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Cannabis dependence in the San Francisco Family Study: age of onset of use, DSM-IV symptoms, withdrawal, and heritability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States, yet the role of genetics in individual symptoms associated with cannabis use disorders has not been evaluated. The purpose of the present set of analyses was to describe the symptomatology and estimate the heritability of DSM-IV criteria/symptoms of cannabis dependence in a large sample of families. Participants were 2524 adults, participating in the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) Family Study of alcoholism. Se...

Ehlers, Cindy L.; Gizer, Ian R.; Vieten, Cassandra; Gilder, David A.; Stouffer, Gina M.; Lau, Philip; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C.

2010-01-01

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Prospective Assessment of Cannabis Withdrawal in Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence: A Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

A study to identify and assess the withdrawal symptoms in adolescents afflicted with cannabis dependence is conducted. Results conclude that withdrawal symptoms of cannabis were present in adolescents seeking treatment for this substance abuse.

Milin, Robert; Manion, Ian; Dare, Glenda; Walker, Selena

2008-01-01

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Pharmacological treatment of cannabis dependence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis is the most frequently used illegal psychoactive substance in the world. There is a significant increase in the number of treatment admissions for cannabis use disorders in the past few years, and the majority of cannabis-dependent individuals who enter treatment have difficulty in achieving and maintaining abstinence. Thus, there is increased need for medications that can be used to treat this population. So far, no medication has been shown broadly and consistently effective; none has been approved by any national regulatory authority. Medications studied have included those that alleviate symptoms of cannabis withdrawal (e.g., dysphoric mood, irritability),those that directly affect endogenous cannabinoid receptor function, and those that have shown efficacy in treatment of other drugs of abuse or psychiatric conditions. Buspirone is the only medication to date that has shown efficacy for cannabis dependence in a controlled clinical trial. Results from controlled human laboratory studies and small open-label clinical trials suggest that dronabinol, the COMT inhibitor entacapone, and lithium may warrant further study. Recent pre-clinical studies suggest the potential of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors such as URB597, endocannabinoid-metabolizing enzymes, and nicotinic alpha 7 receptor antagonists such as methyllycaconitine (MLA).Controlled clinical trials are needed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of these medications and to validate the laboratory models being used to study candidate medications. PMID:21524266

Weinstein, A M; Gorelick, David A

2011-01-01

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Negative consequences associated with dependence in daily cannabis users  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis is the most widely consumed illicit substance in America, with increasing rates of use. Some theorists tend to link frequency of use with cannabis dependence. Nevertheless, fewer than half of daily cannabis users meet DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence. This study seeks to determine whether the negative aspects associated with cannabis use can be explained by a proxy measure of dependence instead of by frequency of use. Results Over 2500 adult daily cannabis users completed an Internet survey consisting of measures of cannabis and other drug use, in addition to measures of commonly reported negative problems resulting from cannabis use. We compared those who met a proxy measure of DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence (N = 1111 to those who did not meet the criteria (N = 1770. Cannabis dependent subjects consumed greater amounts of cannabis, alcohol, and a variety of other drugs. They also had lower levels of motivation, happiness, and satisfaction with life, with higher levels of depression and respiratory symptoms. Conclusion Although all of our subjects reported daily use, only those meeting proxy criteria for cannabis dependence reported significant associated problems. Our data suggest that dependence need not arise from daily use, but consuming larger amounts of cannabis and other drugs undoubtedly increases problems.

Earleywine Mitch

2007-01-01

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Cannabis Withdrawal is Common among Treatment-Seeking Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence and Major Depression, and is Associated with Rapid Relapse to Dependence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently, reports have suggested that cannabis withdrawal occurs commonly in adults with cannabis dependence, though it is unclear whether this extends to those with comorbid depression or to comorbid adolescents. We hypothesized that cannabis withdrawal would be common among our sample of comorbid adolescents and young adults, and that the presence of cannabis withdrawal symptoms would be associated with a self-reported past history of rapid reinstatement of cannabis dependence symptoms (rap...

Cornelius, Jack R.; Chung, Tammy; Martin, Christopher; Wood, D. Scott; Clark, Duncan B.

2008-01-01

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Decreased respiratory symptoms in cannabis users who vaporize  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Cannabis smoking can create respiratory problems. Vaporizers heat cannabis to release active cannabinoids, but remain cool enough to avoid the smoke and toxins associated with combustion. Vaporized cannabis should create fewer respiratory symptoms than smoked cannabis. We examined self-reported respiratory symptoms in participants who ranged in cigarette and cannabis use. Data from a large Internet sample revealed that the use of a vaporizer predicted fewer respiratory symptoms even when age, sex, cigarette smoking, and amount of cannabis used were taken into account. Age, sex, cigarettes, and amount of cannabis also had significant effects. The number of cigarettes smoked and amount of cannabis used interacted to create worse respiratory problems. A significant interaction revealed that the impact of a vaporizer was larger as the amount of cannabis used increased. These data suggest that the safety of cannabis can increase with the use of a vaporizer. Regular users of joints, blunts, pipes, and water pipes might decrease respiratory symptoms by switching to a vaporizer

Barnwell Sara

2007-04-01

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Sintomas depressivos e uso de Cannabis em adolescentes / Depressive symptoms in young Cannabis users / Síntomas depresivos en adolescentes usuarios de Cannabis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A depressão é um dos transtornos psiquiátricos mais comuns na adolescência. Os quadros depressivos costumam apresentar elevadas taxas de comorbidades psiquiátricas, sendo freqüente o abuso de substâncias psicoativas. O artigo investiga a associação dos sintomas depressivos e o uso da cannabis. MÉTOD [...] O: Revisão sistemática, análise dos artigos indexados no Medline, PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science e Lilacs, entre 2000 e 2005, descritores: depressive symptoms, depressive, adolescence, teenager e cannabis. RESULTADOS: Revisados 36 artigos completos, resultando no estudo de 9 artigos, que tratam de sintomas depressivos ou depressão e o uso ou dependência de cannabis em adolescentes. Os estudos confirmam a associação entre sintomas depressivos e o uso de cannabis na adolescência, sendo esta associação mais freqüente no uso precoce e regular de cannabis. CONCLUSÃO: Os sintomas depressivos/depressão estão relacionados ao uso/abuso e dependência de cannabis na adolescência. A investigação clínica e os programas de prevenção devem abordar estes transtornos na adolescência. Abstract in spanish Este artículo busca investigar la asociación de los síntomas depresivos y el uso de cannabis en la adolescencia. MÉTODO: Ha sido realizado, a través de revisión sistemática, el análisis de los artículos indexados localizados en los sistemas Medline, PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science y Lilacs, entre [...] 2000 y 2005, utilizando los descriptores: depressive symptoms, depressive, adolescence, teenager y cannabis. RESULTADOS: La mayoría de los estudios confirma existir una asociación entre síntomas depresivos y el uso de cannabis en la adolescencia, cabe destacar que esta asociación es más frecuente en el uso precoz y regular de cañabais. CONCLUSIÓN: Los síntomas depresivos/Depresión están relacionados al uso/abuso y dependencia de cañabais en la adolescencia, siendo entonces importante que estas variables puedan ser investigadas en la práctica clínica como también en programas de prevención que aborden de forma simultánea estos síntomas/trastornos en este período de la vida. Abstract in english The association between depressive symptoms and cannabis use is investigated. Due to the fact that depression has been a common psyquiatric disorder in adolescence, depressive cases usually present high rates of psychiatric comorbidities and the abuse of psychoactive substances is frequent. Systemat [...] ic review, studies at PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science and Lilacs databases analyzed between 2000 and 2005 are discussed. Results show that nine out of the thirty-six studies discuss depression and cannabis use or addiction in adolescents. Whereas the association between depressive symptoms and the use of cannabis during adolescence is confirmed, it is more frequent in an early and continuous cannabis use. Research shows that depressive symptoms are related to cannabis use, abuse and dependence during adolescence. Abovementioned variables must be investigated in clinical practice and in prevention programs that simultaneously focus on these disorders.

Tânia Moraes Ramos, Andrade; Irani Iracema de Lima, Argimon.

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Sintomas depressivos e uso de Cannabis em adolescentes Síntomas depresivos en adolescentes usuarios de Cannabis Depressive symptoms in young Cannabis users  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A depressão é um dos transtornos psiquiátricos mais comuns na adolescência. Os quadros depressivos costumam apresentar elevadas taxas de comorbidades psiquiátricas, sendo freqüente o abuso de substâncias psicoativas. O artigo investiga a associação dos sintomas depressivos e o uso da cannabis. MÉTODO: Revisão sistemática, análise dos artigos indexados no Medline, PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science e Lilacs, entre 2000 e 2005, descritores: depressive symptoms, depressive, adolescence, teenager e cannabis. RESULTADOS: Revisados 36 artigos completos, resultando no estudo de 9 artigos, que tratam de sintomas depressivos ou depressão e o uso ou dependência de cannabis em adolescentes. Os estudos confirmam a associação entre sintomas depressivos e o uso de cannabis na adolescência, sendo esta associação mais freqüente no uso precoce e regular de cannabis. CONCLUSÃO: Os sintomas depressivos/depressão estão relacionados ao uso/abuso e dependência de cannabis na adolescência. A investigação clínica e os programas de prevenção devem abordar estes transtornos na adolescência.Este artículo busca investigar la asociación de los síntomas depresivos y el uso de cannabis en la adolescencia. MÉTODO: Ha sido realizado, a través de revisión sistemática, el análisis de los artículos indexados localizados en los sistemas Medline, PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science y Lilacs, entre 2000 y 2005, utilizando los descriptores: depressive symptoms, depressive, adolescence, teenager y cannabis. RESULTADOS: La mayoría de los estudios confirma existir una asociación entre síntomas depresivos y el uso de cannabis en la adolescencia, cabe destacar que esta asociación es más frecuente en el uso precoz y regular de cañabais. CONCLUSIÓN: Los síntomas depresivos/Depresión están relacionados al uso/abuso y dependencia de cañabais en la adolescencia, siendo entonces importante que estas variables puedan ser investigadas en la práctica clínica como también en programas de prevención que aborden de forma simultánea estos síntomas/trastornos en este período de la vida.The association between depressive symptoms and cannabis use is investigated. Due to the fact that depression has been a common psyquiatric disorder in adolescence, depressive cases usually present high rates of psychiatric comorbidities and the abuse of psychoactive substances is frequent. Systematic review, studies at PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science and Lilacs databases analyzed between 2000 and 2005 are discussed. Results show that nine out of the thirty-six studies discuss depression and cannabis use or addiction in adolescents. Whereas the association between depressive symptoms and the use of cannabis during adolescence is confirmed, it is more frequent in an early and continuous cannabis use. Research shows that depressive symptoms are related to cannabis use, abuse and dependence during adolescence. Abovementioned variables must be investigated in clinical practice and in prevention programs that simultaneously focus on these disorders.

Tânia Moraes Ramos Andrade

2008-09-01

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Cannabis use and HIV antiretroviral therapy adherence and HIV-related symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Occasional cannabis use has been associated with increased antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and relief of HIV symptoms, while heavy use has been associated with low ART adherence and negative psychological symptoms. The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences between non-cannabis use (NC), non-dependent cannabis use (C), and dependent use (CD) in terms of ART adherence and HIV symptoms/ART side effects. A cross-sectional sample of 180 HIV+ individuals (78.3 % male) completed measures of substance use and psychopathology, medication adherence, and HIV symptoms/ART side effects. Adherence was also measured via pill count, viral load, and CD4 count. Results indicated that the CD group reported lower adherence and greater HIV symptoms/ART side effects than the other two groups, with no differences observed between NC and C groups. There is a clinical need to address dependent cannabis use among those prescribed ART. Further examination is needed to ascertain the functions of cannabis use among individuals with HIV. PMID:23054178

Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Oser, Megan L; Bucossi, Meggan M; Trafton, Jodie A

2014-02-01

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Palmitoylethanolamide: from endogenous cannabimimetic substance to innovative medicine for the treatment of cannabis dependence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a fatty acid amide showing some pharmacodynamic similarities with ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the principal psychoactive compound present in the cannabis plant. Like ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol, PEA can produce a direct or indirect activation of cannabinoid receptors. Furthermore, it acts as an agonist at TRPV1 receptor. The hypothesis is that PEA has anti-craving effects in cannabis dependent patients, is efficacious in the treatment of withdrawal symptoms, produces a reduction of cannabis consumption and is effective in the prevention of cannabis induced neurotoxicity and neuro-psychiatric disorders. PMID:23896215

Coppola, M; Mondola, R

2013-10-01

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Cross-sectional and prospective relation of cannabis potency, dosing and smoking behaviour with cannabis dependence: an ecological study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Aims Increased delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations in cannabis may lead to higher THC exposure, cannabis dependence and treatment need, but users may also adapt the actual intake of THC through reduced inhalation of THC containing smoke (titration). We investigated whether consumers of stronger cannabis use less cannabis per joint or inhale less smoke than those using less potent cannabis and whether these factors predict cannabis dependence severity. Method...

Pol, P.; Liebregts, N.; Brunt, T.; Amsterdam, J.; Graaf, R.; Korf, D. J.; Brink, W. Den; Laar, M.

2014-01-01

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Pothead or pot smoker? a taxometric investigation of cannabis dependence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Taxometric methods were used to discern the latent structure of cannabis dependence. Such methods help determine if a construct is categorical or dimensional. Taxometric analyses (MAXEIG and MAMBAC were conducted on data from 1,474 cannabis-using respondents to the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC. Respondents answered questions assessing DSM-IV criteria for cannabis dependence. Results Both taxometric methods provided support for a dimensional structure of cannabis dependence. Conclusion Although the MAMBAC results were not entirely unequivocal, the majority of evidence favored a dimensional structure of cannabis dependence.

Earleywine Mitch

2006-08-01

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Dependent cannabis users at a music festival - prevalence and correlates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aim: In western countries, the most prevalent type of illicit substance-use dependence is cannabis dependence. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of cannabis dependence among music festival visitors. Methods: Based on a survey of 380 music festival guests, we estimated the prevalence of cannabis dependence, as defined by a score of 3 or more on the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS), as well as characteristics of cannabis dependent visitors. Results: 143 (38%) reported having used cannabis within the past year (past year cannabis users), and of these respondents, 21 (15%) screened positive for cannabis dependence. Compared to other cannabis users, the dependent respondents were more likely to be daily smokers, and they scored higher on self-reported sensation seeking. Compared with past-year non-users, both dependent users and non-dependent users were more likely to be men, weekly heavy drinkers, daily smokers and to score high on sensation seeking. Conclusions: Out of the past-year cannabis users recruited at a music festival, one in seven of those respondents showed indication of cannabis dependence. This suggests a need for both available treatment options and primary prevention of dependence.

Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien

2011-01-01

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Time-course of the DSM-5 cannabis withdrawal symptoms in poly-substance abusers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background Evidence is accumulating that a cannabis withdrawal syndrome is common, of clinical significance, and has a clear time course. Up till now, very limited data exist on the cannabis withdrawal symptoms in patients with co-morbid substance use disorders, other than cannabis use and tobacco use. Methods Symptoms of withdrawal were assessed through patient self-reports during detoxification in Danish residential rehabilitation centers. Patients (n = 90) completed booklets three times during their first month at the treatment centre. Self-reported withdrawal symptoms was rated using the DSM-5 Withdrawal Symptom Check List with withdrawal symptoms from all classes of substances, with no indication that the described symptoms should be attributed to withdrawal. Self-reported time since last use of cannabis was used as a predictor of cannabis withdrawal severity. Results With the exception of loss of appetite, time since last use of cannabis was associated with all types of withdrawal symptoms listed in the DSM-5. Only four of 19 symptoms intended to measure withdrawal from other substances were related to time since last use of cannabis, including vivid, unpleasant dreams. Conclusions The findings yield strong support to the notion of a cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and gives further evidence for the inclusion of the criterion of vivid, unpleasant dreams. Further, the findings speak against the significance of demand characteristics in determining the course of the symptoms of cannabis withdrawal.

Hesse, Morten; Thylstrup, Birgitte

2013-01-01

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Cannabis reinforcement and dependence: role of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Awareness of cannabis dependence as a clinically relevant issue has grown in recent years. Clinical and laboratory studies demonstrate that chronic marijuana smokers can experience withdrawal symptoms upon cessation of marijuana smoking and have difficulty abstaining from marijuana use. This paper will review data implicating the cannabinoid CB1 receptor in regulating the behavioral effects of ?9-tetrahydrocannobinol (THC), the primary psycho-active component of cannabis, across a range of s...

Cooper, Ziva D.; Haney, Margaret

2008-01-01

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A proof-of-concept randomized controlled study of gabapentin: effects on cannabis use, withdrawal and executive function deficits in cannabis-dependent adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, and patients seeking treatment for primary cannabis dependence represent 25% of all substance use admissions. We conducted a phase IIa proof-of-concept pilot study to examine the safety and efficacy of a calcium channel/GABA modulating drug, gabapentin, for the treatment of cannabis dependence. A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 50 unpaid treatment-seeking male and female outpatients, aged 18-65 years, diagnosed with current cannabis dependence. Subjects received either gabapentin (1200?mg/day) or matched placebo. Manual-guided, abstinence-oriented individual counseling was provided weekly to all participants. Cannabis use was measured by weekly urine toxicology and by self-report using the Timeline Followback Interview. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms were assessed using the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist. Executive function was measured using subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. Relative to placebo, gabapentin significantly reduced cannabis use as measured both by urine toxicology (p=0.001) and by the Timeline Followback Interview (p=0.004), and significantly decreased withdrawal symptoms as measured by the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (ptests of executive function (p=0.029). This POC pilot study provides preliminary support for the safety and efficacy of gabapentin for treatment of cannabis dependence that merits further study, and provides an alternative conceptual framework for treatment of addiction aimed at restoring homeostasis in brain stress systems that are dysregulated in drug dependence and withdrawal. PMID:22373942

Mason, Barbara J; Crean, Rebecca; Goodell, Vivian; Light, John M; Quello, Susan; Shadan, Farhad; Buffkins, Kimberly; Kyle, Mark; Adusumalli, Murali; Begovic, Adnan; Rao, Santosh

2012-06-01

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Cannabis use and dependence among French schizophrenic inpatients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: To assess the prevalence of cannabis use and dependence in a population of schizophrenic inpatients and to compare schizophrenics with and without cannabis consumption. Methods: 101 schizophrenic patients were examined during their first week of hospitalization. They answered the PANNS scale of schizophrenia, the CAGE and the Fagerström questionnaire and the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis, alcohol, opiates and nicotine use dependence were checked. We also assessed socio-demographic characteristics, the motive of cannabis consumption and the number of cannabis joints and alcoholic drinks taken.Results: The prevalence of cannabis consumption was 33.6% among schizophrenic inpatients. Schizophrenics consuming cannabis were younger than non-schizophrenics (33.3 vs 44.7 years pConclusion: 33.6 % of the schizophrenic patients hospitalized in psychiatry consume cannabis and most of them are dependent on cannabis and alcohol. Hospitalization in psychiatry may provide an opportunity to systematically identify a dependence disorder and to offer appropriate information and treatment

MichelLejoyeux

2014-07-01

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The Dutch Cannabis Dependence (CanDep) study on the course of frequent cannabis use and dependence: objectives, methods and sample characteristics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an overview of the prospective cohort design of the Dutch Cannabis Dependence (CanDep) study, which investigates (i) the three-year natural course of frequent cannabis use (? three days per week in the past 12 months) and cannabis dependence; and (ii) the factors involved in the transition from frequent non-dependent cannabis use to cannabis dependence, and remission from dependence. Besides its scientific relevance, this knowledge may contribute to improve selective and...

Pol, Peggy; Liebregts, Nienke; Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J.; Den Brink, Wim; Laar, Margriet

2011-01-01

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Cannabis use and childhood trauma interact additively to increase the risk of psychotic symptoms in adolescence.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Adolescent cannabis use has been shown in many studies to increase the risk of later psychosis. Childhood trauma is associated with both substance misuse and risk for psychosis. In this study our aim was to investigate whether there is a significant interaction between cannabis use and childhood trauma in increasing the risk for experiencing psychotic symptoms during adolescence.

Harley, M

2010-10-01

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State of the art treatments for cannabis dependence.  

Science.gov (United States)

The treatment of cannabis dependence can be viewed as a cup half empty or half full. On the one hand, few people who might benefit from treatment actually receive it. Among those who undergo treatment in randomized trials, long-term abstinence is achieved by fewer than 20%. Moderate use goals have been associated with decreases in consequences, but the differential impact of such goals on the long-term course of cannabis dependence is unknown. Optimal duration of treatment is unclear, and certain populations, particularly patients with co-occurring disorders, have not been studied adequately. Twelve-step programs are low cost, effective for other substance use disorders, and readily available in most regions of the world. However, their role and efficacy in cannabis dependence has not been examined. Finally, effective pharmacologic treatments are under development, but none have yet been firmly established. On the other hand, psychotherapeutic strategies used to treat other substance use disorders can be effective for cannabis dependence. A recent meta-analysis of psychosocial interventions for illicit substance use disorders found that treatments for cannabis dependence had comparatively larger effect sizes than treatments for other substance use disorders. Combination therapies have proven most effective, particularly those that begin with a motivational intervention, utilize incentives to enhance the commitment to change, and teach behavioral and cognitive copings skills to prevent relapse. Among adolescents, family engagement and collaboration with community stakeholders adds substantial value. Although only 9% of cannabis users develop cannabis dependence, the volume of people who smoke cannabis ensures that the total number of people in need of help is larger than the capacity of substance abuse specialty services. Thus, although efforts to refine and improve the efficacy of treatment interventions continue, innovations that increase the availability and accessibility of treatment are also needed. Computer- and phone-based interventions, social media, and brief interventions that can be implemented in primary care settings are areas that may hold promise for reaching at-risk populations. Adolescents and persons with co-occurring mental illness are at particularly high risk of cannabis dependence, and may suffer disproportionately from cannabis’s adverse effects. As in the treatment of other substance use disorders, there is a need for a continuing care model with long-term follow-up that extends past the periods typically evaluated in treatment studies. Additionally, there is a need for further investigation of genetic underpinnings and endophenotypes underlying cannabis dependence to identify neurobiological mechanisms for targeted intervention. One benefit of the societal focus on cannabis has been a prominent increase in research covering everything from the basic science to public health impact of cannabis. Over the next decade, physicians who provide treatment for individuals with cannabis dependence are likely to see their armamentarium of effective interventions expand, to the ultimate betterment of patients, their families, and society at large. PMID:22640758

Danovitch, Itai; Gorelick, David A

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
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Item Response Theory Analysis of DSM-IV Cannabis Abuse and Dependence Criteria in Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

A study to examine the DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence among adolescents is conducted. Results conclude that abuse and dependence criteria were not found to affect the different levels of severity in cannabis use.

Hartman, Christie A.; Gelhorn, Heather; Crowley, Thomas J.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Stallings, Michael; Young, Susan E.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Corley, Robin; Hewitt, John K.; Hopfer, Christian J.

2008-01-01

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The role of study and work in cannabis use and dependence trajectories among young adult frequent cannabis users  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Life course theory considers events in study and work as potential turning points in deviance, including illicit drug use. This qualitative study explores the role of occupational life in cannabis use and dependence in young adults. Two and three years after the initial structured interview, 47 at baseline frequent cannabis users were interviewed in-depth about the dynamics underlying changes in their cannabis use and dependence. Overall, cannabis use and dependence declined, including interviewees who quit using cannabis completely, in particular with students, both during their study and after they got employed. Life course theory appeared to be a useful framework to explore how and why occupational life is related to cannabis use and dependence over time. Our study showed that life events in this realm are rather common in young adults and can have a strong impact on cannabis use. While sometimes changes in use are temporary, turning points can evolve from changes in educational and employment situations; an effect that seems to be related to the consequences of these changes in terms of amount of leisure time and agency (i.e. feelings of being in control.

NienkeLiebregts

2013-08-01

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Reliability and validity of the Marijuana Motives Measure among young adult frequent cannabis users and associations with cannabis dependence.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM) has so far been examined mainly in student populations, often with relatively limited involvement in cannabis use. This study evaluated the factor structure of the MMM in a demographically mixed sample of 600 young adult (18-30years) frequent (?3days per week) cannabis users in the Netherlands. Analysis confirmed a five-factor solution, denoting coping, enhancement, social, conformity and expansion motives. Additionally, the original MMM was extended with two items (boredom and habit), which formed a distinct, internally consistent sixth factor labelled routine motives. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, coping and routine motives showed significant associations with 12-month DSM-IV cannabis dependence. The results suggest general reliability and validity of the MMM in a heterogeneous population of experienced cannabis users. PMID:25240105

Benschop, Annemieke; Liebregts, Nienke; van der Pol, Peggy; Schaap, Rick; Buisman, Renate; van Laar, Margriet; van den Brink, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J

2015-01-01

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Brief Treatments for Cannabis Dependence: Findings From a Randomized Multisite Trial  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the efficacy of 2 brief interventions for cannabis-dependent adults. A multisite randomized controlled trial compared cannabis use outcomes across 3 study conditions: (a) 2 sessions of motivational enhancement therapy (MET); (b) 9 sessions of multicomponent therapy that included MET, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and case…

Babor, Thomas F.

2004-01-01

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Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p?=?0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p?=?0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p?=?0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.

2012-01-01

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Cannabis e humor / Cannabis and mood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações entre o uso agudo e crônico de cannabis e alterações do humor. MÉTODO: Os artigos foram selecionados por meio de busca eletrônica no indexador PubMed. Capítulos de livros e as listas de referências dos artigos selecionados também foram revisados. RESULTADOS: Observam-se [...] elevados índices de comorbidade entre abuso/dependência de cannabis e transtornos afetivos em estudos transversais e em amostras clínicas. Estudos longitudinais indicam que, em longo prazo, o uso mais intenso de cannabis está relacionado com um risco maior de desenvolvimento de doença bipolar e, talvez, depressão maior em indivíduos inicialmente sem quadros afetivos; porém, os mesmos não encontraram maior risco de uso de cannabis entre aqueles com mania ou depressão sem esta comorbidade. Outra importante observação é que o uso de substâncias psicoativas em bipolares pode estar associado a uma série de características negativas, como dificuldade na recuperação dos sintomas afetivos, maior número de internações, piora na adesão ao tratamento, risco aumentado de suicídio, agressividade e a uma pobre resposta ao lítio. Tratamentos psicossociais e farmacológicos são indicados para o manejo da comorbidade entre cannabis e transtornos afetivos. CONCLUSÃO: As relações entre o uso de cannabis e alterações do humor são observadas tanto epidemiologicamente quanto nos contextos clínicos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between acute and chronic use of cannabis and mood changes. METHOD: Articles were selected by electronic search in PubMed. Chapters in books and reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. As the research did not involve humans, there was no evaluati [...] on by a Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: High rates of comorbidity between use/abuse/dependence of cannabis and affective disorders in longitudinal studies and in clinical samples were observed. Longitudinal studies indicate that, in long-term, the higher use of cannabis is associated with an increased risk of developing bipolar disorder, and probably, major depression in subjects initially without affective disorder, but was not found increased risk of cannabis use among those initially only with mania or depression. Another important observation is that substance abuse in bipolar patients may be associated with a number of negative characteristics, such as difficulty in recovering the affective symptoms, more hospitalizations, poor compliance with treatment, increased risk of suicide, aggression and a poor response to lithium. Psychosocial and pharmacological treatments are indicated for the management of comorbidity between cannabis and affective disorders. CONCLUSION: The relationship between cannabis use and mood changes are observed both in the epidemiological research and in the clinical settings.

Rafael Faria, Sanches; João Mazzoncini de Azevedo, Marques.

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Cannabis e humor Cannabis and mood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações entre o uso agudo e crônico de cannabis e alterações do humor. MÉTODO: Os artigos foram selecionados por meio de busca eletrônica no indexador PubMed. Capítulos de livros e as listas de referências dos artigos selecionados também foram revisados. RESULTADOS: Observam-se elevados índices de comorbidade entre abuso/dependência de cannabis e transtornos afetivos em estudos transversais e em amostras clínicas. Estudos longitudinais indicam que, em longo prazo, o uso mais intenso de cannabis está relacionado com um risco maior de desenvolvimento de doença bipolar e, talvez, depressão maior em indivíduos inicialmente sem quadros afetivos; porém, os mesmos não encontraram maior risco de uso de cannabis entre aqueles com mania ou depressão sem esta comorbidade. Outra importante observação é que o uso de substâncias psicoativas em bipolares pode estar associado a uma série de características negativas, como dificuldade na recuperação dos sintomas afetivos, maior número de internações, piora na adesão ao tratamento, risco aumentado de suicídio, agressividade e a uma pobre resposta ao lítio. Tratamentos psicossociais e farmacológicos são indicados para o manejo da comorbidade entre cannabis e transtornos afetivos. CONCLUSÃO: As relações entre o uso de cannabis e alterações do humor são observadas tanto epidemiologicamente quanto nos contextos clínicos.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between acute and chronic use of cannabis and mood changes. METHOD: Articles were selected by electronic search in PubMed. Chapters in books and reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. As the research did not involve humans, there was no evaluation by a Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: High rates of comorbidity between use/abuse/dependence of cannabis and affective disorders in longitudinal studies and in clinical samples were observed. Longitudinal studies indicate that, in long-term, the higher use of cannabis is associated with an increased risk of developing bipolar disorder, and probably, major depression in subjects initially without affective disorder, but was not found increased risk of cannabis use among those initially only with mania or depression. Another important observation is that substance abuse in bipolar patients may be associated with a number of negative characteristics, such as difficulty in recovering the affective symptoms, more hospitalizations, poor compliance with treatment, increased risk of suicide, aggression and a poor response to lithium. Psychosocial and pharmacological treatments are indicated for the management of comorbidity between cannabis and affective disorders. CONCLUSION: The relationship between cannabis use and mood changes are observed both in the epidemiological research and in the clinical settings.

Rafael Faria Sanches

2010-06-01

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Cannabis e humor / Cannabis and mood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações entre o uso agudo e crônico de cannabis e alterações do humor. MÉTODO: Os artigos foram selecionados por meio de busca eletrônica no indexador PubMed. Capítulos de livros e as listas de referências dos artigos selecionados também foram revisados. RESULTADOS: Observam-se [...] elevados índices de comorbidade entre abuso/dependência de cannabis e transtornos afetivos em estudos transversais e em amostras clínicas. Estudos longitudinais indicam que, em longo prazo, o uso mais intenso de cannabis está relacionado com um risco maior de desenvolvimento de doença bipolar e, talvez, depressão maior em indivíduos inicialmente sem quadros afetivos; porém, os mesmos não encontraram maior risco de uso de cannabis entre aqueles com mania ou depressão sem esta comorbidade. Outra importante observação é que o uso de substâncias psicoativas em bipolares pode estar associado a uma série de características negativas, como dificuldade na recuperação dos sintomas afetivos, maior número de internações, piora na adesão ao tratamento, risco aumentado de suicídio, agressividade e a uma pobre resposta ao lítio. Tratamentos psicossociais e farmacológicos são indicados para o manejo da comorbidade entre cannabis e transtornos afetivos. CONCLUSÃO: As relações entre o uso de cannabis e alterações do humor são observadas tanto epidemiologicamente quanto nos contextos clínicos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between acute and chronic use of cannabis and mood changes. METHOD: Articles were selected by electronic search in PubMed. Chapters in books and reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. As the research did not involve humans, there was no evaluati [...] on by a Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: High rates of comorbidity between use/abuse/dependence of cannabis and affective disorders in longitudinal studies and in clinical samples were observed. Longitudinal studies indicate that, in long-term, the higher use of cannabis is associated with an increased risk of developing bipolar disorder, and probably, major depression in subjects initially without affective disorder, but was not found increased risk of cannabis use among those initially only with mania or depression. Another important observation is that substance abuse in bipolar patients may be associated with a number of negative characteristics, such as difficulty in recovering the affective symptoms, more hospitalizations, poor compliance with treatment, increased risk of suicide, aggression and a poor response to lithium. Psychosocial and pharmacological treatments are indicated for the management of comorbidity between cannabis and affective disorders. CONCLUSION: The relationship between cannabis use and mood changes are observed both in the epidemiological research and in the clinical settings.

Rafael Faria, Sanches; João Mazzoncini de Azevedo, Marques.

2010-06-01

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Pericyazine in the treatment of cannabis dependence in general practice: a naturalistic pilot trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Kirsten C Morley,1 Paul S Haber,1,2 Madeleine L Morgan,3 Fares Samara3,41Discipline of Addiction Medicine, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Drug Health Services, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW, Australia; 3Drug and Alcohol Services, North Coast Area Health Service, Kempsey and Port Macquarie, NSW, Australia; 4Durri Aboriginal Medical Service, Kempsey, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Cannabis is one of the most widely used illicit drugs worldwide. However, while the rates of cannabis dependence and treatment increase, there remains no medications approved for this use. Due to its sedative effects and low abuse liability, the typical antipsychotic pericyazine has been utilized in some parts of Australia for the treatment of cannabis dependence. We aimed to provide documentation of preliminary outcomes and acceptability of pericyazine treatment in a small sample. A naturalistic case series study was conducted in which 21 patients were enrolled for a 4-week course of pericyazine (up to 8 × 2.5 mg tablets daily and weekly medical review. Levels of cannabis use were reported and side effects with electrocardiography and blood tests were monitored. Measures of dependence severity, depression, anxiety, and insomnia were taken at baseline and follow-up utilizing validated psychometric tools. Significant reductions in cannabis use, depression, anxiety, and insomnia severity occurred across time. Pericyazine appeared to be well tolerated and easily administered in the community clinics. The results provide some preliminary evidence that low-dose short-term pericyazine may be an acceptable mode of treatment in this population. Given the open-label nature of the design, we cannot conclude that pharmacotherapy was uniquely responsible for the treatment effect. Nonetheless, low-dose pericyazine may be a potentially effective approach to the treatment of cannabis dependence, and further evaluation via a randomized placebo-controlled trial is warranted.Keywords: cannabis, antipsychotic, pharmacotherapy, addiction, pericyazine

Morley KC

2012-05-01

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A comparison of independent depression and substance-induced depression in cannabis-, cocaine-, and opioid-dependent treatment seekers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Depressive symptoms often coexist with substance use disorders (SUDs). The DSM-IV has identified two distinct categories for depression coexisting with SUDs-independent depression and substance-induced depression. While this distinction has important therapeutic and prognostic implications, it remains difficult to make in clinical practice; the differentiation is often guided by chronological and symptom severity criteria that patients may be unable to precisely provide. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the various substances commonly abused-cannabis, cocaine, and opioids-are equally associated with the two types of depression. Predictors, associations, and other markers may be helpful in guiding the diagnostic process. We, therefore, examined the differences between cannabis-, cocaine-, and opioid-dependent individuals contending with independent depression and those contending with substance-induced depression in regard to several variables, hypothesizing that independent depression is more commonly found in females, and that it is associated with higher symptom severity and psychiatric comorbidity. Cocaine-, cannabis-, and/or opioid-dependent, treatment-seeking individuals underwent a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV-TR disorders after providing consent at our clinical research site; those with co-existing primary depression or substance-induced depression diagnoses were provided with further questionnaires and were entered into this analysis (n= 242). Pair-wise comparisons were conducted between the groups classified as independent versus substance-induced depression with 2-by-2 tables and chi-square tests for dichotomous independent variables, and t-tests for continuous variables. Binomial logistic regression was performed in order to ascertain which of the variables were significant predictors. Women were more likely than men to have independent depression (pindependent depression (pIndependent depression was associated with higher Hamilton depression scale scores (16 vs. 10,?pvariable, statistically significant associations with independent and substance-induced depression, and may be helpful in guiding the diagnostic process. PMID:21838843

Dakwar, Elias; Nunes, Edward V; Bisaga, Adam; Carpenter, Kenneth C; Mariani, John P; Sullivan, Maria A; Raby, Wilfrid N; Levin, Frances R

2011-01-01

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Effects of eye dominance (left vs. right) and cannabis use on intermanual coordination and negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the previous findings, it has been assumed that in schizophrenia patients, eye dominance and cannabis use will affect negative symptoms and intermanual coordination (IMC), an index of interhemispheric communication. But eye dominance, specifically the clinical findings for it, has been neglected in schizophrenia research. We therefore investigated its effects in 52 right-handed (36 right-eyed and 16 left-eyed) and 51 left-handed (35 left-eyed and 16 right-eyed) schizophrenia in-patients without and with drug use. Eye dominance affected IMC in all schizophrenia patients. When comparing right- and left-handers, we found that this result was only significant in the right-handed patients and in the smaller subgroup without drug use. In the right-handers, left eye dominance-like left-handedness-was associated with higher values in IMC and less pronounced manifestation of negative symptoms, right eye dominance was not. Thus, left-eyed right-handers may be more closely related to left-handers than to right-handers. In accordance with the results from the literature, we suggest that these findings are due to better interhemispheric connections and less impairment of white matter structures, especially in right-hemispheric regions. Moreover, cannabis use was related to higher scores in IMC and less pronounced negative symptoms, but only in the right-eyed and not in the left-eyed right-handers or in the left-handers. Hence, differences in eye dominance and handedness may be partially responsible for different results in interhemispheric connections among cannabis users. In conclusion, both eye dominance and use of cannabis should be taken into account when assessing clinical symptoms in schizophrenia patients. PMID:24792218

Gorynia, Inge; Schwaiger, Markus; Heinz, Andreas

2014-12-01

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Use of Dronabinol for Cannabis Dependence: Two Case Reports and Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States and throughout the world. Despite this, the number of laboratory studies that have assessed pharmacologic agents to target cannabis withdrawal symptoms or reduce the reinforcing effects of marijuana has been modest. Unlike alcohol, cocaine, opiates, or nicotine, there has been a minimal number of clinical pharmacologic treatment trials that have targeted marijuana use. Based on recent laboratory studies, dronabinol (delta-9...

Levin, Frances R.; Kleber, Herbert D.

2008-01-01

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Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence  

Science.gov (United States)

Ninety cannabis-dependent adults seeking treatment were randomly assigned to receive cognitive-behavioral therapy, abstinence-based voucher incentives, or their combination. Treatment duration was 14 weeks, and outcomes were assessed for 12 months post treatment. Findings suggest that (a) abstinence-based vouchers were effective for engendering…

Budney, Alan J.; Moore, Brent A.; Rocha, Heath L.; Higgins, Stephen T.

2006-01-01

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Individual Mindfulness-Based Psychotherapy for Cannabis or Cocaine Dependence: A Pilot Feasibility Trial  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Mindfulness-based approaches may be effective treatments for substance use disorders (SUDs), but they have only been investigated for SUDs in the group setting. Methods A novel 10-week individual mindfulness-based psychotherapy was provided weekly to participants. Tolerability and therapeutic feasibility were assessed by retention rates, incidence of adverse events or clinical worsening, and abstinence rates at the end of the protocol. Results Twenty-five patients were enrolled overall, and 19 completed (74% overall retention rate). Of the 14 cannabis dependent patients enrolled in the study, 11 completed (79%), and 8 achieved abstinence (57% by intent-to-treat analysis) at 10 weeks. Of the 11 cocaine dependent patients, 8 completed (73%), and 6 achieved abstinence (55% by ITT) at 10 weeks. Abstinence rates were substantially greater than those of historical comparison groups. Conclusions These findings indicate that mindfulness training can be tolerably and feasibly extended to the individual psychotherapy setting for the treatment of cocaine or cannabis dependence. PMID:24131158

Dakwar, Elias; Levin, Frances R.

2014-01-01

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A Cotwin-Control Analysis of Drug Use and Abuse/Dependence Risk associated with Early-onset Cannabis Use  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We assessed whether, after controlling for genetic and shared environmental influences, early cannabis use remains a significant predictor of other drug use, abuse, and dependence, and whether the risk for early users is greater than that for later cannabis users. Data from a 1992 telephone diagnostic interview of 8169 male twins (M = 42.0 years at interview) who served in the U.S. military during the Vietnam-era were used to identify a subsample of 293 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twi...

Grant, Julia D.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Scherrer, Jeffrey F.; Agrawal, Arpana; Heath, Andrew C.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.

2010-01-01

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Vulnerability Factors for the Psychiatric and Behavioral Effects of Cannabis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cogent evidence shows that cannabis plays a variable role on behavioral regulation and the pathophysiology of most psychiatric conditions. Accordingly, cannabis has been alternatively shown to exacerbate or ameliorate mental symptoms, depending on its composition and route of consumption, as well as specific individual and contextual characteristics. The vulnerability to the psychological effects of cannabis is influenced by a complex constellation of genetic and environmental factors. In the present article, we will review the current evidence on the pharmacological, individual and situational factors that have been documented to affect the behavioral and psychiatric effects of cannabinoids.

Simone Tambaro

2010-08-01

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Psychosis and cannabis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Alcohol and cannabis misuse is currently the most frequent co-morbidity disorder of schizophrenia. The following four issues will be dealt with: 1) the neurobiological basis of the psychosis-inducing, pathogenic effects of THC, the agent contained in cannabis products. 2) Can cannabis use - and for [...] comparison alcohol abuse - prematurely trigger or even cause schizophrenia? 3) Are persons genetically liable to schizophrenia, psychosis-prone individuals or young persons before completion of brain development at an increased risk? 4) What consequences does cannabis use have on the symptomatology and further course of schizophrenia? Results from recent literature and the ABC Schizophrenia Study show that the risk for cannabis use in schizophrenia is about twice the size in healthy controls. In most cases cannabis use starts before first admission, in a third of cases before schizophrenia onset. There is an increased affinity to misuse already at the prodromal stage. Cannabis can prematurely trigger schizophrenia onset - on average eight years earlier than in non-use - and cause the illness partly in interaction with predisposing factors. Cannabis use in the course of schizophrenia increases positive symptoms and reduces affective flattening, thus leading to dysfunctional coping in some cases.

Heinz, Häfner.

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Do patients think cannabis causes schizophrenia? - A qualitative study on the causal beliefs of cannabis using patients with schizophrenia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a considerable amount of debate among the research community whether cannabis use may cause schizophrenia and whether cannabis use of patients with schizophrenia is associated with earlier and more frequent relapses. Considering that studies exploring patients' view on controversial topics have contributed to our understanding of important clinical issues, it is surprising how little these views have been explored to add to our understanding of the link between cannabis and psychosis. The present study was designed to elucidate whether patients with schizophrenia who use cannabis believe that its use has caused their schizophrenia and to explore these patients other beliefs and perceptions about the effects of the drug. Methods We recruited ten consecutive patients fulfilling criteria for paranoid schizophrenia and for a harmful use of/dependence from cannabis (ICD-10 F20.0 + F12.1 or F12.2 from the in- and outpatient clinic of the Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich. They were interviewed using qualitative methodology. Furthermore, information on amount, frequency, and effects of use was obtained. A grounded theory approach to data analysis was taken to evaluate findings. Results None of the patients described a causal link between the use of cannabis and their schizophrenia. Disease models included upbringing under difficult circumstances (5 or use of substances other than cannabis (e. g. hallucinogens, 3. Two patients gave other reasons. Four patients considered cannabis a therapeutic aid and reported that positive effects (reduction of anxiety and tension prevailed over its possible disadvantages (exacerbation of positive symptoms. Conclusions Patients with schizophrenia did not establish a causal link between schizophrenia and the use of cannabis. We suggest that clinicians consider our findings in their work with patients suffering from these co-occurring disorders. Withholding treatment or excluding patients from certain treatment settings like day-care facilities or in patient care because of their use of cannabis, may cause additional harm to this already heavily burdened patient group.

Schaub Michael

2010-09-01

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Effectiveness of a Self-Guided Web-Based Cannabis Treatment Program: Randomized Controlled Trial  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Self-help strategies offer a promising way to address problems with access to and stigma associated with face-to-face drug and alcohol treatment, and the Internet provides an excellent delivery mode for such strategies. To date, no study has tested the effectiveness of a fully self-guided web-based treatment for cannabis use and related problems. Objectives The current study was a two-armed randomized controlled trial aimed at testing the effectiveness of Reduce Your Use, a fully self-guided web-based treatment program for cannabis use disorder consisting of 6 modules based on cognitive, motivational, and behavioral principles. Methods 225 individuals who wanted to cease or reduce their cannabis use were recruited using both online and offline advertising methods and were randomly assigned to receive: (1) the web-based intervention, or (2) a control condition consisting of 6 modules of web-based educational information on cannabis. Assessments of cannabis use, dependence symptoms, and abuse symptoms were conducted through online questionnaires at baseline, and at 6-week and 3-month follow-ups. Two sets of data analyses were undertaken—complier average causal effect (CACE) modeling and intention to treat (ITT). Results Two thirds (149) of the participants completed the 6-week postintervention assessment, while 122 (54%) completed the 3-month follow-up assessment. Participants in the intervention group completed an average of 3.5 of the 6 modules. The CACE analysis revealed that at 6 weeks, the experimental group reported significantly fewer days of cannabis use during the past month (P=.02), significantly lower past-month quantity of cannabis use (P=.01), and significantly fewer symptoms of cannabis abuse (P=.047) relative to controls. Cannabis dependence symptoms (number and severity) and past-month abstinence did not differ significantly between groups (Ps>.05). Findings at 3 months were similar, except that the experimental group reported significantly fewer and less severe cannabis dependence symptoms (Ps<.05), and past-month quantity of cannabis consumed no longer differed significantly between groups (P=.16). ITT analyses yielded similar outcomes. Conclusion Findings suggest that web-based interventions may be an effective means of treating uncomplicated cannabis use and related problems and reducing the public health burden of cannabis use disorders. Trial registration ACTRN12609000856213, Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. PMID:23470329

Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa; Hine, Donald; McCambridge, Jim

2013-01-01

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Personality Characteristics of Adolescents with Hallucinogen, Methamphetamine, and Cannabis Dependence: A Comparative Study  

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A comparison of personality factors on scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) was conducted with a sample of adolescents referred to a residential substance abuse treatment program. A total of sixty adolescents identified with hallucinogen (n = 20), cannabis (n = 20), or methamphetamine (n = 20) as their drug…

Palmer, Glen A.; Daiss, Doyle D.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Clinical differences between cocaine-induced psychotic disorder and psychotic symptoms in cocaine-dependent patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to compare the clinical characteristics of three groups of patients in treatment for cocaine dependence: patients without any psychotic symptoms (NS), patients with transient psychotic symptoms (PS) and patients with cocaine-induced psychotic disorder (CIPD). An observational and retrospective study of 150 cocaine-dependent patients undergoing treatment in the Drug Unit of the Psychiatry Department of University Hospital Vall d?Hebron in Barcelona (Spain) using these three groups, NS, PS and CIPD, was performed. All patients were evaluated with the PRISM interview. ANOVA, ?2 tests and multivariate multinomial regression analysis were used to perform statistical analyses. Seven patients with a primary psychotic disorder were discharged. Forty-six patients (32.1%) did not report any psychotic symptoms. Ninety-seven patients (67.9%) presented with a history of any cocaine-induced psychotic symptom and were considered as the cocaine-induced psychotic (CIP) group. Among them, 39 (27.3%) were included in the PS group and 58 (40.6%) were included in the CIPD group. A history of imprisonment was found significantly more frequently in the PS group than in the NS group. The distribution of age at onset of dependence, lifetime cannabis abuse or dependence and imprisonment were significantly different between the NS and CIPD groups. We conclude that in cocaine-dependent patients, clinicians should be advised about the risk of development of psychotic symptoms. The presence of some psychotic symptoms could increase the potential risks of disturbing behaviours. PMID:24629712

Roncero, Carlos; Comín, Marina; Daigre, Constanza; Grau-López, Lara; Martínez-Luna, Nieves; Eiroa-Orosa, Francisco José; Barral, Carmen; Torrens, Marta; Casas, Miguel

2014-05-30

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Quality of Web-Based Information on Cannabis Addiction  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the quality of Web-based information on cannabis use and addiction and investigated particular content quality indicators. Three keywords ("cannabis addiction," "cannabis dependence," and "cannabis abuse") were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed…

Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Cochand, Sophie; Zullino, Daniele

2008-01-01

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QUELS FUTURS TRAITEMENTS POUR LA DEPENDANCE AU TABAC ET AU CANNABIS?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plus de trois millions de morts sont attribués au tabagisme dans le monde par an, et l’usage de tabac est en progression dans les pays en voie de développement. L’usage de tabac est donc une des rares causes de mortalité qui augmente, avec une prévision de plus de 10 millions de morts par an dans 30–40 ans. Le cannabis ou marijuana est la drogue illicite la plus consommée dans le monde et il n’y a actuellement pas de traitement disponible. Bien que les systèmes dopaminergiques j...

Le Foll, Bernard; Justinova, Zuzana; Tanda, Gianlugi; Goldberg, Steven R.

2008-01-01

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Comparing factor, class, and mixture models of cannabis initiation and DSM cannabis use disorder criteria, including craving, in the Brisbane longitudinal twin study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accumulating evidence suggests that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence are best represented by a single underlying factor. However, it remains possible that models with additional factors, or latent class models or hybrid models, may better explain the data. Using structured interviews, 626 adult male and female twins provided complete data on symptoms of cannabis abuse and dependence, plus a craving criterion. We compared latent factor analysis, latent class analysis, and factor mixture modeling using normal theory marginal maximum likelihood for ordinal data. Our aim was to derive a parsimonious, best-fitting cannabis use disorder (CUD) phenotype based on DSM-IV criteria and determine whether DSM-5 craving loads onto a general factor. When compared with latent class and mixture models, factor models provided a better fit to the data. When conditioned on initiation and cannabis use, the association between criteria for abuse, dependence, withdrawal, and craving were best explained by two correlated latent factors for males and females: a general risk factor to CUD and a factor capturing the symptoms of social and occupational impairment as a consequence of frequent use. Secondary analyses revealed a modest increase in the prevalence of DSM-5 CUD compared with DSM-IV cannabis abuse or dependence. It is concluded that, in addition to a general factor with loadings on cannabis use and symptoms of abuse, dependence, withdrawal, and craving, a second clinically relevant factor defined by features of social and occupational impairment was also found for frequent cannabis use. PMID:24588857

Kubarych, Thomas S; Kendler, Kenneth S; Aggen, Steven H; Estabrook, Ryne; Edwards, Alexis C; Clark, Shaunna L; Martin, Nicholas G; Hickie, Ian B; Neale, Michael C; Gillespie, Nathan A

2014-04-01

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In vivo measurement of neuronal dopamine transporter in tobacco and cannabis dependents subjects with positron tomography and [11C]P E 2 I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Modifications of dopamine neurotransmission are classically involved in addictive behaviors and drug reinforcement. However, to date no data are available concerning the effects of cannabis addiction on dopaminergic neurotransmission in Human. The neuronal dopamine transporter (D.A.T.) is essential for the maintenance of normal dopamine homeostasis in the brain by ensuring the re-uptake of extracellular dopamine. Therefore, observation of D.A.T. availability abnormalities in cannabis-dependents subjects could provide further evidence for the implication of dopaminergic dysfunction in this addiction. Thus, as the cannabis dependent subjects are also most of time tobacco-dependents, this work aims studying the D.A.T. availability in age-paired control, tobacco-dependent and cannabis-dependent male subjects using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Subjects are scanned on High Resolution Research Tomograph (H.R.R.T.) for one hour after injection of a selective D.A.T. radioligand ([11C]P.E. 2 I.) [1]. The binding potential (B.P.) is calculated in order to obtained the specific binding of [11C]P.E. 2 I. to the D.A.T. using the simplified reference tissue model of Lammertsma (S.R.T.M.) [2] and B.P. maps were generated according to Gunn model [3]. Comparison of mean B.P. obtained in Region Of Interest and voxel to voxel comparison of B.P. maps using S.P.M.5 were performed with M.A.N.C.O.V.A. controlled for age between control, tobacco-dependent and cannetween control, tobacco-dependent and cannabis-dependent groups. Preliminary results are concordant between both approaches and shown significant decreases of the D.A.T. availability in the both groups of addicted subjects in comparison to controls at the level of dorsal and ventral striatum and the dorsal midbrain including substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. However, no difference in D.A.T. binding between tobacco and cannabis dependents subjects was observed. These widespread modifications of D.A.T. availability in the dependents subjects might reflect a modification of dopamine neurotransmission in cannabis and/or tobacco addictions. (authors)

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In vivo measurement of neuronal dopamine transporter in tobacco and cannabis dependents subjects with positron tomography and [{sup 11}C]P E 2 I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Modifications of dopamine neurotransmission are classically involved in addictive behaviors and drug reinforcement. However, to date no data are available concerning the effects of cannabis addiction on dopaminergic neurotransmission in Human. The neuronal dopamine transporter (D.A.T.) is essential for the maintenance of normal dopamine homeostasis in the brain by ensuring the re-uptake of extracellular dopamine. Therefore, observation of D.A.T. availability abnormalities in cannabis-dependents subjects could provide further evidence for the implication of dopaminergic dysfunction in this addiction. Thus, as the cannabis dependent subjects are also most of time tobacco-dependents, this work aims studying the D.A.T. availability in age-paired control, tobacco-dependent and cannabis-dependent male subjects using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Subjects are scanned on High Resolution Research Tomograph (H.R.R.T.) for one hour after injection of a selective D.A.T. radioligand ([{sup 11}C]P.E. 2 I.) [1]. The binding potential (B.P.) is calculated in order to obtained the specific binding of [{sup 11}C]P.E. 2 I. to the D.A.T. using the simplified reference tissue model of Lammertsma (S.R.T.M.) [2] and B.P. maps were generated according to Gunn model [3]. Comparison of mean B.P. obtained in Region Of Interest and voxel to voxel comparison of B.P. maps using S.P.M.5 were performed with M.A.N.C.O.V.A. controlled for age between control, tobacco-dependent and cannabis-dependent groups. Preliminary results are concordant between both approaches and shown significant decreases of the D.A.T. availability in the both groups of addicted subjects in comparison to controls at the level of dorsal and ventral striatum and the dorsal midbrain including substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. However, no difference in D.A.T. binding between tobacco and cannabis dependents subjects was observed. These widespread modifications of D.A.T. availability in the dependents subjects might reflect a modification of dopamine neurotransmission in cannabis and/or tobacco addictions. (authors)

Leroy, C.; Ribeiro, M.J.; Trichard, C.; Martinot, J.L. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), U797, Research Unit, Neuroimaging and Psychiatry, IFR49, 91 - Orsay (France); CEA, Neuroimaging and Psychiatry, Unit, Hospital Dept. Frederic Joliot, I2BM, 91 - Orsay (France); Ribeiro, M.J.; Comtat, C.; Dolle, F. [Hospital Dept. Frederic Joliot, Research Medical Dept., I2BM, 91 - Orsay (France); Karila, L.; Lukasiewicz, M.; Reynaud, M. [Paul Brousse Hospital, APHP, Psychiatry and Addictology Dept., 94 - Villejuif (France)

2008-02-15

47

Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ)  

Science.gov (United States)

... treatment (see Question 9 ). Questions and Answers About Cannabis What is Cannabis ? Cannabis , also known as marijuana , ... conditions . List of Localities That Permit Use of Cannabis for Certain Medical Conditions Enlarge Alaska (AK) Arizona ( ...

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QUELS FUTURS TRAITEMENTS POUR LA DEPENDANCE AU TABAC ET AU CANNABIS?  

Science.gov (United States)

RESUME Plus de trois millions de morts sont attribués au tabagisme dans le monde par an, et l’usage de tabac est en progression dans les pays en voie de développement. L’usage de tabac est donc une des rares causes de mortalité qui augmente, avec une prévision de plus de 10 millions de morts par an dans 30–40 ans. Le cannabis ou marijuana est la drogue illicite la plus consommée dans le monde et il n’y a actuellement pas de traitement disponible. Bien que les systèmes dopaminergiques jouent un rôle central dans les effets renforçants des drogues, d’autres systèmes sont impliqués. Nous présentons ici des résultats récents obtenus avec des antagonistes des récepteurs cannabinoides CB1, des récepteurs D3 de la dopamine et des récepteurs opioïdes. Ces antagonistes qui modulent de façon directe ou indirecte la transmission dopaminergique cérébrale représentent des approches prometteuses pour le traitement du tabagisme ou de la dépendance au cannabis. Ces approches sont à valider dans des essais cliniques. PMID:18663981

LE FOLL, Bernard; JUSTINOVA, Zuzana; TANDA, Gianlugi; GOLDBERG, Steven R.

2009-01-01

49

Two Sides of the Same Coin: Cannabis Dependence and Mental Health Problems in Help-Seeking Adolescent and Young Adult Outpatients  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the current study was to delineate the psychiatric profile of cannabis dependent young people (14-29 years old) with mental health problems (N = 36) seeking treatment via a research study. To do so, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Diagnoses were…

Norberg, Melissa M.; Battisti, Robert A.; Copeland, Jan; Hermens, Daniel F.; Hickie, Ian B.

2012-01-01

50

Nicotine Dependence Symptoms among Recent Onset Adolescent Smokers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study examined the prevalence of individual nicotine dependence symptoms among recent onset smokers across the continuum of nondaily and daily cigarette smoking behavior in a nationally representative sample of recent onset smokers from the National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Rates of endorsement for 17 symptoms drawn primarily from the Nicotine Dependence Symptom Scale (Shiffman, Waters, & Hickcox, 2004) were calculated for four levels of nondaily (smoked 1-3, 4-10, ...

Rose, Jennifer S.; Dierker, Lisa C.; Donny, Eric

2010-01-01

51

Heritability and a genome-wide linkage analysis of a Type II/B Cluster Construct for cannabis dependence in an American Indian community  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Subtyping of substance dependence disorders holds promise for a number of important research areas including phenotyping for genetic studies, characterizing clinical course, and matching treatment and prevention strategies. This study sought to investigate whether a dichotomous construct similar to Babor’s Types A/B and Cloninger’s Types I/II for alcohol dependence can be identified for cannabis dependence in a Native American sample. In addition, heritability of this construct and its be...

Ehlers, Cindy L.; Gilder, David A.; Gizer, Ian R.; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C.

2009-01-01

52

Infant with Altered Consciousness after Cannabis Passive Inhalation  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on an infant who was admitted to hospital with severe neurological symptoms following passive inhalation of cannabis. To date, cannabis abuse has been described almost entirely in adolescents and adults. In early childhood, however, cannabis effects were almost exclusively discussed in the context of maternal prenatal exposure, and the…

Zarfin, Yehoshua; Yefet, Enav; Abozaid, Said; Nasser, Wael; Mor, Tamer; Finkelstein, Yoram

2012-01-01

53

A positive association between anxiety disorders and cannabis use or cannabis use disorders in the general population- a meta-analysis of 31 studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between anxiety and cannabis use/cannabis use disorders in the general population. Methods A total of N?=?267 studies were identified from a systematic literature search (any time- March 2013) of Medline and PsycInfo databases, and a hand search. The results of 31 studies (with prospective cohort or cross-sectional designs using non-institutionalised cases) were analysed using a random-effects meta-analysis with the inverse variance weights. Lifetime or past 12-month cannabis use, anxiety symptoms, and cannabis use disorders (CUD; dependence and/or abuse/harmful use) were classified according to DSM/ICD criteria or scores on standardised scales. Results There was a small positive association between anxiety and either cannabis use (OR?=?1.24, 95% CI: 1.06-1.45, p?=?.006; N?=?15 studies) or CUD (OR?=?1.68, 95% CI: 1.23-2.31, p?=?.001; N?=?13 studies), and between comorbid anxiety?+?depression and cannabis use (OR?=?1.68, 95% CI: 1.17-2.40, p?=?.004; N?=?5 studies). The positive associations between anxiety and cannabis use (or CUD) were present in subgroups of studies with ORs adjusted for possible confounders (substance use, psychiatric illness, demographics) and in studies with clinical diagnoses of anxiety. Cannabis use at baseline was significantly associated with anxiety at follow-up in N?=?5 studies adjusted for confounders (OR?=?1.28, 95% CI: 1.06-1.54, p?=?.01). The opposite relationship was investigated in only one study. There was little evidence for publication bias. Conclusion Anxiety is positively associated with cannabis use or CUD in cohorts drawn from some 112,000 non-institutionalised members of the general population of 10 countries. PMID:24884989

2014-01-01

54

Abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos: atualização para uma antiga evidência Cannabis abuse in patients with psychiatric disorders: an update to old evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar uma atualização sobre o abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos. MÉTODO: Busca de artigos nas bases de dados eletrônicas Medline, The Cochrane Library Database, Lilacs, PubMed e SciELO, utilizando os descritores "marijuana abuse", "cannabis abuse", "psychiatric disorders" AND "mental disorders"; incluindo artigos que avaliaram ambas as exposições para abuso e dependência de cannabis e qualquer outro transtorno psiquiátrico. Foi considerado o período até dezembro de 2009. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o abuso frequente de cannabis pode aumentar o risco para o desenvolvimento de esquizofrenia e de sintomas psicóticos crônicos, embora estes achados ainda careçam de comprovação. A cannabis parece ser uma das drogas de escolha de portadores de transtorno afetivo bipolar, sendo que é descrito que estados maníacos podem ser induzidos pelo seu consumo. O abuso de maconha também frequentemente co-ocorre em indivíduos com transtornos ansiosos, sendo que a relação de cronicidade destas condições e o consumo de maconha ainda é incerta. Para depressão ainda não existem evidências claras que apontem que o consumo de cannabis ocorre como forma de automedicação. Em indivíduos com transtornos psiquiátricos, há relatos de que o uso da cannabis pode exacerbar sintomas positivos, somar efeitos negativos no curso do transtorno, contribuir para pior adesão ao tratamento e levar a maior número de hospitalizações. CONCLUSÃO: O abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos como esquizofrenia, transtornos do humor e ansiosos tem impacto negativo tanto na fase aguda quanto em fases mais avançadas destas condições, embora futuros estudos avaliando estas associações ainda sejam necessários.OBJECTIVE: To perform an update on cannabis abuse by patients with psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A search was performed in the electronic databases Medline, The Cochrane Library Database, Lilacs, PubMed, and SciELO, using the keywords 'marijuana abuse', 'cannabis abuse', 'psychiatric disorders', and 'mental disorders'. Articles published until December 2009, dealing with cannabis abuse and dependence in association with other psychiatric disorders were included. RESULTS: Cannabis abuse was found to be associated with increased risk for the onset of schizophrenia and chronic psychotic symptoms, although these findings require confirmation from additional research. Cannabis seems to be one of the drugs of choice of individuals with bipolar disorder, despite evidence that manic states can be induced by its use. Cannabis abuse also occurs frequently in individuals with anxiety disorders, but the relationship between the chronic nature of these conditions and the use of marijuana remains uncertain. In respect to depression, there is no clear evidence to date that depressive patients use cannabis as a form of self-medication. In individuals with psychiatric disorders, the use of cannabis has been associated with increased positive symptoms, additional negative symptoms in the course of illness, impaired treatment compliance, and more hospitalizations. CONCLUSION: The abuse of cannabis by patients with psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and mood and anxious disorders has a negative impact both in the acute and advanced stages of these conditions, although further investigation on this association is still necessary.

Alessandra Diehl

2010-05-01

55

Abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos: atualização para uma antiga evidência / Cannabis abuse in patients with psychiatric disorders: an update to old evidence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Realizar uma atualização sobre o abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos. MÉTODO: Busca de artigos nas bases de dados eletrônicas Medline, The Cochrane Library Database, Lilacs, PubMed e SciELO, utilizando os descritores "marijuana abuse", "cannabis abuse", "psychiatri [...] c disorders" AND "mental disorders"; incluindo artigos que avaliaram ambas as exposições para abuso e dependência de cannabis e qualquer outro transtorno psiquiátrico. Foi considerado o período até dezembro de 2009. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o abuso frequente de cannabis pode aumentar o risco para o desenvolvimento de esquizofrenia e de sintomas psicóticos crônicos, embora estes achados ainda careçam de comprovação. A cannabis parece ser uma das drogas de escolha de portadores de transtorno afetivo bipolar, sendo que é descrito que estados maníacos podem ser induzidos pelo seu consumo. O abuso de maconha também frequentemente co-ocorre em indivíduos com transtornos ansiosos, sendo que a relação de cronicidade destas condições e o consumo de maconha ainda é incerta. Para depressão ainda não existem evidências claras que apontem que o consumo de cannabis ocorre como forma de automedicação. Em indivíduos com transtornos psiquiátricos, há relatos de que o uso da cannabis pode exacerbar sintomas positivos, somar efeitos negativos no curso do transtorno, contribuir para pior adesão ao tratamento e levar a maior número de hospitalizações. CONCLUSÃO: O abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos como esquizofrenia, transtornos do humor e ansiosos tem impacto negativo tanto na fase aguda quanto em fases mais avançadas destas condições, embora futuros estudos avaliando estas associações ainda sejam necessários. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To perform an update on cannabis abuse by patients with psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A search was performed in the electronic databases Medline, The Cochrane Library Database, Lilacs, PubMed, and SciELO, using the keywords 'marijuana abuse', 'cannabis abuse', 'psychiatric disorders', an [...] d 'mental disorders'. Articles published until December 2009, dealing with cannabis abuse and dependence in association with other psychiatric disorders were included. RESULTS: Cannabis abuse was found to be associated with increased risk for the onset of schizophrenia and chronic psychotic symptoms, although these findings require confirmation from additional research. Cannabis seems to be one of the drugs of choice of individuals with bipolar disorder, despite evidence that manic states can be induced by its use. Cannabis abuse also occurs frequently in individuals with anxiety disorders, but the relationship between the chronic nature of these conditions and the use of marijuana remains uncertain. In respect to depression, there is no clear evidence to date that depressive patients use cannabis as a form of self-medication. In individuals with psychiatric disorders, the use of cannabis has been associated with increased positive symptoms, additional negative symptoms in the course of illness, impaired treatment compliance, and more hospitalizations. CONCLUSION: The abuse of cannabis by patients with psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and mood and anxious disorders has a negative impact both in the acute and advanced stages of these conditions, although further investigation on this association is still necessary.

Alessandra, Diehl; Daniel Cruz, Cordeiro; Ronaldo, Laranjeira.

56

Abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos: atualização para uma antiga evidência / Cannabis abuse in patients with psychiatric disorders: an update to old evidence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Realizar uma atualização sobre o abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos. MÉTODO: Busca de artigos nas bases de dados eletrônicas Medline, The Cochrane Library Database, Lilacs, PubMed e SciELO, utilizando os descritores "marijuana abuse", "cannabis abuse", "psychiatri [...] c disorders" AND "mental disorders"; incluindo artigos que avaliaram ambas as exposições para abuso e dependência de cannabis e qualquer outro transtorno psiquiátrico. Foi considerado o período até dezembro de 2009. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o abuso frequente de cannabis pode aumentar o risco para o desenvolvimento de esquizofrenia e de sintomas psicóticos crônicos, embora estes achados ainda careçam de comprovação. A cannabis parece ser uma das drogas de escolha de portadores de transtorno afetivo bipolar, sendo que é descrito que estados maníacos podem ser induzidos pelo seu consumo. O abuso de maconha também frequentemente co-ocorre em indivíduos com transtornos ansiosos, sendo que a relação de cronicidade destas condições e o consumo de maconha ainda é incerta. Para depressão ainda não existem evidências claras que apontem que o consumo de cannabis ocorre como forma de automedicação. Em indivíduos com transtornos psiquiátricos, há relatos de que o uso da cannabis pode exacerbar sintomas positivos, somar efeitos negativos no curso do transtorno, contribuir para pior adesão ao tratamento e levar a maior número de hospitalizações. CONCLUSÃO: O abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos como esquizofrenia, transtornos do humor e ansiosos tem impacto negativo tanto na fase aguda quanto em fases mais avançadas destas condições, embora futuros estudos avaliando estas associações ainda sejam necessários. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To perform an update on cannabis abuse by patients with psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A search was performed in the electronic databases Medline, The Cochrane Library Database, Lilacs, PubMed, and SciELO, using the keywords 'marijuana abuse', 'cannabis abuse', 'psychiatric disorders', an [...] d 'mental disorders'. Articles published until December 2009, dealing with cannabis abuse and dependence in association with other psychiatric disorders were included. RESULTS: Cannabis abuse was found to be associated with increased risk for the onset of schizophrenia and chronic psychotic symptoms, although these findings require confirmation from additional research. Cannabis seems to be one of the drugs of choice of individuals with bipolar disorder, despite evidence that manic states can be induced by its use. Cannabis abuse also occurs frequently in individuals with anxiety disorders, but the relationship between the chronic nature of these conditions and the use of marijuana remains uncertain. In respect to depression, there is no clear evidence to date that depressive patients use cannabis as a form of self-medication. In individuals with psychiatric disorders, the use of cannabis has been associated with increased positive symptoms, additional negative symptoms in the course of illness, impaired treatment compliance, and more hospitalizations. CONCLUSION: The abuse of cannabis by patients with psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and mood and anxious disorders has a negative impact both in the acute and advanced stages of these conditions, although further investigation on this association is still necessary.

Alessandra, Diehl; Daniel Cruz, Cordeiro; Ronaldo, Laranjeira.

2010-05-01

57

Cannabis abuse in patients with schizophrenia pattern and effects on symptomatology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the relationship between cannabis abuse and its impact on the short-term outcome and severity of illness. ICD-10 criteria were used for diagnosis of schizophrenia. Severity and type of schizophrenic symptoms were assessed with the help of PANSS. Cases were identified as having problem with cannabis use with the help of section 12 of Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) W.H.O. 1994. Amount, duration and frequency of cannabis use was also noted. Patients with cannabis use were younger had shorter duration of illness and earlier age at onset of illness. They exhibited more positive symptoms. A total of 20% cases met ICD-10 criteria of harmful use of cannabinoid, 76% met ICD-10 criteria of cannabinoid dependence syndrome. Schizophrenic patients with comorbid cannabis abuse exhibited more positive symptoms and violent behavior, and may be more likely to lead to dependence in persons with schizophrenia. This has implication for service development to meet the perceived needs of this group. (author)

58

Does liberalizing cannabis laws increase cannabis use?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A key question in the ongoing policy debate over cannabis' legal status is whether liberalizing cannabis laws leads to an increase in cannabis use. This paper provides new evidence on the impact of a specific type of liberalization, decriminalization, on initiation into cannabis use. Our identification strategy exploits variation in the timing of cannabis policy reforms and our estimation framework marries a difference-in-difference approach with a discrete time duration model. Our results re...

Williams, Jenny; Bretteville-jensen, Anne Line

2014-01-01

59

How high: Quantity as a predictor of cannabis-related problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on cannabis use has emphasized frequency as a predictor of problems. Studies of other drugs reveal that frequency relates to psychological and physiological outcomes, but quantity also plays an important role. In the study of cannabis, quantity has been difficult to assess due to the wide range of products and means of consumption. Methods The present study introduces three new measures of quantity, and examines their contribution to cannabis-related problems. Over 5,900 adults using cannabis once or more per month completed an internet survey that inquired about use, dependence, social problems and respiratory health. In addition to detailing their frequency of cannabis use, participants also reported three measures of quantity: number of quarter ounces consumed per month, usual intensity of intoxication, and maximum intensity of intoxication. Results Frequency of use, monthly consumption, and levels of intoxication predicted respiratory symptoms, social problems and dependence. What is more, each measure of quantity accounted for significant variance in outcomes after controlling for the effects of frequency. Conclusion These findings indicate that quantity is an important predictor of cannabis-related outcomes, and that the three quantity measures convey useful information about use.

Earleywine Mitch

2008-05-01

60

Successful and unsuccessful cannabis quitters: Comparing group characteristics and quitting strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve treatments for cannabis use disorder, a better understanding of factors associated with successful quitting is required. Method This study examined differences between successful (n = 87 and unsuccessful (n = 78 cannabis quitters. Participants completed a questionnaire addressing demographic, mental health, and cannabis-related variables, as well as quitting strategies during their most recent quit attempt. Results Eighteen strategies derived from cognitive behavioral therapy were entered into a principal components analysis. The analysis yielded four components, representing (1 Stimulus Removal, (2 Motivation Enhancement, (3 (lack of Distraction, and (4 (lack of Coping. Between groups comparisons showed that unsuccessful quitters scored significantly higher on Motivation Enhancement and (lack of Coping. This may indicate that unsuccessful quitters focus on the desire to quit, but do not sufficiently plan strategies for coping. Unsuccessful quitters also had significantly more symptoms of depression and stress; less education; lower exposure to formal treatment; higher day-to-day exposure to other cannabis users; and higher cannabis dependence scores. Conclusions The findings suggest that coping, environmental modification, and co-morbid mental health problems may be important factors to emphasize in treatments for cannabis use disorder.

Rooke Sally E

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
61

Cannabis psychosis and paranoid schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The initial clinical symptoms of 25 consecutive cases of cannabis psychosis of the paranoid type and 25 consecutive cases of paranoid schizophrenia were studied and compared, in order to delineate features that would enable a differentiation of the two conditions. It was observed that the patients with cannabis psychosis substantially differed in terms of behavioral manifestations. Most of these patients were violent and panicky and demonstrated bizzare behavior, but they possessed some insight into the nature of their illness. Schizophrenic patients manifested these disturbances and characteristics less frequently. Subjects with cannabis psychosis showed rapid ideation and flight of ideas, whereas the characteristic schizophrenic thought-disorder was found mostly in schizophrenic patients. PMID:1259526

Thacore, V R; Shukla, S R

1976-03-01

62

Polysubstance use in cannabis users referred for treatment: Drug use profiles, psychiatric comorbidity and cannabis-related beliefs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Conclusion: In a sample of cannabis users referred for treatment, wide-ranging substance use was associated with elevated risk on measures of cannabis dependence, comorbid psychopathology and dysfunctional cannabis cognitions. These findings have implications for cognitive-behavioural assessment and treatment.

JasonPaulConnor

2013-08-01

63

Applying a Social Determinants of Health Perspective to Early Adolescent Cannabis Use--An Overview  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world. Although the risk of problematic cannabis use is relatively low, the lifetime prevalence of dependence is greater than for all other illicit drugs. As such, the population burden of problematic cannabis use warrants attention. Many health and psychosocial risks associated with cannabis

Hyshka, Elaine

2013-01-01

64

La cannabis.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En los últimos 20 ó 30 años hemos visto nuevos tipos de drogas que anteriormente no existían en nuestro mundo occidental o bien tenían una difusión bastante localizada y estable; me refiero, sobre todo, a los psicofármacos, los opiáceos y la cannabis corno las más importantes sin olvidar, no obstante, otras también actuales: los alucinógenos (sintéticos y naturales, inhalantes, etc. Estas nuevas r drogas conviven en nuestra sociedad con las otras más clásicas y generadoras de multitud de problemas como son el alcohol y el tabaco

José Vicente Stalrich Canet

1981-01-01

65

Screening of cannabis-related problems among youth: the CPQ-A-S and CAST questionnaires  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis use among young people is a significant problem, making particularly necessary validated screening instruments that permit secondary prevention. The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the psychometric properties of the CAST and CPQ-A-S questionnaires, two screening instruments specifically addressing the youth population. Methods Information was obtained on sociodemographics, frequency of substance use, psychopathological symptoms and cannabis-use problems, and the CPQ-A-S and CAST were applied, as well as an infrequency scale for discarding responses made randomly. The sample was made up of 144 young people aged 16 to 20 that had used cannabis in the last month, of which 71.5% were boys. Mean age of the sample was 17.38 years (SD = 1.16. Results The results show that from the psychometric point of view both the CAST and the CPQ-A-S are good screening instruments. Conclusions The CAST is shorter and presents slightly better internal consistency than the CPQ-A-S. Both instruments show high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of young people dependent on cannabis according to the DSM IV-TR criteria. The CPQ-A-S appears to show greater capacity for detecting psychopathological distress associated with use. Both questionnaires yield significant odds ratios as predictors of frequent cannabis use and of the DSM IV-TR abuse and dependence criteria. In general, the CPQ-A-S emerges as a better predictor than the CAST.

Fernandez-Artamendi Sergio

2012-04-01

66

Does liberalizing cannabis laws increase cannabis use?  

Science.gov (United States)

A key question in the ongoing policy debate over cannabis' legal status is whether liberalizing cannabis laws leads to an increase in cannabis use. This paper provides new evidence on the impact of a specific type of liberalization, decriminalization, on initiation into cannabis use. Our identification strategy exploits variation in the timing of cannabis policy reforms and our estimation framework marries a difference-in-difference approach with a discrete time duration model. Our results reveal evidence of both heterogeneity and dynamics in the response of cannabis uptake to decriminalization. Overall, we find that the impact of decriminalization is concentrated amongst minors, who have a higher rate of uptake in the first five years following its introduction. PMID:24727348

Williams, Jenny; Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line

2014-07-01

67

Neurobiologia da Cannabis: do sistema endocanabinoide aos transtornos por uso de Cannabis Neurobiology of Cannabis: from the endocannabinoid system to cannabis-related disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Diante das lacunas na efetividade das terapêuticas para transtornos por uso de Cannabis, a droga ilícita mais consumida no mundo, este trabalho propõe-se a rever os conhecimentos sobre o substrato neuroanatômico, biomolecular e celular do sistema endocanabinoide, descrever os mecanismos de neuroplasticidade dependente dos canabinoides e relacioná-los com a neurobiologia dos transtornos por uso de Cannabis (abuso e dependência. MÉTODOS: Recorreu-se às bases de dados Medline, Scopus e ISI Web of Knowledge; as palavras-chave pesquisadas foram "Cannabis", "neurobiology", "endocannabinoid system", "endocannabinoids", "receptors, cannabinoid", "neuronal plasticity", "long-term synaptic depression", "long-term potentiation", "marijuana abuse" e "tetrahydrocannabinol". Foram incluídos 80 trabalhos nesta revisão. DISCUSSÃO: A distribuição neuroanatômica, celular e biomolecular do sistema endocanabinoide adequa-se perfeitamente às suas funções de neuromodulação (via neuroplasticidade e metaplasticidade, nomeadamente em vias relacionadas aos transtornos por uso de substâncias. Os canabinoides exógenos perturbam essas funções. CONCLUSÃO: O sistema endocanabinoide contribui para a definição de setpoints em diversas vias neuronais, incluindo vias cruciais na instalação de transtornos por uso de substâncias; com o uso de Cannabis, esses setpoints tornar-se-ão mais permissivos, facilitando os transtornos por uso de Cannabis. Os avanços no entendimento da neurobiologia da Cannabis abrem uma janela de oportunidades para novas estratégias terapêuticas nos transtornos por uso de Cannabis.OBJECTIVES: Given the challenges arising from the poor effectiveness of therapies for Cannabis-related disorders, the most commonly used illicit drug in the world, this paper aims to review the present knowledge about the neuroanatomic, biomolecular and cellular substrate of the endocannabinoid system, describing the mechanisms of cannabinoid-dependent neuronal plasticity and relating them with the neurobiology of Cannabis-related disorders (abuse and dependence. METHODS: Medline, Scopus and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched for the keywords "Cannabis", "neurobiology", "endocannabinoid system", "endocannabinoids", "receptors, cannabinoid", "neuronal plasticity", "long-term synaptic depression", "long-term potentiation", "marijuana abuse" and "tetrahydrocannabinol". Eighty studies were included in this review. DISCUSSION: The neuroanatomical, cellular and biomolecular characterization of the endocannabinoid system serves perfectly its neuromodulatory neuroplastic and metaplastic functions, particularly in pathways related to substance-related disorders. Exogenous cannabinoids disrupt these functions. CONCLUSION: The endocannabinoid system contributes to the definition of setpoints in several neuronal pathways, including pathways critical for the development of substance-related disorders; with Cannabis use these setpoints become more permissive, facilitating Cannabis-related disorders. The advances in understanding the neurobiology of Cannabis open a window of opportunities for new therapeutic strategies in Cannabis-related disorders.

José Luis G. Pinho Costa

2011-01-01

68

Neurobiologia da Cannabis: do sistema endocanabinoide aos transtornos por uso de Cannabis / Neurobiology of Cannabis: from the endocannabinoid system to cannabis-related disorders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Diante das lacunas na efetividade das terapêuticas para transtornos por uso de Cannabis, a droga ilícita mais consumida no mundo, este trabalho propõe-se a rever os conhecimentos sobre o substrato neuroanatômico, biomolecular e celular do sistema endocanabinoide, descrever os mecanismos d [...] e neuroplasticidade dependente dos canabinoides e relacioná-los com a neurobiologia dos transtornos por uso de Cannabis (abuso e dependência). MÉTODOS: Recorreu-se às bases de dados Medline, Scopus e ISI Web of Knowledge; as palavras-chave pesquisadas foram "Cannabis", "neurobiology", "endocannabinoid system", "endocannabinoids", "receptors, cannabinoid", "neuronal plasticity", "long-term synaptic depression", "long-term potentiation", "marijuana abuse" e "tetrahydrocannabinol". Foram incluídos 80 trabalhos nesta revisão. DISCUSSÃO: A distribuição neuroanatômica, celular e biomolecular do sistema endocanabinoide adequa-se perfeitamente às suas funções de neuromodulação (via neuroplasticidade e metaplasticidade), nomeadamente em vias relacionadas aos transtornos por uso de substâncias. Os canabinoides exógenos perturbam essas funções. CONCLUSÃO: O sistema endocanabinoide contribui para a definição de setpoints em diversas vias neuronais, incluindo vias cruciais na instalação de transtornos por uso de substâncias; com o uso de Cannabis, esses setpoints tornar-se-ão mais permissivos, facilitando os transtornos por uso de Cannabis. Os avanços no entendimento da neurobiologia da Cannabis abrem uma janela de oportunidades para novas estratégias terapêuticas nos transtornos por uso de Cannabis. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Given the challenges arising from the poor effectiveness of therapies for Cannabis-related disorders, the most commonly used illicit drug in the world, this paper aims to review the present knowledge about the neuroanatomic, biomolecular and cellular substrate of the endocannabinoid syst [...] em, describing the mechanisms of cannabinoid-dependent neuronal plasticity and relating them with the neurobiology of Cannabis-related disorders (abuse and dependence). METHODS: Medline, Scopus and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched for the keywords "Cannabis", "neurobiology", "endocannabinoid system", "endocannabinoids", "receptors, cannabinoid", "neuronal plasticity", "long-term synaptic depression", "long-term potentiation", "marijuana abuse" and "tetrahydrocannabinol". Eighty studies were included in this review. DISCUSSION: The neuroanatomical, cellular and biomolecular characterization of the endocannabinoid system serves perfectly its neuromodulatory neuroplastic and metaplastic functions, particularly in pathways related to substance-related disorders. Exogenous cannabinoids disrupt these functions. CONCLUSION: The endocannabinoid system contributes to the definition of setpoints in several neuronal pathways, including pathways critical for the development of substance-related disorders; with Cannabis use these setpoints become more permissive, facilitating Cannabis-related disorders. The advances in understanding the neurobiology of Cannabis open a window of opportunities for new therapeutic strategies in Cannabis-related disorders.

José Luis G. Pinho, Costa; Lucas O., Maia; P., Orlandi-Mattos; João C., Villares; Manuel A. Fernandez, Esteves.

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Variability of cannabis potency in the Venice area (Italy): a survey over the period 2010-2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance globally, with an estimated annual prevalence in 2010 of 2.6-5.0% of the adult population. Concerns have been expressed about increases in the potency of cannabis products. A high tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content can increase anxiety, depression, and psychotic symptoms, and can increase the risk of dependence and adverse effects on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems in regular users. The aim of this study was to report statistical data about the potency of cannabis products seized in the north-east of Italy, in a geographical area centred in Venice and extending for more than 10,000? km(2) with a population of more than two million, by investigating the variability observed in THC levels of about 4000 samples of cannabis products analyzed over the period 2010-2012. Overall median THC content showed an increasing trend over the study period from about 6.0% to 8.1% (6.2-8.9% for cannabis resin, 5.1-7.6% for herbal cannabis). The variation in the THC content of individual samples was very large, ranging from 0.3% to 31% for cannabis resin and from 0.1 to 19% for herbal cannabis. Median CBN:THC ratios showed a slightly decreasing trend over the study period, from 0.09 (2010) to 0.03 (2012), suggesting an increasing freshness of submitted materials. Median CBD:THC ratios also showed a decreasing trend over the study from about 0.52 (2010) to 0.18 (2012), likely due to the increase in submissions of materials from indoor and domestic cultivation with improved breeding methods. PMID:23868754

Zamengo, Luca; Frison, Giampietro; Bettin, Chiara; Sciarrone, Rocco

2014-01-01

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Two cases of "cannabis acute psychosis" following the administration of oral cannabis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal drug and its therapeutic aspects have a growing interest. Short-term psychotic reactions have been described but not clearly with synthetic oral THC, especially in occasional users. Case presentations We report two cases of healthy subjects who were occasional but regular cannabis users without psychiatric history who developed transient psychotic symptoms (depersonalization, paranoid feelings and d...

Pin Marie; Buclin Thierry; Appenzeller Monique; Rothuizen Laura E.; Augsburger Marc; Ménétrey Annick; Favrat Bernard; Mangin Patrice; Giroud Christian

2005-01-01

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Cannabis and Breast feeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

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Methods for clinical research involving cannabis administration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Better scientific understanding of cannabis effects and the development of treatments for cannabis dependence require clinical studies involving cannabis administration. Cannabis can be administered by smoking a plant-derived cigarette or by oral or intravenous administration of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive chemical in cannabis. The smoked route is most commonly used outside the laboratory, but is subject to wide variation in absorbed dose. Oral synthetic THC is a legally marketed medication (dronabinol), also subject to wide pharmacokinetic variation, but offering a greater safety margin because of slower onset of action and lower potency. Intravenous THC offers precise investigator control of dose and timing. Acute adverse effects of cannabis administration include tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension, pulmonary irritation (if smoked), motor incoordination, cognitive impairment, anxiety, paranoia, and psychosis. Screening of research subjects should identify and exclude those with risk factors for such events, e.g., a history of significant cardiovascular, pulmonary, or psychiatric disorders. Monitoring of subjects during cannabis administration should include heart rate, blood pressure, and mental status. Subjects should not be discharged from research participation until reevaluation has shown that they have returned to baseline status. PMID:16506412

Gorelick, David A; Heishman, Stephen J

2006-01-01

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Cannabidiol inhibits THC-elicited paranoid symptoms and hippocampal-dependent memory impairment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-based studies suggest that cannabis products that are high in ??-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but low in cannabidiol (CBD) are particularly hazardous for mental health. Laboratory-based studies are ideal for clarifying this issue because THC and CBD can be administered in pure form, under controlled conditions. In a between-subjects design, we tested the hypothesis that pre-treatment with CBD inhibited THC-elicited psychosis and cognitive impairment. Healthy participants were randomised to receive oral CBD 600 mg (n=22) or placebo (n=26), 210 min ahead of intravenous (IV) THC (1.5 mg). Post-THC, there were lower PANSS positive scores in the CBD group, but this did not reach statistical significance. However, clinically significant positive psychotic symptoms (defined a priori as increases ? 3 points) were less likely in the CBD group compared with the placebo group, odds ratio (OR)=0.22 (?²=4.74, pCBD group compared with the placebo group (t=2.28, pCBD group (-0.4% ± 9.7 %) (t=2.39, pCBD cannabis products are associated with increased risks for mental health. PMID:23042808

Englund, Amir; Morrison, Paul D; Nottage, Judith; Hague, Dominic; Kane, Fergus; Bonaccorso, Stefania; Stone, James M; Reichenberg, Avi; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Holt, David; Feilding, Amanda; Walker, Lucy; Murray, Robin M; Kapur, Shitij

2013-01-01

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[Epidemiological news in cannabis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis is by far the most common illicit drug in France. Among 15-64 years, 32.1% have already experienced it and 8.4% declare they have used it at least once during the past twelve months. In Europe, France is one of the countries with the highest prevalence. Males are markedly more often cannabis users than females and this gender gap tends to increase with the level of use. During the last two decades, the part of the population having tried cannabis did not stop increasing, under the influence of a generalization of the cannabis experience among young people. However, cannabis last year prevalence is rather stable since 2000. Cannabis lifetime use is very rare at the beginning of middle school (1.5% in sixth grade at age 11) but increases in the following years (11% of the pupils of the eighth grade, 24% of the pupils of the ninth grade). Cannabis use at a younger age is related to subsequent onset of cannabis related problems. Adolescent and young adults from high socioeconomic status (SES) more often try cannabis than young people from lower SES. However, cannabis regular use is associated with bad school results, truancy and early school leaving, and with a lower SES. Young people from high SES indeed dispose of greater sociocultural resources to master and regulate their consumption and are more often conscious of their interest not to be tipped over in problematic use. PMID:24579342

Beck, François; Guignard, Romain; Richard, Jean-Baptiste

2013-12-01

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Two cases of "cannabis acute psychosis" following the administration of oral cannabis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal drug and its therapeutic aspects have a growing interest. Short-term psychotic reactions have been described but not clearly with synthetic oral THC, especially in occasional users. Case presentations We report two cases of healthy subjects who were occasional but regular cannabis users without psychiatric history who developed transient psychotic symptoms (depersonalization, paranoid feelings and derealisation following oral administration of cannabis. In contrast to most other case reports where circumstances and blood concentrations are unknown, the two cases reported here happened under experimental conditions with all subjects negative for cannabis, opiates, amphetamines, cocaine, benzodiazepines and alcohol, and therefore the ingested dose, the time-events of effects on behavior and performance as well as the cannabinoid blood levels were documented. Conclusion While the oral route of administration achieves only limited blood concentrations, significant psychotic reactions may occur.

Pin Marie

2005-04-01

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The recent Australian debate about the prohibition on cannabis use.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper outlines the ethical arguments used in the Australian debate about whether or not to relax the prohibition on cannabis use by adults. Over the past two decades a rising prevalence of cannabis use in the Australian population has led to proposals for the decriminalization of the personal use of cannabis. Three states and territories have removed criminal penalties for personal use while criminal penalties are rarely imposed in the remaining states. Libertarian arguments for legalization of cannabis use have attracted a great deal of media interest but very little public and political support. Other arguments in favour of decriminalization have attracted more support. One has been the utilitarian argument that prohibition has failed to deter cannabis use and the social costs of its continuation outweigh any benefits that it produces. Another has been the argument from hypocrisy that cannabis is less harmful than alcohol and so, on the grounds of consistency, if alcohol is legally available then so should cannabis. To date public opinion has not favoured legalization, although support for the decriminalization of personal cannabis use has increased. In the long term, the outcome of the debate may depend more upon trends in cannabis use and social attitudes among young adults than upon the persuasiveness of the arguments for a relaxation of the prohibition of cannabis. PMID:9374007

Hall, W

1997-09-01

77

Determination of pesticide residues in cannabis smoke.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks. PMID:23737769

Sullivan, Nicholas; Elzinga, Sytze; Raber, Jeffrey C

2013-01-01

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Psychosis and cannabis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Alcohol and cannabis misuse is currently the most frequent co-morbidity disorder of schizophrenia. The following four issues will be dealt with: 1) the neurobiological basis of the psychosis-inducing, pathogenic effects of THC, the agent contained in cannabis products. 2) Can cannabis use - and for comparison alcohol abuse - prematurely trigger or even cause schizophrenia? 3) Are persons genetically liable to schizophrenia, psychosis-prone individuals or young persons before completion of bra...

Heinz Häfner

2005-01-01

79

Survey of Australians using cannabis for medical purposes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The New South Wales State Government recently proposed a trial of the medical use of cannabis. Australians who currently use cannabis medicinally do so illegally and without assurances of quality control. Given the dearth of local information on this issue, this study explored the experiences of medical cannabis users. Methods Australian adults who had used cannabis for medical purposes were recruited using media stories. A total of 147 respondents were screened by phone and anonymous questionnaires were mailed, to be returned by postage paid envelope. Results Data were available for 128 participants. Long term and regular medical cannabis use was frequently reported for multiple medical conditions including chronic pain (57%, depression (56%, arthritis (35%, persistent nausea (27% and weight loss (26%. Cannabis was perceived to provide "great relief" overall (86%, and substantial relief of specific symptoms such as pain, nausea and insomnia. It was also typically perceived as superior to other medications in terms of undesirable effects, and the extent of relief provided. However, nearly one half (41% experienced conditions or symptoms that were not helped by its use. The most prevalent concerns related to its illegality. Participants reported strong support for their use from clinicians and family. There was almost universal interest (89% in participating in a clinical trial of medical cannabis, and strong support (79% for investigating alternative delivery methods. Conclusion Australian medical cannabis users are risking legal ramifications, but consistent with users elsewhere, claim moderate to substantial benefits from its use in the management of their medical condition. In addition to strong public support, medical cannabis users show strong interest in clinical cannabis research, including the investigation of alternative delivery methods.

Dillon Paul

2005-10-01

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Rate of Cannabis Use Disorders in Clinical Samples of Patients With Schizophrenia: A Meta-analysis  

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Objective: Our aim was to review recent studies and estimate the rate of cannabis use disorders (CUDs) in schizophrenia, as well as to examine the factors affecting this rate. Methods: We conducted an electronic search of 3 literature databases and a manual search of articles from 1996 to 2008. The key words used were “schizophreni*,” “psychos*s,” “psychotic,” “cannabis abuse,” “cannabis dependence,” “cannabis use disorder,” “substance use disorder,” “substance a...

Koskinen, Johanna; Lo?ho?nen, Johanna; Koponen, Hannu; Isohanni, Matti; Miettunen, Jouko

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Adolescent cannabis use, psychosis and catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype in African Americans and Caucasians.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis has been reported as a likely risk factor for the development of psychosis, and a gene × environment interaction with the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has been proposed. Moreover, COMT has been separately linked to affective symptoms in psychosis. Despite a high rate of cannabis abuse and affective symptoms in African Americans, no studies exploring a relationship between COMT and psychosis in this group have been reported. An existing database of psychotic patients with and without adolescent cannabis use/affective symptoms was examined, and chi-square analyses for independence were applied separately for both Caucasians and African-Americans to examine genotype associations with adolescent cannabis use and affective symptoms (past or present). The two subject groups did not differ with respect to the prevalence of adolescent cannabis abuse or presence of affective symptoms. Further study is needed, with non-psychotic controls and larger samples. PMID:19633959

Kantrowitz, Joshua T; Nolan, Karen A; Sen, Srijan; Simen, Arthur A; Lachman, Herbert M; Bowers, Malcolm B

2009-12-01

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TREATMENT TRIAL AND LONG-TERM FOLLOW-UP EVALUATION AMONG COMORBID YOUTH WITH MAJOR DEPRESSION AND A CANNABIS USE DISORDER  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective This study compared the acute phase (12-week) and the long-term (1 year) efficacy of fluoxetine versus placebo for the treatment of the depressive symptoms and the cannabis use of youth with comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) and an cannabis use disorder (CUD)(cannabis dependence or cannabis abuse). We hypothesized that fluoxetine would demonstrate efficacy in the acute phase trial and at the 1-year follow-up evaluation. Data is also provided regarding the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors in our study sample. Methods We recently completed the first double-blind placebo-controlled study of fluoxetine in adolescents and young adults with comorbid MDD/CUD. A total of 70 persons participated in the acute phase trial, and 68 of those persons (97%) also participated in the 1-year follow-up evaluation. Results of the acute phase study have already been presented (Cornelius, Bukstein, et al., 2010), but the results of the 1 year follow-up assessment have not been published previously. All participants in both treatment groups also received manual-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and motivation enhancement therapy (MET) during the 12-week course of the study. The 1-year follow-up evaluation was conducted to assess whether the clinical improvements noted during the acute phase trial persisted long term. Results During the acute phase trial, subjects in both the fluoxetine group and the placebo group showed significant within-group improvement in depressive symptoms and in cannabis-related symptoms. However, no significant difference was noted between the floxetine group and the placebo group on any treatment outcome variable during the acute phase trial. End of study levels of depressive symptoms were low in both the fluoxetine group and the placebo group. Most of the clinical improvements in depressive symptoms and for cannabis-related symptoms persisted at the 1-year follow-up evaluation. Conclusions Fluoxetine did not demonstrate greater efficacy than placebo for treating either the depressive symptoms or the cannabis-related symptoms of our study sample during the acute phase study or at the 1-year follow-up assessment. The lack of a significant treatment effect for fluoxetine may at least in part reflect efficacy of the CBT/MET psychotherapy. A persistence of the efficacy of the acute phase treatment was noted at the 1-year follow-up evaluation, suggesting long-term effectiveness for the CBT/MET psychotherapy. PMID:25328373

Cornelius, Jack R.; Salloum, Ihsan M.; Ferrell, Robert; Douaihy, Antoine B.; Hayes, Jeanie; Kirisci, Levent; Horner, Michelle; Daley, Dennis C.

2013-01-01

83

CANNABIS RELATED PSYCHIATRIC SYNDROMES: A SELECTIVE REVIEW  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Association between cannabis use and various psychiatric syndromes does exist, but their nature remains elusive. Cannabis intoxication, ‘cannabis psychosis’ and certain other conditions related with cannabis use like flashbacks and prolonged depersonalization are discussed in this paper. The controversial nature of the cannabis - schizophrenia link is noted, and various methodological issues in clinical cannabis research are highlighted.

Basu, Debasish; Malhotra, Anil; Varma, Vijoy K.

1994-01-01

84

Reducing the harms caused by cannabis use: the policy debate in Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The debate about cannabis policy in Australia has revolved around the harms that cannabis causes to users and the community, on the one hand, and the harms that are caused by the prohibition of its use, on the other. This paper assesses evidence on: (1) the harms caused to users and the community by cannabis use (derived from the international scientific literature) and (2) the harms that arise from prohibition (as reflected in Australian research). The most probable harms caused by cannabis use include: an increased risk of motor vehicle accidents; respiratory disease; dependence; adverse effects on adolescent development; and the exacerbation of psychosis. The harms of the current prohibition on cannabis use policy are less tangible but probably include: the creation of a large blackmarket; disrespect for a widely broken law; harms to the reputation of the unlucky few cannabis users who are caught and prosecuted; lack of access to cannabis for medical uses; and an inefficient use of law enforcement resources. Cannabis policy unavoidably involves trade offs between competing values that should be made by the political process. Australian cannabis policy has converged on a solution which continues to prohibit cannabis but reduces the severity of penalties for cannabis use by either removing criminal penalties or diverting first time cannabis offenders into treatment and education. PMID:11295320

Hall, W

2001-05-01

85

Cannabis Use When it's Legal  

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This paper uses information about prime age individuals living in Amsterdam, to study whether the use of alcohol, or tobacco stimulates the use cannabis, i.e. whether alcohol or cannabis are stepping stones for cannabis.The special element of the study is that it concerns the use in an environment where not only alcohol and tobacco but also cannabis is a legal drug.It turns out that alcohol and cannabis are intertemporal substitutes while tobacco and cannabis are intertemporal complements.Onl...

Ours, J. C.

2005-01-01

86

Cannabis og graviditet.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In two Copenhagen University hospitals 12,885 pregnant women, seen during the period 1.8.1992 to 30.04.1995, answered questionnaires regarding consumption of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other drugs. The prevalence of cannabis use was 0.8%. Women using cannabis but no other illicit drugs were each retrospectively matched with four randomly chosen pregnant women in the same period and the same age group and with same parity. Eighty-four cannabis users were included. These women were socioeconomically disadvantaged and had a higher prevalence of present and past use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. No significant difference in pregnancy, delivery or puerperal outcome was found. Children of women using cannabis were 150 g lighter, 1.2 cm shorter and had 0.2 cm smaller head circumference than the control infants. Controlling for the child's sex and maternal use of alcohol did not eliminate the significant differences in birthweight and length; however, they were eliminated by controlling for maternal tobacco smoking. It is concluded, that the use of cannabis is not a major prognostic factor regarding the outcome of pregnancy, but is an indicator of low socioeconomic status and use of other substances.

Balle, J; Olofsson, May Jonna

1999-01-01

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Abuso e dependência de maconha: comparação entre sexos e preparação para mudanças comportamentais entre usuários que iniciam a busca por tratamento Cannabis abuse and dependency: differences between men and women and readiness to behavior change among users seeking treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever o perfil sociodemográfico de usuários de maconha que iniciam tratamento e comparar os sexos dos indivíduos em relação aos estágios de prontidão para mudança e uso associado de outras drogas. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal descritivo, com amostra não probabilística de indivíduos que ligaram para um teleatendimento especializado em dependência química. RESULTADOS: A amostra se constituiu de 72% de indivíduos do sexo masculino na faixa etária de 12 a 25 anos. Um percentual de 85,5% fazia uso associado de outras drogas. O estágio motivacional predominante foi de ação (56%, sem diferenças entre sexos (p = 0,4. Os homens mais frequentemente procuraram auxílio para o tratamento do uso de maconha. CONCLUSÕES: Com base nesses dados, foi possível delinear o perfil dos usuários de maconha para auxiliar no direcionamento de informações e atendimento adequado.OBJECTIVES: To describe the social and demographic profile of cannabis users seeking treatment and to compare differences between sex in relation to readiness to behavior change and in relation to associated use of marijuana and other drugs. METHOD: A cross-sectional, descriptive study including a nonprobability sample of individuals who called a chemical dependency hotline. RESULTS: The sample comprised 72% male individuals aged between 12 and 25 years. The sample was composed by 85.5% used other drugs in association with cannabis. The action stage was the most frequent stage of readiness to behavior change observed, in 56% of the callers, with no differences between sex (p = 0.4. Men more frequently sought treatment for the use of cannabis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings allowed delineating a profile of cannabis users, so as to better guide the provision of adequate information and treatment services.

Simone Fernandes

2010-01-01

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Abuso e dependência de maconha: comparação entre sexos e preparação para mudanças comportamentais entre usuários que iniciam a busca por tratamento / Cannabis abuse and dependency: differences between men and women and readiness to behavior change among users seeking treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Descrever o perfil sociodemográfico de usuários de maconha que iniciam tratamento e comparar os sexos dos indivíduos em relação aos estágios de prontidão para mudança e uso associado de outras drogas. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal descritivo, com amostra não probabilística de indivíduos que [...] ligaram para um teleatendimento especializado em dependência química. RESULTADOS: A amostra se constituiu de 72% de indivíduos do sexo masculino na faixa etária de 12 a 25 anos. Um percentual de 85,5% fazia uso associado de outras drogas. O estágio motivacional predominante foi de ação (56%), sem diferenças entre sexos (p = 0,4). Os homens mais frequentemente procuraram auxílio para o tratamento do uso de maconha. CONCLUSÕES: Com base nesses dados, foi possível delinear o perfil dos usuários de maconha para auxiliar no direcionamento de informações e atendimento adequado. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To describe the social and demographic profile of cannabis users seeking treatment and to compare differences between sex in relation to readiness to behavior change and in relation to associated use of marijuana and other drugs. METHOD: A cross-sectional, descriptive study including a n [...] onprobability sample of individuals who called a chemical dependency hotline. RESULTS: The sample comprised 72% male individuals aged between 12 and 25 years. The sample was composed by 85.5% used other drugs in association with cannabis. The action stage was the most frequent stage of readiness to behavior change observed, in 56% of the callers, with no differences between sex (p = 0.4). Men more frequently sought treatment for the use of cannabis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings allowed delineating a profile of cannabis users, so as to better guide the provision of adequate information and treatment services.

Simone, Fernandes; Maristela, Ferigolo; Mariana Canellas, Benchaya; Pollianna Sangalli, Pierozan; Taís de Campos, Moreira; Vagner dos, Santos; Cláudia Galvão, Mazoni; Helena Maria Tannhauser, Barros.

89

Long-term effects of cannabis on brain structure.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dose-dependent toxicity of the main psychoactive component of cannabis in brain regions rich in cannabinoid CB1 receptors is well known in animal studies. However, research in humans does not show common findings across studies regarding the brain regions that are affected after long-term exposure to cannabis. In the present study, we investigate (using Voxel-based Morphometry) gray matter changes in a group of regular cannabis smokers in comparison with a group of occasional smokers matched by the years of cannabis use. We provide evidence that regular cannabis use is associated with gray matter volume reduction in the medial temporal cortex, temporal pole, parahippocampal gyrus, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex; these regions are rich in cannabinoid CB1 receptors and functionally associated with motivational, emotional, and affective processing. Furthermore, these changes correlate with the frequency of cannabis use in the 3 months before inclusion in the study. The age of onset of drug use also influences the magnitude of these changes. Significant gray matter volume reduction could result either from heavy consumption unrelated to the age of onset or instead from recreational cannabis use initiated at an adolescent age. In contrast, the larger gray matter volume detected in the cerebellum of regular smokers without any correlation with the monthly consumption of cannabis may be related to developmental (ontogenic) processes that occur in adolescence. PMID:24633558

Battistella, Giovanni; Fornari, Eleonora; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Chtioui, Haithem; Dao, Kim; Fabritius, Marie; Favrat, Bernard; Mall, Jean-Frédéric; Maeder, Philippe; Giroud, Christian

2014-08-01

90

Use of micronutrients attenuates cannabis and nicotine abuse as evidenced from a reversal design: a case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prior research shows that micronutrients, particularly amino acids, can assist individuals with substance dependence to quit various drugs of abuse, including cannabis, alcohol, and cocaine. As part of a wider investigation of the impact of micronutrients (mostly vitamins and minerals) on psychiatric symptoms, such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), depression, and anxiety, we observed that many participants reduced or eliminated use of alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis. One case using a single-case reversal (off-on-off-on-off) design is presented and shows not only on-off control of psychiatric symptoms as micronutrients are consumed or withdrawn, but also simultaneous on-off use of cannabis and cigarettes, despite not directly targeting this substance use as part of the treatment protocol. This case adds to a growing body of research supporting the use of micronutrients in the treatment of psychiatric symptoms and suggests it may extend to substance dependence. Micronutrients, by assisting with mood regulation and reductions in anxiety, may assist with successful cessation of drug use. Alternatively, they may directly impact on the brain reward circuitry believed to be involved in the expression of addictions, thereby providing the appropriate precursors and cofactors necessary for adequate neurotransmitter synthesis. This case should continue to stimulate researchers to consider the role of nutrients, in particular vitamins and minerals, in drug treatment programs and encourage more rigorous trials. PMID:23909004

Harrison, Rachel; Rucklidge, Julia J; Blampied, Neville

2013-01-01

91

Alcohol and Relatively Pure Cannabis Use, but Not Schizotypy, are Associated with Cognitive Attenuations  

Science.gov (United States)

Elevated schizotypy relates to similar cognitive attenuations as seen in psychosis and cannabis/polydrug use. Also, in schizotypal populations cannabis and polydrug (including licit drug) use are enhanced. These cognitive attenuations may therefore either be a behavioral marker of psychotic (-like) symptoms or the consequence of enhanced drug use in schizotypal populations. To elucidate this, we investigated the link between cognitive attenuation and cannabis use in largely pure cannabis users (35) and non-using controls (48), accounting for the potential additional influence of both schizotypy and licit drug use (alcohol, nicotine). Cognitive attenuations commonly seen in psychosis were associated with cannabis and alcohol use, but not schizotypy. Future studies should therefore consider (i) non-excessive licit substance use (e.g., alcohol) in studies investigating the effect of cannabis use on cognition and (ii) both enhanced illicit and licit substance use in studies investigating cognition in schizotypal populations. PMID:25324787

Herzig, Daniela A.; Nutt, David J.; Mohr, Christine

2014-01-01

92

Alcohol and Relatively Pure Cannabis Use, but Not Schizotypy, are Associated with Cognitive Attenuations.  

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Elevated schizotypy relates to similar cognitive attenuations as seen in psychosis and cannabis/polydrug use. Also, in schizotypal populations cannabis and polydrug (including licit drug) use are enhanced. These cognitive attenuations may therefore either be a behavioral marker of psychotic (-like) symptoms or the consequence of enhanced drug use in schizotypal populations. To elucidate this, we investigated the link between cognitive attenuation and cannabis use in largely pure cannabis users (35) and non-using controls (48), accounting for the potential additional influence of both schizotypy and licit drug use (alcohol, nicotine). Cognitive attenuations commonly seen in psychosis were associated with cannabis and alcohol use, but not schizotypy. Future studies should therefore consider (i) non-excessive licit substance use (e.g., alcohol) in studies investigating the effect of cannabis use on cognition and (ii) both enhanced illicit and licit substance use in studies investigating cognition in schizotypal populations. PMID:25324787

Herzig, Daniela A; Nutt, David J; Mohr, Christine

2014-01-01

93

[Alcohol dependence syndrome--symptoms in the oral cavity].  

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Alcohol dependence syndrome is defined as a cluster of physiological, behavioural and cognitive phenomena in which the use of a psychoactive substance takes on a much higher priority for a given individual than other behaviours that once had greater value. In European Union the problem of the addiction affects about 5% of men and 1% of women each year. Long lasting alcohol abuse is detrimental to the whole body, including the oral cavity. The observable changes are usually caused by a convergent impact of a number of factors. The changes differ depending on the chemical features of the consumed substance, the life style adopted - as a consequence of the addiction, simultaneous addiction to nicotine, and finally on the medical treatment applied at different stages of the disease. Pathological changes may occur in all structures in oral cavity (teeth, periodontium, tongue, mucose membrane and salivary glands). Individuals addicted to alcohol revealed high percentage of carious losses and chemical damage enamel and dentine and inflammatory changes of the periapical area of teeth. Presence of these changes is linked unfortunately with low indicator of treatment. There is independence between alcohol addiction and damage of periodontium (clinical attachment level and pocket depth). Results of alcohol abuse may be also double-sided, painless, noninflammatory and non-malignant swelling on salivary glands (sialosis). Alcohol is said to be the risk factor for development of flat-epithelial cancer of the oral cavity. The most frequent localization of cancerous changes is the bottom of the oral cavity and the side of the tongue. PMID:24934540

Surtel, Anna; Klepacz, Robert; Wysoki?ska-Miszczuk, Joanna

2014-01-01

94

Cannabis Responsive Head Injury Induced Mutiple Disabilities: A Case Report  

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Full Text Available In recent years cannabinoids and their derivatives have drawn renewed attention because of their diverse pharmacologic activities. We report here one such case, where all types of medical & psychiatric treatment failed to improve the symptoms; however cannabis use was able to bring back this patient to normal productive & meaningful life. The patient was a 47 year old left handed Caucasian had minor subdural hematoma at the posterior vertex and a minor focal subarachnoid haemorrhage following a physical assault. His impairments included cognitive slowing with decreased short term memory, organized skill & language deficit. His physical disabilities included spastic gait (hemiplegic, VII nerve palsy, mild cerebellar dysfunction, blurred vision and easy fatigue. He was unable to return to work or drive. In addition to cognitive deficit, right hemi paresis & dizziness; he had symptoms of anxiety & depression. Cannabis improved his gait and brought back lots of his memory. Within 6 months all his symptoms abated with use of cannabis and he started to look at cannabis as a real medicine. Slowly he also had improvement in cognitive functions, memory, vocabulary and his gait became increasingly better day by day with continued use of cannabis.

Manju Sharma

2012-01-01

95

Correlates to the variable effects of cannabis in young adults: a preliminary study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis use can frequently have adverse affects in those that use it and these can be amplified by various characteristics of an individual, from demographic and environmental variations to familial predisposition for mental illnesses. Methods The current study of 100 individuals, who were cannabis users during their adolescence and may still be users, was a survey of the self perceived effects of cannabis and their correlates. A reliable family member was also interviewed for determination of family history of various major mental illnesses and substance use. Results As many as 40% of cannabis users had paranoid feelings (suspiciousness when using cannabis, although the most frequent effect was feeling relaxed (46%. Having a familial background for mental illnesses such as depression or schizophrenia did not determine the effects of cannabis nor its pattern of use, although the number of subjects with such a history was small. An age at which an individual began using cannabis did have an effect on how heavily it was used and the heavier the cannabis use, the more likely the individual was also to have had psychotic symptoms after use. There were no sex differences in effects of cannabis. These results are tempered by the reliance on self-report for many of the variables ascertained. Conclusion Cannabis can frequently have negative effects in its users, which can be amplified by certain demographic and/or psychosocial factors. Thus, users with a specific profile may be at a higher risk of unpleasant effects from cannabis use and caution should be noted when cannabis is administered to young people for medicinal purposes.

Camera Ariella A

2012-03-01

96

Medical use of cannabis. Cannabidiol: a new light for schizophrenia?  

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The medical properties of cannabis have been known for many centuries; its first documented use dates back to 2800 BC when it was described for its hallucinogenic and pain-relieving properties. In the first half of the twentieth century, a number of pharmaceutical companies marked cannabis for indications such as asthma and pain, but since then its use has sharply declined, mainly due to its unpredictable effects, but also for socio-political issues. Recently, great attention has been directed to the medical properties of phytocannabinoids present in the cannabis plant alongside the main constituent ??-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); these include cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). Evidence suggests an association between cannabis and schizophrenia: schizophrenics show a higher use of marijuana as compared to the healthy population. Additionally, the use of marijuana can trigger psychotic episodes in schizophrenic patients, and this has been ascribed to THC. Given the need to reduce the side effects of marketed antipsychotics, and their weak efficacy on some schizophrenic symptoms, cannabinoids have been suggested as a possible alternative treatment for schizophrenia. CBD, a non-psychoactive constituent of the Cannabis sativa plant, has been receiving growing attention for its anti-psychotic-like properties. Evidence suggests that CBD can ameliorate positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Behavioural and neurochemical models suggest that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical anti-psychotic drugs and a clinical trial reported that this cannabinoid is a well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. PMID:23109356

Deiana, Serena

2013-01-01

97

Short scales to assess cannabis-related problems: a review of psychometric properties  

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Abstract Aims The purpose of this paper is to summarize the psychometric properties of four short screening scales to assess problematic forms of cannabis use: Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS), Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test (CUDIT), Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) and Problematic Use of Marijuana (PUM). Methods A systematic computer-based literature search was conducted within the databases of PubMed, PsychINFO and Addiction Abstracts. A tota...

2008-01-01

98

Clinical service desires of medical cannabis patients  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical cannabis dispensaries following the social or hybrid model offer supplementary holistic services in addition to dispensing medical cannabis. Historically, alternative physical health services have been the norm for these dispensaries, including services such as yoga, acupuncture, or chiropractor visits. A clinical service dearth remains for medical cannabis patients seeking substance use, misuse, dependence, and mental health services. This study examined patient desires for various clinical services and level of willingness to participate in specific clinical services. Methods Anonymous survey data (N = 303 were collected at Harborside Health Center (HHC, a medical cannabis dispensary in Oakland, CA. The sample was 70% male, 48% Caucasian and 21% African American. The mean male age was 38 years old and female mean age was 30. Sixty two percent of the male participants and 44% of the female participants are single. Sixteen percent of the population reported having a domestic partner. Forty six percent of the participants are employed full time, 41% have completed at least some college, and 49% make less than $40,000 a year. Results A significant portion of the sample, 62%, indicated a desire to participate in free clinical services at HHC, 34% would like more information about substances and use, and 41% want to learn more about reducing harms from substance use. About one quarter of the participants marked "would" or "likely would" participate in individual services such as consultation. Approximately 20% indicated "would" or "likely would" participate in psycho-educational forums, harm reduction information sharing sessions, online support groups, and coping, life, and social skills group. There was little interest in traditional NA/AA 12-step groups or adapted 12-step groups. Conclusions Desired clinical services can be qualified as a combination of harm reduction, educational, skills-based, peer support and therapeutic individual and group services. Results suggest that medical cannabis patients seek more information about various substances, including cannabis. Dispensaries can help to decrease gaps in substance education and clinical services and fulfill unmet clinical desires. More research is necessary in additional medical cannabis dispensaries in different geographic settings with different service delivery models.

Janichek Jennifer L

2012-03-01

99

Chemistry, Metabolism, and Toxicology of Cannabis: Clinical Implications  

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Full Text Available Cannabis is one of the most widely abused substances throughout the world. The primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9_THC, produces a myriad of pharmacological effects in animals and humans. Although it is used as a recreational drug, it can potentially lead to dependence and behavioral disturbances and its heavy use may increase the risk for psychotic disorders.Many studies that endeavor to understand the mechanism of action of cannabis concentrate on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids in humans. However, there is limited research on the chronic adverse effects and retention of cannabinoids in human subjects.Cannabis can be detected in body fluids following exposure through active/passive inhalation and exposure through breastfeeding. Cannabis detection is directly dependent on accurate analytical procedures for detection of metabolites and verification of recent use.In this review, an attempt has been made to summarize the properties of cannabis and its derivatives, and to discuss the implications of its use with emphasis on bioavailability, limit of detection, carry over period and passive inhalation, important factors for detection and diagnosis.

M.M. Srinivas Bharath

2012-12-01

100

Fitness to drive and cannabis: validation of two blood THCCOOH thresholds to distinguish occasional users from heavy smokers.  

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Many studies based on either an experimental or an epidemiological approach, have shown that the ability to drive is impaired when the driver is under the influence of cannabis. Baseline performances of heavy users remain impaired even after several weeks of abstinence. Symptoms of cannabis abuse and dependence are generally considered incompatible with safe driving. Recently, it has been shown that traffic safety can be increased by reporting the long-term unfit drivers to the driver licensing authorities and referring the cases for further medical assessment. Evaluation of the frequency of cannabis use is a prerequisite for a reliable medical assessment of the fitness to drive. In a previous paper we advocated the use of two thresholds based on 11-nor-9-carboxy-?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) concentration in whole blood to help to distinguish occasional cannabis users (?3 ?g/L) from heavy regular smokers (?40 ?g/L). These criteria were established on the basis of results obtained in a controlled cannabis smoking study with placebo, carried out with two groups of young male volunteers; the first group was characterized by a heavy use (?10 joints/month) while the second group was made up of occasional users smoking at most 1 joint/week. However, to date, these cutoffs have not been adequately assessed under real conditions. Their validity can now be evaluated and confirmed with 146 traffic offenders' real cases in which the whole blood cannabinoid concentrations and the frequency of cannabis use are known. The two thresholds were not challenged by the presence of ethanol (40% of cases) and of other therapeutic and illegal drugs (24%). Thus, we propose the following procedure that can be very useful in the Swiss context but also in other countries with similar traffic policies: if the whole blood THCCOOH concentration is higher than 40 ?g/L, traffic offenders must be directed first and foremost toward medical assessment of their fitness to drive. This evaluation is not recommended if the THCCOOH concentration is lower than 3 ?g/L and if the self-rated frequency of cannabis use is less than 1 time/week. A THCCOOH level between these two thresholds cannot be reliably interpreted. In such a case, further medical assessment and follow-up of the fitness to drive are also suggested, but with lower priority. PMID:24999608

Fabritius, Marie; Augsburger, Marc; Chtioui, Haithem; Favrat, Bernard; Giroud, Christian

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

Association between Depressive Symptoms and Negative Dependent Life Events from Late Childhood to Adolescence  

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The association between stressful life events and depression has been consistently supported in the literature; however, studies of the developmental trajectories of these constructs and the nature of their association over time are limited. We examined trajectories of depressive symptoms and negative dependent life events and the associations…

Johnson, Daniel P.; Whisman, Mark A.; Corley, Robin P.; Hewitt, John K.; Rhee, Soo Hyun

2012-01-01

102

Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Substitution can be operationalized as the conscious choice to use one drug (legal or illicit instead of, or in conjunction with, another due to issues such as: perceived safety; level of addiction potential; effectiveness in relieving symptoms; access and level of acceptance. This practice of substitution has been observed among individuals using cannabis for medical purposes. This study examined drug and alcohol use, and the occurrence of substitution among medical cannabis patients. Methods Anonymous survey data were collected at the Berkeley Patient's Group (BPG, a medical cannabis dispensary in Berkeley, CA. (N = 350 The sample was 68% male, 54% single, 66% White, mean age was 39; 74% have health insurance (including MediCal, 41% work full time, 81% have completed at least some college, 55% make less than $40,000 a year. Seventy one percent report having a chronic medical condition, 52% use cannabis for a pain related condition, 75% use cannabis for a mental health issue. Results Fifty three percent of the sample currently drinks alcohol, 2.6 was the average number of drinking days per week, 2.9 was the average number of drinks on a drinking occasion. One quarter currently uses tobacco, 9.5 is the average number of cigarettes smoked daily. Eleven percent have used a non-prescribed, non OTC drug in the past 30 days with cocaine, MDMA and Vicodin reported most frequently. Twenty five percent reported growing up in an abusive or addictive household. Sixteen percent reported previous alcohol and/or drug treatment, and 2% are currently in a 12-step or other recovery program. Forty percent have used cannabis as a substitute for alcohol, 26% as a substitute for illicit drugs and 66% as a substitute for prescription drugs. The most common reasons given for substituting were: less adverse side effects (65%, better symptom management (57%, and less withdrawal potential (34% with cannabis. Conclusion The substitution of one psychoactive substance for another with the goal of reducing negative outcomes can be included within the framework of harm reduction. Medical cannabis patients have been engaging in substitution by using cannabis as an alternative to alcohol, prescription and illicit drugs.

Reiman Amanda

2009-12-01

103

When Cannabis Is Available and Visible at School--A Multilevel Analysis of Students' Cannabis Use  

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Aims: To investigate the links between the visibility of cannabis use in school (measured by teachers' reports of students being under the influence of cannabis on school premises), the proportion of cannabis users in the class, perceived availability of cannabis, as well as adolescent cannabis use. Methods: A multilevel regression model was…

Kuntsche, Emmanuel

2010-01-01

104

Cannabis Cue-elicited Craving and the Reward Neurocircuitry  

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Cue-elicited craving or the intense desire to consume a substance following exposure to a conditioned drug cue is one of the primary behavioral symptoms of substance use disorders (SUDs). While the concept of cue-elicited craving is well characterized in alcohol and other substances of abuse, only recently has it been described in cannabis. A review of the extant literature has established that cue-elicited craving is a powerful reinforcer that contributes to drug-seeking for cannabis. Further, emergent research has begun to identify the neurobiological systems and neural mechanisms associated with this behavior. What research shows is that while theories of THC’s effects on the dopaminergic-reward system remain divergent, cannabis cues elicit neural activation in the brain’s reward network. PMID:22100353

Filbey, Francesca M.; DeWitt, Samuel J.

2011-01-01

105

Pro-resolution, protective and anti-nociceptive effects of a cannabis extract in the rat gastrointestinal tract.  

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Cannabis is widely used for treating a number of gastrointestinal ailments, but its use is associated with several adverse effects, particularly when the route of administration is via smoking. In the present study, we tested the effects (in rats) of a simple extract of medicinal cannabis (called "MFF") for its ability to promote resolution of colitis, to prevent gastric damage induced by naproxen, and to reduce gastric distention-induced visceral pain. Intracolonic, but not oral administration of MFF dose-dependently reduced the severity of hapten-induced colitis, an effect not reduced by pretreatment with antagonists of CB1 or CB2 receptors. Significant improvement of symptoms (diarrhea, weight loss) and healing of ulcerated tissue was evident with MFF treatment at doses that did not produce detectable urinary levels of 9-?-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). MFF increased colonic hydrogen sulfide synthesis in healthy rats, but not in rats with colitis, and had no effect on colonic prostaglandin E2 synthesis. Orally, but not systemically administered MFF dose-dependently reduced the severity of naproxen-induced gastric damage, and a CB1 antagonist reversed this effect. MFF prevented gastric distention-induced visceral pain via a CB2-dependent mechanism. These results demonstrate that a simple extract of medicinal cannabis can significantly enhance resolution of inflammation and injury, as well as prevent injury, in the gastrointestinal tract. Interestingly, different cannabinoid receptors were involved in some of the effects. MFF may serve as the basis for a simple preparation of cannabis that would produce beneficial effects in the GI tract with reduced systemic toxicity. PMID:23756391

Wallace, J L; Flannigan, K L; McKnight, W; Wang, L; Ferraz, J G P; Tuitt, D

2013-04-01

106

Harm reduction-the cannabis paradox  

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Full Text Available Abstract This article examines harm reduction from a novel perspective. Its central thesis is that harm reduction is not only a social concept, but also a biological one. More specifically, evolution does not make moral distinctions in the selection process, but utilizes a cannabis-based approach to harm reduction in order to promote survival of the fittest. Evidence will be provided from peer-reviewed scientific literature that supports the hypothesis that humans, and all animals, make and use internally produced cannabis-like products (endocannabinoids as part of the evolutionary harm reduction program. More specifically, endocannabinoids homeostatically regulate all body systems (cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, excretory, immune, nervous, musculo-skeletal, reproductive. Therefore, the health of each individual is dependant on this system working appropriately.

Melamede Robert

2005-09-01

107

Statistics on cannabis users skew perceptions of cannabis use  

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Full Text Available Collecting information about the prevalence of cannabis use is necessary but not sufficient for understanding the size, dynamics, and outcomes associated with cannabis markets. This paper uses two data sets describing cannabis consumption in the United States and Europe to highlight 1 differences in inferences about sub-populations based on the measure used to quantify cannabis-related activity; 2 how different measures of cannabis-related activity can be used to more accurately describe trends in cannabis usage over time; and 3 the correlation between frequency of use in the past month and average grams consumed per day. Key findings: Focusing on days of use instead of prevalence shows substantially greater increases in U.S. cannabis use in recent years; however, the recent increase is mostly among adults, not youth. Relatively more rapid growth in use days also occurred among the college-educated and Hispanic. Further, data from a survey conducted in several European countries show a strong positive correlation between frequency of use and quantity consumed per day of use, suggesting consumption is even more skewed toward the minority of heavy users than is suggested by days-of-use calculations.

RachelMelissaBurns

2013-11-01

108

Cannabis Use and Mental Health Problems  

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This paper investigates whether cannabis use leads to worse mental health. To do so, we account for common unobserved factors affecting mental health and cannabis consumption by modeling mental health jointly with the dynamics of cannabis use. Our main finding is that using cannabis increases the likelihood of mental health problems, with current use having a larger effect than past use. The estimates suggest a dose response relationship between the frequency of recent cannabis use and the pr...

Ours, J. C.; Williams, J.

2009-01-01

109

CANNABIS, UNA OPCIÓN TERAPÉUTICA / CANNABIS, A THERAPEUTIC OPTION  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las preparaciones de Cannabis sativa L. tales como marihuana, hashish y dagga, han sido usadas en medicina por varios siglos. Ahora se sabe que el ?9tetrahidrocannabinol (?9-THC) y sus compuestos relacionados, ejercen una amplia gama de efectos sobre los sistemas inmune, digestivo, reproductivo, ocu [...] lar, cardiovascular, y nervioso central. La presente revisión analiza la literatura disponible relacionada con los efectos terapéuticos de la Cannabis. Abstract in english Cannabis sativa L. preparations, such as marijuana, hashish and dagga, have been used in medicine for many centuries. It is now known that ?9tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) and its related compounds, exert a wide array of effects on the immune, digestive, reproductive, ocular, cardiovascular, and cent [...] ral nervous systems. The present review analyses the literature related to the therapeutic effects of Cannabis.

José Henry, Osorio; Hugo Fernando, Tangarife.

110

CANNABIS, UNA OPCIÓN TERAPÉUTICA / CANNABIS, A THERAPEUTIC OPTION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las preparaciones de Cannabis sativa L. tales como marihuana, hashish y dagga, han sido usadas en medicina por varios siglos. Ahora se sabe que el ?9tetrahidrocannabinol (?9-THC) y sus compuestos relacionados, ejercen una amplia gama de efectos sobre los sistemas inmune, digestivo, reproductivo, ocu [...] lar, cardiovascular, y nervioso central. La presente revisión analiza la literatura disponible relacionada con los efectos terapéuticos de la Cannabis. Abstract in english Cannabis sativa L. preparations, such as marijuana, hashish and dagga, have been used in medicine for many centuries. It is now known that ?9tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) and its related compounds, exert a wide array of effects on the immune, digestive, reproductive, ocular, cardiovascular, and cent [...] ral nervous systems. The present review analyses the literature related to the therapeutic effects of Cannabis.

José Henry, Osorio; Hugo Fernando, Tangarife.

2009-12-01

111

Implicit associations and explicit expectancies towards cannabis in heavy cannabis users and controls  

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Full Text Available Cognitive biases, including implicit memory associations are thought to play an important role in the development of addictive behaviors. The aim of the present study was to investigate implicit affective memory associations in heavy cannabis users. Implicit positive-arousal, sedation, and negative associations towards cannabis were measured with three Single Category Implicit Association Tests (SC-IAT’s and compared between 59 heavy cannabis users and 89 controls. Moreover, we investigated the relationship between these implicit affective associations and explicit expectancies, subjective craving, cannabis use, and cannabis related problems. Results show that heavy cannabis users had stronger implicit positive-arousal associations but weaker implicit negative associations towards cannabis compared to controls. Moreover, heavy cannabis users had stronger sedation but weaker negative explicit expectancies towards cannabis compared to controls. Within heavy cannabis users, more cannabis use was associated with stronger implicit negative associations whereas more cannabis use related problems was associated with stronger explicit negative expectancies, decreasing the overall difference on negative associations between cannabis users and controls. No other associations were observed between implicit associations, explicit expectancies, measures of cannabis use, cannabis use related problems, or subjective craving. These findings indicate that, in contrast to other substances of abuse like alcohol and tobacco, the relationship between implicit associations and cannabis use appears to be weak in heavy cannabis users.

JannaCousijn

2013-06-01

112

Prescribing cannabis for harm reduction  

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Abstract Neuropathic pain affects between 5% and 10% of the US population and can be refractory to treatment. Opioids may be recommended as a second-line pharmacotherapy but have risks including overdose and death. Cannabis has been shown to be effective for treating nerve pain without the risk of fatal poisoning. The author suggests that physicians who treat neuropathic pain with opioids should evaluate their patients for a trial of cannabis and prescribe it when appropriate prior ...

2012-01-01

113

Evaluation of herbal cannabis characteristics by medical users: a randomized trial  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis, in herbal form, is widely used as self-medication by patients with diseases such as HIV/AIDS and multiple sclerosis suffering from symptoms including pain, muscle spasticity, stress and insomnia. Valid clinical studies of herbal cannabis require a product which is acceptable to patients in order to maximize adherence to study protocols. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled crossover trial of 4 different herbal cannabis preparations among 8 experienced and authorized cannabis users with chronic pain. Preparations were varied with respect to grind size, THC content and humidity. Subjects received each preparation on a separate day and prepared the drug in their usual way in a dedicated and licensed clinical facility. They were asked to evaluate the products based on appearance (smell, colour, humidity, grind size, ease of preparation and overall appearance and smoking characteristics (burn rate, hotness, harshness and taste. Five-point Likert scores were assigned to each characteristic. Scores were compared between preparations using ANOVA. Results Seven subjects completed the study, and the product with highest THC content (12%, highest humidity (14% and largest grind size (10 mm was rated highest overall. Significant differences were noted between preparations on overall appearance and colour (p = 0.003. Discussion While the small size of the study precludes broad conclusions, the study shows that medical cannabis users can appreciate differences in herbal product. A more acceptable cannabis product may increase recruitment and retention in clinical studies of medical cannabis.

Ducruet Thierry

2006-11-01

114

Distance to Cannabis-Shops and Age of Onset of Cannabis Use  

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Abstract: In the Netherlands cannabis use is quasi-legalized. Small quantities of cannabis can be bought in cannabis-shops. We investigate how the distance to the nearest cannabis- shop affects the age of onset of cannabis use. We use a Mixed Proportional Hazard rate framework to take account of observable as well as unobservable characteristics that in uence the uptake of cannabis. We find that distance matters. Individuals who grow up within 20 kilometers of a cannabis-shop have a lower age...

Palali, A.; Ours, J. C.

2013-01-01

115

Residual effects of cannabis use on neurocognitive performance after prolonged abstinence: a meta-analysis.  

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Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the U.S., and the number of illicit and licit users is rising. Lasting neurocognitive changes or deficits as a result of use are frequently noted despite a lack of clarity in the scientific literature. In an effort to resolve inconsistencies in the evidence of lasting residual effects of cannabis use, we conducted two meta-analyses. First, we updated a previous meta-analysis on broad nonacute cognitive effects of cannabis use through inclusion of newer studies. In a second meta-analysis, we focused on evidence for lasting residual effects by including only studies that tested users after at least 25 days of abstinence. In the first meta-analysis, 33 studies met inclusion criteria. Results indicated a small negative effect for global neurocognitive performance as well for most cognitive domains assessed. Unfortunately, methodological limitations of these studies prevented the exclusion of withdrawal symptoms as an explanation for observed effects. In the second meta-analysis, 13 of the original 33 studies met inclusion criteria. Results indicated no significant effect of cannabis use on global neurocognitive performance or any effect on the eight assessed domains. Overall, these meta-analyses demonstrate that any negative residual effects on neurocognitive performance attributable to either cannabis residue or withdrawal symptoms are limited to the first 25 days of abstinence. Furthermore, there was no evidence for enduring negative effects of cannabis use. PMID:22731735

Schreiner, Amy M; Dunn, Michael E

2012-10-01

116

Cannabis, motivation, and life satisfaction in an internet sample  

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Although little evidence supports cannabis-induced amotivational syndrome, sources continue to assert that the drug saps motivation [1], which may guide current prohibitions. Few studies report low motivation in chronic users; another reveals that they have higher subjective wellbeing. To assess differences in motivation and subjective wellbeing, we used a large sample (N = 487) and strict definitions of cannabis use (7 days/week) and abstinence (never). Standard statistical techniques showed no differences. Robust statistical methods controlling for heteroscedasticity, non-normality and extreme values found no differences in motivation but a small difference in subjective wellbeing. Medical users of cannabis reporting health problems tended to account for a significant portion of subjective wellbeing differences, suggesting that illness decreased wellbeing. All p-values were above p = .05. Thus, daily use of cannabis does not impair motivation. Its impact on subjective wellbeing is small and may actually reflect lower wellbeing due to medical symptoms rather than actual consumption of the plant. PMID:16722561

Barnwell, Sara Smucker; Earleywine, Mitch; Wilcox, Rand

2006-01-01

117

Cannabis, motivation, and life satisfaction in an internet sample  

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Full Text Available Abstract Although little evidence supports cannabis-induced amotivational syndrome, sources continue to assert that the drug saps motivation 1, which may guide current prohibitions. Few studies report low motivation in chronic users; another reveals that they have higher subjective wellbeing. To assess differences in motivation and subjective wellbeing, we used a large sample (N = 487 and strict definitions of cannabis use (7 days/week and abstinence (never. Standard statistical techniques showed no differences. Robust statistical methods controlling for heteroscedasticity, non-normality and extreme values found no differences in motivation but a small difference in subjective wellbeing. Medical users of cannabis reporting health problems tended to account for a significant portion of subjective wellbeing differences, suggesting that illness decreased wellbeing. All p-values were above p = .05. Thus, daily use of cannabis does not impair motivation. Its impact on subjective wellbeing is small and may actually reflect lower wellbeing due to medical symptoms rather than actual consumption of the plant.

Wilcox Rand

2006-01-01

118

Les effets du cannabis sur la santé  

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Résumé Le cannabis reste la substance illicite la plus expérimentée dans le monde avec environ 166 millions de personnes qui l’ont consommée dans l’année. Les consommateurs de cannabis ont un moindre niveau socio-économique, une plus forte prévalence du chômage et une moindre satisfaction globale avec la vie. Le cannabis représente un facteur de risque sur le plan de la santé somatique et mentale. Chez les personnes ayant un terrain vulnérable, le cannabis est resp...

2009-01-01

119

Effects of cannabis and familial loading on subcortical brain volumes in first-episode schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with familial loading as heritable risk factor and cannabis abuse as the most relevant environmental risk factor up to date. Cannabis abuse has been related to an earlier onset of the disease and persisting cannabis consumption is associated with reduced symptom improvement. However, the underlying morphological and biochemical brain alterations due to these risk factors as well as the effects of gene-environmental interaction are still unclear. In this magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in 47 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 30 healthy control subjects, we investigated effects of previous cannabis abuse and increased familial risk on subcortical brain regions such as hippocampus, amygdala, caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus and subsegments of the corpus callosum (CC). In a subsequent single-volume (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy study, we investigated spectra in the left hippocampus and putamen to detect metabolic alterations. Compared to healthy controls, schizophrenia patients displayed decreased volumes of the left hippocampus, bilateral amygdala and caudate nucleus as well as an increased area of the midsagittal CC1 segment of the corpus callosum. Patients fulfilling the criteria for cannabis abuse at admission showed an increased area of the CC2 segment compared to those who did not fulfill the criteria. Patients with a family history of schizophrenia combined with previous cannabis abuse showed lower volumes of the bilateral caudate nucleus compared to all other patients, implicating an interaction between the genetic background and cannabis abuse as environmental factor. Patients with cannabis abuse also had higher ratios of N-acetyl aspartate/choline in the left putamen, suggesting a possible neuroprotective effect in this area. However, antipsychotic medication prior to MRI acquisition and gender effects may have influenced our results. Future longitudinal studies in first-episode patients with quantification of cannabis abuse and assessment of schizophrenia risk genes are warranted. PMID:24085610

Malchow, Berend; Hasan, Alkomiet; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Jatzko, Alexander; Gruber, Oliver; Schmitt, Andrea; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas

2013-11-01

120

Cannabis Use and Performance in Adolescents  

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Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug among adolescents, many of whom perceive little risk from cannabis. Cannabis use is associated with poor academic performance and increased school drop-outs. It is also associated with high-risk behaviors in adolescents like crime, violence, unprotected sexual encounters, and car accidents. Many of these…

Malhotra, Anil; Biswas, Parthasarathy

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

The effects of US state income inequality and alcohol policies on symptoms of depression and alcohol dependence.  

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Mental health is likely to be influenced by contextual variables that emerge only at the level of the group. We studied the effect of two such group-level variables, within-state income inequality and alcohol tax policy, on symptoms of current depression and alcohol dependence in a US national sample, controlling for state-level and individual characteristics. A cross-sectional US national probability sample provided the individual-level data. State income data were obtained from the 1990 US census. The Gini coefficient (raw and adjusted) indicated income inequality. Outcome measures included current symptoms of depression and alcohol dependence. Controlling for individual-level variables and state median income, the odds of depressive symptoms was not positively associated with state income inequality. Controlling for individual-level variables, state median income and alcohol distribution method, a weak negative association between Gini and alcohol dependence was observed in women, but this association disappeared after additional adjustment for beer tax. No association was observed in men. Higher state beer tax was significantly associated with lower prevalence of alcohol dependence symptoms for both men and women. The results suggest that state income inequality does not increase the experience of alcohol dependence or depression symptoms. However, evidence was found for a protective effect of increased beer taxation against alcohol dependence symptoms, suggesting the need to further consider the impact of alcohol policies on alcohol use disorders. PMID:14652052

Henderson, Claire; Liu, Xinhua; Diez Roux, Ana V; Link, Bruce G; Hasin, Deborah

2004-02-01

122

Cigarette smoking during an N-acetylcysteine-assisted cannabis cessation trial in adolescents  

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Background and Objectives Tobacco and cannabis use are both highly prevalent worldwide. Their co-use is also common in adults and adolescents. Despite this frequent co-occurrence, cessation from both substances is rarely addressed in randomized clinical trials. Given evidence that tobacco use may increase during cannabis cessation attempts, and additionally that tobacco users have poorer cannabis cessation outcomes, we explored tobacco outcomes, specifically cigarette smoking, from an adolescent cannabis cessation trial that tested the efficacy of N-acetylesteine (NAC). Methods Cannabis-dependent adolescents (ages 15–21; n=116) interested in cannabis treatment were randomized to NAC (1200 mg bid) or matched placebo for 8 weeks. Participants did not need to be cigarette smokers or be interested in smoking cessation to qualify for inclusion. Results Approximately 59% of enrolled participants were daily and non-daily cigarette smokers, and only differed from non-smoking participants on the compulsion sub-scale of the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire. Among cigarette smokers who were retained in the study, there was no change in cigarettes per day for either NAC or placebo groups during the 8-week treatment phase. Being a cigarette smoker did not appear to influence the effects of NAC on cannabis abstinence, though there was a trend in the placebo group of poorer cannabis outcomes for cigarette smokers vs. non-smokers. Conclusions No evidence was found of compensatory cigarette smoking during this cannabis cessation trial in adolescents. Further work assessing interventions to reduce both cannabis and tobacco use in this population is greatly needed. PMID:24720376

McClure, Erin A.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Gray, Kevin M.

2014-01-01

123

[Family management of cannabis in adolescent].  

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Cannabis is the most frequently used illegal drug in France. In 2007, the average age for a first use was 15.1 years. Most teenagers will limit their use to a few experiences or controlled use. However, for those who do become dependent, the lapse between the first use and dependence is brief (approximately 18 months) with an average of 28 months compared to tobacco (3-5 years) and alcohol (5-9 years). In light of this brief delay, it is crucial to quickly recognize adolescents who have problem cannabis use and to educate parents to warning signs and to teach them how to efficiently discuss the subject with their teenager. Multidimensional Family Therapy, Cognitive and Behavioral Family Therapy and Brief Strategic Family Therapy have shown their efficacy in clinical trials. Improving family dynamics represents not only a motivational opportunity to help the adolescent to adhere to drug dependence treatment, but may also facilitate reintegration into a drug-free social environment and maintenance in a drug-free existence. Family interventions have been shown to be even more effective when community family assistance relations (social workers, educational counselors) are optimized. Family therapy should also be combined with personal empowerment and life planning interventions which enable the adolescent to increase his self-esteem through scholastic and professional achievement. PMID:19892535

Blecha, L; Benyamina, A; Reynaud, M

2010-02-01

124

Passive inhalation of cannabis smoke  

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Six volunteers each smoked simultaneously, in a small unventilated room (volume 27 950 liter), a cannabis cigarette containing 17.1 mg delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). A further four subjects - passive inhalers - remained in the room during smoking and afterwards for a total of 3 h. Blood and urine samples were taken from all ten subjects and analyzed by radioimmunoassay for THC metabolites. The blood samples from the passive subjects taken up to 3 h after the start of exposure to cannabis smoke showed a complete absence of cannabinoids. In contrast, their urine samples taken up to 6 h after exposure showed significant concentrations of cannabinoid metabolites (less than or equal to 6.8 ng ml-1). These data, taken with the results of other workers, show passive inhalation of cannabis smoke to be possible. These results have important implications for forensic toxicologists who are frequently called upon to interpret cannabinoid levels in body fluids.

Law, B.; Mason, P.A.; Moffat, A.C.; King, L.J.; Marks, V.

1984-09-01

125

Cannabis for inflammatory bowel disease.  

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The marijuana plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries as a treatment for a variety of ailments. It contains over 60 different cannabinoid compounds. Studies have revealed that the endocannabinoid system is involved in almost all major immune events. Cannabinoids may, therefore, be beneficial in inflammatory disorders. In murine colitis, cannabinoids decrease histologic and microscopic inflammation. In humans, cannabis has been used to treat a plethora of gastrointestinal problems, including anorexia, emesis, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and diabetic gastroparesis. Despite anecdotal reports on medical cannabis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), there are few controlled studies. In an observational study in 30 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), we found that medical cannabis was associated with improvement in disease activity and reduction in the use of other medications. In a more recent placebo-controlled study in 21 chronic CD patients, we showed a decrease in the CD activity index >100 in 10 of 11 subjects on cannabis compared to 4 of 10 on placebo. Complete remission was achieved in 5 of 11 subjects in the cannabis group and 1 of 10 in the placebo group. Yet, in an additional study, low-dose cannabidiol did not have an effect on CD activity. In summary, evidence is gathering that manipulating the endocannabinoid system can have beneficial effects in IBD, but further research is required to declare cannabinoids a medicine. We need to establish the specific cannabinoids, as well as appropriate medical conditions, optimal dose, and mode of administration, to maximize the beneficial effects while avoiding any potential harmful effects of cannabinoid use. PMID:24969296

Naftali, Timna; Mechulam, Raphael; Lev, Lihi Bar; Konikoff, Fred M

2014-01-01

126

Positive posttraumatic stress disorder screens among first-time medical cannabis patients: prevalence and association with other substance use.  

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Twenty-one states and the District of Columbia have passed legislation allowing for the use of medical cannabis for those individuals with qualifying medical conditions, which include posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for a growing number of states. Little information is available regarding PTSD among medical cannabis patients. This study seeks to provide initial data on this topic by examining the prevalence and correlates of positive PTSD screens among a sample of patients seeking medical cannabis certification for the first time (n=186). Twenty-three percent (42/186; 95% confidence interval [CI] =17%-29%) of the patients in the study sample screened positive for PTSD. Moreover, the group that screened positive for PTSD had higher percentages of lifetime prescription opioid, cocaine, prescription sedative, and street opioid use, as well as a higher percentage of recent prescription sedative use, than the group that screened negative for PTSD. These findings highlight the relatively common use of other substances among medical cannabis patients with significant PTSD symptoms, even when compared with other patients seeking medical cannabis for the first time. As a growing number of states include PTSD among the list of qualifying medical conditions for medical cannabis, additional research is needed to better characterize the longitudinal relationship between medical cannabis use and PTSD symptoms. PMID:24930048

Bohnert, Kipling M; Perron, Brian E; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Kleinberg, Felicia; Jannausch, Mary; Ilgen, Mark A

2014-10-01

127

Prescribing cannabis for harm reduction  

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Full Text Available Abstract Neuropathic pain affects between 5% and 10% of the US population and can be refractory to treatment. Opioids may be recommended as a second-line pharmacotherapy but have risks including overdose and death. Cannabis has been shown to be effective for treating nerve pain without the risk of fatal poisoning. The author suggests that physicians who treat neuropathic pain with opioids should evaluate their patients for a trial of cannabis and prescribe it when appropriate prior to using opioids. This harm reduction strategy may reduce the morbidity and mortality rates associated with prescription pain medications.

Collen Mark

2012-01-01

128

Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug  

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Full Text Available A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD, a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. The antipsychotic-like properties of CBD have been investigated in animal models using behavioral and neurochemical techniques which suggested that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results of two studies on healthy volunteers using perception of binocular depth inversion and ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms supported the proposal of the antipsychotic-like properties of CBD. In addition, open case reports of schizophrenic patients treated with CBD and a preliminary report of a controlled clinical trial comparing CBD with an atypical antipsychotic drug have confirmed that this cannabinoid can be a safe and well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. Future studies of CBD in other psychotic conditions such as bipolar disorder and comparative studies of its antipsychotic effects with those produced by clozapine in schizophrenic patients are clearly indicated.

A.W. Zuardi

2006-04-01

129

Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis) component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typ [...] ical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. The antipsychotic-like properties of CBD have been investigated in animal models using behavioral and neurochemical techniques which suggested that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results of two studies on healthy volunteers using perception of binocular depth inversion and ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms supported the proposal of the antipsychotic-like properties of CBD. In addition, open case reports of schizophrenic patients treated with CBD and a preliminary report of a controlled clinical trial comparing CBD with an atypical antipsychotic drug have confirmed that this cannabinoid can be a safe and well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. Future studies of CBD in other psychotic conditions such as bipolar disorder and comparative studies of its antipsychotic effects with those produced by clozapine in schizophrenic patients are clearly indicated.

A.W., Zuardi; J.A.S., Crippa; J.E.C., Hallak; F.A., Moreira; F.S., Guimarães.

130

Induction of sister-chromatid exchanges in heroin-cannabis, heroin and cannabis addicts  

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The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in heroin-cannabis, heroin and cannabis addicts. The group of 84 subjects consisted of 42 controls, 16 heroin-cannabis addicts, 12 heroin addicts and 14 cannabis addicts. The mean number of SCEs/cell was 12.95 in heroin-cannabis addicts, 12.05 in heroin addicts and 11.99 in cannabis addicts. These values are significantly (P less than 0.002) higher than the mean values found in controls. This increase in...

Vassiliades, N.; ???????????, ?.; Mourelatos, D.; Dozi-vassiliades, J.; Epivatianos, P.; Hatzitheodoridou, P.; ???????????, ?.; ????????????, ?.; ????????????????, ?.

2009-01-01

131

Studies on cannabis, 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The seedlings from Cannabis sativa L. seeds irradiated with different doses of ?-rays were examined, in order to determine the dose sufficient to kill the young plants naturally, before their hallucinnogenic component increases. The seeds of ''Minamioshihara No. 1'', which were harvested in 1972 in Tochigi Prefecture, were irradiated with eight different doses of 60Co ?-rays in January 17, 1973, and the seedlings were examined several times during the subsequent 9 months, from March to November 1973, and their morphological and histological effects were examined, and the results are summarized as follows: Samples irradiated with 1500 and 1000 krads developed radicles about 3 mm in length. Samples irradiated with 500, 200, and 50 krads grew into young plants with the first set of leaves, without lateral roots. Samples irradiated with 30 krads grew to about 10 cm high with a few lateral roots, and the epicotyls about 1 cm in length. These young plants from the irradiated seeds stayed in the same condition and then died. Samples irradiated with 15 and 5 krads grew in the same way as the controls until the stage of flowering. Samples irradiated with 500, 200, 50, and 30 krads showerd the cell membranes of endodermis and pericycle to be partially lignified and suberized. The degree of change was related to the dose of ?-rays. Samples irradiated with 30 krads showed withered cells near the end of the lateral nerves on the first and second set of leaves. The ec first and second set of leaves. The economical dose of 60Co ?-rays for inhibiting young plants from developing into adult ones was a minimum of 30 krads which made the young plants die. Irradiation with 50 krads of ?-rays will be required to kill the young plants completely before they develop the hallucinogenic component. (auth.)

132

What does a mouse tell us about neuregulin 1 – cannabis interactions?  

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Full Text Available The link between cannabis and psychosis has been debated although there is substantial epidemiological evidence showing that cannabis increases the risk of psychosis. It has been hypothesized that schizophrenia patients carrying particular risk genes might be more sensitive to the psychosis-inducing effects of cannabis than other patients and healthy test subjects. Here we review the effects of cannabinoids on a mutant mouse model for the schizophrenia candidate gene neuregulin 1 (Nrg1. The studies suggest a complex interaction between cannabis and Nrg1: the neuro-behavioural effects of cannabinoids were different in Nrg1 mutant and control mice and depended on exposure time, sex and age of test animals. This research provides the first evidence of complex cannabis-Nrg1 interactions suggesting Nrg1 as a prime target for future clinical investigations. Furthermore, it highlights that animal model research can broaden our understanding of the complex multi-factorial aetiology of schizophrenia. Finally, the findings are important to preventive psychiatry: if the genes that confer genetic vulnerability to cannabis-induced psychosis were identified patients at-high risk could be forewarned of the potential dangers of cannabis abuse.

TimKarl

2013-02-01

133

The Importance of Family Relations for Cannabis Users: The Case of Serbian Adolescents  

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Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is transitional stage of physical and mental human development occuring between childhood and adult life. Social interactions and environmental factors together are important predictors of adolescent cannabis use. This study aimed to examine the relationship between the social determinants and adolescents behavior with cannabis consumption.Methods: A cross sectional study as part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs was conducted among 6.150 adolescents aged 16 years in three regions of Serbia, and three types of schools (gymnasium, vocational – professional, and vocational – handicraft during May – June 2008. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to obtain adjusted odds ratios with 95% con?dence intervals in which the dependent variable was cannabis consumption non-user and user.Results: Among 6.7% of adolescents who had tried cannabis at least one in their lives, boys were more involved in cannabis use than girls, especially boys from gymnasium school. Well off family, lower education of mother, worse relations with parents were significantly associated with cannabis use (P < 0.05. Behaviors like skipping from schools, frequent evening outs, and playing on slot machines were also related to cannabis use (P < 0.05.Conclusions: The study confirmed the importance of family relationship development. Drug use preventive programmes should include building interpersonal trust in a family lifecycle and school culture.

Zorica Terzic Supic

2013-03-01

134

Pharmacological interventions in the treatment of the acute effects of cannabis: a systematic review of literature  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis intoxication is related to a number of physical and mental health risks with ensuing social costs. However, little attention has been given to the investigation of possible pharmacological interactions in this condition. Objective To review the available scientific literature concerning pharmacological interventions for the treatment of the acute effects of cannabis. Methods A search was performed on the Pubmed, Lilacs, and Scielo online databases by combining the terms cannabis, intoxication, psychosis, anxiety, and treatment. The articles selected from this search had their reference lists checked for additional publications related to the topic of the review. Results The reviewed articles consisted of case reports and controlled clinical trials and are presented according to interventions targeting the physiological, psychiatric, and cognitive symptoms provoked by cannabis. The pharmacological interventions reported in these studies include: beta-blockers, antiarrhythmic agents, antagonists of CB-1 and GABA-benzodiazepine receptors, antipsychotics, and cannabidiol. Conclusion Although scarce, the evidence on pharmacological interventions for the management of cannabis intoxication suggests that propanolol and rimonabant are the most effective compounds currently available to treat the physiological and subjective effects of the drug. Further studies are necessary to establish the real effectiveness of these two medications, as well as the effectiveness of other candidate compounds to counteract the effects of cannabis intoxication, such as cannabidiol and flumazenil.

Crippa José AS

2012-01-01

135

Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)  

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A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

Maickel, Roger P.

1973-01-01

136

Motivational and cognitive inhibitory control in recreational cannabis users.  

Science.gov (United States)

Substance use disorders have been associated with impaired decision making and increased impulsive behavior. Lack of inhibitory control may underlie such higher order cognitive difficulties and behavior problems. This study examined inhibitory control in 53 recreational cannabis users and 48 controls. Inhibitory control was tested with two computer tasks, one with a motivational component and one without such a component. Impulsive behavior was assessed using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Results showed that the recreational cannabis users had poorer motivational inhibition (i.e., were more inclined to "gamble") than controls. There were no group differences in the cognitive inhibition task. Cannabis users also reported more impulsive behavior in daily life. This behavior was related to response style in the motivational inhibition task, but not to performance in the cognitive inhibition task. It is concluded that, among recreational cannabis users, lack of inhibitory control depends on contextual or situational factors-that is, it becomes evident only when situations or tasks involve a motivational component. PMID:22439979

Griffith-Lendering, Merel F H; Huijbregts, Stephan C J; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Swaab, Hanna

2012-01-01

137

Simultaneous cannabis and tobacco use and cannabis-related outcomes in young women  

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Compared to those who reported a lifetime co-occurrence of cannabis and tobacco use, individuals who report simultaneous use of cannabis and tobacco are more likely to also report higher rates of substance-related problems and psychopathology. In a sample of young women, we examine (a) co-occurring use, or whether regular cigarette smoking is associated with increased cannabis involvement and (b) simultaneous use, a special form of co-occurring use where cannabis and cigarettes are typically ...

Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Heath, Andrew C.

2009-01-01

138

Dutch coffee shops and trends in cannabis use.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conflicting predictions have been made to the influence of decriminalization on cannabis use. Prohibitionists forecast that decriminalization will lead to an increase in consumption of cannabis, while their opponents hypothesise that cannabis use will decline after decriminalization. Most probably cannabis use in the Netherlands so far evolved in two waves, with a first peak around 1970, a low during the late 1970s and early 1980s, and a second peak in the mid-1990s. It is striking that this trend in cannabis use among youth in the Netherlands rather parallels four identified stages in the availability of cannabis. The number of cannabis users peaked when the cannabis was distributed through an underground market (late 1960s and early 1970s). Then the number decreased as house dealers were superseeding the underground market (1970s), and went up again after coffee shops took over the sale of cannabis (1980s), and stabilised or slightly decreased by the end of the 1990s when the number of coffee shops was reduced. Although changes in cannabis policy went along with changes in availability of cannabis and prevalence of cannabis use, it is questionable whether changes in cannabis policy were causally related to trends in cannabis use. Cannabis use also developed in waves in other European countries that did not decriminalize cannabis, as well as in the US. Consequently, trends in cannabis use seem to develop rather independently of cannabis policy. PMID:12369472

Korf, Dirk J

2002-01-01

139

Association between cannabis use and schizotypal dimensions--a meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis consumption can cause abuse and dependence and increase risk of developing psychiatric and somatic disorders. Several literature reviews explored the link between cannabis consumption and schizophrenia but none summarized the rich literature on cannabis and psychometric schizotypy. The aim of our review is to synthesize data from studies that explored the association between cannabis consumption and schizoptypal dimensions. A systematic review of the literature and, when needed, contact with the authors, allowed us to gather data from 29 cross-sectional studies. We compared schizotypy scores between subjects that never used cannabis and subjects that used it at least once ("never vs. ever") and between current users and subjects that do not use cannabis currently ("current vs. other"). We conducted separate analyses for total schizotypy score and each of the three classical schizotypal dimensions (positive, negative, disorganized). For all eight comparisons, the cannabis group ("ever" or "current") had higher schizotypy scores. Differences were in the small or medium range and, with the exception of the negative score in the current vs. other comparison, statistically significant. Cannabis consumption is associated with increased schizotypal traits. More research, using different approaches (e.g. longitudinal studies) is needed to explore the cause of this association. PMID:24878296

Szoke, Andrei; Galliot, Anne-Marie; Richard, Jean-Romain; Ferchiou, Aziz; Baudin, Grégoire; Leboyer, Marion; Schürhoff, Franck

2014-09-30

140

Robin Room and cannabis policy: Dangerous comparisons.  

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This paper describes Robin Room's contribution to cannabis policy debates over the period 1993-2010. It focuses on a controversy that erupted over a review that Room and the author undertook for the World Health Organization in the mid-1990s on the comparative harms of cannabis, alcohol, opiates and tobacco. It also briefly describes Room's recent work on global cannabis policy and ends with a brief appreciation of the character of his scholarly contributions to this field. [Hall W. Robin Room and cannabis policy: Dangerous comparisons. Drug Alcohol Rev 2014]. PMID:25395172

Hall, Wayne

2014-11-01

 
 
 
 
141

Medicinal cannabis: rational guidelines for dosing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The medicinal value of cannabis (marijuana) is well documented in the medical literature. Cannabinoids, the active ingredients in cannabis, have many distinct pharmacological properties. These include analgesic, anti-emetic, anti-oxidative, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as modulation of glial cells and tumor growth regulation. Concurrent with all these advances in the understanding of the physiological and pharmacological mechanisms of cannabis, there is a strong need for developing rational guidelines for dosing. This paper will review the known chemistry and pharmacology of cannabis and, on that basis, discuss rational guidelines for dosing. PMID:15154108

Carter, Gregory T; Weydt, Patrick; Kyashna-Tocha, Muraco; Abrams, Donald I

2004-05-01

142

Cannabis treatment outcomes among legally coerced and non-coerced adults  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment seeking for cannabis dependence in general, and particularly the number of criminal justice referrals to cannabis treatment, has increased over the past decade. This study aims to compare the characteristics, psychosocial functioning and treatment outcome of those legally coerced into cannabis treatment compared to those entering treatment without legal coercion. Methods This study is a retrospective audit of the administrative clinical records of 27,198 adults presenting to public Texas treatment programs with cannabis as their primary drug problem between 2000 and 2005. Results Of the 69% legally coerced into treatment, there was less psychological distress and greater likelihood of having completed treatment compared with non-coerced clients. Participants who were legally coerced into treatment were also more likely to have received less intensive forms of treatment and to have not used cannabis in the month prior to 90-day post-treatment follow-up. Conclusion More public health information is needed on cannabis dependence and increased availability of subsidised early and brief interventions in a variety of primary health care settings would reduce the late presentations of the more severely impaired voluntary clients. The limitations of this dataset are discussed.

Copeland Jan

2007-06-01

143

Gone to Pot - A Review of the Association between Cannabis and Psychosis  

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Full Text Available Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, with approximately 5 million daily users worldwide. Emerging evidence supports a number of associations between cannabis and psychosis/psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. These associations based on case-studies, surveys, epidemiological studies, and experimental studies indicate that cannabinoids can produce acute, transient effects; acute, persistent effects as well as delayed, persistent effects that recapitulate the psychopathology and psychophysiology seen in psychotic illness such as schizophrenia. Acute exposure to both cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids (Spice/ K2 can produce a full range of transient psychotomimetic symptoms, cognitive deficits, and psychophysiological abnormalities that bear a striking resemblance to symptoms of schizophrenia. In individuals with an established psychotic disorder, cannabinoids can exacerbate symptoms, trigger relapse, and have negative consequences on the course of the illness. Several factors appear to moderate these associations, including family history, genetic factors, history of childhood abuse, and the age at onset of cannabis use. Exposure to cannabinoids in adolescence confers a higher risk for psychosis outcomes in later life and the risk is dose-related. Individuals with polymorphisms of COMT and AKT1 genes may be at increased risk for psychotic disorders in association with cannabinoids, as are individuals with a family history of psychotic disorders or a history of childhood trauma. The relationship between cannabis and schizophrenia fulfills many but not all of the standard criteria for causality, including temporality, biological gradient, biological plausibility, experimental evidence, consistency, and coherence. At the present time, the evidence indicates that cannabis may be a “component cause” in the emergence of psychosis, and warrants serious consideration from the point of view of public health policy.

DeepakCD'Souza

2014-05-01

144

The HUNT study: participation is associated with survival and depends on socioeconomic status, diseases and symptoms  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Population based studies are important for prevalence, incidence and association studies, but their external validity might be threatened by decreasing participation rates. The 50 807 participants in the third survey of the HUNT Study (HUNT3, 2006-08, represented 54% of the invited, necessitating a nonparticipation study. Methods Questionnaire data from HUNT3 were compared with data collected from several sources: a short questionnaire to nonparticipants, anonymous data on specific diagnoses and prescribed medication extracted from randomly selected general practices, registry data from Statistics Norway on socioeconomic factors and mortality, and from the Norwegian Prescription Database on drug consumption. Results Participation rates for HUNT3 depended on age, sex and type of symptoms and diseases, but only small changes were found in the overall prevalence estimates when including data from 6922 nonparticipants. Among nonparticipants, the prevalences of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders were higher both in nonparticipant data and data extracted from general practice, compared to that reported by participants, whilst the opposite pattern was found, at least among persons younger than 80 years, for urine incontinence, musculoskeletal pain and headache. Registry data showed that the nonparticipants had lower socioeconomic status and a higher mortality than participants. Conclusion Nonparticipants had lower socioeconomic status, higher mortality and showed higher prevalences of several chronic diseases, whilst opposite patterns were found for common problems like musculoskeletal pain, urine incontinence and headache. The impact on associations should be analyzed for each diagnosis, and data making such analyses possible are provided in the present paper.

Langhammer Arnulf

2012-09-01

145

Do gender differences in the role of dysfunctional attitudes in depressive symptoms depend on depression history?  

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Gender differences in the moderating role of dysfunctional attitudes in the relationship between life stress and depressive symptoms were examined with and without controlling for the presence of lifetime history of depression. When lifetime history of depression was controlled, dysfunctional attitudes played a moderating role in the relationship between life stress and depressive symptoms for both men and women. However, when lifetime history of depression was not controlled, dysfunctional a...

You, Sungeun; Merritt, Rebecca Davis; Conner, Kenneth R.

2009-01-01

146

Regulating compassion: an overview of Canada's federal medical cannabis policy and practice  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to a number of court challenges brought forth by Canadian patients who demonstrated that they benefited from the use of medicinal cannabis but remained vulnerable to arrest and persecution as a result of its status as a controlled substance, in 1999 Canada became the second nation in the world to initiate a centralized medicinal cannabis program. Over its six years of existence, this controversial program has been found unconstitutional by a number of courts, and has faced criticism from the medical establishment, law enforcement, as well as the patient/participants themselves. Methods This critical policy analysis is an evidence-based review of court decisions, government records, relevant studies and Access to Information Act data related to the three main facets of Health Canada's medicinal cannabis policy – the Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD; the Canadians Institute of Health Research Medical Marijuana Research Program; and the federal cannabis production and distribution program. This analysis also examines Canada's network of unregulated community-based dispensaries. Results There is a growing body of evidence that Health Canada's program is not meeting the needs of the nation's medical cannabis patient community and that the policies of the Marihuana Medical Access Division may be significantly limiting the potential individual and public health benefits achievable though the therapeutic use of cannabis. Canada's community-based dispensaries supply medical cannabis to a far greater number of patients than the MMAD, but their work is currently unregulated by any level of government, leaving these organizations and their clients vulnerable to arrest and prosecution. Conclusion Any future success will depend on the government's ability to better assess and address the needs and legitimate concerns of end-users of this program, to promote and fund an expanded clinical research agenda, and to work in cooperation with community-based medical cannabis dispensaries in order to address the ongoing issue of safe and timely access to this herbal medicine.

Lucas Philippe G

2008-01-01

147

Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome: Clinical diagnosis of an underrecognised manifestation of chronic cannabis abuse  

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Full Text Available Cannabis is a common drug of abuse that is associated with various long-term and short-term adverse effects. The nature of its association with vomiting after chronic abuse is obscure and is underrecognised by clinicians. In some patients this vomiting can take on a pattern similar to cyclic vomiting syndrome with a peculiar compulsive hot bathing pattern, which relieves intense feelings of nausea and accompanying symptoms. In this case report, we describe a twenty-two year-old-male with a history of chronic cannabis abuse presenting with recurrent vomiting, intense nausea and abdominal pain. In addition, the patient reported that the hot baths improved his symptoms during these episodes. Abstinence from cannabis led to resolution of the vomiting symptoms and abdominal pain. We conclude that in the setting of chronic cannabis abuse, patients presenting with chronic severe nausea and vomiting that can sometimes be accompanied by abdominal pain and compulsive hot bathing behaviour, in the absence of other obvious causes, a diagnosis of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome should be considered.

Siva P Sontineni, Sanjay Chaudhary, Vijaya Sontineni, Stephen J Lanspa

2009-03-01

148

[Does the use of cannabis increase the risk for psychosis and the development of schizophrenia?].  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past 30 years evidence has been growing that cannabis use increases the risk for psychosis which could develop into schizophrenia in a proportion of cases. Over the past decade many studies have been published which clarify the association between cannabis use and psychosis. The aim of this review is to examine this association. A systematic search yielded 14 cohort studies carried out in 9 cohorts and 9 case-control studies. When the results of these studies are taken together they unambiguously support that cannabis use is an independent risk factor for psychosis and may also give rise to chronic psychotic disorders like schizophrenia. A dose dependent link is present because more frequent use associates with greater risk. The studies also show that cannabis-use in adolescence is associated with greater risk of developing psychosis than commencing the use of cannabis in adulthood. Further studies are needed to explain this association since psychotic disorders take years to evolve and it remains difficult to measure both the explanatory and the response variable and their complex relationship. The results emphasize the need to enhance public knowledge on the possible consequences of cannabis use and the fact that it cannot be predicted who will experience transient psychosis and who will develop a chronic psychotic disorder. PMID:25242813

Jonsson, Arnar Jan; Birgisdottir, Hera; Sigurdsson, Engilbert

2014-09-01

149

Cannabis og cannabinoidreceptorer--misbrug og psykose  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abuse of alcohol and drugs often co-occur with psychotic disorders. In this article, we introduce to the reader a number of receptors and neurotransmitter-systems involved in cannabis-abuse. Subsequently, we introduce the connection between abuse - particularly cannabis-abuse - and psychotic disorders.

HjorthØj, Carsten; Nordentoft, Merete

2008-01-01

150

Cannabis og cannabinoidreceptorer misbrug og psykose  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abuse of alcohol and drugs often co-occur with psychotic disorders. In this article, we introduce to the reader a number of receptors and neurotransmitter-systems involved in cannabis-abuse. Subsequently, we introduce the connection between abuse - particularly cannabis-abuse - and psychotic disorders Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/10

Hjorthoj, C.; Nordentoft, M.

2008-01-01

151

Cannabis cue reactivity and craving among never, infrequent and heavy cannabis users.  

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Substance cue reactivity is theorized as having a significant role in addiction processes, promoting compulsive patterns of drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. However, research extending this phenomenon to cannabis has been limited. To that end, the goal of the current work was to examine the relationship between cannabis cue reactivity and craving in a sample of 353 participants varying in self-reported cannabis use. Participants completed a visual oddball task whereby neutral, exercise, and cannabis cue images were presented, and a neutral auditory oddball task while event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Consistent with past research, greater cannabis use was associated with greater reactivity to cannabis images, as reflected in the P300 component of the ERP, but not to neutral auditory oddball cues. The latter indicates the specificity of cue reactivity differences as a function of substance-related cues and not generalized cue reactivity. Additionally, cannabis cue reactivity was significantly related to self-reported cannabis craving as well as problems associated with cannabis use. Implications for cannabis use and addiction more generally are discussed. PMID:24264815

Henry, Erika A; Kaye, Jesse T; Bryan, Angela D; Hutchison, Kent E; Ito, Tiffany A

2014-04-01

152

Cannabis, Cocaine and the Wages of Prime Age Males  

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This paper uses a dataset collected among inhabitants of Amsterdam, to study whether wages of prime age male workers are affected by the use of cannabis and cocaine.The analysis shows that cocaine use and infrequent cannabis use do not affect wages.Frequent cannabis use has a negative wage effect.The age of onset is also important.The earlier current cannabis users have started to use cannabis the larger the negative impact on their wage.

Ours, J. C.

2005-01-01

153

Implicit Associations and Explicit Expectancies toward Cannabis in Heavy Cannabis Users and Controls  

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Cognitive biases, including implicit memory associations are thought to play an important role in the development of addictive behaviors. The aim of the present study was to investigate implicit affective memory associations in heavy cannabis users. Implicit positive-arousal, sedation, and negative associations toward cannabis were measured with three Single Category Implicit Association Tests (SC-IAT’s) and compared between 59 heavy cannabis users and 89 controls. Moreover, we investigated...

Beraha, Esther M.; Cousijn, Janna; Hermanides, Elisa; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Wiers, Reinout W.

2013-01-01

154

A Case of Cannabis-Induced Pancreatitis  

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Full Text Available CONTEXT: There are no previous reports of acute pancreatitis associated with cannabis use in the general population. Drugs of all types are related to the aetiology of pancreatitis in approximately 1.4-2.0% of cases. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 29 year old man who presented with acute pancreatitis after a period of heavy cannabis smoking. Other causes of the disease were ruled out. The pancreatitis resolved itself after the cannabis was stopped and this was confirmed by urinary cannabinoid metabolite monitoring in the community. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first description of a case of cannabis induced pancreatitis. However, the link is difficult to establish and further evidence is required to prove the association.

Grant P

2004-01-01

155

Short scales to assess cannabis-related problems: a review of psychometric properties  

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Full Text Available Abstract Aims The purpose of this paper is to summarize the psychometric properties of four short screening scales to assess problematic forms of cannabis use: Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS, Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test (CUDIT, Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST and Problematic Use of Marijuana (PUM. Methods A systematic computer-based literature search was conducted within the databases of PubMed, PsychINFO and Addiction Abstracts. A total of 12 publications reporting measures of reliability or validity were identified: 8 concerning SDS, 2 concerning CUDIT and one concerning CAST and PUM. Studies spanned adult and adolescent samples from general and specific user populations in a number of countries worldwide. Results All screening scales tended to have moderate to high internal consistency (Cronbach's ? ranging from .72 to .92. Test-retest reliability and item total correlation have been reported for SDS with acceptable results. Results of validation studies varied depending on study population and standards used for validity assessment, but generally sensitivity, specificity and predictive power are satisfactory. Standard diagnostic cut-off points that can be generalized to different populations do not exist for any scale. Conclusion Short screening scales to assess dependence and other problems related to the use of cannabis seem to be a time and cost saving opportunity to estimate overall prevalences of cannabis-related negative consequences and to identify at-risk persons prior to using more extensive diagnostic instruments. Nevertheless, further research is needed to assess the performance of the tests in different populations and in comparison to broader criteria of cannabis-related problems other than dependence.

Klempova Danica

2008-12-01

156

Toma de decisiones en consumidores de cannabis  

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Diversos estudios neuropsicológicos han demostrado que los consumidores crónicos de cannabis presentan deterioros cognitivos, incluyendo el proceso de toma de decisiones. Por ello, el presente estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar dicho proceso, a través de la hipótesis del marcador somático, en una muestra de 41 consumidores de cannabis comparándolo con un grupo control de igual tamaño, así como analizar la influencia de la edad, sexo, nivel de estudios, edad de inici...

Alameda Baile?n, Jose? Ramo?n; Pai?no Quesada, Susana; Mogedas Valladares, Ana Isabel

2012-01-01

157

Classification and Short-Term Course of DSM-IV Cannabis, Hallucinogen, Cocaine, and Opioid Disorders in Treated Adolescents  

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This study examined the latent class structure of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (text rev.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) symptoms used to diagnose cannabis, hallucinogen, cocaine, and opiate disorders among 501 adolescents recruited from addictions treatment. Latent class results were compared with the…

Chung, Tammy; Martin, Christoper S.

2005-01-01

158

Reprint of "Treatment of cannabis use disorders in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders--a systematic review"  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cannabis use disorders (CUD) are prevalent among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), with a range of detrimental effects, e.g. reduced compliance to medication and psychosocial interventions, and increased level of psychotic-dimension symptoms. The aim of this study was to review literature on treatments of CUD in SSD-patients.

HjorthØj, Carsten; Fohlmann, Allan

2009-01-01

159

Cannabis Reclassification: What Is the Message to the Next Generation of Cannabis Users?  

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At the beginning of 2004 the UK government downgraded the legal status of cannabis from a Class B to a Class C drug. Following a review of this decision two years later, cannabis remained a Class C substance--which for some contrasted with the potential harmful social and health effects associated with its use, particularly for young people. These…

McCrystal, Patrick; Winning, Kerry

2009-01-01

160

Neural correlates of performance monitoring in chronic cannabis users and cannabis-na?ve controls  

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Chronic cannabis use is associated with residual negative effects on measures of executive functioning. However, little previous work has focused specifically on executive processes involved in performance monitoring in frequent cannabis users. The present study investigated event-related potential (ERP) correlates of performance monitoring in chronic cannabis users. The error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe), ERPs sensitive to performance monitoring, were recorded from 30 frequent cannabis users (mean usage=5.52 days/week) and 32 cannabis-naïve control participants during a speeded stimulus discrimination task. The “oddball” P3 ERP was recorded as well. Users and controls did not differ on the amplitude or latency of the ERN; however, Pe amplitude was larger among users. Users also showed increased amplitude and reduced latency of the P3 in response to infrequent stimuli presented during the task. Among users, urinary cannabinoid metabolite levels at testing were unrelated to ERP outcomes. However, total years of cannabis use correlated negatively with P3 latency and positively with P3 amplitude, and age of first cannabis use correlated negatively with P3 amplitude. The results of this study suggest that chronic cannabis use is associated with alterations in neural activity related to the processing of motivationally-relevant stimuli (P3) and errors (Pe). PMID:23427191

Fridberg, Daniel J; Skosnik, Patrick D; Hetrick, William P; O'Donnell, Brian F

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Brain alterations and clinical symptoms of dementia in diabetes: Abeta/tau-dependent and independent mechanisms  

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Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that diabetes affects cognitive function and increases the incidence of dementia. However, the mechanisms by which diabetes modifies cognitive function still remains unclear. Morphologically, diabetes is associated with neuronal loss in the frontal and temporal lobes including the hippocampus, and aberrant functional connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex and medial frontal/temporal gyrus. Clinically, diabetic patients show decreased executive function, information processing, planning, visuospatial construction, and visual memory. Therefore, in comparison with the characteristics of AD brain structure and cognition, diabetes seems to affect cognitive function through not only simple AD pathological feature-dependent mechanisms, but also independent mechanisms. As an Abeta/tau-independent mechanism, diabetes compromises cerebrovascular function, increases subcortical infarction and might alter the blood brain barrier (BBB. Diabetes also affects glucose metabolism, insulin signaling and mitochondrial function in the brain. Diabetes also modifies metabolism of Abeta and tau and causes Abeta/tau-dependent pathological changes. Moreover, there is evidence that suggests an interaction between Abeta/tau-dependent and independent mechanisms. Therefore, diabetes modifies cognitive function through Abeta/tau-dependent and independent mechanisms. Interaction between these two mechanisms forms a vicious cycle.

NaoyukiSato

2014-09-01

162

Brain Alterations and Clinical Symptoms of Dementia in Diabetes: A?/Tau-Dependent and Independent Mechanisms  

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Emerging evidence suggests that diabetes affects cognitive function and increases the incidence of dementia. However, the mechanisms by which diabetes modifies cognitive function still remains unclear. Morphologically, diabetes is associated with neuronal loss in the frontal and temporal lobes including the hippocampus, and aberrant functional connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex and medial frontal/temporal gyrus. Clinically, diabetic patients show decreased executive function, information processing, planning, visuospatial construction, and visual memory. Therefore, in comparison with the characteristics of AD brain structure and cognition, diabetes seems to affect cognitive function through not only simple AD pathological feature-dependent mechanisms but also independent mechanisms. As an A?/tau-independent mechanism, diabetes compromises cerebrovascular function, increases subcortical infarction, and might alter the blood–brain barrier. Diabetes also affects glucose metabolism, insulin signaling, and mitochondrial function in the brain. Diabetes also modifies metabolism of A? and tau and causes A?/tau-dependent pathological changes. Moreover, there is evidence that suggests an interaction between A?/tau-dependent and independent mechanisms. Therefore, diabetes modifies cognitive function through A?/tau-dependent and independent mechanisms. Interaction between these two mechanisms forms a vicious cycle.

Sato, Naoyuki; Morishita, Ryuichi

2014-01-01

163

Study Parses Comorbidity of Cannabis Use and Social Anxiety  

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... Study Parses Comorbidity of Cannabis Use and Social Anxiety Email Facebook Twitter October 25, 2013 A recent ... relationship between cannabis use disorder (CUD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD). The findings affirmed that a significant ...

164

THE EFFECT OF CANNABIS COMPARED WITH ALCOHOL ON DRIVING  

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The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of toler...

Sewell, R. Andrew; Poling, James; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

2009-01-01

165

Societal images of Cannabis use: comparing three countries  

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Abstract Background Differences in beliefs about Cannabis were compared between Canada, Sweden and Finland using nationally representative population surveys containing similar items. Findings Compared to Finnish and Swedish respondents, Canadians were both more likely to have tried Cannabis and to view Cannabis as a less serious problem for society. Conclusions These findings emphasize the extent to which views about Cannabis can vary. It is possi...

2012-01-01

166

Societal images of Cannabis use : comparing three countries  

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Abstract Background Differences in beliefs about Cannabis were compared between Canada, Sweden and Finland using nationally representative population surveys containing similar items. Findings Compared to Finnish and Swedish respondents, Canadians were both more likely to have tried Cannabis and to view Cannabis as a less serious problem for society. Conclusions These findings emphasize the extent to which views about Cannabis can vary. It is possi...

Cunningham John A; Blomqvist Jan; Koski-Jännes Anja; Raitasalo Kirsimarja

2012-01-01

167

Anormalidades cognitivas no uso da cannabis Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evidências de que o uso de cannabis prejudica funções cognitivas em humanos têm-se acumulado nas décadas recentes. O propósito desta revisão é o de atualizar o conhecimento nesta área com novos achados a partir da literatura mais recente. MÉTODO: As buscas na literatura foram realizadas utilizando-se o banco de dados Web of Science até fevereiro de 2010. Foram buscados os termos "cannabi*" ou "marijuana" e "cogniti*" ou "memory" ou "attention" ou "executive function", e os estudos em humanos foram revisados preferencialmente em relação aos estudos em animais. DISCUSSÃO: O uso de cannabis prejudica a memória, a atenção, o controle inibitório, as funções executivas e a tomada de decisões, tanto durante como após o período de intoxicação aguda, persistindo por horas, dias, semanas ou mais após o último uso. Os estudos de desafio farmacológico em humanos estão elucidando a natureza e os substratos neurais das alterações cognitivas associadas a vários canabinoides. O uso pesado ou de longo prazo de cannabis parece resultar em anormalidades cognitivas mais duradouras e possivelmente em alterações cerebrais estruturais. Efeitos cognitivos adversos maiores estão associados ao uso de cannabis quando este começa no início da adolescência. CONCLUSÃO: O sistema canabinoide endógeno está envolvido nos mecanismos de regulação neural que modulam os processos subjacentes a uma gama de funções cognitivas que estão prejudicadas pela cannabis. Os déficits em usuários humanos muito provavelmente refletem, portanto, neuroadaptações e o funcionamento alterado do sistema canabinoide endógeno.OBJECTIVE: Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. METHOD: Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. DISCUSSION: Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. CONCLUSION: The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

Nadia Solowij

2010-05-01

168

Predicting Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) Scores: A Recursive Partitioning Analysis Using Survey Data from Czech Republic, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Cannabis is Europe's most commonly used illicit drug. Some users do not develop dependence or other problems, whereas others do. Many factors are associated with the occurrence of cannabis-related disorders. This makes it difficult to identify key risk factors and markers to profile at-risk cannabis users using traditional hypothesis-driven approaches. Therefore, the use of a data-mining technique called binary recursive partitioning is demonstrated in this study by creating a classification tree to profile at-risk users. Methods 59 variables on cannabis use and drug market experiences were extracted from an internet-based survey dataset collected in four European countries (Czech Republic, Italy, Netherlands and Sweden), n?=?2617. These 59 potential predictors of problematic cannabis use were used to partition individual respondents into subgroups with low and high risk of having a cannabis use disorder, based on their responses on the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test. Both a generic model for the four countries combined and four country-specific models were constructed. Results Of the 59 variables included in the first analysis step, only three variables were required to construct a generic partitioning model to classify high risk cannabis users with 65–73% accuracy. Based on the generic model for the four countries combined, the highest risk for cannabis use disorder is seen in participants reporting a cannabis use on more than 200 days in the last 12 months. In comparison to the generic model, the country-specific models led to modest, non-significant improvements in classification accuracy, with an exception for Italy (p?=?0.01). Conclusion Using recursive partitioning, it is feasible to construct classification trees based on only a few variables with acceptable performance to classify cannabis users into groups with low or high risk of meeting criteria for cannabis use disorder. The number of cannabis use days in the last 12 months is the most relevant variable. The identified variables may be considered for use in future screeners for cannabis use disorders. PMID:25264894

Blankers, Matthijs; Frijns, Tom; Belackova, Vendula; Rossi, Carla; Svensson, Bengt; Trautmann, Franz; van Laar, Margriet

2014-01-01

169

Exercise dependencesymptoms and mechanisms [Uzale?nienie od ?wicze? fizycznych – objawy i mechanizmy  

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Full Text Available The aim of this article is to synthesise the knowledge about the phenomenon of exercise dependence (ED, which is now characterised by an obsessive preoccupation with exercise, negative in nature. ED could be operationalized as a multidimensional maladaptive pattern of exercise, leading to clinically impairment or distress. Its criteria are: tolerance, withdrawal effects, lack of control, reductions in other activities, impaired psychological, social or physical functioning. For primary ED, the physical activity is an end in itself; for secondary ED, motivation is extrinsic – to control or alter body mass and shape. Estimates of the prevalence of ED range from 2–3% to 20–30%. Hypotheses of ED development concentrate on ß-endorphin, sympathetic arousal, affect regulation or some psychological explanations (e.g. exercise as distractor.

Guszkowska, Monika

2012-10-01

170

Analysis of cannabis seizures in NSW, Australia: cannabis potency and cannabinoid profile.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent analysis of the cannabinoid content of cannabis plants suggests a shift towards use of high potency plant material with high levels of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and low levels of other phytocannabinoids, particularly cannabidiol (CBD). Use of this type of cannabis is thought by some to predispose to greater adverse outcomes on mental health and fewer therapeutic benefits. Australia has one of the highest per capita rates of cannabis use in the world yet there has been no previous systematic analysis of the cannabis being used. In the present study we examined the cannabinoid content of 206 cannabis samples that had been confiscated by police from recreational users holding 15 g of cannabis or less, under the New South Wales "Cannabis Cautioning" scheme. A further 26 "Known Provenance" samples were analysed that had been seized by police from larger indoor or outdoor cultivation sites rather than from street level users. An HPLC method was used to determine the content of 9 cannabinoids: THC, CBD, cannabigerol (CBG), and their plant-based carboxylic acid precursors THC-A, CBD-A and CBG-A, as well as cannabichromene (CBC), cannabinol (CBN) and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THC-V). The "Cannabis Cautioning" samples showed high mean THC content (THC+THC-A?=?14.88%) and low mean CBD content (CBD+CBD-A?=?0.14%). A modest level of CBG was detected (CBG+CBG-A?=?1.18%) and very low levels of CBC, CBN and THC-V (<0.1%). "Known Provenance" samples showed no significant differences in THC content between those seized from indoor versus outdoor cultivation sites. The present analysis echoes trends reported in other countries towards the use of high potency cannabis with very low CBD content. The implications for public health outcomes and harm reduction strategies are discussed. PMID:23894589

Swift, Wendy; Wong, Alex; Li, Kong M; Arnold, Jonathon C; McGregor, Iain S

2013-01-01

171

Effect of baseline cannabis use and working-memory network function on changes in cannabis use in heavy cannabis users: a prospective fMRI study.  

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Theoretical models of addiction suggest that a substance use disorder represents an imbalance between hypersensitive motivational processes and deficient regulatory executive functions. Working-memory (a central executive function) may be a powerful predictor of the course of drug use and drug-related problems. Goal of the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study was to assess the predictive power of working-memory network function for future cannabis use and cannabis-related problem severity in heavy cannabis users. Tensor independent component analysis was used to investigate differences in working-memory network function between 32 heavy cannabis users and 41 nonusing controls during an N-back working-memory task. In addition, associations were examined between working-memory network function and cannabis use and problem severity at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. Behavioral performance and working-memory network function did not significantly differ between heavy cannabis users and controls. However, among heavy cannabis users, individual differences in working-memory network response had an independent effect on change in weekly cannabis use 6 months later (?R(2) = 0.11, P = 0.006, f(2) = 0.37) beyond baseline cannabis use (?R(2) = 0.41) and a behavioral measure of approach bias (?R(2) = 0.18): a stronger network response during the N-back task was related to an increase in weekly cannabis use. These findings imply that heavy cannabis users requiring greater effort to accurately complete an N-back working-memory task have a higher probability of escalating cannabis use. Working-memory network function may be a biomarker for the prediction of course and treatment outcome in cannabis users. PMID:24038570

Cousijn, Janna; Wiers, Reinout W; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Goudriaan, Anna E

2014-05-01

172

Protein kinase B (AKT1) genotype mediates sensitivity to cannabis-induced impairments in psychomotor control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. What determines inter-individual variability to impairments in behavioural control that may underlie road-traffic accidents, and impulsive and violent behaviours occurring under the influence of cannabis, the most widely used illicit drug worldwide? Method. Employing a double-blind, repeated-measures design, we investigated the genetic and neural basis of variable sensitivity to cannabis-induced behavioural dyscontrol in healthy occasional cannabis users. Acute oral challenge with placebo or ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, was combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging, while participants performed a response inhibition task that involved inhibiting a pre-potent motor response. They were genotyped for rs1130233 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the protein kinase B (AKT1) gene. Results. Errors of inhibition were significantly (p = 0.008) increased following administration of THC in carriers of the A allele, but not in G allele homozygotes of the AKT1 rs1130233 SNP. The A allele carriers also displayed attenuation of left inferior frontal response with THC evident in the sample as a whole, while there was a modest enhancement of inferior frontal activation in the G homozygotes. There was a direct relationship (r = - 0.327, p = 0.045) between the behavioural effect of THC and its physiological effect in the inferior frontal gyrus, where AKT1 genotype modulated the effect of THC. Conclusions. These results require independent replication and show that differing vulnerability to acute psychomotor impairments induced by cannabis depends on variation in a gene that influences dopamine function, and is mediated through modulation of the effect of cannabis on the inferior frontal cortex, that is rich in dopaminergic innervation and critical for psychomotor control. PMID:25065544

Bhattacharyya, S; Iyegbe, C; Atakan, Z; Martin-Santos, R; Crippa, J A; Xu, X; Williams, S; Brammer, M; Rubia, K; Prata, D; Collier, D A; McGuire, P K

2014-11-01

173

Oral fluid/plasma cannabinoid ratios following controlled oral THC and smoked cannabis administration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral fluid (OF) is a valuable biological alternative for clinical and forensic drug testing. Evaluating OF to plasma (OF/P) cannabinoid ratios provides important pharmacokinetic data on the disposition of drug and factors influencing partition between matrices. Eleven chronic cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit for 51 days. There were four 5-day sessions of 0, 30, 60, and 120 mg oral ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/day followed by a five-puff smoked cannabis challenge on Day 5. Each session was separated by 9 days ad libitum cannabis smoking. OF and plasma specimens were analyzed for THC and metabolites. During ad libitum smoking, OF/P THC ratios were high (median, 6.1; range, 0.2-348.5) within 1 h after last smoking, decreasing to 0.1-20.7 (median, 2.1) by 13.0-17.1 h. OF/P THC ratios also decreased during 5-days oral THC dosing, and after the smoked cannabis challenge, median OF/P THC ratios decreased from 1.4 to 5.5 (0.04-245.6) at 0.25 h to 0.12 to 0.17 (0.04-5.1) at 10.5 h post-smoking. In other studies, longer exposure to more potent cannabis smoke and oromucosal cannabis spray was associated with increased OF/P THC peak ratios. Median OF/P 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) ratios were 0.3-2.5 (range, 0.1-14.7) ng/?g, much more consistent in various dosing conditions over time. OF/P THC, but not THCCOOH, ratios were significantly influenced by oral cavity contamination after smoking or oromucosal spray of cannabinoid products, followed by time-dependent decreases. Establishing relationships between OF and plasma cannabinoid concentrations is essential for making inferences of impairment or other clinical outcomes from OF concentrations. PMID:23831756

Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Milman, Garry; Bergamaschi, Mateus; Mendu, Damodara R; Murray, Jeannie A; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

2013-09-01

174

History of cannabis as a medicine: a review / História da cannabis como medicamento: uma revisão  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Antes da Era Cristã, a cannabis foi utilizada na Ásia como medicamento, com grande importância na Índia. A introdução da cannabis na Medicina Ocidental ocorreu em meados do século XIX, atingindo o clímax na última década deste século, com a disponibilidade e o uso de extratos e tinturas da cannabis. [...] Nas primeiras décadas do século XX, o uso médico da cannabis no Ocidente diminuiu significativamente, em grande parte pela dificuldade na obtenção de resultados consistentes de amostras da planta com diferentes potências. A identificação da estrutura química de componentes da cannabis e a possibilidade de se obter seus constituintes puros foram relacionadas a um aumento significativo no interesse científico pela planta, desde 1965. Este interesse foi renovado nos anos 90, com a descrição dos receptores de canabinóides e a identificação de um sistema canabinóide endógeno no cérebro. Usos terapêuticos. Um novo e mais consistente ciclo de uso dos derivados de cannabis como medicamento começa, já que a sua eficácia e segurança no tratamento começam a estar cientificamente provados. Abstract in english Cannabis as a medicine was used before the Christian era in Asia, mainly in India. The introduction of cannabis in the Western medicine occurred in the midst of the 19th century, reaching the climax in the last decade of that century, with the availability and usage of cannabis extracts or tinctures [...] . In the first decades of the 20th century, the Western medical use of cannabis significantly decreased largely due to difficulties to obtain consistent results from batches of plant material of different potencies. The identification of the chemical structure of cannabis components and the possibility of obtaining its pure constituents were related to a significant increase in scientific interest in such plant, since 1965. This interest was renewed in the 1990's with the description of cannabinoid receptors and the identification of an endogenous cannabinoid system in the brain. A new and more consistent cycle of the use of cannabis derivatives as medication begins, since treatment effectiveness and safety started to be scientifically proven.

Antonio Waldo, Zuardi.

2006-06-01

175

History of cannabis as a medicine: a review / História da cannabis como medicamento: uma revisão  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Antes da Era Cristã, a cannabis foi utilizada na Ásia como medicamento, com grande importância na Índia. A introdução da cannabis na Medicina Ocidental ocorreu em meados do século XIX, atingindo o clímax na última década deste século, com a disponibilidade e o uso de extratos e tinturas da cannabis. [...] Nas primeiras décadas do século XX, o uso médico da cannabis no Ocidente diminuiu significativamente, em grande parte pela dificuldade na obtenção de resultados consistentes de amostras da planta com diferentes potências. A identificação da estrutura química de componentes da cannabis e a possibilidade de se obter seus constituintes puros foram relacionadas a um aumento significativo no interesse científico pela planta, desde 1965. Este interesse foi renovado nos anos 90, com a descrição dos receptores de canabinóides e a identificação de um sistema canabinóide endógeno no cérebro. Usos terapêuticos. Um novo e mais consistente ciclo de uso dos derivados de cannabis como medicamento começa, já que a sua eficácia e segurança no tratamento começam a estar cientificamente provados. Abstract in english Cannabis as a medicine was used before the Christian era in Asia, mainly in India. The introduction of cannabis in the Western medicine occurred in the midst of the 19th century, reaching the climax in the last decade of that century, with the availability and usage of cannabis extracts or tinctures [...] . In the first decades of the 20th century, the Western medical use of cannabis significantly decreased largely due to difficulties to obtain consistent results from batches of plant material of different potencies. The identification of the chemical structure of cannabis components and the possibility of obtaining its pure constituents were related to a significant increase in scientific interest in such plant, since 1965. This interest was renewed in the 1990's with the description of cannabinoid receptors and the identification of an endogenous cannabinoid system in the brain. A new and more consistent cycle of the use of cannabis derivatives as medication begins, since treatment effectiveness and safety started to be scientifically proven.

Antonio Waldo, Zuardi.

176

History of cannabis as a medicine: a review História da cannabis como medicamento: uma revisão  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cannabis as a medicine was used before the Christian era in Asia, mainly in India. The introduction of cannabis in the Western medicine occurred in the midst of the 19th century, reaching the climax in the last decade of that century, with the availability and usage of cannabis extracts or tinctures. In the first decades of the 20th century, the Western medical use of cannabis significantly decreased largely due to difficulties to obtain consistent results from batches of plant material of different potencies. The identification of the chemical structure of cannabis components and the possibility of obtaining its pure constituents were related to a significant increase in scientific interest in such plant, since 1965. This interest was renewed in the 1990's with the description of cannabinoid receptors and the identification of an endogenous cannabinoid system in the brain. A new and more consistent cycle of the use of cannabis derivatives as medication begins, since treatment effectiveness and safety started to be scientifically proven.Antes da Era Cristã, a cannabis foi utilizada na Ásia como medicamento, com grande importância na Índia. A introdução da cannabis na Medicina Ocidental ocorreu em meados do século XIX, atingindo o clímax na última década deste século, com a disponibilidade e o uso de extratos e tinturas da cannabis. Nas primeiras décadas do século XX, o uso médico da cannabis no Ocidente diminuiu significativamente, em grande parte pela dificuldade na obtenção de resultados consistentes de amostras da planta com diferentes potências. A identificação da estrutura química de componentes da cannabis e a possibilidade de se obter seus constituintes puros foram relacionadas a um aumento significativo no interesse científico pela planta, desde 1965. Este interesse foi renovado nos anos 90, com a descrição dos receptores de canabinóides e a identificação de um sistema canabinóide endógeno no cérebro. Usos terapêuticos. Um novo e mais consistente ciclo de uso dos derivados de cannabis como medicamento começa, já que a sua eficácia e segurança no tratamento começam a estar cientificamente provados.

Antonio Waldo Zuardi

2006-06-01

177

Consommation de cannabis: quels sont les risques ? Cannabis: what are the risks ?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les cannabinoïdes contenus dans la plante de cannabis ont un double usage et possèdent des propriétés opposées suivant les circonstances et les doses employées. Les cannabinoïdes, essentiellement drogue récréative ou d'abus pourraient, pour certains d'entre eux, devenir des médicaments. Selon les conditions d'utilisation, ils peuvent être neurotoxiques ou neuroprotecteurs, carcinogènes ou anticancéreux, hyper-émétiques ou antiémétiques, pro-inflammatoires ou anti-inflammatoires... Les techniques de culture sous serre indoor ainsi que la sélection de variétés de cannabis à fort potentiel de production ont conduit à un accroissement notable des taux de THC. Le cannabis est la drogue illégale la plus fréquemment consommée en Suisse et ailleurs dans le monde occidental. Environ la moitié des jeunes ont déjà expérimenté le cannabis. Environ 10 % des consommateurs le fument quotidiennement et en sont devenus dépendants. Un tiers de ces usagers peut être considéré comme chroniquement intoxiqué. Le THC, la principale substance psychoactive du cannabis, interagit avec le "système endocannabinoïde". Ce système est composé de récepteurs cellulaires, de ligands endogènes et d'un dispositif complexe de synthèse, de dégradation, de régulation et de messagers intra-cellulaires. Le système endocannabinoïde joue un rôle clé dans le réglage fin du système nerveux. Les endocannabinoïdes régulent la mémorisation, l'apprentissage moteur et la plasticité des liaisons nerveuses. À dose psychoactive, le THC réduit les performances psychomotrices et neurocognitives. Les facultés d'apprentissage et de mémorisation sont diminuées. Le risque d'être responsable d'un accident de circulation est augmenté après prise de cannabis, et ceci d'autant plus que de l'alcool aura été consommé parallèlement. À l'exception des jeunes enfants, la consommation de cannabis n'entraîne pas de risque potentiel d'intoxication mortelle. Toutefois, le cannabis pourrait agir comme facteur déclenchant d'accident cardiovasculaire chez de rares individus prédisposés. Les individus jeunes, et/ou vulnérables ont un risque significativement plus élevé de développer une psychose à l'âge adulte ou de devenir dépendant au cannabis. Des études épidémiologiques ont montré que le risque de développer une schizophrénie à l'âge adulte était augmenté pour les consommateurs de cannabis et ceci d'autant plus que l'âge de début de consommation était précoce. Il en va de même pour le risque de dépression. Les troubles respiratoires pourraient être exacerbés par la prise de cannabis. Les femmes enceintes et celles qui allaitent ne devraient pas consommer de cannabis car le THC traverse la barrière hémato-placentaire, en outre, il se concentre dans le lait maternel. La période de la vie la plus sensible aux effets néfastes du cannabis correspond à celle allant du fœtus à l'adolescent. Le système endocannabinoïde sur lequel agit le THC serait en effet un acteur majeur orchestrant le développement des réseaux neuronaux dans le cerveau immature. La prise concomitante d'autres psychotropes comme l'alcool, les benzodiazépines ou la cocaïne conduit à des renforcements mutuels de leurs effets délétères. De plus, il a été montré l'existence d'une sensibilité croisée pour la majorité des psychotropes qui agissent sur le système de la récompense, le cannabis y compris, ce qui augmente ainsi le risque de pharmacodépendance. La prise régulière de doses élevées de cannabis entraîne l'apparition d'une tolérance et de symptômes de sevrage discrets à l'arrêt de la consommation. À part les effets négatifs mentionnés auparavant, le cannabis possède des propriétés médicales originales qui sont l'objet d'études attentives. Plusieurs cannabinoïdes mineurs naturels ou synthétiques, comme l'acide ajulémique, pourraient trouver un jour une place dans la pharmacopée. En usage thérapeutique, des variétés particulières de cannabis sont préférées, par

Giroud Christian

2009-03-01

178

Myocardial infarction following cannabis induced coronary vasospasm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Smoking cannabis is a rare cause of myocardial infarction. We report a 29-year-old man who presented with acute coronary syndrome following consumption of a type of cannabis with the street name 'Kerala Ganja'. KG is smuggled into Sri Lanka from India; it is grown in the south Indian state of Kerala and is much more potent than the local ganja (marijuana). The patient developed dynamic ST-segment elevations in different leads in sequential ECGs, corresponding to different coronary artery territories. Coronary angiogram did not demonstrate evidence of occlusive atherosclerotic disease, but showed slow flow down the left anterior descending artery, which improved with administration of intracoronary nitrates. The patient's cardiac biomarkers were significantly elevated. A diagnosis was made of vasospasm causing myocardial infarction, most likely to have been triggered by cannabis consumption. We highlight the importance of considering this possible aetiology, particularly in patients with ACS with a susceptible social profile. PMID:25391827

Gunawardena, Mudalige Don Vajira Malin; Rajapakse, Senaka; Herath, Jagath; Amarasena, Naomali

2014-01-01

179

Societal images of Cannabis use: comparing three countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in beliefs about Cannabis were compared between Canada, Sweden and Finland using nationally representative population surveys containing similar items. Findings Compared to Finnish and Swedish respondents, Canadians were both more likely to have tried Cannabis and to view Cannabis as a less serious problem for society. Conclusions These findings emphasize the extent to which views about Cannabis can vary. It is possible that views about Cannabis are, at least in part, a social construction influenced by media, social policy and exposure to the drug that varies from country to country.

Cunningham John A

2012-06-01

180

Pathways from cannabis to psychosis: a review of the evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nature of the relationship between cannabis use and psychosis is complex and remains unclear. Researchers and clinicians remain divided regarding key issues such as whether or not cannabis is an independent cause of psychosis and schizophrenia. This paper reviews the field in detail, examining questions of causality, the neurobiological basis for such causality and for differential inter-individual risk, the clinical and cognitive features of psychosis in cannabis users, and patterns of course and outcome of psychosis in the context of cannabis use. The author proposes two major pathways from cannabis to psychosis based on a differentiation between early-initiated lifelong cannabis use and a scenario where vulnerable individuals without a lifelong pattern of use consume cannabis over a relatively brief period of time just prior to psychosis onset. Additional key factors determining the clinical and neurobiological manifestation of psychosis as well as course and outcome in cannabis users include: underlying genetic and developmental vulnerability to schizophrenia-spectrum disorders; and whether or not cannabis use ceases or continues after the onset of psychosis. Finally, methodological guidelines are presented for future research aimed at both elucidating the pathways that lead from cannabis to psychosis and clarifying the long-term outcome of the disorder in those who have a history of using cannabis.

JonathanKBurns

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
181

Counselling young cannabis users by text message  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article presents the results of a study of two SMS services aimed at providing young people with information on cannabis and helping them to reduce their consumption of the drug. The attitude of the 12 participants in the study towards the SMS services is generally positive, but they prefer factual information to advice and counselling. The messages prompt reflection and awareness among the recipients, and their repetitive, serial nature plays a significant part in the process of change. This is especially true of the young people whose use of cannabis is recreational. For them, the SMS services offer a less demanding, potentially less confrontational alternative to traditional forms of counselling and treatment.

Laursen, Ditte

2010-01-01

182

Factores asociados al inicio del consumo de cannabis: una revisión sistemática de estudios de cohortes Factors associated with the onset of cannabis use: a systematic review of cohort studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar los factores asociados al inicio del consumo de cannabis a partir de una revisión sistemática de estudios de cohortes. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica informatizada utilizando diversas palabras clave y sus combinaciones. Entre los estudios identificados se seleccionaron los estudios originales de diseño longitudinal que utilizaran como variable dependiente el inicio de consumo de cannabis, así como los estudios de revisión, publicados entre enero de 1980 y mayo de 2004. Se evaluó la calidad metodológica de los estudios mediante 2 revisores, de manera independiente y a partir de unos criterios prestablecidos, clasificando los artículos en 3 categorías: alta, intermedia o baja calidad. Se midió el nivel de concordancia de los revisores a partir del coeficiente kappa. Resultados: Se identificaron 32 estudios que cumplían los criterios de selección, de los cuales 13 fueron determinados de alta calidad. Las causas de exclusión fueron el sesgo de selección, por la inclusión de consumidores al inicio de la cohorte estudiada, y la falta de ajuste por los potenciales confusores. Los factores que se relacionaron con una mayor evidencia con el inicio del consumo de cannabis fueron el sexo masculino, el consumo de tabaco y alcohol, tener una relación problemática con los padres y el consumo de cannabis por parte de los amigos. Conclusiones: Los resultados señalan la importancia de diversos factores individuales, familiares y del entorno en el inicio del consumo de cannabis, que deberían considerarse de forma conjunta en el abordaje preventivo entre los adolescentes.Objective: To determine the factors associated with the onset of cannabis use through a systematic review of cohort studies. Methods: An internet-based search was performed using several keywords and their combinations. Original studies with longitudinal design and the onset of cannabis use as dependent variable, as well as review studies were included, published between January 1980 and May 2004. Methodology quality of the studies was assessed independently by two reviewers, according to pre-established criteria, in order to classify studies in high, mid or low quality. Agreement between reviewers was assessed through kappa coefficient. Results: A total of 32 relevant studies were identified, of which 13 were of higher quality. Selection bias for the inclusion of consumers at the baseline measurement and lack or insufficient adjustment for confounders were the causes of exclusion. The factors of great evidence related to the onset of cannabis use were masculine sex, consumption of tobacco or alcohol, having a problematic relationship with parents, and cannabis consumption by friends. Conclusion: Results highlight the importance of different individual, family and environmental factors on the onset of cannabis use. These must be considered to properly arrange intervention programs focusing on primary prevention among teenagers.

Mònica Guxens

2007-06-01

183

Striatal and extrastriatal dopamine transporter in cannabis and tobacco addiction: a high-resolution PET study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dopamine (DA) system is known to be involved in the reward and dependence mechanisms of addiction. However, modifications in dopaminergic neurotransmission associated with long-term tobacco and cannabis use have been poorly documented in vivo. In order to assess striatal and extrastriatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in tobacco and cannabis addiction, three groups of male age-matched subjects were compared: 11 healthy non-smoker subjects, 14 tobacco-dependent smokers (17.6 ± 5.3 cigarettes/day for 12.1 ± 8.5 years) and 13 cannabis and tobacco smokers (CTS) (4.8 ± 5.3 cannabis joints/day for 8.7 ± 3.9 years). DAT availability was examined in positron emission tomography (HRRT) with a high resolution research tomograph after injection of [11C]PE2I, a selective DAT radioligand. Region of interest and voxel-by-voxel approaches using a simplified reference tissue model were performed for the between-group comparison of DAT availability. Measurements in the dorsal striatum from both analyses were concordant and showed a mean 20% lower DAT availability in drug users compared with controls. Whole-brain analysis also revealed lower DAT availability in the ventral striatum, the midbrain, the middle cingulate and the thalamus (ranging from -15 to -30%). The DAT availability was slightly lower in all regions in CTS than in subjects who smoke tobacco only, but the difference does not reach a significant level. These results support the existence of a decrease in DAT availability associated with tobacco and cannabis addictions involving all dopaminergic brain circuits. These findings are consistent with the idea of a global decrease in cerebral DA activity in dependent subjects. PMID:21812871

Leroy, Claire; Karila, Laurent; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Lukasiewicz, Michaël; Duchesnay, Edouard; Comtat, Claude; Dollé, Frédéric; Benyamina, Amine; Artiges, Eric; Ribeiro, Maria-Joao; Reynaud, Michel; Trichard, Christian

2012-11-01

184

Cannabis use is a better indicator of poor mental health in women than in men: a cross-sectional study in young adults from the general population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis use is a known risk factor for a range of mental health problems, but less is known on the association with general mental health. We aim to explore the relationship between cannabis use and general mental health. We did a cross-sectional online survey of 1,929 young adults aged 18-30 years. Participants reported socio-demographic data, substance use and the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90). Monthly cannabis use was associated with a higher total score on the SCL-90, both in a crude (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.57-2.38) and fully adjusted model (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.07-2.03). The association between cannabis and mental health was stronger in women and weekly users, and was independent of age at first use of cannabis. We conclude that moderate cannabis use is associated with general mental health problems in young adulthood. This relationship is independent of age at first use and of other risk factors, and is strongest in women. PMID:24728845

van Gastel, W A; MacCabe, J H; Schubart, C D; van Otterdijk, E; Kahn, R S; Boks, M P M

2014-10-01

185

Craving for cannabis in patients with psychotic disorder, their non-affected siblings and healthy controls: psychometric analysis of the obsessive compulsive drug use scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis use is more common in individuals with non-affective psychotic disorder and their siblings compared to healthy controls. As cannabis use is associated with a greater risk to develop psychotic disorder and an adverse outcome in those who already developed psychosis, it is important to know the role of craving in continued cannabis use and relapse in these vulnerable subjects. Therefore, we examined the validity of the Obsessive Compulsive Drug Use Scale for cannabis (OCDUS-CAN) in patients with non-affective psychotic disorder, their siblings, and healthy controls who all used cannabis in the past year. Simultaneous component analysis (SCA) was used to determine component weights that optimally explained the (co)variance of the OCDUS-CAN variables in these different populations simultaneously. A three-component SCA solution explained 74.2 % of the total variance, and consisted of well-interpretable subscales that could be best described as craving/urge, resistance, and impact. Reliability of the subscales was good. The three subscales significantly discriminated between frequent and infrequent cannabis users. Patients scored higher on the craving/urge and impact scale than siblings and controls, which could be related to primary and secondary symptoms of their disorder. The OCDUS-CAN is well suitable for people with or without vulnerability for psychotic disorder. PMID:22961922

Dekker, Nienke; Koeter, Maarten; Van Den Brink, Wim

2012-12-01

186

Genetic predisposition to schizophrenia associated with increased use of cannabis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide. With debate surrounding the legalization and control of use, investigating its health risks has become a pressing area of research. One established association is that between cannabis use and schizophrenia, a debilitating psychiatric disorder affecting ~1% of the population over their lifetime. Although considerable evidence implicates cannabis use as a component cause of schizophrenia, it remains unclear whether this is entirely due to cannabis directly raising risk of psychosis, or whether the same genes that increases psychosis risk may also increase risk of cannabis use. In a sample of 2082 healthy individuals, we show an association between an individual's burden of schizophrenia risk alleles and use of cannabis. This was significant both for comparing those who have ever versus never used cannabis (P=2.6 × 10(-)(4)), and for quantity of use within users (P=3.0 × 10(-3)). Although directly predicting only a small amount of the variance in cannabis use, these findings suggest that part of the association between schizophrenia and cannabis is due to a shared genetic aetiology. This form of gene-environment correlation is an important consideration when calculating the impact of environmental risk factors, including cannabis use. PMID:24957864

Power, R A; Verweij, K J H; Zuhair, M; Montgomery, G W; Henders, A K; Heath, A C; Madden, P A F; Medland, S E; Wray, N R; Martin, N G

2014-11-01

187

The effect of cannabis use on memory function: an update  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tabea Schoeler, Sagnik BhattacharyyaDepartment of Psychosis Studies, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UKAbstract: Investigating the effects of cannabis use on memory function appears challenging. While early observational investigations aimed to elucidate the longer-term effects of cannabis use on memory function in humans, findings remained equivocal and pointed to a pattern of interacting factors impacting on the relationship between cannabis use and memory function, rather than a simple direct effect of cannabis. Only recently, a clearer picture of the chronic and acute effects of cannabis use on memory function has emerged once studies have controlled for potential confounding factors and started to investigate the acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC and cannabidiol (CBD, the main ingredients in the extract of the cannabis plant in pharmacological challenge experiments. Relatively consistent findings have been reported regarding the acute impairments induced by a single dose of ?9-THC on verbal and working memory. It is unclear whether they may persist beyond the intoxication state. In the long-term, these impairments seem particularly likely to manifest and may also persist following abstinence if regular and heavy use of cannabis strains high in ?9-THC is started at an early age. Although still at an early stage, studies that employed advanced neuroimaging techniques have started to model the neural underpinnings of the effects of cannabis use and implicate a network of functional and morphological alterations that may moderate the effects of cannabis on memory function. Future experimental and epidemiological studies that take into consideration individual differences, particularly previous cannabis history and demographic characteristics, but also the precise mixture of the ingredients of the consumed cannabis are necessary to clarify the magnitude and the mechanisms by which cannabis-induced memory impairments occur and to elucidate underlying neurobiological mechanisms.Keywords: cannabis, THC, CBD, memory, neuroimaging, fMRI

Schoeler T

2013-01-01

188

Early-Onset, Regular Cannabis Use Is Linked to IQ Decline  

Science.gov (United States)

... that cannabis use may harm the developing brain. Cannabis Use Correlates With Cognitive Decline The study participants ... started out with the same IQs in childhood. Cannabis May Harm the Developing Brain Dr. Meier and ...

189

Poor School Satisfaction and Number of Cannabis Using Peers within School Classes as Individual Risk Factors for Cannabis Use among Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

There is little information available on the topic of poor school satisfaction as a risk factor for cannabis use among adolescents. We examined if there was an association between poor school satisfaction, school class cannabis use and individual cannabis use. Further, we investigated if many cannabis users within the school class statistically…

Hoff, Dominic A.; Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjorn E.

2010-01-01

190

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) as an Environmentally Friendly Energyplant  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemp is suitable as a renewable energy resource. The aim of this study was to clarify local hemp's (Cannabis sativa L.) possibilities for energy use. Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and titanium (Ti) presence in hemp was determined using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer Optima 2100 DV. If there were increased N fertilizer rates, there were increased hemp `P?ri?i' seeds and shive yield increases, but the oil content was reduced. Arsenic content was higher in the shives than in the stems with fibre. The ash content depends on non-organic substances which the plants absorb during the vegetation season. The lignin content depends on several factors: plant parts, and the N fertilizer rate. The unexplored factors have a great effect on the ash and lignin content. Hemp is suitable for cultivation and for bio-energy production in the agro-climatic conditions in Latvia.

Poisa, Liena; Adamovics, Aleksandrs

2010-01-01

191

Social Anxiety and Cannabis Use: An Analysis from Ecological Momentary Assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear especially vulnerable to cannabis-related problems, yet little is known about the antecedents of cannabis-related behaviors among this high-risk population. The present study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine the relations among social anxiety, cannabis craving, state anxiety, situational variables, and cannabis use in the natural environment during ad-lib cannabis use episodes. Participants were 49 current cannabis users. Du...

Buckner, Julia D.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Schmidt, Norman B.

2012-01-01

192

Symptoms of Depression Depend on Rigid Parenting Attitudes, Gender, and Race in an At-Risk Sample of Early Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

Trajectories of depressive symptoms were compared between European American and African American boys and girls from ages 8 to 14 in a longitudinal sample of 130 children born to adolescent mothers. Mixed-effects regression modeling was used to analyze individual and group differences in level of depressive symptoms and their changes over time.…

Weed, Keri; Morales, Dawn A.; Harjes, Rachel

2013-01-01

193

Depressive Symptoms Enhance Loss-Minimization, but Attenuate Gain-Maximization in History-Dependent Decision-Making  

Science.gov (United States)

Individuals with depressive symptoms typically show deficits in decision-making. However, most work has emphasized decision-making under gain-maximization conditions. A gain-maximization framework may undermine decision-making when depressive symptoms are present because depressives are generally more sensitive to losses than gains. The present…

Maddox, W. Todd; Gorlick, Marissa A.; Worthy, Darrell A.; Beevers, Christopher G.

2012-01-01

194

Effect of alcohol and Cannabis sativa consumption on handwriting.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports on the separate effect of Cannabis sativa smoking and of alcohol consumption on handwriting performance in Cannabis users and in alcoholic volunteers, respectively. Handwriting samples were obtained prior to, during, and after 1 hr of Cannabis or alcohol consumption. Handwriting was evaluated for speed, letter forms, size, slant, and alignment. Cannabis sativa smoking exerted greater effect on handwriting than did alcohol drinking. This effect was noted during Cannabis smoking and lasted for 1 hr thereafter. Changes noted in handwriting performance test, which reflect involuntary muscular movement and tremor, suggest a differential CNS depressant action of the compounds used under the experimental trials listed. The results suggest possible forensic application, i.e., the use of handwriting for the purpose of signature comparison obtained under the influence of alcohol or under Cannabis intoxication. PMID:6866197

Zaki, N N; Ibraheim, M A

1983-01-01

195

Anormalidades cognitivas no uso da cannabis / Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Evidências de que o uso de cannabis prejudica funções cognitivas em humanos têm-se acumulado nas décadas recentes. O propósito desta revisão é o de atualizar o conhecimento nesta área com novos achados a partir da literatura mais recente. MÉTODO: As buscas na literatura foram realizadas ut [...] ilizando-se o banco de dados Web of Science até fevereiro de 2010. Foram buscados os termos "cannabi*" ou "marijuana" e "cogniti*" ou "memory" ou "attention" ou "executive function", e os estudos em humanos foram revisados preferencialmente em relação aos estudos em animais. DISCUSSÃO: O uso de cannabis prejudica a memória, a atenção, o controle inibitório, as funções executivas e a tomada de decisões, tanto durante como após o período de intoxicação aguda, persistindo por horas, dias, semanas ou mais após o último uso. Os estudos de desafio farmacológico em humanos estão elucidando a natureza e os substratos neurais das alterações cognitivas associadas a vários canabinoides. O uso pesado ou de longo prazo de cannabis parece resultar em anormalidades cognitivas mais duradouras e possivelmente em alterações cerebrais estruturais. Efeitos cognitivos adversos maiores estão associados ao uso de cannabis quando este começa no início da adolescência. CONCLUSÃO: O sistema canabinoide endógeno está envolvido nos mecanismos de regulação neural que modulam os processos subjacentes a uma gama de funções cognitivas que estão prejudicadas pela cannabis. Os déficits em usuários humanos muito provavelmente refletem, portanto, neuroadaptações e o funcionamento alterado do sistema canabinoide endógeno. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. METHOD: Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science [...] database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. DISCUSSION: Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. CONCLUSION: The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

Nadia, Solowij; Nicole, Pesa.

196

Anormalidades cognitivas no uso da cannabis / Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Evidências de que o uso de cannabis prejudica funções cognitivas em humanos têm-se acumulado nas décadas recentes. O propósito desta revisão é o de atualizar o conhecimento nesta área com novos achados a partir da literatura mais recente. MÉTODO: As buscas na literatura foram realizadas ut [...] ilizando-se o banco de dados Web of Science até fevereiro de 2010. Foram buscados os termos "cannabi*" ou "marijuana" e "cogniti*" ou "memory" ou "attention" ou "executive function", e os estudos em humanos foram revisados preferencialmente em relação aos estudos em animais. DISCUSSÃO: O uso de cannabis prejudica a memória, a atenção, o controle inibitório, as funções executivas e a tomada de decisões, tanto durante como após o período de intoxicação aguda, persistindo por horas, dias, semanas ou mais após o último uso. Os estudos de desafio farmacológico em humanos estão elucidando a natureza e os substratos neurais das alterações cognitivas associadas a vários canabinoides. O uso pesado ou de longo prazo de cannabis parece resultar em anormalidades cognitivas mais duradouras e possivelmente em alterações cerebrais estruturais. Efeitos cognitivos adversos maiores estão associados ao uso de cannabis quando este começa no início da adolescência. CONCLUSÃO: O sistema canabinoide endógeno está envolvido nos mecanismos de regulação neural que modulam os processos subjacentes a uma gama de funções cognitivas que estão prejudicadas pela cannabis. Os déficits em usuários humanos muito provavelmente refletem, portanto, neuroadaptações e o funcionamento alterado do sistema canabinoide endógeno. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. METHOD: Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science [...] database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. DISCUSSION: Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. CONCLUSION: The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

Nadia, Solowij; Nicole, Pesa.

2010-05-01

197

The effect of cannabis use on memory function: an update.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigating the effects of cannabis use on memory function appears challenging. While early observational investigations aimed to elucidate the longer-term effects of cannabis use on memory function in humans, findings remained equivocal and pointed to a pattern of interacting factors impacting on the relationship between cannabis use and memory function, rather than a simple direct effect of cannabis. Only recently, a clearer picture of the chronic and acute effects of cannabis use on memory function has emerged once studies have controlled for potential confounding factors and started to investigate the acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), the main ingredients in the extract of the cannabis plant in pharmacological challenge experiments. Relatively consistent findings have been reported regarding the acute impairments induced by a single dose of ?9-THC on verbal and working memory. It is unclear whether they may persist beyond the intoxication state. In the long-term, these impairments seem particularly likely to manifest and may also persist following abstinence if regular and heavy use of cannabis strains high in ?9-THC is started at an early age. Although still at an early stage, studies that employed advanced neuroimaging techniques have started to model the neural underpinnings of the effects of cannabis use and implicate a network of functional and morphological alterations that may moderate the effects of cannabis on memory function. Future experimental and epidemiological studies that take into consideration individual differences, particularly previous cannabis history and demographic characteristics, but also the precise mixture of the ingredients of the consumed cannabis are necessary to clarify the magnitude and the mechanisms by which cannabis-induced memory impairments occur and to elucidate underlying neurobiological mechanisms. PMID:24648785

Schoeler, Tabea; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik

2013-01-01

198

Gender Differences in the Correlates of Adolescents' Cannabis Use  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adolescents' gender-specific cannabis use rates and their correlates were examined. Data were obtained via a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2004 in British Columbia, Canada, funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. School districts were invited to participate, and schools within consenting districts were recruited. In total, 8,225 students (50% male)from Grades 7 to 12 participated. About 73% were “White” and 47% had used cannabis in their lifetime. Cannabis users were g...

Tu, Andrew W.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Johnson, Joy L.

2008-01-01

199

Cannabinoid Concentrations in Hair from Documented Cannabis Users  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fifty-three head hair specimens were collected from 38 males with a history of cannabis use documented by questionnaire, urinalysis and controlled, double blind administration of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in an institutional review board approved protocol. The subjects completed a questionnaire indicating daily cannabis use (N = 18) or non-daily use, i.e. 1 to 5 cannabis cigarettes per week, (N = 20). Drug use was also documented by a positive cannabinoid urinalysis, a hair specimen was ...

Huestis, Marilyn A.; Gustafson, Richard A.; Moolchan, Eric T.; Bames, Allan; Bourland, James A.; Sweeney, Stacy A.; Hayes, Eugene F.; Carpenter, Patrick M.; Smith, Michael L.

2007-01-01

200

Cannabis and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Clinical Studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cannabis is the most widely used illegitimate substance in the world, and the number of users has increased by 10% over the last decade worldwide. Therefore, it is important to review the evidence on psychoactive properties of cannabis and its possible association with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). We searched MEDLINE with the key words cannabis and schizophrenia. The search was limited to articles published in English over the last 10 years (1999-2009). Bibliog...

Rodrigo Chaturaka; Rajapakse Senaka

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Difference between the prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety in non-diabetic smokers and in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without nicotine dependence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with diabetes who are smokers have higher risks of cardiovascular disease, premature death, and microvascular complications. The present study aims to determine the prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety in smokers with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D and to evaluate if the prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety differ between the three groups studied (patients with T2D who smoke; patients with T2D who do not smoke; smokers without T2D, and finally determine if the degree of nicotine dependence is related to symptoms of anxiety and depression in smokers (with or without T2D. Methods Three study groups were formed: 46 T2D smokers (DS, 46 T2D non-smokers (D, and 46 smokers without diabetes (S, totaling 138 participants. Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD scale and Fagerström Test were applied. Results The prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety in smokers with T2D was 30.4% and 50%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the proportion of individuals with symptoms of anxiety (p?=?0.072 or depression (p?=?0.657 in the DS group compared to group D or S. Among male patients with T2D, the smokers had a higher prevalence of anxiety symptoms (19.6% than non-smokers (4,3% (p?=?0,025. The prevalence of high nicotine dependence among smokers with and without T2D was 39.1% and 37.1%, respectively (p?=?0.999. Fagerström scores showed no significant correlation with the scores obtained on the subscale of anxiety (p?=?0,735 or depression (p?=?0,364. Conclusions The prevalence of depression and anxiety among smokers with and without diabetes and non-smokers T2D is similar. Among male individuals with T2D, the smokers have more symptoms of anxiety than the non-smokers. There is no difference in the prevalence of nicotine dependence among smokers with and without diabetes. The presence of symptoms of anxiety or depression is similar between patients who are dependent and not dependent on nicotine.

Osme Simone

2012-08-01

202

Cannabis Use during Adolescent Development: Susceptibility to Psychiatric Illness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis use is increasingly pervasive among adolescents today, even more common than cigarette smoking. The evolving policy surrounding the legalization of cannabis reaffirms the need to understand the relationship between cannabis exposure early in life and psychiatric illnesses. cannabis contains psychoactive components, notably ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), that interfere with the brain's endogenous endocannabinoid system, which is critically involved in both pre- and post-natal neurodevelopment. Consequently, THC and related compounds could potentially usurp normal adolescent neurodevelopment, shifting the brain's developmental trajectory toward a disease-vulnerable state, predisposing early cannabis users to motivational, affective, and psychotic disorders. Numerous human studies, including prospective longitudinal studies, demonstrate that early cannabis use is associated with major depressive disorder and drug addiction. A strong association between schizophrenia and cannabis use is also apparent, especially when considering genetic factors that interact with this environmental exposure. These human studies set a foundation for carefully controlled animal studies which demonstrate similar patterns following early cannabinoid exposure. Given the vulnerable nature of adolescent neurodevelopment and the persistent changes that follow early cannabis exposure, the experimental findings outlined should be carefully considered by policymakers. In order to fully address the growing issues of psychiatric illnesses and to ensure a healthy future, measures should be taken to reduce cannabis use among teens. PMID:24133461

Chadwick, Benjamin; Miller, Michael L; Hurd, Yasmin L

2013-01-01

203

Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract More people are using the cannabis plant as modern basic and clinical science reaffirms and extends its medicinal uses. Concomitantly, concern and opposition to smoked medicine has occurred, in part due to the known carcinogenic consequences of smoking tobacco. Are these reactions justified? While chemically very similar, there are fundamental differences in the pharmacological properties between cannabis and tobacco smoke. Cannabis smoke contains cannabinoids whereas tobacco smoke contains nicotine. Available scientific data, that examines the carcinogenic properties of inhaling smoke and its biological consequences, suggests reasons why tobacco smoke, but not cannabis smoke, may result in lung cancer.

Melamede Robert

2005-10-01

204

Cannabis use during adolescent development: susceptibility to psychiatric illness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cannabis use is increasingly pervasive among adolescents today, even more common than cigarette smoking. The evolving policy surrounding the legalization of cannabis reaffirms the need to understand the relationship between cannabis exposure early in life and psychiatric illnesses. Cannabis contains psychoactive components, notably ?9-tetrahydrocannbinol (THC, that interfere with the brain’s endogenous endocannabinoid system, which is critically involved in both pre- and post-natal neurodevelopment. Consequently, THC and related compounds could potentially usurp normal adolescent neurodevelopment, shifting the brain’s developmental trajectory towards a disease-vulnerable state, predisposing early cannabis-users to motivational, affective and psychotic disorders. Numerous human studies, including prospective longitudinal studies, demonstrate that early cannabis use is associated with major depressive disorder and drug addiction. A strong association between schizophrenia and cannabis use is also apparent, especially when considering genetic factors that interact with this environmental exposure. These human studies set a foundation for carefully controlled animal studies which demonstrate similar patterns following early cannabinoid exposure. Given the vulnerable nature of adolescent neurodevelopment and the persistent changes that follow early cannabis exposure, the experimental findings outlined should be carefully considered by policymakers. In order to fully address the growing issues of psychiatric illnesses and to ensure a healthy future, measures should be taken to reduce cannabis use among teens.

MichaelLawrenceMiller

2013-10-01

205

Cannabis and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A review of clinical studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cannabis is the most widely used illegitimate substance in the world, and the number of users has increased by 10% over the last decade worldwide. Therefore, it is important to review the evidence on psychoactive properties of cannabis and its possible association with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD. We searched MEDLINE with the key words cannabis and schizophrenia. The search was limited to articles published in English over the last 10 years (1999-2009. Bibliographies of cited literature were also searched. Data sources included reviews published in core clinical journals, cohort studies, interventional studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional analyses and epidemiological data. Results are discussed under 2 topics. Firstly, evidence related to biochemical functioning of cannabinoids and their relationship to endocannabinoid system is discussed briefly. Secondly, the evidence from clinical studies on cannabis, psychosis proneness and SSD are discussed in detail. The discussion is structured to fit in the evidence from results section to 3 plausible hypotheses on cannabis use and SSD. The evidence for and against each hypothesis is discussed. Despite new evidence, the exact relationship between cannabis and SSD is unclear. There is no firm evidence that cannabis causes SSD. The evidence for the argument that schizophrenic patients are attracted to cannabis is also not strong. The most plausible explanation is that cannabis use and psychosis proneness may have synergistic effects in a vulnerable minority.

Rodrigo Chaturaka

2009-01-01

206

A Preliminary Examination of the Relationships between Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Crack/Cocaine, Heroin, and Alcohol Dependence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High rates of co-occurrence between posttraumatic stress (PTS) and substance use disorders (SUDs) have led to the suggestion that substance use among individuals experiencing PTS symptoms might serve a self-medication function. However, research is still needed to provide a more comprehensive evaluation of the unique associations between PTS symptom clusters and substances (licit and illicit) with both anxiolytic/depressant and stimulant properties. Consequently, this study examined the relat...

Tull, Matthew T.; Gratz, Kim L.; Aklin, Will M.; Lejuez, C. W.

2010-01-01

207

Social anxiety and cannabis use: an analysis from ecological momentary assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear especially vulnerable to cannabis-related problems, yet little is known about the antecedents of cannabis-related behaviors among this high-risk population. The present study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine the relations among social anxiety, cannabis craving, state anxiety, situational variables, and cannabis use in the natural environment during ad-lib cannabis use episodes. Participants were 49 current cannabis users. During the two-week EMA period, social anxiety significantly interacted with cannabis craving to predict cannabis use both cross-sectionally and prospectively. Specifically, individuals with higher social anxiety and craving were most likely to use cannabis. There was a significant social anxiety x state anxiety x others' use interaction such that when others were using cannabis, those with elevations in both trait social anxiety and state anxiety were the most likely to use cannabis. PMID:22246109

Buckner, Julia D; Crosby, Ross D; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Schmidt, Norman B

2012-03-01

208

Lifecourse SEP and tobacco and cannabis use  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Social inequalities in substance use have been well-documented; however, the impact of changes in socio-economic position from childhood to adulthood is unclear. We examined the relationship between intergenerational trajectories of social position and tobacco and cannabis use among young adults. METHODS: Data come from 1103 participants (mean age: 28.9 years) of the Trajectoires Epidémiologiques en Population (TEMPO) study and their parents, participants of the GAZEL study, Fran...

Bowes, Lucy; Chollet, Aude; Fombonne, Eric; Gale?ra, Ce?dric; Melchior, Maria

2013-01-01

209

Cannabis use by children and young people  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A popular internet site1 describes cannabis as “a leafy plant, the leaves and flowering tops (buds) of which may be either smoked or eaten. It also comes in a more concentrated resinous form called hashish, and as a sticky black liquid called hash oil”. It is said that users often report a pleasant “subjective enhancement of visual and auditory perception, sometimes with synaesthesia (sounds take on visual colourful qualities)” and the sense that time passes more quickly than real tim...

Mcardle, P. A.

2006-01-01

210

Harm reduction-the cannabis paradox  

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Abstract This article examines harm reduction from a novel perspective. Its central thesis is that harm reduction is not only a social concept, but also a biological one. More specifically, evolution does not make moral distinctions in the selection process, but utilizes a cannabis-based approach to harm reduction in order to promote survival of the fittest. Evidence will be provided from peer-reviewed scientific literature that supports the hypothesis that humans, and all animals, ...

Melamede Robert

2005-01-01

211

Legalising medical use of cannabis in South Africa: Is the empirical evidence sufficient to support policy shifts in this direction?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Inkatha Freedom Party MP Mario Oriani-Ambrosini's impassioned plea to legalise the medical use of cannabis must be understood in the context of his own condition as well as legislative changes in at least ten countries. This article argues that any decisions to shift policy must be based on a consid [...] eration of the evidence on the risks and benefits associated with the medical use of cannabis for the individual and broader society. It concludes that there are important gaps in the evidence base, particularly in human trials supporting the efficacy of cannabis use for treating and preventing medical conditions and alleviating negative symptoms associated with these conditions. South African researchers should be enabled actively to support development of the necessary evidence base by conducting preclinical and clinical research in this area. Human trials to establish the efficacy of the use of cannabis/cannabinoids in addressing AIDS wasting syndrome and other negative sequelae of HIV and AIDS are especially needed.

C D H, Parry; B J, Myers.

2014-06-01

212

Legalising medical use of cannabis in South Africa: Is the empirical evidence sufficient to support policy shifts in this direction?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Inkatha Freedom Party MP Mario Oriani-Ambrosini's impassioned plea to legalise the medical use of cannabis must be understood in the context of his own condition as well as legislative changes in at least ten countries. This article argues that any decisions to shift policy must be based on a consid [...] eration of the evidence on the risks and benefits associated with the medical use of cannabis for the individual and broader society. It concludes that there are important gaps in the evidence base, particularly in human trials supporting the efficacy of cannabis use for treating and preventing medical conditions and alleviating negative symptoms associated with these conditions. South African researchers should be enabled actively to support development of the necessary evidence base by conducting preclinical and clinical research in this area. Human trials to establish the efficacy of the use of cannabis/cannabinoids in addressing AIDS wasting syndrome and other negative sequelae of HIV and AIDS are especially needed.

C D H, Parry; B J, Myers.

213

Le cannabis est-il un produit dopant ? Is cannabis a doping substance ?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les propriétés sédatives et anxiolytiques du principe psychoactif principal du cannabis, le delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, sont connues depuis des millénaires. Cette connaissance empirique a été confirmée ces dernières années par une meilleure compréhension des mécanismes d'action du THC. Au niveau neuronal, il induit une diminution intracellulaire du potassium et une augmentation du calcium. Ceci se traduit par une altération des capacités d'exocytose de certains neurotransmetteurs, dont le glutamate. Par ailleurs, il est désormais bien établi que les zones du cerveau dans lesquelles le THC exerce ces effets sont les mêmes que celles où agissent les médicaments sédatifs et les bêtabloquants, substances également utilisées dans la pratique du dopage. Les propriétés sédatives du cannabis sont recherchées par les athlètes, les jours précédant les compétitions pour favoriser l'endormissement, un souci majeur pour ces sportifs de haut niveau. Dans les disciplines sportives nécessitant un état de relaxation important au cours de la compétition, ce qui est le cas pour tous les sports d'adresse (tir, équitation, etc., les propriétés anxiolytiques du cannabis sont également très attractives. En conséquence, et bien que le cannabis puisse être responsable d'une diminution des performances biomécaniques, il est utilisé par les sportifs de haut niveau pour son aptitude à améliorer les performances psychologiques ; il est donc logique qu'il soit proscrit au même titre que certaines classes de médicaments destinés à se substituer aux méthodes naturelles de préparation psychologique. Sedative and anxiolytic properties of delta-9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the main active component of cannabis are known from thousand of years. This empirical knowledge was confirmed in recent years by a better understanding of mechanisms of action of THC. On neurons, its effects consist of a decrease in intracellular concentrations of potassium and of an increase in calcium concentration. Ultimately, the release of neurotransmitters such as glutamate is inhibited. On the other hand, the areas of the brain where THC has its effects are the same as those where the benzodiazepines and the beta-blockers also act. The sedative properties of cannabis are of interest to athletes during the days before the competition since they facilitate falling asleep, a major concern for high level sportsmen. In sports that need a relaxed state during the competition, as it is the case for instance in accuracy specialities (shooting, horse riding, ..., cannabis anxiolytic properties are also attractive. Therefore, and even if cannabis could be responsible of lowering biochemical performances, it is used by high level sportsmen for its virtue to improve psychic components ; it is then logical to ban their use as well as several drugs that could substitute for natural methods of psychological preparation.

Mura Patrick

2009-04-01

214

Le cannabis : quelle place dans la soumission chimique ? Cannabis : which occurence in chemical submission ?  

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Le cannabis est de très loin la drogue illicite la plus consommée en France. Les effets chez l'homme sont dus au delta-9- tétrahydrocannabinol (THC) et au 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tétrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC). Les effets aigus consistent en une euphorie, une désinhibition, un état de somnolence pouvant aller jusqu 'à un sommeil profond, des troubles visuels et des troubles de la mémoire à court terme. Avec de tels effets, il n'est pas surprenant que le cannabis puisse être présent da...

Mura Patrick; Visinoni Pascale; Alvarez Jean-Claude; Goullé Jean-Pierre; Kintz Pascal

2009-01-01

215

Cannabinoid hyperemesis should be recognised as an effect of chronic cannabis abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we describe the second reported case of cannabinoid hyperemesis in UK. A 42 years old patient presented on more than one occasion with vomiting, abdominal pain, fever and dehydration and treated as sepsis with antibiotics. Extensive investigations including upper GI endoscopy, colonoscopy, chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasound, abdominal CT scan, barium swallow and echocardiogram; all reported normal. Once the diagnosis of cannabinoid hyperemesis was established, he was advised to abstain from cannabis use resulting in complete resolution of his symptoms. PMID:25120899

Ishaq, Sauid; Ismail, Sanaa; Ghaus, Saad; Roop-E-Zahra; Rostami, Kamran

2014-01-01

216

Reduction of stem growth and site dependency of leaf injury in Massachusetts black cherries exhibiting ozone symptoms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ozone symptomatic trees had a reduced stem growth and symptom expression was enhanced on moister and better growing stands. - Leaf ozone symptoms in natural ecosystems are increasingly reported but ozone effects on tree growth and the mediation of site conditions are still little documented. This study tests two hypotheses: (1) leaf injury in black cherry is associated with decline in radial growth, (2) symptoms are more prevalent on mesic sites. On sites supporting black cherry across Massachusetts, tree growth and leaf ozone injury were surveyed in 1996 using a randomized plot network established in the 1960s. Forty-seven percent of 120 trees sampled for ozone symptoms were symptomatic with generally low levels of injury. Over a 31-year period symptomatic trees had 28% lower stem growth rates than asymptomatic trees. Ozone symptom expression was enhanced in well growing stands on moister, cooler and more elevated sites. Ozone appeared to increase environmental stress and had a more pronounced effect on growth in better growing black cherry stands. This complicates management decisions as thinning increases growth and moisture availability

217

Genetic association between APOE*4 and neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease is dependent on the psychosis phenotype  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropsychiatric symptoms such as psychosis are prevalent in patients with probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Because these disabling symptoms are generally not well tolerated by caregivers, patients with these symptoms tend to be institutionalized earlier than patients without them. The identification of protective and risk factors for neuropsychiatric symptoms in AD would facilitate the development of more specific treatments for these symptoms and thereby decrease morbidity and mortality in AD. The E4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE gene is a well-documented risk factor for the development of AD. However, genetic association studies of the APOE 4 allele and BPS in AD have produced conflicting findings. Methods This study investigates the association between APOE and neuropsychiatric symptoms in a large sample of clinically well-characterized subjects with probable AD (n=790 who were systematically evaluated using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD Behavioral Rating Scale for Dementia (BRSD. Results Our study found that hallucinations were significantly more likely to occur in subjects with no APO?4 alleles than in subjects with two ?4 alleles (15% of subjects and 5% of subjects, respectively; p=.0066, whereas there was no association between the occurrence of delusions, aberrant motor behavior, or agitation and the number of ?4 alleles. However, 94% of the subjects with hallucinations also had delusions (D+H. Conclusion These findings suggest that in AD the ?4 allele is differentially associated with D+H but not delusions alone. This is consistent with the hypothesis that distinct psychotic subphenotypes may be associated with the APOE allele.

Christie Drew

2012-12-01

218

Neuronal substrates and functional consequences of prenatal cannabis exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis remains one of the world's most widely used substance of abuse amongst pregnant women. Trends of the last 50 years show an increase in popularity in child-bearing women together with a constant increase in cannabis potency. In addition, potent herbal "legal" highs containing synthetic cannabinoids that mimic the effects of cannabis with unknown pharmacological and toxicological effects have gained rapid popularity amongst young adults. Despite the surge in cannabis use during pregnancy, little is known about the neurobiological and psychological consequences in the exposed offspring. In this review, we emphasize the importance of maternal programming, defined as the intrauterine presentation of maternal stimuli to the foetus, in neurodevelopment. In particular, we focus on cannabis-mediated maternal adverse effects, resulting in direct central nervous system alteration or sensitization to late-onset chronic and neuropsychiatric disorders. We compare clinical and preclinical experimental studies on the effects of foetal cannabis exposure until early adulthood, to stress the importance of animal models that permit the fine control of environmental variables and allow the dissection of cannabis-mediated molecular cascades in the developing central nervous system. In sum, we conclude that preclinical experimental models confirm clinical studies and that cannabis exposure evokes significant molecular modifications to neurodevelopmental programs leading to neurophysiological and behavioural abnormalities. PMID:24793873

Calvigioni, Daniela; Hurd, Yasmin L; Harkany, Tibor; Keimpema, Erik

2014-10-01

219

Cannabis use and destructive periodontal diseases among adolescents  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIM: The aim of this experiment was to investigate the association between cannabis use and destructive periodontal disease among adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from a population screening examination carried out among Chilean high school students from the Province of Santiago were used to determine whether there was an association between the use of cannabis and signs of periodontal diseases as defined by (1) the presence of necrotizing ulcerative gingival (NUG) lesions or (2) the presence of clinical attachment loss (CAL) > or =3 mm. The cannabis exposures variables considered were "Ever use of cannabis" (yes/no) and "Regular use of cannabis" (yes/no). The associations were investigated using multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, paternal income, paternal education, frequency of tooth-brushing and time since last dental visit. RESULTS: Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that "Ever use of cannabis" was significantly negatively associated with the presence of NUG lesions (OR=0.47 [0.2;0.9]) among non-smokers only. No significant associations were observed between the presence of CAL > or =3 mm and cannabis use in either of the smoking groups. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence to suggest that the use of cannabis is positively associated with periodontal diseases in this adolescent population.

López, Rodrigo; Baelum, Vibeke

2009-01-01

220

Barbexaclone abuse in a cannabis ex-user.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abuse of drugs including addictive ingredients is common among patients with initial addiction history. This article reports a patient who had experienced a panic attack due to cannabis intoxication and has began to abuse an antiepileptic drug barbexaclone after he had quitted cannabis. PMID:21038181

Darc?n, Asli Enez; Dilbaz, Nesrin; Okay, Ihsan Tuncer

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

Four decades of cannabis criminals in Canada: 1970-2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Canada was one of the first countries in the world to criminalise cannabis in 1923. It was not until the late 1960s and an associated upsurge of youthful cannabis use that the government and various stakeholders seriously interrogated the appropriateness of this punitive prohibition. Nevertheless, despite numerous opportunities for law reform for over four decades, cannabis possession continues to be illegal and as a result, hundreds of thousands of Canadians have received criminal records under these laws. This article reviews federal attempts at cannabis law reform and uses data spanning several decades to examine the characteristics of individuals convicted of cannabis possession and the implications of criminalisation on their lives.

Patricia G. Erickson

2010-10-01

222

Anorexia nervosa and cannabis abuse: a case report  

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Full Text Available It is known that there is a high rate of comorbidity of alcohol-substance abuse and eating disorders. The compounds of cannabis, such as tetrahydrocannabinol, activate endogenous cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 in the brain. Stimulating the CB1 receptor is known to cause increased appetite and an antiemetic effect and because of these effects cannabinoids are used clinically. In this case report, a young girl diagnosed anorexia nervosa and using cannabis will be presented. The patient, a 17 year-old, had complaints of loss weight and had used cannabis for three years. It was found that, although cannabis caused increased appetite, she induced weight loss by self-induction of vomiting and excessive exercise. According to a scan of the literature in Turkey, such a case of using cannabis comorbid with anorexia nervosa has not previously been reported. In this respect, discussion of the case in detail is important.

semra karayilan

2013-01-01

223

Moral regulation and the presumption of guilt in Health Canada's medical cannabis policy and practice.  

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This paper is a sociological examination of policies and practices in Health Canada's Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD) that presume the illicit intentions and inherent "guilt" of medical cannabis users, hampering safe access to a medicine to which many are legally entitled, and raising doubts about this federal programme's overall effectiveness and constitutional legitimacy. Beginning with a brief historical overview of Canada's federal medical cannabis programme, this paper examines the failure of the MMAD to meet the needs of many sick and suffering Canadians through Hunt's [Hunt, A. (1999). Governing morals: A social history of moral regulation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press] work on moral regulation and Wodak's [Wodak, A. (2007). Ethics and drug policy. Psychiatry, 6(2), 59-62] critique of "deontological" drug policy strategies. I then cite Tupper's [Tupper, K. W. (2007). The globalization of ayahuasca: Harm reduction or benefit maximization? International Journal of Drug Policy, doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2006.11.001] argument that shifting to a generative metaphor that constructs certain entheogenic substances as potentially useful "tools" rather than regulating them through inherently moralistic prohibitionist policies would better serve public health, and incorporate Young's [Young, I. M. (1990). Justice and the politics of difference. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press] theories of domination and oppression to examine the rise of community-base medical cannabis dispensaries as "new social movements". First-hand accounts by medical cannabis patients, federally funded studies, and internal Health Canada communication and documents suggest that current federal policies and practices are blocking safe access to this herbal medicine. The community-based dispensary model of medical cannabis access is a patient-centered "new social movement" that mitigates the stigmatization and moral regulation of their member-clients by creating opportunities for engagement, empowerment and joint knowledge creation. In light of ongoing Charter challenges and patient criticism, the survival of this federal programme will depend on the government's ability to shift away from policies based on the oppression and moral regulation, and towards consequentialist policies that balance harm reduction and benefit maximization. The effectiveness of such an approach is exemplified by the success of the community-based dispensary model which is currently producing more peer-reviewed research and supplying medical cannabis to a far greater number of patients than Health Canada's Marihuana Medical Access Division. PMID:19124233

Lucas, Philippe

2009-07-01

224

Cannabis users differ from non-users on measures of personality and schizotypy  

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Accumulating evidence indicates that cannabis use may be a risk factor for schizophrenia (SZ), and chronic cannabis users score higher than non-users on measures of schizotypal personality traits. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relations between normal personality, schizotypy, and cannabis use. Sixty-two chronic cannabis users and 45 cannabis-naïve controls completed a measure of normal personality, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and two measures of schizot...

Fridberg, Daniel J.; Vollmer, Jennifer M.; O Donnell, Brian F.; Skosnik, Patrick D.

2011-01-01

225

The return of the underground retail cannabis market? Attitudes of Dutch coffeeshop owners and cannabis users to the proposed ‘cannabis ID’ and the consequences they expect  

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The sale of cannabis to persons aged 18 or older is permitted in the Netherlands under certain conditions in commercial establishments called coffeeshops. The present Dutch government has proposed that access to coffeeshops be restricted to persons holding a cannabis ID, a mandatory membership card known colloquially as a ‘weed pass’ (wietpas). Recent interviews with 66 Amsterdam coffeeshop owners reveal that they expect mainly detrimental effects from the proposed measure. In particular,...

Korf, D. J.; Wouters, M.; Benschop, A.

2011-01-01

226

Cannabis et grossesse : Actualités et expériences cliniques  

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Résumé Le cannabis est la substance psycho-active illicite la plus consommée chez les adolescents, les adultes jeunes et par conséquent chez la femme en âge de procréer. La survenue d’une grossesse est rarement suivie d’un arrêt total de la consommation. Les composés cannabinoïdes et issus de la combustion affectent le développement fœtal. Nous rapportons, à partir d’une revue de littérature sur Medline de 1995 à 2008, les effets de l’exposition cannabique pr?...

2009-01-01

227

Le cannabis : quelle place dans la soumission chimique ? Cannabis : which occurence in chemical submission ?  

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Full Text Available Le cannabis est de très loin la drogue illicite la plus consommée en France. Les effets chez l'homme sont dus au delta-9- tétrahydrocannabinol (THC et au 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tétrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC. Les effets aigus consistent en une euphorie, une désinhibition, un état de somnolence pouvant aller jusqu 'à un sommeil profond, des troubles visuels et des troubles de la mémoire à court terme. Avec de tels effets, il n'est pas surprenant que le cannabis puisse être présent dans l'organisme des auteurs et/ou victimes de viols, vols, ou autres crimes faisant appel à la soumission chimique. Cette potentialité n'est cependant pas confirmée par l'expérience des auteurs puisque, parmi plusieurs centaines d'expertises judiciaires réalisées au cours des trois dernières années dans des cas de suspicion de viol, des cannabinoïdes étaient présents dans le sang et/ou les urines de seulement 21 victimes supposées. Pour 9 d'entre-elles, l'analyse des cheveux n'ayant pas été réalisée, la soumission chimique n'a pas pu être confirmée. L'analyse des cheveux a permis de mettre en évidence une consommation chronique de cannabis dans 11 cas. Dans un seul cas, la présence de THC et de 11-OH-THC dans le sang était associée à l'absence de cannabinoïdes dans les cheveux, permettant ainsi de conforter l'hypothèse d'une utilisation du cannabis à des fins criminelles. Les auteurs en concluent que toute recherche positive de cannabinoïdes dans le sang et/ou les urines doit être suivie d'une analyse des cheveux, qui doivent donc être systématiquement prélevés. Cannabis is largely the major drug of abuse consumed in France. Effects in human are due to delta-9 tetrahydrocan- nabinol (THC and 11-hydroxy delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC. The acute effects are euphoria, desinhibition, drowsiness up to heavy sleep, visual disorders and short-memory troubles. With such effects, it is not surprising that cannabis may be present in the organism of authors and/or victims of rapes, robberies or others crimes using chemical submission. This potentiality is not confirmed by our experience since among several hundreds of toxicological investigations realized during the last three years in sexual assaults cases, cannabinoids were only present in blood and/or urines of 21 subjects. In 9 of these positive cases, since hair analysis was not performed, it was not possible to conclude. In 11 cases, hair analysis revealed a chronic cannabis use. In only one case, THC and 11-OH THC were present in blood whereas hair was free of cannabinoids,, confirming the hypothesis of the use of cannabis for the purpose of a criminal act. The authors conclude that each positive cannabis result in blood or urine has to be followed by hair analysis, a speciem which must be systematically sampled.

Mura Patrick

2009-03-01

228

It can't hurt to ask; a patient-centered quality of service assessment of health canada's medical cannabis policy and program  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2001 Health Canada responded to a series of Ontario court decisions by creating the Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD and the Marihuana Medical Access Regulations (MMAR. Although Health Canada has conducted a small number of stakeholder consultations, the federal government has never polled federally authorized cannabis patients. This study is an attempt to learn more about patient needs, challenges and experiences with the MMAD. Methods Launched in the spring of 2007, Quality of Service Assessment of Health Canada's Medical Cannabis Policy and Program pairs a 50 question online survey addressing the personal experiences of patients in the federal cannabis program with 25 semi-guided interviews. Data gathering for this study took place from April 2007 to Jan. 2008, eventually garnering survey responses from 100 federally-authorized users, which at the time represented about 5% of the patients enrolled in Health Canada's program. This paper presents the results of the survey portion of the study. Results 8% of respondents report getting their cannabis from Health Canada, while 66% grow it for themselves. >50% report that they frequent compassion clubs or dispensaries, which remain illegal and unregulated in Canada. 81% of patients would chose certified organic methods of cultivation; >90% state that not all strains are equally effective at relieving symptoms, and 97% would prefer to obtain cannabis from a source where multiple strains are available. Of the 48 patients polled that had tried the Health Canada cannabis supply, >75% rank it as either "1" or "2" on a scale of 1-10 (with "1" being "very poor", and 10 being "excellent". Discussion 72% of respondents report they are either "somewhat" or "totally unsatisfied" with Canada's medical cannabis program. These survey results and relevant court decisions suggest that the MMAR are not meeting the needs of most of the nation's medical cannabis patient community. It is hoped this research will help inform policy changes that will better address the needs of Canada's critically and chronically ill medical cannabis patient population, including the integration of community-based dispensaries into this novel healthcare delivery model.

Lucas Philippe

2012-01-01

229

Simultaneous alcohol and cannabis expectancies predict simultaneous use  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicts increased negative consequences for users beyond individual or even concurrent use of the two drugs. Given the widespread use of the drugs and common simultaneous consumption, problems unique to simultaneous use may bear important implications for many substance users. Cognitive expectancies offer a template for future drug use behavior based on previous drug experiences, accurately predicting future use and problems. Studies reveal similar mechanisms underlying both alcohol and cannabis expectancies, but little research examines simultaneous expectancies for alcohol and cannabis use. Whereas research has demonstrated unique outcomes associated with simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use, this study hypothesized that unique cognitive expectancies may underlie simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use. Results: This study examined a sample of 2600 (66% male; 34% female Internet survey respondents solicited through advertisements with online cannabis-related organizations. The study employed known measures of drug use and expectancies, as well as a new measure of simultaneous drug use expectancies. Expectancies for simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicted simultaneous use over and above expectancies for each drug individually. Discussion Simultaneous expectancies may provide meaningful information not available with individual drug expectancies. These findings bear potential implications on the assessment and treatment of substance abuse problems, as well as researcher conceptualizations of drug expectancies. Policies directing the treatment of substance abuse and its funding ought to give unique consideration to simultaneous drug use and its cognitive underlying factors.

Earleywine Mitch

2006-10-01

230

Striatal and extra-striatal dopamine transporter in cannabis and tobacco addiction: a high resolution PET study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dopamine (DA) system is known to be involved in the reward and dependence mechanisms of addiction. However, modifications in dopaminergic neurotransmission associated with long-term tobacco and cannabis use have been poorly documented in vivo. In order to assess striatal and extra-striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in tobacco and cannabis addiction, three groups of male age-matched subjects were compared: 11 healthy non-smoker subjects, 14 tobacco-dependent smokers (17.6 ± 5.3 cigarettes/day for 12.1 ± 8.5 years) and 13 cannabis and tobacco smokers (CTS) (4.8 ± 5.3 cannabis joints/day for 8.7 ± 3.9 years). DAT availability was examined in positron emission tomography (HRRT) with a high resolution research tomograph after injection of [11C]PE2I, a selective DAT radioligand. Region of interest and voxel-by-voxel approaches using a simplified reference tissue model were performed for the between-group comparison of DAT availability. Measurements in the dorsal striatum from both analyses were concordant and showed a mean 20% lower DAT availability in drug users compared with controls. Whole-brain analysis also revealed lower DAT availability in the ventral striatum, the midbrain, the middle cingulate and the thalamus (ranging from -15 to -30%). The DAT availability was slightly lower in all regions in CTS than in subjects who smoke tobacco only, but the difference does not reach a significant level. These results support the existence of aese results support the existence of a decrease in DAT availability associated with tobacco and cannabis addictions involving all dopaminergic brain circuits. These findings are consistent with the idea of a global decrease in cerebral DA activity in dependent subjects. (authors)

231

Roadside sobriety tests and attitudes toward a regulated cannabis market  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Many argue that prohibition creates more troubles than alternative policies, but fewer than half of American voters support a taxed and regulated market for cannabis. Some oppose a regulated market because of concerns about driving after smoking cannabis. Although a roadside sobriety test for impairment exists, few voters know about it. The widespread use of a roadside sobriety test that could detect recent cannabis use might lead some voters who currently oppose a regulated market to support it. In contrast, a question that primes respondents about the potential for driving after cannabis use might lead respondents to be less likely to support a regulated market. Methods Phone interviews with a national sample of 1002 registered voters asked about support for a regulated cannabis market and support for such a market if a reliable roadside sobriety test were widely available. Results In this sample of registered voters, 36% supported a regulated cannabis market. Exploratory chi-square tests revealed significantly higher support among men and Caucasians but no link to age or education. These demographic variables covaried significantly. Logistic regression revealed that gender, ethnicity, and political party were significant when all predictors were included. Support increased significantly with a reliable roadside sobriety test to 44%, but some respondents who had agreed to the regulated market no longer agreed when the sobriety test was mentioned. Logistic regression revealed that ethnicity and political affiliation were again significant predictors of support with a reliable sobriety test, but gender was no longer significant. None of these demographic variables could identify who would change their votes in response to the reliable roadside test. Conclusion Increased awareness and use of roadside sobriety tests that detect recent cannabis use could increase support for a regulated cannabis market. Identifying concerns of voters who are not Caucasian or Democrats could help alter cannabis policy.

Earleywine Mitch

2007-01-01

232

Altered frontal cortical volume and decision making in adolescent cannabis users  

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Full Text Available Anticipating future outcomes is central to decision making and a failure to consider long-term consequences may lead to impulsive choices. Adolescence is a vulnerable period during which underdeveloped prefrontal cortical systems may contribute to poor judgment, impulsive choices, and substance abuse. Conversely, substance abuse during this period may alter neural systems involved in decision making and lead to greater impulsivity. Although a broad neural network which supports decision making undergoes extensive change during adolescent development, one region that may be critical is the medial prefrontal cortex. Altered functional integrity of this region may be specifically related to reward perception, substance abuse, and dependence. In the present investigation, we acquired structural magnetic resonance images (MRI, using a 3T Siemens Trio scanner, from 18 cannabis abusing adolescents (CA; 2 female and 16 male subjects; mean age, 17.7 years; range 16-19 years and 18 healthy controls (HC; 6 female and 12 male subjects; mean age, 17.2 years; range 16-19 years. In order to measure medial orbital prefrontal cortex (moPFC morphology related to substance abuse and impulsivity, semi-automated cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation of MRIs was performed with FreeSurfer. Impulsivity was evaluated with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS. Our results indicate that cannabis abusing adolescents have decreased right moPFC volume compared to controls, p =.01, d = .92, CI.95 = .21, 1.59. Cannabis abusing adolescents also show decreased future orientation, as indexed by the BIS nonplanning subscale, when compared to controls, p = .01, d = .89, CI.95 = .23, 1.55. Moreover, total moPFC volume was positively correlated with age of first use (18 = .49, p < .03, suggesting that alterations in this region may be related to initiation of cannabis use or that early initiation may lead to reduced moPFC volume.

JohnCChurchwell

2010-12-01

233

Cannabis finds its way into treatment of Crohn's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

In ancient medicine, cannabis has been widely used to cure disturbances and inflammation of the bowel. A recent clinical study now shows that the medicinal plant Cannabis sativa has lived up to expectations and proved to be highly efficient in cases of inflammatory bowel diseases. In a prospective placebo-controlled study, it has been shown what has been largely anticipated from anecdotal reports, i.e. that cannabis produces significant clinical benefits in patients with Crohn's disease. The mechanisms involved are not yet clear but most likely include peripheral actions on cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2, and may also include central actions. PMID:24356243

Schicho, Rudolf; Storr, Martin

2014-01-01

234

Cross-national differences in clinically significant cannabis problems: epidemiologic evidence from 'cannabis-only' smokers in the United States, Mexico, and Colombia  

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Abstract Background Epidemiological studies show wide variability in the occurrence of cannabis smoking and related disorders across countries. This study aims to estimate cross-national variation in cannabis users' experience of clinically significant cannabis-related problems in three countries of the Americas, with a focus on cannabis users who may have tried alcohol or tobacco, but who have not used cocaine, heroin, LSD, or other internationally regulated drugs. Me...

Posada-Villa Jose; Martins Silvia S; Radovanovic Mirjana; Fiestas Fabian; Anthony James C

2010-01-01

235

The Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Supplement: 7 Sessions of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual, a supplement to "Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users: 5 Sessions, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 1", presents a seven-session cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT7) approach designed especially for adolescent cannabis users. It addresses the implementation and…

Webb, Charles; Scudder, Meleney; Kaminer, Yifrah; Kaden, Ron

236

21 CFR 1308.35 - Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain...  

Science.gov (United States)

...CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Cannabis Plant Material, and Products...35 Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products...portion of a plant of the genus Cannabis excluded from the definition of marijuana under the Act...

2010-04-01

237

21 CFR 1308.35 - Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom...SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Cannabis Plant Material, and Products Made Therefrom... § 1308.35 Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made...

2010-04-01

238

21 CFR 1308.35 - Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Exemption of certain cannabis plant material...plant of the genus Cannabis excluded from the definition of marijuana under the Act...material means cannabis plant material that...mixed with other ingredients, such that...

2010-04-01

239

Consommation de cannabis: quels sont les risques ? Cannabis: what are the risks ?  

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Les cannabinoïdes contenus dans la plante de cannabis ont un double usage et possèdent des propriétés opposées suivant les circonstances et les doses employées. Les cannabinoïdes, essentiellement drogue récréative ou d'abus pourraient, pour certains d'entre eux, devenir des médicaments. Selon les conditions d'utilisation, ils peuvent être neurotoxiques ou neuroprotecteurs, carcinogènes ou anticancéreux, hyper-émétiques ou antiémétiques, pro-inflammatoires ou anti-inflammatoir...

Giroud Christian; Bollmann Marc; Thomas Aurélien; Mangin Patrice; Favrat Bernard

2009-01-01

240

Eysenck Personality Dimensions in a Sample of Cannabis Users  

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Full Text Available     Objective: The objective of this study is to examine Eysenck personality dimensions in cannabis users  Method:100 regular cannabis users were selected and completed Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ which easures Neuroticism (N,Extraversion-Introversion (E-I and Psychoticism (P dimensions of Eysenck personality structures  Results:The scores of 51% of cannabis users were higher than mean in all dimensions of EPQ. Also the mean score of N and P were higher than the score which Eysenck has reported for Iranian population Conclusions:This research reinforces our call for a public health information campaign about a drug which may young people still see as being risk-free.Psychiatric morbidity and cases of psychotic disorder could be prevented by discouraging cannabis use among vulnerable youths.

Arash Vahdat

2007-06-01

 
 
 
 
241

Cannabis: a controversial 21st-century drug of antiquity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis consumption has been popular for thousands of years and its historical use is noted in many parts of the world including ancient China, India, the Middle East. It is currently the most popular illicit drug in the world, is being utilized as a medicinal plant, and many parts of the world are legalizing this drug. This discussion considers various aspects of cannabis use including its prevalence, history, co-morbid drug abuse, designer cannabinoids, psychiatric adverse effects, medical adverse effects, and management options. The youth of the world should be comprehensively taught that cannabis is neither a safe nor a benign drug. Prevention with comprehensive drug education is the best plan for our youth since management of a chronic or heavy cannabis consummer remains difficult and fraught with failure if cessation is the goal. Caveat emptor! PMID:24940853

Greydanus, D; Holt, M

2014-05-01

242

Socialization instances linked to cannabis experimentation among French teenagers.  

Science.gov (United States)

France presents one of the highest prevalence of teenagers aged 15-year-olds who report they already have experienced cannabis in Europe. Data from the French 2010 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HSBC) survey and environmental parameters typifying schools 'neighborhoods were used to study cannabis experimentation. We conducted a two-level logistic regression (clusters being schools) on 4,175 French 8th-10th graders from 156 schools. Several individual parameters were linked to cannabis experimentation. Living in a non-intact family, feeling insufficiently monitored, having poor communication with mother and being from a family with a high socio-economic status (SES) were all associated with increased risk of cannabis experimentation. At environmental level, only being in a priority education area was linked to this behavior, without explaining differences among schools. PMID:25099311

Jovic, Sonia; Genolini, Christophe; Delpierre, Cyrille; Spilka, Stanislas; Ehlinger, Virginie; Ross, Jim; Arnaud, Catherine; Godeau, Emmanuelle

2014-11-01

243

Influence of Cannabis on Fatal Traffic Crash: A Detailed Analysis  

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The influence of cannabis on traffic crashes is a growing concern. Experimental studies provide ample evidences of cannabis influence on psychomotor and cognitive performances. Epidemiological works describe the excess crash risk that this substance causes. And yet, this psychotropic drug influence in causing crashes is still at the centre of many discussions. The present analysis consists in exploiting crash data in detail to obtain a more precise understanding of the failures that drivers a...

Elslande, Pierre; Fournier, Jean-yves; Jaffard, Magali

2012-01-01

244

[Pharmacotherapy of substance dependence and withdrawal syndromes].  

Science.gov (United States)

Substance use disorders (SUD) include substance abuse and dependence as well as acute intoxication, withdrawal, and various psychiatric disorders. In the course of the SUD, severe comorbid disorders and somatic consequences can occur. The treatment of withdrawal symptoms focuses on the relief of immediate symptoms and the prevention of complications. The treatment of SUDs should achieve long-term abstinence with relapse prevention or harm reduction using maintenance treatment strategies. Beside psychosocial interventions, the pharmacotherapy has become an important factor for the treatment of SUDs and withdrawal syndromes. This review reports evidence-based pharmacologic treatment strategies of the most frequent SUDs according to current guidelines for SUDs. In the pharmacological treatment of alcohol dependence long-lasting benzodiazepines or clomethiazole for alcohol withdrawal, and acamprosate or naltrexone for relapse prevention are preferable. There exists no effective relapse prevention for cannabis dependence. During cocaine withdrawal tricyclic antidepressants demonstrated the highest efficacy. For cocaine dependence no medication can be recommended, so far. However, mood stabilizers such as topiramate and tiagabine or disulfirame were found to be efficacious in preliminary studies. There is consistent evidence for methylphenidate in treating cocaine dependence co-occurring with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. For opioid dependence, methadone or buphrenorphine treatment is the pharmacotherapy of first choice. Nicotine replacement therapy, Bupropion and Vareniclin are efficacious in smoking cessation. PMID:19496041

Walter, Marc; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A

2009-06-01

245

Application of medical cannabis in patients with the neurodegeneration disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medical cannabis is the dried flowers of the female Cannabis sativa L. plant. Cannabis contains a number of active elements, including dronabinol (THC and cannabidiol (CBD. Dronabinol is usually the main ingredient. The body’s own cannabinoid system has been identified. The discovery of this system, which comprises endocannabinoids and receptors, confirmed that cannabis has a positive effect on certain illnesses and conditions. Two types of cannabinoid receptors have been identified: CB1 and CB2 receptors. The first type CB1 is mostly found in the central nervous system, modulate pain. It also has an anti-emetic effect, and has influence on the memory and the motor system. The second type of receptors CB2 is peripheral, and it is primarily found in immune system cells and it is responsible for the immunomodulatory effects of cannabinoids. Medical cannabis can help in cases of the neurodegeneration disorders, for example Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Patients generally tolerate medical cannabis well.

Lidia Kotu?a

2014-04-01

246

The carbon footprint of indoor Cannabis production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The emergent industry of indoor Cannabis production – legal in some jurisdictions and illicit in others – utilizes highly energy intensive processes to control environmental conditions during cultivation. This article estimates the energy consumption for this practice in the United States at 1% of national electricity use, or $6 billion each year. One average kilogram of final product is associated with 4600 kg of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere, or that of 3 million average U.S. cars when aggregated across all national production. The practice of indoor cultivation is driven by criminalization, pursuit of security, pest and disease management, and the desire for greater process control and yields. Energy analysts and policymakers have not previously addressed this use of energy. The unchecked growth of electricity demand in this sector confounds energy forecasts and obscures savings from energy efficiency programs and policies. While criminalization has contributed to the substantial energy intensity, legalization would not change the situation materially without ancillary efforts to manage energy use, provide consumer information via labeling, and other measures. Were product prices to fall as a result of legalization, indoor production using current practices could rapidly become non-viable. - Highlights: ? The emergent industry of indoor Cannabis production utilizes highly energy intensive processes and is highly inefficient. ? In the United Stay inefficient. ? In the United States, this represents an annual energy expenditure of $6 billion. ? One kg of final product is associated with emissions of 4600 kg of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. ? Aggregate U.S. emissions are equivalent those of 3 million cars. ? Energy analysts and policymakers have not previously addressed this use of energy.

247

El Cannabis en la práctica Clínica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish RESUMEN. La marihuana ha sido utilizada por cientos de años, es una de las drogas de abuso más usadas. Tiene una larga historia de usos médicos, tanto el Cannabis, como sus derivados, preparaciones y sus formas sintéticas se emplean para aliviar una gran variedad de síntomas de diversas enfermedades [...] , tales como: alivio de las náuseas y vómitos asociados con las terapias del cáncer y del SIDA; alivio del dolor muscular y espasmos; para reducir la frecuencia de convulsiones en la epilepsia; para reducir la presión intraocular en pacientes con glaucoma; para estimular el apetito en pacientes con cáncer y SIDA. Actualmente están disponibles en el mercado dos productos comerciales sintéticos relacionados con la marihuana, de administración oral, el dronabinol (MARINOL®) y la nabilona (CESAMET®). Se han identificado en el cerebro, receptores para los cannabinoides, el CB1 y el CB2, así como ligandos endógenos: la anandamina, el 2-araquinoilglicerol, la homo-gamma -linolenil etanolamina y la palmitoiletanolamina. Abstract in english ABSTRACT: Marijuana has been widely used for hundreds of years, it is perhaps one of the most popular drug of abuse. It has a long medical history, Cannabis, its preparations, derivates and similar synthetic prepartions are use to relieve symtoms associated with some medical conditions, such as: to [...] relief nauseas and vomiting associate with cancer and AIDS therapies; for the relief of muscle pain and spasms; to help reduce the frequency of epileptic seizures; to lower intra ocular pressure in Glaucoma; to stimulate appetite and produce weight gain in AIDS and cancer patients. There are two commercially available drug products related to marijuana: dronabinol (MARINOL®) and nabilone (CESAMET®). Cannabinoids receptors CB1 and CB2, and some endogenous ligands named anandamide, 2-araquinoilglicerol, homo-gamma -linolenil etanolamine and palmitoiletanolamine, have been identified in brain.

CL, Expósito.

2003-07-01

248

El Cannabis en la práctica Clínica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish RESUMEN. La marihuana ha sido utilizada por cientos de años, es una de las drogas de abuso más usadas. Tiene una larga historia de usos médicos, tanto el Cannabis, como sus derivados, preparaciones y sus formas sintéticas se emplean para aliviar una gran variedad de síntomas de diversas enfermedades [...] , tales como: alivio de las náuseas y vómitos asociados con las terapias del cáncer y del SIDA; alivio del dolor muscular y espasmos; para reducir la frecuencia de convulsiones en la epilepsia; para reducir la presión intraocular en pacientes con glaucoma; para estimular el apetito en pacientes con cáncer y SIDA. Actualmente están disponibles en el mercado dos productos comerciales sintéticos relacionados con la marihuana, de administración oral, el dronabinol (MARINOL®) y la nabilona (CESAMET®). Se han identificado en el cerebro, receptores para los cannabinoides, el CB1 y el CB2, así como ligandos endógenos: la anandamina, el 2-araquinoilglicerol, la homo-gamma -linolenil etanolamina y la palmitoiletanolamina. Abstract in english ABSTRACT: Marijuana has been widely used for hundreds of years, it is perhaps one of the most popular drug of abuse. It has a long medical history, Cannabis, its preparations, derivates and similar synthetic prepartions are use to relieve symtoms associated with some medical conditions, such as: to [...] relief nauseas and vomiting associate with cancer and AIDS therapies; for the relief of muscle pain and spasms; to help reduce the frequency of epileptic seizures; to lower intra ocular pressure in Glaucoma; to stimulate appetite and produce weight gain in AIDS and cancer patients. There are two commercially available drug products related to marijuana: dronabinol (MARINOL®) and nabilone (CESAMET®). Cannabinoids receptors CB1 and CB2, and some endogenous ligands named anandamide, 2-araquinoilglicerol, homo-gamma -linolenil etanolamine and palmitoiletanolamine, have been identified in brain.

CL, Expósito.

249

Approach-bias predicts development of cannabis problem severity in heavy cannabis users: results from a prospective FMRI study  

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A potentially powerful predictor for the course of drug (ab)use is the approach-bias, that is, the pre-reflective tendency to approach rather than avoid drug-related stimuli. Here we investigated the neural underpinnings of cannabis approach and avoidance tendencies. By elucidating the predictive power of neural approach-bias activations for future cannabis use and problem severity, we aimed at identifying new intervention targets. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), neural ap...

Cousijn, J.; Goudriaan, A. E.; Ridderinkhof, K. R.; Brink, W. Den; Veltman, D. J.; Wiers, R. W.

2012-01-01

250

Do patients think cannabis causes schizophrenia? - A qualitative study on the causal beliefs of cannabis using patients with schizophrenia  

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Abstract Background There has been a considerable amount of debate among the research community whether cannabis use may cause schizophrenia and whether cannabis use of patients with schizophrenia is associated with earlier and more frequent relapses. Considering that studies exploring patients' view on controversial topics have contributed to our understanding of important clinical issues, it is surprising how little these views have been explored to add to our understanding...

Schaub Michael; Schulze Beate; Stohler Rudolf; Buadze Anna; Liebrenz Michael

2010-01-01

251

Revisão: funcionamento executivo e uso de maconha / Review: executive functioning and cannabis use  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: A maconha é a droga ilícita mais consumida no mundo, porém ainda existem poucos estudos examinando eventuais prejuízos cognitivos relacionados ao seu uso. As manifestações clínicas associadas a esses déficits incluem síndrome amotivacional, prejuízo na flexibilidade cognitiva, desatenção, [...] dificuldade de raciocínio abstrato e formação de conceitos, aspectos intimamente ligados às funções executivas, as quais potencialmente exercem um papel central na dependência de substâncias. O objetivo do estudo foi fazer uma revisão a respeito das implicações do uso da maconha no funcionamento executivo. MÉTODO: Esta revisão foi conduzida utilizando-se bases de dados eletrônicas (MedLine, Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs). DISCUSSÃO: Em estudos de efeito agudo, doses maiores de tetrahidrocanabinol encontram-se associadas a maior prejuízo no desempenho de usuários leves em tarefas de controle inibitório e planejamento; porém, este efeito dose-resposta não ocorre em usuários crônicos. Embora haja controvérsias no que se refere a efeitos residuais da maconha, déficits persistentes parecem estar presentes após 28 dias de abstinência, ao menos em um subgrupo de usuários crônicos. CONCLUSÕES: Os estudos encontrados não tiveram como objetivo principal a avaliação das funções executivas. A seleção de testes padronizados, desenhos de estudos mais apropriados e o uso concomitante com técnicas de neuroimagem estrutural e funcional podem auxiliar na melhor compreensão das conseqüências deletérias do uso crônico da maconha no funcionamento executivo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Cannabis is the most used illicit drug worldwide, however only a few studies have examined cognitive deficits related to its use. Clinical manifestations associated with those deficits include amotivational syndrome, impairment in cognitive flexibility, inattention, deficits in abstract r [...] easoning and concept formation, aspects intimately related to the executive functions, which potentially exert a central role in substance dependence. The objective was to make a review about consequences of cannabis use in executive functioning. METHOD: This review was carried out on reports drawn from MedLine, SciELO, and Lilacs. DISCUSSION: In studies investigating acute use effects, higher doses of tetrahydrocannabinol are associated to impairments in performance of nonsevere users in planning and control impulse tasks. However, chronic cannabis users do not show those impairments. Although demonstration of residual effects of cannabis in the executive functioning is controversial, persistent deficits seem to be present at least in a subgroup of chronic users after 28 days of abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: The neuropsychological studies found did not have as a main aim the evaluation of executive functioning. A criterial selection of standardized neuropsychological tests, more appropriate study designs as well as concomitant investigations with structural and functional neuroimaging techniques may improve the understanding of eventual neurotoxicity associated with cannabis use.

Priscila Previato, Almeida; Maria Alice Fontes Pinto, Novaes; Rodrigo Affonseca, Bressan; Acioly Luiz Tavares de, Lacerda.

252

Exposure to the tsunami disaster, PTSD symptoms and increased substance use – an Internet based survey of male and female residents of Switzerland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background After the tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean basin an Internet based self-screening test was made available in order to facilitate contact with mental health services. Although primarily designed for surviving Swiss tourists as well as relatives and acquaintances of the victims, the screening instrument was open to anyone who felt psychologically affected by this disaster. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influences between self-declared increased substance use in the aftermath of the tsunami disaster, trauma exposure and current PTSD symptoms. Methods One section of the screening covered addiction related behavior. We analyzed the relationship between increased substance use, the level of PTSD symptoms and trauma exposure using multivariable logistic regression with substance use as the dependent variable. Included in the study were only subjects who reported being residents of Switzerland and the analyses were stratified by gender in order to control for possible socio-cultural or gender differences in the use of psychotropic substances. Results In women PTSD symptoms and degree of exposure enlarged the odds of increased alcohol, pharmaceuticals and cannabis use significantly. In men the relationship was more specific: PTSD symptoms and degree of exposure only enlarged the odds of increased pharmaceutical consumption significantly. Increases in alcohol, cannabis and tobacco use were only significantly associated with the degree of PTSD symptoms. Conclusion The tsunami was associated with increased substance use. This study not only replicates earlier findings but also suggests for a gender specificity of post-traumatic substance use increase.

Bisson Jonathan I

2008-03-01

253

Passive cannabis smoke exposure and oral fluid testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral fluid testing for Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) provides a convenient means of detection of recent cannabis usage. In this study, the risk of positive oral fluid tests from passive cannabis smoke exposure was investigated by housing four cannabis-free volunteers in a small, unventilated, and sealed room with an approximate volume of 36 m(3). Five active cannabis smokers were also present in the room, and each smoked a single cannabis cigarette (1.75% THC). Cannabis smoking occurred over the first 20 min of the study session. All subjects remained in the room for approximately 4 h. Oral fluid specimens were collected with the Intercept DOA Oral Specimen Collection Device. Three urine specimens were collected (0, 20, and 245 min). In addition, three air samples were collected for measurement of THC content. All oral fluid specimens were screened by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for cannabinoids (cutoff concentration = 3 ng/mL) and tested by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS) for THC (LOQ/LOD = 0.75 ng/mL). All urine specimens were screened by EIA for cannabinoids (cutoff concentration = 50 ng/mL) and tested by GC-MS-MS for THCCOOH (LOQ/LOD = 1 ng/mL). Air samples were measured for THC by GC-MS (LOD = 1 ng/L). A total of eight oral fluid specimens (collected 20 to 50 min following initiation of smoking) from the four passive subjects screened and confirmed positive for THC at concentrations ranging from 3.6 to 26.4 ng/mL. Two additional specimens from one passive subject, collected at 50 and 65 min, screened negative but contained THC in concentrations of 4.2 and 1.1 ng/mL, respectively. All subsequent specimens for passive participants tested negative by EIA and GC-MS-MS for the remainder of the 4-h session. In contrast, oral fluid specimens collected from the five cannabis smokers generally screened and confirmed positive for THC throughout the session at concentrations substantially higher than observed for passive subjects. Urine specimens from active cannabis smokers also screened and confirmed positive at conventional cutoff concentrations. A biphasic pattern of decline for THC was observed in oral fluid specimens collected from cannabis smokers, whereas a linear decline was seen for passive subjects suggesting that initial oral fluid contamination is cleared rapidly and is followed by THC sequestration in the oral mucosa. It is concluded that the risk of positive oral fluid tests from passive cannabis smoke inhalation is limited to a period of approximately 30 min following exposure. PMID:15516313

Niedbala, Sam; Kardos, Keith; Salamone, Sal; Fritch, Dean; Bronsgeest, Matth; Cone, Edward J

2004-10-01

254

Cannabis abuse in adolescence and the risk of psychosis: a brief review of the preclinical evidence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiological studies suggest that Cannabis use during adolescence confers an increased risk for developing psychotic symptoms later in life. However, despite their interest, the epidemiological data are not conclusive, due to their heterogeneity; thus modeling the adolescent phase in animals is useful for investigating the impact of Cannabis use on deviations of adolescent brain development that might confer a vulnerability to later psychotic disorders. Although scant, preclinical data seem to support the presence of impaired social behaviors, cognitive and sensorimotor gating deficits as well as psychotic-like signs in adult rodents after adolescent cannabinoid exposure, clearly suggesting that this exposure may trigger a complex behavioral phenotype closely resembling a schizophrenia-like disorder. Similar treatments performed at adulthood were not able to produce such phenotype, thus pointing to a vulnerability of the adolescent brain towards cannabinoid exposure. The neurobiological substrate of the adolescent vulnerability is still largely unknown and experimental studies need to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanism underlying these effects. However, the few data available seem to suggest that heavy adolescent exposure to cannabinoids is able to modify neuronal connectivity in specific brain areas long after the end of the treatment. This is likely due to disruption of maturational events within the endocannabinoid system during adolescence that in turn impact on the correct neuronal refinement peculiar of the adolescent brain, thus leading to altered adult brain functionality and behavior. PMID:23916409

Rubino, T; Parolaro, D

2014-07-01

255

Correlations and agreement between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in blood plasma and Timeline Follow-Back (TLFB)-assisted self-reported use of cannabis of patients with cannabis use disorder and psychotic illness attending the CapOpus randomized clinical trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aims:? To assess correlations and agreement between Timeline Follow-Back (TLFB)-assisted self-report and blood samples for cannabis use. Design:? Secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Setting:? Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants:? 103 patients from the CapOpus trial with cannabis use disorder and psychosis, providing 239 self-reports of cannabis use and 88 valid blood samples. Measurements:? Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) detected in plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. Self-report of cannabis-use last month by TLFB. Pearson's r, sensitivity and specificity calculated as measures of correlation or agreement. Findings:? Correlations were strong; r = 0.75 for number of days and r = 0.83 for number of standard joints in the preceding month when excluding outliers. Including outliers, coefficients were moderate to strong (r = 0.49and r = 0.51, respectively). There were differences in subgroups, mostly inconsistent depending on inclusion or exclusion of outliers. Sensitivity and specificity for TLFB detecting presence or absence of cannabis use were 95.7 % (95 % confidence interval 88.0 % to 99.1 %) and 72.2 % (46.5 % to 90.3 %), respectively. Using 19 days as cutoff on TLFB, they were 94.3 % (86.0 % to 98.4 %) and 94.4 % (72.2 % to 99.9 %), respectively. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC)-curve was 0.96. Conclusions:? Time Line Follow-Back (TLFB)-assisted self-report of cannabis use correlates highly with plasma-THC in patients with comorbid cannabis use disorder and psychosis. Sensitivity and specificity of TLFB appear to be optimised with 19 days as cutoff-point. As such TLFB may be superior to analysis of blood when going beyond 19 days of recall.

HjorthØj, Carsten Rygaard; Fohlmann, Allan

2012-01-01

256

Anthrax: Symptoms  

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... body and cause severe illness and even death. Cutaneous anthrax symptoms can include A group of small ... in mind Symptoms are similar to those of cutaneous anthrax, but injection anthrax can spread throughout the ...

257

Symptom Management  

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... TBI Educational Materials Research DVBIC Locations Press Symptom Management A brain injury can affect a person physically ... Diagnosis and Assessment Treatment and Recovery Caregiving Symptom Management Life After TBI Defense and Veterans Brain Injury ...

258

Neurobiological effects of early life cannabis exposure in relation to the gateway hypothesis  

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The use of Cannabis sativa preparations, such as hashish and marijuana, is wide-spread among young people, including pregnant women. Despite this concern, the consequences of cannabis exposure on the brain during periods of active brain development, such as the prenatal phase and adolescence, is not well known. Several epidemiological studies support the cannabis gateway hypothesis, where early cannabis use is suggested to increase the risk of initiating use of other illicit...

Ellgren, Maria

2007-01-01

259

Role of the endocannabinoid system in brain functions relevant for schizophrenia: an overview of human challenge studies with cannabis or ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).  

Science.gov (United States)

Accumulating evidence suggests involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, which signifies a potential application for this system in the treatment of this disorder. However, before new research can focus on potential treatments that work by manipulating the endocannabinoid system, it needs to be elucidated how this system is involved in symptoms of schizophrenia. Here we review human studies that investigated acute effects of cannabis or ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on brain functions that are implicated in schizophrenia. Results suggest that the impact of THC administration depends on the difficulty of the task performed. Impaired performance of cognitive paradigms is reported on more challenging tasks, which is associated with both activity deficits in temporal and prefrontal areas and a failure to deactivate regions of the default mode network. Comparable reductions in prefrontal activity and impairments in deactivation of the default mode network are seen in patients during performance of cognitive paradigms. Normal performance levels after THC administration demonstrated for less demanding tasks are shown to be related to either increased neural effort in task-specific regions ('neurophysiological inefficiency'), or recruitment of alternative brain areas, which suggests a change in strategy to meet cognitive demands. Particularly a pattern of performance and brain activity corresponding with an inefficient working memory system is consistently demonstrated in patients. These similarities in brain function between intoxicated healthy volunteers and schizophrenia patients provide an argument for a role of the endocannabinoid system in symptoms of schizophrenia, and further emphasize this system as a potential novel target for treatment of these symptoms. PMID:24380726

Bossong, Matthijs G; Jansma, J Martijn; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Ramsey, Nick F

2014-07-01

260

Myeloma Symptoms  

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... Therapies Treatment by Stage Treatment FAQs Clinical Trials Multiple Myeloma Cure Treatment Center Finder Speak to an MMRF nurse specialist ... all of these symptoms. In addition, advances in treatment allow for symptoms to be ... multiple myeloma symptoms may include: • Bone pain or bone fractures • ...

 
 
 
 
261

Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the relation between maternal cannabis use…

El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

2009-01-01

262

A Meta-Analysis of Interventions to Reduce Adolescent Cannabis Use  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This meta-analytic review assesses the effectiveness of substance abuse interventions to reduce adolescent cannabis use. Method: A systematic search identified 15 randomized controlled evaluations of interventions to reduce adolescent cannabis use published between 1960 and 2008. The primary outcome variables, frequency of cannabis use,…

Bender, Kimberly; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Sarteschi, Christy; Vaughn, Michael G.

2011-01-01

263

The medicalisation of revolt: a sociological analysis of medical cannabis users.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a qualitative study, we investigated the medical motives of 100 Norwegian cannabis users, none of whom had legal access to medical cannabis. Cannabis was used therapeutically for conditions such as multiple sclerosis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and rheumatism, as well as for quality of life conditions such as quality of sleep, relaxation and wellbeing. The borders between medical and recreational cannabis use were blurred. This article identifies strategies of medical cannabis users to gain social acceptance. Several respondents downplayed effects such as intoxication and euphoria. Others used the language of medicine and knowledge of current research in psychopharmacology. Cannabis was contrasted with the potential for abuse of prescription medicines. The medical cannabis movement has had little success in Norway. Medical professionals are unable to accept that users may be more knowledgeable than experts and medical users cannot discard the values of traditional cannabis culture. Calls for medical cannabis use are thus perceived as a gambit in attempts to have cannabis legalised. We argue that, despite having had little effect on health authorities, the medical cannabis movement may be having the unintended effect of medicalising cannabis use and using it as a cure for everyday problems. PMID:22827932

Pedersen, Willy; Sandberg, Sveinung

2013-01-01

264

Impaired functional connectivity of brain reward circuitry in patients with schizophrenia and cannabis use disorder: Effects of cannabis and THC.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis use disorder (CUD) occurs in up to 42% of patients with schizophrenia and substantially worsens disease progression. The basis of CUD in schizophrenia is unclear and available treatments are rarely successful at limiting cannabis use. We have proposed that a dysregulated brain reward circuit (BRC) may underpin cannabis use in these patients. In the present pilot study, we used whole-brain seed-to-voxel resting state functional connectivity (rs-fc) to examine the BRC of patients with schizophrenia and CUD, and to explore the effects of smoked cannabis and orally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on the BRC. 12 patients with schizophrenia and CUD and 12 control subjects each completed two fMRI resting scans, with patients administered either a 3.6% THC cannabis cigarette (n=6) or a 15 mg THC capsule (n=6) prior to their second scan. Results revealed significantly reduced connectivity at baseline in patients relative to controls, with most pronounced hypoconnectivity found between the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortical BRC regions (i.e., anterior prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex). Both cannabis and THC administration increased connectivity between these regions, in direct correlation with increases in plasma THC levels. This study is the first to investigate interregional connectivity of the BRC and the effects of cannabis and THC on this circuit in patients with schizophrenia and CUD. The findings from this pilot study support the use of rs-fc as a means of measuring the integrity of the BRC and the effects of pharmacologic agents acting on this circuit in patients with schizophrenia and CUD. PMID:25037524

Fischer, Adina S; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Roth, Robert M; Brunette, Mary F; Green, Alan I

2014-09-01

265

RAPD analysis of seized marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) in Turkey  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Cannabis sativa L. is a multiple-use plant. However, its cultivation is strictly controlled due to its psychoactive nature and usage in producing drugs such as marijuana, and hashish. In this study, psychoactive type Cannabis samples, which were seized from 29 different locations of Turkey, were use [...] d. Interests were to identify the genetic relatedness of the seized samples and to partition molecular variance between and within populations. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNAs were employed for analysis based on single plant material and bulked samples of them. Data were analysed via cluster and principal coordinate analyses (PCoA). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) was performed to obtain variations between and within populations. Cannabis accessions were basically separated into two main groups by PCoA and cluster analyses according to geographical regions. One of them was made up of Cannabis plants, which were seized from mostly western part of Turkey (group 1). The other one was made up of Cannabis plants that were seized from mostly eastern part of Turkey (group 2). It is found that 20.23% of the genetic variation is due to differences between accessions groups while 79.77% of the genetic variation is due to between accessions within accessions groups. Compared to group1, group 2 showed more variation.

Emine, Pinarkara; Seyit A, Kayis; Erdogan E, Hakki; Ayla, Sag.

2009-01-15

266

Cannabis, possible cardiac deaths and the coroner in Ireland.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: The elevated risk of triggering a myocardial infarction by smoking cannabis is limited to the first 2 h after smoking. AIM: To examine the possible role of cannabis in cardiac deaths. CASES AND RESULTS: From 3,193 coroners\\' cases over 2 years, there were 13 cases where the clinical information was compatible with a primary cardiac cause of death. An inquest was held in three cases. Myocardial infarction was the primary cause of death in 54%. Other causes were sudden adult death syndrome, sudden death in epilepsy, and poisoning by alcohol and diazepam. Cannabis was mentioned once only on a death certificate, but not as a cause of death. Blood delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid was recorded in one case and in no case was plasma tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) measured. CONCLUSIONS: To attribute sudden cardiac death to cannabis, plasma THC should be measured in the toxicology screen in coroners\\' cases where urine cannabinoids are positive. A positive urine cannabinoids immunoassay alone is insufficient evidence in the linkage of acute cardiac death and cannabis.

Tormey, W P

2012-01-10

267

Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes in Cocaine and Cannabis Dependence  

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Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is highly associated with substance use disorders (SUD). In addition to the full ASPD syndrome, which requires both childhood conduct disorder and the adult features, other antisocial behavioral syndromes, including conduct disorder (CD) alone without the adult syndrome, and the adult antisocial behavioral syndrome without childhood CD (AABS) are also frequently diagnosed in patients with SUD. The aim of this study was to compare the rates of these vario...

Mariani, John J.; Horey, Jonathan; Bisaga, Adam; Aharonovich, Efrat; Raby, Wilfrid; Cheng, Wendy Y.; Nunes, Edward; Levin, Frances R.

2008-01-01

268

Cannabis in sport: anti-doping perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2004, when the World Anti-Doping Agency assumed the responsibility for establishing and maintaining the list of prohibited substances and methods in sport (i.e. the Prohibited List), cannabinoids have been prohibited in all sports during competition. The basis for this prohibition can be found in the World Anti-Doping Code, which defines the three criteria used to consider banning a substance. In this context, we discuss the potential of cannabis to enhance sports performance, the risk it poses to the athlete's health and its violation of the spirit of sport. Although these compounds are prohibited in-competition only, we explain why the pharmacokinetics of their main psychoactive compound, ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, may complicate the results management of adverse analytical findings. Passive inhalation does not appear to be a plausible explanation for a positive test. Although the prohibition of cannabinoids in sports is one of the most controversial issues in anti-doping, in this review we stress the reasons behind this prohibition, with strong emphasis on the evolving knowledge of cannabinoid pharmacology. PMID:21985215

Huestis, Marilyn A; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier

2011-11-01

269

Blockade of Endocannabinoid Hydrolytic Enzymes Attenuates Precipitated Opioid Withdrawal Symptoms in MiceS?  

Science.gov (United States)

?9-Tetrahydrocannbinol (THC), the primary active constituent of Cannabis sativa, has long been known to reduce opioid withdrawal symptoms. Although THC produces most of its pharmacological actions through the activation of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, the role these receptors play in reducing the variety of opioid withdrawal symptoms remains unknown. The endogenous cannabinoids, N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide; AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), activate both cannabinoid receptors but are rapidly metabolized by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), respectively. The objective of this study was to test whether increasing AEA or 2-AG, via inhibition of their respective hydrolytic enzymes, reduces naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal symptoms in in vivo and in vitro models of opioid dependence. Morphine-dependent mice challenged with naloxone reliably displayed a profound withdrawal syndrome, consisting of jumping, paw tremors, diarrhea, and weight loss. THC and the MAGL inhibitor 4-nitrophenyl 4-(dibenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (JZL184) dose dependently reduced the intensity of most measures through the activation of CB1 receptors. JZL184 also attenuated spontaneous withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent mice. The FAAH inhibitor N-(pyridin-3-yl)-4-(3-(5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yloxy)benzyl)-piperdine-1-carboxamide (PF-3845) reduced the intensity of naloxone-precipitated jumps and paw flutters through the activation of CB1 receptors but did not ameliorate incidence of diarrhea or weight loss. In the final series of experiments, we investigated whether JZL184 or PF-3845 would attenuate naloxone-precipitated contractions in morphine-dependent ilea. Both enzyme inhibitors attenuated the intensity of naloxone-induced contractions, although this model does not account mechanistically for the autonomic withdrawal responses (i.e., diarrhea) observed in vivo. These results indicate that endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes are promising targets to treat opioid dependence. PMID:21719468

Ramesh, Divya; Ross, Gracious R.; Schlosburg, Joel E.; Owens, Robert A.; Abdullah, Rehab A.; Kinsey, Steven G.; Long, Jonathan Z.; Nomura, Daniel K.; Sim-Selley, Laura J.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Akbarali, Hamid I.

2011-01-01

270

Cannabis use, employment, and income: fixed-effects analysis of panel data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Uncertainty exists regarding the direction and magnitude of the association between cannabis use and labor market outcomes. Using panel data from waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions, the current paper estimates the associations between several patterns of cannabis use during the past year, current employment, and annual personal income. In the single-equation models (wave 2 data), nearly all patterns of cannabis use are significantly associated with worse labor market outcomes (p?cannabis use and labor market outcomes. Moreover, cannabis use may be less detrimental in the labor market than other studies have reported. PMID:23793384

Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T

2014-04-01

271

Glaucoma Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

About Glaucoma Understanding Glaucoma Prevention & Risk Factors Symptoms Screening & Diagnosis Treatments and Clinical Trials Living with Glaucoma BrightFocus Insights Frequently Asked Questions News Updates Resources ...

272

Pregnenolone can protect the brain from cannabis intoxication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pregnenolone is considered the inactive precursor of all steroid hormones, and its potential functional effects have been largely uninvestigated. The administration of the main active principle of Cannabis sativa (marijuana), ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), substantially increases the synthesis of pregnenolone in the brain via activation of the type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor. Pregnenolone then, acting as a signaling-specific inhibitor of the CB1 receptor, reduces several effects of THC. This negative feedback mediated by pregnenolone reveals a previously unknown paracrine/autocrine loop protecting the brain from CB1 receptor overactivation that could open an unforeseen approach for the treatment of cannabis intoxication and addiction. PMID:24385629

Vallée, Monique; Vitiello, Sergio; Bellocchio, Luigi; Hébert-Chatelain, Etienne; Monlezun, Stéphanie; Martin-Garcia, Elena; Kasanetz, Fernando; Baillie, Gemma L; Panin, Francesca; Cathala, Adeline; Roullot-Lacarrière, Valérie; Fabre, Sandy; Hurst, Dow P; Lynch, Diane L; Shore, Derek M; Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique; Spampinato, Umberto; Revest, Jean-Michel; Maldonado, Rafael; Reggio, Patricia H; Ross, Ruth A; Marsicano, Giovanni; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo

2014-01-01

273

Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action involved in the interaction between cannabinoid compounds and the biological receptors. So, from the therapeutical aspects presented in this work, we intended to show the evolution of the Cannabis sativa research and the possible medicinal use of cannabinoid compounds.

Honório Káthia Maria

2006-01-01

274

Drinking, cannabis use and driving among Ontario students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

LITTLE IS KNOWN ABOUT THE RISK OF INJURY among adolescents who drive after the use of alcohol or cannabis or ride in cars driven by drunk drivers. We examined data from self-administered interviews with 1846 students in grades 7 to 13 who participated in the 2001 Ontario Student Drug Use Survey about their experiences related to alcohol, cannabis and driving during the 12 months preceding the survey. In all, 31.9% of the students reported being a passenger in a car driven by a drunk driver; o...

Adlaf, Edward M.; Mann, Robert E.; Paglia, Angela

2003-01-01

275

Autosomal Linkage Analysis for Cannabis Use Behaviors in Australian Adults  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in developed and in developing nations. Twin studies have highlighted the role of genetic influences on early stages of cannabis use, such as a lifetime history of use, early-onset use and frequent use, however, we are not aware of any genomic studies that have examined these phenotypes. Using data on 2,314 families consisting of 5,600 adult Australian offspring and their parents, all of whom were scanned using 1,399 unique autosomal markers, we...

Agrawal, Arpana; Morley, Katherine I.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Statham, Dixie J.; Todd, Richard D.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Whitfield, John; Martin, Nicholas G.; Lynskey, Michael T.

2008-01-01

276

Cannabis sativa var. indica : une plante complexe aux effets pervers Cannabis sativa var. indica : a complex plant with perverse effects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cannabis sativa var. indica appartient à la famille des Cannabinaceae et à l'ordre des Urticales. Parmi les 60 cannabinoïdes contenus dans la plante, essentiellement dans les feuilles et les sommités fleuries, le delta-9-tétrahydrocannabinol (THC constitue le principal responsable des effets observables chez l'homme. La teneur en THC est très variable selon les conditions de culture, pouvant dépasser 20 % dans le cas de cultures sous serre aux conditions parfaitement contrôlées. Après inhalation, le THC pénètre dans la circulation sanguine puis, très lipophile, va se fixer sur les tissus riches en lipides et en particulier au niveau du cerveau. Ses effets chez l'homme reposent sur l'existence des récepteurs CB1 (essentiellement au niveau central et CB2 (surtout présents au niveau périphérique. Tandis que la présence du THC dans le sang n'est observable que pendant 2 à 3 heures après inhalation, des travaux très récents chez l'homme et chez l'animal nous ont permis de montrer qu'il restait fixé dans la plupart des structures cérébrales pendant de très nombreuses heures, cela expliquant la persistance importante de ses effets sur le système nerveux central. Les effets aigus sur le psychisme consistent principalement en des perturbations sensorielles, des troubles thymiques et dissociatifs, une diminution des performances intellectuelles, motrices et cognitives, des perturbations de la mémoire à court terme. Lors d'un usage important, régulier et prolongé, on note fréquemment l'apparition de crises d'angoisse aiguë et d'un syndrome amotivationnel. Si les risques pour soi-même liés à son usage sont loin d'être négligeables, les conséquences pour autrui peuvent être considérables lorsque les consommateurs sont des conducteurs d'automobiles, des femmes enceintes ou des travailleurs occupant des postes à risque et/ou de sécurité en entreprise. L'importance du risque est majorée par un nombre de consommateurs de plus en plus grand. C'est pour cette raison que la France a récemment mis en place une législation destinée à sanctionner les conducteurs ayant fait usage de cannabis, sur la base des résultats de l'analyse sanguine. C'est aussi pourquoi il serait désormais opportun d'instaurer par voie législative des dépistages chez les personnes occupant des postes à risque et/ou de sécurité dans les entreprises. Cannabis sativa var. indica is a Cannabaceae, belonging to Urticales order. Among the 60 cannabinoids present in the plant and essentially in leaves and flowering tops, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC is the main responsible of the effects observed in human using it. THC content is very variable depending on cultivation conditions, being able to contain more than 20 % of THC in the case of under glass cultivations with well controlled conditions. After inhalation, THC moves to the blood and, because of its lipophily, distribution very fastly into the brain and other lipidic tissues. Its effects on human are supported by the presence of CB1 receptors (mainly in central nervous system and CB2 (mainly present in other tissues. As THC is found in blood during only 2 to 3 hours after inhalation, recent studies allowed us to indicate that it remained present in brain structures during many hours, which explains the long persistence of its effects on central nervous system. Acute side effects on behavior and central nervous system consist essentially in sensitive perturbations, thymic and dissociative troubles, a decrease of intellectual, motor and cognitive performances, short term memory disorders. For an important, regular and long term use, the occurrence of acute angor attacks or an amotivational syndrome are frequently observed. While risks for oneself related to cannabis use are not negligible, consequences for others may be extensive when consumers are car drivers, pregnant women or workers occupying a risk position. This risk is becoming very important today considering account of the number of consumers. Consequently, the French government and th

Mura Patrick

2009-03-01

277

Trajectory of adolescent cannabis use on addiction vulnerability.  

Science.gov (United States)

The adolescent brain is a period of dynamic development making it vulnerable to environmental factors such as drug exposure. Of the illicit drugs, cannabis is most used by teenagers since it is perceived by many to be of little harm. This perception has led to a growing number of states approving its legalization and increased accessibility. Most of the debates and ensuing policies regarding cannabis were done without consideration of its impact on one of the most vulnerable population, namely teens, or without consideration of scientific data. We provide an overview of the endocannabinoid system in relation to adolescent cannabis exposure and provide insights regarding factors such as genetics and behavioral traits that confer risk for subsequent addiction. While it is clear that more systematic scientific studies are needed to understand the long-term impact of adolescent cannabis exposure on brain and behavior, the current evidence suggests that it has a far-reaching influence on adult addictive behaviors particularly for certain subsets of vulnerable individuals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'. PMID:23954491

Hurd, Yasmin L; Michaelides, Michael; Miller, Michael L; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

2014-01-01

278

Pharmacology and toxicology of Cannabis derivatives and endocannabinoid agonists.  

Science.gov (United States)

For centuries Cannabis sativa and cannabis extracts have been used in natural medicine. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active ingredient of Cannabis. THC seems to be responsible for most of the pharmacological and therapeutic actions of cannabis. In a few countries THC extracts (i.e. Sativex) or THC derivatives such as nabilone, and dronabinol are used in the clinic for the treatment of several pathological conditions like chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. On the other hand the severe side effects and the high abuse liability of these agents represent a serious limitation in their medical use. In addition, diversion in the use of these active ingredients for recreational purpose is a concern. Over recent years, alternative approaches using synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists or agents acting as activators of the endocannabinoid systems are under scrutiny with the hope to develop more effective and safer clinical applications. Likely, in the near future few of these new molecules will be available for clinical use. The present article review recent study and patents with focus on the cannabinoid system as a target for the treatment of central nervous system disorders with emphasis on agonists. PMID:19832688

Gerra, Gilberto; Zaimovic, Amir; Gerra, Maria L; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Cippitelli, Andrea; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Somaini, Lorenzo

2010-01-01

279

Health outcomes associated with long-term regular cannabis and tobacco smoking.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to identify patterns of health concerns associated with long-term use of cannabis and tobacco individually, as well as in combination. We recruited 350 adults aged 40 or over who smoked cannabis but not tobacco (cannabis-only group, n=59), smoked both cannabis and tobacco (cannabis/tobacco group, n=88), smoked tobacco but not cannabis (tobacco-only group, n=80), or used neither substance (control group, n=123). Participants completed a survey addressing substance use, diagnosed medical conditions, health concerns relating to smoking cannabis/tobacco, and general health (measured using the Physical Health Questionnaire and the Short Form 36). Several significant differences were found among the four groups. With regard to diagnosed medical conditions, the three smoking groups reported significantly higher rates of emphysema than did the control group (ps<.001). However, all members of the cannabis-only group diagnosed with emphysema were former regular tobacco smokers. Total general health scores, general health subscales, and items addressing smoking-related health concerns also revealed several significant group differences, and these tended to show worse outcomes for the two tobacco smoking groups. Findings suggest that using tobacco on its own and mixing it with cannabis may lead to worse physical health outcomes than using cannabis alone. PMID:23501136

Rooke, Sally E; Norberg, Melissa M; Copeland, Jan; Swift, Wendy

2013-06-01

280

Avoiding emotional bonds: An examination of the dimensions of therapeutic alliance among cannabis users  

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Full Text Available There is a growing need to provide treatment for cannabis users, yet engaging and maintaining this population in treatment is particularly difficult. Although past research has focused on the importance of therapeutic alliance on drug treatment outcomes, this is the first study to examine the dimensions of therapeutic alliance for cannabis users compared with users of alcohol or other drugs in a naturalistic setting. The acceptability of Internet-delivered interventions for drug and alcohol treatments is also investigated. Participants (N = 77 included clients who were receiving outpatient drug and alcohol treatment at a publicly-funded health service, including a Specialist Cannabis Clinic. The results indicated that one particular domain of alliance, Bond, was consistently lower, from both client and clinician perspectives, for current cannabis users relative to those not currently using cannabis. Client perceptions of Bond decreased as the severity of cannabis use increased (r =-0.373, p=0.02. Cannabis Clinic clients did not report a significantly lower Bond with their clinicians, suggesting that specialised cannabis services may be better placed to provide appropriate treatment for this population than embedding cannabis treatment within traditional drug and alcohol treatment teams. In addition, Internet/computer based treatments may be one potential way to engage, transition or retain cannabis users in treatment. Trial Registration: Australian Clinical Trial Registration Number: ACTRN12611000382976

FrancesKay-Lambkin

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

COMT val158met and 5-HTTLPR genetic polymorphisms moderate executive control in cannabis users.  

Science.gov (United States)

The adverse effects of cannabis use on executive functions are still controversial, fostering the need for novel biomarkers able to unveil individual differences in the cognitive impact of cannabis consumption. Two common genetic polymorphisms have been linked to the neuroadaptive impact of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure and to executive functions in animals: the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene val158met polymorphism and the SLC6A4 gene 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. We aimed to test if these polymorphisms moderate the harmful effects of cannabis use on executive function in young cannabis users. We recruited 144 participants: 86 cannabis users and 58 non-drug user controls. Both groups were genotyped and matched for genetic makeup, sex, age, education, and IQ. We used a computerized neuropsychological battery to assess different aspects of executive functions: sustained attention (CANTAB Rapid Visual Information Processing Test, RVIP), working memory (N-back), monitoring/shifting (CANTAB ID/ED set shifting), planning (CANTAB Stockings of Cambridge, SOC), and decision-making (Iowa Gambling Task, IGT). We used general linear model-based analyses to test performance differences between cannabis users and controls as a function of genotypes. We found that: (i) daily cannabis use is not associated with executive function deficits; and (ii) COMT val158met and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms moderate the link between cannabis use and executive performance. Cannabis users carrying the COMT val/val genotype exhibited lower accuracy of sustained attention, associated with a more strict response bias, than val/val non-users. Cannabis users carrying the COMT val allele also committed more monitoring/shifting errors than cannabis users carrying the met/met genotype. Finally, cannabis users carrying the 5-HTTLPR s/s genotype had worse IGT performance than s/s non-users. COMT and SLC6A4 genes moderate the impact of cannabis use on executive functions. PMID:23449176

Verdejo-García, Antonio; Fagundo, Ana Beatriz; Cuenca, Aida; Rodriguez, Joan; Cuyás, Elisabet; Langohr, Klaus; de Sola Llopis, Susana; Civit, Ester; Farré, Magí; Peña-Casanova, Jordi; de la Torre, Rafael

2013-07-01

282

Whole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis therapy has been considered an effective treatment for spasticity, although clinical reports of symptom reduction in multiple sclerosis (MS describe mixed outcomes. Recently introduced therapies of combined ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC and cannabidiol (CBD extracts have potential for symptom relief with the possibility of reducing intoxication and other side effects. Although several past reviews have suggested that cannabinoid therapy provides a therapeutic benefit for symptoms of MS, none have presented a methodical investigation of newer cannabinoid treatments in MS-related spasticity. The purpose of the present review was to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of combined THC and CBD extracts on MS-related spasticity in order to increase understanding of the treatment's potential effectiveness, safety and limitations. Methods We reviewed MEDLINE/PubMed, Ovid, and CENTRAL electronic databases for relevant studies using randomized controlled trials. Studies were included only if a combination of THC and CBD extracts was used, and if pre- and post-treatment assessments of spasticity were reported. Results Six studies were systematically reviewed for treatment dosage and duration, objective and subjective measures of spasticity, and reports of adverse events. Although there was variation in the outcome measures reported in these studies, a trend of reduced spasticity in treated patients was noted. Adverse events were reported in each study, however combined TCH and CBD extracts were generally considered to be well-tolerated. Conclusion We found evidence that combined THC and CBD extracts may provide therapeutic benefit for MS spasticity symptoms. Although some objective measures of spasticity noted improvement trends, there were no changes found to be significant in post-treatment assessments. However, subjective assessment of symptom relief did often show significant improvement post-treatment. Differences in assessment measures, reports of adverse events, and dosage levels are discussed.

Rowland Marie

2009-12-01

283

Plague Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Plague Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics Info ... Clinicians Public Health Officials Veterinarians Prevention History of Plague Resources FAQ Related Links USGS National Wildlife Health ...

284

Cannabis and Tobacco Use: Where Are the Boundaries? A Qualitative Study on Cannabis Consumption Modes among Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to identify tobacco and cannabis co-consumptions and consumers' perceptions of each substance. A qualitative research including 22 youths (14 males) aged 15-21 years in seven individual interviews and five focus groups. Discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and transferred to Atlas.ti software for narrative…

Akre, Christina; Michaud, Pierre-Andre; Berchtold, Andre; Suris, Joan-Carles

2010-01-01

285

Los productos de Cannabis sativa: situación actual y perspectivas en medicina / Cannabis sativa products: current status and perspectives in medicine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los productos psicoactivos de la Cannabis sativa, como marihuana y hachís, se han usado desde hace varios siglos con fines medicinales, religiosos y recreativos. Ahora, la marihuana es la droga ilegal de mayor consumo en el mundo, particularmente por adolescentes y adultos jóvenes. La adolescencia e [...] s una etapa crítica en el desarrollo y maduración del Sistema Nervioso Central. La marihuana está constituida por un gran número y variedad de substancias químicas que pueden interactuar entre sí. Sus efectos agudos se caracterizan por euforia, relajación e intensificación de las experiencias sensoriales ordinarias. Su consumo crónico induce tolerancia, dependencia, síndrome de carencia, déficit cognitivo y aumenta el riesgo de enfermedades psiquiátricas. El descubrimiento de un sistema cannabinoide endógeno renovó el interés médico por la marihuana y los datos de los últimos 20 años indican que el sistema endocannabinoide regula la función de diversos tipos de sinapsis y juega un papel importante en el desarrollo cerebral extrauterino. Recientemente el interés sobre la marihuana se centró en sus propiedades medicinales y existe un buen número de ensayos clínicos controlados que apoyan su uso en ciertas condiciones médicas; sin embargo, su eficacia y seguridad siguen siendo motivo de controversia. En este artículo se analizan los conocimientos farmacológicos sobre la marihuana, se establecen los riesgos de su consumo, la información sobre sus propiedades medicinales y, con base en la evidencia disponible, se opina contra su legalización. Finalmente, aquí se postula que la marihuana en su forma herbaria, por vía enteral, puede ser de gran valor para mitigar el sufrimiento de pacientes con enfermedad terminal. Abstract in english Psychoactive preparations of Cannabis sativa, such as marijuana and hashish, have been used for centuries for medicinal, religious and recreational purposes. Today marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug worldwide, particularly among teenagers and young adults. Adolescence is a critical phase [...] in Central Nervous System development, characterized by neuronal maturation and rearrangement processes. Marijuana is very complex in its chemistry due to the large number of active constituents capable of interacting with each other. With inhaled marihuana, subjects experience euphoria, a feeling of relaxation, and intensification of ordinary sensory experiences. Chronic consumption results in tolerance, dependence, withdrawal syndrome, cognitive deterioration, and increased risk of psychiatric illnesses. The discovery of an endogenous cannabinoid system renewed the medical interest in marijuana and data from the last 20 years have shown that, in the postnatal brain, endocannabinoids regulate the function of many synapses and play an important role in brain development; also, that chronic consumption of marijuana early in life negatively affects Central Nervous System development. Recently, interest on marijuana has centered on its medicinal properties, and a good number of controlled clinical studies support its use in certain medical conditions; however, safety and efficacy of marijuana remains controversial. In this article we analyze the pharmacological knowledge on marijuana, the risks of its consumption, data on its medicinal properties and, based on the available evidence, we conclude that its legalization should be discouraged. Finally, we postulate that marijuana in its herbal form, by the enteral route, could be of a great value in mitigating suffering in patients with terminal illness.

Rodolfo, Rodríguez Carranza.

2012-06-01

286

Passive cannabis smoke exposure and oral fluid testing. II. Two studies of extreme cannabis smoke exposure in a motor vehicle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two studies were conducted to determine if extreme passive exposure to cannabis smoke in a motor vehicle would produce positive results for delta-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in oral fluid. Passive exposure to cannabis smoke in an unventilated room has been shown to produce a transient appearance of THC in oral fluid for up to 30 min. However, it is well known that such factors as room size and extent of smoke exposure can affect results. Questions have also been raised concerning the effects of tobacco when mixed with marijuana and THC content. We conducted two passive cannabis studies under severe passive smoke exposure conditions in an unventilated eight-passenger van. Four passive subjects sat alongside four active cannabis smokers who each smoked a single cannabis cigarette containing either 5.4%, 39.5 mg THC (Study 1) or 10.4%, 83.2 mg THC (Study 2). The cigarettes in Study 1 contained tobacco mixed with cannabis; cigarettes in Study 2 contained only cannabis. Oral fluid specimens were collected from passive and active subjects with the Intercept Oral Specimen Collection Device for 1 h after smoking cessation while inside the van (Study 1) and up to 72 h (passive) or 8 h (active) outside the van. Additionally in Study 1, Intercept collectors were exposed to smoke in the van to assess environmental contamination during collection procedures. For Study 2, all oral fluid collections were outside the van following smoking cessation to minimize environmental contamination. Oral samples were analyzed with the Cannabinoids Intercept MICRO-PLATE EIA and quantitatively by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). THC concentrations were adjusted for dilution (x 3). The screening and confirmation cutoff concentrations for THC in neat oral fluid were 3 ng/mL and 1.5 ng/mL, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) for THC in the GC-MS-MS assay were 0.3 and 0.75 ng/mL, respectively. Urine specimens were collected, screened (EMIT, 50 ng/mL cutoff), and analyzed by GC-MS-MS for THCCOOH (LOD/LOQ = 1.0 ng/mL). Peak oral fluid THC concentrations in passive subjects recorded at the end of cannabis smoke exposure were up to 7.5 ng/mL (Study 1) and 1.2 ng/mL (Study 2). Thereafter, THC concentrations quickly declined to negative levels within 30-45 min in Study 1. It was found that environmentally exposed Collectors contained 3-14 ng/mL in Study 1. When potential contamination during collection was eliminated in Study 2, all passive subjects were negative at screening/confirmation cutoff concentrations throughout the study. Oral fluid specimens from active smokers had peak concentrations of THC approximately 100-fold greater than passive subjects in both studies. Positive oral fluid results were observed for active smokers 0-8 h. Urine analysis confirmed oral fluid results. These studies clarify earlier findings on the effects of passive cannabis smoke on oral fluid results. Oral fluid specimens collected in the presence of cannabis smoke appear to have been contaminated, thereby falsely elevating THC concentrations in oral fluid. The risk of a positive test for THC was virtually eliminated when specimens were collected in the absence of THC smoke. PMID:16419389

Niedbala, R Sam; Kardos, Keith W; Fritch, Dean F; Kunsman, Kenneth P; Blum, Kristen A; Newland, Gregory A; Waga, Joe; Kurtz, Lisa; Bronsgeest, Matth; Cone, Edward J

2005-10-01

287

Adolescent Cannabis Problems and Young Adult Depression: Male-Female Stratified Propensity Score Analyses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cannabis use and depression are two of the most prevalent conditions worldwide. Adolescent cannabis use is linked to depression in many studies, but the effects of adolescent cannabis involvement on young adult depression remain unclear and may differ for males versus females. In this cohort study of youth from a mid-Atlantic metropolitan area of the United States, repeated assessments from 1985 (at age 6 years) through 2002 (at age 21 years) were made for 1,494 individuals (55% female). Meas...

Harder, Valerie S.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Anthony, James C.

2008-01-01

288

Development of an analytical method for detection and quantification of cannabis and cannabinoid analogues in urine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cannabis is a drug mainly consumed for its euphoric effects; users may become happy, careless and relaxed. The direct effects of cannabis in sports are performance decreasing, but cannabis can be used as a doping agent due to its relaxing properties. For these reasons, cannabinoids are prohibited in sports during competition by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). In the context of the fight against doping, urine is screened for the metabolite THC-COOH (11-nor-delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9...

Steinshamn, Eirin Berge

2010-01-01

289

Cannabis Exposure in an Omani Child: First case report from Oman  

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We report a confirmed case of cannabis exposure in an Omani female child with developmental delay. Cannabis exposure in children can lead to many consequences; for example, chronic use can result in developmental delay, abnormal behaviour, and hyperactivity while there is a risk of coma with acute exposure. It is important for clinicians to consider substance abuse as a differential diagnosis for similar presentations in paediatric patients, noting that children are at risk of cannabis exposu...

Al-shidhani, Thuraya A.; Arora, Vinita

2011-01-01

290

The Effects of Parental Depression and Parenting Practices on Depressive Symptoms and Metabolic Control in Urban Youth with Insulin Dependent Diabetes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective?Examine relationships between parental depressive symptoms, affective and instrumental parenting practices, youth depressive symptoms and glycemic control in a diverse, urban sample of adolescents with diabetes.?Methods?Sixty-one parents and youth aged 10–17 completed self-report questionnaires. HbA1c assays were obtained to assess metabolic control. Path analysis was used to test a model where parenting variables mediated the relationship between parental and youth depressi...

Eckshtain, Dikla; Ellis, Deborah A.; Kolmodin, Karen; Naar-king, Sylvie

2010-01-01

291

Fatores de proteção e de risco associados ao início do uso de cannabis: revisão sistemática  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La finalidad de ese artículo es examinar los factores asociados al uso inicial de cannnabis, a través de una revisión sistemática: Medline, Scielo, Lilacs y Cochrane, con las siguientes palabras clave: cannabis, marijuana, inicio, desde el 1999 hasta abril del 2008. Los factores siguientes se asocian al inicio del cannabis: uso temprano del alcohol y del tabaco; género masculino; comportamiento agresivo temprano; supervisión parental baja; padres solos; uso de sustancias de los padres; grupo de pares que usan cannabis; comportamiento irregular; el pertenecer a las comunidades perjudicadas. El uso temprano del cannabis es un factor predictivo para los desordenes del uso de las sustancias (SUD por los adultos jóvenes.

T\\u00E2nia Moraes Ramos Andrade

2011-01-01

292

Cross-national differences in clinically significant cannabis problems: epidemiologic evidence from 'cannabis-only' smokers in the United States, Mexico, and Colombia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies show wide variability in the occurrence of cannabis smoking and related disorders across countries. This study aims to estimate cross-national variation in cannabis users' experience of clinically significant cannabis-related problems in three countries of the Americas, with a focus on cannabis users who may have tried alcohol or tobacco, but who have not used cocaine, heroin, LSD, or other internationally regulated drugs. Methods Data are from the World Mental Health Surveys Initiative and the National Latino and Asian American Study, with probability samples in Mexico (n = 4426, Colombia (n = 5,782 and the United States (USA; n = 8,228. The samples included 212 'cannabis only' users in Mexico, 260 in Colombia and 1,724 in the USA. Conditional GLM with GEE and 'exact' methods were used to estimate variation in the occurrence of clinically significant problems in cannabis only (CO users across these surveyed populations. Results The experience of cannabis-related problems was quite infrequent among CO users in these countries, with weighted frequencies ranging from 1% to 5% across survey populations, and with no appreciable cross-national variation in general. CO users in Colombia proved to be an exception. As compared to CO users in the USA, the Colombia smokers were more likely to have experienced cannabis-associated 'social problems' (odds ratio, OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 6.3; p = 0.004 and 'legal problems' (OR = 9.7; 95% CI = 2.7, 35.2; p = 0.001. Conclusions This study's most remarkable finding may be the similarity in occurrence of cannabis-related problems in this cross-national comparison within the Americas. Wide cross-national variations in estimated population-level cumulative incidence of cannabis use disorders may be traced to large differences in cannabis smoking prevalence, rather than qualitative differences in cannabis experiences. More research is needed to identify conditions that might make cannabis-related social and legal problems more frequent in Colombia than in the USA.

Posada-Villa Jose

2010-03-01

293

Diphtheria Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

... by the bacteria. The pseudomembrane sticks to the tissue below and may get in the way of breathing. The toxin may be absorbed into the blood stream and may cause damage to the heart, kidneys and nerves. Related Pages Diphtheria for Parents: The Basics Describes symptoms ...

294

Antigiardial Activity and Toxicological Exploration of Cannabis Sativa Extracts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study has been attempt to elucidate antigiardial activity and explore the cytoxicity, investigation on liver Diagnostic Enzymes and Changes in serum constituents of Cannabis Sativa aerial parts and seeds, which were extracted by Petroleum ether and methanol. Aerial parts methanolic extract gave 63.6% mortality after 72 hours at concentration 1000 ppm (IC50 0.13 ppm comparing with metrondizole (IC50 0.0125 ppm. While the other extracts found inactive as antigiardiasis after 72 hours. The slight increase in Aspartate amino transferase (AST, Alanine amino transferase (ALT and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP liver enzyme and total protein, urea, albumin and calcium which indicate some degree hepatic nefropathy effect of such plant petroleum ether extract. Moreover, phytochemical examination was carried out firstly and revealed that, the petroleum ether extract of Cannabis sativa seed do not contain tetrahydrocannbinol (THC, cannabinol (CBN and cannabidaiol (CBD. However, all extracts showed no significant cytotoxic activity against vero cell line.

Mahmoud M.DAHAB

2013-05-01

295

Cloud point extraction of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol from cannabis resin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A cloud point extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/UV) method was developed for the determination of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in micellar phase. The nonionic surfactant “Dowfax 20B102” was used to extract and pre-concentrate THC from cannabis resin, prior to its determination with a HPLC–UV system (diode array detector) with isocratic elution. The parameters and variables affecting the extraction were investigated. Under optimum conditions (1 wt.% D...

Ameur, S.; Haddou, Boumediene; Derriche, Zoubir; Canselier, Jean-paul; Gourdon, Christophe

2013-01-01

296

Phytochemical and genetic analyses of ancient cannabis from Central Asia  

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The Yanghai Tombs near Turpan, Xinjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region, China have recently been excavated to reveal the 2700-year-old grave of a Caucasoid shaman whose accoutrements included a large cache of cannabis, superbly preserved by climatic and burial conditions. A multidisciplinary international team demonstrated through botanical examination, phytochemical investigation, and genetic deoxyribonucleic acid analysis by polymerase chain reaction that this material contained tetrahydrocannabi...

Russo, Ethan B.; Jiang, Hong-en; Li, Xiao; Sutton, Alan; Carboni, Andrea; Del Bianco, Francesca; Mandolino, Giuseppe; Potter, David J.; Zhao, You-xing; Bera, Subir; Zhang, Yong-bing; Lu?, En-guo; Ferguson, David K.; Hueber, Francis; Zhao, Liang-cheng

2008-01-01

297

Effect of hydrolysis on identifying prenatal cannabis exposure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Identification of prenatal cannabis exposure is important due to potential cognitive and behavioral consequences. A two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method for cannabinol, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 8?,11-dihydroxy-THC, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) quantification in human meconium was developed and validated. Alkaline, enzymatic, and enzyme–alkaline tandem hydrolysis conditions were optimized with THC- and THCCOOH-glucuronide ref...

Gray, Teresa R.; Barnes, Allan J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2010-01-01

298

Mortality following treatment for cannabis use disorders : Predictors and causes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the study was to determine excess mortality associated with cannabis use disorders. Individuals entering treatment for cannabis use disorders were followed by use of Danish registers and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) estimated. Predictors of different causes of death were determined. A total of 6445 individuals were included and 142 deaths recorded during 26,584 person-years of follow-up. Mortality was predicted by age, comorbid use of opioids, and lifetime injection drug use. For different causes of death the SMRs were: accidents: 8.2 (95% CI 6.3-10.5), suicide: 5.3 (95% CI 3.3-7.9), homicide/violence: 3.8 (95% CI 1.5-7.9), and natural causes: 2.8 (95% CI 2.0-3.7). Following exclusion of those with secondary use of opioids, cocaine, amphetamine, or injection drug use, SMRs for all causes of death remained significantly elevated except for homicide/violence. The study underlines the need to address mortality risk associated with cannabis use disorders.

Arendt, Mikkel; Munk-JØrgensen, Povl

2013-01-01

299

[Cognitive mechanisms in risky decision-making in cannabis users].  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between the use of cannabis and the decision-making processes was explored. A computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task (Cards Software) in its normal and reverse version was used, and the Prospect Valence Learning (PVL) model, which characterize the process of decision-making based on the parameters: Recency, Consistency, Loss aversion and Utility shape, was applied. Seventy-three cannabis consumers and a control group with 73 nonconsumers participated in the study. In the normal mode, subjects in the control group scored higher than cannabis consumers. Both groups showed consistent responses and aversion to loss. Nonconsumers showed greater influence of the gain-loss frequency, while consumers were more influenced by the magnitude of the gain-loss. The influence of immediate choices was higher among consumers who showed a quick oblivion while in the control group this process was more gradual. In the reverse mode, task performance was better among control group participants. Both groups showed consistency, loss aversion, more influenced by the magnitude of the gain-loss, and low influence of immediate elections. The results show the relationship between drug use and the decision-making processes, being consistent with the results obtained in other studies where consumers had worse results than control group. Moreover, the PVL parameters allow to adequately characterize decision-making. This confirms the relationship between drug use and decision-making by either the vulnerability prior to consumption or the neurotoxicity of drugs. PMID:25225731

J R, Alameda-Bailén; M P, Salguero-Alcañiz; A, Merchán-Clavellino; S, Paíno-Quesada

2014-01-01

300

Effect of hydrolysis on identifying prenatal cannabis exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identification of prenatal cannabis exposure is important due to potential cognitive and behavioral consequences. A two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for cannabinol, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 8beta,11-dihydroxy-THC, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) quantification in human meconium was developed and validated. Alkaline, enzymatic, and enzyme-alkaline tandem hydrolysis conditions were optimized with THC- and THCCOOH-glucuronide reference standards. Limits of quantification ranged from 10 to 15 ng/g, and calibration curves were linear to 500 ng/g. Bias and intra-day and inter-day imprecision were THCCOOH-glucuronide was most sensitive to alkaline hydrolysis. Enzyme-alkaline tandem hydrolysis maximized efficiency for both glucuronides. Identification of cannabinoid-positive meconium specimens nearly doubled following alkaline and enzyme-alkaline hydrolysis. Although no 11-OH-THC glucuronide standard is available, enzymatic hydrolysis improved 11-OH-THC detection in authentic specimens. Maximal identification of cannabis-exposed neonates and the widest range of cannabis biomarkers are achieved with enzyme-alkaline tandem hydrolysis. PMID:20517601

Gray, Teresa R; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

Psychiatric morbidity among young-adults cannabis users.  

Science.gov (United States)

This cross-sectional study aims to determine lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders (including substance use disorders, -SUD and other non substance use disorders, -Non-SUD) among 289 young (18- 30 years) regular cannabis users, during the last year, in non-clinical settings in Barcelona. The Spanish version of the Psychiatric Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders (PRISM) was administered. Only 28% of the participants did not present any psychiatric disorder; while 65% had some SUD, the most common related to cannabis use (62%). Nearly 27% presented a non-SUD disorder. A younger age of initiation on alcohol use was associated with the presence of some SUD. Having consumed a greater number of "joints" in the last month was associated with the presence of both psychiatric disorders (SUD and non-SUD). While three quarters of subjects with non-SUD disorders had received some kind of treatment, only 28% of those with any SUD had received treatment. Given the low perception for need of treatment, there is a need for prevention strategies and to be able to offer therapies specifically tailored targeting young cannabis users. PMID:23487279

Cuenca-Royo, Aida M; Torrens, Marta; Sánchez-Niubó, Albert; Suelves, Josep M; Domingo-Salvany, Antònia

2013-01-01

302

Design paper: The CapOpus trial: a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial of specialized addiction treatment versus treatment as usual for young patients with cannabis abuse and psychosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: A number of studies indicate a link between cannabis-use and psychosis as well as more severe psychosis in those with existing psychotic disorders. There is currently insufficient evidence to decide the optimal way to treat cannabis abuse among patients with psychosis. OBJECTIVES: The major objective for the CapOpus trial is to evaluate the additional effect on cannabis abuse of a specialized addiction treatment program adding group treatment and motivational interviewing to treatment as usual. DESIGN: The trial is designed as a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial. Patients are primarily recruited through early-psychosis detection teams, community mental health centers, and assertive community treatment teams. Patients are randomized to one of two treatment arms, both lasting six months: 1) specialized addiction treatment plus treatment as usual or 2) treatment as usual. The specialized addiction treatment is manualized and consists of both individual and group-based motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy, and incorporates both the family and the case manager of the patient.The primary outcome measure will be changes in amount of cannabis consumption over time. Other outcome measures will be psychosis symptoms, cognitive functioning, quality of life, social functioning, and cost-benefit analyses. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00484302.

HjorthØj, Carsten; Fohlmann, Allan

2008-01-01

303

A review of the cultivation and processing of cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) for production of prescription medicines in the UK.  

Science.gov (United States)

The quality demands of the pharmaceutical industry require prescription medicines to be consistent in their active ingredient content. Achieving this, using raw cannabis as a feedstock, is especially challenging. The plant material is extremely inhomogeneous, and the ratios of active ingredients are affected by a range of factors. These include the genetics of the plant, the growing and storage conditions, the state of maturity at harvest, and the methods used to process and formulate the material. The reasons for this variability are described, with particular emphasis on the botanical considerations. To produce the complex botanical medicine Sativex®, which contains the cannabinoids ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) and a range of other ingredients, GW Pharmaceuticals had to manage these variables. This medicine, for the treatment of spasticity due to multiple sclerosis, is the first cannabis-based medicine to be approved in the UK. The company's methodology for producing this and other chemotypes is described. PMID:24115748

Potter, David J

2014-01-01

304

Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa / Therapeutical aspects of compounds of the plant Cannabis sativa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids) have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of [...] these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action involved in the interaction between cannabinoid compounds and the biological receptors. So, from the therapeutical aspects presented in this work, we intended to show the evolution of the Cannabis sativa research and the possible medicinal use of cannabinoid compounds.

Káthia Maria, Honório; Agnaldo, Arroio; Albérico Borges Ferreira da, Silva.

305

Cannabis sativa var. indica : une menace croissante pour les entreprises Cannabis sativa var. indica: an increasing hazard for firms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Parmi les drogues illicites, le cannabis est de très loin le produit le plus consommé. Les effets sur l'organisme sont principalement dus au delta-9-tétrahydrocannabinol (THC). Lors d'un usage peu important et occasionnel, ils consistent en une euphorie, une désinhibition, un état de somnolence, avec détérioration de la perception temporelle et spatiale. Les perturbations de la vision consistent en une mydriase, pouvant être accompagnée d'un nystagmus et d'une diplopie. Des troubles ...

Mura Patrick

2009-01-01

306

Cannabis sativa var. indica : une plante complexe aux effets pervers Cannabis sativa var. indica : a complex plant with perverse effects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cannabis sativa var. indica appartient à la famille des Cannabinaceae et à l'ordre des Urticales. Parmi les 60 cannabinoïdes contenus dans la plante, essentiellement dans les feuilles et les sommités fleuries, le delta-9-tétrahydrocannabinol (THC) constitue le principal responsable des effets observables chez l'homme. La teneur en THC est très variable selon les conditions de culture, pouvant dépasser 20 % dans le cas de cultures sous serre aux conditions parfaitement contrôlées. Apr...

Mura Patrick; Brunet Bertrand; Papet Yves; Hauet Thierry

2009-01-01

307

Characteristics and Predictors of Health Problems from Use among High-Frequency Cannabis Users in a Canadian University Student Population  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims: Assess key cannabis use, risk and outcome characteristics among high-frequency cannabis users within a university student sample in Toronto, Canada. Methods: N = 134 active universities students (ages of 18-28) using cannabis at least three times per week were recruited by mass advertisement, telephone-screened and anonymously assessed by an…

Fischer, Benedikt; Dawe, Meghan; Mcguire, Fraser; Shuper, Paul A; Jones, Wayne; Rudzinski, Katherine; Rehm, Jurgen

2012-01-01

308

21 CFR 1308.35 - Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain...  

Science.gov (United States)

...excluded from the definition of marijuana under the Act [i...processed plant material means cannabis plant material that has...processes, or mixed with other ingredients, such that it cannot readily...mixture means sterilized cannabis seeds mixed with other ingredients (not derived from the cannabis plant) in a...

2010-04-01

309

Toking and Driving: Characteristics of Canadian University Students Who Drive after Cannabis Use--An Exploratory Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis use is increasingly prevalent among young adults in Canada. Due to cannabis' impairment effects, driving under the influence of cannabis has recently developed into a traffic-safety concern, yet little is known about the specific circumstances and factors characterizing this behavior among young people. In this study, we interviewed a…

Fischer, Benedikt; Rodopoulos, Jenny; Rehm, Jurgen; Ivsins, Andrew

2006-01-01

310

Cannabis Use and Related Harms in the Transition to Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…

Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

2013-01-01

311

Swiss Adolescents' and Adults' Perceptions of Cannabis Use: A Qualitative Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies have attempted to investigate the nature of adolescents and adults conceptions and perceptions of cannabis use. Our objectives were to explore adolescent and adult perception of use and misuse of cannabis, and their opinions and beliefs about the current legal context and preventive strategies. We used focus group discussions with four…

Menghrajani, P.; Klaue, K.; Dubois-Arber, F.; Michaud, P.-A.

2005-01-01

312

Social Skills as Precursors of Cannabis Use in Young Adolescents: A Trails Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Social skills (cooperation, assertion, and self-control) were assessed by teachers for a longitudinal cohort of (pre)adolescents, with measurements at average ages 11.1 (baseline) and 16.3 years (follow-up). Prospective associations with participants' self-reported use of cannabis, (age of) onset of cannabis use, and frequency of use at follow-up…

Griffith-Lendering, Merel F. H.; Huijbregts, Stephan C. J.; Huizink, Anja C.; Ormel, Hans; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Swaab, Hanna

2011-01-01

313

Effect of Long-Term Cannabis Use on Axonal Fibre Connectivity  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis use typically begins during adolescence and early adulthood, a period when cannabinoid receptors are still abundant in white matter pathways across the brain. However, few studies to date have explored the impact of regular cannabis use on white matter structure, with no previous studies examining its impact on axonal connectivity. The…

Zalesky, Andrew; Solowij, Nadia; Yucel, Murat; Lubman, Dan I.; Takagi, Michael; Harding, Ian H.; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Wang, Ruopeng; Searle, Karissa; Pantelis, Christos; Seal, Marc

2012-01-01

314

Cannabis use and depression: a longitudinal study of a national cohort of Swedish conscripts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is increasing evidence on the association between cannabis use and psychotic outcomes, it is still unclear whether this also applies to depression. We aim to assess whether risk of depression and other affective outcomes is increased among cannabis users. Methods A cohort study of 45 087 Swedish men with data on cannabis use at ages 18–20. Diagnoses of unipolar disorder, bipolar disorder, affective psychosis and schizoaffective disorder were identified from inpatient care records over a 35-year follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to assess the hazard ratio (HR of developing these disorders in relation to cannabis exposure. Results Only subjects with the highest level of cannabis use had an increased crude hazard ratio for depression (HR 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.0-2.2, but the association disappeared after adjustment for confounders. There was a strong graded association between cannabis use and schizoaffective disorder, even after control for confounders, although the numbers were small (HR 7.4, 95% CI, 1.0-54.3. Conclusion We did not find evidence for an increased risk of depression among those who used cannabis. Our finding of an increased risk of schizoaffective disorder is consistent with previous findings on the relation between cannabis use and psychosis.

Manrique-Garcia Edison

2012-08-01

315

Emotional processing deficits in chronic cannabis use: a replication and extension.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heavy cannabis use is associated with interpersonal problems that may arise in part from the inaccurate perception of emotional faces. Only one study reports impairments in emotional facial affect processing in heavy cannabis users; however, it is not clear whether these findings were attributable to differences between cannabis users and controls in schizotypy or gender, rather than from cannabis use itself. A total of 25 frequent cannabis users and 34 non-using controls completed an emotional processing task in an independent groups design. We asked participants to identify the emotions on faces morphed from neutral to 100% intensity, for six basic emotions. We measured percentage hit rate, sensitivity and response bias. Schizotypy was indexed using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire. Cannabis users showed lower accuracy and sensitivity on the emotional recognition task. Gender and schizotypy did not differ between the two groups. Men showed lower accuracy on the emotional processing task, but impairments in cannabis users remained when covarying for gender. Schizotypy negatively correlated with sensitivity scores, but this was unreliable when accounting for the groups. Chronic cannabis users showed generalised impairment in emotional processing. These results appeared as independent of the emotional processing deficits amongst men, and were not related to schizotypy. PMID:24646810

Hindocha, Chandni; Wollenberg, Olivia; Carter Leno, Virginia; Alvarez, Beatriz O; Curran, H Valerie; Freeman, Tom P

2014-05-01

316

First systematic evaluation of the potency of Cannabis sativa plants grown in Albania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis products (marijuana, hashish, cannabis oil) are the most frequently abused illegal substances worldwide. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa plant, whereas cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) are other major but no psychoactive constituents. Many studies have already been carried out on these compounds and chemical research was encouraged due to the legal implications concerning the misuse of marijuana. The aim of this study was to determine THC, CBD and CBN in a significant number of cannabis samples of Albanian origin, where cannabis is the most frequently used drug of abuse, in order to evaluate and classify them according to their cannabinoid composition. A GC-MS method was used, in order to assay cannabinoid content of hemp samples harvested at different maturation degree levels during the summer months and grown in different areas of Albania. This method can also be used for the determination of plant phenotype, the evaluation of psychoactive potency and the control of material quality. The highest cannabinoid concentrations were found in the flowers of cannabis. The THC concentrations in different locations of Albania ranged from 1.07 to 12.13%. The influence of environmental conditions on cannabinoid content is discussed. The cannabinoid content of cannabis plants were used for their profiling, and it was used for their classification, according to their geographical origin. The determined concentrations justify the fact that Albania is an area where cannabis is extensively cultivated for illegal purposes. PMID:22608266

Bruci, Zana; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Nikolaou, Panagiota; Pazari, Ermira; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Vyshka, Gentian

2012-10-10

317

Correlations and agreement between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in blood plasma and timeline follow-back (TLFB)-assisted self-reported use of cannabis of patients with cannabis use disorder and psychotic illness attending the CapOpus randomized clinical trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aims To assess correlations and agreement between timeline follow-back (TLFB)-assisted self-report and blood samples for cannabis use. Design Secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Setting Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants One hundred and three patients from the CapOpus trial with cannabis use disorder and psychosis, providing 239 self-reports of cannabis use and 88 valid blood samples. Measurements Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) and 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) detected in plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. Self-report of cannabis-use last month by TLFB. Pearson's r, sensitivity and specificity calculated as measures of correlation or agreement. Findings Correlations were strong; r = 0.75 for number of days and r = 0.83 for number of standard joints in the preceding month when excluding outliers. Including outliers, coefficients were moderate to strong (r = 0.49). There were differences in subgroups, mainly inconsistent, depending on inclusion or exclusion of outliers. Sensitivity and specificity for TLFB detecting the presence or absence of cannabis use were 95.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 88.0-99.1%) and 72.2% (95% CI 46.5-90.3%), respectively. Using 19 days as cut-off on TLFB, they were 94.3% (95% CI 86.0-98.4%) and 94.4% (95% CI 72.2-99.9%), respectively. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.96. Conclusions Timeline follow-back (TLFB)-assisted self-report of cannabis use correlates highly with plasma-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with comorbid cannabis use disorder and psychosis. Sensitivity and specificity of timeline follow-back appear to be optimized with 19 days as the cut-off point. As such, timeline follow-back may be superior to analysis of blood when going beyond 19 days of recall.

HjorthØj, Carsten Rygaard; Fohlmann, Allan

2012-01-01

318

Cannabis Use and Mental Health: A Review of Recent Epidemiological Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cannabis is the most commonly used drug in the world. This review examines recent epidemiological research on the relationships between cannabis use and mental health problems. Relationships with depression, anxiety disorders, mania and psychosis are examined, with relevant issues such as the effect of confounding variables, temporal directions and causality being discussed. Factors which influence the relationship such as dose-response effects, age of first cannabis use and risk of mental health problems are also examined. Causality is often difficult to establish, as cannabis is often used by those with mental illness for self-medication. However, there is substantial evidence to suggest that cannabis may induce or exacerbate a number of mental health problems.

T.H. Richardson

2010-01-01

319

Cannabinoid content of cannabis grown on the Danish island of Bornholm.  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis in 1983 of representative samples taken from fruiting tops of seized cannabis plants illicitly grown in 19 localities on the Danish island of Bornholm showed that the average (mean) content of the total tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) + delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid) was approximately 1.55 per cent, ranging from 0.1 to 4.2 per cent. There was no significant difference in the total THC content of cannabis plants from the Danish island of Bornholm and the content found by other authors in cannabis plants grown during the period from 1968 to 1972 in Afghanistan, India, Mexico, South Africa and Thailand. However, studies carried out on fresh cannabis seized on entry into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland during the period 1975-1981 showed a larger content of THC (ranging from 2.3 to 4.9 per cent) than in cannabis plants from Bornholm. PMID:3011164

Felby, S; Nielsen, E

1985-01-01

320

Treatment for hepatitis C virus and cannabis use in illicit drug user patients: implications and questions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Illicit drug users are the primary risk group for HCV transmission, and will form the largest HCV treatment population for years to come. Sylvestre et al.'s study suggests that cannabis use may benefit treatment retention and outcomes in illicit drug users undergoing HCV treatment. In fact, there is substantial evidence that cannabis use may help address key challenges faced by drug users in HCV treatment (e.g., nausea, depression), especially when such treatment occurs in the context of methadone maintenance treatment which may amplify these consequences. While further research is required on the biological and clinical aspects of the benefits of cannabis use for HCV treatment, and the effectiveness of cannabis use for HCV treatment needs to be explored in larger study populations, we advocate that in the interim existing barriers to cannabis use are removed for drug users undergoing HCV treatment until the conclusive empirical basis for evidence-based guidance is available. PMID:16957507

Fischer, Benedikt; Reimer, Jens; Firestone, Michelle; Kalousek, Kate; Rehm, Juergen; Heathcote, Jenny

2006-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

Perfil de consumo de cocaína, cannabis y opiáceos en el laboratorio toxicológico CENATOXA Profile of consumption of cocaine, cannabis and opiates in the toxicology laboratory CENATOXA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Con el propósito de conocer, en la población que concurre al laboratorio del CENATOXA, qué droga de abuso se consume más, cuál es la modalidad de consumo y el perfil de la consulta, se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de 2.635 casos a los que durante el período 1995-2006 se les solicitó investigación en orina de cannabis, cocaína y opiáceos. Los análisis se realizaron utilizando pruebas inmunológicas, cromatografía en capa delgada normalizada y cromatografía gaseosa-espectrometría de masas. El 20% de las muestras (n=529 resultaron positivas, correspondiendo el 50,66% a cannabis, el 37,43% a cocaína, el 2,08% a opiáceos y el 9,83% a la combinación cannabis-cocaína. Los varones constituyeron el 62% de los casos positivos. El mayor consumo de cannabis se observó entre los 11 y 30 años, el de cocaína entre los 21 y 40 años y la combinación de ambas drogas entre los 11 y 30 años. Los motivos de la solicitud de análisis correspondieron mayoritariamente y en proporciones similares al control de la adicción (31,1% y a la sospecha de consumo (29,67%. El cannabis fue la droga ilegal más usada, predominó el monoconsumo, los principales usuarios fueron varones y los más comprometidos fueron los menores de 30 años.A study was conducted in order to know what drugs of abuse are most commonly consumed by the population that comes to CENATOXA, as well as which the consumption patterns and consultation profiles are. A retrospective study was conducted in 2,635 cases for which, during 1995 to 2006, a toxicologycal urine analysis of cocaine, cannabis and opiates was requested. The analytical methodologies applied were immunoassay tests, standardized thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the studied sample (n=529, 20% were positive: 50.66% was due to cannabis, 37.43% to cocaine, 2.08% to opiates and 9.83% to combination of cannabis-cocaine. Sixty-two per cent of positive cases were male subjects, and the highest consumption of cannabis was seen in the 11 to 30 year-old age group; that of cocaine was seen in the 21 to 40 year-old age group and the combination of cannabis-cocaine in the 11 to 30 year-old group. In assessing the reason for test request a similar predominance of addiction control (31.1% and drug abuse suspicion (29.67% was found. Cannabis is the drug of abuse most commonly consumed; mono consumption is usual in this population and drug consumption is higher in males and people under 30 years old.

Patricia Noemí Quiroga

2008-12-01

322

Cannabis, the pregnant woman and her child: weeding out the myths.  

Science.gov (United States)

To review and summarise the literature reporting on cannabis use within western communities with specific reference to patterns of use, the pharmacology of its major psychoactive compounds, including placental and fetal transfer, and the impact of maternal cannabis use on pregnancy, the newborn infant and the developing child. Review of published articles, governmental guidelines and data and book chapters. Although cannabis is one of the most widely used illegal drugs, there is limited data about the prevalence of cannabis use in pregnant women, and it is likely that reported rates of exposure are significantly underestimated. With much of the available literature focusing on the impact of other illicit drugs such as opioids and stimulants, the effects of cannabis use in pregnancy on the developing fetus remain uncertain. Current evidence indicates that cannabis use both during pregnancy and lactation, may adversely affect neurodevelopment, especially during periods of critical brain growth both in the developing fetal brain and during adolescent maturation, with impacts on neuropsychiatric, behavioural and executive functioning. These reported effects may influence future adult productivity and lifetime outcomes. Despite the widespread use of cannabis by young women, there is limited information available about the impact perinatal cannabis use on the developing fetus and child, particularly the effects of cannabis use while breast feeding. Women who are using cannabis while pregnant and breast feeding should be advised of what is known about the potential adverse effects on fetal growth and development and encouraged to either stop using or decrease their use. Long-term follow-up of exposed children is crucial as neurocognitive and behavioural problems may benefit from early intervention aimed to reduce future problems such as delinquency, depression and substance use. PMID:24457255

Jaques, S C; Kingsbury, A; Henshcke, P; Chomchai, C; Clews, S; Falconer, J; Abdel-Latif, M E; Feller, J M; Oei, J L

2014-06-01

323

Psychosocial correlates of adolescent cannabis use: data from the italian subsample of the second international self-reported delinquency study.  

Science.gov (United States)

To provide a comprehensive picture of the whole spectrum of psychosocial factors potentially associated with adolescent cannabis use, bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess a variety of social, demographic, psychological, and behavioral correlates of last-month cannabis use and age of first use among 6,838 students. Results showed that only family problems, alcohol and/or other drug use/misuse, deviant behavior, and victimization were independently associated with either recent cannabis use or early onset of cannabis use when multiple, interacting factors were considered. Certain family and behavioral factors might be more important than other psychosocial correlates of adolescent cannabis use. PMID:25115199

Maniglio, Roberto; Innamorati, Marco

2014-01-01

324

Stress-induced dopamine response in subjects at clinical high risk for schizophrenia with and without concurrent cannabis use.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on the environmental risk factors for schizophrenia has focused on either psychosocial stress or drug exposure, with limited investigation of their interaction. A heightened dopaminergic stress response in patients with schizophrenia and individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) supports the dopaminergic sensitization hypothesis. Cannabis is believed to contribute to the development of schizophrenia, possibly through a cross-sensitization with stress. Twelve CHR and 12 cannabis-using CHR (CHR-CU, 11 dependent) subjects underwent [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO positron emission tomography scans, while performing a Sensorimotor Control Task (SMCT) and a stress condition (Montreal Imaging Stress task). The simplified reference tissue model was used to obtain binding potential relative to non-displaceable binding (BPND) in the whole striatum, its functional subdivisions (limbic striatum (LST), associative striatum (AST), and sensorimotor striatum (SMST)), globus pallidus (GP), and substantia nigra (SN). Changes in BPND, reflecting alterations in synaptic dopamine (DA) levels, were tested with analysis of variance. SMCT BPND was not significantly different between groups in any brain region (p>0.21). Although stress elicited a significant reduction in BPND in the CHR group, CHR-CU group exhibited an increase in BPND. Stress-induced changes in regional BPND between CHR-CU and CHR were significantly different in AST (pcannabis, as compared with CHR subjects. Our finding does not support the cross-sensitization hypothesis, which posits greater dopaminergic reactivity to stress in CHR cannabis users, but adds to the growing body of literature showing reduced DA (stress) response in addiction. PMID:24385130

Mizrahi, Romina; Kenk, Miran; Suridjan, Ivonne; Boileau, Isabelle; George, Tony P; McKenzie, Kwame; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Rusjan, Pablo

2014-05-01

325

Approche en soins primaires pour les problèmes de consommation de cannabis  

Science.gov (United States)

Résumé Objectif Étudier les caractéristiques et complications cliniques de la consommation à risque de cannabis et du trouble de consommation de cannabis, et présenter un protocole en cabinet pour le dépistage, l’identification et la prise en charge de ces problèmes. Sources des données Une recherche des essais contrôlés, des études d’observation et des révisions sur l’usage de cannabis par les adolescents et les jeunes adultes; les méfaits psychiatriques et médicaux liés au cannabis; le trouble de consommation de cannabis et son traitement; et les lignes directrices sur la consommation à faible risque de cannabis a été effectuée dans PubMed. Message principal Les médecins doivent questionner tous leurs patients quant à leur usage de cannabis. Ils doivent questionner plus souvent les adolescents et jeunes adultes de même que les personnes qui présentent un risque élevé de problèmes liés au cannabis (qui ont un trouble psychiatrique ou de consommation de drogue concomitant). Les problèmes pouvant être causés par le cannabis, comme les troubles de l’humeur, la psychose et les symptômes respiratoires, devraient susciter des questions sur la consommation de cannabis. Aux patients qui rapportent un usage de cannabis, les médecins devraient poser des questions sur la fréquence et la quantité consommée, la présence de symptômes de tolérance ou de sevrage, les tentatives de réduire leur consommation et la présence de problèmes liés au cannabis. Les usagers à faible risque fument, inhalent ou ingèrent le cannabis occasionnellement sans aucun signe de dysfonctionnement scolaire, professionnel ou social; les personnes dont l’usage est problématique consomment tous les jours ou presque tous les jours, ont de la difficulté à réduire leur consommation et leur fonctionnement scolaire, professionnel et social est perturbé. Les médecins devraient offrir à tous les patients dont l’usage est problématique des conseils et un bref counseling, en insistant sur les effets du cannabis sur la santé et en visant l’abstinence (certains groupes à risque élevé devraient s’abstenir complètement de consommer du cannabis) ou la réduction de la consommation, et ils doivent fournir des stratégies pratiques de réduction de la consommation. Les techniques d’entrevue motivationnelle doivent faire partie des séances de counseling. Les médecins devraient aiguiller les patients qui sont incapables de réduire leur consommation ou qui présentent des problèmes liés à leur usage de cannabis vers des soins spécialisés, tout en veillant à ce qu’ils demeurent en contact avec leur généraliste. De plus, les médecins devraient donner à tous les usagers de cannabis de l’information sur la consommation à faible risque. Conclusion Les médecins devraient effectuer au moins une fois chez tous leurs patients de leur pratique un test de dépistage de l’usage de cannabis, particulièrement chez les patients qui présentent des problèmes pouvant être causés par le cannabis. Les tests de dépistage doivent être plus fréquents chez les personnes à risque, soit au moins tous les ans. Il faut savoir distinguer la consommation à faible risque de l’usage problématique. Les patients dont l’usage est problématique doivent recevoir de brèves séances de counseling et ces patients doivent être aiguillés vers un spécialiste s’ils sont incapables de réduire leur consommation ou d’y mettre un terme.

Turner, Suzanne D.; Spithoff, Sheryl; Kahan, Meldon

2014-01-01

326

Antimicrobial Activity of Cannabis sativa L.  

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Full Text Available The oil of the seeds, petroleum ether and methanol extracts of the whole plant of Cannabis sativa belonging to the family Cannabinaceae were screened for their antimicrobial activity against two Gram positive organisms (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, two Gram negative organisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and two fungi namely Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans using the cup plate agar diffusion method. The oil of the seeds of Cannabis sativa exerted pronounced antibacterial activity (21 - 28 mm against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, moderate activity (15 mm against Escherichia coli and high activity (16 mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and inactive against the two fungi tested. The petroleum ether extract of the whole plant exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity (23 - 28 mm against both Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus organisms, high activity (16 mm against Escherichia coli and inactive against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and both fungi. The methanol extract of the whole plant showed also pronounced antibacterial activity (29 mm against Bacillus subtilis, low activity (12 mm against Staphylococcus aureus and high activity (16 - 18 mm against both Gram negative organisms, inactive against Aspergillus niger and low activity (13 mm against Candida albicans. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of Cannabis sativa methanol extracts of the seeds and the whole plant against the standard organisms were determined using the agar plate dilution method. The standard organisms were tested against reference antibacterial and antifungal drugs and the results were compared with the activity of the extracts.

Esra M. M. Ali

2012-03-01

327

Cannabinoid concentrations in hair from documented cannabis users.  

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Fifty-three head hair specimens were collected from 38 males with a history of cannabis use documented by questionnaire, urinalysis and controlled, double blind administration of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in an institutional review board approved protocol. The subjects completed a questionnaire indicating daily cannabis use (N=18) or non-daily use, i.e. one to five cannabis cigarettes per week (N=20). Drug use was also documented by a positive cannabinoid urinalysis, a hair specimen was collected from each subject and they were admitted to a closed research unit. Additional hair specimens were collected following smoking of two 2.7% THC cigarettes (N=13) or multiple oral doses totaling 116 mg THC (N=2). Cannabinoid concentrations in all hair specimens were determined by ELISA and GCMSMS. Pre- and post-dose detection rates did not differ statistically, therefore, all 53 specimens were considered as one group for further comparisons. Nineteen specimens (36%) had no detectable THC or 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) at the GCMSMS limits of quantification (LOQ) of 1.0 and 0.1 pg/mg hair, respectively. Two specimens (3.8%) had measurable THC only, 14 (26%) THCCOOH only, and 18 (34%) both cannabinoids. Detection rates were significantly different (p0.3, Fisher's exact test). For specimens with detectable cannabinoids, concentrations ranged from 3.4 to >100 pg THC/mg and 0.10 to 7.3 pg THCCOOH/mg hair. THC and THCCOOH concentrations were positively correlated (r=0.38, pTHCCOOH/mg hair. PMID:16963215

Huestis, Marilyn A; Gustafson, Richard A; Moolchan, Eric T; Barnes, Allan; Bourland, James A; Sweeney, Stacy A; Hayes, Eugene F; Carpenter, Patrick M; Smith, Michael L

2007-07-01

328

Research note: adolescents' perception of psychosis risk following cannabis consumption.  

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Cannabis consumption during adolescence has been associated with the onset of psychosis. In 2010, we examined adolescents' perception of this association. Adolescents (N = 583) from four Romanian urban high schools filled in psychosis proneness scales according to the risk they assigned to hypothetical adolescents described in vignettes. Target adolescent's frequency and age of first consumption were manipulated. Analysis of variance indicated a main effect of target's consumption frequency, but no effect of age of first consumption on psychosis risk perception. Participants' own consumption status acted as moderator. Results highlight the discrepancy between clinical research results and adolescents' perception of psychosis risk. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:22216747

Mihalca, Andreea Mihaela; Gherasim, Loredana Ruxandra; Chendran, Laura Alexandra

2012-03-01

329

The inheritance of chemical phenotype in Cannabis sativa L.  

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Four crosses were made between inbred Cannabis sativa plants with pure cannabidiol (CBD) and pure Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) chemotypes. All the plants belonging to the F(1)'s were analyzed by gas chromatography for cannabinoid composition and constantly found to have a mixed CBD-THC chemotype. Ten individual F(1) plants were self-fertilized, and 10 inbred F(2) offspring were collected and analyzed. In all cases, a segregation of the three chemotypes (pure CBD, mixed CBD-THC, and pure...

Meijer, Etienne P. M.; Bagatta, Manuela; Carboni, Andrea; Crucitti, Paola; Moliterni, V. M. Cristiana; Ranalli, Paolo; Mandolino, Giuseppe

2003-01-01

330

Complete sequence of a cryptic virus from hemp (Cannabis sativa).  

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Hemp (Cannabis sativa) was found to be a useful propagation host for hop latent virus, a carlavirus. However, when virus preparations were analysed by electron microscopy, along with the expected filamentous particles, spherical particles with a diameter of around 34 nm were found. RNA from virus preparations was purified, and cDNA was prepared and cloned. Sequence information was used to search databases, and the greatest similarity was found with Primula malacoides virus 1, a putative new member of the genus Partitivirus. The full sequences of RNA 1 and RNA 2 of this new hemp cryptic virus were obtained. PMID:22075921

Ziegler, Angelika; Matoušek, Jaroslav; Steger, Gerhard; Schubert, Jörg

2012-02-01

331

Evolution of substance use, neurological and psychiatric symptoms in schizophrenia and substance use disorder patients: a 12-week, pilot, case-control trial with quetiapine  

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Full Text Available Neurological and psychiatric symptoms are consequences of substance abuse in schizophrenia and non-schizophrenia patients. The present case-control study examined changes in substance abuse/dependence and neurological and psychiatric symptoms in substance abusers with (DD group, n=26 and without schizophrenia (SUD group, n=24 and in non-abusing schizophrenia patients (SCZ group, n=23 undergoing 12-week treatment with the atypical antipsychotic, quetiapine. Neurological and psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, the Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale and the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale. At endpoint, DD and SCZ patients were receiving significantly higher doses of quetiapine (mean = 554mg/d and 478mg/d, respectively, relative to SUD patients (mean = 150mg/d. We found that SUD patients showed greater improvement in weekly dollars spent on alcohol and drugs and SUD severity, compared to DD patients. At endpoint, there was no significant difference in dollars spent, but DD patients still had a higher mean SUD severity. Interestingly, DD patients had significantly higher Parkinsonism and depression than SCZ patients at baseline and endpoint. On the other hand, we found that SUD patients had significantly more akathisia at baseline, improved more than SCZ patients and this was related to cannabis abuse/dependence. Finally, SUD patients improved more in PANSS positive scores than DD and SCZ patients. Taken together, our results provide evidence for increased vulnerability to the adverse effects of alcohol and drugs in schizophrenia patients. They also suggest that substance abuse/withdrawal may mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia. Future studies will need to determine the role quetiapine played in these improvements.

StephanePotvin

2011-05-01

332

Spicing up the military: Use and effects of synthetic cannabis in substance abusing army personnel.  

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Synthetic cannabis (SC) use has been increasing within the United States. Due to difficulties with its detection through standard testing, it may be an attractive substance of abuse for military personnel. However, few studies have examined the consequences of its use in this population, including evidence for its potential for abuse and dependence. Participants included 368 active-duty Army personnel who expressed interest in participating in a "check-up" around their alcohol or substance use, of whom 294 (80%) met DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse or dependence (including alcohol, illicit drugs, and prescription medications) and were not engaged in substance abuse treatment. Forty-one participants (11%) reported using SC in the last 90 days. Of those, 27 listed SC as their drug of choice. There were no significant differences in race, ethnicity, deployment history, or religion between SC users and others. Users of SC were generally younger and had less education and income than those who used only alcohol. Among SC users, 12% met criteria for drug abuse and 68% for dependence. Participants perceived SC use to be significantly more prevalent among military personnel than among civilians. Results suggest that SC is prevalent among substance-using soldiers and that DSM-IV criteria for abuse and dependence apply to SC. In addition, results highlight the importance of assessing and treating SC use among active-duty military personnel. PMID:24727109

Walker, Denise; Neighbors, Clayton; Walton, Thomas; Pierce, Adam; Mbilinyi, Lyungai; Kaysen, Debra; Roffman, Roger

2014-07-01

333

Cannabis, pesticides and conflicting laws: the dilemma for legalized States and implications for public health.  

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State laws on the legalization of medical and recreational cannabis are rapidly evolving. Similar to other crops, cannabis is susceptible to multiple pests during cultivation. Growers have an economic incentive to produce large yields and high quality plants, and may resort to pesticides to achieve these outcomes. Currently, there are no pesticides registered for cannabis in the United States, given its illegal status by the federal government. This discrepancy creates a regulatory vacuum and dilemma for States with legal medical and recreational cannabis that seek to balance lawful compliance with pesticides and worker or public health. Pesticide use presents occupational safety issues that can be mitigated through established worker protection measures. The absence of approved products for cannabis may result in consumer exposures to otherwise more hazardous pesticides or higher residue levels. While many legal and scientific hurdles exist to register conventional pesticides for use on cannabis, legalized States have explored other opportunities to leverage the present regulatory infrastructure. Stakeholder engagement and outreach to the cannabis industry from credible sources could mitigate pesticide misuse and harm. PMID:24859075

Stone, Dave

2014-08-01

334

Perceptions of cannabis as a stigmatized medicine: a qualitative descriptive study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its increasing prevalence and acceptance among the general public, cannabis use continues to be viewed as an aberrant activity in many contexts. However, little is known about how stigma associated with cannabis use affects individuals who use cannabis for therapeutic purposes (CTP and what strategies these individuals employ to manage associated stigma. The aim of this Canadian study was to describe users’ perceptions of and responses to the stigma attached to using CTP. Methods Twenty-three individuals who were using CTP for a range of health problems took part in semi-structured interviews. Transcribed data were analyzed using an inductive approach and comparative strategies to explore participants’ perceptions of CTP and identify themes. Results Participant experiences of stigma were related to negative views of cannabis as a recreational drug, the current criminal sanctions associated with cannabis use, and using cannabis in the context of stigmatizing vulnerability (related to existing illness and disability. Strategies for managing the resulting stigma of using CTP included: keeping CTP ‘undercover’; educating those who did not approve of or understand CTP use; and using cannabis responsibly. Conclusions Understanding how individuals perceive and respond to stigma can inform the development of strategies aimed at reducing stigma associated with the use of CTP and thereby address barriers faced by those using this medicine.

Bottorff Joan L

2013-02-01

335

Assessing evidence for a causal link between cannabis and psychosis: a review of cohort studies.  

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Over the past five years, the release of cohort studies assessing the link between cannabis and psychosis has increased attention on this relationship. Existing reviews generally conclude that these cohort studies show cannabis has a causal relationship to psychosis, or at least that one cannot be excluded. Few studies have evaluated the relative strengths and limitations of these methodologically heterogeneous cohort studies, and how their relative merits and weaknesses might influence the way the link between cannabis use and psychosis is interpreted. This paper reviews the methodological strengths and limitations of major cohort studies which have looked at the link between cannabis and psychosis, and considers research findings against criteria for causal inference. Cohort studies that assessed the link between cannabis and psychosis were identified through literature searches using relevant search terms and MEDline, PsycINFO and EMBASE. Reference lists of reviews and key studies were hand searched. Only prospective studies of general population cohorts were included. Findings were synthesised narratively. A total of 10 key studies from seven general population cohorts were identified by the search. Limitations were evident in the measurement of psychosis, consideration of the short-term effects of cannabis intoxication, control of potential confounders and the measurement of drug use during the follow-up period. Pre-existing vulnerability to psychosis emerged as an important factor that influences the link between cannabis use and psychosis. Whilst the criteria for causal association between cannabis and psychosis are supported by the studies reviewed, the contentious issue of whether cannabis use can cause serious psychotic disorders that would not otherwise have occurred cannot be answered from the existing data. Further methodologically robust cohort research is proposed and the implications of how evidence informs policy in the case of uncertainty is discussed. PMID:19783132

McLaren, Jennifer A; Silins, Edmund; Hutchinson, Delyse; Mattick, Richard P; Hall, Wayne

2010-01-01

336

A survey of the potency of Japanese illicit cannabis in fiscal year 2010.  

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In recent years, increased 'cannabis potency', or ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in cannabis products, has been reported in many countries. A survey of Japanese illicit cannabis was conducted from April 2010 to March 2011. In Japan, all cannabis evidence is transferred to the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare after criminal trials. The evidence was observed at Narcotics Control Department offices in major 11 cities. The total number of cannabis samples observed was 9072, of which 6376 were marijuana. The marijuana seizures were further classified, and it was found that in terms of the number of samples, 65.2% of them were seedless buds, and by weight 73.0% of them were seedless buds. Seedless buds were supposed to be 'sinsemilla', a potent class of marijuana. THC, cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD) in marijuana seizures exceeding 1g were quantified. The number of samples analyzed was 1115. Many of them were shown to contain CBN, an oxidative product from THC. This was a sign of long-term storage of the cannabis and of the degradation of THC. Relatively fresh cannabis, defined by a CBN/THC ratio of less than or equal to 0.1, was chosen for analysis. Fresh seedless buds (335 samples) contained an average of 11.2% and a maximum of 22.6% THC. These values are comparable to those of 'high potency cannabis' as defined in previous studies. Thus, this study shows that highly potent cannabis products are distributed in Japan as in other countries. PMID:22554871

Tsumura, Yukari; Aoki, Rikiya; Tokieda, Yoshio; Akutsu, Mamoru; Kawase, Yasuharu; Kataoka, Tadashi; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Mizuno, Tomomi; Fukada, Masakatsu; Fujii, Hiroshi; Kurahashi, Kazumi

2012-09-10

337

Comparison of three advanced chromatographic techniques for cannabis identification.  

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The development of chromatography technology, with the increasing availability of easier-to-use mass spectrometers combined with gas chromatography (GC), the use of diode-array or programmable variable-wavelength ultraviolet absorption detectors in conjunction with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the availability of scanners capable of reading thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates in the ultraviolet and visible regions, has made for easier, quicker and more positive identification of cannabis samples that standard analytical laboratories are occasionally required to undertake in the effort to combat drug addiction. At laboratories that do not possess the technique of GC combined with mass spectrometry, which provides an irrefutable identification, the following procedure involving HPLC or TLC techniques may be used: identification of the chromatographic peaks corresponding to each of the three main cannabis constituents-cannabidiol (CBD), delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC) and cannabinol (CBN)-by comparison with published data in conjunction with a specific absorption spectrum for each of those constituents obtained between 200 and 300 nm. The collection of the fractions corresponding to the three major cannabinoids at the HPLC system outlet and the cross-checking of their identity in the GC process with flame ionization detection can further corroborate the identification and minimize possible errors due to interference. PMID:7866395

Debruyne, D; Albessard, F; Bigot, M C; Moulin, M

1994-01-01

338

Assessment of blinding to treatment allocation in studies of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex® in people with multiple sclerosis: a new approach  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Maintenance of the blind-to-treatment allocation is one of the most important means of avoiding bias in randomised controlled clinical trials. Commonly used methodologies to determine whether patients have become unblinded to treatment allocation are imperfect. This may be of particular concern in studies where outcomes are patient-reported, and with products which have a characteristic adverse event profile. We report the results of an evidence-based statistical approach to exploring the possible impact of unblinding to a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex® in people with muscle spasticity due to multiple sclerosis. Methods All 666 patients included in three Phase III placebo-controlled studies were included in this analysis. The relationship between factors that might permit patients to identify their treatment allocation and the effect of treatment on the self-reported primary outcome measure was investigated using a general linear model where the dependent variable was the change from baseline in patient self-reported spasticity severity, and the various possible explanatory factors were regarded as fixed factors in the model. Results There was no significant relationship between the effect of Sativex® on spasticity and the prior use of cannabis or the incidence of ‘typical’ adverse events. Nor was there any significant relationship between the prior use of cannabis and the incidence of ‘typical’ adverse events, nor between prior use of cannabis and dose of Sativex®. Conclusions There is no evidence to suggest that there was widespread unblinding to treatment allocation in these three studies. If any patients did become unblinded, then there is no evidence that this led to bias in the assessment of the treatment difference between Sativex® and Placebo for efficacy, adverse events or study drug dosing. This methodology may be suitable for assessment of the integrity of the blind in other randomized clinical trials

Wright Stephen

2012-10-01

339

Quality and Yield of Cannabis Products : Danish seizures from 2008-2011  

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Abstract. 180 seizures containing 667 different samples of cannabis products from 5 police districts in Jutland were examined from 2008 to the present. The samples were divided into the groups: hashish, marihuana (leaves and buds) and whole plants (indoors and outdoors). Cannabis seized from indoor cultivation was examined in order to determine THC content and yield. The results are used by the Danish Police Attorney to estimate expected yields in cases with unripe cannabis plants. The results indicate that the THC content found in locally grown marihuana is slightly higher than in hashish. However, the way the plants are snipped during growth has a major impact on the overall yield.

Kastorp, Grith; Lindholst, Christian

340

Characteristics of cannabis users seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil Características de los fumadores de marihuana que buscan tratamiento en São Paulo, Brasil  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This article describes a sample of 160 adults selected to participate in a randomized controlled trial conducted at a specialized outpatient clinic for cannabis users in Brazil. It correlates consumption with several measures of marijuana use, comparing it with other samples. METHODS: Instruments used were the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI and Wender Utah Rating Scale for screening and demographic data interviews, and the ASI, time-line follow back (TLFB, Marijuana Withdrawal and Marijuana Problem Scales, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R Checklist for cannabis dependence. RESULTS: Participants in the study were mostly single, white men; their mean age was 32.3 years. They had a mean of 15.6 years of formal education and 61.6% worked. The cohort started using marijuana at a mean age of 16.5 years and developed daily use by a mean age of 21 years. Subjects in the sample had used marijuana for a mean of 15 years. They used it for 92.2% of the 90 days prior to the interview and smoked a mean of 1.99 marijuana cigarettes per day during this period. Individuals in the group had experimented with other drugs, especially cocaine. CONCLUSIONS: Marijuana users in this sample matched the profiles of those investigated elsewhere, although they reported fewer symptoms of dependence. Marijuana users should be considered independently in substance abuse programs, because they require specific attention and treatment. Broader epidemiological studies should be conducted to determine the extent of marijuana use within the Brazilian population.OBJETIVOS: Describir una muestra de 160 adultos seleccionados para participar en un ensayo aleatorizado controlado, realizado en una clínica ambulatoria especializada para consumidores de marihuana en Brasil. Se asoció el consumo de marihuana con varias medidas relacionadas con este hábito y se comparó con otras muestras. MÉTODOS: Se empleó la Entrevista Diagnóstica Internacional Compuesta (CIDI y la Escala de Valoración de Wender Utah para las entrevistas de tamizaje y la obtención de datos demográficos, y el Índice de Intensidad de la Adicción (ASI, la Línea Cronológica Retrospectiva (TLFB, la Escala de Abandono de la Marihuana, la Escala de Problemas por Marihuana y la lista de comprobación para la dependencia de la marihuana del Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de Trastornos Mentales (DSM-III-R. RESULTADOS: La mayoría de los participantes eran hombres blancos solteros; en promedio, la edad fue de 32,3 años y el nivel de escolarización de 15,6 años; 61,6% trabajaba. Como promedio, esta cohorte comenzó a fumar marihuana a una edad de 16,5 años y llegó a consumirla diariamente a los 21. Los participantes habían consumido marihuana durante 15 años y la consumieron 92,2% de los 90 días previos a la encuesta, con un consumo diario medio en ese lapso de 1,99 cigarrillos de marihuana. Miembros del grupo habían experimentado con otras drogas, principalmente cocaína. CONCLUSIONES: Los consumidores de marihuana estudiados se ajustan a los perfiles encontrados en otras investigaciones similares, aunque manifestaron menos síntomas de dependencia. En los programas para consumidores de estupefacientes se debe considerar a los consumidores de marihuana de manera independiente, ya que necesitan atención y tratamiento específicos. Se deben emprender estudios epidemiológicos más amplios para determinar la magnitud del consumo de marihuana en la población brasileña.

Flávia Serebrenic Jungerman

2008-06-01

 
 
 
 
341

An fMRI study of neuronal activation in schizophrenia patients with and without previous cannabis use  

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Full Text Available Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI. Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients.

Else-MarieLøberg

2012-10-01

342

Cannabis sativa var. indica : une menace croissante pour les entreprises Cannabis sativa var. indica: an increasing hazard for firms  

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Full Text Available Parmi les drogues illicites, le cannabis est de très loin le produit le plus consommé. Les effets sur l'organisme sont principalement dus au delta-9-tétrahydrocannabinol (THC. Lors d'un usage peu important et occasionnel, ils consistent en une euphorie, une désinhibition, un état de somnolence, avec détérioration de la perception temporelle et spatiale. Les perturbations de la vision consistent en une mydriase, pouvant être accompagnée d'un nystagmus et d'une diplopie. Des troubles de la mémoire à court terme sont fréquemment observés. Ces effets, qui persistent pendant 2 à 10 heures, sont difficilement compatibles avec la réalisation d'actes complexes. Un usage fréquent et important peut conduire à des attaques de panique, des crises d'angoisse, voire l'apparition d'une psychose cannabique avec notamment la survenue d'hallucinations visuelles. C'est en raison de ces effets que son usage est considéré comme étant incompatible avec une conduite automobile en toute sécurité. Une étude française récente, réalisée chez 900 conducteurs impliqués dans un accident corporel de la voie publique et 900 sujets témoins, a montré que le nombre des accidents était multiplié par 2,5 chez les conducteurs ayant consommé du cannabis dans les heures précédentes. Aussi la législation française permet désormais de dépister son usage chez les conducteurs impliqués dans un accident corporel de la circulation, avec une obligation dans le cas des accidents mortels. L'absence de récepteurs au niveau bulbaire, et ce faisant l'absence de décès par overdose, a conduit certaines personnes à classer ce produit parmi les substances addictives les moins dangereuses pour l'homme. Une telle classification fait abstraction de la neurotoxicité fonctionnelle importante du THC qui fait que l'usage de ce produit peut constituer un facteur de risque pour autrui. Cela est vrai pour la conduite automobile. Cela peut être tout aussi vrai lorsque les consommateurs occupent des postes de travail dans lesquels les fautes professionnelles peuvent mettre en péril l'entreprise et/ou la collectivité. Ce risque était négligeable à une époque où la consommation de cannabis était marginale. Il devient majeur aujourd'hui compte tenu du nombre de consommateurs et des mesures de prévention s'imposent désormais, au delà du seul principe de précaution. Among the various drugs of abuse, cannabis is by far the most consumed. The effects on human organism are mainly due to delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC. With low doses and infrequent use, the effects are euphoria, desinhibition, drowsiness, and an alteration of temporal and spatial perception. Visual disorders consist in a mydriasis sometimes accompanied with a nystagmus and a diplopia. Short-memory troubles are frequently observed. These effects, which can persist during 2 to 10 hours, are not compatible with the realization of complex activities. A frequent use may lead to panic and anxiety attacks, and psychiatric disorders such as psychosis with visual hallucinations. Because of these effects, its use is considered to affect traffic safety. A recent French study, performed on 900 drivers involved in a corporal accident and 900 control subjects, indicated the number of accidents was multiplied by 2.5 when drivers had smoked cannabis a few hours before. So, a French law allows to identify drug users in drivers involved in a corporal car accident, with an obligation in the case of fatal accidents. The lack of receptors in the bulb, and then the non-occurrence of deaths by overdose, led some people to the conclusion that cannabis is the least dangerous of addict products. Such an assertion disregards the important functional neurotoxicity of THC which is the reason why cannabis use may represent a risk factor for others. That is true for car driving. That may be also true in factories when consumers occupy operation stations in which professional errors may imperil the enterprise and/or the collectivity. This risk was negligible when cannabis consumpti

Mura Patrick

2009-04-01

343

Effect of dicer-like proteins2 and 4 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase1 as RNA silencing components on cyclic mosaic symptom development in tobacco infected with the Cucumber mosaic virus  

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Full Text Available The Nicotiana tabacum genome contains four Dicer-like proteins (DCLs and six RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR homologues involved in the RNA silencing mechanism employed against viral infection. DCL1 synthesizes 18-21 nt-long microRNA, whereas DCL2, DCL3 and DCL4 produce 22 nt, 24 nt and 21 nt-long siRNA, respectively, in the RNA silencing process. This study aimed to clarify which components among these are involved in changes in the amount of virus and the development of symptoms in Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-infected tobacco. Infected transgenic tobacco lines with a single down-regulation of DCL2, DCL4, RDR1 or a double down-regulation of both DCL2 and 4 were analyzed. The amounts of viral RNA in young developing leaves in transgenic tobacco lines were examined by Northern blot analysis. Most transgenic plants inoculated with CMV Pepo, a virulent strain, exhibited cyclic mosaic symptoms. The amount of viral RNA in single down-regulated lines varied based on leaf position in a similar manner to that noted in non-transgenic tobacco, while that of the double down-regulated line did not. Furthermore, the expression of RNA-silencing-related genes during high and low CMV infection did not differ among the transgenic plants. These results suggested that (i changes in the amounts of the virus in the developing leaves of all the single down-regulated lines were associated with cyclic symptom expression in fully expanded leaves, and (ii the lower expression of DCL2, DCL4 and RDR1 may be sufficient to establish cyclic symptom development.

Anurag Sunpapao

2013-12-01

344

Socio-demographic features of cannabis and heroin abuse in Bombay.  

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Full Text Available A study of socio-demographic features of 680 cannabis and heroin addicts showed that the factors like, age, religion, family structure, peer groups and the easy availability of these drugs contribute to the problem of addiction.

Shastri S

1989-10-01

345

Stroke with neuropsychiatric sequelae after cannabis use in a man: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The outcome of cerebral ischemic stroke associated with cannabis use is usually favorable. Here we report the first case of cannabis-related stroke followed by neuropsychiatric sequelae. Case presentation A 24-year-old Caucasian man was discovered in a deeply comatose non-reactive state after cannabis use. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of his brain showed bilateral multiple ischemic infarcts. The patient remained deeply comatose for four days, after which time he developed other behavioral impairments and recurrent seizures. Conclusion Stroke related to cannabis use can be followed by severe neuropsychiatric sequelae. Concomitant alcohol intoxication is essential neither to the occurrence of this neurologic event nor to its severity.

Giroud Maurice

2011-06-01

346

In silicio expression analysis of PKS genes isolated from Cannabis sativa L.  

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Full Text Available Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 51%-73% identity to other CHS/STS type sequences of the PKS family. Further, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these PKS cDNAs grouped with other non-chalcone-producing PKSs. Homology modeling analysis of these cannabis PKSs predicts a 3D overall fold, similar to alfalfa CHS2, with small steric differences on the residues that shape the active site of the cannabis PKSs.

Isvett J. Flores-Sanchez

2010-01-01

347

In silicio expression analysis of PKS genes isolated from Cannabis sativa L.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, inc [...] luding flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 51%-73% identity to other CHS/STS type sequences of the PKS family. Further, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these PKS cDNAs grouped with other non-chalcone-producing PKSs. Homology modeling analysis of these cannabis PKSs predicts a 3D overall fold, similar to alfalfa CHS2, with small steric differences on the residues that shape the active site of the cannabis PKSs.

Isvett J., Flores-Sanchez; Huub J.M., Linthorst; Robert, Verpoorte.

348

Cannabis use is quantitatively associated with nucleus accumbens and amygdala abnormalities in young adult recreational users.  

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Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, but little is known about its effects on the human brain, particularly on reward/aversion regions implicated in addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Animal studies show structural changes in brain regions such as the nucleus accumbens after exposure to ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol, but less is known about cannabis use and brain morphometry in these regions in humans. We collected high-resolution MRI scans on young adult recreational marijuana users and nonusing controls and conducted three independent analyses of morphometry in these structures: (1) gray matter density using voxel-based morphometry, (2) volume (total brain and regional volumes), and (3) shape (surface morphometry). Gray matter density analyses revealed greater gray matter density in marijuana users than in control participants in the left nucleus accumbens extending to subcallosal cortex, hypothalamus, sublenticular extended amygdala, and left amygdala, even after controlling for age, sex, alcohol use, and cigarette smoking. Trend-level effects were observed for a volume increase in the left nucleus accumbens only. Significant shape differences were detected in the left nucleus accumbens and right amygdala. The left nucleus accumbens showed salient exposure-dependent alterations across all three measures and an altered multimodal relationship across measures in the marijuana group. These data suggest that marijuana exposure, even in young recreational users, is associated with exposure-dependent alterations of the neural matrix of core reward structures and is consistent with animal studies of changes in dendritic arborization. PMID:24741043

Gilman, Jodi M; Kuster, John K; Lee, Sang; Lee, Myung Joo; Kim, Byoung Woo; Makris, Nikos; van der Kouwe, Andre; Blood, Anne J; Breiter, Hans C

2014-04-16

349

Direct analysis of cannabis samples by desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry.  

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Fast analysis of cannabis samples without prior sample preparation or chromatography was performed using desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (DAPPI-MS). The MS(2) spectra of the molecular ions of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) formed in DAPPI-MS showed distinct product ions, unlike the protonated molecules formed with other ambient mass spectrometry techniques, making possible the reliable identification of THC from cannabis samples. PMID:22977002

Kauppila, Tiina J; Flink, Anu; Laakkonen, Ulla-Maija; Aalberg, Laura; Ketola, Raimo A

2013-03-01

350

A novel component of cannabis extract potentiates excitatory synaptic transmission in rat olfactory cortex in vitro.  

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Cannabis is a potential treatment for epilepsy, although the few human studies supporting this use have proved inconclusive. Previously, we showed that a standardized cannabis extract (SCE), isolated Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC), and even Delta9-THC-free SCE inhibited muscarinic agonist-induced epileptiform bursting in rat olfactory cortical brain slices, acting via CB1 receptors. The present work demonstrates that although Delta9-THC (1 microM) significantly depressed evoked depo...

Whalley, B. J.; Wilkinson, J. D.; Williamson, E. M.; Constanti, A

2004-01-01

351

A preliminary examination of how serotonergic polymorphisms influence brain response following an adolescent cannabis intervention  

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Given the link between depression, anxiety, and cannabis abuse, a serotonin receptor (rs6311) and transporter polymorphism (rs2020936) were examined as moderators of neural response following a psychosocial treatment for cannabis use disorders (CUDs). While the proposed hypotheses wereunsupported, we found that the rs6311 C allelewas significantly related to brain activation (medial frontal gyrus, precuneus), indicating the role of this serotonin receptor in adolescent treatment response. PMID:23217578

Ewing, Sarah W. Feldstein; Mead, Hilary K.; Yezhuvath, Uma; DeWitt, Sam; Hutchison, Kent E.; Filbey, Francesca M.

2012-01-01

352

Hvilke varige skadevirkninger har lang tids bruk av cannabis på kognitive funksjoner.  

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Abstract Background: Cannabis is the world?s most commonly used illicit drug, being used of about 4 % of the total global population between 15 and 64 years of age. After the discovery of the endocannabinoid system there has been an increase in the research about cannabis and THC and its potential use as a therapeutical drug. Hence there has also been renewed interest in its possible negative effects. Aims: To highlight recent knowledge and literature about the possible non-acute irreversibl...

Olsen, Knut Marius

2007-01-01

353

Coping with cannabis in a Caribbean country : from problem formulation to going public  

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Full Text Available Analyzes the dialectic between problem discovery and formulation, ethical considerations, and the public dissemination of research results. Author describes his personal experience of fieldwork, the moral-ethical dilemmas it involved, and the circulation of research findings on cannabis production and consumption in St. Vincent. He became frustrated that his academic publications were only accessible to a tiny portion of St. Vincent's population and therefore decided to publish about cannabis in the local media.

Hymie Rubenstein

1998-07-01

354

In silicio expression analysis of PKS genes isolated from Cannabis sativa L.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants...

Flores-sanchez, Isvett J.; Linthorst, Huub J. M.; Robert Verpoorte

2010-01-01

355

Disrupted gamma-band neural oscillations during coherent motion perception in heavy cannabis users.  

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Previous work in animals and humans has shown that exogenous cannabinoids disrupt time-locked, evoked gamma oscillations (30-80?Hz). However, no studies to date have examined the effect of cannabis on non-time-locked, induced gamma oscillations during more complex Gestalt perception. The current study therefore utilized electroencephalography (EEG) to examine gamma oscillations during coherent motion perception in heavy cannabis users and controls. Chronic cannabis users (n=24; 12?h abstinence before study; positive 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol urine levels) and cannabis-naive controls (n=23) were evaluated. Stimuli consisted of random dot kinetograms (RDKs) that subjects passively viewed during three different conditions: coherent motion, incoherent motion, and static. Time × frequency analysis on EEG data was performed using Fourier-based mean trial power (MTP). Transient event-related potentials (ERPs) to stimulus onset (visual N100 and P200 components) were also evaluated. The results showed that the coherent motion condition produced a robust increase in neural activity in the gamma range (induced power from 40 to 59?Hz) as compared with the incoherent motion and static conditions. As predicted, the cannabis group showed significant reductions in induced gamma power in the coherent condition relative to healthy controls. No differences were observed between the groups in the N100 or P200 components, indicating intact primary sensory processing. Finally, cannabis users showed a trend toward increased scores on the Chapman Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS) that was positively correlated with total years of active cannabis use. These data suggest that cannabis use may interfere with the generation of induced gamma-band neural oscillations that could in part mediate the perceptual-altering effects of exogenous cannabinoids. PMID:24990428

Skosnik, Patrick D; Krishnan, Giri P; D'Souza, Deepak C; Hetrick, William P; O'Donnell, Brian F

2014-12-01

356

Considerações sobre a toxicocinética da Cannabis sativa L. ou maconha, com enfase no homem Some aspects of pharmacokinetics of Cannabis sativa L. (Marihuana with emphasis on man  

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Full Text Available O presente artigo consiste em uma análise sobre a origem da Cannabis no Brasil, suas principais substâncias químicas, realçando o ?9 tetrahidrocanabinol como responsável pelos efeitos farmacológicos. é citado também o fato de existirem duas formas de numeração dos carbonos do ?THC. Para melhor entender a toxicocinética foram feitas considerações sobre as doses de maconha, que vão variar de acordo com o usuário, e origem do vegetal. Finalmente é feito urn estudo detalhado sobre, absorção, distribuição, armazenamento, biotransformação e eliminação dos diversos componentes químicos da maconha.This paper contains an analysis of the origin of the introduction of Cannabis in Brazil, the identify of its chemical components, mainly tetrahydrocannabinol responsible for the pharmacological effects of Cannabis. Toxicokinetic studies were developed in relation the amounts of marihuana consumed, characteristics of the user and origin of the drug. Absorption, distribution, storage, biotransformation and elimination of marihuana derived metabolites were studies.

Luiz Marques de Sá

1989-01-01

357

Effects of Cannabis on Impulsivity: A Systematic Review of Neuroimaging Findings  

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We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence for specific effects of cannabis on impulsivity, disinhibition and motor control. The review had a specific focus on neuroimaging findings associated with acute and chronic use of the drug and covers literature published up until May 2012. Seventeen studies were identified, of which 13 met the inclusion criteria; three studies investigated acute effects of cannabis (1 fMRI, 2 PET), while six studies investigated non-acute functional effects (4 fMRI, 2 PET), and four studies investigated structural alterations. Functional imaging studies of impulsivity studies suggest that prefrontal blood flow is lower in chronic cannabis users than in controls. Studies of acute administration of THC or marijuana report increased brain metabolism in several brain regions during impulsivity tasks. Structural imaging studies of cannabis users found differences in reduced prefrontal volumes and white matter integrity that might mediate the abnormal impulsivity and mood observed in marijuana users. To address the question whether impulsivity as a trait precedes cannabis consumption or whether cannabis aggravates impulsivity and discontinuation of usage more longitudinal study designs are warranted. PMID:23829358

Wrege, Johannes; Schmidt, Andre; Walter, Anna; Smieskova, Renata; Bendfeldt, Kerstin; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Lang, Undine E.; Borgwardt, Stefan

2014-01-01

358

Cannabis use by individuals with multiple sclerosis: effects on specific immune parameters.  

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Cannabinoids affect immune responses in ways that may be beneficial for autoimmune diseases. We sought to determine whether chronic Cannabis use differentially modulates a select number of immune parameters in healthy controls and individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS cases). Subjects were enrolled and consented to a single blood draw, matched for age and BMI. We measured monocyte migration isolated from each subject, as well as plasma levels of endocannabinoids and cytokines. Cases met definition of MS by international diagnostic criteria. Monocyte cell migration measured in control subjects and individuals with MS was similarly inhibited by a set ratio of phytocannabinoids. The plasma levels of CCL2 and IL17 were reduced in non-naïve cannabis users irrespective of the cohorts. We detected a significant increase in the endocannabinoid arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) in serum from individuals with MS compared to control subjects, and no significant difference in levels of other endocannabinoids and signaling lipids irrespective of Cannabis use. Chronic Cannabis use may affect the immune response to similar extent in individuals with MS and control subjects through the ability of phytocannabinoids to reduce both monocyte migration and cytokine levels in serum. From a panel of signaling lipids, only the levels of AEA are increased in individuals with MS, irrespective of Cannabis use or not. Our results suggest that both MS cases and controls respond similarly to chronic Cannabis use with respect to the immune parameters measured in this study. PMID:25135301

Sexton, Michelle; Cudaback, Eiron; Abdullah, Rehab A; Finnell, John; Mischley, Laurie K; Rozga, Mary; Lichtman, Aron H; Stella, Nephi

2014-10-01

359

?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol content in cannabis samples seized in Novi Sad during 2008  

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Full Text Available The three main cannabinoids ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC, cannabidiol (CBD and cannabinol (CBN were identified and determined quantitatively using a GCD (GC-EI instrument in 280 samples of illicit herbal cannabis, seized by the Police authorities in Novi Sad, during 2008. The samples were sent to the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Clinical Center Vojvodina, for forensic chemical analysis. The cannabinoid content of the samples enabled the classification of the cannabis into three chemical phenotypes and the differentiation into drug and textile-cannabis, using the Waller classification index. This differentiation has great forensic significance in the classification of certain cases as a criminal action. The experimental results showed that the ?9-THC content in illicitly circulated cannabis slightly decreased from January to December 2008, as did the quality of the drug-cannabis. The reasons for the quality variations could lie in the geographical origin of the cannabis plants, the conditions of plants storage, various parts of the plants in samples and the time elapsed between harvesting and chemical analysis.

MAJA DJURENDI?-BRENESEL

2010-07-01

360

Prediction of cannabis and cocaine use in adolescence using decision trees and logistic regression  

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Full Text Available Spain is one of the European countries with the highest prevalence of cannabis and cocaine use among young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors related to the consumption of cocaine and cannabis among adolescents. A questionnaire was administered to 9,284 students between 14 and 18 years of age in Palma de Mallorca (47.1% boys and 52.9% girls whose mean age was 15.59 years. Logistic regression and decision trees were carried out in order to model the consumption of cannabis and cocaine. The results show the use of legal substances and committing fraudulence or theft are the main variables that raise the odds of consuming cannabis. In boys, cannabis consumption and a family history of drug use increase the odds of consuming cocaine, whereas in girls the use of alcohol, behaviours of fraudulence or theft and difficulty in some personal skills influence their odds of consuming cocaine. Finally, ease of access to the substance greatly raises the odds of consuming cocaine and cannabis in both genders. Decision trees highlight the role of consuming other substances and committing fraudulence or theft. The results of this study gain importance when it comes to putting into practice effective prevention programmes.

Alfonso L. Palmer

2010-01-01