that the lower-bound of the one-sided 95% confidence interval of the yield of an indoor cannabis plantation can be set at 575 g/m(2). Prices and pricing mechanisms were investigated using interviews with respondents selected through snowball sampling. Results reveal that (i) the Belgian cannabis market chain is highly complex; (ii) unit prices are predominantly determined by transaction sizes; but also (iii) a set of product- and socially-related price-fixing mechanisms have an equally important role. At grower level, respondents reported prices for 1 g of dry cannabis buds to range € 3.00-4.25. PMID:22502940

  3. Cannabis use correlates with schizotypy in healthy people.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Jh; Wellman, Na; Rawlins, Jn

    1996-01-01

    Cannabis use or high scores on self-report schizotypy questionnaires predict an increased risk of developing clinical psychosis. We tested whether cannabis use correlated with schizotypal and other personality traits in 211 healthy adults. Subjects who had used cannabis showed higher scores on schizotypy, borderline and psychoticism scales than never-users. Multivariate analysis, covarying lie scale scores, age and educational level indicated that high schizotypal traits best discriminated su...

  4. Cannabis use and violence:Is there a link?

    OpenAIRE

    Norstro?m, Thor; Rossow, Ingeborg

    2014-01-01

    While several studies suggest that cannabis users are at increased risk of interpersonal violence, it is not clear to what extent the association is causal. Our paper aims to assess the association between cannabis use and violence by using a method that diminishes the risk of confounding. Methods: We analysed data on cannabis use and violent behaviour from the second (1994) and third (1999) waves of the Young in Norway Longitudinal Study (cumulative response rate: 68.1%, n = 2681). We applie...

  5. Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melamede Robert

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract More people are using the cannabis plant as modern basic and clinical science reaffirms and extends its medicinal uses. Concomitantly, concern and opposition to smoked medicine has occurred, in part due to the known carcinogenic consequences of smoking tobacco. Are these reactions justified? While chemically very similar, there are fundamental differences in the pharmacological properties between cannabis and tobacco smoke. Cannabis smoke contains cannabinoids whereas tobacco smoke contains nicotine. Available scientific data, that examines the carcinogenic properties of inhaling smoke and its biological consequences, suggests reasons why tobacco smoke, but not cannabis smoke, may result in lung cancer.

  6. Cannabis use during adolescent development: susceptibility to psychiatric illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MichaelLawrenceMiller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis use is increasingly pervasive among adolescents today, even more common than cigarette smoking. The evolving policy surrounding the legalization of cannabis reaffirms the need to understand the relationship between cannabis exposure early in life and psychiatric illnesses. Cannabis contains psychoactive components, notably ?9-tetrahydrocannbinol (THC, that interfere with the brain’s endogenous endocannabinoid system, which is critically involved in both pre- and post-natal neurodevelopment. Consequently, THC and related compounds could potentially usurp normal adolescent neurodevelopment, shifting the brain’s developmental trajectory towards a disease-vulnerable state, predisposing early cannabis-users to motivational, affective and psychotic disorders. Numerous human studies, including prospective longitudinal studies, demonstrate that early cannabis use is associated with major depressive disorder and drug addiction. A strong association between schizophrenia and cannabis use is also apparent, especially when considering genetic factors that interact with this environmental exposure. These human studies set a foundation for carefully controlled animal studies which demonstrate similar patterns following early cannabinoid exposure. Given the vulnerable nature of adolescent neurodevelopment and the persistent changes that follow early cannabis exposure, the experimental findings outlined should be carefully considered by policymakers. In order to fully address the growing issues of psychiatric illnesses and to ensure a healthy future, measures should be taken to reduce cannabis use among teens.

  7. Gross morphological brain changes with chronic, heavy cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzetti, Valentina; Solowij, Nadia; Whittle, Sarah; Fornito, Alex; Lubman, Dan I; Pantelis, Christos; Yücel, Murat

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the morphology of multiple brain regions in a rare sample of 15 very heavy cannabis users with minimal psychiatric comorbidity or significant exposure to other substances (compared with 15 age- and IQ-matched non-cannabis-using controls) using manual techniques. Heavy cannabis users demonstrated smaller hippocampus and amygdala volumes, but no alterations of the orbitofrontal and anterior- and paracingulate cortices, or the pituitary gland. These findings indicate that chronic cannabis use has a selective and detrimental impact on the morphology of the mediotemporal lobe. PMID:25431432

  8. Cannabis smoke condensate II: influence of tobacco on tetrahydrocannabinol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Kooy, F; Pomahacova, B; Verpoorte, R

    2009-02-01

    Medicinal cannabis has attracted a lot of attention in recent times. Various forms of administration are used, of which smoking is very common but the least desirable. Smoking cannabis generates a large amount of unwanted side products, of which carcinogenic compounds are the most dangerous. A common practice among recreational drug users, and to a lesser degree patients who uses cannabis as medicine, is to mix the cannabis material with commercially available tobacco in order to increase the burning efficiency of the cigarette and to reduce the overall costs of the cigarette. In this study cannabis material has been mixed with tobacco in order to determine whether tobacco has an influence on the amount of and ratio between tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabigerol (CBG), and cannabinol (CBN) administered while smoking. A small-scale smoking machine has been used and cannabis mixed with various ratios of tobacco was smoked. The trapped smoke was quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the amount of THC, CBG, and CBN was determined for each cigarette. We have found that tobacco increases the amount of THC inhaled per gram of cannabis from 32.70 +/- 2.29 mg/g for a 100% cannabis cigarette to 58.90 +/- 2.30 mg/g for a 25% cannabis cigarette. This indicates that tobacco increases the vaporization efficiency of THC by as much as 45% under the conditions tested. PMID:18855154

  9. Etat limite, adolescence, cannabis et cocaïne

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Didier, Lauru.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Borderline, teenagers, cannabis and cocaine. Teenagers are fond of psychoactive products. Somme of them, according to their personality, go to the limits of their psychic structure. In the practical field, we can often observe the revealing of borderline states, very different from the usual problem [...] atic teenagers. Psychoactive substances, used for the first time as anxiolytics, become quickly a cause of anxiety, therefore revealing the subjects in borderline states.

  10. LONG TERM EFFECTS OF CANNABIS1

    OpenAIRE

    Sethi, B. B.; Trivedi, J. K.; Singh, Harjeet

    1981-01-01

    50 chronic cannabis users were studied for their physical, mental, cognitive and socio-economic aspects of health. They were given W.M.S., Bhatia Battery of intelligence and B.G.T. It was observed that only 12% provided clue for suspecting cognitive deficiency. No social breakdown phenomenon was observed in the sample. Also, no significant physical illness was detected in the subjects.

  11. Lifecourse SEP and tobacco and cannabis use

    OpenAIRE

    Bowes, Lucy; Chollet, Aude; Fombonne, Eric; Gale?ra, Ce?dric; Melchior, Maria

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social inequalities in substance use have been well-documented; however, the impact of changes in socio-economic position from childhood to adulthood is unclear. We examined the relationship between intergenerational trajectories of social position and tobacco and cannabis use among young adults. METHODS: Data come from 1103 participants (mean age: 28.9 years) of the Trajectoires Epidémiologiques en Population (TEMPO) study and their parents, participants of the GAZEL study, Fran...

  12. Distress, coping, and drug law enforcement in a series of patients using medical cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Sunil Kumar; Carter, Gregory; Sullivan, Mark; Morrill, Richard; Zumbrunnen, Craig; Mayer, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Patients using medical cannabis in the United States inhabit a conflicting medicolegal space. This study presents data from a dispensary-based survey of patients using medical cannabis in the state of Washington regarding cannabis-specific health behaviors, levels of psychological distress, stress regarding marijuana criminality, past experiences with drug law enforcement, and coping behaviors. Thirty-seven subjects were enrolled in this study, and all but three completed survey materials. The median index of psychological distress, as measured by the Behavioral Symptom Inventory, was nearly 2.5 times higher than that found in a general population sample but one third less than that found in an outpatient sample. The subjects reported a moderate amount of stress related to the criminality of marijuana, with 76% reporting previous exposure to 119 separate drug law enforcement tactics in total. The subjects reported a wide range of coping methods, and their responses to a modified standardized survey showed the confounding influence of legality in assessing substance-related disorders. PMID:23538974

  13. The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Malfait, Am; Gallily, R.; Sumariwalla, Pf; Malik, As; Andreakos, E.; Mechoulam, R.; Feldmann, M.

    2000-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of cannabidiol (CBD), the major nonpsychoactive component of cannabis, was explored in murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was elicited by immunizing DBA/1 mice with type II collagen (CII) in complete Freund's adjuvant. The CII used was either bovine or murine, resulting in classical acute CIA or in chronic relapsing CIA, respectively. CBD was administered after onset of clinical symptoms, and in both models of arthritis the treatment effectively blocked pro...

  14. Self-reported efficacy of cannabis and other complementary medicine modalities by Parkinson's disease patients in colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finseth, Taylor Andrew; Hedeman, Jessica Louise; Brown, Robert Preston; Johnson, Kristina I; Binder, Matthew Sean; Kluger, Benzi M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used by Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We sought to provide information on CAM use and efficacy in PD patients in the Denver metro area with particular attention to cannabis use given its recent change in legal status. Methods. Self-administered surveys on CAM use and efficacy were completed by PD patients identified in clinics and support groups across the Denver metro area between 2012 and 2013. Results. 207 patients (age 69 ± 11; 60% male) completed the survey. Responses to individual CAM therapy items showed that 85% of respondents used at least one form of CAM. The most frequently reported CAMs were vitamins (66%), prayer (59%), massage (45%), and relaxation (32%). Self-reported improvement related to the use of CAM was highest for massage, art therapy, music therapy, and cannabis. While only 4.3% of our survey responders reported use of cannabis, it ranked among the most effective CAM therapies. Conclusions. Overall, our cross-sectional study was notable for a high rate of CAM utilization amongst PD patients and high rates of self-reported efficacy across most CAM modalities. Cannabis was rarely used in our population but users reported high efficacy, mainly for nonmotor symptoms. PMID:25821504

  15. Legalising medical use of cannabis in South Africa: Is the empirical evidence sufficient to support policy shifts in this direction?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C D H, Parry; B J, Myers.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Inkatha Freedom Party MP Mario Oriani-Ambrosini's impassioned plea to legalise the medical use of cannabis must be understood in the context of his own condition as well as legislative changes in at least ten countries. This article argues that any decisions to shift policy must be based on a consid [...] eration of the evidence on the risks and benefits associated with the medical use of cannabis for the individual and broader society. It concludes that there are important gaps in the evidence base, particularly in human trials supporting the efficacy of cannabis use for treating and preventing medical conditions and alleviating negative symptoms associated with these conditions. South African researchers should be enabled actively to support development of the necessary evidence base by conducting preclinical and clinical research in this area. Human trials to establish the efficacy of the use of cannabis/cannabinoids in addressing AIDS wasting syndrome and other negative sequelae of HIV and AIDS are especially needed.

  16. Self-Reported Efficacy of Cannabis and Other Complementary Medicine Modalities by Parkinson's Disease Patients in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finseth, Taylor Andrew; Hedeman, Jessica Louise; Brown, Robert Preston; Johnson, Kristina I.; Binder, Matthew Sean; Kluger, Benzi M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used by Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We sought to provide information on CAM use and efficacy in PD patients in the Denver metro area with particular attention to cannabis use given its recent change in legal status. Methods. Self-administered surveys on CAM use and efficacy were completed by PD patients identified in clinics and support groups across the Denver metro area between 2012 and 2013. Results. 207 patients (age 69 ± 11; 60% male) completed the survey. Responses to individual CAM therapy items showed that 85% of respondents used at least one form of CAM. The most frequently reported CAMs were vitamins (66%), prayer (59%), massage (45%), and relaxation (32%). Self-reported improvement related to the use of CAM was highest for massage, art therapy, music therapy, and cannabis. While only 4.3% of our survey responders reported use of cannabis, it ranked among the most effective CAM therapies. Conclusions. Overall, our cross-sectional study was notable for a high rate of CAM utilization amongst PD patients and high rates of self-reported efficacy across most CAM modalities. Cannabis was rarely used in our population but users reported high efficacy, mainly for nonmotor symptoms.

  17. Cannabinoid hyperemesis should be recognised as an effect of chronic cannabis abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Sauid; Ismail, Sanaa; Ghaus, Saad; Roop-E-Zahra; Rostami, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe the second reported case of cannabinoid hyperemesis in UK. A 42 years old patient presented on more than one occasion with vomiting, abdominal pain, fever and dehydration and treated as sepsis with antibiotics. Extensive investigations including upper GI endoscopy, colonoscopy, chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasound, abdominal CT scan, barium swallow and echocardiogram; all reported normal. Once the diagnosis of cannabinoid hyperemesis was established, he was advised to abstain from cannabis use resulting in complete resolution of his symptoms. PMID:25120899

  18. Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome: Clinical diagnosis of an underrecognised manifestation of chronic cannabis abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Siva P Sontineni, Sanjay Chaudhary

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a common drug of abuse that is associated with various long-term and short-term adverse effects. The nature of its association with vomiting after chronic abuse is obscure and is underrecognised by clinicians. In some patients this vomiting can take on a pattern similar to cyclic vomiting syndrome with a peculiar compulsive hot bathing pattern, which relieves intense feelings of nausea and accompanying symptoms. In this case report, we describe a twenty-two year-old-male with a hi...

  19. Cannabis use and destructive periodontal diseases among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, Rodrigo; Baelum, Vibeke

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this experiment was to investigate the association between cannabis use and destructive periodontal disease among adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from a population screening examination carried out among Chilean high school students from the Province of Santiago were used to determine whether there was an association between the use of cannabis and signs of periodontal diseases as defined by (1) the presence of necrotizing ulcerative gingival (NUG) lesions or (2) the presence of clinical attachment loss (CAL) > or =3 mm. The cannabis exposures variables considered were "Ever use of cannabis" (yes/no) and "Regular use of cannabis" (yes/no). The associations were investigated using multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, paternal income, paternal education, frequency of tooth-brushing and time since last dental visit. RESULTS: Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that "Ever use of cannabis" was significantly negatively associated with the presence of NUG lesions (OR=0.47 [0.2;0.9]) among non-smokers only. No significant associations were observed between the presence of CAL > or =3 mm and cannabis use in either of the smoking groups. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence to suggest that the use of cannabis is positively associated with periodontal diseases in this adolescent population.

  20. Standardized cannabis in multiple sclerosis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hornby, Paul; Sharma, Manju

    2010-01-01

    A 52 year old female suffering from severe progressive multiple sclerosis was administered quantifiable amounts of standardized cannabis and monitored over the period of one year, while providing daily pain charts and records of her condition. An average daily intake of 500 mg of Tetrahydrocannabinol as cannabis was required to achieve a desired quality of life.

  1. Four decades of cannabis criminals in Canada: 1970-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia G. Erickson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Canada was one of the first countries in the world to criminalise cannabis in 1923. It was not until the late 1960s and an associated upsurge of youthful cannabis use that the government and various stakeholders seriously interrogated the appropriateness of this punitive prohibition. Nevertheless, despite numerous opportunities for law reform for over four decades, cannabis possession continues to be illegal and as a result, hundreds of thousands of Canadians have received criminal records under these laws. This article reviews federal attempts at cannabis law reform and uses data spanning several decades to examine the characteristics of individuals convicted of cannabis possession and the implications of criminalisation on their lives.

  2. Exercise dependencesymptoms and mechanisms [Uzale?nienie od ?wicze? fizycznych – objawy i mechanizmy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkowska, Monika

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to synthesise the knowledge about the phenomenon of exercise dependence (ED, which is now characterised by an obsessive preoccupation with exercise, negative in nature. ED could be operationalized as a multidimensional maladaptive pattern of exercise, leading to clinically impairment or distress. Its criteria are: tolerance, withdrawal effects, lack of control, reductions in other activities, impaired psychological, social or physical functioning. For primary ED, the physical activity is an end in itself; for secondary ED, motivation is extrinsic – to control or alter body mass and shape. Estimates of the prevalence of ED range from 2–3% to 20–30%. Hypotheses of ED development concentrate on ß-endorphin, sympathetic arousal, affect regulation or some psychological explanations (e.g. exercise as distractor.

  3. Cannabis in Sport: Anti-Doping Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Huestis, Marilyn A.; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Since 2004, when the World Anti-Doping Agency assumed the responsi-bility for establishing and maintaining the list of prohibited substances and methods in sport (i.e. the Prohibited List), cannabinoids have been prohibited in all sports during competition. The basis for this prohibition can be found in the World Anti-Doping Code, which defines the three criteria used to consider banning a substance. In this context, we discuss the potential of can-nabis to enhance sports performance, the ris...

  4. Psychosocial Factors Related to Cannabis Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J.; Koppel, Jonathan; Brook, David W.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the association between psychosocial risk and protective factors and cannabis use disorders (CUDs) in a cohort of African American and Puerto Rican young adults. A representative sample (N=838) from the East Harlem area of New York City was assessed at four points in time (at mean ages 14.1, 19.2, 24.5, and 29.2). The psychosocial measures came from six domains: personality attributes, family, peer, work, neighborhood, and substance use The psychosoc...

  5. Compulsive showering and marijuana use – the cannabis hyperemisis syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Fawwaz; Panchoo, Kirby; Bartholemew, Maria; Maharaj, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 26 Final Diagnosis: Marihuana addiction Symptoms: Compulsive showering • nausea • vomiting Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Toxicology Objective: Unexpected drug reaction Background: The use or misuse of Cannabis is well recognized in the Caribbean region. Recently, the cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome has been described. The triad is characterized by chronic marijuana use, cyclical vomiting, and compulsive bathing. With the extensive use to marijuana as a recreational drug and also the increased use as prescription medication, a patient presenting with this symptomatology needs to be assessed appropriately and this syndrome needs to be one of the differential diagnoses. Case Report: To our knowledge, we report the first such case in the Caribbean region. Here, we report on the case of a 26-year-old Caucasian male with a 3-week history of nausea and week of epigastric pain and vomiting. The patient was known to use marijuana daily for 2 years and had similar complaints for the last 6 months. Conclusions: Because this popular recreational drug is now being used with increased frequency as a prescribed medication, it is crucial that clinicians be aware of this condition, which can present as a diagnostic dilemma. PMID:23997851

  6. Cannabis users differ from non-users on measures of personality and schizotypy

    OpenAIRE

    Fridberg, Daniel J.; Vollmer, Jennifer M.; O Donnell, Brian F.; Skosnik, Patrick D.

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that cannabis use may be a risk factor for schizophrenia (SZ), and chronic cannabis users score higher than non-users on measures of schizotypal personality traits. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relations between normal personality, schizotypy, and cannabis use. Sixty-two chronic cannabis users and 45 cannabis-naïve controls completed a measure of normal personality, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and two measures of schizot...

  7. Emotional processing deficits in chronic cannabis use: A replication and extension

    OpenAIRE

    Hindocha, C.; Wollenberg, O.; Carter Leno, V.; Alvarez, B. O.; Curran, H. V.; Freeman, T. P.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy cannabis use is associated with interpersonal problems that may arise in part from the inaccurate perception of emotional faces. Only one study reports impairments in emotional facial affect processing in heavy cannabis users; however, it is not clear whether these findings were attributable to differences between cannabis users and controls in schizotypy or gender, rather than from cannabis use itself. A total of 25 frequent cannabis users and 34 non-using controls completed an emotion...

  8. Moral regulation and the presumption of guilt in Health Canada's medical cannabis policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Philippe

    2009-07-01

    This paper is a sociological examination of policies and practices in Health Canada's Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD) that presume the illicit intentions and inherent "guilt" of medical cannabis users, hampering safe access to a medicine to which many are legally entitled, and raising doubts about this federal programme's overall effectiveness and constitutional legitimacy. Beginning with a brief historical overview of Canada's federal medical cannabis programme, this paper examines the failure of the MMAD to meet the needs of many sick and suffering Canadians through Hunt's [Hunt, A. (1999). Governing morals: A social history of moral regulation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press] work on moral regulation and Wodak's [Wodak, A. (2007). Ethics and drug policy. Psychiatry, 6(2), 59-62] critique of "deontological" drug policy strategies. I then cite Tupper's [Tupper, K. W. (2007). The globalization of ayahuasca: Harm reduction or benefit maximization? International Journal of Drug Policy, doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2006.11.001] argument that shifting to a generative metaphor that constructs certain entheogenic substances as potentially useful "tools" rather than regulating them through inherently moralistic prohibitionist policies would better serve public health, and incorporate Young's [Young, I. M. (1990). Justice and the politics of difference. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press] theories of domination and oppression to examine the rise of community-base medical cannabis dispensaries as "new social movements". First-hand accounts by medical cannabis patients, federally funded studies, and internal Health Canada communication and documents suggest that current federal policies and practices are blocking safe access to this herbal medicine. The community-based dispensary model of medical cannabis access is a patient-centered "new social movement" that mitigates the stigmatization and moral regulation of their member-clients by creating opportunities for engagement, empowerment and joint knowledge creation. In light of ongoing Charter challenges and patient criticism, the survival of this federal programme will depend on the government's ability to shift away from policies based on the oppression and moral regulation, and towards consequentialist policies that balance harm reduction and benefit maximization. The effectiveness of such an approach is exemplified by the success of the community-based dispensary model which is currently producing more peer-reviewed research and supplying medical cannabis to a far greater number of patients than Health Canada's Marihuana Medical Access Division. PMID:19124233

  9. Síntomas depresivos como factor de riesgo de dependencia en adultos mayores Depressive symptoms as a risk factor for dependence in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Ávila-Funes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la relación entre síntomas depresivos y dependencia funcional. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio longitudinal con 1 880 adultos mayores evaluados en 2001 y 2003. Se determinaron los síntomas depresivos con una versión modificada de la Escala de Depresión del Centro de Estudios Epidemiológicos y la dependencia con las escalas de Lawton y Brody, y Katz. La dependencia implicó la asistencia y ayuda para realizar alguna de las actividades interrogadas. Los análisis multifactoriales probaron el nexo entre síntomas depresivos y desarrollo de dependencia. RESULTADOS: En 2001, 37.9% mostró síntomas depresivos. En 2003, 6.1 y 12.7% desarrollaron dependencia para al menos una de las actividades básicas (ABVD e instrumentales de la vida diaria (AIVD, respectivamente. En el análisis multivariado, los síntomas depresivos fueron factor de riesgo sólo para dependencia en las AIVD. CONCLUSIONES: Los síntomas depresivos favorecen el desarrollo de dependencia funcional. Es necesario su reconocimiento sistemático durante la evaluación clínica del adulto mayor.OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between depressive symptoms and dependence in activities of daily living. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Participants, aged 70 to 104 (n= 1 880, were evaluated twice (2001 and 2003. Depressive symptoms were established by a modified version of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, whereas functional dependence was assessed with Lawton & Brody and Katz scales. Dependence implies the attendance and assistance of another person to accomplish the activity. Multivariate regression analyses were used to determine the effect of depressive symptoms on incident dependence. RESULTS: At baseline, 37.9% had depressive symptoms. After two years, 6.1 and 12.7% developed functional dependence for one or more ADL and IADL, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that depressive symptoms were a risk factor to the development of functional dependence only for the instrumental activities for daily living. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms are a risk factor for functional dependence. Systematic screening it seems necessary in the evaluation of geriatric patients.

  10. Simultaneous alcohol and cannabis expectancies predict simultaneous use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earleywine Mitch

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicts increased negative consequences for users beyond individual or even concurrent use of the two drugs. Given the widespread use of the drugs and common simultaneous consumption, problems unique to simultaneous use may bear important implications for many substance users. Cognitive expectancies offer a template for future drug use behavior based on previous drug experiences, accurately predicting future use and problems. Studies reveal similar mechanisms underlying both alcohol and cannabis expectancies, but little research examines simultaneous expectancies for alcohol and cannabis use. Whereas research has demonstrated unique outcomes associated with simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use, this study hypothesized that unique cognitive expectancies may underlie simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use. Results: This study examined a sample of 2600 (66% male; 34% female Internet survey respondents solicited through advertisements with online cannabis-related organizations. The study employed known measures of drug use and expectancies, as well as a new measure of simultaneous drug use expectancies. Expectancies for simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicted simultaneous use over and above expectancies for each drug individually. Discussion Simultaneous expectancies may provide meaningful information not available with individual drug expectancies. These findings bear potential implications on the assessment and treatment of substance abuse problems, as well as researcher conceptualizations of drug expectancies. Policies directing the treatment of substance abuse and its funding ought to give unique consideration to simultaneous drug use and its cognitive underlying factors.

  11. Roadside sobriety tests and attitudes toward a regulated cannabis market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earleywine Mitch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many argue that prohibition creates more troubles than alternative policies, but fewer than half of American voters support a taxed and regulated market for cannabis. Some oppose a regulated market because of concerns about driving after smoking cannabis. Although a roadside sobriety test for impairment exists, few voters know about it. The widespread use of a roadside sobriety test that could detect recent cannabis use might lead some voters who currently oppose a regulated market to support it. In contrast, a question that primes respondents about the potential for driving after cannabis use might lead respondents to be less likely to support a regulated market. Methods Phone interviews with a national sample of 1002 registered voters asked about support for a regulated cannabis market and support for such a market if a reliable roadside sobriety test were widely available. Results In this sample of registered voters, 36% supported a regulated cannabis market. Exploratory chi-square tests revealed significantly higher support among men and Caucasians but no link to age or education. These demographic variables covaried significantly. Logistic regression revealed that gender, ethnicity, and political party were significant when all predictors were included. Support increased significantly with a reliable roadside sobriety test to 44%, but some respondents who had agreed to the regulated market no longer agreed when the sobriety test was mentioned. Logistic regression revealed that ethnicity and political affiliation were again significant predictors of support with a reliable sobriety test, but gender was no longer significant. None of these demographic variables could identify who would change their votes in response to the reliable roadside test. Conclusion Increased awareness and use of roadside sobriety tests that detect recent cannabis use could increase support for a regulated cannabis market. Identifying concerns of voters who are not Caucasian or Democrats could help alter cannabis policy.

  12. It can't hurt to ask; a patient-centered quality of service assessment of health canada's medical cannabis policy and program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2001 Health Canada responded to a series of Ontario court decisions by creating the Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD and the Marihuana Medical Access Regulations (MMAR. Although Health Canada has conducted a small number of stakeholder consultations, the federal government has never polled federally authorized cannabis patients. This study is an attempt to learn more about patient needs, challenges and experiences with the MMAD. Methods Launched in the spring of 2007, Quality of Service Assessment of Health Canada's Medical Cannabis Policy and Program pairs a 50 question online survey addressing the personal experiences of patients in the federal cannabis program with 25 semi-guided interviews. Data gathering for this study took place from April 2007 to Jan. 2008, eventually garnering survey responses from 100 federally-authorized users, which at the time represented about 5% of the patients enrolled in Health Canada's program. This paper presents the results of the survey portion of the study. Results 8% of respondents report getting their cannabis from Health Canada, while 66% grow it for themselves. >50% report that they frequent compassion clubs or dispensaries, which remain illegal and unregulated in Canada. 81% of patients would chose certified organic methods of cultivation; >90% state that not all strains are equally effective at relieving symptoms, and 97% would prefer to obtain cannabis from a source where multiple strains are available. Of the 48 patients polled that had tried the Health Canada cannabis supply, >75% rank it as either "1" or "2" on a scale of 1-10 (with "1" being "very poor", and 10 being "excellent". Discussion 72% of respondents report they are either "somewhat" or "totally unsatisfied" with Canada's medical cannabis program. These survey results and relevant court decisions suggest that the MMAR are not meeting the needs of most of the nation's medical cannabis patient community. It is hoped this research will help inform policy changes that will better address the needs of Canada's critically and chronically ill medical cannabis patient population, including the integration of community-based dispensaries into this novel healthcare delivery model.

  13. Sudden unexpected death under acute influence of cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Kauferstein, Silke; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Daldrup, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    The acute toxicity of cannabinoids is said to be low and there is little public awareness of the potentially hazardous cardiovascular effects of cannabis, e.g. marked increase in heart rate or supine blood pressure. We describe the cases of two young, putative healthy men who died unexpectedly under the acute influence of cannabinoids. To our knowledge, these are the first cases of suspected fatal cannabis intoxications where full postmortem investigations, including autopsy, toxicological, histological, immunohistochemical and genetical examinations, were carried out. The results of these examinations are presented. After exclusion of other causes of death we assume that the young men experienced fatal cardiovascular complications evoked by smoking cannabis. PMID:24598271

  14. Striatal and extra-striatal dopamine transporter in cannabis and tobacco addiction: a high resolution PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dopamine (DA) system is known to be involved in the reward and dependence mechanisms of addiction. However, modifications in dopaminergic neurotransmission associated with long-term tobacco and cannabis use have been poorly documented in vivo. In order to assess striatal and extra-striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in tobacco and cannabis addiction, three groups of male age-matched subjects were compared: 11 healthy non-smoker subjects, 14 tobacco-dependent smokers (17.6 ± 5.3 cigarettes/day for 12.1 ± 8.5 years) and 13 cannabis and tobacco smokers (CTS) (4.8 ± 5.3 cannabis joints/day for 8.7 ± 3.9 years). DAT availability was examined in positron emission tomography (HRRT) with a high resolution research tomograph after injection of [11C]PE2I, a selective DAT radioligand. Region of interest and voxel-by-voxel approaches using a simplified reference tissue model were performed for the between-group comparison of DAT availability. Measurements in the dorsal striatum from both analyses were concordant and showed a mean 20% lower DAT availability in drug users compared with controls. Whole-brain analysis also revealed lower DAT availability in the ventral striatum, the midbrain, the middle cingulate and the thalamus (ranging from -15 to -30%). The DAT availability was slightly lower in all regions in CTS than in subjects who smoke tobacco only, but the difference does not reach a significant level. These results support the existence of aese results support the existence of a decrease in DAT availability associated with tobacco and cannabis addictions involving all dopaminergic brain circuits. These findings are consistent with the idea of a global decrease in cerebral DA activity in dependent subjects. (authors)

  15. Addiction and the pharmacology of cannabis: implications for medicine and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lader, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    The topic of drug addiction or misuse of drugs has numerous far-reaching ramifications into areas such as neuroscience, medicine and therapeutics, toxicology, epidemiology, national and international economics and politics, and the law. The general principles of drug addiction are first summarised. A recurring and intrinsic problem is lack of adequate characterisation of the independent variable, namely the drug taken. Secondly, it is not feasible to allocate subjects randomly to treatments. Thirdly, the heterogeneity of different forms of addiction precludes facile generalisations. "A problem drug user is anyone who experiences social, psychological, physical, or legal problems related to intoxication, and/or regular excessive consumption, and/or dependence as a consequence of their use of drugs" (UK Advisory Council on Misuse of Drugs, 1982). Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants whose products are used as recreational drugs. Claims have been made for a range of therapeutic properties. Its two main active principles are delta9 - tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). These compounds have contrasting pharmacological properties. THC is suspected of causing psychotic phenomena, but CBD seems more sedative and may even be antipsychotic. The past use of cannabis, particularly the concentrations of THC and CBD, can be monitored with hair analysis. Recent studies involving the administration of THC and CBD to human subjects are reviewed. Suggestions are made for further research into the pharmacology and toxicology of CBD. Such data may also point to a more rational evidence-based approach to the legal control of cannabis preparations. PMID:19306615

  16. Altered frontal cortical volume and decision making in adolescent cannabis users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JohnCChurchwell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anticipating future outcomes is central to decision making and a failure to consider long-term consequences may lead to impulsive choices. Adolescence is a vulnerable period during which underdeveloped prefrontal cortical systems may contribute to poor judgment, impulsive choices, and substance abuse. Conversely, substance abuse during this period may alter neural systems involved in decision making and lead to greater impulsivity. Although a broad neural network which supports decision making undergoes extensive change during adolescent development, one region that may be critical is the medial prefrontal cortex. Altered functional integrity of this region may be specifically related to reward perception, substance abuse, and dependence. In the present investigation, we acquired structural magnetic resonance images (MRI, using a 3T Siemens Trio scanner, from 18 cannabis abusing adolescents (CA; 2 female and 16 male subjects; mean age, 17.7 years; range 16-19 years and 18 healthy controls (HC; 6 female and 12 male subjects; mean age, 17.2 years; range 16-19 years. In order to measure medial orbital prefrontal cortex (moPFC morphology related to substance abuse and impulsivity, semi-automated cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation of MRIs was performed with FreeSurfer. Impulsivity was evaluated with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS. Our results indicate that cannabis abusing adolescents have decreased right moPFC volume compared to controls, p =.01, d = .92, CI.95 = .21, 1.59. Cannabis abusing adolescents also show decreased future orientation, as indexed by the BIS nonplanning subscale, when compared to controls, p = .01, d = .89, CI.95 = .23, 1.55. Moreover, total moPFC volume was positively correlated with age of first use (18 = .49, p < .03, suggesting that alterations in this region may be related to initiation of cannabis use or that early initiation may lead to reduced moPFC volume.

  17. The Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Supplement: 7 Sessions of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Charles; Scudder, Meleney; Kaminer, Yifrah; Kaden, Ron

    This manual, a supplement to "Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users: 5 Sessions, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 1", presents a seven-session cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT7) approach designed especially for adolescent cannabis users. It addresses the implementation and…

  18. Socialization instances linked to cannabis experimentation among French teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovic, Sonia; Genolini, Christophe; Delpierre, Cyrille; Spilka, Stanislas; Ehlinger, Virginie; Ross, Jim; Arnaud, Catherine; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2014-11-01

    France presents one of the highest prevalence of teenagers aged 15-year-olds who report they already have experienced cannabis in Europe. Data from the French 2010 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HSBC) survey and environmental parameters typifying schools' neighborhoods were used to study cannabis experimentation. We conducted a two-level logistic regression (clusters being schools) on 4,175 French 8th-10th graders from 156 schools. Several individual parameters were linked to cannabis experimentation. Living in a non-intact family, feeling insufficiently monitored, having poor communication with mother and being from a family with a high socio-economic status (SES) were all associated with increased risk of cannabis experimentation. At environmental level, only being in a priority education area was linked to this behavior, without explaining differences among schools. PMID:25099311

  19. Cannabis misinterpretation and misadventure in a coroner's court.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tormey, William Patrick

    2012-10-01

    A 37-year-old, one-pack-per-day tobacco smoker collapsed and died at home. At autopsy, he had an occluded left anterior descending coronary artery. ?(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid was found in his urine but no cannabinoids were detected in his blood. Misadventure was the inquest verdict on the basis of the urinary cannabis, with acute myocardial infarction as the primary cause and cannabis as the secondary cause of death. Such a conclusion is a misinterpretation of the evidence when the time duration for cannabis as a trigger for myocardial infarction is at most two hours. The absence of cannabis in the blood likely places the time since inhalation at more than two hours. The role of tobacco smoking as a trigger was ignored. Cotinine, the biochemical marker of tobacco smoke, should be added to the standard toxicological screen in the guidelines on autopsy practice of the Royal College of Pathologists.

  20. Phytochemical and genetic analyses of ancient cannabis from Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B; Jiang, Hong-En; Li, Xiao; Sutton, Alan; Carboni, Andrea; del Bianco, Francesca; Mandolino, Giuseppe; Potter, David J; Zhao, You-Xing; Bera, Subir; Zhang, Yong-Bing; Lü, En-Guo; Ferguson, David K; Hueber, Francis; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Liu, Chang-Jiang; Wang, Yu-Fei; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2008-01-01

    The Yanghai Tombs near Turpan, Xinjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region, China have recently been excavated to reveal the 2700-year-old grave of a Caucasoid shaman whose accoutrements included a large cache of cannabis, superbly preserved by climatic and burial conditions. A multidisciplinary international team demonstrated through botanical examination, phytochemical investigation, and genetic deoxyribonucleic acid analysis by polymerase chain reaction that this material contained tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of cannabis, its oxidative degradation product, cannabinol, other metabolites, and its synthetic enzyme, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase, as well as a novel genetic variant with two single nucleotide polymorphisms. The cannabis was presumably employed by this culture as a medicinal or psychoactive agent, or an aid to divination. To our knowledge, these investigations provide the oldest documentation of cannabis as a pharmacologically active agent, and contribute to the medical and archaeological record of this pre-Silk Road culture. PMID:19036842

  1. Eysenck Personality Dimensions in a Sample of Cannabis Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Vahdat

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available     Objective: The objective of this study is to examine Eysenck personality dimensions in cannabis users  Method:100 regular cannabis users were selected and completed Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ which easures Neuroticism (N,Extraversion-Introversion (E-I and Psychoticism (P dimensions of Eysenck personality structures  Results:The scores of 51% of cannabis users were higher than mean in all dimensions of EPQ. Also the mean score of N and P were higher than the score which Eysenck has reported for Iranian population Conclusions:This research reinforces our call for a public health information campaign about a drug which may young people still see as being risk-free.Psychiatric morbidity and cases of psychotic disorder could be prevented by discouraging cannabis use among vulnerable youths.

  2. Cannabis use disorders are comparatively prevalent among nonwhite racial/ethnic groups and adolescents: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Brady, Kathleen T; Mannelli, Paolo; Killeen, Therese K

    2014-03-01

    The racial/ethnic composition of the US population is shifting, with the nonwhite population growing faster than whites. We examined cannabis use disorder (CUD) prevalences and correlates in seven racial/ethnic groups. We included cannabis use (CU) prevalence as a comparison. Data were from the 2005-2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N = 394,400). Substance use among respondents aged ?12 years was assessed by computer-assisted, self-interviewing methods. The following were included as control variables: age, sex, family income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode history, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder, and survey year. Past-year CU prevalence increased significantly from 10.45% in 2005 to 11.41-11.54% during 2009-2011. Compared with whites, mixed-race individuals had higher odds of CU; Asian Americans and Hispanics had lower odds of CU. There were no significant yearly changes in CUD prevalence in the sample during 2005-2011 (1.58-1.73%). Compared with whites, individuals who were mixed-race, black, and Native American had higher odds of CUD; Asian Americans had lower odds. In aggregate, 15.35% of past-year cannabis users met criteria for a CUD in the 12-month period. Past-year cannabis users who were black, Native American, Hispanic, or Asian American had higher odds of CUD than white users. In each racial/ethnic group, adolescent cannabis users generally showed greater odds of CUD than adult users. Behavioral health indicators (major depressive episode, arrest history, nicotine dependence, alcohol disorder) were associated with CU and CUD. In conclusion, CUD disproportionally affects nonwhite groups and youth. PMID:24342767

  3. Symptoms of Depression Depend on Rigid Parenting Attitudes, Gender, and Race in an At-Risk Sample of Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Keri; Morales, Dawn A.; Harjes, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Trajectories of depressive symptoms were compared between European American and African American boys and girls from ages 8 to 14 in a longitudinal sample of 130 children born to adolescent mothers. Mixed-effects regression modeling was used to analyze individual and group differences in level of depressive symptoms and their changes over time.…

  4. El Cannabis en la práctica Clínica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    CL, Expósito.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. La marihuana ha sido utilizada por cientos de años, es una de las drogas de abuso más usadas. Tiene una larga historia de usos médicos, tanto el Cannabis, como sus derivados, preparaciones y sus formas sintéticas se emplean para aliviar una gran variedad de síntomas de diversas enfermedades [...] , tales como: alivio de las náuseas y vómitos asociados con las terapias del cáncer y del SIDA; alivio del dolor muscular y espasmos; para reducir la frecuencia de convulsiones en la epilepsia; para reducir la presión intraocular en pacientes con glaucoma; para estimular el apetito en pacientes con cáncer y SIDA. Actualmente están disponibles en el mercado dos productos comerciales sintéticos relacionados con la marihuana, de administración oral, el dronabinol (MARINOL®) y la nabilona (CESAMET®). Se han identificado en el cerebro, receptores para los cannabinoides, el CB1 y el CB2, así como ligandos endógenos: la anandamina, el 2-araquinoilglicerol, la homo-gamma -linolenil etanolamina y la palmitoiletanolamina. Abstract in english ABSTRACT: Marijuana has been widely used for hundreds of years, it is perhaps one of the most popular drug of abuse. It has a long medical history, Cannabis, its preparations, derivates and similar synthetic prepartions are use to relieve symtoms associated with some medical conditions, such as: to [...] relief nauseas and vomiting associate with cancer and AIDS therapies; for the relief of muscle pain and spasms; to help reduce the frequency of epileptic seizures; to lower intra ocular pressure in Glaucoma; to stimulate appetite and produce weight gain in AIDS and cancer patients. There are two commercially available drug products related to marijuana: dronabinol (MARINOL®) and nabilone (CESAMET®). Cannabinoids receptors CB1 and CB2, and some endogenous ligands named anandamide, 2-araquinoilglicerol, homo-gamma -linolenil etanolamine and palmitoiletanolamine, have been identified in brain.

  5. The Rome II and Rome III criteria identify the same subtype-populations in irritable bowel syndrome : agreement depends on the method used for symptom report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsbro, A L; Simrén, M

    2012-01-01

    For comparing trials using different classifications for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) subtypes, it is important to know whether these identify the same sub-populations. Our aim was to determine the agreement between Rome II and Rome III subtypes, and to explore whether agreement depends on the symptom reporting method.

  6. Application of medical cannabis in patients with the neurodegeneration disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Kotu?a

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Medical cannabis is the dried flowers of the female Cannabis sativa L. plant. Cannabis contains a number of active elements, including dronabinol (THC and cannabidiol (CBD. Dronabinol is usually the main ingredient. The body’s own cannabinoid system has been identified. The discovery of this system, which comprises endocannabinoids and receptors, confirmed that cannabis has a positive effect on certain illnesses and conditions. Two types of cannabinoid receptors have been identified: CB1 and CB2 receptors. The first type CB1 is mostly found in the central nervous system, modulate pain. It also has an anti-emetic effect, and has influence on the memory and the motor system. The second type of receptors CB2 is peripheral, and it is primarily found in immune system cells and it is responsible for the immunomodulatory effects of cannabinoids. Medical cannabis can help in cases of the neurodegeneration disorders, for example Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Patients generally tolerate medical cannabis well.

  7. Binge Drinking, Cannabis and Tobacco Use Among Ethnic Norwegian and Ethnic Minority Adolescents in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Dawit S; Hafstad, Gertrud S; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Kumar, Bernadette Nirmal; Lien, Lars

    2014-07-19

    The aim of the study was to assess prevalence and factors associated with binge drinking, cannabis use and tobacco use among ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in Oslo. We used data from a school-based cross-sectional survey of adolescents in junior- and senior high schools in Oslo, Norway. The participants were 10,934 adolescents aged 14-17 years, and just over half were females. The sample was comprised of 73.2 % ethnic Norwegian adolescents, 9.8 % 1st generation immigrants, and 17 % 2nd generation adolescents from Europe, the US, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. Logistic regression models were applied for the data analyses. Age, gender, religion, parental education, parent-adolescent relationships, depressive symptoms and loneliness were covariates in the regression models. Ethnic Norwegian adolescents reported the highest prevalence of binge drinking (16.1 %), whereas the lowest prevalence was found among 2nd generation adolescents from Asia (2.9 %). Likewise, the past-year prevalence for cannabis use ranged from 10.6 % among 2nd generation Europeans and those from the US to 3.7 % among 2nd generation Asians. For daily tobacco use, the prevalence ranged from 12.9 % among 2nd generation Europeans and the US to 5.1 % among 2nd generation Asians. Ethnicity, age, gender, religion, parental education, and parent-adolescent relationships and mental health status were significantly associated with binge drinking, cannabis and tobacco use. These factors partly explained the observed differences between ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in the current study. There are significant differences in substance use behaviors between ethnic Norwegian and immigrant youth. Factors like age, gender, religion, parental education and relationships and mental health status might influence the relationship between ethnicity and substance abuse. The findings have implications for planning selective- as well as universal prevention interventions. PMID:25037580

  8. Depressive Symptoms, Substance Use and HIV-Related High Risk Behaviors among Opioid-Dependent Individuals: Results from the Clinical Trials Network

    OpenAIRE

    Pilowsky, Daniel; Wu, Li-tzy; Burchett, Bruce; Blazer, Dan G.; Ling, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The sample included 343 opioid-dependent adults enrolled in two national multisite studies of the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN001-002). Opioid-dependent individuals were recruited from 12 sites across the United States from January 2001 to July 2002. We examined associations between depressive symptoms, co-occurring substance use (i.e. the use of substances other than opioids), and HIV-related sexual and injection risk behaviors. Data were collected using the Add...

  9. Revisão: funcionamento executivo e uso de maconha / Review: executive functioning and cannabis use

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Priscila Previato, Almeida; Maria Alice Fontes Pinto, Novaes; Rodrigo Affonseca, Bressan; Acioly Luiz Tavares de, Lacerda.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A maconha é a droga ilícita mais consumida no mundo, porém ainda existem poucos estudos examinando eventuais prejuízos cognitivos relacionados ao seu uso. As manifestações clínicas associadas a esses déficits incluem síndrome amotivacional, prejuízo na flexibilidade cognitiva, desatenção, [...] dificuldade de raciocínio abstrato e formação de conceitos, aspectos intimamente ligados às funções executivas, as quais potencialmente exercem um papel central na dependência de substâncias. O objetivo do estudo foi fazer uma revisão a respeito das implicações do uso da maconha no funcionamento executivo. MÉTODO: Esta revisão foi conduzida utilizando-se bases de dados eletrônicas (MedLine, Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs). DISCUSSÃO: Em estudos de efeito agudo, doses maiores de tetrahidrocanabinol encontram-se associadas a maior prejuízo no desempenho de usuários leves em tarefas de controle inibitório e planejamento; porém, este efeito dose-resposta não ocorre em usuários crônicos. Embora haja controvérsias no que se refere a efeitos residuais da maconha, déficits persistentes parecem estar presentes após 28 dias de abstinência, ao menos em um subgrupo de usuários crônicos. CONCLUSÕES: Os estudos encontrados não tiveram como objetivo principal a avaliação das funções executivas. A seleção de testes padronizados, desenhos de estudos mais apropriados e o uso concomitante com técnicas de neuroimagem estrutural e funcional podem auxiliar na melhor compreensão das conseqüências deletérias do uso crônico da maconha no funcionamento executivo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Cannabis is the most used illicit drug worldwide, however only a few studies have examined cognitive deficits related to its use. Clinical manifestations associated with those deficits include amotivational syndrome, impairment in cognitive flexibility, inattention, deficits in abstract r [...] easoning and concept formation, aspects intimately related to the executive functions, which potentially exert a central role in substance dependence. The objective was to make a review about consequences of cannabis use in executive functioning. METHOD: This review was carried out on reports drawn from MedLine, SciELO, and Lilacs. DISCUSSION: In studies investigating acute use effects, higher doses of tetrahydrocannabinol are associated to impairments in performance of nonsevere users in planning and control impulse tasks. However, chronic cannabis users do not show those impairments. Although demonstration of residual effects of cannabis in the executive functioning is controversial, persistent deficits seem to be present at least in a subgroup of chronic users after 28 days of abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: The neuropsychological studies found did not have as a main aim the evaluation of executive functioning. A criterial selection of standardized neuropsychological tests, more appropriate study designs as well as concomitant investigations with structural and functional neuroimaging techniques may improve the understanding of eventual neurotoxicity associated with cannabis use.

  10. The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfait, A M; Gallily, R; Sumariwalla, P F; Malik, A S; Andreakos, E; Mechoulam, R; Feldmann, M

    2000-08-15

    The therapeutic potential of cannabidiol (CBD), the major nonpsychoactive component of cannabis, was explored in murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was elicited by immunizing DBA/1 mice with type II collagen (CII) in complete Freund's adjuvant. The CII used was either bovine or murine, resulting in classical acute CIA or in chronic relapsing CIA, respectively. CBD was administered after onset of clinical symptoms, and in both models of arthritis the treatment effectively blocked progression of arthritis. CBD was equally effective when administered i.p. or orally. The dose dependency showed a bell-shaped curve, with an optimal effect at 5 mg/kg per day i.p. or 25 mg/kg per day orally. Clinical improvement was associated with protection of the joints against severe damage. Ex vivo, draining lymph node cells from CBD-treated mice showed a diminished CII-specific proliferation and IFN-gamma production, as well as a decreased release of tumor necrosis factor by knee synovial cells. In vitro effects of CBD included a dose-dependent suppression of lymphocyte proliferation, both mitogen-stimulated and antigen-specific, and the blockade of the Zymosan-triggered reactive oxygen burst by peritoneal granulocytes. It also was found that CBD administration was capable of blocking the lipopolysaccharide-induced rise in serum tumor necrosis factor in C57/BL mice. Taken together, these data show that CBD, through its combined immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory actions, has a potent anti-arthritic effect in CIA. PMID:10920191

  11. Correlations and agreement between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in blood plasma and Timeline Follow-Back (TLFB)-assisted self-reported use of cannabis of patients with cannabis use disorder and psychotic illness attending the CapOpus randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HjorthØj, Carsten Rygaard; Fohlmann, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Aims:? To assess correlations and agreement between Timeline Follow-Back (TLFB)-assisted self-report and blood samples for cannabis use. Design:? Secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Setting:? Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants:? 103 patients from the CapOpus trial with cannabis use disorder and psychosis, providing 239 self-reports of cannabis use and 88 valid blood samples. Measurements:? Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) detected in plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. Self-report of cannabis-use last month by TLFB. Pearson's r, sensitivity and specificity calculated as measures of correlation or agreement. Findings:? Correlations were strong; r = 0.75 for number of days and r = 0.83 for number of standard joints in the preceding month when excluding outliers. Including outliers, coefficients were moderate to strong (r = 0.49and r = 0.51, respectively). There were differences in subgroups, mostly inconsistent depending on inclusion or exclusion of outliers. Sensitivity and specificity for TLFB detecting presence or absence of cannabis use were 95.7 % (95 % confidence interval 88.0 % to 99.1 %) and 72.2 % (46.5 % to 90.3 %), respectively. Using 19 days as cutoff on TLFB, they were 94.3 % (86.0 % to 98.4 %) and 94.4 % (72.2 % to 99.9 %), respectively. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC)-curve was 0.96. Conclusions:? Time Line Follow-Back (TLFB)-assisted self-report of cannabis use correlates highly with plasma-THC in patients with comorbid cannabis use disorder and psychosis. Sensitivity and specificity of TLFB appear to be optimised with 19 days as cutoff-point. As such TLFB may be superior to analysis of blood when going beyond 19 days of recall.

  12. Reduction of stem growth and site dependency of leaf injury in Massachusetts black cherries exhibiting ozone symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone symptomatic trees had a reduced stem growth and symptom expression was enhanced on moister and better growing stands. - Leaf ozone symptoms in natural ecosystems are increasingly reported but ozone effects on tree growth and the mediation of site conditions are still little documented. This study tests two hypotheses: (1) leaf injury in black cherry is associated with decline in radial growth, (2) symptoms are more prevalent on mesic sites. On sites supporting black cherry across Massachusetts, tree growth and leaf ozone injury were surveyed in 1996 using a randomized plot network established in the 1960s. Forty-seven percent of 120 trees sampled for ozone symptoms were symptomatic with generally low levels of injury. Over a 31-year period symptomatic trees had 28% lower stem growth rates than asymptomatic trees. Ozone symptom expression was enhanced in well growing stands on moister, cooler and more elevated sites. Ozone appeared to increase environmental stress and had a more pronounced effect on growth in better growing black cherry stands. This complicates management decisions as thinning increases growth and moisture availability

  13. Reduction of stem growth and site dependency of leaf injury in Massachusetts black cherries exhibiting ozone symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollenweider, P.; Woodcock, H.; Kelty, M.J.; Hofer, R.-M

    2003-10-01

    Ozone symptomatic trees had a reduced stem growth and symptom expression was enhanced on moister and better growing stands. - Leaf ozone symptoms in natural ecosystems are increasingly reported but ozone effects on tree growth and the mediation of site conditions are still little documented. This study tests two hypotheses: (1) leaf injury in black cherry is associated with decline in radial growth, (2) symptoms are more prevalent on mesic sites. On sites supporting black cherry across Massachusetts, tree growth and leaf ozone injury were surveyed in 1996 using a randomized plot network established in the 1960s. Forty-seven percent of 120 trees sampled for ozone symptoms were symptomatic with generally low levels of injury. Over a 31-year period symptomatic trees had 28% lower stem growth rates than asymptomatic trees. Ozone symptom expression was enhanced in well growing stands on moister, cooler and more elevated sites. Ozone appeared to increase environmental stress and had a more pronounced effect on growth in better growing black cherry stands. This complicates management decisions as thinning increases growth and moisture availability.

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Interventions to Reduce Adolescent Cannabis Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Kimberly; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Sarteschi, Christy; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This meta-analytic review assesses the effectiveness of substance abuse interventions to reduce adolescent cannabis use. Method: A systematic search identified 15 randomized controlled evaluations of interventions to reduce adolescent cannabis use published between 1960 and 2008. The primary outcome variables, frequency of cannabis use,…

  15. Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the relation between maternal cannabis use…

  16. Genetic association between APOE*4 and neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease is dependent on the psychosis phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie Drew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropsychiatric symptoms such as psychosis are prevalent in patients with probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Because these disabling symptoms are generally not well tolerated by caregivers, patients with these symptoms tend to be institutionalized earlier than patients without them. The identification of protective and risk factors for neuropsychiatric symptoms in AD would facilitate the development of more specific treatments for these symptoms and thereby decrease morbidity and mortality in AD. The E4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE gene is a well-documented risk factor for the development of AD. However, genetic association studies of the APOE 4 allele and BPS in AD have produced conflicting findings. Methods This study investigates the association between APOE and neuropsychiatric symptoms in a large sample of clinically well-characterized subjects with probable AD (n=790 who were systematically evaluated using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD Behavioral Rating Scale for Dementia (BRSD. Results Our study found that hallucinations were significantly more likely to occur in subjects with no APO?4 alleles than in subjects with two ?4 alleles (15% of subjects and 5% of subjects, respectively; p=.0066, whereas there was no association between the occurrence of delusions, aberrant motor behavior, or agitation and the number of ?4 alleles. However, 94% of the subjects with hallucinations also had delusions (D+H. Conclusion These findings suggest that in AD the ?4 allele is differentially associated with D+H but not delusions alone. This is consistent with the hypothesis that distinct psychotic subphenotypes may be associated with the APOE allele.

  17. Event-level associations between affect, alcohol intoxication, and acute dependence symptoms: Effects of urgency, self-control, and drinking experience

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Dvorak, Robert D.; Batien, Bryan D.; Wray, Tyler B.

    2010-01-01

    This study used experience sampling to examine within-person associations between positive affect, anxiety, sadness, and hostility and two outcomes: alcohol intoxication and acute dependence symptoms. We examined the role of urgency, premeditation, and perseverance in predicting the alcohol outcomes and tested whether the affective associations varied as a function of urgency. Participants completed baseline assessments and 21 days of experience sampling on PDAs. Hypotheses were partially con...

  18. A strain-specific segment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of grapevine fanleaf virus determines symptoms in Nicotiana species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigne, Emmanuelle; Gottula, John; Schmitt-Keichinger, Corinne; Komar, Véronique; Ackerer, Léa; Belval, Lorène; Rakotomalala, Lalaina; Lemaire, Olivier; Ritzenthaler, Christophe; Fuchs, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Factors involved in symptom expression of viruses from the genus Nepovirus in the family Secoviridae such as grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) are poorly characterized. To identify symptom determinants encoded by GFLV, infectious cDNA clones of RNA1 and RNA2 of strain GHu were developed and used alongside existing infectious cDNA clones of strain F13 in a reverse genetics approach. In vitro transcripts of homologous combinations of RNA1 and RNA2 induced systemic infection in Nicotiana benthamiana and Nicotiana clevelandii with identical phenotypes to WT virus strains, i.e. vein clearing and chlorotic spots on N. benthamiana and N. clevelandii for GHu, respectively, and lack of symptoms on both hosts for F13. The use of assorted transcripts mapped symptom determinants on RNA1 of GFLV strain GHu, in particular within the distal 408 nt of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (1E(Pol)), as shown by RNA1 transcripts for which coding regions or fragments derived thereof were swapped. Semi-quantitative analyses indicated no significant differences in virus titre between symptomatic and asymptomatic plants infected with various recombinants. Also, unlike the nepovirus tomato ringspot virus, no apparent proteolytic cleavage of GFLV protein 1E(Pol) was detected upon virus infection or transient expression in N. benthamiana. In addition, GFLV protein 1E(Pol) failed to suppress silencing of EGFP in transgenic N. benthamiana expressing EGFP or to enhance GFP expression in patch assays in WT N. benthamiana. Together, our results suggest the existence of strain-specific functional domains, including a symptom determinant module, on the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of GFLV. PMID:24088345

  19. Exposure to the tsunami disaster, PTSD symptoms and increased substance use – an Internet based survey of male and female residents of Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisson Jonathan I

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After the tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean basin an Internet based self-screening test was made available in order to facilitate contact with mental health services. Although primarily designed for surviving Swiss tourists as well as relatives and acquaintances of the victims, the screening instrument was open to anyone who felt psychologically affected by this disaster. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influences between self-declared increased substance use in the aftermath of the tsunami disaster, trauma exposure and current PTSD symptoms. Methods One section of the screening covered addiction related behavior. We analyzed the relationship between increased substance use, the level of PTSD symptoms and trauma exposure using multivariable logistic regression with substance use as the dependent variable. Included in the study were only subjects who reported being residents of Switzerland and the analyses were stratified by gender in order to control for possible socio-cultural or gender differences in the use of psychotropic substances. Results In women PTSD symptoms and degree of exposure enlarged the odds of increased alcohol, pharmaceuticals and cannabis use significantly. In men the relationship was more specific: PTSD symptoms and degree of exposure only enlarged the odds of increased pharmaceutical consumption significantly. Increases in alcohol, cannabis and tobacco use were only significantly associated with the degree of PTSD symptoms. Conclusion The tsunami was associated with increased substance use. This study not only replicates earlier findings but also suggests for a gender specificity of post-traumatic substance use increase.

  20. Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honório Káthia Maria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action involved in the interaction between cannabinoid compounds and the biological receptors. So, from the therapeutical aspects presented in this work, we intended to show the evolution of the Cannabis sativa research and the possible medicinal use of cannabinoid compounds.

  1. Abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos: atualização para uma antiga evidência Cannabis abuse in patients with psychiatric disorders: an update to old evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Diehl; Daniel Cruz Cordeiro; Ronaldo Laranjeira

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Realizar uma atualização sobre o abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos. MÉTODO: Busca de artigos nas bases de dados eletrônicas Medline, The Cochrane Library Database, Lilacs, PubMed e SciELO, utilizando os descritores "marijuana abuse", "cannabis abuse", "psychiatric disorders" AND "mental disorders"; incluindo artigos que avaliaram ambas as exposições para abuso e dependência de cannabis e qualquer outro transtorno psiquiátrico. Foi considerado o pe...

  2. The Normalization of Cannabis Use among Young People - Symbolic Boundary Work in Focus Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Demant, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes "techniques of neutralization" among young people discussing cannabis in focus group interviews. The paper is based on data from focus group interviews with young Danes followed from when they were 14-15 years old in 2004 until they were 18-19 years old in 2008. In this period, the participants' attitudes towards cannabis undergo a radical change from being negative and sceptical into being predominantly positive and accepting - a change we describe as a "normalization" of cannabis use. Four techniques of neutralization are identified in this process: First, the participants redefine the setting of cannabis use, simultaneously creating a new type of togetherness: relaxed social intoxication. Second, the effects of cannabis use are transformed from being "strange" and "unpredictable" to being "controllable" by the individual user. Third, participants change their classification of cannabis in relation to other substances: While 14-15 year olds draw a clear dividing-line between alcohol and illegal drugs (including cannabis), 18-19 year olds put cannabis on the same footing as alcohol but differentiate it from "hard" drugs. Forth, participants dichotomize cannabis use into spontaneous, social use, which they accept, and habitual, individual use which most of them reject. In combination, these four techniques of neutralization turn cannabis into a normal drug - not normal in the sense that everybody uses it but normal in the sense that cannabis use is seen as legitimate by both users and non-users.

  3. The Normalization of Cannabis Use among Young People : Symbolic Boundary Work in Focus Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Demant, Jakob Johan

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses ‘techniques of neutralisation’ among young people discussing cannabis in focus group interviews. The paper is based on data from focus group interviews with young Danes followed from when they were 14–15 years old in 2004 until they were 18–19 years old in 2008. In this period, the participants’ attitudes towards cannabis undergo a radical change from being negative and sceptical into being predominantly positive and accepting; a change we describe as a ‘normalisation’ of cannabis use. Four techniques of neutralisation are identified in this process. First, the participants redefine the setting of cannabis use, simultaneously creating a new type of togetherness: relaxed social intoxication. Second, the effects of cannabis use are transformed from being ‘strange’ and ‘unpredictable’ to being ‘controllable’ by the individual user. Third, participants change their classification of cannabis in relation to other substances. While 14–15 year olds draw a clear dividing-line between alcohol and illegal drugs (including cannabis), 18–19 year olds put cannabis on the same footing as alcohol but differentiate it from ‘hard’ drugs. Fourth, participants dichotomise cannabis use into spontaneous, social use, which they accept, and habitual, individual use which most of them reject. In combination, these four techniques of neutralisation turn cannabis into a normal drug: not normal in the sense that everybody uses it but normal in the sense that cannabis use is seen as legitimate by both users and non-users.

  4. Cannabis sativa var. indica : une plante complexe aux effets pervers Cannabis sativa var. indica : a complex plant with perverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mura Patrick

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis sativa var. indica appartient à la famille des Cannabinaceae et à l'ordre des Urticales. Parmi les 60 cannabinoïdes contenus dans la plante, essentiellement dans les feuilles et les sommités fleuries, le delta-9-tétrahydrocannabinol (THC constitue le principal responsable des effets observables chez l'homme. La teneur en THC est très variable selon les conditions de culture, pouvant dépasser 20 % dans le cas de cultures sous serre aux conditions parfaitement contrôlées. Après inhalation, le THC pénètre dans la circulation sanguine puis, très lipophile, va se fixer sur les tissus riches en lipides et en particulier au niveau du cerveau. Ses effets chez l'homme reposent sur l'existence des récepteurs CB1 (essentiellement au niveau central et CB2 (surtout présents au niveau périphérique. Tandis que la présence du THC dans le sang n'est observable que pendant 2 à 3 heures après inhalation, des travaux très récents chez l'homme et chez l'animal nous ont permis de montrer qu'il restait fixé dans la plupart des structures cérébrales pendant de très nombreuses heures, cela expliquant la persistance importante de ses effets sur le système nerveux central. Les effets aigus sur le psychisme consistent principalement en des perturbations sensorielles, des troubles thymiques et dissociatifs, une diminution des performances intellectuelles, motrices et cognitives, des perturbations de la mémoire à court terme. Lors d'un usage important, régulier et prolongé, on note fréquemment l'apparition de crises d'angoisse aiguë et d'un syndrome amotivationnel. Si les risques pour soi-même liés à son usage sont loin d'être négligeables, les conséquences pour autrui peuvent être considérables lorsque les consommateurs sont des conducteurs d'automobiles, des femmes enceintes ou des travailleurs occupant des postes à risque et/ou de sécurité en entreprise. L'importance du risque est majorée par un nombre de consommateurs de plus en plus grand. C'est pour cette raison que la France a récemment mis en place une législation destinée à sanctionner les conducteurs ayant fait usage de cannabis, sur la base des résultats de l'analyse sanguine. C'est aussi pourquoi il serait désormais opportun d'instaurer par voie législative des dépistages chez les personnes occupant des postes à risque et/ou de sécurité dans les entreprises. Cannabis sativa var. indica is a Cannabaceae, belonging to Urticales order. Among the 60 cannabinoids present in the plant and essentially in leaves and flowering tops, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC is the main responsible of the effects observed in human using it. THC content is very variable depending on cultivation conditions, being able to contain more than 20 % of THC in the case of under glass cultivations with well controlled conditions. After inhalation, THC moves to the blood and, because of its lipophily, distribution very fastly into the brain and other lipidic tissues. Its effects on human are supported by the presence of CB1 receptors (mainly in central nervous system and CB2 (mainly present in other tissues. As THC is found in blood during only 2 to 3 hours after inhalation, recent studies allowed us to indicate that it remained present in brain structures during many hours, which explains the long persistence of its effects on central nervous system. Acute side effects on behavior and central nervous system consist essentially in sensitive perturbations, thymic and dissociative troubles, a decrease of intellectual, motor and cognitive performances, short term memory disorders. For an important, regular and long term use, the occurrence of acute angor attacks or an amotivational syndrome are frequently observed. While risks for oneself related to cannabis use are not negligible, consequences for others may be extensive when consumers are car drivers, pregnant women or workers occupying a risk position. This risk is becoming very important today considering account of the number of consumers. Consequently, the French government and th

  5. Prescrire du cannabis fumé pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Meldon; Srivastava, Anita; Spithoff, Sheryl; Bromley, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Offrir des conseils préliminaires sur la prescription de cannabis fumé pour la douleur chronique avant la publication de lignes directrices officielles. Qualité des données Nous avons examiné les ouvrages scientifiques sur l’efficacité analgésique du cannabis fumé et les dommages causés par la consommation de cannabis à des fins médicales et récréatives. Nous avons élaboré des recommandations concernant les indications et les contre-indications du cannabis fumé, les précautions à prendre et son dosage et nous avons classé les recommandations en fonction du niveau des données probantes. La plupart des données probantes sont de niveau II (études observationnelles bien effectuées) et de niveau III (opinion d’experts). Message principal Le cannabis fumé pourrait être indiqué chez des patients souffrant de douleurs neuropathiques sévères qui n’ont pas répondu à des essais suffisants de cannabinoïdes pharmaceutiques et d’analgésiques standards (données probantes de niveau II). Le cannabis fumé est contre-indiqué chez les patients de 25 ans ou moins (données probantes de niveau II); ceux qui font actuellement ou ont fait par le passé une psychose ou encore ont de forts antécédents familiaux de psychose (données probantes de niveau II); ceux qui ont ou ont eu un problème de consommation de cannabis (données probantes de niveau III); ceux qui ont un problème actuel de toxicomanie ou d’alcoolisme (données probantes de niveau III); ceux qui ont une maladie cardiovasculaire ou respiratoire (données probantes de niveau III); ou celles qui sont enceintes ou planifient une grossesse (données probantes de niveau II). Il devrait être utilisé avec précaution par les patients qui fument du tabac (données probantes de niveau II), qui sont à risque accru de maladies cardiovasculaires (données probantes de niveau III), qui ont des troubles d’anxiété ou de l’humeur (données probantes de niveau II) ou qui prennent de fortes doses d’opioïdes ou de benzodiazépines (données probantes de niveau III). Il faut conseiller aux utilisateurs de cannabis d’attendre au moins 3 à 4 heures avant de conduire s’ils en ont fumé, au moins 6 heures s’ils en ont consommé par la bouche et au moins 8 heures s’ils ont ressenti un «high» subjectif (données probantes de niveau II). La dose maximale recommandée est de 1 inhalation 4 fois par jour (environ 400 mg par jour) de cannabis séché contenant 9 % de delta-9-tétrahydrocannabinol (données probantes de niveau III)). Les médecins devraient éviter de demander une consultation pour les patients auprès de cliniques «cannabinoïdes» (données probantes de niveau III). Conclusion Les lignes directrices futures devraient se fonder sur une révision systématique des ouvrages scientifiques sur la sécurité et l’efficacité du cannabis fumé. D’autres recherches sont nécessaires sur l’efficacité et la sécurité à long terme du cannabis fumé par rapport à d’autres cannabinoïdes pharmaceutiques, aux opioïdes et à d’autres analgésiques standards.

  6. Temperature-dependent symptom recovery in Nicotiana benthamiana plants infected with tomato ringspot virus is associated with reduced translation of viral RNA2 and requires ARGONAUTE 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Basudev; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2014-05-01

    Symptom recovery in nepovirus-infected plants has been attributed to the induction of RNA silencing. However, recovery is not always accompanied with viral RNA clearance. In this study, we show that recovery of Nicotiana benthamiana plants infected with the tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) is associated with a reduction of the steady-state levels of RNA2-encoded coat protein (CP) and movement protein but not of RNA2. In vivo labeling experiments revealed efficient synthesis of the CP early in infection, but reduced RNA2 translation later in infection. Silencing of Argonaute1-like (Ago1) genes prevented both symptom recovery and RNA2 translation repression. Similarly, growing the plants at lower temperature (21 °C rather than 27 °C) alleviated the recovery and the translation repression. Taken together, our results suggest that recovery of ToRSV-infected plants is associated with an Ago1-dependent mechanism that represses the translation of viral RNA2. PMID:24889238

  7. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds after plasma treatment.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerá, Božena; Gajdová, Iveta; Gavril, B.; Hnatiuc, E.; Šerý, M.; Špatenka, P.

    Brasov : Universitatea Transilvania din Brasov, 2012 - (Clotea, L.; Cernat, M.). s. 251-251 ISBN 978-1-4673-1650-7. [International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment /13./ OPTIM 2012. 24.05.-26.05.2012, Brasov] Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Cannabis sativa L. * plasma treatment Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  8. Complete sequence of a cryptic virus from hemp (Cannabis sativa).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ziegler, A.; Matoušek, Jaroslav; Steger, G.; Schubert, J.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 157, ?. 2 (2012), s. 383-385. ISSN 0304-8608 R&D Projects: GA ?R GCP501/10/J018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Cannabis sativa * Partitivirus * cryptic virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.030, year: 2012

  9. DETECTION OF ILLEGAL CANNABIS CULTIVATION USING REMOTE SENSING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection of illegal Cannabis cultivation by law enforcement agencies currently relies on low flying aircraft manned by trained aerial spotters. This is physically tiring for the aircrew, inefficient for large or complex landscapes, and is often foiled by camouflaged grow sites. A solution for det...

  10. Cannabis, cannabidiol, and epilepsy--from receptors to clinical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Bebin, E Martina

    2014-12-01

    Recreational cannabis use in adults with epilepsy is widespread. The use of cannabis for medicinal purposes is also becoming more prevalent. For this purpose, various preparations of cannabis of varying strengths and content are being used. The recent changes in the legal environment have improved the availability of products with high cannabidiol (CBD) and low tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations. There is some anecdotal evidence of their potential efficacy, but the mechanisms of such action are not entirely clear. Some suspect an existence of synergy or "entourage effect" between CBD and THC. There is strong evidence that THC acts via the cannabinoid receptor CB1. The mechanism of action of CBD is less clear but is likely polypharmacological. The scientific data support the role of the endocannabinoid system in seizure generation, maintenance, and control in animal models of epilepsy. There are clear data for the negative effects of cannabis on the developing and mature brain though these effects appear to be relatively mild in most cases. Further data from well-designed studies are needed regarding short- and long-term efficacy and side effects of CBD or high-CBD/low-THC products for the treatment of seizures and epilepsy in children and adults. PMID:25282526

  11. Symptom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TBI Educational Materials Research DVBIC Locations Press Symptom Management A brain injury can affect a person physically ... Diagnosis and Assessment Treatment and Recovery Caregiving Symptom Management Life After TBI Defense and Veterans Brain Injury ...

  12. Avoiding emotional bonds: An examination of the dimensions of therapeutic alliance among cannabis users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FrancesKay-Lambkin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing need to provide treatment for cannabis users, yet engaging and maintaining this population in treatment is particularly difficult. Although past research has focused on the importance of therapeutic alliance on drug treatment outcomes, this is the first study to examine the dimensions of therapeutic alliance for cannabis users compared with users of alcohol or other drugs in a naturalistic setting. The acceptability of Internet-delivered interventions for drug and alcohol treatments is also investigated. Participants (N = 77 included clients who were receiving outpatient drug and alcohol treatment at a publicly-funded health service, including a Specialist Cannabis Clinic. The results indicated that one particular domain of alliance, Bond, was consistently lower, from both client and clinician perspectives, for current cannabis users relative to those not currently using cannabis. Client perceptions of Bond decreased as the severity of cannabis use increased (r =-0.373, p=0.02. Cannabis Clinic clients did not report a significantly lower Bond with their clinicians, suggesting that specialised cannabis services may be better placed to provide appropriate treatment for this population than embedding cannabis treatment within traditional drug and alcohol treatment teams. In addition, Internet/computer based treatments may be one potential way to engage, transition or retain cannabis users in treatment. Trial Registration: Australian Clinical Trial Registration Number: ACTRN12611000382976

  13. Cannabis and Tobacco Use: Where Are the Boundaries? A Qualitative Study on Cannabis Consumption Modes among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akre, Christina; Michaud, Pierre-Andre; Berchtold, Andre; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify tobacco and cannabis co-consumptions and consumers' perceptions of each substance. A qualitative research including 22 youths (14 males) aged 15-21 years in seven individual interviews and five focus groups. Discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and transferred to Atlas.ti software for narrative…

  14. Whole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowland Marie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis therapy has been considered an effective treatment for spasticity, although clinical reports of symptom reduction in multiple sclerosis (MS describe mixed outcomes. Recently introduced therapies of combined ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC and cannabidiol (CBD extracts have potential for symptom relief with the possibility of reducing intoxication and other side effects. Although several past reviews have suggested that cannabinoid therapy provides a therapeutic benefit for symptoms of MS, none have presented a methodical investigation of newer cannabinoid treatments in MS-related spasticity. The purpose of the present review was to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of combined THC and CBD extracts on MS-related spasticity in order to increase understanding of the treatment's potential effectiveness, safety and limitations. Methods We reviewed MEDLINE/PubMed, Ovid, and CENTRAL electronic databases for relevant studies using randomized controlled trials. Studies were included only if a combination of THC and CBD extracts was used, and if pre- and post-treatment assessments of spasticity were reported. Results Six studies were systematically reviewed for treatment dosage and duration, objective and subjective measures of spasticity, and reports of adverse events. Although there was variation in the outcome measures reported in these studies, a trend of reduced spasticity in treated patients was noted. Adverse events were reported in each study, however combined TCH and CBD extracts were generally considered to be well-tolerated. Conclusion We found evidence that combined THC and CBD extracts may provide therapeutic benefit for MS spasticity symptoms. Although some objective measures of spasticity noted improvement trends, there were no changes found to be significant in post-treatment assessments. However, subjective assessment of symptom relief did often show significant improvement post-treatment. Differences in assessment measures, reports of adverse events, and dosage levels are discussed.

  15. Los productos de Cannabis sativa: situación actual y perspectivas en medicina / Cannabis sativa products: current status and perspectives in medicine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodolfo, Rodríguez Carranza.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los productos psicoactivos de la Cannabis sativa, como marihuana y hachís, se han usado desde hace varios siglos con fines medicinales, religiosos y recreativos. Ahora, la marihuana es la droga ilegal de mayor consumo en el mundo, particularmente por adolescentes y adultos jóvenes. La adolescencia e [...] s una etapa crítica en el desarrollo y maduración del Sistema Nervioso Central. La marihuana está constituida por un gran número y variedad de substancias químicas que pueden interactuar entre sí. Sus efectos agudos se caracterizan por euforia, relajación e intensificación de las experiencias sensoriales ordinarias. Su consumo crónico induce tolerancia, dependencia, síndrome de carencia, déficit cognitivo y aumenta el riesgo de enfermedades psiquiátricas. El descubrimiento de un sistema cannabinoide endógeno renovó el interés médico por la marihuana y los datos de los últimos 20 años indican que el sistema endocannabinoide regula la función de diversos tipos de sinapsis y juega un papel importante en el desarrollo cerebral extrauterino. Recientemente el interés sobre la marihuana se centró en sus propiedades medicinales y existe un buen número de ensayos clínicos controlados que apoyan su uso en ciertas condiciones médicas; sin embargo, su eficacia y seguridad siguen siendo motivo de controversia. En este artículo se analizan los conocimientos farmacológicos sobre la marihuana, se establecen los riesgos de su consumo, la información sobre sus propiedades medicinales y, con base en la evidencia disponible, se opina contra su legalización. Finalmente, aquí se postula que la marihuana en su forma herbaria, por vía enteral, puede ser de gran valor para mitigar el sufrimiento de pacientes con enfermedad terminal. Abstract in english Psychoactive preparations of Cannabis sativa, such as marijuana and hashish, have been used for centuries for medicinal, religious and recreational purposes. Today marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug worldwide, particularly among teenagers and young adults. Adolescence is a critical phase [...] in Central Nervous System development, characterized by neuronal maturation and rearrangement processes. Marijuana is very complex in its chemistry due to the large number of active constituents capable of interacting with each other. With inhaled marihuana, subjects experience euphoria, a feeling of relaxation, and intensification of ordinary sensory experiences. Chronic consumption results in tolerance, dependence, withdrawal syndrome, cognitive deterioration, and increased risk of psychiatric illnesses. The discovery of an endogenous cannabinoid system renewed the medical interest in marijuana and data from the last 20 years have shown that, in the postnatal brain, endocannabinoids regulate the function of many synapses and play an important role in brain development; also, that chronic consumption of marijuana early in life negatively affects Central Nervous System development. Recently, interest on marijuana has centered on its medicinal properties, and a good number of controlled clinical studies support its use in certain medical conditions; however, safety and efficacy of marijuana remains controversial. In this article we analyze the pharmacological knowledge on marijuana, the risks of its consumption, data on its medicinal properties and, based on the available evidence, we conclude that its legalization should be discouraged. Finally, we postulate that marijuana in its herbal form, by the enteral route, could be of a great value in mitigating suffering in patients with terminal illness.

  16. Increased sensorimotor gating in recreational and dependent cocaine users is modulated by craving and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Preller, Katrin H.; Ingold, Nina; Hulka, Lea M.; Vonmoos, Matthias; Jenni, Daniela; Baumgartner, M. R.; Vollenweider, F. X.; Quednow, B. B.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cocaine dependence has been associated with blunted dopamine and norepinephrine signaling, but it is unknown if recreational cocaine use is also associated with alterations of catecholamine systems. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response-a measure of sensorimotor gating-is highly sensitive for manipulations of the catecholamine system. Therefore, we investigated whether relatively pure recreational users (RCU) and dependent cocaine users (DCU) display alteratio...

  17. Cannabis Use and Mental Health: A Review of Recent Epidemiological Research

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, T. H.

    2010-01-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used drug in the world. This review examines recent epidemiological research on the relationships between cannabis use and mental health problems. Relationships with depression, anxiety disorders, mania and psychosis are examined, with relevant issues such as the effect of confounding variables, temporal directions and causality being discussed. Factors which influence the relationship such as dose-response effects, age of first cannabis use and risk of mental he...

  18. Adolescent Cannabis Problems and Young Adult Depression: Male-Female Stratified Propensity Score Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Harder, Valerie S.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Anthony, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Cannabis use and depression are two of the most prevalent conditions worldwide. Adolescent cannabis use is linked to depression in many studies, but the effects of adolescent cannabis involvement on young adult depression remain unclear and may differ for males versus females. In this cohort study of youth from a mid-Atlantic metropolitan area of the United States, repeated assessments from 1985 (at age 6 years) through 2002 (at age 21 years) were made for 1,494 individuals (55% female). Meas...

  19. Understanding Cultivar-Specificity and Soil Determinants of the Cannabis Microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Winston, Max E.; Hampton-marcell, Jarrad; Zarraonaindia, Iratxe; Owens, Sarah M.; Moreau, Corrie S.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Hartsel, Josh; Kennedy, Suzanne J.; Gibbons, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding microbial partnerships with the medicinally and economically important crop Cannabis has the potential to affect agricultural practice by improving plant fitness and production yield. Furthermore, Cannabis presents an interesting model to explore plant-microbiome interactions as it produces numerous secondary metabolic compounds. Here we present the first description of the endorhiza-, rhizosphere-, and bulk soil-associated microbiome of five distinct Cannabis cultivars. Bacteri...

  20. Crime and the Depenalization of Cannabis Possession: Evidence from a Policing Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Adda, Je?ro?me; Mcconnell, Brendon; Rasul, Imran

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the impact on crime of a localized policing experiment that depenalized the possession of small quantities of cannabis in the London borough of Lambeth. Such a policy can: (i) impact the demand for cannabis in Lambeth as users move there to purchase cannabis; (ii) enable the Lambeth police to reallocate effort towards other types of crime. We investigate whether the depenalization policy impacts the level and composition of crime, using administrative records on criminal offences ...

  1. Disposition of smoked cannabis with high [Delta]9-tetrahydrocannabinol content: a kinetic model

    OpenAIRE

    Hunault, C. C.; Eijkeren, J. C. H.; Mensinga, T. T.; Vries, Irma; Leenders, M. E. C.; Meulenbelt, J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction No model exists to describe the disposition and kinetics of inhaled cannabis containing a high THC dose. We aimed to develop a kinetic model providing estimates of the THC serum concentrations after smoking cannabis cigarettes containing high THC doses (up to 69 mg THC).Methods Twenty-four male non-daily cannabis users smoked cannabis cigarettes containing 29.3 mg, 49.1 mg, and 69.4 mg THC. Blood samples were collected over a period of 0-8 h and serum THC concentrations wer...

  2. Predicting creativity: the role of psychometric schizotypy and cannabis use in divergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Kyle S; Firmin, Ruth L; Bonfils, Kelsey A; Chun, Charlotte A; Buckner, Julia D; Cohen, Alex S

    2014-12-15

    Evidence suggests that divergent thinking (DT), a measure of creativity, is associated with positive schizotypy and cannabis use. Given the high rates of cannabis use among those with schizotypy, it is unclear if the relation of DT to schizotypy is due to co-occurring cannabis use. In this study, we examined the relations between DT, schizotypy, and cannabis use among positive schizotypy (n=66), negative schizotypy (n=22), and non-schizotypy (n=60) groups. Results revealed that DT was greater in the positive schizotypy group, on the order of small to medium effects, compared to negative and non-schizotypy groups. Cannabis use and DT were associated in the non-schizotypy group, but not in the positive or negative schizotypy groups. Across all groups, positive schizotypy significantly predicted DT; however, cannabis use was not a significant predictor of DT. In line with previous findings, cannabis use and DT were only related in individuals low in creativity. This suggests that a ceiling effect may be present, with only cannabis users who are low in creativity receiving any increase in DT. Future research should aim to clarify the DT-cannabis relationship. PMID:25219611

  3. INCANT: a transnational randomized trial of Multidimensional Family Therapy versus treatment as usual for adolescents with cannabis use disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grichting Esther

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, the governments of Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland agreed that there was a need in Europe for a treatment programme for adolescents with cannabis use disorders and other behavioural problems. Based on an exhaustive literature review of evidence-based treatments and an international experts meeting, Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT was selected for a pilot study first, which was successful, and then for a joint, transnational randomized controlled trial named INCANT (INternational CAnnabis Need for Treatment. Methods/design INCANT is a randomized controlled trial (RCT with an open-label, parallel group design. This study compares MDFT with treatment as usual (TAU at and across sites in Brussels, Berlin, Paris, The Hague and Geneva. Assessments are at baseline and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after randomization. A minimum of 450 cases in total is required; sites will recruit 60 cases each in Belgium and Switzerland, and a maximum of 120 each in France, Germany and the Netherlands. Eligible for INCANT are adolescents from 13 through 18 years of age with a cannabis use disorder (dependence or abuse, with at least one parent willing to take part in the treatment. Randomization is concealed to, and therefore beyond control by, the researcher/site requesting it. Randomization is stratified as to gender, age and level of cannabis consumption. Assessments focus on substance use; mental function; behavioural problems; and functioning regarding family, school, peers and leisure time. For outcome analyses, the study will use state of the art latent growth curve modelling techniques, including all randomized participants according to the intention-to-treat principle. INCANT has been approved by the appropriate ethical boards in Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. INCANT is funded by the (federal Ministries of Health of Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and by MILDT: the Mission Interministerielle de Lutte Contra la Drogue et de Toximanie, France. Discussion Until recently, cannabis use disorders in adolescents were not viewed in Europe as requiring treatment, and the co-occurrence of such disorders with other mental and behavioural problems was underestimated. This has changed now. Initially, there was doubt that a RCT would be feasible in treatment sectors and countries with no experience in this type of study. INCANT has proven that such doubts are unjustified. Governments and treatment sites from the five participating countries agreed on a sound study protocol, and the INCANT trial is now underway as planned. Trial registration ISRCTN51014277

  4. Antigiardial Activity and Toxicological Exploration of Cannabis Sativa Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M.DAHAB

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been attempt to elucidate antigiardial activity and explore the cytoxicity, investigation on liver Diagnostic Enzymes and Changes in serum constituents of Cannabis Sativa aerial parts and seeds, which were extracted by Petroleum ether and methanol. Aerial parts methanolic extract gave 63.6% mortality after 72 hours at concentration 1000 ppm (IC50 0.13 ppm comparing with metrondizole (IC50 0.0125 ppm. While the other extracts found inactive as antigiardiasis after 72 hours. The slight increase in Aspartate amino transferase (AST, Alanine amino transferase (ALT and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP liver enzyme and total protein, urea, albumin and calcium which indicate some degree hepatic nefropathy effect of such plant petroleum ether extract. Moreover, phytochemical examination was carried out firstly and revealed that, the petroleum ether extract of Cannabis sativa seed do not contain tetrahydrocannbinol (THC, cannabinol (CBN and cannabidaiol (CBD. However, all extracts showed no significant cytotoxic activity against vero cell line.

  5. Prevalence of Psychotic Symptoms and Their Risk Factors in Urban Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jenkins

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in urban Tanzania and their relationship with demographic, socio-economic and social factors. A random sample of 899 adults aged 15–59 was surveyed. The main outcome measure was endorsement of one or more psychotic symptoms identified by the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire. 3.9% respondents reported one or more psychotic symptoms in the preceding year. Significantly higher rates of symptoms were found in those who had recently experienced two or more stressful life events, those with CMD and people who had used cannabis in the preceding year.

  6. Phytochemical and genetic analyses of ancient cannabis from Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Ethan B.; Jiang, Hong-en; Li, Xiao; Sutton, Alan; Carboni, Andrea; Del Bianco, Francesca; Mandolino, Giuseppe; Potter, David J.; Zhao, You-xing; Bera, Subir; Zhang, Yong-bing; Lu?, En-guo; Ferguson, David K.; Hueber, Francis; Zhao, Liang-cheng

    2008-01-01

    The Yanghai Tombs near Turpan, Xinjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region, China have recently been excavated to reveal the 2700-year-old grave of a Caucasoid shaman whose accoutrements included a large cache of cannabis, superbly preserved by climatic and burial conditions. A multidisciplinary international team demonstrated through botanical examination, phytochemical investigation, and genetic deoxyribonucleic acid analysis by polymerase chain reaction that this material contained tetrahydrocannabi...

  7. Crop physiology of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Werf, H.

    1994-01-01

    Fibre hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) may be an alternative to wood as a raw material for the production of paper pulp. The effects of enviromnental factors and cultural measures on the functioning, yield and quality of fibre hemp crops in the Netherlands were investigated.Until flowering (generally in August), the radiation use efficiency (RUE, above-ground dry matter accumulated per unit of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted) of hemp was 2.2 g MJ -1, after flowering it dropped to 1...

  8. Effect of hydrolysis on identifying prenatal cannabis exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Teresa R.; Barnes, Allan J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2010-01-01

    Identification of prenatal cannabis exposure is important due to potential cognitive and behavioral consequences. A two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method for cannabinol, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 8?,11-dihydroxy-THC, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) quantification in human meconium was developed and validated. Alkaline, enzymatic, and enzyme–alkaline tandem hydrolysis conditions were optimized with THC- and THCCOOH-glucuronide ref...

  9. Mortality following treatment for cannabis use disorders : Predictors and causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Mikkel; Munk-JØrgensen, Povl

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine excess mortality associated with cannabis use disorders. Individuals entering treatment for cannabis use disorders were followed by use of Danish registers and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) estimated. Predictors of different causes of death were determined. A total of 6445 individuals were included and 142 deaths recorded during 26,584 person-years of follow-up. Mortality was predicted by age, comorbid use of opioids, and lifetime injection drug use. For different causes of death the SMRs were: accidents: 8.2 (95% CI 6.3-10.5), suicide: 5.3 (95% CI 3.3-7.9), homicide/violence: 3.8 (95% CI 1.5-7.9), and natural causes: 2.8 (95% CI 2.0-3.7). Following exclusion of those with secondary use of opioids, cocaine, amphetamine, or injection drug use, SMRs for all causes of death remained significantly elevated except for homicide/violence. The study underlines the need to address mortality risk associated with cannabis use disorders.

  10. Phytocannabinoids beyond the Cannabis plant - do they exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertsch, Jürg; Pertwee, Roger G; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2010-06-01

    It is intriguing that during human cultural evolution man has detected plant natural products that appear to target key protein receptors of important physiological systems rather selectively. Plants containing such secondary metabolites usually belong to unique chemotaxa, induce potent pharmacological effects and have typically been used for recreational and medicinal purposes or as poisons. Cannabis sativa L. has a long history as a medicinal plant and was fundamental in the discovery of the endocannabinoid system. The major psychoactive Cannabis constituent Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) potently activates the G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor CB(1) and also modulates the cannabinoid receptor CB(2). In the last few years, several other non-cannabinoid plant constituents have been reported to bind to and functionally interact with CB receptors. Moreover, certain plant natural products, from both Cannabis and other plants, also target other proteins of the endocannabinoid system, such as hydrolytic enzymes that control endocannabinoid levels. In this commentary we summarize and critically discuss recent findings. PMID:20590562

  11. Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa / Therapeutical aspects of compounds of the plant Cannabis sativa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Káthia Maria, Honório; Agnaldo, Arroio; Albérico Borges Ferreira da, Silva.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids) have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of [...] these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action involved in the interaction between cannabinoid compounds and the biological receptors. So, from the therapeutical aspects presented in this work, we intended to show the evolution of the Cannabis sativa research and the possible medicinal use of cannabinoid compounds.

  12. HIV Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Home > HIV/AIDS > What is HIV/AIDS? HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) HIV symptoms Photo courtesy of AIDS.gov Facing AIDS ... and brain Return to top More information on HIV symptoms Explore other publications and websites Basic Information ...

  13. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an anxiolytic drug Canabidiol, um componente da Cannabis sativa, como um ansiolítico

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Rafael de Mello Schier; Natalia Pinho de Oliveira Ribeiro; Silva, Adriana Cardoso Oliveira E.; Jaime Eduardo Cecílio Hallak; Crippa, Jose? Alexandre S.; Nardi, Antonio E.; Antonio Waldo Zuardi

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To review and describe studies of the non-psychotomimetic constituent of Cannabis sativa, cannabidiol (CBD), as an anxiolytic drug and discuss its possible mechanisms of action. METHOD: The articles selected for the review were identified through searches in English, Portuguese, and Spanish in the electronic databases ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, PubMed, and PsycINFO, combining the search terms "cannabidiol and anxiolytic", "cannabidiol and anxiolytic-like", and "cannabidiol and ...

  14. Design paper: The CapOpus trial: a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial of specialized addiction treatment versus treatment as usual for young patients with cannabis abuse and psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HjorthØj, Carsten; Fohlmann, Allan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A number of studies indicate a link between cannabis-use and psychosis as well as more severe psychosis in those with existing psychotic disorders. There is currently insufficient evidence to decide the optimal way to treat cannabis abuse among patients with psychosis. OBJECTIVES: The major objective for the CapOpus trial is to evaluate the additional effect on cannabis abuse of a specialized addiction treatment program adding group treatment and motivational interviewing to treatment as usual. DESIGN: The trial is designed as a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial. Patients are primarily recruited through early-psychosis detection teams, community mental health centers, and assertive community treatment teams. Patients are randomized to one of two treatment arms, both lasting six months: 1) specialized addiction treatment plus treatment as usual or 2) treatment as usual. The specialized addiction treatment is manualized and consists of both individual and group-based motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy, and incorporates both the family and the case manager of the patient.The primary outcome measure will be changes in amount of cannabis consumption over time. Other outcome measures will be psychosis symptoms, cognitive functioning, quality of life, social functioning, and cost-benefit analyses. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00484302.

  15. Design paper: The CapOpus trial: A randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial of specialized addiction treatment versus treatment as usual for young patients with cannabis abuse and psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gluud Christian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies indicate a link between cannabis-use and psychosis as well as more severe psychosis in those with existing psychotic disorders. There is currently insufficient evidence to decide the optimal way to treat cannabis abuse among patients with psychosis. Objectives The major objective for the CapOpus trial is to evaluate the additional effect on cannabis abuse of a specialized addiction treatment program adding group treatment and motivational interviewing to treatment as usual. Design The trial is designed as a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial. Patients are primarily recruited through early-psychosis detection teams, community mental health centers, and assertive community treatment teams. Patients are randomized to one of two treatment arms, both lasting six months: 1 specialized addiction treatment plus treatment as usual or 2 treatment as usual. The specialized addiction treatment is manualized and consists of both individual and group-based motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy, and incorporates both the family and the case manager of the patient. The primary outcome measure will be changes in amount of cannabis consumption over time. Other outcome measures will be psychosis symptoms, cognitive functioning, quality of life, social functioning, and cost-benefit analyses. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00484302.

  16. Cannabis-based medicines--GW pharmaceuticals: high CBD, high THC, medicinal cannabis--GW pharmaceuticals, THC:CBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    GW Pharmaceuticals is undertaking a major research programme in the UK to develop and market distinct cannabis-based prescription medicines [THC:CBD, High THC, High CBD] in a range of medical conditions. The cannabis for this programme is grown in a secret location in the UK. It is expected that the product will be marketed in the US in late 2003. GW's cannabis-based products include selected phytocannabinoids from cannabis plants, including D9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). The company is investigating their use in three delivery systems, including sublingual spray, sublingual tablet and inhaled (but not smoked) dosage forms. The technology is protected by patent applications. Four different formulations are currently being investigated, including High THC, THC:CBD (narrow ratio), THC:CBD (broad ratio) and High CBD. GW is also developing a specialist security technology that will be incorporated in all its drug delivery systems. This technology allows for the recording and remote monitoring of patient usage to prevent any potential abuse of its cannabis-based medicines. GW plans to enter into agreements with other companies following phase III development, to secure the best commercialisation terms for its cannabis-based medicines. In June 2003, GW announced that exclusive commercialisation rights for the drug in the UK had been licensed to Bayer AG. The drug will be marketed under the Sativex brand name. This agreement also provides Bayer with an option to expand their license to include the European Union and certain world markets. GW was granted a clinical trial exemption certificate by the Medicines Control Agency to conduct clinical studies with cannabis-based medicines in the UK. The exemption includes investigations in the relief of pain of neurological origin and defects of neurological function in the following indications: multiple sclerosis (MS), spinal cord injury, peripheral nerve injury, central nervous system damage, neuroinvasive cancer, dystonias, cerebral vascular accident and spina bifida, as well as for the relief of pain and inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis and also pain relief in brachial plexus injury. The UK Government stated that it would be willing to amend the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 to permit the introduction of a cannabis-based medicine. GW stated in its 2002 Annual Report that it was currently conducting five phase III trials of its cannabis derivatives, including a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a sublingual spray containing High THC in more than 100 patients with cancer pain in the UK. Also included is a phase III trial of THC:CBD (narrow ratio) being conducted in patients with severe pain due to brachial plexus injury, as are two more phase III trials of THC:CBD (narrow ratio) targeting spasticity and bladder dysfunction in multiple sclerosis patients. Another phase III trial of THC:CBD (narrow ratio) in patients with spinal cord injury is also being conducted. Results from the trials are expected during 2003. Three additional trials are also in the early stages of planning. These trials include a phase I trial of THC:CBD (broad ratio) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, a phase I trial of High CBD in patients with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, and a preclinical trial of High CBD in various CNS disorders (including epilepsy, stroke and head injury). GW Pharmaceuticals submitted an application for approval of cannabis-based medicines to UK regulatory authorities in March 2003. Originally GW hoped to market cannabis-based prescription medicines by 2004, but is now planning for a launch in the UK towards the end of 2003. Several trials for GW's cannabis derivatives have also been completed, including four randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III clinical trials conducted in the UK. The trials were initiated by GW in April 2002, to investigate the use of a sublingual spray containing THC:CBD (narrow ratio) in the following medical conditions: pain in spinal cord injury, pain and sleep in MS and spinal cord injury, neuro

  17. Behavioral therapies for treatment-seeking cannabis users: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michelle L; Powers, Mark B; Handelsman, Pamela; Medina, Johnna L; Zvolensky, Michael; Smits, Jasper A J

    2015-03-01

    Narrative reviews conclude that behavioral therapies (BTs) produce better outcomes than control conditions for cannabis use disorders (CUDs). However, the strength and consistency of this effect has not been directly empirically examined. The present meta-analysis combined multiple well-controlled studies to help clarify the overall impact of behavioral interventions in the treatment of CUDs. A comprehensive literature search produced 10 randomized controlled trials (RCTs; n = 2,027) that were included in the final analyses. Analyses indicated an effect of BTs (including contingency management, relapse prevention, and motivational interviewing, and combinations of these strategies with cognitive behavioral therapy) over control conditions (including waitlist [WL], psychological placebo, and treatment as usual) across pooled outcomes and time points (Hedges' g = 0.44). These results suggest that the average patient receiving a behavioral intervention fared better than 66% of those in the control conditions. BT also outperformed control conditions when examining primary outcomes alone (frequency and severity of use) and secondary outcomes alone (psychosocial functioning). Effect sizes were not moderated by inclusion of a diagnosis (RCTs including treatment-seeking cannabis users who were not assessed for abuse or dependence vs. RCTs including individuals diagnosed as dependent), dose (number of treatment sessions), treatment format (either group vs. individual treatment or in-person vs. non-in-person treatment), sample size, or publication year. Effect sizes were significantly larger for studies that included a WL control comparison versus those including active control comparisons, such that BT significantly outperformed WL controls but not active control comparisons. PMID:24695072

  18. Cannabis Use and Related Harms in the Transition to Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2013-01-01

    The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…

  19. A rare case of cannabis hyperemesis syndrome relieved by hot water bathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Ben; Cairns, Stuart; Stone, Andy

    2014-02-01

    We present here a case of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS), which is an under-recognised disorder presenting in chronic abusers of cannabis typically as cyclical vomiting relieved by frequent hot baths. Increased awareness of CHS allows for earlier recognition by emergency departments, leading to prompter treatment and the prevention of future recurrence through cannabis cessation. PMID:24532755

  20. Effect of Long-Term Cannabis Use on Axonal Fibre Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesky, Andrew; Solowij, Nadia; Yucel, Murat; Lubman, Dan I.; Takagi, Michael; Harding, Ian H.; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Wang, Ruopeng; Searle, Karissa; Pantelis, Christos; Seal, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis use typically begins during adolescence and early adulthood, a period when cannabinoid receptors are still abundant in white matter pathways across the brain. However, few studies to date have explored the impact of regular cannabis use on white matter structure, with no previous studies examining its impact on axonal connectivity. The…

  1. First systematic evaluation of the potency of Cannabis sativa plants grown in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruci, Zana; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Nikolaou, Panagiota; Pazari, Ermira; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Vyshka, Gentian

    2012-10-10

    Cannabis products (marijuana, hashish, cannabis oil) are the most frequently abused illegal substances worldwide. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa plant, whereas cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) are other major but no psychoactive constituents. Many studies have already been carried out on these compounds and chemical research was encouraged due to the legal implications concerning the misuse of marijuana. The aim of this study was to determine THC, CBD and CBN in a significant number of cannabis samples of Albanian origin, where cannabis is the most frequently used drug of abuse, in order to evaluate and classify them according to their cannabinoid composition. A GC-MS method was used, in order to assay cannabinoid content of hemp samples harvested at different maturation degree levels during the summer months and grown in different areas of Albania. This method can also be used for the determination of plant phenotype, the evaluation of psychoactive potency and the control of material quality. The highest cannabinoid concentrations were found in the flowers of cannabis. The THC concentrations in different locations of Albania ranged from 1.07 to 12.13%. The influence of environmental conditions on cannabinoid content is discussed. The cannabinoid content of cannabis plants were used for their profiling, and it was used for their classification, according to their geographical origin. The determined concentrations justify the fact that Albania is an area where cannabis is extensively cultivated for illegal purposes. PMID:22608266

  2. Emotional processing deficits in chronic cannabis use: a replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindocha, Chandni; Wollenberg, Olivia; Carter Leno, Virginia; Alvarez, Beatriz O; Curran, H Valerie; Freeman, Tom P

    2014-05-01

    Heavy cannabis use is associated with interpersonal problems that may arise in part from the inaccurate perception of emotional faces. Only one study reports impairments in emotional facial affect processing in heavy cannabis users; however, it is not clear whether these findings were attributable to differences between cannabis users and controls in schizotypy or gender, rather than from cannabis use itself. A total of 25 frequent cannabis users and 34 non-using controls completed an emotional processing task in an independent groups design. We asked participants to identify the emotions on faces morphed from neutral to 100% intensity, for six basic emotions. We measured percentage hit rate, sensitivity and response bias. Schizotypy was indexed using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire. Cannabis users showed lower accuracy and sensitivity on the emotional recognition task. Gender and schizotypy did not differ between the two groups. Men showed lower accuracy on the emotional processing task, but impairments in cannabis users remained when covarying for gender. Schizotypy negatively correlated with sensitivity scores, but this was unreliable when accounting for the groups. Chronic cannabis users showed generalised impairment in emotional processing. These results appeared as independent of the emotional processing deficits amongst men, and were not related to schizotypy. PMID:24646810

  3. Temperament and character traits associated with the use of alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, benzodiazepines, and hallucinogens: evidence from a large Brazilian web survey

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Schneider Jr.; Gustavo L., Ottoni; Hudson W. de, Carvalho; Elaine, Elisabetsky; Diogo R., Lara.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate how personality traits are associated with occasional use, abuse, and dependence of alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, benzodiazepines, and hallucinogens in a large availability sample of adults via online questionnaires. Methods: The sample consisted of 8,646 individuals (24.7% me [...] n and 75.3% women) who completed an anonymous web survey. Involvement with drugs and temperament/character traits were assessed through the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and the Temperament and Character Inventory - Revised (TCI-R), respectively. Interactions among variables were analyzed using MANOVA with Bonferroni adjustment. Results: Novelty seeking was the trait most associated with increased involvement with alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine. There was a significant association between harm avoidance and benzodiazepine use. Persistence was lower in cannabis-, benzodiazepine-, and cocaine-dependent subjects, as well as in hallucinogen abusers. Self-directedness was reduced in dependents of all drug classes. No strong relationships were found between other temperament or character dimensions and the severity of drug use. Conclusions: Novelty seeking was associated with increased involvement with all drugs studied in this sample, although to a lesser extent with benzodiazepines and hallucinogens. The temperament and character profile for benzodiazepine use was different from that of other drugs due to the relationship with higher harm avoidance and self-transcendence and lower self-directedness.

  4. Syphilis Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Syphilis Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... occurs in four stages that sometimes overlap. Primary Syphilis The first symptom of primary syphilis is often ...

  5. Cannabis Use and Mental Health: A Review of Recent Epidemiological Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.H. Richardson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is the most commonly used drug in the world. This review examines recent epidemiological research on the relationships between cannabis use and mental health problems. Relationships with depression, anxiety disorders, mania and psychosis are examined, with relevant issues such as the effect of confounding variables, temporal directions and causality being discussed. Factors which influence the relationship such as dose-response effects, age of first cannabis use and risk of mental health problems are also examined. Causality is often difficult to establish, as cannabis is often used by those with mental illness for self-medication. However, there is substantial evidence to suggest that cannabis may induce or exacerbate a number of mental health problems.

  6. Correlations and agreement between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in blood plasma and timeline follow-back (TLFB)-assisted self-reported use of cannabis of patients with cannabis use disorder and psychotic illness attending the CapOpus randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HjorthØj, Carsten Rygaard; Fohlmann, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Aims To assess correlations and agreement between timeline follow-back (TLFB)-assisted self-report and blood samples for cannabis use. Design Secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Setting Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants One hundred and three patients from the CapOpus trial with cannabis use disorder and psychosis, providing 239 self-reports of cannabis use and 88 valid blood samples. Measurements Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) and 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) detected in plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. Self-report of cannabis-use last month by TLFB. Pearson's r, sensitivity and specificity calculated as measures of correlation or agreement. Findings Correlations were strong; r = 0.75 for number of days and r = 0.83 for number of standard joints in the preceding month when excluding outliers. Including outliers, coefficients were moderate to strong (r = 0.49). There were differences in subgroups, mainly inconsistent, depending on inclusion or exclusion of outliers. Sensitivity and specificity for TLFB detecting the presence or absence of cannabis use were 95.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 88.0-99.1%) and 72.2% (95% CI 46.5-90.3%), respectively. Using 19 days as cut-off on TLFB, they were 94.3% (95% CI 86.0-98.4%) and 94.4% (95% CI 72.2-99.9%), respectively. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.96. Conclusions Timeline follow-back (TLFB)-assisted self-report of cannabis use correlates highly with plasma-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with comorbid cannabis use disorder and psychosis. Sensitivity and specificity of timeline follow-back appear to be optimized with 19 days as the cut-off point. As such, timeline follow-back may be superior to analysis of blood when going beyond 19 days of recall.

  7. Altered brain activation during visuomotor integration in chronic active cannabis users: relationship to cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, George R; Ernst, Thomas; Deng, Weiran; Stenger, Andrew; Gonzales, Rachael M K; Nakama, Helenna; Chang, Linda

    2011-12-01

    Cannabis is the most abused illegal substance in the United States. Alterations in brain function and motor behavior have been reported in chronic cannabis users, but the results have been variable. The current study aimed to determine whether chronic active cannabis use in humans may alter psychomotor function, brain activation, and hypothalamic-pituitary-axis (HPA) function in men and women. Thirty cannabis users (16 men, 14 women, 18-45 years old) and 30 nondrug user controls (16 men, 14 women, 19-44 years old) were evaluated with neuropsychological tests designed to assess motor behavior and with fMRI using a 3 Tesla scanner during a visually paced finger-sequencing task, cued by a flashing checkerboard (at 2 or 4 Hz). Salivary cortisol was measured to assess HPA function. Male, but not female, cannabis users had significantly slower performance on psychomotor speed tests. As a group, cannabis users had greater activation in BA 6 than controls, while controls had greater activation in the visual area BA 17 than cannabis users. Cannabis users also had higher salivary cortisol levels than controls (p = 0.002). Chronic active cannabis use is associated with slower and less efficient psychomotor function, especially in male users, as indicated by a shift from regions involved with automated visually guided responses to more executive or attentional control areas. The greater but altered brain activities may be mediated by the higher cortisol levels in the cannabis users, which in turn may lead to less efficient visual-motor function. PMID:22159107

  8. AKT1 Moderation of Cannabis-Induced Cognitive Alterations in Psychotic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Winkel, Ruud; van Beveren, Nico J M; Simons, Claudia; S Kahn, René S; Linszen, Don H; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variation in AKT1 may be associated with sensitivity to the psychotomimetic effects of cannabis as well as with increased risk for psychotic disorder following cannabis use. Investigation of the effect of this interaction on relevant intermediate phenotypes for psychosis, such as cognition, may help to clarify the underlying mechanism. Thus, verbal memory (visually presented Word Learning Task), sustained attention (Continuous Performance Test, CPT), AKT1 rs2494732 genotype, and cannabis use were examined in a large cohort of patients with psychotic disorder. No evidence was found for AKT1 × cannabis interaction on verbal memory. Cannabis use preceding onset of psychotic disorder did interact significantly with AKT1 rs2494732 genotype to affect CPT reaction time (?=8.0, SE 3.9, p=0.037) and CPT accuracy (?=?1.2, SE 0.4, p=0.003). Cannabis-using patients with the a priori vulnerability C/C genotype were slower and less accurate on the CPT, whereas cannabis-using patients with the T/T genotype had similar or better performance than non-using patients with psychotic disorder. The interaction was also apparent in patients with psychotic disorder who had not used cannabis in the 12 months preceding assessment, but was absent in the unaffected siblings of these patients and in healthy controls. In conclusion, cannabis use before onset of psychosis may have long-lasting effects on measures of sustained attention, even in the absence of current use, contingent on AKT1 rs2494732 genotype. The results suggest that long-term changes in cognition may mediate the risk-increasing effect of the AKT1 × cannabis interaction on psychotic disorder. PMID:21775978

  9. Cannabis, the pregnant woman and her child: weeding out the myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaques, S C; Kingsbury, A; Henshcke, P; Chomchai, C; Clews, S; Falconer, J; Abdel-Latif, M E; Feller, J M; Oei, J L

    2014-06-01

    To review and summarise the literature reporting on cannabis use within western communities with specific reference to patterns of use, the pharmacology of its major psychoactive compounds, including placental and fetal transfer, and the impact of maternal cannabis use on pregnancy, the newborn infant and the developing child. Review of published articles, governmental guidelines and data and book chapters. Although cannabis is one of the most widely used illegal drugs, there is limited data about the prevalence of cannabis use in pregnant women, and it is likely that reported rates of exposure are significantly underestimated. With much of the available literature focusing on the impact of other illicit drugs such as opioids and stimulants, the effects of cannabis use in pregnancy on the developing fetus remain uncertain. Current evidence indicates that cannabis use both during pregnancy and lactation, may adversely affect neurodevelopment, especially during periods of critical brain growth both in the developing fetal brain and during adolescent maturation, with impacts on neuropsychiatric, behavioural and executive functioning. These reported effects may influence future adult productivity and lifetime outcomes. Despite the widespread use of cannabis by young women, there is limited information available about the impact perinatal cannabis use on the developing fetus and child, particularly the effects of cannabis use while breast feeding. Women who are using cannabis while pregnant and breast feeding should be advised of what is known about the potential adverse effects on fetal growth and development and encouraged to either stop using or decrease their use. Long-term follow-up of exposed children is crucial as neurocognitive and behavioural problems may benefit from early intervention aimed to reduce future problems such as delinquency, depression and substance use. PMID:24457255

  10. Approche en soins primaires pour les problèmes de consommation de cannabis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Suzanne D.; Spithoff, Sheryl; Kahan, Meldon

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Étudier les caractéristiques et complications cliniques de la consommation à risque de cannabis et du trouble de consommation de cannabis, et présenter un protocole en cabinet pour le dépistage, l’identification et la prise en charge de ces problèmes. Sources des données Une recherche des essais contrôlés, des études d’observation et des révisions sur l’usage de cannabis par les adolescents et les jeunes adultes; les méfaits psychiatriques et médicaux liés au cannabis; le trouble de consommation de cannabis et son traitement; et les lignes directrices sur la consommation à faible risque de cannabis a été effectuée dans PubMed. Message principal Les médecins doivent questionner tous leurs patients quant à leur usage de cannabis. Ils doivent questionner plus souvent les adolescents et jeunes adultes de même que les personnes qui présentent un risque élevé de problèmes liés au cannabis (qui ont un trouble psychiatrique ou de consommation de drogue concomitant). Les problèmes pouvant être causés par le cannabis, comme les troubles de l’humeur, la psychose et les symptômes respiratoires, devraient susciter des questions sur la consommation de cannabis. Aux patients qui rapportent un usage de cannabis, les médecins devraient poser des questions sur la fréquence et la quantité consommée, la présence de symptômes de tolérance ou de sevrage, les tentatives de réduire leur consommation et la présence de problèmes liés au cannabis. Les usagers à faible risque fument, inhalent ou ingèrent le cannabis occasionnellement sans aucun signe de dysfonctionnement scolaire, professionnel ou social; les personnes dont l’usage est problématique consomment tous les jours ou presque tous les jours, ont de la difficulté à réduire leur consommation et leur fonctionnement scolaire, professionnel et social est perturbé. Les médecins devraient offrir à tous les patients dont l’usage est problématique des conseils et un bref counseling, en insistant sur les effets du cannabis sur la santé et en visant l’abstinence (certains groupes à risque élevé devraient s’abstenir complètement de consommer du cannabis) ou la réduction de la consommation, et ils doivent fournir des stratégies pratiques de réduction de la consommation. Les techniques d’entrevue motivationnelle doivent faire partie des séances de counseling. Les médecins devraient aiguiller les patients qui sont incapables de réduire leur consommation ou qui présentent des problèmes liés à leur usage de cannabis vers des soins spécialisés, tout en veillant à ce qu’ils demeurent en contact avec leur généraliste. De plus, les médecins devraient donner à tous les usagers de cannabis de l’information sur la consommation à faible risque. Conclusion Les médecins devraient effectuer au moins une fois chez tous leurs patients de leur pratique un test de dépistage de l’usage de cannabis, particulièrement chez les patients qui présentent des problèmes pouvant être causés par le cannabis. Les tests de dépistage doivent être plus fréquents chez les personnes à risque, soit au moins tous les ans. Il faut savoir distinguer la consommation à faible risque de l’usage problématique. Les patients dont l’usage est problématique doivent recevoir de brèves séances de counseling et ces patients doivent être aiguillés vers un spécialiste s’ils sont incapables de réduire leur consommation ou d’y mettre un terme.

  11. The association between delusional-like experiences, and tobacco, alcohol or cannabis use: a nationwide population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Sukanta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous population-based studies have found that delusional-like experiences (DLE are prevalent in the community, and are associated with a wide range of mental health disorders including substance use. The aim of the study was to explore the association between DLE and three commonly used substances - tobacco, alcohol and cannabis. Methods Subjects were drawn from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing 2007. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify DLE, common psychiatric disorders, and substance use. We examined the relationship between the variables of interest using logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results Of 8 773 participants, 8.4% (n = 776 subjects endorsed one or more DLE. With respect to tobacco use, compared to nonusers, DLE were more common in those who (a had daily use, (b commenced usage aged 15 years or less, and (c those who smoked heavily (23 or more cigarettes per day. Participants with cannabis use disorders were more likely to endorse DLE; this association was most prominent in those with an onset of 16 years or younger. In contrast, the pattern of association between DLE versus alcohol use or dependence was less consistent, however those with early onset alcohol use disorders were more likely to endorse DLE probe items. Conclusions While cannabis use disorders have been previously linked with DLE, our findings linking alcohol and tobacco use and DLE suggest that the influence of these substances on psychosis-related outcomes warrants closer scrutiny in longitudinal prospective studies.

  12. EVALUACIÓN NEUROPSICOLÓGICA EN UN CASO DE CONSUMO DE CANNABIS / NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT IN A CASE OF CANNABIS / AVALIAÇÃO NEUROPSICOLÓGICA EM UM CASO DE CANNABIS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jacobo José, Brofman Epelbaum; Abel Armando, Delgado Mota.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos tem havido um aumento na demanda por avaliações neuropsicológicas, o objetivo é dirigido para o tratamento às necessidades das pessoas afetadas por alterações nas funções cerebrais superiores. A detecção de déficits neuropsicológicos associados ao uso de drogas que causam dependênci [...] a é muito complicado devido ao grande número de variáveis que devem ser abordadas e as dificuldades metodológicas relacionadas ao seu controle. Este artigo é baseado na avaliação neuropsicológica de um paciente de 20 anos que tem um uso crônico de cannabis por cinco anos e um diagnóstico psiquiátrico de hiperatividade do déficit de atenção residual. Pesquisas recentes nesta área têm determinado que os efeitos cognitivos do consumo de cannabis se devem a três pressupostos fundamentais (Papa e Yurgelun-Todd, 1996): a remoção ou a suspensão do uso de drogas, aumentando receptores CB1 ou um efeito neurotoxicidade do medicamento ou pode ser devido a uma anormalidade preexistente no desenvolvimento do cérebro ou uma combinação de várias destas (Schlaepfer, Lancaster, Heidbreder, Kosel, Fisch e Pearlson, 2005). Os substratos cerebrais envolvidos são mais consistentes com a hipótese de uma disfunção específica frontocerebelar após abuso crônico (Quickfall e Crockford, 2006). O resultado do abuso crônico concentra-se em processos de atenção, memória e funções executivas (Verdejo-Garcia, Lopez-Torrecilla, Orozco Gimenez, e Perez-Garcia, 2004). Abstract in spanish En los últimos años ha existido un aumento en la demanda de evaluaciones neuropsicológicas cuyo objetivo se dirige hacia las necesidades de tratamiento que tienen las personas afectadas por alteraciones en las funciones cerebrales superiores. La detección de los déficits neuropsicológicos asociados [...] con el uso de las drogas adictivas es un tema muy complicado, debido a la gran cantidad de variables que deben tenerse en cuenta y las dificultades metodológicas relacionadas con su control. Éste artículo se basa en la evaluación neuropsicológica de un paciente de veintidós años de edad que presenta un consumo crónico de cannabis de cinco años y un diagnóstico psiquiátrico de déficit de atención e hiperactividad residual. Las investigaciones recientes en este campo han determinado que los efectos cognitivos del consumo por cannabis son debidos a tres hipótesis fundamentales (Pope and Yurgelun-Todd, 1996): a un retiro o suspensión del consumo de la droga por incremento de receptores CB1 o a un efecto de neurotoxicidad de la droga o que puede deberse a una anormalidad preexistente en el desarrollo cerebral o una combinación de varios de estos (Schlaepfer, Lancaster, Heidbreder, Kosel, Fisch and Pearlson, 2005). Los sustratos cerebrales con mayor implicación son congruentes con la hipótesis de una disfunción frontocerebelar específico después de abuso crónico (Quickfall and Crockford, 2006). El resultado del abuso crónico se centra en los procesos atencionales, memoria y funciones ejecutivas (Verdejo-García, López-Torrecillas, Orozco Giménez, and Pérez-García, 2004).

  13. Is recent cannabis use associated with acute coronary syndromes? An illustrative case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casier, Isabelle; Vanduynhoven, Philippe; Haine, Steven; Vrints, Chris; Jorens, Philippe G

    2014-04-01

    Cannabis is a frequently used recreational drug that potentially imposes serious health problems. We report three cases where recent and/or chronic use of marijuana led to severe cardiac dysfunction. All three patients collapsed at home and required cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with initial restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The mechanism of the cardiovascular collapse was different in each case. The first case presented with asystole and was found to have diffuse coronary vasospasm on coronary angiography in the hours after acute cannabis abuse. In the second case, an acute anterior infarction with occlusion of both the right coronary artery (RCA) and the left anterior descendens (LAD) was observed in a young patient without known cardiovascular risks but with chronic cannabis abuse. The third case presented at home with ventricular fibrillation presumably caused by an acute coronary syndrome due to left anterior descending (LAD) artery occlusion. The hetero-anamnesis of the family reported that all three patients had recently used cannabis. Toxicological screening also showed no other substance abuse than cannabis. Using these three cases, we would like to illustrate that the widespread use of cannabis is not as innocent as is believed. Cannabis use can lead to severe cardiovascular problems and sudden death, not only in people at increased cardiovascular risk, but also in young people without any medical history or risk factors. PMID:24783463

  14. Alterations of monetary reward and punishment processing in chronic cannabis users: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzi, Björn; Lissek, Silke; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Tegenthoff, Martin; Nicolas, Volkmar; Scherbaum, Norbert; Juckel, Georg; Roser, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in reward and punishment processing have been reported in adults suffering from long-term cannabis use. However, previous findings regarding the chronic effects of cannabis on reward and punishment processing have been inconsistent. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to reveal the neural correlates of reward and punishment processing in long-term cannabis users (n = 15) and in healthy control subjects (n = 15) with no history of drug abuse. For this purpose, we used the well-established Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task, a reliable experimental paradigm that allows the differentiation between anticipatory and consummatory aspects of reward and punishment processing. Regarding the gain anticipation period, no significant group differences were observed. In the left caudate and the left inferior frontal gyrus, cannabis users were - in contrast to healthy controls - not able to differentiate between the conditions feedback of reward and control. In addition, cannabis users showed stronger activations in the left caudate and the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus following feedback of no punishment as compared to healthy controls. We interpreted these deficits in dorsal striatal functioning as altered stimulus-reward or action-contingent learning in cannabis users. In addition, the enhanced lateral prefrontal activation in cannabis users that is related to non-punishing feedback may reflect a deficit in emotion regulation or cognitive reappraisal in these subjects. PMID:25799565

  15. Functional Connectivity in Brain Networks Underlying Cognitive Control in Chronic Cannabis Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Ian H; Solowij, Nadia; Harrison, Ben J; Takagi, Michael; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Lubman, Dan I; Seal, Marc L; Pantelis, Christos; Yücel, Murat

    2012-01-01

    The long-term effect of regular cannabis use on brain function underlying cognitive control remains equivocal. Cognitive control abilities are thought to have a major role in everyday functioning, and their dysfunction has been implicated in the maintenance of maladaptive drug-taking patterns. In this study, the Multi-Source Interference Task was employed alongside functional magnetic resonance imaging and psychophysiological interaction methods to investigate functional interactions between brain regions underlying cognitive control. Current cannabis users with a history of greater than 10 years of daily or near-daily cannabis smoking (n=21) were compared with age, gender, and IQ-matched non-using controls (n=21). No differences in behavioral performance or magnitude of task-related brain activations were evident between the groups. However, greater connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and the occipitoparietal cortex was evident in cannabis users, as compared with controls, as cognitive control demands increased. The magnitude of this connectivity was positively associated with age of onset and lifetime exposure to cannabis. These findings suggest that brain regions responsible for coordinating behavioral control have an increased influence on the direction and switching of attention in cannabis users, and that these changes may have a compensatory role in mitigating cannabis-related impairments in cognitive control or perceptual processes. PMID:22534625

  16. Alterations of Monetary Reward and Punishment Processing in Chronic Cannabis Users: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzi, Björn; Lissek, Silke; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Tegenthoff, Martin; Nicolas, Volkmar; Scherbaum, Norbert; Juckel, Georg; Roser, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in reward and punishment processing have been reported in adults suffering from long-term cannabis use. However, previous findings regarding the chronic effects of cannabis on reward and punishment processing have been inconsistent. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to reveal the neural correlates of reward and punishment processing in long-term cannabis users (n = 15) and in healthy control subjects (n = 15) with no history of drug abuse. For this purpose, we used the well-established Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task, a reliable experimental paradigm that allows the differentiation between anticipatory and consummatory aspects of reward and punishment processing. Regarding the gain anticipation period, no significant group differences were observed. In the left caudate and the left inferior frontal gyrus, cannabis users were – in contrast to healthy controls – not able to differentiate between the conditions feedback of reward and control. In addition, cannabis users showed stronger activations in the left caudate and the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus following feedback of no punishment as compared to healthy controls. We interpreted these deficits in dorsal striatal functioning as altered stimulus-reward or action-contingent learning in cannabis users. In addition, the enhanced lateral prefrontal activation in cannabis users that is related to non-punishing feedback may reflect a deficit in emotion regulation or cognitive reappraisal in these subjects. PMID:25799565

  17. A survey of the potency of Japanese illicit cannabis in fiscal year 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, Yukari; Aoki, Rikiya; Tokieda, Yoshio; Akutsu, Mamoru; Kawase, Yasuharu; Kataoka, Tadashi; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Mizuno, Tomomi; Fukada, Masakatsu; Fujii, Hiroshi; Kurahashi, Kazumi

    2012-09-10

    In recent years, increased 'cannabis potency', or ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in cannabis products, has been reported in many countries. A survey of Japanese illicit cannabis was conducted from April 2010 to March 2011. In Japan, all cannabis evidence is transferred to the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare after criminal trials. The evidence was observed at Narcotics Control Department offices in major 11 cities. The total number of cannabis samples observed was 9072, of which 6376 were marijuana. The marijuana seizures were further classified, and it was found that in terms of the number of samples, 65.2% of them were seedless buds, and by weight 73.0% of them were seedless buds. Seedless buds were supposed to be 'sinsemilla', a potent class of marijuana. THC, cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD) in marijuana seizures exceeding 1g were quantified. The number of samples analyzed was 1115. Many of them were shown to contain CBN, an oxidative product from THC. This was a sign of long-term storage of the cannabis and of the degradation of THC. Relatively fresh cannabis, defined by a CBN/THC ratio of less than or equal to 0.1, was chosen for analysis. Fresh seedless buds (335 samples) contained an average of 11.2% and a maximum of 22.6% THC. These values are comparable to those of 'high potency cannabis' as defined in previous studies. Thus, this study shows that highly potent cannabis products are distributed in Japan as in other countries. PMID:22554871

  18. Quality and Yield of Cannabis Products : Danish seizures from 2008-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastorp, Grith; Lindholst, Christian

    Abstract. 180 seizures containing 667 different samples of cannabis products from 5 police districts in Jutland were examined from 2008 to the present. The samples were divided into the groups: hashish, marihuana (leaves and buds) and whole plants (indoors and outdoors). Cannabis seized from indoor cultivation was examined in order to determine THC content and yield. The results are used by the Danish Police Attorney to estimate expected yields in cases with unripe cannabis plants. The results indicate that the THC content found in locally grown marihuana is slightly higher than in hashish. However, the way the plants are snipped during growth has a major impact on the overall yield.

  19. Cannabis sativa var. indica : une menace croissante pour les entreprises Cannabis sativa var. indica: an increasing hazard for firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mura Patrick

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les drogues illicites, le cannabis est de très loin le produit le plus consommé. Les effets sur l'organisme sont principalement dus au delta-9-tétrahydrocannabinol (THC. Lors d'un usage peu important et occasionnel, ils consistent en une euphorie, une désinhibition, un état de somnolence, avec détérioration de la perception temporelle et spatiale. Les perturbations de la vision consistent en une mydriase, pouvant être accompagnée d'un nystagmus et d'une diplopie. Des troubles de la mémoire à court terme sont fréquemment observés. Ces effets, qui persistent pendant 2 à 10 heures, sont difficilement compatibles avec la réalisation d'actes complexes. Un usage fréquent et important peut conduire à des attaques de panique, des crises d'angoisse, voire l'apparition d'une psychose cannabique avec notamment la survenue d'hallucinations visuelles. C'est en raison de ces effets que son usage est considéré comme étant incompatible avec une conduite automobile en toute sécurité. Une étude française récente, réalisée chez 900 conducteurs impliqués dans un accident corporel de la voie publique et 900 sujets témoins, a montré que le nombre des accidents était multiplié par 2,5 chez les conducteurs ayant consommé du cannabis dans les heures précédentes. Aussi la législation française permet désormais de dépister son usage chez les conducteurs impliqués dans un accident corporel de la circulation, avec une obligation dans le cas des accidents mortels. L'absence de récepteurs au niveau bulbaire, et ce faisant l'absence de décès par overdose, a conduit certaines personnes à classer ce produit parmi les substances addictives les moins dangereuses pour l'homme. Une telle classification fait abstraction de la neurotoxicité fonctionnelle importante du THC qui fait que l'usage de ce produit peut constituer un facteur de risque pour autrui. Cela est vrai pour la conduite automobile. Cela peut être tout aussi vrai lorsque les consommateurs occupent des postes de travail dans lesquels les fautes professionnelles peuvent mettre en péril l'entreprise et/ou la collectivité. Ce risque était négligeable à une époque où la consommation de cannabis était marginale. Il devient majeur aujourd'hui compte tenu du nombre de consommateurs et des mesures de prévention s'imposent désormais, au delà du seul principe de précaution. Among the various drugs of abuse, cannabis is by far the most consumed. The effects on human organism are mainly due to delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC. With low doses and infrequent use, the effects are euphoria, desinhibition, drowsiness, and an alteration of temporal and spatial perception. Visual disorders consist in a mydriasis sometimes accompanied with a nystagmus and a diplopia. Short-memory troubles are frequently observed. These effects, which can persist during 2 to 10 hours, are not compatible with the realization of complex activities. A frequent use may lead to panic and anxiety attacks, and psychiatric disorders such as psychosis with visual hallucinations. Because of these effects, its use is considered to affect traffic safety. A recent French study, performed on 900 drivers involved in a corporal accident and 900 control subjects, indicated the number of accidents was multiplied by 2.5 when drivers had smoked cannabis a few hours before. So, a French law allows to identify drug users in drivers involved in a corporal car accident, with an obligation in the case of fatal accidents. The lack of receptors in the bulb, and then the non-occurrence of deaths by overdose, led some people to the conclusion that cannabis is the least dangerous of addict products. Such an assertion disregards the important functional neurotoxicity of THC which is the reason why cannabis use may represent a risk factor for others. That is true for car driving. That may be also true in factories when consumers occupy operation stations in which professional errors may imperil the enterprise and/or the collectivity. This risk was negligible when cannabis consumpti

  20. An fMRI study of neuronal activation in schizophrenia patients with and without previous cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-MarieLøberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI. Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients.

  1. In silicio expression analysis of PKS genes isolated from Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Sanchez, Isvett J; Linthorst, Huub J M; Verpoorte, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 51%-73% identity to other CHS/STS type sequences of the PKS family. Further, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these PKS cDNAs grouped with other non-chalcone-producing PKSs. Homology modeling analysis of these cannabis PKSs predicts a 3D overall fold, similar to alfalfa CHS2, with small steric differences on the residues that shape the active site of the cannabis PKSs. PMID:21637580

  2. In silicio expression analysis of PKS genes isolated from Cannabis sativa L.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isvett J., Flores-Sanchez; Huub J.M., Linthorst; Robert, Verpoorte.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, inc [...] luding flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 51%-73% identity to other CHS/STS type sequences of the PKS family. Further, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these PKS cDNAs grouped with other non-chalcone-producing PKSs. Homology modeling analysis of these cannabis PKSs predicts a 3D overall fold, similar to alfalfa CHS2, with small steric differences on the residues that shape the active site of the cannabis PKSs.

  3. In silicio expression analysis of PKS genes isolated from Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isvett J. Flores-Sanchez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 51%-73% identity to other CHS/STS type sequences of the PKS family. Further, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these PKS cDNAs grouped with other non-chalcone-producing PKSs. Homology modeling analysis of these cannabis PKSs predicts a 3D overall fold, similar to alfalfa CHS2, with small steric differences on the residues that shape the active site of the cannabis PKSs.

  4. The Effects of Parental Depression and Parenting Practices on Depressive Symptoms and Metabolic Control in Urban Youth with Insulin Dependent Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Eckshtain, Dikla; Ellis, Deborah A.; Kolmodin, Karen; Naar-king, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Objective?Examine relationships between parental depressive symptoms, affective and instrumental parenting practices, youth depressive symptoms and glycemic control in a diverse, urban sample of adolescents with diabetes.?Methods?Sixty-one parents and youth aged 10–17 completed self-report questionnaires. HbA1c assays were obtained to assess metabolic control. Path analysis was used to test a model where parenting variables mediated the relationship between parental and youth depressi...

  5. Coping with cannabis in a Caribbean country : from problem formulation to going public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hymie Rubenstein

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyzes the dialectic between problem discovery and formulation, ethical considerations, and the public dissemination of research results. Author describes his personal experience of fieldwork, the moral-ethical dilemmas it involved, and the circulation of research findings on cannabis production and consumption in St. Vincent. He became frustrated that his academic publications were only accessible to a tiny portion of St. Vincent's population and therefore decided to publish about cannabis in the local media.

  6. Detecting Cannabis Use on the Human Skin Surface via an Electronic Nose System

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Voss; Katharina Witt; Tobias Kaschowitz; Wolf Poitz; Andreas Ebert; Patrik Roser; Karl-Jürgen Bär

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly used drug testing methods are based on the analysis of hair and urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or immunoassay screening. These methods are time-consuming and partly expensive. One alternative method could be the application of an “electronic nose” (eNose). We have developed an eNose to detect directly on the human skin surface metabolic changes in the human body odor caused by cannabis consumption. Twenty cannabi...

  7. In silicio expression analysis of PKS genes isolated from Cannabis sativa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-sanchez, Isvett J.; Linthorst, Huub J. M.; Robert Verpoorte

    2010-01-01

    Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants...

  8. Pharmacological interventions in the treatment of the acute effects of cannabis: a systematic review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    As, Crippa Jose?; Derenusson Guilherme N; Hn, Chagas Marcos; Atakan Zerrin; Martín-Santos Rocio; Zuardi Antonio W; Ec, Hallak Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cannabis intoxication is related to a number of physical and mental health risks with ensuing social costs. However, little attention has been given to the investigation of possible pharmacological interactions in this condition. Objective To review the available scientific literature concerning pharmacological interventions for the treatment of the acute effects of cannabis. Methods A search was performed on the Pubmed, Lilacs, and Scielo online databases by combining the...

  9. Molecular mechanisms of maternal cannabis and cigarette use on human neurodevelopment

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Claudia V.; Dinieri, Jennifer A.; Szutorisz, Henrietta; Hurd, Yasmin L.

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal development is highly sensitive to maternal drug use due to the vulnerability for disruption of the fetal brain where the ongoing neurodevelopmental, resulting in lifelong consequences that can enhance risk for psychiatric disorders. Cannabis and cigarettes are the most commonly used illicit and licit substances, respectively, among pregnant women. While the behavioral consequences of prenatal cannabis and cigarette exposure have been well-documented in epidemiological and clinical s...

  10. COMT val158met and 5-HTTLPR Genetic Polymorphisms Moderate Executive Control in Cannabis Users

    OpenAIRE

    Verdejo-garci?a, Antonio; Beatriz Fagundo, Ana; Cuenca, Aida; Rodriguez, Joan; Cuya?s, Elisabet; Langohr, Klaus; Sola Llopis, Susana; Civit, Ester; Farre?, Magi?; Pen?a-casanova, Jordi; La Torre, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    The adverse effects of cannabis use on executive functions are still controversial, fostering the need for novel biomarkers able to unveil individual differences in the cognitive impact of cannabis consumption. Two common genetic polymorphisms have been linked to the neuroadaptive impact of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure and to executive functions in animals: the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene val158met polymorphism and the SLC6A4 gene 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. We aimed to tes...

  11. Cannabis use, time perspective and risk perception: Evidence of a moderating effect.

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolidis, The?mis; Fieulaine, Nicolas; Simonin, Laurent; Rolland, Ge?raldine

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between time perspective (TP), cannabis use and risk perceptions associated to this substance. A sample of French students (n=198) were provided with a valid French version of the ZTPI scale. Risk perceptions linked to cannabis consumption were evaluated from a list of 22 items referring to different risks. Respondents were asked to declare how frequently they consumed this substance. Data analysis was based on firstly, ZTPI scores, secondly, declared cons...

  12. Sedative activity of cannabis in relation to its delta'-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol content.

    OpenAIRE

    Pickens, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    1. The oral sedative potencies of cannabis herb, crude ethanolic and petroleum-ether fractions, were assayed against delta'-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administered orally to mice, by measuring spontaneous motor activity over 30 min periods, at selected times, up to 6 h. 2. The THC contents of the extracts were determined chemically by gas-liquid chromatography analysis and the B/C ratio (biological activity divided by chemical activity) calculated for each. The B/C values for cannabis h...

  13. Evolution of substance use, neurological and psychiatric symptoms in schizophrenia and substance use disorder patients: a 12-week, pilot, case-control trial with quetiapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    StephanePotvin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurological and psychiatric symptoms are consequences of substance abuse in schizophrenia and non-schizophrenia patients. The present case-control study examined changes in substance abuse/dependence and neurological and psychiatric symptoms in substance abusers with (DD group, n=26 and without schizophrenia (SUD group, n=24 and in non-abusing schizophrenia patients (SCZ group, n=23 undergoing 12-week treatment with the atypical antipsychotic, quetiapine. Neurological and psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, the Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale and the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale. At endpoint, DD and SCZ patients were receiving significantly higher doses of quetiapine (mean = 554mg/d and 478mg/d, respectively, relative to SUD patients (mean = 150mg/d. We found that SUD patients showed greater improvement in weekly dollars spent on alcohol and drugs and SUD severity, compared to DD patients. At endpoint, there was no significant difference in dollars spent, but DD patients still had a higher mean SUD severity. Interestingly, DD patients had significantly higher Parkinsonism and depression than SCZ patients at baseline and endpoint. On the other hand, we found that SUD patients had significantly more akathisia at baseline, improved more than SCZ patients and this was related to cannabis abuse/dependence. Finally, SUD patients improved more in PANSS positive scores than DD and SCZ patients. Taken together, our results provide evidence for increased vulnerability to the adverse effects of alcohol and drugs in schizophrenia patients. They also suggest that substance abuse/withdrawal may mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia. Future studies will need to determine the role quetiapine played in these improvements.

  14. Cloud point extraction of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol from cannabis resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameur, S; Haddou, B; Derriche, Z; Canselier, J P; Gourdon, C

    2013-04-01

    A cloud point extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/UV) method was developed for the determination of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in micellar phase. The nonionic surfactant "Dowfax 20B102" was used to extract and pre-concentrate THC from cannabis resin, prior to its determination with a HPLC-UV system (diode array detector) with isocratic elution. The parameters and variables affecting the extraction were investigated. Under optimum conditions (1 wt.% Dowfax 20B102, 1 wt.% Na2SO4, T = 318 K, t = 30 min), this method yielded a quite satisfactory recovery rate (~81 %). The limit of detection was 0.04 ?g mL(-1), and the relative standard deviation was less than 2 %. Compared with conventional solid-liquid extraction, this new method avoids the use of volatile organic solvents, therefore is environmentally safer. PMID:23354583

  15. Trichomes of Cannabis sativa as viewed with scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledbetter, M.C.; Krikorian, A.D.

    1975-06-01

    Direct examination of fresh, unfixed and uncoated specimens from vegetative and floral parts of Cannabis sativa with the scanning electron microscope enables one to obtain a faithful representation of their surface morphology. The presence of two major types of trichomes has been confirmed: a glandular type comprising or terminating in a globoid structure, and a conically-shaped nonglandular type. Moreover, three or possibly four distinct glandular types can be distinguished: sessile globoid, small-stalked and large-stalked globoid, and a peltate type. The nonglandular trichomes can be distinguished by the nature of their surfaces: those with a warty surface, and those which are relatively smooth. The range of size and distribution, and the special features of all these types of trichomes are also provided.

  16. Influence of mevinolin on chloroplast terpenoids in Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Hakimeh; Salari, Fatemeh

    2014-04-01

    Plants synthesize a myriad of isoprenoid products that are required both for essential constitutive processes and for adaptive responses to the environment. Two independent pathways for the biosynthesis of isoprenoid precursors coexist within the plant cell: the cytosolic mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway and the plastidial methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of the MVA pathway on isoprenoid biosynthesized by the MEP pathway in Cannabis sativa by treatment with mevinolin. The amount of chlorophyll a, b, and total showed to be significantly enhanced in treated plants in comparison with control plants. Also, mevinolin induced the accumulation of carotenoids and ?-tocopherol in treated plants. Mevinolin caused a significant decrease in tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content. This result show that the inhibition of the MVA pathway stimulates MEP pathway but none for all metabolites. PMID:24757332

  17. Considerações sobre a toxicocinética da Cannabis sativa L. ou maconha, com enfase no homem Some aspects of pharmacokinetics of Cannabis sativa L. (Marihuana with emphasis on man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Marques de Sá

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo consiste em uma análise sobre a origem da Cannabis no Brasil, suas principais substâncias químicas, realçando o ?9 tetrahidrocanabinol como responsável pelos efeitos farmacológicos. é citado também o fato de existirem duas formas de numeração dos carbonos do ?THC. Para melhor entender a toxicocinética foram feitas considerações sobre as doses de maconha, que vão variar de acordo com o usuário, e origem do vegetal. Finalmente é feito urn estudo detalhado sobre, absorção, distribuição, armazenamento, biotransformação e eliminação dos diversos componentes químicos da maconha.This paper contains an analysis of the origin of the introduction of Cannabis in Brazil, the identify of its chemical components, mainly tetrahydrocannabinol responsible for the pharmacological effects of Cannabis. Toxicokinetic studies were developed in relation the amounts of marihuana consumed, characteristics of the user and origin of the drug. Absorption, distribution, storage, biotransformation and elimination of marihuana derived metabolites were studies.

  18. Prediction of cannabis and cocaine use in adolescence using decision trees and logistic regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso L. Palmer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Spain is one of the European countries with the highest prevalence of cannabis and cocaine use among young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors related to the consumption of cocaine and cannabis among adolescents. A questionnaire was administered to 9,284 students between 14 and 18 years of age in Palma de Mallorca (47.1% boys and 52.9% girls whose mean age was 15.59 years. Logistic regression and decision trees were carried out in order to model the consumption of cannabis and cocaine. The results show the use of legal substances and committing fraudulence or theft are the main variables that raise the odds of consuming cannabis. In boys, cannabis consumption and a family history of drug use increase the odds of consuming cocaine, whereas in girls the use of alcohol, behaviours of fraudulence or theft and difficulty in some personal skills influence their odds of consuming cocaine. Finally, ease of access to the substance greatly raises the odds of consuming cocaine and cannabis in both genders. Decision trees highlight the role of consuming other substances and committing fraudulence or theft. The results of this study gain importance when it comes to putting into practice effective prevention programmes.

  19. Cannabis use by individuals with multiple sclerosis: effects on specific immune parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Michelle; Cudaback, Eiron; Abdullah, Rehab A; Finnell, John; Mischley, Laurie K; Rozga, Mary; Lichtman, Aron H; Stella, Nephi

    2014-10-01

    Cannabinoids affect immune responses in ways that may be beneficial for autoimmune diseases. We sought to determine whether chronic Cannabis use differentially modulates a select number of immune parameters in healthy controls and individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS cases). Subjects were enrolled and consented to a single blood draw, matched for age and BMI. We measured monocyte migration isolated from each subject, as well as plasma levels of endocannabinoids and cytokines. Cases met definition of MS by international diagnostic criteria. Monocyte cell migration measured in control subjects and individuals with MS was similarly inhibited by a set ratio of phytocannabinoids. The plasma levels of CCL2 and IL17 were reduced in non-naïve cannabis users irrespective of the cohorts. We detected a significant increase in the endocannabinoid arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) in serum from individuals with MS compared to control subjects, and no significant difference in levels of other endocannabinoids and signaling lipids irrespective of Cannabis use. Chronic Cannabis use may affect the immune response to similar extent in individuals with MS and control subjects through the ability of phytocannabinoids to reduce both monocyte migration and cytokine levels in serum. From a panel of signaling lipids, only the levels of AEA are increased in individuals with MS, irrespective of Cannabis use or not. Our results suggest that both MS cases and controls respond similarly to chronic Cannabis use with respect to the immune parameters measured in this study. PMID:25135301

  20. ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol content in cannabis samples seized in Novi Sad during 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJA DJURENDI?-BRENESEL

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The three main cannabinoids ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC, cannabidiol (CBD and cannabinol (CBN were identified and determined quantitatively using a GCD (GC-EI instrument in 280 samples of illicit herbal cannabis, seized by the Police authorities in Novi Sad, during 2008. The samples were sent to the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Clinical Center Vojvodina, for forensic chemical analysis. The cannabinoid content of the samples enabled the classification of the cannabis into three chemical phenotypes and the differentiation into drug and textile-cannabis, using the Waller classification index. This differentiation has great forensic significance in the classification of certain cases as a criminal action. The experimental results showed that the ?9-THC content in illicitly circulated cannabis slightly decreased from January to December 2008, as did the quality of the drug-cannabis. The reasons for the quality variations could lie in the geographical origin of the cannabis plants, the conditions of plants storage, various parts of the plants in samples and the time elapsed between harvesting and chemical analysis.

  1. Cannabinoid receptor 1 binding activity and quantitative analysis of Cannabis sativa L. smoke and vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischedick, Justin; Van Der Kooy, Frank; Verpoorte, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis) extracts, vapor produced by the Volcano vaporizer and smoke made from burning cannabis joints were analyzed by GC-flame ionization detecter (FID), GC-MS and HPLC. Three different medicinal cannabis varieties were investigated Bedrocan, Bedrobinol and Bediol. Cannabinoids plus other components such as terpenoids and pyrolytic by-products were identified and quantified in all samples. Cannabis vapor and smoke was tested for cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) binding activity and compared to pure Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC). The top five major compounds in Bedrocan extracts were Delta(9)-THC, cannabigerol (CBG), terpinolene, myrcene, and cis-ocimene in Bedrobinol Delta(9)-THC, myrcene, CBG, cannabichromene (CBC), and camphene in Bediol cannabidiol (CBD), Delta(9)-THC, myrcene, CBC, and CBG. The major components in Bedrocan vapor (>1.0 mg/g) were Delta(9)-THC, terpinolene, myrcene, CBG, cis-ocimene and CBD in Bedrobinol Delta(9)-THC, myrcene and CBD in Bediol CBD, Delta(9)-THC, myrcene, CBC and terpinolene. The major components in Bedrocan smoke (>1.0 mg/g) were Delta(9)-THC, cannabinol (CBN), terpinolene, CBG, myrcene and cis-ocimene in Bedrobinol Delta(9)-THC, CBN and myrcene in Bediol CBD, Delta(9)-THC, CBN, myrcene, CBC and terpinolene. There was no statistically significant difference between CB1 binding of pure Delta(9)-THC compared to cannabis smoke and vapor at an equivalent concentration of Delta(9)-THC. PMID:20118579

  2. Cannabis d'hier et cannabis d'aujourd'hui. Augmentation des teneurs en THC de 1993 à 2004 en France Cannabis of the past and cannabis todays. Increase of THC contents from 1993 to 2004 in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mura Patrick

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Une étude précédente, réalisée sur des échantillons de saisie en France, nous avait permis de montrer que la teneur en delta-9 tétrahydrocannabinol (THC dans les échantillons de "résine" et "d'herbe" avait augmenté durant la période 1993-2000 et tout particulièrement depuis 1996. L'objet de la présente étude a été de déterminer l'évolution de ces teneurs en THC pendant la période 2001-2004 et de comparer cette évolution avec celle de la période précédente. Nous avons regroupé tous les résultats obtenus pendant cette période par les laboratoires de la Gendarmerie Nationale, de l'Institut National de Police Scienti que et de quatre laboratoires d'expertise en France, représentant 2613 échantillons de "résine" et 709 échantillons "d'herbe". Les analyses étaient réalisées par chromatographie gazeuse couplée à la spectrométrie de masse. En ce qui concerne "l'herbe", la très grande majorité des échantillons (71% contiennent moins de 5% de principe actif, ce qui peut être expliqué par des récoltes fréquemment effectuées avant maturité des plants. En revanche, près de l'échantillon sur 5 contient plus de 10% de THC. Les résultats concernant la "résine" indiquent que, depuis 10 ans, le nombre d'échantillons à faible teneur en THC (inférieurs à 5% de principe actif a diminué de manière très signi cative (passant de 48% des échantillons en 1993 à 15% en 2004. Les échantillons contenant plus de 20% de THC restent très rarement rencontrés, représentant seulement 2% des saisies. L'évolution la plus caractéristique a concerné les échantillons de résine contenant entre 10 et 15% de THC. Cette catégorie n'a cessé d'augmenter depuis 1993, passant de 1% des échantillons à 32% en 2004. Cette étude con rme que les teneurs en THC dans les échantillons de "résine" disponibles sur le marché clandestin français ont régulièrement augmenté depuis une dizaine d'années, ayant été en moyenne multipliées par 2 entre 1993 et 2004. Une telle observation n est pas sans conséquence en terme de santé publique car l'utilisation de cannabis "haut dosage" peut être responsable d'hallucinations, d'attaques de panique ou autres états psychotiques aigus. A previous study, performed on seized cannabis products from France, had allowed us to indicate that there has been an increase in the delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC content from herbal products and resin samples during the period 1993-2000 and overall from 1996. The purpose of the present study was to observe the pattern of the THC content of cannabis which was available in France between 2001 and 2004 and to compare these results to those of the previous study. We have collected all the results obtained from 2001 to 2004 on seized cannabis products (2613 resin samples and 709 herbal products by the laboratories of national police force and from four forensic toxicology independent laboratories. The THC content was determined by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. Most of herb samples (71% contained less than 5% of THC. This result can be explained by the fact that harvestings are often made before ripeness. In turn, about one sample out of ve contained more than 10% of THC. About resin, the reached results indicated that during the last 10 years the number of low THC content samples (less than 5% of THC had decreased very signi cantly (48% of samples in 1993 versus 15% in 2004. Samples with more than 20% of THC were seldom found (only 2% of seizures. The most signi cant evolution concerned samples containing between 10 and 15% of THC. This level has constantly increased since 1993 (around 1% of samples analysed to 32% in 2004. This study con rms that THC content of cannabis available in France has regularly increased during the past ten years (enhanced by a factor 2 between 1993 and 2004. Such ndings may be consistent for public health because the use of such high dosage cannabis may be involved in the occurrence of hallucinations, panic attacks or other acute psychotic states.

  3. Endogenous cannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, attenuates naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T; Hagiwara, Y; Tanaka, H; Sugiura, T; Waku, K; Shoyama, Y; Watanabe, S; Yamamoto, T

    2001-08-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of endogenous ligand 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice, in comparison with that of two cannabinoid agonists, an ingredient of Cannabis sativa Delta(8)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(8)-THC) and the synthetic cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist HU-210. 2-AG at a dose of 10 microg per mouse (i.c.v.) significantly inhibited both jumping and forepaw tremor as signs of withdrawal following naloxone challenge in morphine-dependent mice. Furthermore, both Delta(8)-THC and HU-210 significantly attenuated these symptoms of withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice. Therefore, it is suggested that inactivation of the endogenous cannabinoid system is related to the induction of withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent mice. Moreover, hyperlocomotor activity in morphine-dependent mice was markedly increased by Delta(8)-THC 10 mg/kg, which had no effect in naive mice. This finding suggested that in morphine dependence, upregulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors occurred. Non-psychoactive CB1 receptor agonists or accelerators of endocannabinoid synthesis may be potential as therapeutic drugs for opiate withdrawal symptoms. PMID:11478928

  4. Effects of Chronic Active Cannabis Use on Visuomotor Integration, in Relation to Brain Activation and Cortisol Levels

    OpenAIRE

    King, G. R.; Ernst, T.; Deng, W.; Stenger, A.; Gonzales, R. M. K.; Nakama, H.; Chang, L.

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis is the most abused illegal substance in the United States. Alterations in brain function and motor behavior have been reported in chronic cannabis users, but the results have been variable. The current study aimed to determine whether chronic active cannabis use in humans may alter psychomotor function, brain activation, and hypothalamic-pituitary-axis (HPA) function in men and women. 30 cannabis users (16 men and 14 women, 18 to 45 years old) and 30 non-drug user controls (16 men an...

  5. Behavioral and biochemical effects of Cannabis Sativa and their modulation by antidepressant drugs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Omar M.E., Abdel-Salam; Rehab Fawzy, Abdel-Rahman; Alaa El-Din M., Gaafar.

    Full Text Available Nos propusimos estudiar el efecto de Cannabis sativa sobre el estrés oxidativo en cerebro y determinar si las respuestas causadas por canabis sobre el comportamiento podrían revertirse por fármacos antidepresivos estándar. Cannabis sativa (5, 10 o 15 mg/kg) (expresada como ?9-tetrahidrocanabinol) se [...] administró subcutáneamente (s.c.) sola o con fluoxetina, sertralina o imipramina una vez al día por 24 días. En la prueba de nado forzado, el tiempo de in movilidad, se incrementó significativamente en los ratones tratados con canabis (5-15 mg/kg, s.c.) a partir del 9° día post-administración. Fluoxetina (20mg/kg, s.c.), coadministrada con canabis (5 mg/kg, s.c.), dio como resultado una disminución significativa en el tiempo de inmovilidad alrededor del día 21 del estudio comparado con el grupo tratado sólo con canabis. Los ratones co-administrados con sertralina o imipramina y canabis no fueron estadísticamente diferentes del grupo control de vehículo respecto al tiempo de inmovilidad. Canabis provocó una disminución significativa en la actividad de levantamientos que fue aumentada tanto por fluoxetina como por sertralina. Cannabis sativa incrementó la glutationa reducida en cerebro y disminuyó los niveles de óxido nítrico. Flouxetina, sertralina o imipramina administrados con canabis disminuyó la malondialdehido e incrementó la glutationa reducida. En conclusión: La administración de canabis disminuye el estrés oxidativo cerebral pero ejerce un efecto parecido a la depresión y disminuye la actividad de levantamientos que puede revertirse por fármacos antidepresivos. Abstract in english We aimed to study the effect of Cannabis sativa on brain oxidative stress and determine whether behavioral responses caused by cannabis could be reversed by standard antidepressant drugs. Cannabis sativa (5, 10 or 15 mg/kg) (expressed as ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol) was given alone or with fluoxetine, s [...] ertraline or imipramine, once daily subcutaneously (s.c.) for 24 days. In the forced-swimming test, the immobility time, was significantly increased in mice treated with cannabis (5-15 mg/kg, s.c.) starting from the 9th day post-injection. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, s.c.) coadministered with cannabis (5 mg/kg, s.c.) resulted in significant decrease in the immobility time by the day 21 of the study compared with the cannabis only group. Mice co-administered sertraline or imipramine with cannabis were not statistically different from the vehicle control group as regards their immobility time. Cannabis resulted in a significant decrease in the rearing activity which was ameliorated by either fluoxetine or sertraline. Cannabis sativa increased brain reduced glutathione, but decreased the level of nitric oxide. Fluoxetine, sertraline or imipramine given with cannabis decreased malondialdehyde and increased reduced glutathione. In conclusion: The administration of cannabis decreases brain oxidative stress but exerts depressive-like effect and decreases rearing activity which can be reversed by antidepressant drugs.

  6. Multiple Myeloma Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CALL NOW Home » About Multiple Myeloma » Symptoms Multiple Myeloma Symptoms Multiple myeloma symptoms may vary by patient, ... be managed or prevented. The most common multiple myeloma symptoms may include: • Bone pain or bone fractures • ...

  7. "Mr Police Officer, I Thought Cannabis Was Legal"--Introducing New Policy regarding Cannabis in Belgium: A Story of Good Intentions and Babel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelders, Dave; Laenen, Freya Vander

    2007-01-01

    Over the last five years, the announced new policy on drugs, cannabis in particular, has been the subject of much debate within the Belgian Federal Government and between the government and the opposition parties. Unclear policies and poor public communication from the Federal Government, the competent minister and the other parties caused immense…

  8. Long term marijuana users seeking medical cannabis in California (2001–2007: demographics, social characteristics, patterns of cannabis and other drug use of 4117 applicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bou-Matar Ché B

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis (marijuana had been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. Cannabinoid agonists are now attracting growing interest and there is also evidence that botanical cannabis is being used as self-medication for stress and anxiety as well as adjunctive therapy by the seriously ill and by patients with terminal illnesses. California became the first state to authorize medicinal use of cannabis in 1996, and it was recently estimated that between 250,000 and 350,000 Californians may now possess the physician's recommendation required to use it medically. More limited medical use has also been approved in 12 additional states and new initiatives are being considered in others. Despite that evidence of increasing public acceptance of "medical" use, a definitional problem remains and all use for any purpose is still prohibited by federal law. Results California's 1996 initiative allowed cannabis to be recommended, not only for serious illnesses, but also "for any other illness for which marijuana provides relief," thus maximally broadening the range of allowable indications. In effect, the range of conditions now being treated with federally illegal cannabis, the modes in which it is being used, and the demographics of the population using it became potentially discoverable through the required screening of applicants. This report examines the demographic profiles and other selected characteristics of 4117 California marijuana users (62% from the Greater Bay Area who applied for medical recommendations between late 2001 and mid 2007. Conclusion This study yielded a somewhat unexpected profile of a hitherto hidden population of users of America's most popular illegal drug. It also raises questions about some of the basic assumptions held by both proponents and opponents of current policy.

  9. A prospective study of natural recovery from cannabis use in early psychosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Shane, Rebgetz; Leanne, Hides; David J., Kavanagh; Sharon, Dawe; Ross M., Young.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cannabis use is common in early psychosis and has been linked to adverse outcomes. However, factors that influence and maintain change in cannabis use in this population are poorly understood. An existing prospective dataset was used to predict abstinence from cannabis use [...] over the 6 months following inpatient admission for early psychosis. Methods: Participants were 67 inpatients with early psychosis who had used cannabis in the 6 weeks prior to admission. Current diagnoses of psychotic and substance use disorders were confirmed using a clinical checklist and structured diagnostic interview. Measures of clinical, substance use and social and occupational functioning were administered at baseline and at least fortnightly over the 6-month follow up. Results: No substance use or clinical variables were associated with 6-months’ of cannabis abstinence. Only Caucasian ethnicity, living in private accommodation and receiving an income before the admission were predictive. Only private accommodation and receiving an income were significant predictors of abstinence when these variables were entered into a multivariate analysis. Conclusions: While the observed relationships do not necessarily imply causation, they suggest that more optimal substance use outcomes could be achieved by addressing the accommodation and employment needs of patients.

  10. Non-smoker exposure to secondhand cannabis smoke. I. Urine screening and confirmation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Edward J; Bigelow, George E; Herrmann, Evan S; Mitchell, John M; LoDico, Charles; Flegel, Ronald; Vandrey, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Increased cannabis potency has renewed concerns that secondhand exposure to cannabis smoke can produce positive drug tests. A systematic study was conducted of smoke exposure on drug-free participants. Six experienced cannabis users smoked cannabis cigarettes (5.3% THC in Session 1 and 11.3% THC in Sessions 2 and 3) in a sealed chamber. Six non-smokers were seated with smokers in an alternating manner. Sessions 1 and 2 were conducted with no ventilation and ventilation was employed in Session 3. Non-smoking participant specimens (collected 0-34 h) were analyzed with four immunoassays at different cutoff concentrations (20, 50, 75 and 100 ng/mL) and by GC-MS (LOQ = 0.75 ng/mL). No presumptive positives occurred for non-smokers at 100 and 75 ng/mL; a single positive occurred at 50 ng/mL; and multiple positives occurred at 20 ng/mL. Maximum THCCOOH concentrations by GC-MS for non-smokers ranged from 1.3 to 57.5 ng/mL. THCCOOH concentrations generally increased with THC potency, but room ventilation substantially reduced exposure levels. These results demonstrate that extreme cannabis smoke exposure can produce positive urine tests at commonly utilized cutoff concentrations. However, positive tests are likely to be rare, limited to the hours immediately post-exposure, and occur only under environmental circumstances where exposure is obvious. PMID:25326203

  11. Inter simple sequence repeats separate efficiently hemp from marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Erdogan E, Hakki; Seyit A, Kayis; Emine, Pinarkara; Ayla, Sag.

    2007-10-15

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Cannabis sativa L. is a multiple-use plant that provides raw material for the production of seed oil, natural fiber for textiles, automotive and pulp industries. It has also been used in insulating boards, ropes, varnishes, animal feed, and as medicinal agents. Cannabis has potential to be used for [...] phytoremediation: however, its cultivation is strictly controlled due to its psychoactive nature and usage in producing drugs such as marijuana, and hashish. In this study, psychoactive type Cannabis samples, which were seized from 23 different locations of Turkey, and nine hemp type Cannabis accessions, as well as an unknown accession were used. Our interest was to identify the genetic relatedness of the seized samples and to separate drug and hemp type plants. Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSRs) were employed for analysis based on single plant material (SET1) and bulked samples of them (SET2). Data was analysed via cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). PCoA analyses, by using SET1 and SET2, were able to efficiently discriminate the seized samples from the fiber type accessions. However, separation of the plants was not clear via unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic average (UPGMA) dendogram in SET1, while they were clearly separated in SET2. Hemp type accessions showed high levels of variation compared to drug type Cannabis both in SET1 and SET2.

  12. Cannabis as an adjunct to or substitute for opiates in the treatment of chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence to support the use of medical cannabis as an adjunct to or substitute for prescription opiates in the treatment of chronic pain. When used in conjunction with opiates, cannabinoids lead to a greater cumulative relief of pain, resulting in a reduction in the use of opiates (and associated side-effects) by patients in a clinical setting. Additionally, cannabinoids can prevent the development of tolerance to and withdrawal from opiates, and can even rekindle opiate analgesia after a prior dosage has become ineffective. Novel research suggests that cannabis may be useful in the treatment of problematic substance use. These findings suggest that increasing safe access to medical cannabis may reduce the personal and social harms associated with addiction, particularly in relation to the growing problematic use of pharmaceutical opiates. Despite a lack of regulatory oversight by federal governments in North America, community-based medical cannabis dispensaries have proven successful at supplying patients with a safe source of cannabis within an environment conducive to healing, and may be reducing the problematic use of pharmaceutical opiates and other potentially harmful substances in their communities. PMID:22880540

  13. Drug dependence and psychotic symptoms: a retrospective study of adolescents who abuse drugs at Al-Amal Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Alibrahim; Nedal Allam; Shaikh, Tarteel M.; Yusuf Misau; Nagi Elawad

    2012-01-01

    Drug abuse is reported to be on the increase among young persons using illicit substances but little is known about the frequency with which they occur, the symptoms on presentation to health institutions, and the different substances abused. To establish this, we reviewed patient data collected at Al-Amal Hospital in Jeddah Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on young persons who are refered to the hospital for problems related to drug abuse. Data on 69 adolescent drug users were reviewed and analyzed u...

  14. Induction of mutants in Cannabis Sativa L. by ? radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the mutations induced in a well known cultivar of fibre hemp belonging to the species Cannabis sativa in order to obtain new phenotypic characters that could unequivocally differentiate it from drug hemp. Two new dioecious hemp cultivars, characterized by clear morphological markers and low (?0.2%)?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content, have been obtained by mutagenesis of seeds irradiated with 60Co ? rays(optimum dose 300-350 Gy) and selection of the segregant progenies. These new cultivars, named red petiole (exhibiting anthocyanin leaf petioles) and yellow apex (exhibiting yellow distal leaflets), have been compared with varieties C.S., carmagnola and fibranova by growing them in three different areas (centre-north and south) of Italy. These agronomical trials highlighted the good performance of both new cultivars as for yield in dry matter and in fibre, not significantly different from the results of carmagnola. Besides, the new cultivars showed THC contents (0.09 and 0.17%) lower than the threshold set by the E.U. (0.2%). (Author)

  15. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an anxiolytic drug Canabidiol, um componente da Cannabis sativa, como um ansiolítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rafael de Mello Schier

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To review and describe studies of the non-psychotomimetic constituent of Cannabis sativa, cannabidiol (CBD, as an anxiolytic drug and discuss its possible mechanisms of action. METHOD: The articles selected for the review were identified through searches in English, Portuguese, and Spanish in the electronic databases ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, PubMed, and PsycINFO, combining the search terms "cannabidiol and anxiolytic", "cannabidiol and anxiolytic-like", and "cannabidiol and anxiety". The reference lists of the publications included, review articles, and book chapters were handsearched for additional references. Experimental animal and human studies were included, with no time restraints. RESULTS: Studies using animal models of anxiety and involving healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. Moreover, CBD was shown to reduce anxiety in patients with social anxiety disorder. CONCLUSION: Future clinical trials involving patients with different anxiety disorders are warranted, especially of panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorders. The adequate therapeutic window of CBD and the precise mechanisms involved in its anxiolytic action remain to be determined.OBJETIVOS: Revisar e descrever os estudos do constituinte não psicotomimético da Cannabis sativa, o canabidiol (CBD, como ansiolítico e discutir seus possíveis mecanismos de ação. MÉTODO: Os artigos selecionados para a presente revisão foram identificados por meio de busca eletrônica em inglês, português e espanhol nos bancos de dados ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, PubMed e PsycINFO e combinando os termos "canabidiol e ansiolíticos", "canabidiol e semelhante ao ansiolítico" e "canabidiol e ansiedade". Foram também revisadas as listas de referências dos artigos incluídos, de revisões da literatura e de capítulos de livro. Incluímos trabalhos experimentais em humanos e em animais, sem limite de tempo. RESULTADOS: Estudos com modelos animais de ansiedade e envolvendo voluntários saudáveis sugerem claramente que o CBD possui efeitos ansiolíticos. Além disso, o CBD mostrou-se capaz de reduzir a ansiedade em pacientes com transtorno de ansiedade social. CONCLUSÃO: Futuros ensaios clínicos com pacientes portadores de diferentes transtornos de ansiedade, em especial pacientes com transtorno do pânico, obsessivo-compulsivo, ansiedade social e estresse pós-traumático, são oportunos. Além disso, ainda é necessário determinar a adequada faixa terapêutica do CBD e os exatos mecanismos envolvidos nessa ação ansiolítica.

  16. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an anxiolytic drug / Canabidiol, um componente da Cannabis sativa, como um ansiolítico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre Rafael de Mello, Schier; Natalia Pinho de Oliveira, Ribeiro; Adriana Cardoso de Oliveira e, Silva; Jaime Eduardo Cecílio, Hallak; José Alexandre S., Crippa; Antonio E., Nardi; Antonio Waldo, Zuardi.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Revisar e descrever os estudos do constituinte não psicotomimético da Cannabis sativa, o canabidiol (CBD), como ansiolítico e discutir seus possíveis mecanismos de ação. MÉTODO: Os artigos selecionados para a presente revisão foram identificados por meio de busca eletrônica em inglês, por [...] tuguês e espanhol nos bancos de dados ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, PubMed e PsycINFO e combinando os termos "canabidiol e ansiolíticos", "canabidiol e semelhante ao ansiolítico" e "canabidiol e ansiedade". Foram também revisadas as listas de referências dos artigos incluídos, de revisões da literatura e de capítulos de livro. Incluímos trabalhos experimentais em humanos e em animais, sem limite de tempo. RESULTADOS: Estudos com modelos animais de ansiedade e envolvendo voluntários saudáveis sugerem claramente que o CBD possui efeitos ansiolíticos. Além disso, o CBD mostrou-se capaz de reduzir a ansiedade em pacientes com transtorno de ansiedade social. CONCLUSÃO: Futuros ensaios clínicos com pacientes portadores de diferentes transtornos de ansiedade, em especial pacientes com transtorno do pânico, obsessivo-compulsivo, ansiedade social e estresse pós-traumático, são oportunos. Além disso, ainda é necessário determinar a adequada faixa terapêutica do CBD e os exatos mecanismos envolvidos nessa ação ansiolítica. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To review and describe studies of the non-psychotomimetic constituent of Cannabis sativa, cannabidiol (CBD), as an anxiolytic drug and discuss its possible mechanisms of action. METHOD: The articles selected for the review were identified through searches in English, Portuguese, and Span [...] ish in the electronic databases ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, PubMed, and PsycINFO, combining the search terms "cannabidiol and anxiolytic", "cannabidiol and anxiolytic-like", and "cannabidiol and anxiety". The reference lists of the publications included, review articles, and book chapters were handsearched for additional references. Experimental animal and human studies were included, with no time restraints. RESULTS: Studies using animal models of anxiety and involving healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. Moreover, CBD was shown to reduce anxiety in patients with social anxiety disorder. CONCLUSION: Future clinical trials involving patients with different anxiety disorders are warranted, especially of panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorders. The adequate therapeutic window of CBD and the precise mechanisms involved in its anxiolytic action remain to be determined.

  17. Intoxicación accidental por cannabis: presentación de cuatro casos pediátricos en un hospital terciario del sur de España / Accidental cannabis poisoning in children: report of four cases in a tertiary care center from southern Spain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Borja, Croche Santander; María Teresa, Alonso Salas; Mercedes, Loscertales Abril.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El cannabis es la droga ilegal más consumida en España. La intoxicación accidental por cannabis es una forma infrecuente de intoxicación en niños; pero potencialmente grave. Objetivo. Describir la presentación clínica, diagnóstico y tratamiento de niños con intoxicación accidental por [...] cannabis en un hospital pediátrico de tercer nivel. Presentamos 4 pacientes con intoxicación accidental por cannabis. La clínica de presentación fue deterioro brusco del nivel de conciencia, tendencia al sueño, ataxia, temblor, apnea, hipotonía y convulsión. La pesquisa de tóxicos en orina detectó tetrahidrocannabinol (THC) en todos los casos. En los cuatro pacientes se establecieron medidas de soporte. Todos los casos se recuperaron satisfactoriamente y fueron dados de alta a las 24 horas del ingreso. Conclusión. Se ha de mantener un alto índice de sospecha para la intoxicación por cannabis en niños previamente sanos con aparición brusca de síntomas neurológicos de etiología desconocida. Abstract in english Introduction. Cannabis is the most frequently consumed illicit substance in Spain. Pediatric accidental cannabis poisoning is an uncommon but life-threatening intoxication. Objective. To describe clinical findings, diagnosis and management of children with accidental cannabis poisoning in a tertiary [...] care pediatric hospital. We report four patients with accidental cannabis poisoning. Clinical presentation included reduced level of consciousness, drowsiness, ataxia, tremble, apnea, hypotonia, and seizures. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was detected by urine screening for cannabinoids and other toxic substances in all cases. The four patients were treated with supportive care. All cases recovered uneventfully and were discharged within 24 hours of admission. Conclusion. The possibility of cannabis poisoning should be considered in cases of unexplained acute onset of neurological findings in previously healthy children.

  18. Intervenções farmacológica e psicossocial para os distúrbios por uso da cannabis Pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for cannabisuse disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Budney

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A cannabis continua sendo a substância ilegal mais amplamente utilizada na maioria dos países desenvolvidos. Seu potencial aditivo foi estabelecido e a necessidade de intervenções em problemas relacionados à cannabis se tornou clara. Este artigo faz uma revisão sobre as pesquisas que avaliam os tratamentos potenciais para transtornos por uso de cannabis. MÉTODO: Uma busca nos bancos de dados de publicações identificou os estudos e revisões na literatura científica sobre as intervenções psicossociais e farmacológicas nos transtornos por uso de cannabis. RESULTADOS: Para adultos, as intervenções com base comportamental geram efeitos positivos significativos na abstinência e nas reduções no uso de cannabis. Em adolescentes, tratamentos similares e intervenções com base na família demonstraram eficácia. Entre os estudos, os índices de resposta parecem ser modestos mesmo com os mais potentes tratamentos psicossociais. As avaliações das abordagens farmacológicas para os transtornos por uso de cannabis têm ainda que fornecer dados sobre a eficácia clínica de qualquer medicação específica. Enfoques baseados em agonistas e antagonistas parecem ser os mais promissores. Os avanços na compreensão da neurobiologia do sistema canabinoide são fonte de otimismo no sentido de que a síntese de compostos que alteram o funcionamento do sítio receptor CB1 possa produzir medicações promissoras. CONCLUSÃO: As pesquisas clínicas identificaram tratamentos psicossociais eficazes, mas ainda não produziram farmacoterapias eficazes. Muitos estudos ainda têm que ser feitos para aumentar a potência e o acesso às intervenções para aqueles que buscam o tratamento para transtornos por uso de cannabis.OBJECTIVE: Cannabis remains the most widely used illicit substance in most developed countries. Its addictive potential has been established and the need for interventions for cannabis-related problems has become apparent. This article provides a review of the research evaluating potential treatments for cannabis use disorders. METHOD: A search of publication databases identified research studies and reviews of the scientific literature on psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for cannabis use disorders. RESULTS: For adults, behaviorally-based interventions engender significant positive effects on abstinence and reductions in cannabis use. With adolescents, similar treatments and family-based interventions have demonstrated efficacy. Across studies, response rates appear modest even with the most potent psychosocial treatments. Evaluations of pharmacological approaches to cannabis use disorders have yet to provide clinical efficacy data for any specific medication. Agonist and antagonist approaches appear to offer the most promise. Advances in understanding of the neurobiology of the cannabinoid system provide optimism that the synthesis of compounds that alter CB1 receptor site functioning may produce promising medications. CONCLUSION: Clinical research has identified effective psychosocial treatments, but has yet to yield effective pharmacotherapies. Much work remains to enhance the potency of and access to interventions for those seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders.

  19. Frequent cannabis use among 14/15 years old in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrystal, Patrick; Percy, Andrew; Higgins, Kathryn

    2007-04-17

    The relatively high levels of cannabis use among young people is a cause of concern because of the positive relationship between its early onset use, antisocial behaviours and associated lifestyle. Amongst a survey of 3919 young people at school year 11 in Northern Ireland (aged 14/15 years) 142 reported daily cannabis use. These young people also reported particularly high levels of legal and illegal drug use and accounted for a high proportion of use of hard drugs such as cocaine and heroin for the full school cohort. Daily cannabis users also reported high levels of antisocial behaviour and disaffection with school. The findings perhaps raise questions about the existence of a potentially 'hidden' high risk school based group of young people during adolescence who require specific targeted prevention strategies. PMID:17046174

  20. Estudio de la actividad antisecretora de ácido gástrico del Cannabis sativa en un modelo animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Gabriel Castillo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Hay pocos estudios que describan el efecto de los cannabinoides en el sistema gástrico, pues en sólo uno se encontró referencia a alteraciones del pH gástrico. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto antisecretor de la especie Cannabis sativa. Metodología: Se utilizaron 45 ratas Sprague Dawley que se sometieron a un ayuno de 24 horas, al cabo del cual se les ligó el píloro durante 2 ó 4 horas según el grupo experimental. Luego, se anestesiaron, se extirparon los estómagos y se analizó el contenido gástrico en términos de volumen y pH.Resultados: Se encontró que el extracto de Cannabis aumentó el pH gástrico con respecto al grupo control (p0.05. El volumen medido no mostró diferencias entre los grupos.Conclusiones: Estos resultados, sugieren que el extracto de Cannabis sativa disminuye la secreción de ácido en el estómago.

  1. Clustering of smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use in adolescents in a rapidly developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiolero Arnaud

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use ("risk behaviors" are often initiated at a young age but few epidemiological studies have assessed their joined prevalence in children in developing countries. This study aims at examining the joint prevalence of these behaviors in adolescents in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country in the Indian Ocean. Methods Cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of secondary school students using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire (Global Youth Tobacco Survey. The questionnaire was completed by 1,321 (92% of 1,442 eligible students aged 11 to 17 years. Main variables of interest included smoking cigarettes on ?1 day in the past 30 days; drinking any alcohol beverage on ?1 day in the past 30 days and using cannabis at least once in the past 12 months. Results In boys and girls, respectively, prevalence (95% CI was 30% (26–34/21% (18–25 for smoking, 49% (45–54/48% (43–52 for drinking, and 17% (15–20/8% (6–10 for cannabis use. The prevalence of all these behaviors increased with age. Smokers were two times more likely than non-smokers to drink and nine times more likely to use cannabis. Drinkers were three times more likely than non-drinkers to smoke or to use cannabis. Comparison of observed versus expected frequencies of combination categories demonstrated clustering of these risk behaviors in students (P Conclusion Smoking, drinking and cannabis use were common and clustered among adolescents of a rapidly developing country. These findings stress the need for early and integrated prevention programs.

  2. Oral fluid cannabinoid concentrations following controlled smoked cannabis in chronic frequent and occasional smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anizan, Sebastien; Milman, Garry; Desrosiers, Nathalie; Barnes, Allan J; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-10-01

    Oral fluid (OF) is an alternative biological matrix for monitoring cannabis intake in drug testing, and drugged driving (DUID) programs, but OF cannabinoid test interpretation is challenging. Controlled cannabinoid administration studies provide a scientific database for interpreting cannabinoid OF tests. We compared differences in OF cannabinoid concentrations from 19 h before to 30 h after smoking a 6.8% THC cigarette in chronic frequent and occasional cannabis smokers. OF was collected with the Statsure Saliva Sampler™ OF device. 2D-GC-MS was used to quantify cannabinoids in 357 OF specimens; 65 had inadequate OF volume within 3 h after smoking. All OF specimens were THC-positive for up to 13.5 h after smoking, without significant differences between frequent and occasional smokers over 30 h. Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) had short median last detection times (2.5-4 h for CBD and 6-8 h for CBN) in both groups. THCCOOH was detected in 25 and 212 occasional and frequent smokers' OF samples, respectively. THCCOOH provided longer detection windows than THC in all frequent smokers. As THCCOOH is not present in cannabis smoke, its presence in OF minimizes the potential for false positive results from passive environmental smoke exposure, and can identify oral THC ingestion, while OF THC cannot. THC ? 1 ?g/L, in addition to CBD ? 1 ?g/L or CBN ? 1 ?g/L suggested recent cannabis intake (?13.5 h), important for DUID cases, whereas THC ? 1 ?g/L or THC ? 2 ?g/L cutoffs had longer detection windows (?30 h), important for workplace testing. THCCOOH windows of detection for chronic, frequent cannabis smokers extended beyond 30 h, while they were shorter (0-24 h) for occasional cannabis smokers. PMID:23954944

  3. Predictors of age at onset of tobacco and cannabis use in Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Early onset of tobacco and cannabis use predicts later substance abuse and risk behaviour and has large health consequences. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine risk factors for the age at onset of smoking and cannabis use among a group of Danish children between 7 years and 18 years of age. METHODS: Four hundred and eighty randomly selected children and their parents participated in a study about the prevalence of asthma. The study included questions about alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use. The children were interviewed face-to-face while the parents answered a questionnaire. RESULTS: The age at onset of daily smoking was significantly associated with the adolescents' tendency to binge drink [hazard ratio 4.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.85-12.34), P = 0.001) and to use hard drugs [hazard ratio 2.81, 95% CI (1.03-7.78), P = 0.047], whereas the age at onset of cannabis use was significantly associated with binge drinking [hazard ratio 3.29, 95% CI (1.51-7.20), P = 0.003] and cigarette smoking [hazard ratio 2.51, 95% CI (1.26-5.00), P = 0.009]. There were no significant effect of the parents' smoking and alcohol habits, their socioeconomic or marital status on the adolescent' age at onset of smoking or cannabis. CONCLUSION: This study shows a close connection between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and alcohol habits. Knowledge of this is important when planning future prevention strategies.

  4. Pharmacological evaluation of the natural constituent of Cannabis sativa, cannabichromene and its modulation by ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, Gerald T; Wolf, Carl E; Poklis, Alphonse; Lichtman, Aron H

    2010-11-01

    In contrast to the numerous reports on the pharmacological effects of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the pharmacological activity of another substituent of Cannabis sativa, cannabichromene (CBC) remains comparatively unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether CBC elicits cannabinoid activity in the tetrad assay, which consists of the following four endpoints: hypomotility, antinociception, catalepsy, and hypothermia. Because cannabinoids are well documented to possess anti-inflammatory properties, we examined CBC, THC, and combination of both phytocannabinoids in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) paw edema assay. CBC elicited activity in the tetrad that was not blocked by the CB(1) receptor antagonist, rimonabant. Moreover, a behaviorally inactive dose of THC augmented the effects of CBC in the tetrad that was associated with an increase in THC brain concentrations. Both CBC and THC elicited dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects in the LPS-induced paw edema model. The CB(2) receptor, SR144528 blocked the anti-edematous actions of THC, but not those produced by CBC. Isobolographic analysis revealed that the anti-edematous effects of these cannabinoids in combination were additive. Although CBC produced pharmacological effects, unlike THC, its underlying mechanism of action did not involve CB(1) or CB(2) receptors. In addition, there was evidence of a possible pharmacokinetic component in which CBC dose-dependently increased THC brain levels following an i.v. injection of 0.3mg/kg THC. In conclusion, CBC produced a subset of behavioral activity in the tetrad assay and reduced LPS-induced paw edema through a noncannabinoid receptor mechanism of action. These effects were augmented when CBC and THC were co-administered. PMID:20619971

  5. Disposition of smoked cannabis with high ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol content: A kinetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: No model exists to describe the disposition and kinetics of inhaled cannabis containing a high THC dose. We aimed to develop a kinetic model providing estimates of the THC serum concentrations after smoking cannabis cigarettes containing high THC doses (up to 69 mg THC). Methods: Twenty-four male non-daily cannabis users smoked cannabis cigarettes containing 29.3 mg, 49.1 mg, and 69.4 mg THC. Blood samples were collected over a period of 0-8 h and serum THC concentrations were measured. A two-compartment open model was fitted on the individual observed data. Results: Large inter-individual variability was observed in the pharmacokinetic parameters. The median pharmacokinetic parameters generated by the model were Cmax = 175 ng/mL, Tmax = 14 min, and AUC0-8h = 8150 ng x min/mL for the 69.4 mg THC dose. Median model results show an almost linear dose response relation for Cmax/Dose = 2.8 x 10-6/mL and AUC0-8h/Dose = 136 x 10-6 min/mL. However, for increasing dose level, there was a clear decreasing trend: Cmax/Dose = 3.4, 2.6 and 2.5 x 10-6/mL and AUC0-8h/Dose = 157, 133 and 117 x 10-6 min/mL for the 29.3, 49.1 and 69.4 mg dose, respectively. Within the restriction of 8 h of observation, the apparent terminal half life of THC was 150 min. Conclusion: The model offers insight into the pharmacokinetics of THC in recreational cannabis userstics of THC in recreational cannabis users smoking cannabis containing high doses of THC mixed with tobacco. The model is an objective method for providing serum THC concentrations up to 8 h after smoking cannabis with a high THC content (up to 23%).

  6. Enhancing neuropsychological performance in chronic cannabis users: the role of motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, Rayna B; Earleywine, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether cannabis users demonstrate differential effort during neuropsychological assessment compared to nonusers, and whether better performance can be induced in participants with a motivational statement prior to testing. For two groups of participants, cannabis users and nonusers, either a motivational or a neutral statement was administered prior to neuropsychological testing. The motivational statement resulted in better performance on a test of verbal learning and memory for users than did the neutral statement, while nonusers in the motivational and neutral conditions did not differ in performance. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:22273518

  7. Advice of the Italian CCTN on the toxicity of Cannabis sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoni, I. [ed.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Mucci, N. [ed.] [ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy). Dip. di Medicina del Lavoro; Paroli, E. [ed.] [Rome, Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Fac. di Medicina, Ist. di Farmacologia

    1998-06-01

    This recommendation of the Italian National Toxicological Committee (CCTN) regards the possible toxic effects of some products derived from Cannabis sativa, indica variety. The CCTN has especially evaluated genotoxic, immunological and toxic to reproduction effects of these substances, on the basis of the results from both experimental studies and observations on humans. [Italiano] Il documento contiene il parere della CCTN sui potenziali effetti tossici di alcuni derivati della Cannabis sativa, varieta` indica. Il parere e` stato elaborato sulla base dei risultati sia di studi sperimentali sia dei limitati studi sull`uomo, prendendo in particolare considerazione gli effetti genotossici, tossico-riproduttivi ed immunologici.

  8. Molecular characterization of edestin gene family in Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docimo, Teresa; Caruso, Immacolata; Ponzoni, Elena; Mattana, Monica; Galasso, Incoronata

    2014-11-01

    Globulins are the predominant class of seed storage proteins in a wide variety of plants. In many plant species globulins are present in several isoforms encoded by gene families. The major seed storage protein of Cannabis sativa L. is the globulin edestin, widely known for its nutritional potential. In this work, we report the isolation of seven cDNAs encoding for edestin from the C. sativa variety Carmagnola. Southern blot hybridization is in agreement with the number of identified edestin genes. All seven sequences showed the characteristic globulin features, but they result to be divergent members/forms of two edestin types. According to their sequence similarity four forms named CsEde1A, CsEde1B, CsEde1C, CsEde1D have been assigned to the edestin type 1 and the three forms CsEde2A, CsEde2B, CsEde2C to the edestin type 2. Analysis of the coding sequences revealed a high percentage of similarity (98-99%) among the different forms belonging to the same type, which decreased significantly to approximately 64% between the forms belonging to different types. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that both edestin types are expressed in developing hemp seeds and the amount of CsEde1 was 4.44 ± 0.10 higher than CsEde2. Both edestin types exhibited a high percentage of arginine (11-12%), but CsEde2 resulted particularly rich in methionine residues (2.36%) respect to CsEde1 (0.82%). The amino acid composition determined in CsEde1 and CsEde2 types suggests that these seed proteins can be used to improve the nutritional quality of plant food-stuffs. PMID:25280223

  9. Consumo de cannabis en los estudiantes de secundaria de Barcelona: inicio en el consumo, efectos experimentados y expectativas / Cannabis consumption among secondary school pupils of Barcelona [Spain]: initial use, reported effects and expectancies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eva, Morales; Carles, Ariza; Manel, Nebot; Anna, Pérez; Francesca, Sánchez.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir las circunstancias del inicio del consumo, las razones para hacerlo, los efectos experimentados y las expectativas relacionadas con el consumo de cannabis en adolescentes de Barcelona. Métodos: Encuesta transversal realizada a una muestra de escolares de 3.º de ESO en 2005. El c [...] uestionario era confidencial y autocumplimentado. Se dispone de datos de 2.043 alumnos de 47 centros escolares de Barcelona. Resultados: El 37,5% de los escolares declaró haber probado el cannabis, de los cuales un 10% lo hizo en el último mes. El consumo fue superior en centros públicos que en concertados-privados (p Abstract in english Objectives: To describe the circumstances of initial use of Cannabis, as well as the reasons for consumption, reported effects and expectations related to cannabis use, among adolescents in Barcelona. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample of pupils in the third year of compulso [...] ry secondary education in 2005. The questionnaire was confidential and self-completed. Data were gathered from 2,043 secondary school pupils from 47 schools in Barcelona. Results: A total of 37.5% of students reported cannabis consumption at some time, and 10.0% of these students had used cannabis in the previous month. Cannabis use was more common in public schools than in subsidized or private schools (p

  10. Symptoms of Pneumocystis pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact CDC–INFO Fungal Diseases Types of Diseases Aspergillosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Blastomycosis Definition Symptoms ...

  11. Concentrations du ?9 - THC dans les cultures de Cannabis sativa L. du nord du Maroc ?9-THC concentrations in Cannabis sativa L. cultivated in Northern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stambouli Hamid

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available La présente étude concerne la détermination du taux de tetrahydrocannabinol des cultures de cannabis dans trois régions du nord du Maroc : Al Hoceima, Chefcliaouen et Larache, à partir de plantes vertes en croissance, sèches arrivées à maturité et réduites en poudre. L'analyse quantitative conduite en chromatographie gazeuse couplée à la spectrométrie de masse, sur les extraits organiques de 245 échantillons issus de 30 parcelles, a permis la détermination des teneurs moyennes en $Delta^9$-THC dans la plante verte (0,5 %, sèche (2,1 % et dans la poudre (8,3 %. En outre, ces résultats démontrent que les régions de culture traditionnelle Al Hoceima et Chefcliaouen produisent du cannabis à plusforte teneur en. $Delta^9$-THC comparativement à la région de Larache, appelée zone d'extension où le cannabis a été mis en culture plus récemment. Par ailleurs, cette étude a établi que les plants mâles, souvent considérés déficients en $Delta^9$-THC, renferment des teneurs de même ordre que celles enregistrées pour les plants femelles aussi bien dans les feuilles que dans les sommités. This study proposes GC/MS determination of $Delta^9$-THC level in plant material grown in Northern Morocco : Al Hoceima, Chefcliaouen and Larache. 245 samples of growing plant, raw and powder sampled from 30 parcels were analysed. The average $Delta^9$-THC concentrations are evaluated for growing plant (0.5 %, raw (2.1 % and powder samples (8.3 %. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that cannabis production coming from traditional cultivation area Al Hoceima and Chefcliaouen, is more concentrated in $Delta^9$-THC than Larache which is a recent cultivation area. Otherwise, this study showed that the male plants, often considered deficient in $Delta^9$-THC, contain approximately the same concentrations present in the female plants.

  12. Comparison of cannabinoid concentrations in oral fluid and whole blood between occasional and regular cannabis smokers prior to and after smoking a cannabis joint

    OpenAIRE

    Fabritius, Marie; Chtioui, Haithem; Battistella, Giovanni; Annoni, Jean Marie; Dao, Kim; Favrat, Bernard; Fornari, Eleonora; Lauer, Estelle; Maeder, Philippe; Giroud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    A cross-over controlled administration study of smoked cannabis was carried out on occasional and heavy smokers. The participants smoked a joint (11 % ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) or a matching placebo on two different occasions. Whole blood (WB) and oral fluid (OF) samples were collected before and up to 3.5 h after smoking the joints. Pharmacokinetic analyses were obtained from these data. Questionnaires assessing the subjective effects were administered to the subjects during each sessi...

  13. Functional genetic variation of the cannabinoid receptor 1 and cannabis use interact on prefrontal connectivity and related working memory behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizzi, Marco; Fazio, Leonardo; Ferranti, Laura; Porcelli, Annamaria; Masellis, Rita; Marvulli, Daniela; Bonvino, Aurora; Ursini, Gianluca; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2015-02-01

    Cannabinoid signaling is involved in different brain functions and it is mediated by the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1), which is encoded by the CNR1 gene. Previous evidence suggests an association between cognition and cannabis use. The logical interaction between genetically determined cannabinoid signaling and cannabis use has not been determined. Therefore, we investigated whether CNR1 variation predicts CNR1 prefrontal mRNA expression in postmortem prefrontal human tissue. Then, we studied whether functional variation in CNR1 and cannabis exposure interact in modulating prefrontal function and related behavior during working memory processing. Thus, 208 healthy subjects (113 males) were genotyped for the relevant functional SNP and were evaluated for cannabis use by the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire. All individuals performed the 2-back working memory task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. CNR1 rs1406977 was associated with prefrontal mRNA and individuals carrying a G allele had reduced CNR1 prefrontal mRNA levels compared with AA subjects. Moreover, functional connectivity MRI demonstrated that G carriers who were also cannabis users had greater functional connectivity in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and reduced working memory behavioral accuracy during the 2-back task compared with the other groups. Overall, our results indicate that the deleterious effects of cannabis use are more evident on a specific genetic background related to its receptor expression. PMID:25139064

  14. Considerações sobre a toxicocinética da Cannabis sativa L. ou maconha, com enfase no homem / Some aspects of pharmacokinetics of Cannabis sativa L. (Marihuana) with emphasis on man

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Marques de, Sá.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo consiste em uma análise sobre a origem da Cannabis no Brasil, suas principais substâncias químicas, realçando o ?9 tetrahidrocanabinol como responsável pelos efeitos farmacológicos. é citado também o fato de existirem duas formas de numeração dos carbonos do ?THC. Para melhor enten [...] der a toxicocinética foram feitas considerações sobre as doses de maconha, que vão variar de acordo com o usuário, e origem do vegetal. Finalmente é feito urn estudo detalhado sobre, absorção, distribuição, armazenamento, biotransformação e eliminação dos diversos componentes químicos da maconha. Abstract in english This paper contains an analysis of the origin of the introduction of Cannabis in Brazil, the identify of its chemical components, mainly tetrahydrocannabinol responsible for the pharmacological effects of Cannabis. Toxicokinetic studies were developed in relation the amounts of marihuana consumed, c [...] haracteristics of the user and origin of the drug. Absorption, distribution, storage, biotransformation and elimination of marihuana derived metabolites were studies.

  15. Effects of Parthenium hysterophorus L. on Soil Characteristics Initially Inhabited to Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana Aleem Qureshi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Parthenium hysterophorus is a new entry and successfully growing on all types of soils in fields and waste lands. Parthenium is drought resistant highly resistant weed which sustain its survival in highly unfavorable conditions where other delicate flora can not grow. Due to its allelopathic nature, no other plant can grow near it successfully and the chemical nature of the soil also changes which further accelerate the unfavourness for the other species. Because of the weedy characteristics and production of large number of seeds, it grew on an alarming rate and presently it has occupied the large areas in NWFP and Punjab with increasing tendency. It has been found that this weed can grow in association of many other plants of which Cannabis sativa is more important but further studies indicated that even Cannabis is replaced by this weed which means it is highly tolerant and hardy in its nature and due to absence of some natural enemy (Predate it tends to grow on unprecented rate. During the present study it has been observed that Parthenium can grow in variety of soil types with different pH values. Mostly sandy loam and sandy clay loam are found highly conductive for its growth. It is nature of its wide adaptability of various soil types due to which it is found replacing the Cannabis and other natural flora. However, well grown Cannabis plants compete for survival with this weed.

  16. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  17. A Meta-Analytic Review of School-Based Prevention for Cannabis Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porath-Waller, Amy J.; Beasley, Erin; Beirness, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation used meta-analytic techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of school-based prevention programming in reducing cannabis use among youth aged 12 to 19. It summarized the results from 15 studies published in peer-reviewed journals since 1999 and identified features that influenced program effectiveness. The results from the set of…

  18. Parietal Lobe Volume Deficits in Adolescents with Schizophrenia and Adolescents with Cannabis Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumra, Sanjiv; Robinson, Paul; Tambyraja, Rabindra; Jensen, Daniel; Schimunek, Caroline; Houri, Alaa; Reis, Tiffany; Lim, Kelvin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In early-onset schizophrenia (EOS), the earliest structural brain volumetric abnormalities appear in the parietal cortices. Early exposure to cannabis may represent an environmental risk factor for developing schizophrenia. This study characterized cerebral cortical gray matter structure in adolescents in regions of interest (ROIs) that…

  19. Cannabis and Anxiety and Depression in Young Adults: A Large Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad R.; Najman, Jake M.; Jamrozik, Konrad; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Alati, Rosa; Bor, William

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether age of first use or frequency of use of cannabis is associated with anxiety and depression (AD) in young adults, independent of known potential confounders, including the use of other illicit drugs. Method: A cohort of 3,239 Australian young adults was followed from birth to the age of 21 when data on AD were obtained…

  20. A Rare and Unexpected Side-Effect of Cannabis Use: Abdominal Pain due to Acute Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkucuk, Mehmet Husamettin; Erbayrak, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a frequently encountered disorder in patients presenting to emergency units. Biliary system disorders, alcohol consumption, infections, and drugs are among the causes of acute pancreatitis. However, it is sometimes difficult to determine the etiology of this disorder, particularly if the patient does not wish to disclose his consumption of cannabis, the use of which is illegal. PMID:25759763

  1. A comparison of delay discounting in adolescents and adults in treatment for cannabis use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dustin C; Stanger, Catherine; Budney, Alan J

    2015-04-01

    Delay discounting is associated with problematic substance use and poorer treatment outcomes in adolescents and adults with substance use disorders. Although some research has addressed delay discounting among individuals with cannabis use disorders (CUDs), results have been equivocal, and no study has examined whether discounting rates differ between adolescent and adult cannabis users. The aim of this study was to compare discounting rates between adolescents and adults in treatment for CUD to determine whether discounting at intake or changes in discounting across treatment differed between age groups. Participants were 165 adolescents and 104 adults enrolled in treatment for CUD. Participants completed a delay discounting task at intake and end of treatment for 2 commodities (money and cannabis) at 2 different magnitudes ($100 and $1,000). Repeated measures mixed models examined differences in discounting rates by commodity and magnitude across age groups at intake and changes in discounting across treatment. At intake, adolescents discounted money more than adults whereas adults showed greater discounting at $100 magnitude than $1,000. In addition, adults had greater decreases in discounting of cannabis over the course of treatment. Overall, adolescents appeared less sensitive to changes in magnitude of rewards, discounted money at higher rates, and showed less improvement in discounting over the course of treatment compared to adults. Comparing delay discounting in adolescents and adults with CUD can contribute to a better understanding of how development influences the effect of discounting on substance use to better inform treatment for substance use disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25643024

  2. Caractérisation de l'huile de graines de Cannabis sativa L. cultivé au nord du Maroc Seed oil characterization of Cannabis sativa L. cultivated in Northern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stambouli Hamid

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La présente étude porte sur la caractérisation de la compo-sition lipidique de l'huile des graines de Cannabis sativa L. type drogue cultivé au Nord du Maroc. Les résultats obtenus montrent que la composition en acides gras de cette huile est assez proche de celle des huiles de graines de cannabis type fibre cultivé dans d'autres parties du monde. Un taux d'aci-de linolénique (oméga-3 de 16 %, un ratio pondéral acides poly-insaturés/acides saturés (P/S de 6:1 et un rapport oméga-6/oméga-3 de 3:1, ont été déterminés. Les teneurs de cette huile en stérols et en tocophérols $(alpha , eta , gamma $ ont été évaluées respectivement à 3765 mg/kg, 13 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg et 426 mg/kg. Cette composition en acides gras, sté-rols et tocophérols, présente de fortes similitudes avec celle de l'huile de soja. Enfin, un lavage à l'hexane des graines avant extraction de l'huile, permet d'obtenir un produit pratiquement exempt de traces de $Delta $-9-THC The object of this study was to characterize the lipid compo-sition of hemp seed oil obtained from Cannabis sativa L plants of the drug-type cultivated in the north of Morocco. Linolenic acid (oméga-3 constituted 16% of the total fatty acids. The weight ratios of polyunsaturated to saturated acids (P/S and omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids were 6:1 and 3:1, respectively. The total sterol concentration was 3765 mg/kg and the $alpha $-, $eta $- and $gamma $- tocopherol concentrations were 13, 2 and 426 mg/kg, respectively. We conclude that this oil has the same fatty acid composition as the oils obtained from fiber-type cannabis cultivated in other parts of the world. Furthermore, the fatty acid, sterol and tocopherol composi-tions of the cannabis oil determined in this study are very similar to the soybean oil. Finally, we showed that washing the seeds with hexane before extraction results in an oil without any detectable amount of $Delta $-9-THC.

  3. Latent classes of substance use in adolescent cannabis users: Predictors and subsequent substance-related harm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-SébastienFallu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis use is highly prevalent in late adolescence, but not all users experience significant negative consequences. Little information is available to identify the substance use patterns and risk factors of users who are at greater risk of experiencing negative consequences. In this prospective study, we aimed to empirically identify latent classes of substance use in adolescent cannabis users and to examine how these classes relate to antecedent psychosocial predictors and subsequent substance-related outcomes. The sample was recruited from 68 high schools in Quebec and consisted of 1618 participants who reported using cannabis in grade 10. We used latent class analysis (LCA to empirically identify classes of users based on the age of onset, frequency, and typical quantity of cannabis and other substance use, as well as substance mixing behaviors. We then compared classes in terms of a socio-demographic and psychosocial predictors in grades 7-8 and b substance-related consequences in grade 11. Four distinct classes were identified: Late-Light Users (28%; Late-Heavy+Polydrug Users (14%; Early-Moderate Users (33%; Early-Heavy+Polydrug Users (26%. Late-Light Users reported the lowest levels of substance use, while Early-Heavy+Polydrug Users reported the highest levels of substance. Intermediate levels of susbstance use were found in the other two classes. Sex, age, delinquency, peer delinquency, school bonding, parental monitoring, and parental conflict all helped differentiate classes. Class membership predicted substance-related harm, with greater consequences in early- and late-onset heavy using classes. In light of results, in addition to age and sex, screening and intervention for risky cannabis use among adolescents should focus on school bonding in order to target the most risky late-onset adolescents, and on peer delinquency in order to target the most risky early-onset ones.

  4. Differential effects of cannabis extracts and pure plant cannabinoids on hippocampal neurones and glia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Duncan; Drysdale, Alison J; Pertwee, Roger G; Platt, Bettina

    2006-11-20

    We have shown previously that the plant cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) elevates intracellular calcium levels in both cultured hippocampal neurones and glia. Here, we investigated whether the main psychotropic constituent of cannabis, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) alone or in combination with other cannabis constituents can cause similar responses, and whether THC affects the responses induced by CBD. Our experiments were performed with 1 microM pure THC (pTHC), with 1 microM pure CBD (pCBD), with a high-THC, low CBD cannabis extract (eTHC), with a high-CBD, low THC cannabis extract (eCBD), with a mixture of eTHC and eCBD (THC:CBD=1:1) or with corresponding 'mock extracts' that contained only pTHC and pCBD mixed in the same proportion as in eTHC, eCBD or the 1:1 mixture of eTHC and eCBD. We detected significant differences in neurones both between the effects of pTHC and eTHC and between the effects of pCBD and eCBD. There were also differences between the Ca(2+) responses evoked in both neurones and glia by eTHC and mock eTHC, but not between eCBD and mock eCBD. A particularly striking observation was the much increased response size and maximal responder rates induced by the mixture of eTHC and eCBD than by the corresponding 1:1 mixture of pTHC and pCBD. Our data suggest that THC shares the ability of CBD to elevate Ca(2+) levels in neurones and glia, that THC and CBD interact synergistically and that the cannabis extracts have other constituents yet to be identified that can significantly modulate the ability of THC and CBD to raise Ca(2+) levels. PMID:16997463

  5. The effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes: a protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Jayleen K L; Rosales, Cecilia B; Center, Katherine E; Nuñez, Annabelle V; Gibson, Steven J; Ehiri, John E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The effects of exposure to marijuana in utero on fetal development are not clear. Given that the recent legislation on cannabis in the US is likely to result in increased use, there is a need to assess the effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this review is to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to cannabis on pregnancy outcomes (including maternal and child outcomes). Methods and analyses Major databases will be searched from inception to the latest issue, with the aim of identifying studies that reported the effects of prenatal exposure to cannabis on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes. Two investigators will independently review all titles and abstracts to identify potential articles. Discrepancies will be resolved by repeated review, discussion and consensus. Study quality assessment will be undertaken, using standard protocols. To qualify for inclusion, studies must report at least one maternal or neonatal outcome post partum. Cross-sectional, case–control, cohort and randomised controlled trials published in English will be included. In order to rule out the effects of other drugs that may affect fetal development and pregnancy outcomes, studies will only be included if they report outcomes of prenatal exposure to cannabis while excluding other illicit substances. Data from eligible studies will be extracted, and data analysis will include a systematic review and critical appraisal of evidence, and meta-analysis if data permit. Meta-analysis will be conducted if three or more studies report comparable statistics on the same outcome. Ethics and dissemination The review which will result from this protocol has not already been conducted. Preparation of the review will follow the procedures stated in this protocol, and will adhere to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Ethical approval of data will not be required since the review will use data that are already available in the public domain through published articles and other reports. PMID:25770234

  6. Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B

    2011-08-01

    Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been the primary focus of cannabis research since 1964, when Raphael Mechoulam isolated and synthesized it. More recently, the synergistic contributions of cannabidiol to cannabis pharmacology and analgesia have been scientifically demonstrated. Other phytocannabinoids, including tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabigerol and cannabichromene, exert additional effects of therapeutic interest. Innovative conventional plant breeding has yielded cannabis chemotypes expressing high titres of each component for future study. This review will explore another echelon of phytotherapeutic agents, the cannabis terpenoids: limonene, myrcene, ?-pinene, linalool, ?-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, nerolidol and phytol. Terpenoids share a precursor with phytocannabinoids, and are all flavour and fragrance components common to human diets that have been designated Generally Recognized as Safe by the US Food and Drug Administration and other regulatory agencies. Terpenoids are quite potent, and affect animal and even human behaviour when inhaled from ambient air at serum levels in the single digits ng·mL(-1) . They display unique therapeutic effects that may contribute meaningfully to the entourage effects of cannabis-based medicinal extracts. Particular focus will be placed on phytocannabinoid-terpenoid interactions that could produce synergy with respect to treatment of pain, inflammation, depression, anxiety, addiction, epilepsy, cancer, fungal and bacterial infections (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). Scientific evidence is presented for non-cannabinoid plant components as putative antidotes to intoxicating effects of THC that could increase its therapeutic index. Methods for investigating entourage effects in future experiments will be proposed. Phytocannabinoid-terpenoid synergy, if proven, increases the likelihood that an extensive pipeline of new therapeutic products is possible from this venerable plant. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-7. PMID:21749363

  7. Haplotype-based study of the association of alcohol and acetaldehyde-metabolising genes with alcohol dependence (with or without comorbid anxiety symptoms) in a Cape Mixed Ancestry population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Andrew; Dalvie, Shareefa; Lewis, Sarah; King, Anthony; Liberzon, Israel; Fein, George; Koenen, Karestan; Ramesar, Rajkumar; Stein, Dan J

    2014-06-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) has a large heritable component. Genetic variation in genes involved in the absorption and elimination of ethanol have been associated with AD. However, some of these polymorphisms are not present in an African population. Previous studies have reported that a type of AD which is characterized by anxious behaviour may be a genetically specific subtype of AD. We investigated whether variation in genes encoding cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) or acetaldehyde-metabolising enzymes (ALDH1A1, ALDH2) might alter the risk of AD, with and without symptoms of anxiety, in a Cape population with mixed ancestry. Eighty case control pairs (one with AD, one without AD) were recruited and individually matched for potential confounders. Genotype data were available for 29 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the three genes. Linkage disequilibrium D' values were evaluated for all pairwise comparisons. Allele and haplotype frequencies were compared between cases and controls using a ?2 test. The ACAG haplotype in block 4 of the ALDH1A1 gene provided evidence of an association with AD (p?=?0.03) and weak evidence of an association with AD without symptoms of anxiety (p?=?0.06). When a genetic score was constructed using SNPs showing nominal evidence of association with AD, every extra risk allele increased the odds of AD by 35% (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.08, 1.68, p?=?0.008) and the odds of having AD with anxiety symptoms increased by 53% (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.14, 2.05, p?=?0.004). Although our results are supported by previous studies in other populations, they must be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size and the potential influence of population stratification. PMID:24567230

  8. Hypercholesterolemic Effect of Drug-Type Cannabis sativa L. Seed (Marijuana Seed) in Guinea Pig

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Hayatghaibi; Isaac Karimi

    2007-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. has two drug and nondrug varieties. Nondrug varieties of Cannabis are hemp but drug varieties commonly referred to as marijuana. Marijuana is considered nutritional and narcotic plant. Marijuana has not been studied extensively for its nutritional potential in recent years but whole hempseed typically contains over 30% oil (3%saturated, 28% unsaturated fatty acids) and about 25% protein. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of whole mariju...

  9. Cannabidiol, a nonpsychotropic component of cannabis, inhibits cue-induced heroin-seeking and normalizes discrete mesolimbic neuronal disturbances

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Yanhua; Whittard, John; Higuera-matas, Alejandro; Morris, Claudia V.; Hurd, Yasmin L.

    2009-01-01

    There remains debate regarding the impact of cannabis on neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we examined the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychoactive constituent of cannabis on heroin self-administration and drug-seeking behavior using an experimental rat model. CBD (5-20 mg/kg) did not alter stable intake of heroin self-administration, extinction behavior, or drug seeking induced by a heroin prime injection. Instead, it specifically attenuated heroin-seeking behavior reinstated by expos...

  10. Report of a parent survey of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis use in pediatric treatment-resistant epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Brenda E.; Jacobson, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Severe childhood epilepsies are characterized by frequent seizures, neurodevelopmental delays and impaired quality of life. In these treatment-resistant epilepsies, families often seek alternative treatments. This survey explored the use of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis in children with treatment-resistant epilepsy. The survey was presented to parents belonging to a Facebook group dedicated to sharing information about the use of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis to treat their child’s seizures...

  11. Efavirenz does not cause false-positive urine cannabis test in HIV-infected patients on Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, K C; Lee, W Y; Eh, Z W; Nor Julaika, I; Tee, P S; Azizon, O; Thilageswary, M

    2013-06-01

    Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with other drugs for the treatment of patients with HIV infection. Efavirenz has been reported to cause a positive urine cannabis test reaction which may create problems between HIV-infected patients on Efavirenz and law enforcement agencies. Doctors are at loss whether to issue documents certifying the potential false positive urine cannabis test with Efavirenz to patients. We investigated if the urine of HIV-infected patients on Efavirenz caused a positive urine cannabis test using the AxSYM Cannabinoids Assay®. Urine samples from 51 eligible patients on Efavirenz were tested for cannabis. All tested negative except for one who had used cannabis the day before. Efavirenz does not cause false positive urine cannabis test with the AxSYM Cannabinoids Assay®. Certification documents from doctors are therefore unnecessary. PMID:23749016

  12. Utilization of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry to search for cannabis in herb mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2014-07-01

    Herb mixtures including cannabis among the other herbs have recently appeared. When cannabinoids from herb extracts are detected by chemical examinations such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, forensic analysts have to determine whether cannabis is actually in the mixture or the cannabinoids are spiked. Morphological examinations are time-consuming, since it is difficult to find several pieces of cannabis among a large number of herb pieces using a microscope. Here, we propose a procedure for efficiently searching for cannabis in herb mixtures using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI/IMS). Pieces of herb mixtures were spread on double-sided adhesive tape attached to a stainless steel plate. The pieces were then covered with a conductive sheet and pressed. After a solution containing a matrix reagent was sprayed, the distribution of cannabinoids in the sample was visualized by MALDI/IMS. Then, just the pieces with cannabinoids could be picked up selectively with tweezers and decolorized. Cystolith hairs and trichomes, which are characteristic of cannabis, were observed in most of these pieces using a biological microscope. This MALDI/IMS procedure enables cannabis to be found in herb mixtures without inefficient random sampling and microscopic morphological examination. PMID:24838491

  13. Unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its major compound THC-acid have potential immuno-modulating properties not mediated bu CB1 en CB2 receptor coupled pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoeckx, K. C. M.; Korthout, H. A. A. J.; Meeteren-kreikamp, A. P.; Ehlert, K. A.; Wang, M.; Greef, J.; Rodenburg, R. J. T.; Witkamp, R. F.

    2006-01-01

    There is a great interest in the pharmacological properties of cannabinoid like compounds that are not linked to the adverse effects of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), e.g. psychoactive properties. The present paper describes the potential immuno-modulating activity of unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its main non-psychoactive constituent ?9-tetrahydrocanabinoid acid (THCa). By heating Cannabis extracts, THCa was shown to be converted into THC. Unheated Cannabis extract and THCa were ab...

  14. Cognitive and psychomotor effects in males after smoking a combination of tobacco and cannabis containing up to 69 mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

    OpenAIRE

    Hunault, C. C.; Mensinga, T. T.; Bo?cker, K. B. E.; Schipper, C. M. A.; Kruidenier, Maaike; Leenders, Marianne E. C.; Vries, Irma; Meulenbelt, J.

    2009-01-01

    RATIONALE: Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active constituent of cannabis. In recent years, the average THC content of some cannabis cigarettes has increased up to approximately 60 mg per cigarette (20% THC cigarettes). Acute cognitive and psychomotor effects of THC among recreational users after smoking cannabis cigarettes containing such high doses are unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to study the dose-effect relationship between the THC dose contained in...

  15. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Informed Cancer Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gynecologic cancer symptoms diaries Ovarian cancer may cause one or more of these signs ...

  16. Acne: Signs and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases and treatments A - D Acne Signs, symptoms Acne: Signs and symptoms Blackheads and whiteheads Blackheads and ... sandpaper. View as one page View as slideshow Acne signs Many people think that acne is just ...

  17. E. coli Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. E. coli Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Symptoms Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) can cause the following symptoms: Nausea Severe ...

  18. Symptoms of Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as important to treating Parkinson’s. Each person with Parkinson's will experience symptoms differently. For example, many people experience tremor as their primary symptom, while others may not ...

  19. Trends in the co-occurrence of tobacco and cannabis use in 15-year-olds from 2002 to 2010 in 28 countries of Europe and North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hublet, Anne; Bendtsen, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cannabis and tobacco use frequently co-occur. Adolescents who consume both substances experience more respiratory distress and psychosocial problems and are less likely to stop compared with those who use either tobacco or cannabis alone. This study examined time trends in tobacco and cannabis use among 15-year-olds in Europe and North America between 2002 and 2010. METHODS: Twenty-eight countries were included and merged into six regions based on their welfare systems. Adolescents (n = 142 796) were divided in four 'user groups': 'no-users', 'tobacco and cannabis users', 'tobacco-only users' and 'cannabis-only users'. Prevalence rates are reported by study-wave and region. Logistic regressions with study wave as independent variable were used to study trends in the user groups and regions. Interaction effects between time and gender were considered. RESULTS: Overall, tobacco use, and concurrent tobacco and cannabis use decreased by 3 and 3.7%, respectively, but prevalence rates varied by region. Only in North America, an interaction effect between time and gender was found in tobacco and cannabis users. CONCLUSIONS: Although this study demonstrates a decrease in tobacco and cannabis use in most regions, it also shows that the use of both substances is related. Therefore, studying the co-occurring use of tobacco and cannabis is necessary.

  20. Psychotic symptoms in acromegaly

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Denzil; Safeekh, A. T.; Trivedi, Mohit

    2005-01-01

    Various psychiatric symptoms have been reported in patients with acromegaly. Most of them are personality changes characterized by lack of initiative and spontaneity. There are few case reports of the presence of auditory and visual hallucinations, and delusions in patients with acromegaly. We report a patient with acromegaly who had psychotic symptoms including Schneiderian first-rank symptoms.

  1. Legalizing a market for cannabis for pleasure: Colorado, Washington, Uruguay and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Room, Robin

    2014-03-01

    Colorado, Washington state and Uruguay are currently designing legal non-medical markets for cannabis. These clearly contravene the 1961 and 1988 drug conventions; options for what may happen next are discussed. The current provisions in the three regulatory schemes are summarized. From a public health perspective, the emphasis should be on holding down consumption with regulatory measures, but the public health agenda does not seem to be a strong consideration in the implementation of the US schemes, and they are paying little attention to what can be learned from the history of alcohol and tobacco regulation. While alternative paths to a cannabis market under the conventions are noted, the legalization initiatives underline the need to revise the drug conventions, making prohibition of domestic markets an optional matter. Such changes would also ease the path for including alcohol under the conventions, which would be an important step forward in global health. PMID:24180513

  2. Primary Prevention of Cannabis Use: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Norberg, Melissa M.; Kezelman, Sarah; Lim-howe, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    A systematic review of primary prevention was conducted for cannabis use outcomes in youth and young adults. The aim of the review was to develop a comprehensive understanding of prevention programming by assessing universal, targeted, uni-modal, and multi-modal approaches as well as individual program characteristics. Twenty-eight articles, representing 25 unique studies, identified from eight electronic databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO, DRUG, EBM Reviews, and Project CORK)...

  3. Alcohol and cannabis use in Norway during the period 1995-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin K. Bye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The description of alcohol and cannabis use in the period 1995-2009 is based on data from five sets of surveys. Sales figures for alcohol consumption are also included. Alcohol sales in Norway increased by 40 per cent during the period 1995-2009, from 4.8 to 6.7 litres of pure alcohol per inhabitant aged 15 years and over. This increase largely reflects a sharp increase in the sale of wine. Also when taking into account unregistered alcohol consumption, the consumption of alcohol increased considerably in Norway during the period in question. The increased alcohol consumption seems to be due to an increase in moderate alcohol consumers and/or an increase in situations involving moderate alcohol consumption. Population surveys indicate that there has been an increase in the proportion who drink alcohol and in the proportion of people who drink relatively often, but the increased drinking frequency is not accompanied by a corresponding increase in the proportion who often drink until they are intoxicated. On average, men drink more often and greater quantities than women, with the exception of wine. The proportion who drink alcohol at least twice a month or more has increased in all age groups, and the increase has been particularly marked among those above the age of 50. Despite a reduction in consumption among young people in recent years, consumption and drinking until intoxicated are still widespread. Young girls drink alcohol as often as boys and are equally often intoxicated. As for cannabis, there was an increase in the age group 15-20 years in the second half of the 1990s, followed by a decrease and stagnation since the turn of the millennium. There was little or no difference between boys and girls in the 15-20 age group in the use of cannabis, while among young adults, far more men than women reported that they had used cannabis

  4. Enhancement of metal(loid)s phytoextraction by Cannabis sativa L.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrová, Šárka; Benešová, Dagmar; Soudek, Petr; Van?k, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 10, ?. 1 (2012), s. 631-641. ISSN 1459-0255 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : phytoextraction * chelate * glutathione * Cannabis sativa L. * metal Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2012 http://www.isfae.org/scientficjournal/2012/issue1/pdf/environment/e0.pdf

  5. Variation in vegetative growth and trichomes in Cannabis sativa L. (Marihuana) in response to enviromental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.K.; Mann, S.K.

    1984-07-01

    Four populations of Cannabis sativa L. (marihuana) growing in their native habitat and exposed to different levels of environmental pollution were studied for several leaf morphology and leaf trichome features. Leaf length, petiole length, length and width of central leaflet, and the number of teeth on leaf margin decreased with increase in pollution. Trichome length and trichome density values were found to be higher in populations exposed to higher levels of environmental pollution.

  6. Activation analysis of rare-earth elements in opium and cannabis samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare-earth concentrations in 65 Opium, Cannabis and Cannabis resin samples seized from various parts of the world were determined by destructive NAA. Because of the greater concentrations of Ca, P, K, Fe, Na and Si in plant materials, rare-earth elements were isolated after neutron irradiation and determined by gamma-spectrometry. The main steps of the method are: Preashing of 1 g Cannabis resin, 2.5 g Cannabis or 7.5 g Opium, respectively, in quartz ampoules (5 h, 500 deg C). Neutron irradiation, 24 h at 5x1013n cm-2sec-1. Cooling period 2-3 days. After addition of 0.1 ?Ci 139Ce and rare-earth carriers wet ashing of irradiated samples with H2SO4/HNO3, followed by alternate addition of HNO3 and H2O2 (30%). Precipitation and removal of silicates, precipitation of fluorides, precipitation of hydroxides. Dissolution of hydroxides in HCl. Extraction with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (DEHP)/toluene and twice back-extraction of rare earths, gamma-spectrometry of HCl phase. Due to sample activity and half-life of nuclides, three measurements were made on each sample: 2 days (for La, Sm, Gd, Ho, Er, Yb); 14 days (for Nd, Lu) and 30 days after irradiation (for Ce, Eu, Tb). Great variations in absolute element concentrations, but only small significant differences of rare earth concentration ratios were found, indicating inconsiderable biogeochemical fractionation. The mrable biogeochemical fractionation. The mean values of these ratios correspond to the relative abundances of the rare earths in the upper continental earth's crust. (T.G.)

  7. Cannabis and Opium Abuse Patterns and Their Associated Complications in a Sample of Young Iranians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attari, Mohammad Ali; Asgary, Sedigheh; Shahrokhi, Shahnaz; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Shariatirad, Schwann

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of drug abuse has been reported to be up to 17.0% in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of two frequently abused substances--cannabis and opium--in samples of the young population in Isfahan, Iran. In a survey done from January 2005 to December 2006, 537 individuals aged 13-20 years were recruited using a…

  8. Sex Hormones Levels as Influenced by Cannabis sativa in Rats and Men

    OpenAIRE

    Gubara, Abdulrahim A.; Elbagir, Nabiela M.; Mukhtar, Amna H.

    2012-01-01

    This study targeted the possible effects of chronic marijuana use on reproductive hormones. To pursue this effect, the levels of the testosterone, the Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and the Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) were assayed in men users in Sudan and in Cannabis sativa extract treated rats. Results were compared to non using groups as controls. Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and testosterone levels showed significant changes after 10 days in rat groups. In all addi...

  9. Predicting the chemical composition of fibre and core fraction of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Toonen, M. A. J.; Maliepaard, C. A.; Reijmers, T. H.; Voet, H.; Mastebroek, H. D.; Broeck, H. C.; Ebskamp, M. J. M.; Kessler, W.; Kessler, R. W.

    2004-01-01

    Fibre formation in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a dynamic process. In order to follow this process, the chemical composition of the hemp stem was studied during plant development using the acid and neutral detergent fibre and lignin methods. Additionally, near infra-red spectroscopy was carried out. To predict the chemical composition of the stem samples partial least square (PLS) analysis was carried out. The developed PLS models can predict the level of %ADF and %NDF in the hemp bast and co...

  10. Antidepressant-like effect of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L

    OpenAIRE

    El-alfy, Abir T.; Ivey, Kelly; Robinson, Keisha; Ahmed, Safwat; Radwan, Mohamed; Slade, Desmond; Khan, Ikhlas; Elsohly, Mahmoud; Ross, Samir

    2010-01-01

    The antidepressant action of cannabis as well as the interaction between antidepressants and the endocannabinoid system has been reported. This study was conducted to assess the antidepressant-like activity of ?9-THC and other cannabinoids. Cannabinoids were initially evaluated in the mouse tetrad assay to determine doses that do not induce hypothermia or catalepsy. The automated mouse forced swim (FST) and tail suspension (TST) tests were used to determine antidepressant action. At doses la...

  11. Pharmacological Evaluation of the Natural Constituent of Cannabis Sativa, Cannabichromene and its Modulation by ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol*

    OpenAIRE

    Delong, Gerald T.; Wolf, Carl E.; Poklis, Alphonse; Lichtman, Aron H.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the numerous reports on the pharmacological effects of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the pharmacological activity of another substituent of Cannabis sativa, cannabichromene (CBC) remains comparatively unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether CBC elicits cannabinoid activity in the tetrad assay, which consists of the following four endpoints: hypomotility, antinociception, catalepsy, and hypothermia. Because cannabinoids are well documented to possess anti-inflam...

  12. Propagation through alginate encapsulation of axillary buds of Cannabis sativa L. — an important medicinal plant

    OpenAIRE

    Lata, Hemant; Chandra, Suman; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Elsohly, Mahmoud A.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) is an important medicinal plant well known for its pharmacologic and therapeutic potency. Because of allogamous nature of this species, it is difficult to maintain its potency and efficacy if grown from the seeds. Therefore, chemical profile-based screening, selection of high yielding elite clones and their propagation using biotechnological tools is the most suitable way to maintain their genetic lines. In this regard, we report a simple and efficient method ...

  13. Clustering of smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use in adolescents in a rapidly developing country

    OpenAIRE

    Chiolero Arnaud; Warren Wick; Viswanathan Bharathi; Faeh David; Bovet Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use ("risk behaviors") are often initiated at a young age but few epidemiological studies have assessed their joined prevalence in children in developing countries. This study aims at examining the joint prevalence of these behaviors in adolescents in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country in the Indian Ocean. Methods Cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of secondary school students using an anonymous self-administe...

  14. Headspace solid-phase microextraction of pesticide residues in Cannabis samples

    OpenAIRE

    Ilias, Yara; Rudaz, Serge; Christen, Philippe; Veuthey, Jean-luc

    2006-01-01

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction method combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was evaluated for the extraction and analysis of selected pesticides, namely alachlor, ?-hexachlorocyclohexane, bromopropylate, carbaryl, diazinon, linuron, polychlorobiphenyl 209, permethrine and simazine in cannabis samples. Using a 100 ?m PDMS fibre, compounds were directly extracted in the headspace mode at 150 °C for 5 min and desorption was performed in the GC injector in the splitless...

  15. Cannabis Use Is Quantitatively Associated with Nucleus Accumbens and Amygdala Abnormalities in Young Adult Recreational Users

    OpenAIRE

    Gilman, Jodi M.; Kuster, John K.; Lee, Sang; Lee, Myung Joo; Kim, Byoung Woo; Makris, Nikos; Kouwe, Andre; Blood, Anne J.; Breiter, Hans C.

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, but little is known about its effects on the human brain, particularly on reward/aversion regions implicated in addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Animal studies show structural changes in brain regions such as the nucleus accumbens after exposure to ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol, but less is known about cannabis use and brain morphometry in these regions in humans. We collected high-resolution MRI scans on ...

  16. Intervenções farmacológica e psicossocial para os distúrbios por uso da cannabis / Pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for cannabisuse disorders

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alan J., Budney; Ryan G., Vandrey; Catherine, Stanger.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A cannabis continua sendo a substância ilegal mais amplamente utilizada na maioria dos países desenvolvidos. Seu potencial aditivo foi estabelecido e a necessidade de intervenções em problemas relacionados à cannabis se tornou clara. Este artigo faz uma revisão sobre as pesquisas que avali [...] am os tratamentos potenciais para transtornos por uso de cannabis. MÉTODO: Uma busca nos bancos de dados de publicações identificou os estudos e revisões na literatura científica sobre as intervenções psicossociais e farmacológicas nos transtornos por uso de cannabis. RESULTADOS: Para adultos, as intervenções com base comportamental geram efeitos positivos significativos na abstinência e nas reduções no uso de cannabis. Em adolescentes, tratamentos similares e intervenções com base na família demonstraram eficácia. Entre os estudos, os índices de resposta parecem ser modestos mesmo com os mais potentes tratamentos psicossociais. As avaliações das abordagens farmacológicas para os transtornos por uso de cannabis têm ainda que fornecer dados sobre a eficácia clínica de qualquer medicação específica. Enfoques baseados em agonistas e antagonistas parecem ser os mais promissores. Os avanços na compreensão da neurobiologia do sistema canabinoide são fonte de otimismo no sentido de que a síntese de compostos que alteram o funcionamento do sítio receptor CB1 possa produzir medicações promissoras. CONCLUSÃO: As pesquisas clínicas identificaram tratamentos psicossociais eficazes, mas ainda não produziram farmacoterapias eficazes. Muitos estudos ainda têm que ser feitos para aumentar a potência e o acesso às intervenções para aqueles que buscam o tratamento para transtornos por uso de cannabis. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Cannabis remains the most widely used illicit substance in most developed countries. Its addictive potential has been established and the need for interventions for cannabis-related problems has become apparent. This article provides a review of the research evaluating potential treatment [...] s for cannabis use disorders. METHOD: A search of publication databases identified research studies and reviews of the scientific literature on psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for cannabis use disorders. RESULTS: For adults, behaviorally-based interventions engender significant positive effects on abstinence and reductions in cannabis use. With adolescents, similar treatments and family-based interventions have demonstrated efficacy. Across studies, response rates appear modest even with the most potent psychosocial treatments. Evaluations of pharmacological approaches to cannabis use disorders have yet to provide clinical efficacy data for any specific medication. Agonist and antagonist approaches appear to offer the most promise. Advances in understanding of the neurobiology of the cannabinoid system provide optimism that the synthesis of compounds that alter CB1 receptor site functioning may produce promising medications. CONCLUSION: Clinical research has identified effective psychosocial treatments, but has yet to yield effective pharmacotherapies. Much work remains to enhance the potency of and access to interventions for those seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders.

  17. Detecting cannabis use on the human skin surface via an electronic nose system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Andreas; Witt, Katharina; Kaschowitz, Tobias; Poitz, Wolf; Ebert, Andreas; Roser, Patrik; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly used drug testing methods are based on the analysis of hair and urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or immunoassay screening. These methods are time-consuming and partly expensive. One alternative method could be the application of an "electronic nose" (eNose). We have developed an eNose to detect directly on the human skin surface metabolic changes in the human body odor caused by cannabis consumption. Twenty cannabis-smoking and 20 tobacco-smoking volunteers were enrolled in this study. For the sensor signal data processing, two different methods were applied: Principle component analysis (PCA) with discriminant analysis, and the method of pattern recognition with subsequent support vector machines (SVM) processing. The PCA analysis achieved a correct classification of 70%, whereas the SVM obtained an accuracy of 92.5% (sensitivity 95%, specificity 90%) between cannabis-consuming volunteers and tobacco-smoking subjects. This study shows evidence that a low-cost, portable and fast-working eNose system could be useful for health protection, security agencies and for forensic investigations. The ability to analyze human body odor with an eNose opens up a wide field for diagnosing other drugs and also various diseases. PMID:25057136

  18. Detecting Cannabis Use on the Human Skin Surface via an Electronic Nose System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Voss

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly used drug testing methods are based on the analysis of hair and urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or immunoassay screening. These methods are time-consuming and partly expensive. One alternative method could be the application of an “electronic nose” (eNose. We have developed an eNose to detect directly on the human skin surface metabolic changes in the human body odor caused by cannabis consumption. Twenty cannabis-smoking and 20 tobacco-smoking volunteers were enrolled in this study. For the sensor signal data processing, two different methods were applied: Principle component analysis (PCA with discriminant analysis, and the method of pattern recognition with subsequent support vector machines (SVM processing. The PCA analysis achieved a correct classification of 70%, whereas the SVM obtained an accuracy of 92.5% (sensitivity 95%, specificity 90% between cannabis-consuming volunteers and tobacco-smoking subjects. This study shows evidence that a low-cost, portable and fast-working eNose system could be useful for health protection, security agencies and for forensic investigations. The ability to analyze human body odor with an eNose opens up a wide field for diagnosing other drugs and also various diseases.

  19. Cannabis: a triggering factor for schizophrenia? Maconha: fator desencadeador de esquizofrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefânia Gastaldello Moreira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia has a prevalence of 1.1% in general population. It is believed to be a multifactorial disease in which a genetic predisposition may exist, but triggering environmental factors should also exist. Among the triggering environmental factors suggested, it is highlighted the use of some drugs, including cannabis (marijuana. The present report aimed to carry out a bibliographic review of the papers presenting a causal relationship between cannabis abuse and development of schizophrenia. The results showed that there is increasing evidence, both epidemiological and biological, that cannabis abuse may trigger schizophrenia, at least in predisposed individuals. A esquizofrenia acomete, aproximadamente, 1,1% da população. Atualmente, acredita-se que a esquizofrenia seja uma doença multifatorial, na qual deva existir uma predisposição genética, mas sejam necessários fatores ambientais desencadeadores para ela se manifestar. Entre os fatores ambientais sugeridos como desencadeadores, salienta-se o uso abusivo de algumas drogas psicotrópicas, incluindo a maconha. O objetivo deste trabalho foi fazer um levantamento bibliográfico dos trabalhos que estabelecem uma relação causal entre uso abusivo de maconha e manifestação de esquizofrenia. A análise da literatura mostrou que existem evidências crescentes, tanto epidemiológicas quanto biológicas, de que o uso de maconha pode desencadear o início da esquizofrenia, pelo menos em indivíduos predispostos.

  20. Cannabis retail purchases in a low-risk market: Purchase size and sex of buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeller Kim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM - To analyse the composition of cannabis retail purchases in a representative sample of purchases made in Christiania, Copenhagen in 2004. MATERIAL - Transactions (n=1,123 were registered along four variables; type (loose resin or joints, quantum (n=957, grams or number of joints, sex (n=559, female or male and payment (n=707, notes or coins. RESULTS - We found that more than half of all transactions were for joints only. The median transaction quantum was small, at two joints or three grams of resin, valued at DKK 100. Of the resin transactions, 88% were three grams or below. Women made 11% of the purchases. There was no statistically significant difference in the preferences for quantum or type between males and females. CONCLUSIONS - Buyers prefer joints over loose resin despite the higher price, which is interesting. The small median transactions size is consistent with findings in the international literature. Illicit drug buyers appear to prefer small acquisitions across drugs and social context. The share of purchases made by women is 11%, which is similar to the estimated proportion of women among daily cannabis users. This finding suggests an interesting question for future research. At what point in a cannabis-using career do users purchase their drugs? These findings contribute to the existing research by documenting the proportion of female buyers, and preferences for type and quantum in a sample that is representative of a market and is not based on self-reported purchases

  1. The gene controlling marijuana psychoactivity: molecular cloning and heterologous expression of Delta1-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase from Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirikantaramas, Supaart; Morimoto, Satoshi; Shoyama, Yoshinari; Ishikawa, Yu; Wada, Yoshiko; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Taura, Futoshi

    2004-09-17

    Delta(1)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase is the enzyme that catalyzes oxidative cyclization of cannabigerolic acid into THCA, the precursor of Delta(1)-tetrahydrocannabinol. We cloned a novel cDNA (GenBank trade mark accession number AB057805) encoding THCA synthase by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reactions from rapidly expanding leaves of Cannabis sativa. This gene consists of a 1635-nucleotide open reading frame, encoding a 545-amino acid polypeptide of which the first 28 amino acid residues constitute the signal peptide. The predicted molecular weight of the 517-amino acid mature polypeptide is 58,597 Da. Interestingly, the deduced amino acid sequence exhibited high homology to berberine bridge enzyme from Eschscholtzia californica, which is involved in alkaloid biosynthesis. The liquid culture of transgenic tobacco hairy roots harboring the cDNA produced THCA upon feeding of cannabigerolic acid, demonstrating unequivocally that this gene encodes an active THCA synthase. Overexpression of the recombinant THCA synthase was achieved using a baculovirus-insect expression system. The purified recombinant enzyme contained covalently attached FAD cofactor at a molar ratio of FAD to protein of 1:1. The mutant enzyme constructed by changing His-114 of the wild-type enzyme to Ala-114 exhibited neither absorption characteristics of flavoproteins nor THCA synthase activity. Thus, we concluded that the FAD binding residue is His-114 and that the THCA synthase reaction is FAD-dependent. This is the first report on molecular characterization of an enzyme specific to cannabinoid biosynthesis. PMID:15190053

  2. THCVA-A - a new additional marker for illegal cannabis consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radünz, Lars; Westphal, Folker; Maser, Edmund; Rochholz, Gertrud

    2012-02-10

    The aim of the present investigations was to find markers for differentiating between the consumption of illegal cannabis products and legal medication containing fully synthetic ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC), e.g., Marinol capsules. ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (?9-THCA-A) and ?9-tetrahydrocannabivarinic acid A (?9-THCVA-A) were taken into consideration for analysis, because these substances are the precursors of ?9-THC and ?9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (?9-THCV) in plant material of Cannabis sativa and are not contained in medical THC formulations. Whereas ?9-THCA-A is an already well investigated substance, there is little analytical data on ?9-THCVA-A. The reason for the presented investigations was a case in which a man was tested positive for ?9-THC during a routine traffic control claiming that the positive serum sample resulted from the intake of a THC medication (Marinol) and not from consuming illegal cannabis products. Sample preparation consisted of a protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Analysis was carried out on a Thermo Fisher LCQ Deca ion trap LC-MS-MS-system using electron spray ionization (ESI) in negative mode. MS(2)- and MS(3)-full scan spectra were recorded for ?9-THCA-A and ?9-THCVA-A starting from [M-H](-). Reference spectra were obtained by measuring a ?9-THCA-A reference solution and an ethanolic cannabis extract for ?9-THCVA-A as there is no reference material for this cannabinoid available on the market yet. Main transitions for ?9-THCA-A were m/z 357?313 and 339 in the MS(2)-spectrum and m/z 313?245 and 191 in the MS(3)-spectrum. Fragmentation pattern of ?9-THCVA-A was identical with a difference of 28 amu less for the precursor ion as well as the fragments due to a shorter alkyl side chain in the molecule (MS(2): m/z 329?285 and 311; MS(3): m/z 285?217 and 163). The two plant cannabinoids ?9-THCA-A and ?9-THCVA-A could be detected in the serum sample by LC-MS-MS which proved the intake of illegal cannabis products derived from plant material of C. sativa in the described case. PMID:21454026

  3. Management of somatic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Andreas; Dimsdale, Joel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Somatic symptoms that cannot be attributed to organic disease account for 15 to 20% of primary care consultations and up to 50% in specialized settings. About 6% of the general population has chronic somatic symptoms that affect functioning and quality of life. This chapter focuses on the recognition and effective management of patients with excessive and disabling somatic symptoms. The clinical presentation of somatic symptoms is categorized into three groups of patients: those with multiple somatic symptoms, those with health anxiety, and those with conversion disorder. The chapter provides information to assist with making a diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Management includes ways to improve the physician–patient interaction that will benefit the patient, a step-care model based on illness severity and complexity, and psychological and pharmacologic treatment. The chapter is enhanced by figures and tables that summarize health anxiety, symptoms, differential diagnoses, and management strategies, as well as by case studies and examples.

  4. Somatization or psychosomatic symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Lazslo Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The author describes some problems emerging from the approach to and comprehension of somatization symptoms, discussing ambiguities regarding somatization seen in the current classification manuals (ICD-10 and DSM-IV). Then the author presents a case report of a man who presented with a bizarre symptom of feminization that was successfully treated with psychotherapy. The author ends with a discussion of the relationship between meaning and symptom. PMID:16508030

  5. Early psychosis symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia in the pathways to help-seeking. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The Department of Psychiatry, the Aga Khan University, Karachi, from 2008 to 2009. Methodology: A total of 93 patients were interviewed in the pathways to care of schizophrenia. The diagnosis was based on ICD-10 criteria. The pathways to care were assessed through a semi-structured questionnaire. The onset, course and symptoms of psychosis were assessed through Interview for Retrospective Assessment at Age at Onset of Psychosis (IROAS). Results: Fifty five (59%) participants were male while 41% (n=38%) were female. Using IROAS, 108 symptoms were identified as concerning behaviour. Alternatively, 60 (55%) concerning behaviours were reported in the open-ended inquiry of the reasons for help seeking as assessed by the pathways to care questionnaire with a statistically significant difference between most symptoms category. The difference was most pronounced (p < 0.001) for depressed mood (66%), worries (65%), tension (63%), withdrawal/mistrust (54%) and loss of self-confidence (53%). Thought withdrawal (22%) and passivity (15%) were elicited only through structured interview (IROAS). When symptoms were categorized together, about 83% of the subjects presented with affective and non-specific prodromal symptoms. Roughly, 10% of the subjects presented with positive symptoms and 3% presented with the negative symptoms of psychosis. The non-specific, affective symptoms appear to predominate the prodromal phase of the illness. Conclusion: Prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia include non-specific, affective symptoms. Attention needs to be paid on identifying the prodromal symptoms and change in social functioning in order to identify those who are at risk of long term psychosis. (author)

  6. Cannabis Use and Drug Related Problems Among Adolescents in 27 European Countries: The Utility of the Prevention Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romelsjö Anders

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – To study the prevalence of cannabis use and drug-related problems among European adolescents and the utility of the prevention paradox. METHODS – Survey data from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD in 2007 in the 27 countries with information about drug use and drug-related problems was used. We analysed the proportion of all drug-related problems that occurred in a high risk group and among others who had used cannabis in the previous 12 months. The cut-off for the high risk group was chosen to include 10-15 % of the most frequent cannabis users. RESULTS – The high risk groups accounted for a substantial, but a minority, of drug-related problems among boys as well as girls. A minority of those who had used cannabis reported any drug-related problem. The proportion of adolescents with drug-related problems and the average number of problems increased with frequency of cannabis use. CONCLUSIONS – We find support for policy measures of more general character, supported by the prevention paradox. However, this does not exclude a policy supporting frequent drug users if they can be identified

  7. Investigating Sedative, Preanaesthetic & Anti-anxiety Effects of Herbal Extract of Cannabis Sativa in Comparison with Diazepam in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A rezaei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cannabis sativa is a plant that is Called Cannabis in Persian and has diversity all over the world. This plant grows in North region, Arak and Kashan in Iran. Chemical compounds of this plant are cannabidiol, cannabidiolic acid and tetra hydro cannabinol that cause the increase in duration of anesthesia via injection of anesthesia drugs. This effect shows the effectiveness of this plant extraction for sedation and smoothing. It is claimed that the usage of this drug for preanesthesia causes the reduction of anesthesia duration induction and increases anesthesia persistency. It seems that Cannabis and its compounds have effects on sleep through hypothalamus and posterior nucleus hemisphere. Methods: herbal extract of Cannabis Sativa (with doses of 150, 300, 450mg/kg, IP, Diazepam (with dose of 1.2mg/kg, IP, and Di-methyl sulphoxide with the equal volume was injected intraperitoneally into two different groups of male wistar rats 30 minutes before assessing the relief sedative and preanaesthetic effects (induced sleep duration by ketamine 40mg/kg, ip & anti-anxiety effects (using elevated plus maze. Results: The results showed a meaningful increase in the period of the sleep time that had been induced with Ketamine and also a meaningful increase was observed in the time spent at open arms in the treatment groups with high and low dose of extract. Conclusion: The results showed that the Cannabis Sativa extract with dose of 350mg/kg has sedative, preanaesthetic & anti-anxiety effects.

  8. Estudio de la actividad antisecretora de ácido gástrico del Cannabis sativa en un modelo animal / Study of the gastric acid anti-secretory activity of Cannabis sativa in an animal model

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Germán Gabriel, Castillo; Harry Mauricio, Pachajoa; Sandra Eliana, Villota; Edwin, Zurita; Mauricio, Palacios; Oscar, Gutiérrez.

    2006-12-30

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Hay pocos estudios que describan el efecto de los cannabinoides en el sistema gástrico, pues en sólo uno se encontró referencia a alteraciones del pH gástrico. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto antisecretor de la especie Cannabis sativa. Metodología: Se utilizaron 45 ratas Sprague Dawley [...] que se sometieron a un ayuno de 24 horas, al cabo del cual se les ligó el píloro durante 2 ó 4 horas según el grupo experimental. Luego, se anestesiaron, se extirparon los estómagos y se analizó el contenido gástrico en términos de volumen y pH. Resultados: Se encontró que el extracto de Cannabis aumentó el pH gástrico con respecto al grupo control (p 0.05). El volumen medido no mostró diferencias entre los grupos. Conclusiones: Estos resultados, sugieren que el extracto de Cannabis sativa disminuye la secreción de ácido en el estómago. Abstract in english Introduction: There are few studies that describe the effects of cannabinoids in the gastric system, although in only one, there was the description of a gastric pH alteration. Objective: To determine the anti-secretory effect of the species Cannabis sativa. Methodology: In this study forty five Spr [...] ague Dawley rats were used, they were submitted to a 24 hours fasting period, after which the pylorus was ligated for 2-4 hours, according to the experimental group. Thereafter, the rats were anesthetized, their stomachs extirpated and the gastric content analyzed for volume and pH. Results: The Cannabis extract raised the gastric pH when compared to the control group (p 0.05). There were no differences in the measured volumes. Conclusions: These results suggest that the Cannabis sativa extract diminishes the gastric acid output.

  9. Psychotic symptoms in young adults exposed to childhood trauma--a 20 year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletly, Cherrie; Van Hooff, Miranda; McFarlane, Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Childhood adversity has been shown to increase the risk of psychotic symptoms in adult life. However, there are no previous studies looking at the association between experiencing a natural disaster during childhood and the development of psychotic symptoms in young adulthood. Eight hundred and six bushfire-exposed children and 725 control children were evaluated following the 1983 South Australian bushfires. Five hundred and twenty nine (65.6%) of the bushfire group and 464 (64%) controls participated in a follow up study 20 years later. Childhood data on emotional and behavioural disorders and dysfunctional parenting was available. The adult assessment included the Australian National Health and Well-Being psychosis screen and detailed information about trauma, childhood adversity and alcohol and cannabis abuse. 5.6% of subjects responded positively to the psychosis screen and 2.6% responded positively to a further probe question. Psychotic symptoms were more common in subjects exposed to a greater number of traumas, and were associated with higher rates of childhood adversity, emotional and behavioural disturbance, dysfunctional parenting, and alcohol and cannabis abuse. Subjects exposed to bushfires as children did not have a greater risk of psychosis. Our results indicate that exposure to multiple traumas, rather than a single major trauma, increases the risk of later psychosis. PMID:21256719

  10. General IC Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms may be present: Urinary Frequency Urinary Urgency Pain Urinary Frequency Patients with IC may experience day and/or ... severe cases). In early or very mild cases, frequency is sometimes the only symptom. ... by pain, pressure, or spasms. Pain In the lower abdominal, ...

  11. Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Patrício, Macedo; Cecília, Kosmann; José Roberto, Pujol-Luz.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America. Insects associated with a seizure of Cannabis sativa L. may indicate the origin of the illicit drug. Nevertheless, no work regarding this subject has been previously published for Sout [...] h America. In the present investigation, seven kilograms of vegetal material (C. sativa) were inspected for insect fragments. Three species were identified and used to test the origin of the seizure of cannabis plant material: Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794), Thyanta perditor (Fabricius, 1794) (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae), and Cephalotes pusillus (Klug, 1824) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). These insect species restricted the geographic origin of the drug to the Neotropical region, and their distribution patterns showed an overlap of the State of Mato Grosso (Brazil), Argentina, and Paraguay. Based on this information, two of the three major C. sativa growing areas in South America were excluded: (1) the Colombian territory and (2) northeastern Brazil.

  12. Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Patrício Macedo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America. Insects associated with a seizure of Cannabis sativa L. may indicate the origin of the illicit drug. Nevertheless, no work regarding this subject has been previously published for South America. In the present investigation, seven kilograms of vegetal material (C. sativa were inspected for insect fragments. Three species were identified and used to test the origin of the seizure of cannabis plant material: Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794, Thyanta perditor (Fabricius, 1794 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, and Cephalotes pusillus (Klug, 1824 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. These insect species restricted the geographic origin of the drug to the Neotropical region, and their distribution patterns showed an overlap of the State of Mato Grosso (Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. Based on this information, two of the three major C. sativa growing areas in South America were excluded: (1 the Colombian territory and (2 northeastern Brazil.

  13. Sanctioning Large-Scale Domestic Cannabis Production - Potency, Yield and Professionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØller, Kim; Lindholst, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Domestically cultivated cannabis, referred to as sinsemilla, constitutes a growing share of the illicit drug markets in the Scandinavian countries. In this study we present forensic evidence of THC content in sinsemilla and resin confiscated by the Danish police from 2008 to 2012. The purpose is to establish a mean potency, a yield estimate for professionally grown plants, and an assessment of how „professionalism” applies to domestic cultivation. We find a mean THC content in our sample normally distributed around 12% for sinsemilla (n=35) and 11.7% for resin (n=99). This is markedly higher than the assumption of THC content in sinsemilla between 6-8% as is currently applied in Norway and Sweden. It is also higher than the previous estimate of resin potency. The yield in sinsemilla plants is found to be 46 grams per plant. This is much lower than the estimate applied in criminal cases, which indicates that courts do not apply a yield-percentage estimate. The specificities of domestic cannabis cultivation also relate to the sanction criteria „professionalism”. Firstly, the number of plants found can provide for calculation of an aggregate quantum. Secondly, this can be related to the formal quantum thresholds between the (various) grades of illicit drug crimes in the national legal systems. Finally, we introduce the nationality of the gardener as an indication of professionalism in combination with the equipment found on site. We conclude that proportionality in criminal sanctioning of large-scale cannabis cases would improve by applying a 1:1 potency level between sinsemilla and resin.

  14. Cannabis-based medicine reduces multiple pathological processes in A?PP/PS1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Ester; Sánchez-Pla, Alexandre; Vegas-Lozano, Esteban; Maldonado, Rafael; Ferrer, Isidro

    2015-01-01

    Several recent findings suggest that targeting the endogenous cannabinoid system can be considered as a potential therapeutic approach to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study supports this hypothesis demonstrating that delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or cannabidiol (CBD) botanical extracts, as well as the combination of both natural cannabinoids, which are the components of an already approved cannabis-based medicine, preserved memory in A?PP/PS1 transgenic mice when chronically administered during the early symptomatic stage. Moreover, THC + CBD reduced learning impairment in A?PP/PS1 mice. A significant decrease in soluble A?42 peptide levels and a change in plaques composition were also observed in THC + CBD-treated A?PP/PS1 mice, suggesting a cannabinoid-induced reduction in the harmful effect of the most toxic form of the A? peptide. Among the mechanisms related with these positive cognitive effects, the anti-inflammatory properties of cannabinoids may also play a relevant role. Here we observed reduced astrogliosis, microgliosis, and inflammatory-related molecules in treated A?PP/PS1 mice, which were more marked after treatment with THC + CBD than with either THC or CBD. Moreover, other cannabinoid-induced effects were uncovered by a genome-wide gene expression study. Thus, we have identified the redox protein thioredoxin 2 and the signaling protein Wnt16 as significant substrates for the THC + CBD-induced effects in our AD model. In summary, the present findings show that the combination of THC and CBD exhibits a better therapeutic profile than each cannabis component alone and support the consideration of a cannabis-based medicine as potential therapy against AD. PMID:25125475

  15. Propagation through alginate encapsulation of axillary buds of Cannabis sativa L. - an important medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Hemant; Chandra, Suman; Khan, Ikhlas A; Elsohly, Mahmoud A

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) is an important medicinal plant well known for its pharmacologic and therapeutic potency. Because of allogamous nature of this species, it is difficult to maintain its potency and efficacy if grown from the seeds. Therefore, chemical profile-based screening, selection of high yielding elite clones and their propagation using biotechnological tools is the most suitable way to maintain their genetic lines. In this regard, we report a simple and efficient method for the in vitro propagation of a screened and selected high yielding drug type variety of Cannabis sativa, MX-1 using synthetic seed technology. Axillary buds of Cannabis sativa isolated from aseptic multiple shoot cultures were successfully encapsulated in calcium alginate beads. The best gel complexation was achieved using 5 % sodium alginate with 50 mM CaCl2.2H2O. Regrowth and conversion after encapsulation was evaluated both under in vitro and in vivo conditions on different planting substrates. The addition of antimicrobial substance - Plant Preservative Mixture (PPM) had a positive effect on overall plantlet development. Encapsulated explants exhibited the best regrowth and conversion frequency on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with thidiazuron (TDZ 0.5 ?M) and PPM (0.075 %) under in vitro conditions. Under in vivo conditions, 100 % conversion of encapsulated explants was obtained on 1:1 potting mix- fertilome with coco natural growth medium, moistened with full strength MS medium without TDZ, supplemented with 3 % sucrose and 0.5 % PPM. Plantlets regenerated from the encapsulated explants were hardened off and successfully transferred to the soil. These plants are selected to be used in mass cultivation for the production of biomass as a starting material for the isolation of THC as a bulk active pharmaceutical. PMID:23572915

  16. Burden, Coping, Physical Symptoms and Psychological Morbidity in Caregivers of Functionally Dependent Family Members / Sobrecarga, Enfrentamiento, Síntomas Físicos y Morbilidad Psicológica en Cuidadores de Familiares Dependientes Funcionales / Sobrecarga, Enfrentamento, Sintomas Físicos e Morbidade Psicológica em Cuidadores de Familiares Dependentes Funcionais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Catarina, Guedes; Maria da Graça, Pereira.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese, Spanish Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: investigar a sobrecarga, enfrentamento, sintomas físicos e morbidade psicológica em cuidadores de familiares dependentes funcionais. MÉTODOS: cinquenta cuidadores de membros da família completaram medidas autorrelatadas de sobrecarga, sintomas físicos, morbidade psicológica e estrat [...] égias de enfrentamento. RESULTADOS: foi observada correlação negativa significante entre estratégias de enfrentamento e as diversas variáveis clínicas, bem como correlação positiva significante entre estratégias de enfrentamento e tempo de cuidado. Pode-se notar que o vínculo mais forte entre cuidador e familiar leva ao menor uso de estratégias adaptáveis de enfrentamento. Pode-se, também, notar que a deterioração da relação compartilhada entre eles e a mais baixa percepção da autoeficácia são mais proeminentes em cuidadores de familiares com deficiência cognitiva, indicando que cuidadores de familiares que não apresentam deficiências cognitivas enfrentam menos dificuldades. CONCLUSÃO: esses resultados enfatizam a necessidade de intervenções que incluam estratégias de enfrentamento, uma vez que essas são importantes para a redução da sobrecarga, morbidade psicológica e sintomas físicos dos cuidadores. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVOS: en este estudio fueron evaluados la sobrecarga, el enfrentamiento, los síntomas físicos e la morbilidad psicológica en cuidadores de familiares dependientes funcionales. MÉTODOS: cincuenta cuidadores familiares completaron instrumentos auto-aplicados de sobrecarga, síntomas físicos, [...] morbilidad psicológico e estrategias de enfrentamiento. RESULTADOS: fue encontrada una correlación negativa significativa entre estrategias de enfrentamiento e las diferentes variables clínicas, y también una correlación positiva significativa entre estrategias de enfrentamiento y la duración del cuidado. Parece que el vínculo más fuerte entre el cuidador y el familiar lleva al menor uso de estrategias adaptivas de enfrentamiento. También parece que el deterioro del relacionamiento entre ellos y la menor auto-eficacia percibida son más prominentes entre los cuidadores de familiares con déficit cognitivo, indicando que los cuidadores con familiares sin déficit cognitivo enfrentan menos dificultades. CONCLUSIÓN: estos resultados destacan la necesidad de intervenciones para incluir las estrategias de enfrentamiento, considerando su importancia para reducir la sobrecarga, morbilidad psicológica y síntomas físicos de los cuidadores. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: this study assessed burden, coping, physical symptoms and psychological morbidity in caregivers of functionally dependent family members. METHODS: fifty family caregivers completed self-reported measures of burden, physical symptoms, psychological morbidity and coping strategies. [...] RESULTS: there was a significant negative correlation between coping strategies and the different clinical variables, as well as a significant positive correlation between coping strategies and duration of care. It appears that the stronger bond between caregiver and family member leads to a poorer use of adaptive coping strategies. It also appears that the deterioration of the relationship between them and the lower perceived self-efficacy are more prominent in caregivers of family members with cognitive impairment, indicating that caregivers with family members without cognitive impairment face fewer difficulties. CONCLUSION: these results emphasize the need for interventions to include coping strategies, since they are important in reducing caregivers' burden, psychological morbidity and physical symptoms.

  17. European youth care sites serve different populations of adolescents with cannabis use disorder. Baseline and referral data from the INCANT trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigter Renske

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MDFT (Multidimensional Family Therapy is a family based outpatient treatment programme for adolescent problem behaviour. MDFT has been found effective in the USA in adolescent samples differing in severity and treatment delivery settings. On request of five governments (Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Switzerland, MDFT has now been tested in the joint INCANT trial (International Cannabis Need of Treatment for applicability in Western Europe. In each of the five countries, study participants were recruited from the local population of youth seeking or guided to treatment for, among other things, cannabis use disorder. There is little information in the literature if these populations are comparable between sites/countries or not. Therefore, we examined if the study samples enrolled in the five countries differed in baseline characteristics regarding demographics, clinical profile, and treatment delivery setting. Methods INCANT was a multicentre phase III(b randomized controlled trial with an open-label, parallel group design. It compared MDFT with treatment as usual (TAU at and across sites in Berlin, Brussels, Geneva, The Hague and Paris. Participants of INCANT were adolescents of either sex, from 13 through 18 years of age, with a cannabis use disorder (dependence or abuse, and at least one parent willing to take part in the treatment. In total, 450 cases/families were randomized (concealed into INCANT. Results We collected data about adolescent and family demographics (age, gender, family composition, school, work, friends, and leisure time. In addition, we gathered data about problem behaviour (substance use, alcohol and cannabis use disorders, delinquency, psychiatric co-morbidity. There were no major differences on any of these measures between the treatment conditions (MDFT and TAU for any of the sites. However, there were cross-site differences on many variables. Most of these could be explained by variations in treatment culture, as reflected by referral policy, i.e., participants' referral source. We distinguished 'self-determined' referral (common in Brussels and Paris and referral with some authority-related 'external' coercion (common in Geneva and The Hague. The two referral types were more equally divided in Berlin. Many cross-site baseline differences disappeared when we took referral source into account, but not all. Conclusions A multisite trial has the advantage of being efficient, but it also carries risks, the most important one being lack of equivalence between local study populations. Our site populations differed in many respects. This is not a problem for analyses and interpretations if the differences somehow can be accounted for. To a major extent, this appeared possible in INCANT. The most important factor underlying the cross-site variations in baseline characteristics was referral source. Correcting for referral source made most differences disappear. Therefore, we will use referral source as a covariate accounting for site differences in future INCANT outcome analyses. Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN51014277

  18. Transcriptional Changes Common to Human Cocaine, Cannabis and Phencyclidine Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrmann, Elin; Colantuoni, Carlo; Deep-soboslay, Amy; Becker, Kevin G.; Lowe, Ross; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Hyde, Thomas M.; Kleinman, Joel E.; Freed, William J.

    2006-01-01

    A major goal of drug abuse research is to identify and understand drug-induced changes in brain function that are common to many or all drugs of abuse. As these may underlie drug dependence and addiction, the purpose of the present study was to examine if different drugs of abuse effect changes in gene expression that converge in common molecular pathways. Microarray analysis was employed to assay brain gene expression in postmortem anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) from 42 human cocaine, can...

  19. About Kennedy's Disease: Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Memorials Symptoms Print Email Medical Term: Definition: Neurological: Bulbar Signs The Bulbar muscles are those supplied by the motor nerves ... swallowing, talking and other functions of the throat. Bulbar signs are problems with these functions. Dysphagia Trouble ...

  20. Symptoms of Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women often present in a little more atypical fashion so it's even harder to make the diagnoses ... AS symptoms and why spondylitis hurts? Then our book, Straight Talk On Spondylitis is a perfect resource. ...

  1. Symptoms of Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... iron de?ciency anemia that does not respond to iron therapy. Who should be tested for celiac disease and how often? 1. Children older than three years of age and adults, regardless of symptoms, if related to ...

  2. Quality of life and depressive symptoms among caregivers and drug dependent people / Calidad de vida y los síntomas depresivos en cuidadores y los adictos a las drogas / Qualidade de vida e sintomas depressivos entre cuidadores e dependentes de drogas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Samira Reschetti, Marcon; Elizete Aparecida, Rubira; Mariano Martinez, Espinosa; Dulce Aparecida, Barbosa.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese, Spanish Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade de vida e a presença de sintomas depressivos entre cuidadores e dependentes de drogas, dos CAPSad. Foi utilizado, como método, o estudo transversal, com 109 usuários de quatro Centros de Atenção Psicossocial - Álcool e Drogas, de Mato Grosso, e seus cu [...] idadores, aplicando-se os instrumentos: Medical Outcomes Studies 36 (SF-36), inventário de depressão de Beck (BDI) e variáveis sociodemográficas. Constatou-se, pelos resultados, que a qualidade de vida (QV) dos cuidadores, nos domínios capacidade funcional, aspecto físico, dor e vitalidade, estava mais afetada, quando comparada aos usuários. Encontrou-se forte correlação entre QV e sintomas depressivos nos dois grupos. Conclui-se que as comparações realizadas demonstram comprometimento da qualidade de vida de ambos, sendo essa mais afetada no grupo de cuidadores, confirmando a situação de dependência de drogas como importante interveniente na percepção do cuidador, quanto à sua qualidade de vida. Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo por objetivo evaluar la calidad de vida y los síntomas depresivos en cuidadores y adictos a drogas. Se trata de un estudio transversal en 109 usuarios y sus cuidadores en cuatro Centros de Atención Psicosocial de alcohol y otras drogas en el estado de Mato Grosso. Se aplicaron los [...] instrumentos: Medical Outcomes Studies 36 (SF-36), Inventario de Depresión de Beck (BDI) y sociodemográficos. Se encontró que la calidad de vida de los cuidadores en los dominios de funcionamiento físico, dolor y vitalidad fueron más afectados en comparación a los usuarios. Se obtuvo una fuerte correlación entre la calidad de vida y los síntomas depresivos en ambos grupos. Las comparaciones demuestran que la calidad de vida del cuidador y del usuario están comprometidas, siendo que la más afectada corresponde al grupo de cuidadores, lo que confirma la situación de la dependencia de drogas como un actor importante en la percepción del cuidador sobre su calidad de vida. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life and the presence of depressive symptoms among the caregivers and drug dependent people of the CAPSad. This is a cross-sectional study, with 109 users of four Psychosocial Care Centers for alcohol and other drugs of Mato Grosso and their careg [...] ivers, using the instruments: Medical Outcomes Studies 36 (SF-36), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and a sociodemographic variables questionnaire. The QoL of the caregivers in the domains functional capacity, physical aspect, pain and vitality were more affected when compared to the users. A strong correlation between QoL and depressive symptoms was found in both groups. The comparisons performed demonstrate a compromise in the quality of life of both, with the group of caregivers most affected, confirming the situation of drug dependence as an important factor in the perception of the caregiver regarding their quality of life.

  3. The Effect of Cannabis sativa Hydroalcoholic Extract on Sperm Parameters and Testis Histology in Rats / Efecto del Extracto Hidroalcohólico de Cannabis sativa sobre los Parámetros Espermáticos e Histología Testicular en Ratas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nahid, Lotfi; Mozafar, Khazaei; Sayyed Mohammad Ali, Shariatzadeh; Malek, Soleimani Mehranjani; Ali, Ghanbari.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La Cannabis Sativa es una hierba de múltiples usos en la medicina tradicional. Su extracto hidroalcohólico (10, 50, y 100 mg/kg) administrado intraperito-nealmente durante 14 días consecutivos a ratas Wistar macho produjo una disminución significativa en la motilidad progresiva de los espermatozoide [...] s. El recuento de espermatozoides y el diámetro de los túbulos seminíferos se redujo significativamente en comparación con el grupo control. También se observó disminución del peso corporal de los animales en dosis de 50 y 100 mg/kg. Cambios en el peso de los testículos y la testosterona sérica no fueron significativos. El extracto de Cannabis sativa tiene un efecto negativo sobre los parámetros seminales tales como la motilidad, conteo espermático, y el diámetro de los túbulos seminíferos. Abstract in english Cannabis Sativa is a multiuse herb in traditional medicine, its hydroalcoholic extract (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg) administered interaperitoneally for 14 consequent days to Wistar male rats resulted in significant decrease in progressive motility of sperm. Sperm count and seminiferous tubules diameter d [...] ecreased significantly in comparison with control group. Also decrease in animal body weight in doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg was observed. Changes in testes weight and serum testosterone were not significant. Cannabis sativa extract has negative effect on sperm parameters such as motility, sperm count, and seminiferous tubules diameter.

  4. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutros, Nash N; Mucci, Armida; Diwadkar, Vaibhav; Tandon, Rajiv

    2014-04-01

    Clinical heterogeneity is a confound common to all of schizophrenia research. Deficit schizophrenia has been proposed as a homogeneous disease entity within the schizophrenia syndrome. Utilizing the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome (SDS) has allowed the definition of a subgroup dominated by persistent clusters of negative symptoms. While a number of studies have appeared over the years examining the electrophysiological correlates of the cluster of negative symptoms in schizophrenia, only a few studies have actually focused on the deficit syndrome (DS). PubMed as well as MEDLINE were searched for all reports indexed for "negative symptoms" or "deficit syndrome" and one of the following electrophysiology assessment tools: electroencephalography (EEG), evoked potentials (EPs), or polysomnography (PSG). While this line of research is evidently in its infancy, two significant trends emerge. First, spectral EEG studies link increased slow wave activity during wakefulness to the prevalence of negative symptoms. Secondly, sleep studies point to an association between decrease in slow wave sleep and prevalence of negative symptoms. Several studies also indicate a relationship of negative symptoms with reduced alpha activity. A host of other abnormalities--including sensory gating and P300 attenuation--are less consistently reported. Two studies specifically addressed electrophysiology of the DS. Both studies provided evidence suggesting that the DS may be a separate disease entity and not simply a severe form of schizophrenia. PMID:23428787

  5. Symptom Management Concept Design Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives Describe the review process for a symptom management concept Identify the required elements included in a symptom management concept Identify key statistical considerations for a symptom management concept Describe issues to consider

  6. Menopause: Symptom Relief and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home > Menopause > Menopause symptom relief and treatments Menopause Menopause symptom relief and treatments Working with your doctor If you have concerns about symptoms and treatments related to menopause, it is important ...

  7. Antidepressant-like effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Alfy, Abir T; Ivey, Kelly; Robinson, Keisha; Ahmed, Safwat; Radwan, Mohamed; Slade, Desmond; Khan, Ikhlas; ElSohly, Mahmoud; Ross, Samir

    2010-06-01

    The antidepressant action of cannabis as well as the interaction between antidepressants and the endocannabinoid system has been reported. This study was conducted to assess the antidepressant-like activity of Delta(9)-THC and other cannabinoids. Cannabinoids were initially evaluated in the mouse tetrad assay to determine doses that do not induce hypothermia or catalepsy. The automated mouse forced swim (FST) and tail suspension (TST) tests were used to determine antidepressant action. At doses lacking hypothermic and cataleptic effects (1.25, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg, i.p.), both Delta(9)-THC and Delta(8)-THC showed a U-shaped dose response with only Delta(9)-THC showing significant antidepressant-like effects at 2.5 mg/kg (pactions up to 80 mg/kg in the mouse FST, while cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabidiol (CBD) exhibited significant effect at 20 and 200mg/kg, respectively (paction of Delta(9)-THC and CBC was further confirmed in the TST. Delta(9)-THC exhibited the same U-shaped dose response with significant antidepressant-like action at 2.5 mg/kg (pactions, and thus may contribute to the overall mood-elevating properties of cannabis. PMID:20332000

  8. High frequency plant regeneration from leaf derived callus of high ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol yielding Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Hemant; Chandra, Suman; Khan, Ikhlas A; Elsohly, Mahmoud A

    2010-10-01

    An efficient in vitro propagation protocol for rapidly producing Cannabis sativa plantlets from young leaf tissue was developed. Using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID), high THC yielding elite female clone of a drug-type CANNABIS variety (MX) was screened and its vegetatively propagated clones were used for micropropagation. Calli were induced from leaf explant on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0?µM) of indole- 3-acetic acid (IAA), indole- 3- butyric acid (IBA), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D) in combination with 1.0?µM of thidiazuron (TDZ) for the production of callus. The optimum callus growth and maintenance was in 0.5?µM NAA plus 1.0?µM TDZ. The two-month-old calli were subcultured to MS media containing different concentrations of cytokinins (BAP, KN, TDZ). The rate of shoot induction and proliferation was highest in 0.5?µM TDZ. Of the various auxins (IAA, IBA, and NAA) tested, regenerated shoots rooted best on half strength MS medium (1/2 - MS) supplemented with 2.5?µM IBA. The rooted plantlets were successfully established in soil and grown to maturity with no gross variations in morphology and cannabinoids content at a survival rate of 95?% in the indoor growroom. PMID:20354950

  9. Activity of cannabis in relation to its delta'-trans-tetrahydro-cannabinol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, J W; Pickens, J T

    1981-03-01

    1 Conditions have been worked out for a reliable estimation of the cataleptic activity of delta'-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) after oral administration to mice, using the ring test over a period of 6 h. 2 By this method, the activity of cannabis herb and 5 crude fractions were measured against THC; at the same time the THC contents were determined chemically. 3 The B/C ratio (biological activity divided by chemical assay) was calculated for each. With cannabis herb the value was 3.3 and with extracts prepared with ethanol or 70% ethanol the values ranged from 3.2 to 7.1, indicating that in all samples the activity was much higher than would be expected from their THC content. 4. The cannabinoids were completely extracted from a sample of herb using petroleum spirit and the marc examined for a possible synergist. Surprisingly, it contained a powerful inhibitor of the action of THC, which could be restored by intraperitoneal prostaglandin E2 (3 microgram/kg). Some crude fractions had inhibitory activities about 10 times that of aspirin. 5 In contrast, the petroleum spirit extract (referred to in 4) had a surprisingly high B/C ratio of 23, indicating that a powerful synergist of THC activity is present. 6 The net effect of the herb and ethanol extracts is probably due to a balance of synergist and inhibitor. PMID:6266564

  10. Marijuana intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannabis intoxication; Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... The intoxicating effects of marijuana include relaxation, ... to fast and predictable signs and symptoms. Eating marijuana ...

  11. Cannabis Use and Memory Brain Function in Adolescent Boys: A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Gerry; Block, Robert I.; Luijten, Maartje; Ramsey, Nick F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Early-onset cannabis use has been associated with later use/abuse, mental health problems (psychosis, depression), and abnormal development of cognition and brain function. During adolescence, ongoing neurodevelopmental maturation and experience shape the neural circuitry underlying complex cognitive functions such as memory and…

  12. Cannabis consumption by female Psychology students: The influence of perceived stress, coping and consumption of drugs in their social environment / Consumo de cannabis en alumnas de Psicología: influencia del estrés percibido, afrontamiento y consumo de drogas en su entorno

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristina, Vargas; Humberto Manuel, Trujillo.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de cannabis se ha incrementando en la población femenina. Los factores de riesgo o de protección asociados con un incremento o disminución de su consumo, pueden diferir en función del género, edad o sustancia de consumo. Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron examinar la relevancia que [...] tiene el consumo de drogas legales de las universitarias y familiares, el consumo de drogas legales e ilegales de amigos, factores sociodemográficos y variables psicológicas (estrés percibido y diferentes estrategias de afrontamiento) en el consumo de cannabis. Se administraron tres cuestionarios a 465 alumnas que cursaban la Licenciatura de Psicología. La prevalencia de consumo de cannabis fue de 36.3 %. Las variables que predecían su consumo fueron: a) consumo de drogas ilegales y cocaína en amigos; b) consumo de tabaco en las alumnas y c) afrontamiento orientado a la emoción. Abstract in english The consumption of cannabis has increased in the female population. The risk and protection factors associated with an increase or decrease in its consumption may differ as a function of gender, age and substance con? sumed. The objectives of the present study were to examine the relevance to cannab [...] is consumption by female students of legal drugs consumed by the university students and family members, the consumption of legal and illicit drugs by friends, sociodemographic factors and, psychological variables (perceived stress and different coping strategies). Three questionnaires were administered to 465 female students studying for Psychology degrees. The prevalence of cannabis consumption was 36.3%. The variables predicting its consumption were: a) consumption of illicit drugs and cocaine by friends; b) consumption of tobacco by the students and; c) emotion-oriented coping.

  13. Symptoms of Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact CDC–INFO Fungal Diseases Types of Diseases Aspergillosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Blastomycosis Definition Symptoms ...

  14. Effect of various concentrations of Crocus sativus and Cannabis sativa extracts on luminescent biosensor Escherichia coli SM10 S1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Shayestehpour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The potential risk of application of high dosage of traditional medicinal plants has not been fully understood. Appropriate microbial biosensors have been constructed for monitoring the toxicity of many harmful chemical compounds. The aim of this research was to see how effective are the different concentration of two medicinal plants extracts (Crocus sativus (saffron and Cannabis sativa on a bioluminescent marker system indicating their side effects. Materials and methods: The stability and light intensity of Escherichia coli SM10 ?pir were previously characterized and confirmed. Several concentrations of saffron and cannabis water extracts were prepared. The light intensity was measured for a mixture of 450µl of aqueous saffron extract and 50µl of biosensor using a luminometer. Results: Results showed gradual decrease on light output in the way that luminescence decreased from 538859 RLU/s for 0.001g/ml aqueous saffron extract to 4830 RLU/s for 0.2g/ml concentration. Although induced increase in bioluminescence was observed for low concentration (0.001 and 0.01 v/v of cannabis extract 0.25 and 1v/v concentration showed significant decrease in bioluminescent activity. Calculation of % INH of luminescent indicated the correct sensitivity of luminescent biosensor E. coli SM10 S1 to various concentration of saffron and cannabis extracts. Conclusion: The results show the appropriate interaction of constructed biosensor to different concentrations which can be used for further investigation on other ranges of concentrations. Application of luminescent microbial biosensor for investigation of the quality of products such as saffron and cannabis is new.

  15. Prepulse inhibition and habituation of acoustic startle response in male MDMA ('ecstasy') users, cannabis users, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quednow, Boris B; Kühn, Kai-Uwe; Hoenig, Klaus; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael

    2004-05-01

    Chronic administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is associated with long-term depletion of serotonin (5-HT) and loss of 5-HT axons in the brains of rodents and nonhuman primates. Despite the broad database concerning the selective serotonergic neurotoxicity of recreational MDMA consumption by humans, controversy still exists with respect to the question of whether the well-known functional consequences of these neurotoxic effects, such as memory impairment, were caused by chronic 5-HT deficiency. Habituation and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response (ASR) can be used as a marker of central serotonergic functioning in rodents and humans. Thus, we investigated the functional status of the central serotonergic system in chronic but abstinent MDMA users by measuring PPI and habituation of ASR. PPI and habituation of ASR were measured in three groups. The first group (MDMA group) included 20 male drug-free chronic users of MDMA; the second group (cannabis group) consisted of 20 male drug-free chronic users of cannabis; and the third group (healthy controls) comprised 20 male participants with no history of illicit drug use. Analysis revealed significantly increased PPI of MDMA users compared to those of cannabis users and healthy controls. Cannabis users and healthy controls showed comparable patterns of PPI. There were no differences in habituation among the three groups. These results suggest that the functional consequences of chronic MDMA use may be explained by 5-HT receptor changes rather than by a chronic 5-HT deficiency condition. Use of cannabis does not lead to alterations of amplitude, habituation, or PPI of ASR. PMID:14970829

  16. Chiari Malformation: Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chiari is known to be associated in rare cases with serious heart and respiratory problems, it is not known to be associated with thyroid disease or diabetes. And, even if the Chiari patient is having heart or respiratory symptoms, he/she ...

  17. Bullying and PTSD Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idsoe, Thormod; Dyregrov, Atle; Idsoe, Ella Cosmovici

    2012-01-01

    PTSD symptoms related to school bullying have rarely been investigated, and never in national samples. We used data from a national survey to investigate this among students from grades 8 and 9 (n = 963). The prevalence estimates of exposure to bullying were within the range of earlier research findings. Multinomial logistic regression showed that…

  18. Cardiovascular manifestations of substance abuse: part 2: alcohol, amphetamines, heroin, cannabis, and caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frishman, William H; Del Vecchio, Alexander; Sanal, Shirin; Ismail, Anjum

    2003-01-01

    The abuse of alcohol is associated with chronic cardiomyopathy, hypertension, and arrhythmia. Abstinence or using alcohol in moderation can reverse these cardiovascular problems. Alcohol is also distinguished among the substances of abuse by having possible protective effects against coronary artery disease and stroke when used in moderate amounts. Amphetamines (eg, speed, ice, ecstasy) have many of the cardiovascular toxicities seen with cocaine, including acute and chronic cardiovascular diseases. Heroin and other opiates can cause arrhythmias and noncardiac pulmonary edema, and may reduce cardiac output. Cardiovascular problems are less common with cannabis (marijuana) than with opiates, but major cognitive disorders may be seen with its chronic use. It is still controversial whether caffeine can cause hypertension and coronary artery disease, and questions have been raised about its safety in patients with heart failure and arrhythmia. PMID:12877759

  19. Isolation and primary structure of a methionine- and cystine-rich seed protein of Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odani, S; Odani, S

    1998-04-01

    A 10-kDa protein was isolated from resting seeds of hemp (Cannabis sativa) by buffer extraction, gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, and reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The protein did not inhibit bovine trypsin. It consisted of subunits composed of 27 and 61 residues and was held together by two disulfide bonds. The complete amino acid sequence was identified by protein analysis, and had 20 mole% of amino acids containing sulfur. The protein was most similar to a methionine-rich protein of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) and to Mabinlin IV, a sweetness-inducing protein of Capparis masaikai. The high methionine content and the absence of trypsin inhibitory activity suggested that the seed protein can be used to improve the nutritional quality of plant food-stuffs. PMID:9614695

  20. Altered cortical maturation in adolescent cannabis users with and without schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Katherine A; Kumra, Sanjiv

    2015-03-01

    During late adolescence, progressive cortical thinning occurs in heteromodal association cortex (HASC) that is thought to subserve cognitive development. However, the impact of cannabis use disorder (CUD) upon cortical gray matter development in both healthy adolescents and adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) is unclear. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired from 79 adolescents at baseline and after an 18-month follow-up: 17 with EOS, 17 with CUD, 11 with EOS+CUD, and 34 healthy controls (HC). Mean age at baseline was 16.4years (CUD+) and 17.0years (CUD-). Using FreeSurfer, measures of cortical thickness for ROIs within HASC were obtained. A 2 (EOS versus no EOS)×2 (CUD versus no CUD) multivariate analysis of covariance was applied to change scores from baseline to follow-up to test for main effects of EOS and CUD and an interaction effect. After adjusting for covariates, a significant main effect of CUD was observed. Adolescents with CUD showed an attenuated loss of cortical thickness in the left and right supramarginal, left and right inferior parietal, right pars triangularis, left pars opercularis, left superior frontal, and left superior temporal regions compared to non-using subjects. Stepwise linear regression analysis indicated that greater cumulative cannabis exposure predicted greater cortical thickness in both the left (p=.008) and right (p=.04) superior frontal gyri at study endpoint after adjusting for baseline cortical thickness for the entire sample. These preliminary longitudinal data demonstrate an atypical pattern of cortical development in HASC in adolescents with CUD relative to non-using subjects, across diagnostic groups. Additional studies are needed to replicate these data and to clarify the clinical significance of these findings. PMID:25600549

  1. Therapeutics for multiple sclerosis symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zacharia, Aliza Bitton

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms management in multiple sclerosis is an integral part of its care. Accurate assessment and addressing the different symptoms provides increased quality of life among patients with multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis symptoms may be identified as primary, secondary, or tertiary symptoms. Primary symptoms, such as weakness, sensory loss, and ataxia, are directly related to demyelination and axonal loss. Secondary symptoms, such as urinary tract infections as a result of urinary retention, are a result of the primary symptoms. Tertiary symptoms, such as reactive depression or social isolation, are a result of the social and psychological consequences of the disease. Common multiple sclerosis symptoms include fatigue and weakness; decreased balance, spasticity and gait problems; depression and cognitive issues; bladder, bowel, and sexual deficits; visual and sensory loss; and neuropathic pain. Less-common symptoms include dysarthria and dysphagia, vertigo, and tremors. Rare symptoms in multiple sclerosis include seizures, hearing loss, and paralysis. Symptom management includes nonpharmacological methods, such as rehabilitation and psychosocial support, and pharmacological methods, ie, medications and surgical procedures. The keys to symptom management are awareness, knowledge, and coordination of care. Symptoms have to be recognized and management needs to be individualized. Multiple sclerosis therapeutics include nonpharmacological strategies that consist of lifestyle modifications, rehabilitation, social support, counseling, and pharmacological agents or surgical procedures. The goal is vigilant management to improve quality of life and promote realistic expectations and hope. PMID:21425263

  2. [Dissociative symptoms and sleep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, T; Merckelbach, H

    2006-01-01

    There is a widespread view among psychiatrists that dissociative experiences such as depersonalisation, derealisation, absorption, and psychogenic amnesia have a traumatic etiology. This view is subjected to a critical evaluation. We also discuss an alternative interpretation namely that dissociative experiences are caused by a labile sleep-wake rhythm. We evaluated this alternative view in two exploratory studies. In study 1 we looked at the relationship between the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES) and the Iowa Sleep Experiences Survey (ISES) and in study 2, we checked this relationship when the response bias was controlled for. Dissociative experiences (measured with the DES) correlated with the ISES. The correlation between DES and ISES remained completely intact even when we controlledfor response bias. Our findings show that dissociative symptoms are associated with typical sleep experiences such as nightmares and strange dreams. The association is not the by-product of the positive response bias which generally characterises persons with dissociative symptoms. PMID:16956084

  3. Hypertonie - Symptom oder Krankheit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Die kardiovaskuläre Forschung bediente sich in den letzten Jahren verschiedener molekularer und genetischer Forschungsmethoden, wobei die Erforschung der Ursachen systemischer Hypertonie eines der Hauptanliegen in diesem Zusammenhang bildete. Die vorliegende Publikation behandelt die bisher bekannten Formen genetischer Varianten der Hypertonie wie den ACE-Genpolymorphismus und ähnliche Beobachtungen im Zusammenhang mit ANP oder der NO-Synthetase und über seltene, genetisch festgelegte Symptome wie den Glukokortikoid-sensitiven Hyperaldosteronismus oder das Liddle Syndrom. Zudem werden Daten über molekulare Veränderungen bei Hypertonie wie die verringerte myokardiale GLUT 4 mRNA-Expression und die erhöhte EGR 1 mRNA-Expression im Myokard von hypertensiven Patienten vorgestellt und die Frage diskutiert, ob Hypertonie als Krankheit oder als Symptom bezeichnet werden soll.

  4. Hearing symptoms personal stereos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiara Santos da Luz1

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Practical and portable the personal stereos if had become almost indispensable accessories in the day the day. Studies disclose that the portable players of music can cause auditory damages in the long run for who hear music in high volume for a drawn out time. Objective: to verify the prevalence of auditory symptoms in users of amplified players and to know its habits of use. Method: Observational prospective study of transversal cut carried through in three institutions of education of the city of Salvador BA, being two of public net and one of the private net. 400 students had answered to the questionnaire, of both the sex, between 14 and 30 years that had related the habit to use personal stereos. Results: The symptoms most prevalent had been hyperacusis (43.5%, auricular fullness (30.5% and humming (27.5, being that the humming is the symptom most present in the population youngest. How much to the daily habits: 62.3% frequent use, 57% in raised intensities, 34% in drawn out periods. An inverse relation between exposition time was verified and the band of age (p=0,000 and direct with the prevalence of the humming. Conclusion: Although to admit to have knowledge on the damages that the exposition the sound of high intensity can cause the hearing, the daily habits of the young evidence the inadequate use of the portable stereos characterized by long periods of exposition, raised intensities, frequent use and preference for the insertion phones. The high prevalence of symptoms after the use suggests a bigger risk for the hearing of these young.

  5. Hearing symptoms personal stereos

    OpenAIRE

    Tiara Santos da Luz1; Ana Lúcia Vieira de Freitas Borja2

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Practical and portable the personal stereos if had become almost indispensable accessories in the day the day. Studies disclose that the portable players of music can cause auditory damages in the long run for who hear music in high volume for a drawn out time. Objective: to verify the prevalence of auditory symptoms in users of amplified players and to know its habits of use. Method: Observational prospective study of transversal cut carried through in three institutions of edu...

  6. Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Brain Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Dysfunction and Increases Oxidative Stress: A Potential Mechanism Involved in Cannabis-Related Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Valérie; Schlagowski, Anna-Isabel; Rouyer, Olivier; Charles, Anne-Laure; Singh, François; Auger, Cyril; Schini-Kerth, Valérie; Marescaux, Christian; Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Zoll, Joffrey; Geny, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis has potential therapeutic use but tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), its main psychoactive component, appears as a risk factor for ischemic stroke in young adults. We therefore evaluate the effects of THC on brain mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, key factors involved in stroke. Maximal oxidative capacities Vmax (complexes I, III, and IV activities), Vsucc (complexes II, III, and IV activities), Vtmpd (complex IV activity), together with mitochondrial coupling (Vmax/V0), were determined in control conditions and after exposure to THC in isolated mitochondria extracted from rat brain, using differential centrifugations. Oxidative stress was also assessed through hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, measured with Amplex Red. THC significantly decreased Vmax (?71%; P cannabis users who develop ischemic stroke since THC might increase patient's vulnerability to stroke. PMID:25654095

  7. Comparative risk assessment of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit drugs using the margin of exposure approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W.; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    A comparative risk assessment of drugs including alcohol and tobacco using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach was conducted. The MOE is defined as ratio between toxicological threshold (benchmark dose) and estimated human intake. Median lethal dose values from animal experiments were used to derive the benchmark dose. The human intake was calculated for individual scenarios and population-based scenarios. The MOE was calculated using probabilistic Monte Carlo simulations. The benchmark dose values ranged from 2?mg/kg bodyweight for heroin to 531?mg/kg bodyweight for alcohol (ethanol). For individual exposure the four substances alcohol, nicotine, cocaine and heroin fall into the “high risk” category with MOE 100, and cannabis had a MOE > 10,000. The toxicological MOE approach validates epidemiological and social science-based drug ranking approaches especially in regard to the positions of alcohol and tobacco (high risk) and cannabis (low risk). PMID:25634572

  8. Comparative risk assessment of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit drugs using the margin of exposure approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    A comparative risk assessment of drugs including alcohol and tobacco using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach was conducted. The MOE is defined as ratio between toxicological threshold (benchmark dose) and estimated human intake. Median lethal dose values from animal experiments were used to derive the benchmark dose. The human intake was calculated for individual scenarios and population-based scenarios. The MOE was calculated using probabilistic Monte Carlo simulations. The benchmark dose values ranged from 2?mg/kg bodyweight for heroin to 531?mg/kg bodyweight for alcohol (ethanol). For individual exposure the four substances alcohol, nicotine, cocaine and heroin fall into the "high risk" category with MOE THC fall into the "risk" category with MOE 100, and cannabis had a MOE > 10,000. The toxicological MOE approach validates epidemiological and social science-based drug ranking approaches especially in regard to the positions of alcohol and tobacco (high risk) and cannabis (low risk). PMID:25634572

  9. Identification and quantification of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. plants by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Omar, Jone; Navarro, Patricia; Olivares, Maitane; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz

    2014-11-01

    High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has been successfully applied to cannabis plant extracts in order to identify cannabinoid compounds after their quantitative isolation by means of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). MS conditions were optimized by means of a central composite design (CCD) approach, and the analysis method was fully validated. Six major cannabinoids [tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabigerol (CBG), and cannabinol (CBN)] were quantified (RSD < 10%), and seven more cannabinoids were identified and verified by means of a liquid chromatograph coupled to a quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-ToF) detector. Finally, based on the distribution of the analyzed cannabinoids in 30 Cannabis sativa L. plant varieties and the principal component analysis (PCA) of the resulting data, a clear difference was observed between outdoor and indoor grown plants, which was attributed to a higher concentration of THC, CBN, and CBD in outdoor grown plants. PMID:25338935

  10. Common genetic influences on the timing of first use for alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis in young African-American women

    OpenAIRE

    Sartor, Carolyn E.; Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    The risks associated with early age at initiation for alcohol, cigarette, and cannabis use are well documented, yet the timing of first use has rarely been studied in genetically informative frameworks, leaving the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to age at initiation largely unknown. The current study assessed overlap in heritable and environmental influences on the timing of initiation across these three substances in African-American women, using a sample of 462 ...

  11. Effect of various concentrations of Crocus sativus and Cannabis sativa extracts on luminescent biosensor Escherichia coli SM10 S1

    OpenAIRE

    Shima Shayestehpour; Mansour Mashreghi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and objective: The potential risk of application of high dosage of traditional medicinal plants has not been fully understood. Appropriate microbial biosensors have been constructed for monitoring the toxicity of many harmful chemical compounds. The aim of this research was to see how effective are the different concentration of two medicinal plants extracts (Crocus sativus (saffron) and Cannabis sativa) on a bioluminescent marker system indicating their side effects. Materials a...

  12. Effect of Cannabis sativa L. Seed (Hempseed) on Serum Lipid and Protein Profiles of Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac Karimi; Hossein Hayatghaibi

    2006-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is considered as nutritional plant. Whole hempseed typically contains over 30% oil (3%saturated and 28%unsaturated fatty acids) and about 25% protein. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of hempseed on lipid and protein profiles of rats. After the acclimatization, at the beginning of experiment (day 1) the feeding of animal stopped and after 12hr fasting the animal anesthetized by ketamine/xylazine combination and 2ml blood of heart was taken. The rats ha...

  13. Dispelling the myth of "smart drugs": cannabis and alcohol use problems predict nonmedical use of prescription stimulants for studying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M; Wilcox, Holly C; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Vincent, Kathryn B; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2013-03-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that college students' substance use problems would predict increases in skipping classes and declining academic performance, and that nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NPS) for studying would occur in association with this decline. A cohort of 984 students in the College Life Study at a large public university in the US participated in a longitudinal prospective study. Interviewers assessed NPS; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) cannabis and alcohol use disorders; and frequency of skipping class. Semester grade point average (GPA) was obtained from the university. Control variables were race, sex, family income, high school GPA, and self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. Longitudinal growth curve modeling of four annual data waves estimated the associations among the rates of change of cannabis use disorder, percentage of classes skipped, and semester GPA. The associations between these trajectories and NPS for studying were then evaluated. A second structural model substituted alcohol use disorder for cannabis use disorder. More than one-third (38%) reported NPS for studying at least once by Year 4. Increases in skipping class were associated with both alcohol and cannabis use disorder, which were associated with declining GPA. The hypothesized relationships between these trajectories and NPS for studying were confirmed. These longitudinal findings suggest that escalation of substance use problems during college is related to increases in skipping class and to declining academic performance. NPS for studying is associated with academic difficulties. Although additional research is needed to investigate causal pathways, these results suggest that nonmedical users of prescription stimulants could benefit from a comprehensive drug and alcohol assessment to possibly mitigate future academic declines. PMID:23254212

  14. The combined effects of parental divorce and parental history of depression on cannabis use in young adults in France.

    OpenAIRE

    Sakyi, Kwame; Melchior, Maria; Chollet, Aude; Surkan, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The joint effects of multiple social risk factors on substance use, such as parental divorce and parental history of depression, have rarely been studied in young adult offspring. METHODS: We examined the combined effects of parental divorce and parental history of depression on current cannabis use among a community sample of young adults in France. Parental divorce was ascertained as divorce or separation before 2009. Parental history of depression based on parental reports of d...

  15. Standardized natural product cannabis in pain management and observations at a Canadian compassion society: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hornby, A. Paul; Sharma, Manju; Stegman, Bree

    2009-01-01

    An adult Caucasian male with excruciating pains following multiple traumas was monitored, daily, over one year while managing chronic pain by self-administering quantifiable amounts of natural cannabis. Tetrahydrocannabinol, Cannabidiol, and Cannabinol were all measured in tinctures, capsules, smoke-able product plus some baked goods, prior to their administration. By allowing standardization, the subject was able to develop a daily regimen of pain management that was resistant to a battery o...

  16. Comparison of the inhibitory action of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and petroleum spirit extract of herbal cannabis on human sperm motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, C Y; Chaput de Saintonge, D M; Turner, P; Fairbairn, J W

    1982-03-01

    1 Using the trans-membrane migration method to measure drug effects on human sperm motility, it is found that delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol is the major constituent of cannabis which inhibits sperm motility and unlike the cataleptic effect, other constituents in the petroleum spirit extract do not potentiate this effect significantly. 2 It is suggested that the mechanisms for sperm immobilization and cataleptic effects are different. PMID:6293959

  17. INCANT: a transnational randomized trial of Multidimensional Family Therapy versus treatment as usual for adolescents with cannabis use disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Grichting Esther; Phan Olivier; Tossmann Peter; Pelc Isidore; Rigter Henk; Hendriks Vincent; Rowe Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2003, the governments of Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland agreed that there was a need in Europe for a treatment programme for adolescents with cannabis use disorders and other behavioural problems. Based on an exhaustive literature review of evidence-based treatments and an international experts meeting, Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) was selected for a pilot study first, which was successful, and then for a joint, transnational randomi...

  18. Histoplasmosis Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis and Treatment What are the Symptoms of Histoplasmosis? Most people with histoplasmosis do not have symptoms. ... that doesn't bring up mucus More advanced histoplasmosis can also cause: Excessive sweating Coughing up blood ...

  19. JAMA Patient Page: Vaginal Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Journal of the American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Vaginal Symptoms V aginal symptoms are one of ... YOURSELF To find this and other JAMA Patient Pages, go to the Patient Page link on JAMA ’s ...

  20. Overcoming the Bell-Shaped Dose-Response of Cannabidiol by Using Cannabis Extract Enriched in Cannabidiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Gallily

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cannabidiol (CBD, a major constituent of Cannabis, has been shown to be a powerful anti-inflammatory and anti-anxiety drug, without exerting a psychotropic effect. However, when given either intraperitoneally or orally as a purified product, a bell-shaped dose-response was observed, which limits its clinical use. In the present study, we have studied in mice the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of standardized plant extracts derived from the Cannabis sativa L., clone 202, which is highly enriched in CBD and hardly contains any psychoactive ingredients. In stark contrast to purified CBD, the clone 202 extract, when given either intraperitoneally or orally, provided a clear correlation between the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive responses and the dose, with increasing responses upon increasing doses, which makes this plant medicine ideal for clinical uses. The clone 202 extract reduced zymosan-induced paw swelling and pain in mice, and prevented TNF? production in vivo. It is likely that other components in the extract synergize with CBD to achieve the desired anti-inflammatory action that may contribute to overcoming the bell-shaped dose-response of purified CBD. We therefore propose that Cannabis clone 202 (Avidekel extract is superior over CBD for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

  1. Langvarige symptomer efter commotio cerebri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius; Clemmensen, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    Patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) do not undergo consistent follow-up in Denmark and the risk factors for long-term symptoms are not fully known. The purpose of this study was to look into symptom frequency, sick-leave frequency and to try to identify risk factors for long-term symptoms following MTBI.

  2. Dissociative symptoms and mother's marital status in young adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob, Petr; Selesova, Petra; Raboch, Jiri; Kukla, Lubomir

    2015-01-01

    Current findings suggest that mother's marital status indicating father's absence or conflicting relationship to father may be specifically related to dissociation and other stress-related symptoms. We have assessed relationships of mother's marital status, dissociative symptoms, and other psychopathological manifestations in a sample of 19 years' old young adults (N = 364) participating in European longitudinal study (European Longitudinal Study of Parenthood and Childhood). The results show clinically significant manifestations of dissociative symptoms in young adult men whose mothers were fatherless and in women whose mothers were re-married. Other psychopathological symptoms did not reach clinically significant manifestations. The results suggest that significant factor related to high level of dissociative symptoms in men growing in fatherless families might be linked with disturbed and conflicting attachment to a father's figure and pathological dependent attachment to mother. In women dissociative symptoms likely are linked to conflicting relationship between mother and daughter associated with stepfather' presence in the family. PMID:25590849

  3. Intermittent Marijuana Use Is Associated with Improved Retention in Naltrexone Treatment for Opiate-Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Raby, Wilfrid Noel; Carpenter, Kenneth M.; Rothenberg, Jami; Brooks, Adam C.; Jiang, Huiping; Sullivan, Maria; Bisaga, Adam; Comer, Sandra; Nunes, Edward V.

    2009-01-01

    Naltrexone is a theoretically promising alternative to agonist substitution treatment for opioid dependence, but its effectiveness has been severely limited by poor adherence. This study examined, in an independent sample, a previously observed association between moderate cannabis use and improved retention in naltrexone treatment. Opioid dependent patients (N = 63), admitted for inpatient detoxification and induction onto oral naltrexone, and randomized into a six-month trial of intensive b...

  4. Enlarged cerebrospinal fluid spaces in opiate-dependent male patients: A stereological CT study

    OpenAIRE

    Danos, Peter; Roos, Dirk; Kasper, Siegfried; Bro?mel, Thomas; Broich, Karl; Krappel, Christian; Solymosi, Lazslo; Mo?ller, Hans-ju?rgen

    1998-01-01

    Computed tomography was performed in 9 male patients with a diagnosis of opiate dependence and in 9 age-matched psychiatric controls (neurotic depression). Patients with a history or diagnosis of another substance dependence (alcohol, cocaine, cannabis) were excluded from the study. The volumes of internal and external components of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured with a point-counting stereological method. Analysis of variance with age as a covariate revealed a significant enlargemen...

  5. Neuropsychological symptoms and occupational exposure to anaesthetics.

    OpenAIRE

    Saurel-cubizolles, M. J.; Estryn-behar, M.; Maillard, M. F.; Mugnier, N.; Masson, A.; Monod, G.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To analyse the relation between symptoms regularly reported by hospital personnel and exposure to anaesthetics. SETTING--Personnel of 18 hospitals in Paris from 1987 to 1989. DESIGN--An exposed group that included all operating theatre members except for doctors, and which was divided into three subgroups depending on the degree of exposure--exposure was measured by the frequency of the use of the scavenging system--and a control group that included other hospital personnel matched...

  6. Effect of Induced Polyploidy on Some Biochemical Parameters in Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Mahsa; Mansouri, Hakimeh

    2015-03-01

    This study is aimed at testing the efficiency of colchicine on inducing polyploidy in Cannabis sativa L. and investigation of effects of polyploidy induction on some primary and secondary metabolites. Shoot tips were treated with three different concentrations of colchicine (0, 0.1, 0.2 %?w/v) for 24 or 48 h. The biggest proportion of the almost coplanar tetraploids (43.33 %) and mixoploids (13.33 %) was obtained from the 24-h treatment in 0.2 and 0.1 %?w/v, respectively. Colchicine with 0.2 % concentration and 48 h duration was more destructive than 24 h. The ploidy levels were screened with flow cytometry. The biochemical analyses showed that reducing sugars, soluble sugars, total protein, and total flavonoids increased significantly in mixoploid plants compared with tetraploid and diploid plants. Tetraploid plants had a higher amount of total proteins, total flavonoids, and starch in comparison with control plants. The results showed that polyploidization could increase the contents of tetrahydrocannabinol in mixoploid plants only, but tetraploid plants had lower amounts of this substance in comparison with diploids. Also, we found such changes in protein concentration in electrophoresis analysis. In overall, our study suggests that tetraploidization could not be useful to produce tetrahydrocannabinol for commercial use, and in this case, mixoploids are more suitable. PMID:25492688

  7. Secretory vesicle formation in the secretory cavity of glandular trichomes of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Soo; Mahlberg, Paul G

    2003-06-30

    The disc cell wall facing the secretory cavity in lipophilic glands of Cannabis was studied for origin and distribution of hyaline areas, secretory vesicles, fibrillar matrix and particulate material. Secretions evident as light areas in the disc cell cytoplasm pass through modified regions in the plasma membrane and appear as hyaline areas in the cell wall. Hyaline areas, surrounded with a filamentous outline, accumulate near the wall surface facing the secretory cavity where they fuse to form enlarged hyaline areas. Fibrillar matrix is related to and may originate from the dense outer layer of the plasma membrane. This matrix becomes distributed throughout the wall material and contributes in part to the composition of the surface feature of secretory vesicles. Thickening of the cell wall is associated with secretions from the disc cells that facilitates movement of hyaline areas, fibrillar matrix and other possible secretions through the wall to form secretory vesicles and intervesicular materials in the secretory cavity. The outer wall of disc cells in aggregate forms the basilar wall surface of the secretory cavity which facilitates the organization of secretory vesicles that fill the secretory cavity. PMID:12872998

  8. Plastid development in disc cells of glandular trichomes of Cannabis (Cannabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E S; Mahlberg, P G

    1997-06-30

    Plastids in lipophilic glandular trichomes of chemically fixed (CF) and high pressure cryofixed-cryosubstituted (HPC-CS) bracteal tissues of Cannabis were examined by transmission electron microscopy. In CF preparations, plastids in disc cells prior to secretory cavity formation possessed several lobed and dilated thylakoid-like features. In glands with secretory cavities, thylakoid-like features aggregated to form reticulate bodies that distended regions of the elongated plastids. Electron-gray inclusions evident on the plastid surface appeared continuous with the reticulate body. Inclusions of similar electron density also appeared in the cell cytoplasm, along the plasma membrane, between the plasma membrane and cell wall facing the cavity, and in the secretory cavity in both CF and HPC-CS preparations. The bilayer structure of membranes of the plastid envelope was evident in HPC-CS but not in CF preparations. In HPC-CS preparations, secretions were evident on the plastid surface and were continuous with those in the plastid through pores in the envelope. This study supports an interpretation that these specialized plastids, lipoplasts, synthesize secretions that are transported through the plasma membrane and cell wall to subsequently accumulate in the secretory cavity. PMID:9264022

  9. Immunochemical localization of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in cryofixed glandular trichomes of Cannabis (Cannabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E; Mahlberg, P

    1997-03-01

    Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) localization in glandular trichomes and bracteal tissues of Cannabis, prepared by high pressure cryofixation-cryosubstitution, was examined with a monoclonal antibody-colloidal gold probe by electron microscopy (EM). The antibody detected THC in the outer wall of disc cells during the presecretory cavity phase of gland development. Upon formation of the secretory cavity, the immunolabel detected THC in the disc cell wall facing the cavity as well as the subcuticular wall and cuticle throughout development of the secretory cavity. THC was detected in the fibrillar matrix associated with the disc cell and with this matrix in the secretory cavity. The antibody identified THC on the surface of secretory vesicles, but not in the secretory vesicles. Gold label also was localized in the anticlinal walls between adjacent disc cells and in the wall of dermal and mesophyll cells of the bract. Grains were absent or detected only occasionally in the cytoplasm of disc or other cells of the bract. No THC was detected in controls. These results indicate THC to be a natural product secreted particularly from disc cells and accumulated in the cell wall, the fibrillar matrix and surface feature of vesicles in the secretory cavity, the subcuticular wall, and the cuticle of glandular trichomes. THC, among other chemicals, accumulated in the cuticle may serve as a plant recognition signal to other organisms in the environment. PMID:21708587

  10. Persistent Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Persistent negative symptoms represent an alternative approach for assessing negative symptoms in the context of clinical trials. Persistent negative symptoms are designed to capture those symptoms that lead to functional impairment but are currently understudied and for which there are no currently available effective treatments. Persistent negative symptoms differ from the 2 most commonly used approaches: primary, enduring negative symptoms or deficit symptoms and negative symptoms broadly ...

  11. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Aarsland, D.; Marsh, L.; Schrag, A.

    2009-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in Parkinson's disease, even at the earliest stages, and have important consequences for quality of life and daily functioning, are associated with increased carer burden and increased risk for nursing home admission. In addition to cognitive impairment, a wide range of neuropsychiatric symptoms have been reported. In this paper, the epidemiology, clinical course, diagnosis, and management of some of the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms in PD are disc...

  12. Neuropsychiatric symptoms following bismuth intoxication.

    OpenAIRE

    Eskens, G. T.

    1988-01-01

    A number of seemingly neurotic symptoms, similar to those reported in bismuth intoxication, occurred in a patient taking a proprietary dyspeptic preparation, tri-potassium dicitrate bismuthate (De-Nol), over 2 years. The symptoms remitted over 10-12 months after stopping the drug - a similar period to that described in bismuth intoxication and the patient has remained symptom-free for 7 years. Possible mechanisms are discussed.

  13. Is conversion a dissociative symptom?

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Christa; Staden, C. W.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: DSM-IV continues to classify conversion disorder separately from the dissociative disorders, together with the somatoform disorders. This is done on the basis that conversion disorder presents with bodily symptoms, whereas the dissociative disorders concern mental symptoms. It remains a clinical research question, though, whether symptoms of conversion disorder and the dissociative disorders overlap in their clinical presentation as has been maintained by lCD-lOin w...

  14. Análise forense: pesquisa de drogas vegetais interferentes de testes colorimétricos para identificação dos canabinoides da maconha (Cannabis Sativa L.) / Forensic analysis: evaluation of interfering vegetable drugs in colorimetric tests for identifying marijuana cannabinoids (Cannabis sativa L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dayanne Cristiane, Bordin; Marcos, Messias; Rafael, Lanaro; Silvia Oliveira Santos, Cazenave; José Luiz, Costa.

    2040-20-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) is the most cultivated, trafficked and consumed illicit drug worldwide. Estimates indicate 10% of individuals experiencing marijuana become daily users, and 20-30% use it weekly. Around 489 natural compounds have been identified in this plant, of which 70 are cannabino [...] ids, responsible for psychic effects. The most relevant cannabinoid is ?9-THC, recognized as the main chemical substance with psychoactive effects. The aims of this work was to investigate whether other drugs interfere with the colorimetric tests Fast Blue B and Duquenois-Levine, widely used for marijuana screening in forensic chemistry laboratories.

  15. Análise forense: pesquisa de drogas vegetais interferentes de testes colorimétricos para identificação dos canabinoides da maconha (Cannabis Sativa L. Forensic analysis: evaluation of interfering vegetable drugs in colorimetric tests for identifying marijuana cannabinoids (Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanne Cristiane Bordin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L. is the most cultivated, trafficked and consumed illicit drug worldwide. Estimates indicate 10% of individuals experiencing marijuana become daily users, and 20-30% use it weekly. Around 489 natural compounds have been identified in this plant, of which 70 are cannabinoids, responsible for psychic effects. The most relevant cannabinoid is ?9-THC, recognized as the main chemical substance with psychoactive effects. The aims of this work was to investigate whether other drugs interfere with the colorimetric tests Fast Blue B and Duquenois-Levine, widely used for marijuana screening in forensic chemistry laboratories.

  16. ESTUDIO DEL CONTENIDO DE CANABINOIDES EN MUESTRAS DE MARIHUANA (Cannabis sativa L. CULTIVADAS EN VARIAS REGIONES DE COLOMBIA STUDY OF CANNABINOIDS CONTENT IN MARIHUANA SAMPLES (Cannabis sativa L. CULTIVATED IN SEVERAL REGIONS OF COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor M FLORIAN R

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio analiza el contenido de cannabinoides en muestras de Cannabis sativa L. cultivadas ilícitamente en Colombia. En primer término se optimizan las condiciones para la extracción y cuantificación de Cannabidiol (CBD, ?9-tetrahidrocannabinol (THC y Cannabinol (CBN a partir de una muestra vegetal mediante cromatografía de gases con detector de ionización de llama (CG-FID, validando el respectivo método analítico. Se analizan muestras procedentes de cuatro regiones colombianas (región de los Llanos Orientales, LL; región del Cauca, CA; región de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, SN; región del Eje Cafetero, EC , determinando cuantitativamente la presencia de CBD, THC y CBN. El contenido promedio de THC en las muestras de la región LL es de 15.74 % ± 2.92, en la región CA de 10.98% ± 6.70, en la región SN de 2.81% ± 1.72 y en la región EC de 1.87% ± 1.25. El alto contenido de THC en las muestras vegetales de Cannabis de los Llanos Orientales y el Cauca podría ser indicativo del empleo de variedades mejoradas, lo cual genera una gran preocupación en torno a los mayores efectos potenciales de la droga entre los consumidores.The present study analyzes the cannabinoids content in samples of Cannabis sativa L. cultivated illicitly in Colombia. The physicochemical conditions are optimized for the extraction and quantification of Cannabidiol (CBD, 9-Tetrahidrocannabinol (THC and Cannabinol (CBN starting from a vegetable sample using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID, validating the respective analytic method. Samples coming from four diferent Colombian regions are analyzed (Llanos Orientales, LL; Cauca, CA; Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, SN; Eje Cafetero, EC. The study let determination of CBD, THC and CBN samples quantitatively. The average content of THC in the samples of the region LL is of 15.74% ± 2.92, in the region CA is of 10.98% ± 6.70, in the region SN is of 2.81% ± 1.72 and in the region EC of 1.87 % ± 1.25. The higher content of THC in vegetable samples of Cannabis from the Llanos Orientales (LL and Cauca (CA could be indicative of the employment of improved varieties. This fact generates a great concern about the potential effects produced by the drug in consumers.

  17. ESTUDIO DEL CONTENIDO DE CANABINOIDES EN MUESTRAS DE MARIHUANA (Cannabis sativa L.) CULTIVADAS EN VARIAS REGIONES DE COLOMBIA / STUDY OF CANNABINOIDS CONTENT IN MARIHUANA SAMPLES (Cannabis sativa L.) CULTIVATED IN SEVERAL REGIONS OF COLOMBIA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Néstor M, FLORIAN R; Fabián, PARADA A; William F, GARZÓN M.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio analiza el contenido de cannabinoides en muestras de Cannabis sativa L. cultivadas ilícitamente en Colombia. En primer término se optimizan las condiciones para la extracción y cuantificación de Cannabidiol (CBD), ?9-tetrahidrocannabinol (THC) y Cannabinol (CBN) a partir de una m [...] uestra vegetal mediante cromatografía de gases con detector de ionización de llama (CG-FID), validando el respectivo método analítico. Se analizan muestras procedentes de cuatro regiones colombianas (región de los Llanos Orientales, LL; región del Cauca, CA; región de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, SN; región del Eje Cafetero, EC) , determinando cuantitativamente la presencia de CBD, THC y CBN. El contenido promedio de THC en las muestras de la región LL es de 15.74 % ± 2.92, en la región CA de 10.98% ± 6.70, en la región SN de 2.81% ± 1.72 y en la región EC de 1.87% ± 1.25. El alto contenido de THC en las muestras vegetales de Cannabis de los Llanos Orientales y el Cauca podría ser indicativo del empleo de variedades mejoradas, lo cual genera una gran preocupación en torno a los mayores efectos potenciales de la droga entre los consumidores. Abstract in english The present study analyzes the cannabinoids content in samples of Cannabis sativa L. cultivated illicitly in Colombia. The physicochemical conditions are optimized for the extraction and quantification of Cannabidiol (CBD), 9-Tetrahidrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabinol (CBN) starting from a vegetable [...] sample using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID), validating the respective analytic method. Samples coming from four diferent Colombian regions are analyzed (Llanos Orientales, LL; Cauca, CA; Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, SN; Eje Cafetero, EC). The study let determination of CBD, THC and CBN samples quantitatively. The average content of THC in the samples of the region LL is of 15.74% ± 2.92, in the region CA is of 10.98% ± 6.70, in the region SN is of 2.81% ± 1.72 and in the region EC of 1.87 % ± 1.25. The higher content of THC in vegetable samples of Cannabis from the Llanos Orientales (LL) and Cauca (CA) could be indicative of the employment of improved varieties. This fact generates a great concern about the potential effects produced by the drug in consumers.

  18. Expectativas de resultados frente ao uso de álcool, maconha e tabaco Outcome expectancy considering the use of alcohol, cannabis and tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeri Siqueira Pedroso

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo teve como objetivo realizar uma revisão teórica acerca do construto expectativas de resultados frente ao uso de álcool, maconha e tabaco. As expectativas de resultados são determinadas a partir do que as pessoas acreditam acerca dos efeitos de determinada droga, sendo uma variável importante no tratamento de dependentes químicos. Foram realizadas buscas de artigos publicados nas bases de dados MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ProQuest, Ovid, LILACS e Cork, usando os descritores belief, expectancy, expectation, drugs, psychoactive e effect. Os resultados demonstraram que as expectativas de resultados frente ao uso dessas substâncias podem surgir de fontes como: exposição a estímulos condicionados, dependência física, crenças pessoais e culturais e fatores situacionais e ambientais. Conclui-se que ainda há necessidade de novas pesquisas quanto às expectativas relacionadas às diferentes substâncias psicoativas e faixas etárias para uma melhor compreensão deste construto.This article aims to perform a theoretical review about the outcome expectancy construct considering the use of alcohol, cannabis and tobacco. Outcome expectancy is determined by people's belief about the effects of a drug. It is an important variable for the treatment of chemically dependent patients. Searches in the electronic databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ProQuest, Ovid, LILACS and Cork were carried out, using the following descriptors: belief, expectancy, expectation, drugs, psychoactive, and effect. Results showed that outcome expectancy considering the use of those substances can be generated from: exposure to conditioning stimuli, physical dependence, personal and cultural beliefs, and situational and environmental factors. In conclusion, there is the need of new researches on expectancies related to psychoactive substances and age groups in order to have a better understanding of this construct.

  19. Expectativas de resultados frente ao uso de álcool, maconha e tabaco / Outcome expectancy considering the use of alcohol, cannabis and tobacco

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosemeri Siqueira, Pedroso; Margareth da Silva, Oliveira; Renata Brasil, Araujo; Maria da Graça, Castro; Wilson Vieira, Melo.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo teve como objetivo realizar uma revisão teórica acerca do construto expectativas de resultados frente ao uso de álcool, maconha e tabaco. As expectativas de resultados são determinadas a partir do que as pessoas acreditam acerca dos efeitos de determinada droga, sendo uma variável import [...] ante no tratamento de dependentes químicos. Foram realizadas buscas de artigos publicados nas bases de dados MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ProQuest, Ovid, LILACS e Cork, usando os descritores belief, expectancy, expectation, drugs, psychoactive e effect. Os resultados demonstraram que as expectativas de resultados frente ao uso dessas substâncias podem surgir de fontes como: exposição a estímulos condicionados, dependência física, crenças pessoais e culturais e fatores situacionais e ambientais. Conclui-se que ainda há necessidade de novas pesquisas quanto às expectativas relacionadas às diferentes substâncias psicoativas e faixas etárias para uma melhor compreensão deste construto. Abstract in english This article aims to perform a theoretical review about the outcome expectancy construct considering the use of alcohol, cannabis and tobacco. Outcome expectancy is determined by people's belief about the effects of a drug. It is an important variable for the treatment of chemically dependent patien [...] ts. Searches in the electronic databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ProQuest, Ovid, LILACS and Cork were carried out, using the following descriptors: belief, expectancy, expectation, drugs, psychoactive, and effect. Results showed that outcome expectancy considering the use of those substances can be generated from: exposure to conditioning stimuli, physical dependence, personal and cultural beliefs, and situational and environmental factors. In conclusion, there is the need of new researches on expectancies related to psychoactive substances and age groups in order to have a better understanding of this construct.

  20. Effects of the resin and smoke condensate of Cannabis sativa on the oestrous cycle of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lares, A.; Ochoa, Y.; Bolanos, A.; Aponte, N.; Montenegro, M.

    1981-01-01

    This study is concerned with variations in the oestrous cycle of the Sprague-Dawley rat following the intraperitoneal administration of maize oil solutions of Cannabis sativa resin and smoke condensate in doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg. Oestrus was shortened with doses of both the resin and the smoke condensate, whereas dioestrus was lengthened with the 20 mg/kg smoke condensate. ALso observed was a lengthening of postoestrus following the administration of 20 mg/kg of either the resin or the smoke condensate.

  1. Menopause. How Exercise Mitigates Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargarten, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    During menopause and the climacteric, women experience many changes that can affect nearly every organ system and cause psychological symptoms. This article reviews the specific changes and explains how exercise can address each symptom; outlines a practical approach physicians can use to help menopausal patients improve their quality of life. (SM)

  2. Los productos de Cannabis sativa: situación actual y perspectivas en medicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Rodr\\u00EDguez Carranza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los productos psicoactivos de la Cannabis sativa, como marihuana y hachís, se han usado desde hace varios siglos con fines medicinales, religiosos y recreativos. Ahora, la marihuana es la droga ilegal de mayor consumo en el mundo, particularmente por adolescentes y adultos jóvenes. La adolescencia es una etapa crítica en el desarrollo y maduración del Sistema Nervioso Central. La marihuana está constituida por un gran número y variedad de substancias químicas que pueden interactuar entre sí. Sus efectos agudos se caracterizan por euforia, relajación e intensificación de las experiencias sensoriales ordinarias. Su consumo crónico induce tolerancia, dependencia, síndrome de carencia, déficit cognitivo y aumenta el riesgo de enfermedades psiquiátricas. El descubrimiento de un sistema cannabinoide endógeno renovó el interés médico por la marihuana y los datos de los últimos 20 años indican que el sistema endocannabinoide regula la función de diversos tipos de sinapsis y juega un papel importante en el desarrollo cerebral extrauterino. Recientemente el interés sobre la marihuana se centró en sus propiedades medicinales y existe un buen número de ensayos clínicos controlados que apoyan su uso en ciertas condiciones médicas; sin embargo, su eficacia y seguridad siguen siendo motivo de controversia. En este artículo se analizan los conocimientos farmacológicos sobre la marihuana, se establecen los riesgos de su consumo, la información sobre sus propiedades medicinales y, con base en la evidencia disponible, se opina contra su legalización. Finalmente, aquí se postula que la marihuana en su forma herbaria, por vía enteral, puede ser de gran valor para mitigar el sufrimiento de pacientes con enfermedad terminal.

  3. In Vitro Stability of Free and Glucuronidated Cannabinoids in Urine Following Controlled Smoked Cannabis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Nathalie A.; Lee, Dayong; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Concheiro-Guisan, Marta; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Analyte stability is an important factor in urine test interpretation, yet cannabinoid stability data are limited. A comprehensive study of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), cannabidiol, cannabinol, THC-glucuronide, and THCCOOH-glucuronide stabilities in authentic urine was completed. Urine samples after ad libitum cannabis smoking were pooled to prepare low and high pools for each study participant; baseline concentrations were measured within 24h at room temperature (RT), 4°C and ?20°C. Stability at RT, 4°C and ?20°C was evaluated by Friedman tests for up to 1 year. THCCOOH, THC-glucuronide, and THCCOOH-glucuronide were quantified in baseline pools. RT THCCOOH baseline concentrations were significantly higher than ?20°C, but not 4°C baseline concentrations. After 1 week at RT, THCCOOH increased, THCCOOH-glucuronide decreased, but THC-glucuronide was unchanged. In RT low pool, total THCCOOH (THCCOOH+THCCOOH-glucuronide) was significantly lower after 1 week. At 4°C, THCCOOH was stable 2 weeks, THCCOOH-glucuronide 1 month and THC-glucuronide for at least 6 months. THCCOOH was stable frozen for 1 year, but 6 months high pool results were significantly higher than baseline; THC-glucuronide and THCCOOH-glucuronide were stable for 6 months. Total THCCOOH was stable 6 months at 4°C, and frozen 6 months (low) and 1 year (high). THC, cannabidiol and cannabinol were never detected in urine; although not detected initially, 11-OH-THC was detected in 2 low and 3 high pools after one week at RT. Substantial THCCOOH-glucuronide deconjugation was observed at RT and 4°C. Analysis should be conducted within 3 months if non-hydrolyzed THCCOOH or THCCOOH-glucuronide quantification is required. PMID:24292435

  4. Elemental characterization of marijuana (cannabis sativa) as a stride in the isolation of its active ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, stem and leaves samples of Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) popularly called Indian Hemp available in northern Nigeria were analyzed for trace amounts of Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, Mn, Na, Br, La, Yb, Cr, Fe, Zn, and Ba using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Sample sizes of roughly 300mg irradiated for five minutes (short irradiation) and six hours (long irradiation), with decay times of 7 minutes, 10,000 minutes and 26,000 minutes for short, medium and long-lived nuclides respectively. Counting times for ten minutes (short-lived nuclides), 1,800 minutes (medium-lived nuclides) and 36,000 minutes (long-lived nuclides) yielded detection limits between 0.05 - 0.09?g/g. For comparative study, refined tobacco produced by a tobacco company operating in northern Nigeria were characterized together with the marijuana-which is usually smoked raw with leaves stem and seed packed together. The results obtained shows that both the refined tobacco and the raw marijuana have high c oncentration of Ca, Mg, Al and Mn and low values of Na, Br and La. However, marijuana was found to have heavy elements in abundance compared to the refined tobacco, with Zn = 20.5 ?g/g and Cr = 14.3?g/g recording the highest values among the heavy elements detected. This is a sharp difference between the two since the values of heavy elements obtained for the refined tobacco are even below detection limits. Quality Control and Quality Assurance was tested using certified reference material obtained frertified reference material obtained from NIST (Tomato Leaves).

  5. Botanical and Chemical Study of THC in samples of Cannabis sativa L. An experience in Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Di Bernardo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work 12 fresh and dry vegetal species studied botanical and chemically, denominated colloquially by their consumers “supermarijuana” or crispy, due to the noticeable effects that the same produces in them. In order very terminologically to differentiate one from another one of now, that is to say the classic marijuana and this, in future we will adopt that denomination for the samples under study. Eight (08 of the analyzed samples were product of seizures of the CICPC specifically Merida-Venezuelan Delegation it and compared with four (04 samples sent by the National Direction of Forensic Sciences group GITAEF and Laboratory of Toxicology of the CICPC-Merida for its respective identification and analysis interlaboratories. I botanical identify the species, corroborating that was Cannabis sativa, probably genetically modified (GM, perhaps with aims to grant some specific characteristic to him to its psychoactive principle, constituting a product of the modern genetic engeneering. Later chemical analyses were put under such as: colorimetric tests, CCF, EUV, CG coupled to masses, comparative with the common species or classic marijuana, not demonstrating differences in its chemical composition, chemistry, but if, in the percentage content of tetrahidrocannabinol (THC, in relation average of 1/4 by gram of plant. The fresh concentration of THC in of “supermarijuana” is in the order of 20-30% with respect to the classic one. In dry by the order of 10-15%.Important to emphasize that the plant commonly worked does not respond to chemical analysis in fresh, nevertheless, “supermarijuana” if, this behavior can explain by the growth and accelerated aging of the plant without putting under it pollination with its male plant or by its high concentration in cannabinols and resins.To elucidate this behavior at the moment is object of study on the part of our group of investigations.

  6. [Otoneurologic symptoms of temporal pyramidal neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoveshchenskaia, N S; Kapitanov, D N; Koval, I V

    1995-01-01

    The paper reports 3 cases of primary tumors in the temporal bone. The diagnosis was confirmed clinically, by CT and NMR-tomography findings. The pyramid tumors are characterized by involvement of the VII and VIII nerves and tactile disorders on the anterior and middle tongue. The images obtained visualized destruction foci. When the tumor spreads to the top of the pyramid, it destroys the function of the acoustic tube, the tympanic membrane acquires remarkable sucked-in appearance. Symptoms of focal neurological affection are usually absent, intracranial pressure is not elevated. The symptom complex may be incomplete depending the tumor location on the pyramid. Tumor lesion occurs in the pyramid or may invade the posterior cranial fossa. PMID:7725573

  7. Differential impact of severity of drug use on frontal behavioral symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo-García, Antonio; Rivas-Pérez, Cristina; López-Torrecillas, Francisca; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2006-08-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that substance abusers are impaired in cognitive-executive control tasks relying on different functional systems converging in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Different PFC functional systems relevant to addiction have been described: the dorsolateral (DLC), orbitofrontal (OFC), and anterior cingulate (ACC) circuits. Each system is associated with different behavioral, cognitive, and emotional deficits, including apathy, disinhibition, and executive dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effects of severity of use of different drugs on apathy, disinhibition and executive dysfunction behavioral deficits as measured by the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe). The FrSBe, and a severity of substance use interview were administered to 32 poly-substance abusers. Multiple regression analyses showed that severity of cannabis use significantly predicted greater apathy and executive dysfunction behavior; and that severity of cocaine use significantly predicted greater disinhibition behavior. These results are consistent with previous studies using cognitive measures and support the notion that severity of substance use significantly affects behavioral symptoms associated with PFC systems functioning. These clinical symptoms should be specifically addressed during rehabilitation. PMID:16326022

  8. Tratamientos basados en la evidencia para adolescentes con trastornos por consumo de cannabis en el Sistema Público de Salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Fern\\u00E1ndez Artamendi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio era describir la implementación de dos programas basados en la evidencia (PBE para adolescentes con trastornos por consumo de cannabis en el Sistema Público de Salud, y sus principales resultados. La Aproximación de Reforzamiento Comunitario para Adolescentes (A-CRA y el Control de Contingencias (MC fueron elegidos como los programas de intervención más eficaces para esta población. Un total de 26 adolescentes participaron en el estudio (91,7% chicos; edad media = 16,5 años en dos centros de carácter ambulatorio en España. Se utilizó un diseño cuasi-experimental, donde un grupo recibió A-CRA y el otro A-CRA+MC. La implementación de ambos programas resultó factible, con resultados clínicos positivos. El A-CRA ofreció buenas tasas de retención (81,3% y abstinencia (68,6%. Los resultados del grupo A-CRA+MC no fueron significativamente mejores que los del A-CRA en retención (100% o abstinencia (75,5%, aunque el limitado tamaño muestral no permite establecer conclusiones firmes. Los problemas asociados al cannabis y la sintomatología depresiva se redujeron durante el tratamiento. Varias limitaciones nos impiden determinar la eficacia clínica del A-CRA en este estudio. El proceso de traslación de los PBE al contexto clínico presentó múltiples dificultades que deben ser abordadas. Se discuten recomendaciones para futuros intentos de implementación de PBE en estos contextos.

  9. Test-retest reliability of the Danish Adult Reading Test in patients with comorbid psychosis and cannabis-use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HjorthØj, Carsten Rygaard; Vesterager, Lone

    2013-01-01

    Background: The New Adult Reading Test is a common instrument for assessing pre-morbid IQ for patients with, for instance, schizophrenia. However, test-retest reliability has not been established for patients dually diagnosed with psychosis and substance use disorder. Furthermore, test-retest reliability of the Danish adaptation has never been established in any population. Aims: To determine the test-retest reliability of the Danish Adult Reading Test (DART) (adapted from the National Adult Reading Test, NART) for patients dually diagnosed with psychosis and cannabis-use disorder. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of the CapOpus randomized trial. As part of the trial, 103 patients were randomized, and completed the DART up to three times. Pearson's r and pairwise t-tests were calculated. Results: DART score was independent of randomization, cannabis-use frequency and psychopathology. Scores at the last interview were slightly higher than at the first two. Correlation over time was very strong (0.8

  10. The study of the trace element in organisms by neutron analysis. I. Multielement instrumental neutron activation analysis of cannabis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examinations were made on optimal experimental conditions for instrumental determination of various elements in cannabis by neutron activation analysis, without any radiochemical separation, and the following conditions were found to be useful. Irradiation samples to be used are about 300 mg of the leaves or stem bark, and about 100 mg of the root. For soil sample, about 50 mg is used for the determination of short half-life nuclides and about 300 mg for long half-life nuclides. For short half-life nuclides, the samples are irradiated for 1 min, activity is measured for 200 sec after a decay of 3 min, and for 400 sec after a decay of 10 min. For long half-life nuclides, the samples are irradiated for 60 min and the activities are measured for 4 K sec after 1 week and for 10 K sec after 1 month. Use of supersonic waves is also convenient for cleansing of the samples. Thirty-five kinds of interesting elements were determined by this method from cannabis cultivated in Maizuru area. (Author)

  11. Tetrahydrocannabinol induces brain mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction and increases oxidative stress: a potential mechanism involved in cannabis-related stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Valérie; Schlagowski, Anna-Isabel; Rouyer, Olivier; Charles, Anne-Laure; Singh, François; Auger, Cyril; Schini-Kerth, Valérie; Marescaux, Christian; Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Zoll, Joffrey; Geny, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis has potential therapeutic use but tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), its main psychoactive component, appears as a risk factor for ischemic stroke in young adults. We therefore evaluate the effects of THC on brain mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, key factors involved in stroke. Maximal oxidative capacities V max (complexes I, III, and IV activities), V succ (complexes II, III, and IV activities), V tmpd (complex IV activity), together with mitochondrial coupling (V max/V 0), were determined in control conditions and after exposure to THC in isolated mitochondria extracted from rat brain, using differential centrifugations. Oxidative stress was also assessed through hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, measured with Amplex Red. THC significantly decreased V max (-71%; P THC exposure (1.8±0.2 versus 6.3±0.7; P THC significantly enhanced H2O2 production by cerebral mitochondria (+171%; P THC increases oxidative stress and induces cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction. This mechanism may be involved in young cannabis users who develop ischemic stroke since THC might increase patient's vulnerability to stroke. PMID:25654095

  12. Demographic and Social Correlates of Tobacco, Alcohol and Cannabis Use Among 15-16-Year-Old Students in Albania: Results of the ESPAD Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toçi Ervin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – Our aim was to assess the demographic and social factors associated with lifetime use of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis among school students aged 15–16 in Albania in order to make information and knowledge available for health promotion specialists working on substance use prevention. DESIGN – This cross-sectional study was conducted in March–May 2011 in the framework of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD. In total, 3189 students born in 1995 participated in the survey. The standardised ESPAD questionnaire was used to collect data about substance use. RESULTS – Our multivariable adjustment analysis showed that being a male and having easy access to cigarettes were the only universal factors significantly increasing the likelihood of ever using tobacco, alcohol or cannabis. Own smoking was strongly and significantly associated with alcohol and cannabis use. The associations of own substance use with peer substance consumption were weak to moderate. CONCLUSIONS – Own smoking seems to be the most important single independent risk factor which strongly and significantly predicted alcohol and cannabis use among Albanian school students. Policy makers need to strengthen the rule of law whereas health promotion professionals should firmly address smoking in adolescence through target interventions.

  13. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Symptoms Most children have had RSV by the time they are 2 years old, ...

  14. Spasmodic Torticollis: Signs and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the pain and disability caused by Spasmodic Torticollis About NSTA About National Spasmodic Torticollis Association NSTA ... Contact Contact NSTA Today Request for Information Spasmodic Torticollis – Signs and Symptoms Spasmodic Torticollis (ST) can occur ...

  15. TBI Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story: Traumatic Brain Injury TBI Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... remove ruptured blood vessels or bruised brain tissue Prevention To prevent head injury and reduce the risk ...

  16. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Symptoms can vary, but many depressed people lose interest in activities they normally enjoyed, have feelings of ... Violence on Women's Mental Health Prenatal Exposure to Common Air Pollutants Linked to Cognitive and Behavioral Impairment ...

  17. Culture Shock: Causes and Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Stephen H.; Nada El-Aidi

    2009-01-01

    Culture shock has been a topic of research for many years because of its negative effects on both education and workplace.Most international students and foreign workers experience culture shock yet little research exists which has investigateddifferences in its causes and symptoms. This paper investigates the symptoms and causes of culture shock in differentnationalities and the moderating effects of demographic factors and travel patterns.

  18. Culture Shock: Causes and Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H. Miller

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Culture shock has been a topic of research for many years because of its negative effects on both education and workplace.Most international students and foreign workers experience culture shock yet little research exists which has investigateddifferences in its causes and symptoms. This paper investigates the symptoms and causes of culture shock in differentnationalities and the moderating effects of demographic factors and travel patterns.

  19. Determination of the Antimicrobial Effects of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Cannabis Sativa on Multiple Drug Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Nosocomial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sarmadyan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The science of identification and employment of medicinal plants dates back to the early days of man on earth. Cannabis (hashish is the most common illegal substance used in the United States and was subjected to extensive research as a powerful local disinfecting agent for mouth cavity and skin and an anti-tubercular agent in 1950. Methods: Clinical strains were isolated from hospitalized patients in Vali-e-Asr Hospital of Arak. The hydro-alcoholic extract of cannabis (5 g was prepared following liquid-liquid method and drying in 45?C. The antimicrobial properties of the extract were determined through disk diffusion and determination of MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration. Results: First, the sensitivity of bacteria was detected based on disk diffusion method and the zone of inhibition was obtained for MRSA (12 mm, S.aureus 25923 (14 mm, E. coli ESBL+: (10 mm, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7 mm. Disk diffusion for Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter demonstrated no inhibitory zones. Through Broth dilution method, MIC of cannabis extract on the bacteria was determined: E.coli 25922: 50µg/ml, E.coli ESBL+:100 µg/ml, S.aureus 25923:25 µg/ml, MRSA: 50 µg/ml, Pseudomona aeroginosaESBL+> 100 µg/ml, Pseudomonas: 100 µg/ml, Klebsiella pneumoniae: 100 µg/ml, and Acinetobacter baumannii> 1000. Conclusion: The maximum anti-microbial effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of cannabis was seen for gram positive cocci, especially S. aureus, whereas non-fermentative gram negatives presented resistance to the extract. This extract had intermediate effect on Enterobacteriacae family. Cannabis components extracted through chemical analysis can perhaps be effective in treatment of nosocomial infections.

  20. Prevalence of eating disorder attitudes among men and women with exercise dependence symptoms: a non-athlete population study / Prevalencia de los trastornos alimentarios entre hombres y mujeres con síntomas de dependencia de ejercicios: estudio de la población no deportista / Prevalência de transtornos alimentares entre homens e mulheres com sintomas de dependência de exercícios: um estudo na população de não atletas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elaine Fernanda da, Silva; Aliane Ramalho da, Silva; Amarilis Dias da, Silva; Gustavo Rodrigues, Pedrino; Daniel Alves, Rosa.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo buscou descrever a prevalência da Dependência de Exercícios Secundário (DESc, ou seja, atitudes alimentares de risco associadas com sintomas de dependência de exercícios) entre homens e mulheres em uma população não-atleta. Neste trabalho, 174 praticantes regulares de exercícios fí [...] sicos, entre 18 e 62 anos, quando abordados responderam à Escala de Dependência de Exercícios (EDE) e ao Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Houve mais mulheres do que homens com DESc. Contudo, somente os homens apresentaram sintomas de dependência de exercícios com ausência de atitudes alimentares de risco. Os transtornos alimentares podem ou não ocorrer entre não-atletas dependentes de exercícios físicos, embora haja uma maior prevalência de DESc entre as mulheres. Abstract in spanish El estudio tiene como objetivo describir la prevalencia de la Dependencia de Ejercicio Secundaria (DESc, a saber riesgo de trastornos alimentarios asociado con los síntomas de dependencia de ejercicios) entre hombres y mujeres en una población no atleta. En este trabajo, 174 practicantes de ejercici [...] os físicos regulares, entre 18 y 62 años, cuando abordados respondieron a la Escala de Dependencia del Ejercicio (EDE) y Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Hubo más mujeres que hombres con DESc. Todavía, sólo los hombres mostraron síntomas de dependencia de ejercicios desasociado de los riesgos de trastorno alimentarios. Trastornos alimentarios pueden existir entre los practicantes de ejercicios no deportistas, aunque hay una mayor prevalencia de mujeres con DESc. Abstract in english The present study sought to describe the prevalence of Secondary Exercise Dependence (ScED, i.e. eating disorders attitudes along with exercise dependence symptoms) may differ between men and women in a broader exercising population. In this study, 174 regularly exerciser, aged 18-62 years old, who [...] were invited to respond the Exercise Dependence Scale (EDS) and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). There were more women than men with ScED. However, only men in the sample presented exercise dependence symptoms without eating disorders attitudes. Eating disorders may or may not exist in those who are exercise dependent in the broad exercising population, although there is a higher prevalence of ScED in women than men.

  1. Symptoms of Vaginal and Vulvar Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaign What CDC Is Doing Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed ... Gynecologic cancer symptoms diaries Vaginal Cancer Early on, most vaginal cancers do not cause signs and symptoms. But if there are symptoms, they ...

  2. Restless Legs Syndrome -- Causes and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts Causes and Risk Factors Diagnosis and Treatment Sleepwalking Overview & Facts Symptoms & Risk Factors Diagnosis & Treatment Sleep Terrors Overview & Facts Symptoms & Risk Factors Diagnosis & Treatment Sleep Eating Disorder Overview & Facts Symptoms & Risk Factors Diagnosis & Treatment REM ...

  3. Novel time-dependent vascular actions of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannabinoids have widespread effects on the cardiovascular system, only some of which are mediated via G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors. The active ingredient of cannabis, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), causes acute vasorelaxation in various arteries. Here we show for the first time that THC also causes slowly developing vasorelaxation through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma (PPAR?). In vitro, THC (10 ?M) caused time-dependent vasorelaxation of rat isolated arteries. Time-dependent vasorelaxation to THC was similar to that produced by the PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone and was inhibited by the PPAR? antagonist GW9662 (1 ?M), but not the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (1 ?M). Time-dependent vasorelaxation to THC requires an intact endothelium, nitric oxide, production of hydrogen peroxide, and de novo protein synthesis. In transactivation assays in cultured HEK293 cells, THC-activated PPAR?, transiently expressed in combination with retinoid X receptor ? and a luciferase reporter gene, in a concentration-dependent manner (100 nM-10 ?M). In vitro incubation with THC (1 or 10 ?M, 8 days) stimulated adipocyte differentiation in cultured 3T3L1 cells, a well-accepted property of PPAR? ligands. The present results provide strong evidence that THC is a PPAR? ligand, stimulation of which causes time-dependent vasorelaxation, implying some of the pleiotropic effects of cannabis may be mediated byf cannabis may be mediated by nuclear receptors

  4. Detection of herb-symptom associations from traditional chinese medicine clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Bing; Zhou, Xue-Zhong; Zhang, Run-Shun; Wang, Ying-Hui; Peng, Yonghong; Hu, Jing-Qing; Xie, Qi; Xue, Yan-Xing; Xu, Li-Li; Liu, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Bao-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an individualized medicine by observing the symptoms and signs (symptoms in brief) of patients. We aim to extract the meaningful herb-symptom relationships from large scale TCM clinical data. Methods. To investigate the correlations between symptoms and herbs held for patients, we use four clinical data sets collected from TCM outpatient clinical settings and calculate the similarities between patient pairs in terms of the herb constituents of their prescriptions and their manifesting symptoms by cosine measure. To address the large-scale multiple testing problems for the detection of herb-symptom associations and the dependence between herbs involving similar efficacies, we propose a network-based correlation analysis (NetCorrA) method to detect the herb-symptom associations. Results. The results show that there are strong positive correlations between symptom similarity and herb similarity, which indicates that herb-symptom correspondence is a clinical principle adhered to by most TCM physicians. Furthermore, the NetCorrA method obtains meaningful herb-symptom associations and performs better than the chi-square correlation method by filtering the false positive associations. Conclusions. Symptoms play significant roles for the prescriptions of herb treatment. The herb-symptom correspondence principle indicates that clinical phenotypic targets (i.e., symptoms) of herbs exist and would be valuable for further investigations. PMID:25650023

  5. Detection of Herb-Symptom Associations from Traditional Chinese Medicine Clinical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Bing; Zhou, Xue-Zhong; Zhang, Run-Shun; Wang, Ying-Hui; Peng, Yonghong; Hu, Jing-Qing; Xie, Qi; Xue, Yan-Xing; Xu, Li-Li; Liu, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Bao-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an individualized medicine by observing the symptoms and signs (symptoms in brief) of patients. We aim to extract the meaningful herb-symptom relationships from large scale TCM clinical data. Methods. To investigate the correlations between symptoms and herbs held for patients, we use four clinical data sets collected from TCM outpatient clinical settings and calculate the similarities between patient pairs in terms of the herb constituents of their prescriptions and their manifesting symptoms by cosine measure. To address the large-scale multiple testing problems for the detection of herb-symptom associations and the dependence between herbs involving similar efficacies, we propose a network-based correlation analysis (NetCorrA) method to detect the herb-symptom associations. Results. The results show that there are strong positive correlations between symptom similarity and herb similarity, which indicates that herb-symptom correspondence is a clinical principle adhered to by most TCM physicians. Furthermore, the NetCorrA method obtains meaningful herb-symptom associations and performs better than the chi-square correlation method by filtering the false positive associations. Conclusions. Symptoms play significant roles for the prescriptions of herb treatment. The herb-symptom correspondence principle indicates that clinical phenotypic targets (i.e., symptoms) of herbs exist and would be valuable for further investigations. PMID:25650023

  6. Direct and indirect effects of paliperidone extended-release tablets on negative symptoms of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Turkoz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Turkoz, Cynthia A Bossie, Bryan Dirks, Carla M CanusoOrtho-McNeil Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USAAbstract: Direct and indirect effects of the new psychotropic paliperidone extended-release (paliperidone ER tablets on negative symptom improvement in schizophrenia were investigated using path analysis. A post hoc analysis of pooled data from three 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of paliperidone ER in patients experiencing acute exacerbation was conducted. Regression analysis explored relationships between baseline/study characteristics and negative symptoms. Change in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS negative factor score at endpoint was the dependent variable; explanatory variables included demographic and clinical characteristics. Path analysis determined direct and indirect effects of treatment on negative symptom change. Indirect mediators of negative symptom change in the model included changes in positive symptoms, anxiety/depression symptoms and movement disorders. Path analysis indicated that up to 33% of negative symptom improvement was a direct treatment effect. Indirect effects on negative symptoms were mediated through changes in positive symptoms (51% and anxiety/depression symptoms (18%, whereas changes in movement disorders had a 2.1% inverse effect. Path analysis indicated that paliperidone ER has a direct effect on negative symptoms. Negative symptom improvement also was indirectly mediated via changes in positive and depressive symptoms.Keywords: antipsychotic, paliperidone ER, path analysis, psychotropic, schizophrenia

  7. CURRENT SYMPTOMS AND NEWS MANNERS OF JOUISSANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Eugênio Maliska

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a discussion about the so called current symptoms and its relations with ways of jouissance. It begins with a definition of what might be the current symptoms before exploring the actual notion of the term and its unfolding about the symptom. In a second moment, it articulates the symptom with ways of jouissance, demonstrating how much jouissance is connected to the symptom. More specifically, it is in the symptom’s meaning that jouissance is found, since it is through meaning that jouissance is connected to the symptom. It is not about reducing jouissance due to the search of pleasure or to search in pleasure the relief of the jouissance’s tension. It is about, in psychoanalysis, to potentialize the jouissance no more connected to the symptom’s meaning, but to articulate it to the sinthome, so the subject can jouir life and not the symptom anymore.

  8. A Comparison of Internet-Based Participant Recruitment Methods: Engaging the Hidden Population of Cannabis Users in Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Clare Temple

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While a growing number of researchers are embracing Internet-based data collection methods, the adoption of Internet-based recruitment methods has been relatively slow. This may be because little is known regarding the relative strengths and weaknesses of different methods of Internet-based participant recruitment, nor how these different recruitment strategies impact on the data collected. These issues are addressed in this article with reference to a study comparing the effectiveness of three Internet-based strategies in recruiting cannabis users for an online study. Consideration of the recruitment data leads us to recommend that researchers use multipronged Internet-based recruitment campaigns with appropriately detailed recruitment messages tailored to the population of interest and located carefully to ensure they reach the intended audience. Further, we suggest that building rapport directly with potential participants, or utilising derived rapport and implicit endorsements, is an important aspect of successful Internet-based participant recruitment strategies.

  9. Determination of phosphorous in cannabis by neutron activation analysis - measurement of 32P Cerenkov radiation by liquid scintillaton spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal neutron activaton analysis with measurement of 32P Cerenkov radiation by liquid scintillation spectrometer was used to determine phosphorus in cannabis. After irradiation of the sample, wet ashing was carried out with conc. nitric acid and 70% perchloric acid. The solution in l M perchloric acid transferred to an inorganic ion-exchange column containing acid aluminium oxide and phosphorus was quantitatively eluted with 1M hydrofluoric acid. The 32P radioactivity of each fraction of the eluate was counted with Cerenkov radiation by a liquid scintillation spectrometer from 2 to 7 weeks after the irradiation. The activity curve decayed with 32P half-life. The isotope channel ratio technique was applied for the quench correction. The optimal experimental conditions for chemical separation of phosphorus and for measuring the 32P Cerenkov radiation were also examined. (Author)

  10. How Cannabis Causes Paranoia: Using the Intravenous Administration of ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to Identify Key Cognitive Mechanisms Leading to Paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Daniel; Dunn, Graham; Murray, Robin M; Evans, Nicole; Lister, Rachel; Antley, Angus; Slater, Mel; Godlewska, Beata; Cornish, Robert; Williams, Jonathan; Di Simplicio, Martina; Igoumenou, Artemis; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Tunbridge, Elizabeth M; Harrison, Paul J; Harmer, Catherine J; Cowen, Philip; Morrison, Paul D

    2015-03-01

    Paranoia is receiving increasing attention in its own right, since it is a central experience of psychotic disorders and a marker of the health of a society. Paranoia is associated with use of the most commonly taken illicit drug, cannabis. The objective was to determine whether the principal psychoactive ingredient of cannabis-?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-causes paranoia and to use the drug as a probe to identify key cognitive mechanisms underlying paranoia. A randomized, placebo-controlled, between-groups test of the effects of intravenous THC was conducted. A total of 121 individuals with paranoid ideation were randomized to receive placebo, THC, or THC preceded by a cognitive awareness condition. Paranoia was assessed extensively via a real social situation, an immersive virtual reality experiment, and standard self-report and interviewer measures. Putative causal factors were assessed. Principal components analysis was used to create a composite paranoia score and composite causal variables to be tested in a mediation analysis. THC significantly increased paranoia, negative affect (anxiety, worry, depression, negative thoughts about the self), and a range of anomalous experiences, and reduced working memory capacity. The increase in negative affect and in anomalous experiences fully accounted for the increase in paranoia. Working memory changes did not lead to paranoia. Making participants aware of the effects of THC had little impact. In this largest study of intravenous THC, it was definitively demonstrated that the drug triggers paranoid thoughts in vulnerable individuals. The most likely mechanism of action causing paranoia was the generation of negative affect and anomalous experiences. PMID:25031222

  11. Assessment of changes in nicotine dependence, motivation, and symptoms of anxiety and depression among smokers in the initial process of smoking reduction or cessation: a short-term follow-up study / Avaliação de mudanças na dependência da nicotina, motivação e sintomas de ansiedade e depressão em fumantes no processo inicial de redução ou cessação do tabagismo: estudo de seguimento de curto prazo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Rizzieri, Figueiró; Cassandra Borges, Bortolon; Mariana Canellas, Benchaya; Nadia Krubskaya, Bisch; Maristela, Ferigolo; Helena Maria Tannhauser, Barros; Denise Conceição Mesquita, Dantas.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Introdução: Os primeiros dias de uma tentativa de parar de fumar representam um desafio importante para a abstinência a longo prazo, especialmente por causa das mudanças que ocorrem nesse período. Objetivo: Examinar se fumantes que mudaram recentemente seu hábito de fumar mostram mudanças na intensi [...] dade da dependência à nicotina, no estágio motivacional ou nos sintomas de ansiedade e depressão em comparação com fumantes sem mudanças recentes em seu hábito de fumar. Métodos: Fumantes participando de um grupo de apoio para a cessação do tabagismo em Porto Alegre, sul do Brasil, foram convidados a participar do estudo. O programa consistia de quatro sessões semanais. Os fumantes responderam a questionários que avaliaram a intensidade da dependência à nicotina, o estágio motivacional e sintomas de ansiedade e depressão no início do programa e na 4ª semana. Amostras de urina foram coletadas nos dois momentos para avaliar a concentração de cotinina para determinar o status final dos fumantes. Resultados: Dos 54 fumantes incluídos no estudo, 20 (37%) pararam de fumar ou reduziram o uso de tabaco. Tanto os fumantes que pararam ou reduziram o uso de tabaco quanto aqueles que não mudaram seu hábito apresentaram diminuição nos escores de dependência à nicotina (p = 0,001). Por outro lado, apenas os fumantes que mudaram seu hábito apresentaram aumento nos escores do estágio de manutenção (p Abstract in english Introduction: The first days of a quit attempt represent an important challenge to long-term abstinence, especially because of the changes that take place over this period. Objective: To examine whether smokers who have recently changed their smoking behavior show changes in the intensity of nicotin [...] e dependence, motivational stage, or symptoms of anxiety and depression relative to smokers without recent changes in smoking behavior. Methods: Smokers attending a support group for smoking cessation in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, were invited to participate. The program consisted of four weekly sessions. Smokers answered questionnaires covering intensity of nicotine dependence, stage of motivation, and symptoms of anxiety and depression at baseline and in the fourth week. Urine was collected at both time points, tested for cotinine concentration, and used to determine the final status of smokers. Results: Of the 54 smokers included in the study, 20 (37%) stopped smoking or decreased tobacco use. Both smokers who stopped or reduced tobacco use and those who did not change their behavior presented a decrease in nicotine dependence scores (p = 0.001). Conversely, only the smokers who changed behavior presented an increase in scores in the maintenance stage (p

  12. Schizophrenic Symptoms Improve with Apomorphine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamminga, Carol A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    In eighteen chronic schizophrenics, subcutaneous doses of the dopamine reception agonist, apomorphine, improved psychotic symptoms. The results are interpreted as a consequence of presynaptic dopamine receptor activationby apomorphine with a subsequent decrease in dopamine-mediated neural transmission. (Author/BB)

  13. 10 Symptoms of Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    10 Symptoms of Kidney Disease Many people who have chronic kidney disease don't know it because the early signs can be very subtle. ... the same side as the affected kidney. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) , which causes large, fluid-filled cysts on ...

  14. Radiologic evaluation of globus symptom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The globs symptom is a condition in which a patient, often middle aged women, complains of lump and chocking sensation in the throat. Functional disturbance of the cricopharyngeal muscle, rendering it incapable of relaxing during swallowing, has long been recognized as a cause of globs symptom and dysphagia. We wanted to find out how often and to what extent disturbed relaxation of the cricopharyngeal muscle can be seen in patients with globs symptom with routine examination and videoesophagogram. The results were as follow: 1. Male: female ratio was 1:2.4. 2. Globs symptom was most frequent in the age group between 30-39 of female. 3. Organic lesions were seen in 43.6% (24 Pts) of globs patients. 4. Cricopharyngeal muscle was visualized in 29.1% (16 Pts) of globs patients. And other findings were esophageal web in 7.3% (4 Pts), esophageal diverticulum in 3.6% (2 Pts) and degenerative spondylosis in 3.6% (2 Pts). 5. Incidence of visualization of cricopharyngeal muscle were higher in male group (50%) than female one (20.5%). 6. Cricopharyngeal muscle was most frequently visualized on early swallowing phase (12/16 Pts).

  15. Perfectionism, Shame, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Martin, James L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between depression, maladaptive perfectionism, and shame. Regression analyses were used to replicate a model in which maladaptive perfectionism was negatively associated with self-esteem and positively associated with symptoms of depression, with self-esteem mediating the effects of maladaptive perfectionism…

  16. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban-Kowalczyk M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ma?gorzata Urban-Kowalczyk,1 Janusz ?migielski,2 Agnieszka Gmitrowicz3 1Affective and Psychotic Disorders Department, Medical University of ?ód?, ?ód?, Poland; 2Department of Geriatric Medicine Medical University of ?ód?, ?ód?, Poland; 3Department of Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of ?ód?, ?ód?, Poland Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms may represent an atypical manifestation of celiac disease that occur before a gastroenterological diagnosis is made. Some studies suggest that a gluten-free diet is effective in treating the depression, anxiety, and neurological complications associated with celiac disease.Method: The article describes the case of a patient suffering from chronic, treatment-resistant symptoms of depression and anxiety. The diagnosis of celiac disease and introduction of an elimination diet caused a significant improvement in mental state and everyday functioning in the presenting patient.Conclusion: The presence of persistent anxiety and depressive symptoms, with a poor reaction to pharmacological treatment, indicates a need to identify somatic reasons for the underlying condition. It is important to remember that celiac disease can occur at any age, not only in childhood. The presence of this somatic cause of persistent depressive and anxiety symptoms should be considered in the diagnostic process in adults. Keywords: gluten, depression, anxiety, anemia, neurological complications

  17. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozdzik-Zelazny A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Distinction between true negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia is difficult. In the present study we seek to establish the psychological profile of depression-prone schizophrenic patients. We addressed the issue by comparing the expression of psychological indices, such as the feelings of being in control of events, anxiety, mood, and the style of coping with stress in depressive and non-depressive schizophrenics. We also analyzed the strength of the association of these indices with the presence of depressive symptoms. A total of 49 patients (18 women and 31 men, aged 23-59 were enrolled into the study, consisting of a self-reported psychometric survey. We found that the prevalence of clinically significant depression in schizophrenic patients was 61%. The factors which contributed to the intensification of depressive symptoms were the external locus of control, anxiety, gloomy mood, and the emotion-oriented coping with stress. We conclude that psychological testing may discern those schizophrenic patients who would be at risk of depression development and may help separate the blurred boundaries between depressive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

  18. Borderline Personality Disorder: Are Proliferative Symptoms Characteristic?

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2008-01-01

    Borderline personality is an Axis II disorder that has historically encompassed a number of different psychiatric symptoms. In empirical studies, these multiple psychiatric symptoms appear to manifest as numerous comorbid Axis I and II diagnoses. In echoing these findings in primary care settings, individuals with borderline personality exhibit prolific somatic symptoms. Rather than the type of symptom, are the number of symptoms suggestive of this disorder, such that proliferative psychiatri...

  19. Características individuales y de la estructura familiar de un grupo de adolescentes abusadores de alcohol y/o marihuana Individual and family structure characteristics of a group of adolescents abusers of alcohol and/or cannabis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginald Rees

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Entre los factores más importantes para la comprensión y tratamiento del abuso y/o adicción a alcohol y/o marihuana se encuentran los rasgos de la personalidad del sujeto, las variables sociales y las características de su estructura familiar. Objetivos. Describir características de la personalidad y otras variables individuales de un grupo de adolescentes consumidores de alcohol y/o marihuana y las características estructurales de sus familias. Método. 16 adolescentes con sus familias consultantes en el Centro Terapéutico Rukantú entre los meses de enero y junio de 2001 fueron evaluados individualmente con una encuesta ad hoc y con el MMPI-I y familiarmente con la aplicación de las escalas FACES III y CRS para caracterizarlas estructuralmente según el Modelo Circumplejo Tridimensional de Olson (MCO-3D. Resultados. Los individuos mostraron un perfil de personalidad caracterizado por bajo control impulsivo, tendencia a conductas auto y heteroagresivas, tendencia a alterar el juicio de realidad y grave dificultad para el ajuste social. La mayoría de las familias pertenecían a un estrato económico, educacional y laboral bajo y mostraron estructuras familiares de tipo desbalanceado e intermedio. Conclusiones. Las estructuras familiares desbalanceadas e intermedias del MCO-3D podrían asociarse al abuso de alcohol y/o marihuana; los rasgos de personalidad encontrados en estos adolescentes corresponden al perfil de personalidad asociado con el abuso y/o adicción de alcohol y/o marihuana. Estos hallazgos plantean la necesidad de estudiar en forma controlada las relaciones entre las dimensiones individual y familiarBackground. Among the most important factors needed to understand and treat alcohol and /or cannabis abuse and dependence are personality traits of the subject and features of his or her family along with other social variables. Objectives. To describe personality and other individual features in a group of adolescents users of alcohol and/or cannabis and the structural characteristics of their families. Method. 16 adolescents and their families attending the Therapeutic Center "Rukantú" between January and June 2001 were individually evaluated with a questionnaire ad hoc and the MMPI-I and familiarly through the FACES III AND CRS scales to characterize their structure according to Olson’s Tridimensional Circumplex Model (MCO-3D. Results. Individuals showed personality traits characterized by low impulsive control, a tendency towards aggressive behaviors and distortion of the reality test and a great difficulty for social adjustment. Most families belonged to low income, educational and labor strata and showed family structures of either disbalanced or intermediate type. Conclusions. Disbalanced or intermediate family structures according to MCO-3D might be associated with alcohol and/or cannabis abuse; the personality traits found in these adolescents correspond to those usually related with these problems in the literature. These findings pose the necessity of further controlled studies about specific relationship between both individual and family dimensions

  20. Implications of Plasma ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-Hydroxy-THC, and 11-nor-9-Carboxy-THC Concentrations in Chronic Cannabis Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Karschner, Erin L.; Schwilke, Eugene W.; Lowe, Ross H.; Darwin, W. David; Herning, Ronald I.; Cadet, Jean Lud; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is commonly found in toxicological specimens from driving under the influence and accident investigations. Plasma cannabinoid concentrations were determined in 18 long-term heavy cannabis smokers residing on an in-patient research unit for seven days of monitored abstinence. THC, 11-hydroxy-THC, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) were quantified by two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry with cryofocusing. THC concentrations were > 1 ng/mL in nine...