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1

[Psychopathological symptoms and personality traits in young adult cannabis-dependent treatment seekers: A comparative study].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this paper was to describe the psychopathological and personality profile associated with cannabis dependence in young adults and to compare it with those of non-addictive disorders and the normal population. The sample consisted of 141 cannabis-dependent subjects attending a psychiatric outpatient clinic, 140 psychiatric patients with non-addictive disorders and 140 subjects from the general population chosen to match the patient samples for age, gender and socioeconomic level. All participants were assessed with different instruments related to personality (Impulsiveness Scale, Sensation-Seeking Scale and STAI) and psychopathology (SCL-90-R, BDI, STAI and Inadaptation Scale). Patients from the clinical groups presented more anxiety and depression symptoms than healthy participants, and had more problems adjusting to everyday life, but there were no differences between the two clinical groups. Cannabis-dependent patients were specifically characterized by low educational level and by the presence of paranoid ideation; they were also more impulsive and sensation-seeking than those from the other two groups. We discuss the implications of this study for clinical practice and for further research.

Bravo de Medina R; Echeburúa E; Aizpiri J

2010-01-01

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Cannabis dependence, cognitive control and attentional bias for cannabis words.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One of the characteristics of people suffering from addictive behaviors is the tendency to be distracted by drug cues. This attentional bias for drug cues is thought to lead to increased craving and drug use, and may draw individuals into a vicious cycle of drug addiction. In the current study we developed a Dutch version of the cannabis Stroop task and measured attentional bias for cannabis words in a group of heavy cannabis users and matched controls. The classical Stroop task was used as a global measure of cognitive control and we examined the relationship between cognitive control, cannabis-related problems, cannabis craving and cannabis attentional bias. Using our version of the cannabis Stroop task, a group of heavy cannabis users showed attentional bias to cannabis words, whereas a control group of non-users did not. Furthermore, within the group of cannabis users, those who were clinically recognized as dependent showed a stronger attentional bias than the heavy, non-dependent users. Cannabis users who displayed reduced cognitive control (as measured with the classical Stroop task) showed increased session-induced craving. Contrary to expectations, however, cognitive control did not appear to modulate the relationship between attentional bias to cannabis words (cannabis Stroop task) and cannabis dependence. This study confirmed the relationship between cannabis dependence and attentional bias and extends this by highlighting a moderating role for cognitive control, which may make some more vulnerable to craving.

Cousijn J; Watson P; Koenders L; Vingerhoets WA; Goudriaan AE; Wiers RW

2013-08-01

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Cannabis dependence, cognitive control and attentional bias for cannabis words.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the characteristics of people suffering from addictive behaviors is the tendency to be distracted by drug cues. This attentional bias for drug cues is thought to lead to increased craving and drug use, and may draw individuals into a vicious cycle of drug addiction. In the current study we developed a Dutch version of the cannabis Stroop task and measured attentional bias for cannabis words in a group of heavy cannabis users and matched controls. The classical Stroop task was used as a global measure of cognitive control and we examined the relationship between cognitive control, cannabis-related problems, cannabis craving and cannabis attentional bias. Using our version of the cannabis Stroop task, a group of heavy cannabis users showed attentional bias to cannabis words, whereas a control group of non-users did not. Furthermore, within the group of cannabis users, those who were clinically recognized as dependent showed a stronger attentional bias than the heavy, non-dependent users. Cannabis users who displayed reduced cognitive control (as measured with the classical Stroop task) showed increased session-induced craving. Contrary to expectations, however, cognitive control did not appear to modulate the relationship between attentional bias to cannabis words (cannabis Stroop task) and cannabis dependence. This study confirmed the relationship between cannabis dependence and attentional bias and extends this by highlighting a moderating role for cognitive control, which may make some more vulnerable to craving. PMID:24018225

Cousijn, J; Watson, P; Koenders, L; Vingerhoets, W A M; Goudriaan, A E; Wiers, R W

2013-08-20

4

Oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol suppresses cannabis withdrawal symptoms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study assessed whether oral administration of delta-9-tetrahydrocannbinol (THC) effectively suppressed cannabis withdrawal in an outpatient environment. The primary aims were to establish the pharmacological specificity of the withdrawal syndrome and to obtain information relevant to determining the potential use of THC to assist in the treatment of cannabis dependence. METHOD: Eight adult, daily cannabis users who were not seeking treatment participated in a 40-day, within-subject ABACAD study. Participants administered daily doses of placebo, 30 mg (10 mg/tid), or 90 mg (30 mg/tid) oral THC during three, 5-day periods of abstinence from cannabis use separated by 7-9 periods of smoking cannabis as usual. RESULTS: Comparison of withdrawal symptoms across conditions indicated that (1) the lower dose of THC reduced withdrawal discomfort, and (2) the higher dose produced additional suppression in withdrawal symptoms such that symptom ratings did not differ from the smoking-as-usual conditions. Minimal adverse effects were associated with either active dose of THC. CONCLUSIONS: This demonstration of dose-responsivity replicates and extends prior findings of the pharmacological specificity of the cannabis withdrawal syndrome. The efficacy of these doses for suppressing cannabis withdrawal suggests oral THC might be used as an intervention to aid cannabis cessation attempts.

Budney AJ; Vandrey RG; Hughes JR; Moore BA; Bahrenburg B

2007-01-01

5

Cannabis dependence and tolerance production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The chronic abuse of many drugs produces both marked tolerance and physical dependence. Marked tolerance to cannabis has been observed in experimental animals and humans. However, reports of physical dependence, as characterized by significant withdrawal symptomatology upon cessation of chronic cannabis exposure, has not been well established or clearly defined in any species. The abuse potential of cannabis is more readily observed in humans than in experimental animal investigations. This may be due to the physiochemical characteristics of cannabis or delta 9-THC, which complicates this type of animal experimentation. It is more likely that the greatest dangers of cannabis abuse involve the pharmacological effects of the drug upon the central nervous system and other organs, rather than the development of dependence.

Compton DR; Dewey WL; Martin BR

1990-01-01

6

Cannabis withdrawal symptoms in non-treatment-seeking adult cannabis smokers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cannabis withdrawal is not recognized in DSM-IV because of doubts about its clinical significance. OBJECTIVES: Assess the phenomenon of cannabis withdrawal and its relationship to relapse in non-treatment-seeking adults. SUBJECTS: Convenience sample of 469 adult cannabis smokers who had made a quit attempt while not in a controlled environment. METHODS: Subjects completed a 176-item Marijuana Quit Questionnaire collecting information on sociodemographic characteristics, cannabis use history, and their "most difficult" cannabis quit attempt. RESULTS: 42.4% of subjects had experienced a lifetime withdrawal syndrome, of whom 70.4% reported using cannabis in response to withdrawal. During the index quit attempt, 95.5% of subjects reported > or =1 individual withdrawal symptom (mean [SD] 9.5 [6.1], median 9.0); 43.1% reported > or =10. Number of withdrawal symptoms was significantly associated with greater frequency and amount of cannabis use, but symptoms occurred even in those using less than weekly. Symptoms were usually of > or = moderate intensity and often prompted actions to relieve them. Alcohol (41.5%) and tobacco (48.2%) were used more often than cannabis (33.3%) for this purpose. There was little change during withdrawal in use of other legal or illegal substances. CONCLUSIONS: Cannabis withdrawal is a common syndrome among adults not seeking treatment. The intention to relieve withdrawal symptoms can drive relapse during quit attempts, giving cannabis withdrawal clinical significance as a target of treatment.

Levin KH; Copersino ML; Heishman SJ; Liu F; Kelly DL; Boggs DL; Gorelick DA

2010-09-01

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Decreased respiratory symptoms in cannabis users who vaporize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Cannabis smoking can create respiratory problems. Vaporizers heat cannabis to release active cannabinoids, but remain cool enough to avoid the smoke and toxins associated with combustion. Vaporized cannabis should create fewer respiratory symptoms than smoked cannabis. We examined self-reported respiratory symptoms in participants who ranged in cigarette and cannabis use. Data from a large Internet sample revealed that the use of a vaporizer predicted fewer respiratory symptoms even when age, sex, cigarette smoking, and amount of cannabis used were taken into account. Age, sex, cigarettes, and amount of cannabis also had significant effects. The number of cigarettes smoked and amount of cannabis used interacted to create worse respiratory problems. A significant interaction revealed that the impact of a vaporizer was larger as the amount of cannabis used increased. These data suggest that the safety of cannabis can increase with the use of a vaporizer. Regular users of joints, blunts, pipes, and water pipes might decrease respiratory symptoms by switching to a vaporizer

Earleywine Mitch; Barnwell Sara

2007-01-01

8

Cannabis use predicts future psychotic symptoms, and vice versa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To assess if cannabis use is a risk factor for future psychotic symptoms, and vice versa, in adolescents and young adults from the general population. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: 'Zuid Holland' study, a 14-year follow-up study of 1580 initially 4-16-year-olds who were drawn randomly from the Dutch general population. Because cannabis use is generally condoned in the Netherlands, false-negative reports of cannabis use may occur less frequently than in countries with stricter drug policies, which supports the value of the present study. MEASUREMENTS: Life-time cannabis use and psychotic symptoms, assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). FINDINGS: Cannabis use, in individuals who did not have psychotic symptoms before they began using cannabis, predicted future psychotic symptoms (hazard ratio = 2.81; 95% confidence interval = 1.79-4.43). However, psychotic symptoms in those who had never used cannabis before the onset of psychotic symptoms also predicted future cannabis use (hazard ratio = 1.70; 95% confidence interval = 1.13-2.57). CONCLUSIONS: The results imply either a common vulnerability with varying order of onset or a bi-directional causal relationship between cannabis use and psychosis. More research on patterns and timings of these relationships is needed to narrow down the possibilities.

Ferdinand RF; Sondeijker F; van der Ende J; Selten JP; Huizink A; Verhulst FC

2005-05-01

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Facilitators and barriers in treatment seeking for cannabis dependence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Relatively few cannabis dependent people seek treatment and little is known about determinants of treatment seeking. METHODS: Treatment determinants were compared among 70 DSM-IV cannabis dependent patients and 241 non-treatment seeking DSM-IV cannabis dependent community subjects. In addition, perceived facilitators for treatment seeking were assessed in patients, whereas perceived barriers were assessed in 160/241 cannabis dependent community subjects not prepared to seek treatment (precluders), of whom 63/160 showed an objective treatment need, and 30/241 showed a subjective treatment need. RESULTS: Compared to non-treatment seekers, patients reported more cannabis use (176.9 versus 82.8 joints monthly), more symptoms of dependence (5.6 versus 4.5), higher perceived lack of social support (70.0% versus 41.1%), more pressure to seek treatment (58.6% versus 21.6%), a more positive attitude to treatment, and more previous treatments. In addition, patients reported more mental health problems (internalising disorders 57.1% versus 24.5%; externalising disorders 52.9% versus 35.3%) and more functional impairments (8.4 versus 4.8 monthly days out of role). Cannabis dependent 'precluders' reported desire for self-reliance (50.0%), preference for informal help (22.5%), and absent treatment need (16.9%) as their main reasons not to seek treatment, whereas cannabis dependent community subjects with a subjective treatment need mainly expressed desire for self-reliance (36.7%), treatment ineffectiveness (16.7%), and avoiding stigma (13.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Functional impairment, mental health problems and social pressure are important reasons to seek treatment in people with cannabis dependence. Treatment participation might improve if desire for self-reliance and the preference for informal help are considered, and perceived ineffectiveness of treatment and stigmatisation are publicly addressed.

van der Pol P; Liebregts N; de Graaf R; Korf DJ; van den Brink W; van Laar M

2013-08-01

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Relief of cannabis withdrawal symptoms and cannabis quitting strategies in people with schizophrenia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined the response to cannabis withdrawal symptoms and use of quitting strategies to maintain abstinence in people with schizophrenia. A convenience sample of 120 participants with schizophrenia who had at least weekly cannabis use and a previous quit attempt without formal treatment were administered the 176-item Marijuana Quit Questionnaire to characterize their "most serious" (self-defined) quit attempt. One hundred thirteen participants had withdrawal symptoms, of whom 104 (92.0%) took some action to relieve a symptom, most commonly nicotine use (75%). 90% of withdrawal symptoms evoked an action for relief in a majority of participants experiencing them, most frequently anxiety (95.2% of participants) and cannabis craving (94.4%). 96% of participants used one or more quitting strategies to maintain abstinence during their quit attempt, most commonly getting rid of cannabis (72%) and cannabis paraphernalia (67%). Religious support or prayer was the quitting strategy most often deemed "most helpful" (15%). Use of a self-identified most helpful quitting strategy was associated with significantly higher one-month (80.8% vs. 73.6%) and one-year (54.9% vs. 41.3%) abstinence rates. Actions to relieve cannabis withdrawal symptoms in people with schizophrenia are common. Promotion of effective quitting strategies may aid relapse prevention.

Mathew Koola M; Lee Boggs D; Lynn Kelly D; Liu F; Allen Linthicum J; Elaine Turner H; Patrick McMahon R; Alan Gorelick D

2013-08-01

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Relief of cannabis withdrawal symptoms and cannabis quitting strategies in people with schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the response to cannabis withdrawal symptoms and use of quitting strategies to maintain abstinence in people with schizophrenia. A convenience sample of 120 participants with schizophrenia who had at least weekly cannabis use and a previous quit attempt without formal treatment were administered the 176-item Marijuana Quit Questionnaire to characterize their "most serious" (self-defined) quit attempt. One hundred thirteen participants had withdrawal symptoms, of whom 104 (92.0%) took some action to relieve a symptom, most commonly nicotine use (75%). 90% of withdrawal symptoms evoked an action for relief in a majority of participants experiencing them, most frequently anxiety (95.2% of participants) and cannabis craving (94.4%). 96% of participants used one or more quitting strategies to maintain abstinence during their quit attempt, most commonly getting rid of cannabis (72%) and cannabis paraphernalia (67%). Religious support or prayer was the quitting strategy most often deemed "most helpful" (15%). Use of a self-identified most helpful quitting strategy was associated with significantly higher one-month (80.8% vs. 73.6%) and one-year (54.9% vs. 41.3%) abstinence rates. Actions to relieve cannabis withdrawal symptoms in people with schizophrenia are common. Promotion of effective quitting strategies may aid relapse prevention. PMID:23969281

Koola, Maju Mathew; Boggs, Douglas Lee; Kelly, Deanna Lynn; Liu, Fang; Linthicum, Jared Allen; Turner, Hailey Elaine; McMahon, Robert Patrick; Gorelick, David Alan

2013-08-20

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Stability and Change of Genetic and Environmental Effects on the Common Liability to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Cannabis DSM-IV Dependence Symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the stability of genetic and environmental effects on the common liability to alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis dependence across adolescence and young adulthood. DSM-IV symptom counts from 2,361 adolescents were obtained using a structured diagnostic interview. Several sex-limited longitudinal common pathway models were used to examine gender differences in the magnitude of additive genetic (A), shared environment, and non-shared environmental effects over time. Model fitting indicated limited gender differences. Among older adolescents (i.e., age >14), the heritability of the latent trait was estimated at 0.43 (0.05, 0.94) during the first wave and 0.63 (0.21, 0.83) during the second wave of assessment. A common genetic factor could account for genetic influences at both assessments, as well as the majority of the stability of SAV over time [rA = 1.00 (0.55, 1.00)]. These results suggest that early genetic factors continue to play a key role at later developmental stages. PMID:23760788

Palmer, R H C; Young, S E; Corley, R P; Hopfer, C J; Stallings, M C; Hewitt, J K

2013-06-13

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Stability and Change of Genetic and Environmental Effects on the Common Liability to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Cannabis DSM-IV Dependence Symptoms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the stability of genetic and environmental effects on the common liability to alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis dependence across adolescence and young adulthood. DSM-IV symptom counts from 2,361 adolescents were obtained using a structured diagnostic interview. Several sex-limited longitudinal common pathway models were used to examine gender differences in the magnitude of additive genetic (A), shared environment, and non-shared environmental effects over time. Model fitting indicated limited gender differences. Among older adolescents (i.e., age >14), the heritability of the latent trait was estimated at 0.43 (0.05, 0.94) during the first wave and 0.63 (0.21, 0.83) during the second wave of assessment. A common genetic factor could account for genetic influences at both assessments, as well as the majority of the stability of SAV over time [rA = 1.00 (0.55, 1.00)]. These results suggest that early genetic factors continue to play a key role at later developmental stages.

Palmer RH; Young SE; Corley RP; Hopfer CJ; Stallings MC; Hewitt JK

2013-09-01

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Sintomas depressivos e uso de Cannabis em adolescentes Síntomas depresivos en adolescentes usuarios de Cannabis Depressive symptoms in young Cannabis users  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A depressão é um dos transtornos psiquiátricos mais comuns na adolescência. Os quadros depressivos costumam apresentar elevadas taxas de comorbidades psiquiátricas, sendo freqüente o abuso de substâncias psicoativas. O artigo investiga a associação dos sintomas depressivos e o uso da cannabis. MÉTODO: Revisão sistemática, análise dos artigos indexados no Medline, PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science e Lilacs, entre 2000 e 2005, descritores: depressive symptoms, depressive, adolescence, teenager e cannabis. RESULTADOS: Revisados 36 artigos completos, resultando no estudo de 9 artigos, que tratam de sintomas depressivos ou depressão e o uso ou dependência de cannabis em adolescentes. Os estudos confirmam a associação entre sintomas depressivos e o uso de cannabis na adolescência, sendo esta associação mais freqüente no uso precoce e regular de cannabis. CONCLUSÃO: Os sintomas depressivos/depressão estão relacionados ao uso/abuso e dependência de cannabis na adolescência. A investigação clínica e os programas de prevenção devem abordar estes transtornos na adolescência.Este artículo busca investigar la asociación de los síntomas depresivos y el uso de cannabis en la adolescencia. MÉTODO: Ha sido realizado, a través de revisión sistemática, el análisis de los artículos indexados localizados en los sistemas Medline, PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science y Lilacs, entre 2000 y 2005, utilizando los descriptores: depressive symptoms, depressive, adolescence, teenager y cannabis. RESULTADOS: La mayoría de los estudios confirma existir una asociación entre síntomas depresivos y el uso de cannabis en la adolescencia, cabe destacar que esta asociación es más frecuente en el uso precoz y regular de cañabais. CONCLUSIÓN: Los síntomas depresivos/Depresión están relacionados al uso/abuso y dependencia de cañabais en la adolescencia, siendo entonces importante que estas variables puedan ser investigadas en la práctica clínica como también en programas de prevención que aborden de forma simultánea estos síntomas/trastornos en este período de la vida.The association between depressive symptoms and cannabis use is investigated. Due to the fact that depression has been a common psyquiatric disorder in adolescence, depressive cases usually present high rates of psychiatric comorbidities and the abuse of psychoactive substances is frequent. Systematic review, studies at PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science and Lilacs databases analyzed between 2000 and 2005 are discussed. Results show that nine out of the thirty-six studies discuss depression and cannabis use or addiction in adolescents. Whereas the association between depressive symptoms and the use of cannabis during adolescence is confirmed, it is more frequent in an early and continuous cannabis use. Research shows that depressive symptoms are related to cannabis use, abuse and dependence during adolescence. Abovementioned variables must be investigated in clinical practice and in prevention programs that simultaneously focus on these disorders.

Tânia Moraes Ramos Andrade; Irani Iracema de Lima Argimon

2008-01-01

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Aversion therapy of cannabis dependence in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis dependence is fast becoming a public health problem in Nigeria. Prevalent studies indicate that up to 9% of secondary school students and 33% of University undergraduates (i.e., one in every three students) abuse cannabis. Cases of cannabis dependence seen in hospital practise in Nigeria are usually associated with psychotic illness and there is a strong feeling among psychiatrists in the country that the cannabis abuse is contributory to the precipitation of the psychosis. If this is true, then abstinence from cannabis abuse is necessary in order to reduce the possibility of relapse of the psychotic illness when this has been treated. The paper to be presented describes a method of treatment which has been developed and tried in an Ife University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. This treatment is a form of behaviour therapy and its cost has been estimated at about US+12, which was found to be within reach of most patients. Patients who have undergone a course of this treatment (one course of 3 treatments) have abstained from cannabis for an average period of 9 months. A single treatment administered within this period further prolongs the period of abstinence. Further work is recommended to explore the range of application of this method of treatment, for example, the personality types for whom it is most suitable and those in whom it would contraindicated. PMID:6606553

Morakinyo, O

1983-11-01

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Aversion therapy of cannabis dependence in Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cannabis dependence is fast becoming a public health problem in Nigeria. Prevalent studies indicate that up to 9% of secondary school students and 33% of University undergraduates (i.e., one in every three students) abuse cannabis. Cases of cannabis dependence seen in hospital practise in Nigeria are usually associated with psychotic illness and there is a strong feeling among psychiatrists in the country that the cannabis abuse is contributory to the precipitation of the psychosis. If this is true, then abstinence from cannabis abuse is necessary in order to reduce the possibility of relapse of the psychotic illness when this has been treated. The paper to be presented describes a method of treatment which has been developed and tried in an Ife University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. This treatment is a form of behaviour therapy and its cost has been estimated at about US+12, which was found to be within reach of most patients. Patients who have undergone a course of this treatment (one course of 3 treatments) have abstained from cannabis for an average period of 9 months. A single treatment administered within this period further prolongs the period of abstinence. Further work is recommended to explore the range of application of this method of treatment, for example, the personality types for whom it is most suitable and those in whom it would contraindicated.

Morakinyo O

1983-11-01

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Plasma Cannabinoid Concentrations During Dronabinol Pharmacotherapy for Cannabis Dependence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND:: Recently, high-dose oral synthetic delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was shown to alleviate cannabis withdrawal symptoms. The present data describe cannabinoid pharmacokinetics in chronic, daily cannabis smokers who received high-dose oral THC pharmacotherapy and later a smoked cannabis challenge. METHODS:: Eleven daily cannabis smokers received 0, 30, 60, or 120 mg/d THC for four 5-day medication sessions, each separated by 9 days of ad libitum cannabis smoking. On the fifth day, participants were challenged with smoking one 5.9% THC cigarette. Plasma collected on the first and fifth days was quantified by two-dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometer for THC, 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH). Linear ranges (ng/mL) were 0.5-100 for THC, 1-50 for 11-OH-THC, and 0.5-200 for THCCOOH. RESULTS:: During placebo dosing, THC, 11-OH-THC, and THCCOOH concentrations consistently decreased, whereas all cannabinoids increased dose dependently during active dronabinol administration. THC increase over time was not significant after any dose, 11-OH-THC increased significantly during the 60- and 120-mg/d doses, and THCCOOH increased significantly only during the 120-mg/d dose. THC, 11-OH-THC, and THCCOOH concentrations peaked within 0.25 hours after cannabis smoking, except after 120 mg/d THC when THCCOOH peaked 0.5 hours before smoking. CONCLUSIONS:: The significant withdrawal effects noted during placebo dronabinol administration were supported by significant plasma THC and 11-OH-THC concentration decreases. During active dronabinol dosing, significant dose-dependent increases in THC and 11-OH-THC concentrations support withdrawal symptom suppression. THC concentrations after cannabis smoking were only distinguishable from oral THC doses for 1 hour, too short a period to feasibly identify cannabis relapse. THCCOOH/THC ratios were higher 14 hours after overnight oral dronabinol abstinence but cannot distinguish oral THC dosing from the smoked cannabis intake.

Milman G; Bergamaschi MM; Lee D; Mendu DR; Barnes AJ; Vandrey R; Huestis MA

2013-09-01

18

Palmitoylethanolamide: From endogenous cannabimimetic substance to innovative medicine for the treatment of cannabis dependence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a fatty acid amide showing some pharmacodynamic similarities with ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, the principal psychoactive compound present in the cannabis plant. Like ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, PEA can produce a direct or indirect activation of cannabinoid receptors. Furthermore, it acts as an agonist at TRPV1 receptor. The hypothesis is that PEA has anti-craving effects in cannabis dependent patients, is efficacious in the treatment of withdrawal symptoms, produces a reduction of cannabis consumption and is effective in the prevention of cannabis induced neurotoxicity and neuro-psychiatric disorders. PMID:23896215

Coppola, M; Mondola, R

2013-07-26

19

Patterns and correlates of cannabis dependence among long-term users in an Australian rural area.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To examine prevalence and correlates of cannabis dependence among long-term cannabis users. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of patterns and experiences of cannabis use and dependence. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A snowball sample of 243 long-term cannabis smokers, who were currently smoking 3-4 times a week, were recruited from the New South Wales North Coast, an area long associated with cannabis cultivation and use. MEASUREMENTS: A structured interview was administered, incorporating the following dependence measures: an approximation to a life-time DSM-III-R diagnosis, an approximation to a 12-month ICD-10 diagnosis, and the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS). FINDINGS: Prevalence of a life-time DSM-III-R diagnosis of cannabis dependence was 57%, while 57% received an ICD-10 dependence diagnosis for the last year. Substantially fewer (15%) of the sample were diagnosed as dependent according to the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS). Only 26% believed they had a problem with cannabis at least sometimes. There was general concordance between DSM-III-R and ICD-10 measures, but not between these and the SDS. ICD-10 and DSM-III-R dependence diagnoses were modestly correlated with age, life-time illicit drug use and quantity of cannabis use. Principal components analyses of the dependence measures provided little evidence for a unidimensional dependence syndrome for ICD-10 and DSM-III-R criteria. There was strong support for unidimensionality of the SDS. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms of cannabis dependence were common among these long-term users but only one-quarter perceived that they had a cannabis problem. There was no strong evidence for a unidimensional cannabis dependence syndrome.

Swift W; Hall W; Didcott P; Reilly D

1998-08-01

20

Pothead or pot smoker? a taxometric investigation of cannabis dependence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Taxometric methods were used to discern the latent structure of cannabis dependence. Such methods help determine if a construct is categorical or dimensional. Taxometric analyses (MAXEIG and MAMBAC) were conducted on data from 1,474 cannabis-using respondents to the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Respondents answered questions assessing DSM-IV criteria for cannabis dependence. Results Both taxometric methods provided support for a dimensional structure of cannabis dependence. Conclusion Although the MAMBAC results were not entirely unequivocal, the majority of evidence favored a dimensional structure of cannabis dependence.

Denson Thomas F; Earleywine Mitch

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Time-course of the DSM-5 cannabis withdrawal symptoms in poly-substance abusers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background Evidence is accumulating that a cannabis withdrawal syndrome is common, of clinical significance, and has a clear time course. Up till now, very limited data exist on the cannabis withdrawal symptoms in patients with co-morbid substance use disorders, other than cannabis use and tobacco use. Methods Symptoms of withdrawal were assessed through patient self-reports during detoxification in Danish residential rehabilitation centers. Patients (n = 90) completed booklets three times during their first month at the treatment centre. Self-reported withdrawal symptoms was rated using the DSM-5 Withdrawal Symptom Check List with withdrawal symptoms from all classes of substances, with no indication that the described symptoms should be attributed to withdrawal. Self-reported time since last use of cannabis was used as a predictor of cannabis withdrawal severity. Results With the exception of loss of appetite, time since last use of cannabis was associated with all types of withdrawal symptoms listed in the DSM-5. Only four of 19 symptoms intended to measure withdrawal from other substances were related to time since last use of cannabis, including vivid, unpleasant dreams. Conclusions The findings yield strong support to the notion of a cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and gives further evidence for the inclusion of the criterion of vivid, unpleasant dreams. Further, the findings speak against the significance of demand characteristics in determining the course of the symptoms of cannabis withdrawal.

Hesse, Morten; Thylstrup, Birgitte

2013-01-01

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Psychopharmacological comparison of schizophrenia spectrum disorder with and without cannabis dependency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although incidence of schizophrenia is higher among cannabis users and marijuana is the most common abused drug by adolescents, etiological linkage between schizophrenia and cannabis use is still not clarified. Clinical experiences suggest that regular cannabis user can show similar psychotic episode to schizophrenic disorders but it is still unclear if chronic cannabis use with schizophreniform disorder is a distinct entity requiring special therapy or it can be treated as classical schizophrenia. There are no data available on the comparison of pharmacotherapy between schizophreniform patients with and without cannabis use. METHODS: Clinical data of 85 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder were analyzed retrospectively. Cannabis use was not reported by 43 persons (Cnbs0 subgroup) and 42 patients used regularly cannabis during at least 1 year (Cnbs1 subgroup). Comparison of anamnesis, family history, social-demographic condition, positive and negative symptoms, acute and long-term therapies recorded by clinical interviews was performed with chi square tests, logistic binary regression and t-tests using SPSS 13.0 for Windows software. RESULTS: Men were over-represented in cannabis dependent group while mean age was lower among them compared to Cnbs0 subgroup. Prevalence of suicidal attempt was increased in men without cannabis use (OR = 5.25, p = 0.016). Patients without cannabis use spent more time in hospital (p = 0.026) and smoking was more frequent among them (OR = 1.36, p = 0.047). The chance to get olanzapine for acute therapy and aripiprazol for long term therapy was more than two fold in Cnbs1 subgroup (OR = 2.66, OR = 3.67, respectively). However, aripiprazol was used for acute therapy with significantly lower risk in Cnbs1 subgroup (OR = 0.47, p = 0.023). Olanzapine was administered for long term therapy in a higher dose to Cnbs0 patients (p = 0.040). Also higher dose of risperidon LAI was used in women without cannabis dependency compared to women of Cnbs1 subgroup (p=0.020). Positive and negative symptoms and family history did not differ significantly between the two subgroups. CONCLUSION: Although symptom profile was similar, hospitalization time, suicidal anamnesis, smoking habit and also dosage, intensity and lasting of therapy were different between the two subgroups. Further prospective studies are required for the investigation of the clinical and molecular background of this discrepancy in order to determine a relevant protocol of prevention and treatment of the chronic cannabis use related psychotic disorder.

Makkos Z; Fejes L; Inczédy-Farkas G; Kassai-Farkas A; Faludi G; Lazary J

2011-01-01

23

[Causality and psychopathological course in a cannabis dependency case  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We analyzed the behavior of teenagers who use cannabis in order to identify the drive leading to cannabis abuse and the perceived benefit which apparently sustains dependency. This analysis pointed out the following issues: identification, alterity modulation, modification of thinking activity, pursual of a psychopathological state of deterioration. This short clinical dissertation should be completed by further more deeply oriented clinical research.

Sanchez M; Phan O

2001-04-01

24

[Causality and psychopathological course in a cannabis dependency case].  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed the behavior of teenagers who use cannabis in order to identify the drive leading to cannabis abuse and the perceived benefit which apparently sustains dependency. This analysis pointed out the following issues: identification, alterity modulation, modification of thinking activity, pursual of a psychopathological state of deterioration. This short clinical dissertation should be completed by further more deeply oriented clinical research. PMID:11435996

Sanchez, M; Phan, O

2001-04-01

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Reliability and validity of the Severity of Dependence Scale for detecting cannabis dependence in frequent cannabis users.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) measures with five items the degree of psychological dependence on several illicit drugs, including cannabis. Its psychometric properties have not yet been examined in young adult frequent cannabis users, an eminently high-risk group for cannabis dependence. Internal consistency and criterion validity of the SDS were investigated within an enriched community based sample of 577 Dutch frequent (? three days per week in the past 12 months) cannabis users between 18-30 years. Criterion validity was tested against the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) 3.0 DSM-IV diagnosis cannabis dependence, and psychometric properties were assessed separately for males and females and for ethnic subgroups. Principal component analysis showed that all items of the scale loaded on a single factor and reliability of the SDS total score was good (Cronbach's ??=?0.70). However, criterion validity against the CIDI diagnosis cannabis dependence was low: area under curve (AUC) was 0.68 (95% confidence interval: 0.64-0.73) and at the optimal differentiating cut-off (SDS???4), sensitivity was 61.3% and specificity 63.5%. Results were similar for subgroups on gender and ethnicity. While internal consistency of the SDS is good, its use as a screener to differentiate between dependence and non-dependence within populations of young adult frequent cannabis users is not recommended. PMID:23670783

van der Pol, Peggy; Liebregts, Nienke; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J; van den Brink, Wim; van Laar, Margriet

2013-05-14

26

Time-course of the DSM-5 cannabis withdrawal symptoms in poly-substance abusers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONCLUSIONS: The findings yield strong support to the notion of a cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and gives further evidence for the inclusion of the criterion of vivid, unpleasant dreams. Further, the findings speak against the significance of demand characteristics in determining the course of the symptoms of cannabis withdrawal.

Hesse M; Thylstrup B

2013-10-01

27

State of the art treatments for cannabis dependence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The treatment of cannabis dependence can be viewed as a cup half empty or half full. On the one hand, few people who might benefit from treatment actually receive it. Among those who undergo treatment in randomized trials, long-term abstinence is achieved by fewer than 20%. Moderate use goals have been associated with decreases in consequences, but the differential impact of such goals on the long-term course of cannabis dependence is unknown. Optimal duration of treatment is unclear, and certain populations, particularly patients with co-occurring disorders, have not been studied adequately. Twelve-step programs are low cost, effective for other substance use disorders, and readily available in most regions of the world. However, their role and efficacy in cannabis dependence has not been examined. Finally, effective pharmacologic treatments are under development, but none have yet been firmly established. On the other hand, psychotherapeutic strategies used to treat other substance use disorders can be effective for cannabis dependence. A recent meta-analysis of psychosocial interventions for illicit substance use disorders found that treatments for cannabis dependence had comparatively larger effect sizes than treatments for other substance use disorders. Combination therapies have proven most effective, particularly those that begin with a motivational intervention, utilize incentives to enhance the commitment to change, and teach behavioral and cognitive copings skills to prevent relapse. Among adolescents, family engagement and collaboration with community stakeholders adds substantial value. Although only 9% of cannabis users develop cannabis dependence, the volume of people who smoke cannabis ensures that the total number of people in need of help is larger than the capacity of substance abuse specialty services. Thus, although efforts to refine and improve the efficacy of treatment interventions continue, innovations that increase the availability and accessibility of treatment are also needed. Computer- and phone-based interventions, social media, and brief interventions that can be implemented in primary care settings are areas that may hold promise for reaching at-risk populations. Adolescents and persons with co-occurring mental illness are at particularly high risk of cannabis dependence, and may suffer disproportionately from cannabis’s adverse effects. As in the treatment of other substance use disorders, there is a need for a continuing care model with long-term follow-up that extends past the periods typically evaluated in treatment studies. Additionally, there is a need for further investigation of genetic underpinnings and endophenotypes underlying cannabis dependence to identify neurobiological mechanisms for targeted intervention. One benefit of the societal focus on cannabis has been a prominent increase in research covering everything from the basic science to public health impact of cannabis. Over the next decade, physicians who provide treatment for individuals with cannabis dependence are likely to see their armamentarium of effective interventions expand, to the ultimate betterment of patients, their families, and society at large.

Danovitch I; Gorelick DA

2012-06-01

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Item Response Theory Analysis of DSM-IV Cannabis Abuse and Dependence Criteria in Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

|A study to examine the DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence among adolescents is conducted. Results conclude that abuse and dependence criteria were not found to affect the different levels of severity in cannabis use.|

Hartman, Christie A.; Gelhorn, Heather; Crowley, Thomas J.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Stallings, Michael; Young, Susan E.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Corley, Robin; Hewitt, John K.; Hopfer, Christian J.

2008-01-01

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The Dutch Cannabis Dependence (CanDep) study on the course of frequent cannabis use and dependence: objectives, methods and sample characteristics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents an overview of the prospective cohort design of the Dutch Cannabis Dependence (CanDep) study, which investigates (i) the three-year natural course of frequent cannabis use (? three days per week in the past 12?months) and cannabis dependence; and (ii) the factors involved in the transition from frequent non-dependent cannabis use to cannabis dependence, and remission from dependence. Besides its scientific relevance, this knowledge may contribute to improve selective and indicated prevention, early detection, treatment and cannabis policies. The secondary objectives are the identification of factors related to treatment seeking and the validation of self report measures of cannabis use. Between September 2008 and April 2009, baseline data were collected from 600 frequent cannabis users with an average age of 22.1?years, predominantly male (79.3%) and an average cannabis use history of 7.1?years; 42.0% fulfilled a (12-month DSM-IV) diagnosis of cannabis dependence. The response rate was 83.7% after the first follow up at 18?months. The second and last follow-up is planned at 36?months. Computer assisted personal interviews (CAPI) were conducted which covered: cannabis use (including detailed assessments of exposure, motives for use and potency preference); use of other substances; DSM-IV internalizing and externalizing mental disorders; treatment seeking; personality; life events; social support and social functioning.

van der Pol P; Liebregts N; de Graaf R; Korf DJ; van den Brink W; van Laar M

2011-09-01

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The Dutch Cannabis Dependence (CanDep) study on the course of frequent cannabis use and dependence: objectives, methods and sample characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an overview of the prospective cohort design of the Dutch Cannabis Dependence (CanDep) study, which investigates (i) the three-year natural course of frequent cannabis use (? three days per week in the past 12?months) and cannabis dependence; and (ii) the factors involved in the transition from frequent non-dependent cannabis use to cannabis dependence, and remission from dependence. Besides its scientific relevance, this knowledge may contribute to improve selective and indicated prevention, early detection, treatment and cannabis policies. The secondary objectives are the identification of factors related to treatment seeking and the validation of self report measures of cannabis use. Between September 2008 and April 2009, baseline data were collected from 600 frequent cannabis users with an average age of 22.1?years, predominantly male (79.3%) and an average cannabis use history of 7.1?years; 42.0% fulfilled a (12-month DSM-IV) diagnosis of cannabis dependence. The response rate was 83.7% after the first follow up at 18?months. The second and last follow-up is planned at 36?months. Computer assisted personal interviews (CAPI) were conducted which covered: cannabis use (including detailed assessments of exposure, motives for use and potency preference); use of other substances; DSM-IV internalizing and externalizing mental disorders; treatment seeking; personality; life events; social support and social functioning. PMID:21815231

van der Pol, Peggy; Liebregts, Nienke; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J; van den Brink, Wim; van Laar, Margriet

2011-08-04

31

Cerebrospinal fluid anandamide levels, cannabis use and psychotic-like symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anandamide is a ligand of the endocannabinoid system. Animals show a depletion following repeated ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration but the effect of cannabis use on central nervous system levels of endocannabinoids has not been previously examined in humans. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and related lipids were tested in 33 volunteers (20 cannabis users). Lower levels of CSF anandamide and higher levels of 2-AG in serum were observed in frequent compared with infrequent cannabis users. Levels of CSF anandamide were negatively correlated with persisting psychotic symptoms when drug-free. Higher levels of anandamide are associated with a lower risk of psychotic symptoms following cannabis use. PMID:23580381

Morgan, Celia J A; Page, Emma; Schaefer, Carola; Chatten, Katharine; Manocha, Amod; Gulati, Sumit; Curran, H Valerie; Brandner, Brigitta; Leweke, F Markus

2013-04-11

32

Testing bidirectional effects between cannabis use and depressive symptoms: moderation by the serotonin transporter gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence for the assumption that cannabis use is associated with depression and depressive symptoms is inconsistent and mostly weak. It is likely that the mixed results are due to the fact that prior studies ignored the moderating effects of an individual's genetic vulnerability. The present study takes a first step in scrutinizing the relationship between cannabis use and depressive symptoms by taking a developmental molecular-genetic perspective. Specifically, we concentrated on changes in cannabis use and depressive symptoms over time in a simultaneous manner and differences herein for individuals with and without the short allele of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype. Data were from 310 adolescents over a period of 4 years. We used a parallel-process growth model, which allows co-development of cannabis use and depressive symptoms throughout adolescence, and the possible role of the 5-HTTLPR genotype in this process. We used data from the younger siblings of these adolescents in an attempt to replicate potential findings. The parallel-process growth model shows that cannabis use increases the risk for an increase in depressive symptoms over time but only in the presence of the short allele of the 5-HTTLPR genotype. This effect remained significant after controlling for covariates. We did not find conclusive support for the idea that depressive symptoms affect cannabis use. These findings were replicated in the sample of the younger siblings. The findings of the present study show first evidence that the links between cannabis use and depressive symptoms are conditional on the individual's genetic makeup. PMID:21967091

Otten, Roy; Engels, Rutger C M E

2011-10-04

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The Role of Study and Work in Cannabis Use and Dependence Trajectories among Young Adult Frequent Cannabis Users.  

Science.gov (United States)

Life course theory considers events in study and work as potential turning points in deviance, including illicit drug use. This qualitative study explores the role of occupational life in cannabis use and dependence in young adults. Two and three years after the initial structured interview, 47 at baseline frequent cannabis users were interviewed in-depth about the dynamics underlying changes in their cannabis use and dependence. Overall, cannabis use and dependence declined, including interviewees who quit using cannabis completely, in particular with students, both during their study and after they got employed. Life course theory appeared to be a useful framework to explore how and why occupational life is related to cannabis use and dependence over time. Our study showed that life events in this realm are rather common in young adults and can have a strong impact on cannabis use. While sometimes changes in use are temporary, turning points can evolve from changes in educational and employment situations; an effect that seems to be related to the consequences of these changes in terms of amount of leisure time and agency (i.e., feelings of being in control). PMID:23950748

Liebregts, Nienke; van der Pol, Peggy; Van Laar, Margriet; de Graaf, Ron; van den Brink, Wim; Korf, Dirk J

2013-08-09

34

The Role of Study and Work in Cannabis Use and Dependence Trajectories among Young Adult Frequent Cannabis Users  

Science.gov (United States)

Life course theory considers events in study and work as potential turning points in deviance, including illicit drug use. This qualitative study explores the role of occupational life in cannabis use and dependence in young adults. Two and three years after the initial structured interview, 47 at baseline frequent cannabis users were interviewed in-depth about the dynamics underlying changes in their cannabis use and dependence. Overall, cannabis use and dependence declined, including interviewees who quit using cannabis completely, in particular with students, both during their study and after they got employed. Life course theory appeared to be a useful framework to explore how and why occupational life is related to cannabis use and dependence over time. Our study showed that life events in this realm are rather common in young adults and can have a strong impact on cannabis use. While sometimes changes in use are temporary, turning points can evolve from changes in educational and employment situations; an effect that seems to be related to the consequences of these changes in terms of amount of leisure time and agency (i.e., feelings of being in control).

Liebregts, Nienke; van der Pol, Peggy; Van Laar, Margriet; de Graaf, Ron; van den Brink, Wim; Korf, Dirk J.

2013-01-01

35

Aerobic exercise training reduces cannabis craving and use in non-treatment seeking cannabis-dependent adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cannabis dependence is a significant public health problem. Because there are no approved medications for this condition, treatment must rely on behavioral approaches empirically complemented by such lifestyle change as exercise. AIMS: To examine the effects of moderate aerobic exercise on cannabis craving and use in cannabis dependent adults under normal living conditions. DESIGN: Participants attended 10 supervised 30-min treadmill exercise sessions standardized using heart rate (HR) monitoring (60-70% HR reserve) over 2 weeks. Exercise sessions were conducted by exercise physiologists under medical oversight. PARTICIPANTS: Sedentary or minimally active non-treatment seeking cannabis-dependent adults (n?=?12, age 25±3 years, 8 females) met criteria for primary cannabis dependence using the Substance Abuse module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported drug use was assessed for 1-week before, during, and 2-weeks after the study. Participants viewed visual cannabis cues before and after exercise in conjunction with assessment of subjective cannabis craving using the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ-SF). FINDINGS: Daily cannabis use within the run-in period was 5.9 joints per day (SD?=?3.1, range 1.8-10.9). Average cannabis use levels within the exercise (2.8 joints, SD?=?1.6, range 0.9-5.4) and follow-up (4.1 joints, SD?=?2.5, range 1.1-9.5) periods were lower than during the run-in period (both P<.005). Average MCQ factor scores for the pre- and post-exercise craving assessments were reduced for compulsivity (P ?=?.006), emotionality (P ?=?.002), expectancy (P ?=?.002), and purposefulness (P ?=?.002). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this pilot study warrant larger, adequately powered controlled trials to test the efficacy of prescribed moderate aerobic exercise as a component of cannabis dependence treatment. The neurobiological mechanisms that account for these beneficial effects on cannabis use may lead to understanding of the physical and emotional underpinnings of cannabis dependence and recovery from this disorder. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00838448].

Buchowski MS; Meade NN; Charboneau E; Park S; Dietrich MS; Cowan RL; Martin PR

2011-01-01

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A Comparison of Psychosocial and Cognitive Functioning Between Depressed and Non-Depressed Patients with Cannabis Dependence  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis use and depressive disorders are thought to impair cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning. Both disorders co-occurring may compound the negative effects of these diagnoses. In this study we used the California Computerized Assessment Package (CalCAP) as the cognitive performance measure and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) as the psychosocial functioning measure to compare depressed and non-depressed cannabis dependent individuals (n=108, 54 cannabis dependent only, 54 cannabis dependent and depressed/dysthymic). As predicted, cannabis dependent subjects with comorbid depression showed more psychosocial impairment than subjects with cannabis dependence alone. However contrary to our hypothesis, cannabis dependent subjects with comorbid depression showed less cognitive impairment in some CalCAP modules than subjects with cannabis dependence alone. Based on our results, we conclude that the additive effects of cannabis dependency and depression may only be limited to psychosocial domains, and may not extend to cognitive functioning.

Secora, Alex M.; Eddie, David; Wyman, Bertram J.; Brooks, Daniel J.; Mariani, John J.; Levin, Frances R.

2011-01-01

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Parental alcohol dependence, socioeconomic disadvantage and alcohol and cannabis dependence among young adults in the community.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We tested the hypothesis that socioeconomic disadvantage exacerbates the intergenerational transmission of substance dependence. Among 3056 community-based young adults (18-22 years, 2007), the prevalence of alcohol dependence (WHO AUDIT, 5.8%) and cannabis dependence (DSM IV criteria, 7.3%) was dou...

Melchior, Maria; Choquet, Marie; Le Strat, Yann; Hassler, Christine; Gorwood, Philip

38

Maternal tobacco, cannabis and alcohol use during pregnancy and risk of adolescent psychotic symptoms in offspring.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of maternal substance use during pregnancy on fetal development may increase risk of psychopathology. AIMS: To examine whether maternal use of tobacco, cannabis or alcohol during pregnancy increases risk of offspring psychotic symptoms. METHOD: A longitudinal study of 6356 adolescents, age 12, who completed a semi-structured interview for psychotic symptoms in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. RESULTS: Frequency of maternal tobacco use during pregnancy was associated with increased risk of suspected or definite psychotic symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 1.20, 95% CI 1.05-1.37, P = 0.007). Maternal alcohol use showed a non-linear association with psychotic symptoms, with this effect almost exclusively in the offspring of women drinking >21 units weekly. Maternal cannabis use was not associated with psychotic symptoms. Results for paternal smoking during pregnancy and maternal smoking post-pregnancy lend some support for a causal effect of tobacco exposure in utero on development of psychotic experiences. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that risk factors for development of non-clinical psychotic experiences may operate during early development. Future studies of how in utero exposure to tobacco affects cerebral development and function may lead to increased understanding of the pathogenesis of psychotic phenomena.

Zammit S; Thomas K; Thompson A; Horwood J; Menezes P; Gunnell D; Hollis C; Wolke D; Lewis G; Harrison G

2009-10-01

39

Cannabis e humor Cannabis and mood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações entre o uso agudo e crônico de cannabis e alterações do humor. MÉTODO: Os artigos foram selecionados por meio de busca eletrônica no indexador PubMed. Capítulos de livros e as listas de referências dos artigos selecionados também foram revisados. RESULTADOS: Observam-se elevados índices de comorbidade entre abuso/dependência de cannabis e transtornos afetivos em estudos transversais e em amostras clínicas. Estudos longitudinais indicam que, em longo prazo, o uso mais intenso de cannabis está relacionado com um risco maior de desenvolvimento de doença bipolar e, talvez, depressão maior em indivíduos inicialmente sem quadros afetivos; porém, os mesmos não encontraram maior risco de uso de cannabis entre aqueles com mania ou depressão sem esta comorbidade. Outra importante observação é que o uso de substâncias psicoativas em bipolares pode estar associado a uma série de características negativas, como dificuldade na recuperação dos sintomas afetivos, maior número de internações, piora na adesão ao tratamento, risco aumentado de suicídio, agressividade e a uma pobre resposta ao lítio. Tratamentos psicossociais e farmacológicos são indicados para o manejo da comorbidade entre cannabis e transtornos afetivos. CONCLUSÃO: As relações entre o uso de cannabis e alterações do humor são observadas tanto epidemiologicamente quanto nos contextos clínicos.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between acute and chronic use of cannabis and mood changes. METHOD: Articles were selected by electronic search in PubMed. Chapters in books and reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. As the research did not involve humans, there was no evaluation by a Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: High rates of comorbidity between use/abuse/dependence of cannabis and affective disorders in longitudinal studies and in clinical samples were observed. Longitudinal studies indicate that, in long-term, the higher use of cannabis is associated with an increased risk of developing bipolar disorder, and probably, major depression in subjects initially without affective disorder, but was not found increased risk of cannabis use among those initially only with mania or depression. Another important observation is that substance abuse in bipolar patients may be associated with a number of negative characteristics, such as difficulty in recovering the affective symptoms, more hospitalizations, poor compliance with treatment, increased risk of suicide, aggression and a poor response to lithium. Psychosocial and pharmacological treatments are indicated for the management of comorbidity between cannabis and affective disorders. CONCLUSION: The relationship between cannabis use and mood changes are observed both in the epidemiological research and in the clinical settings.

Rafael Faria Sanches; João Mazzoncini de Azevedo Marques

2010-01-01

40

Cue-induced craving for marijuana in cannabis-dependent adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent interest in the development of medications for treatment of cannabis-use disorders indicates the need for laboratory models to evaluate potential compounds prior to undertaking clinical trials. To investigate whether a cue-reactivity paradigm could induce marijuana craving in cannabis-dependent adults, 16 (eight female) cannabis-dependent and 16 (eight female) cannabis-naïve participants were exposed to neutral and marijuana-related cues, and subsequent changes in mood, self-reported craving, and physiologic function were assessed. Significant Group X cue interactions were found on all three VAS craving indices as well as on the Compulsivity scale of the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire-Brief Form (MCQ-BF). Cannabis-dependent individuals responded to marijuana-related cues with significantly increased reports of marijuana craving compared to neutral cue exposure, although there were no cue-induced changes in any of the physiological measures. There were no significant gender differences on any of the measures. These results indicate that marijuana craving can be induced and assessed in cannabis-dependent, healthy adults within a laboratory setting, and support the need for further research of the cue reactivity paradigm in the development of medications to treat cannabis-use disorders.

Lundahl LH; Johanson CE

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
41

Cue-induced craving for marijuana in cannabis-dependent adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent interest in the development of medications for treatment of cannabis-use disorders indicates the need for laboratory models to evaluate potential compounds prior to undertaking clinical trials. To investigate whether a cue-reactivity paradigm could induce marijuana craving in cannabis-dependent adults, 16 (eight female) cannabis-dependent and 16 (eight female) cannabis-naïve participants were exposed to neutral and marijuana-related cues, and subsequent changes in mood, self-reported craving, and physiologic function were assessed. Significant Group X cue interactions were found on all three VAS craving indices as well as on the Compulsivity scale of the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire-Brief Form (MCQ-BF). Cannabis-dependent individuals responded to marijuana-related cues with significantly increased reports of marijuana craving compared to neutral cue exposure, although there were no cue-induced changes in any of the physiological measures. There were no significant gender differences on any of the measures. These results indicate that marijuana craving can be induced and assessed in cannabis-dependent, healthy adults within a laboratory setting, and support the need for further research of the cue reactivity paradigm in the development of medications to treat cannabis-use disorders. PMID:21480734

Lundahl, Leslie H; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn

2011-06-01

42

Parental separation and early substance involvement: Results from children of alcoholic and cannabis dependent twins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONCLUSION: Together, findings underscore the importance of parental separation as a risk-factor for early substance involvement over and above both genetic and environmental influences specific to parental alcohol and cannabis dependence.

Waldron M; Grant JD; Bucholz KK; Lynskey MT; Slutske WS; Glowinski AL; Henders A; Statham DJ; Martin NG; Heath AC

2013-09-01

43

Polysubstance Use in Cannabis Users Referred for Treatment: Drug Use Profiles, Psychiatric Comorbidity and Cannabis-Related Beliefs  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Population-based surveys demonstrate cannabis users are more likely to use both illicit and licit substances, compared with non-cannabis users. Few studies have examined the substance use profiles of cannabis users referred for treatment. Co-existing mental health symptoms and underlying cannabis-related beliefs associated with these profiles remains unexplored. Methods: Comprehensive drug use and dependence severity (Severity of Dependence Scale-Cannabis) data were collected on a sample of 826 cannabis users referred for treatment. Patients completed the General Health Questionnaire, Cannabis Expectancy Questionnaire, Cannabis Refusal Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, and Positive Symptoms and Manic-Excitement subscales of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Latent class analysis was performed on last month use of drugs to identify patterns of multiple drug use. Mental health comorbidity and cannabis beliefs were examined by identified drug use pattern. Results: A three-class solution provided the best fit to the data: (1) cannabis and tobacco users (n?=?176), (2) cannabis, tobacco, and alcohol users (n?=?498), and (3) wide-ranging substance users (n?=?132). Wide-ranging substance users (3) reported higher levels of cannabis dependence severity, negative cannabis expectancies, lower opportunistic, and emotional relief self-efficacy, higher levels of depression and anxiety and higher manic-excitement and positive psychotic symptoms. Conclusion: In a sample of cannabis users referred for treatment, wide-ranging substance use was associated with elevated risk on measures of cannabis dependence, co-morbid psychopathology, and dysfunctional cannabis cognitions. These findings have implications for cognitive-behavioral assessment and treatment.

Connor, Jason P.; Gullo, Matthew J.; Chan, Gary; Young, Ross McD.; Hall, Wayne D.; Feeney, Gerald F. X.

2013-01-01

44

Developmental pathways to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence: child maltreatment, emerging personality, and internalizing versus externalizing psychopathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Child maltreatment is strongly associated with adolescent psychopathology and substance abuse and dependence. However, developmental processes unfolding from childhood into adolescence that delineate this trajectory are not well understood. The current study used path analysis in a structural equation modeling framework to examine multiple mediator models, including ego control, ego resiliency, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms to investigate this developmental process. Participants were 415 children, assessed across 3 waves of data, (i.e., at ages 7 to 9, 10 to 12, and 13 to 15). The sample included maltreated (n = 259) and nonmaltreated (n = 156) children; groups were comparable in sociodemographic characteristics. Findings support an transactional-ecological model by revealing a developmental sequence in which severity of early childhood maltreatment potentiates less adaptive childhood personality functioning, followed by externalizing problems in preadolescence, and ultimately adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms. A developmental pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms via personality and preadolescent internalizing problems was not supported. Understanding developmental pathways by which maltreatment experiences increase risk for substance abuse and dependence symptoms in youth has far-reaching implications for the treatment and prevention of substance use disorders.

Oshri A; Rogosch FA; Burnette ML; Cicchetti D

2011-12-01

45

Developmental pathways to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence: child maltreatment, emerging personality, and internalizing versus externalizing psychopathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child maltreatment is strongly associated with adolescent psychopathology and substance abuse and dependence. However, developmental processes unfolding from childhood into adolescence that delineate this trajectory are not well understood. The current study used path analysis in a structural equation modeling framework to examine multiple mediator models, including ego control, ego resiliency, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms to investigate this developmental process. Participants were 415 children, assessed across 3 waves of data, (i.e., at ages 7 to 9, 10 to 12, and 13 to 15). The sample included maltreated (n = 259) and nonmaltreated (n = 156) children; groups were comparable in sociodemographic characteristics. Findings support an transactional-ecological model by revealing a developmental sequence in which severity of early childhood maltreatment potentiates less adaptive childhood personality functioning, followed by externalizing problems in preadolescence, and ultimately adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms. A developmental pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms via personality and preadolescent internalizing problems was not supported. Understanding developmental pathways by which maltreatment experiences increase risk for substance abuse and dependence symptoms in youth has far-reaching implications for the treatment and prevention of substance use disorders. PMID:21534646

Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A; Burnette, Mandi L; Cicchetti, Dante

2011-05-02

46

The challenges in developing a rational cannabis policy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A rational cannabis policy would arguably be one that minimized the harms of both cannabis use and the legal policies adopted to control its use. We, therefore, review recent epidemiological evidence on the harmful effects of cannabis use and social research on the costs and benefits of cannabis prohibition. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological evidence suggests that cannabis increases the risk of road crash injury if users drive while intoxicated. When used chronically, cannabis can produce dependence, respiratory disease and psychotic symptoms, especially in vulnerable young adults. It probably also increases poor educational outcomes and possibly increases the use of other illicit drugs, although it is debated whether these relationships are causal. Proponents of a relaxation of cannabis prohibition argue that prohibition has failed to deter cannabis use, incurs substantial economic costs, has generated a large black market, has increased the potency of cannabis and users' access to other drugs and involves foregone tax revenue from the legal sale of cannabis. SUMMARY: Development of a more rational cannabis policy requires better evaluations of both the health consequences of regular cannabis use and of the costs and benefits of enforcing the existing prohibition on its use. It also requires the liberalization of the international control system to allow member states to experiment with different methods of regulating and controlling cannabis use.

Hall W; Lynskey M

2009-05-01

47

Pericyazine in the treatment of cannabis dependence in general practice: a naturalistic pilot trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Kirsten C Morley,1 Paul S Haber,1,2 Madeleine L Morgan,3 Fares Samara3,41Discipline of Addiction Medicine, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Drug Health Services, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW, Australia; 3Drug and Alcohol Services, North Coast Area Health Service, Kempsey and Port Macquarie, NSW, Australia; 4Durri Aboriginal Medical Service, Kempsey, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Cannabis is one of the most widely used illicit drugs worldwide. However, while the rates of cannabis dependence and treatment increase, there remains no medications approved for this use. Due to its sedative effects and low abuse liability, the typical antipsychotic pericyazine has been utilized in some parts of Australia for the treatment of cannabis dependence. We aimed to provide documentation of preliminary outcomes and acceptability of pericyazine treatment in a small sample. A naturalistic case series study was conducted in which 21 patients were enrolled for a 4-week course of pericyazine (up to 8 × 2.5 mg tablets daily) and weekly medical review. Levels of cannabis use were reported and side effects with electrocardiography and blood tests were monitored. Measures of dependence severity, depression, anxiety, and insomnia were taken at baseline and follow-up utilizing validated psychometric tools. Significant reductions in cannabis use, depression, anxiety, and insomnia severity occurred across time. Pericyazine appeared to be well tolerated and easily administered in the community clinics. The results provide some preliminary evidence that low-dose short-term pericyazine may be an acceptable mode of treatment in this population. Given the open-label nature of the design, we cannot conclude that pharmacotherapy was uniquely responsible for the treatment effect. Nonetheless, low-dose pericyazine may be a potentially effective approach to the treatment of cannabis dependence, and further evaluation via a randomized placebo-controlled trial is warranted.Keywords: cannabis, antipsychotic, pharmacotherapy, addiction, pericyazine

Morley KC; Haber PS; Morgan ML; Samara F

2012-01-01

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A double-blind randomized controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine in cannabis-dependent adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Preclinical findings suggest that the over-the-counter supplement N-acetylcysteine (NAC), via glutamate modulation in the nucleus accumbens, holds promise as a pharmacotherapy for substance dependence. The authors investigated NAC as a novel cannabis cessation treatment in adolescents, a vulnerable group for whom existing treatments have shown limited efficacy. METHOD: In an 8-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial, treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adolescents (ages 15-21 years; N=116) received NAC (1200 mg) or placebo twice daily as well as a contingency management intervention and brief (<10 minutes) weekly cessation counseling. The primary efficacy measure was the odds of negative weekly urine cannabinoid test results during treatment among participants receiving NAC compared with those receiving placebo, in an intent-to-treat analysis. The primary tolerability measure was frequency of adverse events, compared by treatment group. RESULTS: Participants receiving NAC had more than twice the odds, compared with those receiving placebo, of having negative urine cannabinoid test results during treatment (odds ratio=2.4, 95% CI=1.1-5.2). Exploratory secondary abstinence outcomes favored NAC but were not statistically significant. NAC was well tolerated, with minimal adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first randomized controlled trial of pharmacotherapy for cannabis dependence in any age group to yield a positive primary cessation outcome in an intent-to-treat analysis. Findings support NAC as a pharmacotherapy to complement psychosocial treatment for cannabis dependence in adolescents.

Gray KM; Carpenter MJ; Baker NL; DeSantis SM; Kryway E; Hartwell KJ; McRae-Clark AL; Brady KT

2012-08-01

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The validity of DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence criteria in adolescents and the value of additional cannabis use indicators.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: This study assessed the validity of DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence criteria in an adolescent general population sample and evaluated the usefulness of additional cannabis use indicators. DESIGN AND SETTING: Data came from the 2008 Survey on Health and Consumption during the Day of Defense Preparation (ESCAPAD), a cross-sectional self-administered survey conducted in France. PARTICIPANTS: The analytical sample comprised 3641 adolescents aged 17-19 years who reported cannabis use in the past 12 months. MEASUREMENTS: To assess DSM-IV criteria of cannabis abuse and dependence, the Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) was used. As additional cannabis use indicators, daily use, use when alone and use before midday were assessed. Confirmatory factor analyses and two-parameter logistic item response theory (IRT) models were run. Differential item functioning was assessed using the IRT log-likelihood ratio approach. RESULTS: A one-factor model comprising both abuse and dependence criteria showed the best fit to the data. Abuse item legal problems showed the greatest severity, whereas dependence items larger/longer and tolerance were found least severe. Discriminatory power was lowest for impaired control and legal problems. Additional cannabis use indicators increased the precision of the overall DSM-IV criterion set. Gender-based differential item functioning was observed for items tolerance, withdrawal and use before midday. CONCLUSION: The current DSM conceptualization with two distinct and graded diagnostic classes has limited validity among adolescents. In forthcoming revisions of the classification system, several existing criteria should be revised or dropped, new indicators of substance use disorders should be included and gender should be considered.

Piontek D; Kraus L; Legleye S; Bühringer G

2011-06-01

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Cognitive behavioral therapy and the nicotine transdermal patch for dual nicotine and cannabis dependence: a pilot study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We assessed the feasibility of a new cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) manual, plus transdermal patch nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), to treat co-occurring nicotine and cannabis dependence. METHOD: Seven of 12 (58.3%) adults with DSM-IV diagnoses of both nicotine and cannabis dependence completed 10 weeks of individual CBT and NRT. RESULTS: Participants smoked 12.6?±?4.9 tobacco cigarettes per day at baseline, which was reduced to 2.1?±?4.2 at the end of treatment (F[5] ?=?23.5, p?cannabis use from 10.0?±?5.3 inhalations per day at baseline to 8.0?±?5.3 inhalations per day at 10 weeks was not significant (F[5] ?=?1.12, p?=?.37). There was a significant decrease from the mean baseline Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence scores at weeks 4, 6, 8, and 10 of treatment (F[4] ?=?19.8, p?cannabis use in individuals with co-occurring nicotine and cannabis dependence. There was no compensatory increase in cannabis use following the reduction in tobacco smoking, suggesting that clinicians can safely pursue simultaneous treatment of co-occurring nicotine and cannabis dependence. The intervention was well-liked by the 7 of the 12 enrollees who completed the study.

Hill KP; Toto LH; Lukas SE; Weiss RD; Trksak GH; Rodolico JM; Greenfield SF

2013-05-01

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Cannabis--psychosis pathway independent of other types of psychopathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To investigate if associations between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms occur independently, or occur as a consequence of previous-other types of-psychopathology. METHODS: A 14-year follow-up study of 1580 initially 4- to 16-year-olds who were drawn randomly from the Dutch general population was conducted. At initial assessment, psychopathology was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist. Across the 14-year follow-up period, cannabis use and psychotic symptoms were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Because cannabis use is generally condoned in The Netherlands, false-negative reports of cannabis use may occur less frequently than in countries with stricter drug policies, which supports the value of the present study. RESULTS: Survival analyses indicated that the association between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms occurred independently of initial CBCL scores. CONCLUSIONS: The link between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms is specific, and does not depend on the earlier presence of other types of psychopathology. This indicates that research aimed at unraveling mechanisms that are responsible for this specific association is useful. Further, given the fact that cannabis use seemed to be a specific risk factor for future psychotic symptoms, prevention aimed against cannabis use may prohibit the onset of psychotic symptoms in vulnerable individuals.

Ferdinand RF; van der Ende J; Bongers I; Selten JP; Huizink A; Verhulst FC

2005-11-01

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The effect of childhood maltreatment and cannabis use on adult psychotic symptoms is modified by the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cannabis use and childhood maltreatment are independent risk factors for the development of psychotic symptoms. These factors have been found to interact in some but not all studies. One of the reasons may be that childhood maltreatment and cannabis primarily induce psychotic symptoms in genetically susceptible individuals. In this context, an extensively studied psychosis vulnerability gene is catechol-methyl-transferase (COMT). Therefore, we aimed to examine whether the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism (rs4680) moderates the interaction between childhood maltreatment and cannabis use on psychotic symptoms in the general population. METHOD: The discovery sample consisted of 918 individuals from a cross-sectional study. For replication we used an independent sample of 339 individuals from the general population. RESULTS: A significant three-way interaction was found between childhood maltreatment, cannabis use, and the COMT genotype (rs4680) in the discovery sample (P=0.006). Val-homozygous individuals displayed increased psychotic experiences after exposure to both cannabis use and childhood maltreatment compared to Met-heterozygous and Met-homozygous individuals. Supportive evidence was found in the replication sample with similar effect and direction even though the results did not reach statistical significance (P=0.25). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a functional polymorphism in the COMT gene may moderate the interaction between childhood maltreatment and cannabis use on psychotic experiences in the general population. In conclusion, the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism may constitute a genetic risk factor for psychotic symptoms in the context of combined exposure to childhood maltreatment and cannabis use.

Vinkers CH; Van Gastel WA; Schubart CD; Van Eijk KR; Luykx JJ; Van Winkel R; Joëls M; Ophoff RA; Boks MP

2013-10-01

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Associations of alcohol, nicotine, cannabis, and drug use/dependence with educational attainment: evidence from cotwin-control analyses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although substance use is associated with reduced educational attainment, this association may be owing to common risk factors such as socioeconomic disadvantage. We tested whether alcohol, nicotine, and illicit drug use and dependence were associated with lifetime educational attainment after controlling for familial background characteristics. METHODS: Data were from a 1987 questionnaire and a 1992 telephone diagnostic interview of 6,242 male twins (n = 3,121 pairs; mean age = 41.9 years in 1992) who served in the U.S. military during the Vietnam era and therefore, were eligible for educational benefits after military service. Reduced educational attainment (<16 years) was examined in twin pairs discordant for substance use history. Substance use and dependence risk factors assessed were early alcohol and cannabis use, daily nicotine use, lifetime cannabis use, and alcohol, nicotine, cannabis, and any illicit drug dependence. RESULTS: Three significant differences were observed between at-risk twins and their cotwins: Compared to their low-risk cotwins, likelihood of completing <16 years of education was significantly increased for the following: (i) twins who used alcohol before age 18 (adjusted OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.02 to 2.05), (ii) twins with a lifetime alcohol dependence diagnosis (adjusted OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.27 to 2.44), and (iii) twins who had used nicotine daily for 30 or more days (adjusted OR = 2.54, 95% CI: 1.55 to 4.17). However, no differences in education were observed among twin pairs discordant for cannabis initiation, early cannabis use, or cannabis, nicotine, or any illicit drug dependence. CONCLUSIONS: Even in a veteran population with access to military educational benefits, early alcohol use, alcohol dependence, and daily nicotine use remained significantly associated with years of education after controlling for shared familial contributions to educational attainment. The association between other substances and educational attainment was explained by familial factors common to these substance use phenotypes and adult educational attainment.

Grant JD; Scherrer JF; Lynskey MT; Agrawal A; Duncan AE; Haber JR; Heath AC; Bucholz KK

2012-08-01

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Chronic toxicology of cannabis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug worldwide. As societies reconsider the legal status of cannabis, policy makers and clinicians require sound knowledge of the acute and chronic effects of cannabis. This review focuses on the latter. METHODS: A systematic review of Medline, PubMed, PsychInfo, and Google Scholar using the search terms "cannabis," "marijuana," "marihuana," "toxicity," "complications," and "mechanisms" identified 5,198 papers. This list was screened by hand, and papers describing mechanisms and those published in more recent years were chosen preferentially for inclusion in this review. FINDINGS: There is evidence of psychiatric, respiratory, cardiovascular, and bone toxicity associated with chronic cannabis use. Cannabis has now been implicated in the etiology of many major long-term psychiatric conditions including depression, anxiety, psychosis, bipolar disorder, and an amotivational state. Respiratory conditions linked with cannabis include reduced lung density, lung cysts, and chronic bronchitis. Cannabis has been linked in a dose-dependent manner with elevated rates of myocardial infarction and cardiac arrythmias. It is known to affect bone metabolism and also has teratogenic effects on the developing brain following perinatal exposure. Cannabis has been linked to cancers at eight sites, including children after in utero maternal exposure, and multiple molecular pathways to oncogenesis exist. CONCLUSION: Chronic cannabis use is associated with psychiatric, respiratory, cardiovascular, and bone effects. It also has oncogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects all of which depend upon dose and duration of use.

Reece AS

2009-07-01

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Reaching out towards cannabis: approach-bias in heavy cannabis users predicts changes in cannabis use.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: Repeated drug exposure can lead to an approach-bias, i.e. the relatively automatically triggered tendencies to approach rather that avoid drug-related stimuli. Our main aim was to study this approach-bias in heavy cannabis users with the newly developed cannabis Approach Avoidance Task (cannabis-AAT) and to investigate the predictive relationship between an approach-bias for cannabis-related materials and levels of cannabis use, craving, and the course of cannabis use. DESIGN, SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional assessment and six-month follow-up in 32 heavy cannabis users and 39 non-using controls. MEASUREMENTS: Approach and avoidance action-tendencies towards cannabis and neutral images were assessed with the cannabis AAT. During the AAT, participants pulled or pushed a joystick in response to image orientation. To generate additional sense of approach or avoidance, pulling the joystick increased picture size while pushing decreased it. Craving was measured pre- and post-test with the multi-factorial Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ). Cannabis use frequencies and levels of dependence were measured at baseline and after a six-month follow-up. FINDINGS: Heavy cannabis users demonstrated an approach-bias for cannabis images, as compared to controls. The approach-bias predicted changes in cannabis use at six-month follow-up. The pre-test MCQ emotionality and expectancy factor were associated negatively with the approach-bias. No effects were found on levels of cannabis dependence. CONCLUSIONS: Heavy cannabis users with a strong approach-bias for cannabis are more likely to increase their cannabis use. This approach-bias could be used as a predictor of the course of cannabis use to identify individuals at risk from increasing cannabis use.

Cousijn J; Goudriaan AE; Wiers RW

2011-09-01

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Acute and Long-Term Effects of Cannabis Use : A Review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cannabis remains the most commonly used and trafficked illicit drug in the world. Its use is largely concentrated among young people (15- to 34-year-olds). There is a variety of cannabis use patterns, ranging from experimental use to dependent use. Men are more likely than women to report both early initiation and frequent use of cannabis. Due to the high prevalence of cannabis use, the impact of cannabis on public health may be significant. A range of acute and chronic health problems associated with cannabis use has been identified. Cannabis can frequently have negative effects in its users, which may be amplified by certain demographic and/or psychosocial factors. Acute adverse effects include hyperemesis syndrome, impaired coordination and performance, anxiety, suicidal ideations/tendencies, and psychotic symptoms. Acute cannabis consumption is also associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes, especially fatal collisions. Evidence indicates that frequent and prolonged use of cannabis can be detrimental to both mental and physical health. Chronic effects of cannabis use include mood disorders, exacerbation of psychotic disorders in vulnerable people, cannabis use disorders, withdrawal syndrome, neurocognitive impairments, cardiovascular and respiratory and other diseases.

Karila L; Roux P; Rolland B; Benyamina A; Reynaud M; Aubin HJ; Lançon C

2013-08-01

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Psychosis and cannabis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alcohol and cannabis misuse is currently the most frequent co-morbidity disorder of schizophrenia. The following four issues will be dealt with: 1) the neurobiological basis of the psychosis-inducing, pathogenic effects of THC, the agent contained in cannabis products. 2) Can cannabis use - and for comparison alcohol abuse - prematurely trigger or even cause schizophrenia? 3) Are persons genetically liable to schizophrenia, psychosis-prone individuals or young persons before completion of brain development at an increased risk? 4) What consequences does cannabis use have on the symptomatology and further course of schizophrenia? Results from recent literature and the ABC Schizophrenia Study show that the risk for cannabis use in schizophrenia is about twice the size in healthy controls. In most cases cannabis use starts before first admission, in a third of cases before schizophrenia onset. There is an increased affinity to misuse already at the prodromal stage. Cannabis can prematurely trigger schizophrenia onset - on average eight years earlier than in non-use - and cause the illness partly in interaction with predisposing factors. Cannabis use in the course of schizophrenia increases positive symptoms and reduces affective flattening, thus leading to dysfunctional coping in some cases.

Heinz Häfner

2005-01-01

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Associations between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom domains and DSM-IV lifetime substance dependence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Most studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the substance dependence literature have assessed ADHD as a single, categorical entity. This approach limits characterization across the spectrum of ADHD symptomatology and may mask differences across the two core domains of ADHD symptoms-hyperactive-impulsive (HI) and inattention (IN). Further, it is unclear whether relations of HI and IN symptoms to substance dependence extend across drug classes and to the general population. METHODS: This cross-sectional study investigated associations of lifetime ADHD HI and IN symptom levels to individual classes of lifetime substance dependence (alcohol, nicotine, depressants, opioids, stimulants, cannabis, hallucinogens, polysubstance) in a population-based sample of 34,653 American adults. RESULTS: HI and IN were associated with the majority of dependence diagnoses in a linear pattern, such that each additional symptom was associated with a proportional increase in odds of dependence. After adjusting for the overlap between symptom domains, both HI and IN uniquely associated with alcohol, nicotine, and polysubstance dependence, but only HI uniquely associated with dependence on illicit substances. CONCLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that individuals in the general population with elevated levels of ADHD (particularly HI) symptoms are at risk for various forms of substance dependence and could benefit from preventive interventions.

Ameringer KJ; Leventhal AM

2013-01-01

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Do patients think cannabis causes schizophrenia? - A qualitative study on the causal beliefs of cannabis using patients with schizophrenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a considerable amount of debate among the research community whether cannabis use may cause schizophrenia and whether cannabis use of patients with schizophrenia is associated with earlier and more frequent relapses. Considering that studies exploring patients' view on controversial topics have contributed to our understanding of important clinical issues, it is surprising how little these views have been explored to add to our understanding of the link between cannabis and psychosis. The present study was designed to elucidate whether patients with schizophrenia who use cannabis believe that its use has caused their schizophrenia and to explore these patients other beliefs and perceptions about the effects of the drug. Methods We recruited ten consecutive patients fulfilling criteria for paranoid schizophrenia and for a harmful use of/dependence from cannabis (ICD-10 F20.0 + F12.1 or F12.2) from the in- and outpatient clinic of the Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich. They were interviewed using qualitative methodology. Furthermore, information on amount, frequency, and effects of use was obtained. A grounded theory approach to data analysis was taken to evaluate findings. Results None of the patients described a causal link between the use of cannabis and their schizophrenia. Disease models included upbringing under difficult circumstances (5) or use of substances other than cannabis (e. g. hallucinogens, 3). Two patients gave other reasons. Four patients considered cannabis a therapeutic aid and reported that positive effects (reduction of anxiety and tension) prevailed over its possible disadvantages (exacerbation of positive symptoms). Conclusions Patients with schizophrenia did not establish a causal link between schizophrenia and the use of cannabis. We suggest that clinicians consider our findings in their work with patients suffering from these co-occurring disorders. Withholding treatment or excluding patients from certain treatment settings like day-care facilities or in patient care because of their use of cannabis, may cause additional harm to this already heavily burdened patient group.

Buadze Anna; Stohler Rudolf; Schulze Beate; Schaub Michael; Liebrenz Michael

2010-01-01

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Drug dependence and psychotic symptoms: a retrospective study of adolescents who abuse drugs at Al-Amal Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Drug abuse is reported to be on the increase among young persons using illicit substances but little is known about the frequency with which they occur, the symptoms on presentation to health institutions, and the different substances abused. To establish this, we reviewed patient data collected at Al-Amal Hospital in Jeddah Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on young persons who are refered to the hospital for problems related to drug abuse. Data on 69 adolescent drug users were reviewed and analyzed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview - Substance Abuse Model (CIDI-SAM) to assess dependence on substances including amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, and opioids. Furthermore, we assessed the adolescents’ data on history of delusions and hallucinations in the context of use of, or withdrawal from, these specific substances. Our analysis shows that 10 to 79.6% of users of amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates met DSM-III-R dependence criteria for each specific substance. The prevalence of psychotic symptoms associated with each specific substance ranged from users with no diagnosis to users with severe dependence as follows: amphetamines (3-100%), cannabis (7- 60.0%), cocaine (5-70.7%), and opiates (4- 88%). The risk of psychotic symptoms increased for respondents who abused (OR=7.2) or had mild (OR=8.1), moderate (OR=20.0), or severe dependence (OR=14.0) on cocaine when compared to those who were users with no diagnosis. A similar pattern was evident in cannabis, opiate, and amphetamine users. In conclusion, most adolescent drug users in Saudi Arabia who are dependent on illicit substances experience psychotic symptoms in the context of use of, or withdrawal from, these substances. Psychotic symptoms increased with the severity of the disorders associated with use of all four substances. These findings underscore the importance of developing services to target this population; a population at risk of developing psychotic symptoms.

Osama Alibrahim; Nagi Elawad; Yusuf Misau; Tarteel M. Shaikh; Nedal Allam

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Strain dependence of adolescent Cannabis influence on heroin reward and mesolimbic dopamine transmission in adult Lewis and Fischer 344 rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adolescent Cannabis exposure has been hypothesized to act as a gateway to opiate abuse. In order to investigate the role of genetic background in cannabinoid-opiate interactions, we studied the effect of ?(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure of adolescent Lewis and Fischer 344 rats on the responsiveness of accumbens shell and core dopamine (DA), as monitored by microdialysis, to THC and heroin at adulthood. Heroin reward and reinstatement by heroin priming were studied by conditioned place preference (CPP) and cognitive and emotional functions by object recognition, Y maze and elevated plus maze paradigms. THC stimulated shell DA in Lewis but not in Fischer 344 rats. Adolescent THC exposure potentiated DA stimulant effects of heroin in the shell and core of Lewis and only in the core of Fischer 344 rats. Control Lewis rats developed stronger CPP to heroin and resistance to extinction compared with Fischer 344 strain. In Lewis rats, THC exposure did not affect heroin CPP but potentiated the effect of heroin priming. In Fischer 344 rats, THC exposure increased heroin CPP and made it resistant to extinction. Lewis rats showed seeking reactions during extinction and hedonic reactions in response to heroin priming. Moreover, adolescent THC exposure affected emotional function only in Lewis rats. These observations suggest that long-term effects of Cannabis exposure on heroin addictive liability and emotionality are dependent on individual genetic background.

Cadoni C; Simola N; Espa E; Fenu S; Di Chiara G

2013-08-01

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An exploratory study of cannabis withdrawal among Indigenous Australian prison inmates: study protocol.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Cannabis use and dependence is a serious health and criminal justice issue among incarcerated populations internationally. Upon abrupt, enforced cessation of cannabis, prisoners may suffer irritability and anger that can lead to threatening behaviour, intimidation, violence, sleep disturbances and self-harm. Cannabis withdrawal syndrome, proposed for inclusion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 2013, has not been examined in Indigenous populations. Owing to the exceptionally high rates of cannabis use in the community, high proportions of Australian Indigenous prisoners may suffer from withdrawal upon entry to custody. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 60 male and 60 female Indigenous prisoners (18-40 years) at a high risk of cannabis dependence will be recruited upon entry to custody. A pictorial representation of the standard Cannabis Withdrawal Scale will be tested for reliability and validity. Cortisol markers will be measured in saliva, as the indicators of onset and severity of cannabis withdrawal and psychological distress. The characteristics will be described as percentages and mean or median values with 95% CI. Receiver operator curve analysis will determine an ideal cut-off of the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale and generalised estimating equations modelling will test changes over time. The acceptability and efficacy of proposed resources will be assessed qualitatively using thematic analysis. OUTCOMES: A valid and reliable measure of cannabis withdrawal for use with Indigenous populations, the onset and time course of withdrawal symptoms in this population and the development of culturally acceptable resources and interventions to identify and manage cannabis withdrawal. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The project has been approved by the James Cook University Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number H4651).The results will be reported via peer reviewed publications, conference, seminar presentations and on-line media for national and international dissemination.

Rogerson B; Copeland J; Buttner P; Bohanna I; Cadet-James Y; Sarnyai Z; Clough AR

2013-01-01

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Do cannabis-based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects on symptoms in multiple sclerosis? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on 160 patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to determine whether a cannabis-based medicinal extract (CBME) benefits a range of symptoms due to multiple sclerosis (MS). A parallel group, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was undertaken in three centres, recruiting 160 outpatients with MS experiencing significant problems from at least one of the following: spasticity, spasms, bladder problems, tremor or pain. The interventions were oromucosal sprays of matched placebo, or whole plant CBME containing equal amounts of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) at a dose of 2.5-120 mg of each daily, in divided doses. The primary outcome measure was a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score for each patient's most troublesome symptom. Additional measures included VAS scores of other symptoms, and measures of disability, cognition, mood, sleep and fatigue. Following CBME the primary symptom score reduced from mean (SE) 74.36 (11.1) to 48.89 (22.0) following CBME and from 74.31 (12.5) to 54.79 (26.3) following placebo [ns]. Spasticity VAS scores were significantly reduced by CBME (Sativex) in comparison with placebo (P =0.001). There were no significant adverse effects on cognition or mood and intoxication was generally mild. PMID:15327042

Wade, Derick T; Makela, Petra; Robson, Philip; House, Heather; Bateman, Cynthia

2004-08-01

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Do cannabis-based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects on symptoms in multiple sclerosis? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on 160 patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective was to determine whether a cannabis-based medicinal extract (CBME) benefits a range of symptoms due to multiple sclerosis (MS). A parallel group, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was undertaken in three centres, recruiting 160 outpatients with MS experiencing significant problems from at least one of the following: spasticity, spasms, bladder problems, tremor or pain. The interventions were oromucosal sprays of matched placebo, or whole plant CBME containing equal amounts of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) at a dose of 2.5-120 mg of each daily, in divided doses. The primary outcome measure was a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score for each patient's most troublesome symptom. Additional measures included VAS scores of other symptoms, and measures of disability, cognition, mood, sleep and fatigue. Following CBME the primary symptom score reduced from mean (SE) 74.36 (11.1) to 48.89 (22.0) following CBME and from 74.31 (12.5) to 54.79 (26.3) following placebo [ns]. Spasticity VAS scores were significantly reduced by CBME (Sativex) in comparison with placebo (P =0.001). There were no significant adverse effects on cognition or mood and intoxication was generally mild.

Wade DT; Makela P; Robson P; House H; Bateman C

2004-08-01

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Two Sides of the Same Coin: Cannabis Dependence and Mental Health Problems in Help-Seeking Adolescent and Young Adult Outpatients  

Science.gov (United States)

|The aim of the current study was to delineate the psychiatric profile of cannabis dependent young people (14-29 years old) with mental health problems (N = 36) seeking treatment via a research study. To do so, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Diagnoses were…

Norberg, Melissa M.; Battisti, Robert A.; Copeland, Jan; Hermens, Daniel F.; Hickie, Ian B.

2012-01-01

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Two Sides of the Same Coin: Cannabis Dependence and Mental Health Problems in Help-Seeking Adolescent and Young Adult Outpatients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the current study was to delineate the psychiatric profile of cannabis dependent young people (14–29 years old) with mental health problems (N?=?36) seeking treatment via a research study. To do so, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders and the Structured Clinic...

Norberg, Melissa M.; Battisti, Robert A.; Copeland, Jan; Hermens, Daniel F.; Hickie, Ian B.

67

Cannabis-induced Koro in Americans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: Koro, an acute panic reaction related to the perception of penile retraction, was once considered limited to specific cultures. The disorder has appeared as part of a panic response to cannabis, but only in citizens of India. This study looked for cannabis-induced Koro in Americans. DESIGN: Given the relative rarity of cannabis-induced Koro, this work focused on individual case studies. PARTICIPANTS: Over 70 men responded by phone to report negative reactions to cannabis. Three of them (Caucasians aged 22-26 with years of experience with cannabis) spontaneously mentioned experiencing symptoms of Koro after smoking marijuana. FINDINGS: All three cases occurred after participants had heard about cannabis-induced Koro and used the drug in a novel setting or atypical way. Two of the men had body dysmorphia, which may have contributed to symptoms. All three decreased their cannabis consumption after the Koro experience. CONCLUSIONS: Koro, particularly cannabis-induced Koro, is not limited to Eastern cultures. Several factors may interact to create symptoms. These include previous knowledge of cannabis-induced Koro, the use of marijuana in a way that might heighten a panic reaction, and poor body image. In addition, these cases confirm previous work that shows that negative reactions to drugs can attenuate their use.

Earleywine M

2001-11-01

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The Relationship Between Cannabis Outcome Expectancies and Cannabis Refusal Self-Efficacy in a Treatment Population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancies are central to Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Alcohol studies demonstrate the theoretical and clinical utility of applying both SCT constructs. This study examined the relationship between refusal self-efficacy and outcome expectancies in a sample of cannabis users, and tested formal mediational models. DESIGN: Patients referred for cannabis treatment completed a comprehensive clinical assessment, including recently validated cannabis expectancy and refusal self-efficacy scales. SETTING: A hospital alcohol and drug outpatient clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Patients referred for a cannabis treatment (N = 1115, mean age 26.29, SD 9.39). MEASUREMENTS: The Cannabis Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ) and Cannabis Refusal Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (CRSEQ) were completed, along with measures of cannabis severity (Severity of Dependence Scale [SDS]) and cannabis consumption. FINDINGS: Positive (? = -.29, p < .001) and negative (? = -.19, p < .001) cannabis outcome expectancies were significantly associated with refusal self-efficacy. Refusal self-efficacy, in turn, fully mediated the association between negative expectancy and weekly consumption (CI95% = 0.03, 0.17) and partially mediated the effect of positive expectancy on weekly consumption (CI95% = 0.06, 0.17). CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with Social Cognitive Theory, refusal self-efficacy (a person's belief that he or she can abstain from cannabis use) mediates part of the association between cannabis outcome expectancies (perceived consequences of cannabis use) and cannabis use.

Connor JP; Gullo MJ; Feeney GF; Kavanagh DJ; Young RM

2013-09-01

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Infant with Altered Consciousness after Cannabis Passive Inhalation  

Science.gov (United States)

|We report on an infant who was admitted to hospital with severe neurological symptoms following passive inhalation of cannabis. To date, cannabis abuse has been described almost entirely in adolescents and adults. In early childhood, however, cannabis effects were almost exclusively discussed in the context of maternal prenatal exposure, and the…

Zarfin, Yehoshua; Yefet, Enav; Abozaid, Said; Nasser, Wael; Mor, Tamer; Finkelstein, Yoram

2012-01-01

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Biological aspects of cannabis use.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper the results of a multidisciplinary long term and controlled study on chronic cannabis use are critically reviewed. The first part of the study consisted of: (a) standardization of methods and identification of the experimental sample of chronic cannabis users and matched controls; (b) comparison of the two groups on a number of variables following administration of a battery of medical, psychiatric, neurophysiologic, and psychologic tests; (c) acute cannabis inhalation experiments during which the effect of cannabis preparations of various strengths and of THC-delta-9 were studied in relation to behavioral, psychologic, neurophysiologic, and psychophysiologic responses; (d) identificaiton of possible withdrawal symptoms during a 3-day abstinence period and reintroduction of hashish use. The second part of the study consisted of: (a) a controlled histochemical and electron-microscopic investigation of blood cells and sperm, aimed at revealing changes produced by cannabis at the molecular level, particularly in the cell-nuclear area; (b) a biochemical investigation of changes in biogenic amines and substances related to their metabolism and function during cannabis pre-smoking and postsmoking periods. Our findings from the first part of the study failed to distinguish users from nonusers on most of the investigated parameters. However, they provided useful information on a variety of controversial issues and revealed methodological limitations which should guide future research. Our findings from the second part of the study, although still preliminary, clearly indicate that cannabis use affects cell-nuclear metabolism and produces changes on the molecular level potentially significant for man's biologic functioning. Furthermore findings from this part of this study indicated that cannabis' acute effects in man are correlated with changes in metabolism directly related to biogenic amine biosynthesis and function. It is concluded that despite advances in recent years cannabis research has still a long way to go before providing the definitive answers to the very important questions arising from its habitual use by man.

Stefanis C

1978-01-01

71

Biological aspects of cannabis use.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper the results of a multidisciplinary long term and controlled study on chronic cannabis use are critically reviewed. The first part of the study consisted of: (a) standardization of methods and identification of the experimental sample of chronic cannabis users and matched controls; (b) comparison of the two groups on a number of variables following administration of a battery of medical, psychiatric, neurophysiologic, and psychologic tests; (c) acute cannabis inhalation experiments during which the effect of cannabis preparations of various strengths and of THC-delta-9 were studied in relation to behavioral, psychologic, neurophysiologic, and psychophysiologic responses; (d) identificaiton of possible withdrawal symptoms during a 3-day abstinence period and reintroduction of hashish use. The second part of the study consisted of: (a) a controlled histochemical and electron-microscopic investigation of blood cells and sperm, aimed at revealing changes produced by cannabis at the molecular level, particularly in the cell-nuclear area; (b) a biochemical investigation of changes in biogenic amines and substances related to their metabolism and function during cannabis pre-smoking and postsmoking periods. Our findings from the first part of the study failed to distinguish users from nonusers on most of the investigated parameters. However, they provided useful information on a variety of controversial issues and revealed methodological limitations which should guide future research. Our findings from the second part of the study, although still preliminary, clearly indicate that cannabis use affects cell-nuclear metabolism and produces changes on the molecular level potentially significant for man's biologic functioning. Furthermore findings from this part of this study indicated that cannabis' acute effects in man are correlated with changes in metabolism directly related to biogenic amine biosynthesis and function. It is concluded that despite advances in recent years cannabis research has still a long way to go before providing the definitive answers to the very important questions arising from its habitual use by man. PMID:34102

Stefanis, C

1978-01-01

72

Abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos: atualização para uma antiga evidência Cannabis abuse in patients with psychiatric disorders: an update to old evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar uma atualização sobre o abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos. MÉTODO: Busca de artigos nas bases de dados eletrônicas Medline, The Cochrane Library Database, Lilacs, PubMed e SciELO, utilizando os descritores "marijuana abuse", "cannabis abuse", "psychiatric disorders" AND "mental disorders"; incluindo artigos que avaliaram ambas as exposições para abuso e dependência de cannabis e qualquer outro transtorno psiquiátrico. Foi considerado o período até dezembro de 2009. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o abuso frequente de cannabis pode aumentar o risco para o desenvolvimento de esquizofrenia e de sintomas psicóticos crônicos, embora estes achados ainda careçam de comprovação. A cannabis parece ser uma das drogas de escolha de portadores de transtorno afetivo bipolar, sendo que é descrito que estados maníacos podem ser induzidos pelo seu consumo. O abuso de maconha também frequentemente co-ocorre em indivíduos com transtornos ansiosos, sendo que a relação de cronicidade destas condições e o consumo de maconha ainda é incerta. Para depressão ainda não existem evidências claras que apontem que o consumo de cannabis ocorre como forma de automedicação. Em indivíduos com transtornos psiquiátricos, há relatos de que o uso da cannabis pode exacerbar sintomas positivos, somar efeitos negativos no curso do transtorno, contribuir para pior adesão ao tratamento e levar a maior número de hospitalizações. CONCLUSÃO: O abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos como esquizofrenia, transtornos do humor e ansiosos tem impacto negativo tanto na fase aguda quanto em fases mais avançadas destas condições, embora futuros estudos avaliando estas associações ainda sejam necessários.OBJECTIVE: To perform an update on cannabis abuse by patients with psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A search was performed in the electronic databases Medline, The Cochrane Library Database, Lilacs, PubMed, and SciELO, using the keywords 'marijuana abuse', 'cannabis abuse', 'psychiatric disorders', and 'mental disorders'. Articles published until December 2009, dealing with cannabis abuse and dependence in association with other psychiatric disorders were included. RESULTS: Cannabis abuse was found to be associated with increased risk for the onset of schizophrenia and chronic psychotic symptoms, although these findings require confirmation from additional research. Cannabis seems to be one of the drugs of choice of individuals with bipolar disorder, despite evidence that manic states can be induced by its use. Cannabis abuse also occurs frequently in individuals with anxiety disorders, but the relationship between the chronic nature of these conditions and the use of marijuana remains uncertain. In respect to depression, there is no clear evidence to date that depressive patients use cannabis as a form of self-medication. In individuals with psychiatric disorders, the use of cannabis has been associated with increased positive symptoms, additional negative symptoms in the course of illness, impaired treatment compliance, and more hospitalizations. CONCLUSION: The abuse of cannabis by patients with psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and mood and anxious disorders has a negative impact both in the acute and advanced stages of these conditions, although further investigation on this association is still necessary.

Alessandra Diehl; Daniel Cruz Cordeiro; Ronaldo Laranjeira

2010-01-01

73

Cannabis and psychiatric disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There are connection between use of cannabis and many psychiatric disturbances in adolescents, especially "cannabis psychosis", depression, panic attacks and suicide. Negative effects could occur either as a result of a specific pharmacological effect of cannabis, or as the result of stressful experiences during the intoxication of cannabis in young people. Potentially is very dangerous high frequency suicidal ideation among cannabis users.

Loga S; Loga-Zec S; Spremo M

2010-06-01

74

Cannabis abuse in patients with schizophrenia pattern and effects on symptomatology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the relationship between cannabis abuse and its impact on the short-term outcome and severity of illness. ICD-10 criteria were used for diagnosis of schizophrenia. Severity and type of schizophrenic symptoms were assessed with the help of PANSS. Cases were identified as having problem with cannabis use with the help of section 12 of Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) W.H.O. 1994. Amount, duration and frequency of cannabis use was also noted. Patients with cannabis use were younger had shorter duration of illness and earlier age at onset of illness. They exhibited more positive symptoms. A total of 20% cases met ICD-10 criteria of harmful use of cannabinoid, 76% met ICD-10 criteria of cannabinoid dependence syndrome. Schizophrenic patients with comorbid cannabis abuse exhibited more positive symptoms and violent behavior, and may be more likely to lead to dependence in persons with schizophrenia. This has implication for service development to meet the perceived needs of this group. (author)

2007-01-01

75

How high: Quantity as a predictor of cannabis-related problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on cannabis use has emphasized frequency as a predictor of problems. Studies of other drugs reveal that frequency relates to psychological and physiological outcomes, but quantity also plays an important role. In the study of cannabis, quantity has been difficult to assess due to the wide range of products and means of consumption. Methods The present study introduces three new measures of quantity, and examines their contribution to cannabis-related problems. Over 5,900 adults using cannabis once or more per month completed an internet survey that inquired about use, dependence, social problems and respiratory health. In addition to detailing their frequency of cannabis use, participants also reported three measures of quantity: number of quarter ounces consumed per month, usual intensity of intoxication, and maximum intensity of intoxication. Results Frequency of use, monthly consumption, and levels of intoxication predicted respiratory symptoms, social problems and dependence. What is more, each measure of quantity accounted for significant variance in outcomes after controlling for the effects of frequency. Conclusion These findings indicate that quantity is an important predictor of cannabis-related outcomes, and that the three quantity measures convey useful information about use.

Walden Nicole; Earleywine Mitch

2008-01-01

76

Long-term use of a cannabis-based medicine in the treatment of spasticity and other symptoms in multiple sclerosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The object of this study was to monitor the safety and efficacy of long-term use of an oromucosal cannabis-based medicine (CBM) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). A total of 137 MS patients with symptoms not controlled satisfactorily using standard drugs entered this open-label trial following a 10-week, placebo-controlled study. Patients were assessed every eight weeks using visual analogue scales and diary scores of main symptoms, and were followed for an average of 434 days (range: 21 -814). A total of 58 patients (42.3%) withdrew due to lack of efficacy (24); adverse events (17); withdrew consent (6); lost to follow-up (3); and other (8). Patients reported 292 unwanted effects, of which 251 (86%) were mild to moderate, including oral pain (28), dizziness (20), diarrhoea (17), nausea (15) and oromucosal disorder (12). Three patients had five 'serious adverse events' between them--two seizures, one fall, one aspiration pneumonia, one gastroenteritis. Four patients had first-ever seizures. The improvements recorded and dosage taken in the acute study remained stable. Planned, sudden interruption of CBM for two weeks in 25 patients (of 62 approached) did not cause a consistent withdrawal syndrome, although 11 (46%) patients reported at least one of--tiredness, interrupted sleep, hot and cold flushes, mood alteration, reduced appetite, emotional lability, intoxication or vivid dreams. Twenty-two (88%) patients re-started CBM treatment. We conclude that long-term use of an oromucosal CBM (Sativex) maintains its effect in those patients who perceive initial benefit. The precise nature and rate of risks with long-term use, especially epilepsy, will require larger and longer-term studies.

Wade DT; Makela PM; House H; Bateman C; Robson P

2006-10-01

77

Long-term use of a cannabis-based medicine in the treatment of spasticity and other symptoms in multiple sclerosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The object of this study was to monitor the safety and efficacy of long-term use of an oromucosal cannabis-based medicine (CBM) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). A total of 137 MS patients with symptoms not controlled satisfactorily using standard drugs entered this open-label trial following a 10-week, placebo-controlled study. Patients were assessed every eight weeks using visual analogue scales and diary scores of main symptoms, and were followed for an average of 434 days (range: 21 -814). A total of 58 patients (42.3%) withdrew due to lack of efficacy (24); adverse events (17); withdrew consent (6); lost to follow-up (3); and other (8). Patients reported 292 unwanted effects, of which 251 (86%) were mild to moderate, including oral pain (28), dizziness (20), diarrhoea (17), nausea (15) and oromucosal disorder (12). Three patients had five 'serious adverse events' between them--two seizures, one fall, one aspiration pneumonia, one gastroenteritis. Four patients had first-ever seizures. The improvements recorded and dosage taken in the acute study remained stable. Planned, sudden interruption of CBM for two weeks in 25 patients (of 62 approached) did not cause a consistent withdrawal syndrome, although 11 (46%) patients reported at least one of--tiredness, interrupted sleep, hot and cold flushes, mood alteration, reduced appetite, emotional lability, intoxication or vivid dreams. Twenty-two (88%) patients re-started CBM treatment. We conclude that long-term use of an oromucosal CBM (Sativex) maintains its effect in those patients who perceive initial benefit. The precise nature and rate of risks with long-term use, especially epilepsy, will require larger and longer-term studies. PMID:17086911

Wade, D T; Makela, P M; House, H; Bateman, C; Robson, P

2006-10-01

78

Successful and unsuccessful cannabis quitters: Comparing group characteristics and quitting strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve treatments for cannabis use disorder, a better understanding of factors associated with successful quitting is required. Method This study examined differences between successful (n = 87) and unsuccessful (n = 78) cannabis quitters. Participants completed a questionnaire addressing demographic, mental health, and cannabis-related variables, as well as quitting strategies during their most recent quit attempt. Results Eighteen strategies derived from cognitive behavioral therapy were entered into a principal components analysis. The analysis yielded four components, representing (1) Stimulus Removal, (2) Motivation Enhancement, (3) (lack of) Distraction, and (4) (lack of) Coping. Between groups comparisons showed that unsuccessful quitters scored significantly higher on Motivation Enhancement and (lack of) Coping. This may indicate that unsuccessful quitters focus on the desire to quit, but do not sufficiently plan strategies for coping. Unsuccessful quitters also had significantly more symptoms of depression and stress; less education; lower exposure to formal treatment; higher day-to-day exposure to other cannabis users; and higher cannabis dependence scores. Conclusions The findings suggest that coping, environmental modification, and co-morbid mental health problems may be important factors to emphasize in treatments for cannabis use disorder.

Rooke Sally E; Norberg Melissa M; Copeland Jan

2011-01-01

79

The impact of perceived sleep quality and sleep efficiency/duration on cannabis use during a self-guided quit attempt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poor sleep quality may play a significant role in observed high rates of sustained cannabis use among veterans attempting to quit. We investigated whether individuals with poorer perceived sleep quality (rather than sleep efficiency/duration), as measured via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (Buysse, Reynolds, Monk, & Berman, 1989), would have less of a reduction in cannabis use (measured via Timeline FollowBack; Sobell and Sobell, 1992) during the first 6months following a self-guided quit attempt. We expected these effects to remain significant after adjusting for baseline age, posttraumatic stress symptoms, as well as alcohol, tobacco, and opioid use, and cannabis withdrawal severity over the course of 6months following the cannabis cessation attempt. Generalized linear mixed modeling using a Poisson distribution was employed to test the hypotheses among 102 cannabis dependent, primarily male, military veterans. Results indicated that veterans with poor perceived sleep quality had less of a reduction in mean cannabis use following a self-guided cannabis cessation attempt compared to those with good perceived sleep quality, while efficiency/duration was unrelated to cannabis use outcomes. Conclusions from this study should be considered in light of limitations including the use of self-report measures and generalizability to non-veterans and women. PMID:23906725

Babson, Kimberly A; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

2013-07-02

80

The intersection between cannabis and cancer in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the last 15 years there has been a major shift in the laws governing medical use of cannabis in the United States. Corresponding with this change there has been escalating interest in the role that cannabis, commonly referred to as marijuana, and cannabinoids play in the care of patients with cancer. This review will examine cannabis' and cannabinoids' current and potential roles in cancer care. Specifically, we will examine five areas of cannabis medicine: (1) pharmacologic properties of cannabis; (2) its potential role in the development of human cancers, particularly smoking-related malignancies; (3) cannabinoids' potential as anti-cancer therapies; (4) cannabis and cannabinoids in the palliation of common cancer-associated symptoms; (5) current legal status of cannabis for medical purposes in the United States.

Bowles DW; O'Bryant CL; Camidge DR; Jimeno A

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
81

Neurobiologia da Cannabis: do sistema endocanabinoide aos transtornos por uso de Cannabis Neurobiology of Cannabis: from the endocannabinoid system to cannabis-related disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Diante das lacunas na efetividade das terapêuticas para transtornos por uso de Cannabis, a droga ilícita mais consumida no mundo, este trabalho propõe-se a rever os conhecimentos sobre o substrato neuroanatômico, biomolecular e celular do sistema endocanabinoide, descrever os mecanismos de neuroplasticidade dependente dos canabinoides e relacioná-los com a neurobiologia dos transtornos por uso de Cannabis (abuso e dependência). MÉTODOS: Recorreu-se às bases de dados Medline, Scopus e ISI Web of Knowledge; as palavras-chave pesquisadas foram "Cannabis", "neurobiology", "endocannabinoid system", "endocannabinoids", "receptors, cannabinoid", "neuronal plasticity", "long-term synaptic depression", "long-term potentiation", "marijuana abuse" e "tetrahydrocannabinol". Foram incluídos 80 trabalhos nesta revisão. DISCUSSÃO: A distribuição neuroanatômica, celular e biomolecular do sistema endocanabinoide adequa-se perfeitamente às suas funções de neuromodulação (via neuroplasticidade e metaplasticidade), nomeadamente em vias relacionadas aos transtornos por uso de substâncias. Os canabinoides exógenos perturbam essas funções. CONCLUSÃO: O sistema endocanabinoide contribui para a definição de setpoints em diversas vias neuronais, incluindo vias cruciais na instalação de transtornos por uso de substâncias; com o uso de Cannabis, esses setpoints tornar-se-ão mais permissivos, facilitando os transtornos por uso de Cannabis. Os avanços no entendimento da neurobiologia da Cannabis abrem uma janela de oportunidades para novas estratégias terapêuticas nos transtornos por uso de Cannabis.OBJECTIVES: Given the challenges arising from the poor effectiveness of therapies for Cannabis-related disorders, the most commonly used illicit drug in the world, this paper aims to review the present knowledge about the neuroanatomic, biomolecular and cellular substrate of the endocannabinoid system, describing the mechanisms of cannabinoid-dependent neuronal plasticity and relating them with the neurobiology of Cannabis-related disorders (abuse and dependence). METHODS: Medline, Scopus and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched for the keywords "Cannabis", "neurobiology", "endocannabinoid system", "endocannabinoids", "receptors, cannabinoid", "neuronal plasticity", "long-term synaptic depression", "long-term potentiation", "marijuana abuse" and "tetrahydrocannabinol". Eighty studies were included in this review. DISCUSSION: The neuroanatomical, cellular and biomolecular characterization of the endocannabinoid system serves perfectly its neuromodulatory neuroplastic and metaplastic functions, particularly in pathways related to substance-related disorders. Exogenous cannabinoids disrupt these functions. CONCLUSION: The endocannabinoid system contributes to the definition of setpoints in several neuronal pathways, including pathways critical for the development of substance-related disorders; with Cannabis use these setpoints become more permissive, facilitating Cannabis-related disorders. The advances in understanding the neurobiology of Cannabis open a window of opportunities for new therapeutic strategies in Cannabis-related disorders.

José Luis G. Pinho Costa; Lucas O. Maia; P. Orlandi-Mattos; João C. Villares; Manuel A. Fernandez Esteves

2011-01-01

82

The therapeutic potential of cannabis and cannabinoids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cannabis-based medications have been a topic of intense study since the endogenous cannabinoid system was discovered two decades ago. In 2011, for the first time, a cannabis extract was approved for clinical use in Germany. METHODS: Selective literature review. RESULTS: Cannabis-based medications exert their effects mainly through the activation of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). More than 100 controlled clinical trials of cannabinoids or whole-plant preparations for various indications have been conducted since 1975. The findings of these trials have led to the approval of cannabis-based medicines (dronabinol, nabilone, and a cannabis extract [THC:CBD=1:1]) in several countries. In Germany, a cannabis extract was approved in 2011 for the treatment of moderate to severe refractory spasticity in multiple sclerosis. It is commonly used off label for the treatment of anorexia, nausea, and neuropathic pain. Patients can also apply for government permission to buy medicinal cannabis flowers for self-treatment under medical supervision. The most common side effects of cannabinoids are tiredness and dizziness (in more than 10% of patients), psychological effects, and dry mouth. Tolerance to these side effects nearly always develops within a short time. Withdrawal symptoms are hardly ever a problem in the therapeutic setting. CONCLUSION: There is now clear evidence that cannabinoids are useful for the treatment of various medical conditions.

Grotenhermen F; Müller-Vahl K

2012-07-01

83

Alteration to hippocampal shape in cannabis users with and without schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abnormalities in hippocampal morphology are characteristic of schizophrenia and have also been reported in chronic cannabis users. There is a paucity of research investigating potential additive effects of cannabis use on brain pathology associated with schizophrenia. In this study, we performed hippocampal shape analysis in cannabis-using and non-using patients with schizophrenia, healthy cannabis users and healthy non-using controls. Hippocampal shape changes were observed in each group relative to controls, with the greatest degree of alterations (i.e., deflations across the hippocampus, and with an anterior predisposition), in cannabis-using schizophrenia patients. These alterations were associated with cannabis use patterns and psychotic symptoms. PMID:23201308

Solowij, Nadia; Walterfang, Mark; Lubman, Dan I; Whittle, Sarah; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Styner, Martin; Velakoulis, Dennis; Pantelis, Christos; Yücel, Murat

2012-11-30

84

Users of Cannabis Only.  

Science.gov (United States)

Subjects who have used only cannabis were compared with those who have used cannabis along with other drugs, and with a control sample on whom no drug-using information was available. Results indicate that cannabis-only users are more effective than users...

C. J. Mullins B. M. Vitola J. W. Abellera

1974-01-01

85

Cannabis and Breastfeeding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breastfeeding because...

Garry, Aurélia; Rigourd, Virginie; Amirouche, Ammar; Fauroux, Valérie; Aubry, Sylvie; Serreau, Raphaël

86

Cannabis abuse is associated with better emotional memory in schizophrenia: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study.  

Science.gov (United States)

In schizophrenia cannabis abuse/dependence is associated with poor compliance and psychotic relapse. Despite this, the reasons for cannabis abuse remain elusive, but emotions may play a critical role in this comorbidity. Accordingly, we performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of emotional memory in schizophrenia patients with cannabis abuse (dual-diagnosis, DD). Participants comprised 14 DD patients, 14 non-abusing schizophrenia patients (SCZ), and 21 healthy controls (HC) who had to recognize positive and negative pictures while being scanned. Recognition of positive and negative emotions was prominently impaired in SCZ patients, relative to HC, while differences between DD and HC were smaller. For positive and negative stimuli, we observed significant activations in frontal, limbic, temporal and occipital regions in HC; in frontal, limbic and temporal regions in DD; and in temporal, parietal, limbic and occipital regions in the SCZ group. Our results suggest that emotional memory and prefrontal lobe functioning are preserved in DD relative to SCZ patients. These results are consistent with previous findings showing that cannabis abuse is associated with fewer negative symptoms and better cognitive functioning in schizophrenia. Longitudinal studies will need to determine whether the relative preservation of emotional memory is primary or secondary to cannabis abuse in schizophrenia. PMID:23906663

Bourque, Josiane; Mendrek, Adrianna; Durand, Myriam; Lakis, Nadia; Lipp, Olivier; Stip, Emmanuel; Lalonde, Pierre; Grignon, Sylvain; Potvin, Stéphane

2013-07-30

87

Cannabis and Breast feeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

2009-01-01

88

Correlates of driving under the influence of cannabis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Identifying cannabis users who are most at risk of driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) has important implications for drug treatment and prevention efforts. This paper examined correlates of DUIC among a purposive sample of recent cannabis users. METHODS: Interviews were carried out among a cross-sectional sample of 320 Australian cannabis users. Past-year prevalence of DUIC (without using alcohol or other drugs) was regressed against a range of potential predictor variables. RESULTS: Use of multiple drugs, believing that DUIC does not increase accident risk and cannabis dependence all predicted likelihood of DUIC. There was an interaction between age of first cannabis use and gender, whereby earlier onset cannabis use predicted DUIC but only among women. CONCLUSIONS: The correlates of drug driving reflected cannabis users' beliefs about the dangers of cannabis use as well as their patterns of drug consumption. The emergence of cannabis dependence and age of onset as predictors of DUIC suggests a clearly defined role for treatment and prevention efforts in reducing the potential harms associated with DUIC.

Jones CG; Swift W; Donnelly NJ; Weatherburn DJ

2007-04-01

89

Determination of pesticide residues in cannabis smoke.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks. PMID:23737769

Sullivan, Nicholas; Elzinga, Sytze; Raber, Jeffrey C

2013-05-12

90

Potential dangers of cannabis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cannabis is not a harmless drug. The potential dangers of cannabis are briefly reviewed in this report. The above-mentioned observations on cannabis users should be kept in mind and carefully examined by all physicians. One could expect that as more potent cannabis preparations become available, some of the toxic manifestations which now seem rare might become more frequent. Some of the remarks about the dangers of cannabis may not be proved in future studies, and they may represent only our anxiety. However, prior to the elimination of these fears, no steps should be taken toward the legalizing of marijuana. At present there is no scientific evidence that cannabis is less harmful than either tobacco or alcohol. The opposite may be true. The analogy can be drawn between opium and cannabis. The permissive attitude toward the use of opium can easily lead to the use of morphine and other opiates. If we legalize the use of marijuana, we cannot prevent the use of more dangerous derivatives of cannabis; namely, hashish, cannabis oil and THC, itself. In my opinion, in the light of our present knowledge, legalizing of marijuana could be hazardous both for the individual and for society.

Kaymakçalan S

1975-01-01

91

Cannabidiol inhibits THC-elicited paranoid symptoms and hippocampal-dependent memory impairment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-based studies suggest that cannabis products that are high in ??-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but low in cannabidiol (CBD) are particularly hazardous for mental health. Laboratory-based studies are ideal for clarifying this issue because THC and CBD can be administered in pure form, under controlled conditions. In a between-subjects design, we tested the hypothesis that pre-treatment with CBD inhibited THC-elicited psychosis and cognitive impairment. Healthy participants were randomised to receive oral CBD 600 mg (n=22) or placebo (n=26), 210 min ahead of intravenous (IV) THC (1.5 mg). Post-THC, there were lower PANSS positive scores in the CBD group, but this did not reach statistical significance. However, clinically significant positive psychotic symptoms (defined a priori as increases ? 3 points) were less likely in the CBD group compared with the placebo group, odds ratio (OR)=0.22 (?²=4.74, pHVLT-R), was poorer, relative to baseline, in the placebo pre-treated group (-10.6 ± 18.9%) compared with the CBD group (-0.4% ± 9.7 %) (t=2.39, p<0.05). These findings support the idea that high-THC/low-CBD cannabis products are associated with increased risks for mental health. PMID:23042808

Englund, Amir; Morrison, Paul D; Nottage, Judith; Hague, Dominic; Kane, Fergus; Bonaccorso, Stefania; Stone, James M; Reichenberg, Avi; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Holt, David; Feilding, Amanda; Walker, Lucy; Murray, Robin M; Kapur, Shitij

2012-10-05

92

Survey of Australians using cannabis for medical purposes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The New South Wales State Government recently proposed a trial of the medical use of cannabis. Australians who currently use cannabis medicinally do so illegally and without assurances of quality control. Given the dearth of local information on this issue, this study explored the experiences of medical cannabis users. Methods Australian adults who had used cannabis for medical purposes were recruited using media stories. A total of 147 respondents were screened by phone and anonymous questionnaires were mailed, to be returned by postage paid envelope. Results Data were available for 128 participants. Long term and regular medical cannabis use was frequently reported for multiple medical conditions including chronic pain (57%), depression (56%), arthritis (35%), persistent nausea (27%) and weight loss (26%). Cannabis was perceived to provide "great relief" overall (86%), and substantial relief of specific symptoms such as pain, nausea and insomnia. It was also typically perceived as superior to other medications in terms of undesirable effects, and the extent of relief provided. However, nearly one half (41%) experienced conditions or symptoms that were not helped by its use. The most prevalent concerns related to its illegality. Participants reported strong support for their use from clinicians and family. There was almost universal interest (89%) in participating in a clinical trial of medical cannabis, and strong support (79%) for investigating alternative delivery methods. Conclusion Australian medical cannabis users are risking legal ramifications, but consistent with users elsewhere, claim moderate to substantial benefits from its use in the management of their medical condition. In addition to strong public support, medical cannabis users show strong interest in clinical cannabis research, including the investigation of alternative delivery methods.

Swift Wendy; Gates Peter; Dillon Paul

2005-01-01

93

Cannabis and skin diseases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

From time out of mind, man has grown hemp for both "industrial" and "recreational" use (it is then referred to as cannabis). Of course, cannabis has strong psychoactive properties and is one of the most commonly used "soft drugs" in the world. Clinicians should know the adverse effects on mucous membranes and on skin, which may sometimes entail an absolutely necessary stopping of consumption. Raynaud's phenomenon, as well as arteritis due to cannabis consumption may be extremely severe and result in worrying situations for both clinicians and patients.

Tennstedt D; Saint-Remy A

2011-01-01

94

Prevalence of DSM-IV and DSM-5 alcohol, cocaine, opioid, and cannabis use disorders in a largely substance dependent sample.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) will soon replace the DSM-IV, which has existed for nearly two decades. The changes in diagnostic criteria have important implications for research and for the clinical care of individuals with Substance Use Disorders (SUDs). METHODS: We used the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism to evaluate the lifetime presence of DSM-IV abuse and dependence diagnoses and DSM-5 mild, moderate, or severe SUDs for alcohol, cocaine, opioids, and cannabis in a sample of 7,543 individuals recruited to participate in genetic studies of substance dependence. RESULTS: Switches between diagnostic systems consistently resulted in a modestly greater prevalence for DSM-5 SUDs, based largely on the assignment of DSM-5 diagnoses to DSM-IV "diagnostic orphans" (i.e., individuals meeting one or two criteria for dependence and none for abuse, and thus not receiving a DSM-IV SUD diagnosis). The vast majority of these diagnostic switches were attributable to the requirement that only two of 11 criteria be met for a DSM-5 SUD diagnosis. We found evidence to support the omission from DSM-5 of the legal criterion due to its limited diagnostic utility. The addition of craving as a criterion in DSM-5 did not substantially affect the likelihood of an SUD diagnosis. CONCLUSION: The greatest advantage of DSM-5 for the diagnosis of SUDs appears to be its ability to capture diagnostic orphans. In this sample, changes reflected in DSM-5 had a minimal impact on the prevalence of SUD diagnoses.

Peer K; Rennert L; Lynch KG; Farrer L; Gelernter J; Kranzler HR

2013-01-01

95

Validation of the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test in a sample of cannabis inpatients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aims at validating the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) in a clinical sample of adolescent and young adult cannabis users seeking treatment. Applying a classical test theory approach using DSM-IV diagnoses as gold standard, two versions of the CAST questionnaire are compared. The sample consisted of 140 subjects aged 15-26 years (mean 18.9) recruited from two cannabis treatment centers. Gold standard diagnoses were assessed using the Adolescent Diagnostic Interview-Light. Internal structure and consistency of the CAST were assessed by principal component analysis and Cronbach's ?. Optimal thresholds were defined using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Both the binary and the full test version revealed unidimensional structures with moderate to satisfactory internal consistency (? = 0.66 and 0.73). Screening properties were unsatisfactory when the CAST was compared against cannabis dependence. With regard to cannabis use disorders, both test versions yielded comparable and good sensitivity and specificity at cut-off 3 (binary: 92.2%, 66.7%) and 6 (full: 93.0%, 66.7%). Overall, the full CAST may be used for screening cannabis use disorders in clinical settings. Further research may use validation methods that do without gold standard. PMID:22472963

Legleye, Stéphane; Kraus, Ludwig; Piontek, Daniela; Phan, Olivier; Jouanne, Céline

2012-03-31

96

Validation of the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test in a sample of cannabis inpatients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study aims at validating the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) in a clinical sample of adolescent and young adult cannabis users seeking treatment. Applying a classical test theory approach using DSM-IV diagnoses as gold standard, two versions of the CAST questionnaire are compared. The sample consisted of 140 subjects aged 15-26 years (mean 18.9) recruited from two cannabis treatment centers. Gold standard diagnoses were assessed using the Adolescent Diagnostic Interview-Light. Internal structure and consistency of the CAST were assessed by principal component analysis and Cronbach's ?. Optimal thresholds were defined using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Both the binary and the full test version revealed unidimensional structures with moderate to satisfactory internal consistency (? = 0.66 and 0.73). Screening properties were unsatisfactory when the CAST was compared against cannabis dependence. With regard to cannabis use disorders, both test versions yielded comparable and good sensitivity and specificity at cut-off 3 (binary: 92.2%, 66.7%) and 6 (full: 93.0%, 66.7%). Overall, the full CAST may be used for screening cannabis use disorders in clinical settings. Further research may use validation methods that do without gold standard.

Legleye S; Kraus L; Piontek D; Phan O; Jouanne C

2012-01-01

97

What place for ? cannabis extract in MS?  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological condition that is estimated to affect around 60,000 people in England and Wales, with a lifetime risk in the UK of 1 in 1,000.(1,2) Spasticity (an increase in muscle tone) is a common symptom of MS, resulting in muscle spasms, immobility, disturbed sleep and pain.(3,4) Complex drug combinations are sometimes necessary to manage symptoms of MS, but these are often only partially effective and associated with unacceptable side effects.(5) Cannabis extract containing delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) and cannabidiol are the principal extracts from the cannabis plant present in a licensed preparation (?Sativex - GW Pharma Ltd), the first cannabinoid preparation to be approved for medical use. Sativex has been licensed "for symptom improvement in adult patients with moderate to severe spasticity due to MS who have not responded adequately to other anti-spasticity medication and who demonstrate clinically significant improvement in spasticity related symptoms during an initial trial of therapy".(6) Here we review the evidence for cannabis extract and its place in the treatment of the condition. PMID:23241565

2012-12-01

98

What place for ? cannabis extract in MS?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological condition that is estimated to affect around 60,000 people in England and Wales, with a lifetime risk in the UK of 1 in 1,000.(1,2) Spasticity (an increase in muscle tone) is a common symptom of MS, resulting in muscle spasms, immobility, disturbed sleep and pain.(3,4) Complex drug combinations are sometimes necessary to manage symptoms of MS, but these are often only partially effective and associated with unacceptable side effects.(5) Cannabis extract containing delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) and cannabidiol are the principal extracts from the cannabis plant present in a licensed preparation (?Sativex - GW Pharma Ltd), the first cannabinoid preparation to be approved for medical use. Sativex has been licensed "for symptom improvement in adult patients with moderate to severe spasticity due to MS who have not responded adequately to other anti-spasticity medication and who demonstrate clinically significant improvement in spasticity related symptoms during an initial trial of therapy".(6) Here we review the evidence for cannabis extract and its place in the treatment of the condition.

2012-12-01

99

Abuso e dependência de maconha: comparação entre sexos e preparação para mudanças comportamentais entre usuários que iniciam a busca por tratamento Cannabis abuse and dependency: differences between men and women and readiness to behavior change among users seeking treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever o perfil sociodemográfico de usuários de maconha que iniciam tratamento e comparar os sexos dos indivíduos em relação aos estágios de prontidão para mudança e uso associado de outras drogas. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal descritivo, com amostra não probabilística de indivíduos que ligaram para um teleatendimento especializado em dependência química. RESULTADOS: A amostra se constituiu de 72% de indivíduos do sexo masculino na faixa etária de 12 a 25 anos. Um percentual de 85,5% fazia uso associado de outras drogas. O estágio motivacional predominante foi de ação (56%), sem diferenças entre sexos (p = 0,4). Os homens mais frequentemente procuraram auxílio para o tratamento do uso de maconha. CONCLUSÕES: Com base nesses dados, foi possível delinear o perfil dos usuários de maconha para auxiliar no direcionamento de informações e atendimento adequado.OBJECTIVES: To describe the social and demographic profile of cannabis users seeking treatment and to compare differences between sex in relation to readiness to behavior change and in relation to associated use of marijuana and other drugs. METHOD: A cross-sectional, descriptive study including a nonprobability sample of individuals who called a chemical dependency hotline. RESULTS: The sample comprised 72% male individuals aged between 12 and 25 years. The sample was composed by 85.5% used other drugs in association with cannabis. The action stage was the most frequent stage of readiness to behavior change observed, in 56% of the callers, with no differences between sex (p = 0.4). Men more frequently sought treatment for the use of cannabis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings allowed delineating a profile of cannabis users, so as to better guide the provision of adequate information and treatment services.

Simone Fernandes; Maristela Ferigolo; Mariana Canellas Benchaya; Pollianna Sangalli Pierozan; Taís de Campos Moreira; Vagner dos Santos; Cláudia Galvão Mazoni; Helena Maria Tannhauser Barros

2010-01-01

100

Human studies of cannabinoids and medicinal cannabis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis has been known as a medicine for several thousand years across many cultures. It reached a position of prominence within Western medicine in the nineteenth century but became mired in disrepute and legal controls early in the twentieth century. Despite unremitting world-wide suppression, recreational cannabis exploded into popular culture in the 1960s and has remained easily obtainable on the black market in most countries ever since. This ready availability has allowed many thousands of patients to rediscover the apparent power of the drug to alleviate symptoms of some of the most cruel and refractory diseases known to humankind. Pioneering clinical research in the last quarter of the twentieth century has given some support to these anecdotal reports, but the methodological challenges to human research involving a pariah drug are formidable. Studies have tended to be small, imperfectly controlled, and have often incorporated unsatisfactory synthetic cannabinoid analogues or smoked herbal material of uncertain composition and irregular bioavailability. As a result, the scientific evaluation of medicinal cannabis in humans is still in its infancy. New possibilities in human research have been opened up by the discovery of the endocannabinoid system, a rapidly expanding knowledge of cannabinoid pharmacology, and a more sympathetic political environment in several countries. More and more scientists and clinicians are becoming interested in exploring the potential of cannabis-based medicines. Future targets will extend beyond symptom relief into disease modification, and already cannabinoids seem to offer particular promise in the treatment of certain inflammatory and neurodegenerative conditions. This chapter will begin with an outline of the development and current status of legal controls pertaining to cannabis, following which the existing human research will be reviewed. Some key safety issues will then be considered, and the chapter will conclude with some suggestions as to future directions for human research. PMID:16596794

Robson, P

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Cannabis for therapeutic purposes: Patient characteristics, access, and reasons for use.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The authorized and unauthorized use of cannabis for therapeutic purposes (CTP) has increased dramatically in recent years, and physicians have called for further research to better clarify the parameters of effective and appropriate use. We report findings from a large cross-sectional study of the use of CTP in Canada and compare use across medical conditions and across authorized and unauthorized users. METHODS: We examined cannabis use history, medical conditions and symptoms, patterns of current use of CTP, modes of access and perceived effectiveness among 628 self-selected Canadians consumers of CTP. Participants were recruited from medical cannabis dispensaries and from organizations that assist users of CTP. RESULTS: Patients reported using cannabis to treat multiple symptoms, with sleep, pain, and anxiety being the most common. Cannabis was perceived to provide effective symptoms relief across medical conditions. Patterns of use were also consistent across medical conditions. Notable differences were observed with regard to modes of access. CONCLUSION: Across medical conditions respondents reported using cannabis to effectively address diverse symptoms. Results indicate a substantial disconnect between the therapeutic use of cannabis and research on the risks and benefits of such use; particularly with regard to the anxiolytic and sedative use of cannabis. Authorized and unauthorized users exhibited few meaningful differences with regard to medical conditions and patterns of use, but faced substantial differences regarding access.

Walsh Z; Callaway R; Belle-Isle L; Capler R; Kay R; Lucas P; Holtzman S

2013-09-01

102

Cannabis cue-induced brain activation correlates with drug craving in limbic and visual salience regions: Preliminary results.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Craving is a major motivator underlying drug use and relapse but the neural correlates of cannabis craving are not well understood. This study sought to determine whether visual cannabis cues increase cannabis craving and whether cue-induced craving is associated with regional brain activation in cannabis-dependent individuals. Cannabis craving was assessed in 16 cannabis-dependent adult volunteers while they viewed cannabis cues during a functional MRI (fMRI) scan. The Marijuana Craving Questionnaire was administered immediately before and after each of three cannabis cue-exposure fMRI runs. FMRI blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity was determined in regions activated by cannabis cues to examine the relationship of regional brain activation to cannabis craving. Craving scores increased significantly following exposure to visual cannabis cues. Visual cues activated multiple brain regions, including inferior orbital frontal cortex, posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, amygdala, superior temporal pole, and occipital cortex. Craving scores at baseline and at the end of all three runs were significantly correlated with brain activation during the first fMRI run only, in the limbic system (including amygdala and hippocampus) and paralimbic system (superior temporal pole), and visual regions (occipital cortex). Cannabis cues increased craving in cannabis-dependent individuals and this increase was associated with activation in the limbic, paralimbic, and visual systems during the first fMRI run, but not subsequent fMRI runs. These results suggest that these regions may mediate visually cued aspects of drug craving. This study provides preliminary evidence for the neural basis of cue-induced cannabis craving and suggests possible neural targets for interventions targeted at treating cannabis dependence.

Charboneau EJ; Dietrich MS; Park S; Cao A; Watkins TJ; Blackford JU; Benningfield MM; Martin PR; Buchowski MS; Cowan RL

2013-09-01

103

Cannabis cue-induced brain activation correlates with drug craving in limbic and visual salience regions: Preliminary results.  

Science.gov (United States)

Craving is a major motivator underlying drug use and relapse but the neural correlates of cannabis craving are not well understood. This study sought to determine whether visual cannabis cues increase cannabis craving and whether cue-induced craving is associated with regional brain activation in cannabis-dependent individuals. Cannabis craving was assessed in 16 cannabis-dependent adult volunteers while they viewed cannabis cues during a functional MRI (fMRI) scan. The Marijuana Craving Questionnaire was administered immediately before and after each of three cannabis cue-exposure fMRI runs. FMRI blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity was determined in regions activated by cannabis cues to examine the relationship of regional brain activation to cannabis craving. Craving scores increased significantly following exposure to visual cannabis cues. Visual cues activated multiple brain regions, including inferior orbital frontal cortex, posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, amygdala, superior temporal pole, and occipital cortex. Craving scores at baseline and at the end of all three runs were significantly correlated with brain activation during the first fMRI run only, in the limbic system (including amygdala and hippocampus) and paralimbic system (superior temporal pole), and visual regions (occipital cortex). Cannabis cues increased craving in cannabis-dependent individuals and this increase was associated with activation in the limbic, paralimbic, and visual systems during the first fMRI run, but not subsequent fMRI runs. These results suggest that these regions may mediate visually cued aspects of drug craving. This study provides preliminary evidence for the neural basis of cue-induced cannabis craving and suggests possible neural targets for interventions targeted at treating cannabis dependence. PMID:24035535

Charboneau, Evonne J; Dietrich, Mary S; Park, Sohee; Cao, Aize; Watkins, Tristan J; Blackford, Jennifer U; Benningfield, Margaret M; Martin, Peter R; Buchowski, Maciej S; Cowan, Ronald L

2013-09-12

104

A latent class analysis of alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms among Puerto Rican youth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study aim was to classify youths into homogenous groups based on their symptoms of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence. An NIDA-funded cross-sectional survey was administered to 622 middle and high school students in San Juan, Puerto Rico in 2000. Latent class analysis (LCA) examined the Alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms. Three distinct classes of drinkers were found: low (86.0% of sample), moderate (11.7% of sample), and high (2.3% of sample) severity classes which were distinguished by differing estimated probabilities of symptom reporting. The study has implications for the diagnosis of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence among Puerto Rican youths. Limitations are also noted.

Mancha BE; Hulbert A; Latimer WW

2012-03-01

105

Effects of nicotine dependence and depressive symptoms on smoking cessation: a longitudinal study among adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Nicotine dependence has been shown to hamper successful smoking cessation in adolescents. Nicotine dependence and depression are highly comorbid, but the relation between depression and smoking cessation is not yet fully understood. Therefore, the present study examines both the longitudinal reciprocal relation between nicotine dependence and depressive symptoms, and the longitudinal effect of these factors on successful smoking cessation and number of quit attempts. METHODS: A 2-wave longitudinal study was conducted among 535 adolescents aged 13-18. Written self-report questionnaires were administered in a classroom setting. Two models were tested, examining the mutual relation between nicotine dependence and depressive symptoms, as well as the predictive value of these factors on smoking cessation (n = 535), and number of quit attempts (n = 473) 1 year later. RESULTS: Adolescents with more depressive symptoms have significantly higher levels of nicotine dependence 1 year later. Higher levels of nicotine dependence negatively predicted subsequent successful smoking cessation, whereas depressive symptoms did not. In contrast, depressive symptoms predicted a higher number of unsuccessful quit attempts in the following year, whereas nicotine dependence did not. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that adolescents tend to smoke cigarettes in order to diminish their depressive feelings, which might provide some support for the self-medication theory. Smoking cessation programs aiming at adolescents should not only focus on symptoms of nicotine dependence but should also pay attention to depressive feelings, since these feelings are related to a higher number of unsuccessful quit attempts.

Scherphof CS; van den Eijnden RJ; Harakeh Z; Raaijmakers QA; Kleinjan M; Engels RC; Vollebergh WA

2013-07-01

106

Clinical service desires of medical cannabis patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Medical cannabis dispensaries following the social or hybrid model offer supplementary holistic services in addition to dispensing medical cannabis. Historically, alternative physical health services have been the norm for these dispensaries, including services such as yoga, acupuncture, or chiropractor visits. A clinical service dearth remains for medical cannabis patients seeking substance use, misuse, dependence, and mental health services. This study examined patient desires for various clinical services and level of willingness to participate in specific clinical services. METHODS: Anonymous survey data (N = 303) were collected at Harborside Health Center (HHC), a medical cannabis dispensary in Oakland, CA. The sample was 70% male, 48% Caucasian and 21% African American. The mean male age was 38 years old and female mean age was 30. Sixty two percent of the male participants and 44% of the female participants are single. Sixteen percent of the population reported having a domestic partner. Forty six percent of the participants are employed full time, 41% have completed at least some college, and 49% make less than $40,000 a year. RESULTS: A significant portion of the sample, 62%, indicated a desire to participate in free clinical services at HHC, 34% would like more information about substances and use, and 41% want to learn more about reducing harms from substance use. About one quarter of the participants marked "would" or "likely would" participate in individual services such as consultation. Approximately 20% indicated "would" or "likely would" participate in psycho-educational forums, harm reduction information sharing sessions, online support groups, and coping, life, and social skills group. There was little interest in traditional NA/AA 12-step groups or adapted 12-step groups. CONCLUSIONS: Desired clinical services can be qualified as a combination of harm reduction, educational, skills-based, peer support and therapeutic individual and group services. Results suggest that medical cannabis patients seek more information about various substances, including cannabis. Dispensaries can help to decrease gaps in substance education and clinical services and fulfill unmet clinical desires. More research is necessary in additional medical cannabis dispensaries in different geographic settings with different service delivery models.

Janichek JL; Reiman A

2012-01-01

107

Medical use of cannabis. Cannabidiol: a new light for schizophrenia?  

Science.gov (United States)

The medical properties of cannabis have been known for many centuries; its first documented use dates back to 2800 BC when it was described for its hallucinogenic and pain-relieving properties. In the first half of the twentieth century, a number of pharmaceutical companies marked cannabis for indications such as asthma and pain, but since then its use has sharply declined, mainly due to its unpredictable effects, but also for socio-political issues. Recently, great attention has been directed to the medical properties of phytocannabinoids present in the cannabis plant alongside the main constituent ??-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); these include cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). Evidence suggests an association between cannabis and schizophrenia: schizophrenics show a higher use of marijuana as compared to the healthy population. Additionally, the use of marijuana can trigger psychotic episodes in schizophrenic patients, and this has been ascribed to THC. Given the need to reduce the side effects of marketed antipsychotics, and their weak efficacy on some schizophrenic symptoms, cannabinoids have been suggested as a possible alternative treatment for schizophrenia. CBD, a non-psychoactive constituent of the Cannabis sativa plant, has been receiving growing attention for its anti-psychotic-like properties. Evidence suggests that CBD can ameliorate positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Behavioural and neurochemical models suggest that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical anti-psychotic drugs and a clinical trial reported that this cannabinoid is a well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. PMID:23109356

Deiana, Serena

2012-10-25

108

Frontal systems related symptoms in cocaine dependent patients with comorbid personality disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

RATIONALE: The co-occurrence of cocaine dependence and personality disorders may contribute to frontal systems-related behavioral symptoms in cocaine users. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to characterize apathy, disinhibition, and dysexecutive symptoms in cocaine users with comorbid personality disorders. METHODS: Thirty-nine participants meeting criteria for cocaine dependence and personality disorders, 35 participants meeting criteria for cocaine dependence without comorbidities, and 29 controls matched for age, education, and IQ completed the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe), which provides present and retrospective assessments (of the period preceding cocaine use) about apathy, disinhibition, and dysexecutive symptoms. Additionally, relatives of cocaine patients (34 relatives from comorbid patients and 31 relatives from noncomorbid patients) completed the informant version of the FrSBe. We used one-way ANOVAs to investigate present-moment differences between the groups and related samples t tests to quantify changes between pre-disorder and present-moment symptoms. RESULTS: Cocaine users with personality disorders self-reported higher present-moment apathy and disinhibition symptoms than noncomorbid users and controls. Informant ratings showed that comorbid users exhibited pre-disorder elevations in apathy, disinhibition and dysexecutive symptoms, and that these symptoms did not significantly change between the pre-disorder and the present-moment assessments. In contrast, noncomorbid users exhibited increased apathy, disinhibition, and dysexecutive symptoms at present-moment compared with pre-disorder measures. CONCLUSIONS: The co-occurrence of cocaine dependence and personality disorders is associated with elevated frontal systems-related behavioral symptoms. Comorbid and noncomorbid users differ in frontal symptoms' trajectories, with the former showing pre-disorder stable elevations and the latter showing lower baseline symptoms but greater addiction-related elevations.

Albein-Urios N; Martínez-González JM; Lozano O; Verdejo-Garcia A

2013-08-01

109

Maladaptive Dependency Schemas, Posttraumatic Stress Hyperarousal Symptoms, and Intimate Partner Aggression Perpetration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined the associations between maladaptive dependency-related schemas, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) hyperarousal symptoms, and intimate-partner psychological and physical aggression in a sample of court-referred men (N = 174) participating in a domestic-abuser-intervention program. The men were largely African American; average age was 33.5 years. The extent to which hyperarousal symptoms moderated the association between dependency schemas and aggression was also examined. Maladaptive dependency-related schemas were positively associated with severe psychological, and mild and severe physical aggression perpetration. Hyperarousal symptoms were positively associated with mild and severe psychological aggression, and mild physical aggression perpetration. Multiple regression analyses showed a significant interaction for mild physical aggression: For those with high levels of hyperarousal symptoms, greater endorsement of maladaptive dependency schemas was associated with the perpetration of aggression (B = 0.98, p = .001). For those with low levels of hyperarousal symptoms, there was no association between dependency schemas and aggression (B = 0.04, ns). These findings suggest that focusing on problematic dependency and PTSD-hyperarousal symptoms in domestic-abuser-intervention programs may be helpful, and that examining related variables as possible moderators between dependency schemas and intimate aggression would be a fruitful area for future research.

Kachadourian LK; Taft CT; Holowka DW; Woodward H; Marx BP; Burns A

2013-09-01

110

Cannabis - from cultivar to chemovar.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The medicinal use of Cannabis is increasing as countries worldwide are setting up official programs to provide patients with access to safe sources of medicinal-grade Cannabis. An important question that remains to be answered is which of the many varieties of Cannabis should be made available for medicinal use. Drug varieties of Cannabis are commonly distinguished through the use of popular names, with a major distinction being made between Indica and Sativa types. Although more than 700 different cultivars have already been described, it is unclear whether such classification reflects any relevant differences in chemical composition. Some attempts have been made to classify Cannabis varieties based on chemical composition, but they have mainly been useful for forensic applications, distinguishing drug varieties, with high THC content, from the non-drug hemp varieties. The biologically active terpenoids have not been included in these approaches. For a clearer understanding of the medicinal properties of the Cannabis plant, a better classification system, based on a range of potentially active constituents, is needed. The cannabinoids and terpenoids, present in high concentrations in Cannabis flowers, are the main candidates. In this study, we compared cultivars obtained from multiple sources. Based on the analysis of 28 major compounds present in these samples, followed by principal component analysis (PCA) of the quantitative data, we were able to identify the Cannabis constituents that defined the samples into distinct chemovar groups. The study indicates the usefulness of a PCA approach for chemotaxonomic classification of Cannabis varieties.

Hazekamp A; Fischedick JT

2012-07-01

111

Chemistry, Metabolism, and Toxicology of Cannabis: Clinical Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cannabis is one of the most widely abused substances throughout the world. The primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9_THC), produces a myriad of pharmacological effects in animals and humans. Although it is used as a recreational drug, it can potentially lead to dependence and behavioral disturbances and its heavy use may increase the risk for psychotic disorders.Many studies that endeavor to understand the mechanism of action of cannabis concentrate on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids in humans. However, there is limited research on the chronic adverse effects and retention of cannabinoids in human subjects.Cannabis can be detected in body fluids following exposure through active/passive inhalation and exposure through breastfeeding. Cannabis detection is directly dependent on accurate analytical procedures for detection of metabolites and verification of recent use.In this review, an attempt has been made to summarize the properties of cannabis and its derivatives, and to discuss the implications of its use with emphasis on bioavailability, limit of detection, carry over period and passive inhalation, important factors for detection and diagnosis.

Priyamvada Sharma; Pratima Murthy; M.M. Srinivas Bharath

2012-01-01

112

Borderline personality symptoms in short-term and long-term abstinent alcohol dependence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Comorbidity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance and alcohol use disorders (SUDs and AUDs) is very high. The literature suggests a negative synergy between BPD and SUDs, which may impact an individual's ability to achieve and maintain remission of either disorder in the face of the other. METHODS: We examined lifetime and current (past year) BPD symptom counts in 3 gender- and age-comparable groups: short-term abstinent alcoholics (STA, 6 to 15 weeks abstinent), long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTA, more than 18 months abstinent), and nonsubstance-abusing controls (NSAC). Abstinent individuals were recruited primarily from mutual-help recovery networks and about half had comorbid drug dependence. BPD symptoms were obtained using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis II Personality Disorders, followed up with questions regarding currency, but did not require that BPD symptoms represent persistent or pervasive behavior such as would meet criteria for BPD diagnosis. Thus, our study dealt only with BPD symptoms, not BPD diagnoses. RESULTS: Alcoholics had more lifetime and current symptoms for most all BPD criteria than NSAC. In general, STA and LTA did not differ in BPD symptoms, except for a group-by-gender effect for both lifetime and current anger-associated symptoms and for lifetime abandonment avoidance symptoms. For these cases, there were much higher symptom counts for STA women versus men, with comparable symptom counts for LTA women versus men. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest for the most part that BPD symptoms do not prevent the maintenance of recovery in AUD and SUD individuals who have established at least 6 weeks abstinence within the mutual-help recovery network-in fact the presence of BPD symptoms is the norm. However, we did find difficulty in establishing longer-term abstinence in women with anger-associated symptoms and abandonment avoidance symptoms.

Fein G; Nip V

2012-07-01

113

Posttraumatic stress disorder and cannabis use in a nationally representative sample.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study examined the relations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cannabis use in a large representative survey of adults (N = 5,672) from the United States (Kessler et al., 2004). After adjusting for sociodemographic variables (i.e., age, marital status, ethnicity, education, income, and sex), alcohol use disorders, and nicotine dependence, lifetime and current (past year) PTSD diagnoses were associated with increased odds of lifetime history of cannabis use as well as past year daily cannabis use. Lifetime, but not current, PTSD diagnosis also was uniquely associated with increased risk for any past year cannabis use. Additional analyses revealed that the relations between PTSD (lifetime and current) and lifetime cannabis use remained statistically significant when adjusting for co-occurring anxiety and mood disorders and trauma type frequency. Overall, these findings add to the emerging literature demonstrating a possibly important relationship between PTSD and cannabis use.

Cougle JR; Bonn-Miller MO; Vujanovic AA; Zvolensky MJ; Hawkins KA

2011-09-01

114

Posttraumatic stress disorder and cannabis use in a nationally representative sample.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined the relations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cannabis use in a large representative survey of adults (N = 5,672) from the United States (Kessler et al., 2004). After adjusting for sociodemographic variables (i.e., age, marital status, ethnicity, education, income, and sex), alcohol use disorders, and nicotine dependence, lifetime and current (past year) PTSD diagnoses were associated with increased odds of lifetime history of cannabis use as well as past year daily cannabis use. Lifetime, but not current, PTSD diagnosis also was uniquely associated with increased risk for any past year cannabis use. Additional analyses revealed that the relations between PTSD (lifetime and current) and lifetime cannabis use remained statistically significant when adjusting for co-occurring anxiety and mood disorders and trauma type frequency. Overall, these findings add to the emerging literature demonstrating a possibly important relationship between PTSD and cannabis use. PMID:21480682

Cougle, Jesse R; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Vujanovic, Anka A; Zvolensky, Michael J; Hawkins, Kirsten A

2011-09-01

115

Predictors of nicotine dependence symptoms among never-smoking adolescents: a longitudinal analysis from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Recent cross-sectional studies suggest some adolescents who have never smoked cigarettes experience nicotine dependence (ND) symptoms and that exposure to second-hand smoke, social exposure to smoking, and alcohol use are plausible correlates. The aim of this study was to replicate and extend these findings by investigating possible predictors of ND symptoms longitudinally. METHOD: Participants included 847 secondary school students who had never smoked cigarettes enrolled in the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study. Adolescents completed self-report questionnaires measuring smoking status, ND symptoms, and risk factors for ND in smokers (i.e., socio-demographic indicators, social exposure to smoking, psychosocial indicators, and substance use) in 20 survey cycles from 7 to 11th grade. Generalized estimating equations, which account for repeated measures within individuals, were used to test the predictors of ND symptoms. RESULTS: Consistent with previous research, 7.8% of never-smokers across all cycles endorsed at least one ND symptom. Younger age (p ? .001), country of birth (p ? .05), peer smoking (p ? .001), teacher smoking (p ? .05), depression (p ? .05), stress (p ? .001), lower self-esteem (p ? .05), impulsivity (p ? .05), and alcohol use (p ? .001) predicted greater ND symptoms in multivariable modeling. CONCLUSIONS: Replicating previous cross-sectional findings, peer smoking and alcohol use predicted ND symptoms among never-smoking adolescents. Extending these findings, previous predictors only observed among ever-smokers, including socio-demographic and psychosocial indicators, also predicted ND symptoms. This longitudinal investigation demonstrated the temporal relation of the predictors preceding ND symptoms. Future research should consider longer prospective studies with younger children to capture early onset of ND symptoms and with longer follow-up to detect eventual smoking uptake.

Racicot S; McGrath JJ; Karp I; O'Loughlin J

2013-06-01

116

Cannabis: Effects of consumption on health  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This document presents the summary and recommendations of an expert group set up by INSERM (Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale; French institute of health and medical research), under their collective expertise procedure, to answer questions raised by Mission interministérielle de lutte contre la drogue et la toxicomanie (MILDT; Interministerial mission for the fight against drugs and drug dependency) on the effects of cannabis consumption on health.

117

Brain event-related potentials associated with psychiatric symptoms in amphetamine-type stimulant dependent patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To explore the correlation between brain event-related potentials (ERPs) and psychiatric symptoms in patients with amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) dependence. METHOD: Using Galileo Sirius 32-channels digital-evoked potential system, we measured the auditory P300 ERP in 40 ATS dependence subjects and 30 normal controls, respectively. Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) was used to rate the psychiatric symptoms in the subjects. RESULTS: In ATS dependence subjects, the latency of N2, latency of P3, and inter-peak latency of P2-N2 were significantly longer than those in controls, respectively (P < 0.05). The amplitude of P300 in ATS dependence subjects was significantly lower than that in controls (P < 0.01). Besides, significantly lower amplitude of P3 and longer latency of P3 were found in ATS dependence subjects suffering from psychiatric symptoms than those without psychotic symptoms (P < 0.05). Furthermore, in ATS dependence subjects, the latency of N2 was negatively correlated with the scores of anxiety factor (r = -0.366) and paranoid ideation factor of SCL-90; the latency of P3 negatively correlated with the scores of psychoticism (r = -0.430) and somatization (r = -0.397) factor; also, the amplitude of P3 was negatively correlated with the score ofpsychoticism factor (r = -0.486). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest cognitive dysfunction may be one of results of ATS dependence.

Zhang Y; Zhong BL; Li Y; Ma ZL; Tian Y; Tang J

2012-01-01

118

[Assessment and treatment of cannabis use disorders in primary health care].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Finland every fourth young adult (25 to 34 years of age) has experience with the use of cannabis and in younger people (15 to 24 years) about 10% have used it during the previous year. The majority (about 90%) neither becomes addicted nor develops significant psychiatric symptoms, but in some individuals regular cannabis-use can cause a variety of problems (health, emotional, behavioural, social, legal). If problems have not yet developed or are still minor, patient's cannabis-use may be addressed by brief intervention in a primary care setting. Also, treatment of uncomplicated cannabis withdrawal as well as of minor symptoms from smoking (bronchitis, sleep disturbances), can be treated in community health centres. Children and adolescents, pregnant individuals or those with psychiatric symptoms should be treated by services with expertise in addiction medicine.

Tacke U; Seppä K; Winstock A

2011-01-01

119

[Prevalence of cannabis use among students in Dakar].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the most frequently used drug worldwide. It has multiple dangers, related to its power to involve abuse and dependency phenomena and to their social implications. Our study, which was carried out on a representative sample of 446 students living on the Dakar campus, aimed at measuring the prevalence of Cannabis use and at describing the main factors associated with it. We found a prevalence rate of 19.7%. Cannabis use starts relatively early, around 16-17 years. Young users are generally initiated by a close friend or relative and are motivated by curiosity for their first experience. The fact of having a grant or not and the field of study have no influence on the use of cannabis. On the other hand, religion might play a determining role, Christians seeming to be more affected than Moslems (p = 0.026). A similar prevalence among students has been noted in Kenya, but the rate is definitely lower than those found in developed countries. The identification of cannabis use predictors would make it possible to consider interesting prevention perspectives based on targeted education and on a more adequate legislation. .

Wone I; Dia AT; Ndiaye P; Fall IS; Sarr YF

2004-01-01

120

[Motivational interventions: psychosis and cannabis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cannabis use by people suffering from schizophrenia increase relapse rate and reduce adhesion to treatment. Motivational interventions could reduce cannabis misuse. The motivational interviewing principles and techniques are presented in a concrete way as well as the required adaptations to bypass cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia.

Favrod J

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
121

Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Substitution can be operationalized as the conscious choice to use one drug (legal or illicit) instead of, or in conjunction with, another due to issues such as: perceived safety; level of addiction potential; effectiveness in relieving symptoms; access and level of acceptance. This practice of substitution has been observed among individuals using cannabis for medical purposes. This study examined drug and alcohol use, and the occurrence of substitution among medical cannabis patients. Methods Anonymous survey data were collected at the Berkeley Patient's Group (BPG), a medical cannabis dispensary in Berkeley, CA. (N = 350) The sample was 68% male, 54% single, 66% White, mean age was 39; 74% have health insurance (including MediCal), 41% work full time, 81% have completed at least some college, 55% make less than $40,000 a year. Seventy one percent report having a chronic medical condition, 52% use cannabis for a pain related condition, 75% use cannabis for a mental health issue. Results Fifty three percent of the sample currently drinks alcohol, 2.6 was the average number of drinking days per week, 2.9 was the average number of drinks on a drinking occasion. One quarter currently uses tobacco, 9.5 is the average number of cigarettes smoked daily. Eleven percent have used a non-prescribed, non OTC drug in the past 30 days with cocaine, MDMA and Vicodin reported most frequently. Twenty five percent reported growing up in an abusive or addictive household. Sixteen percent reported previous alcohol and/or drug treatment, and 2% are currently in a 12-step or other recovery program. Forty percent have used cannabis as a substitute for alcohol, 26% as a substitute for illicit drugs and 66% as a substitute for prescription drugs. The most common reasons given for substituting were: less adverse side effects (65%), better symptom management (57%), and less withdrawal potential (34%) with cannabis. Conclusion The substitution of one psychoactive substance for another with the goal of reducing negative outcomes can be included within the framework of harm reduction. Medical cannabis patients have been engaging in substitution by using cannabis as an alternative to alcohol, prescription and illicit drugs.

Reiman Amanda

2009-01-01

122

Cannabis use and the course of schizophrenia: 10-year follow-up after first hospitalization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the relationship between cannabis use and the course of illness in schizophrenia over 10 years of follow-up after first psychiatric hospitalization. METHOD: The authors assessed 229 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder five times: during the first admission and 6 months, 2 years, 4 years, and 10 years later. Ratings of cannabis use and psychiatric symptoms (psychotic, negative, disorganized, and depressive) were made at each assessment. RESULTS: The lifetime rate of cannabis use was 66.2%, and survival analysis revealed that lifetime use was associated with an earlier onset of psychosis. The rates of current use ranged from 10% to 18% across assessments. Cannabis status was moderately stable, with tetrachoric correlation coefficients between waves ranging from 0.48 to 0.78. Mixed-effects logistic regression revealed that changes in cannabis use were associated with changes in psychotic symptoms over time even after gender, age, socioeconomic status, other drug use, antipsychotic medication use, and other symptoms were controlled for. Structural equation modeling indicated that the association with psychotic symptoms was bidirectional. CONCLUSIONS: Cannabis use is associated with an adverse course of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia, and vice versa, even after taking into account other clinical, substance use, and demographic variables.

Foti DJ; Kotov R; Guey LT; Bromet EJ

2010-08-01

123

Cannabis in Papua New Guinea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This review covers published information on psychoactive drugs, particularly cannabis, in Papua New Guinea. Legal drugs are mentioned to place the illegal drugs into a broader public health context. Although a number of psychoactive drugs were used traditionally (and are used now), cannabis is the only illicit drug for which prevalence of use is currently not negligible. Very little epidemiology research on cannabis use and its individual and public health sequelae has been conducted, although a fuller criminology literature on the topic exists. The published cannabis use prevalence studies are limited in scope, and the most-cited one is of questionable accuracy. The complex interactions between the health of individuals and their social environments are highlighted by the destructive impacts that cannabis cultivation, trafficking and use are having in contemporary PNG.

McDonald D

2004-03-01

124

Cannabis in Papua New Guinea.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review covers published information on psychoactive drugs, particularly cannabis, in Papua New Guinea. Legal drugs are mentioned to place the illegal drugs into a broader public health context. Although a number of psychoactive drugs were used traditionally (and are used now), cannabis is the only illicit drug for which prevalence of use is currently not negligible. Very little epidemiology research on cannabis use and its individual and public health sequelae has been conducted, although a fuller criminology literature on the topic exists. The published cannabis use prevalence studies are limited in scope, and the most-cited one is of questionable accuracy. The complex interactions between the health of individuals and their social environments are highlighted by the destructive impacts that cannabis cultivation, trafficking and use are having in contemporary PNG. PMID:18181450

McDonald, David

2004-03-01

125

The medical necessity for medicinal cannabis: prospective, observational study evaluating the treatment in cancer patients on supportive or palliative care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background. Cancer patients using cannabis report better influence from the plant extract than from synthetic products. However, almost all the research conducted to date has been performed with synthetic products. We followed patients with a medicinal cannabis license to evaluate the advantages and side effects of using cannabis by cancer patients. Methods. The study included two interviews based on questionnaires regarding symptoms and side effects, the first held on the day the license was issued and the second 6-8 weeks later. Cancer symptoms and cannabis side effects were documented on scales from 0 to 4 following the CTCAE. The distress thermometer was used also. Results. Of the 211 patients who had a first interview, only 131 had the second interview, 25 of whom stopped treatment after less than a week. All cancer or anticancer treatment-related symptoms showed significant improvement (P < 0.001). No significant side effects except for memory lessening in patients with prolonged cannabis use (P = 0.002) were noted. Conclusion. The positive effects of cannabis on various cancer-related symptoms are tempered by reliance on self-reporting for many of the variables. Although studies with a control group are missing, the improvement in symptoms should push the use of cannabis in palliative treatment of oncology patients.

Bar-Sela G; Vorobeichik M; Drawsheh S; Omer A; Goldberg V; Muller E

2013-01-01

126

The Medical Necessity for Medicinal Cannabis: Prospective, Observational Study Evaluating the Treatment in Cancer Patients on Supportive or Palliative Care  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Cancer patients using cannabis report better influence from the plant extract than from synthetic products. However, almost all the research conducted to date has been performed with synthetic products. We followed patients with a medicinal cannabis license to evaluate the advantages and side effects of using cannabis by cancer patients. Methods. The study included two interviews based on questionnaires regarding symptoms and side effects, the first held on the day the license was issued and the second 6–8 weeks later. Cancer symptoms and cannabis side effects were documented on scales from 0 to 4 following the CTCAE. The distress thermometer was used also. Results. Of the 211 patients who had a first interview, only 131 had the second interview, 25 of whom stopped treatment after less than a week. All cancer or anticancer treatment-related symptoms showed significant improvement (P cannabis use (P = 0.002) were noted. Conclusion. The positive effects of cannabis on various cancer-related symptoms are tempered by reliance on self-reporting for many of the variables. Although studies with a control group are missing, the improvement in symptoms should push the use of cannabis in palliative treatment of oncology patients.

Bar-Sela, Gil; Vorobeichik, Marina; Drawsheh, Saher; Omer, Anat; Goldberg, Victoria; Muller, Ella

2013-01-01

127

Cannabis and suicide: longitudinal study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Some studies suggest that cannabis use is associated with suicidal ideation, but no detailed longitudinal study has examined suicide as an outcome. AIMS: To examine the association between cannabis use and completed suicide. METHOD: A longitudinal study investigated 50 087 men conscripted for Swedish military service, with cannabis use measured non-anonymously at conscription. Suicides during 33 years of follow-up were identified by linkage with the National Cause of Death Register. RESULTS: There were 600 (1.2% of cohort) suicides or deaths from undetermined causes. Cannabis use was associated with an increased risk of suicide (crude OR for 'ever use' 1.62, 95% CI 1.28-2.07), but this association was eliminated after adjustment for confounding (adjusted OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.65-1.20). CONCLUSIONS: Although there was a strong association between cannabis use and suicide, this was explained by markers of psychological and behavioural problems. These results suggest that cannabis use is unlikely to have a strong effect on risk of completed suicide, either directly or as a consequence of mental health problems secondary to its use.

Price C; Hemmingsson T; Lewis G; Zammit S; Allebeck P

2009-12-01

128

Towards a better Cannabis drug.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Opium smoking has been mostly replaced by i.v. injection of morphine and heroin and we see cocaine sniffing rather than chewing of coca leaves. Cannabis use - be it of marijuana, hashish or bhang - differs. Any cannabis cognoscente will insist that the crude material is 'much better' than pure ?(9) - tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the only major psychoactive constituent of cannabis (Mechoulam et al., 1970). Indeed, although pure THC is available as a drug (named Dronabinol) it is apparently not used illicitly. The pharmacological/biochemical basis for this difference is not clear and is presumably due to several factors. A major reason seems to be the pharmacokinetic difference between cannabis smoking and the oral administration of THC. On smoking, the cannabis effects are noted almost immediately, while a 1.5 - 2 hour delay is observed on oral administration. A further factor may be conditioning to the smell, although there are no published data along these lines. A further factor may be the presence of the terpenoid CB2 agonist beta-caryophyllene in cannabis (Gertsch et al., 2008). CB2 agonists are well known to cause numerous effects (mostly of a protective nature) which may counteract some of the effects of THC (Pacher & Mechoulam, 2011).

Mechoulam R; Parker L

2013-09-01

129

Buying cannabis in 'coffee shops'.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ISSUES: The key objective of Dutch cannabis policy is to prevent and limit the risks of cannabis consumption for users, their direct environment and society ('harm reduction'). This paper will focus on the tolerated sale of cannabis in 'coffee shops'. APPROACH: We give a brief overview of Dutch policy on coffee shops, its history and recent developments. Furthermore, we present epidemiological data that may be indicative of the effects of the coffee shop policy on cannabis and other drug use. KEY FINDINGS: Dutch coffee shop policy has become more restrictive in recent years and the number of coffee shops has decreased. Cannabis prevalence rates in the adult population are somewhat below the European average; the rate is relatively high among adolescents; and age of first use appears to be low. On a European level, the use of hard drugs in both the Dutch adult and adolescent population is average to low (except for ecstasy among adults). IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS: International comparisons do not suggest a strong, upward effect of the coffee shop system on levels of cannabis use, although prevalence rates among Dutch adolescents give rise to concern. Furthermore, the coffee shop system appears to be successful in separating the hard and soft drugs markets. Nevertheless, in recent years, issues concerning the involvement of organised crime and the public nuisance related to drug tourism have given rise to several restrictive measures on the local level and have sparked a political debate on the reform of Dutch drug policy.

Monshouwer K; Van Laar M; Vollebergh WA

2011-03-01

130

Factor structure of PTSD symptoms in opioid-dependent patients rating their overall trauma history.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The current standard for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis is a 3-factor model (re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal). Two 4-factor models of PTSD, the emotional numbing model (re-experiencing, avoidance, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal) and the dysphoria model (re-experiencing, avoidance, dysphoria, and hyperarousal), have considerable empirical support in the extant literature. However, a newer 5-factor model of PTSD has been introduced that is receiving interest. The 5-factor model differs from the four-factor models in its placement of three symptoms (irritability, sleep disturbance, and concentration difficulties) into a separate cluster termed dysphoric arousal. We empirically compared the theoretical factor structures of 3-, 4-, and 5-factor models of PTSD symptoms to find the best fitting model in a sample of opioid-dependent hospitalized patients. METHODS: Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on the 17 self-reported PTSD symptoms of the Posttraumatic Checklist - Civilian Version (PCL-C) in a sample of 151 men and women with opioid dependence. RESULTS: Both four-factor models fit the observed data better than the three-factor model of PTSD; the dysphoria model was preferred to the emotional numbing model in this sample. The recently introduced five-factor model fit the observed data better than either four factor model. CONCLUSIONS: PTSD is a heterogeneous disorder comprised of symptoms of re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and dysphoria. Three symptoms, irritability, sleep disturbance, and concentration difficulties, may represent a unique latent construct separate from these four symptom clusters in opioid-dependent populations who have experienced traumatic events.

Reddy MK; Anderson BJ; Liebschutz J; Stein MD

2013-10-01

131

The adverse health effects of chronic cannabis use.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper summarizes the most probable of the adverse health effects of regular cannabis use sustained over years, as indicated by epidemiological studies that have established an association between cannabis use and adverse outcomes; ruled out reverse causation; and controlled for plausible alternative explanations. We have also focused on adverse outcomes for which there is good evidence of biological plausibility. The focus is on those adverse health effects of greatest potential public health significance - those that are most likely to occur and to affect a substantial proportion of regular cannabis users. These most probable adverse effects of regular use include a dependence syndrome, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, adverse effects on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health, and residual cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Hall W; Degenhardt L

2013-07-01

132

Burden, coping, physical symptoms and psychological morbidity in caregivers of functionally dependent family members.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: this study assessed burden, coping, physical symptoms and psychological morbidity in caregivers of functionally dependent family members. METHODS: fifty family caregivers completed self-reported measures of burden, physical symptoms, psychological morbidity and coping strategies. RESULTS: there was a significant negative correlation between coping strategies and the different clinical variables, as well as a significant positive correlation between coping strategies and duration of care. It appears that the stronger bond between caregiver and family member leads to a poorer use of adaptive coping strategies. It also appears that the deterioration of the relationship between them and the lower perceived self-efficacy are more prominent in caregivers of family members with cognitive impairment, indicating that caregivers with family members without cognitive impairment face fewer difficulties. CONCLUSION: these results emphasize the need for interventions to include coping strategies, since they are important in reducing caregivers' burden, psychological morbidity and physical symptoms.

Guedes AC; Pereira Mda G

2013-07-01

133

Cannabis laws: an analysis of costs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is evidence that the use of cannabis is increasing in Australia, with stable black-market prices, despite the 9-year National Campaign Against Drug Abuse, increasing expenditure to enforce the laws against cannabis use, and the seizure of large plantations of cannabis plants. Recent government data are used to estimate the conservative cost of drug-law enforcement against cannabis use as being $329m in 1991-92. Alternatives to the existing regime are examined, including expiation, decriminalization, and legalization.

Marks RE

134

Cannabis, motivation, and life satisfaction in an internet sample  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Although little evidence supports cannabis-induced amotivational syndrome, sources continue to assert that the drug saps motivation 1, which may guide current prohibitions. Few studies report low motivation in chronic users; another reveals that they have higher subjective wellbeing. To assess differences in motivation and subjective wellbeing, we used a large sample (N = 487) and strict definitions of cannabis use (7 days/week) and abstinence (never). Standard statistical techniques showed no differences. Robust statistical methods controlling for heteroscedasticity, non-normality and extreme values found no differences in motivation but a small difference in subjective wellbeing. Medical users of cannabis reporting health problems tended to account for a significant portion of subjective wellbeing differences, suggesting that illness decreased wellbeing. All p-values were above p = .05. Thus, daily use of cannabis does not impair motivation. Its impact on subjective wellbeing is small and may actually reflect lower wellbeing due to medical symptoms rather than actual consumption of the plant.

Barnwell Sara; Earleywine Mitch; Wilcox Rand

2006-01-01

135

Effects of cannabis and familial loading on subcortical brain volumes in first-episode schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with familial loading as heritable risk factor and cannabis abuse as the most relevant environmental risk factor up to date. Cannabis abuse has been related to an earlier onset of the disease and persisting cannabis consumption is associated with reduced symptom improvement. However, the underlying morphological and biochemical brain alterations due to these risk factors as well as the effects of gene-environmental interaction are still unclear. In this magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in 47 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 30 healthy control subjects, we investigated effects of previous cannabis abuse and increased familial risk on subcortical brain regions such as hippocampus, amygdala, caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus and subsegments of the corpus callosum (CC). In a subsequent single-volume (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy study, we investigated spectra in the left hippocampus and putamen to detect metabolic alterations. Compared to healthy controls, schizophrenia patients displayed decreased volumes of the left hippocampus, bilateral amygdala and caudate nucleus as well as an increased area of the midsagittal CC1 segment of the corpus callosum. Patients fulfilling the criteria for cannabis abuse at admission showed an increased area of the CC2 segment compared to those who did not fulfill the criteria. Patients with a family history of schizophrenia combined with previous cannabis abuse showed lower volumes of the bilateral caudate nucleus compared to all other patients, implicating an interaction between the genetic background and cannabis abuse as environmental factor. Patients with cannabis abuse also had higher ratios of N-acetyl aspartate/choline in the left putamen, suggesting a possible neuroprotective effect in this area. However, antipsychotic medication prior to MRI acquisition and gender effects may have influenced our results. Future longitudinal studies in first-episode patients with quantification of cannabis abuse and assessment of schizophrenia risk genes are warranted. PMID:24085610

Malchow, Berend; Hasan, Alkomiet; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Jatzko, Alexander; Gruber, Oliver; Schmitt, Andrea; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas

2013-10-02

136

Cannabis in Sport  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2004, when the World Anti-Doping Agency assumed the responsi-bility for establishing and maintaining the list of prohibited substances and methods in sport (i.e. the Prohibited List), cannabinoids have been prohibited in all sports during competition. The basis for this prohibition can be found in the World Anti-Doping Code, which defines the three criteria used to consider banning a substance. In this context, we discuss the potential of can-nabis to enhance sports performance, the risk it poses to the athlete’s health and its violation of the spirit of sport. Although these compounds are prohibited in-competition only, we explain why the pharmacokinetics of their main psychoactive compound, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol, may complicate the results management of adverse analytical findings. Passive inhalation does not appear to be a plausible explanation for a positive test. Although the prohibition of cannabinoids in sports is one of the most controversial issues in anti-doping, in this review we stress the reasons behind this prohibition, with strong emphasis on the evolving knowledge of cannabinoid pharmacology.

Huestis, Marilyn A.; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier

2013-01-01

137

Medicinal cannabis uniform in food  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention is a product and a process wherein cannabinoids such as Medicinal [Delta]9-THC and/or other substances associated with medicinal cannabis, including yet not necessarily limited to cannbidiols, cannabigerol are contained or processed into foodstuffs or medicinal compounds in controlled ways and with specific characteristics. First a medicinal substance with a known about of medicinal cannabis is mixed into a foodstuff such that the medicinal cannabis is distributed uniformly in the foodstuff. Foodstuffs consistent with this invention include baked goods, hard candies, ice cream, bases, ice cream, and yogurt. The product is characterized by a controlled amount of cannabinoids per unit volume of the foodstuff. Another provision of the invention is providing controlled amounts or ratios of [Delta]9-THC as compared to CBD in a foodstuff.

HOSPODOR ANDREW DAVID

138

Bias and the cannabis researcher.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This report focuses on several aspects of the "drug" cannabis in our society: the historical notion of a chemical as a moral issue (i.e., good and evil) rather than a pharmacological one; the scientist as a human being as well as a witting or unwitting influencer of social policy; the statistical design and manipulation of research consciously or unconsciously for fame and fortune (grants); the research treatment "connection" as part of our drug abuse industrial complex, a billion dollar a year industry; and the covert governmental manipulation and distortion of cannabis (and other drug) data.

Ungerleider JT; Andrysiak T

1981-08-01

139

Preventing cannabis users from driving under the influence of cannabis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Face-to-face, structured interviews were conducted with 320 recent cannabis users in New South Wales, Australia to assess the likely deterrent effects of (a) increasing the certainty of apprehension for driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) and (b) doubling the severity of penalties for DUIC. Participants were presented with a drug-driving scenario and asked to indicate their likelihood of driving given that scenario. The perceived risk of apprehension and severity of punishment were manipulated in each scenario to create four different certainty/severity conditions and participants were randomly allocated to one of these four groups. A subsidiary aim was to assess the likely impact of providing factual information about the accident risk associated with DUIC. Recent drug drivers who felt at low risk of accident when DUIC were asked to rate their willingness to drive if convinced that it was dangerous. The results suggested that increasing the certainty but not severity of punishment would produce reductions in cannabis-intoxicated driving among recent cannabis users. Providing factual information about the risks associated with DUIC would appear to have little impact on drug-driving rates among this population.

Jones C; Donnelly N; Swift W; Weatherburn D

2006-09-01

140

Studies on cannabis, 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The seedlings from Cannabis sativa L. seeds irradiated with different doses of ?-rays were examined, in order to determine the dose sufficient to kill the young plants naturally, before their hallucinnogenic component increases. The seeds of ''Minamioshihara No. 1'', which were harvested in 1972 in Tochigi Prefecture, were irradiated with eight different doses of 60Co ?-rays in January 17, 1973, and the seedlings were examined several times during the subsequent 9 months, from March to November 1973, and their morphological and histological effects were examined, and the results are summarized as follows: Samples irradiated with 1500 and 1000 krads developed radicles about 3 mm in length. Samples irradiated with 500, 200, and 50 krads grew into young plants with the first set of leaves, without lateral roots. Samples irradiated with 30 krads grew to about 10 cm high with a few lateral roots, and the epicotyls about 1 cm in length. These young plants from the irradiated seeds stayed in the same condition and then died. Samples irradiated with 15 and 5 krads grew in the same way as the controls until the stage of flowering. Samples irradiated with 500, 200, 50, and 30 krads showerd the cell membranes of endodermis and pericycle to be partially lignified and suberized. The degree of change was related to the dose of ?-rays. Samples irradiated with 30 krads showed withered cells near the end of the lateral nerves on the first and second set of leaves. The economical dose of 60Co ?-rays for inhibiting young plants from developing into adult ones was a minimum of 30 krads which made the young plants die. Irradiation with 50 krads of ?-rays will be required to kill the young plants completely before they develop the hallucinogenic component. (auth.)

1976-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

The Importance of Family Relations for Cannabis Users: The Case of Serbian Adolescents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is transitional stage of physical and mental human development occuring between childhood and adult life. Social interactions and environmental factors together are important predictors of adolescent cannabis use. This study aimed to examine the relationship between the social determinants and adolescents behavior with cannabis consumption.Methods: A cross sectional study as part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs was conducted among 6.150 adolescents aged 16 years in three regions of Serbia, and three types of schools (gymnasium, vocational – professional, and vocational – handicraft) during May – June 2008. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to obtain adjusted odds ratios with 95% con?dence intervals in which the dependent variable was cannabis consumption non-user and user.Results: Among 6.7% of adolescents who had tried cannabis at least one in their lives, boys were more involved in cannabis use than girls, especially boys from gymnasium school. Well off family, lower education of mother, worse relations with parents were significantly associated with cannabis use (P < 0.05). Behaviors like skipping from schools, frequent evening outs, and playing on slot machines were also related to cannabis use (P < 0.05).Conclusions: The study confirmed the importance of family relationship development. Drug use preventive programmes should include building interpersonal trust in a family lifecycle and school culture.

Zorica Terzic Supic; Milena Santric Milicevic; Isidora Sbutega; Vladimir Vasic

2013-01-01

142

Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis) component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. The antipsychotic-like properties of CBD have been investigated in animal models using behavioral and neurochemical techniques which suggested that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results of two studies on healthy volunteers using perception of binocular depth inversion and ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms supported the proposal of the antipsychotic-like properties of CBD. In addition, open case reports of schizophrenic patients treated with CBD and a preliminary report of a controlled clinical trial comparing CBD with an atypical antipsychotic drug have confirmed that this cannabinoid can be a safe and well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. Future studies of CBD in other psychotic conditions such as bipolar disorder and comparative studies of its antipsychotic effects with those produced by clozapine in schizophrenic patients are clearly indicated.

A.W. Zuardi; J.A.S. Crippa; J.E.C. Hallak; F.A. Moreira; F.S. Guimarães

2006-01-01

143

Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis) component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers cl (more) early suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. The antipsychotic-like properties of CBD have been investigated in animal models using behavioral and neurochemical techniques which suggested that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results of two studies on healthy volunteers using perception of binocular depth inversion and ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms supported the proposal of the antipsychotic-like properties of CBD. In addition, open case reports of schizophrenic patients treated with CBD and a preliminary report of a controlled clinical trial comparing CBD with an atypical antipsychotic drug have confirmed that this cannabinoid can be a safe and well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. Future studies of CBD in other psychotic conditions such as bipolar disorder and comparative studies of its antipsychotic effects with those produced by clozapine in schizophrenic patients are clearly indicated.

Zuardi, A.W.; Crippa, J.A.S.; Hallak, J.E.C.; Moreira, F.A.; Guimarães, F.S.

2006-04-01

144

[Decision making in cannabis users].  

Science.gov (United States)

Several neuropsychological studies have shown that chronic cannabis users have cognitive impairments, including decision-making process. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the process, through the somatic marker hypothesis in a sample of 41 cannabis users compared with a control group of equal size, and to analyze the influence of age, sex, education level, age of onset and amount of daily consumption. In order to do that, the software "Cartas" (similar to the Iowa Gambling Task), was used, implementing its two versions: normal and reverse. The results show significant differences between cannabis users and control group in the normal and reverse task execution. By block analysis, the control group obtained higher scores in the normal task execution, however, in the reverse task, the differences between groups are present in the initial task execution but not final task execution. None of the analyzed variables (age, sex ...) are significantly related to task performance. These results suggest the existence of alterations in the decision making process of consumers cannabis, which may relate to the difficulty in generating somatic markers, and not for insensitivity punishments insensitivity. PMID:22648319

Alameda Bailén, Jose Ramón; Paíno Quesada, Susana; Mogedas Valladares, Ana Isabel

2012-01-01

145

Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)  

Science.gov (United States)

A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

Maickel, Roger P.

1973-01-01

146

Elevation-dependent symptom, mood, and performance changes produced by exposure to hypobaric hypoxia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Altitude exposures above 3,000 m produce changes in symptoms, moods, and cognitive/motor performance of unacclimatized individuals and should produce graded effects on these parameters as elevation and duration are increased. This study examined effects on these parameters as a function of altitude level and duration of exposure by administering standardized tests from 1 to 3 times to 23 males in an altitude chamber during 4.5-hour exposures to 3 levels of hypobaric hypoxia: 500 m, 4,200 m, and 4,700 m. Exposure to altitude significantly affected symptoms, moods, and performance in an elevation-dependent fashion. Adverse changes increased with higher altitudes (all measures were affected at 4,700 m, whereas only some were at 4,200 m) and usually with longer durations. Therefore, specific aspects of symptoms, moods, and performance are significantly degraded after only a few hours of exposure to hypobaric hypoxia, and the severity of the effects dramatically increases when testing is conducted at 4,700 m compared to 4,200 m.

Shukitt-Hale B; Banderet LE; Lieberman HR

1998-01-01

147

Pharmacological interventions in the treatment of the acute effects of cannabis: a systematic review of literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis intoxication is related to a number of physical and mental health risks with ensuing social costs. However, little attention has been given to the investigation of possible pharmacological interactions in this condition. Objective To review the available scientific literature concerning pharmacological interventions for the treatment of the acute effects of cannabis. Methods A search was performed on the Pubmed, Lilacs, and Scielo online databases by combining the terms cannabis, intoxication, psychosis, anxiety, and treatment. The articles selected from this search had their reference lists checked for additional publications related to the topic of the review. Results The reviewed articles consisted of case reports and controlled clinical trials and are presented according to interventions targeting the physiological, psychiatric, and cognitive symptoms provoked by cannabis. The pharmacological interventions reported in these studies include: beta-blockers, antiarrhythmic agents, antagonists of CB-1 and GABA-benzodiazepine receptors, antipsychotics, and cannabidiol. Conclusion Although scarce, the evidence on pharmacological interventions for the management of cannabis intoxication suggests that propanolol and rimonabant are the most effective compounds currently available to treat the physiological and subjective effects of the drug. Further studies are necessary to establish the real effectiveness of these two medications, as well as the effectiveness of other candidate compounds to counteract the effects of cannabis intoxication, such as cannabidiol and flumazenil.

Crippa José AS; Derenusson Guilherme N; Chagas Marcos HN; Atakan Zerrin; Martín-Santos Rocio; Zuardi Antonio W; Hallak Jaime EC

2012-01-01

148

Cannabis use among youth in the Netherlands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A nation-wide survey of cannabis use, based on a representative sample of 1,306 young people in the 15-to-24 age group, carried out in the Netherlands in 1983, showed that cannabis had been used or tried by 12.2 per cent of the respondents (13 per cent males and 11 per cent females). These results, compared with the results of a study carried out by the Central Bureau of Statistics in 1979 and 1980, showed an increase in cannabis use. In the three largest cities, the percentage of cannabis users (25 per cent) was double that of the country as a whole. The percentage of cannabis use was higher among the older age groups of respondents; the study also showed that the lower the age at first cannabis use the higher the risk of continuing and becoming involved with more dangerous drugs such as cocaine, heroin and amphetamines. The rates of alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking and the use of heroin, amphetamines, cocaine, sleeping pills and tranquillizers were significantly higher among cannabis users than among respondents who were not using cannabis. The rate of cannabis use was significantly higher among the unemployed respondents than among those who had a job. The authors suggest that these findings should be taken into account in designing preventive measures and other forms of intervention programmes to deal with cannabis-related problems among young people.

Sylbing G; Persoon JM

1985-10-01

149

Cannabis use and obesity and young adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is shortage of evidence about the relationship between use of cannabis and obesity. Objectives: This study aimed to examine the association between cannabis use and overweight/obesity in young adults. METHODS: Data were from a 21-year follow-up of mothers and their children recruited into the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), a longitudinal pre-birth cohort. The study is based on 2566 young adults (1264 males and 1302 females) who had data available on cannabis use and age of initiation to use of cannabis and BMI at the 21-year follow-up (MUSP children). Those who did not provide data on cannabis use and BMI were excluded from the analysis. RESULTS: Frequency of cannabis use and body mass index (BMI) was assessed at the 21-year follow-up. Potential confounders were prospectively measured between the child's birth and the 21-year follow-up. Some 50.9% of young adults reported use of cannabis in the last month or year and 34.1% had BMI ? 25. Multivariate analysis showed that those who had used cannabis were less likely to be categorised in the BMI ? 25 group with the least prevalence of overweight/obesity being observed in every day cannabis users (odds ratio = .2; 95% confidence interval [CI]:.1-.4). CONCLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: The existing data suggest lower prevalence of overweight and obesity among young adult cannabis users. Further research is needed to examine the mechanism of this association.

Hayatbakhsh MR; O'Callaghan MJ; Mamun AA; Williams GM; Clavarino A; Najman JM

2010-11-01

150

Cannabinoids act as necrosis-inducing factors in Cannabis sativa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cannabis sativa is well known to produce unique secondary metabolites called cannabinoids. We recently discovered that Cannabis leaves induce cell death by secreting tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) into leaf tissues. Examinations using isolated Cannabis mitochondria demonstrated that THCA causes ...

Shoyama, Yoshinari; Sugawa, Chitomi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

151

Anhedonia and substance-related symptoms in detoxified substance-dependent subjects: a correlation study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anhedonia is a condition in which the capacity of experiencing pleasure is totally or partially lost, frequently occurring in mood disorders, as a negative symptom in schizophrenia, and in substance use disorders. In order to test a set of instruments for anhedonia in a population of detoxified opiate, alcohol and multiple substance-dependent subjects, 70 individuals were recruited from three different clinical settings. The following scales were applied: Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS), Bech-Rafaelsen Melancholia Scale (BRMS), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), specific withdrawal scales, and visual analogue scales (VAS) for hedonic capability and substance craving. The scales measuring anhedonia either directly (SHAPS, VAS for hedonic capability) or in some key items (SANS, BRMS) were significantly correlated with each other. The period of time since detoxification was inversely correlated with anhedonia and withdrawal symptomatology. Craving was positively correlated with anhedonia. Out of the total sample, only 18.5% could be defined as psychometrically anhedonic. The same correlations were found in this subsample. The composite instrument employed for assessing anhedonia and hedonic capability was found to be sensitive enough to detect such a dimension in the population considered, with the single scales significantly interrelated. In conclusion, we found interrelations between hedonic capability, craving and protracted withdrawal, particularly in opiate-dependent subjects. The strongest association occurred between hedonic capability and craving. PMID:15942262

Janiri, L; Martinotti, G; Dario, T; Reina, D; Paparello, F; Pozzi, G; Addolorato, G; Di Giannantonio, M; De Risio, S

2005-06-03

152

Cannabis, pain, and sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex, a cannabis-based medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis sativa L. has been utilized for treatment of pain and sleep disorders since ancient times. This review examines modern studies on effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) on sleep. It goes on to report new information on the effects on sleep in the context of medical treatment of neuropathic pain and symptoms of multiple sclerosis, employing standardized oromucosal cannabis-based medicines containing primarily THC, CBD, or a 1 : 1 combination of the two (Sativex). Sleep-laboratory results indicate a mild activating effect of CBD, and slight residual sedation with THC-predominant extracts. Experience to date with Sativex in numerous Phase I-III studies in 2000 subjects with 1000 patient years of exposure demonstrate marked improvement in subjective sleep parameters in patients with a wide variety of pain conditions including multiple sclerosis, peripheral neuropathic pain, intractable cancer pain, and rheumatoid arthritis, with an acceptable adverse event profile. No tolerance to the benefit of Sativex on pain or sleep, nor need for dosage increases have been noted in safety extension studies of up to four years, wherein 40-50% of subjects attained good or very good sleep quality, a key source of disability in chronic pain syndromes that may contribute to patients' quality of life. PMID:17712817

Russo, Ethan B; Guy, Geoffrey W; Robson, Philip J

2007-08-01

153

Cannabis, pain, and sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex, a cannabis-based medicine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cannabis sativa L. has been utilized for treatment of pain and sleep disorders since ancient times. This review examines modern studies on effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) on sleep. It goes on to report new information on the effects on sleep in the context of medical treatment of neuropathic pain and symptoms of multiple sclerosis, employing standardized oromucosal cannabis-based medicines containing primarily THC, CBD, or a 1 : 1 combination of the two (Sativex). Sleep-laboratory results indicate a mild activating effect of CBD, and slight residual sedation with THC-predominant extracts. Experience to date with Sativex in numerous Phase I-III studies in 2000 subjects with 1000 patient years of exposure demonstrate marked improvement in subjective sleep parameters in patients with a wide variety of pain conditions including multiple sclerosis, peripheral neuropathic pain, intractable cancer pain, and rheumatoid arthritis, with an acceptable adverse event profile. No tolerance to the benefit of Sativex on pain or sleep, nor need for dosage increases have been noted in safety extension studies of up to four years, wherein 40-50% of subjects attained good or very good sleep quality, a key source of disability in chronic pain syndromes that may contribute to patients' quality of life.

Russo EB; Guy GW; Robson PJ

2007-08-01

154

Design considerations for legalizing cannabis: lessons inspired by analysis of California's Proposition 19.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: No modern jurisdiction has ever legalized commercial production, distribution and possession of cannabis for recreational purposes. This paper presents insights about the effect of legalization on production costs and consumption and highlights important design choices. METHODS: Insights were uncovered through our analysis of recent legalization proposals in California. The effect on the cost of producing cannabis is largely based on existing estimates of current wholesale prices, current costs of producing cannabis and other legal agricultural goods, and the type(s) of production that will be permitted. The effect on consumption is based on production costs, regulatory regime, tax rate, price elasticity of demand, shape of the demand curve and non-price effects (e.g. change in stigma). RESULTS: Removing prohibitions on producing and distributing cannabis will dramatically reduce wholesale prices. The effect on consumption and tax revenues will depend on many design choices, including: the tax level, whether there is an incentive for a continued black market, whether to tax and/or regulate cannabinoid levels, whether there are allowances for home cultivation, whether advertising is restricted, and how the regulatory system is designed and adjusted. CONCLUSIONS: The legal production costs of cannabis will be dramatically below current wholesale prices, enough so that taxes and regulation will be insufficient to raise retail price to prohibition levels. We expect legalization will increase consumption substantially, but the size of the increase is uncertain since it depends on design choices and the unknown shape of the cannabis demand curve.

Caulkins JP; Kilmer B; MacCoun RJ; Pacula RL; Reuter P

2012-05-01

155

[A case of apple allergy with initial symptoms like food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 13-year-old boy with two episodes of anaphylaxis after exercise was suspected as food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FEIAn). The exercise challenge test after ingestion of an apple was performed, because apple was commonly contained in meals before the both episodes and a prick test for apple was positive. The exercise test was positive accompanied with nasal discharge, sneezing, throat discomfort, swelling of the uvula. The patient was instructed to refrain from exercise for 4 hours after ingestion of apple. In five months, he developed allergic symptoms only by an intake of foods containing heated apple without exercise and showed a slight increase in apple-specific IgE from negative to 0.51 IU/ml. The prognosis of FEIAn has not been well described. Cases with FEIAn to apples like this case require a close follow-up in consideration of development of allergic reactions without exercise.

Kaneko M; Yagi H; Koyama H; Nakajima N; Muramatu R; Takizawa T; Arakawa H

2013-06-01

156

Maternal use of cannabis and pregnancy outcome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To document the prevalence of cannabis use in a large sample of British women studied during pregnancy, to determine the association between cannabis use and social and lifestyle factors and assess any independent effects on pregnancy outcome. DESIGN: Self-completed questionnaire on use of cannabis before and during pregnancy. SAMPLE: Over 12,000 women expecting singletons at 18 to 20 weeks of gestation who were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. METHODS: Any association with the use of cannabis before and during pregnancy with pregnancy outcome was examined, taking into account potentially confounding factors including maternal social background and other substance use during pregnancy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Late fetal and perinatal death, special care admission of the newborn infant, birthweight, birth length and head circumference. RESULTS: Five percent of mothers reported smoking cannabis before and/or during pregnancy; they were younger, of lower parity, better educated and more likely to use alcohol, cigarettes, coffee, tea and hard drugs. Cannabis use during pregnancy was unrelated to risk of perinatal death or need for special care, but, the babies of women who used cannabis at least once per week before and throughout pregnancy were 216 g lighter than those of non-users, had significantly shorter birth lengths and smaller head circumferences. After adjustment for confounding factors, the association between cannabis use and birthweight failed to be statistically significant (P = 0.056) and was clearly non-linear: the adjusted mean birthweights for babies of women using cannabis at least once per week before and throughout pregnancy were 90 g lighter than the offspring of other women. No significant adjusted effects were seen for birth length and head circumference. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that the use of cannabis during pregnancy was not associated with increased risk of perinatal mortality or morbidity in this sample. However, frequent and regular use of cannabis throughout pregnancy may be associated with small but statistically detectable decrements in birthweight.

Fergusson DM; Horwood LJ; Northstone K

2002-01-01

157

Psychotic symptoms of cocaine self-injectors in a harm reduction program.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Psychotic symptoms are common among cocaine users. METHODS: An observational naturalistic study on the effects and events of intravenous cocaine use in a drug consumption room was carried out; the patients were diagnosed of cocaine dependence (according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision). RESULTS: Twenty-one patients, 81% men self-injected cocaine 375 times. Psychotic symptoms were observed in 62% of the patients and 21% of the self-injections; delusions were observed in 9.3%, psychotic self-reference with insight in 9.1%, illusions in 6.4%, and hallucinations in 5.3%. A higher presence of psychotic symptoms was noted with cannabis used in the previous month (76.9% versus 44.4%; P = .001) (no psychotic symptoms group); also, a greater use of benzodiazepines was observed: 75.6% versus 63.6% (P = .046). Lower use of methadone in the group with psychosis was observed: 75.6% versus 97.3% (P = .001). Motor alterations were tremor 58%, stereotyped movements 24%, and behaviour alteration 6%, significantly more frequent in the psychotic group. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, there was a high frequency of psychotic symptoms after intravenous cocaine use; patients with psychotic symptoms reported higher use of cannabis and benzodiazepines in the previous month and lower use of methadone. More tremors and stereotyped movements were observed in the group with psychotic symptoms. It is necessary to give a special approach to cocaine intravenous users.

Roncero C; Martínez-Luna N; Daigre C; Grau-López L; Gonzalvo B; Pérez-Pazos J; Casas M

2013-04-01

158

Exposure to cannabis in popular music and cannabis use among adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cannabis use is referenced frequently in American popular music, yet it remains uncertain whether exposure to these references is associated with actual cannabis use. We aimed to determine if exposure to cannabis in popular music is associated independently with current cannabis use in a cohort of urban adolescents. METHODS: We surveyed all 9th grade students at three large US urban high schools. We estimated participants' exposure to lyrics referent to cannabis with overall music exposure and content analyses of their favorite artists' songs. Outcomes included current (past 30 days) and ever use of cannabis. We used multivariable regression to assess independent associations between exposures and outcomes while controlling for important covariates. RESULTS: Each of the 959 participants was exposed to an estimated 27 cannabis references per day [correction added on 19 January 2010, after first online publication: 40 has been changed to 27] (standard deviation = 73 [correction added on 19 January 2010, after first online publication: 104 has been changed to 73]). Twelve per cent (n = 108) were current cannabis users and 32% (n = 286) had ever used cannabis. Compared with those in the lowest tertile of total cannabis exposure in music, those in the highest tertile of exposure were almost twice as likely to have used cannabis in the past 30 days (odds ratio = 1.83; 95% confidence interval = 1.04, 3.22), even after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, personality characteristics and parenting style. As expected, however, there was no significant relationship between our cannabis exposure variable and a sham outcome variable of alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports an independent association between exposure to cannabis in popular music and early cannabis use among urban American adolescents.

Primack BA; Douglas EL; Kraemer KL

2010-03-01

159

Regulating compassion: an overview of Canada's federal medical cannabis policy and practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to a number of court challenges brought forth by Canadian patients who demonstrated that they benefited from the use of medicinal cannabis but remained vulnerable to arrest and persecution as a result of its status as a controlled substance, in 1999 Canada became the second nation in the world to initiate a centralized medicinal cannabis program. Over its six years of existence, this controversial program has been found unconstitutional by a number of courts, and has faced criticism from the medical establishment, law enforcement, as well as the patient/participants themselves. Methods This critical policy analysis is an evidence-based review of court decisions, government records, relevant studies and Access to Information Act data related to the three main facets of Health Canada's medicinal cannabis policy – the Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD); the Canadians Institute of Health Research Medical Marijuana Research Program; and the federal cannabis production and distribution program. This analysis also examines Canada's network of unregulated community-based dispensaries. Results There is a growing body of evidence that Health Canada's program is not meeting the needs of the nation's medical cannabis patient community and that the policies of the Marihuana Medical Access Division may be significantly limiting the potential individual and public health benefits achievable though the therapeutic use of cannabis. Canada's community-based dispensaries supply medical cannabis to a far greater number of patients than the MMAD, but their work is currently unregulated by any level of government, leaving these organizations and their clients vulnerable to arrest and prosecution. Conclusion Any future success will depend on the government's ability to better assess and address the needs and legitimate concerns of end-users of this program, to promote and fund an expanded clinical research agenda, and to work in cooperation with community-based medical cannabis dispensaries in order to address the ongoing issue of safe and timely access to this herbal medicine.

Lucas Philippe G

2008-01-01

160

Motivation for change and barriers to treatment among young cannabis users.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Despite cannabis use among adolescents has shown to be related to psychosocial and mental health problems, the demand from adolescents for professional help is very low, and determinants of motivation for change among nonclinical populations remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess motivation for change among young cannabis users and to identify determinants of intention to change and self-change, as well as perceived barriers to seeking professional help. METHODS: 261 cannabis users aged 16-21 participated in a computerized survey in Spain. RESULTS: Data from this cross-sectional study indicated that few users intend to stop taking the drug. Determining factors of intention to change were the following: having more drug-related problems, paranoid symptomatology and greater concern about the consequences of use. Self-change was facilitated by lower use of cannabis, and could be hindered by tobacco smoking and cannabis dependence. Lack of awareness of the problems and the desire to solve one's problems alone constitute the main barriers to seeking professional help. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent cannabis users show low motivation for change though experiencing more problems associated with its use emerges as a determinant of increased motivation. Several barriers impede this motivation from turning into treatment demand.

Fernández-Artamendi S; Fernández-Hermida JR; García-Fernández G; Secades-Villa R; García-Rodríguez O

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Growing cannabis with naphthalene in Rome.  

Science.gov (United States)

A young Italian male was investigated for possession of illicit marijuana in Rome. In his house, police found 80 cannabis plants, the plants were different sizes and located in a room with ultraviolet light, naphthalene, as a grey-white powder, was also found in his house. The man indicated that he used it for cannabis cultivation. PMID:14642724

Fucci, Nadia

2003-12-17

162

Growing cannabis with naphthalene in Rome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A young Italian male was investigated for possession of illicit marijuana in Rome. In his house, police found 80 cannabis plants, the plants were different sizes and located in a room with ultraviolet light, naphthalene, as a grey-white powder, was also found in his house. The man indicated that he used it for cannabis cultivation.

Fucci N

2003-12-01

163

Childhood stress and symptoms of drug dependence in adolescence and early adulthood: social phobia as a mediator.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Retrospective data from 7,871 individuals age 16 to 64 were used to investigate whether, among those diagnosed with lifetime social phobia, its symptoms serve to link life events and chronic strains in childhood with symptoms of drug dependence in adulthood. Findings suggest social phobia as a pathway through which early life events and chronic strains affect the development of drug-related problems. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed.

DeWit DJ; MacDonald K; Offord DR

1999-01-01

164

Olanzapine vs. risperidone in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and a lifetime history of cannabis use disorders: 16-week clinical and substance use outcomes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of olanzapine and risperidone for the acute treatment of first-episode schizophrenia patients with cannabis use disorders. This secondary analysis of a previously published study included 49 first-episode patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, or schizoaffective disorder and a co-occurring lifetime diagnosis of cannabis use disorders randomly assigned to treatment with either olanzapine (n=28) or risperidone (n=21) for 16weeks. The olanzapine group did not differ significantly from the risperidone group for initial response rates of positive symptoms, and rates of cannabis use or alcohol use during the study. Positive symptoms and the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) global asociality-anhedonia scores improved over time but did not differ between study medications. In both groups, cannabis use during the study was higher in patients who used cannabis within three months of the admission. Thus, our results suggest that olanzapine and risperidone had a similar initial efficacy on psychotic symptoms and substance use in first-episode patients with co-occurring cannabis use disorders. If clinicians are choosing between olanzapine versus risperidone treatment for this population, their decision should be based upon factors other than symptom response and short-term substance misuse.

Sevy S; Robinson DG; Sunday S; Napolitano B; Miller R; McCormack J; Kane J

2011-08-01

165

Olanzapine vs. risperidone in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and a lifetime history of cannabis use disorders: 16-week clinical and substance use outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of olanzapine and risperidone for the acute treatment of first-episode schizophrenia patients with cannabis use disorders. This secondary analysis of a previously published study included 49 first-episode patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, or schizoaffective disorder and a co-occurring lifetime diagnosis of cannabis use disorders randomly assigned to treatment with either olanzapine (n=28) or risperidone (n=21) for 16weeks. The olanzapine group did not differ significantly from the risperidone group for initial response rates of positive symptoms, and rates of cannabis use or alcohol use during the study. Positive symptoms and the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) global asociality-anhedonia scores improved over time but did not differ between study medications. In both groups, cannabis use during the study was higher in patients who used cannabis within three months of the admission. Thus, our results suggest that olanzapine and risperidone had a similar initial efficacy on psychotic symptoms and substance use in first-episode patients with co-occurring cannabis use disorders. If clinicians are choosing between olanzapine versus risperidone treatment for this population, their decision should be based upon factors other than symptom response and short-term substance misuse. PMID:21636134

Sevy, Serge; Robinson, Delbert G; Sunday, Suzanne; Napolitano, Barbara; Miller, Rachel; McCormack, Joanne; Kane, John

2011-06-01

166

Posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity and HIV-risk behaviors among substance-dependent inpatients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite findings that the co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) is associated with heightened risk for a variety of risky behaviors, few studies have examined behaviors linked to heightened risk for HIV infection and transmission in particular, or explored the unique associations between specific PTSD symptom clusters and these HIV-risk behaviors. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the associations between PTSD symptom severity and HIV-risk behaviors (i.e., risky sexual behavior [RSB] and injection drug use [INJ]) within an ethnically diverse sample of 85 SUD patients in residential SUD treatment. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires assessing PTSD symptom severity and HIV-risk behaviors, including RSB and INJ. Results demonstrated significant positive associations between PTSD symptom severity and RSB; however, no significant relationship between PTSD symptom severity and INJ was found. Furthermore, the severity of hyperarousal symptoms in particular was found to significantly predict RSB above and beyond age and all other PTSD symptom clusters. Results of this study suggest that PTSD symptoms (and, more specifically, the hyperarousal symptoms of PTSD) may heighten the risk for some forms of HIV-risk behaviors (RSB) but not others (INJ). Results highlight the importance of identifying and targeting hyperarousal symptoms in the treatment of SUD patients experiencing symptoms of PTSD in order to reduce HIV infection or transmission risk. PMID:23356590

Weiss, Nicole H; Tull, Matthew T; Borne, Meghan E R; Gratz, Kim L

2013-01-29

167

Posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity and HIV-risk behaviors among substance-dependent inpatients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite findings that the co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) is associated with heightened risk for a variety of risky behaviors, few studies have examined behaviors linked to heightened risk for HIV infection and transmission in particular, or explored the unique associations between specific PTSD symptom clusters and these HIV-risk behaviors. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the associations between PTSD symptom severity and HIV-risk behaviors (i.e., risky sexual behavior [RSB] and injection drug use [INJ]) within an ethnically diverse sample of 85 SUD patients in residential SUD treatment. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires assessing PTSD symptom severity and HIV-risk behaviors, including RSB and INJ. Results demonstrated significant positive associations between PTSD symptom severity and RSB; however, no significant relationship between PTSD symptom severity and INJ was found. Furthermore, the severity of hyperarousal symptoms in particular was found to significantly predict RSB above and beyond age and all other PTSD symptom clusters. Results of this study suggest that PTSD symptoms (and, more specifically, the hyperarousal symptoms of PTSD) may heighten the risk for some forms of HIV-risk behaviors (RSB) but not others (INJ). Results highlight the importance of identifying and targeting hyperarousal symptoms in the treatment of SUD patients experiencing symptoms of PTSD in order to reduce HIV infection or transmission risk.

Weiss NH; Tull MT; Borne ME; Gratz KL

2013-10-01

168

[Creativity in cannabis-users and in drug addicts in maintenance treatment and in rehabilitation].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The main aim of this study was to investigate potential differences between different groups of drug addicts (patients in maintenance treatment, n?=?14; patients in rehabilitation, n?=?12) and Cannabis-Users (n?=?13), along with a healthy control group (n?=?18), with respect to verbal and figural creativity and general cognitive ability. Participants worked on different measures for the assessment of different facets of creativity, intelligence and experienced psychiatric symptoms. The results indicated that patients in maintenance and, to some extent Cannabis-Users scored higher regarding verbal creativity than patients in rehabilitation. With respect to figural creativity we observed no differences between the experimental groups. Concerning the Big Five personality traits, patients in maintenance treatment scored highest on Neuroticism while on a purely descriptive level Cannabis-Users achieved the highest scores with respect to openness to ?experience and extraversion.

Bliem B; Unterrainer HF; Papousek I; Weiss EM; Fink A

2013-01-01

169

[Creativity in cannabis-users and in drug addicts in maintenance treatment and in rehabilitation].  

Science.gov (United States)

The main aim of this study was to investigate potential differences between different groups of drug addicts (patients in maintenance treatment, n?=?14; patients in rehabilitation, n?=?12) and Cannabis-Users (n?=?13), along with a healthy control group (n?=?18), with respect to verbal and figural creativity and general cognitive ability. Participants worked on different measures for the assessment of different facets of creativity, intelligence and experienced psychiatric symptoms. The results indicated that patients in maintenance and, to some extent Cannabis-Users scored higher regarding verbal creativity than patients in rehabilitation. With respect to figural creativity we observed no differences between the experimental groups. Concerning the Big Five personality traits, patients in maintenance treatment scored highest on Neuroticism while on a purely descriptive level Cannabis-Users achieved the highest scores with respect to openness to ?experience and extraversion. PMID:23359015

Bliem, Brigitta; Unterrainer, Human F; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Fink, Andreas

2013-01-29

170

Does smoking cannabis affect work commitment?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: ? This study aimed to examine the associations between cannabis use and work commitment. DESIGN: ? We used a 25-year panel survey initiated in 1985 with follow-ups in 1987, 1989, 1993, 2003 and 2010. Registered data from a range of public registers were matched with individual responses for the entire period. SETTING: ? The panel survey was a nation-wide study set in Norway. PARTICIPANTS: ? A total of 1997 respondents born between 1965 and 1968 were included in the panel. MEASUREMENTS: ? Work involvement scale (WIS) was used to assess work commitment. Involvement with cannabis was based on self-reported smoking of cannabis within the last 12 months and exposure to cannabis through friends. This information was categorized into 'abstaining', 'exposed', 'experimented' and 'involved'. Control measures included socio-economic background, mental health (HSCL-10), education, work satisfaction, unemployment, receipt of social assistance, consumption of alcohol, alcohol-related problems and use of other illicit drugs. FINDINGS: ? The level of work commitment was associated with involvement with cannabis. In 1993, when the respondents were in their mid-20s, those who were involved or had experimented with cannabis displayed lower levels of work commitment than those who were abstaining or merely exposed to cannabis through friends (P?cannabis converged towards the levels reported by abstainers and the exposed as they grew older, whereas those involved reported decreasing work commitment into adulthood (P?cannabis across the life-course and a lowering of work commitment was established. Results remained significant even when controlling for a range of other factors known to be related to work commitment, such as socio-economic background, education, labour market experiences, mental health and family characteristics (P?cannabis is associated with a reduction in work commitment among adults.

Hyggen C

2012-07-01

171

Cannabis-related impairment and social anxiety: the roles of gender and cannabis use motives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Social anxiety appears to be especially related to cannabis-related problems, yet the nature of this association remains unclear. Some data suggest that socially anxious men may be especially vulnerable to problematic cannabis use. The current study examined the relations between social anxiety, cannabis use and use-related problems, and motives for cannabis use by gender among 174 (42.5% female) current (past-month) cannabis users. Among men, social anxiety was significantly, positively related to the number of cannabis-related problems and coping and conformity motives. Coping and conformity motives mediated the relation between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems. Among women, social anxiety was significantly related only to social motives, and was unrelated to cannabis-related problems. These findings suggest that socially anxious men may be especially vulnerable to using cannabis as a means of avoidance coping (avoiding scrutiny and negative affect), which may contribute to the high rates of cannabis-related problems among socially anxious individuals. PMID:22766487

Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

2012-06-22

172

Estimating the economic value of British Columbia's domestic cannabis market: implications for provincial cannabis policy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: British Columbia (BC), Canada, is home to a large illegal cannabis industry that is known to contribute to substantial organized crime concerns. Although debates have emerged regarding the potential benefits of a legally regulated market to address a range of drug policy-related social problems, the value of the local (i.e., domestically consumed) cannabis market has not been characterized. METHODS: Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to generate a median value and 95% credibility interval for retail expenditure estimates of the domestic cannabis market in BC. Model parameter estimates were obtained for the number of cannabis users, the frequency of cannabis use, the quantity of cannabis used, and the price of cannabis from government surveillance data and studies of BC cannabis users. RESULTS: The median annual estimated retail expenditure on cannabis by British Columbians was $407 million (95% Credibility Interval [CI]: $169-948 million). Daily users accounted for the bulk of the cannabis revenue, with a median estimated expenditure of approximately $357 million (95% CI: $149-845 million), followed by weekly users ($44 million, 95% CI: $18-90 million), and monthly users ($6 million, 95% CI: $3-12 million). When under-reporting of cannabis use was adjusted for, the estimated retail expenditure ranged from $443 million (95% CI: $185-1 billion) to $564 million (95% CI: $236-1.3 billion). CONCLUSION: Based on local consumption patterns, conservative estimates suggest that BC's domestic illegal cannabis trade is worth hundreds of millions of dollars annually. Given the value of this market and the failure and harms of law enforcement efforts to control the cannabis market, policymakers should consider regulatory alternatives.

Werb D; Nosyk B; Kerr T; Fischer B; Montaner J; Wood E

2012-11-01

173

Long-term Use of Flupirtine Leads to Withdrawal Symptoms and is Associated with Dependency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This is the case of a 44-year-old woman, who was treated as an inpatient because of withdrawal symptoms like sweating, tremors, sleeping disorders and irritability after long-term use of flupirtine. She recovered by symptom-based application of pipamperone within 72 h after flupirtine cessation.

Wielopolski J; Reich K; Clepce M; Kornhuber J; Thuerauf N

2013-09-01

174

[Adolescent cannabis consumption and schizophrenia: epidemiological and experimental evidences].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Marijuana is consistently the most widely used illicit drug among teenagers and most users first experiment it in adolescence. Adolescence is a critical period between childhood and adulthood, including not only reproductive maturation, but also cognitive, emotional and social maturation. In this period adolescent brain is still in transition differing anatomically and neurochemically from the adult's one. The endocannabinoid system is an important determinant for cerebral maturation, therefore its strong stimulation by the delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol, that acts through the endocannabinoid system, might lead to subtle but lasting neurobiological changes that can affect adult brain functions and behaviour. We summarize the more recent researches investigating the relationships between adolescent exposure to cannabinoids and increased risk for psychotic disease such as schizophrenia, as highlighted by both human and animal studies. Epidemiological evidence suggests that cannabis use is a risk factor for schizophrenia, and an exacerbation of symptoms and worsening of the schizophrenic prognosis may occur in individuals with a predisposition for schizophrenia. The characteristic of adolescent brain probably makes it more vulnerable to cannabis effect producing psychotic like symptoms and possibly cause schizophrenia.

Parolaro D

2010-01-01

175

[Mental disorders and neuropsychological impairment related to chronic use of cannabis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION. Cannabis is an illegal drug in wide use nowadays, mainly for recreational purposes. It is considered one of the less harmful drugs, partly due to the large amount of information to which most people have access. However, the scientific literature could reveal important clues to the contrary. AIM. To gather and resume updated scientific data from different fields (clinical psychology, neurobiology, neuroimaging...) about the effects and consequences of the chronic use of cannabis. DEVELOPMENT. Evidence concerning the mental disorders and neuropsychological impairment associated the most to the chronic use is presented along with comments on the possible underlying neurobiological mechanisms, and the most important risk factors are also described. CONCLUSIONS. The evidence indicates that frequent and prolonged use of cannabis can be detrimental to mental health. A high risk of psychotic symptoms in predisposed individuals, higher for frequent users, is described, while the findings on symptoms of depression and anxiety are less consistent. On the cognitive-behavioral level, the functions most affected seem to be the attentional and executive ones. These data can be valuable both to guide further research and for updating the sensibilization and prevention programs on cannabis abuse.

Tziraki S

2012-06-01

176

Health aspects of cannabis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Marijuana seems firmly established as another social drug in Western countries, regardless of its current legal status. Patterns of use vary widely. As with other social drugs, the pattern of use is critical in determining adverse effects on health. Perhaps the major area of concern about marijuana use is among the very young. Using any drug on a regular basis that alters reality may be detrimental to the psychosocial maturation of young persons. Chronic use of marijuana may stunt the emotional growth of youngsters. Evidence for an amotivational syndrome is largely based on clinical reports; whether marijuana use is a cause or effect is uncertain. A marijuana psychosis, long rumored, has been difficult to prove. No one doubts that marijuana use may aggravate existing psychoses or other severe emotional disorders. Brain damage has not been proved. Physical dependence is rarely encountered in the usual patterns of social use, despite some degree of tolerance that may develop. The endocrine effects of the drug might be expected to delay puberty in prepubertal boys, but actual instances have been rare. As with any material that is smoked, chronic smoking of marijuana will produce bronchitis; emphysema or lung cancer have not yet been documented. Cardiovascular effects of the drug are harmful to those with preexisting heart disease; fortunately the number of users with such conditions is minimal. Fears that the drug might accumulate in the body to the point of toxicity have been groundless. The potential deleterious effects of marijuana use on driving ability seem to be self-evident; proof of such impairment has been more difficult. The drug is probably harmful when taken during pregnancy, but the risk is uncertain. One would be prudent to avoid marijuana during pregnancy, just as one would do with most other drugs not essential to life or well-being. No clinical consequences have been noted from the effects of the drug on immune response, chromosomes, or cell metabolites. Contamination of marijuana by spraying with defoliants has created the clearest danger to health; such attempts to control production should be abandoned. Therapeutic uses for marijuana, THC, or cannabinoid homologs are being actively explored. Only the synthetic homolog, nabilone, has been approved for use to control nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Hollister LE

1986-03-01

177

New NCI Resource About Cannabis (Marijuana)  

Science.gov (United States)

The NCI Fact Sheet Marijuana Use in Supportive Care for Cancer Patients is no longer current and has been removed. The Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ®) information summary provides up-to-date information on the same topic.

178

Cannabis condemned: the proscription of Indian hemp.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To find out how cannabis came to be subject to international narcotics legislation. METHOD: Examination of the records of the 1925 League of Nations' Second Opium Conference, of the 1894 Report of the Indian Hemp Drugs Commission and other contemporary documents. FINDINGS: Although cannabis (Indian hemp) was not on the agenda of the Second Opium Conference, a claim by the Egyptian delegation that it was as dangerous as opium, and should therefore be subject to the same international controls, was supported by several other countries. No formal evidence was produced and conference delegates had not been briefed about cannabis. The only objections came from Britain and other colonial powers. They did not dispute the claim that cannabis was comparable to opium, but they did want to avoid a commitment to eliminating its use in their Asian and African territories.

Kendell R

2003-02-01

179

Possession of cannabis legal for now.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In two recent rulings the Ontario Court of Justice threw out charges of possession of cannabis contrary to section 4(I) of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA). The courts found that the accused in each case had been charged with an offence not known to law. Parliament never re-enacted the CDSA section prohibiting simple possession of cannabis (marijuana) after it was struck down by the Ontario Court of Appeal in the Parker case.

Betteridge G

2003-04-01

180

Significance of cannabis use to dental practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The illicit use of the three main forms of cannabis-marijuana, hash, hash oil-pose certain obstacles and challenges to the dental professional. There are a number of systemic, as well as oral/head and neck manifestations, associated with cannabis use. Dentists need to be aware of these manifestations in order to take whatever precautions and/or modifications to the proposed treatment that might be necessary.

Maloney WJ

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
181

Significance of cannabis use to dental practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The illicit use of the three main forms of cannabis--marijuana, hash, hash oil--pose certain obstacles and challenges to the dental professional. There are a number of systemic, as well as oral/head and neck manifestations, associated with cannabis use. Dentists need to be aware of these manifestations in order to take whatever precautions and/or modifications to the proposed treatment that might be necessary.

Maloney WJ

2011-11-01

182

Significance of cannabis use to dental practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The illicit use of the three main forms of cannabis--marijuana, hash, hash oil--pose certain obstacles and challenges to the dental professional. There are a number of systemic, as well as oral/head and neck manifestations, associated with cannabis use. Dentists need to be aware of these manifestations in order to take whatever precautions and/or modifications to the proposed treatment that might be necessary.

Maloney WJ

2012-01-01

183

The impact of cannabis use on age of onset and clinical characteristics in first-episode psychotic patients. Data from the Psychosis Incident Cohort Outcome Study (PICOS).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cannabis use is frequent among first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and has been associated with several clinical features. This study aimed in an FEP sample to determine whether cannabis use is associated with (1) a higher level of positive symptoms, a lower level of depression and a better premorbid adjustment, (2) an earlier age of onset, and a better premorbid IQ. The study was conducted within the framework of the Psychosis Incident Cohort Outcome Study (PICOS), a multisite collaborative research on FEP patients who attended the psychiatric services in Veneto Region, Italy. Standardized instruments were used to collect sociodemographic, clinical, and drug use data. A total of 555 FEP patients met the inclusion criteria, 517 of whom received an ICD-10 diagnosis of psychosis; 397 (55% males; mean age: 32 yrs ± 9.5) were assessed. Out of these, 311 patients agreed to be interviewed on drug and alcohol misuse; 20.3% was positive for drug misuse: cannabis (19.0%), cocaine (3.9%), and hallucinogens (3.9%). Cannabis use was not associated with a higher level of positive symptoms, but correlated with less severe depressive symptoms. No relationship was observed between premorbid adjustment or IQ and cannabis use. FEP patients who used cannabis had an earlier age of onset than abstinent patients, even after adjusting for gender and diagnosis. Our results suggest a possible causal role of cannabis in triggering psychosis in certain vulnerable subjects. Particular attention must be paid to this behaviour, because reducing cannabis use can delay or prevent some cases of psychosis.

Tosato S; Lasalvia A; Bonetto C; Mazzoncini R; Cristofalo D; De Santi K; Bertani M; Bissoli S; Lazzarotto L; Marrella G; Lamonaca D; Riolo R; Gardellin F; Urbani A; Tansella M; Ruggeri M

2013-04-01

184

A case of self amputation of penis by cannabis induced psychosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Self-mutilation, self-injuring or self-harming behaviour has been defined as deliberate destruction or alteration of body tissue in the absence of conscious suicidal intention. Persons suffering from mental disorder may inflict hundred of small wounds upon themselves which may be added to the actual cause of death. Another recognized syndrome is self mutilation of genitals almost invariably in males suffering from paranoid schizophrenia and often with strong religious flavour to their delusion. Here we present a case of a 35-year-old male who self mutilated his penis due to dependence on cannabis for the past few years that led to a condition called cannabis induced psychosis.

Khan MK; Usmani MA; Hanif SA

2012-08-01

185

Anormalidades cognitivas no uso da cannabis Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evidências de que o uso de cannabis prejudica funções cognitivas em humanos têm-se acumulado nas décadas recentes. O propósito desta revisão é o de atualizar o conhecimento nesta área com novos achados a partir da literatura mais recente. MÉTODO: As buscas na literatura foram realizadas utilizando-se o banco de dados Web of Science até fevereiro de 2010. Foram buscados os termos "cannabi*" ou "marijuana" e "cogniti*" ou "memory" ou "attention" ou "executive function", e os estudos em humanos foram revisados preferencialmente em relação aos estudos em animais. DISCUSSÃO: O uso de cannabis prejudica a memória, a atenção, o controle inibitório, as funções executivas e a tomada de decisões, tanto durante como após o período de intoxicação aguda, persistindo por horas, dias, semanas ou mais após o último uso. Os estudos de desafio farmacológico em humanos estão elucidando a natureza e os substratos neurais das alterações cognitivas associadas a vários canabinoides. O uso pesado ou de longo prazo de cannabis parece resultar em anormalidades cognitivas mais duradouras e possivelmente em alterações cerebrais estruturais. Efeitos cognitivos adversos maiores estão associados ao uso de cannabis quando este começa no início da adolescência. CONCLUSÃO: O sistema canabinoide endógeno está envolvido nos mecanismos de regulação neural que modulam os processos subjacentes a uma gama de funções cognitivas que estão prejudicadas pela cannabis. Os déficits em usuários humanos muito provavelmente refletem, portanto, neuroadaptações e o funcionamento alterado do sistema canabinoide endógeno.OBJECTIVE: Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. METHOD: Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. DISCUSSION: Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. CONCLUSION: The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

Nadia Solowij; Nicole Pesa

2010-01-01

186

Cannabis use correlates with schizotypy in healthy people.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cannabis use or high scores on self-report schizotypy questionnaires predict an increased risk of developing clinical psychosis. We tested whether cannabis use correlated with schizotypal and other personality traits in 211 healthy adults. Subjects who had used cannabis showed higher scores on schiz...

Williams, JH; Wellman, NA; Rawlins, JN

187

[Cannabis--a drug with dangerous implications for mental health  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Accepting and forgiving attitudes to the use of cannabis in its various forms, such as marijuana or hashish, are not justified, as they may result in dangerous mental health consequences. A theoretical framework for this opinion is provided, including information on the various forms of cannabis available. Case studies presented exemplify possible complications resulting from use of cannabis or its derivatives.

Shufman E; Witztum E

2000-03-01

188

[A novel analgesics made from Cannabis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Bayer AG has recently announced that it acquired exclusive rights for the marketing of GW Pharmaceuticals' new medicine Sativex in Europe and in other regions. Sativex is a sublingual spray on Cannabis extract basis, and is equipped with an electronic tool to facilitate accurate dosing and to prevent misuses. It is standardized for the THC and CBD. The new analgesic is proposed for the treatment of muscle spasticity and pains accompanying multiple sclerosis and as an efficient analgetic for neurogenic pain not responding well to opioids and to other therapies available. The entirely new mechanism of action through the recently discovered cannabinoid receptor system may offer a real therapeutic potential to the drug. Although the Government of Netherlands has authorized the sale of pharmaceutical grade Cannabis herb by pharmacies in the Netherlands, the availability on the pharmaceutical market of the registered preparation may render requests for the authorization of the smoking of Cannabis herb (marihuana) by individuals suffering of multiple sclerosis, neurogenic pain, AIDS wasting syndrome unnecessary. Nevertheless, the "old chameleon" plant Cannabis appears to gradually regain its previous status in mainstream therapy and pharmacy. As long as the plant Cannabis and its products continue to be classified as narcotic drugs, medical use of the new preparation will need close supervision. PMID:15042867

Szendrei, Kálmán

2004-01-20

189

[A novel analgesics made from Cannabis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bayer AG has recently announced that it acquired exclusive rights for the marketing of GW Pharmaceuticals' new medicine Sativex in Europe and in other regions. Sativex is a sublingual spray on Cannabis extract basis, and is equipped with an electronic tool to facilitate accurate dosing and to prevent misuses. It is standardized for the THC and CBD. The new analgesic is proposed for the treatment of muscle spasticity and pains accompanying multiple sclerosis and as an efficient analgetic for neurogenic pain not responding well to opioids and to other therapies available. The entirely new mechanism of action through the recently discovered cannabinoid receptor system may offer a real therapeutic potential to the drug. Although the Government of Netherlands has authorized the sale of pharmaceutical grade Cannabis herb by pharmacies in the Netherlands, the availability on the pharmaceutical market of the registered preparation may render requests for the authorization of the smoking of Cannabis herb (marihuana) by individuals suffering of multiple sclerosis, neurogenic pain, AIDS wasting syndrome unnecessary. Nevertheless, the "old chameleon" plant Cannabis appears to gradually regain its previous status in mainstream therapy and pharmacy. As long as the plant Cannabis and its products continue to be classified as narcotic drugs, medical use of the new preparation will need close supervision.

Szendrei K

2004-01-01

190

Variations and origin of the atmospheric pollen of Cannabis detected in the province of Tetouan (NW Morocco): 2008-2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis, also called marihuana or hemp, is a wind-pollinated plant that produces hundreds of flowers on large inflorescences. It is also one of the oldest psychoactive plants known to humanity. Morocco has become one of the main producers of Cannabis resin (hashish), primarily supplying the European market. The aim of this paper is to ascertain whether the atmospheric monitoring of Cannabis pollen can play a role, from a criminological point of view, in the surveillance of Cannabis cultivation in the area of Tetouan (NW Morocco) as well as to estimate pollen emission so that the sensitive population can be warned about the allergic diseases that its pollen can cause. Aerobiological samplings were made with the aid of a Hirst type volumetric trap (Hirst, 1952), which worked uninterruptedly during a 3-year period (2008-2010) according to the methodology proposed by the Spanish Aerobiology Network, the REA. Cannabis pollen was present in the atmosphere of Tetouan mainly from early April to late August, a period in which about 95% of the annual counts were registered. The highest levels were detected in June and July, with concentrations more or less evenly distributed throughout the day with slight increases of 5% between 12:00 and 16:00 h. The strong association between skin test reactivity, respiratory symptoms, and pollination period found by other authors, together with the levels registered, suggests that Cannabis pollen could be a clinically important aeroallergen for sensitive patients. On the other hand, the data obtained could serve as an indicator of the cultivation activity of this species and should be taken into account by the state authorities since they provide strong evidence of the existence of Cannabis crops in the region of Tetouan. PMID:23208276

Aboulaich, Nadia; Trigo, M Mar; Bouziane, Hassan; Cabezudo, Baltasar; Recio, Marta; El Kadiri, Mohamed; Ater, Mohammed

2012-11-30

191

Variations and origin of the atmospheric pollen of Cannabis detected in the province of Tetouan (NW Morocco): 2008-2010.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cannabis, also called marihuana or hemp, is a wind-pollinated plant that produces hundreds of flowers on large inflorescences. It is also one of the oldest psychoactive plants known to humanity. Morocco has become one of the main producers of Cannabis resin (hashish), primarily supplying the European market. The aim of this paper is to ascertain whether the atmospheric monitoring of Cannabis pollen can play a role, from a criminological point of view, in the surveillance of Cannabis cultivation in the area of Tetouan (NW Morocco) as well as to estimate pollen emission so that the sensitive population can be warned about the allergic diseases that its pollen can cause. Aerobiological samplings were made with the aid of a Hirst type volumetric trap (Hirst, 1952), which worked uninterruptedly during a 3-year period (2008-2010) according to the methodology proposed by the Spanish Aerobiology Network, the REA. Cannabis pollen was present in the atmosphere of Tetouan mainly from early April to late August, a period in which about 95% of the annual counts were registered. The highest levels were detected in June and July, with concentrations more or less evenly distributed throughout the day with slight increases of 5% between 12:00 and 16:00 h. The strong association between skin test reactivity, respiratory symptoms, and pollination period found by other authors, together with the levels registered, suggests that Cannabis pollen could be a clinically important aeroallergen for sensitive patients. On the other hand, the data obtained could serve as an indicator of the cultivation activity of this species and should be taken into account by the state authorities since they provide strong evidence of the existence of Cannabis crops in the region of Tetouan.

Aboulaich N; Trigo MM; Bouziane H; Cabezudo B; Recio M; El Kadiri M; Ater M

2013-01-01

192

Analysis of Cannabis Seizures in NSW, Australia: Cannabis Potency and Cannabinoid Profile  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent analysis of the cannabinoid content of cannabis plants suggests a shift towards use of high potency plant material with high levels of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and low levels of other phytocannabinoids, particularly cannabidiol (CBD). Use of this type of cannabis is thought by some to predispose to greater adverse outcomes on mental health and fewer therapeutic benefits. Australia has one of the highest per capita rates of cannabis use in the world yet there has been no previous systematic analysis of the cannabis being used. In the present study we examined the cannabinoid content of 206 cannabis samples that had been confiscated by police from recreational users holding 15 g of cannabis or less, under the New South Wales “Cannabis Cautioning” scheme. A further 26 “Known Provenance” samples were analysed that had been seized by police from larger indoor or outdoor cultivation sites rather than from street level users. An HPLC method was used to determine the content of 9 cannabinoids: THC, CBD, cannabigerol (CBG), and their plant-based carboxylic acid precursors THC-A, CBD-A and CBG-A, as well as cannabichromene (CBC), cannabinol (CBN) and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THC-V). The “Cannabis Cautioning” samples showed high mean THC content (THC+THC-A?=?14.88%) and low mean CBD content (CBD+CBD-A?=?0.14%). A modest level of CBG was detected (CBG+CBG-A?=?1.18%) and very low levels of CBC, CBN and THC-V (cannabis with very low CBD content. The implications for public health outcomes and harm reduction strategies are discussed.

Li, Kong M.; Arnold, Jonathon C.; McGregor, Iain S.

2013-01-01

193

Analysis of cannabis seizures in NSW, Australia: cannabis potency and cannabinoid profile.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent analysis of the cannabinoid content of cannabis plants suggests a shift towards use of high potency plant material with high levels of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and low levels of other phytocannabinoids, particularly cannabidiol (CBD). Use of this type of cannabis is thought by some to predispose to greater adverse outcomes on mental health and fewer therapeutic benefits. Australia has one of the highest per capita rates of cannabis use in the world yet there has been no previous systematic analysis of the cannabis being used. In the present study we examined the cannabinoid content of 206 cannabis samples that had been confiscated by police from recreational users holding 15 g of cannabis or less, under the New South Wales "Cannabis Cautioning" scheme. A further 26 "Known Provenance" samples were analysed that had been seized by police from larger indoor or outdoor cultivation sites rather than from street level users. An HPLC method was used to determine the content of 9 cannabinoids: THC, CBD, cannabigerol (CBG), and their plant-based carboxylic acid precursors THC-A, CBD-A and CBG-A, as well as cannabichromene (CBC), cannabinol (CBN) and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THC-V). The "Cannabis Cautioning" samples showed high mean THC content (THC+THC-A?=?14.88%) and low mean CBD content (CBD+CBD-A?=?0.14%). A modest level of CBG was detected (CBG+CBG-A?=?1.18%) and very low levels of CBC, CBN and THC-V (<0.1%). "Known Provenance" samples showed no significant differences in THC content between those seized from indoor versus outdoor cultivation sites. The present analysis echoes trends reported in other countries towards the use of high potency cannabis with very low CBD content. The implications for public health outcomes and harm reduction strategies are discussed.

Swift W; Wong A; Li KM; Arnold JC; McGregor IS

2013-01-01

194

CYP2A6 polymorphisms are associated with nicotine dependence and influence withdrawal symptoms in smoking cessation.  

Science.gov (United States)

CYP2A6 is the main enzyme that catalyzes nicotine into cotinine. Interindividual differences in nicotine metabolism result at least partially from polymorphic variation of CYP2A6 gene. In this study, we evaluated the influence of CYP2A6 polymorphisms on clinical phenotypes of smoking, such as smoking habit and withdrawal symptoms. Japanese smokers (n = 107) were genotyped for CYP2A6*1, *4 and *9. Consistent with the previous reports, CYP2A6 genotypes have a tendency to correlate with the number of cigarettes per day and with daily intake of nicotine. Interestingly, CYP2A6 high-activity group (CYP2A6*1/*1, *1/*9, *1/*4, *9/*9) smoked the first cigarette of the day earlier than low-activity group (CYP2A6*4/*9, *4/*4), indicating more remarkable nicotine dependence. Furthermore, nicotine withdrawal symptoms were more serious in smoking cessation in CYP2A6 high-activity group. Collectively, CYP2A6 genotypes are related with nicotine dependence, influencing smoking habits and withdrawal symptoms in quitting smoking. It is proposed that individualized smoking cessation program could be designed based on CYP2A6 genotypes. PMID:16402086

Kubota, T; Nakajima-Taniguchi, C; Fukuda, T; Funamoto, M; Maeda, M; Tange, E; Ueki, R; Kawashima, K; Hara, H; Fujio, Y; Azuma, J

195

Characterization of Cannabis sativa allergens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Allergic sensitization to Cannabis sativa is rarely reported, but the increasing consumption of marijuana has resulted in an increase in the number of individuals who become sensitized. To date, little is known about the causal allergens associated with C sativa. OBJECTIVE: To characterize marijuana allergens in different components of the C sativa plant using serum IgE from marijuana sensitized patients. METHODS: Serum samples from 23 patients with a positive skin prick test result to a crude C sativa extract were evaluated. IgE reactivity was variable between patients and C sativa extracts. IgE reactivity to C sativa proteins in Western blots was heterogeneous and ranged from 10 to 70 kDa. Putative allergens derived from 2-dimensional gels were identified. RESULTS: Prominent IgE reactive bands included a 23-kDa oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2 and a 50-kDa protein identified to be the photosynthetic enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Additional proteins were identified in the proteomic analysis, including those from adenosine triphosphate synthase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, and luminal binding protein (heat shock protein 70), suggesting these proteins are potential allergens. Deglycosylation studies helped refine protein allergen identification and demonstrated significant IgE antibodies against plant oligosaccharides that could help explain cross-reactivity. CONCLUSION: Identification and characterization of allergens from C sativa may be helpful in further understanding allergic sensitization to this plant species.

Nayak AP; Green BJ; Sussman G; Berlin N; Lata H; Chandra S; ElSohly MA; Hettick JM; Beezhold DH

2013-07-01

196

Effect of baseline cannabis use and working-memory network function on changes in cannabis use in heavy cannabis users: A prospective fMRI study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Theoretical models of addiction suggest that a substance use disorder represents an imbalance between hypersensitive motivational processes and deficient regulatory executive functions. Working-memory (a central executive function) may be a powerful predictor of the course of drug use and drug-related problems. Goal of the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study was to assess the predictive power of working-memory network function for future cannabis use and cannabis-related problem severity in heavy cannabis users. Tensor independent component analysis was used to investigate differences in working-memory network function between 32 heavy cannabis users and 41 nonusing controls during an N-back working-memory task. In addition, associations were examined between working-memory network function and cannabis use and problem severity at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. Behavioral performance and working-memory network function did not significantly differ between heavy cannabis users and controls. However, among heavy cannabis users, individual differences in working-memory network response had an independent effect on change in weekly cannabis use 6 months later (?R(2) = 0.11, P = 0.006, f(2) = 0.37) beyond baseline cannabis use (?R(2) = 0.41) and a behavioral measure of approach bias (?R(2) = 0.18): a stronger network response during the N-back task was related to an increase in weekly cannabis use. These findings imply that heavy cannabis users requiring greater effort to accurately complete an N-back working-memory task have a higher probability of escalating cannabis use. Working-memory network function may be a biomarker for the prediction of course and treatment outcome in cannabis users. Hum Brain Mapp, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Cousijn J; Wiers RW; Ridderinkhof KR; van den Brink W; Veltman DJ; Goudriaan AE

2013-09-01

197

History of cannabis as a medicine: a review História da cannabis como medicamento: uma revisão  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cannabis as a medicine was used before the Christian era in Asia, mainly in India. The introduction of cannabis in the Western medicine occurred in the midst of the 19th century, reaching the climax in the last decade of that century, with the availability and usage of cannabis extracts or tinctures. In the first decades of the 20th century, the Western medical use of cannabis significantly decreased largely due to difficulties to obtain consistent results from batches of plant material of different potencies. The identification of the chemical structure of cannabis components and the possibility of obtaining its pure constituents were related to a significant increase in scientific interest in such plant, since 1965. This interest was renewed in the 1990's with the description of cannabinoid receptors and the identification of an endogenous cannabinoid system in the brain. A new and more consistent cycle of the use of cannabis derivatives as medication begins, since treatment effectiveness and safety started to be scientifically proven.Antes da Era Cristã, a cannabis foi utilizada na Ásia como medicamento, com grande importância na Índia. A introdução da cannabis na Medicina Ocidental ocorreu em meados do século XIX, atingindo o clímax na última década deste século, com a disponibilidade e o uso de extratos e tinturas da cannabis. Nas primeiras décadas do século XX, o uso médico da cannabis no Ocidente diminuiu significativamente, em grande parte pela dificuldade na obtenção de resultados consistentes de amostras da planta com diferentes potências. A identificação da estrutura química de componentes da cannabis e a possibilidade de se obter seus constituintes puros foram relacionadas a um aumento significativo no interesse científico pela planta, desde 1965. Este interesse foi renovado nos anos 90, com a descrição dos receptores de canabinóides e a identificação de um sistema canabinóide endógeno no cérebro. Usos terapêuticos. Um novo e mais consistente ciclo de uso dos derivados de cannabis como medicamento começa, já que a sua eficácia e segurança no tratamento começam a estar cientificamente provados.

Antonio Waldo Zuardi

2006-01-01

198

Oral fluid/plasma cannabinoid ratios following controlled oral THC and smoked cannabis administration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral fluid (OF) is a valuable biological alternative for clinical and forensic drug testing. Evaluating OF to plasma (OF/P) cannabinoid ratios provides important pharmacokinetic data on the disposition of drug and factors influencing partition between matrices. Eleven chronic cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit for 51 days. There were four 5-day sessions of 0, 30, 60, and 120 mg oral ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/day followed by a five-puff smoked cannabis challenge on Day 5. Each session was separated by 9 days ad libitum cannabis smoking. OF and plasma specimens were analyzed for THC and metabolites. During ad libitum smoking, OF/P THC ratios were high (median, 6.1; range, 0.2-348.5) within 1 h after last smoking, decreasing to 0.1-20.7 (median, 2.1) by 13.0-17.1 h. OF/P THC ratios also decreased during 5-days oral THC dosing, and after the smoked cannabis challenge, median OF/P THC ratios decreased from 1.4 to 5.5 (0.04-245.6) at 0.25 h to 0.12 to 0.17 (0.04-5.1) at 10.5 h post-smoking. In other studies, longer exposure to more potent cannabis smoke and oromucosal cannabis spray was associated with increased OF/P THC peak ratios. Median OF/P 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) ratios were 0.3-2.5 (range, 0.1-14.7) ng/?g, much more consistent in various dosing conditions over time. OF/P THC, but not THCCOOH, ratios were significantly influenced by oral cavity contamination after smoking or oromucosal spray of cannabinoid products, followed by time-dependent decreases. Establishing relationships between OF and plasma cannabinoid concentrations is essential for making inferences of impairment or other clinical outcomes from OF concentrations. PMID:23831756

Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Milman, Garry; Bergamaschi, Mateus; Mendu, Damodara R; Murray, Jeannie A; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

2013-07-06

199

Oral fluid/plasma cannabinoid ratios following controlled oral THC and smoked cannabis administration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oral fluid (OF) is a valuable biological alternative for clinical and forensic drug testing. Evaluating OF to plasma (OF/P) cannabinoid ratios provides important pharmacokinetic data on the disposition of drug and factors influencing partition between matrices. Eleven chronic cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit for 51 days. There were four 5-day sessions of 0, 30, 60, and 120 mg oral ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/day followed by a five-puff smoked cannabis challenge on Day 5. Each session was separated by 9 days ad libitum cannabis smoking. OF and plasma specimens were analyzed for THC and metabolites. During ad libitum smoking, OF/P THC ratios were high (median, 6.1; range, 0.2-348.5) within 1 h after last smoking, decreasing to 0.1-20.7 (median, 2.1) by 13.0-17.1 h. OF/P THC ratios also decreased during 5-days oral THC dosing, and after the smoked cannabis challenge, median OF/P THC ratios decreased from 1.4 to 5.5 (0.04-245.6) at 0.25 h to 0.12 to 0.17 (0.04-5.1) at 10.5 h post-smoking. In other studies, longer exposure to more potent cannabis smoke and oromucosal cannabis spray was associated with increased OF/P THC peak ratios. Median OF/P 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) ratios were 0.3-2.5 (range, 0.1-14.7) ng/?g, much more consistent in various dosing conditions over time. OF/P THC, but not THCCOOH, ratios were significantly influenced by oral cavity contamination after smoking or oromucosal spray of cannabinoid products, followed by time-dependent decreases. Establishing relationships between OF and plasma cannabinoid concentrations is essential for making inferences of impairment or other clinical outcomes from OF concentrations.

Lee D; Vandrey R; Milman G; Bergamaschi M; Mendu DR; Murray JA; Barnes AJ; Huestis MA

2013-09-01

200

Consommation de cannabis: quels sont les risques ? Cannabis: what are the risks ?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les cannabinoïdes contenus dans la plante de cannabis ont un double usage et possèdent des propriétés opposées suivant les circonstances et les doses employées. Les cannabinoïdes, essentiellement drogue récréative ou d'abus pourraient, pour certains d'entre eux, devenir des médicaments. Selon les conditions d'utilisation, ils peuvent être neurotoxiques ou neuroprotecteurs, carcinogènes ou anticancéreux, hyper-émétiques ou antiémétiques, pro-inflammatoires ou anti-inflammatoires... Les techniques de culture sous serre indoor ainsi que la sélection de variétés de cannabis à fort potentiel de production ont conduit à un accroissement notable des taux de THC. Le cannabis est la drogue illégale la plus fréquemment consommée en Suisse et ailleurs dans le monde occidental. Environ la moitié des jeunes ont déjà expérimenté le cannabis. Environ 10 % des consommateurs le fument quotidiennement et en sont devenus dépendants. Un tiers de ces usagers peut être considéré comme chroniquement intoxiqué. Le THC, la principale substance psychoactive du cannabis, interagit avec le "système endocannabinoïde". Ce système est composé de récepteurs cellulaires, de ligands endogènes et d'un dispositif complexe de synthèse, de dégradation, de régulation et de messagers intra-cellulaires. Le système endocannabinoïde joue un rôle clé dans le réglage fin du système nerveux. Les endocannabinoïdes régulent la mémorisation, l'apprentissage moteur et la plasticité des liaisons nerveuses. À dose psychoactive, le THC réduit les performances psychomotrices et neurocognitives. Les facultés d'apprentissage et de mémorisation sont diminuées. Le risque d'être responsable d'un accident de circulation est augmenté après prise de cannabis, et ceci d'autant plus que de l'alcool aura été consommé parallèlement. À l'exception des jeunes enfants, la consommation de cannabis n'entraîne pas de risque potentiel d'intoxication mortelle. Toutefois, le cannabis pourrait agir comme facteur déclenchant d'accident cardiovasculaire chez de rares individus prédisposés. Les individus jeunes, et/ou vulnérables ont un risque significativement plus élevé de développer une psychose à l'âge adulte ou de devenir dépendant au cannabis. Des études épidémiologiques ont montré que le risque de développer une schizophrénie à l'âge adulte était augmenté pour les consommateurs de cannabis et ceci d'autant plus que l'âge de début de consommation était précoce. Il en va de même pour le risque de dépression. Les troubles respiratoires pourraient être exacerbés par la prise de cannabis. Les femmes enceintes et celles qui allaitent ne devraient pas consommer de cannabis car le THC traverse la barrière hémato-placentaire, en outre, il se concentre dans le lait maternel. La période de la vie la plus sensible aux effets néfastes du cannabis correspond à celle allant du fœtus à l'adolescent. Le système endocannabinoïde sur lequel agit le THC serait en effet un acteur majeur orchestrant le développement des réseaux neuronaux dans le cerveau immature. La prise concomitante d'autres psychotropes comme l'alcool, les benzodiazépines ou la cocaïne conduit à des renforcements mutuels de leurs effets délétères. De plus, il a été montré l'existence d'une sensibilité croisée pour la majorité des psychotropes qui agissent sur le système de la récompense, le cannabis y compris, ce qui augmente ainsi le risque de pharmacodépendance. La prise régulière de doses élevées de cannabis entraîne l'apparition d'une tolérance et de symptômes de sevrage discrets à l'arrêt de la consommation. À part les effets négatifs mentionnés auparavant, le cannabis possède des propriétés médicales originales qui sont l'objet d'études attentives. Plusieurs cannabinoïdes mineurs naturels ou synthétiques, comme l'acide ajulémique, pourraient trouver un jour une place dans la pharmacopée. En usage thérapeutique, des variétés particulières de cannabis sont préférées, par

Giroud Christian; Bollmann Marc; Thomas Aurélien; Mangin Patrice; Favrat Bernard

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Is Hypnotherapy Effective in Relapse Rates of Drug Dependence and Reducing Withdrawal Symptoms?  

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Full Text Available  AbstractIntroduction: This study was performed to assess the effect of hypnotherapy on withdrawal symp- toms and the relapse rates of substance use.Method: In a clinical trial, 22 subjects at the detoxification stage who were eligible for the study were randomly assigned to the case and control groups. Each group similarly took part in the cognitive therapy sessions. Additionally, the case group took five sessions of hypnotherapy. After six months of follow-up, relapse rates of the two groups were compared. Also, in the case group, the effect of autohypnosis on symptoms of withdrawal was evaluated.Results: By the end of the study, there were 40% and 73% relapse in the case and control groups, respectively. Subjective reports on positive effects of autohypnosis was 88% on insomnia, 80% on restlessness, 60% on pain, and 33% on autonomic symptoms.Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, autohypnosis has no significant effect on the relapse rates in opium users, but the effect was clinically prominent.

M. Golabadi; H. Taban

2005-01-01

202

Two-part random effects growth modeling to identify risks associated with alcohol and cannabis initiation, initial average use and changes in drug consumption in a sample of adult, male twins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: Our aim was to profile alcohol and cannabis initiation and to characterize the effects of developmental and environmental risk factors on changes in average drug use over time. DESIGN: We fitted a two-part random effects growth model to identify developmental and environmental risks associated with alcohol and cannabis initiation, initial average use and changes in average use. PARTICIPANTS: 1796 males aged 24-63 from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders. MEASUREMENTS: Data from three interview waves included self-report measures of average alcohol and cannabis use between ages 15 and 24, genetic risk of problem drug use, childhood environmental risks, personality, psychiatric symptoms, as well as personal, family and social risk factors. FINDINGS: Average alcohol and cannabis use were correlated at all ages. Genetic risk of drug use based on family history, higher sensation seeking, and peer group deviance predicted both alcohol and cannabis initiation. Higher drug availability predicted cannabis initiation while less parental monitoring and drug availability were the best predictors of how much cannabis individuals consumed over time. CONCLUSION: The liability to initiate alcohol and cannabis, average drug use as well as changes in drug use during teenage years and young adulthood is associated with known risk factors.

Gillespie NA; Lubke GH; Gardner CO; Neale MC; Kendler KS

2012-06-01

203

Smoked cannabis for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Spasticity is a common and poorly controlled symptom of multiple sclerosis. Our objective was to determine the short-term effect of smoked cannabis on this symptom. METHODS: We conducted a placebo-controlled, crossover trial involving adult patients with multiple sclerosis and spasticity. We recruited participants from a regional clinic or by referral from specialists. We randomly assigned participants to either the intervention (smoked cannabis, once daily for three days) or control (identical placebo cigarettes, once daily for three days). Each participant was assessed daily before and after treatment. After a washout interval of 11 days, participants crossed over to the opposite group. Our primary outcome was change in spasticity as measured by patient score on the modified Ashworth scale. Our secondary outcomes included patients' perception of pain (as measured using a visual analogue scale), a timed walk and changes in cognitive function (as measured by patient performance on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test), in addition to ratings of fatigue. RESULTS: Thirty-seven participants were randomized at the start of the study, 30 of whom completed the trial. Treatment with smoked cannabis resulted in a reduction in patient scores on the modified Ashworth scale by an average of 2.74 points more than placebo (p < 0.0001). In addition, treatment reduced pain scores on a visual analogue scale by an average of 5.28 points more than placebo (p = 0.008). Scores for the timed walk did not differ significantly between treatment and placebo (p = 0.2). Scores on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test decreased by 8.67 points more with treatment than with placebo (p = 0.003). No serious adverse events occurred during the trial. INTERPRETATION: Smoked cannabis was superior to placebo in symptom and pain reduction in participants with treatment-resistant spasticity. Future studies should examine whether different doses can result in similar beneficial effects with less cognitive impact.

Corey-Bloom J; Wolfson T; Gamst A; Jin S; Marcotte TD; Bentley H; Gouaux B

2012-07-01

204

Mechanisms Underlying the Link between Cannabis Use and Prospective Memory  

Science.gov (United States)

While the effects of cannabis use on retrospective memory have been extensively examined, only a limited number of studies have focused on the links between cannabis use and prospective memory. We conducted two studies to examine the links between cannabis use and both time-based and event-based prospective memory as well as potential mechanisms underlying these links. For the first study, 805 students completed an online survey designed to assess cannabis consumption, problems with cannabis use indicative of a disorder, and frequency of experiencing prospective memory failures. The results showed small to moderate sized correlations between cannabis consumption, problems with cannabis use, and prospective memory. However, a series of mediation analyses revealed that correlations between problems with cannabis use and prospective memory were driven by self-reported problems with retrospective memory. For the second study, 48 non-users (who had never used cannabis), 48 experimenters (who had used cannabis five or fewer times in their lives), and 48 chronic users (who had used cannabis at least three times a week for one year) were administered three objective prospective memory tests and three self-report measures of prospective memory. The results revealed no objective deficits in prospective memory associated with chronic cannabis use. In contrast, chronic cannabis users reported experiencing more internally-cued prospective memory failures. Subsequent analyses revealed that this effect was driven by self-reported problems with retrospective memory as well as by use of alcohol and other drugs. Although our samples were not fully characterized with respect to variables such as neurological disorders and family history of substance use disorders, leaving open the possibility that these variables may play a role in the detected relationships, the present findings indicate that cannabis use has a modest effect on self-reported problems with prospective memory, with a primary problem with retrospective memory appearing to underlie this relationship.

Cuttler, Carrie; McLaughlin, Ryan J.; Graf, Peter

2012-01-01

205

Factores asociados al inicio del consumo de cannabis: una revisión sistemática de estudios de cohortes Factors associated with the onset of cannabis use: a systematic review of cohort studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar los factores asociados al inicio del consumo de cannabis a partir de una revisión sistemática de estudios de cohortes. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica informatizada utilizando diversas palabras clave y sus combinaciones. Entre los estudios identificados se seleccionaron los estudios originales de diseño longitudinal que utilizaran como variable dependiente el inicio de consumo de cannabis, así como los estudios de revisión, publicados entre enero de 1980 y mayo de 2004. Se evaluó la calidad metodológica de los estudios mediante 2 revisores, de manera independiente y a partir de unos criterios prestablecidos, clasificando los artículos en 3 categorías: alta, intermedia o baja calidad. Se midió el nivel de concordancia de los revisores a partir del coeficiente kappa. Resultados: Se identificaron 32 estudios que cumplían los criterios de selección, de los cuales 13 fueron determinados de alta calidad. Las causas de exclusión fueron el sesgo de selección, por la inclusión de consumidores al inicio de la cohorte estudiada, y la falta de ajuste por los potenciales confusores. Los factores que se relacionaron con una mayor evidencia con el inicio del consumo de cannabis fueron el sexo masculino, el consumo de tabaco y alcohol, tener una relación problemática con los padres y el consumo de cannabis por parte de los amigos. Conclusiones: Los resultados señalan la importancia de diversos factores individuales, familiares y del entorno en el inicio del consumo de cannabis, que deberían considerarse de forma conjunta en el abordaje preventivo entre los adolescentes.Objective: To determine the factors associated with the onset of cannabis use through a systematic review of cohort studies. Methods: An internet-based search was performed using several keywords and their combinations. Original studies with longitudinal design and the onset of cannabis use as dependent variable, as well as review studies were included, published between January 1980 and May 2004. Methodology quality of the studies was assessed independently by two reviewers, according to pre-established criteria, in order to classify studies in high, mid or low quality. Agreement between reviewers was assessed through kappa coefficient. Results: A total of 32 relevant studies were identified, of which 13 were of higher quality. Selection bias for the inclusion of consumers at the baseline measurement and lack or insufficient adjustment for confounders were the causes of exclusion. The factors of great evidence related to the onset of cannabis use were masculine sex, consumption of tobacco or alcohol, having a problematic relationship with parents, and cannabis consumption by friends. Conclusion: Results highlight the importance of different individual, family and environmental factors on the onset of cannabis use. These must be considered to properly arrange intervention programs focusing on primary prevention among teenagers.

Mònica Guxens; Manel Nebot; Carles Ariza; Darío Ochoa

2007-01-01

206

Disability in atypical parkinsonian syndromes is more dependent on memory dysfunction than motor symptoms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is a gap in the systematic description and investigation of functional disability in corticobasal syndrome (CBS) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Additionally, the relations between disability, apraxia, cognitive and behavioural changes are not well understood in atypical parkinsonian syndromes. METHODS: Fifty patients were included in this study (CBS = 18; PSP = 11), including a subgroup of primary progressive aphasia-nonfluent variant (PPA-nfv = 21) who were used as a control group given the clinic-pathological overlap. Functional disability (basic and instrumental activities of daily living), general cognition and behavioural changes were evaluated at baseline, with a subgroup of patients being reassessed after 16 months. RESULTS: The corticobasal syndrome group had the most marked disability in basic activities in comparison to progressive supranuclear palsy and primary progressive aphasia-nonfluent variant. Longitudinal decline was marked for all three groups. In a linear regression examining factors behind functional disability in CBS and PSP, memory dysfunction emerged as the main factor (48.5%), followed by apraxia (14.9%) and atypical parkinsonian symptoms (9.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Memory dysfunction is the most important factor in functional disability in CBS and PSP, which has to be taken into consideration in disease management, prognosis and planning of services to fully address patients' and families' needs.

Cushing N; Jang J; O'Connor CM; Burrell JR; Clemson L; Hodges JR; Mioshi E

2013-04-01

207

Polyketide synthases in Cannabis sativa L.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cannabis sativa L. plants produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites, which have been grouped in cannabinoids, flavonoids, stilbenoids, terpenoids, alkaloids and lignans; the cannabinoids are the best known group of natural products from this plant. The pharmacological aspects of this secondar...

Flores Sanchez, Isvett Josefina

208

Comparative Proteomics of Cannabis sativa Plant Tissues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Comparative proteomics of leaves, flowers, and glands of Cannabis sativa have been used to identify specific tissue-expressed proteins. These tissues have significantly different levels of cannabinoids. Cannabinoids accumulate primarily in the glands but can also be found in flowers and leaves. Prot...

Raharjo, Tri J.; Widjaja, Ivy; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Verpoorte, Robert

209

Investigations into the hypothesis of transgenic cannabis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The unusual concentration of cannabinoids recently found in marijuana samples submitted to the forensic laboratory for chemical analysis prompted an investigation into whether genetic modifications have been made to the DNA of Cannabis sativa L. to increase its potency. Traditional methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMO) were used to analyze herbal cannabis preparations. Our analyses support the hypothesis that marijuana samples submitted to forensic laboratories and characterized by an abnormal level of ?(9)-THC are the product of breeding selection rather than of transgenic modifications. Further, this research has shown a risk of false positive results associated with the poor quality of the seized samples and probably due to the contamination by other transgenic vegetable products. On the other hand, based on these data, a conclusive distinction between the hypothesis of GMO plant contamination and the other of genetic modification of cannabis cannot be made requiring further studies on comparative chemical and genetic analyses to find out an explanation for the recently detected increased potency of cannabis.

Cascini F

2012-05-01

210

Cannabis body packing: two case reports.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Body packing is a well-known means of narcotic carriage across international borders. The most common drugs carried are cocaine and heroin. CASE DESCRIPTIONS: We describe 2 cases of cannabis body packing which occurred the same year in the South of France, one with complications: a 45-year-old male went to emergency for abdominal pain. A plain abdominal x-ray revealed multiple foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract. It was confirmed by abdominal CT. The laparatomy confirmed peritonitis secondary to colonic perforation, and 34 filled condoms packages were extracted. After calling poison centre, toxicological analysis was performed on one package. The resin wrapped in cellophane contained 15% tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The patient was discharged on day 12. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Cannabis body packing is rarely reported, and the only known complications have a mechanic etiology. Plain abdominal x-ray is the best method for detection and it can be confirmed by abdominal CT and toxicological analysis. Cannabis is the most important illicit drug used in the word. Also cannabis body packing is probably underestimated. Health care practitioners should be aware of the possibility of body packing when someone coming back from abroad complains of abdominal pain.

Spadari M; Canioni D; Gregoire E; Drouet G; Bourdon JH; Arditti J; Micallef J

2011-11-01

211

Early-Onset, Regular Cannabis Use Is Linked to IQ Decline  

Science.gov (United States)

... Is Linked to IQ Decline Early-Onset, Regular Cannabis Use Is Linked to IQ Decline Email Facebook ... that cannabis use may harm the developing brain. Cannabis Use Correlates With Cognitive Decline The study participants ...

212

Psychometric properties of the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) in a French sample of adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Psychometric and screening properties of the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) were investigated using DSM-IV diagnoses of cannabis dependence (CD) and cannabis use disorders (CUD) as external criteria. Performance of the binary and the full version of the CAST were compared. METHODS: The sample consisted of 2566 French adolescents aged 17 who reported cannabis use 12 months prior to the survey. The Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) was used as a gold standard for DSM-IV diagnoses. Internal consistency (Cronbach's ?), construct validity (exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, correlation of CAST scores with related variables), and criterion validity (Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses) were assessed. RESULTS: Both CAST versions were unidimensional and Cronbach's ? was 0.748 for the binary and 0.775 for the full version. High and comparable AUC values indicate a good ability of both test versions to discriminate between individuals with and without a clinical diagnosis. Based on balanced sensitivity and specificity, the optimal cut-off scores for CD and CUD were 2 for the binary and 3 or 4 for the full version. While both versions largely overestimated CD prevalence, CUD prevalence was slightly underestimated. CONCLUSIONS: The binary and the full version of the CAST are equally useful for screening for cannabis-related disorders. Both clinical and research applications of the scale are possible. The CAST may be used for estimating CUD prevalence rather than CD prevalence. The ultimate choice of the cut-off depends on the purpose of the specific study using the CAST.

Legleye S; Piontek D; Kraus L

2011-01-01

213

The Loudness Dependence of Auditory Evoked Potentials (LDAEP) as an Indicator of Serotonergic Dysfunction in Patients with Predominant Schizophrenic Negative Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

Besides the influence of dopaminergic neurotransmission on negative symptoms in schizophrenia, there is evidence that alterations of serotonin (5-HT) system functioning also play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of these disabling symptoms. From post mortem and genetic studies on patients with negative symptoms a 5-HT dysfunction is documented. In addition atypical neuroleptics and some antidepressants improve negative symptoms via serotonergic action. So far no research has been done to directly clarify the association between the serotonergic functioning and the extent of negative symptoms. Therefore, we examined the status of brain 5-HT level in negative symptoms in schizophrenia by means of the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP). The LDAEP provides a well established and non-invasive in vivo marker of the central 5-HT activity. We investigated 13 patients with schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms treated with atypical neuroleptics and 13 healthy age and gender matched controls with a 32-channel EEG. The LDAEP of the N1/P2 component was evaluated by dipole source analysis and single electrode estimation at Cz. Psychopathological parameters, nicotine use and medication were assessed to control for additional influencing factors. Schizophrenic patients showed significantly higher LDAEP in both hemispheres than controls. Furthermore, the LDAEP in the right hemisphere in patients was related to higher scores in scales assessing negative symptoms. A relationship with positive symptoms was not found. These data might suggest a diminished central serotonergic neurotransmission in patients with predominant negative symptoms.

Wyss, Christine; Hitz, Konrad; Hengartner, Michael P.; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Obermann, Caitriona; Uhl, Idun; Roser, Patrik; Grunblatt, Edna; Seifritz, Erich

2013-01-01

214

Exercise dependencesymptoms and mechanisms [Uzale?nienie od ?wicze? fizycznych – objawy i mechanizmy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this article is to synthesise the knowledge about the phenomenon of exercise dependence (ED), which is now characterised by an obsessive preoccupation with exercise, negative in nature. ED could be operationalized as a multidimensional maladaptive pattern of exercise, leading to clinically impairment or distress. Its criteria are: tolerance, withdrawal effects, lack of control, reductions in other activities, impaired psychological, social or physical functioning. For primary ED, the physical activity is an end in itself; for secondary ED, motivation is extrinsic – to control or alter body mass and shape. Estimates of the prevalence of ED range from 2–3% to 20–30%. Hypotheses of ED development concentrate on ß-endorphin, sympathetic arousal, affect regulation or some psychological explanations (e.g. exercise as distractor).

Guszkowska, Monika

2012-01-01

215

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) as an Environmentally Friendly Energyplant  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemp is suitable as a renewable energy resource. The aim of this study was to clarify local hemp's (Cannabis sativa L.) possibilities for energy use. Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and titanium (Ti) presence in hemp was determined using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer Optima 2100 DV. If there were increased N fertilizer rates, there were increased hemp `P?ri?i' seeds and shive yield increases, but the oil content was reduced. Arsenic content was higher in the shives than in the stems with fibre. The ash content depends on non-organic substances which the plants absorb during the vegetation season. The lignin content depends on several factors: plant parts, and the N fertilizer rate. The unexplored factors have a great effect on the ash and lignin content. Hemp is suitable for cultivation and for bio-energy production in the agro-climatic conditions in Latvia.

Poisa, Liena; Adamovics, Aleksandrs

2010-01-01

216

The effects of cannabis use on physical and mental health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper investigates whether cannabis use affects physical and mental health. To do so, information on prime aged individuals living in Amsterdam in 1994 is used. Dutch data offer a clear advantage in estimating the health impacts of cannabis use because the legal status of cannabis in the Netherlands ensures that estimates are free from confounding with the physical and psychological effects of engaging in a criminal activity. Accounting for selection into cannabis use and shared frailties in mental and physical health, the results suggest that cannabis use reduces the mental wellbeing of men and women and the physical wellbeing of men. Although statistically significant, the magnitude of the effect of using cannabis on mental and physical health is found to be small.

van Ours JC; Williams J

2012-07-01

217

What every adolescent needs to know: cannabis can cause psychosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Cannabis is a widely used substance that may be becoming more socially accepted, legally tolerated, and utilized by younger individuals. This review explores the relationship between cannabis and the onset of psychosis as well as the policy ramifications of current research. METHOD: This article synthesizes published work that was considered by the author to be relevant to the discussion of cannabis and the onset of psychosis. RESULTS: The evidence suggests that, along with other harms, cannabis is a significant risk factor in the etiology of psychosis. Adolescents are more vulnerable to using cannabis, and because of their stage of mental development, the cognitive effects are more pronounced. The mechanism for this change is thought to be neuro-chemical with a stronger effect in those with a diathesis for psychosis. CONCLUSION: The risk that cannabis poses to adolescent health should not be neglected. Policy measures should use a multifaceted and strategic perspective in order to prevent adolescents from using this drug.

Shapiro GK; Buckley-Hunter L

2010-12-01

218

Psycho-social characteristics of cannabis abusing youth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is a well known fact that drug abuse is most common in early adolescence. The most popular substances among youth are cannabis products (made from Cannabis sativa L., Cannabaceae). The majority of heroin and cocaine addicts have started with marijuana. The aim of this study is to show some psycho-social characteristics of adolescents who abuse cannabis. Research conducted during the year 2001 was epidemiological and prospective. The study group included 600 adolescents of equal gender and age distribution. Q 2000 questionnaire was used, as a comprehensive tool for all aspects of adolescent life. The results show strong peer impact on one's behavior. Youth who use cannabis had 2-3 friends of the same behavior, compared to others who had none. We found positive correlation between life stressful events and cannabis abuse. We also noticed tendency to delinquent behavior related to cannabis abuse (35%).

Licanin I; Redzi? A

2005-02-01

219

Cannabis and other illicit drug use in epilepsy patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of illicit drug use among epilepsy patients and its effects on the disease. METHODS: We systematically interviewed epilepsy outpatients at a tertiary epilepsy clinic. Predictors for active cannabis use were analysed with a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Overall, 310 subjects were enrolled; 63 (20.3%) reported consuming cannabis after epilepsy was diagnosed, and 16 (5.2%) used other illicit drugs. Active cannabis use was predicted by sex (male) [odds ratio (OR) 5.342, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.416-20.153] and age (OR 0.956, 95% CI 0.919-0.994). Cannabis consumption mostly did not affect epilepsy (84.1%). Seizure worsening was observed with frequent illicit (non-cannabis) drug use in 80% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Cannabis use does not seem to affect epilepsy; however, frequent use of other drugs increases seizure risk. PMID:23311572

Hamerle, M; Ghaeni, L; Kowski, A; Weissinger, F; Holtkamp, M

2013-01-11

220

Rat models of prenatal and adolescent cannabis exposure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is the illicit drug most commonly used by two vulnerable populations relevant to neurodevelopment-pregnant women and teenagers. Human longitudinal studies have linked prenatal and adolescent cannabis exposure with long-term behavioral abnormalities as well as increased vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood. Animal models provide a means of studying the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these long-term effects. This chapter provides an overview of the animal models we have used to study the developmental impact of cannabis.

Dinieri JA; Hurd YL

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Cortisol-induced enhancement of emotional face processing in social phobia depends on symptom severity and motivational context.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated the effects of cortisol administration on approach and avoidance tendencies in 20 patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured during a reaction time task, in which patients evaluated the emotional expression of photographs of happy and angry faces by making an approaching (flexion) or avoiding (extension) arm movement. Patients showed significant avoidance tendencies for angry but not for happy faces, both in the placebo and cortisol condition. Moreover, ERP analyses showed a significant interaction of condition by severity of social anxiety on early positive (P150) amplitudes during avoidance compared to approach, indicating that cortisol increases early processing of social stimuli (in particular angry faces) during avoidance. This result replicates previous findings from a non-clinical sample of high anxious individuals and demonstrates their relevance for clinical SAD. Apparently the cortisol-induced increase in processing of angry faces in SAD depends on symptom severity and motivational context.

van Peer JM; Spinhoven P; van Dijk JG; Roelofs K

2009-05-01

222

Sativex for the management of multiple sclerosis symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sativex (R) is a cannabis-based pharmaceutical product containing delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) in a 1:1 ratio, delivered in an oromucosal (mouth) spray. It has been approved as adjunctive treatment for neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It is being investigated for the management of other MS symptoms, such as spasticity. THC:CBD spray is regulated as a narcotic. Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) compared the benefits and harms of THC:CBD spray with placebo. A total of 368 patients with various neurological conditions (including MS) were recruited. In some trials, THC:CBD spray significantly reduced neuropathic pain, spasticity, muscle spasms and sleep disturbances. The most common adverse events (AEs) reported in trials were dizziness, sleepiness, fatigue, feeling of intoxication and a bad taste. Long-term safety and the potential for dependence, abuse, misuse and diversion are unknown. PMID:16317825

Perras C

2005-09-01

223

Sativex for the management of multiple sclerosis symptoms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sativex (R) is a cannabis-based pharmaceutical product containing delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) in a 1:1 ratio, delivered in an oromucosal (mouth) spray. It has been approved as adjunctive treatment for neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It is being investigated for the management of other MS symptoms, such as spasticity. THC:CBD spray is regulated as a narcotic. Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) compared the benefits and harms of THC:CBD spray with placebo. A total of 368 patients with various neurological conditions (including MS) were recruited. In some trials, THC:CBD spray significantly reduced neuropathic pain, spasticity, muscle spasms and sleep disturbances. The most common adverse events (AEs) reported in trials were dizziness, sleepiness, fatigue, feeling of intoxication and a bad taste. Long-term safety and the potential for dependence, abuse, misuse and diversion are unknown.

Perras C

2005-09-01

224

Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract More people are using the cannabis plant as modern basic and clinical science reaffirms and extends its medicinal uses. Concomitantly, concern and opposition to smoked medicine has occurred, in part due to the known carcinogenic consequences of smoking tobacco. Are these reactions justified? While chemically very similar, there are fundamental differences in the pharmacological properties between cannabis and tobacco smoke. Cannabis smoke contains cannabinoids whereas tobacco smoke contains nicotine. Available scientific data, that examines the carcinogenic properties of inhaling smoke and its biological consequences, suggests reasons why tobacco smoke, but not cannabis smoke, may result in lung cancer.

Melamede Robert

2005-01-01

225

Genomewide linkage study in the Irish affected sib pair study of alcohol dependence: evidence for a susceptibility region for symptoms of alcohol dependence on chromosome 4.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alcoholism is a relatively common, chronic, disabling and often treatment-resistant disorder. Evidence from twin and adoption studies indicates a substantial genetic influence, with heritability estimates of 50-60%. We conducted a genome scan in the Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of Alcohol Dependence (IASPSAD). Most probands were ascertained through alcoholism treatment settings and were severely affected. Probands, affected siblings and parents were evaluated by structured interview. A 4 cM genome scan was conducted using 474 families of which most (96%) were comprised by affected sib pairs. Nonparametric and quantitative linkage analyses were conducted using DSM-IV alcohol dependence (AD) and number of DSM-IV AD symptoms (ADSX). Quantitative results indicate strong linkage for number of AD criteria to a broad region of chromosome 4, ranging from 4q22 to 4q32 (peak multipoint LOD=4.59, P=2.1 x 10(-6), at D4S1611). Follow-up analyses suggest that the linkage may be due to variation in the symptoms of tolerance and out of control drinking. There was evidence of weak linkage (LODs of 1.0-2.0) to several other regions, including 1q44, 13q31, and 22q11 for AD along with 2q37, 9q21, 9q34 and 18p11 for ADSX. The location of the chromosome 4 peak is consistent with results from prior linkage studies and includes the alcohol dehydrogenase gene cluster. The results of this study suggest the importance of genetic variation in chromosome 4 in the etiology and severity of alcoholism in Caucasian populations. PMID:16534506

Prescott, C A; Sullivan, P F; Kuo, P-H; Webb, B T; Vittum, J; Patterson, D G; Thiselton, D L; Myers, J M; Devitt, M; Halberstadt, L J; Robinson, V P; Neale, M C; van den Oord, E J; Walsh, D; Riley, B P; Kendler, K S

2006-06-01

226

Three (or more) alcohol-dependence symptoms but not clustered in the same 12 months: diagnostic orphans from a longitudinal perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), currently uses a polythetic classification system for defining alcohol use disorders (AUD; alcohol abuse and dependence). This classification results in individuals who are subthreshold for an official AUD diagnosis but still endorse one or two criteria of dependence: so-called "diagnostic orphans." To our knowledge, however, there has been no attention given to diagnostic orphans from a lifetime perspective. The goal of the current article was to compare various diagnostic groups based on lifetime reports of abuse and dependence symptoms on a range of outcomes. METHOD: Data taken from the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions study were used to form seven mutually exclusive diagnostic groups based on lifetime abuse and dependence symptomatology. RESULTS: Diagnostic groups that experienced extensive dependence symptoms, regardless of past-12-month clustering (i.e., formal diagnostic criteria), tended to exhibit poorer outcomes compared with participants that met formal lifetime diagnosis for an AUD through abuse alone. It is notable that a significant group of individuals who failed to meet formal lifetime AUD diagnosis, but who endorsed a number of dependence symptoms, consistently demonstrated more problematic outcomes on a range of measures compared with individuals who never reported dependence symptoms but who were formally diagnosed with lifetime AUD through alcohol abuse. CONCLUSIONS: DSM-IV lifetime diagnostic criteria may exclude individuals with a history of extensive dependence symptomatology. Implications regarding lifetime diagnosis conceptualization are discussed.

Littlefield AK; Vergés A; Sher KJ

2010-11-01

227

Le cannabis est-il un produit dopant ? Is cannabis a doping substance ?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les propriétés sédatives et anxiolytiques du principe psychoactif principal du cannabis, le delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), sont connues depuis des millénaires. Cette connaissance empirique a été confirmée ces dernières années par une meilleure compréhension des mécanismes d'action du THC. Au niveau neuronal, il induit une diminution intracellulaire du potassium et une augmentation du calcium. Ceci se traduit par une altération des capacités d'exocytose de certains neurotransmetteurs, dont le glutamate. Par ailleurs, il est désormais bien établi que les zones du cerveau dans lesquelles le THC exerce ces effets sont les mêmes que celles où agissent les médicaments sédatifs et les bêtabloquants, substances également utilisées dans la pratique du dopage. Les propriétés sédatives du cannabis sont recherchées par les athlètes, les jours précédant les compétitions pour favoriser l'endormissement, un souci majeur pour ces sportifs de haut niveau. Dans les disciplines sportives nécessitant un état de relaxation important au cours de la compétition, ce qui est le cas pour tous les sports d'adresse (tir, équitation, etc.), les propriétés anxiolytiques du cannabis sont également très attractives. En conséquence, et bien que le cannabis puisse être responsable d'une diminution des performances biomécaniques, il est utilisé par les sportifs de haut niveau pour son aptitude à améliorer les performances psychologiques ; il est donc logique qu'il soit proscrit au même titre que certaines classes de médicaments destinés à se substituer aux méthodes naturelles de préparation psychologique. Sedative and anxiolytic properties of delta-9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main active component of cannabis are known from thousand of years. This empirical knowledge was confirmed in recent years by a better understanding of mechanisms of action of THC. On neurons, its effects consist of a decrease in intracellular concentrations of potassium and of an increase in calcium concentration. Ultimately, the release of neurotransmitters such as glutamate is inhibited. On the other hand, the areas of the brain where THC has its effects are the same as those where the benzodiazepines and the beta-blockers also act. The sedative properties of cannabis are of interest to athletes during the days before the competition since they facilitate falling asleep, a major concern for high level sportsmen. In sports that need a relaxed state during the competition, as it is the case for instance in accuracy specialities (shooting, horse riding, ...), cannabis anxiolytic properties are also attractive. Therefore, and even if cannabis could be responsible of lowering biochemical performances, it is used by high level sportsmen for its virtue to improve psychic components ; it is then logical to ban their use as well as several drugs that could substitute for natural methods of psychological preparation.

Mura Patrick; Trouvé Renaud; Mauco Gérard

2009-01-01

228

Síntomas depresivos como factor de riesgo de dependencia en adultos mayores Depressive symptoms as a risk factor for dependence in elderly people  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la relación entre síntomas depresivos y dependencia funcional. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio longitudinal con 1 880 adultos mayores evaluados en 2001 y 2003. Se determinaron los síntomas depresivos con una versión modificada de la Escala de Depresión del Centro de Estudios Epidemiológicos y la dependencia con las escalas de Lawton y Brody, y Katz. La dependencia implicó la asistencia y ayuda para realizar alguna de las actividades interrogadas. Los análisis multifactoriales probaron el nexo entre síntomas depresivos y desarrollo de dependencia. RESULTADOS: En 2001, 37.9% mostró síntomas depresivos. En 2003, 6.1 y 12.7% desarrollaron dependencia para al menos una de las actividades básicas (ABVD) e instrumentales de la vida diaria (AIVD), respectivamente. En el análisis multivariado, los síntomas depresivos fueron factor de riesgo sólo para dependencia en las AIVD. CONCLUSIONES: Los síntomas depresivos favorecen el desarrollo de dependencia funcional. Es necesario su reconocimiento sistemático durante la evaluación clínica del adulto mayor.OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between depressive symptoms and dependence in activities of daily living. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Participants, aged 70 to 104 (n= 1 880), were evaluated twice (2001 and 2003). Depressive symptoms were established by a modified version of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, whereas functional dependence was assessed with Lawton & Brody and Katz scales. Dependence implies the attendance and assistance of another person to accomplish the activity. Multivariate regression analyses were used to determine the effect of depressive symptoms on incident dependence. RESULTS: At baseline, 37.9% had depressive symptoms. After two years, 6.1 and 12.7% developed functional dependence for one or more ADL and IADL, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that depressive symptoms were a risk factor to the development of functional dependence only for the instrumental activities for daily living. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms are a risk factor for functional dependence. Systematic screening it seems necessary in the evaluation of geriatric patients.

José Alberto Ávila-Funes; Efrén Melano-Carranza; Hélène Payette; Hélène Amieva

2007-01-01

229

Síntomas depresivos como factor de riesgo de dependencia en adultos mayores/ Depressive symptoms as a risk factor for dependence in elderly people  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Determinar la relación entre síntomas depresivos y dependencia funcional. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio longitudinal con 1 880 adultos mayores evaluados en 2001 y 2003. Se determinaron los síntomas depresivos con una versión modificada de la Escala de Depresión del Centro de Estudios Epidemiológicos y la dependencia con las escalas de Lawton y Brody, y Katz. La dependencia implicó la asistencia y ayuda para realizar alguna de las actividades interrogadas. (more) Los análisis multifactoriales probaron el nexo entre síntomas depresivos y desarrollo de dependencia. RESULTADOS: En 2001, 37.9% mostró síntomas depresivos. En 2003, 6.1 y 12.7% desarrollaron dependencia para al menos una de las actividades básicas (ABVD) e instrumentales de la vida diaria (AIVD), respectivamente. En el análisis multivariado, los síntomas depresivos fueron factor de riesgo sólo para dependencia en las AIVD. CONCLUSIONES: Los síntomas depresivos favorecen el desarrollo de dependencia funcional. Es necesario su reconocimiento sistemático durante la evaluación clínica del adulto mayor. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between depressive symptoms and dependence in activities of daily living. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Participants, aged 70 to 104 (n= 1 880), were evaluated twice (2001 and 2003). Depressive symptoms were established by a modified version of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, whereas functional dependence was assessed with Lawton & Brody and Katz scales. Dependence implies the attendance and assistance of another person (more) to accomplish the activity. Multivariate regression analyses were used to determine the effect of depressive symptoms on incident dependence. RESULTS: At baseline, 37.9% had depressive symptoms. After two years, 6.1 and 12.7% developed functional dependence for one or more ADL and IADL, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that depressive symptoms were a risk factor to the development of functional dependence only for the instrumental activities for daily living. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms are a risk factor for functional dependence. Systematic screening it seems necessary in the evaluation of geriatric patients.

Ávila-Funes, José Alberto; Melano-Carranza, Efrén; Payette, Hélène; Amieva, Hélène

2007-10-01

230

PTSD contributes to teen and young adult cannabis use disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Previous studies involving adults suggest that Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) increases the prevalence of cannabis use disorders (CUD) (cannabis dependence and cannabis abuse). However, little work with PTSD and CUD has been conducted involving adolescents, despite the fact that CUD typically have their onset during adolescence. This study addresses the effect of PTSD on CUD among teenagers transitioning to young adulthood. METHOD: The subjects in this ongoing study were the offspring of adult men with a lifetime history of a substance use disorder (SUD) (SUD+probands, N=343) vs those with no lifetime history of a SUD (SUD-probands, N=350). The participants were initially recruited when the index sons of these fathers were 10-12 years of age, and subsequent assessments were conducted at age 12-14, 16, 19, 22, and 25. Other variables examined were an index of behavioral undercontrol associated with future risk for developing SUD, known as the Transmissible Liability Index, or TLI, and affiliation with deviant peers. Multivariate logistic regression and path analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Of these 693 subjects, 31 subjects were diagnosed with PTSD, and 161 were diagnosed with a CUD. The CUD subjects included 136 male participants and 25 female participants, including 103 (64%) Caucasian participants and 58 (36%) participants of other races. Logistic regression demonstrated that the development of a CUD was associated with deviance of peers (Wald=63.4, p=0.000), the TLI (Wald=28.8, p=0.000), African American race (Wald=14.2, p=0.000), PTSD (Wald=12.7, p=0.000), male gender (Wald=12.0, p=0.001), household SES (Wald=9.2, p=0.002), and being an offspring of a SUD+proband (Wald=6.9, p=0.009). Path analyses demonstrated that PTSD is directly associated with the presence of a CUD and with peer deviance, that higher peer deviance is associated with the presence of a CUD, and that PTSD mediated the association between peer deviance and CUD. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that PTSD contributes to the etiology of CUD among teenagers making the transition to young adulthood beyond the effects of deviant peers, the TLI (Transmissible Liability Index, a measure of risk for SUD), and demographic factors.

Cornelius JR; Kirisci L; Reynolds M; Clark DB; Hayes J; Tarter R

2010-02-01

231

The prevalence of substance use disorders and psychiatric disorders as a function of psychotic symptoms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Psychotic symptoms represent one of the most severe and functionally impairing components of several psychological disorders. One group with particularly high rates of psychotic symptoms is chronic substance users. However, the literature on psychotic symptoms and substance use is quite narrow and has focused almost exclusively on drug-induced psychosis, neglecting the population of substance users with psychotic symptoms occurring independently of acute drug effects. METHOD: The current study examined demographics, substance dependence, and psychiatric comorbidities among substance users with current (CurrSx), past (PastSx), and no psychotic symptoms (NoSx). Patients (n=685) were sequential admissions to a residential substance use treatment center from 2006 to 2009. RESULTS: Compared to NoSx, those who endorsed CurrSx were significantly more likely to meet criteria for lifetime alcohol dependence and lifetime amphetamine dependence. CurrSx were more likely than PastSx to meet for lifetime cannabis dependence. Additionally, CurrSx were more likely to meet criteria for a comorbid psychiatric disorder compared to NoSx, and evidenced a greater number of current psychiatric disorders. NoSx were less likely than both CurrSx and PastSx to meet criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder. CONCLUSION: Individuals with non-substance induced psychotic symptoms appear to meet criteria for specific substance use disorders and psychiatric disorders at higher rates than those without psychotic symptoms; these effects were most evident for those with current as opposed to past symptoms. Findings suggest that these individuals may need specialized care to address potential psychiatric comorbidities and overall greater severity levels relative to substance users without psychotic symptoms.

Lechner WV; Dahne J; Chen KW; Pickover A; Richards JM; Daughters SB; Lejuez CW

2013-07-01

232

Societal images of Cannabis use : comparing three countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Differences in beliefs about Cannabis were compared between Canada, Sweden and Finland using nationally representative population surveys containing similar items. Findings: Compared to Finnish and Swedish respondents, Canadians were both more likely to have tried Cannabis and to view Ca...

Cunningham, John A.; Blomqvist, Jan; Koski-Jannes, Anja; Raitasalo, Kirsimarja

233

Yield of illicit indoor cannabis cultivation in the Netherlands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To obtain a reliable estimation on the yield of illicit indoor cannabis cultivation in The Netherlands, cannabis plants confiscated by the police were used to determine the yield of dried female flower buds. The developmental stage of flower buds of the seized plants was described on a scale from 1 ...

Toonen, M.A.J.; Ribot, S.A.; Thissen, J.T.N.M.

234

Small-scale cannabis growers in Denmark and Finland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To compare domestic cannabis cultivation in Denmark and Finland to describe national characteristics in small-scale cannabis growing. DESIGN: A Web survey conducted among small-scale cannabis growers in Denmark (June to November 2008) and Finland (May to June 2009). PARTICIPANTS: Current cannabis growers (Denmark, 401; Finland, 1,054). MEASUREMENTS: Comparisons in regard to social background, growing history, practices, purposes and motives of growing, and perceptions of risks. FINDINGS: Cannabis was cultivated primarily for own use, but sharing with friends and avoiding criminal circles also were significant motives for growing. Finnish growers prioritized indoor cultivation, whereas the Danes were more in favor of open-air plantations. Risks of getting caught by the police were observed to be greater in Finland. Growing for medical purposes was twice as prevalent in Finland as in Denmark. CONCLUSIONS: Cannabis growing is a stronger and more novel phenomenon in Finland than in Denmark, but both countries have been influenced by international trends. Finnish and Danish small-scale cannabis cultivators can be considered to be ideologically oriented lifestyle growers. Differences in the magnitude of the phenomenon may reflect differences in the availability and quality of cannabis in national drug markets. The Internet had promoted the spreading of the trend.

Hakkarainen P; Frank VA; Perälä J; Dahl HV

2011-01-01

235

Self-change: A pathway to cannabis abuse resolution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Long-term daily cannabis abusers (N = 25) who without treatment stopped using cannabis for at least one year were interviewed about their past substance use, antecedents to change, and factors supportive of change. Respondents' cannabis problems decreased in the year prior to their recovery compared to their lifetime use. Respondents described their successful quit attempts through structured interviews and autobiographical narratives. The narratives were content analyzed for factors related to recovery. The reports indicated that marijuana cessation was motivated more by internal than external factors, and the most common precipitants of quit attempts were cognitive anti-cannabis factors. The major reason reported by respondents for stopping cannabis was a change in how they viewed their cannabis use, followed by negative personal effects. The most common reported maintenance factors were avoidance of situations in which cannabis was used, changes in lifestyle, and the development of non-cannabis-related interests. Cognitive and respiratory functioning were also assessed. Lastly, more than 75% of respondents reported not seeking treatment because they believed it was not needed or because they wanted to quit on their own. Directions for future research are offered.

Ellingstad TP; Sobell LC; Sobell MB; Eickleberry L; Golden CJ

2006-03-01

236

Identifying prenatal cannabis exposure and effects of concurrent tobacco exposure on neonatal growth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit drug among pregnant women, but data describing the effects of prenatal cannabis exposure and concurrent nicotine and cannabis exposures on neonatal growth are inconsistent. Testing of meconium, the first neonatal feces, offers objective evidence of prenatal cannabis exposure, but the relative ability of meconium testing and maternal self-report to identify affected neonates remains unclear. METHODS: Eighty-six pregnant women provided detailed self-reports of daily cannabis and tobacco consumption throughout pregnancy. Cannabinoids and tobacco biomarkers were identified in oral fluid samples collected each trimester and quantified in meconium at birth. RESULTS: Cannabis-using women were significantly more likely to also consume tobacco, and smoked similar numbers of cigarettes as non-cannabis-using tobacco smokers. As pregnancy progressed, fewer women smoked cannabis and those who continued to use cannabis reported smoking a smaller number of cannabis joints, but positive maternal oral fluid tests cast doubt on the veracity of some maternal self-reports. More neonates were identified as cannabis exposed by maternal self-report than meconium analysis, because many women quit cannabis use after the first or second trimester; meconium was more likely to be positive if cannabis use continued into the third trimester. Cannabis exposure was associated with decreased birth weight, reduced length, and smaller head circumference, even after data were controlled for tobacco coexposure. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal cannabis exposure was associated with fetal growth reduction. Meconium testing primarily identifies prenatal cannabis exposure occurring in the third trimester of gestation.

Gray TR; Eiden RD; Leonard KE; Connors GJ; Shisler S; Huestis MA

2010-09-01

237

Impact of ADHD and cannabis use on executive functioning in young adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONCLUSIONS: A childhood diagnosis of ADHD, but not cannabis use in adulthood, was associated with executive dysfunction. Earlier initiation of cannabis use may be linked to poor cognitive outcomes and a significantly greater proportion of the ADHD group began using cannabis before age 16. Regular cannabis use starting after age 16 may not be sufficient to aggravate longstanding cognitive deficits characteristic of ADHD.

Tamm L; Epstein JN; Lisdahl KM; Molina B; Tapert S; Hinshaw SP; Arnold LE; Velanova K; Abikoff H; Swanson JM

2013-08-01

238

Four decades of cannabis criminals in Canada: 1970-2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Canada was one of the first countries in the world to criminalise cannabis in 1923. It was not until the late 1960s and an associated upsurge of youthful cannabis use that the government and various stakeholders seriously interrogated the appropriateness of this punitive prohibition. Nevertheless, despite numerous opportunities for law reform for over four decades, cannabis possession continues to be illegal and as a result, hundreds of thousands of Canadians have received criminal records under these laws. This article reviews federal attempts at cannabis law reform and uses data spanning several decades to examine the characteristics of individuals convicted of cannabis possession and the implications of criminalisation on their lives.

Patricia G. Erickson; Elaine Hyshka

2010-01-01

239

The interactive effects of emotional clarity and cognitive reappraisal on problematic cannabis use among medical cannabis users.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined whether emotional clarity (i.e., the extent to which one can identify and understand the type and source of emotions one experiences) and cognitive reappraisal (i.e., altering how potentially emotion-eliciting situations are construed to change their emotional impact) would individually or jointly be associated with problematic cannabis use among individuals receiving cannabis for medical reasons (n=153). Findings indicated that problematic cannabis use was predicted by the interaction between emotional clarity and cognitive reappraisal. In particular, low levels of emotional clarity combined with high levels of cognitive reappraisal predicted problematic cannabis use. The current study is the first to demonstrate the interactive effects of emotional clarity and the use of cognitive reappraisal in predicting substance use disorder outcomes. Such findings are important given the lack of empirical data demonstrating for whom and for which conditions cannabis is either beneficial or detrimental. PMID:23254215

Boden, Matthew Tyler; Gross, James J; Babson, Kimberly A; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

2012-09-11

240

Moral regulation and the presumption of guilt in Health Canada's medical cannabis policy and practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper is a sociological examination of policies and practices in Health Canada's Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD) that presume the illicit intentions and inherent "guilt" of medical cannabis users, hampering safe access to a medicine to which many are legally entitled, and raising doubts about this federal programme's overall effectiveness and constitutional legitimacy. Beginning with a brief historical overview of Canada's federal medical cannabis programme, this paper examines the failure of the MMAD to meet the needs of many sick and suffering Canadians through Hunt's [Hunt, A. (1999). Governing morals: A social history of moral regulation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press] work on moral regulation and Wodak's [Wodak, A. (2007). Ethics and drug policy. Psychiatry, 6(2), 59-62] critique of "deontological" drug policy strategies. I then cite Tupper's [Tupper, K. W. (2007). The globalization of ayahuasca: Harm reduction or benefit maximization? International Journal of Drug Policy, doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2006.11.001] argument that shifting to a generative metaphor that constructs certain entheogenic substances as potentially useful "tools" rather than regulating them through inherently moralistic prohibitionist policies would better serve public health, and incorporate Young's [Young, I. M. (1990). Justice and the politics of difference. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press] theories of domination and oppression to examine the rise of community-base medical cannabis dispensaries as "new social movements". First-hand accounts by medical cannabis patients, federally funded studies, and internal Health Canada communication and documents suggest that current federal policies and practices are blocking safe access to this herbal medicine. The community-based dispensary model of medical cannabis access is a patient-centered "new social movement" that mitigates the stigmatization and moral regulation of their member-clients by creating opportunities for engagement, empowerment and joint knowledge creation. In light of ongoing Charter challenges and patient criticism, the survival of this federal programme will depend on the government's ability to shift away from policies based on the oppression and moral regulation, and towards consequentialist policies that balance harm reduction and benefit maximization. The effectiveness of such an approach is exemplified by the success of the community-based dispensary model which is currently producing more peer-reviewed research and supplying medical cannabis to a far greater number of patients than Health Canada's Marihuana Medical Access Division.

Lucas P

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Moral regulation and the presumption of guilt in Health Canada's medical cannabis policy and practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is a sociological examination of policies and practices in Health Canada's Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD) that presume the illicit intentions and inherent "guilt" of medical cannabis users, hampering safe access to a medicine to which many are legally entitled, and raising doubts about this federal programme's overall effectiveness and constitutional legitimacy. Beginning with a brief historical overview of Canada's federal medical cannabis programme, this paper examines the failure of the MMAD to meet the needs of many sick and suffering Canadians through Hunt's [Hunt, A. (1999). Governing morals: A social history of moral regulation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press] work on moral regulation and Wodak's [Wodak, A. (2007). Ethics and drug policy. Psychiatry, 6(2), 59-62] critique of "deontological" drug policy strategies. I then cite Tupper's [Tupper, K. W. (2007). The globalization of ayahuasca: Harm reduction or benefit maximization? International Journal of Drug Policy, doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2006.11.001] argument that shifting to a generative metaphor that constructs certain entheogenic substances as potentially useful "tools" rather than regulating them through inherently moralistic prohibitionist policies would better serve public health, and incorporate Young's [Young, I. M. (1990). Justice and the politics of difference. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press] theories of domination and oppression to examine the rise of community-base medical cannabis dispensaries as "new social movements". First-hand accounts by medical cannabis patients, federally funded studies, and internal Health Canada communication and documents suggest that current federal policies and practices are blocking safe access to this herbal medicine. The community-based dispensary model of medical cannabis access is a patient-centered "new social movement" that mitigates the stigmatization and moral regulation of their member-clients by creating opportunities for engagement, empowerment and joint knowledge creation. In light of ongoing Charter challenges and patient criticism, the survival of this federal programme will depend on the government's ability to shift away from policies based on the oppression and moral regulation, and towards consequentialist policies that balance harm reduction and benefit maximization. The effectiveness of such an approach is exemplified by the success of the community-based dispensary model which is currently producing more peer-reviewed research and supplying medical cannabis to a far greater number of patients than Health Canada's Marihuana Medical Access Division. PMID:19124233

Lucas, Philippe

2009-01-04

242

Compulsive showering and marijuana use - the cannabis hyperemisis syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

Patient: Male, 26 Final Diagnosis: Marihuana addiction Symptoms: Compulsive showering • nausea • vomiting Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Toxicology Objective: Unexpected drug reaction Background: The use or misuse of Cannabis is well recognized in the Caribbean region. Recently, the cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome has been described. The triad is characterized by chronic marijuana use, cyclical vomiting, and compulsive bathing. With the extensive use to marijuana as a recreational drug and also the increased use as prescription medication, a patient presenting with this symptomatology needs to be assessed appropriately and this syndrome needs to be one of the differential diagnoses. Case Report: To our knowledge, we report the first such case in the Caribbean region. Here, we report on the case of a 26-year-old Caucasian male with a 3-week history of nausea and week of epigastric pain and vomiting. The patient was known to use marijuana daily for 2 years and had similar complaints for the last 6 months. Conclusions: Because this popular recreational drug is now being used with increased frequency as a prescribed medication, it is crucial that clinicians be aware of this condition, which can present as a diagnostic dilemma.

Mohammed, Fawwaz; Panchoo, Kirby; Bartholemew, Maria; Maharaj, Dale

2013-01-01

243

Compulsive showering and marijuana use - the cannabis hyperemisis syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Patient: Male, 26 Final Diagnosis: Marihuana addiction Symptoms: Compulsive showering • nausea • vomiting Medication: - Clinical Procedure: - Specialty: Toxicology. OBJECTIVE: Unexpected drug reaction. BACKGROUND: The use or misuse of Cannabis is well recognized in the Caribbean region. Recently, the cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome has been described. The triad is characterized by chronic marijuana use, cyclical vomiting, and compulsive bathing. With the extensive use to marijuana as a recreational drug and also the increased use as prescription medication, a patient presenting with this symptomatology needs to be assessed appropriately and this syndrome needs to be one of the differential diagnoses. CASE REPORT: To our knowledge, we report the first such case in the Caribbean region. Here, we report on the case of a 26-year-old Caucasian male with a 3-week history of nausea and week of epigastric pain and vomiting. The patient was known to use marijuana daily for 2 years and had similar complaints for the last 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Because this popular recreational drug is now being used with increased frequency as a prescribed medication, it is crucial that clinicians be aware of this condition, which can present as a diagnostic dilemma.

Mohammed F; Panchoo K; Bartholemew M; Maharaj D

2013-01-01

244

Le cannabis : quelle place dans la soumission chimique ? Cannabis : which occurence in chemical submission ?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Le cannabis est de très loin la drogue illicite la plus consommée en France. Les effets chez l'homme sont dus au delta-9- tétrahydrocannabinol (THC) et au 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tétrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC). Les effets aigus consistent en une euphorie, une désinhibition, un état de somnolence pouvant aller jusqu 'à un sommeil profond, des troubles visuels et des troubles de la mémoire à court terme. Avec de tels effets, il n'est pas surprenant que le cannabis puisse être présent dans l'organisme des auteurs et/ou victimes de viols, vols, ou autres crimes faisant appel à la soumission chimique. Cette potentialité n'est cependant pas confirmée par l'expérience des auteurs puisque, parmi plusieurs centaines d'expertises judiciaires réalisées au cours des trois dernières années dans des cas de suspicion de viol, des cannabinoïdes étaient présents dans le sang et/ou les urines de seulement 21 victimes supposées. Pour 9 d'entre-elles, l'analyse des cheveux n'ayant pas été réalisée, la soumission chimique n'a pas pu être confirmée. L'analyse des cheveux a permis de mettre en évidence une consommation chronique de cannabis dans 11 cas. Dans un seul cas, la présence de THC et de 11-OH-THC dans le sang était associée à l'absence de cannabinoïdes dans les cheveux, permettant ainsi de conforter l'hypothèse d'une utilisation du cannabis à des fins criminelles. Les auteurs en concluent que toute recherche positive de cannabinoïdes dans le sang et/ou les urines doit être suivie d'une analyse des cheveux, qui doivent donc être systématiquement prélevés. Cannabis is largely the major drug of abuse consumed in France. Effects in human are due to delta-9 tetrahydrocan- nabinol (THC) and 11-hydroxy delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC). The acute effects are euphoria, desinhibition, drowsiness up to heavy sleep, visual disorders and short-memory troubles. With such effects, it is not surprising that cannabis may be present in the organism of authors and/or victims of rapes, robberies or others crimes using chemical submission. This potentiality is not confirmed by our experience since among several hundreds of toxicological investigations realized during the last three years in sexual assaults cases, cannabinoids were only present in blood and/or urines of 21 subjects. In 9 of these positive cases, since hair analysis was not performed, it was not possible to conclude. In 11 cases, hair analysis revealed a chronic cannabis use. In only one case, THC and 11-OH THC were present in blood whereas hair was free of cannabinoids,, confirming the hypothesis of the use of cannabis for the purpose of a criminal act. The authors conclude that each positive cannabis result in blood or urine has to be followed by hair analysis, a speciem which must be systematically sampled.

Mura Patrick; Visinoni Pascale; Alvarez Jean-Claude; Goullé Jean-Pierre; Kintz Pascal

2009-01-01

245

What can we learn from the Dutch cannabis coffeeshop system?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To examine the empirical consequences of officially tolerated retail sales of cannabis in the Netherlands, and possible implications for the legalization debate. METHODS: Available Dutch data on the prevalence and patterns of use, treatment, sanctioning, prices and purity for cannabis dating back to the 1970s are compared to similar indicators in Europe and the United States. RESULTS: The available evidence suggests that the prevalence of cannabis use among Dutch citizens rose and fell as the number of coffeeshops increased and later declined, but only modestly. The coffeeshops do not appear to encourage escalation into heavier use or lengthier using careers, although treatment rates for cannabis are higher than elsewhere in Europe. Scatterplot analyses suggest that Dutch patterns of use are very typical for Europe, and that the 'separation of markets' may indeed have somewhat weakened the link between cannabis use and the use of cocaine or amphetamines. CONCLUSIONS: Cannabis consumption in the Netherlands is lower than would be expected in an unrestricted market, perhaps because cannabis prices have remained high due to production-level prohibitions. The Dutch system serves as a nuanced alternative to both full prohibition and full legalization.

MacCoun RJ

2011-11-01

246

Cannabis and its derivatives: review of medical use.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Use of cannabis is often an under-reported activity in our society. Despite legal restriction, cannabis is often used to relieve chronic and neuropathic pain, and it carries psychotropic and physical adverse effects with a propensity for addiction. This article aims to update the current knowledge and evidence of using cannabis and its derivatives with a view to the sociolegal context and perspectives for future research. METHODS: Cannabis use can be traced back to ancient cultures and still continues in our present society despite legal curtailment. The active ingredient, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol, accounts for both the physical and psychotropic effects of cannabis. Though clinical trials demonstrate benefits in alleviating chronic and neuropathic pain, there is also significant potential physical and psychotropic side-effects of cannabis. Recent laboratory data highlight synergistic interactions between cannabinoid and opioid receptors, with potential reduction of drug-seeking behavior and opiate sparing effects. Legal rulings also have changed in certain American states, which may lead to wider use of cannabis among eligible persons. CONCLUSIONS: Family physicians need to be cognizant of such changing landscapes with a practical knowledge on the pros and cons of medical marijuana, the legal implications of its use, and possible developments in the future.

Leung L

2011-07-01

247

The case for small-scale domestic cannabis cultivation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The shift to (inter)regional production, trade and domestic cultivation has become an irreversible international trend. Until now, the focus of most empirical work has been on large-scale, commercially oriented and professionally organized segments of the cannabis industry, often based on police data and on the perspective of law enforcement agencies. This paper offers a review of recent Dutch-language research that focuses on cannabis cultivation. Empirical studies were identified through literature searches using relevant search terms and Web of Science, Elin, Social Science Research Network and Elsevier ScienceDirect. The paper presents the main findings of Dutch and Belgian empirical work on the factors that stimulated the import substitution process on the cannabis market, aspects related to quality and potency issues, typologies of cannabis growers, and (unintended) effects of pursued policies. In the light of this (selective) review the author offers some commentary and analysis concerning the claims made by different stakeholders, and concludes with some reflections on future research and on policy implications. The author outlines the importance of small-scale, independent or ideologically oriented cannabis cultivation as an under-researched market segment. The author also makes a case for greater toleration of small-scale cannabis cultivation, to secure the least worst of cannabis markets. PMID:20176465

Decorte, Tom

2010-02-21

248

The case for small-scale domestic cannabis cultivation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The shift to (inter)regional production, trade and domestic cultivation has become an irreversible international trend. Until now, the focus of most empirical work has been on large-scale, commercially oriented and professionally organized segments of the cannabis industry, often based on police data and on the perspective of law enforcement agencies. This paper offers a review of recent Dutch-language research that focuses on cannabis cultivation. Empirical studies were identified through literature searches using relevant search terms and Web of Science, Elin, Social Science Research Network and Elsevier ScienceDirect. The paper presents the main findings of Dutch and Belgian empirical work on the factors that stimulated the import substitution process on the cannabis market, aspects related to quality and potency issues, typologies of cannabis growers, and (unintended) effects of pursued policies. In the light of this (selective) review the author offers some commentary and analysis concerning the claims made by different stakeholders, and concludes with some reflections on future research and on policy implications. The author outlines the importance of small-scale, independent or ideologically oriented cannabis cultivation as an under-researched market segment. The author also makes a case for greater toleration of small-scale cannabis cultivation, to secure the least worst of cannabis markets.

Decorte T

2010-07-01

249

Birth outcomes associated with cannabis use before and during pregnancy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to examine the association between cannabis use before and during pregnancy and birth outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 26.3% of women reported previous use of cannabis and 2.6% reported current use. Multivariate analysis, controlling for potential confounders, including tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and use of other illicit drugs, showed that cannabis use in pregnancy was associated with low birth weight (odds ratio (OR) = 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-2.2), preterm labor (OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-1.9), small for gestational age (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.8-2.7), and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.7-2.4). DISCUSSION: The results of this study show that the use of cannabis in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of adverse birth outcomes. Prevention programs that address cannabis use during pregnancy are needed. METHODS: Data were from women birthing at the Mater Mothers' Hospital in Brisbane, Australia, over a 7-y period (2000-2006). Women were interviewed in the initial antenatal visit about their use of cannabis and other substances. Records for 24,874 women who provided information about cannabis use, and for whom birth outcomes data were available, were included in the analysis.

Hayatbakhsh MR; Flenady VJ; Gibbons KS; Kingsbury AM; Hurrion E; Mamun AA; Najman JM

2012-02-01

250

Abnormal maximal finger tapping in abstinent cannabis users.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate movement speed and rhythmicity in abstinent cannabis users, we hypothesized that abstinent cannabis users exhibit decreased maximal finger tapping frequency and increased variability of tapping compared with non-drug users. METHODS: The study involved 10 healthy adult cannabis users and 10 age-matched and gender-matched controls with no history of illicit drug use. Subjects underwent a series of screening tests prior to participation. Subjects were then asked to tap a strain gauge as fast as possible with the index finger of their dominant hand (duration 5?s). RESULTS: The average intertap interval did not significantly differ between groups, but the coefficient of variation of the intertap interval was significantly greater in the cannabis group than in controls (p?=?0.011). The cannabis group also exhibited a slow tapping frequency at the beginning of the task. CONCLUSIONS: Rhythmicity of finger tapping is abnormal in individuals with a history of cannabis use. The abnormality appears to be long lasting and adds to the list of functional changes present in abstinent cannabis users. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Flavel SC; White JM; Todd G

2013-09-01

251

Difference between the prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety in non-diabetic smokers and in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without nicotine dependence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with diabetes who are smokers have higher risks of cardiovascular disease, premature death, and microvascular complications. The present study aims to determine the prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety in smokers with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and to evaluate if the prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety differ between the three groups studied (patients with T2D who smoke; patients with T2D who do not smoke; smokers without T2D), and finally determine if the degree of nicotine dependence is related to symptoms of anxiety and depression in smokers (with or without T2D). Methods Three study groups were formed: 46 T2D smokers (DS), 46 T2D non-smokers (D), and 46 smokers without diabetes (S), totaling 138 participants. Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale and Fagerström Test were applied. Results The prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety in smokers with T2D was 30.4% and 50%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the proportion of individuals with symptoms of anxiety (p?=?0.072) or depression (p?=?0.657) in the DS group compared to group D or S. Among male patients with T2D, the smokers had a higher prevalence of anxiety symptoms (19.6%) than non-smokers (4,3%) (p?=?0,025). The prevalence of high nicotine dependence among smokers with and without T2D was 39.1% and 37.1%, respectively (p?=?0.999). Fagerström scores showed no significant correlation with the scores obtained on the subscale of anxiety (p?=?0,735) or depression (p?=?0,364). Conclusions The prevalence of depression and anxiety among smokers with and without diabetes and non-smokers T2D is similar. Among male individuals with T2D, the smokers have more symptoms of anxiety than the non-smokers. There is no difference in the prevalence of nicotine dependence among smokers with and without diabetes. The presence of symptoms of anxiety or depression is similar between patients who are dependent and not dependent on nicotine.

Osme Simone; Ferreira LudmillaDell’IsolaPelegriniMelo; Jorge Mariana; de Souza Andréo Juliana; Jorge MariaLuizaMendonçaPereira; de Melo Costa Pinto Rogério; Jorge Miguel; Jorge Paulo

2012-01-01

252

Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Supplement: 7 Sessions of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users. CYT Cannabis Youth Treatment Series, Volume 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual, a supplement to Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users: 5 Sessions, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 1, presents a seven-session cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT7) appro...

C. Webb M. Scudder Y. Kaminer R. Kadden

2003-01-01

253

Cultivation of Cannabis sativa L. in northern Morocco.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Field studies on cannabis cultivation have provided socio-economic data relating to, inter alia, production, yield and income. But only laboratory analyses of cannabis plants can provide information on their chemical composition and their levels of psychoactive constituents, thus enabling them to be classed as a drug type or a fibre type. The present study, which covers cannabis in its fresh, dried and powdered forms, drew on fresh samples, obtained on the day they were harvested or immediately after preparation; that was done in order to prevent any alteration in the A-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) caused by the oxidation that takes place as the product ages. The purpose of this study is to determine the THC level in 245 specimens obtained from 30 cannabis plots in three provinces of northern Morocco: Al Hoceima and Chefchaouen, where cannabis cultivation has a long tradition, and Larache, where cannabis cultivation has started only recently. Qualitative analysis using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection revealed the presence of both the acid and the decarboxylated form of the main cannabinoids, cannabidiol, THC and cannabinol, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used for the characterization of minor cannibinoids. Quantitative analysis using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry made it possible to determine the average delta-9-THC content of cannabis in its fresh form (0.5 per cent), its dry form (2.21 per cent) and its powdered form (8.3 per cent). The results show that the traditional areas of cannabis cultivation--Al Hoceima and Chefchaouen--produce cannabis with a higher delta-9-THC content than the Larache region. In addition, the present study establishes that male plants, often considered deficient in delta-9-THC, contain levels of the same order as those recorded for female plants, both in the leaves and in the tops.

Stambouli H; El Bouri A; Bellimam MA; Bouayoun T; El Karni N

2005-01-01

254

Cultivation of Cannabis sativa L. in northern Morocco.  

Science.gov (United States)

Field studies on cannabis cultivation have provided socio-economic data relating to, inter alia, production, yield and income. But only laboratory analyses of cannabis plants can provide information on their chemical composition and their levels of psychoactive constituents, thus enabling them to be classed as a drug type or a fibre type. The present study, which covers cannabis in its fresh, dried and powdered forms, drew on fresh samples, obtained on the day they were harvested or immediately after preparation; that was done in order to prevent any alteration in the A-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) caused by the oxidation that takes place as the product ages. The purpose of this study is to determine the THC level in 245 specimens obtained from 30 cannabis plots in three provinces of northern Morocco: Al Hoceima and Chefchaouen, where cannabis cultivation has a long tradition, and Larache, where cannabis cultivation has started only recently. Qualitative analysis using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection revealed the presence of both the acid and the decarboxylated form of the main cannabinoids, cannabidiol, THC and cannabinol, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used for the characterization of minor cannibinoids. Quantitative analysis using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry made it possible to determine the average delta-9-THC content of cannabis in its fresh form (0.5 per cent), its dry form (2.21 per cent) and its powdered form (8.3 per cent). The results show that the traditional areas of cannabis cultivation--Al Hoceima and Chefchaouen--produce cannabis with a higher delta-9-THC content than the Larache region. In addition, the present study establishes that male plants, often considered deficient in delta-9-THC, contain levels of the same order as those recorded for female plants, both in the leaves and in the tops. PMID:21338017

Stambouli, H; El Bouri, A; Bellimam, M A; Bouayoun, T; El Karni, N

2005-01-01

255

The Neural Correlates of Mental Rotation Abilities in Cannabis-Abusing Patients with Schizophrenia: An fMRI Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Growing evidence suggests that cannabis abuse/dependence is paradoxically associated with better cognition in schizophrenia. Accordingly, we performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of visuospatial abilities in 14 schizophrenia patients with cannabis abuse (DD), 14 nonabusing schizophrenia patients (SCZ), and 21 healthy controls (HCs). Participants performed a mental rotation task while being scanned. There were no significant differences in the number of mistakes between schizophrenia groups, and both made more mistakes on the mental rotation task than HC. Relative to HC, SCZ had increased activations in the left thalamus, while DD patients had increased activations in the right supramarginal gyrus. In both cases, hyper-activations are likely to reflect compensatory efforts. In addition, SCZ patients had decreased activations in the left superior parietal gyrus compared to both HC and DD patients. This latter result tentatively suggests that the neurophysiologic processes underlying visuospatial abilities are partially preserved in DD, relative to SCZ patients, consistently with the findings showing that cannabis abuse in schizophrenia is associated with better cognitive functioning. Further fMRI studies are required to examine the neural correlates of other cognitive dysfunctions in schizophrenia patients with and without comorbid cannabis use disorder.

Potvin, Stephane; Bourque, Josiane; Durand, Myriam; Lipp, Olivier; Lalonde, Pierre; Grignon, Sylvain; Mendrek, Adrianna

2013-01-01

256

Reduction of stem growth and site dependency of leaf injury in Massachusetts black cherries exhibiting ozone symptoms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ozone symptomatic trees had a reduced stem growth and symptom expression was enhanced on moister and better growing stands. - Leaf ozone symptoms in natural ecosystems are increasingly reported but ozone effects on tree growth and the mediation of site conditions are still little documented. This study tests two hypotheses: (1) leaf injury in black cherry is associated with decline in radial growth, (2) symptoms are more prevalent on mesic sites. On sites supporting black cherry across Massachusetts, tree growth and leaf ozone injury were surveyed in 1996 using a randomized plot network established in the 1960s. Forty-seven percent of 120 trees sampled for ozone symptoms were symptomatic with generally low levels of injury. Over a 31-year period symptomatic trees had 28% lower stem growth rates than asymptomatic trees. Ozone symptom expression was enhanced in well growing stands on moister, cooler and more elevated sites. Ozone appeared to increase environmental stress and had a more pronounced effect on growth in better growing black cherry stands. This complicates management decisions as thinning increases growth and moisture availability.

2003-01-01

257

Phytochemical and genetic analyses of ancient cannabis from Central Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Yanghai Tombs near Turpan, Xinjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region, China have recently been excavated to reveal the 2700-year-old grave of a Caucasoid shaman whose accoutrements included a large cache of cannabis, superbly preserved by climatic and burial conditions. A multidisciplinary international team demonstrated through botanical examination, phytochemical investigation, and genetic deoxyribonucleic acid analysis by polymerase chain reaction that this material contained tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of cannabis, its oxidative degradation product, cannabinol, other metabolites, and its synthetic enzyme, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase, as well as a novel genetic variant with two single nucleotide polymorphisms. The cannabis was presumably employed by this culture as a medicinal or psychoactive agent, or an aid to divination. To our knowledge, these investigations provide the oldest documentation of cannabis as a pharmacologically active agent, and contribute to the medical and archaeological record of this pre-Silk Road culture. PMID:19036842

Russo, Ethan B; Jiang, Hong-En; Li, Xiao; Sutton, Alan; Carboni, Andrea; del Bianco, Francesca; Mandolino, Giuseppe; Potter, David J; Zhao, You-Xing; Bera, Subir; Zhang, Yong-Bing; Lü, En-Guo; Ferguson, David K; Hueber, Francis; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Liu, Chang-Jiang; Wang, Yu-Fei; Li, Cheng-Sen

2008-01-01

258

Phytochemical and genetic analyses of ancient cannabis from Central Asia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Yanghai Tombs near Turpan, Xinjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region, China have recently been excavated to reveal the 2700-year-old grave of a Caucasoid shaman whose accoutrements included a large cache of cannabis, superbly preserved by climatic and burial conditions. A multidisciplinary international team demonstrated through botanical examination, phytochemical investigation, and genetic deoxyribonucleic acid analysis by polymerase chain reaction that this material contained tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of cannabis, its oxidative degradation product, cannabinol, other metabolites, and its synthetic enzyme, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase, as well as a novel genetic variant with two single nucleotide polymorphisms. The cannabis was presumably employed by this culture as a medicinal or psychoactive agent, or an aid to divination. To our knowledge, these investigations provide the oldest documentation of cannabis as a pharmacologically active agent, and contribute to the medical and archaeological record of this pre-Silk Road culture.

Russo EB; Jiang HE; Li X; Sutton A; Carboni A; del Bianco F; Mandolino G; Potter DJ; Zhao YX; Bera S; Zhang YB; Lü EG; Ferguson DK; Hueber F; Zhao LC; Liu CJ; Wang YF; Li CS

2008-01-01

259

Yield of illicit indoor cannabis cultivation in the Netherlands.  

Science.gov (United States)

To obtain a reliable estimation on the yield of illicit indoor cannabis cultivation in The Netherlands, cannabis plants confiscated by the police were used to determine the yield of dried female flower buds. The developmental stage of flower buds of the seized plants was described on a scale from 1 to 10 where the value of 10 indicates a fully developed flower bud ready for harvesting. Using eight additional characteristics describing the grow room and cultivation parameters, regression analysis with subset selection was carried out to develop two models for the yield of indoor cannabis cultivation. The median Dutch illicit grow room consists of 259 cannabis plants, has a plant density of 15 plants/m(2), and 510 W of growth lamps per m(2). For the median Dutch grow room, the predicted yield of female flower buds at the harvestable developmental stage (stage 10) was 33.7 g/plant or 505 g/m(2). PMID:17018080

Toonen, Marcel; Ribot, Simon; Thissen, Jac

2006-09-01

260

Yield of illicit indoor cannabis cultivation in the Netherlands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To obtain a reliable estimation on the yield of illicit indoor cannabis cultivation in The Netherlands, cannabis plants confiscated by the police were used to determine the yield of dried female flower buds. The developmental stage of flower buds of the seized plants was described on a scale from 1 to 10 where the value of 10 indicates a fully developed flower bud ready for harvesting. Using eight additional characteristics describing the grow room and cultivation parameters, regression analysis with subset selection was carried out to develop two models for the yield of indoor cannabis cultivation. The median Dutch illicit grow room consists of 259 cannabis plants, has a plant density of 15 plants/m(2), and 510 W of growth lamps per m(2). For the median Dutch grow room, the predicted yield of female flower buds at the harvestable developmental stage (stage 10) was 33.7 g/plant or 505 g/m(2).

Toonen M; Ribot S; Thissen J

2006-09-01

 
 
 
 
261

Genetic association between APOE*4 and neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease is dependent on the psychosis phenotype  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropsychiatric symptoms such as psychosis are prevalent in patients with probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Because these disabling symptoms are generally not well tolerated by caregivers, patients with these symptoms tend to be institutionalized earlier than patients without them. The identification of protective and risk factors for neuropsychiatric symptoms in AD would facilitate the development of more specific treatments for these symptoms and thereby decrease morbidity and mortality in AD. The E4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is a well-documented risk factor for the development of AD. However, genetic association studies of the APOE 4 allele and BPS in AD have produced conflicting findings. Methods This study investigates the association between APOE and neuropsychiatric symptoms in a large sample of clinically well-characterized subjects with probable AD (n=790) who were systematically evaluated using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD) Behavioral Rating Scale for Dementia (BRSD). Results Our study found that hallucinations were significantly more likely to occur in subjects with no APO?4 alleles than in subjects with two ?4 alleles (15% of subjects and 5% of subjects, respectively; p=.0066), whereas there was no association between the occurrence of delusions, aberrant motor behavior, or agitation and the number of ?4 alleles. However, 94% of the subjects with hallucinations also had delusions (D+H). Conclusion These findings suggest that in AD the ?4 allele is differentially associated with D+H but not delusions alone. This is consistent with the hypothesis that distinct psychotic subphenotypes may be associated with the APOE allele.

Christie Drew; Shofer Jane; Millard Steven P; Li Ellen; DeMichele-Sweet Mary Ann; Weamer Elise A; Kamboh M Ilyas; Lopez Oscar L; Sweet Robert A; Tsuang Debby

2012-01-01

262

Sex dependent influence of a functional polymorphism in steroid 5-?-reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) on post-traumatic stress symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

A non-synonymous, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene coding for steroid 5-?-reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) is associated with reduced conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Because SRD5A2 participates in the regulation of testosterone and cortisol metabolism, hormones shown to be dysregulated in patients with PTSD, we examined whether the V89L variant (rs523349) influences risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Study participants (N = 1,443) were traumatized African-American patients of low socioeconomic status with high rates of lifetime trauma exposure recruited from the primary care clinics of a large, urban hospital. PTSD symptoms were measured with the post-traumatic stress symptom scale (PSS). Subjects were genotyped for the V89L variant (rs523349) of SRD5A2. We initially found a significant sex-dependent effect of genotype in male but not female subjects on symptoms. Associations with PTSD symptoms were confirmed using a separate internal replication sample with identical methods of data analysis, followed by pooled analysis of the combined samples (N = 1,443, sex × genotype interaction P < 0.002; males: n = 536, P < 0.001). These data support the hypothesis that functional variation within SRD5A2 influences, in a sex-specific way, the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms and risk for diagnosis of PTSD. PMID:23505265

Gillespie, Charles F; Almli, Lynn M; Smith, Alicia K; Bradley, Bekh; Kerley, Kimberly; Crain, Daniel F; Mercer, Kristina B; Weiss, Tamara; Phifer, Justine; Tang, Yilang; Cubells, Joseph F; Binder, Elisabeth B; Conneely, Karen N; Ressler, Kerry J

2013-03-15

263

Sex dependent influence of a functional polymorphism in steroid 5-?-reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) on post-traumatic stress symptoms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A non-synonymous, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene coding for steroid 5-?-reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) is associated with reduced conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Because SRD5A2 participates in the regulation of testosterone and cortisol metabolism, hormones shown to be dysregulated in patients with PTSD, we examined whether the V89L variant (rs523349) influences risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Study participants (N = 1,443) were traumatized African-American patients of low socioeconomic status with high rates of lifetime trauma exposure recruited from the primary care clinics of a large, urban hospital. PTSD symptoms were measured with the post-traumatic stress symptom scale (PSS). Subjects were genotyped for the V89L variant (rs523349) of SRD5A2. We initially found a significant sex-dependent effect of genotype in male but not female subjects on symptoms. Associations with PTSD symptoms were confirmed using a separate internal replication sample with identical methods of data analysis, followed by pooled analysis of the combined samples (N = 1,443, sex × genotype interaction P < 0.002; males: n = 536, P < 0.001). These data support the hypothesis that functional variation within SRD5A2 influences, in a sex-specific way, the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms and risk for diagnosis of PTSD.

Gillespie CF; Almli LM; Smith AK; Bradley B; Kerley K; Crain DF; Mercer KB; Weiss T; Phifer J; Tang Y; Cubells JF; Binder EB; Conneely KN; Ressler KJ

2013-04-01

264

El Cannabis en la práctica Clínica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish RESUMEN. La marihuana ha sido utilizada por cientos de años, es una de las drogas de abuso más usadas. Tiene una larga historia de usos médicos, tanto el Cannabis, como sus derivados, preparaciones y sus formas sintéticas se emplean para aliviar una gran variedad de síntomas de diversas enfermedades, tales como: alivio de las náuseas y vómitos asociados con las terapias del cáncer y del SIDA; alivio del dolor muscular y espasmos; para reducir la frecuencia de conv (more) ulsiones en la epilepsia; para reducir la presión intraocular en pacientes con glaucoma; para estimular el apetito en pacientes con cáncer y SIDA. Actualmente están disponibles en el mercado dos productos comerciales sintéticos relacionados con la marihuana, de administración oral, el dronabinol (MARINOL®) y la nabilona (CESAMET®). Se han identificado en el cerebro, receptores para los cannabinoides, el CB1 y el CB2, así como ligandos endógenos: la anandamina, el 2-araquinoilglicerol, la homo-gamma -linolenil etanolamina y la palmitoiletanolamina. Abstract in english ABSTRACT: Marijuana has been widely used for hundreds of years, it is perhaps one of the most popular drug of abuse. It has a long medical history, Cannabis, its preparations, derivates and similar synthetic prepartions are use to relieve symtoms associated with some medical conditions, such as: to relief nauseas and vomiting associate with cancer and AIDS therapies; for the relief of muscle pain and spasms; to help reduce the frequency of epileptic seizures; to lower int (more) ra ocular pressure in Glaucoma; to stimulate appetite and produce weight gain in AIDS and cancer patients. There are two commercially available drug products related to marijuana: dronabinol (MARINOL®) and nabilone (CESAMET®). Cannabinoids receptors CB1 and CB2, and some endogenous ligands named anandamide, 2-araquinoilglicerol, homo-gamma -linolenil etanolamine and palmitoiletanolamine, have been identified in brain.

Expósito, CL

2003-07-01

265

El Cannabis en la práctica Clínica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available RESUMEN. La marihuana ha sido utilizada por cientos de años, es una de las drogas de abuso más usadas. Tiene una larga historia de usos médicos, tanto el Cannabis, como sus derivados, preparaciones y sus formas sintéticas se emplean para aliviar una gran variedad de síntomas de diversas enfermedades, tales como: alivio de las náuseas y vómitos asociados con las terapias del cáncer y del SIDA; alivio del dolor muscular y espasmos; para reducir la frecuencia de convulsiones en la epilepsia; para reducir la presión intraocular en pacientes con glaucoma; para estimular el apetito en pacientes con cáncer y SIDA. Actualmente están disponibles en el mercado dos productos comerciales sintéticos relacionados con la marihuana, de administración oral, el dronabinol (MARINOL®) y la nabilona (CESAMET®). Se han identificado en el cerebro, receptores para los cannabinoides, el CB1 y el CB2, así como ligandos endógenos: la anandamina, el 2-araquinoilglicerol, la homo-gamma -linolenil etanolamina y la palmitoiletanolamina.ABSTRACT: Marijuana has been widely used for hundreds of years, it is perhaps one of the most popular drug of abuse. It has a long medical history, Cannabis, its preparations, derivates and similar synthetic prepartions are use to relieve symtoms associated with some medical conditions, such as: to relief nauseas and vomiting associate with cancer and AIDS therapies; for the relief of muscle pain and spasms; to help reduce the frequency of epileptic seizures; to lower intra ocular pressure in Glaucoma; to stimulate appetite and produce weight gain in AIDS and cancer patients. There are two commercially available drug products related to marijuana: dronabinol (MARINOL®) and nabilone (CESAMET®). Cannabinoids receptors CB1 and CB2, and some endogenous ligands named anandamide, 2-araquinoilglicerol, homo-gamma -linolenil etanolamine and palmitoiletanolamine, have been identified in brain.

CL Expósito

2003-01-01

266

The carbon footprint of indoor Cannabis production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The emergent industry of indoor Cannabis production – legal in some jurisdictions and illicit in others – utilizes highly energy intensive processes to control environmental conditions during cultivation. This article estimates the energy consumption for this practice in the United States at 1% of national electricity use, or $6 billion each year. One average kilogram of final product is associated with 4600 kg of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere, or that of 3 million average U.S. cars when aggregated across all national production. The practice of indoor cultivation is driven by criminalization, pursuit of security, pest and disease management, and the desire for greater process control and yields. Energy analysts and policymakers have not previously addressed this use of energy. The unchecked growth of electricity demand in this sector confounds energy forecasts and obscures savings from energy efficiency programs and policies. While criminalization has contributed to the substantial energy intensity, legalization would not change the situation materially without ancillary efforts to manage energy use, provide consumer information via labeling, and other measures. Were product prices to fall as a result of legalization, indoor production using current practices could rapidly become non-viable. - Highlights: ? The emergent industry of indoor Cannabis production utilizes highly energy intensive processes and is highly inefficient. ? In the United States, this represents an annual energy expenditure of $6 billion. ? One kg of final product is associated with emissions of 4600 kg of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. ? Aggregate U.S. emissions are equivalent those of 3 million cars. ? Energy analysts and policymakers have not previously addressed this use of energy.

2012-01-01

267

Revisão: funcionamento executivo e uso de maconha Review: executive functioning and cannabis use  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A maconha é a droga ilícita mais consumida no mundo, porém ainda existem poucos estudos examinando eventuais prejuízos cognitivos relacionados ao seu uso. As manifestações clínicas associadas a esses déficits incluem síndrome amotivacional, prejuízo na flexibilidade cognitiva, desatenção, dificuldade de raciocínio abstrato e formação de conceitos, aspectos intimamente ligados às funções executivas, as quais potencialmente exercem um papel central na dependência de substâncias. O objetivo do estudo foi fazer uma revisão a respeito das implicações do uso da maconha no funcionamento executivo. MÉTODO: Esta revisão foi conduzida utilizando-se bases de dados eletrônicas (MedLine, Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs). DISCUSSÃO: Em estudos de efeito agudo, doses maiores de tetrahidrocanabinol encontram-se associadas a maior prejuízo no desempenho de usuários leves em tarefas de controle inibitório e planejamento; porém, este efeito dose-resposta não ocorre em usuários crônicos. Embora haja controvérsias no que se refere a efeitos residuais da maconha, déficits persistentes parecem estar presentes após 28 dias de abstinência, ao menos em um subgrupo de usuários crônicos. CONCLUSÕES: Os estudos encontrados não tiveram como objetivo principal a avaliação das funções executivas. A seleção de testes padronizados, desenhos de estudos mais apropriados e o uso concomitante com técnicas de neuroimagem estrutural e funcional podem auxiliar na melhor compreensão das conseqüências deletérias do uso crônico da maconha no funcionamento executivo.OBJECTIVE: Cannabis is the most used illicit drug worldwide, however only a few studies have examined cognitive deficits related to its use. Clinical manifestations associated with those deficits include amotivational syndrome, impairment in cognitive flexibility, inattention, deficits in abstract reasoning and concept formation, aspects intimately related to the executive functions, which potentially exert a central role in substance dependence. The objective was to make a review about consequences of cannabis use in executive functioning. METHOD: This review was carried out on reports drawn from MedLine, SciELO, and Lilacs. DISCUSSION: In studies investigating acute use effects, higher doses of tetrahydrocannabinol are associated to impairments in performance of nonsevere users in planning and control impulse tasks. However, chronic cannabis users do not show those impairments. Although demonstration of residual effects of cannabis in the executive functioning is controversial, persistent deficits seem to be present at least in a subgroup of chronic users after 28 days of abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: The neuropsychological studies found did not have as a main aim the evaluation of executive functioning. A criterial selection of standardized neuropsychological tests, more appropriate study designs as well as concomitant investigations with structural and functional neuroimaging techniques may improve the understanding of eventual neurotoxicity associated with cannabis use.

Priscila Previato Almeida; Maria Alice Fontes Pinto Novaes; Rodrigo Affonseca Bressan; Acioly Luiz Tavares de Lacerda

2008-01-01

268

Dose-related psychotic symptoms in chronic methamphetamine users: evidence from a prospective longitudinal study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Methamphetamine is associated with psychotic phenomena, but it is not clear to what extent this relationship is due to premorbid psychosis among people who use the drug. OBJECTIVE: To determine the change in the probability of psychotic symptoms occurring during periods of methamphetamine use. DESIGN: Longitudinal prospective cohort study. A fixed-effects analysis of longitudinal panel data, consisting of 4 noncontiguous 1-month observation periods, was used to examine the relationship between changes in methamphetamine use and the risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms within individuals over time. SETTING: Sydney and Brisbane, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 278 participants 16 years of age or older who met DSM-IV criteria for methamphetamine dependence on entry to the study but who did not meet DSM-IV criteria for lifetime schizophrenia or mania. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinically significant psychotic symptoms in the past month, defined as a score of 4 or more on any of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale items of suspiciousness, hallucinations, or unusual thought content. The number of days of methamphetamine use in the past month was assessed using the Opiate Treatment Index. RESULTS: There was a 5-fold increase in the likelihood of psychotic symptoms during periods of methamphetamine use relative to periods of no use (odds ratio [OR], 5.3 [95% CI, 3.4-8.3]; P < .001), this increase being strongly dose-dependent (1-15 days of methamphetamine use vs abstinence in the past month: OR, 4.0 [95% CI, 2.5-6.5]; ?16 days of methamphetamine use vs abstinence in the past month: OR, 11.2 [95% CI, 5.9-21.1]). Frequent cannabis and/or alcohol use (?16 days of use in the past month) further increased the odds of psychotic symptoms (cannabis: OR, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.1-3.5]; alcohol: OR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.1-4.2]). CONCLUSIONS: There was a large dose-dependent increase in the occurrence of psychotic symptoms during periods of methamphetamine use among users of the drug.

McKetin R; Lubman DI; Baker AL; Dawe S; Ali RL

2013-03-01

269

College cannabis use: the unique roles of social norms, motives, and expectancies.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT. Objective: Given that the majority of college cannabis use occurs in social situations, descriptive norms (beliefs about others' use) and injunctive norms (others' approval of risky use) may be particularly relevant to cannabis-related behaviors. Yet, little research has examined the unique impact of these norms on one's own behaviors when accounting for the variance attributable to other relevant cognitive factors. The current study is the first known investigation of the unique impact of social norms, cannabis use motives, and cannabis effect expectancies on cannabis use. Method: Data came from 223 (64.1% female) current cannabis-using undergraduates who completed an online questionnaire in exchange for psychology-course research credit. Results: Descriptive norms regarding friends (not students in general) and injunctive norms (friends and parents) were related to cannabis use frequency. Descriptive norms (friends, not students in general) and injunctive norms (friends, not parents) were related to cannabis problems. Relevant norms, expectancies, and motives accounted for 66.8% of the variance in cannabis use frequency and 28.7% of the variance in cannabis problems. In multivariate analyses, descriptive norms (friends) accounted for the greatest amount of unique variance in cannabis use frequency, whereas coping motives accounted for the greatest amount of unique variance in cannabis-related problems. Conclusions: Descriptive norms (friends) and coping motives may be two cognitive vulnerability factors that could be particularly important targets for interventions. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 74, 720-726, 2013). PMID:23948531

Buckner, Julia D

2013-09-01

270

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CANNABIS INDICA FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES  

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Full Text Available This paper reports on the synthesis of Cannabis indica fiber-reinforced composites using Urea-Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (URF) as a novel matrix through compression molding technique. The polycondensation between urea, resorcinol, and formaldehyde in different molar ratios was applied to the synthesis of the URF polymer matrix. A thermosetting matrix based composite, reinforced with lignocellulose from Cannabis indica with different fiber loadings 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% by weight, was obtained. The mechanical properties of randomly oriented intimately mixed fiber particle reinforced composites were determined. Effects of fiber loadings on mechanical properties such as tensile, compressive, flexural strength, and wear resistance were evaluated. Results showed that mechanical properties of URF resin matrix increased considerably when reinforced with particles of Cannabis indica fiber. Thermal (TGA/DTA/DTG) and morphological studies (SEM) of the resin, fiber and polymer composite thus synthesized were carried out.

Amar Singh Singha; Balbir S. Kaith; Aishwarya Jyoti Khanna

2011-01-01

271

[Characteristics of Cannabis sativa L.: seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from Hibiscus cannabinus L].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Illegal cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation is still a social problem worldwide. Fifty inquiries on cannabis that Research Center for Medicinal Plant Resources (Tsukuba Division) received between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2009 were itemized in to 8 categories; 1: seed identification, 2: plant identification, 3: indoor cultivation, 4: outdoor cultivation, 5: germination and growth characteristics, 6: expected amount of cannabis products derived from illegal cannabis plant, 7: non-narcotic cannabis and 8: usage of medicinal cannabis. Top three inquiries were 1: seed identification (16 cases), 3: indoor cultivation (10 cases) and 4: outdoor cultivation (6 cases). Characteristics of cannabis, namely seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) that is frequently misjudged as cannabis, were studied to contribute for prevention of illegal cannabis cultivation.

Yoshimatsu K; Kitazawa T; Kawano N; Iida O; Kawahara N

2010-02-01

272

[Characteristics of Cannabis sativa L.: seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from Hibiscus cannabinus L].  

Science.gov (United States)

Illegal cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation is still a social problem worldwide. Fifty inquiries on cannabis that Research Center for Medicinal Plant Resources (Tsukuba Division) received between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2009 were itemized in to 8 categories; 1: seed identification, 2: plant identification, 3: indoor cultivation, 4: outdoor cultivation, 5: germination and growth characteristics, 6: expected amount of cannabis products derived from illegal cannabis plant, 7: non-narcotic cannabis and 8: usage of medicinal cannabis. Top three inquiries were 1: seed identification (16 cases), 3: indoor cultivation (10 cases) and 4: outdoor cultivation (6 cases). Characteristics of cannabis, namely seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) that is frequently misjudged as cannabis, were studied to contribute for prevention of illegal cannabis cultivation. PMID:20118648

Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Kitazawa, Takashi; Kawano, Noriaki; Iida, Osamu; Kawahara, Nobuo

2010-02-01

273

Exposure to the tsunami disaster, PTSD symptoms and increased substance use – an Internet based survey of male and female residents of Switzerland  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background After the tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean basin an Internet based self-screening test was made available in order to facilitate contact with mental health services. Although primarily designed for surviving Swiss tourists as well as relatives and acquaintances of the victims, the screening instrument was open to anyone who felt psychologically affected by this disaster. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influences between self-declared increased substance use in the aftermath of the tsunami disaster, trauma exposure and current PTSD symptoms. Methods One section of the screening covered addiction related behavior. We analyzed the relationship between increased substance use, the level of PTSD symptoms and trauma exposure using multivariable logistic regression with substance use as the dependent variable. Included in the study were only subjects who reported being residents of Switzerland and the analyses were stratified by gender in order to control for possible socio-cultural or gender differences in the use of psychotropic substances. Results In women PTSD symptoms and degree of exposure enlarged the odds of increased alcohol, pharmaceuticals and cannabis use significantly. In men the relationship was more specific: PTSD symptoms and degree of exposure only enlarged the odds of increased pharmaceutical consumption significantly. Increases in alcohol, cannabis and tobacco use were only significantly associated with the degree of PTSD symptoms. Conclusion The tsunami was associated with increased substance use. This study not only replicates earlier findings but also suggests for a gender specificity of post-traumatic substance use increase.

Vetter Stefan; Rossegger Astrid; Rossler Wulf; Bisson Jonathan I; Endrass Jerome

2008-01-01

274

[Cannabis-induced cerebral and myocardial infarction in a young woman].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Cannabis is the most consumed drug in the world particularly in young adults. Few reports have suggested a causal role of cannabis in the development of cerebral or cardiovascular events. We describe the first association of myocardial infarction and stroke after heavy cannabis consumption in a 45-year-old woman. OBSERVATION: Stroke occurred in relation with a right carotid and middle cerebral artery thrombosis after cannabis abuse. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous rt-PA. Two days after her admission, she presented a myocardial infarction due to a coronary thrombosis. Cerebral and coronary arteries were angiographically normal. Etiological tests were negative and a toxic cause in relation with cannabis consumption was concluded. CONCLUSION: Cannabis can be associated with vascular events by different mechanisms. Thrombosis may occur in cerebral and/or coronary arteries. We suggest that it might be useful to search for cannabis consumption systematically in young subjects victims of stroke and myocardial infarction.

Duchene C; Olindo S; Chausson N; Jeannin S; Cohen-Tenoudji P; Smadja D

2010-04-01

275

Cannabis sativa var. indica : une plante complexe aux effets pervers Cannabis sativa var. indica : a complex plant with perverse effects  

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Full Text Available Cannabis sativa var. indica appartient à la famille des Cannabinaceae et à l'ordre des Urticales. Parmi les 60 cannabinoïdes contenus dans la plante, essentiellement dans les feuilles et les sommités fleuries, le delta-9-tétrahydrocannabinol (THC) constitue le principal responsable des effets observables chez l'homme. La teneur en THC est très variable selon les conditions de culture, pouvant dépasser 20 % dans le cas de cultures sous serre aux conditions parfaitement contrôlées. Après inhalation, le THC pénètre dans la circulation sanguine puis, très lipophile, va se fixer sur les tissus riches en lipides et en particulier au niveau du cerveau. Ses effets chez l'homme reposent sur l'existence des récepteurs CB1 (essentiellement au niveau central) et CB2 (surtout présents au niveau périphérique). Tandis que la présence du THC dans le sang n'est observable que pendant 2 à 3 heures après inhalation, des travaux très récents chez l'homme et chez l'animal nous ont permis de montrer qu'il restait fixé dans la plupart des structures cérébrales pendant de très nombreuses heures, cela expliquant la persistance importante de ses effets sur le système nerveux central. Les effets aigus sur le psychisme consistent principalement en des perturbations sensorielles, des troubles thymiques et dissociatifs, une diminution des performances intellectuelles, motrices et cognitives, des perturbations de la mémoire à court terme. Lors d'un usage important, régulier et prolongé, on note fréquemment l'apparition de crises d'angoisse aiguë et d'un syndrome amotivationnel. Si les risques pour soi-même liés à son usage sont loin d'être négligeables, les conséquences pour autrui peuvent être considérables lorsque les consommateurs sont des conducteurs d'automobiles, des femmes enceintes ou des travailleurs occupant des postes à risque et/ou de sécurité en entreprise. L'importance du risque est majorée par un nombre de consommateurs de plus en plus grand. C'est pour cette raison que la France a récemment mis en place une législation destinée à sanctionner les conducteurs ayant fait usage de cannabis, sur la base des résultats de l'analyse sanguine. C'est aussi pourquoi il serait désormais opportun d'instaurer par voie législative des dépistages chez les personnes occupant des postes à risque et/ou de sécurité dans les entreprises. Cannabis sativa var. indica is a Cannabaceae, belonging to Urticales order. Among the 60 cannabinoids present in the plant and essentially in leaves and flowering tops, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main responsible of the effects observed in human using it. THC content is very variable depending on cultivation conditions, being able to contain more than 20 % of THC in the case of under glass cultivations with well controlled conditions. After inhalation, THC moves to the blood and, because of its lipophily, distribution very fastly into the brain and other lipidic tissues. Its effects on human are supported by the presence of CB1 receptors (mainly in central nervous system) and CB2 (mainly present in other tissues). As THC is found in blood during only 2 to 3 hours after inhalation, recent studies allowed us to indicate that it remained present in brain structures during many hours, which explains the long persistence of its effects on central nervous system. Acute side effects on behavior and central nervous system consist essentially in sensitive perturbations, thymic and dissociative troubles, a decrease of intellectual, motor and cognitive performances, short term memory disorders. For an important, regular and long term use, the occurrence of acute angor attacks or an amotivational syndrome are frequently observed. While risks for oneself related to cannabis use are not negligible, consequences for others may be extensive when consumers are car drivers, pregnant women or workers occupying a risk position. This risk is becoming very important today considering account of the number of consumers. Consequently, the French government

Mura Patrick; Brunet Bertrand; Papet Yves; Hauet Thierry

2009-01-01

276

Association of a functional FAAH polymorphism with methamphetamine-induced symptoms and dependence in a Malaysian population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: FAAH is a membrane enzyme that terminates the activity of a large class of endogenous signaling lipids. Recent studies suggest that the FAAH Pro129Thr polymorphism is a common mutation in the FAAH gene that is significantly associated with drug-addictive traits. This study investigated the association of the Pro129Thr polymorphism of the FAAH gene with methamphetamine dependence, methamphetamine-induced psychosis, manic episodes and panic disorder in a Malaysian population. MATERIALS & METHODS: This polymorphism was genotyped in 232 male methamphetamine-dependent subjects and in 241 male controls of four different ethnicities: Malay, Chinese, Kadazan-Dusun and Bajau. Intergroup statistical analyses were performed by using the ?(2)-square test and Fisher's exact test, where necessary. In cases of multiple comparisons, the Bonferroni correction was performed. RESULTS: Our results indicated that the FAAH Pro129Thr polymorphism showed a significant association with risk of methamphetamine dependence in the pooled subjects (odds ratio [OR]: 2.017; p < 0.001) and in the Malay (OR: 2.829; p < 0.001) and Chinese (OR: 3.685; p < 0.001) groups. We also found an association of this polymorphism with episodes of methamphetamine-induced mania in the Malay group (OR: 2.836; p = 0.035). However, there was no association between this polymorphism and age of onset of drug use or the occurrence of methamphetamine-induced psychosis or of panic disorder. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the FAAH Pro129Thr polymorphism may contribute to methamphetamine dependence in the Malay and Chinese ethnic groups.

Sim MS; Hatim A; Reynolds GP; Mohamed Z

2013-04-01

277

Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa Therapeutical aspects of compounds of the plant Cannabis sativa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids) have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action involved in the interaction between cannabinoid compounds and the biological receptors. So, from the therapeutical aspects presented in this work, we intended to show the evolution of the Cannabis sativa research and the possible medicinal use of cannabinoid compounds.

Káthia Maria Honório; Agnaldo Arroio; Albérico Borges Ferreira da Silva

2006-01-01

278

Functional MRI studies in human Ecstasy and cannabis users  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cannabis and ecstasy are among the most widely used illicit drugs in the world. However, there are substantial concerns about their neurotoxic potential for brain and brain function. Despite previous research, some crucial questions regarding the causality, course and clinical relevance have remaine...

Jager, G.

279

Pharmacology and toxicology of Cannabis derivatives and endocannabinoid agonists.  

Science.gov (United States)

For centuries Cannabis sativa and cannabis extracts have been used in natural medicine. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active ingredient of Cannabis. THC seems to be responsible for most of the pharmacological and therapeutic actions of cannabis. In a few countries THC extracts (i.e. Sativex) or THC derivatives such as nabilone, and dronabinol are used in the clinic for the treatment of several pathological conditions like chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. On the other hand the severe side effects and the high abuse liability of these agents represent a serious limitation in their medical use. In addition, diversion in the use of these active ingredients for recreational purpose is a concern. Over recent years, alternative approaches using synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists or agents acting as activators of the endocannabinoid systems are under scrutiny with the hope to develop more effective and safer clinical applications. Likely, in the near future few of these new molecules will be available for clinical use. The present article review recent study and patents with focus on the cannabinoid system as a target for the treatment of central nervous system disorders with emphasis on agonists. PMID:19832688

Gerra, Gilberto; Zaimovic, Amir; Gerra, Maria L; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Cippitelli, Andrea; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Somaini, Lorenzo

2010-01-01

280

Pharmacology and toxicology of Cannabis derivatives and endocannabinoid agonists.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For centuries Cannabis sativa and cannabis extracts have been used in natural medicine. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active ingredient of Cannabis. THC seems to be responsible for most of the pharmacological and therapeutic actions of cannabis. In a few countries THC extracts (i.e. Sativex) or THC derivatives such as nabilone, and dronabinol are used in the clinic for the treatment of several pathological conditions like chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. On the other hand the severe side effects and the high abuse liability of these agents represent a serious limitation in their medical use. In addition, diversion in the use of these active ingredients for recreational purpose is a concern. Over recent years, alternative approaches using synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists or agents acting as activators of the endocannabinoid systems are under scrutiny with the hope to develop more effective and safer clinical applications. Likely, in the near future few of these new molecules will be available for clinical use. The present article review recent study and patents with focus on the cannabinoid system as a target for the treatment of central nervous system disorders with emphasis on agonists.

Gerra G; Zaimovic A; Gerra ML; Ciccocioppo R; Cippitelli A; Serpelloni G; Somaini L

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Trajectory of adolescent cannabis use on addiction vulnerability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The adolescent brain is a period of dynamic development making it vulnerable to environmental factors such as drug exposure. Of the illicit drugs, cannabis is most used by teenagers since it is perceived by many to be of little harm. This perception has led to a growing number of states approving its legalization and increased accessibility. Most of the debates and ensuing policies regarding cannabis were done without consideration of its impact on one of the most vulnerable population, namely teens, or without consideration of scientific data. We provide an overview of the endocannabinoid system in relation to adolescent cannabis exposure and provide insights regarding factors such as genetics and behavioral traits that confer risk for subsequent addiction. While it is clear that more systematic scientific studies are needed to understand the long-term impact of adolescent cannabis exposure on brain and behavior, the current evidence suggests that it has a far-reaching influence on adult addictive behaviors particularly for certain subsets of vulnerable individuals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'.

Hurd YL; Michaelides M; Miller ML; Jutras-Aswad D

2013-08-01

282

The inheritance of chemical phenotype in Cannabis sativa L.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Four crosses were made between inbred Cannabis sativa plants with pure cannabidiol (CBD) and pure Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) chemotypes. All the plants belonging to the F(1)'s were analyzed by gas chromatography for cannabinoid composition and constantly found to have a mixed CBD-THC chemoty...

de Meijer, Etienne P M; Bagatta, Manuela; Carboni, Andrea; Crucitti, Paola; Moliterni, V M Cristiana; Ranalli, Paolo

283

Antimicrobial Activity of Cannabis sativa L.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The oil of the seeds, petroleum ether and methanol extracts of the whole plant of Cannabis sativa belonging to the family Cannabinaceae were screened for their antimicrobial activity against two Gram positive organisms (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus),...

Esra M. M. Ali; Aisha Z. I. Almagboul; Salwa M. E. Khogali; Umelkheir M. A. Gergeir

284

Crop physiology of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fibre hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) may be an alternative to wood as a raw material for the production of paper pulp. The effects of enviromnental factors and cultural measures on the functioning, yield and quality of fibre hemp crops in the Netherlands were investigated.Until flowering (generally in ...

Werf, H., van der

285

Consumption of cannabis and cocaine: correct mix for arterial occlusions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a case of a young Afro-Caribbean man who presented with sudden unilateral loss of vision due to central retinal artery occlusion. He was a cocaine and cannabis abuser for 6 years. Acute central retinal artery occlusion at such a young age is unusual. We discuss the possible pathogenesis a...

Sharma, Priyanka; Ramirez-Florez, Susana

286

Exercise increases plasma THC concentrations in regular cannabis users.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The major psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) accumulates in fat tissue from where it slowly diffuses back into blood. THC pre-treated rats can show elevated plasma cannabinoid levels when subjected to conditions that promote fat utilization, such as fasting. Here we examine whether fasting and exercise increase plasma THC concentrations in regular cannabis users. METHODS: Fourteen regular cannabis users completed 35min of exercise on a stationary bicycle in either a fed or overnight fasted state. Plasma cannabinoid levels were assessed prior to exercise, immediately post-exercise and 2h post-exercise. Plasma samples were also analyzed for indices of lipolysis (free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol). RESULTS: Exercise induced a small, statistically significant increase in plasma THC levels accompanied by increased plasma FFA and glycerol levels. Exercise-induced increases in plasma THC concentrations were positively correlated with body mass index. Fasting induced a significant increase in plasma FFA levels, and a lowering of blood glucose, but did not significantly alter plasma cannabinoid levels. CONCLUSIONS: Here we demonstrate that exercise enhances plasma THC levels in regular cannabis users. The lack of a fasting effect may reflect the modest duration of fasting used which was associated with only a modest increase in fat utilization relative to exercise. Overall, these results suggest that exercise may elevate blood THC levels by releasing dormant THC from fat stores. These data suggest the interpretation of blood THC levels in roadside and workplace tests might be complicated by recent exercise.

Wong A; Montebello ME; Norberg MM; Rooney K; Lintzeris N; Bruno R; Booth J; Arnold JC; McGregor IS

2013-08-01

287

Exploring child maltreatment and its relationship to alcohol and cannabis use in selected Latin American and Caribbean countries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Research from developed countries shows that child maltreatment increases the risk for substance use and problems. However, little evidence on this relationship is available from developing countries, and recognition of this relationship may have important implications for substance demand reduction strategies, including efforts to prevent and treat substance use and related problems. Latin America and the Caribbean is a rich and diverse region of the world with a large range of social and cultural influences. A working group constituted by the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission and the Center for Addiction and Mental Health in June, 2010 identified research on this relationship as a priority area for a multinational research partnership. METHODS: This paper examines the association between self-reported child maltreatment and use in the past 12 months of alcohol and cannabis in 2294 university students in seven participating universities in six participating countries: Colombia, El Salvador, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Panama and Uruguay. The research also considers the possible impact of religiosity and minimal psychological distress as factors contributing to resiliency in these samples. RESULTS: The results showed that experience of maltreatment was associated with increased use of alcohol and cannabis. However, the effects differed depending on the type of maltreatment experienced. Higher levels of religiosity were consistently associated with lower levels of alcohol and cannabis use, but we found no evidence of an impact of minimal psychological distress on these measures. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study shows that the experience of maltreatment may increase the risk of alcohol and cannabis use among university students in Latin American and Caribbean countries, but that higher levels of religiosity may reduce that risk. More work to determine the nature and significance of these relationships is needed.

Longman-Mills S; González WY; Meléndez MO; García MR; Gómez JD; Juárez CG; Martínez EA; Peñalba SJ; Pizzanelli EM; Solórzano LI; Wright MG; Cumsille F; De La Haye W; Sapag JC; Khenti A; Hamilton HA; Erickson PG; Brands B; Flam-Zalcman R; Simpson S; Wekerle C; Mann RE

2013-01-01

288

Weed or wheel! FMRI, behavioural, and toxicological investigations of how cannabis smoking affects skills necessary for driving.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug, however its effects on cognitive functions underlying safe driving remain mostly unexplored. Our goal was to evaluate the impact of cannabis on the driving ability of occasional smokers, by investigating changes in the brain network involved in a tracking task. The subject characteristics, the percentage of ?(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol in the joint, and the inhaled dose were in accordance with real-life conditions. Thirty-one male volunteers were enrolled in this study that includes clinical and toxicological aspects together with functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and measurements of psychomotor skills. The fMRI paradigm was based on a visuo-motor tracking task, alternating active tracking blocks with passive tracking viewing and rest condition. We show that cannabis smoking, even at low ?(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol blood concentrations, decreases psychomotor skills and alters the activity of the brain networks involved in cognition. The relative decrease of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent response (BOLD) after cannabis smoking in the anterior insula, dorsomedial thalamus, and striatum compared to placebo smoking suggests an alteration of the network involved in saliency detection. In addition, the decrease of BOLD response in the right superior parietal cortex and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex indicates the involvement of the Control Executive network known to operate once the saliencies are identified. Furthermore, cannabis increases activity in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, suggesting an increase in self-oriented mental activity. Subjects are more attracted by intrapersonal stimuli ("self") and fail to attend to task performance, leading to an insufficient allocation of task-oriented resources and to sub-optimal performance. These effects correlate with the subjective feeling of confusion rather than with the blood level of ?(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol. These findings bolster the zero-tolerance policy adopted in several countries that prohibits the presence of any amount of drugs in blood while driving. PMID:23300977

Battistella, Giovanni; Fornari, Eleonora; Thomas, Aurélien; Mall, Jean-Frédéric; Chtioui, Haithem; Appenzeller, Monique; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Favrat, Bernard; Maeder, Philippe; Giroud, Christian

2013-01-02

289

Weed or wheel! FMRI, behavioural, and toxicological investigations of how cannabis smoking affects skills necessary for driving.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug, however its effects on cognitive functions underlying safe driving remain mostly unexplored. Our goal was to evaluate the impact of cannabis on the driving ability of occasional smokers, by investigating changes in the brain network involved in a tracking task. The subject characteristics, the percentage of ?(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol in the joint, and the inhaled dose were in accordance with real-life conditions. Thirty-one male volunteers were enrolled in this study that includes clinical and toxicological aspects together with functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and measurements of psychomotor skills. The fMRI paradigm was based on a visuo-motor tracking task, alternating active tracking blocks with passive tracking viewing and rest condition. We show that cannabis smoking, even at low ?(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol blood concentrations, decreases psychomotor skills and alters the activity of the brain networks involved in cognition. The relative decrease of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent response (BOLD) after cannabis smoking in the anterior insula, dorsomedial thalamus, and striatum compared to placebo smoking suggests an alteration of the network involved in saliency detection. In addition, the decrease of BOLD response in the right superior parietal cortex and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex indicates the involvement of the Control Executive network known to operate once the saliencies are identified. Furthermore, cannabis increases activity in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, suggesting an increase in self-oriented mental activity. Subjects are more attracted by intrapersonal stimuli ("self") and fail to attend to task performance, leading to an insufficient allocation of task-oriented resources and to sub-optimal performance. These effects correlate with the subjective feeling of confusion rather than with the blood level of ?(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol. These findings bolster the zero-tolerance policy adopted in several countries that prohibits the presence of any amount of drugs in blood while driving.

Battistella G; Fornari E; Thomas A; Mall JF; Chtioui H; Appenzeller M; Annoni JM; Favrat B; Maeder P; Giroud C

2013-01-01

290

Avoiding Emotional Bonds: An Examination of the Dimensions of Therapeutic Alliance Among Cannabis Users  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a growing need to provide treatment for cannabis users, yet engaging and maintaining this population in treatment is particularly difficult. Although past research has focused on the importance of therapeutic alliance on drug treatment outcomes, this is the first study to examine the dimensions of therapeutic alliance for cannabis users compared with users of alcohol or other drugs in a naturalistic setting. The acceptability of Internet-delivered interventions for drug and alcohol treatments is also investigated. Participants (n?=?77) included clients who were receiving outpatient drug and alcohol treatment at a publicly funded health service, including a Specialist Cannabis Clinic. The results indicated that one particular domain of alliance, Bond, was consistently lower, from both client and clinician perspectives, for current cannabis users relative to those not currently using cannabis. Client perceptions of Bond decreased as the severity of cannabis use increased (r?=??0.373, p?=?0.02). Cannabis Clinic clients did not report a significantly lower Bond with their clinicians, suggesting that specialized cannabis services may be better placed to provide appropriate treatment for this population than embedding cannabis treatment within traditional drug and alcohol treatment teams. In addition, Internet/computer-based treatments may be one potential way to engage, transition, or retain cannabis users in treatment.

Healey, Alison; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Bowman, Jenny; Childs, Steven

2013-01-01

291

Cannabis users have higher premorbid IQ than other patients with first onset psychosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A number of studies have reported that patients with psychosis who use cannabis have better cognitive performance than those who do not. This is surprising as cannabis can impair cognition in healthy subjects. An obvious question is whether the better current performance of psychotic patients who have used cannabis is a reflection of their having a higher premorbid IQ than those psychotic patients who haven't used cannabis. AIM: In a sample of patients at their first episode of psychosis, we tested the hypothesis that patients who smoked cannabis would have a higher premorbid IQ than patients who did not. METHODOLOGY: 279 participants (119 patients and 160 healthy controls) were assessed in order to obtain current and premorbid IQ measures and detailed information on cannabis use. We examined the association between cannabis use and both premorbid and current IQ in patients and controls. RESULTS: Patients who had ever smoked cannabis had significantly higher current (p<.001) and premorbid IQ (p=.004) compared to patients who had never used cannabis. This difference was not found among controls. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the better cognitive performance of patients with their first episode of psychosis who have used cannabis compared with those who haven't is due to the better premorbid IQ of the former.

Ferraro L; Russo M; O'Connor J; Wiffen BD; Falcone MA; Sideli L; Gardner-Sood P; Stilo S; Trotta A; Dazzan P; Mondelli V; Taylor H; Friedman B; Sallis H; La Cascia C; La Barbera D; David AS; Reichenberg A; Murray RM; Di Forti M

2013-10-01

292

Cannabis use and cognitive functions in at-risk mental state and first episode psychosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses suggest that schizophrenia patients with a history of cannabis use have less impaired cognitive functioning compared to patients without cannabis use. AIMS: The objective of this study was to assess the association between recency and frequency of cannabis use and cognitive functioning in at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS) and first episode psychosis (FEP) individuals. METHODS: One hundred thirty-six participants completed a cognitive test battery and were assessed for current and past cannabis use. Analyses of covariance models were applied to evaluate the main effects of cannabis use and patient group (ARMS vs. FEP) as well as their interactions on cognitive functioning. RESULTS: No differences were observed in cognitive performance between current, former, and never users, and there were no significant interactions between cannabis use and patient group. Furthermore, within the group of current cannabis users, the frequency of cannabis use was not significantly associated with cognitive functioning. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study do not support the notion that FEP patients and ARMS individuals with a history of cannabis use have less impaired cognitive functioning compared to those without cannabis use.

Bugra H; Studerus E; Rapp C; Tamagni C; Aston J; Borgwardt S; Riecher-Rössler A

2013-11-01

293

COMT val158met and 5-HTTLPR genetic polymorphisms moderate executive control in cannabis users.  

Science.gov (United States)

The adverse effects of cannabis use on executive functions are still controversial, fostering the need for novel biomarkers able to unveil individual differences in the cognitive impact of cannabis consumption. Two common genetic polymorphisms have been linked to the neuroadaptive impact of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure and to executive functions in animals: the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene val158met polymorphism and the SLC6A4 gene 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. We aimed to test if these polymorphisms moderate the harmful effects of cannabis use on executive function in young cannabis users. We recruited 144 participants: 86 cannabis users and 58 non-drug user controls. Both groups were genotyped and matched for genetic makeup, sex, age, education, and IQ. We used a computerized neuropsychological battery to assess different aspects of executive functions: sustained attention (CANTAB Rapid Visual Information Processing Test, RVIP), working memory (N-back), monitoring/shifting (CANTAB ID/ED set shifting), planning (CANTAB Stockings of Cambridge, SOC), and decision-making (Iowa Gambling Task, IGT). We used general linear model-based analyses to test performance differences between cannabis users and controls as a function of genotypes. We found that: (i) daily cannabis use is not associated with executive function deficits; and (ii) COMT val158met and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms moderate the link between cannabis use and executive performance. Cannabis users carrying the COMT val/val genotype exhibited lower accuracy of sustained attention, associated with a more strict response bias, than val/val non-users. Cannabis users carrying the COMT val allele also committed more monitoring/shifting errors than cannabis users carrying the met/met genotype. Finally, cannabis users carrying the 5-HTTLPR s/s genotype had worse IGT performance than s/s non-users. COMT and SLC6A4 genes moderate the impact of cannabis use on executive functions. PMID:23449176

Verdejo-García, Antonio; Beatriz Fagundo, Ana; Cuenca, Aida; Rodriguez, Joan; Cuyás, Elisabet; Langohr, Klaus; de Sola Llopis, Susana; Civit, Ester; Farré, Magí; Peña-Casanova, Jordi; de la Torre, Rafael

2013-02-28

294

Impact of ADHD and cannabis use on executive functioning in young adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cannabis use are each associated with specific cognitive deficits. Few studies have investigated the neurocognitive profile of individuals with both an ADHD history and regular cannabis use. The greatest cognitive impairment is expected among ADHD Cannabis Users compared to those with ADHD-only, Cannabis use-only, or neither. METHODS: Young adults (24.2±1.2 years) with a childhood ADHD diagnosis who did (n=42) and did not (n=45) report past year?monthly cannabis use were compared on neuropsychological measures to a local normative comparison group (LNCG) who did (n=20) and did not (n=21) report past year regular cannabis use. Age, gender, IQ, socioeconomic status, and past year alcohol and smoking were statistical covariates. RESULTS: The ADHD group performed worse than LNCG on verbal memory, processing speed, cognitive interference, decision-making, working memory, and response inhibition. No significant effects for cannabis use emerged. Interactions between ADHD and cannabis were non-significant. Exploratory analyses revealed that individuals who began using cannabis regularly before age 16 (n=27) may have poorer executive functioning (i.e., decision-making, working memory, and response inhibition), than users who began later (n=32); replication is warranted with a larger sample. CONCLUSIONS: A childhood diagnosis of ADHD, but not cannabis use in adulthood, was associated with executive dysfunction. Earlier initiation of cannabis use may be linked to poor cognitive outcomes and a significantly greater proportion of the ADHD group began using cannabis before age 16. Regular cannabis use starting after age 16 may not be sufficient to aggravate longstanding cognitive deficits characteristic of ADHD.

Tamm L; Epstein JN; Lisdahl KM; Molina B; Tapert S; Hinshaw SP; Arnold LE; Velanova K; Abikoff H; Swanson JM

2013-08-01

295

Low-dose vaporized cannabis significantly improves neuropathic pain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluating the analgesic efficacy of vaporized cannabis in subjects, the majority of whom were experiencing neuropathic pain despite traditional treatment. Thirty-nine patients with central and peripheral neuropathic pain underwent a standardized procedure for inhaling medium-dose (3.53%), low-dose (1.29%), or placebo cannabis with the primary outcome being visual analog scale pain intensity. Psychoactive side effects and neuropsychological performance were also evaluated. Mixed-effects regression models demonstrated an analgesic response to vaporized cannabis. There was no significant difference between the 2 active dose groups' results (P > .7). The number needed to treat (NNT) to achieve 30% pain reduction was 3.2 for placebo versus low-dose, 2.9 for placebo versus medium-dose, and 25 for medium- versus low-dose. As these NNTs are comparable to those of traditional neuropathic pain medications, cannabis has analgesic efficacy with the low dose being as effective a pain reliever as the medium dose. Psychoactive effects were minimal and well tolerated, and neuropsychological effects were of limited duration and readily reversible within 1 to 2 hours. Vaporized cannabis, even at low doses, may present an effective option for patients with treatment-resistant neuropathic pain. PERSPECTIVE: The analgesia obtained from a low dose of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (1.29%) in patients, most of whom were experiencing neuropathic pain despite conventional treatments, is a clinically significant outcome. In general, the effect sizes on cognitive testing were consistent with this minimal dose. As a result, one might not anticipate a significant impact on daily functioning.

Wilsey B; Marcotte T; Deutsch R; Gouaux B; Sakai S; Donaghe H

2013-02-01

296

Reversal of metabolic and neurological symptoms of phenylketonuric mice treated with a PAH containing helper-dependent adenoviral vector.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is one of the most common inborn errors of metabolism and is due to a deficit of phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme that converts phenylalanine (Phe) into tyrosine (Tyr). The resultant hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) leads to severe neurological impairment, whose pathogenesis has not been entirely elucidated. Treatment of PKU consists essentially in lifelong protein restriction and, in mild cases, in tetrahydrobiopterin supplementation. However, compliance to both strategies, particularly to the long-term diet, is low and therefore other therapies are desirable. We explored a gene therapy approach aimed at long-term correction of the pathologic phenotype of BTBR-PahEnu2 mice, a mouse model of PKU. To this aim, we developed a helper-dependent adenoviral (HD-Ad) vector expressing phenylalanine hydroxylase and administered it to 3-week-old PKU mice. This resulted in complete normalization of Phe and Tyr levels and reversal of coat hypopigmentation that lasted throughout the observation period of six months. The spatial learning deficits observed in PKU mice were also reversed and hippocampus levels of the N-methyl-D-Aspartate and 2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2- oxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid receptor subunits returned to normal. Long-term potentiation, which is impaired in PKU mice, was also restored by treatment. Therefore, HD-Ad vector-mediated gene therapy is a promising approach to PKU treatment.

Cerreto M; Mehdawy B; Ombrone D; Nisticò R; Ruoppolo M; Usiello A; Daniele A; Pastore L; Salvatore F

2012-02-01

297

A real-time PCR assay for the relative quantification of the tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene in herbal Cannabis samples.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, we wanted to investigate whether or not the tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene, which codes for the enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of THCA, influences the production and storage of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in a dose-dependent manner. THCA is actually decarboxylated to produce THC, the main psychoactive component in the Cannabis plant. Assuming as the research hypothesis a correlation between the gene copy number and the production of THC, gene quantification could be useful in forensics in order to complement or replace chemical analysis for the identification and classification of seized Cannabis samples, thus distinguishing the drug-type from the fibre-type varieties. A real-time PCR assay for the relative quantification of the THCA synthase gene was then validated on Cannabis samples; some were seized from the illegal drug market and others were derived from experimental cultivation. In order to determine the gene copy number to compare high vs. low potency plants, we chose the ??Ct method for TaqMan reactions. The assay enabled single plants with zero, one, and two copies of the gene to be distinguished. As a result of this first part of the research on the THCA synthase gene (the second part will cover a study of gene expression), we found no correlation between THCA synthase gene copy number and the content of THC in the herbal Cannabis samples tested.

Cascini F; Passerotti S; Martello S

2012-04-01

298

A real-time PCR assay for the relative quantification of the tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene in herbal Cannabis samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we wanted to investigate whether or not the tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene, which codes for the enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of THCA, influences the production and storage of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in a dose-dependent manner. THCA is actually decarboxylated to produce THC, the main psychoactive component in the Cannabis plant. Assuming as the research hypothesis a correlation between the gene copy number and the production of THC, gene quantification could be useful in forensics in order to complement or replace chemical analysis for the identification and classification of seized Cannabis samples, thus distinguishing the drug-type from the fibre-type varieties. A real-time PCR assay for the relative quantification of the THCA synthase gene was then validated on Cannabis samples; some were seized from the illegal drug market and others were derived from experimental cultivation. In order to determine the gene copy number to compare high vs. low potency plants, we chose the ??Ct method for TaqMan reactions. The assay enabled single plants with zero, one, and two copies of the gene to be distinguished. As a result of this first part of the research on the THCA synthase gene (the second part will cover a study of gene expression), we found no correlation between THCA synthase gene copy number and the content of THC in the herbal Cannabis samples tested. PMID:22093702

Cascini, Fidelia; Passerotti, Stella; Martello, Simona

2011-11-16

299

Mortality risk in a cohort of subjects reported by authorities for cannabis possession for personal use. Results of a longitudinal study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: to study mortality risk in a cohort of cannabis consumers. DESIGN: longitudinal study on a cohort of 2,511 subjects reported to the Drug Addiction Control Force (DACF) for cannabis possession for personal use between 1990 and 2004 residents in the metropolitan area of Bologna. METHODS: to identify people already treated for drug dependence, the cohort was linked with the clinical archive of the public treatment centers for drug addiction (PTC) in the metropolitan area of Bologna and the results were separated into PTC clients (subjects in treatment at a PTC, all heroin users) and non-PTC clients (subjects not in treatment at a PTC, no knowledge regarding other illicit drugs being used besides cannabis). RESULTS: an excess of mortality was observed for all causes in the cohort compared to the general population, both among PTC clients (SMR 14.61 CI 95% 9.21-23.19) and non-clients (SMR 2.43 CI 95% 1.67-3.55). Among PTC clients the highest and most statistically significant SMRs were for overdose, suicide, and AIDS. Among non PTC clients there was an excess for traffic accidents and overdose. CONCLUSION: the results of the study show an elevated risk of death for consumers of cannabis, a percentage of which probably also consumed other substances, and a very few which presented themselves for treatment at a public drug treatment center.

Pavarin RM; Berardi D

2011-03-01

300

Approach-Bias Predicts Development of Cannabis Problem Severity in Heavy Cannabis Users: Results from a Prospective FMRI Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A potentially powerful predictor for the course of drug (ab)use is the approach-bias, that is, the pre-reflective tendency to approach rather than avoid drug-related stimuli. Here we investigated the neural underpinnings of cannabis approach and avoidance tendencies. By elucidating the predictive po...

Cousijn, Janna; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Wiers, Reinout W.

 
 
 
 
301

COPD: Symptoms  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Research 4 Home » Educational Campaigns » COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) » Learn More About COPD » Symptoms Quick Links: ... the COPD Learn More Breathe Better® campaign and lung research. Email Address Print this page Symptoms Transcript: ...

302

Long-term cannabis use: characteristics of users in an Australian rural area.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To investigate the characteristics and patterns of cannabis and other drug use among long-term cannabis users in an Australian rural area. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of a "snowball" sample of long-term cannabis users. SETTING: The North Coast of New South Wales is an area with high levels of cannabis cultivation and use, and many long-term users. PARTICIPANTS: The study involved 268 long-term cannabis users who had regularly used cannabis for at least 10 years. MEASUREMENTS: A structured interview schedule obtained information on: demographics, social circumstances, patterns of cannabis and other drug use, contexts of use, perceptions about cannabis and legal involvement. FINDINGS: The mean age of the sample was 36 years and 59% were made. The median length of regular cannabis use was 19 years. Most (94%) used two or more times a week and 60% used daily, with a median of two joints per day. Two-thirds (67%) used cannabis in social settings and two-thirds grew cannabis for their own use. The most common reasons for using cannabis were for relaxation or relief of tension (61%) and enjoyment or to feel good (27%). The most commonly reported negative effects were feelings of anxiety, paranoia, or depression (21%), tiredness, lack of motivation and low energy (21%) and effects of smoke on the respiratory system (18%). The majority drank alcohol (79%) and over one-third were drinking at hazardous levels. Most were current (64%) or ex-tobacco smokers (24%). One-quarter (25%) had been charged with possession of cannabis, 11% for cultivation and 6% for supply, with non-drug offences low (8%or less). Overall, three-quarters (72%) believed that the benefits of cannabis use outweighed the risks, 21% felt there was an even balance, and 7% said cannabis had done them more harm than good. CONCLUSIONS: Among long-term cannabis users in this Australian rural area, cannabis use was an integral part of everyday life and it was primarily used in social situations for the same reasons that alcohol use is used in the wider community.

Reilly D; Didcott P; Swift W; Hall W

1998-06-01

303

[Renal and spleen infarction after massive consumption of cannabis and cocaine in a young man].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cannabis is the most widely consumed drug in the world, particularly among young subjects. Cocaine is the third leading illicit drug. Cases of renal infarction associated with combined consumption of cannabis and cocaine have been reported in the literature. We describe the case of a 24-year-old man who presented renal and spleen infarction after massive consumption of cannabis and cocaine. Both vascular events arose on healthy arteries. Etiological tests were negative leading to the conclusion that the events resulted from a toxic cause related to cannabis and cocaine consumption. Different mechanisms, potentially including thrombosis, might explain the association of cannabis and cocaine with vascular events. We suggest that a systematic search for cannabis and cocaine consumption among young victims of vascular disease might be useful.

Le Guen PY; Gestin S; Plat E; Quéhé P; Bressollette L

2011-02-01

304

Psychoactive substance use and dependence among Spanish university students: prevalence, correlates, polyconsumption, and comorbidity with depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, the prevalence of psychoactive substance use and dependence was estimated among students at a Spanish university, together with associated factors, polyconsumption, and comorbidity with depression, using a 554-member sample stratified by sex, degree year, and discipline. 86.5% had consumed some potentially addictive psychoactive substance in the past month, and 10.5% satisfied DSM-IV criteria for dependence on nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, or cannabis. Polyconsumers (90.4%) consumed an average 3.2 different substances. Current depression implied increased likelihood of having consumed tobacco or psychoactive pharmaceutical drugs in the past month, and DSM-IV symptoms of major depressive episode were shown by 8.6% of 58 substance-dependent participants, 8.7% of 540 past-month legal substance consumers, and 12.1% of 140 past-month illegal substance consumers.

Vázquez FL

2010-02-01

305

Routes of Administration of Cannabis Used for Nonmedical Purposes and Associations With Patterns of Drug Use.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlighted that diversification in routes of administration can be associated with heavier illicit drug use. This was especially true for water pipe users, whereas "pure" cannabis users, who did not mix cannabis with tobacco, were an exception. Indeed, these results may be useful for future preventive programs, which may need to focus on those who have diversified routes of administration for cannabis.

Baggio S; Deline S; Studer J; Mohler-Kuo M; Daeppen JB; Gmel G

2013-10-01

306

Cross-national differences in clinically significant cannabis problems: epidemiologic evidence from 'cannabis-only' smokers in the United States, Mexico, and Colombia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies show wide variability in the occurrence of cannabis smoking and related disorders across countries. This study aims to estimate cross-national variation in cannabis users' experience of clinically significant cannabis-related problems in three countries of the Americas, with a focus on cannabis users who may have tried alcohol or tobacco, but who have not used cocaine, heroin, LSD, or other internationally regulated drugs. Methods Data are from the World Mental Health Surveys Initiative and the National Latino and Asian American Study, with probability samples in Mexico (n = 4426), Colombia (n = 5,782) and the United States (USA; n = 8,228). The samples included 212 'cannabis only' users in Mexico, 260 in Colombia and 1,724 in the USA. Conditional GLM with GEE and 'exact' methods were used to estimate variation in the occurrence of clinically significant problems in cannabis only (CO) users across these surveyed populations. Results The experience of cannabis-related problems was quite infrequent among CO users in these countries, with weighted frequencies ranging from 1% to 5% across survey populations, and with no appreciable cross-national variation in general. CO users in Colombia proved to be an exception. As compared to CO users in the USA, the Colombia smokers were more likely to have experienced cannabis-associated 'social problems' (odds ratio, OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 6.3; p = 0.004) and 'legal problems' (OR = 9.7; 95% CI = 2.7, 35.2; p = 0.001). Conclusions This study's most remarkable finding may be the similarity in occurrence of cannabis-related problems in this cross-national comparison within the Americas. Wide cross-national variations in estimated population-level cumulative incidence of cannabis use disorders may be traced to large differences in cannabis smoking prevalence, rather than qualitative differences in cannabis experiences. More research is needed to identify conditions that might make cannabis-related social and legal problems more frequent in Colombia than in the USA.

Fiestas Fabian; Radovanovic Mirjana; Martins Silvia S; Medina-Mora Maria E; Posada-Villa Jose; Anthony James C

2010-01-01

307

Neuromuscular symptoms in a patient with familial pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib diagnosed by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP-Ib) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia due to imprinting defects in the maternally derived GNAS allele. Patients with PHP-Ib are usually identified by tetany, convulsions, and/or muscle cramps, whereas a substantial fraction of patients remain asymptomatic and are identified by familial studies. Although previous studies on patients with primary hypoparathyroidism have indicated that hypocalcemia can be associated with various neuromuscular abnormalities, such clinical features have been rarely described in patients with PHP-Ib. Here, we report a 12-year-old male patient with familial PHP-Ib and unique neuromuscular symptoms. The patient presented with general fatigue, steppage gait, and myalgia. Physical examinations revealed muscular weakness and atrophies in the lower legs, a shortening of the bilateral Achilles' tendons and absence of deep tendon reflexes. Laboratory tests showed hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, elevated serum intact PTH level, and impaired responses of urinary phosphate and cyclic AMP in an Ellsworth-Howard test, in addition to an elevated serum creatine kinase level. Clinical features of the patient were significantly improved after 1 month of treatment with alfacalcidol and calcium. Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) and subsequent PCR analyses identified a methylation defect at exon A/B of GNAS and a microdeletion involving exons 4-6 of the GNAS neighboring gene STX16 in the patient and in his asymptomatic brother. The results suggest that various neuromuscular features probably associated with hypocalcemia can be the first symptoms of PHP-Ib, and that MS-MLPA serves as a powerful tool for screening of GNAS abnormalities in patients with atypical manifestations.

Nagasaki K; Tsuchiya S; Saitoh A; Ogata T; Fukami M

2013-01-01

308

Neuromuscular symptoms in a patient with familial pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib diagnosed by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP-Ib) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia due to imprinting defects in the maternally derived GNAS allele. Patients with PHP-Ib are usually identified by tetany, convulsions, and/or muscle cramps, whereas a substantial fraction of patients remain asymptomatic and are identified by familial studies. Although previous studies on patients with primary hypoparathyroidism have indicated that hypocalcemia can be associated with various neuromuscular abnormalities, such clinical features have been rarely described in patients with PHP-Ib. Here, we report a 12-year-old male patient with familial PHP-Ib and unique neuromuscular symptoms. The patient presented with general fatigue, steppage gait, and myalgia. Physical examinations revealed muscular weakness and atrophies in the lower legs, a shortening of the bilateral Achilles' tendons and absence of deep tendon reflexes. Laboratory tests showed hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, elevated serum intact PTH level, and impaired responses of urinary phosphate and cyclic AMP in an Ellsworth-Howard test, in addition to an elevated serum creatine kinase level. Clinical features of the patient were significantly improved after 1 month of treatment with alfacalcidol and calcium. Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) and subsequent PCR analyses identified a methylation defect at exon A/B of GNAS and a microdeletion involving exons 4-6 of the GNAS neighboring gene STX16 in the patient and in his asymptomatic brother. The results suggest that various neuromuscular features probably associated with hypocalcemia can be the first symptoms of PHP-Ib, and that MS-MLPA serves as a powerful tool for screening of GNAS abnormalities in patients with atypical manifestations. PMID:23095209

Nagasaki, Keisuke; Tsuchiya, Shuichi; Saitoh, Akihiko; Ogata, Tsutomu; Fukami, Maki

2012-10-25

309

Dysregulation of synaptic proteins, dendritic spine abnormalities and pathological plasticity of synapses as experience-dependent mediators of cognitive and psychiatric symptoms in Huntington's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant tandem repeat expansion disorder involving cognitive, psychiatric and motor symptoms. The expanded trinucleotide (CAG) repeat leads to an extended polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein and a subsequent cascade of molecular and cellular pathogenesis. One of the key features of neuropathology, which has been shown to precede the eventual loss of neurons in the cerebral cortex, striatum and other areas, are changes to synapses, including the dendritic protrusions known as spines. In this review we will focus on synapse and spine pathology in HD, including molecular and experience-dependent aspects of pathogenesis. Dendritic spine pathology has been found in both the human HD brain at post mortem as well as various transgenic and knock-in animal models. These changes may help explain the symptoms in HD, and synaptopathy within the cerebral cortex may be particularly important in mediating the psychiatric and cognitive manifestations of this disease. The earliest stages of synaptic dysfunction in HD, as assayed in various mouse models, appears to involve changes in synaptic proteins and associated physiological abnormalities such as synaptic plasticity deficits. In mouse models, synaptic and cortical plasticity deficits have been directly correlated with the onset of cognitive deficits, implying a causal link. Furthermore, following the discovery that environmental enrichment can delay onset of affective, cognitive and motor deficits in HD transgenic mice, specific synaptic molecules shown to be dysregulated by the polyglutamine-induced toxicity were also found to be beneficially modulated by environmental stimulation. This identifies potential molecular targets for future therapeutic developments to treat this devastating disease. PMID:22633949

Nithianantharajah, J; Hannan, A J

2012-05-24

310

Antigiardial Activity and Toxicological Exploration of Cannabis Sativa Extracts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study has been attempt to elucidate antigiardial activity and explore the cytoxicity, investigation on liver Diagnostic Enzymes and Changes in serum constituents of Cannabis Sativa aerial parts and seeds, which were extracted by Petroleum ether and methanol. Aerial parts methanolic extract gave 63.6% mortality after 72 hours at concentration 1000 ppm (IC50 0.13 ppm) comparing with metrondizole (IC50 0.0125 ppm). While the other extracts found inactive as antigiardiasis after 72 hours. The slight increase in Aspartate amino transferase (AST), Alanine amino transferase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) liver enzyme and total protein, urea, albumin and calcium which indicate some degree hepatic nefropathy effect of such plant petroleum ether extract. Moreover, phytochemical examination was carried out firstly and revealed that, the petroleum ether extract of Cannabis sativa seed do not contain tetrahydrocannbinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidaiol (CBD). However, all extracts showed no significant cytotoxic activity against vero cell line.

Mahmoud M.DAHAB; Esra M. MUSA; Elbadri A. OSMAN; Waleed S. KOKO; Aiesha Z ALMGBOUL; Mohamed S. KHOGAL

2013-01-01

311

Analyses related to the development of DSM-5 criteria for substance use related disorders: 2. Proposed DSM-5 criteria for alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and heroin disorders in 663 substance abuse patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A number of changes have been proposed and investigated in the criteria for substance use disorders in DSM-5. However, although clinical utility of DSM-5 is a high priority, relatively little of the empirical evidence supporting the changes was obtained from samples of substance abuse patients. METHODS: Proposed changes were examined in 663 patients in treatment for substance use disorders, evaluated by experienced clinicians using the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders (PRISM). Factor and item response theory analysis was used to investigate the dimensionality and psychometric properties of alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and heroin abuse and dependence criteria, and craving. RESULTS: The seven dependence criteria, three of the abuse criteria (hazardous use; social/interpersonal problems related to use; neglect of roles to use), and craving form a unidimensional latent trait for alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and heroin. Craving did not add significantly to the total information offered by the dependence criteria, but adding the three abuse criteria and craving together did significantly increase total information for the criteria sets associated with alcohol, cannabis and heroin. CONCLUSION: Among adult patients in treatment for substance disorders, the alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and heroin criteria for dependence, abuse (with the exception of legal problems), and craving measure a single underlying dimension. Results support the proposal to combine abuse and dependence into a single diagnosis in the DSM-5, omitting legal problems. Mixed support was provided for the addition of craving as a new criterion, warranting future studies of this important construct in substance use disorders.

Hasin DS; Fenton MC; Beseler C; Park JY; Wall MM

2012-04-01

312

COPD: Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

... Resources 3 Intramural Research 4 Home » Educational Campaigns » COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) » Learn More About COPD » Symptoms Quick Links: E-Newsletter | Newsroom | COPD Contact ...

313

The draft genome and transcriptome of Cannabis sativa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cannabis sativa has been cultivated throughout human history as a source of fiber, oil and food, and for its medicinal and intoxicating properties. Selective breeding has produced cannabis plants for specific uses, including high-potency marijuana strains and hemp cultivars for fiber and seed production. The molecular biology underlying cannabinoid biosynthesis and other traits of interest is largely unexplored. RESULTS: We sequenced genomic DNA and RNA from the marijuana strain Purple Kush using shortread approaches. We report a draft haploid genome sequence of 534 Mb and a transcriptome of 30,000 genes. Comparison of the transcriptome of Purple Kush with that of the hemp cultivar 'Finola' revealed that many genes encoding proteins involved in cannabinoid and precursor pathways are more highly expressed in Purple Kush than in 'Finola'. The exclusive occurrence of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase in the Purple Kush transcriptome, and its replacement by cannabidiolic acid synthase in 'Finola', may explain why the psychoactive cannabinoid ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is produced in marijuana but not in hemp. Resequencing the hemp cultivars 'Finola' and 'USO-31' showed little difference in gene copy numbers of cannabinoid pathway enzymes. However, single nucleotide variant analysis uncovered a relatively high level of variation among four cannabis types, and supported a separation of marijuana and hemp. CONCLUSIONS: The availability of the Cannabis sativa genome enables the study of a multifunctional plant that occupies a unique role in human culture. Its availability will aid the development of therapeutic marijuana strains with tailored cannabinoid profiles and provide a basis for the breeding of hemp with improved agronomic characteristics.

van Bakel H; Stout JM; Cote AG; Tallon CM; Sharpe AG; Hughes TR; Page JE

2011-01-01

314

Mortality following treatment for cannabis use disorders : predictors and causes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the study was to determine excess mortality associated with cannabis use disorders. Individuals entering treatment for cannabis use disorders were followed by use of Danish registers and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) estimated. Predictors of different causes of death were determined. A total of 6445 individuals were included and 142 deaths recorded during 26,584 person-years of follow-up. Mortality was predicted by age, comorbid use of opioids, and lifetime injection drug use. For different causes of death the SMRs were: accidents: 8.2 (95% CI 6.3-10.5), suicide: 5.3 (95% CI 3.3-7.9), homicide/violence: 3.8 (95% CI 1.5-7.9), and natural causes: 2.8 (95% CI 2.0-3.7). Following exclusion of those with secondary use of opioids, cocaine, amphetamine, or injection drug use, SMRs for all causes of death remained significantly elevated except for homicide/violence. The study underlines the need to address mortality risk associated with cannabis use disorders.

Arendt, Mikkel; Munk-JØrgensen, Povl

2013-01-01

315

The role of child protection in cannabis grow-operations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This unique social work research examined the rationale for child protection interventions with families found living in illegal cannabis grow operations, based on the assumption of risk in the presence of probable medical harm. METHODS: The study examined the household, family and individual characteristics of 181 children found living in cannabis grow operations in two regions in British Columbia, Canada. Data was collected on-site on the physical characteristics of the homes, the health characteristics of the children, and their prescription drug history. Comparison of prescription drug use was also made with a group of children from the same geographic areas. RESULTS: This study found that there was no significant difference between the health of the children living in cannabis grow operations and the comparison group of children, based on their prescription history and their reported health at the time. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study challenge contemporary child welfare approaches and have implications for both child protection social workers and the policymakers who develop frameworks for practice.

Douglas J; Sullivan R

2013-09-01

316

Cannabis and ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for weight loss?  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is one of the highest preventable causes of morbidity and mortality in the developed world [1]. It has been well known for a long time that exposure to cannabis produces an increase of appetite (a phenomenon referred to as the 'munchies'). This phenomenon led to an exploration of the role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of obesity and associated metabolic syndrome. This effort subsequently led to the development of a successful therapeutic approach for obesity that consisted of blocking the cannabinoid CB1 receptors using ligands such as Rimonabant in order to produce weight loss and improve metabolic profile [2]. Despite being efficacious, Rimonabant was associated with increased rates of depression and anxiety and therefore removed from the market. We recently discovered that the prevalence of obesity is paradoxically much lower in cannabis users as compared to non-users and that this difference is not accounted for by tobacco smoking status and is still present after adjusting for variables such as sex and age. Here, we propose that this effect is directly related to exposure to the ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) present in cannabis smoke. We therefore propose the seemingly paradoxical hypothesis that THC or a THC/cannabidiol combination drug may produce weight loss and may be a useful therapeutic for the treatment of obesity and its complications. PMID:23410498

Le Foll, Bernard; Trigo, Jose M; Sharkey, Keith A; Le Strat, Yann

2013-02-11

317

Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa/ Therapeutical aspects of compounds of the plant Cannabis sativa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids) have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible (more) mechanisms of action involved in the interaction between cannabinoid compounds and the biological receptors. So, from the therapeutical aspects presented in this work, we intended to show the evolution of the Cannabis sativa research and the possible medicinal use of cannabinoid compounds.

Honório, Káthia Maria; Arroio, Agnaldo; Silva, Albérico Borges Ferreira da

2006-04-01

318

Single doses of THC and cocaine decrease proficiency of impulse control in heavy cannabis users.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cannabis is the most popular drug used in the European Union, closely followed by cocaine. Whereas cannabis has been shown to impair neurocognitive function in occasional cannabis users, such impairments appear less prominent in heavy users, possibly as a result of tolerance. The present study was designed to assess whether the impairing effects of THC in heavy cannabis users would present in a wide range of neuropsychological functions or selectively pertain to specific performance domains. A second aim was to assess the acute effects of cocaine on neurocognitive functions of heavy cannabis users. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Heavy cannabis users, who had a history of cocaine use (N=61), participated in a double-blind, placebo controlled, 3-way crossover study. Subjects received single doses of cocaine HCl 300 mg, cannabis (THC 300 ?g/kg) and placebo and completed a number of tests measuring impulse control and psychomotor function. KEY RESULTS: Results showed that single doses of cannabis impaired psychomotor function and increased response errors during impulsivity tasks. Single doses of cocaine improved psychomotor function and decreased response time in impulsivity tasks at a cost of making more errors. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Heavy cannabis users display impairments in a broad range of neuropsychological domains during THC intoxication. Impairments observed in psychomotor tasks, but not in impulsivity tasks, appeared smaller in magnitude as compared to those previously reported in occasional cannabis users. Heavy cannabis users were sensitive to the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of cocaine on psychomotor function and impulsivity respectively. The?reduction in proficiency in impulse control may put drug users at increased risk of repeated drug use.

van Wel JH; Kuypers KP; Theunissen EL; Toennes SW; Spronk DB; Verkes RJ; Ramaekers JG

2013-09-01

319

Design paper: The CapOpus trial: a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial of specialized addiction treatment versus treatment as usual for young patients with cannabis abuse and psychosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: A number of studies indicate a link between cannabis-use and psychosis as well as more severe psychosis in those with existing psychotic disorders. There is currently insufficient evidence to decide the optimal way to treat cannabis abuse among patients with psychosis. OBJECTIVES: The major objective for the CapOpus trial is to evaluate the additional effect on cannabis abuse of a specialized addiction treatment program adding group treatment and motivational interviewing to treatment as usual. DESIGN: The trial is designed as a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial. Patients are primarily recruited through early-psychosis detection teams, community mental health centers, and assertive community treatment teams. Patients are randomized to one of two treatment arms, both lasting six months: 1) specialized addiction treatment plus treatment as usual or 2) treatment as usual. The specialized addiction treatment is manualized and consists of both individual and group-based motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy, and incorporates both the family and the case manager of the patient.The primary outcome measure will be changes in amount of cannabis consumption over time. Other outcome measures will be psychosis symptoms, cognitive functioning, quality of life, social functioning, and cost-benefit analyses. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00484302.

HjorthØj, Carsten; Fohlmann, Allan

2008-01-01

320

Design paper: The CapOpus trial: A randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial of specialized addiction treatment versus treatment as usual for young patients with cannabis abuse and psychosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies indicate a link between cannabis-use and psychosis as well as more severe psychosis in those with existing psychotic disorders. There is currently insufficient evidence to decide the optimal way to treat cannabis abuse among patients with psychosis. Objectives The major objective for the CapOpus trial is to evaluate the additional effect on cannabis abuse of a specialized addiction treatment program adding group treatment and motivational interviewing to treatment as usual. Design The trial is designed as a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial. Patients are primarily recruited through early-psychosis detection teams, community mental health centers, and assertive community treatment teams. Patients are randomized to one of two treatment arms, both lasting six months: 1) specialized addiction treatment plus treatment as usual or 2) treatment as usual. The specialized addiction treatment is manualized and consists of both individual and group-based motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy, and incorporates both the family and the case manager of the patient. The primary outcome measure will be changes in amount of cannabis consumption over time. Other outcome measures will be psychosis symptoms, cognitive functioning, quality of life, social functioning, and cost-benefit analyses. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00484302.

Hjorthøj Carsten; Fohlmann Allan; Larsen Anne-Mette; Madsen Mette TR; Vesterager Lone; Gluud Christian; Arendt Mikkel C; Nordentoft Merete

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Cannabis-based medicines--GW pharmaceuticals: high CBD, high THC, medicinal cannabis--GW pharmaceuticals, THC:CBD.  

Science.gov (United States)

GW Pharmaceuticals is undertaking a major research programme in the UK to develop and market distinct cannabis-based prescription medicines [THC:CBD, High THC, High CBD] in a range of medical conditions. The cannabis for this programme is grown in a secret location in the UK. It is expected that the product will be marketed in the US in late 2003. GW's cannabis-based products include selected phytocannabinoids from cannabis plants, including D9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). The company is investigating their use in three delivery systems, including sublingual spray, sublingual tablet and inhaled (but not smoked) dosage forms. The technology is protected by patent applications. Four different formulations are currently being investigated, including High THC, THC:CBD (narrow ratio), THC:CBD (broad ratio) and High CBD. GW is also developing a specialist security technology that will be incorporated in all its drug delivery systems. This technology allows for the recording and remote monitoring of patient usage to prevent any potential abuse of its cannabis-based medicines. GW plans to enter into agreements with other companies following phase III development, to secure the best commercialisation terms for its cannabis-based medicines. In June 2003, GW announced that exclusive commercialisation rights for the drug in the UK had been licensed to Bayer AG. The drug will be marketed under the Sativex brand name. This agreement also provides Bayer with an option to expand their license to include the European Union and certain world markets. GW was granted a clinical trial exemption certificate by the Medicines Control Agency to conduct clinical studies with cannabis-based medicines in the UK. The exemption includes investigations in the relief of pain of neurological origin and defects of neurological function in the following indications: multiple sclerosis (MS), spinal cord injury, peripheral nerve injury, central nervous system damage, neuroinvasive cancer, dystonias, cerebral vascular accident and spina bifida, as well as for the relief of pain and inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis and also pain relief in brachial plexus injury. The UK Government stated that it would be willing to amend the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 to permit the introduction of a cannabis-based medicine. GW stated in its 2002 Annual Report that it was currently conducting five phase III trials of its cannabis derivatives, including a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a sublingual spray containing High THC in more than 100 patients with cancer pain in the UK. Also included is a phase III trial of THC:CBD (narrow ratio) being conducted in patients with severe pain due to brachial plexus injury, as are two more phase III trials of THC:CBD (narrow ratio) targeting spasticity and bladder dysfunction in multiple sclerosis patients. Another phase III trial of THC:CBD (narrow ratio) in patients with spinal cord injury is also being conducted. Results from the trials are expected during 2003. Three additional trials are also in the early stages of planning. These trials include a phase I trial of THC:CBD (broad ratio) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, a phase I trial of High CBD in patients with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, and a preclinical trial of High CBD in various CNS disorders (including epilepsy, stroke and head injury). GW Pharmaceuticals submitted an application for approval of cannabis-based medicines to UK regulatory authorities in March 2003. Originally GW hoped to market cannabis-based prescription medicines by 2004, but is now planning for a launch in the UK towards the end of 2003. Several trials for GW's cannabis derivatives have also been completed, including four randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III clinical trials conducted in the UK. The trials were initiated by GW in April 2002, to investigate the use of a sublingual spray containing THC:CBD (narrow ratio) in the following medical conditions: pain in spinal cord injury, pain and sleep in MS and spinal cord injury, neuro

2003-01-01

322

21 CFR 1308.35 - Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom...SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Cannabis Plant Material, and Products Made Therefrom... § 1308.35 Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made...

2010-04-01

323

Characteristics and Predictors of Health Problems from Use among High-Frequency Cannabis Users in a Canadian University Student Population  

Science.gov (United States)

|Aims: Assess key cannabis use, risk and outcome characteristics among high-frequency cannabis users within a university student sample in Toronto, Canada. Methods: N = 134 active universities students (ages of 18-28) using cannabis at least three times per week were recruited by mass advertisement, telephone-screened and anonymously assessed by…

Fischer, Benedikt; Dawe, Meghan; Mcguire, Fraser; Shuper, Paul A; Jones, Wayne; Rudzinski, Katherine; Rehm, Jurgen

2012-01-01

324

Variables Related to Pre-Service Cannabis Use in a Sample of Air Force Enlistees.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sample of 4564 self-admitted cannabis users was compared with a sample of airmen who had no known record of drug abuse. This study indicates that there is a very strong likelihood for cannabis users to use other drugs. There are relationships between ca...

A. E. Michelson B. M. Vitola C. J. Mullins

1973-01-01

325

[Managing the use of cannabis in a young population in primary care].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cannabis is currently the most frequently used illicit drug substance in developed societies, just behind legal alcohol and tobacco. In this article clinical implications concerning cannabis use, particularly in young people, are approached. It also points out ways to make a correct diagnosis in Primary Care, with special emphasis on prevention and treatment. This is the first level of care in most cases.

Madoz-Gúrpide A; Ochoa Mangado E

2011-06-01

326

Cannabis use and depression: a longitudinal study of a national cohort of Swedish conscripts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background While there is increasing evidence on the association between cannabis use and psychotic outcomes, it is still unclear whether this also applies to depression. We aim to assess whether risk of depression and other affective outcomes is increased among cannabis us...

Manrique-Garcia Edison; Zammit Stanley; Dalman Christina; Hemmingsson Tomas; Allebeck Peter

327

Cannabis use and depression: a longitudinal study of a national cohort of Swedish conscripts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: While there is increasing evidence on the association between cannabis use and psychotic outcomes, it is still unclear whether this also applies to depression. We aim to assess whether risk of depression and other affective outcomes is increased among cannabis users. METHODS: A cohort study of 45 087 Swedish men with data on cannabis use at ages 18-20. Diagnoses of unipolar disorder, bipolar disorder, affective psychosis and schizoaffective disorder were identified from inpatient care records over a 35-year follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to assess the hazard ratio (HR) of developing these disorders in relation to cannabis exposure. RESULTS: Only subjects with the highest level of cannabis use had an increased crude hazard ratio for depression (HR 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-2.2), but the association disappeared after adjustment for confounders. There was a strong graded association between cannabis use and schizoaffective disorder, even after control for confounders, although the numbers were small (HR 7.4, 95% CI, 1.0-54.3). CONCLUSION: We did not find evidence for an increased risk of depression among those who used cannabis. Our finding of an increased risk of schizoaffective disorder is consistent with previous findings on the relation between cannabis use and psychosis.

Manrique-Garcia E; Zammit S; Dalman C; Hemmingsson T; Allebeck P

2012-01-01

328

Hypercholesterolemic Effect of Drug-Type Cannabis sativa L. Seed (Marijuana Seed) in Guinea Pig  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cannabis sativa L. has two drug and nondrug varieties. Nondrug varieties of Cannabis are hemp but drug varieties commonly referred to as marijuana. Marijuana is considered nutritional and narcotic plant. Marijuana has not been studied extensively for its nutritional potential in recen...

Hossein Hayatghaibi; Isaac Karimi

329

First systematic evaluation of the potency of Cannabis sativa plants grown in Albania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis products (marijuana, hashish, cannabis oil) are the most frequently abused illegal substances worldwide. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa plant, whereas cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) are other major but no psychoactive constituents. Many studies have already been carried out on these compounds and chemical research was encouraged due to the legal implications concerning the misuse of marijuana. The aim of this study was to determine THC, CBD and CBN in a significant number of cannabis samples of Albanian origin, where cannabis is the most frequently used drug of abuse, in order to evaluate and classify them according to their cannabinoid composition. A GC-MS method was used, in order to assay cannabinoid content of hemp samples harvested at different maturation degree levels during the summer months and grown in different areas of Albania. This method can also be used for the determination of plant phenotype, the evaluation of psychoactive potency and the control of material quality. The highest cannabinoid concentrations were found in the flowers of cannabis. The THC concentrations in different locations of Albania ranged from 1.07 to 12.13%. The influence of environmental conditions on cannabinoid content is discussed. The cannabinoid content of cannabis plants were used for their profiling, and it was used for their classification, according to their geographical origin. The determined concentrations justify the fact that Albania is an area where cannabis is extensively cultivated for illegal purposes. PMID:22608266

Bruci, Zana; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Nikolaou, Panagiota; Pazari, Ermira; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Vyshka, Gentian

2012-05-18

330

Social Skills as Precursors of Cannabis Use in Young Adolescents: A Trails Study  

Science.gov (United States)

|Social skills (cooperation, assertion, and self-control) were assessed by teachers for a longitudinal cohort of (pre)adolescents, with measurements at average ages 11.1 (baseline) and 16.3 years (follow-up). Prospective associations with participants' self-reported use of cannabis, (age of) onset of cannabis use, and frequency of use at follow-up…

Griffith-Lendering, Merel F. H.; Huijbregts, Stephan C. J.; Huizink, Anja C.; Ormel, Hans; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Swaab, Hanna

2011-01-01

331

Effect of Long-Term Cannabis Use on Axonal Fibre Connectivity  

Science.gov (United States)

|Cannabis use typically begins during adolescence and early adulthood, a period when cannabinoid receptors are still abundant in white matter pathways across the brain. However, few studies to date have explored the impact of regular cannabis use on white matter structure, with no previous studies examining its impact on axonal connectivity. The…

Zalesky, Andrew; Solowij, Nadia; Yucel, Murat; Lubman, Dan I.; Takagi, Michael; Harding, Ian H.; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Wang, Ruopeng; Searle, Karissa; Pantelis, Christos; Seal, Marc

2012-01-01

332

First systematic evaluation of the potency of Cannabis sativa plants grown in Albania.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cannabis products (marijuana, hashish, cannabis oil) are the most frequently abused illegal substances worldwide. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa plant, whereas cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) are other major but no psychoactive constituents. Many studies have already been carried out on these compounds and chemical research was encouraged due to the legal implications concerning the misuse of marijuana. The aim of this study was to determine THC, CBD and CBN in a significant number of cannabis samples of Albanian origin, where cannabis is the most frequently used drug of abuse, in order to evaluate and classify them according to their cannabinoid composition. A GC-MS method was used, in order to assay cannabinoid content of hemp samples harvested at different maturation degree levels during the summer months and grown in different areas of Albania. This method can also be used for the determination of plant phenotype, the evaluation of psychoactive potency and the control of material quality. The highest cannabinoid concentrations were found in the flowers of cannabis. The THC concentrations in different locations of Albania ranged from 1.07 to 12.13%. The influence of environmental conditions on cannabinoid content is discussed. The cannabinoid content of cannabis plants were used for their profiling, and it was used for their classification, according to their geographical origin. The determined concentrations justify the fact that Albania is an area where cannabis is extensively cultivated for illegal purposes.

Bruci Z; Papoutsis I; Athanaselis S; Nikolaou P; Pazari E; Spiliopoulou C; Vyshka G

2012-10-01

333

Individuals seeking treatment for cannabis-related problems in Ontario: demographic and treatment profile.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report on the extent of cannabis treatment-seeking within an addiction treatment system in Canada. Data represent all new admissions in fiscal year 2000 to substance abuse treatment agencies in the province of Ontario (n = 47,995). Analyses examine the prevalence of cannabis problems by demographic and treatment characteristics and provide contrasts with other client subgroups (alcohol, cocaine, and opiates). Clients reporting cannabis as their primary problem substance (13%) were more likely to be male, single, under age 20 and in high school. Legal system involvement and school- or family-based pressure to enter treatment were commonly reported, but less so by older cannabis clients. The distinctiveness of these clients within the larger treatment system raises questions of the relevance to cannabis clients of interventions designed for other substance-abusing populations.

Urbanoski KA; Strike CJ; Rush BR

2005-01-01

334

Cannabinoid content of cannabis grown on the Danish island of Bornholm.  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis in 1983 of representative samples taken from fruiting tops of seized cannabis plants illicitly grown in 19 localities on the Danish island of Bornholm showed that the average (mean) content of the total tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) + delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid) was approximately 1.55 per cent, ranging from 0.1 to 4.2 per cent. There was no significant difference in the total THC content of cannabis plants from the Danish island of Bornholm and the content found by other authors in cannabis plants grown during the period from 1968 to 1972 in Afghanistan, India, Mexico, South Africa and Thailand. However, studies carried out on fresh cannabis seized on entry into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland during the period 1975-1981 showed a larger content of THC (ranging from 2.3 to 4.9 per cent) than in cannabis plants from Bornholm. PMID:3011164

Felby, S; Nielsen, E

335

Cannabinoid content of cannabis grown on the Danish island of Bornholm.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The analysis in 1983 of representative samples taken from fruiting tops of seized cannabis plants illicitly grown in 19 localities on the Danish island of Bornholm showed that the average (mean) content of the total tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) + delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid) was approximately 1.55 per cent, ranging from 0.1 to 4.2 per cent. There was no significant difference in the total THC content of cannabis plants from the Danish island of Bornholm and the content found by other authors in cannabis plants grown during the period from 1968 to 1972 in Afghanistan, India, Mexico, South Africa and Thailand. However, studies carried out on fresh cannabis seized on entry into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland during the period 1975-1981 showed a larger content of THC (ranging from 2.3 to 4.9 per cent) than in cannabis plants from Bornholm.

Felby S; Nielsen E

1985-10-01

336

COPD: Symptoms  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Services National Institutes of Health Contact Us Get Email Alerts Font Size Accessible Search Form Advanced Search ... Learn More Breathe Better® campaign and lung research. Email Address Print this page Symptoms Transcript: HTML Download ...

337

COPD: Symptoms  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Resources 3 Intramural Research 4 Home » Educational Campaigns » COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) » Learn More About COPD » Symptoms Quick Links: E-Newsletter | Newsroom | COPD Contact ...

338

COPD: Symptoms  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Disease) » Learn More About COPD » Symptoms Quick Links: E-Newsletter | Newsroom | COPD Contact Information | Send COPD E-Cards | Subcontractors COPD Home Learn More About COPD ...

339

Perfil de consumo de cocaína, cannabis y opiáceos en el laboratorio toxicológico CENATOXA Profile of consumption of cocaine, cannabis and opiates in the toxicology laboratory CENATOXA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Con el propósito de conocer, en la población que concurre al laboratorio del CENATOXA, qué droga de abuso se consume más, cuál es la modalidad de consumo y el perfil de la consulta, se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de 2.635 casos a los que durante el período 1995-2006 se les solicitó investigación en orina de cannabis, cocaína y opiáceos. Los análisis se realizaron utilizando pruebas inmunológicas, cromatografía en capa delgada normalizada y cromatografía gaseosa-espectrometría de masas. El 20% de las muestras (n=529) resultaron positivas, correspondiendo el 50,66% a cannabis, el 37,43% a cocaína, el 2,08% a opiáceos y el 9,83% a la combinación cannabis-cocaína. Los varones constituyeron el 62% de los casos positivos. El mayor consumo de cannabis se observó entre los 11 y 30 años, el de cocaína entre los 21 y 40 años y la combinación de ambas drogas entre los 11 y 30 años. Los motivos de la solicitud de análisis correspondieron mayoritariamente y en proporciones similares al control de la adicción (31,1%) y a la sospecha de consumo (29,67%). El cannabis fue la droga ilegal más usada, predominó el monoconsumo, los principales usuarios fueron varones y los más comprometidos fueron los menores de 30 años.A study was conducted in order to know what drugs of abuse are most commonly consumed by the population that comes to CENATOXA, as well as which the consumption patterns and consultation profiles are. A retrospective study was conducted in 2,635 cases for which, during 1995 to 2006, a toxicologycal urine analysis of cocaine, cannabis and opiates was requested. The analytical methodologies applied were immunoassay tests, standardized thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the studied sample (n=529), 20% were positive: 50.66% was due to cannabis, 37.43% to cocaine, 2.08% to opiates and 9.83% to combination of cannabis-cocaine. Sixty-two per cent of positive cases were male subjects, and the highest consumption of cannabis was seen in the 11 to 30 year-old age group; that of cocaine was seen in the 21 to 40 year-old age group and the combination of cannabis-cocaine in the 11 to 30 year-old group. In assessing the reason for test request a similar predominance of addiction control (31.1%) and drug abuse suspicion (29.67%) was found. Cannabis is the drug of abuse most commonly consumed; mono consumption is usual in this population and drug consumption is higher in males and people under 30 years old.

Patricia Noemí Quiroga; Isabel Yohena; Cecilia Mariel Contartese; Herme González; Clara Magdalena López

2008-01-01

340

Around-the-clock oral THC effects on sleep in male chronic daily cannabis smokers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) promotes sleep in animals; clinical use of THC is associated with somnolence. Human laboratory studies of oral THC have not shown consistent effects on sleep. We prospectively evaluated self-reported sleep parameters during controlled oral THC administration to research volunteers. METHODS: Thirteen male chronic daily cannabis smokers (mean?±?SD age 24.6±?3.7 years, self-reported smoking frequency of 5.5?±?5.9 (range 1-24) joint-equivalents daily at study entry) were administered oral THC doses (20?mg) around-the-clock for 7 days (40-120?mg daily) starting the afternoon after admission. The St. Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire was completed every morning. Plasma THC and 11-OH-THC (active metabolite) concentrations were measured in venous blood samples collected every evening. Changes in sleep characteristics over time and associations between sleep characteristics and plasma cannabinoid concentrations were evaluated with repeated measures mixed linear regression. RESULTS: Higher evening THC and 11-OH-THC concentrations were significantly associated with shorter sleep latency, less difficulty falling asleep, and more daytime sleep the following day. In contrast, the duration of calculated and self-reported nighttime sleep decreased slightly (3.54 and 5.34 minutes per night, respectively) but significantly during the study. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that tolerance to the somnolent effects of THC may have occurred, but results should be considered preliminary due to design limitations. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: Somnolence from oral THC may dissipate with chronic, high-dose use. This has implications for patients who may take chronic oral THC for medicinal purposes, including cannabis dependence treatment. (Am J Addict 2013;22:510-514).

Gorelick DA; Goodwin RS; Schwilke E; Schroeder JR; Schwope DM; Kelly DL; Ortemann-Renon C; Bonnet D; Huestis MA

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
341

Multiple risk factor model predicting cannabis use and use disorders: a longitudinal study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Identification of factors associated with the initiation and continuation of cannabis use is important for any preventive work. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the early life course predictors of cannabis use and the development of cannabis use disorder in early adulthood. METHODS: Data from Mater Hospital and University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), a population-based prospective birth cohort study. Participants were a cohort of 2,493 young adults who completed the life-time version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-computerized version (CIDI-Auto) at the 21-year follow-up, and for whom data were available from previous follow-ups. Ever use and age at first use of cannabis was assessed via self-report, and cannabis use disorder was measured based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual version IV (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria. Life course predictors were obtained between the child's birth and the 14-year follow-up. RESULTS: Of 2,493 young adults, 51.4% reported having ever used cannabis, and 21.1% of young adults were classified as having ever had a cannabis use disorder. Child's gender, changes in maternal marital status, maternal smoking, child school performance, childhood sexual abuse, early adolescence smoking and alcohol consumption, and adolescent aggression/delinquency were strongly associated with young adult cannabis use and use disorder. Exposure to multiple risk factors was associated with greater risk of outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: There are a number of strong predictors of cannabis use identified in this study. They suggest that the social context within which children are reared has a major influence on cannabis use and use disorders.

Hayatbakhsh MR; Najman JM; Bor W; O'Callaghan MJ; Williams GM

2009-01-01

342

Chemotaxonomic features associated with flavonoids of cannabinoid-free cannabis (Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa L.) in relation to hops (Humulus lupulus L.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The major flavonoids present in the leaves and flowers of the cannabinoid-free cannabis (Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa L.) cultivars Felina and Futura are orientin (1), vitexin (2), luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronide (3), and apigenin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronide (4), while prenylated flavonoids, to which the potent estrogenicity of hops (Humilus lupulus L.) is associated, are absent. The different composition of flavonoids has chemotaxonomic value.

Vanhoenacker G; Van Rompaey P; De Keukeleire D; Sandra P

2002-02-01

343

Making residential cannabis growing operations actionable: a critical policy analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In 2006, the British Columbia (BC) government passed amendments to its Safety Standards Act. These amendments permit the routine disclosure of electrical usage information from electrical producers to BC's municipalities, ostensibly to identify and eradicate residential cannabis growing operations (grow ops). These amendments originated in a pilot project in Surrey, BC, known as the electrical and fire safety inspection initiative (EFSI), which drew together police, firefighters and others, to identify grow ops through the process of municipal electrical inspections. METHODS: This paper draws on narrative analysis to critically explore how the report of the EFSI Surrey pilot project uses a series of linked claims to generate interpretative change in the definition of the problem of grow ops. This analysis also shows how claims about grow ops are constructed and gain their potency through links with other social problems, persons, and practices. RESULTS: Though the report of the EFSI project is a prohibitionist text replete with stock characters and themes from the history of Canadian drug policy, the problem of residential cannabis cultivation is made actionable by establishing grow operators as "superdeviants" constructed both as dangerous outsiders and as risks to a host of public safety concerns. These claims are then linked to the notion of an overwhelmed criminal justice system that establishes a "crisis" that justifies extraordinary methods of social control outside the due process of the criminal justice system. CONCLUSIONS: Construction of all cannabis cultivators as "dangerous" disavows other possibilities and shores up neo-liberal practices of government that draw on multi-partner initiatives to implement extraordinary methods of social control not necessarily subject to public accountability.

Carter C

2009-07-01

344

Impact of depressive symptoms on future alcohol use in patients with co-occurring bipolar disorder and alcohol dependence: a prospective analysis in an 8-week randomized controlled trial of acamprosate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorders and alcohol use disorders commonly co-occur, yet little is known about the proximal impact of bipolar symptoms on alcohol use in patients with this comorbidity. The present study examined the impact of depressive symptoms and alcohol craving on proximal alcohol use in patients with co-occurring bipolar disorder and alcohol dependence. METHODS: Data were collected during an 8-week randomized controlled trial of acamprosate for individuals with co-occurring bipolar disorder and alcohol dependence (n = 30). Depressive symptoms and alcohol craving were assessed biweekly using the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS), respectively. Daily alcohol use data were available via administration of the Time-line Follow-back interview at baseline and at subsequent weekly study visits. Correlational analyses and hidden Markov modeling were used to examine the prospective relationships between depressive symptoms, alcohol craving, and alcohol use. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms and alcohol craving were significantly correlated with proximal (i.e., 1 week later) alcohol use across a variety of alcohol consumption summary measures. In hidden Markov models, depressive symptoms (OR = 1.3, 95% credible interval = [1.1, 1.5]) and alcohol craving (OR = 1.6, 95% credible interval = [1.4, 1.9]) significantly predicted transitioning from a light to a heavy drinking state, or remaining in a heavy drinking state. CONCLUSIONS: The results from the present study suggest that depressive symptoms and alcohol craving increase proximal risk for alcohol use in individuals with co-occurring bipolar and alcohol use disorders.

Prisciandaro JJ; DeSantis SM; Chiuzan C; Brown DG; Brady KT; Tolliver BK

2012-03-01

345

Problematic alcohol and cannabis use among young adults: the roles of depression and discomfort and distress tolerance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Problematic substance use is associated with depression. Clarifying the relationship between substance use and depression remains an important research goal, with implications for prevention and treatment. Individual differences in the ability to tolerate negative physical and emotional sensations were hypothesized to play a role in substance use behaviors among depressed individuals. The present study investigated the roles of discomfort and distress tolerance in the relationship between alcohol and cannabis problems and depression among undergraduates (N=265). Consistent with other reports, depression was correlated with alcohol and cannabis problems. As predicated, distress tolerance mediated the relationships between depression and alcohol and cannabis problems. Interestingly, discomfort intolerance moderated the relationship between depression and cannabis problems such that depressed individuals with high discomfort tolerance were most vulnerable to cannabis problems. These data suggest that distress intolerance may at least partially account for alcohol and cannabis problems among depressed young adults whereas discomfort intolerance may actually serve a protective role in the development of cannabis problems.

Buckner JD; Keough ME; Schmidt NB

2007-09-01

346

Detecting psychological symptoms related to substance use among Indigenous Australians.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Substance misuse and psychological comorbidities can be common and may impact negatively on treatment outcomes. However, without appropriate tools, detecting psychological symptoms for Indigenous people can be difficult. This study assessed the appropriateness of an eight-item screening tool (based on Strong Souls) for measuring any relationships between substance use and psychiatric symptoms for Indigenous Australians. DESIGN AND METHODS: Indigenous Australians attending secondary or tertiary education institutions or substance use rehabilitation facilities in the Northern Territory (n = 407; mean age = 27.82) were assessed for depressive, anxiety and psychotic symptoms. The group represented 45 language groups from 95 urban and remote communities. English comprehension was measured on a scale from 0 (no understanding) to 10 (excellent understanding; M = 7.99, SD = 2.31). Ordinal regression analyses examined any associations between demographic and substance use factors and psychological symptoms. RESULTS: Compared with non-users, current cannabis users were significantly more likely [odds ratios (ORs) = 2.2-4.4] to experience depressive or anxiety symptoms. Frequent cannabis users experienced more symptoms than occasional users. Prior-inhalant users were more likely to feel lonely (OR = 2.18) compared with non-inhalant users. Frequent alcohol users were less likely (OR = 0.44) to feel sad than non-users. These results are interpreted with respect to previous research and methodological limitations. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms of depression or anxiety may be common for individuals seeking treatment for substance misuse and with minor improvement, these eight-items may provide a useful screen for psychological symptoms in Indigenous Australians.

Dingwall KM; Cairney S

2011-01-01

347

Metabolite analysis of Cannabis sativa L. by NMR spectroscopy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

NMR-based metabolomics is an analytical platform, which has been used to classify and analyze Cannabis sativa L. cell suspension cultures and plants. Diverse groups of primary and secondary metabolites were identified by comparing NMR data with reference compounds and/or by structure elucidation using ¹H-NMR, J-resolved, ¹H-¹H COSY, and ¹H-¹³C HMBC spectroscopy. The direct extraction and the extraction by indirect fractionation are two suitable methods for the C. sativa sample preparation. Quantitative analyses could be performed without requiring fractionation or isolation procedures.

Flores-Sanchez IJ; Choi YH; Verpoorte R

2012-01-01

348

Complete sequence of a cryptic virus from hemp (Cannabis sativa).  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemp (Cannabis sativa) was found to be a useful propagation host for hop latent virus, a carlavirus. However, when virus preparations were analysed by electron microscopy, along with the expected filamentous particles, spherical particles with a diameter of around 34 nm were found. RNA from virus preparations was purified, and cDNA was prepared and cloned. Sequence information was used to search databases, and the greatest similarity was found with Primula malacoides virus 1, a putative new member of the genus Partitivirus. The full sequences of RNA 1 and RNA 2 of this new hemp cryptic virus were obtained. PMID:22075921

Ziegler, Angelika; Matoušek, Jaroslav; Steger, Gerhard; Schubert, Jörg

2011-11-11

349

Metabolite analysis of Cannabis sativa L. by NMR spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

NMR-based metabolomics is an analytical platform, which has been used to classify and analyze Cannabis sativa L. cell suspension cultures and plants. Diverse groups of primary and secondary metabolites were identified by comparing NMR data with reference compounds and/or by structure elucidation using ¹H-NMR, J-resolved, ¹H-¹H COSY, and ¹H-¹³C HMBC spectroscopy. The direct extraction and the extraction by indirect fractionation are two suitable methods for the C. sativa sample preparation. Quantitative analyses could be performed without requiring fractionation or isolation procedures. PMID:22131005

Flores-Sanchez, Isvett Josefina; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert

2012-01-01

350

Complete sequence of a cryptic virus from hemp (Cannabis sativa).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hemp (Cannabis sativa) was found to be a useful propagation host for hop latent virus, a carlavirus. However, when virus preparations were analysed by electron microscopy, along with the expected filamentous particles, spherical particles with a diameter of around 34 nm were found. RNA from virus preparations was purified, and cDNA was prepared and cloned. Sequence information was used to search databases, and the greatest similarity was found with Primula malacoides virus 1, a putative new member of the genus Partitivirus. The full sequences of RNA 1 and RNA 2 of this new hemp cryptic virus were obtained.

Ziegler A; Matoušek J; Steger G; Schubert J

2012-02-01

351

Cannabis use is associated with increased CCL11 plasma levels in young healthy volunteers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis is a widely used recreational drug. Its effect on human health and psychosis remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to explore the possibility that cannabis use influenced CCL11 plasma levels. Increased CCL11 chemokine has been reported in schizophrenia and cannabis is a known trigger of schizophrenia. Additionally, plasma levels of the chemokine CCL11 have recently been shown to increase with age and with cognitive deficits and hippocampal neurogenesis. For this study, a total of 87 healthy volunteers (68% men, age range 18-35 years) completed the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire that included information on sociodemographic and morphometric data and provided a blood sample for CCL11 measurement. 'Current users' of cannabis (n=18) had significantly higher CCL11 plasma levels compared to 'past users' (n=33) and 'never users' (n=36) [F(3,84)=3.649; p=0.030]. The latter two groups had similar CCL11 levels. Higher CCL11 plasma levels could not be attributed to gender, age, body mass index, physical activity or use of other legal/illegal drugs. These results suggest that cannabis use increases CCL11 plasma levels and the effects are reversible when cannabis use ceases. PMID:23820464

Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Scoriels, Linda; Theegala, Swathi; Giro, Maria; Ozanne, Susan