Sample records for canna generalis

  1. [Pollen morphology in species of Canna (Cannaceae), and systematics implications].

    Ciciarelli, María de las Mercedes; Passarelli, Lilian M; Rolleri, Cristina H


    The morphology of pollen grains of eight taxa of Canna, C. ascendens, C. coccinea, C compacta, C. glauca, C. indica, C. paniculata, C. variegatifolia and C. fuchsina, an unpublished new species, were studied using light and scanning electronic microscopes. We used the Wodehouse technique on samples of 20 grains per specimen to measure the intine with a light microscope; and the density of spines (in 400 microm2 fields) with scanning electronic microscopy. Pollen grains are spherical, echinate, omniaperturate. The sporoderm presents a very thin exine covering a thicker intine. Corrugate micro-perforate, sub-reticulate, rugate, rugulate, striate to folded, micro-striate, micro-granulate, and smooth types of the external surface of the sporoderm were found. The spines consist of exine, partially to completely covered by tryphine. The two-layered intine is the thicker part of the wall. Echinate ornamentation is a generic character in Canna, but size, surface and color of pollen walls, and density and shape of spines, are diagnostic for species. Pollen morphology supports the view of C. indica and C. coccinea as different species. Canna fuchsina grows in wild, dense colonies, in humid riverside forests from Buenos Aires and Santa Fe Provinces, Argentina; its characters suggest relationships with a not well known group of taxa, some of them hybrids, such as C. x generalis. However, as these plants showed normal, well formed grains, close to those of C. coccinea, that germinate over the stigmatic surfaces in fresh flowers, we decided to include their pollen in this study. PMID:20411707

  2. Edible Film Making of Starch Canna Tuber (Canna Edulis Kerr) and Aplication to Packaging Galamai

    Hafnimardiyanti Hafnimardiyanti; M.Ikhlas Armin; Martalius Martalius


    Canna (Canna edulis Kerr) was a tuber that had a high carbohydrate content so canna had excellent prospects to develop into edible film. The purpose of this study was to make edible film of canna starch, knowing storability galamai was packed with edible film and determine the level of preference panelists through organoleptic tests. In this research, manufacture of edible films with various concentrations of canna starch 2%, 3%, 4% and the use of plasticizer (glycerol) 1%, 2% and 3% with 100...

  3. Generali-CNPC Insurance Opens Branch in Beijing


    @@ Generali China Life Insurance, a 50-50 joint venture between Italy-based Assicurazioni Generali and the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), announced on June 7 the official launch of its Beijing branch, the insurer's second in China. The new branch, according to the company's officials, is a milestone for Generali China as it marks a transformation from being a regional insurance company to a national one.

  4. Intrecci azionari e concorrenza. Il caso Generali/Ina

    Ghezzi Federico


    With a recent decision, the European Commission has cleared, subject to a number of commitments given by the parties, the proposed acquisition by Generali, the Italian company leader in the insurance sector, of INA, one its largest competitors, by means of a public offer. According to the commitments attached to the decision Generali will divest its controlling stakes in three subsidiaries active in the life insurance sector, and its minority shareholding in the competitor Fondiaria, while IN...

  5. Nonpolar compounds from Canna indica rhizomes

    Nirmal S.A.


    Full Text Available The hydrocarbons from petroleum ether extract of Canna indica L. (Cannaceae were investigated by GC-MS. Results showed presence of 5, 8- henicosdiene (3.27 %, 7- henicosyne (3.70 %, 3, 15- dihydroxy-2-octadecene (45.12 %, 6- hydroxy eicosane (5.18 %, tricosane (2.40 %, and tetracosane (1.89 %.

  6. Poznámka (Canna indica L.)

    Bělohlávková, Radmila

    Praha : Academia, 2010 - (Štěpánková, J.; Chrtek, J.; Kaplan, Z.), s. 687-687 ISBN 978-80-200-1824-3 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/01/1115; GA ČR GA206/04/0786; GA ČR GA206/07/0706 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Canna indica * flora * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  7. Marketingová strategie pojišťovny Generali

    Čeledová, Andrea


    The aim of my diploma thesis is to analyse marketing strategy of Generali insurance company and to recommend improvements of the current marketing strategy. In theoretical part I am dealing with the role of marketing, analytical tools and approaches in the area of marketing strategies and types of marketing strategies. Gained knowledge is applied in the following practical part of the thesis. Practical part descibes current situation on the Czech insurance market. It is followed by detailed a...

  8. Canna indica flower: New source of anthocyanins.

    Srivastava, Jyoti; Vankar, Padma S


    In this study the red flowers of Canna indica (Cannaceae) were extracted by using sonicator and isolation of anthocyanins have been carried out. Four anthocyanin pigments have been isolated apart from quercetin and lycopene. They are Cyanidin-3-O-(6''-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-glucopyranoside (1), Cyanidin-3-O-(6''-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-galactopyranoside (2), Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside (3) and Cyanidin-O-β-galactopyranoside (4). These compounds were isolated by using HPLC and their structures were subsequently determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, i.e., (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, HMQC, HMBC, ESI-MS, FTIR, UV-Visible etc. The isolated compounds showed good antioxidant activity thus makes it suitable for use in food coloration and as a nutraceutical. Thus it is a promising pigment source for food applications. PMID:20926305

  9. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK DAUN KANA (Canna coccinea) TERHADAP Pseudomonas aeruginosa dan Staphylococcus aureus DENGAN VARIASI PENGEKSTRAK

    Askadilla, Wilhelmina Leli


    Komponen fitokimia dari daun tanaman Canna coccinea terdiri dari golongan alkaloid, steroid atau triterpenoid, flavonoid dan tanin, sementara tanin merupakan senyawa yang berpotensi sebagai antibakteri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui adanya kemampuan dalam ekstrak daun Canna coccinea dalam menghambat Pseudomonas aeruginosa dan Staphylococcus aureus. Variasi dari pengekstrak bertujuan untuk melihat pelarut yang paling maksimal dalam menarik senyawa fitokimia dari daun kana sebagai a...

  10. Molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum bark and Canna indica root

    Tripathi, S.M.; Singh, D.K.


    The molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae) and Canna indica Linn. (Cannaceae) against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of P. granatum bark and C. indica root was found to be both time and dose dependent. The toxicity of P. granatum bark was more pronounced than that of C. indica. The 24 h LC50 of the column-purified root of C. indica was 6.54 mg/l whereas that of the column-purified bark of P. granatum was 4.39 mg/l. The ethanol extract...

  11. Characterization of biominerals in species of Canna (Cannaceae).

    Baran, Enrique J; González-Baró, Ana C; Ciciarelli, María M; Rolleri, Cristina H


    Plant biominerals are not always well characterized, although this information is important for plant physiology and can be useful for taxonomic purposes. In this work, fresh plant material of seven wild neotropical species of genus Canna, C. ascendens, C. coccinea, C. indica, C. glauca, C. plurituberosa, C. variegatifolia and C. fuchsina sp. ined., taken from different habitats, were studied to characterize the biominerals in their internal tissues. For the first time, samples from primary and secondary veins of leaves were investigated by means of infrared spectroscopy, complemented with X-ray powder diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The spectroscopic results, supported by X-ray powder diffractometry, suggest that the calcium oxalate is present in the form of whewellite (CaC2O4 x H2O) in all the investigated samples. It is interesting to emphasize that all IR spectra obtained were strongly similar in all species studied, thus indicating an identical chemical composition in terms of the biominerals found. In this sense, the results suggest that the species of Canna show similar ability to produce biogenic silica and produce an identical type of calcium oxalate within their tissues. These results can be an additional trait to support the relationship among the families of Zingiberales. PMID:21247002

  12. Physicochemical properties of wheat-canna and wheat-konjac composite flours

    Aprianita, Aprianita; Vasiljevic, Todor; Bannikova, Anna; Kasapis, Stefan


    Physicochemical properties of composite flours made of wheat from low to high protein contents and canna or konjac at different levels of substitution (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 %) were prepared and analyzed. Compared to that of wheat flour alone, increasing levels of canna inclusions significantly increased the amount of resistant starch (RS) but decreased the protein content of composite flours. This substitution did not alter the total starch (TS), amylase and amylopectin contents of these mi...

  13. Physicochemical properties of wheat-canna and wheat-konjac composite flours.

    Aprianita, Aprianita; Vasiljevic, Todor; Bannikova, Anna; Kasapis, Stefan


    Physicochemical properties of composite flours made of wheat from low to high protein contents and canna or konjac at different levels of substitution (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 %) were prepared and analyzed. Compared to that of wheat flour alone, increasing levels of canna inclusions significantly increased the amount of resistant starch (RS) but decreased the protein content of composite flours. This substitution did not alter the total starch (TS), amylase and amylopectin contents of these mixtures. Changes in physicochemical properties were also observed in wheat-konjac composite flours. Increasing amounts of konjac flour decreased the TS, amylase, amylopectin, and protein content of the mixtures, but increased the amount of RS. Substitution of wheat flour with 75 % of canna or konjac flours in HPWC (High Protein Wheat-Canna), HPWK (High Protein Wheat-Konjac), and LPWK (Low Protein Wheat-Konjac) increased the swelling power of these mixtures at 80 and 90 °C. In general, substitution of wheat flour with up to 50 % of canna or konjac flours did not cause any other observable decline. In addition, the substitution of wheat flour with canna or konjac flours increased the gelatinization temperature of all composite flours. PMID:25190833

  14. Molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum bark and Canna indica root.

    Tripathi, S M; Singh, D K


    The molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae) and Canna indica Linn. (Cannaceae) against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of P. granatum bark and C. indica root was found to be both time and dose dependent. The toxicity of P. granatum bark was more pronounced than that of C. indica. The 24 h LC(50) of the column-purified root of C. indica was 6.54 mg/l whereas that of the column-purified bark of P. granatum was 4.39 mg/l. The ethanol extract of P. granatum (24 h LC(50): 22.42 mg/l) was more effective than the ethanol extract of C. indica (24 h LC(50): 55.65 mg/l) in killing the test animals. P. granatum and C. indica may be used as potent molluscicides since the concentrations used to kill the snails were not toxic for the fish Colisa fasciatus, which shares the same habitat with the snail L. acuminata. PMID:11050667

  15. Molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum bark and Canna indica root

    Tripathi S.M.


    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae and Canna indica Linn. (Cannaceae against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of P. granatum bark and C. indica root was found to be both time and dose dependent. The toxicity of P. granatum bark was more pronounced than that of C. indica. The 24 h LC50 of the column-purified root of C. indica was 6.54 mg/l whereas that of the column-purified bark of P. granatum was 4.39 mg/l. The ethanol extract of P. granatum (24 h LC50: 22.42 mg/l was more effective than the ethanol extract of C. indica (24 h LC50: 55.65 mg/l in killing the test animals. P. granatum and C. indica may be used as potent molluscicides since the concentrations used to kill the snails were not toxic for the fish Colisa fasciatus, which shares the same habitat with the snail L. acuminata.

  16. L’economia napoletana e il commercio internazionale tra ‘800 e ‘900: I Magazzini Generali e il Deposito Franco = The neapolitan economy and international trade between 800 and 900: The Magazzini Generali and the Free Warehouse

    Serena Potito


    Full Text Available Resumo I Magazzini Generali, creati su modello dei docks inglesi e dei magazzini francesi e regolamentati da una legge del 1871 si diffusero nelle maggiori città italiane, con alterna fortuna: comune era lo scopo di provvedere alla custodia delle merci, rilasciando speciali titoli di commercio, e di agevolare l’incontro tra produttore e acquirente, riducendo i tempi di negoziazione. Essi sono, dunque, da annoverare fra gli strumenti commerciali con cui si intendeva intensificare e favorire i traffici di merci nel periodo in cui il commercio internazionale su larga scala andava riducendo le barriere tra paesi, accompagnato dallo sviluppo e ammodernamento delle infrastrutture. Nell’ambito del dibattito sul tentativo italiano di ritagliarsi un ruolo durante la prima globalizzazione con la crescita della liberalizzazione del commercio internazionale e, nello stesso tempo, lo sviluppo del protezionismo moderno la presente ricerca mette a fuoco l’esperienza della costituzione dei Magazzini Generali di Napoli, per alcuni decenni i più importanti d’Italia. La Società Meridionale dei Magazzini Generali ne assunse la gestione nel 1874 e attraverso lo studio di testimonianze dell’epoca, degli Atti del Consiglio Comunale e della Camera di Commercio, di dati di bilancio presenti nell’Archivio di Stato di Napoli questo saggio ne ripercorre l’iter costitutivo e le vicende dei primi anni. Oltre a offrire un quadro della situazione politica ed economica del Mezzogiorno d’Italia, ed in particolare di Napoli, nella congiuntura economica tra fine ‘800 e inizio ‘900, emergono spunti interessanti relativi all’ammodernamento delle infrastrutture portuali cittadine, e alla questione della creazione di un punto franco (uno degli ipotetici cardini dello sviluppo industriale della città: in un quadro di occasioni mancate ed ostacoli legati alle caratteristiche del processo storico, dal confronto con economie di differenti realtà europee

  17. L’economia napoletana e il commercio internazionale tra ‘800 e ‘900: I Magazzini Generali e il Deposito Franco = The Neapolitan economy and international trade between 800 and 900: The Magazzini Generali and the Free Warehouse

    Serena Potito


    Full Text Available I Magazzini Generali, creati su modello dei docks inglesi e dei magazzini francesi -e regolamentati da una legge del 1871- si diffusero nelle maggiori città italiane, con alterna fortuna: comune era lo scopo di provvedere alla custodia delle merci, rilasciando speciali titoli di commercio, e di agevolare l’incontro tra produttore e acquirente, riducendo i tempi di negoziazione. Essi sono, dunque, da annoverare fra gli strumenti commerciali con cui si intendeva intensificare e favorire i traffici di merci nel periodo in cui il commercio internazionale su larga scala andava riducendo le barriere tra paesi, accompagnato dallo sviluppo e ammodernamento delle infrastrutture. Nell’ambito del dibattito sul tentativo italiano di ritagliarsi un ruolo durante la prima globalizzazione -con la crescita della liberalizzazione del commercio internazionale e, nello stesso tempo, lo sviluppo del protezionismo moderno- la presente ricerca mette a fuoco l’esperienza della costituzione dei Magazzini Generali di Napoli, per alcuni decenni i più importanti d’Italia. La Società Meridionale dei Magazzini Generali ne assunse la gestione nel 1874 e -attraverso lo studio di testimonianze dell’epoca, degli Atti del Consiglio Comunale e della Camera di Commercio, di dati di bilancio presenti nell’Archivio di Stato di Napoli- questo saggio ne ripercorre l’iter costitutivo e le vicende dei primi anni. Oltre a offrire un quadro della situazione politica ed economica del Mezzogiorno d’Italia, ed in particolare di Napoli, nella congiuntura economica tra fine ‘800 e inizio ‘900, emergono spunti interessanti relativi all’ammodernamento delle infrastrutture portuali cittadine, e alla questione della creazione di un punto franco (uno degli ipotetici cardini dello sviluppo industriale della città: in un quadro di occasioni mancate ed ostacoli legati alle caratteristiche del processo storico, dal confronto con economie di differenti realtà europee

  18. Quality assessment of noodles made from blends of rice flour and canna starch.

    Wandee, Yuree; Uttapap, Dudsadee; Puncha-arnon, Santhanee; Puttanlek, Chureerat; Rungsardthong, Vilai; Wetprasit, Nuanchawee


    Canna starch and its derivatives (retrograded, retrograded debranched, and cross-linked) were evaluated for their suitability to be used as prebiotic sources in a rice noodle product. Twenty percent of the rice flour was replaced with these tested starches, and the noodles obtained were analyzed for morphology, cooking qualities, textural properties, and capability of producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Cross-linked canna starch could increase tensile strength and elongation of rice noodles. Total dietary fiber (TDF) content of noodles made from rice flour was 3.0% and increased to 5.1% and 7.3% when rice flour was replaced with retrograded and retrograded debranched starches, respectively. Cooking qualities and textural properties of noodles containing 20% retrograded debranched starch were mostly comparable, while the capability of producing SCFAs and butyric acid was superior to the control rice noodles; the cooked noodle strips also showed fewer tendencies to stick together. PMID:25722142

  19. Formulasi Lipstik Menggunakan Ekstrak Bunga Tasbih (Canna hybrida L) Sebagai Pewarna

    Fauzana, Cut Alfaini Rahmah


    Canna hybrida L. has various interesting colors and one of them is red, it is comes from anthocyanin pigments which are flavonoid compounds. Anthocyanins have various benefits, one of them is natural dye so that can become alternative in cosmetics colorant. The purpose of this research was to make lipstick using natural coloring agent which contained in tasbih flower. The dye from tasbih flower extract has extracted by the method of maceration using ethanol 96% with the additio...

  20. SUN PROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF Clitoria Ternata Linn, Canna Indica Linn FLOWER



    Full Text Available Sunscreen resources mostly obtained from plants in form of natural substances which are ability to absorb ultraviolet ray in the UVA region. This paper evaluates UV absorption ability of flowers from Clitoria ternata Linn (Fabaceae, Canna indica Linn (Scitaminaceae, as an anti-solar agent. Extracts were prepared by maceration with a mixture of distilled water and methanol (1:1. The method is performed by UV spectrophotomety in the range of 200 to 400 nm and results of all the extracts shows effective UV absorption in the given range.




    Full Text Available Utilization of detergent in daily life has been widespread due to its effective cleaning features in comparison to ordinary soaps. Detergent has been used by small scale in households and laundry firms, and by large in industries. As detergent utilization increased, its accumulative effects on environment become alarming. he experiment was conducted to determine the effect of detergent on the various in order to investigate the influence of detergent waste on different types of soils and its impacts on growth of Canna flower (Canna indica L.. Experiment was carried out at green house at Animal Science Faculty, University of Udayana. The research was carried out for seven months; from January till July 2012, using Randomized Block Design with two factorial. The first factor is the type of soil consisting of Land P1 = Vertisol soil, P2 = Inceptisol soil and P3 = Andisol soil. Second, detergent waste factor which divided into treatments respectively Lo = control, L1 = 500 ml, L2 1000 ml, L3 = 1500 ml. so that there are 12 combinations of treatments;, Each treatment was replicated three times. The results showed that statistically soil types has high significantly influenced on plant height at 30 Days after planting (DAP, 44 DAP, 58 DAP, 100 DAP; upper plant weight, and dry oven weight, detergent waste pH 30 HST, detergent waste temperature 44 HST, available N and available P. Different soil types also produced significant effects on COD 72 and 86 DAP. depending on different types of soil physical properties of soil pH, soil texture, ability of plant to absorb nutrition Canna flower is able to absorb. Canna flower plant uptake efficiency for Vertisol soils 90%, 68%, 46.66% ; lnceptisol 96,6 %, 78%, 60% ; and soil types Andisol 83%, 53%, 36.66% for detergent waste levels at 500 ml, 1000 ml and 1500 ml. Filtration different types of with soil and flowers kanna can lower the pH detergent wastes, detergents and sewage temperature of COD.

  2. Phytoremediation of Metal (Pb, Ni, Zn, Cd And Cr Contaminated Soils Using Canna Indica

    V. Subhashini


    Full Text Available Heavy metal pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems today. Remediation of heavy metal polluted soils is one of the significant topics in environmental restoration. As a plant based technology the success of phytoremediation is inherently dependent upon proper plant selection. The present study is an attempt to test the potential of the native species to remove heavy metals from the soil. A pot experiment was conducted to study the metal accumulation capacity of Canna indica L. Canna indica was known as Indian shot belongs to the family Cannaceae. High biomass herb species was selected to restrict the passage of contaminants into the food chain by selecting non-edible, disease resistant and tolerant plants and have very pleasant flowers. Based on the BCF and TF the plant species was used in Pb, Zn and Cr phytoextraction process and Ni and Cd phytostabilization processes. Finally it was concluded that the species was good accumulator of Pb, Ni, Zn, Cd and Cr.

  3. Partículas flexuosas de aspecto viral aisladas de achira (canna edulis ker.) afectada por clorosis en colombia

    Reichel, Helena


    Observaciones al microscopio electrónico de extractos de hojas de achira (Canna edulis) afectada por una clorosis, precedente del departamento del Huila (Colombia) revelaron la presencia de partículas flexuosas de aspecto viral de aproximadamente 600 nm x 10 nm. Este es el primer reporte de partículas flexuosas de aspecto viral infectando a achira en Colombia.

  4. Characterization of starch from two ecotypes of andean achira roots (Canna edulis).

    Cisneros, Fausto H; Zevillanos, Roberto; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis


    Starches from two ecotypes of achira roots (Canna edulis Ker-Gawler) were characterized and compared to commercial potato and corn starches. This included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of starch granules and amylose content determination of starch. Starch solutions or gels were tested by rotational viscometry, Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA), and texture analysis. Some starch samples were subjected to various treatments: pH reduction, autoclaving at high temperature, and high shear before testing by rotational viscometry. Achira starch showed some unusual properties, such as very large oblong granules (approximately 45-52 microm major axis and approximately 33-34 microm minor axis) and relatively high amylose content (approximately 33-39%). The San Gaban achira ecotype formed high-consistency gels upon cooling, both in RVA study (5% starch) and in texture analysis (8% starch), compared to other starch gels and also exhibited higher thermal resistance to viscosity breakdown. PMID:19627148

  5. Identification and Expression Analyses of miRNAs from Two Contrasting Flower Color Cultivars of Canna by Deep Sequencing.

    Roy, Sribash; Tripathi, Abhinandan Mani; Yadav, Amrita; Mishra, Parneeta; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar


    miRNAs are endogenous small RNA (sRNA) that play critical roles in plant development processes. Canna is an ornamental plant belonging to family Cannaceae. Here, we report for the first time the identification and differential expression of miRNAs in two contrasting flower color cultivars of Canna, Tropical sunrise and Red president. A total of 313 known miRNAs belonging to 78 miRNA families were identified from both the cultivars. Thirty one miRNAs (17 miRNA families) were specific to Tropical sunrise and 43 miRNAs (10 miRNA families) were specific to Red president. Thirty two and 18 putative new miRNAs were identified from Tropical sunrise and Red president, respectively. One hundred and nine miRNAs were differentially expressed in the two cultivars targeting 1343 genes. Among these, 16 miRNAs families targeting 60 genes were involved in flower development related traits and five miRNA families targeting five genes were involved in phenyl propanoid and pigment metabolic processes. We further validated the expression analysis of a few miRNA and their target genes by qRT-PCR. Transcription factors were the major miRNA targets identified. Target validation of a few randomly selected miRNAs by RLM-RACE was performed but was successful with only miR162. These findings will help in understanding flower development processes, particularly the color development in Canna. PMID:26799570

  6. Organogenesis and Ultrastructural Features of In Vitro Grown Canna indica L.

    Wafa, Sharifah Nurashikin; Mat Taha, Rosna; Mohajer, Sadegh; Mahmad, Noraini; Ali Ahmed Abdul, Bakrudeen


    An efficient protocol for micropropagation of Canna indica L., an economically and pharmaceutically important plant, was standardized using rhizome explants, excised from two-month-old aseptic seedlings. Complete plant regeneration was induced on MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/L BAP plus 1.5 mg/L NAA, which produced the highest number of shoots (73.3 ± 0.5%) and roots (86.7 ± 0.4%) after 2 weeks. Furthermore, the optimum media for multiple shoots regeneration were recorded on MS enriched with 7.0 mg/L BAP (33.0 ± 0.5%). Plantlets obtained were transplanted to pots after two months and acclimatized in the greenhouse, with 75% survival. In addition, ultrastructural studies showed that rhizomes of in vitro grown specimens were underdeveloped compared to the in vivo specimens, possibly due to the presence of wide spaces. Meanwhile, the leaves of in vivo specimens had more open stomata compared to in vitro specimens, yet their paracytic stomata structures were similar. Hence, there were no abnormalities or major differences between in vitro regenerants and mother plants. PMID:26885503

  7. Complete genome sequence of nine isolates of canna yellow streak virus reveals its relationship to the sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) subgroup of potyviruses.

    Chauhan, Ravendra P; Rajakaruna, Punsasi; Verchot, Jeanmarie


    Complete genome sequences were obtained from nine isolates of canna yellow streak virus (CaYSV). CaYSV belongs to the sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) subgroup of potyviruses with johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV) as its closest relative. Multiple sequence alignments showed a pattern of amino acid substitutions in the CP sequences, which enabled us to relate these isolates to South East Asian or European isolates. Biological characterization of CaYSV identified Nicotiana benthamiana, Chenopodium quinoa and Phaseolus vulgaris as experimental hosts. Given the popularity and global trade of cannas, a clear picture of the genetic diversity of CaYSV is critical to disease management. PMID:25567205

  8. Pollination and breeding system of Canna paniculata(Cannaceae in a montane Atlantic Rainforest: asymmetric dependence on a hermit hummingbird

    Pietro Kiyoshi Maruyama


    Full Text Available We studied the pollination biology of Canna paniculata (Cannaceae, a plant species common in the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil. The species presents specialized ornithophilous flowers, which in our study area are solely pollinated by the hermit hummingbird Phaethornis eurynome. Although C. paniculata is capable of bearing fruit after self-pollination, it requires pollinators for reproduction. We discuss the importance of hermit hummingbirds for the reproduction of specialized ornithophilous plants such as C. paniculata, including their asymmetric dependence on hermit hummingbirds - core pollinators in Neotropical forest ecosystems.

  9. Effect of N:P ratio of influent on biomass, nutrient allocation, and recovery of Typha latifolia and Canna 'Bengal Tiger' in a laboratory-scale constructed wetland

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are an effective low-technology approach for treating agricultural, industrial, and municipal wastewater. Recovery of phosphorous by constructed wetland plants may be affected by wastewater nitrogen to phosphorous (N:P) ratios. Varying N:P ratios were supplied to Canna '...

  10. Nitrogen nutrition of Canna indica: Effects of ammonium versus nitrate on growth, biomass allocation, photosynthesis, nitrate reductase activity and N uptake rates

    Konnerup, Dennis; Brix, Hans


    The effects of inorganic nitrogen (N) source (NH4+, NO3- or both) on growth, biomass allocation, photosynthesis, N uptake rate, nitrate reductase activity and mineral composition of Canna indica were studied in hydroponic culture. The relative growth rates (0.05-0.06 g g-1 d-1), biomass allocation...

  11. Accumulation and translocation properties of dry matter and mineral elements in edible canna (Canna edulis Ker)%芭蕉芋干物质及矿质营养元素累积与分配特征研究

    张文娥; 王飞; 潘学军


    In order to establish a reasonable fertilization protocol in canna production,pot experiments were conducted to investigate the accumulation and translocation characteristics of biomass and mineral elements in different organs of edible canna at the taro enlargement stage and taro ripe stage.The total dry matters of edible canna at the taro enlargement stage is about 54.99-62.21g/plant,and the leaf is the main translocation organ.At the taro ripe stage,the total dry matter of edible canna is more than four times of the taro enlargement stage,and the rhizome is main translocation organ.The accumulation amounts of total nitrogen (N),phosphorus (P),potassium (K),calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) of edible canna at the sub-taro enlargement stage are 497.4 -598.8,128.7-223.1,2021.2-2450.3,496.0-577.3 and 526.7-804.5 mg/plant,respectively.The highest N content is in leaves,the highest P,K and Mg contents in stems and Ca content in roots.At the ripe stage,the total N,P,K,Ca and Mg contents of edible canna are 1116.2-1210.8,852.6-907.5,4528.9-5055.2,919.2 -991.7 and 888.2-1369.0 mg/plant,respectively.The highest N content is in leaves,followed by rhizome,the highest K content is in roots,the same high P contents in stems and leaves,Mg in rhizome.To build the same dry matter of edible canna,more K,Ca and Mg are needed with Xingyu-1 than Xingyu-2 and PLRF,similar amounts of N and P required for the three cultivars.Because of the percentage dry matters distribution of Xingyu-1 in rhizome is higher than those of the other two cultivars,Xingyu-1 absorbs less N,P and K than the other two cultivars to produce the same rhizome dry weight biomass.%以3个芭蕉芋栽培品种为试材,研究了芭蕉芋发棵结芋期和子芋完熟期生物量的构成特点及各器官矿质元素含量、积累和分配规律,以期为芭蕉芋科学管理和合理施肥提供依据.结果表明,发棵结芋期,芭蕉芋干物质量为54.99~62.21g/plant,叶片是干物质主要的分配器官

  12. Endoderme com atividade meristemática em raiz de Canna edulis Kerr-Gawler (Cannaceae Endodermis with meristematic activity in the root of Canna edulis Kerr-Gawler (Cannaceae

    Alexandre A. Alonso


    Full Text Available Canna edulis é uma planta ornamental utilizada em muitos países como fonte alimentar alternativa. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a formação do córtex radicular a partir da análise anatômica da região apical. Na região situada a 220µm do pró-meristema, os tecidos meristemáticos apicais já se apresentam organizados em protoderme, meristema fundamental e procâmbio. Em fase subseqüente na diferenciação celular, a 450µm do pró-meristema, as camadas de células do córtex estão dispostas em fileiras radiais iniciando-se na endoderme. Depois que as iniciais endodérmicas cessam as divisões, adquirem estrias de Caspary. Na raiz, a 1.700µm do pró-meristema, os tecidos primários já se encontram diferenciados, sendo o padrão de distribuição celular observado no córtex de C. edulis característico ao apresentado por outras espécies de Zingiberales. A análise anatômica da região apical levou à constatação que 2/3 do córtex é resultante da atividade meristemática da endoderme e o restante das células corticais são originadas diretamente do meristema fundamental.Canna edulis is a ornamental plant used in many countries how alternative nutritional source. This work describes the development of the radicular cortex from anatomical observations of apical region. In the region situated at 220µm from the promeristem, apical meristematic tissues at once present themselves organized in protoderm, ground meristem and procambium. During the subsequent phase of cellular differentiation, at 450µm from the promeristem, cell layers of the cortex are arranged in radial tiers to be initiated in the endodermis, indicating the presence of meristematic endodermis activity. After finishing divisions, endodermic initial acquire Casparian strips. In the root at 1,700µm from of promeristem, primary tissues are immediately differentiated, the pattern of cellular distribution being observed in the cortex of Canna edulis, a

  13. From salmon pink to blue natural sensitizers for solar cells: Canna indica L., Salvia splendens, cowberry and Solanum nigrum L.

    Luo, Peihui; Niu, Haijun; Zheng, Gang; Bai, Xuduo; Zhang, Milin; Wang, Wen


    Study on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with extracts of Canna indica L., Salvia splendens, Solanum nigrum L. as sensitizers is firstly reported in this paper. DSSCs were assembled by using natural dyes extracted from C. indica L., S. splendens, cowberry and S. nigrum L. as sensitizers. The energy conversion efficiency of the cells sensitized with dyes of C. indica L., S. splendens, cowberry and S. nigrum L. was 0.29%, 0.26%, 0.13% and 0.31%, respectively. A novel technique was taken to fabricate TiO 2 electrode films by electrophoresis. We present FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy studies of structures and light absorption of these four kinds of natural dyes. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to analyze the interface resistance of cells. The result indicated that high resistance existed in the interfaces of cell with cowberry extract as sensitizer.

  14. Integrating History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences in Practice to Enhance Science Education: Swammerdam's Historia Insectorum Generalis and the Case of the Water Flea

    Kendig, Catherine


    Hasok Chang (Sci Educ 20:317-341, 2011) shows how the recovery of past experimental knowledge, the physical replication of historical experiments, and the extension of recovered knowledge can increase scientific understanding. These activities can also play an important role in both science and history and philosophy of science education. In this paper I describe the implementation of an integrated learning project that I initiated, organized, and structured to complement a course in history and philosophy of the life sciences (HPLS). The project focuses on the study and use of descriptions, observations, experiments, and recording techniques used by early microscopists to classify various species of water flea. The first published illustrations and descriptions of the water flea were included in the Dutch naturalist Jan Swammerdam's, Historia Insectorum Generalis (1669) (Algemeene verhandeling van de bloedeloose dierkens. t'Utrrecht, Meinardus van Dreunen, ordinaris Drucker van d'Academie). After studying these, we first used the descriptions, techniques, and nomenclature recovered to observe, record, and classify the specimens collected from our university ponds. We then used updated recording techniques and image-based keys to observe and identify the specimens. The implementation of these newer techniques was guided in part by the observations and records that resulted from our use of the recovered historical methods of investigation. The series of HPLS labs constructed as part of this interdisciplinary project provided a space for students to consider and wrestle with the many philosophical issues that arise in the process of identifying an unknown organism and offered unique learning opportunities that engaged students' curiosity and critical thinking skills.

  15. Loss of YABBY2-Like Gene Expression May Underlie the Evolution of the Laminar Style in Canna and Contribute to Floral Morphological Diversity in the Zingiberales.

    Morioka, Kelsie; Yockteng, Roxana; Almeida, Ana M R; Specht, Chelsea D


    The Zingiberales is an order of tropical monocots that exhibits diverse floral morphologies. The evolution of petaloid, laminar stamens, staminodes, and styles contributes to this diversity. The laminar style is a derived trait in the family Cannaceae and plays an important role in pollination as its surface is used for secondary pollen presentation. Previous work in the Zingiberales has implicated YABBY2-like genes, which function in promoting laminar outgrowth, in the evolution of stamen morphology. Here, we investigate the evolution and expression of Zingiberales YABBY2-like genes in order to understand the evolution of the laminar style in Canna. Phylogenetic analyses show that multiple duplication events have occurred in this gene lineage prior to the diversification of the Zingiberales. Reverse transcription-PCR in Canna, Costus, and Musa reveals differential expression across floral organs, taxa, and gene copies, and a role for YABBY2-like genes in the evolution of the laminar style is proposed. Selection tests indicate that almost all sites in conserved domains are under purifying selection, consistent with their functional relevance, and a motif unique to monocot YABBY2-like genes is identified. These results contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of floral morphologies. PMID:26734021

  16. In Consultationem catholicam isagoge generalis

    Balík, Vojtěch (ed.); Schifferová, Věra (ed.)

    Praha : Academia, 2014 - (Steiner, M.; Balík, V.; Čapková, D.; Schifferová, V.; Klosová, M.; Storchová, L.), s. 7-50 ISBN 978-80-200-2448-0 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : J. A. Comenius * Consultatio catholica * improvement project * general consultation Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  17. Tracking the development of the petaloid fertile stamen in Canna indica: insights into the origin of androecial petaloidy in the Zingiberales.

    Almeida, Ana M R; Brown, Andrew; Specht, Chelsea D


    Flowers of the order Zingiberales demonstrate a remarkable trend of reduction in the number of fertile stamens; from five or six fertile, filamentous stamens bearing two thecae each in Musaceae and Strelitziaceae to just a single petaloid stamen bearing a single theca in Cannaceae and Marantaceae. As one progresses from ancestral to derived floral forms, 5-6 fertile stamens are replaced by 4-5 petaloid staminodes. In Cannaceae and Costaceae, all members of the androecial whorls exhibit petaloidy, including the fertile stamen. In Costaceae, a single fertile stamen develops two thecae embedded on a broad petaloid appendage, while in Cannaceae the single fertile stamen is further reduced to a single theca with a prominent, expanded petaloid appendage. Whether petaloidy of the fertile stamen is a synapomorphy of the entire ginger clade (including Cannaceae, Costaceae, Zingiberaceae and Marantaceae), or the result of independent convergent evolution in Cannaceae, Costaceae, and some Zingiberaceae, is unclear. We combine a developmental series of the formation of the petaloid fertile stamen in Canna indica with data on the expression of B- and C-class floral organ identity genes to elucidate the organogenetic identity of the petaloid stamen and staminodes. Our data indicate that the single fertile theca in C. indica and its petaloid appendage are derived from one-half of the primordium of a single stamen, with no contribution from the remaining part of the stamen (i.e. the second theca primordium) which aborts early in development. The petaloid appendage expands later, and develops from the position of the filament/connective of the developing theca. Floral identity gene expression shows that petal identity genes (i.e. B-class genes) are expressed in all floral organs studied while C-class gene AG-1 is expressed in an increasing gradient from sepals to gynoecium, and AG-2 is expressed in all floral organs except the petals. The canonical model for molecular specification

  18. Laicità in progress: conclusioni generali

    Raffaele Coppola


    Il contributo, accettato dal Direttore, riproduce l’intervento di chiusura del convegno di studio organizzato dall’ADEC sul tema “Laicità e dimensione pubblica del fattore religioso – Stato attuale e prospettive” (Bari, Aula Magna “Aldo Moro”, 17-18 settembre 2009).SOMMARIO: 1. Le diverse soglie della laicità – 2. Prevalenza della libertà sulla laicità: i presupposti sistematici – 3. I parametri della relatività – 4. Alcune prospettive per lo studio del diritto ecclesiastico:The Principle of ...

  19. Edificio para oficinas de Assicurazioni Generali

    Alas, Genaro


    Full Text Available This building is on the Generalisimo Avenue, in Madrid. It is an office block made up of two wings and a central nucleus for vertical communications. The two bay floor levels have been planned to achieve the utmost flexibility in distribution, since there is no precise preconceived program of floor space distribution and future developments. The project is based on a 1.20 x 1.50 m modulus, which has been arrived at after detailed study. It has been obtained from a minimum space working unit, i. e., the surface that an employee will need. Each bay comprises nine 1.20 m modular units, and each floor level contains four service units, including ladies' and gentlemen's room and a cleaner's cubicle, fitted with waste disposal device. The building structure is reinforced concrete. The main facade has a striped steel facing, roll up aluminium Venetian blinds, with controllable elements, which provide good solar protection. This is a beautiful and well-coordinated building, which is worth a detailed study.Está situado en la avenida del Generalísimo en Madrid. Es un edificio destinado a oficinas, con dos cuerpos de doble crujía y un núcleo central de comunicaciones verticales. Las plantas han sido proyectadas pensando, siempre, en obtener la máxima flexibilidad, ya que, por no existir un programa enteramente definido, interesaba permitieran diferentes distribuciones y aprovechamientos futuros. El módulo de 1,20x1,50 m, base del proyecto, ha sido el resultado de un estudio detenido, partiendo de que la unidad mínima de trabajo está constituida por la superficie que ocupa un empleado. Cada crujía comprende nueve módulos de 1,20 m; y en cada piso se han organizado cuatro unidades de servicio, compuestas por un aseo de caballeros, uno de señoras y un cuarto de limpieza con vertedero. Su estructura es de hormigón armado, y en fachada principal aparece revestida con chapa, de acero banderizado, y antepechos corridos, de piedra Colmenar; persianas enrollables, de aluminio, con lamas orientables, permiten la protección exterior. El edificio ha sido resuelto en forma bella y armoniosa y constituye un conjunto orgánico, digno de tenerse en cuenta.

  20. Principi generali di gestione della manutenzione

    Furlanetto, Luciano; Macchi, Marco


    In questo volume vengono fornite le premesse per il superamento della tradizionale visione della manutenzione, quale inevitabile accidente e costo da ridurre, a favore di un'immagine culturale innovativa in cui la manutenzione consente un superamento del modello consumistico delle sostituzioni verso una ecosostenibilità del patrimonio di impianti e infrastrutture. Sulla base di queste premesse, ci si rivolge a manager, imprese, studiosi e studenti del campo dei servizi di manuntenzione.

  1. Premesse generali per uno studio dei rapporti di fatto

    Franceschelli, V


    L'articolo pone le premesse per uno studio generale dei rapporti di fatto, studio che verrà completato in una monografia pubblicata nel 1984. Lo studio del « fatto » ha sempre una posizione centrale nell'ambito della scienza giuridica e delle singole discipline. Il diritto penale, ad esempio, qualifica il fatto — Tatbestand — come uno degli elementi fondamentali della teoria generale del reato. Ma il concetto di fatto giuridico ha mostrato l’attitudine a porsi al centro della parte generale...

  2. Riforma del diritto societario: il ruolo delle "clausole generali"

    Cafaggi Fabrizio


    The law reform process concerning Italian corporate law is slowly taking place. The financial market reform has been completed in 1998. With TUIF and the following regulations enacted by Consob a new dimension of the corporate governance structure has taken shape. Much is left to be done. The reform of closely held company, that of bankruptcy, for example. Important efforts have recently be made to change this body of law. The principles around which these reform projects have been built are ...

  3. Treatment of fishpond water by recirculating horizontal and vertical flow constructed wetlands in the tropics

    Konnerup, Dennis; Trang, Ngo Thuy Diem; Brix, Hans


    in the outlets. The ornamental Canna×generalis planted in the CWs grew faster and took up more N and P in the vertical flow CWs. The aquaculture fish had a feed conversion ratio of 1.53 based on feed dry weight, and 31% and 34% of N and P input, respectively, were incorporated into fish biomass. Only minor...... niloticus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was recirculated through horizontal and vertical flow CWs. The CWs were able to keep a good water quality with DO (>1mg/l-1), BOD (fish. There was a good removal...


    Čeh, Maja


    Internet predstavlja medij prihodnosti, saj se število uporabnikov iz leta v leto povečuje. Potrošniki se od klasičnih medijev zatekajo k internetu, zato velja dejstvo, da če podjetje ni prisotno na internetu, praktično ne obstaja. Spletno trženje zavarovanj prinaša zavarovalnicam številne prednosti, ima pa tudi določene slabosti. Slabosti spletnega trženja zavarovanj za zavarovalnice so predvsem v kompleksnosti določenih zavarovalnih storitev, težki dosegljivosti standardizacije reševanj...

  5. “Norma nobilium generalis consilii civitatis Paghi” iz 1455. godine

    Granić, Miroslav


    U srednjem vijeku, u doba kada su se na hrvatskoj obali formirale gradske komune po europskom sustavu, plemstvo je bilo onaj društveni sloj koji je upravljao sudbinom tih gradova. Povezano međusobno u razna vijeća, bilo je klasno odvojeno od puka, a takav povlašteni položaj i materijalno stanje dozvoljavalo mu je da slijedi sva kulturna zbivanja u drugim većim središtima na suprotnoj obali Jadrana. Pag nije ušao u srednji vijek kao grad koji je sačuvao svoj životni kontinuitet iz antike, već ...

  6. Starch conversion of ganyong (Canna edulis Ker. to bioethanol using acid hydrolysis and fermentation



    Full Text Available Starch of ganyong is one of the sources of ethanol which is able to be produced by acid hydrolysis and fermentation process. It had high concentration of carbohydrate that is 80%, so it could produce glucose highly within acid hydrolysis process. The result showed that the optimal amount of reducing sugar had been produced by nitrate acid 7% (dextrose equivalent, DE = 28.4. Nevertheless, type and concentration of acid had no significantly correlation to reducing sugar yielded. The total amount of glucose had correlation to amount of ethanol, in fermentation process. The optimal amount of ethanol was yielded from 4.81% of glucose and it produced about 4.84% ethanol. The more amount of glucose was yielded the more ethanol was produced. Controlling pH every 12 hours did not affected to production of ethanol significantly.

  7. The control of hydrological effects of urban transformation; La valutazione idrologica dei piani urbanistici. Un metodo semplificato per l'invarianza idraulica dei piani regolatori generali

    Pistocchi, A. [Studio di Ingegneria per l' Ambiente e il Territorio, Cesena, FO (Italy)


    The paper describes a methodology for the control of hydrological effects of urban transformation, which leads to the increase in peak discharges following the increments in land imperviousness. The method computes a volume per unit area which allows to keep the specific discharge constant, given the percentage of the transformed area which becomes impervious, and is based on a linear reservoir model. It is expected that using the method in land planning may give a self-corrective procedure for the design of hydraulically invariant, yet economically sustainable urban plans. A sample application of the method is presented and future lines of research are drawn which should bring to application and parameter choice guidelines for general use of the method in strategic environmental assessment. [Italian] Il lavoro propone un metodo per la valutazione dei volumi di laminazione richiesti al fine di garantire l'invarianza idraulica delle trasformazioni urbanistiche. Il metodo giunge a definire uno standard urbanistico che puo' essere recepito direttamente in sede di pianificazione comunale, e che costituisce uno strumento di autocorrezione del piano al fine di non creare aggravi alla situazione idrologica esistente. Si propone l'applicazione esemplificativa al piano regolatore di Cesena, e si mettono in luce le principali necessita' di approfondimento per rendere il metodo suscettibile di applicazione efficace a livello sistematico.

  8. Integrating History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences in Practice to Enhance Science Education: Swammerdam's "Historia Insectorum Generalis" and the Case of the Water Flea

    Kendig, Catherine


    Hasok Chang ("Sci Educ" 20:317-341, 2011) shows how the recovery of past experimental knowledge, the physical replication of historical experiments, and the extension of recovered knowledge can increase scientific understanding. These activities can also play an important role in both science and history and philosophy of science…

  9. Administrația publică între specialiști și generaliști

    Narcisa Gabriela BODEA


    Full Text Available In any organization, the demand for both specialists and generalists is unquestionable. Specialists are those who give technical details to generalists considered better decision-makers; the latter ones will know how to process specific information as they posses in knowledge various areas . In this article we present the preference of some countries for generalists or, by case, for specialist. Reforms, initiated during the last 2-3 decades, demonstrate that countries all over the world acknowledge the necessity of both categories. Still, our country needs to overcome its communist tradition, and following the overwhelming demand for generalist we assimilate this category to that of public managers and especially to that of specialist in Public Administration.

  10. Remediation effect of common aquatic plants on the combined water pollution of eutrophication and heavy metals%常见水生植物对富营养化和重金属复合污染水体的修复效果研究

    王敏; 唐景春; 王斐


    选取大沽排污河原位生态修复工程现场的6种修复植物旱生美人蕉、水生美人蕉、旱伞草、鸢尾、马蔺、菖蒲为研究对象,通过温室培养试验研究了这6种植物对水中氮磷和重金属Cd、Pb复合污染的修复效果.试验结果表明,所选6种植物在复合污染水体中对营养物质和重金属Cd、Pb均表现出较好的修复效果.经50 d修复后,各植物对总氮TN的去除率为53.90%~ 94.75%,对总磷TP的去除率为46.76% ~ 85.10%;对Cd的去除率达到90.39%~99.47%.其中,菖蒲、鸢尾、马蔺对总氮的修复能力较好;鸢尾、美人蕉和马蔺对氨氮的修复效果较好;而旱伞草、美人蕉和马蔺对总磷的修复能力最强.所有修复植物对Cd和Pb的富集系数都远远大于1,对Cd、Pb表现出很强的富集能力,可作为Cd、Pb超富集植物来修复水体中的重金属Cd、Pb污染.%The paper selected six kinds of plants including canna generalis, canna glauca, cyperus alterni-folius, iris tectorum, iris iacteal, acorus calamus linn from situ ecological restoration engineering field of Dagu sewage river as research object. Greenhouse cultivation test was carried out to study the remediation effect of six plants on nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metal of Cd and Pb. The result showed that all the 6 plants showed good remediation effects on the water pollution. The removal rates of the plants are 53. 90 ~ 94. 75% to TN, 46. 76 ~85.10% to TP, and 90. 39~99.47% to Cd. Acorus calamus linn, iris tectorum and Iris lacteal shows good remediation effect on TN; the remediation effects of iris tectorum, canna and iris iacteal on NH4 + -N are better; and cyperus alternifolius, canna and iris iacteal are best choices on TP remediation. The enrichment factor of six kinds of plants on Cd and Pb is far greater than 1, which means strong accumulation ability of plants on Cd and Pb. The plants can be used as hyperaccumulator of Cd and Pb to deal with

  11. 芭蕉芋良种组培及块茎快繁技术研究%Tissue Culture and Rapid Propagation of Cannas edulis

    周明强; 周正邦; 欧珍贵; 刘凡值; 龚德勇


    为促进芭蕉芋良种的推广使用及芭蕉芋产业的健康发展,以芭蕉芋为材料进行了组培技术及块茎芽片繁殖技术的研究.结果表明,芭蕉芋茎尖诱导的培养基最佳组合为MS+6-BA 2.5mg/L+NAA0.5 mg/L+琼脂8g/L+蔗糖30 g/L+GA3 0.5 mg/L+ZT 2.0 mg/L+DVP 0.5 g/L(或AC 0.5 g/L),其出苗率为47.4%;生根培养基最佳组合为1/2 MS+6-BA 2.0mg/L+ NAA 0.5mg/L+琼脂8g/L+蔗糖30 g/L+GA30.5 mg/L+ZT 2.0 mg/L+DVP 0.5 g/L,其苗的成活率达86.0%;增殖培养基最佳组合为MS+6-BA 2.0mg/L+NAA 0.5mg/L+琼脂8g/L+蔗糖30 g/L+GA3 0.5mg/L+ZT 2.0mg/L+DVP0.5 g/L,其繁殖倍数为14.98.芭蕉芋块茎芽片苗经NAA 0.25mg/L浸泡30 min的发芽率最高,为65.0%;芭蕉芋顶部芽的出苗率优于底部芽,项部芽的芽片苗的生长情况优于底部芽.%The technique of tissue culture and rapid propagation technique in C. Edulis was studied to promote popularization of improved C. Edulis varieties and healthy development of C. Edulis industry. The results showed that the optimum media for stem apex induction, rooting and propagation were MS + 2. 5mg/L 6-BA+0. 5mg/L NAA+8g/L agar+30g/L sucrose+0. 5 mg/L GA3+2. 0mg/L ZT+0. 5g/L DVP(or AC 0. 5g/L), 1/2MS+2. 0mg/L 6-BA+0. 5mg/L NAA+8g/L agar+30g/L sucrose +0. 5mg/ L GA3 + 2. 0mg/L ZT + 0. 5g/L DVP and MS+2. 0mg/L 6-BA + 0. 5mg/L NAA + 8g/L agar + 30g/ Lsucrose+0. 5mg/L GA3 + 2. 0mg/L ZT + 0. 5g/L DVP separately. And the induction rate, plantlet survival rate and propagation time were 47. 4%, 86. 0% and 14. 98 respectively, the germination rate of buds soaked in 0. 25mg/L NAA for 30min could reach 65. 0%, the plantlet rate and growth vigor of plantlets cultured from the top buds were better than those of plantlets cultured from the bottom buds.

  12. Búsqueda de especies vegetales productoras de follaje útiles en la elaboración de arreglos florales

    Ducuara Frank


    Full Text Available En este estudio se incluyen las fases de documentación, búsqueda, determinación, propagación y evaluación de algunas especies vegetales productoras de follaje para la elaboración de arreglos florales. En la fase de campo se realizaron colecciones botánicas en diferentes municipios de Cundinamarca (Colombia, incluyendo las plazas de mercado y los jardines de la ciudad de Bogotá. Se colectó un total de 57 especies en los diferentes ambientes, de las cuales 19 correspondieron a especies nativas y 38 a especies exóticas. En la fase de laboratorio se llevó a cabo la determinación y multiplicación del material utilizando diferentes formas de
    propagación. De esta forma se logró el enraizamiento por esquejes de 24 especies exóticas y cuatro nativas mediante la aplicación de la hormona líquida ácido indolbutírico (IBA 3.500 ppm + solución madre compuesta de hidróxido de sodio. La propagación por semillas se logró con una especie nativa (Dodonaea viscosa y con una especie exótica (Zantedeschia aethiopica. La propagación por bulbos se realizó eficientemente con la especie nativa Canna generalis y con una especie de la familia Orchidaceae. Finalmente las técnicas de cultivo in vitro fueron utilizadas para la siembra y multiplicación de Zantedeschia aethiopica como una contribución a la
    micropropagación de aráceas útiles en el sector floricultor. Para cada una de las especies propagadas se tuvo en cuenta su porcentaje de enraizamiento, el tiempo de enraizamiento y el tiempo que tardaron en producir tallos con los parámetros de calidad previamente establecidos. Los tallos fueron sometidos a las evaluaciones de cuarto frío, viaje simulado y evaluación en florero.

  13. 用GGE双标图分析广西旱藕品种产量稳定性和试点代表性%The yield stability and site representative of canna varieties in Guangxi using GGE biplot

    何虎翼; 杨鑫; 谭冠宁; 何新民; 唐洲萍; 李丽淑




    Josiane C. MARTINS; Luciana Bronzi de SOUZA; Magali LEONEL


    O pão-de queijo é um produto de consumo crescente sendo comercializado em todo o país. O biri é uma tuberosa amilácea ainda pouco explorada no Brasil, mas já utilizada em outros países como fonte de amido para uso em biscoitos e macarrão. Neste trabalho buscouse avaliar o efeito da inclusão de fécula de biri e caseína na formulação básica de pão-de-queijo sobre a densidade aparente, volume específi co, componentes de cor e análise sensorial dos produtos obtidos. Fora...

  15. Joint-venture Insurance Firm Born


    @@ Generali China Life insurance Company Ltd.began operations in February this year in Guangzhou,capital of South China's Guangdong Province - the first joint-venture insurer since China joined the World Trade Organization.

  16. Ultrasound in vascular disease & introduction

    Deane, C; S.Castellani; B. Brkljacic


    Il capitolo descrive i prin cipi generali fondamentali delle tecniche per la valutazione ultrasonografica con doppler vascolare The chapter describes the fundamental principles underlying the use of ultrasonographic techniques of vascular doppler

  17. Evidence that familial liability for psychosis is expressed as differential sensitivity to cannabis - an analysis of patient-sibling and sibling-control pairs

    Kahn, Rene S.; Linszen, Don H.; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia; Myin-Germeys, Inez


    Context: Individual differences in cannabis sensitivity may be associated with genetic risk for psychotic disorder. Objectives: To demonstrate and replicate, using 2 conceptually different genetic epidemiological designs, that (familial) liability to psychosis is associated with sensitivity to canna

  18. Morfologia externa dos imaturos de Caligo teucer (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae External morphology of the immatures of Caligo teucer (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Neuda A. de Souza


    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve os imaturos de Caligo teucer (Linnaeus, 1758. O material criado é proveniente do nordeste do Brasil. As larvas se alimentam de folhas de bananeira Musa spp. (Musaceae, Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae, Canna indica (Cannaceae e Alpinia purpurata (Zingiberaceae.This paper describes the immatures of Caligo teucer teucer (Linnaeus,1758, from material reared in northeast Brazil. The larva feed on leaves of Musa spp. (Musaceae, Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae, Canna indica (Cannaceae and Alpinia purpurata (Zingiberaceae.

  19. Morfologia externa dos imaturos de Caligo teucer (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) External morphology of the immatures of Caligo teucer (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae)

    Neuda A. de Souza; Antônio F. S. L. Veiga; Casagrande, Mirna M; Manoel G. C. Gondim Jr


    Este trabalho descreve os imaturos de Caligo teucer (Linnaeus, 1758). O material criado é proveniente do nordeste do Brasil. As larvas se alimentam de folhas de bananeira Musa spp. (Musaceae), Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae), Canna indica (Cannaceae) e Alpinia purpurata (Zingiberaceae).This paper describes the immatures of Caligo teucer teucer (Linnaeus,1758), from material reared in northeast Brazil. The larva feed on leaves of Musa spp. (Musaceae), Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae), Canna ind...

  20. Physicochemical properties of flours and starches derived from traditional Indonesian tubers and roots.

    Aprianita, Aprianita; Vasiljevic, Todor; Bannikova, Anna; Kasapis, Stefan


    Flours and starches isolated from traditional tubers and roots grown in Indonesia have physical and chemical properties suitable for certain food applications. Compared to other flour samples, cassava and canna flours contained the highest amount of total starch (TS) (77.4 and 77.1 %, respectively). Taro starch had the lowest amount of TS among other starch samples with 75.4 %. The highest amount of amylose was observed from yam and canna flours (25.2 and 23.2 %, respectively). Among starch samples, canna starch contained the highest amylose content (30.4 %), while taro had the lowest (7.6 %). In terms of protein content, arrowroot flour had the highest amount (7.7 %), in contrast to cassava flour which had the lowest (1.5 %). Compared to other flours, canna and konjac flour were the most slowly digested which indicated by their high amount of resistant starch (RS). Canna starch had the highest swelling power and viscosity than other starches and flours. The clearest paste was observed from cassava flour and starch as opposed to konjac starch which was the most opaque paste. PMID:25477633

  1. Physicochemical properties of flours and starches derived from traditional Indonesian tubers and roots

    Aprianita, Aprianita; Vasiljevic, Todor; Bannikova, Anna; Kasapis, Stefan


    Flours and starches isolated from traditional tubers and roots grown in Indonesia have physical and chemical properties suitable for certain food applications. Compared to other flour samples, cassava and canna flours contained the highest amount of total starch (TS) (77.4 and 77.1 %, respectively). Taro starch had the lowest amount of TS among other starch samples with 75.4 %. The highest amount of amylose was observed from yam and canna flours (25.2 and 23.2 %, respectively). Among starch s...

  2. Srovnání poskytovaných podmínek penzijních fondů V České republice



    The Bachelor´s thesis is oriented on the analysis of three pension funds (Allianz pension fund, a jointstock company, Generali pension fund, a jointstock company, and ČSOB Pension fund Stabilita, a jointstock company)in the Czech Republic. The overall situation of pension funds in the Czech Republic is then further compared with other countries.

  3. La lingua italiana sotto assedio

    Battistini, Andrea


    The Italian language under siege. Moving from the new edition of Antonio Vallisneri’s "Che ogni italiano debba scrivere in lingua purgata italiana" (1722), edited by Dario Generali, and from the current debate about the use of the English language in Italian university courses, this essay advances a historical consideration about Italian linguistic identity and denounces the risks of its depletion.

  4. Historical Roots Of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz’s Universal Science

    Natalia A. Osminskaya


    This paper analyses different retrospective links between the scientia generalis by Leibniz and the philosophical, rhetorical and encyclopaedic traditions of the Renaissance and Early Modern Europe, emphasising the influence of Aristotle’s’ “Metaphysics” on the genesis of the concept of universal science in 17th century philosophy.

  5. Psalmos, notas, cantus: the meanings of nota in the Carolingian period

    Steinova, E.


    The Latin quotation in the title of this article is taken from the Admonitio generalis, a key document of Charlemagne's reforms circulated in 789. In a well-known passage, to which the title refers, Charlemagne calls for the establishment of schools and adds a set of subjects that might be interpret

  6. Dye strip dosimeter

    Saisomboon, S.; Siri-Upathum, C.


    This paper describes a new method for measuring radiation dose by using natural pigments. The pigments were extracted from Hibiscus rosa sinensis L. and Canna indica L. and were irradiated with gamma ray. Doses of 30 rad and above are indicated by color changes.

  7. The main factors of on-line trust

    Sofia Elena COLESCA


    Generaly said, trust is an important factor in many social interactions. Because on-line transactions are characterized by uncertainty and anonymity, trust and risk are essential elements in e-commerce and e-government services. There is a statistically significant relationship between trust and use of e-commerce and e-government websites. So, use of Internet for product acquisition, bill and taxes payments has many risky components. In this context, this article presents the concept of on-li...

  8. Přírodní látky využitelné při ekologickém pěstování brambor

    Švorc, Michal


    Large development of organic farming brings higher need to find out some new environmentally friendly substances usable in this kind of alternative farming. I tried to make a list of preparations which have been already used or are usable or teoretical usable against Phytophtora infestans (Mont.) de Bary. Some of these preparations are generaly used and proved for many decades, the other ones are just new discoveries, which are being tested and their protective effect is a subject of many res...

  9. Translational research in medicine and pain (Ricerca traslazionale in medicina e nel dolore, Editorial

    Maria Luisa Sotgiu


    Full Text Available La ricerca traslazionale in medicina (RTM in termini generali si riferisce al trasferimento dei risultati della ricerca di base (o ricerca preclinica a una possibile utilizzazione clinica. Lo scopo ultimo è fornire il fondamento scientifico per lo sviluppo di nuove strategie terapeutiche farmacologiche e strumentali o per il miglioramento di terapie già esistenti.Per raggiungere questo obiettivo è necessario definire gli effetti biologici dei trattamenti terapeutici nell’uomo e la “ biologia” della patologia trattata.

  10. Structural complexity metrics for UML class diagrams

    KONG Qing-yan; LUN Li-jun; WANG Yi-he; DING Xue-mei


    In order to evaluate the structural complexity of class diagrams systematically and deeply, a new guiding framework of structural complexity is presented. An index system of structural complexity for class dia-grams is given. This article discusses the formal description of class diagrams, and presents the method of for-mally structural complexity metrics for class diagrams from associations, dependencies, aggregations, generali-zations and so on. An applicable example proves the feasibility of the presented method.

  11. Irreducible Lie-Yamaguti algebras of Generic Type

    Benito, Pilar; Elduque, Alberto; Martin-Herce, Fabian


    Lie-Yamaguti algebras (or generalized Lie triple systems) are binary-ternary algebras intimately related to reductive homogeneous spaces. The Lie-Yamaguti algebras which are irreducible as modules over their inner derivation algebras are the algebraic counterpart of the isotropy irreducible homogeneous spaces. These systems splits into three disjoint types: adjoint type, non-simple type and generic type. The systems of the first two types were classified in a previous paper through a generali...

  12. Animal defense strategies and anxiety disorders

    Rosana Shuhama; Cristina M Del-Ben; Loureiro, Sônia R; Graeff, Frederico G.


    Anxiety disorders are classified according to symptoms, time course and therapeutic response. Concurrently, the experimental analysis of defensive behavior has identified three strategies of defense that are shared by different animal species, triggered by situations of potential, distal and proximal predatory threat, respectively. The first one consists of cautious exploration of the environment for risk assessment. The associated emotion is supposed to be anxiety and its pathology, Generali...

  13. L’inadempimento delle obbligazioni pecuniarie tra codice civile e legislazione speciale

    Di Martino, Gaetano


    La ricerca si è soffermata, all’inizio, sui profili generali dell’inadempimento delle obbligazioni pecuniarie e, dunque, sulla distinzione tra ritardo e mora, in dottrina ed in giurisprudenza; sono stati esaminati, anche sotto il profilo storico e comparatistico, la disciplina del luogo del pagamento ed il principio “dies interpellat pro homine”, con riferimento anche alle obbligazioni della Pubblica Amministrazione; analogamente, è stata oggetto di indagine la natura della responsabilità de...


    VANCEA, Smaranda; HORJA, Ioana-Monica


    The present paper tries to bring into focus the model of the Romanian investors in capital market.The information that we used and reworked were collected from three important souces: literature review, official raports of BSE and Sibex, official raports of Central Depository and Financial Supervisory Authority.Generaly, we can point the great aversion of the risks that characterized the Romanian financial instruments investors.

  15. Comparison of travel insurance offered by selected insurance companies in the Czech Republic

    Seimlová, Nikola


    The bachelor thesis is a comparison of offers of travel insurance offered by insurance companies on the Czech market. In the analysis were selected two insurance companies, and insurance company Allianz and Generali. The first chapter focuses on general characteristics of basic terms in the insurance industry and the characteristics of individual services of travel insurance. In the second part of the thesis is an analysis of services of travel insurance and a performance of selected insuranc...

  16. Sulfur Emissions, Abatement Technologies and Related Costs for Europe in the RAINS Model Database

    Cofala, J; Syri, S.


    This paper describes the part of the Regional Pollution Information and Simulation (RAINS) model dealing with the potential and costs controlling emissions of sulfur dioxide. The paper describes the selected aggregation level of the emission generating activities and reviews the major options for controlling SO2 emissions. An algorithm for estimating emission control costs is presented. The cost calculation distinguishes 'general'(i.e., valid for all countries) and 'country-specific' paramete...

  17. New dragonflies (Insecta: Odonata: Gomphaeschnidae) from the Yixian Formation in Inner Mongolia, China


    Two fossil dragonflies from the Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation in Liutiaogou Village, Ningcheng County,Inner Mongolia, China are described and illustrated. They are assigned to two new genera and species, I.e., Sophoaeschna frigida sp. Nov. And Falsisophoaeschna generalis gen. Et sp. Nov. Within the family Gomphaeschnidae Tillyard & Fraser, 1940. This is the first report of Odonata from Yixian Formation in Inner Mongolia and the second record of fossil Gomphaeschnidae from China.

  18. Arbitration in the EU - Where are we heading?

    Genberg, Jonna Heidi Elisabeth


    Council Regulation (EC) No 44/2001 on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters (the Brussels I Regulation) has been considered the most important legal document in the area of civil procedure on EU level. Article 1(2)(d) of the Regulation excludes arbitration from the scope of application of the Brussels I Regulation. However, the ECJ interpreted the arbitration exclusion narrowly in Case C-185/07 Allianz SpA & Generali Assicurazioni Genera...

  19. Srovnání cestovního pojištění nabízeného komerčními pojišťovnami v České republice

    Plisková, Michaela


    Bachelors thesis analyzes travel insurance offered in Czech Republic. Three insurance companies were chosen for the analysis - Česká pojišťovna, Generali and Kooperativa. In the first chapter travel insurance is described, above all insurance and services. Second part includes comparison of insurance and services of individual insurance companies. In this chapter most of all insurance terms and conditions are examined. The end of this part is a thesis, whether is sufficient for client to chos...


    Ermakov Vyacheslav Alekseevich


    The aim of this work is the studying of psychological and pedagogical of development and implementation of transpersonal educational project in Russian education. The methodology of research is based on a comparative-historical method and the historiographic analysis. Result of research was historical reconstruction of formation of transpersonal psychology, as in Russia, and abroad. Experience of the domestic scientists developing criticism of the transpersonal educational project is generali...

  1. Generating new varieties of shrubs for landscapes in Malaysia

    This project which was funded by National Landscape Department was aimed at generating new varieties of shrubs suitable for landscapes in Malaysia. Three species of shrubs commonly used in Malaysian landscapes (hibiscus, canna and turnera) were selected for generating new varieties through mutagenesis techniques using gamma rays and ion beams. The main objective was to produce new varieties with desired characters, such as longer bloom period, unique and prominent petal colors and larger flower size. Through this project, several potential mutants have been identified such as turnera with longer bloom period, canna with new flower colors and hibiscus with different flower form. These mutants are currently undergoing field screening at Serdang to analyze their genetic stability, and will be registered as new varieties with Department of Agriculture before being transferred to end-users. (author)

  2. Study on Formaldehyde Absorption Capacity of Four Plant Species%4种植物吸收甲醛能力分析

    赖玉珊; 王庆玲; 刘用凯; 薛秋华


    The formaldehyde absorption capacity of four plant species, i. e. ,Taxus chinensis, Canna indica, Fatsia japonica and Jasminum sambac was studied with a sealed chamber of boilerplate by three formaldehyde concentrations. The results showed that all the four plant species had a pretty good absorption capacity to formaldehyde. By comparing the absorption rate of formaldehyde with 3 different concentrations in 12 hours, Taxus chinensis was the best, followed by Canna indica and Fatsia japonica, the formaldehyde absorption rate of Jasminum sambac was the weakest. The formaldehyde absorption amount per unit leaf area was increased along with the concentration increment. Under high formaldehyde concentration, the absorption amount per unit leaf area of Canna indica was the highest, indicating the formaldehyde absorption capacity of Canna indica was the strongest among the four plant species.%以红豆杉、美人蕉、八角金盘、茉莉等4种植物为研究对象,通过人工模拟环境,在3种不同甲醛浓度下探讨4种植物吸收甲醛的能力.结果表明:4种植物对甲醛均有较好的吸收能力;综合考虑12 h内3种浓度下整个植株的吸收率,红豆杉的吸收效果最好,美人蕉和八角金盘次之,茉莉的吸收效果最差;4种植物单位叶面积吸收量随甲醛浓度的增大而增大,高浓度下美人蕉的单位叶面积吸收量最大,其吸收能力最强.


    Mega Anggraeni


    Full Text Available Constructed wetland is one of the alternatives to increase water quality before it flowed into waterways. Sub Surface Flow Wetland System is one type of the constructed wetland for waste water treatment which is using symbiotic relation between water plants and microorganism around rooting system (rhizosphere in media. Cyperus alternifolius and Canna indica, L. as well as gravel and sand media are plants and medias that can be used in constructed wetland. This research aimed to analyze the effectiveness of plant species between Cyperus alternifolius and Canna indica, L. as well as the effectiveness of gravel and sand media to decrease nitrite, ammoniak, BOD, and COD concentrations. Four reactors SSF-Wetlands with dimension of 120 cm x 30 cm x 50 cm were used in this research. The study was conducted over 12 days following the  acclimatization of plants for 7 days. Data analysis were performed by comparing the degradation coefficient (k of BOD, COD, nitrite, and ammonia concentrations with retention time of the effluent. The results showed that  the degradation rate for the reactor with with gravel media and Cyperus alternifolius for nitrite variable was 0.60,  ammonia 0.49, BOD 0.45, and COD 0.36. Cyperus alternifolius have a higher effectiveness in reducing the concentration of nitrite, ammonia , BOD and COD than Canna indica , L. Reactors with gravel media have higher effectiveness in reducing BOD , COD , ammonia and nitrite concentration than sand media. Keywords : Canna indica. L. , Cyperus alternifolius, SSF - Wetland, , WWTP effluent of pharmaceutical industry

  4. Degradation of Lignin by Cyathus Species

    Abbott, Thomas P.; Wicklow, Donald T.


    The ability of 12 Cyathus species to degrade 14C-labeled lignin in kenaf was studied. The sum of 14C released into solution plus 14C released into the gas phase over a 32-day fermentation period was used to determine average daily rates of lignin biodegradation. Cyathus pallidus. C. africanus, and C. berkeleyanus delignified kenaf most rapidly. C. canna showed the greatest preference for lignin degradation over other plant components, and its rate of lignin degradation was only slightly lower...

  5. Ekonomická efektivnost zavedení léčby konopím v České republice

    Haasová, Radka


    Thesis deals with currently discussed topic -- the medical use of cannabis -- the missing possibility in the current medicine state in the Czech republic. Despite the fact that cannabis seems to be very effective for medical use, official medical use of cannabis permitted by law can be observed in only few countries. Czech republic doesn't belong among these countries, however there are some tendencies to change current situation. The goal of the thesis is to stand up for medical use of canna...

  6. Role of the Cannabinoid System in Pain Control and Therapeutic Implications for the Management of Acute and Chronic Pain Episodes

    Manzanares, J.; Julian, MD; Carrascosa, A


    Cannabis extracts and synthetic cannabinoids are still widely considered illegal substances. Preclinical and clinical studies have suggested that they may result useful to treat diverse diseases, including those related with acute or chronic pain. The discovery of cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands, and the machinery for the synthesis, transport, and degradation of these retrograde messengers, has equipped us with neurochemical tools for novel drug design. Agonist-activated canna...

  7. Role of Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 Desensitization in Greater Tetrahydrocannabinol Impairment of Memory in Adolescent Rats

    Moore, Nicole L. T.; Greenleaf, Ashley L. R.; Acheson, Shawn K.; Wilson, Wilkie A.; Swartzwelder, H. Scott; Kuhn, Cynthia M.


    Adolescence is a well defined developmental period during which marijuana use is common. However, little is known about the response to marijuana in adolescents compared with adults. We have shown previously that adolescent rats are more impaired than adults by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound in marijuana, in a spatial learning task, but the mechanism responsible for this differential impairment is not understood. We determined the role of THC tolerance and canna...

  8. Opposite function of dopamine D1 and NMDA receptors in striatal cannabinoid-mediated signaling

    Daigle, Tanya L.; Wetsel, William C.; Caron, Marc G.


    It is well established that the cannabinoid and dopamine systems interact at various levels to regulate basal ganglia function. While it is well known that acute administration of cannabinoids to mice can modify dopamine-dependent behaviors, an understanding of the intraneuronal signaling pathways employed by these agents in the striatum is not well understood. Here we use knockout (KO) mouse models to examine the regulation of striatal ERK1/2 signaling by behaviorally relevant doses of canna...

  9. Cannabis-Related treatment demands in Belgium: a socio-demographic and treatment seeking profile

    Colpaert, K; Vanderplasschen, W; Van Hal, G; Schuyten, G; Broekaert, E


    Aims Most people appear to stop using cannabis when getting older, but a certain subgroup becomes cannabis dependent, has problems in various life areas and needs treatment. Our aim is to compare a number of sociodemographic and treatment seeking variables between treatment seekers with primary cannabis problems and those with primary alcohol, opiate, amphetamine or cocaine problems. Understanding how primary canna-bis users seeking treatment differ from other treatment seekers may assist cli...

  10. Observation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removals and Accumulations in Surface Flow Constructed Wetland (SFCW)

    Suntud Sirianuntapiboon; Prapa Sohsalam


    The tropical emergent plant species; Cyperus involucratus, Canna siamensis, Heliconia sp., Hymenocallis littoralis, Typha augustifolia and Thalia dealbata were used to observe nutrients (total phosphorus: TP and total nitrogen: TN) removal efficiencies of surface flow constructed wetland (SFCW). The system was operated at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1, 3 and 5 days and the average atmospheric temperature of 29.1 ± 4.9oC. The seafood industrial wastewater was employed as the in...

  11. Plýtvání potravinami v domácnostech jako environmentální problém

    Simonová, Štefánia


    Theoretical part first is dedicated to problem of food wastage in general. Subsequently is describes parts of the food chain as resources of food waste/food loss. Next chapter is about main impacts of food waste. Attention is focused on options how to avoid of food waste in households and also how to reuse already formed food waste.In practical part is used qualitative research method. The aim was to analyze behavior to food waste of six different households. Obtained data can not be generali...

  12. Compuesto aromático enantiopuro y su perdeuterado como agente de solvatación quiral, como auxiliar quiral y como monómero para la obtención de polímeros y copolimeros quirales

    Virgili, Albert; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (1933-1939)


    Compuesto aromático enantiopuro y su homólogo perdeuterado como agente de solvatación quiral, como auxiliar quiral y como monónero para la obtención de polímeros y copolímeros quirales. Compuesto aromático enantiopuro de fórmula general(I), donde X es un átomo de hidrógeno o deuterio. Dicho compuesto se utiliza como agente de solvatación quiral, auxiliar quiral y como monómero para la obtención de polímeros y copolímeros quirales

  13. Bayesian modelling of stochastic processes in teletraffic and finance

    Ramírez Cobo, Josefa


    El marco matemático para este estudio son los procesos estocásticos. Se desarolla un método de inferencia Bayesiana para dos tipos diferentes de distribuciones de cola pesada, que posteriormente caracterizarán el proceso de llegadas o de servicio en diversos sistemas de colas. La primera distribución de cola pesada que se considera es la mixtura de distribuciones de tipo Pareto, y la segunda, la distribución Doble Pareto Lognormal. La segunda contribución de esta tesis es la generali...

  14. Circuiti fondamenti di circuiti per l'ingegneria

    de Magistris, Massimiliano


    Questo libro è un testo introduttivo ai circuiti per i corsi delle Facoltà di Ingegneria, al primo livello. Esso parte dai concetti di intensità di corrente, tensione e potenza elettrica, introducendo le leggi di Kirchhoff ed il modello circuitale su base fisica. Vengono poi introdotti gli elementi circuitali fondamentali ed illustrate le proprietà generali dei circuiti. Successivamente sono trattati i circuiti lineari e tempo invarianti in maniera completa, sviluppandone le principali tecniche di analisi. Nonostante il taglio introduttivo e l’attenzione ad uno stile piano ed accessibile, il testo si propone di affrontare il modello circuitale in modo rigoroso ed al tempo stesso moderno.

  15. Pruski generalštab i počeci sociologije

    Žunec, Ozren


    Iz praktičnih potreba i s namjerom da objasne francuske uspjehe i savezničke neuspjehe u francuskim revolucionarnim i napoleonskim ratovima te da tako pronađu odgovarajuće vojne protumjere u organizaciji i načinu uporabe vojske kojima bi se preokrenuo nepovoljan ishod kampanja, pruski generali Gerhard von Schamhorst (1755.-1813.) i Carl von Clausewitz (1780.-1831.) došli su do radikalno novog uvida da je promjena načina ratovanja, vidljiva u drugačijim ratnim ciljevima, novoj strategiji, takt...

  16. La ripartizione dell' energia fra le sesse di Un lago



    Full Text Available This work studies by approximation thc problem of tbe energy distribution among thc seichcs oi a lake oi various no de. It is obvious that particular conditions may affect tbe prevalent rise of one seiche rather than another, however, st atistically the probability to observe the uninodale 18 genera~ly bigger than the probability of observing tbe binodale etc.; becau8e, still statistically tbe arnplitudes of the uninodalc are, on thc average, bigger, compared with the others. The determination oi the statistical distribution of the energies and consequently the amplitudes, i8 the purpose of this work.

  17. Emozioni e progettazione nel lavoro sociale

    Serrelli, E


    Il tema delle emozioni e della progettazione è qui affrontato relativamente all’educazione e all’assistenza nel sociale, un contesto lavorativo che ha forti specificità, sebbene non manchino aperture più generali e connessioni con altri contesti. Il tema della gestione delle emozioni prende spunto dal caso concreto di una équipe educativa che richiede un aiuto formativo per poter meglio affrontare episodi di aggressività che avvengono frequentemente in un centro educativo assistenzial...

  18. Interactive Generalization on Large-Scale Topographical Map Supported by a Database Platform

    CAI Zhongliang; WU Hehai; DU Qingyun; LIAO Chujiang


    This paper makes astudy on the interactive digital gener-alization, where map generalizationcan be divided into intellective reason-ing procedure and operational proce-dure, which are done by human andcomputer, respectively. And an inter-active map generalization environmentfor large scale topographic map is thendesigned and realized. This researchfocuses on: ① the significance of re-searching an interactive map generali-zation environment, ② the features oflarge scale topographic map and inter-active map generalization, ③ the con-struction of map generalization-orien-ted database platform.

  19. Spatial Relation Resolution and Spatial Relation Abstraction

    AI Tinghua; LIU Yaolin


    This paper attempts toregard spatial relation transformationas an important process in map gener-alization. The spatial relation generali-zation can be divided into the compo-nents of abstraction: topology, dis-tance and orientation. The concept‘ spatial relation resolution' is intro-duced to describe the constraints ofrelative spatial relation. On the basisof nine intersection models, the cardi-nal direction models and the iso-dis-tance-relation models, this paper givesthree sorts of relation resolution repre-sentations for topological, distance andorientation relation, respectively. Twomapping implementations in map gen-eralization is discussed.

  20. "Cooperativismo y economía del bien común" (Cooperativism and economy of the common good)

    Alejandro Martínez Charterina


    En los últimos años (desde 2010) se está promocionando elmodelo de economía del bien común que muestra un buen número de cooperativascomo ejemplo de lo que promociona en el orden empresarial. Este trabajotrata de destacar el interés de las cooperativas por la mejora social, en general,y en particular en el medio en el que se hacen presentes, trascendiendolos intereses de cada cooperativa singular. Esto queda bien unido a las pretensionesde la Alianza Cooperativa Internacional dirigidas a la p...

  1. Joaquim de Fiore : trindade, história e milenarismo

    Nascimiento, Cláudio Reichert do


    O artigo mostra o sistema hermenêutico desenvolvido por Joaquim de Fiore para interpretar a Escritura e a história. A Figura do Mundo aparece como uma síntese deste sistema e representa a história geral (generalis historia), a qual diz respeito ao Antigo e ao Novo Testamento, e as histórias especiais (especiales historia). Estas histórias guardam relação entre as figuras bíblicas, inscritas nos dois testamentos, e os animais descritos na visão do profeta Ezequiel. Por fim, faz-se referência à...

  2. Small Proposals Book

    Monk, Jonathan


    Questo progetto rappresenta prima di tutto una riflessione sulla realizzabilità dei progetti d’arte e sul rapporto dell’artista con la committenza nel sistema dell’arte contemporanea, arrivando con l’ironia e la poetica che contraddistinguerà i successivi progetti dell’artista a mettere in discussione dinamiche e significati più generali. In questo lavoro, realizzato quando Jonathan Monk era ancora studente presso la Glasgow School of Arts, l’artista illustra infatti una serie di proposte...

  3. Los ciudadanos y su dinámica participativa en los medios de cercanía

    Gómez y Méndez, José Manuel; Méndez Muros, Sandra (Coordinador)


    El desarrollo tecnológico ha supuesto una evolución social con incidencia indiscutible en el desarrollo de los Medios de Comunicación, aportando nuevos procesos en toda su cadena de transmisión de los mensajes periodísticos. El ciudadano ha sido durante años simple receptor de los contenidos teniendo solamente la popular sección de "Cartas al director" en papel impreso, llamadas telefónicas en tiempos radiofónicos o preguntas concretizadas en programaciones televisivas. De los medios generali...

  4. Estudio sobre la calidad de la remolacha azucarada en algunas explotaciones de la provincia de Salamanca

    Sánchez de la Puente, L.; Martín del Molino, I.; Prat Pérez, L.; Crisanto, T.


    [EN]The analysis and study of fifteen sugar beet farms in the province of Salamanca, based on growth records and chemical tests in soils and plants lead to the following deductions: Soils with sandy texture predominate, followed by sand-clay and clay-sandy textures, with a mean clay content of 15,1% and somewhat higher in the sub-soil: the soils generaly are acid, only five having pH values higher than 6; they are very poor in organic matter and nitrogen, and have potassium, phosphorus and ca...

  5. Does collaborative care help in the treatment of anxiety in primary health care?

    Leonardo Moscovici; João Mazzoncini de Azevedo Marques; Antonio Waldo Zuardi


    Objective: Anxiety disorders represent an important part of mental health problems in primary care. This literature review seeks to find out whether collaborative care (called “matrix support” in Brazil) assists the treatment of anxiety disorders and/or anxiety symptoms. Methods: We performed a literature search with no time period restriction using PubMed, ISI, and LILACS PSYCINFO databases. The descriptors sought were “collaborative care”, “shared care”, “primary care”, “anxiety”, “generali...

  6. Effects of Plant Species on Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Constructed Wetlands Treating Municipal Wastewater

    Sukanda Chuersuwan; Pongthep Suwanvaree; Nares Chuersuwan


    This study was conducted to quantify emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), methane (CH4) and Nitrous Oxide (N2), from free water surface constructed wetlands used for domestic wastewater treatment. All constructed wetlands were monoculture and each plot was planted with Phragmites sp., Cyperus sp., or Canna sp. The average CH4 and N2 O emissions were in the range of 5.9-11.2 and 0.9-1.8 g/m2/h, respectively. Seasonal fluctuations of CH4 and N2 O emissions were observed. The highest fluxes of ...

  7. Ultrastructure of underutilized tuber starches and its relation to physicochemical properties.

    Lan, Xiaohong; Li, Yongfu; Xie, Shichao; Wang, Zhengwu


    Starches from five underutilized tubers (canna, potato, Chinese yam, water chestnut, and taro) were extracted to investigate quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) in each starch using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Structural parameters of the tuber starches were determined using the paracrystalline model. Swelling power (SP), water solubility index (WSI), amylose leaching (AML), and thermal properties were also measured. The XRD results indicated that starches from Chinese yam, water chestnut, and taro are C-type starches with relatively high crystallinity (29.23-35.02%). In contrast, canna and potato starches are B-type starches exhibiting lower crystallinity and higher amylose content. The paracrystalline model provided a better fit for the C-type starches than for the B-type starches because the former was highly compressible (indicated by a higher "β" value). B-type starches, on the other hand, tend to be more rigid along the lamellar repeat direction, requiring the layers to bend to accommodate internal stress. The QSPR analysis showed that three structural parameters, "Ø", "β", and "Δρu", correlate well with the SP and WSI, and thus can be used to predict certain physicochemical properties. PMID:26041241

  8. Max Weber, la borsa e la ‘crisi del credito’ del 2008

    Carlo Rossetti


    Full Text Available A partire da una rilettura di opere, come Die Protestantische Ethik und der Geist der Kapitalismus e Die Boersenequete, l'articolo mostra che – in linea con quanto Max Weber aveva descritto – l'assenza di regole generali condivise e di controlli pubblici mette in crisi le fondamenta del sistema finanziario. La privatizzazione neoliberista degli organi di controllo della finanza e la creazione di oscuri strumenti finanziari hanno contribuito alla regressione dell'organizzazione giuridica dello Stato, mettendo a serio rischio il principio di calcolabilità razionale che per secoli ha costituito il fondamento della teoria economica. In conclusione, Weber contribuisce a cogliere uno dei nodi fondamentali della crisi americana contemporanea: l'erosione dell’autorità indipendente posta a tutela dell’integrità del sistema.

  9. Didattica etnografica sperimentale (Massimo Canevacci

    Massimiliano Di Massa


    Full Text Available Massimo Canevacci, insegnante di Antropologia culturale alla Sapienza di Roma, con questo libro visionario e audace ci racconta delle trasformazioni del ruolo del professore universitario nel rapporto con l'evoluzione della cultura contemporanea. Sulla base di queste considerazioni generali, Canevacci afferma la necessità di un forte ripensamento dell'attuale impostazione didattica dell'Università, almeno nel campo delle scienze sociali e in particolare nell'ambito antropologico, affermando che 'è quindi necessario ripensare le forme della didattica, per esplorarne le nuove multiple possibilità, nella sua meta-connessione con le scelte dei nuovi territori che coinvolgono la ricerca e i paradigmi ad essa connessi. L'Università non deve essere il luogo della riproduzione del sapere; l'Università è lo spazio dell'innovazione dei saperi.

  10. First-principle variational formulation of polarization effects in geometrical optics

    Ruiz, D E


    The propagation of electromagnetic waves in isotropic dielectric media with local dispersion is studied under the assumption of small but nonvanishing $\\lambda/l$, where $\\lambda$ is the wavelength, and $l$ is the characteristic inhomogeneity scale. It is commonly known that, due to nonzero $\\lambda/l$, such waves can experience polarization-driven bending of ray trajectories and polarization dynamics that can be interpreted as the precession of the wave "spin". The present work reports how Lagrangians describing these effects can be deduced, rather than guessed, within a strictly classical theory. In addition to the commonly known ray Lagrangian featuring the Berry connection, a simple alternative Lagrangian is proposed that naturally has a canonical form. The presented theory captures not only eigenray dynamics but also the dynamics of continuous wave fields and rays with mixed polarization, or "entangled" waves. The calculation assumes stationary lossless media with isotropic local dispersion, but generali...

  11. Quantum Gravity Experiments

    Cahill R. T.


    Full Text Available A new quantum gravity experiment is reported with the data confirming the generali- sation of the Schrödinger equation to include the interaction of the wave function with dynamical space. Dynamical space turbulence, via this interaction process, raises and lowers the energy of the electron wave function, which is detected by observing conse- quent variations in the electron quantum barrier tunnelling rate in reverse-biased Zener diodes. This process has previously been reported and enabled the measurement of the speed of the dynamical space flow, which is consistent with numerous other detection experiments. The interaction process is dependent on the angle between the dynamical space flow velocity and the direction of the electron flow in the diode, and this depen- dence is experimentally demonstrated. This interaction process explains gravity as an emergent quantum process, so unifying quantum phenomena and gravity. Gravitational waves are easily detected.

  12. Radiological physics of heavy charged-particle beams used for therapy

    The beams available for biological investigations at the Bevatron or at the Bevalac range from helium to iron ions. However, only carbon, neon, and argon beams have been used for therapy. The treatment techniques are arbitrarily divided into two categories: small field and large field irradiation. Examples of the small field treatments are pituitary irradiation, which generaly utilizes the plateau portion of the helium depth-dose curve, and treatment of ocular melanoma, which uses a modified Bragg peak of the helium beam. Large field treatments for cancer therapy generally requires a beam that has a large uniform transverse profile and a modified Bragg peak. Procedures and instrumentation for patient irradiations at the Bevatron/Bevalac have been based on the prior experience obtained at the 184-inch Synchrocyclotron, and for that reason both facilities are discussed

  13. Introduzione alle teorie di gauge

    Cabibbo, Nicola; Benhar, Omar


    "Introduzione alle Teorie di Gauge" completa la serie di tre volumi basati sulle lezioni dei corsi di Meccanica Quantistica Relativistica, Interazioni Elettrodeboli e Teorie di Gauge, impartite dagli autori agli studenti delle Lauree Magistrali in Fisica e Astronomia & Astrofisica dell'Universita "La Sapienza" di Roma, nell'arco di qualche decennio. L'obiettivo principale del volume è di introdurre i concetti di base della rinormalizzazione nella teoria quantistica dei campi e i fondamenti delle moderne teorie di Gauge. Anche se collegato ai volumi precedenti, il libro si presta ad una lettura indipendente, che presume solo conoscenze generali di relativita speciale, della seconda quantizzazione e della fenomenologia delle interazioni elettrodeboli. Lo strumento di base è l'integrale sui cammini di Feynman, introdotto nei capitoli iniziali e sistematicamente impiegato nel seguito. L'esposizione segue un percorso pedagogico, che parte dal caso semplice dell'ampiezza di transizione in meccanica quantistic...

  14. La politica ottimale per il Mezzogiorno:un commento a Moro

    Bert Jossa


    Full Text Available In uno scritto recente ho sostenuto la tesi che la politica ottimale per il Mezzogiorno non è il laissez faire, né l’intervento diretto dello stato nell’economia, ma un intervento pubblico, anche “massiccio”, realizzato mediante leggi generali e astratte, che per loro natura sono di tipo non discrezionale.La necessità di un intervento generalizzato a favore di una zona meno sviluppata si giustifica con l’esistenza delle “diseconomie esterne”, che frenano lo sviluppo di tutte le imprese che operano in quella zona. Ha destato, perciò, in me meraviglia leggere l’articolo scritto contemporaneamente da Beniamino Moro (2001 e pubblicato nel numero 215 di questa rivista, che raggiunge lo stesso risultato con argomentazioni di segno opposto.

  15. "Cooperativismo y economía del bien común" (Cooperativism and economy of the common good

    Alejandro Martínez Charterina


    Full Text Available En los últimos años (desde 2010 se está promocionando elmodelo de economía del bien común que muestra un buen número de cooperativascomo ejemplo de lo que promociona en el orden empresarial. Este trabajotrata de destacar el interés de las cooperativas por la mejora social, en general,y en particular en el medio en el que se hacen presentes, trascendiendolos intereses de cada cooperativa singular. Esto queda bien unido a las pretensionesde la Alianza Cooperativa Internacional dirigidas a la promoción de conductasque puedan llevar a un cambio social y una economía sostenible, quereconocemos como las aspiraciones de conquista del cooperativismo.

  16. The functions of laminins: lessons from in vivo studies

    Ryan, M C; Christiano, A M; Engvall, E;


    This series of three short reviews is an attempt to summarize our current knowledge of the in vivo tests of hypotheses of laminin functions. The structures of the laminins have been thoroughly reviewed recently (P. Ekblom and R. Timpl, in press), and I will not attempt to repeat this information...... birth, and it does not progress postnatally beyond the extent to which the affected individual experiences additional frictional trauma or secondary consequences such as infection or fluid loss. Since laminin 5 is only one of a series of structural links within the anchoring complex, one would predict...... here. Instead, I will focus on the recent evidence gathered from gene knock out experiments in mice and from naturally occurring human and mouse gene mutations. The most obvious lesson from the above studies--other than demonstrating the importance of laminins in general--is that the structural...

  17. The application of variable sampling method in the audit testing of insurance companies' premium income

    Jovković Biljana


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the procedure of audit sampling using the variable sampling methods for conducting the tests of income from insurance premiums in insurance company 'Takovo'. Since the incomes from the insurance premiums from vehicle insurance and third-party vehicle insurance have the dominant share of the insurance company's income, the application of this method will be shown in the audit examination of these incomes - incomes from VI and TPVI premiums. For investigating the applicability of these methods in testing the income of other insurance companies, we shall implement the method of variable sampling in the audit testing of the premium income from the three leading insurance companies in Serbia, 'Dunav', 'DDOR' and 'Delta Generali' Insurance.

  18. Sustainable development applied to the Italian territorial planning, sustainable management of the renewable and un renewable resources; Problematiche territoriali relative al suolo, al sottosuolo, alle acque e contributo allo sviluppo sostenibile nazionale

    Basili, M.; Colonna, N.; Del Ciello, R.; Grauso, S.; Napoleoni, S.; Zarlenga, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente


    The paper carries out on analysis on the state of the art about sustainable development applied to the territorial planning. Tree types of approach to the sustainability are described: social, economic and environmental, using a large bibliography starting from the Bruntland report. The Italian situation is discussed. An operative proposal on the sustainable management of the renewable and un renewable resources: groundwater, soil and building materials are defined for the Italian context. [Italian] Nel lavoro vengono descritti i principi generali dello sviluppo sostenibile ed i tre tipi di approccio derivanti dall'analisi dell'imponente bibliografia degli ultimi quindici anni, a partire dal rapporto Bruntland che per primo ne ha preso in considerazione i concetti. Vengono proposte tre architetture logiche per procedure di gestione sostenibile delle risorse nel contesto istituzionale italiano.

  19. New developments in irradiation treatments

    Various processes using ionizing radiations are used in industry and allow the commercialization of many products made of polymers, the properties of which were modified by irradiation. Those modifications are made to remove a drawback of a polymer or to bring the improvement of one or several new properties. By grafting it is mainly possible to modify the chemical properties of the basic polymer; the grafting allows to make fabrics having bacteriostatic properties, polyethylene having adhesive properties on metals, perm-selective membranes, biocompatible polymers and so on. The polymerizing cross linking, which is a combination of polymerization and cross linking is mainly used for surface treatments, for the curing of varnishes, paints, inks, at high speeds, on various substrates, as wood, paper, metals. The radiation induced cross-linking of polymers, which can be obtained by chemical initiation as well, is generaly more easily controlled and the economy of the process is often better

  20. Early dispersals of maize and other food plants into the Southern Caribbean and Northeastern South America

    Pagán-Jiménez, Jaime R.; Rodríguez-Ramos, Reniel; Reid, Basil A.; van den Bel, Martijn; Hofman, Corinne L.


    Grindstones from Eva 2 and St. John, two of the earliest sites in northeastern South America and the southern Caribbean respectively, were subjected to starch grain analysis. Results of this study revealed that these stone artifacts were utilized to process a variety of cultivars such as maize (Zea mays), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), achira (Canna spp.), legumes (Fabaceae), and yams (Dioscoreaceae), coupled with wild resources, most notably marunguey (Zamia spp.). Radiocarbon dates indicate that the use of plants identified at these two sites were much older than previously considered, going back to at least 7790 cal. BP at St. John and 5990 cal. BP at Eva 2. This new evidence showcases the importance of the Caribbean basin as an arena for early phytocultural dispersals. It also focuses attention on the role of navigation as a mechanism for crop diffusion in the Neotropics.

  1. Microbial community structure accompanied with electricity production in a constructed wetland plant microbial fuel cell.

    Lu, Lu; Xing, Defeng; Ren, Zhiyong Jason


    This study reveals the complex structure of bacterial and archaeal communities associated with a Canna indica plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) and its electricity production. The PMFC produced a maximum current of 105 mA/m(2) by utilizing rhizodeposits as the sole electron donor without any external nutrient or buffer supplements, which demonstrates the feasibility of PMFCs in practical oligotrophic conditions with low solution conductivity. The microbial diversity was significantly higher in the PMFC than non-plant controls or sediment-only controls, and pyrosequencing and clone library reveal that rhizodeposits conversion to current were carried out by syntrophic interactions between fermentative bacteria (e.g., Anaerolineaceae) and electrochemically active bacteria (e.g., Geobacter). Denitrifying bacteria and acetotrophic methanogens play a minor role in organics degradation, but abundant hydrogenotrophic methanogens and thermophilic archaea are likely main electron donor competitors. PMID:26066972

  2. Peptaibol, Secondary‐Metabolite, and Hydrophobin Pattern of Commercial Biocontrol Agents Formulated with Species of the Trichoderma harzianum Complex

    Degenkolb, Thomas; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Dieckmann, Ralf;


    The production of bioactive polypeptides (peptaibiotics) in vivo is a sophisticated adaptation strategy of both mycoparasitic and saprotrophic Trichoderma species for colonizing and defending their natural habitats. This feature is of major practical importance, as the detection of peptaibiotics in...... plant‐protective Trichoderma species, which are successfully used against economically relevant bacterial and fungal plant pathogens, certainly contributes to a better understanding of these complex antagonistic interactions. We analyzed five commercial biocontrol agents (BCAs), namely Canna®, Trichosan......®, Vitalin®, Promot® WP, and TrichoMax®, formulated with recently described species of the Trichoderma harzianum complex, viz. T. afroharzianum, T. simmonsii, and T. guizhouense. By using the well‐established, HPLC/MS‐based peptaibiomics approach, it could unequivocally be demonstrated that all of these...

  3. The effect of Normast (PEA) on neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury

    Andresen, Sven Robert; Bing, Jette; Hansen, Rikke Bod Middelhede;


    Introduction: Neuropathic pain and spasticity after spinal cord injury (SCI) represent still a significant, unresolved problem causing suffering and re¬duced quality of life in patients with SCI. Treatment of neuropathic pain is a complex and difficult task, and many patients have incom...... neuropathic pain, and sec¬ondary to study the effect of Normast on spas¬ticity and psychological functioning in patients with spinal cord injury. Population characteristics: Gender, male/female, n 43/15 Age since inclusion, years, mean (SD) 55.3 (9.5) Time since injury, years, mean (SD) 8.8 (8.9) Present......¬plete relief from present available and recom¬mended treatment. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a fatty acid which is produced in many cells in the body. It suggested to potentiate the body’s own canna¬bis-like substances (endocannabinoids) and to reduce pain and inflammation. Clinical trials support the use of...

  4. B.Canna创造与手造精神并存

    江南; B.Canna




    M. A. Oliveira


    Full Text Available Scarabaeidae defoliators are considered of great importance in Brazil because they seriously damage the leaf system of several plant species. The objective of this study was to report the occurrence of the defoliating beetle Bolax campicola Machatschke, 1974 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae attacking ornamental plants in the urban area of municipality of Forestal, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The initial attack was observed on the ornamental palm species Dypsis lutescens (Arecaceae whose leaves were completely consumed, and then these insects began to feed on Canna indica (Cannaceae, another ornamental species, which was found near to the first. However, in the same location newly planted fruit tree seedlings of Plinia trunciflora (Myrtaceae, Averrhoa carambola (Oxalidaceae and Malpighia emarginata (Malpighiaceae were attacked and completely defoliated. This report of damage to plants in urban areas by B. flavolineatus demonstrates the need for studies on the behavior and feeding preference of these insects, and even their ability to adapt to different host plants.

  6. High-throughput microarray mapping of cell wall polymers in roots and tubers during the viscosity reducing process

    Yuhong, Huang; Willats, William George Tycho; Lange, Lene;


    Viscosity reduction has a great impact on the efficiency of ethanol production when using roots and tubers as feedstock. Plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) have been successfully applied to overcome the challenges posed by high viscosity. However, the changes in cell wall polymers during...... the viscosity reducing process are poorly characterized. Comprehensive microarray polymer profiling (CoMPP), which is a high-throughput microarray, was used for the first time to map changes in the cell wall polymers of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), cassava (Manihot esculenta) and Canna edulis Ker....... The obvious viscosity reduction of the sweet potato and the cassava was attributed to the degradation of homogalacturonan and the released 1,4-β-D-galactan and 1,5-α-L-arabinan....


    . Yustiyani


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study was to formulate instant baby porridge as a source of protein weaning food based on red beans flour and canna starch composite. The design of this study was a complete randomized design with one factor which was the ratio of red beans flour and canna starch in composite composition as instant porridge ingredient (2:1, 3:1, and 4:1. Based on organoleptic test, F2 which used red bean flour and starch canna ratio by 3:1 was the best formula. The optimal time to brew the instant porridge was 62 seconds with amount of water used was 3 ml/g. The instant porridge bulk density was 0.61 g/ml and water absorption was 4.67g/g. This instant porridge contained 363 kcal/100 g, 16.57% protein, 1.48% fat, 70.84% total carbohydrate, 197.70 mg calcium, 8.17 mg zinc, and 16.48 mg iron. Protein digestibility of this porridge was 79.83%. As per 27 g serving size of this instant porridge can fulfill 22.25% protein, 55.25% iron, 27.63% zinc so that it can be claimed as food source of protein and zinc, and high iron.Keywords: canna starch, instant porridge, red bean flour, weaning foodABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah memformulasikan bubur instan sebagai MP-ASI sumber protein berbahan dasar tepung komposit yaitu tepung kacang merah dan pati ganyong. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain rancangan acak lengkap dengan satu faktor yaitu perbandingan penggunaan tepung kacang merah dan pati ganyong dalam tepung komposit sebagai bahan dasar pembuatan bubur instan (2:1, 3:1, dan 4:1. Berdasarkan uji organoleptik, formula bubur instan terbaik adalah F2 dengan perbandingan tepung kacang merah dan pati ganyong sebesar 3:1. Waktu optimal penyeduhan bubur instan terbaik adalah 62 detik dengan volume air penyeduh 3 ml/g. Densitas kamba bubur adalah sebesar 0.61 g/ml dan daya serap air 4.67 g/g. Kandungan gizi bubur instan meliputi 363 kkal energi/100 g, 16.57% protein, 1.48% lemak, 70.84% karbohidrat total, 197.70 mg kalsium, 8.17 mg seng, serta 16

  8. An Experiment About Parallel Circuit And The Lorentz Forces On Wires

    Li, Audrey Yueru


    Parallel circuit and the Lorentz forces on current carrying wires are important concepts in introductory physics courses. Here we describe an experiment that illustrates these two concepts. We mount a circuit with multiple grounding points onto a torsion balance. We show that the grounding points create parallel return paths for the supply current. When the topology or the shapes of the return paths are altered, the Lorentz forces exerted by the currents in the return paths within a magnetic field change accordingly, which in turn cause changes in the rotary displacement of the torsion balance. This experiment is simple and can be easily reproduced in a teaching laboratory. What makes it interesting to students is that recently two research teams have attempted to detect thrusts from microwave driven asymmetrical resonance cavities (EmDrive or Cannae Drive), and the phenomenon observable in this experiment provides an alternative explanation to the thrusts they detected.

  9. Arrowroot as a novel substrate for ethanol production by solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Wu, Tian-xiang; Tang, Qing-li; Zhu, Zuo-hua [School of Chemical Engineering, Guizhou University, Guizhou, Guiyang 550003 (China); Wang, Feng [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)


    Ethanol production from Canna edulis Ker was successfully carried out by solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The enzymatic hydrolysis conditions of C. edulis were optimized by Plackett-Burman design. The effect of inert carrier (corncob and rice bran) on ethanol fermentation and the kinetics of solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was investigated. It was found that C. edulis was an alternative substrate for ethanol production, 10.1% (v/v) of ethanol concentration can attained when 40 g corncob and 10 g rice bran per 100 g C. edulis powder were added for ethanol fermentation. No shortage of fermentable sugars was observed during solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. There was no wastewater produced in the process of ethanol production from C. edulis with solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation and the ethanol yield of more than 0.28 tonne per one tonne feedstock was achieved. This is first report for ethanol production from C. edulis powder. (author)

  10. [Study on the oxygen condition in subsurface flow wetlands in operation].

    Yan, Lu; Wang, Shi-he; Luo, Wei-guo; Huang, Juan; Zhong, Qiu-shuang


    Horizontal flow wetlands with various kinds of plants grown were studied on their operation characteristics and oxygen condition in treating the sewage out from the primary sedimentary basin. The rules of oxygen condition changed with space and time were studied. Researches showed the oxygen concentration was low in wetlands, and it appeared as a rule that low in both ends, but high in middle of beds. It descended in upright direction. The oxygen concentration changed with seasons as summer > spring > autumn > winter. In one day, the highest oxygen concentration appeared on 14:00, and the concentration was higher in forenoon than afternoon. Reed > canna > camellia > dracaena sanderiana > ipomoea aquatica forsk by comparison of ability of oxygen supply. Experiments demonstrate that the study of oxygen condition in constructed wetlands is propitious to reveal the purifying mechanism of wetlands and improve the purifying efficiency. PMID:17256600

  11. 不同基质复合植物浮岛启动特性研究%Floating beds with different matrices

    施亮亮; 曹文平; 成彦蓉; 韩锡荣; 黄浩


    The growth of composite plants(canna and iris) in pure vegetal floating island and floating islands filled with straw filler and spherical plastic filler,and the remediation effects of nitrogen pollutants,total phosphorus and CODMn have been studied comparatively. The results show that canna and iris in floating island with straw matrix grow faster,and the next is the floating island with spherical plastic filler. Both are superior to pure vegetal floating island. The reason why negative growth occurs to CODMn in straw matrix floating island system is caused by the excess water-soluble substances released from histocyte of straw.%对比研究了稻草填料、塑料球形填料作为浮岛基质时及纯植物浮岛中复合植物(美人蕉和菖蒲)的生长情况,氮素污染物、总磷和CODMn指数的修复效果。实验结果表明:稻草基质浮岛中的美人蕉和菖蒲株高增长最快,其次是塑料球形填料浮岛,均优于纯植物浮岛。其中稻草基质浮岛系统中CODMn出现负增长的原因是稻草组织细胞中过量的水溶性物质释放所导致。

  12. Effects of Plant Species on Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Constructed Wetlands Treating Municipal Wastewater

    Sukanda Chuersuwan


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to quantify emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs, methane (CH4 and Nitrous Oxide (N2, from free water surface constructed wetlands used for domestic wastewater treatment. All constructed wetlands were monoculture and each plot was planted with Phragmites sp., Cyperus sp., or Canna sp. The average CH4 and N2 O emissions were in the range of 5.9-11.2 and 0.9-1.8 g/m2/h, respectively. Seasonal fluctuations of CH4 and N2 O emissions were observed. The highest fluxes of both GHGs occurred during hot rainy season (July-October followed by summer and the lowest found in cool season. The mean of CH4 and N2O emissions from different plants species were significantly different (p<0.05. Average CH4 emissions from constructed wetlands planted with Phragmites sp., Cyperus sp. and Cannasp. were 11.2, 6.0 and 5.9 mg/m2/h, respectively, while mean N2O emissions were 0.9, 1.0 and 1.8 mg/m2/h, respectively. Calculated of Global Warming Potential (GWP found that GWP of CH4 and N2O flux from constructed wetlands planted with Cyperus sp., was the highest (669 mg CO2 equivalent/m2/h, followed by Phragmite sp., (524 mg CO2 equivalent/m2/h and Cannasp., (434 mg CO2 equivalent/mm2/h, respectively. These results suggested that municipal wastewater treatment by constructed wetlands planted with Canna sp. and Phragmite sp., had potential of lower GHGs emissions into the atmosphere and Phragmite sp., provided the highest removal rate of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD.

  13. Effects of the substrate depth on purification performance of a hybrid constructed wetland treating domestic sewage.

    Ren, Yong-Xiang; Zhang, Hai; Wang, Chao; Yang, Yong-Zhe; Qin, Zhen; Ma, Yun


    The depth of substrate in constructed wetlands (CWs) has a significant effect on the construction investment and the purification performance of CWs. In this study, a pilot scale CW system was operated in a domestic sewage treatment plant in Xi'an, China. The experimental systems included three-series CWs systems with substrate depths of 0.1m, 0.3 m and 0.6 m, respectively. Each series was composed of a hydroponic ditch, a horizontal subsurface flow CW and a vertical flow CW. The effluent from the primary clarifier in the sewage treatment plant was intermittently conducted to the wetlands at a flow rate of 0.3 m(3)/d. The hydraulic loading rate of each CWs system was regulated at 0.1 m(3)/m(2).d and the hydraulic retention time was 3 days. Canna indica L. was planted both in the hydroponic ditches and the CWs systems. Results showed that the highest removal efficiency of NH(+)(4)-N and TP was obtained in the hybrid CW with 0.1 m substrate depth. The average removal efficiency for NH(+)(4)-N and TP were 90.6 % and 80.0 %, respectively. The highest average removal efficiency of COD was obtained in hybrid CWs system with 0.6 m substrate depth. Therefore, a simultaneous removal of COD and nutrients can be achieved through the combination of different wetlands using different substrate depths. In addition, the substrate depth presents significant effects on the concentration of DO and root growth characteristics of canna in the system. As a result, the highest concentration of DO (>2 mg/L) and the highest amount of roots production were achieved in the 0.1 m substrate depth horizontal and vertical flow CWs. PMID:21644156

  14. [Suitability of wild underexploited vegetables from the Argentine Chaco as a food resource].

    Freyre, M R; Baigorria, C M; Rozycki, V R; Bernardi, C M; Charpentier, M


    The nutritional value of wild underexploited vegetable samples collected in the Argentine Chaco was investigated. Leaves from Hipochaeris sp.-, Coronopus didimus and Portulaca olearacea; fruits from Zyziphus sativa, Brumelia obtusifolia and Eugenia uniflora; and roots of Canna coccinea were included in this work; several separate samples being taken at least during two consecutive harvesting seasons. Values for moisture, protein, total lipids, crude fiber, ash, reducing and total sugars, starch, total pectins and energy are given. Mineral micronutrient contents are reported for calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron and phosphorus, as well as vitamin values (ascorbic acid and beta-carotene). Higher concentrations of macronutrients were found in the leafy vegetables (32-50 Kcal/100 g) than in commercially exploited cultivars (14-30 Kcal/100 g), as shown by an increased energy value, the protein content of Portulaca olearacea (3.74 g/100 g) being highly remarkable. Unusually high micronutrient figures were also determined in Coronopus didimus, with 172.3; 3.98, and 46.7 mg/100 g, for calcium, iron and magnesium, respectively. In general, fruits also showed higher macronutrient contents, with the exception of proteins, with less but constant values (1.58 to 1.74 g/100 g), although contributing more energy than commercial cultivars (70 to 147 Kcal/100 g). Equally important proved to be the provitamin A content in Eugenia uniflora (11.98 mg/100 g). Roots of Canna coccinea revealed the lowest energy value (34 Kcal/100 g) but surprisingly, the highest content of phosphorus of all the species under study. PMID:11464672

  15. [Comparative study on eight trace elements in twelve flower medicines].

    Niu, Ying-Feng; Han, Chun-Mei; Shao, Yun; Tao, Yan-Duo


    Eight trace elements such as Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, K, Mg and Na in twelve kinds of flower medicines were determined by flame-atomic absorption spectrometry with air-acetylene flame. The flower medicines include Pueraria lobata Ohwi., Gomphrena globosa L., Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., Prunus persica (L.) Batsch., Canna indica L., Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd P. spp, Rosa chinensis Jacq., Celosia cristata L., Sophora japonica L., Saussurea medusa Maxim. , Iris lactea var. chinensis (Fisch.) koidz. and Gentiana straminea Maxim.. All of the flowers were commonly used in Tibetan medicines. Three kinds of the flowers were bought in the market and the others were picked in Qinghai province. These flower medicines were selected, dried and powdered, 4.000 g was weighed accurately with analytical balance, and five portions were used for each kind of sample. The content of eight trace elements in these flower medicines was determined and the difference in the content was observed. The recovery rate obtained by the standard addition method was between 96.76% and 102.93%, and the RSD was between 1.13% and 3.46%, so the accuracy of the method was better and the precision of the method was good. The results of the experiment indicated that the contents of the eight trace elements were rich in the twelve kinds of flower medicines, and the content of three trace elements including K, Mg, Na were more than other trace elements in the twelve flower medicines. There were considerable differences in the content of the eight trace elements in different flower medicines and there were more trace elements in Saussure medusa Maxim., Iris lactea var. chinensis (Fisch.) koidz. Canna indica L. and Celosia cristata L. and less trace elements in Sophora japonica L. and Gentiana straminea Maxim.. The data of the experiment could provide an accurate and credible evidence for the reasonable medicinal use and deeper exploitation of these flower medicines. PMID:19798991

  16. I diritti sindacali nel titolo III dello Statuto dei lavoratori

    Alessandro Riccobono


    Full Text Available Sommario: 1. I diritti sindacali: struttura del titolo III e differenze rispetto al titolo II dello Statuto dei la­voratori. – 2. I limiti all’esercizio dell’attività sindaca­le privilegiata. – 2.1. segue: la selezione dei soggetti protetti. – 2.2. segue: il criterio dimensionale e la no­zione di unità produttiva. – 2.3. segue: il contempera­mento con interessi pari o sovraordinati. – 3. Il diritto di assemblea tra istanze di democrazia diretta e afflati di democrazia rappresentativa. – 3.1. I soggetti legitti­mati alla convocazione. – 3.2. Il dibattito sulla titolari­tà, individuale o collegiale, del potere di convocazione. – 3.3. L’oggetto dell’assemblea. – 3.4. Il luogo di svol­gimento dell’assemblea. – 3.5. Assemblea in orario di lavoro. – 3.6. Imputazione del monte orario e diritto alla conservazione della retribuzione. – 3.7. Il ruolo della contrattazione collettiva. – 4. Il referendum: struttura e funzione. – 4.1. I contenuti e le modalità di svolgimento. – 5. Il trasferimento dei dirigenti sindaca­li: profili generali. – 5.1. Il rapporto con i divieti di di­scriminazione ex art. 15 st. lav. – 5.3. I soggetti benefi­ciari. – 5.4. L’ambito di applicazione oggettivo. – 5.5. L’applicazione dell’art. 22 nel pubblico impiego. Cen­ni. – 6. Il diritto di affissione. Profili generali. – 6.1. Ti­pologia ubicazione e distribuzione dei canali informa­tivi. – 6.2. Contenuti delle comunicazioni e limiti alla defissione unilaterale da parte del datore di lavoro. – 7. I locali delle Rsa. – 7.1. Le caratteristiche dei locali: idoneità, dotazioni, ubicazione. – 7.2. Sulla possibilità di ingresso da parte dei sindacalisti esterni. – 7.3. La disciplina apprestata per le articolazioni aziendali di minori dimensioni.

  17. A convenient photosynthesis of uniformly [14C]-labelled D-glucose, D-fructose and sucrose, and chemical synthesis of methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside ([U-14C]-glucose)

    This paper describes a convenient procedure for the radiochemical preparation of D-[U-14C]-glucose, D-[U-14C]-fructose and [U-14C]-sucrose with high specific activity by photosynthesis using ‘canna indica’ leaf, [14C]-carbon dioxide and water in presence of light in a closed system. The [14C]-sugars formed were extracted, separated and then purified by paper chromatography. Further, the pure D-[U-14C]-glucose obtained was converted to methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside ([U-14C]-glucose) by glycosidation with methanol using (i) HCl, the conventional Fischer method (ii) heterogeneous organic cation exchange resin (Amberlite IR-120 (H+)) and (iii) heterogeneous inorganic cation exchanged montmorillonites called metal M+n-monts. The results indicated that the latter in the form of Fe+3-montmorillonite gave a better yield ( 65%) as compared to others (40–56%). The radiochemical purity of the no-carrier added product was more than 98%. The product retained its specific activity as that of the starting material which is in the range of 250–300 mCi/mmole (9.25–11.1 GBq/mmole), suitable for use as a radiotracer in biochemical investigations. - Graphical abstract: A convenient photosynthesis of uniformly [14C]-labelled D-glucose, D-fructose and sucrose, and chemical synthesis of methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside ([U-14C]-glucose)/[14C]–AMG, in short. The photosynthesis of D-[U-14C]-glucose, and two other [14C]-sugars (fructose and sucrose) with high specific activity using ‘Canna indica’ leaf, 14CO2 and water in presence of light is presented in this paper. Further, the D-[U-14C]-glucose obtained was converted to methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside ([U-14C]-glucose)/[14C]–AMG having 98% radiochemical purity and specific activity in the range of 250–300 mCi/mmole, using montmorillonites (M+n-monts). Highlights: ► Synthesis of methyl α D-glucopyranoside ([U-14C] glucose) has not been reported using M+n-monts. ► M+n-monts are reusable, economical, environmentally benign

  18. Improving the perennial ornamental plants collection for summer ladscaping design

    Maria Cantor


    Full Text Available In Romania in the last period many new varieties of different floral plants are imported from Europe and United States. The request for novelties is very important in the field of ornamental horticulture. Researching activity for diversification of ornamental plant assortment by introducing the most competitive foreign floral cultivars is one of the principal objectives of USAMV Cluj-Napoca, department of Ornamental Plants. Every year new species, cultivars or hybrids, are evaluated and investigated concerning their behavior in Transylvania's conditions. This paper describes new Gladiolus hybridus (‘Grune Specht’, ‚Wine and Rose’, ‘Madonna’, ‘Princess Marg. Rose’, ‘Tradehorn’, ‘Blue Isle’, ‘Fiorentina’ and ‘Espresso’, ‘Break a Dawn’, ‘Jester’, ‘My love’, ‘Mon Amour’; Dahlia hybridus (‘Couleur spectable’, ‚Bahama Yellow’, ‚Red Pigmy’, ‚Purple Gem’, ‚Vulcan’ ‚Arabien Night’, ‚Bahama Apricot’, ‚Mistery Day’, ‚Lilac Time’, ‚White Perfection’, Gloire van Heemstede’, ‚Ball Dahlia Peter’ and Canna indica (‘Pretoria’, ‚Durban’, ‚City of Portland’, ‚Wialage’, ‚Romeo’, ‚Wyoming’, ‚Madam Butterfly’, ‚Golden Lucifer’ cultivars received from abroad as a result of our bilateral co-operation between our university and universities from Hungary and Holland. We recorded and characterized the novelties for the following characteristics: blooming time, colour of florets, plant height and diameter, spike length, number of florets per spike, media florets diameter and number of florets open in the same time. A significant quantitative variation existed among the characteristics in all three groups. The most representative Gladiolus, Canna and Dahlia cultivars can be used for landscape design in herbaceous borders, as a patio or decking plant. They are also grown as potted plants or as cut flowers for table decoration for any occasions. The

  19. Análise da forma e tamanho de grânulos de amidos de diferentes fontes botânicas Analysis of the shape and size of starch grains from different botanical species

    Magali Leonel


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a forma e tamanho de grânulos de amido de diferentes fontes botânicas, visando fornecer informações que contribuam para aplicabilidade destas como matérias-primas amiláceas. As féculas foram obtidas a partir do processamento das tuberosas em planta piloto de extração. Para a análise da forma dos grânulos utilizou-se o microscópio eletrônico de varredura, com as amostras diluídas em álcool etílico e metalizadas com ouro. A análise do tamanho dos grânulos foi realizada em microscópio ótico, sendo as amostras diluídas em solução de água e glicerina. Foram realizadas 500 determinações das medidas de tamanho (diâmetro menor, diâmetro maior e diferenças entre diâmetros por fonte botânica. Os resultados obtidos mostraram diferentes formas para os grânulos de amidos e das tuberosas estudadas. Os grânulos de amido de menor tamanho foram os de taioba (Xanthosoma sp. 12,87 µm, e os de maior tamanho os de biri (Canna edulis 59,61 µm. Observou-se distribuição bastante regular para os grânulos de amido de ahipa (Pachyrhizus ahipa.An analysis was made of the shape and size of starch grains from different botanical species, aiming to improve the potential applicability of these species as starch raw materials. The starches were obtained from the processing of tubers in a pilot extraction plant. The shape of the starch grains was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, to which end the samples were mounted on SEM stubs and coated with gold. The size of the starch grains was determined by optical microscopy, for which the samples were diluted in a water and glycerin solution. The sizes of 500 grains of each botanical species were measured to determine the largest and smallest diameters and the difference between diameters. The results revealed different starch grain shapes and sizes, with Xanthosoma sp showing the smallest (12.87 µm and Canna edulis the largest grain size (56

  20. Eating disorders – compulsive overeating

    Anita Ogris


    Full Text Available The research aims to establish the main characteristics of subjects prone to compulsive overeating (experimental group, EG, and the differences between them and the girls who are not prone to any kind of eating disorders (control group, CG. The results of the research are in accordance with the expectations. Girls from the EG exhibit personality characteristics which are signifficantly different from the girls in the CG. These characteristics may be either possible predispositions for development of overeating, or they may already be the consequences of the girls' struggles with overeating and their perception of being overweight. The responses given by the girls from the EG confirm the generaly accepted characteristics of overeating individuals. It can be said that the girls from the ES show the pre-clinical picture of overeating, while some of them have already developed the clinical picture. The results of the research strongly support the view that overeating must be defined as a form of eating disorder just as important as anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

  1. A De Vries-type Duality Theorem for Locally Compact Spaces -- III

    Dimov, Georgi


    In this paper we prove some new Stone-type duality theorems for some subcategories of the category $\\ZLC$ of locally compact zero-dimensional Hausdorff spaces and continuous maps. These theorems are new even in the compact case. They concern the cofull subcategories $\\SkeZLC$, $\\QPZLC$, $\\OZLC$ and $\\OPZLC$ of the category $\\ZLC$ determined, respectively, by the skeletal maps, by the quasi-open perfect maps, by the open maps and by the open perfect maps. In this way, the zero-dimensional analogues of Fedorchuk Duality Theorem and its generalization are obtained. Further, we characterize the injective and surjective morphisms of the category $\\HLC$ of locally compact Hausdorff spaces and continuous maps, as well as of the category $\\ZLC$, and of some their subcategories, by means of some properties of their dual morphisms. This generalizes some well-known results of M. Stone and de Vries. An analogous problem is investigated for the homeomorphic embeddings, dense embeddings, LCA-embeddings etc., and a generali...

  2. Nyrefunktionen under behandling med angiotensinkonverterende enzymhaemmere

    Rasmussen, K; Heitmann, M; Nielsen, J I;


    The use of ACE-inhibitors has increased greatly during the last years. They were first used in treating hypertension, but nowadays cardiac diseases, mainly cardiac failure, are common indications. This means that the drugs are used in the treatment of more elderly patients who often have generali......The use of ACE-inhibitors has increased greatly during the last years. They were first used in treating hypertension, but nowadays cardiac diseases, mainly cardiac failure, are common indications. This means that the drugs are used in the treatment of more elderly patients who often have...... generalised atherosclerosis. This means that the patients must be controlled more often after initiation of treatment, especially concerning kidney function, since treatment with ACE-inhibitors can cause pronounced changes in renal haemodynamics and kidney function. This review focuses on the effects of ACE-inhibitors...... on renal haemodynamics and kidney function, which may be positive, with preservation of kidney function in diabetic and other chronic nephropathy, or negative, for example in cases with atherosclerotic stenosis of large or small renal arteries. It is concluded, that in cases of diabetic nephropathy an ACE-inhibitor...

  3. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in five farms in Holambra, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Kobayashi, J; Hasegawa, H; Forli, A A; Nishimura, N F; Yamanaka, A; Shimabukuro, T; Sato, Y


    A parasitological survey was carried out on 222 inhabitants of five farms in Holambra, located 30 km north of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, on October 1992. Approximately 70% of the inhabitants were found to be infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. The positive rates of 6 helminths and 7 protozoan species detected are as follows: 5.4% Ascaris lumbricoides; 8.6% Trichuris trichiura; 19.8% Necator americanus; 10.4% Strongyloides stercoralis; 1.4% Enterobius vermicularis; 0.9% Hymenolepis nana; 3.2% Entamoeba histolytica; 2.7% E. hartmanni; 9.9% E. coli; 14.0% Endolimax nana; 2.3% Iodamoeba butschlii; 10.4% Giardia lamblia; 37.8% Blastocystis hominis. The positive rates of helminth infection were generaly higher in the younger-group under 16 years-old than those in the elder group aged 16 or more, whereas the infection rates of protozoan species were higher in the elder group. The infection rate of Strongyloides was found to be 10.4% by a newly developed sensitive method (an agarplate culture methods). PMID:7569635

  4. Akten der Theodor Gartner - Tagung (Rätoromanisch und Rumänisch in Vill/Innsbruck 1985, herausgegeben von G. A. Plangg und M. Iliescu, Romanica Aenipontana XIV, Innsbruck 1987, 413 pp.

    Pavao Tekavčić


    Full Text Available Alla memoria del noto romanista austriaco Theodor Gartner (in seguito: G. e stato dedicato il convegno celebrato tre anni fa a Vill/Innsbruck, di cui in queste pagine recensiamo gli Atti. Il volume contiene ben 34 contributi: 6 in italiano, 5 in francese, il resto in tedesco. Quanto agli argomenti, 3 contributi trattano temi generali, 10 sono dedicati al romancio, 3 al ladino (centrale, 5 al friulano e ben 13 al romeno. La combinazione di retoromanzo (in seguito: RR e di romeno riflette, come si sa, i due principali domini scientifici del G. (combinazione alquanto insolita nell'Austria del suo tempo, secondo E. Coseriu, p. 277. La riputazione del G. poggia comunque sui suoi lavori RR, mentre quelli romeni sono nettamente inferiori (cfr. Coseriu, p. 278; Kramer, p. 321. Anche nel presente volume il centro è sugli studi RR, e compare (o ricompare anche il termine retoromanzo, persino presso gli autori che peraltro non ammettono la tanto discussa unità RR (ad es. Iliescu, p. 305, nota 1.




    3D打印技术作为个性化商品定制的重要生产手段,其自身的结构和机体的设计代表着该项技术的发展程度,本文基于对开放式桌面3D打印机结构以及封闭式桌面3D打印机结构进行整体分析的前提下,对桌面3D打印机机体外观造型进行了整体的设计,并同时从桌面3D打印机的应用材料、应用软件及打印效果和未来发展趋势上进行了综述。%3D printing technology serves as an important means of production of personalized customization of goods. Its own structure and the design of engine body represent the degree of development of the technology. Based on the premise of the overal analysis of the open desktop 3D printer structure and closed desktop 3D printer structure, this paper generaly designs the body appearance of desktop 3D printer, and at the same time carries out a review from the point of the applied material, application software and the printing effect and the future development trend.

  6. Adempimento agli impegni del “Pacchetto igiene” in quattro allevamenti italiani

    Marisanna Speroni


    Full Text Available Il DM 22/12/2009 che disciplina il regime di condizionalità ai sensi del regolamento (CE n. 73/2009 e delle riduzioni ed esclusioni per inadempienze dei beneficiari dei pagamenti diretti e dei programmi di sviluppo rurale, fa riferimento, nel campo di condizionalità ”Sanità pubblica, salute degli animali e delle piante”, ai seguenti atti:Atto B9 -Direttiva 91/414/CEE concernente l’immissione in commercio dei prodotti fitosanitari;Atto B10 - Direttiva 96/22/CE concernente il divieto d'utilizzazione di talune sostanze ad azione ormonica, tireostatica e delle sostanze Beta-agoniste nelle produzioni animali e abrogazione delle direttive 81/602/ CEE, 88/146/CEE e 88/299/CEE;Atto B11 -Regolamento (CE 178/2002 del Parlamento europeo e del consiglio che stabilisce i principi e i requisiti generali della legislazione alimentare, istituisce l’autorità europea per la sicurezza alimentare e fissa le procedure nel campo della sicurezza alimentare. Articoli 14, 15, 17 (paragrafo 1*, 18, 19 e 20. 

  7. Development and application of methods for the evaluation of air pollutant emissions and emission reduction scenarios

    Within the first of the two projects introduced in this report methods are developed to provide hourly emission data in grids of 1 km * 1 km for the year 1990. The design of the input data base allows to calculate emission inventories for different simulated emission reduction measures. In the second project methods have been worked out for the evaluation of yearly VOC emissions in Baden-Wuerttemberg, which can be updated each year to show long-term developments of the emission situation. Generaly considering VOC emissions instead of NOx or SO2 a new modelling or an adaption of existing models is required. New models are developed for the calculation of emissions out of evaporation processes. The most important processes are solvent use and gasoline handling. For example the adaption of existing models is carried out for exhaust emissions of cars and combustion in households. As a result of the application of the new methods emission inventories of the region ''Suedlicher Oberrheingraben in Baden-Wuerttemberg'' for the year 1990 are shown. Within the project dealing with yearly emissions an analysis of the emissions out of the traffic from 1980 to 1990 is given. The data display an increase of the emissions of lorries and a slow decrease of the emissions of passenger cars. (orig.)

  8. La politica ottimale per il Mezzogiorno:un commento a Moro

    Bert Jossa


    Full Text Available In uno scritto recente ho sostenuto la tesi che la politica ottimale per il Mezzogiorno non è il laissez faire, né l’intervento diretto dello stato nell’economia, ma un intervento pubblico, anche “massiccio”, realizzato mediante leggi generali e astratte, che per loro natura sono di tipo non discrezionale.La necessità di un intervento generalizzato a favore di una zona meno sviluppata si giustifica con l’esistenza delle “diseconomie esterne”, che frenano lo sviluppo di tutte le imprese che operano in quella zona. Ha destato, perciò, in me meraviglia leggere l’articolo scritto contemporaneamente da Beniamino Moro (2001 e pubblicato nel numero 215 di questa rivista, che raggiunge lo stesso risultato con argomentazioni di segno opposto.   JEL Codes: E62, R58Keywords: Fiscal Policy, Policy, Regional Development, Regional, Tax




    Full Text Available Industrial play a major role in country's economy. Air pollution is an occupational health problem in industries. Generaly, there are more man made pollution in the air of heavy industries and major cities around the industries, Exposure as inhalation represents one of the major routes by which the body can be exposed by accident or design to foreign materials. One having entered to the respiratory tract, inhaled materails may be readly absorbed or may react directly with the alveolar epithelium and entered in to the blood steam. These air pollution induce many changes in physiological and biochemical process. The present study was contucted on chromate industrial workers as these workers were repeatedly exposed to pollutants in chromium factors (Tamil Nadu Chromate and Chemical Ltd., Ranipet industrial Town, Tamil Nadu. The bioaccumulation of chromium was estimated from one hundred samples of blood and urine as well as twenty five samples of nails collected from TCC industrial workers and control subject. The workers and control subject were randomly selected. Estimation was carried out by Atomic Absorption spectrometry. From the results it was obeserved tha the accumulation of heavy metal chromium in the blood. urine and nail samples of chromate factory worker are above the normal ranges. Results are statistically significant.

  10. Profiling, analisi delle prestazioni e proposte per l'ottimizzazione del RDBMS MySQL utilizzato dal progetto DIRAC/LHCbDIRAC

    Mesin, Alberto

    Il lavoro presentato in questa tesi riguarda lo studio, l'analisi e la formula- zione di proposte per il miglioramento del database di back-end del progetto DIRAC/LHCbDIRAC. LHCbDIRAC, basato su DIRAC, e il sistema di sot- tomissione per l'accesso all'infrastruttura distribuita Grid per l'esperimento LHCb del CERN. Ad esso e adata la gestione dei job di Produzione, Mer- ge, Ricostruzione degli Eventi e Analisi per i dati sperimentali e simulati. Il sistema utilizza un RDBMS MySQL per la gestione di numerosi databa- se. La volonta di passare ad un motore relazionale e transazionale per la denizione schemi e la possibilita che, in un recente futuro, il DBMS possa rappresentare un serio limite alle prestazioni del sistema stesso hanno reso necessario questo studio. Il lavoro svolto si e concentrato sul proling di un singolo schema relazionale per il quale sono stati utilizzati metodi di analisi e fornite soluzioni ai problemi riscontrati il quanto piu possibile generali e per tanto validi per l'intero sistema. L...

  11. Climatic changes, bioclimatic stages and flooding durations in relation with public health

    Sandoz, A.; Roumieux, C.; Trouillet, A.


    Climatic Changes, and more generaly Global Changes, play a major role in environmental modifications related to public health. Modifications of temperatures, precipitations... influence ecological habitats. These habitats can be adapted for some animals species, responsable for predestinate pandemics. Mosquitoes and birds represent for certain pandemics the essential elements of virus transmission. Abundance of mosquitoes and birds species, is heavily conditioned to favorable ecological habitats, flooded areas extent and their variations. The study we carried, has been done in South of France. We show present status of ecological habitats and flooded durations in relation with actual climat. We have refine mediterranean spatial knowledge in mediterranean basin with actual data. We show evolution of climat and consequences for bioclimatic stages, using world clim data and IPCC scenarii. We reach environment impact for certain virus like West Nile virus. This virus affects birds, horses and hands up to men (e.g.West Nile virus appeared in 1999 in USA, between 1999 and 2007 : 27 000 human cases including 1 050 deaths). Presence of the virus is conditioned by different factors, primarily including vector distribution (mosquitoes). We show how it’s possible to localise favorable areas for the virus and to predict its future expansion areas. We present maps of the possibilities for future concerning previsions of bioclimatic steps variations. Thanks to the latest remote sensing and spatial analysis techniques. Our maps may be used as precious tools to help decision makers when faced with mosquito related problems.

  12. Climatic changes and flooding durations in relation with public health

    Sandoz, A.; Roumieux, C.; Trouillet, A.


    Climatic Changes, and more generaly Global Changes, play a major role in environmental modifications in relation with public health. Modifications of temperatures, precipitations... influence ecological habitats. These habitats can be adapted for some animals species, responsable of certain pandemics. Mosquitoes and birds represent for certain pandemics the essential elements of virus transmission. Abundance of mosquitoes and birds species, is heavily conditioned by flooded areas extent and specific habitats and their variations. The study we carried, has been done in South of France. We show present status of ecological habitats and flooded durations and future previsions. We reach environment impact for certain virus like West Nile virus. This virus affects bird, horse and sometimes man. Presence of the virus is conditioned by different factors, primarily including vector distribution (mosquitoes). We show how it's possible to localise favorable areas for the virus and to predict its future expansion areas. We present maps of the possibilities for future concerning previsions of bioclimatic steps variations. Thanks to the latest remote sensing and spatial analysis techniques. Our maps may be used as precious tools to help decision makers when faced with mosquito related problems.

  13. Veterinarians in environmental protection; Il veterinario nella protezione ambientale

    Ioppolo, A.; Achene, L.; Cappella, M.G. [eds.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Medicina Veterinaria


    The main contributions of the Fifth and Sixth Courses: Veterinary medicine and environmental contamination, held at the Italian National Institute of Health on October 27-31 1997, and September 28-October 2 1998, are presented. The volume is divided into three sections: general concepts (evolution of environmental protection in the European community, veterinary drugs in Europe, drugs and environmental contamination, aquaculture and environmental contamination); problematic aspects and methodologies applied to the environmental pollution (animal pathologies and environmental quality, toxic algae and aquaculture, aquatic organisms as indicators of environmental contamination, use of arthropods to assess environmental quality); field experiences (monitoring of chemical contaminants by an experimental institute of veterinary services, quality of compost in the light of aspects of management and market). [Italian] Sono riportati alcuni interventi presentati al quinto e al sesto corso di medicina veterinaria ed inquinamento ambientale che si sono svolti rispettivamente il 27-31 ottobre 1997 e il 28 settembre-2 ottobre 1998 presso l'Istituto Superiore di Sanita'. Il volume e' diviso in tre sezioni: contributi generali (evoluzione della tutela ambientale nella Comunita' Europea, i farmaci veterinari in Europa), utilizzo di farmaci e inquinamento (patologie degli animali e inquinamento, alghe tossiche e acquacultura, metodi per la valutazione della qualita' ambientale con organismi acquatici, artropodi terrestri come bioindicatori); esperienze sul campo (compostaggio di qualita'); problematiche gestionali e di mercato, esperienze di un monitoraggio di contaminanti chimici in un istituto zooprofilattico sperimentale.

  14. Finding the sum of any series from a given general term

    Euler, Leonhard


    Translation from the Latin original, "Inventio summae cuiusque seriei ex dato termino generali" (1735). E47 in the Enestrom index. In this paper Euler derives the Euler-Maclaurin summation formula, by expressing y(x-1) with the Taylor expansion of y about x. In sections 21 to 23 Euler uses the formula to find expressions for the sums of the nth powers of the first x integers. He gives the general formula for this, and works it out explicitly up to n=16. In sections 25 to 28 he applies the summation formula to getting approximations to partial sums of the harmonic series, and in sections 29 to 30 to partial sums of the reciprocals of the odd positive integers. In sections 31 to 32, Euler gets an approximation to zeta(2); in section 33, approximations for zeta(3) and zeta(4). I found David Pengelley's paper "Dances between continuous and discrete: Euler's summation formula", in the MAA's "Euler at 300: An Appreciation", edited by Robert E. Bradley, Lawrence A. D'Antonio, and C. Edward Sandifer, very helpful and...

  15. Analysis of cytosine methylation in early generations of resynthesized Brassica napus

    RAN Li-ping; FANG Ting-ting; RONG Hao; JIANG Jin-jin; FANG Yu-jie; WANG You-ping


    DNA methylation, an important epigenetic modiifcation, serves as a key function in the polyploidization of numerous crops. In this study, early generations of resynthesizedBrassica napus (F1, S1–S3), ancestral parentsB. rapaandB. oleracea were analyzed to characterize their DNA methylation status during polyploidization, applying DNA methylation-sensitive ampliifca-tion polymorphism (MSAP) and high-performance liquid chromatography methods. InF1, 53.4% fragments were inherited from both A- and C-genomes. Besides, 5.04 and 8.87% fragments inF1 were inherited from A- and C- genome, respectively. 5.85 and 0.8% fragments were newly appeared and disappeared in resynthesizedB. napus, respectively. 13.1% of these gene sites were identiifed with methylation changes inF1, namely, hypermethylation (7.86%) and hypomethylation (5.24%). The lowest methylation status was detected inF1 (38.7%) compared with in S1–S3. In S3, 40.32% genes were methylated according to MSAP analysis. Sequencing of methylated fragments indicated that genes involved in multiple biological processes were modiifed, including transcription factors, protein modiifcation, and transporters. Expression ananlysis of DNA methyltransferase 1 andDNA methyltransferase chromomethylase 3 in different materials was consistent to the DNA methylation status. These results can generaly facilitate dissection of how DNA methylation contributes to genetic stability and improvement ofB. napus during polyploidization.

  16. 论京津冀城市发展立体绿化的必要性%The theory of beijing-tianjin-hebei urban development and the necessity of vertical greening



    vertical green is in the curent urban land the contradiction between supplies and generaly low green area has a green form. vertical green because of its less land, sufer the praise highly of contemporary urban greening efect is obvious. Beijing-tianjin-hebei as a population and industrial the most densely in north of China urban belt, , land tense situation is self-evident. These areas such as can through the development of three-dimensional increase urban greening,to improve the quality of urban environment, would go a long way to build ecological livable city%立体绿化是在当前城市土地供应紧张与绿化率普遍偏低的矛盾下催生的一种绿化形式.立体绿化因其占地少、绿化效果明显而备受当代城市的推崇.京津冀作为我国北方一个人口、工业最为密集的城市带,土地紧张的情况更是不言而喻.这些地区如能通过发展立体绿化来增加的城市绿化率,对于改善城市环境质量,打造生态宜居城市,将大有裨益.

  17. Interstellar catalysis. I

    Although it is generaly accepted that most, if not all, of the molecular hydrogen in interstellar space is formed through recombination reactions on grains, the exact mechanism by which this is accomplished is far from certain. In the past, great emphasis had been placed on the physical adsorption of H atoms on cold dielectric grains and their subsequent recombination and desorption as H2 molecules. However, a careful re-examination of the problem leads the author to believe that a rate coefficient of k approximately 10-17 cm3 s-1 - the value usually quoted in the literature - is a very strong overestimate. The same thing can be said for the recombination of H atoms on graphite grains. Since two-body gas phase reactions are not sufficient by themselves to account for the observed abundances of H2, an alternate mechanism must exist. It is suggested that the chemisorption of hydrogen on transition metal grains may be just that formation mechanism. After separating the adsorption rate equations from those of desorption and using experimentally determined parameters, it is shown that transition metal grains can successfully catalyze as much H2 as the theoretical maximum predicted for cold ice grains, even though metal grains are probably less than 10% as abundant (by mass) than dielectrics. (Auth.)

  18. [Food Addiction: definizione, misurazione e prevalenza in soggetti sani e in pazienti con disturbi del comportamento alimentare].

    Imperatori, Claudio; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta; Vumbaca, Viviana; Innamorati, Marco; Contardi, Anna; Farina, Benedetto


    RIASSUNTO. Il costrutto della "Food Addiction" (FA) è stato introdotto negli ultimi anni per meglio comprendere i pattern alimentari disfunzionali osservati nei pazienti obesi e in sovrappeso e nei pazienti con disturbi del comportamento alimentare (DCA). Nonostante i numerosi parallelismi tra la dipendenza da sostanze e la FA, non c'è ancora accordo nel considerare la FA come un indipendente DCA né un concetto utile. L'obiettivo della presente rassegna è stato quello di riassumere i dati disponibili al fine di aumentare le conoscenze su: 1) definizione, misurazione e caratteristiche generali della FA; 2) prevalenza della FA in campioni clinici e non clinici. I dati disponibili suggeriscono che la FA sia un costrutto transnosografico presente in tutti i DCA, con una prevalenza più elevata nella bulimia nervosa. Nonostante il dibattito sull'autonomia della FA come DCA rimanga aperto, gli studi riportati suggeriscono che la comorbilità tra FA e DCA sia associata con peggiori outcome clinici, giustificando di conseguenza l'assessment e il trattamento della FA. PMID:27183510

  19. Due inediti rotoli pergamenacei. L'Ordine Teutonico e la sua organizzazione archivistica al principio del XIV secolo

    Barbara Bombi


    Full Text Available After a brief overwiew on the archival history of the Teutonic Order in the thirteenth and early fourteenth century, the article focuses on the problem of conservation practices and record keeping that the Order adopted during the period of displacement and reorganization of its archives. Two parchment rolls are analyzed, both preserved in the Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz in Berlin and containing headings of mostly papal documents issued in favor of the Order in the thirteenth century. The first roll was drawn up at the beginning of the fourteenth century on the documents preserved in the Roman church of Santa Maria in Domnica: the roll is one of the last witnesses of the size of the Roman archive of the Order before its dispersion. The second roll was commissioned in 1318 by the procurator generalis of the Order in the Avignon Curia and was compiled to affirm, first of all, the lawsuit of the Teutonic Knights on rights in Livonia against the archbishop of Riga. The authors of this second roll used, in all probability, compilations made by the will of procuratores of the Order at the Papal Curia ​​in the thirteenth century and based on registers of Papal Chancery.

  20. Sul posto della variazione nella teoria linguistica

    Gaetano Berruto


    Full Text Available Una parte cospicua dell’opera scientifica di Mitja Skubic si può ritenere collocata più o meno direttamente in campi di studio aventi a che fare con la variazione. Una buona cinquantina dei più di 220 titoli di Skubic riportati nella bibliografia curata da Marjeta Prelesnik-Drozg in linguistica XLVIII (2008, 11–31, verte infatti sullo studio di fenomeni in specifiche varietà di lingua (il toscano parlato, la lingua di Goldoni, varie parlate venete, friulano e sloveno di Gorizia, e via discorrendo o su casi di interferenza e contatto nell’area italo-slovena, dove è per lo più evidente una dimensione variazionista. Vorrei quindi offrire al festeggiato in questa sede alcune riflessioni generali sulla questione della variazione linguistica che spero gli giungano gradite. Un tratto evidente nella linguistica anche teorica (o nelle diverse anime della linguistica1 degli ultimi decenni è infatti il progressivo aumento di interesse verso la variazione. Un problema sempre ritornante in tale contesto è quello del posto e del ruolo eventuale che la variazione possa o debba avere nella teoria lingui- stica. Riprendo quindi in queste pagine, con qualche sintetica argomentazione, una questione che, molto dibattuta negli anni Settanta in concomitanza con la fondazio- ne e lo sviluppo della linguistica variazionista di William Labov,2 è emersa solo spo- radicamente negli anni Ottanta e Novanta, ed è divenuta, su altre basi, di nuovo molto attuale all’inizio del Terzo Millennio.

  1. The proactive historian: Methodological opportunities presented by the new archives documenting genomics.

    García-Sancho, Miguel


    In this paper, I propose a strategy for navigating newly available archives in the study of late-twentieth century genomics. I demonstrate that the alleged 'explosion of data' characteristic of genomics-and of contemporary science in general-is not a new problem and that historians of earlier periods have dealt with information overload by relying on the 'perspective of time': the filtering effect the passage of time naturally exerts on both sources and memories. I argue that this reliance on the selective capacity of time results in inheriting archives curated by others and, consequently, poses the risk of reifying ahistorical scientific discourses. Through a preliminary examination of archives documenting early attempts at mapping and sequencing the human genome, I propose an alternative approach, in which historians proactively problematize and improve available sources. This approach provides historians with a voice in the socio-political management of scientific heritage and advances methodological innovations in the use of oral histories. It also provides a narrative framework in which to address big science initiatives by following second order administrators, rather than individual scientists. The new genomic archives thus represent an opportunity for historians to take an active role in current debates concerning 'big data' and critically embed the humanities in pressing global problems. PMID:26459668

  2. Low PIP2 molar fractions induce nanometer size clustering in giant unilamellar vesicles containing POPC

    Salvemini, Iyrri; Gaua, D.; Reid, J.; Bagatolli, Luis; Macmillan, A.; Moens, Pierre


    Phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate (PIP2) is an important signaling molecule located on the inner leaflet of the cell membrane. In order to perform its various signaling functions, it is suggested that PIP2 must be able to form localized clusters. In this study, we have used LAURDAN generali...... clustering result in a change in the partitioning of the lipids with the BODIPY labeled PIP2 lipids able to move between the liquid ordered and liquid disordered phase.......Phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate (PIP2) is an important signaling molecule located on the inner leaflet of the cell membrane. In order to perform its various signaling functions, it is suggested that PIP2 must be able to form localized clusters. In this study, we have used LAURDAN...... generalized polarization function (GP) with unlabeled PIP2 and single point fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and brightness analysis of various BODIPY labeled PIP2 to determine the presence of clusters in the membrane of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) made of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3...

  3. In vitro studies on non-protein nitrogen utilization by rumen microflora. I. Effect of nature of energy and minerals using phosphorus-32 as a label of microbial growth

    The effect of the nature of carbohydrates and minerals on microbial growth has been studied in vitro to intensify rumen microbial protein synthesis from non-protein nitrogen. The two methods used are a classical one based on decrease of ammonia in the incubation medium and one measuring 32P incorporation in microflora. The nature of starch greatly influences urea utilization. Maize starches with high amylose content (50-60%) and B-type X-ray diffraction pattern allow a lower rate of urea utilization than starch from normal or waxy maize. Large starch granules, such as those found in some varieties of tropical tubers, also reduce urea utilization. Among the tropical tubers studied yam Cayenensis and canna Edulis give lower urea utilization than cassava and yam Dumetorum. However, this can be improved by processing; extrusion of maize and pelleting of tropical tubers promotes urea utilization. The effect is greatest when the proportion of urea to processed cereal is about 4-5%. Protein synthesis is not further improved when the percentage of urea exceeds 12%. Adding phosphorus and zinc to the incubation medium does not affect urea utilization. However, the addition of sulphur in the form of sulphate improves urea utilization with both natural and purified diets. (author)

  4. Pyrolysis of wetland biomass waste: Potential for carbon sequestration and water remediation.

    Cui, Xiaoqiang; Hao, Hulin; He, Zhenli; Stoffella, Peter J; Yang, Xiaoe


    Management of biomass waste is crucial to the efficiency and sustainable operation of constructed wetlands. In this study, biochars were prepared using the biomass of 22 plant species from constructed wetlands and characterized by BET-N2 surface area analysis, FTIR, TGA, SEM, EDS, and elemental compositions analysis. Biochar yields ranged from 32.78 to 49.02%, with mesopores dominating the pore structure of most biochars. The biochars had a R50 recalcitrance index of class C and the carbon sequestration potential of 19.4-28%. The aquatic plant biomass from all the Chinese constructed wetlands if made into biochars has the potential to sequester 11.48 Mt carbon yr(-1) in soils over long time periods, which could offset 0.4% of annual CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion in China. In terms of adsorption capacity for selected pollutants, biochar derived from Canna indica plant had the greatest adsorption capacity for Cd(2+) (98.55 mg g(-1)) and NH4(+) (7.71 mg g(-1)). Whereas for PO4(3-), Hydrocotyle verticillata derived biochar showed the greatest adsorption capacities (2.91 mg g(-1)). The results from this present study demonstrated that wetland plants are valuable feedstocks for producing biochars with potential application for carbon sequestration and contaminant removal in water remediation. PMID:26978731

  5. Nitrogen removal performance in planted and unplanted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating different influent COD/N ratios.

    Wang, Wei; Ding, Yi; Ullman, Jeffrey L; Ambrose, Richard F; Wang, Yuhui; Song, Xinshan; Zhao, Zhimiao


    Microcosm horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCWs) were used to examine the impacts of vegetation on nitrogen dynamics treating different influent COD/N ratios (1:1, 4:1, and 8:1). An increase in the COD/N ratio led to increased reductions in NO3 and total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) in planted and unplanted wetlands, but diminished removal of NH4. The HSSFCW planted with Canna indica L. exhibited a significant reduction in NH4 compared to the unplanted system, particularly in the active root zone where NH4 removal performance increased by up to 26 % at the COD/N ratio of 8:1. There was no significant difference in NO3 removal between the planted and unplanted wetlands. TIN removal efficiency in the planted wetland increased with COD/N ratios, which was likely influenced by plant uptake. NH4 reductions were greater in planted wetland at the 20- and 40-cm depths while NO3 reductions were uniformly greater with depth in all cases, but no statistical difference was impacted by depth on TIN removal. These findings show that planting a HSSFCW can provide some benefit in reducing nitrogen loads in effluents, but only when a sufficient carbon source is present. PMID:26822218

  6. The inhibition and adaptability of four wetland plant species to high concentration of ammonia wastewater and nitrogen removal efficiency in constructed wetlands.

    Wang, Yuhui; Wang, Junfeng; Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Song, Xinshan; Gong, Juan


    Four plant species, Typha orientalis, Scirpus validus, Canna indica and Iris tectorum were selected to assess their physiological response and effects on nitrogen and COD removal to high total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) in constructed wetlands. Results showed that high TAN caused decreased relative growth rate, net photosynthetic rate, and leaf transpiration. C. indica and T. orientalis showed higher TAN adaptability than S. validus and I. tectorum. Below TAN of 200 mg L(-1), growth of C. indica and T. orientalis was less affected or even stimulated at TAN range 100-200 mg L(-1). However, S. validus and I. tectorum was obviously suppressed when TAN was above 100 mg L(-1). High TAN generated obvious oxidative stress showing increased proline and malondialdehyde contents, and superoxide dismutase was inhibited. It indicated that the threshold for plant self-bioremediation against high TAN was 200 mg L(-1). What's more, planted CWs showed higher nitrogen and COD removal. Removal rate of C. indica and T. orientalis was higher than S. validus and I. tectorum. PMID:26708488

  7. Um fungo novo do caeté Bilboque, a new genus of hyphomycetes on calathea

    A. P. Viégas


    Full Text Available Um fungo hifomicete, ocasionando lesões em folhas de Calathea sp., da família Marantaceae, vulgarmente chamada caeté e tido como novo à micologia brasileira é agora descrito pela primeira vez. Êsse organismo foi constatado também em fôlhas de Canna sp., da família Cannaceae, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Ao gênero novo deu-se o nome de Bilboque. À espécie, magnificum. A etimologia do gênero é apresentada e discutida, assim como a posição taxonômica do hifomicete, amparando-as na morfologia. Vai ilustrada com séries de figuras a bico de pena pelo próprio autor.A new genus of the Hyphomycetes is described on living leaves of Calathea sp., caeté in Tupi and Portuguese, a plant belonging to the family Marantaceae. The new erected genus has been called Bilboque, and the specific name magnificum: The implications which this genus have when compared to other well known genera, like Polythrincium, Cordana and Piricularia are focussed, and in order to clear problems dealing with morphological features of the new genus its characteristics have been shown in four serial sequences of figures by Indian ink, all them by the hand of the writer.

  8. Purification of landscape water by using an innovative application of subsurface flow constructed wetland.

    Chyan, Jih Ming; Lu, Chien Chang; Shiu, Ruei Feng; Bellotindos, Luzvisminda M


    This study attempted to purify eutrophic landscape water under a low pollutant concentration and high hydraulic volume loading using an embedded subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetland (CW). Three species of aquatic plants (i.e., Cyperus alternifolius subsp. flabelliformis, Canna indica, and Hydrocotyle verticillata) were found to be conducive to the requirements of purifying the low-polluted water. Field results of nearly 2 years of experiments showed that SSF CW purified the eutrophic water and maintained the landscape water in a visibly clear condition. In an environment approaching the SSF CW background concentration, pollutant removal processes were divided into modulation and optimum performance periods. Average concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), ammonium-nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N), and total phosphorous (TP) in the optimum performance period were 0.69-1.00, 0.35-1.42, and 0.19-0.23 mg/L, respectively. Almost 500 days of BOD and NH4 (+)-N removals were necessary to perform optimally. A shorter period, 350 days, was required for TP optimum removal. This feature of two stage removals was not found in chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and suspended solids (SS), whose averages were 11.86-17.98 and 13.30 μg/L, respectively. Filter cleaning and water replacement were unnecessary, while only water recharging was needed to compensate for the water lost by evapotranspiration. The field SSF CW has maintained its performance level for over 7 years. PMID:26315590

  9. Microbial mechanisms of using enhanced ecological floating beds for eutrophic water improvement.

    Wu, Qing; Hu, Yue; Li, Shuqun; Peng, Sen; Zhao, Huabing


    Enhanced ecological floating beds were implemented to reduce nutrient quantity and improve the water quality of a eutrophic lake. The results showed that average removal efficiencies of CODCr, total nitrogen, NH3-N and total phosphorus for Canna indica L. set-up were 23.1%, 15.3%, 18.1% and 19.4% higher, respectively, than that of the setup with only substrate, and 14.2%, 12.8%, 7.9% and 11.9% higher than Iris pseudacorus L. ecological floating bed. The microbial community structure had obvious differences between devices and low similarity; bacteria were mainly attached on the fiber filling. The microbial population was abundant at the start and end of the experiment. Shannon index of samples selected ranged from 0.85 to 1.05. The sequencing results showed that fiber filling collected most uncultured bacteria species and the majority of bacteria on the plant roots were β-Proteobacteria and α-Proteobacteria. The co-dominant species attaching to the filling and plant was Nitrosomonadaceae. PMID:27035477

  10. Nitrogen management in reservoir catchments through constructed wetland systems.

    Tunçiper, B; Ayaz, S C; Akça, L; Samsunlu, A


    In this study, nitrogen removal was investigated in pilot-scale subsurface flow (SSF) and in free water surface flow (FWS) constructed wetlands installed in the campus of TUBITAK-Marmara Research Center, Gebze, near Istanbul, Turkey. The main purposes of this study are to apply constructed wetlands for the protection of water reservoirs and to reuse wastewater. Experiments were carried out at continuous flow reactors. The effects of the type of plants on the removal were investigated by using emergent (Canna, Cyperus, Typhia spp., Phragmites spp., Juncus, Poaceae, Paspalum and Iris.), submerged (Elodea, Egeria) and floating (Pistia, Salvina and Lemna) marsh plants at different conditions. During the study period HLRs were 30, 50, 70, 80 and 120 L m(2)d(-1) respectively. The average annual NH4-N, NO(3)-N, organic N and TN treatment efficiencies in SSF and FWS wetlands are 81% and 68%, 37% and 49%, 75% and 68%, 47% and 53%, respectively. Nitrification, denitrification and ammonification rate constant (k20) values in SSF and FNS systems have been found as 0.898 d(-1) and 0.541 d(-1), 0.488 d(-1) and 0.502 d(-1), 0.986 d(-1) and 0.908 respectively. Two types of the models (first-order plug flow and multiple regression) were tried to estimate the system performances. PMID:16114631

  11. Contaminant Removal of Domestic Wastewater by Constructed Wetlands: Effects of Plant Species

    Qiong Yang; Zhang-He Chen; Jian-Gang Zhao; Bin-He Gu


    A comparative study of the efficiency of contaminant removal between five emergent plant species and between vegetated and unvegetated wetlands was conducted in small-scale (2.0 m×1.0 m×0.7 m, length×width×depth) constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment in order to evaluate the decontaminated effects of different wetland plants. There was generally a significant difference in the removal of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), but no significant difference in the removal of organic matter between vegetated and unvegetated wetlands.Wetlands planted with Canna indica Linn., Pennisetum purpureum Schum., and Phragmites communls Trin. had generally higher removal rates for TN and TP than wetlands planted with other species. Plant growth and fine root (root diameter ≤ 3 mm) biomass were related to removal efficiency. Fine root biomass rather than the mass of the entire root system played an important role in wastewater treatment. Removal efficiency varied with season and plant growth. Wetlands vegetated by P. purpureum significantly outperformed wetlands with other plants in May and June, whereas wetlands vegetated by P. communis and C. indica demonstrated higher removal efficiency from August to December. These findings suggest that abundance of fine roots is an important factor to consider in selecting for highly effective wetland plants. It also suggested that a plant community consisting of multiple plant species with different seasonal growth patterns and root characteristics may be able to enhance wetland performance.

  12. The Effect of the Hydraulic Retention Time on the Performance of an Ecological Wastewater Treatment System: An Anaerobic Filter with a Constructed Wetland

    María L. Merino-Solís


    Full Text Available This work assesses the performance of a municipal pilot wastewater treatment system employing an up-flow anaerobic filter (UAF followed by a horizontal subsurface constructed wetland (HSSCW. This pilot scale demonstration project was implemented in a zone with subtropical climate in order to protect Lake Chapala from wastewater loads that are discharged by small communities in the Lake’s vicinity. The filters were filled with tezontle as the media for biofilm support and the HSSCW was planted with two ornamental plants species, Canna hybrids and Strelitzia reginae. The experiment evaluated three hydraulic retention times (HRT of 18, 28 and 38 h in the UAF, which corresponds to two, three and four days in HSSCW over 66 weeks. The mean efficiencies found for the complete system were 80% and 90% of BOD, 80% and 86% of COD, 30% and 33% of Ntot and between 24% and 44% of Ptot. It was possible to remove almost 80% of organic matter in 18 h in the UAF while the HSSCW reached 30% of removal for Ntot in a HRT of three days. As expected, the UAF was responsible for removing most of the organic matter and the HSSCW removed most of the nitrogen.

  13. Comparative toxicity of Paraquat herbicide and some plant extracts in Lymnaea natalensis snails.

    Bakry, Fayez A; Eleiwa, Mona E; Taha, Samir A; Ismil, Somya M


    Paraquat has been shown to be a highly toxic compound for humans and animals, and many cases of acute poisoning and death have been reported over the past few decades. The present study was undertaken to evaluate comprehensively herbicides (Paraquat) and some plant extracts to biochemical aspects of Lymnaea natalensis snails. It was found that the exposure of L. natalensis to Paraquat and plant extracts led to a significant reduction in the infectivity of Fasciola gigantica miracidia to the snail. The glucose level in hemolymph of exposed snails was elevated, while the glycogen showed a decrease in soft tissues when compared with the control group. In addition, the activity level of some enzymes representing glycolytic enzymes as hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) in snail's tissues were reduced in response to the treatment. It was concluded that the pollution of the aquatic environment by herbicide would adversely affect the metabolism of the L. natalensis snails. Snails treated with Agave attenuate, Ammi visnaga, and Canna iridiflora plant had less toxic effect compared to snails treated with Paraquat. PMID:24081640

  14. Comparative Study of the Molluscicidal Activity of Some Plant Extracts on the Snail Vector of Schistosoma mansoni, Biomphalaria alexandrina

    M. Al-Hazmi


    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is considered as one of the most important trematode disease of man. The most important goal of the present study is to use the natural plants as cheaper and available sources for snail control. The present investigation concerned with the evaluation of toxicological, biological and physiological effects of water suspension, cold water and boiled water extracts of Agave filifera whole plant, Ammi majus flowers and leaves and Canna indica flowers and leaves comparing with the effect of different sulphate compounds. The present work revealed that, copper sulphate as well as the water suspension of Ammi majus flowers and leaves disclosed the most potent effect on the cumulative mortality after 6 weeks exposure periods. Also, egg laying capacity and egg hatchability of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails were affected with the exposure to CuSO4 and water suspension of Ammi majus flowers. The sublethal doses (LC10 of copper sulphate and water suspension of the tested plants reduced the total protein and total lipid contents of the hemolymph of B. alexandrina snails. The activity of transaminases enzymes as well as acetylcholinesterase had been affected by the exposure to the sublethal doses of copper sulphate and the water suspension of the tested plants. Also, histopathological changes were recorded in hermaphrodite gland of B. alexandrina snails post 6 weeks of exposure.


    Freckelton, Ian


    Attempts at medicinal cannabis law reform in Australia are not new. However, in historical perspective 2015 and 2016 will be seen as the time when community debate about legalisation of medicinal cannabis reached a tipping point in a number of Australian jurisdictions and when community impetus for change resulted in major reform initiatives. In order to contextualise the changes, the August 2015 Report of the Victorian Law Reform Commission (VLRC) and then the Access to Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2015 (Vic) introduced in December 2015 into the Victorian Parliament by the Labor Government are scrutinised. In addition, this editorial reviews the next phase of developments in the course of 2015 and 2016, including the Commonwealth Narcotic Drugs Amendment Act 2016 and the Queensland Public Health (Medicinal Canna- bis) Bill 2016. It identifies the principal features of the legislative initiatives against the backdrop of the VLRC proposals. It observes that the principles underlying the Report and the legislative developments in the three Australian jurisdictions are closely aligned and that their public health approach, their combination of evidence-based pragmatism, and their carefully orchestrated checks and balances against abuse and excess constitute a constructive template for medicinal cannabis law reform. PMID:27323630

  16. Microbial density and diversity in constructed wetland systems and the relation to pollutant removal efficiency.

    Zhang, Yang; Carvalho, Pedro N; Lv, Tao; Arias, Carlos; Brix, Hans; Chen, Zhanghe


    Microbes are believed to be at the core of the wastewater treatment processes in constructed wetlands (CWs). The aim of this study was to assess the microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and Shannon's diversity index (SDI) in the substrate of CWs planted with Phragmites australis, Hymenocallis littoralis, Canna indica and Cyperus flabelliformis, and to relate MBC and SDI to the pollutant removal in the systems. Significant higher MBC was observed in CWs with H. littoralis and C. indica than in CWs with P. australis, and the MBC differed with season and substrate depth. The microbial community in the wetlands included four phyla: Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria, with a more diverse community structure in wetlands with C. flabelliformis. The MBC in the substrate and the SDI of the 15-20 cm depth correlated with the removal of biochemical oxygen demand, NH4-N and NO3-N. Our results indicate that substrate SDI and MBC can both be regarded as bioindicators of the pollutant removal ability in CWs. PMID:26877053

  17. Effects of the source of energy and minerals on microbial protein synthesis in rumen using 35S as indicator. Part of a coordinated programme on tracer techniques in studies on the use of non-protein nitrogen in ruminants

    Part I. The effect of the nature of carbohydrates and minerals on microbial growth in vitro was studied in vitro to intensify rumen microbial protein synthesis from non-protein nitrogen, using phosphorus incorporation (PR). The nature of starch greatly influences urea utilization. Among the tropical tubers studied, yam Cayenesis and canna Edulis give lower urea utilization than cassava and yam Dumetorum. However, this can be improved by processing. The effects are greatest when the proportion of urea to processed cereal is ca. 4-5%. S-addition as sulfate improves urea utilization with both natural and purified diets. Part II. Results from the Jouy and Ghent laboratories were analyzed statistically, to check the accuracy of the 32P method for estimating microbial growth, using protein-free substrates. The linear relationship between PR and every other variable was studied. Two multivariate analyses, principal components and multiple regression, were applied. Net NH3 utilization was predicted using the equations for substrates with proteins likely to be degraded. This method appears more accurate than using the N/P ratio in microflora. Equations should only be used under the specific experiments described

  18. Modelling and evaluation of nitrogen removal performance in subsurface flow and free water surface constructed wetlands.

    Tunçsiper, B; Ayaz, S C; Akça, L


    With the aim of protecting drinking water sources in rural regions, pilot-scale subsurface water flow (SSF) and free water surface flow (FWS) constructed wetland systems were evaluated for removal efficiencies of nitrogenous pollutants in tertiary stage treated wastewaters (effluent from the Pasaköy biological nutrient removal plant). Five different hydraulic application rates and emergent (Canna, Cyperus, Typhia sp., Phragmites sp., Juncus, Poaceae, Paspalum and Iris) and floating (Pistia, Salvina and Lemna) plant species were assayed. The average annual NH4-N, NO3-N and organic-N treatment efficiencies were 81, 40 and 74% in SSFs and 76, 59 and 75% in FWSs, respectively. Two types of the models (first-order plug flow and multiple regression) were tried to estimate the system performances. Nitrification, denitrification and ammonification rate constants (k20) values in SSF and FWS systems were 0.898 d-1 and 0.541 d(-1), 0.486 d(-1) and 0.502 d(-1), 0.986 d(-1) and 0.908, respectively. Results show that the first-order plug flow model clearly estimates slightly higher or lower values than observed when compared with the other model. PMID:16889247

  19. Seafood wastewater treatment in constructed wetland: tropical case.

    Sohsalam, Prapa; Englande, Andrew Joseph; Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud


    A series of investigations were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using constructed wetlands to remove pollutants from seafood processing wastewater. Six emergent plant species; Cyperus involucratus, Canna siamensis, Heliconia spp., Hymenocallis littoralis, Typha augustifolia and Thalia deabata J. Fraser were planted in surface flow wetland. They were fed with seafood wastewater that was 50% diluted with treated seafood wastewater from an aerated lagoon. All macrophytes were found to meet satisfying treatment efficiency (standard criteria for discharged wastewater) at 5 days hydraulic retention time (HRT). While C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia met acceptable treatment efficacy at 3 days HRT. Nutrient uptake rate of these species was observed in the range of 1.43-2.30 g Nitrogen/m(2)day and 0.17-0.29 g Phosphorus/m(2)day, respectively at 3 days HRT. The highest treatment performances were found at 5 days HRT. Average removal efficiencies were 91-99% for BOD(5), 52-90% for SS, 72-92% for TN and 72-77% for TP. Plant growth and nitrogen assimilation were experienced to be most satisfactory for C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia. Lower HRTs affected contaminant removal efficiency for all species. C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia can remove all contaminants efficiently even at the lowest hydraulic retention time (1 day). PMID:17383179

  20. Microbial nitrogen removal pathways in integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland systems.

    Hu, Yun; He, Feng; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Zhenbin


    Microbial nitrogen (N) removal pathways in planted (Canna indica L.) and unplanted integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland systems (IVCWs) were investigated. Results of, molecular biological and isotope pairing experiments showed that nitrifying, anammox, and denitrifying bacteria were distributed in both down-flow and up-flow columns of the IVCWs. Further, the N transforming bacteria in the planted IVCWs were significantly higher than that in the unplanted ones (p<0.05). Moreover, the potential nitrification, anammox, and denitrification rates were highest (18.90, 11.75, and 7.84nmolNg(-1)h(-1), respectively) in the down-flow column of the planted IVCWs. Significant correlations between these potential rates and the absolute abundance of N transformation genes further confirmed the existence of simultaneous nitrification, anammox, and denitrification (SNAD) processes in the IVCWs. The anammox process was the major N removal pathway (55.6-60.0%) in the IVCWs. The results will further our understanding of the microbial N removal mechanisms in IVCWs. PMID:26897412

  1. Isolation and characterization of polymeric galloyl-ester-degrading bacteria from a tannery discharge place.

    Franco, A R; Calheiros, C S C; Pacheco, C C; De Marco, P; Manaia, C M; Castro, P M L


    The culturable bacteria colonizing the rhizosphere of plants growing in the area of discharge of a tannery effluent were characterized. Relative proportions of aerobic, denitrifying, and sulfate-reducing bacteria were determined in the rhizosphere of Typha latifolia, Canna indica, and Phragmites australis. Aerobic bacteria were observed to be the most abundant group in the rhizosphere, and plant type did not seem to influence the abundance of the bacterial types analyzed. To isolate bacteria able to degrade polyphenols used in the tannery industry, enrichments were conducted under different conditions. Bacterial cultures were enriched with individual polyphenols (tannins Tara, Quebracho, or Mimosa) or with an undefined mixture of tannins present in the tannery effluent as carbon source. Cultures enriched with the effluent or Tara tannin were able to degrade tannic acid. Six bacterial isolates purified from these mixed cultures were able to use tannic acid as a sole carbon source in axenic culture. On the basis of 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, these isolates were closely related to organisms belonging to the taxa Serratia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Klebsiella oxytoca, Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum, and Pseudomonas putida. PMID:16341641

  2. High-throughput microarray mapping of cell wall polymers in roots and tubers during the viscosity-reducing process.

    Huang, Yuhong; Willats, William G; Lange, Lene; Jin, Yanling; Fang, Yang; Salmeán, Armando A; Pedersen, Henriette L; Busk, Peter Kamp; Zhao, Hai


    Viscosity reduction has a great impact on the efficiency of ethanol production when using roots and tubers as feedstock. Plant cell wall-degrading enzymes have been successfully applied to overcome the challenges posed by high viscosity. However, the changes in cell wall polymers during the viscosity-reducing process are poorly characterized. Comprehensive microarray polymer profiling, which is a high-throughput microarray, was used for the first time to map changes in the cell wall polymers of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), cassava (Manihot esculenta), and Canna edulis Ker. over the entire viscosity-reducing process. The results indicated that the composition of cell wall polymers among these three roots and tubers was markedly different. The gel-like matrix and glycoprotein network in the C. edulis Ker. cell wall caused difficulty in viscosity reduction. The obvious viscosity reduction of the sweet potato and the cassava was attributed to the degradation of homogalacturonan and the released 1,4-β-d-galactan and 1,5-α-l-arabinan. PMID:25757626

  3. Ornamental plants for micropollutant removal in wetland systems.

    Macci, Cristina; Peruzzi, Eleonora; Doni, Serena; Iannelli, Renato; Masciandaro, Grazia


    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the efficiency of micropollutant removal, such as Cu, Zn, carbamazepine, and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), through the use of a subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland system with ornamental plants. Zantedeschia aethiopica, Canna indica, Carex hirta, Miscanthus sinensis, and Phragmites australis were selected and planted in lysimeters filled up with gravel. The lysimeters were completely saturated with synthetic wastewater (N 280 mg L(-1), P 30 mg L(-1), Cu 3.6 mg L(-1), Zn 9 mg L(-1), carbamazepine 5 μg L(-1), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates 14 mg L(-1)), and the leaching water was collected for analysis after 15, 30, and 60 days in winter-spring and spring-summer periods. Nutrients (N and P) and heavy metals decreased greatly due to both plant activity and adsorption. C. indica and P. australis showed the highest metal content in their tissues and also the greatest carbamazepine and LAS removal. In these plants, the adsorption/degradation processes led to particularly high oxidative stress, as evidenced by the significantly high levels of ascorbate peroxidase activity detected. Conversely, Z. aethiopica was the less efficient plant in metal and organic compound removal and was also less stressed in terms of ascorbate peroxidase activity. PMID:24798922

  4. Observation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removals and Accumulations in Surface Flow Constructed Wetland (SFCW

    Suntud Sirianuntapiboon


    Full Text Available The tropical emergent plant species; Cyperus involucratus, Canna siamensis, Heliconia sp., Hymenocallis littoralis, Typha augustifolia and Thalia dealbata were used to observe nutrients (total phosphorus: TP and total nitrogen: TN removal efficiencies of surface flow constructed wetland (SFCW. The system was operated at different hydraulic retention time (HRT of 1, 3 and 5 days and the average atmospheric temperature of 29.1 ± 4.9oC. The seafood industrial wastewater was employed as the influent. The high biomass production plant species; Cyperus involucratus, Typha augustifolia and Thalia dealbata could generate the high oxidative environment. Amount of N and P accumulations in plant tissue were increased with the increase of plant biomass production. The system did not show any significantly different on N and P accumulations among the tested-emergent plant species. But the amount of accumulated-N and P were increased with the increase of HRT. N accumulations in plant tissue, effluent, sediment and media of the system with the tested-emergent plant species under HRT of 1-5 days were in the range of 2.17-43.80%, 7.91-27.75%, 19.62-36.86% and 14.39-31.88%, respectively. Also, P accumulations were 0.79-17.01%, 20.35-28.37%, 40.96-56.27% and 9.09-20.47%, respectively.

  5. Removal of chlorophenolics from pulp and paper mill wastewater through constructed wetland.

    Choudhary, Ashutosh Kumar; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, Chhaya


    This study evaluates the treatment efficiency of horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) constructed wetland for the removal of AOX (adsorbable organic halides) and chlorophenolics from pulp and paper mill wastewater. The dimensions of HSSF constructed wetland were 3.5 m in length, 1.5 m in width, and 0.28 m in depth, with surface area of 5.25 m2. The HSSF constructed wetland unit was planted with an ornamental plant species, Canna indica. Under hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5.9 days, the average AOX removal was 89.1%, and 67% to 100% removal of chlorophenolics from pulp and paper mill wastewater was achieved. The complete removal of 2,3-dichlorophenol, 3,4-dichlorophenol, 2,3,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 3,5-dichlorocatechol, 3,6-dichlorocatechol, and 4,5,6-trichloroguaiacol was observed. Some of the chlorophenolics were found to accumulate in the plant biomass and soil. The evapotranspiration rate varied from 6.7 to 12.7 mm day(-1) during the experimental period. The mass balance of chlorophenolics was also studied in constructed wetland system. PMID:23409454

  6. Caracterização físico-química de algumas tuberosas amiláceas

    Leonel Magali


    Full Text Available As principais fontes de amido comercial no mundo são o milho, a batata e a mandioca. Entretanto, nos últimos anos vem crescendo o interesse em amidos naturais que possam ser utilizados pela indústria alimentícia. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar, quanto à composição físico-química, açafrão, ahipa, araruta, batata-doce, biri, inhame e mandioquinha-salsa, tuberosas amiláceas potencialmente passíveis de introdução como matérias-primas de interesse comercial. Amostras das tuberosas foram analisadas quanto ao teor de umidade, cinzas, proteína, matéria graxa, açúcares redutores e totais, fibras e amido. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que das tuberosas analisadas as que apresentaram maior teor de amido foram a araruta (Maranta arundinacea, o inhame (Dioscorea sp e o biri (Canna edulis, sendo que o inhame e o biri apresentaram também o maior rendimento potencial em toneladas de amido/hectare.

  7. Evaluation of the treatment performance of lab-scaled vertical flow constructed wetlands in removal of organic compounds, color and nutrients in azo dye-containing wastewater.

    Dogdu, Gamze; Yalcuk, Arda


    The objective of this study is to examine the treatment performance of vertical flow intermittent feeding constructed wetland (VFCW) in removal of organic pollution, nutrients and color in azo-dye containing wastewater. The systems consisted of PVC reactors, some filling materials such as gravel, sand and zeolite and wetland plants including Typha angustifolia and Canna indica. The average treatment efficiency of the systems for COD, color, sulphate, NH4-N, and PO4-P were in the range of 57-63%, 94-99%, 44-48%, 39-44%, and 84-88%, respectively among the VFCW reactors. It is concluded that VFCW reactor system can effectively be used in the treatment of dye-rich wastewater, especially for the removal of color and in the reduction of COD. Biofilm formation and cleavage of azo bonds could be observed by SEM and FTIR results, respectively. Almost similar NH4-N and PO4-P removal were obtained in all reactors by using same amount of zeolite media. PMID:26248021

  8. Cloning, synthesis, and characterization of αO-conotoxin GeXIVA, a potent α9α10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist.

    Luo, Sulan; Zhangsun, Dongting; Harvey, Peta J; Kaas, Quentin; Wu, Yong; Zhu, Xiaopeng; Hu, Yuanyan; Li, Xiaodan; Tsetlin, Victor I; Christensen, Sean; Romero, Haylie K; McIntyre, Melissa; Dowell, Cheryl; Baxter, James C; Elmslie, Keith S; Craik, David J; McIntosh, J Michael


    We identified a previously unidentified conotoxin gene from Conus generalis whose precursor signal sequence has high similarity to the O1-gene conotoxin superfamily. The predicted mature peptide, αO-conotoxin GeXIVA (GeXIVA), has four Cys residues, and its three disulfide isomers were synthesized. Previously pharmacologically characterized O1-superfamily peptides, exemplified by the US Food and Drug Administration-approved pain medication, ziconotide, contain six Cys residues and are calcium, sodium, or potassium channel antagonists. However, GeXIVA did not inhibit calcium channels but antagonized nicotinic AChRs (nAChRs), most potently on the α9α10 nAChR subtype (IC50 = 4.6 nM). Toxin blockade was voltage-dependent, and kinetic analysis of toxin dissociation indicated that the binding site of GeXIVA does not overlap with the binding site of the competitive antagonist α-conotoxin RgIA. Surprisingly, the most active disulfide isomer of GeXIVA is the bead isomer, comprising, according to NMR analysis, two well-resolved but uncoupled disulfide-restrained loops. The ribbon isomer is almost as potent but has a more rigid structure built around a short 310-helix. In contrast to most α-conotoxins, the globular isomer is the least potent and has a flexible, multiconformational nature. GeXIVA reduced mechanical hyperalgesia in the rat chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain but had no effect on motor performance, warranting its further investigation as a possible therapeutic agent. PMID:26170295

  9. Hybrid light emitting transistors (Presentation Recording)

    Muhieddine, Khalid; Ullah, Mujeeb; Namdas, Ebinazar B.; Burn, Paul L.


    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are well studied and established in current display applications. Light-emitting transistors (LETs) have been developed to further simplify the necessary circuitry for these applications, combining the switching capabilities of a transistor with the light emitting capabilities of an OLED. Such devices have been studied using mono- and bilayer geometries and a variety of polymers [1], small organic molecules [2] and single crystals [3] within the active layers. Current devices can often suffer from low carrier mobilities and most operate in p-type mode due to a lack of suitable n-type organic charge carrier materials. Hybrid light-emitting transistors (HLETs) are a logical step to improve device performance by harnessing the charge carrier capabilities of inorganic semiconductors [4]. We present state of the art, all solution processed hybrid light-emitting transistors using a non-planar contact geometry [1, 5]. We will discuss HLETs comprised of an inorganic electron transport layer prepared from a sol-gel of zinc tin oxide and several organic emissive materials. The mobility of the devices is found between 1-5 cm2/Vs and they had on/off ratios of ~105. Combined with optical brightness and efficiencies of the order of 103 cd/m2 and 10-3-10-1 %, respectively, these devices are moving towards the performance required for application in displays. [1] M. Ullah, K. Tandy, S. D. Yambem, M. Aljada, P. L. Burn, P. Meredith, E. B. Namdas., Adv. Mater. 2013, 25, 53, 6213 [2] R. Capelli, S. Toffanin, G. Generali, H. Usta, A. Facchetti, M. Muccini, Nature Materials 2010, 9, 496 [3] T. Takenobu, S. Z. Bisri, T. Takahashi, M. Yahiro, C. Adachi, Y. Iwasa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008, 100, 066601 [4] H. Nakanotani, M. Yahiro, C. Adachi, K. Yano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2007, 90, 262104 [5] K. Muhieddine, M. Ullah, B. N. Pal, P. Burn E. B. Namdas, Adv. Mater. 2014, 26,37, 6410

  10. Effectiveness of bee venom acupuncture in alleviating post-stroke shoulder pain:a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Sung Min Lim; Sook-Hyun Lee


    BACKGROUND:Shoulder pain is a common complication of stroke. Bee venom acupuncture (BVA) is increasingly used in the treatment of post-stroke shoulder pain. OBJECTIVE: To summarize and evaluate evidence on the effectiveness of BVA in relieving shoulder pain after stroke. SEARCH STRATEGY: Nine databases, namely MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), the Japan Science and Technology Information Aggregator, Electronic (J-STAGE), and four Korean medical databases, namely, the National Assembly Library, the Research Information Service System, the National Discovery for Science Leaders, and OASIS, were searched from their inception through August 2014 without language restrictions. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Randomized controled trials (RCTs) were included if BVA was used at acupoints as the sole treatment, or as an adjunct to other treatments, for shoulder pain after stroke. DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS:Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. RESULTS: A total of 138 potentialy relevant articles were identiifed, 4 of which were RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. The quality of studies included was generaly low, and a preponderance of positive results was demonstrated. Al four trials reported favorable effects of BVA on shoulder pain after stroke. Two RCTs assessing the effects of BVA on post-stroke shoulder pain, as opposed to saline injections, were included in the meta-analysis. Pain was signiifcantly lower for BVA than for saline injections (standardized mean difference on 10-cm visual analog scale: 1.46 cm, 95% CI = 0.30–2.62,P = 0.02, n = 86) CONCLUSION: This review provided evidence suggesting that BVA is effective in relieving shoulder pain after stroke. However, further studies are needed to conifrm the role of BVA in aleviating post-stroke shoulder pain. Future studies should be conducted with large samples and rigorous study designs.

  11. European Marine Information System. Eumaris; European Marine Information System. Eumaris

    Caiaffa, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente


    The present paper summarises the activities developed by ETC/MCE, under European Environment Agency (EEA) contract, on the Geographic Information System. The aim of present paper is to introduce some general concepts about the Geographic Information Systems and to investigate the potential of G.I.S. as tool for the assessment of the European seas. Care has also been taken to explain the main technical and educational reasons that led to EUMARIS GIS birth, its evolution in the last year, till to its presentation at the Inter-Regional Forum of the European Conventions held in Venice. GIS is a technological tool phenomenon involving various aspects and different issues; many examples of thematic maps involving that different subjects are shown in the paper. [Italian] Il presente articolo riassume le attivita' svolte, nell'ambito del Geographic Information System, dall'ETC/MCE sotto contratto con l'Agenzia Europea per l'Ambiente (EEA) che ha sede a Copenhagen. Scopo del presente articolo e' quello di introdurre alcuni concetti generali sui Geographic Information System (GIS) e di dimostrare la possibilita' di utilizzare il GIS stesso come strumento per la valutazione dello stato dei mari dell'Europa. Si e' cercato di spiegare le principali ragioni tecniche che hanno portato alla nascita del progeto del GIS EUMARIS, alla sua realizzazione fino alla sua presentazione all'Inter-Regional Forum of European Conventions tenutosi a Venezia. Si e' cercato anche di mostrare come un GIS per sua natura e' uno strumento che coinvolge vari aspetti tecnologici e differenti tipi di dati; nell'articolo vengono mostrati diversi esempi di mappe tematiche che contengono tali differenti argomenti.

  12. 商业步行街环境设施对人流量的影响--以光谷西班牙风情街为例%Effect Of Commercial Pedestrian Street Environment And Facilities For The Flow Of People-- A Case Study Of Optical Valley Spanish Style Street

    张婷; 柯艳婷


    In modern society, commercial public space has become a kind of social spaces open space that people often use. Street generaly zonal, to varying degrees solve people walking, shopping, leisure and combine the three issues, and comfortable environment and facilities can enhance the atractiveness of people of various activities, including shopping, walking, stop and wait, sit rest, join in the fun, and so on. To study the impact of environmental facilities on the flow of people, the paper mainly uses observation and questionnaire method, Optical Valey Spanish style street public space environment and facilities to investigate and evaluate, provide a reference for future related environmental design.%现代社会,商业公共空间已成为人们常使用的一类开放型社交场所空间。步行街通常呈带状,不同程度解决人们步行、购物、休闲三者有机结合的问题,而舒适的环境设施可增强对人们各种活动的吸引力,包括购物、散步、驻足观望、小坐休息、凑热闹等等。为了研究环境设施对人流量的影响,本文主要采用观察法和问卷调查法,对光谷西班牙风情街公共空间的环境设施进行调查,并对其进行评价,为以后相关的环境设计提供参考。


    AAN Roy Sumardika


    Full Text Available Mediation process means dispute resolution through negotiation process for obtaining a peace agreement between the parties by using a third party in settling the dispute. Article 130 HIR/154 RBg determines peace efforts may use since the trial began before a judge hands down the dispute. Mediation as part of the Alternative Dispute Resolution is a process outside the court, but Indonesian Supreme Court Rules No. 1/2008 integrates it in the court proceedings and allows the mediation process at the level of legal remedy. So the problem investigated is the court decision re-mediated and the peace agreement mediation results. The method used normative legal research by Legislation Approach and to deepen the research study also use a Legal Concept Analysis Approach which is intended to establish a view and legal arguments in solving the problem at hand. Case that has been decided by the courts is not possible to re-mediated. The mediation process at the level of legal remedy is contrary to the law, especially the provisions of Article 130 HIR / 154 RBg. Indonesian Supreme Court Rules as rules are hierarchically under the law (HIR/RBg not justified material being regulated substance exceeding material are governed by higher laws. So Indonesian Supreme Court Rules No. 1/2008 can not be a legal basis to regulate the integration of mediation into the docket particularly about mediation at the level of legal remedy because the principle of lex superiori derogat legi inferiori and the principle of lex specialis derogat legi generali not met.

  14. Value of Clinical Application of 7 Kinds of Experimental Methods in the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis%7种实验方法诊断结核病的临床应用价值



    目的:对7种实验方法诊断结核病的临床应用价值进行分析。方法结合某医院肺结核患者与健康体检者的痰标本,对7种实验方法的临床应用进行了检测。结果不同实验方法的检测阳性率有着较大的差异。结论涂片法操作简单,价格低廉,但是阳性率低;结核抗体法操作简单,但是无法区分感染与发病,SAT法较为灵敏,其一般作为辅助诊断方法。7种实验方法诊断结核病有着不同的临床应用价值。%Objective To analyze value of the clinical application of 7 kinds of experimental methods in the diagnosis of tuberculosis.Methods The clinical application of 7 kinds of experimental methods in combination with sputum samples from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and healthy physical examination in a hospital were detected.ResultsThere were statisticaly significant differences in the positive rates of different experimental methods. Conclusion The smear method is simple and cheap, but the positive rate is low, the tuberculosis antibody method is simple, but which can not distinguish between infection and disease, SAT method is more sensitive, and it is generaly used as an auxiliary diagnosis method. The 7 kinds of experimental methods have different clinical application value in the diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  15. Archeologia della produzione architettonica. Le tecniche costruttive

    Mannoni, Tiziano


    Full Text Available In the field of the building techniques used in the construction of the walls, the majority of the classifications consists of the formal aspects of visible surfaces. These classifications use some attentions distinguishing stratigraphic units and in the field of the aesthetic aspects of surfaces. As the walls take part of the most important load-bearing structure, isn’t possible to speak of the techniques used in the construction of the walls without trying to understand how the different types of wall effectively operate from a static point of view. So it’s necessary to check and to understand the whole volume of each technique used in the construction of the walls, and if there are general or particular rules deductibles from the visible surfaces. In this paper we suggest, also, an classification of the «families» of the most recognized techniques used in the construction of the walls, on the basis of their constructive, functional and formal systems.La maggior parte delle classificazioni dei modi di costruire murari si basa sugli aspetti formali delle superfici visibili, con certe utilità nel distinguere le unità stratigrafiche murarie e negli aspetti estetici delle superfici stesse. Dal momento però che i muri fanno parte delle strutture portanti più importanti, non si può parlare di tecniche murarie senza cercare di capire come i vari tipi classificati si comportino realmente dal punto di vista statico. Si cerca perciò di verificare e in qualche modo di capire l’intero volume di ogni tecnica muraria, e se vi siano della regole generali o particolari che siano in qualche modo deducibili anche dalle superfici visibili. Si propone infine una classificazione delle «famiglie» di tecniche murarie più note sulla base dei loro sistemi costruttivi e funzionali, oltre che formali.

  16. Relative bioavailability of tribasic zinc sulfate for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet

    LI Wen-xiang; MA Xin-yan; LU Lin; ZHANG Li-yang; LUO Xu-gang


    An experiment was carried out to investigate the relative bioavailability of tribasic zinc (Zn) sulfate relative to Zn sulfate for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet. A total of 504 1-d-old Arbor Acres commercial male chicks were randomly assigned by body weight of birds to one of seven treatments involving a 2×3 factorial arrangement with three levels of added Zn (30, 60, or 90 mg of Zn kg–1) and two Zn sources (tribasic Zn sulfate and Zn sulfate) plus a control with no added Zn for an experimental phase of 14 d. Plasma Zn, tibia ash Zn, pancreas Zn, and pancreas metalothionein (MT) messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed at 6 or 14 d of age post-hatching. The results showed that plasma Zn, tibia ash Zn, pancreas Zn, and pancreas MT mRNA increased linearly (P<0.002) as dietary Zn concentration increased at 6 or 14 d of age. The R2 for a linear model was greater on d 6 than on d 14 for the above 4 responsive criteria, and among these indices, the iftting of the tibia ash Zn concentration was the best (R2=0.99). Therefore, based on slope ratios from the multiple linear regressions of the above 4 indices of the birds at 6 d of age on daily intake of dietary Zn, the bioavailabilities of tribasic Zn sulfate relative to Zn sulfate (100%) were 95.6% (P=0.18), 83.5% (P=0.01), 87.9% (P=0.53), and 75.9% (P=0.38) for the tibia ash Zn, pancreas Zn, plasma Zn, and pancreas MT mRNA, respectively. The results indicated that generaly, Zn from tribasic Zn sulfate was as available as Zn from Zn sulfate for broilers.

  17. 3D打印技术及在组织工程领域的研究进展%The Principle of 3D Printing Technology and its Research Progress in Tissue Engineering

    田冶; 曾庆慧; 胡相华; 任雅清; 何晓帆


    如何构建符合不同组织/器官结构特点的个性化三维支架是组织工程研究的热点之一。相对于其他成型方法,3D打印技术依靠计算机辅助成像,以广泛使用的生物材料为打印介质,能够快速、精确的复制和重建缺损组织/器官的复杂结构,因此在组织工程领域的应用获得广泛关注。本文主要综述了近年来3D打印技术在骨、软骨、血管等组织工程领域的研究进展,并对其在该领域应用时存在的问题以及未来研究发展方向进行了探讨和展望。%One of the research emphases in tissue engineering is to fabricate individualized scaffold conformed to the different structural characteristics of tissue/organ. Compared to the other forming methods, 3D printing technology could depend on computer assisted imaging and use common biomaterials as print media to rebuild the complex structure of the damaged tissue/organ rapidly and accurately, so it was atracted generaly in the application of tissue engineering. This paper reviewed the research progress of 3D printing technology application in tissue engineering of bone, cartilage, blood vessel and so on. Furthermore it discussed the existing problems and forecasted the future development directions of the application in this ifeld.

  18. Ruolo e salvaguardia delle evidenze stratigrafiche nel progetto e nel cantiere di restauro

    Doglioni, Francesco


    Full Text Available The report deals with the relationship between stratigraphy and architectural restoration. After illustrating the position towards the use of stratigraphy of the main currents of opinion on restoration in Italy, the report tackles the question of authenticity and of the interventions to minimise the deterioration effects involving the stratification traces. In order to ensure the recognizability of the restoration interventions, it is proposed to conceive and carry them out as deliberately developed layers, in order to allow the subsequent reading of the sequence.To this aim tricks and procedures are illustrated. The cases of restoration are presented (the “Chiostro delle Cucine” in St. Paul Convent in Parma, St.Marcellus Church in Feltre and St. Cosma and St.Damiano Convent in Venice, which, by means of elaborated techniques, try to combine the conservation and readability of the traces with more general tasks of the restoration.La relazione affronta diversi aspetti del rapporto tra stratigrafia e restauro architettonico.Dopo aver descritto la posizione nei confronti dell’utilizzo della stratigrafia delle principali correnti di pensiero sul restauro in Italia, vengono trattate la questione dell’autenticità e degli interventi a contrasto degli effetti di degrado che coinvolgono le tracce della stratificazione. Ai fini della riconoscibilità degli interventi di restauro, si propone di concepirli e realizzarli come strati intenzionalmente realizzati per consentire a posteriori la lettura della sequenza, e si indicano accorgimenti e modi operativi.Vengono presentati tre casi di restauro (il Chiostro delle Cucine nel Convento di S. Paolo a Parma, la chiesa di S.Marcello a Feltre, il Convento di S. Cosma e Damiano a Venezia che, con modalità articolate, cercano di coniugare la conservazione e la leggibilità delle tracce con gli obiettivi più generali del restauro.

  19. Efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of the combined chlormadinone acetate-ethinylestradiol oral contraceptive

    Serena Ferrari


    Full Text Available Serena Ferrari, Marianna Cannoletta, Matteo Generali, Lucia Cazzato, Angelo CagnacciDepartment of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Pediatrics, Azienda Ospedaliero, Universitaria di Modena, ItalyAbstract: Since their introduction in 1959, development of hormonal contraceptives has been ongoing, with the ultimate aim of creating not only an effective and safe contraceptive method, but also a drug able to meet the need for treatment of other conditions, such as acne, seborrhea, and hirsutism, with few or no side effects. With this objective, a new progestin, chlormadinone acetate (CMA, has been developed as a derivative of progesterone for ­contraception. This new molecule has been introduced in combination with ethinylestradiol (EE 30 µg as a safe ­contraceptive with antiandrogenic properties. Many clinical studies have investigated this new oral combination and found it to be safe, with a Pearl Index similar to that of other combined hormonal contraceptives. CMA, because of its antiandrogenic properties, has been also considered effective for resolution of acne, seborrhea, and hirsutism. The data show it to be a safe molecule in terms of glucose and lipid metabolism. No major weight changes have been linked with its use, and it seems to be the only progestin able to reduce fat mass during use. The CMA-EE combination is well tolerated and acceptable to women. Adverse events related to its use are similar to those reported with other third-generation ­contraceptives. We can conclude that CMA-EE is an effective, safe, and well tolerated ­antiandrogenic hormonal contraceptive.Keywords: chlormadinone acetate, acne, weight, metabolism, safety, hormonal contraceptive

  20. New reconstructive proposal for a critical reading of the archaeological documentation of Syracuse in Greek times

    Fabio Caruso


    Full Text Available [IT] Lo studio ricostruttivo di un monumento antico risente fortemente di lacune informative, errata trascrizione delle fonti, errata traduzione o peggio ancora, di interpretazioni soggettive che possono compromettere drasticamente il risultato finale, portando a ricostruzioni anche notevolmente diverse tra di loro. Questo lavoro vuole presentare i risultati di uno studio ricostruttivo condotto filologicamente su alcuni monumenti di Siracusa in età greca, cercando di evidenziare il contributo specifico dell'archeologia virtuale nei processi interpretativi, al fine di proporre una presentazione efficace rivolta ad un target specifico di turisti. Seguendo questo approccio sono stati ricostruiti il Tempio di Apollo, il complesso monumentale di piazza Duomo ed il Teatro greco, cercando di fornire output di visualizzazione che fossero adeguati ad una consultazione da smartphone e coerenti alle finalità generali del progetto "PON Energia Smart City". Questo progetto prevede un approccio "smant" alla visita di Siracusa, privilegiando principalmente logiche di fruizione efficiente on-site grazie all'adozione di tecnologie basate sulla Realtà Aumentata, la visione dei monumenti da punti inusuali e la visita virtuale multimodale dei punti di interesse. Emerge da questo studio la nuova fisionomia di quei monumenti che, per motivi diversi, sono stati rappresentati negli anni in forme e modi del tutto differnti, tali da rendere a volte irriconoscibili le diverse ricostruzioni dello stesso oggetto. Grazie alle tecnologie di restituzione 3D basate sull'immagine è stato possibile integrare le parti mancanti di alcuni elementi architettonici e scultorei che, ricollocati virtualmente nella posizione originaria, permettono una lettura dinamica che combina l'aspetto reale con quello virtuale.

  1. Effects of aquous and ethanolic extracts of vegetal species on seed germination of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf/ Ação de extratos aquoso e etanólico de espécies vegetais na germinação de sementes de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf

    Ricardo Augusto Gorne Viani


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of aquous and ethanolic extracts of medicinal species on seed germination of B. decumbens. The experimental design was completely randomized with 19 treatments (9 aquous extracts, 9 ethanolic extracts and a check was deionized water with 4 replicates. The species and organs used to obtain the extracts were Baccharis trimera (shoot, Baccharis articulata (shoot, Canna denudata (leaves, Cymbopogom citratus (leaves, Eucalyptus citriodora (leaves, Lippia alba (leaves and branches, Momordica charantia (leaves, branches, flowers, fruits and seeds, Ocimum gratissimum (leaves, branches and flowers e Ruta graveolens (leaves and branches. The extracts were obtained by aquous and ethanolic infusions in 10% and 1% concentration respectively. The seeds were treated with extracts for one hour and after this time sowed in plastic boxes. They were maintained in germination chamber (BOD with 16 hours of dark/20ºC and 8 hours of light/35ºC. The evaluation were made at 7Th and 21st days after seeding (DAS. The extraction methods affected seed germination. The use of aquous extract showed greater germination percentage than the ethanolic one at 7Th and 21st days. The evaluated extracts did not affect the seeds’ germination.O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar o efeito dos extratos aquoso e etanólico de espécies medicinais sobre germinação de sementes de B. decumbens. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 19 tratamentos (9 extratos aquosos, 9 extratos etanólicos e 1 testemunha com água deionizada com quatro repetições. As espécies e as partes das plantas utilizadas para a obtenção dos extratos foram Baccharis trimera (caule, Baccharis articulata (caule, Canna denudata (folhas, Cymbopogom citratus (folhas, Eucalyptus citriodora (folhas, Lippia alba (folhas e ramos, Momordica charantia (folhas, ramos, flores, frutos e sementes, Ocimum gratissimum (folhas, ramos e flores e

  2. Urban areas of Carbonia (Sardinia, Italy): anthropogenic and natural sinkhole

    Mureddu, A.; Corda, A. S.


    This work aims to contribute to knowledge on the phenomena of sinkholes in the urban area of Carbonia, primed mostly as a result of mining in underground coal Sulcis, as well as natural causes, in the hills and valleys structurated on the bedrock of Cambrian area, in the localities of Cannas and Serbariu. During the exploitation of the coal deposits, (so called Lignitifero), mines of the Sulcis Area, in over a century of mining, have produced large underground excavations, which were extracted more than 50 million tons of coal and large quantities of tailings. On older crops of mineral minings centers of Serbariu, Cortoghiana and Bacu Abis, the mining operations reached the depth of 300 meters from the surface of the country, over 100 meters below sea level. In the late of 1960, following the closure of the mines, were manifested in the temporal effects of the disruptions caused by the collapse of underground voids, affecting a much wider area of the below mining cultivations. The first signs of instability are occurred with the sudden opening of large potholes and structural damage to buildings up area of Bacu Abis, in neighboring areas to the Mine of Serbariu, intended for production facilities ("Su Landiri Durci"), and along certain streets service. In the case of mine "Serbariu" located on the outskirts of the urban west Carbonia, exploited in the period between 1940 and 1964, the cultivation of the layers of coal left in place, at short depth from the surface level, consisting of empty mines, with more than 5 km of galleries. So, have been found important effects of instability of the soil in urban areas and in the recently built road infrastructure linking lots of settlements. The area affected by mining operations has an area of over 4 square kilometers, is covered in part by the built environment and road infrastructure of regional and state level. In the mining center, now converted to craft and commercial area, have continued various undergrounds mining

  3. Biological mechanisms associated with triazophos (TAP) removal by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCW).

    Wu, Juan; Feng, Yuqin; Dai, Yanran; Cui, Naxin; Anderson, Bruce; Cheng, Shuiping


    Triazophos (TAP) is a widely used pesticide that is easily accumulated in the environment due to its relatively high stability: this accumulation from agricultural runoff results in potential hazards to aquatic ecosystems. Constructed wetlands are generally considered to be an effective technology for treating TAP polluted surface water. However, knowledge about the biological mechanisms of TAP removal is still lacking. This study investigates the responses of a wetland plant (Canna indica), substrate enzymes and microbial communities in bench-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSCWs) loaded with different TAP concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 5 mg · L(-1)). The results indicate that TAP stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the roots of C. indica. The highest TAP concentrations significantly inhibited photosynthetic activities, as shown by a reduced effective quantum yield of PS II (ΦPS II) and lower electron transport rates (ETR). However, interestingly, the lower TAP loadings exhibited some favorable effects on these two variables, suggesting that C. indica is a suitable species for use in wetlands designed for treatment of low TAP concentrations. Urease and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the wetland substrate were activated by TAP. Two-way ANOVA demonstrated that urease activity was influenced by both the TAP concentrations and season, while acidphosphatase (ACP) only responded to seasonal variations. Analysis of high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed seasonal variations in the microbial community structure of the wetland substrate at the phylum and family levels. In addition, urease activity had a greater correlation with the relative abundance of some functional microbial groups, such as the Bacillaceae family, and the ALP and ACP may be influenced by the plant more than substrate microbial communities. PMID:26897579

  4. Performance of a subsurface-flow constructed wetland in Southern China

    SHI Lei; WANG Bao-zhen; CAO Xiang-dong; Wang Jin; LEI Zhi-hong; WANG Zhi-ren; LIU Zheng-ying; LU Bing-nan


    The operational performance of a full-scale subsurface-flow constructed wetland, which treated the mixed industrial and domestic wastewater with BOD5/COD mean ratio of 0.33 at Shatian, Shenzhen City was studied. The constructed wetland system consists of screens, sump, pumping station, and primary settling basin, facultative pond, first stage wetland and secondary stage wetland. The designed treatment capacity is 5000 m3/d, and the actual influent flow is in the range of 10000 m3/d. Under normal operational conditions, the final effluent quality well met the National Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard(GB 8978-1996), with the following parameters(mean values): COD 33.90 mg/L, BOD5 7.65 mg/L, TSS 7.92 mg/L, TN 9.11 mg/L and TP 0.56 mg/L. Seven species of plants were selected to grow in the wetland: Reed, Sweetcane flower Silvergrass, Great Bulrush, Powdery Thalia and Canna of three colours. The growing season is a whole year-round. The seasonal discrepancy could be observed and the plants growing in the wetland are vulnerable to lower temperature in winter.The recycling of the effluent in the first stage of the wetland system is an effective measure to improve the performance of the wetland system. The insufficient DO value in the wetland system not only had significant effect on pollutants removal in the wetland, but also was unfavourable to plant growth. The recycling of effluent to the inlet of wetland system and artificial pond to increase DO value of influent to the wetland is key to operate the subsurface constructed wetland steadily and effectively.

  5. The geomorphology of a glaciated continental shelf, Western Scotland, UK

    Howe, John; Dove, Dayton; Bradwell, Tom


    We present recently collected swath bathymetry and legacy seismic data from two regions of the north-west UK continental shelf: the Sea of the Hebrides; and the Firth of Lorn, western Scotland. Both regions have experienced extensive Pleistocene ice sheet glaciation and both provide abundant geomorphological evidence of subglacial and postglacial processes. The Sea of the Hebrides bathymetry data cover 2200 km2 and provide new geomorphological evidence for an ice stream flowing from western Scotland and the Inner Hebrides focusing towards a trough-mouth fan (the Barra Fan) at the continental shelf break during the height of the last glaciation. Notably, bedrock structures provide a control on the location and orientation of glacially overdeepened basins and troughs on the inner shelf. Whilst around the Islands of Canna and Rum, convergent seabed glacial lineations and other subglacially streamlined features eroded in bedrock preserve the direction of ice sheet movement - indicating ice streaming in a south-westerly direction across the continental shelf. We propose that this fast-flow zone formed part of a larger convergent ice stream system draining much of western Scotland and the north of Ireland. The Firth of Lorn bathymetry acquisition comprises 553km2 of data, collected as part of the INIS Hydro program (Ireland, Northern Ireland and Scotland Hydrographic Survey). This region of nearshore continental shelf is revealed as predominantly bedrock-dominated seabed, characterised by a series of narrow, strongly fault-controlled troughs, part of the Great Glen Fault Zone complex. Evidence for glaciation is widespread and well preserved in the Firth of Lorn and surrounding seabed with moraines, bedrock lineations (?megagrooves?) and overdeepened basins common across the area. Initial mapping shows that our understanding of the configuration and style of deglaciation in these sectors of the former British-Irish Ice Sheet can be greatly improved by the collection of

  6. Nectar robbery by a hermit hummingbird: association to floral phenotype and its influence on flowers and network structure.

    Maruyama, Pietro Kiyoshi; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Dalsgaard, Bo; Sazima, Ivan; Sazima, Marlies


    Interactions between flowers and their visitors span the spectrum from mutualism to antagonism. The literature is rich in studies focusing on mutualism, but nectar robbery has mostly been investigated using phytocentric approaches focused on only a few plant species. To fill this gap, we studied the interactions between a nectar-robbing hermit hummingbird, Phaethornis ruber, and the array of flowers it visits. First, based on a literature review of the interactions involving P. ruber, we characterized the association of floral larceny to floral phenotype. We then experimentally examined the effects of nectar robbing on nectar standing crop and number of visits of the pollinators to the flowers of Canna paniculata. Finally, we asked whether the incorporation of illegitimate interactions into the analysis affects plant-hummingbird network structure. We identified 97 plant species visited by P. ruber and found that P. ruber engaged in floral larceny in almost 30% of these species. Nectar robbery was especially common in flowers with longer corolla. In terms of the effect on C. paniculata, the depletion of nectar due to robbery by P. ruber was associated with decreased visitation rates of legitimate pollinators. At the community level, the inclusion of the illegitimate visits of P. ruber resulted in modifications of how modules within the network were organized, notably giving rise to a new module consisting of P. ruber and mostly robbed flowers. However, although illegitimate visits constituted approximately 9% of all interactions in the network, changes in nestedness, modularity, and network-level specialization were minor. Our results indicate that although a flower robber may have a strong effect on the pollination of a particular plant species, the inclusion of its illegitimate interactions has limited capacity to change overall network structure. PMID:25740333

  7. Biosorption of arsenic from aqueous solution using dye waste.

    Nigam, Shubha; Vankar, Padma S; Gopal, Krishna


    The purpose of this study is to examine on removal of arsenic from water by biosorption through potential application of herbal dye wastes. Four different flower dye residues (after extraction of natural dye) viz. Hibiscus rosasinensis, Rosa rosa, Tagetes erecta, and Canna indica were utilized successfully for the removal of arsenic from aqueous solution. Batch studies were carried out for various parameters viz. pH, sorbent dose, contact time, initial metal ion concentration, and temperature. Data were utilized for isothermal, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses of biomass were performed. The results showed that 1 g/100 ml for 5.0-5.5 h contact time at pH 6.0-7.5 with agitation rate 150 rpm provided 98, 96, 92, and 85 % maximum absorption of arsenic by R. rosa, H. rosasinensis, T. erecta, and C. indica, respectively, at initial concentration of 500 ppb. Data followed Langmuir isotherm showing sorption to be monolayer on heterogeneous surface of biosorbent. Negative values of ΔG° indicated spontaneous nature, whereas ΔH° indicates exothermic nature of system followed by pseudo-first-order adsorption kinetics. FTIR results showed apparent changes in functional group regions after metal chelation. SEM and EDAX analyses showed the changes in surface morphology of all test biosorbents. Herbal dye wastes, used as biosorbent, exhibited significant (85-98 %) removal of arsenic from aqueous solution. Hence, these biosorbents are cost-effective, easily available, eco-friendly, and comparatively more effective than other biosorbents already in use. These may be used to remove arsenic and other toxic metals from water. PMID:22661261

  8. Monitoring of arsenic in aquatic plants, water, and sediment of wastewater treatment ponds at the Mae Moh Lignite power plant, Thailand.

    Nateewattana, Jomjun; Trichaiyaporn, Siripen; Saouy, Maliwan; Nateewattana, Jintapat; Thavornyutikarn, Prasak; Pengchai, Petch; Choonluchanon, Somporn


    Mae Moh is a risky area for arsenic contamination caused by the effluent from biowetland ponds in Mae Moh lignite-fuelled power plant. The objective of this study was to investigate the arsenic concentrations of Mae Moh biowetland ponds and determine the main factors which are important for arsenic phytoremediation in the treatment system. The result revealed that arsenic concentrations in the supernant were in the range of less than 1.0 microg As L(-1) to 2.0 microg As L(-1) while those in the sediment were in the range of 25-200 microg As kg soil(-1). Both values were below the Thailand national standard of 0.25 mg As L(-1) for water and 27 mg As kg soil(-1) for the soil. Arsenic accumulation in the biomass of 5 aquatic plants at the biowetland ponds ranged from 123.83 to 280.53 mg As kgPlant(-1). Regarding the result of regression analysis (R (2) = 0.474 to 0.954), high concentrations of organic matter and other soluble ions as well as high pH value in the sediment could significantly enhance the removal of soluble arsenic in the wetland ponds. From the regression equation of accumulated arsenic concentration in each aquatic plant, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. (R (2) = 0.954), Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. (R (2) = 0.850), and Typha angustifolia (L.) (R (2) = 0.841) were found to be preferable arsenic removers for wastewater treatment pond in the condition of low Eh value and high content of solid phase EC and phosphorus. On the other hand, Canna glauca (L.) (R (2) = 0.749) appeared to be favorable arsenic accumulator for the treatment pond in the condition of high Eh value and high concentration of soluble EC. PMID:19455397

  9. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in five farms in Holambra, São Paulo, Brazil Prevalência de enteroparasitoses em cinco fazendas de Holambra-SP, Brasil

    Jun Kobayashi


    Full Text Available A parasitological survey was carried out on 222 inhabitants of five farms in Holambra, located 30 km north of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, on October 1992. Approximately 70% of the inhabitants were found to be infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. The positive rates of 6 helminths and 7 protozoan species detected are as follows: 5.4% Ascaris lumbricoides; 8.6% Trichuris trichiura; 19.8% Necator americanus; 10.4% Strongyloides stercoralis; 14% Enterobius vermicularis; 0.9% Hymenolepis nana; 3.2% Entamoeba histolytica; 2.7% E. hartmanni; 9.9% E. coli; 14.0% Endolimax nana; 2.3% Iodamoeba butschlii; 10.4% Giardia lamblia; 37.8% Blastocystis hominis. The positive rates of helminth infection were generaly higher in the younger-group under 16 years-old than those in the elder group aged 16 or more, whereas the infection rates of protozoan species were higher in the elder group. The infection rate of Strongyloides was found to be 10.4% by a newly developed sensitive method (an agarplate culture methods.Uma pesquisa coproparasitológica foi realizada em 222 habitantes de cinco fazendas de Holambra, localizada a 30 km ao norte de Campinas, SP, Brasil, em outubro de 1992. Aproximadamente 70% dos habitantes apresentaram pelo menos um tipo de parasitose intestinal. O índice de positividade das 6 espécies de helmintos e de 7 protozoários na população foi o seguinte: Ascaris lumbricoides (5,4%; Trichuris trichiura (8,6%; Necator americanus (19,8%; Strongyloides stercoralis (10,4%; Enterobius vermiculares (1,4%; Hymenolepis nana (0,9%; Entamoeba histolytica (3,2%; E. hartmanni (2,7%; E. coli (9,9%; Endolimax nana (14,0%; Iodamoeba butschlii (2,3%; Giardia lamblia (10,4%; Blastocystis hominis (37,4%. O índice de positividade para infecção por helmitos foi aparentemente maior na população mais jovem (menores de 16 anos do que no grupo de população com idades acima de 16 anos, ao contrário do índice de infecção pelos protozo

  10. 试论数学的文化奇观——兼谈文化和科学文化%On Cultural Wonder of Mathematics Discussing Culture and Scientific Culture



    广义的文化定义主要有"总和说"与"模糊说"两类。把"总和说"进一步扩展为"超广义说",把"模糊说"修改为"自创生说",将两者结合起来称做"超广义自创生文化说"。科学文化指科学本身以及科学与社会其他文化相互交融所形成的文化群类。数学文化指把自然、社会、思维等各个领域中的数量关系、空间形式、信息符号、能量运转、物质结构的哲理精蕴、艺术神采以其微妙深奥的规律化方式智慧地展现出来。数学的文化奇观的表现形式为深蕴的统一性、内增的复杂性、天成的艺术性和奇难的悬疑性等四个方面。%A broad definition of culture mainly includes the summation theory and the vagueness theory. The summation theory can be expanded into the super-generalization theory and the vagueness theory can be trans- formed into the autopoiesis theory. The two theories combined are called the cultural theory of super-generali- zation and autopoiesis. Scientific culture refers to science itself and the mixtures of science and other cultures. Mathematical culture shows the lawfulness of philosophy and artistry in quantitative relation, spatial form, information symbols, energy motion and physical structure of nature, human society and thought. Cultural wonder of mathematics is characterized by unity, complexity, artistry and suspense.

  11. Numerical investigation of sensitivity of the Black Sea mixed layer to vertical turbulent diffusion processes

    Kvaratskhelia, Diana; Demetrashvili, Demuri


    The upper mixed-layer of seas and oceans is one of the important water areas, the thermodynamic state of which defines many important physical, chemical or biological processes in the sea- atmosphere environment. The same can be note concerning the Black Sea turbulent mixed layer, which represents the object of our investigation. It is well known that the depth of the mixed layer is generaly determined by measurements of water properties: temperature and sigma-t (density) but here the depth of the mixed layer and its variability are investigated by using of the basin-scale numerical model of the Black Sea dynamics of M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics (BSM-IG, Tbilisi, Georgia). The main object of this study is to investigate the Black Sea upper mixed-layer generation and its evolution in connection with the nonstationarity atmospheric circulation and thermohaline action in the inner-annual time scale. Besides, how the temperature and salinity fields of the Black Sea upper layer are substantially reacted by the vertical diffusion coefficient are the centre of our attention. Therefore, the coefficient of vertical turbulent diffusion for heat and salt are tested as constant equal to 10 cm2s-1 and it was parameterized by modified Oboukhov's formula. The results of the numerical investigations show that: in wintertime for any choosing of this vertical diffusion coefficient the intense wind-driven turbulence promotes mixing aproximetly till 16-26 m in deep layers of the Black Sea. Except for that, cold fluxes through the surface and precipitation-evapuration system play aditionally role on the mixed layer forming as well. During the transitive spring season (in difference from the cold season), when the depth of the mixed layer is aproxometly 2-4 m., the role of vertical turbulent viscosity insignificantly grows. In the warm season (summer), when the mixed layer does not observe in the upper layer of the Black Sea, the role of the vertical diffusion coefficient is more

  12. Distribution and abundance of Chinese white dolphins Sousa chinensis in Xiamen%厦门中华白海豚的分布和数量

    刘文华; 黄宗国


    1994~1999年在厦门海域进行84航次中华白海豚船只跟踪和照像,记录392次.设20个监视站,进行239个月的逐日观察,记录12 624次.整个厦门海域700 km2均有中华白海豚分布,它可溯河至近淡水的河道,但不游出外海.厦门西港和同安湾口内的近岸最多,跃出海面的次数有明显的季节差异,4~5月最多.厦门海域中华白海豚数量估计不足100,仅40左右有确切记录.种群数量目前仍有减少趋势,因而应就地和迁地保护并举,加强对这种国家一级保护物种的保护.%During 1994~1999, 84 vessel surveys were conducted with having a photos taken, and 392 individualswere recorded. At the same time, totally 20 observation sites were established, and the record for 239 monthsamounted to 12 624 individuals. Chinese white dolphins occur all around Xiamen waters of 700 km2, and they mayswim upstream to the Jiulong River but never swim out of Jinmen Island and Wuyu Isle. Generaly, the dolphina aresighted very close to the shore and most frequently occur in areas included west harbour of Xiamen and the mouth ofTong'an Bay. The frequency when the dolphins jumped out of the water varies with season, which is the highest inApril to May. According to surveys and supplementary surveys, nearly 60 individuals are estimated in Xiamen wa-ters, and only 40 individuals are distinctively recorded through having a photos taken. Now the population has thetendency to decrease, so in - situ and off - situ measures should be both employed to emphasize the conservation ofChinese white dolphins, the first - class protected species in China.

  13. Infezioni gastroenteriche e fonti di rischio da balneazione nel mare Adriatico

    N. Schinaia


    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: gli obiettivi generali della ricerca sono stati: stimare un eccesso di rischio di insorgenza di gastroenterite a seguito di attività di balneazione o consumo di prodotti ittici nel mare Adriatico; misurare nuovi parametri microbiologici di inquinamento marino.

    Metodi: sono stati condotti i seguenti studi: 1 caso controllo; 2 uno studio di prevalenza (beach survey per descrivere la frequenza di alcune patologie (dell’orecchio, delle vie aeree superiori, della cute rispetto alla balneazione o meno; 3 identificazione di nuovi patogeni nelle acque di balneazione (quali virus o Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Risultati: l’analisi dei fattori di rischio nello studio caso controllo non ha evidenziato un aumento di gastroenterite associata a balneazione. Gli episodi gastroenterici osservati nei casi erano prevalentemente sostenuti da Salmonella sp. e la modalità di infezione era legata ad alcuni alimenti quali la maionese. Il risultato principale dello studio di beach survey è stato che la balneazione nel mare Adriatico non è associata ad un aumento significativo di patologie serie, quali gastroenterite acuta.

    Tuttavia, è stato possibile evidenziare un aumento di rischio statisticamente significativo per forme morbose lievi, quali congiuntivite e dermatite aspecifica, fra chi ha fatto il bagno in mare e chi no. Tale aumentato rischio è stato soprattutto osservato nei bambini e ragazzi al di sotto di 15 anni. I risultati di microbiologia sperimentale dimostrano il ruolo svolto dalle acque marine quale pabulum idoneo alla sopravvivenza delle oocisti di C. parvum. Sono stati validati protocolli di diagnostica molecolare per l’identificazione di enterovirus, rotavirus e reovirus nelle acque di balneazione.

    Conclusioni: l’epidemiologia può contribuire a studiare i rapporti fra balneazione e salute all’interno di una visione generale di salute

  14. Continuous spike-waves during slow waves sleep: a clinical and electroencephalografic study in fifteen children Ponta-onda contínua do sono lento: estudo clínico e eletrencefalográfico em quinze crianças



    Full Text Available We report on the clinical and EEG features of 15 patients with the syndrome of "continuous spike waves during slow wave sleep" (CSWSS. The differential diagnosis of CSWSS includes benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes, and Landau-Kleffner and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes. We found normal CT and MRI features in 6 cases, periventricular leukomalacia with and without diffuse brain atrophy in 4 cases and hydrocephalus in 1 case. There was no association between specific neurological findings and CSWSS. Nine of our cases had relatively focal discharges, like some cases from the literature. The occurrence of CSWSS appears to be age-related, generaly between the ages of 5 to 12 years, with a strong temporal relation to the neupsychological deterioration in its nature, severity and prognosis. We believe that this striking disorder has been overlooked and that routine sleep EEG studies on epileptic children may disclose additional cases of CSWSS.Relatamos as características clínicas e eletroencefalográficas de 15 patientes com a síndrome de ponta-onda contínua do sono não-REM (POCSNR. O diagnóstico diferencial da POCSNR inclue a epilepsia benigna da infância com pontas centro-temporais e as síndromes de Landau-Kleffner e Lennox-Gastaut. Encontramos TC e RNM de crânio normais em 6 casos, leucomalácia periventricular em 4 e hidrocefalia em 1. Não houve associação de achados neurológicos específicos e a POCSNR. Nove dos nossos casos tinham descargas relativamente focais, como alguns casos da literatura. A ocorrência da POCSNR parece ser idade-dependente, geralmente entre 5 e 12 anos, com forte relação temporal à deteriorização neurocognitiva, em sua natureza, severidade e prognóstico. Acreditamos que esta síndrome tem sido pouco diagnosticada e que a realização rotineira de EEG em sono em crianças epilépticas possa revelar novos casos de POCSNR.

  15. 低温条件下组合式生态浮床系统净化微污染水体的特性研究%Performances of an Integrated Ecological Floating Bed for Purification of Micro-polluted Waters under Low Temperature Condition

    韩锡荣; 黄浩; 周大众; 曹文平; 刘自强; 汪旭晖


    In order to investigate the influence of low temperature on purifying effect of ecological floating bed ,light ceramsite is a‐dopted as the matrix of floating bed and a Canna-ceramic matrix combined ecological floating bed system is constructed to study its purification effect for micro-polluted water under a low temperature condition .The results show that the removal rate values of the ecological floating bed system for NH +4 -N ,NO3- -N ,NO2- -N ,TN ,COD ,and chromaticity are 36 .30% ,77 .37% ,50 .34% , 52 .56% ,16 .89% ,and 70 .99% ,respectively under the condition that the water temperature is 0 .5~15 ℃ ,the influent DO is 4 .94~6 .65 mg/L and the water exchange time is 7d .When the water temperature is lower than 5 .0 ℃ ,the removal effect of the ecolog‐ical floating bed system on NH +4 -N ,NO2- -N ,TN ,COD and chromaticity will be decreased .%为研究低温对生态浮床水质净化效果的影响,引入陶粒作为浮床的基质,构筑了美人蕉-陶粒基质组合式生态浮床系统,研究在低温条件下其对微污染水体水质净化的效果特性。结果表明,在进水温度为0.5~15℃,进水DO浓度为4.94~6.65 mg/L ,水体交换时间为7 d下,该生态浮床系统对水体中 N H+4-N、NO3--N、NO2--N、T N、COD和色度的平均去除率为36.30%、77.37%、50.34%、52.56%、16.89%和70.99%。当水体的温度低于5.0℃,该生态浮床系统对水体中N H+4-N、NO2--N、T N、COD和色度的去除效果均有所下降。

  16. 杭州西溪湿地植物植硅体产生及其影响因素

    李自民; 宋照亮; 李蓓蕾; 蔡彦彬


    在浙江杭州西溪湿地选取18种植物,运用微波消解和Walkley-Black消解相结合的方法,研究了湿地生态系统中不同植物植硅体质量分数及其产生通量变化特征,为沼泽湿地生态系统植硅体碳汇调控提供科学依据。研究结果表明:①18种植物植硅体质量分数有较大的差异(P〈0.05),其中蒲苇Cortaderia selloana(7.69%),狗尾草Setaria viridis(7.56%),三数马唐Digitaria ternata(6.88%)和芦苇Phragmites australis(6.60%)等植硅体质量分数较高,槐叶萍Salvinia natans(1.28%),美人蕉Canna indica(1.01%)和凤眼莲Halerpestes cymbalaria(1.11%)植硅体质量分数较低。②湿地植物植硅体与其二氧化硅质量分数有较强的正相关性。在湿地生态系统中,选择一种高植硅体质量分数和高生产力的植物芦苇Phragmites australis栽植,对提高地上植物植硅体的产生通量有重要的作用。③在西溪沼泽湿地生态系统中,地上植物植硅体产生通量为4.48~129.92 g.m-2.a-1,植硅体封闭碳的产生通量为0.16~1.03 g.m-2.a-1,植硅体封闭碳的总产生速率为8.29 t.a-1。

  17. Therapeutic interventions and adjustments in the management of Parkinson disease: role of combined carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone (Stalevo®

    Paolo Solla


    Full Text Available Paolo Solla, Antonino Cannas, Francesco Marrosu, Maria Giovanna MarrosuMovement Disorders Center, Institute of Neurology, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, ItalyAbstract: Parkinson disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by 3 cardinal motor symptoms: resting tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia. Since its introduction 40 years ago, levodopa has represented the gold standard for dopaminergic stimulation therapy in patients with PD. Levodopa is routinely combined with a dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor (DDCI to prevent the conversion of levodopa into dopamine in peripheral circulation. However, up to 80% of patients treated with continuous levodopa manifest the onset of disabling motor complications capable of producing an adverse effect on quality of life as the disease progresses. In recent years, a new, safe, and efficacious armamentarium of treatment options has been provided by the marketing of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT inhibitor, entacapone, a peripheral blocker of dopa to 3-0-methyldopa metabolism, which increments levodopa brain availability. When administered with levodopa, entacapone conjugates the rapid onset of levodopa-induced effects with a protracted efficiency, thus providing additional benefits to classic levodopa treatment by increasing “on” time in fluctuating PD patients, and theoretically providing a more continuous and physiological-like stimulation of dopamine receptors implying a reduced risk of motor complications. In this context, the use of a single administration of combined ­carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone (Stalevo® in the treatment of PD affords clinical improvements similar to those obtained by 2 separate tablets (ie, levodopa/DDCI and entacapone, although the former produces a more positive effect on quality of life than the latter. Additionally, the STalevo Reduction In Dyskinesia Evaluation (STRIDE-PD study was designed with the aim of demonstrating that the combination of levodopa

  18. Evaluation of nutritional status of elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by using short-form mini-nutritional assessment (MNA-SF)%应用微型营养评价精法评价老年慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者的营养状况

    吴晓娜; 崔越; 邓波; 杨咏涛


    目的 应用微型营养评价精法(short-form mini-nutritional assessment,MNA-SF)评价老年阻塞性肺疾病(chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,COPD)患者的营养状况,并比较不同营养状况患者的传统营养评价指标的差异. 方法 采用MNA-SF对68例老年COPD患者进行营养评价和传统营养指标测定并进行分析. 结果 老年COPD患者营养不良、营养不良危险发生率分别为35.29%和19.12%,而营养正常患者只占45.59%.对3种不同营养状况患者的传统营养指标分析后发现:3组患者的体质量指数(body mass index,BMI)、三头肌皮褶厚度(triceps skin-fold,TSF)、上臂肌围(arm muscle circumference,AMC)、小腿围(canna circumference,CC)、白蛋白(albumin,ALB)、前白蛋白(prealbumin,PAB)、总胆固醇(total cholesterol,TC)、三酰甘油(triglyceride,TG)、血红蛋白(hemoglobin,HGB)、总淋巴细胞(total lympha cell,TLC)差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),而TC差异无明显统计学意义.3组患者之间两两比较后,BMI、TSF、ALB、PAB均有显著差异(P<0.05),营养正常组>营养不良危险组>营养不良组;营养正常组AMC、CC、TG、HGB、TLC明显高于营养不良组(P<0.05);营养不良危险组TG明显高于营养不良组(P<0.05). 结论 老年COPD患者营养不良和营养不良危险的发生率较高,其传统营养评价指标也会下降.

  19. Phytolith production in wetland plants of the Hangzhou Xixi Wetlands ecosystem%杭州西溪湿地植物植硅体产生及其影响因素

    李自民; 宋照亮; 李蓓蕾; 蔡彦彬


    Phytoliths,also referred to as plant opal,are silicified features that form as a result of biomineralization within plants and plays an important role in terrestrial biogeochemical cycles of carbon and silicon.This study selected 18 different plant species at the Xixi Wetlands in Zhejiang Province,to determine the phytolith content and its production flux using microwave,Walkley-Black digestion,and a correlation analysis.The main purpose of this study is to provide scientific reference for understanding the role of phytoliths in biogeochemical cycles of silicon and carbon.Results showed strong variation in phytolith content among the 18 plants:Cortaderia selloana(7.7%),Setaria viridis (7.6%),Digitaria ternata(6.9%),and Phragmites australis (6.6%)were higher than Salvinia natans (1.3%),Halerpestes cymbalaria(1.1%),and Canna indica L.(1.0%).A positive correlation between phytolith content and total SiO2 in the 18 plants(R2=0.663 3,P<0.01)was also found.Phytolith production flux was 4.48-129.92 g ·m-2·a-1; phytolith sequestration of atmospheric CO2 was 0.16-1.03 g·m-2·a-1; and the phytolith sequestration rate of atmospheric CO2 was 8.29 t·a-1.So,it is very important to improve the flux of aboveground plant phytolith production in wetlands ecosystems by selecting a plant with high-phytolith (silicon)content and high-ANPP (aboveground net primary production)yields for the plant Phragmites australis.%在浙江杭州西溪湿地选取18种植物,运用微波消解和Walkley-Black消解相结合的方法,研究了温地生态系统中不同植物植硅体质量分数及其产生通量变化特征,为沼泽湿地生态系统植硅体碳汇调控提供科学依据.研究结果表明:①18种植物植硅体质量分数有较大的差异(P<0.05),其中蒲苇Cortaderia selloana(7.69%),狗尾草Setaria viridis (7.56%),三数马唐Digitaria ternata(6.88%)和芦苇Phragmites australis (6.60%)等植硅体质量分数较高,槐叶萍Salvinia natans(1

  20. Influence of Hydraulic Retention Time on the Removal Effect of Pollutants in the Hydroponic Ditch%水力停留时间对水培槽去污效果的影响

    张海; 路洪涛; 张艳萍; 王宝玉; 任勇翔


    在以沉淀池的出水为进水,以美人蕉为栽种植物的水培槽(HD)中试试验装置中,通过改变污水在水深为0.10,0.30,0.60m的HD中的水力停留时间,来揭示水深和水力停留时间对HD去污效果的影响.通过测定底泥和根系微生物对TCOD的降解速率以及氨氧化细菌的硝化速率,来分析COD,NH4+-N的主要去除途径及其降解机理.结果表明,水深是影响HD净化效果的重要参数,在水深为0.10m的HD中,美人蕉长势最好,根系最发达,出水中DO浓度最大;在试验研究的水力停留时间为6,3,2d下,水深为0.10m的HD对各污染物去除效果均好于水深为0.30,0.60m的HD;在水力停留时间为6d下,水深为0.10m的HD,底泥和根系氨氧化菌的硝化速率均大于水深为0.30,0.60m的HD,其值分别为0.0019,0.0039mg/(g·h),对NH4+-N的去除主要发生在根系上;有机物主要通过底泥微生物的降解去除,在0.10m的HD中,底泥和根系微生物对TCOD的降解速率分别为1.523,0.048mg/(g· h).%In this pilot test device of hydroponic ditch (HD),canna was used as botany and effluent of the sedimentation ponds was use as raw water.By means of changing hydraulic retention time (HRT) for the sewage in the HD,whose water depth was 0.10,0.30 and 0.60m,respectively,revealing the influence of removal effect of water depth and HRT for hydroponic ditch.By measuring the degradation rate of TCOD of microbial and the nitrification rate of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the sediments and on the roots,the removal pathway of COD,NH4+-N and its degradation mechanism were analyzed.The results showed that water depth is an important parameter,which affected purifying effect of hydroponic ditch.The best growth momentum of canna,most well-developed root system,the maximum DO concentration in the effluent were discovered in the 0.10m HD.Under the condition of hydraulic residence time of 6,3,2d,removal efficiency of each pollutant in the 0.10m HD were better than the 0

  1. Information systems planning in public administration; Definizione di una metodologia per la pianificazione dei sistemi informativi in un ente pubblico di ricerca con elevato livello di decentramento

    Minelle, F. [Rome, Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Fac. di Scienze Matematiche, Fisiche e Naturali; Di Marco, R.A. [ENEA, Rome (Italy). Funzione Centrale Informatica; Bottini, M.


    Since before the Ninety the common experience of the different of the divisions of the Public Administration, it was to proceed on the way of insertion and the utility of technology informer in shed order. It was evident how it could not operate in the best way, without wright descriptions of the general and sectors reference. In terminus of efficiency, efficacy and transparency of services offered and the investment made were inadequate. And so in this way the operation was not good enough to pay attention to a valuation of the cost, beneficial of the investment made, that was growing up. It is today getting important to entrust the planning of the information system, that was to be done every year when we talk about a plan with an average limit. So they can be oriented and checked, the choice of the single Administration. In the following work it has been started from the analysis of the italian situation, which expect the use of a specific methodology produced by the AIPA for the planning of informative system in the public administration. The new experimental part of the thesis aims to the adjustment of this methodology to a reality which is the ENEA, that differs for example from that of a Ministry (for that reality on the contrary the proposal of AIPA is optimal), as the institutional aims and the following modalities of administration change, as the corporation is characterised by a strong decentralisation and above all as it has lacked a cognitive research about the different work processes, introduction to the application of AIPA`s proposal. [Italiano] E` stata fino da prima degli anni `90 esperienza comune che nei vari comparti della Pubblica Amministrazione, si procedesse sulla strada dell`inserimento e dell`utilizzo delle tecnologie ifnormatiche in ordine sparso. E` stato evidente come non si potessero operare scelte ottimali nell`assenza di quadri di riferimento generali e settoriali; che i ritorni, in termini di efficenza, efficacia e trasparenza dei

  2. Human lung adenocarcinoma stem cell phenotypes and patient’s prognosis%人肺腺癌干细胞表型与预后的相关性

    买尔旦·赛力木; 阿里旦·艾尔肯; 金钟; 何铁汉


    BACKGROUND:Lung adenocarcinoma stem cels are a very important marker for diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the relationship between human lung adenocarcinoma stem cel phenotypes and patient’s prognosis. METHODS:From February 2010 to January 2013, 48 patients with lung adenocarcinoma admitted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University were enroled. Lung adenocarcinoma cancer stem cel phenotypes were detected with immunofluorescence method, and the relationship of different phenotypes and clinical characteristics with patient’s prognosis was compared. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: SP-C and CCSP expression was observed in the lung adenocarcinoma tissues of 48 cases, possessing the phenotypic characteristics of bronchioloalveolar stem cels. Of the 48 patients, OCT4 was positive in 34 cases (OCT4+ group) and negative in 14 cases (OCT4- group). There was no difference between the two groups in terms of patient’s age, gender, smoking history and tumor stage (P > 0.05). There were 23 cases (68%) in the OCT4+ group with cancer cel metastasis, which was significantly higher than that in OCT4- group (21%;P > 0.05). In the aspects of patient’s age, gender, smoking history, staging and cancer metastasis and other clinical pathological stratification, the 2-year survival rate in the OCT4- group were generaly higher than that in the OCT4+ group, and there was a significant difference in the survival curves of two groups (P 0.05);OCT4+支气管肺泡干细胞组有23例(68%)患者癌细胞转移,明显高于OCT4-支气管肺泡干细胞组(21%),差异有显著性意义(P <0.05);在腺癌患者年龄、性别、吸烟史、分期以及癌细胞转移等临床病理特征分层中,OCT4-支气管肺泡干细胞组肺腺癌2年生存率普遍高于OCT4+支气管肺泡干细胞组,两组生存曲线差异有显著性意义(P <0.05)。结果表明人肺腺癌干细胞具有肺细支气管肺泡干细胞表型特征,同时

  3. Clinical common problems after restoration with telescopic crown-retained removable partial dentures%圆锥形套筒冠义齿修复后常见临床问题

    吴琼; 胡伟平


    are an ideal method for repair of dentition defects associated with periodontal disease. In summary, the telescopic crown-retained removable partial dentures have good clinical effects, but how to maintain the long-term stability is the main chalenge. In recent years, a variety of ways have been developed to improve the long-term stability, such as changing the inner crown material, which obtains the most prominent achievements, but these methods need to be further observed in clinical applications. Common complications for telescopic crown-retained removable partial dentures include abutment fracture, inner crown shedding, denture fracture, periodontal problems, and reduced retention force, which generaly cannot influence the application of telescopic crown-retained removable partial dentures through repair.

  4. Analyses IR quantitatives des sédiments. Exemple du dosage du quartz et de la calcite Quantitative Ir Analysis of Sediments. Example of Quartz and Calcite Determination

    Pichard C.


    (quartz and calcite, this article shows the different analytical possibilities with a sample alone, with compensation for a pure diluent, with compensation for a single mineral and with compensation for a mineral in an artificial and a natural mixture (sedimentary rock. The changes undergone by the spectra are described, and calibration curves are plotted in each case. The data gathered are used to check the justified use of the absorption law for these solid-phase infrared analysis, involving a compensation, and hence the processing of the original spectra, with the maximum relative experimental error being no more than several percent in the most unfavorable cases. Within the limits of the detection of minerals having a set chemical composition and crystalline structure, the analysis of a mineral by its partial compensation may be of great importance for the major constituents of rocks because it enables analysis to be performed where too high a concentration would have made such analysis impossible heretofore. This compensation method is more delicate or even impossible for solid solutions or for any mineral with a variable chemical formula. Generaly speaking, the main constituents of sedimentary rocks can thus be quantified from a single spectrum by IR analysis which thus makes it possible to obtain a numerical definition of facies.

  5. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for peripheral T cell lymphoma%自体造血干细胞移植治疗外周T细胞淋巴瘤

    潘耀柱; 白海; 王存邦; 葸瑞; 张茜; 王晓靖


    BACKGROUND:The incidence rate of peripheral T cel lymphoma is high in Asia, and peripheral T cel lymphoma is aggressive with generaly poor prognosis. However, there is no standard treatment strategy. OBJECTIVE:To retrospectively analyze the therapeutic effect of autologous hematopoietic stem cel transplantation on peripheral T cel lymphoma as wel as relevant toxic and side effects. METHODS:A retrospective review was conducted in 35 patients with peripheral T cel lymphoma who underwent autologous hematopoietic stem cel transplantation from March 2003 to April 2014, including 22 cases of extranodal NK/T-cel lymphoma (nasal type), 1 case of angioimmunoblastic T-cel lymphoma, 8 cases of peripheral T cel lymphoma (non-specific), 3 cases of ALK-positive anaplastic large cel lymphoma, and 1 case of ALK-negative anaplastic large cel lymphoma. Al of 35 patients were classified pathologicaly according to WHO pathological type in 2001 and 2008, and received the high-dose chemotherapy with vincristine, cytarabine, etoposide, mitoxantrone, semustine, cyclophosphamide, and total body irradiation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After a median folow-up of 54 (9-120) months, the probabilities of overal survival and disease-free survival after transplantation were 80% (n=28) and 71% (n=25), respectively. Eight cases (23%) relapsed after transplantation, seven of which died. It was safe with mild and moderate transplantation related side-effects on opportunistic infections, oral cavity mucosa and bladder responses and so on, and there were no severe, life-threatening late complications. Autologous hematopoietic stem cel transplantation may be an effective and safe treatment for peripheral T cel lymphoma, and there is a better benefit in peripheral T cel lymphoma patients with first complete remission.%背景:外周T细胞淋巴瘤亚洲地区发病率高,具有侵袭性,预后普遍较差,目前尚无标准治疗策略。目的:评价自体造血干细胞移植治疗外周T细胞

  6. Project Seacleaner: from cooperation among ISMAR-CNR researchers, high school students and the Ligurian Cluster for Marine Technologies to an application for environmental monitoring and scientific research.

    Merlino, Silvia; Marini, Claudio; Tosi, Daniela; Caselli, Lorena; Marini, Davide; Lucchinelli, Paolo; Vatteroni, Davide; Lunardelli, Francesco; Agrusa, Astrid; Lombardi, Davide; Stroobant, Mascha


    is easy to spread and distribute among non-technical end-users. This app will help final users to carry out a standard monitoring procedure, in a quick way. All data (photographs, site characteristics, kind of debris, waypoints) will be properly captured and semi-automatically registered on a separate electronic spreadsheet. SeaCleaner app can be provided to environmental associations, marine parks, volunteers and its easy approach will allow us to obtain standardized and safe data, upcoming from an increasing number of points, which will be acquired in situ and then saved on a dedicated remote database. Citizen participation in scientific programs, already experienced in the field of astronomy [9] has been effective also in other scientific fields, both from the scientific and social point of view, since it brings people closer to science and fills the gap between who produces science and technology and who benefits from it ("citizen science") [10, 11]. SeaCleaner is ready to be used during the school year 2013/2014 to test its validity and usefulness. Further internships and collaborations between ISMAR and educational institutions, will allow us by the end of April 2014 to show the first dataset processed in this experimental phase. It is worth to highlight the active involvement of young people in this project and its effectiveness as a tool for raising awareness on environmental issues and orientating young people towards scientific careers. The project has been awarded in November 2013 as the best regional work-related learning project. [1] DLTM: Distretto Ligure per le tecnologie Marine: [2] Italian Law on general rules for work-related learning: D.Lgs 15/04/2005 n. 77 sulla "Definizione delle norme generali relative all'alternanza scuola-lavoro, a norma dell'articolo 4 della legge 28 marzo 2003, n. 53". [3] UNEP/MAP/MED POL (2004). Guidelines on Management of coastal litter for the Mediterranean region (MED POL). MAP Technical Reports Series No

  7. Archeologia tra ricerca tutela e valorizzazione

    Daniele Manacorda


    Full Text Available I beni archeologici sono anche una risorsa economica, ma tale definizione è insufficiente se posta in contrapposizione con il valore immateriale della cultura in sé, in mancanza del quale tutto perde valore, perché esso incide profondamente sulla qualità della vita.Ogni sito archeologico nasconde in sé le potenzialità di una condivisione di culture e prospettive e il rischio di nuovi steccati in nome di un’identità rivendicata con l’occhio rivolto al passato. Guardando con gli occhiali dello storico nella profondità del tempo ci vediamo immersi in un intreccio, dove l’identità non è più un dato statico da disvelare, ma una condizione dinamica, il frutto di un processo di esperienze condivise. L’archeologia è infatti uno strumento formidabile che contrasta l’oblio, rimotivando continuamente le finalità della conoscenza critica del passato, per ricostruire l’origine delle differenze tra le culture e afferrare la complessità del presente.L’archeologo deve assumersi la responsabilità di stabilire una nuova gerarchia delle informazioni. Non esistono scorciatoie quando in ballo è la conservazione della memoria storica del nostro Paese, ma la sua salvaguardia è parte di un progetto complessivo di attenzione alla qualità del vivere, rispetto alla quale l’archeologia può dimostrare di saper conciliare questa salvaguardia con gli interessi più generali della collettività. Prima di valorizzare occorre pensare se ne valga davvero la pena. Il ruolo progettuale degli archeologi dovrebbe fondarsi sulla capacità di interpretare ciò che resta del passato, di restituirgli un senso. Per questo la valorizzazione è una funzione sociale vitale, che identifica le capacità di una nazione di testimoniare la propria eredità culturale e di farla vivere manifestandosi a tutti i livelli pubblici, associativi, privati nei quali si articola la società civile.The economical value of the archaeological resources is insufficient when

  8. Effects of Continuous and Intermittent Water Supply on Infiltration Characteristics of a Purple Soil Under Ponding Condition%积水条件下连续和间歇供水对土壤入渗特性的影响

    龙天渝; 王延青; 安强; 程超; 杜坤


    Infiltration process,in general,is closely related to surface runoff,soil erosion,loss of soil fertility and non-point source pollution.Two series of soil column experiments were performed to study the characteristics of one-dimensional vertical infiltration into a purple clay soil.One was the simulation under the condition of continuous water supply at different ponding water depths and the other was that under intermittent water application at the same water depths.Results indicated that there was no significant effect of ponding water depth on infiltration rate and cumulative infiltration when ponding water depth is between 1 and 10 cm.Soil bulk density and initial water content had great impacts on the infiltration characteristics under the condition of continuous water supply at some ponding depth,which means that infiltration rate and cumulative infiltration increase with the decreased soil bulk density and initial water content.The curves of infiltration into the purple soil are discontinuous under intermittent water application at some water depth.The process in the first period was the same as that under the condition of continuous water supply,and however,infiltration rate and cumulative infiltration were both less than those under the condition of continuous water supply in the second period.The characteristics of infiltration into the purple soil under intermittent water application show significant relation to the cycle and rate of water supply.%土壤入渗与地表径流、土壤侵蚀、土壤养分流失和面源污染等密切相关。通过对紫色土中的黏壤土进行不同积水深度下连续供水和相同积水深度下间歇供水的土柱模拟实验,对紫色土一维垂向入渗特性进行了研究。结果表明,当积水深度为1~10cm时,积水深度对累积入渗量及入渗率基本上没有影响;积水深度一定时,连续供水下土壤容重和初始含水率对紫色土入渗特性有较大影响,累积入渗量和入


    Mehtap ERDOĞAN


    Full Text Available Generaly it is used different expression like current, movement, trend, manner, style or form for localization which is defined that local geography, social life and true to life reflect to poem, simplification of language and trending use local form of poetry. It hasn’t gain certainty if it could qualify as a current. İn this work, we examine if localization could being defined as a current. But we come to a decision about such a sentimental matter which many researchers look uncertainly and we it to readers decision. İn the second part of work Baki’s Divan, one of the classicial school poetry’s achievements which localization shows itself in most beatiful and most outstanding is examined and given place to local factors which is made firm. Thus it is worked to be proved that classical school poetry is poems wasn’t far from society which they had lived and classical school poetry isn’t a literature which is based on dreams felite on the contrary to pretensions. Genel olarak, yaşanılan coğrafyanın, sosyal hayatın, gerçek olayların şiire aksetmesi, dilde sadeleşme ve yerli nazım biçimlerini kullanmaya yönelme olarak tanımlanan mahallileşme için akım, hareket, cereyan, eğilim, tarz ya da üslup gibi farklı ifadelerin kullanılmaktadır. Onun bir akım olarak nitelenip nitelenemeyeceği konusu kesinlik kazanmamıştır. Biz, bu çalışmada mahallileşmenin bir akım olarak değerlendirilip değerlendirlemeyeceği üzerinde durduk. Ancak birçok değerli araştırmacının şüpheyle yaklaştığı böyle hassas bir konuda net bir hükme varmayıp kararı okuyuculara bıraktık. Çalışmanın ikinci bölümünde ise iddia edilenin aksine divan şairlerinin yaşadıkları topluma uzak kalmadıklarının, divan edebiyatının yalnızca yüksek zümrenin hayallerine dayalı bir edebiyat olmadığının güzel bir kanıtı olan mahallileşmenin, kendini en güzel ve en belirgin bir şekilde gösterdiği divan edebiyatı

  10. 人工湿地的构建与应用%Construction and Application of Constructed Wetlands



    论述了人工湿地污水处理技术的机制和优势,阐述了人工湿地的构建和污水处理研究进展,表明人工湿地的污水处理效率与污染物的种类和污染程度、人工湿地的类型、湿地植物种类、基质类型、水力停留时间和水力负荷等密切相关.在中国,典型人工湿地有3种类型,分别为垂直流人工湿地、潜流式人工湿地和表面流人工湿地,主要用于处理来自化粪池、养殖场、造纸厂、油田、煤矿、富营养湖泊以及城市生活等的污水.构建人工湿地常用的植物有芦苇(Phragmites austr alis)、香蒲(Typha orientalis)、美人蕉(Canna indica)、眼子菜(Potamogeton sp.)和金鱼藻(Ceratophyllum demersum)等,常见的基质成分为砾石、沸石、沙子、土壤或炉煤渣等.通过系统总结中国人工湿地在污水处理过程中的研究进展和应用实例,认为建立人工湿地去除污染物具有良好的应用前景,今后应该进一步加强人工湿地的基础理论研究,进一步推广人工湿地的应用.%This paper presents the mechanisms and advantages of the constructed wetlands and indicates the research situation of the wetland construction and disposition of sewage by the constructed wetlands. It shows that many factors such as the components and levels of pollutants, the types of constructed wetlands, the categories of its plants and fillers, the hydraulic retention time as well as the load of hydropower can influence the efficiency of the constructed wetland. In China, there are three major types of constructed wetlands: vertical flow constructed wetland, subsurface flow constructed wetland and surface flow constructed wetland. These constructed wetlands are mainly used for treating the sewage from cesspit, nursery, paper mill, oil and coal mine, eutrophic lake and city life. During the construction course of wetlands, reed, cattail, herb of distinct pondweed and ladder brake are chosen as the dominating plants

  11. Evaluation of nutritional status of elderly hospitalized patients with diabetes mellitus by using short-form mini-nutritional assessment (MNA-SF)%应用微型营养评价精法评价老年住院糖尿病患者的营养状况

    黄虹; 李舒敏; 吕以培


    目的:了解微型营养评价精法(MNA-SF)是否适用于老年糖尿病患者的营养状况评估,是否易于诊断老年住院糖尿病患者的营养不良。方法:采用MNA-SF对87例老年住院糖尿病患者进行营养评价和传统营养指标测定并进行分析。结果87例患者中营养不良、营养不良风险发生率分别为24.1%,39.1%,营养正常占36.8%。MNA-SF评估结果与体质指数( body massindex , BMI )、上臂肌围( arm muscle circumference,)、小腿围( canna circumference , CC )、血红蛋白( hemoglobin,HB )、总淋巴细胞( totalymphacel ,TLC )白蛋白( albumin,ALB )、前白蛋白( prealbumin ,PA )之间呈正相关,r 值分别为0.44、0.57、0.55、0.47、0.38、0.49、0.42, P均<0.05.结论:老年住院糖尿病患者营养不良和营养不良风险发生率较高, MNA-SF 是一种简单易行、实用、有效的评估方法。%Objective:In our study just aimed to whether MNA-SF can evaluate malnutrition in aged patients with diabetes melitus(DM) in hospital and whether we can easy diagnose malnutrition these patients by this way.Methods:MNA-SF was used to assess the nutritional state of 87 aged patients with DM in hospital,and the traditional nutritional assessment index was analyzed.Results:Among the aged inpatients with DM,the incidence of malnutrition, the risk of malnutrition and good nutritional status were24.1%, 39.1% and 36.8% respectively.MNA-SF scores were significantly correlated with the indices of traditional nutritional assessment ,including the body mass index(r=0.44), arm muscle circumference(r=0.57),calf circumference(r=0.55), hemoglo-bin(r=0.47),albumin(r=0.49),prealbumin(r=0.42),and total lym-phocyte (r=0.38) count.(al p<0.05).Conclusions:Incidence of malnutrition and the risk of malnutrition of the aged patients with DM in hospital were comparatively high,MNA-SF is a simple, practical and effective evaluation method.

  12. Complexity, Metastability and Nonextensivity

    Beck, C.; Benedek, G.; Rapisarda, A.; Tsallis, C.

    the glass transition in thermal systems / A. Coniglio ... [et al.] -- Supersymmetry and metastability in disordered systems / I. Giardinu, A. Cavagna and G. Parisi -- The metastable liquid-liquid phase transition: from water to colloids and liquid metals / G. Franzese and H. E. Stanley -- Optimization by thermal cycling / A. Möbius, K. H. Hoffmann and C. Schön -- Ultra-thin magnetic films and the structural glass transition: a modelling analogy / S. A. Cannas ... [et al.] -- Non-extensivity of inhomogeneous magnetic systems / M. S. Reis ... [et al.] -- Multifractal analysis of turbulence and granular flow / T. Arimitsu and N. Arimitsu -- Application of superstatistics to atmospheric turbulence / S. Rizzo and A. Rapisarda -- Complexity of perceptual processes / F. T. Arecchi -- Energetic model of tumor growth / P. Castorina and D. Zappalá -- Active Brownian motion - stochastic dynamics of swarms / W. Ebeling and U. Erdmann -- Complexity in the collective behaviour of humans / T. Vicsek -- Monte Carlo simulations of opinion dynamics / S. Fortunato -- A Merton-like approach to pricing debt based on a non-Gaussian asset model / L. Borland, J. Evnine and B. Pochart -- The subtle nature of market efficiency / J.-P. Bouchaud -- Correlation based hierarchical clustering in financial time series / S. Miccichè, F. Lillo and R. N. Mantegna -- Path integrals and exotic options: methods and numerical results / G. Bormetti ... [et al.] -- Aging of event-event correlation of earthquake aftershocks / S. Abe and N. Suzuki -- Aging in earthquakes model / U. Tirnakli -- The Olami-Feder-Christensen model on a small-world topology / F. Caruso ... [et al.] -- Networks as Renormalized models for emergent behavior in physical systems / M. Paczuski -- Energy landscapes, scale-free networks and Apollonian packings / J. P. K. Doye and C. P. Massen -- Epidemic modeling and complex realities / M. Barthélemy ... [et al.] -- The importance of being central / P. Crucitti and V. Latora.

  13. DNA 条形码技术在毒品原植物大麻鉴定中的应用%Application of DNA barcoding in cannabic identification

    宋炳轲; 杨雪莹; 倪萍娅; 裴黎; 张颖; 徐小玉


    准确鉴定毒品原植物大麻的种属及品种具有重要的理论和实践意义.为了探讨 DNA 条形码技术用于毒品原植物大麻种属鉴定及品种鉴定的可行性,该研究以60份大麻原植物(分别采自内蒙、黑龙江、陕西延安、陕西榆林4个地区的栽培大麻雌雄各6株及新疆玛纳斯地区的野生大麻雌雄各6株)为材料,通过从其叶片中提取的 DNA 为模版,利用核糖体 DNA 基因间隔区的通用引物 ITS2和叶绿体 DNA 的通用引物 psbA-trnH 进行 PCR 扩增,对扩增片段进行双向测序,将测序结果进行人工矫正和比对.结果显示:所有大麻样本的 ITS2扩增片段序列没有变异完全一致,但 psbA-trnH 扩增片段变异较大共检测出8种 cpDNA 单倍型,用MEGE5.1软件计算种间遗传距离,并构建 NJ 系统聚类树可以有效把这五个地区的大麻样本区别开来,因此证明 DNA 条形码技术在毒品原植物大麻的种属鉴定方面具有可行性,但其用于大麻的种属鉴定的准确性、可靠性及在其来源地鉴定及品种鉴定中的可能性还有待进一步深入地研究.%To study the feasibility of DNA barcoding on cannabic species identification,DNA were extracted from sixty cannabis plants’leaves(cultivated cannabis from Inner Mongolia,Heilongjiang,Shanxi Yan’an and Yulin,wild canna-bis from Xinjiang Manas,six male and female cannabis from each region),used ribosomal DNA intergenic region ITS2 universal primers and cpDNA psbA-trnH primer for PCR amplification,then sequenced in both directions,the results compared to manual correction and finally for Blast comparison.ITS2’amplified sequences of all samples were completely consistent,but psbA-trnH’amplified sequences varied greatly,which were detected eight kinds of cpDNA haplotypes.MEGE 5.1 software was used to calculate the genetic distance between species,and build NJ phylogenetic trees which could effectively separate the five

  14. Performance of sewage treatment by integrated system of bioelectrogenesis and constructed wetland%生物产电人工湿地系统对处理生活污水的效能

    杨广伟; 姜珺秋; 王琨; 赵庆良; 李伟


    Aiming at the low purification rate of pollutants in the constructed wetland system ,a microbial fuel cell‐constructed wetland(MFC‐CW) system was developed to recycle the chemical energy in sewage by the form of electricity energy while dealing with the domestic sewage .A MFC‐CW system with canna planted was started for investigation .The treatment efficiency and electricity generation performance of the MFC‐CW system on normal pollutants in domestic sewage were studied under different hydraulic retention time (HRT ) .Results showed that with the extension of HRT reduction rate of COD and the removal efficiencies of NH+4‐N first increase and then decrease ,and that of suspend solid (SS ) increases gradually .The internal resistance and Columbic efficiency of the MFC‐CW system increase with the extension of HRT ,while the power density decreases gradually .The decrease of dissolved oxygen (DO) of cathodic chamber make cathodic potential decrease .Intermittent aeration mode in cathodic chamber can reduce the system power consumption while the ensuring the steady voltage output .%针对人工湿地系统中污染物净化速率缓慢的问题,构建生物产电人工湿地(M FC‐CW )系统,在处理生活污水的同时将污水中的化学能以电能的形式回收。启动以美人蕉为湿地植物的M FC‐CW系统,研究不同水力停留时间(HRT )下该系统对生活污水中常规污染物的处理效果以及产电性能。结果表明:随着水力停留时间的延长, M FC‐CW系统对污水中COD的降低率和N H+4‐N的去除率呈现先升高后降低的趋势,悬浮物(SS )的去除效率逐渐提高,系统的内阻逐渐增大,功率密度逐渐减小,库仑效率逐渐增加。阴极溶解氧(DO )浓度的降低导致阴极电极的电势降低,对阴极采用间歇曝气模式可以在保证电压稳定输出的同时降低系统能耗。

  15. 基于EP-17 A2的胶体金法检测粪便隐血的空白限、检出限及定量限的建立及评价%Establishment and Evaluation of Blank Limit,Detection Limint and Quantitation Limit of Fecal Occult Blood Tests with Colloidal Gold Method Based on the Document of EP-1 7A2

    郭绪晓; 柏淑美; 张春来; 袁长金; 李金星


    standard curve of detection of FOB with colloidal gold method.Detected the blank samples and a series of low concentration samples with the colloidal gold test strip of FOB and measured the color bands by the Nato Checker710.The quantitative results obtained were statistically analysised by SPSS 1 9.0 and calculated blank limit,detection limit and quanti-fication limit.Results The LOB,LOD and LOD were 99.01,340.48 and 354.9 ng/ml according to the methods in CLSI EP1 7-A2 ducument.Conclusion The detection limits established by CLSI EP1 7-A2 document was more scientific in j udge-ment positive or negative to FOB than which used naked eye and can meet the clinical laboratory and clinical doctor require-ment better.Clinical laboratories should be strictly in detection limits of reagents in order to ensure their effectiveness,and should be generaly to other tests based on colloidal gold method.

  16. 贵阳次生林土壤有机碳含量对土壤生物学活性的影响%Influence of Soil Organic Carbon on Soil Biological Activities Among Secondary Forests of Guiyang City

    彭艳; 李心清


    The secondary forest, as an integral part of Karst forest ecosystem,ecosystem, may be the future of a forest. The soil organic carbon is an important pan of the soil organic matter and its content has a major impact on soil biological activities and is also an important indieator of the soil fertility To understand the offects of soil organic carbon on soil hiological activities, three sample plots are taken, including a shrub, a Ligustrum lucidum forest and a pine forest and they are compated with the tilled field in the suburbs of Guiyang City during the sampling time (June, 2008-May, 2009). The data show that the shrub is characteterized by low substate carbon utilization weak biochemical processes and less available nutrients of plants and nmicrobes hased on per gram soil organic carbon, although with the highet soil organic carbon among the sample plots. The Ligustrum lucidum forest is marked by high nitrogen cycle rote, rich in denitrificauon enzyme and serious gaseous nitrogen loss, while, the pine forest is charactorized by high decomposition speed and strength.high soil nicrobial and enzyme activitics, strong soil biochemical processes and low gaseous nitrogen loss based on per gram soil organic carbon. Generaly speaking, the organic carbon content limits the size of soil microbial communities, affects soil enzyme activities in spurbs influences the microbial nitrogen conversion rate and organic matter decomposition rate indirectly but has no significant effects on dentrification in the study area. Therefore, the most appropriate way to the remediation of degraded deserificaltion soil is to allow the natural plante communities to develop in order to improve site conditions in the early stage of the soil remediation and then to select appropriate tree species with the mixed model of coniferous hroadleaved species.%次生林是喀斯特森林生态系统的组成部分,未来的森林可能就是次生林.土壤有机碳(SOC)是土壤有机质的重要组

  17. Tabaquismo como factor de riesgo del infarto agudo al miocardio

    Manrique Leal-Mateos


    del desarrollo de un IAM, de 2,58 (IC95% 1,17-5,70. La fracción atribuible en los expuestos fue del 64,7% (IC 95% 14,6-82,5. Discusión: Se puede concluir que un poco más de la mitad los casos que se diagnosticaron con IAM en el HSJD, durante el periodo de estudio obedecen a la exposición activa de los pacientes al tabaquismo.Rationale: Cigarrette smoking is the main, preventable cause of premature illness, disability and death worldwide. At present, is widely recognized as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, even though tobacco is generaly accepted as a direct cause of acute myocardial infarction, in our country, knowledge about its attributable fraction is limited. Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of cigarrette smoking on acute myocardial infarction patients measuring its attributable fraction. With this study, our purpose is to estimate the proportion of patients who could prevent the development of an acute myocardial infarction if exposure to this risk factor was avoided. Methods: A case-control study was done in the internal medicine and surgery wards at the San Juan de Dios Hospital comprising the period between april the 1st and september the 23rd of 2005. A smoker was defined as any patient which had smoked, at least, 1 cigarrette a day during 1 year. According to their smoking habits, the patients were classified as: non smokers (never smoked, smokers (current smokers and ex-smokers. The magnitude of the associations between the exposure and the risk of illness was measured by means of the 2:1 paired odds ratio in which we defined those not exposed as the non smokers. Those who had not smoked for over 15 years were classified as non smokers (given the long-term benefits which quitting entails and those who had not smoked for less than 15 years were classifed as smokers. To measure the impact of cigarrette smoking on acute myocardial infarction patients, we used the indicator called

  18. The Measurement of Off- line Metacognitive Regulation and Its Application to Personnel Selection%离线元认知调节的结构探索与验证

    黎坚; 李一茗; 张厚粲


    retest study with 115 participants, the structure of off-line metacognitive regulation was confirmed. In Study 2, hierarchical linear regression and hierar- chical logistic regression were conducted to examine the criterion-related validity of the off-line regulation questionnaire. The results showed that managers were different from common staff in particular regulation factors. Managers have higher generali- zing level than others in sales departments, while managers in support department have higher awareness level than others. But on the other hand, for the common staff, the level of off-line metacognitive regulation failed to predict employees'performance in sales depart- ment. However, for the staff in support department, the level of global-planning predicted the creative activities reversely. Based on the results, we suggest that the off-line metacognitive regulation questionnaire has good psychometric quality, and the procedures of admin- istrating and scoring are objective and standardized. It can be applied to business practices such as personnel selection and promotion%离线元认知调节指脱离具体任务情境后,个体在整体层面对自身活动的规划、管理、归纳反省并重新评价的过程。与在线元认知调节相结合,可以使元认知对行为的调节作用得到更加完整有力地发挥。本研究探索了离线元认知调节的测量学结构,开发出相应的测量工具,并且在职业测评领域通过实践检验。研究一编制离线调节量表,对离线元认知调节结构进行探索,得到全局规划、洞察力和整合概化三个维度;研究二对工具的效度进行实证检验,通过层次Logistic回归分析,发现公司中层领导与普通员工在离线调节水平上存在差异,验证了该工具的实证效度。研究结果证明离线调节量表具有较好的心理测量学品质,可以应用于相关的实践领域。

  19. Dal divario Nord-Sud alla convergenza: il modelo dell'intervento straordinario a l'azione della Cassa per in Mezzogiorno, durante e oltre la golden age = From the North-South gap to the convergence: The model of the extraordinary intervention and the...

    Amedeo Lepore


    Full Text Available La storiografia incentrata sul tema della Cassa per il Mezzogiorno è molto ampia e si sviluppa in relazione non solo alle questioni generali riguardanti l’intervento straordinario, ma anche alle molteplici forme di articolazione settoriale e territoriale dell’iniziativa pubblica per la ripresa e lo sviluppo del Sud. Una ricostruzione puntuale delle vicende della Cassa, che per oltre un quarantennio– anche se con diversità di impostazione nelle varie fasi –ha operato come strumento delle strategie per lo sviluppo del Mezzogiorno, richiede un impegno molto approfondito. Tuttavia, anche senza effettuare una dettagliata cronistoria dell’attività dell’Ente, si può ricomporre una visione d’insieme, attraverso l’interpretazione di un modello di intervento pubblico collegato strettamente agli eventi economici concreti e all’andamento dei processi di industrializzazione che hanno interessato i territori meridionali.La scelta di una prospettiva di lungo periodo, imperniata sull’analisi dell’intervento straordinario nel suo complesso, ha permesso un giudizio più equilibrato su tutta l’epoca dell’azione “aggiuntiva” dello Stato per il recupero del divario meridionale, superando eccessive semplificazioni nella valutazione di quell’esperienza e confutando pareri sommari sui suoi risultati, spesso privi di fondamento. Al tempo stesso, una visione ampia ha fatto emergere un percorso in grado di associare il caso della Cassa per il Mezzogiorno, controverso e difficile, ma considerato anche un modello tra i più avanzati a livello internazionale, a un tema di grande importanza, come quello delle politiche di sviluppo adottate per affrontare i problemi dell’arretratezza economica e per avviare a soluzione i dilemmi del dualismo.L’analisi effettuata ha provato l’esistenza di un indiscutibile progresso economico nel periodo della golden age. Durante quell’epoca di prosperità non solo si realizzò un notevole avanzamento

  20. Project Seacleaner: from cooperation among ISMAR-CNR researchers, high school students and the Ligurian Cluster for Marine Technologies to an application for environmental monitoring and scientific research.

    Merlino, Silvia; Marini, Claudio; Tosi, Daniela; Caselli, Lorena; Marini, Davide; Lucchinelli, Paolo; Vatteroni, Davide; Lunardelli, Francesco; Agrusa, Astrid; Lombardi, Davide; Stroobant, Mascha


    is easy to spread and distribute among non-technical end-users. This app will help final users to carry out a standard monitoring procedure, in a quick way. All data (photographs, site characteristics, kind of debris, waypoints) will be properly captured and semi-automatically registered on a separate electronic spreadsheet. SeaCleaner app can be provided to environmental associations, marine parks, volunteers and its easy approach will allow us to obtain standardized and safe data, upcoming from an increasing number of points, which will be acquired in situ and then saved on a dedicated remote database. Citizen participation in scientific programs, already experienced in the field of astronomy [9] has been effective also in other scientific fields, both from the scientific and social point of view, since it brings people closer to science and fills the gap between who produces science and technology and who benefits from it ("citizen science") [10, 11]. SeaCleaner is ready to be used during the school year 2013/2014 to test its validity and usefulness. Further internships and collaborations between ISMAR and educational institutions, will allow us by the end of April 2014 to show the first dataset processed in this experimental phase. It is worth to highlight the active involvement of young people in this project and its effectiveness as a tool for raising awareness on environmental issues and orientating young people towards scientific careers. The project has been awarded in November 2013 as the best regional work-related learning project. [1] DLTM: Distretto Ligure per le tecnologie Marine: [2] Italian Law on general rules for work-related learning: D.Lgs 15/04/2005 n. 77 sulla "Definizione delle norme generali relative all'alternanza scuola-lavoro, a norma dell'articolo 4 della legge 28 marzo 2003, n. 53". [3] UNEP/MAP/MED POL (2004). Guidelines on Management of coastal litter for the Mediterranean region (MED POL). MAP Technical Reports Series No

  1. 构建中国人体器官捐献社会宣教系统的策略%Construction strategy of human organ donation social mission system in China

    曹翠萍; 黄海


    背景:分析中国目前人体器官移植所面临的困境及导致器官移植供体短缺的社会影响因素,发现民众对器官移植及捐献流程相关知识普遍缺乏。目的:从器官捐献宣教系统构建的重大意义、现状总结、应遵循的伦理原则以及建议对策等4个方面进行了尝试性探索,为科学地进行器官捐献的宣传教育提供建议与参考。方法:在CNKI和PubMed通过关键词“器官捐献、器官移植、伦理学原则、宣传教育”查阅相关文献,对来源于核心期刊的文章进行综合分析。以“器官捐献,器官移植,伦理原则,供体短缺,遗体捐献,宣传教育”为中文捡索词,以“organ donation,organ transplantation,shortage of donor,body donation,education system”为英文检索词,检索维普和中国知网(CNKI)期刊全文数据库万方、Pubmed,Medline,2005年1月至2014年11月有关器官捐献报告中主要涉及器官捐献宣传教育及协调员的相关报道。通过对文献归纳,总结分析目前中国器官捐献宣教的现况,提出构建器官捐献宣教系统的对策。结果与结论:详细阐述了器官捐献宣教系统的必要性,系统分析了国内目前器官捐献宣传教育存在的问题及应该遵循的伦理原则,探索了国内器官捐献宣教系统建设应采取的路径和方法。缓解器官移植供体紧张,扩大供体来源,必须要赢得公民的广泛支持与理解,才能保证器官捐献工作的可持续发展。因此构建人体器官捐献社会宣教体系具有重要意义。%BACKGROUND:By analyzing the current difficulties faced by human organ transplantation and social factors which lead to organ transplant donor shortage in China, people are found to be generaly lack of knowledge about organ transplant and donation process. OBJECTIVE: To make a tentative probe into the construction of organ donation social mission system on four

  2. Breeding, Characteristics and Cultivation Techniques of New Hot Pepper( Capsicum annuum) Varieties Eating as Fresh and Dry Fruits%干鲜两用型辣椒新品种皖椒18的选育·特征特性·栽培要点

    江海坤; 张其安; 方凌; 严从生; 王明霞; 王艳; 董言香; 田红梅


    [ Objective] The purpose was to supply a theoretical basis for the popularization and cultivation of new hot pepper variety Wanjiao18. [ Method] Through comparing the yield,quality and disease resistance indices of Wanjiao18 with control,the production potential and popularization value of Wanjiao18 were discussed. [Result] The mid-early maturity hot pepper hybrid Wanjiao18 has conical fruit with smooth skin; Its fruit length is 17 -20 cm,fruit shoulder is 1.6 - 1.8 cm; Its fresh weight per fruit is 20 - 25 g,and dry weight per fruit is 3.0 - 4.5 g; Its fruit shape index is 10.9,thickness is 0.23 cm,ventricle number is 2 - 3; Its fresh fruit is dark green,and dry fruit is dull - red and bright. Wan-jiao18 has strong continuous fruit - setting ability,and yield is over 3 × 104 kg/hm2 in general,is significant higher than that of control 8819; Its dry matter content,crude fat content,crude fibre content and total sugar content are all lower than those of control Xiangla2hao,but the red pigment value, VC content and capsaicine content are all higher that those of control Xiangla2hao; As a whole, its quality is superior to control Xian-gla2hao. Wanjiao18 is resistant to virus disease,and is high resistant to anthracnose,phytophthora disease and bacterial wilt,so has strong disease resistance. [Conclusion] Wanjiao18 has characteristics of early maturity,good quality and high yield,is a multiple usages variety as green pepper, red pepper and producing into dry pepper,and is suitable for growing in Anhui,Hunan,Jiangsu and Yunnan and so on,has a good and application future, popularization.%[目的]为辣椒(Capsicum annuum)新品种皖椒18的推广种植提供理论依据.[方法]通过比较皖椒18和对照品种的产量、品质和抗病性等指标,探讨了皖椒18的生产潜力和推广价值.[结果]皖椒18中早熟;果实羊角形,果长17 ~ 20 cm、果肩1.6~1.8 cm;鲜椒单果重20~25 g,干椒单果重3.0~4.5 g;果面光滑,果指10.9,肉厚0

  3. Transtorno da expressão emocional involuntária Involuntary emotional expression disorder

    Helga Cristina Santos Sartori


    emotional incontinence have also been used, although less frequently. At the present, specific pathophysiological mechanisms of this disorder are still not clear. Insults that can lead to it are widely spread in the brain, but generaly they involve frontal cortex, the limbic system, the brainstem, the cerebellum and the underlying white matter that interconnect these networks. The most important differential diagnosis is depression. Nowadays, the available pharmacological therapies are based on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, and, less often, dopaminergic agents. AVP-923 is a new compound that has been researched as a possible future specific treatment. DISCUSSION: Although IEED has long been recognized, even under diverse nomenclature, it remains underdiagnosed. Considering the deleterious effects of this disorder on social, occupational and familiar functionning of the affected patient, its recognition and accurate procedure are decisive to allow an improvement on patient's quality of life.

  4. Pascal, un moderno agostiniano

    Alessia Maccaro


    Full Text Available Il presente articolo si propone di indagare la versione pascaliana dell’agostinismo, sovente intesa dalla faziosa ermeneutica come anacronistico arroccamento nel medievalismo religioso, che, invece, proprio in virtù nella sua natura inattuale, e della matrice così straordinariamente inesauribile del pensiero agostiniano, si rivela profondamente moderna. Pascal, infatti, addolorato dalla vista di un esistente dibattentesi come una canna tra i venti delle configgenti istanze culturali e religiose del suo tempo, tra le rinnovate forme di eresia e l’imperante libertinismo, non vede in Agostino l’immagine aurea e pacifica di un Santo lontanissimo, non trova in lui il rifugio in un passato rassicurante, bensì di quegli recupera gli elementi drammatici, l’attenzione alla sofferta inquietudine dell’uomo dilaniato dalle dicotomiche alternative, disperatamente disperdentesi nelle malìe dell’esistere, cui entrambi i pensatori indicano il ritorno all’interioritas, a quel cuore non senza (Rragione. Tale ricerca ha messo in luce la riduttività dell’accostamento di Pascal ad Agostino solo per la via del religioso, perché, in fondo, è la problematicità e la problematizzazione del religioso che da Agostino giunge a Pascal e, confrontandosi con la crisi dei valori del 600, perverrà ad avere effetti disattesi.  This article aims to investigate Pascal version of augustinism, often considered from the partisan hermeneutic as anachronistic entrenchment in religious medievalism, which, precisely because of its outdated nature, and so extraordinarily inexhaustible kind of Augustine's thought is revealed to be profoundly modern. Pascal, in fact, saddened by the sight of an existent floundering like a reed in the wind of conflicting religious and cultural needs of his time, including the renewed forms of heresy and the prevailing libertinism, don’t see in Augustine the image of a peaceful ancient Holy, donr’ find in him refuge in a past

  5. 大水面网箱收集养殖废弃物及水处理系统研发%Development of waste collection and water treatment system of cage culture in open waters

    江涛; 许明昌; 曾智; 徐中伟


    waste collection, design sewage collection central gathering side lifting bucket apparatus; For a closable cage except with waste collection function, also has a deep water net cage will ascend to, bottom discharge function, with supreme and carry out the way water exchange, pneumatic recoil function, prevent the filter mesh is waste particles blocking. Water door with one-way flow function, prevent the back flow of sewage. 3) For solid waste water after filtration, using an ecological floating bed water pot of economic plants (such as Canna indicaL.,Acorus calamusL.) and microbial biofilm formation methods, nutrient rich water to fully absorb the water reach the discharge requirements. 4) The whole system adopts compressed air as the power source, centralized collection by using the method of pneumatic lifting implementation of waste water, centralized pneumatic depths can be a closed cage of ascension, as well as an aerated ecological floating bed. Waste collection in the running process of the system, collecting cage precipitation of tail water lifting and the air consumption, pressure has a very close relationship. The system of the waste collection tube with an inner diameter of PVC steel wire spiral reinforced hose 80 mm. 4.5 m under the water and gas water mixing chamber, namely air injection depth of 4.5 m. Through the test, in improving the sludge hopper in tail water, can be found through observation proposed by turbidity of tail water gradually becomes transparent, in this process, the 18 dirt collecting bucket of water statistics, the average sewage collection bucket lifting water is 0.34 m3. The results elaborated through professional transformation of large water cage facilities, constructed from the waste collection, solid-liquid separation, and the breeding of tail water after separation by ecological floating bed hanging membrane technology to physics and a set of ecological treatment system. The system collects the water discharged after treatment, the

  6. An Ecological Friendly Dragee Technic Application on Crop Seeds

    László, M.


    the germination. The affinity of contact between the layer of dragée and surface of the seeds is favorable to the formation of a water coat. That coat does not permit the oxygenation of the seeds unable the beginning of the germination. Because of that during the first day after the planting the formation of the water coat layer must be avoided the application of irrigation. Best results with fungicides with agents such metalaxyl, iprodyon, benomyl, mancoceb with the concentration 3-3 and mineral nutrients such N, P2O5, K2O, MgO, Fe, Zn, Mn, B, Cu, Mo, Co with the concentration 0.2, 0.1, 0.15, 0.06, 0.00045, 0.00025, 0.0011, 0.00057, 0.00045, 0.000084 0.00001 g/kg dolomite powder were obtained, respectively. With this fungicides and mineral nutrients concentrations were obtaining very good germinations (higher than 90%) without surging phytotoxication and other abnormalities. In case of this dragée utilization can make possible the intensive use of highest quality seeds wich because of their higher costs are prohibitive in the actual system of production by mechanical seeding, generaly. For example actually 2 to 3 kgs of tomato seeds are use per hectare for planting. However 0.2 to 0.3 kgs of seeds should be sufficient to produce the seedlings to the same area. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by National Research Center for Vegetable Crops (EMBRAPA/CNPH), Brazíl and Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary References Márton L (1993) Relatorio final de consultoria. EMBRAPA/CNPH. Brasília-DF. p 151. Brazíl Márton L (2000) Effects of NPK fertilizers on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield. Veszprém University. Keszthely. p 136. Hungary Márton L and José AB (1999) Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production in Brazíl. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis 41:153-158. Hungary Silva JBC and Márton L (1992) Adaptation of pelletization (dragée) techniques of seeds in Brazíl. In proceeding: The

  7. EDITORIAL: Special Issue on advanced and emerging light sources Special Issue on advanced and emerging light sources

    Haverlag, Marco; Kroesen, Gerrit; Ferguson, Ian


    the article by Generali et al which describes various aspects of organic light-emitting (field) transistors based on different substrates. The guest editors of this special issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics would like to thank all the colleagues who helped us identify this exhaustive collection of papers. There are too many people to list here, but we know them well and are grateful for their help.

  8. Selected Abstracts of the 8th International Workshop on Neonatology; Cagliari (Italy; October 24-27, 2012

    --- Various Authors


    distant metastases at birth: a case report • P. Bianco et al.; Cagliari (Italy ABS 27. Chloramphenicol (ChlA toxicity in the newborn infant: historical perspectives • L. Cataldi et al.; Rome, Cagliari (Italy ABS 28. Bronchiolitis in newborns • M. Furno et al.; Bologna, Cagliari (Italy ABS 29. Postpartum depression in a high-risk woman after stillbirth • T. Fanos; Mantua (Italy ABS 30. Neonatal brain hypothermia: the Cagliari experience • G. Secci et al.; Cagliari (Italy ABS 31. Dino Gaburro: a master of Pediatrics • L. Cataldi; Rome (Italy ABS 32. The sterile vesicoureteral reflux as a cause of congenital renal hypodysplasia • G. Ottonello et al.; Cagliari (Italy ABS 33. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis in gbs-positive mothers: effects on newborn microbiota • L. Corvaglia et al.; Bologna (Italy ABS 34. Mother’s emotional experience after giving birth to a preterm infant • P. Paladini et al.; Lecce, Rome (Italy ABS 35. Effects of bolus feeding vs. continuous feeding on splanchnic tissue oxygenation, cerebral tissue oxygenation and apnoeic episodes in preterm infants • L. Corvaglia et al.; Bologna (Italy ABS 36. Natal and neonatal teeth: some new experiences • F. Tromba et al.; Campobasso, Rome (Italy ABS 37. Integration between medical and nursing charts as a tool for quality improvement and risk management in NICU • A. Portanova et al.; Rome (Italy ABS 38. CD44 Immunoreactivity in diabetic nephropathy and the developing human kidney: a marker of renal progenitor stem cells • G. Locci et al.; Cagliari (Italy ABS 39. PAS and Weigert methods: two old stains for a new interpretation of the newborn kidney • A.R. Cannas et al.; Cagliari (Italy ABS 40. Scanning Electron Microscopy of the developing human kidney • T. Congiu et al.; Athens (Greece, Cagliari (Italy ABS 41. Interindividual variability in maturation of the human thyroid gland during gestation • E. Tamponi et al.; Cagliari (Italy ABS 42. The child with wool steel hair • F. Sau et